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British Columbia, emigration, and our colonies, considered practically, socially, and politically Snow, William Parker, 1817-1895 1858

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Array BRITISH COLUMBIA,
Emigration, and our Colonies,


CONSIDERED 


PRACTICALLY, .SOCIALLY, AND   POLITICALLY. 
BY W. PARKER SNOW, 
author of "A two YEARS' cruise in the "south seas," "a voyage 
in search OF SIR JOHN FRANKLIN," ETC., ETC. 
LONDON: 
     PUBLISHED BY PIPER, STEPHENSON, AND SPENCE,



MDCCCLVIIl.
  
BRITISH   COLUMBIA 

Emigration, and our Colonies, 
CONSIDERED
PRACTICALLY,   SOCIALLY,   AND POLITICALLY. 


BY

W. PARKER SNOW, 

AUTHOR OF "A TWO YEARS' CRUISE IN THE SOUTH SEAS," "A VOYAGE 
IN SEARCH OF SIR JOHN SEANKLIN," ETC., ETC. 




LONDON:
PUBLISHED BY PIPER, STEPHENSON, AND SPENCE,
23, PATERNOSTER ROW.
MDCCCLVIII.
 m
Fear not, faint not: though thou stray,
In thy doubts and thy distress ;
God can make a flowery way
Even through the wilderness.
Faint not, fear not; what if woe
Devastate thy path around ?
God can make the streamlet flow
Even o'er the barren ground."
Bowring.
/SO 9S"f
m
C TO THE
RIGHT WORSHIPFUL JOHN THOMAS SMITH, Esq.,
FIVE TIMES ELECTED MAYOR OF MELBOURNE,
MEMBER OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY,
AND  JUSTICE OF THE PEACE FOR THE  COLONY OF VICTORIA,
WHOSE STERLING WORTH, SPIRIT   OF ENTERPRISE,
AND KIND AND MANLY CHARACTER,
HAVE WON FOR HIM THE ESTEEM AND  RESPECT OF EMIGRANTS
TO THE GOLDEN LAND OF THE SOUTH,
THIS LITTLE WORK
IS, BY PERMISSION, DEDICATED,
BY HIS HUMBLE SERVANT,
THE AUTHOK.  =f»
PBEFACE.
The following pages have been written simply to try
and benefit those to whom I especially address myself,
viz., the working classes, and such of the over-stocked
population of England as may think of emigrating.
There are other things mentioned besides the principal subject, but I believe that there is nothing I have
said that does not in some way or other indirectly bear
upon emigration.
Nevertheless the following remarks are, in some
measure, necessary by way of explanation. And, let it
be understood that I am addressing myself to the
manliness of England and to the worker, and not to
the idealist or mere talker.
Some years ago a celebrated Ereneh writer, St. Pierre,
very justly said, that " there is no way but one to re||rm
men, and that is to render them happier. It is good
and easy to enfeeble vice by bringing men nearer to
each other and by rendering them thus more happy. All
the sciences, indeed, are still in a state of infancy, but
that of rendering men happy has not so much as seen
the light yet, even in Christendom.'J f
VI PBEEACE^
How true this is, experience proves. Everything
but the real happiness of man is studied as a science
and aiylently pursued. Preaching enough there is
about happiness; but mere preaching does not make
men happy. On the contrary ; if one may judge from
what is daily chronicled it is to be inferred that anything but happiness is the result of such preaching.
Very much, might be said upon this subject; and
elsewhere I have dwelt upon it as I feel. But at present let me add, that while I do not presume to come
forward and say that this or that plan is best for man's
welfare, yet it is my belief that a healthy stream of emigration is very conducive to it. To increase the facilities
for communication between distant parts of the globe,
to narrow the space between man and man, to level the
rugged path leading from the north across the once
dreaded ocean to the south, to try and make more
smooth the great highway between nations afar off as
well as near, is one of the principal as well as one of
the most pleasing duties that belong to men who have
the power in the present day. The vast benefit accruing to individuals as well as to communities from
an extension of intercourse with our fellowman is
becoming daily more evident. The prejudices of the
past will then fast disappear, and hand to hand, the
Saxon and the Gaul, the Briton and the Prank, the
white man and the black, the parent and the child,
the glorious flag of England, and the glittering enter-
prizing dauntless stars and stripes will be seen traversing the earth in pursuit of those additional facts
which help to improve our race and throw a brighter
lustre and a blessing over the whole face of the globe. =
PBEEACE o Vll
In the path of truth and science men are even now
found battling alike with the frozen north as with the
burning south; and long may it be our boast that
England helps to lead the van, and that the name of
our gracious Queen and her royal Consort are known
as the great promoters of those wondrous deeds which
make the present day so famous in the annals of scientific history.
It is said that nothing more conduces to the welfare
of a nation than wisely founding new colonies ; and let
me say that in the opinion of one acknowledged to be a
shrewd man and a wise philosopher, Lord Bacon, it is so
considered. In his Essay upon | The True Greatness
of Kingdoms and Estates," he speaks highly of the
Roman custom of planting out colonies; and in another
Essay on "Plantations" he gives many excellent hints
that are worth attending to. Now, for myself, I look
upon the act of our present colonial minister, in regard
to British Columbia, as a sound and beneficial one for
the country. It may not be without many drawbacks
just at present, but if prudently carried out, and not
left as the Falkland Islands (so important to us) have
been left, I have no doubt that the new colony in the
West will, hereafter, be a source of prosperity to England. In saying this I may be considered presumptuous, but I am not one who has been nursed in the lap
of luxury or even of comfort; and from my very youth
I have been knocked about, and kicked about all over
the world. It is, therefore, such as myself, who can
say a word about these things; consequently, British
Columbia, wisely cared for and attended to, will be a
benefit to England; and healthy emigration, generally, <f"
I
V1U PBEEACE.
must be a boon and a source of happiness to man at
large. If I am asked why I come forward to give an
opinion, let me in answer say a few words concerning
myself.
At nine and a half years of age I was left on the
wide world without a home or a friend to guide or
counsel me. At the age of thirteen I went to sea;
but the mishaps that might be almost sure to attend
anyone thrown into life as I was, constantly attended
me. I have gone through divers ills, oppression, injustice, and cruelty. I have known starvation for
days; have been robbed and plundered over and over
again, and being a lone man in the world without a
tie or a friend, I have often never been able to get
justice when wronged. True, I might have taken justice for myself, but when I could have taken it, I remembered that it did not belong to me so to do, but
to Him who made me. Thus I have had to suffer, as
not many have, and as few could fancy I have suffered.
Hunger and thirst, and frequent loss of my all, has
fallen to my share. I have been glad to eat dry
mouldy bread and drink a half-pint of fetid water as
my allowance per day. I have made my own shoes,
and most of my garments; I have been carpenter,
furrier, blacksmith, builder, quarryman, servant, clerk,
storekeeper, publican, scribe, teacher, schoolmaster,
gardener, sailor, author, editor, housekeeper; I have
companied with the highest and with the lowest; a wanderer on foot in this far-off place, a traveller by better
means in that; I have beheld my fellow man in almost
every form of physical and social existence, from the
ferocious cannibal of the Indian isles to the highly- ^,IWJi
PBEEACE. IX
polished denizen of an European court; I have seen
him in the east and also in the west; and I have been
to his extreme south and talked with him in his extreme north; I have sat at his sumptuous feasts, and
have looked upon, and had to share with him his misery
of want; I have been for weeks on board of Slave
ships, and seen some of the horrors of them; and I
have danced to gay music on the deck of a huge war
ship where everything was as free and joyous as the
sunny air; I have taken my stand, as a spectator,
among the worshippers of Brahmin, the followers of
Mahomed, the Buddhists, Pagans, and many others;
and I have attended the various ceremonial forms of
faith as practised by the many different denominations
of our own religion; I have studied, or had opportunities to study, human nature in its every character,
from the evil to the good, from the mixed to the apparently unmixed. Shady palm trees, orange groves
and sugar canes here: the larch, the dwarf birch, and
the bare hills there; burning heat in this place, frigid
cold in that; ocean's surface slumbering now, the fierce
wrath of a hurricane tempest anon; man to man in
friendly grasp, man to man in deadly strife : such, too,
have I seen; and in such, too, have I been a participator. Thus, then, I have gained some small share of
experience, and what I say is not altogether the result
of mere ideas upon the subject.
And why do I say this of myself ? Why mention
these things ? The answer is this :—I am anxious to
try and better the social condition of the working
classes by advising them to emigrate whenever they
can; and I thus speak of myself so as to give those f
X PBEEACE.
for whom I write, a better idea of my capacity for advising. I hope, therefore, that all I say will be understood *and taken kindly. It is well meant, and it
comes from one who can feel for the poor man, and the
working man, in consequence of his having experienced
all that such poor man or working man has to endure.
I know what toil and labour is. Emigration in its
several phases is familiar to me. I have tried it in
America; T have experienced it in Australia; and
once I was six months learning various qualifications
to prepare myself for Canada. In my profession as a
seaman I have been five times to the gold land of the
south, and twice have I tested it there on shore. Once
I landed with a young wife and but four or five pounds
in my purse; yet in six months' time I was employing
and liberally paying several other persons, besides
realizing a handsome income. Another time, and that
so late as 1852, I tried what a man alone (that is only
with a wife) could do upon the bare rugged unbroken
soil. With but little money, and upon a place where
roots of trees had to be cleared, and everything
fashioned into life, I produced in less than five
months a garden and a pretty home, and was enjoying
potatoes and vegetables from my own ground, while
the perfume of flowers came through the windows of
my cottage.1    Thus I know what can be done; and
1 Though rather against my general habit to put forth what
others say in my favour, yet, as proving what I have asserted, I
will quote the following from a journal, the editor of which was
all but quite unknown to me, and was at first opposed to an undertaking I was engaged in. Speaking of my labours he says,
I He is an active, able-bodied, intelligent man.    If he chose to
— tmm
PBEEACE. XI
therefore I recommend a trial of the same to every one
who cannot get on at home.
One word more. I profess to be no learned man.
I never had an education other than my profession
gives to all poor boys. What I have since acquired,
for good or for bad, has been acquired by myself and
wholly unaided. Therefore the following pages will
present no studied elegance in style or composition.
Indeed, the subject does not require it. Pacts and
arguments are needed : not learned ideas. This little
book is for the people, and those who are friends of
the people, as well as for the young men of the day.
Consequently, though many of the latter class may
consider that they can find numerous literary errors
in what I write, yet the former class will no doubt
be contented with it as it is.
. But I must guard myself from being supposed to
have any dislike to learning and learned men. This
is not the case. I highly esteem learning; and there
are few places I feel more happy in than the reading
room of the British Museum. There, where the very
atmosphere seems as if impregnated with the highest
state of cultivated genius, and where mind and intellect is stamped on almost every brow and in every eye
you meet, even to the friendly officials in the room,
I can lose my cares and angry feelings while I enjoy
the treat of living once more as if in a brotherhood of
remain in that country to which half England seems inclined to
resort, he could be rich, as certainly as any one amongst us. It
is among such men as he that our most successful diggers have
been found. With native energy, sharpened by experience in
America, he could not fall otherwise than upon his feet." mr~—
IL
XU PBEEACE.
kindred souls. Even the very books present a kindly
look. There, too, I can hold converse with the mighty
dead! Ihey whose spirits yet speak in the wondrous
array of tomes displayed around that magnificent dome.
No ; let it not be said or thought that I despise learning, because I possess it not myself, for such would be
an error.
And now commending what I have said  to the
goodwill of those who read, I conclude.
J§      W. PARKER SNOW.
Home Cottage, S. John's Hill,
Wandsworth,
P.S.—I shall be willing to give any additional information, in my power, on the above subjects, or to
answer any prepaid communication. BRITISH   COLUMBIA;
EMIGRATION,
ETC.
OTTBODTJCTIOK.
Ik the far West, bordering the great Pacific, facing
the once famed | Cathay" of our fathers, to which the
hardy mariners of old considered this the way, and
forming a key through British America to regions
hitherto almost unknown, there is a golden land just
brought under official notice, and now attracting public attention. It is a land where the wild Indian is as
yet almost in his savage state ! it is a land where nature
reigns in wonderful majesty! it is a land where a
sudden transformation is about to take place! and it
is a land whither thousands of the civilized inhabitants of the globe are rushing in hot haste to gather
of the new found spoil! Unlike Australia, unlike
California, in both of which places the golden discoveries there made brought an influx of immigrants
to an already populated colony, this land has hitherto
been a rarely visited region. In its solitary grandeur
it has remained with but a scanty number of hardy
settlers, or enterprizing speculators dwelling within its
boundaries. Now, however, the sun has burst upon
it in full meridian glory. With the brightest glare
shining upon this western land the eye is suddenly
dazzled  by its attractive splendour.    The noon-day
B ■IT
2 BBITISH   COLUMBIA,
heat has rapidly warmed and brought into perfection
the long hidden virtues of the soil, and British Columbia is*now known as likely to become one of the most
important as well as the most productive colonies
belonging to our native land.
To the West then, to the West; even as civilization
has advanced from the East in one uniform direction, so now men's eyes and thoughts are turned.
Some are viewing it in the one light of speculation
and gain; others, in that of political and national
good. But how many are there who glance at it with
reference to the bearing it has upon the social, the
intellectual, and the spiritual future ? How many
are there who look upon these new discoveries with
reference to Him and His glory Who produced them ?
Discoveries, whether of hidden gold or of electrical
currents, or of steam, or of mechanical skill,—vast
and mighty, wonderful and amazing! Discoveries
almost too overpowering for the ordinary mind to
dwell upon, and yet so beautiful and so beneficial as
to make the reasoning soul pause in awe and admiration, while exclaiming in the Psalmist's words, | O
Lord, how manifold are Thy works I in wisdom hast
Thou made them all: the earth is full of Thy riches !"
How many, I say, look upon these things, and cast a
right and manly thought to Him, and for Him Who
has brought about all this ? Who views the far land
of the West with any regard to the future, in the
aspect I have ventured to put it ? 1 Grold! gold !" is
the cry; and, true enough, it may be a goodly cry;
for, without it, none of the best and holiest schemes
(humanly speaking) could be accomplished ; yet who,
in this day of hot and eager haste for riches, can
forget that cry, or heed it only as a greater inducement to come forward and make it, and this new
British Colony subservient to His increased glory,
and to the real and wisely considered benefit of our
fellow-men ? . . . I pause a moment for a reply even
from myself to myself. . . . It is a question which I AKD  EMIGRATION. 3
cannot honestly answer as I would wish; and it is a
question, therefore, that I put forth in the hope that
though I in my own person fail to satisfy the thought
that produces it, yet there may be many who can.
Let me, however, be rightly understood. It is not
with any Pharisaical notion of myself, or as conceiving that I am well fitted to write or talk thus, that I
have uttered these remarks ; but it is because my
varied experience has given me some acquaintance
with the subject generally; and I trust that a few
kindly and well meant observations may be received
in the friendly spirit in which they are given.
Now it is my present desire to more particularly
draw attention to the new Colony of British Columbia;
but inasmuch as my acquaintance with it is, as yet,
nothing, and as a portion of what follows was written
ten years ago with reference to Australia, (a place I
have visited five or six times) I shall not alter what I
have formerly said, except in applying it as far as I
can to Columbia, seeing that the same arguments are
suited to both alike or to any well established colony.
My plan is, first, to take up the subject of Emigration generally ; then bring it to bear more directly on
Columbia; and, lastly, to draw some deductions and
make some comments upon what is now being done.
Eigures and any statistical information necessary will
follow at the end. j
And now, first, with regard to the subject of Emigration in general. 4 BBITISH   COLUMBIA,
CHAPTER I.
EMIGRATION   GENEBALLY.
The subject of Emigration is, undoubtedly, one of
great importance, whether it be viewed by individuals
alone, or by society at large ; and it is a subject which
must, sooner or later, command the serious attention
of legislative minds, and of those whose rank, power,
and position enable them to give to their opinions that
weight and authority it requires. Too many causes
have arisen of late years to make emigration anything
but what it ought to be ; and in the present day it is
no longer a healthy and vigorous stream of life flowing
from the parent land, but a rushing cataract carrying
along with it much that is impure and sickly. Eager
and excited thousands have franticly left their native
homes, their accustomed pursuits, their regular and
quiet habits at the cry of "gold!" and, without due
consideration, have traversed the wide waters of the
Ocean to that distant soil where the valuable metal is
to be found. They know not; they think not; it
never enters their imagination, whether they themselves are precisely the sort of persons best adapted
for the new life they are entering upon : but without
much reflection, and often without much inquiry,
away they go. They plunge headlong into the foaming cataract and soon become lost to sight in its whirling and dazzling vortex. Many a sad, ay, even most
wretched history might be written of the final results
of such hasty and ill-judged ventures ; and many a
young man of the class to which I allude has, no doubt,
bitterly lamented his foolishness in rashly taking up a
life so unsuited to him. It is not alone in his worldly
prospects that this has to be noted; but it is in the
moral degradation that too often ensues, and which,
^=== ■a
AND  EMIGBATION. 5
in spite of himself, he cannot withstand. He may
work : but it is not the work which his mind or body
can make either agreeable or serviceable to him; and
he soon finds himself sinking rapidly in class and caste
from that former high station he had fondly hoped
and believed either did belong or would belong to
him. His energies are wasted, and in time he becomes a mere machine instead of the bright man of
promise foretold of him. This is one class which, in
the present day, causes the tide of emigration, especially to Australia, to be anything but the healthy
stream it should be. Another class which has lately
arisen to make this tide impure, is one which the very
circumstances of the case could not fail naturally to
produce. The cry alone of I gold in our land" would
suffice to summon to its glittering shores the very
worst of characters, as well as those whom poverty
and other causes may have induced to come; and
hence a foul admixture is created. Still, whether good
or bad, wanted or not wanted, emigration is becoming
a subject of too much importance to be any longer
lightly looked upon by government at home, or by
society at large. If it has not a direct it has an indirect influence on our political as well as on our social institutions, and upon the entire community as
well as upon individuals. To the emigrant himself, it
is of the very utmost importance that the public should
at last look upon it in this light; and I cannot help
saying that it is the duty of every sincere lover of his
native land so to place it before others.
I have said that the subject of emigration is one of
great importance; and it is more especially so if the
tide of emigration leads to a far distant shore. The
glowing statements of writers interested in the welfare of some particular colony, and the bent of inclination in the minds of persons intending to try the
good or ill of a less straitened field for labour than
England, are apt, in many instances, to lead away the
judgment of the inexperienced, and to banish sober 6 BBITISH   COLUMBIA,
reasoning. But of all important steps in life there
are but few more important, nor more requiring cool
and deliberate examination than that of emigration.
It may be well to assert one undeniable fact in connection with the advantages of emigration, and it may
also be well to receive that fact boldly: to make it
the cheering light which marks out and guides you on
the intended course; but, it is not well, nay, it is anything but well to allow such single fact to usurp and
overpower all other truths in connection with the
subject*
The one fact indisputably clear is that of the beneficial change certain to be found by the poor, starving,
or impoverished man at home who voluntarily undergoes a self-imposed banishment from his native land
by emigrating to a colony where starvation is a thing
unknown but by name. And this alone is, or ought
to be, quite sufficient inducement for any one in such
a position to make the venture; and it should be,
above all other things, a powerful reason why, in a
Christian country, every extended means and every
possible facility should be afforded to persons so
situated to try that venture if they have the inclination in themselves to do so. But where that inclination exists, the truths, which the one single and well-
established fact will often tend to make appear trivial
or worthless at the time, should not be forgotten.
These truths are many, and are entirely of a local
nature. They apply in the first place to the beginning of a great change in the constitutional life and
habits of a person. Erom a state of methodical harmony in which he has moved with the rest of his fellow-
countrymen, reaping the products of nature with a
plentiful or a sparing hand as it may chance to be,
yet at all times with precision and security, he will
have to buckle on new vigour, exercise new sharpness
and discretion, clear his way before he can move in it,
and make secure and keep secure by his own firm hand
and arm that upon which he is dependent.    He will AND  EMIGBATION. 7
no longer be able to travel on the high road of public
life, well beaten and trodden down before him with
that sort of easy indifference which results from a
sense of human certainty in the issue; but he will
have to shake off all appearance of supineness, and
like a lion rousing from his lair, nerve himself with
fresh energy and strength to meet the obstacles and
impediments, difficulties, and even dangers, if it may
be, that will possibly cross his path, and which, with
a wise eye, he should see before him and prepare for.
Thus then with the fact, that starvation will assuredly
be relieved, and in its stead prosperity arrive, must
not be forgotten that such change can only be attained
by a change of system and of accustomed habits.
Again, in the second place, another of the truths
which apply to emigration is that which relates to a
complete severance of all those beautiful ties which
cheer the heart and enliven the mind by the links of
society.
It may be well considered that to men whose only
wealth is the bitter cup of poverty, social life is of
little value. Too many wretched cases have undoubtedly proved this true ; but, strange to say, or
rather, not strange to say to those who reflect upon
it, when society is missed in the wilds of some far-
distant land, the charms of society then begin to be
looked upon and appreciated with far higher value
than ever. The social board of the very humblest
and the poorest is thought of with a sigh; the bright
smile of an acquaintance, the friendly salutation of a
neighbour, the welcome to a fire-side seat, the passing
nod and hearty | how d'ye do ?" the steeple bell inviting men to mingle with each other before their
God ; the many forms well known from infancy,—
even the features of the stern official whose duty while
watching over peace and order, often produces a dislike against him, are remembered with something like
regret, and certainly with far less indifference and disregard than heretofore.    Yet the intending emigrant
■ 8 BBITISH  COLUMBIA,
should bear in mind that these are all ties which he is
about to sever, to forsake, and to lose sight of perhaps
for years. A man may want a crust of bread; but
the commiserating sigh of another will, perchance, be
thought of sufficient compensation for that want, when,
thereafter entirely free from that want, he has no
neighbour to share his joy or to care for his increased
means of comfort.
But, even if general society is valued little, there is
yet some other tie akin to it, which, being entwined
around the heart, is cherished for itself, and when lost
possession of, leaves regret behind. If the poor man
happens to be the poorest of his unfortunate class, he
is still capable of enjoying and commingling with that
which his fellow-man can never take away—the natural beauties and harmonious features of his own
native land. Eull well can he, if he pleases, experience
all that the poet has said on a similar subject when
speaking of a Christian:—
1 He looks abroad into the varied field
Of nature ; and though poor, perhaps, compared
With those whose mansions glitter in his sight,
Calls the delightful scenery all his own.
His are the mountains, and the valleys his,
And the resplendent rivers ; his to enjoy
With a propriety, that none can feel,
But who with filial confidence inspired
Can lift to heaven an unpresumptuous eye,
And smiling, say—! My Father made them all!' m
Now in few countries of the world can such enjoyment be experienced so well as in England. In the
distant lands where most of our colonies are situated,
nothing of the kind must be looked for. All the
milder beauties of nature and the gentle vegetation of
the soil, with the medium temperature of the clime
which render Great Britain so dear to, and so much
cherished by her children, is not to be expected elsewhere by the emigrant who is obliged to leave his
country for his bread. Ear more grand and mighty,
more wonderful and mysterious may be the scenes of AND   EMIGEATION. 9
nature that he henceforth views; but neither the
grandeur, nor the wondrous display, nor the mystical
phenomena, can eventually compensate him for the
loss of the quiet, pastoral scenes of his now far distant native home. Nor should it be lost sight of that
in the new world to which he is bound, the emigrant
will occasionally, and perhaps frequently, have to face
the subtle and the savage both of man and of beast.
Unlike the cool and shady walks that are to be found,
free from every danger, in any part of the country
which he has left, he will, at times, if in Australia,
have to stand the fierce blast of burning winds, which
scorch the heart and render faint the soul; and if
in other colonies, something as disagreeable in perhaps the reverse way. He will, more often in Australia, find the heat too powerful for him to enjoy anything like pleasure when he seeks for bodily or mental
relaxation; and he may ever expect, on either side, a
visitor whom, with all his courage and his manhood,
he may wish were further off.
Another great truth among the disadvantages of
emigrating to a distant colony, is one which,—more
especially to the man not absolutely destitute in his
own country,—is of a very serious kind, and requiring much reflection. It is, that though there may
be means made or placed within reach to proceed
thither; though many facilities may be afforded for
undertaking the venture, yet to make a retrograde
movement afterwards will be very difficult, if not next
to impossible. There can be but little hope should
repentance ultimately arrive.
It therefore behoves every one who may think much
of the one fact of prosperity being almost certain to
attend his expatriation, also to seriously ponder upon
this truth, and to ask himself before he breaks up his
home, severs the social links by which he is bound,
and completely enters upon a new life, whether he
himself, morally and physically, can carry out to the
fullest extent all and everything that he intends, hu- 10 BBITISH   COLUMBIA,
manly speaking, to undertake; whether he is able
to surmount difficulties and to experience changes
which were before unknown to him ; whether he has
strength of mind to bear with firmness the loss of
that highly civilized state of society in which he has
moved, and to take up and form a part of another
state of society, more approaching to the primeval
condition of man; to labour in the sweat of his brow,
to watch with wariness, without timidity and without ceasing, to take upon himself the post of civil as
well as moral guardian of his family, and to boldly
front all danger or disaster that may perchance
arrive; and, finally, whether he can patiently and
perseveringly abide the allotted time when success
may at length come, and crown his efforts with abundant returns. These are questions which assuredly
ought to have a place in the mind of every one who
has any idea of emigrating to a distant colony. They
should be seriously and honestly put, and never decided upon until a certainty of conviction is attained
concerning the answer which in justice ought to be
and can be given.
Many other truths might be brought forward in
connection with the opposite side of the argument
concerning emigration, but as they would all lead
into the ones now mentioned, these have been thought
sufficient for the purpose intended. This purpose
was to give a fair and a clear light of the dazzling
prospect generally placed in view, so that those who
look upon that prospect might behold it with something more of a mellowed, and consequently a better
lustre. It is right that a man should never rashly
plunge headlong into a stream, however great or good
that stream may seem to be ; nor should he rashly
venture on its current, though it should bear him to a
noble end, without first ascertaining whether there be
any little breaks or shoals that he will have to encounter on the way.
The tide of emigration has long passed setting in, and AND  EMIGEATION. 11
has become a mighty stream. But no man should be
carried away thereby, ignorant of anything but the
single fact that it may eventually place him in a harbour of prosperity and rest. However, when once
embarked, there should be no halting; no doubtful
anticipations; no mournful forebodings. All should
be hope, bright, cheering hope, accompanied with
energy, firmness, and perseverance. By calmly reflecting beforehand, the unpleasantness, and often the
bitterness of reflection and unavailing regret afterwards is avoided. By well weighing the chances, by
looking at the evils as well as the benefits, by considering the question on either side before deciding,
the mind is left clear to act and to boldly march onwards when the decision has been given. By encountering and examining in perspective the dangers and
the difficulties, the rocks and the shoals which may
beset the course to be taken, they become in reality
less formidable, and when approached are met with a
degree of preparation which wholly deprives them of
their power to harm.
Thus, then, the foregoing remarks have been made
at the outset, and in a manner which perhaps might
appear to have been influenced by any wish but that
of a desire to speak well of the advantages of emigration. But this, however, has not been the case; and
such will presently be seen.
M* JK. M* M> J*.
W *W ~fc W W
If the disadvantages connected with emigration
have been alluded to, it is fitting that there should be
somewhat said of the many and great advantages
attending it,—advantages which are greater than is
generally supposed.
It is difficult for a quiet denizen of England, one
who has rarely been forty miles from his native cot,
to wean the mind from the social comforts of his
home, and even to dwell upon or comprehend subjects
connected with places whose geographical position in
the world is somewhere ufier his feet or at the other
 - 12 BBITISH  COLUMBIA,
side bf the globe. But when once the canker-worm
of poverty creeps into the domestic board, home appears le*ss cheerful, and the mind begins to look
further off. A desire for change, however small the
benefit of it, takes possession of the breast, and inquiries arise as to that which previously was little
attended to. A series of disasters,—prosperity not
coming in so strong or so rapidly as needed, causes a
wish to make an effort elsewhere. The man who then,
and perhaps for the first time, reflects upon the subject, or is compelled to prove a sad reality by experience, perceives that in England there is too much
labour ready for use, and yet too little pay for that
labour when it is used. The consequence is, -that the
labour market is on the one hand always overstocked,
while on the other hand, a fearful amount of poverty
and crime is increased by the non-employment of that
labour, and by the inequitable payment of that labour
when it is employed. Naturally then, the question
arises of What is to be, or can be done ? If labour
cannot find a proper market for its consumption in
England,—fertile, wealthy England,—where is it to
seek for such ? And at length it is found as an answer to the question, that, if England herself cannot
give enough employment to her children, at all events
her colonies can; and that in some of those colonies
the exact reverse of what is to be found at home is
met with there. Now, in the year 1848, I find
myself saying that,—Of all these colonies, the ones
where this reverse is ascertained to be most existing,
are those situated in that part of the globe called Australasia,—a place destined eventually to vie with the
United States of America in political position and importance. In these colonies, which are too well known
to need description here, and which indeed have been,
and are still being frequently described by writers
who have passed many years in thern^ it is proved
that labour is so scarce, and the payment for labour
so high, that the labourer not only receives a goodly AND  EMIGEATION. 13
hire, but very speedily becomes enabled himself to
enter upon a position which compels him to employ
others. Where, in England, the poor labourers may
stand in hundreds for days seeking employment in
vain, or perchance getting employment for the merest
pittance, which pittance is moreover named by the
employer himself; there, in Australasia, may be seen
the astonishing, and to Englishmen, wonderful fact,
of masters seeking in vain for servants, employers for
labourers; and, when finding them, giving sums for
their daily labour, the amount of which is equal to
that which too many at home receive only for their
whole weekly toil. Such amount of remuneration,
however, would prove ruinous to those who employed,
were it not that they in like manner reap extraordinary advantages from the natural and artificial productions of the country. Eor to the capitalist, the
English colonies of Australasia prove a fertile field from
which may be reaped a good harvest, even as they
afford abundant profit to the poorer man for his
labour. The demand, however, for that labour increases, and will be alway increasing the more the
labour is supplied, for the very supply speedily adds
to the demand, as I have already alluded to. Until
the extensive continent—for such it may be rightly
called—of Australia and the lands of New Zealand,
have been thoroughly explored and peopled by settlers from the mother country or elsewhere, there
will be an incessant requisition for labour ; and while
such is the case, labour will always receive its just
return.1
1 By some, it may be urged against these remarks, that the
Australian colonies are overstocked, and many persons are suffering from want of employment. This is true. But it applies
to the towns, and not to the other parts of Australia. If all the
world flocked into one city, there could not be a sufficient space
for the great numbers there congregated together. So it is at
Sydney, Melbourne, New York, and elsewhere. Moreover, many
of those who fail as emigrants, are no doubt the very ones who
should not have made the attempt.
— !
14 BEITISH  COLUMBIA,
It is then to the Australasian colonies that many
persons in England are induced to turn their eye
when poverty or disasters chance to come upon them ;
and it is to that quarter they can best direct their
steps with a fair certainty of ultimate success attending their efforts.
There are also others who, without being influenced by the desire of removing present evils, yet
feeling a wish to improve their position or extend
their means, would find, as many have found, Australia to be particularly well suited to them.1 Growing fast into note, the principal city and towns of
those dependencies of England already stand fair to
rival many famed places in the mother country. To
these towns the mercantile capitalist can proceed in
confidence; while the agriculturist seeks in a more
distant and less inhabited locality, a spot better
adapted for his agricultural pursuits. They are numerous and to be attained with trifling cost. But,
for speculation a new district is decidedly the best.
Such were my remarks in 1848; and I repeat them
now, because I consider them also applicable at the
present time, as I shall presently show. But, to continue the argument.
The result, then, of a man's reflections, after an examination of whatever is advanced on these subjects,
must inevitably tend to the conviction, that, however
great the immediate disadvantages may be, the ultimate and actual advantage is so vast, that it overbalances the other. If home, and friends, and society,
and the many comforts of England are given up, it is
to meet in another country that success and that
prosperity which could not be found in the home, or
among the friends and society, or with those comforts
that have been forsaken; and which home, friends,
1 I have said little of New Zealand, and nothing of Canada,
being personally unacquainted with either, but shall glance at
them with British Columbia at the end.
X. AND  EMIGEATION. 15
and comfort may yet again be once more formed in a
new land.
With the labouring man,—the man of many and
bitter sorrows, whose life from morning until night is
one incessant drag, and whose hours of rest are often
troubled by the wretchedness which haunts his day—
there is this plain view of the question to be looked
at:—misery and want, ill-paid labour and heavy toil
in England, with all the external advantages which a
country like England undoubtedly gives ; or happiness
and plenty, abundantly paid labour and easy toil, with
a constant and steady flow of prosperity, abroad, but
without those external advantages. If the man himself, and for himself, should hesitate, and wish to
prefer the chances of home, with all its certain evils
and external comforts, possibly he will not do so for the
sake of his wife and family,—of that wife and family
who, with lustreless eyes, often look to him for the food
which he may not have to give. And even should doubt
arise,—and it frequently does arise among many,—
as to whether it is right to make that wife and family
undergo the troubles and uncertainties of a distant
voyage,—to sever them from relatives and friends,
—to take them, almost against their will, to a far-off
land, where their home must henceforth be fixed,—it
may easily be solved by reverting to the sad truths
which forcibly stare him in the face, and which tell
him that, unless he really does exert the man, and act
with the wisdom and energy of a man, he may very
shortly see that wife and family in a condition ten
times worse than they now are, or than they ever
could be in the land to which his attention has been
called. It is vain to wait with the expectation of improvement in England. Such improvement never will
come while society is constituted as it at present is;
and while those who have to labour are so many, and
those who reap the benefit of the labour are in comparison so few.
A state of things like this, however, exists not in
— 16 BBITISH   COLUMBIA,
our well-regulated colonies; for labourers are few, and
actually form a large portion, if not the largest portion, of those who reap the benefit of labour done.
This may be illustrated by one fact alone. This fact
is, that the labourer in all cases receives an immediate
and certain return for his labour in the shape of a
good round sum for his services ; whereas those who
pay the labourer have to wait for and abide by the
chance of any uncertainty in the venture they have
made.
To the artisan, the mechanic, and others of this
class similar observations may be applied; as also to
the struggling farmer, or the small tradesman. Each
one may have cares, and troubles, and sorrows which
none but himself is acquainted with. In vain he perseveres. Competition is so great, that, with a limited
capital, it is almost impossible for him to meet success,
nay, to prevent complete ruin. But in the new world,
to which his attention is gradually drawn, such a thing
as rival competition is unknown ; and the idea of fearing it is generally laughed at. So far from there being
any dread of competition, competition is oftener invited ; for the very thing itself tends to produce more
prosperous causes of its being called for. The field is
wide enough for all who may venture on it; nor will
there be the slightest chance, for many years to come,
that neighbours may be jostling disadvantageously
against each other. Let the struggling farmer, then,
if determined to emigrate, cast away his fears, and
with them all his troubles and his griefs, and with a
bold heart embark his little capital and his fortunes
on the future in a land where his energies and his perseverance will be sure to meet their due reward. Let
the small tradesman no longer bewail the rivalry of
ruinous competition at home, but, ere his funds sink
to too low an ebb, invest them in colonies where competition is not ruinous, but advantageous. Let both
of them,—let all who are similarly situated,—shake off
despondency and inertness, and after first considering AND  EMIGEATION. 17
and preparing the mind for whatever may be &advan-
tageous in emigrating to a distant land, receive with a
manly spirit and a cheerful confidence the certain facts
which are among the undoubted advantages of such
emigration, and then without delay act upon them.
One more general class of persons may be here alluded to in connection with emigration: it is that
class which possesses large capital, and has extensive
means to carry out the various schemes of aggrandisement it may form.
If in England, where all that is new is soon made
old, and where all that is strange is speedily made
familiar, speculation occasionally reaps a rich return,
in Australia and the Australasian colonies in general,
and particularly now in the new colony of Columbia,
where novelty and invention may be made unceasing,
speculation is not only occasionally, but almost invariably certain of unbounded success. I believe it may
be truly said, that there is hardly one instance which
can be brought forward to prove that well directed
and liberal speculation has failed in our new colonies.
I might refer to one or two cases now existing in Australia in proof of this. There may be, and there have
been, many and great drawbacks to that rapid return
for investment of capital which is allowed in general
to exist. But these drawbacks are far from being
rightly attributed, when they are named as proceeding from the colony itself. They are almost always
the results of a misunderstanding in the mother country
as to the real wants and the real capabilities of her
dependancy abroad. The actual cause of these drawbacks may be traced, perhaps, to some political measures, of which I neither know nor wish to know anything in this pamphlet; but one fact which greatly
produces them is to be found in the want of labour,—
of that labour with which England is too much overstocked. In this fact alone may be found, speaking
generally, the only impediment standing in the way of
a large capitalist speedily increasing his capital at a
c
u^ 18 BBITISH   COLUMBIA,
most surprising rate, if he speculates spiritedly in a
new colony. Yet this fact is one which the capitalist
can, if* he chooses, lessen the evil of, by taking with
him a sufficient, or nearly sufficient, quantity of labour;
and this too without much additional outlay.
The capitalist may, in a measure, command his own
success. In especial reference to British Columbia at
the present time this is still more probable. He may,
if he chooses, carry with him all that can conduce,
not only to his increased prosperity, but also to his
own comfort in the land of his future adoption. He
may make himself as unlimited in his actions, his pursuits, and his wishes, as almost any patriarchal potentate in the days of old. He may contrive schemes, and
carry out the execution of them to the fullest extent
they will admit of. He may project new theories, and
endeavour to solve them by actual application, without fear of let or hindrance. He may exercise his philanthropy in various plans for the amelioration of his
species. He may build his castles in the air, and almost
literally establish them on terra firma. He may sit
himself down and glance his eye around upon a fertile
and a thriving expanse of land, covered with the men
of his household, and the cattle and the herds of his
field, and exclaim, I Here am I supreme ; and all
these acknowledge me, and me alone, as their chief!"
He may, in fact, be all and everything that his heart
conceives, and that is within the bounds of reason to
expect. And the more he plans, the more he schemes,
the more he purposes and attempts to do, the more he
benefits himself, and proves beneficial to the country
he has settled in.
That this is no false colouring, may be ascertained
from a glance at whatever facts have already been
received concerning a colony whose features present
many favourable aspects independent of its geographical position with reference to the future. And it
is this future which should likewise be borne in mind
by the capitalist who turns abroad for an investment AND   EMIGEATION. 19
of his capital. The present day may, comparatively
speaking, be of little moment, but the fruits of what
may be sown in the present day will, undoubtedly, be
of great value. Quoting again from my remarks in
1848, I said of Australia, and that too, before any
idea of the gold to be found there ;—| It requires no
very keen-sighted wisdom to perceive that Australasia must, in a commercial relation, eventually rival
India, and become itself a powerful territory. Nor
let this assertion be thought fanciful or absurd, for
new proofs are daily coming forward to show that the
soil of that part of the globe is not only prolific in
itself, but that it contains mines of wealth as yet but
little known at home, and but newly found abroad.
If in the progressive course of events, the increase be
only equal to one-third in ratio to what has already
been discovered of the physical properties of Australia,
there can be no hesitation in saving, that in the course
of another half century, that extensive portion of the
globe will take a proud stand among the nations of
the world. As her inland parts become gradually explored, and her bays and creeks surveyed, her rivers
navigated to their utmost limit, civilization extended
throughout her breadth and length, her capacities and
her properties drawn out, who can say that in that
one spot, may not eventually be formed the very
proudest of all the proud countries that have come
from under England's fostering care and culture!
Who can say that, from east to west, from north to
south will not be found a busy and a thriving, as well
as a numerous population with British blood flowing
in their veins, their ships conveying the produce of
their soil to every far-off shore, while their harbours
and their docks receive the barks of every foreign flag,
at the same time rich cargoes are brought to be
speedily conveyed by steam and rail, to the very
centre of the land! Who can say that in that
southern world there may not be another England ?
Who ||1| say that- it is not probable, nay more, that 20 BBITISH   COLUMBIA,
it is not almost certain ? The very position of Australia bids for a fair ground of argument on such an
assertion. Surrounded everywhere by water, and placed
midway between the southern continent of America
and the African portion of the globe; connected with
Asia by a chain of islands, whose size and condition
only tend the more to her advantage by their incapacity for becoming injurious in the character of
neighbours, while in the fast coming future they
would also prove most useful, as the means of establishing a swift intercourse with the old world in the
north, she would be able to sit, even as her legitimate
parent has sat, and still nobly sits alone amid the
nations around her, yet holding ready intercourse
with them all."
Now what has here been said in regard to Australia,
will apply in another way to British Columbia. If
wisely fostered, (and it is a pleasure to see it so wisely
brought into life by Her Majesty's present Government,) it cannot fail to become a very important
colony. British enterprise, at this moment, combined
with the attention bestowed upon the subject by the
home authorities, can, if it likes, make our territories
in North America the great highway to the China
and the Indian market, and New Columbia a mighty
emporium for commerce on the west!
More upon the subject of what capitalists can do,
need not be said here, as it would be trespassing upon
that space which is intended principally for directions
and advice to emigrants, and not for the purpose of
taking up matters better discussed by others who
have capital and generally know what to do with it.
I have said enough however, as I hope, to lead the
capitalist to further inquiry, if need be, and to induce
him if he really intends to embark in foreign speculation, to make an attempt now in Columbia. Unlike
the members of the two classes I have spoken of before him, he is capable of more freely directing his
own movements, and, if he chooses, of returning again
: AND  EMIGEATION. 21
without delay to his native country, accounting the
expenses already incurred as one of those numerous
outlays which in his various speculations he is accustomed to make without being inconvenienced, while
he intends to balance the loss from some other source
of profit.
Thus far then, with regard to emigration as to be
viewed by persons individually. What I have said in
the foregoing remarks on either side of the question,
I have said with the best intention and motive. I
would that every one should see light, but that the
light should appear truly what it is—a calm, cheerful,
and a brightening, not a lustrous and a dazzling light.
The one can be viewed steadily and fixedly ; can be approached without hesitation, and when closed upon is
not found to be deceptive, for the less brilliant colours
of its hues were from the first perceptible; the other
catches the eye and fires the blood, but it can only be
seen falsely and feverishly; and when its position is
arrived at, unimagined and previously undisplayed
blemishes, then present themselves to the great disappointment of the beholders.
But, by first examining, however, the defects at a
distance, the vision when closed upon is so far from
being impaired, that its beauty is increased ; and instead of disappointment, more pleasure is experienced.
An object similar to what is so produced has been
mine in what I have already stated. To the intending emigrant it may be said that I have fairly placed
before him the disadvantages and the advantages to
be experienced by emigration. Let him judge then
between them. Of the disadvantages, first; for no
man should, without some good cause, forsake his
country and his home, to embark his all upon the
hazard of the die: and of the advantages next; for,
when the difficulties or impediments are understood,
the mind should be taught to look upon the truth as
it stands,—bright and cheering. Once determined,
.once acquainted with all that is to be encountered, 22 BEITISH   COLUMBIA
the mind becomes fixed and settled; the way is actually less rugged, for it has already been mentally
crossed; the spirit is braced, and the emigrant embarks upon the future with a bold and fearless heart,
I—cool and considerate it may be,—but always looking
for the best, because already guarded and prepared
beforehand for the worst. Let the intending emigrant then weigh the question well; and when the
question has been well and properly weighed, let him
then decide; but after he has decided, let him be the
man, and act accordingly, without timidity or hesitation, regret or doubt. He has decided: let the decision be abiding: and as an excellent writer teaches,
I Let him not once look mournfully into the past. It
comes not back again. Wisely improve the present.
It is thine. Therefore go forth to meet the shadowy
future without fear and with a manly heart."1
And now for a few words on Emigration, as viewed
with reference to society at large.
CHAPTER II.
EMIGEATION  IN  ITS   SOCIAL  ASPECT.
It may seem presumption for me to say anything
upon the subject after the many very excellent remarks made by numerous writers and speakers concerning the same thing. But the truth is, reflection
teaches us, that nothing too much can be said or written
upon it, even though the speaker or the writer should
be the humblest or the least able of his kind to take
up the cause. It is clear beyond all contradiction
that there is a most frightful state of want and excessive misery existing in our native land.    It is also
1 Professor Longfellow.
-^an« AND  EMIGEATION. 23
perfectly clear that there have been too many cases
come under the public eye where actual starvation
has brought on a premature death, either natural or
suicidal; and the unknown cases, the unseen deathbeds of those of whom the world has no knowledge,
because they retain to themselves all their bitter suffering and their maddening agonies, are, without
doubt, so numerous, that if possible to be ascertained
and stated, it would be deemed almost incredible. It
is also clear that in the same land where such poverty
and wretchedness exist, there is a superabundance of
wrealth and riches, and that there are those who continually roll in splendour, and revel in all that gives
delight and pleasure to the sons of men. Here, then,
may be seen two positive facts placed (no matter how
or why so placed, but actually existing,) in direct
opposition to each other. On the one side is to be
seen poverty and death, attended by horrors that
sicken humanity when but heard of, more especially
when witnessed: on the other side is to be distinguished wealth and life,—life extended to its natural
bounds, and accompanied by every luxury and delight
that the most fanciful imagination can conceive. Now
without attempting to assign any cause, or even to
broach upon the reason, why two such enormous extremes exist in a country said to be everything that
man can wish, and moreover blessed with a mild rule
and the excellencies of the purest religion under the
sun, it will be only necessary again to call attention
to the mere fact, and to let a clear solution of the
enigma be given by those who can. Perhaps I might be
too interested in the subject personally to be able myself to give to it that impartial view which is required.
But justice bids me observe that poverty is not always
a necessary concomitant of being born poor. Poverty
in fact is the poorer position in which one is placed in
now, from that in which he was born, and may, in
one sense of the question, be as equally applicable to
the son of a noble as to the son of a peasant.    A man 24 BBITISH   COLUMBIA,
may be a street beggar, and have been born a street
beggar ; he has been a street beggar all his life-time,
and has neither conceits nor understanding for aught
else ; but true poverty is not there. He would not, if
he could, amend his state. His rags and his tatters
are his treasures, and probably he would say, You injure him to take them away. He, however, whose lot
has suddenly changed, or whose tide has ebbed unceasingly through life, or whose mournful fate has
given him birth where evils and distresses must assuredly come upon him, is the one who may be truly
spoken of as poor'; and it is such as him that compose
that real class of persons, whose sufferings and whose
fearful wants are placed in juxtaposition with the
wealthy and the great. One word more, however,
must be added ; and that is this. Poverty, it should
not be forgotten, is often self-engendered ; and its
cause therefore ought not to be, as it too frequently
and too unjustly is, taxed upon the more fortunate
of our fellow-creatures. Its existence and its effects
might perhaps be laid to them as a charge, because
wise means for the removal of great poverty should be
oftener and more largely taken ; but, as reasoning and
reflecting men, we must thus, and thus only, look upon
it when viewing the subject individually.
Of the means whereby a removal of poverty to a
great extent might be made, one of the best undoubtedly seems to be that of an extensive scheme of emigration. Of all the evils of life, a will to work and
earn one's bread and the impossibility of getting that
work and bread is one, not of the least. But, to know
that this work can be obtained, and, more than food
withal to satisfy the cravings of nature, and yet to be
unable to reach the spot where it is to be obtained, is
a species of torture somewhat akin to that which the
mythological Tantalus endured. To the sting of poverty is thus added another sting, which being of a
mental description is felt as severely, if not more so,
than the other.    A wish and a will to reach the en- AND  EMIGEATION. 25
vied spot where labour and food can be obtained finds
itself checked, obstructed, and prevented. The result
often proves worse than anticipations may have supposed. If on the contrary, no obstruction were to
exist, and every facility were to be afforded, then there
cannot be a doubt that real poverty would very soon
be most considerably lessened in England; and for
that poverty, which is such only by name, some stringent measures might be enacted for preventing its
hideous and unsightly form from infesting and disgracing the thoroughfares of our cities, and from
shaming the eye of Christians on the public road.
The work then should be begun by all classes and all
ranks of persons. It would seem to be a wise policy
on the aprt of any Government to afford every facility
to such of the population, as being in circumstances
that often lead to disaffection and turbulence, would
leave their own native country for any other under
the same laws, where they might improve their condition. Such a line of policy would seem to be good,
for even were the expense to be considered, it might
be only such as the country itself must, in another
form bear, by supporting those who would willingly
do without the support if they possibly could. But
in truth, neither the Government nor the country
would really be burdened with the expense. They
who want the labour, and those who wish to give the
labour would alone undertake to bear the burden, if
means were but fairly and generously given.
This view of the question therefore must, I submit,
appear not only desirable but good. Yet, if the heads
of the social community conceive it not fitting to take
up the subject in such form, surely it were but an act
of sound wisdom on the part of the wealthy members
of that community to consider the matter and to try
amongst themselves whether it cannot be accomplished.
To relieve the hall-doors and tbe portico-steps from the
miserable forms that one may daily see there before
the houses of the great and the rich, one would think
J 26 BEITISH   COLUMBIA,
should be attempted by every means within the power
of humanity to accomplish. To give relief to-day proclaims the fact that relief is given, and accordingly
brings the same demand to-morrow, and the following
days successively. To enforce removal by the civil
power is hard to do, seems un-Christian, and would
bring comment from others. To give employment
unto all, or even unto a moiety, of the applicants is
impossible, and to set about inquiring how employment or relief can be properly given is a task generally
too burdensome and too tedious for the mind of any
one whose road of life is smoothly paved with stones
whereon the wheels can run without impediment or
rugged jolting. But, when the means of relief and of
employment are shown to them without trouble or
unusual inconvenience, it does seem strange that they
themselves do not offer to forward every effort made
to place those means of relief and employment within
the reach of all who may be disposed to avail themselves of the offer. One donation would possibly save
several afterwards, if only at once attended to.
The condition of a negro slave, however much the
slavery may be justly condemned, is no worse, even
if it be not actually better than that of four-fifths of
our labouring population at home. The idea of slavery
is nearly always connected wTith chains and fetters
and the brutal lash. How wrong such an idea is
might be soon seen by any impartial judge who should
chance to visit some of the places I have visited and
examine fairly and with an unprejudiced mind into
the subject. In the present instance I am not discussing the question of slavery as a moral evil, but
merely putting the position of actual slavery in comparison with the position of some of the freemen of a
wise and philanthropic land, of a land renowned for its
glorious exertions in the abolition of slavery; and I
more particularly dwell upon and refer to the extraordinary mania there seems to be for petting some far
off naked savage, who neither wants nor cares for the
3 AND  EMIGEATION. 27
tender regard shown him, while thousands are left in
body and soul to perish at home. A contrast between
many of these "heathens" abroad, and hundreds of
our own fellow Christians here is startling to the
thinking mind. The comparison, when viewed aright
and looking at it in relation to the real benefits of the
two parties as to actual welfare, would present features anything but favourable to our national feelings
of humanity. On the one side would be seen the
often insensate savage taken every care of, well fed,
pampered, his mind endeavoured to be carefully nurtured, and his bodily ailments promptly attended to ;
while on the other side might be espied the naturally
more intelligent fellowcitizen and Christian wholly
disregarded, left to starve, tasked hard, when worked
at all; his mind almost entirely neglected,1 and his
frame allowed -to canker with disease and suffering
until a lingering death at last removes him. Such
would be the truthful picture ; yet for the attention
to this so-called heathen's mind and body thousands of
pounds in all sorts of plans are annually bestowed,
while for our fellow Christian he may rot and die unheeded.
Ear be it from me to lessen the great benevolence
that exists in this land; but I would most earnestly
call attention to the fact that, at all times, and in all
cases, prevention is better than cure. To prevent
crime and poverty is beyond all measure infinitely
better than attempting to remove it after the evil is
done. To prevent the condition of the freeman from
becoming so deplorably bad, is superior and wiser, and
even more humane, than leaving him until he is in
that condition, and then attempting to apply some
sort of relief that is often inefficient. Let the one be
done; and neglect not the other. If wild beings, of
foreign blood and foreign form and make, both in
1 Lately, thanks be to those benevolent individuals who have
brought it about, this national disgrace has, to some extent, been
removed. 28 BBITISH   COLUMBIA
mind and body, are to be attended to so considerately,
even let the freeman be sometimes attended to, and
relieved from the heavy bondage that oppresses him,
in the burden of his often most miserable poverty.
To the humane and benevolent, therefore, emigration may be spoken of as a very rational and sound
scheme for the prevention of those numerous evils
which so frequently fall upon the poor labourers and
others of our land. Ere the downward step is advanced too far, let the falling one, if he chooses, be
enabled to arrest his own progress by removing to
another field of labour, where he can rapidly retrace
his lost position. Humanity, charity, policy,—every
motive that can be called good or wise,—points out
the necessity for some facility being offered to persons who wish to remove from a field of barrenness
and starvation, to one where they can at all times
reap a plentiful harvest. Ereedom of choice, and
freedom of means to pursue that choice, would, I feel
certain, accomplish much towards lessening those evils
of poverty, which, in spite of all the sophistry and argument that may be used to the contrary, do, for a
sad truth, most fearfully abound in England. If those
whose minds are occupied with the heavy cares and
toils of the State cannot give this subject its due consideration, although it is one which may be justly
classed among the most important that belongs to any
state,—if the wealthy and the great cannot spare
time to consider the question as it ought to be considered,—yet let the humane and the benevolent, the
Christian of private life and the lover of his kind,
come forward, and afford to the wretched and the
starving of their fellow creatures the fullest means
for proceeding where help and relief can be obtained;
where, at one time in Australia, we are told, that
meat enough to feed 1,100,000 people is wasted in
one year, from want of mouths to eat it; where | the
corn is shed for lack of reapers; the wool is injured
for want of shearers, . . . the cattle and the sheep by AND   EMIGEATION. 29
herds and flocks are j boiled down j for tallow, the
meat is wasting, the dogs reject what man at home
cannot obtain, and the hire for labour is plentiful and
unceasing."1
It may, perhaps, be said that an unlimited scheme
of emigration would soon injure the colony to which
the emigration tends. But the answer to this is
simply, I Try it," and hold not the hand till the cry
be raised, | Enough!" Hitherto anything but such
cry has been heard from a new colony. On the contrary, it has generally been, | Give us more, give us
more !" and ere that more would be found too much,
the scarcity of supply would check the difficulty. Eor
it is not to be supposed that at home there are so
many willing minds to emigrate and forsake their all,
as would overbalance the demand for immigrants from
abroad. It is a question whether persons would be
found so ready to go when the opportunity were
offered them; for it is ever our nature to desire most,
and to appear to be most anxious for that which is
not so easy of access, yet wrhich, when made accessible, is looked upon with far less inclination for possession. Still, if the means of relief by emigration
are placed in the way of all classes who may want relief from a present state of things, the option of accepting or rejecting that relief henceforth rests with
themselves alone. If they choose to accept it, they
can do so; if they choose to refuse it, and prefer remaining in their native land, abiding all the chances
of weal or woe that may befall them, there is no
compulsion to the contrary ; only, in common justice,
they cannot again complain that they were unable to
go, if they had desired it.
If then, a company of humane and benevolent individuals were but formed for the purpose of promoting
emigration to whatever extent it may be desired, I
feel certain that it would ultimately reap to itself as
much renown as any association for the conversion of
1 Vide the Hon. Francis Scott's pamphlet. 30 BBITISH  COLUMBIA,
the most ugly barbarians, possessing the most uncouth and unpronounceable name under the sun. Extend civilization, and you will reap civilization. I
may be wrong in my opinion, but I conceive it to be a
-strong duty of every nation to first look at home ; and
then, to glance abroad among strangers. At the present time there are two powerful influences to prompt
our nation to such a line of duty even now, though
they come secondarily instead of primarily. These
are, the cries of her children at home, and the wants
of her children in her colonies ; especially when the
paying attention to the one proves a relief and a benefit to the other. Should a company therefore be
formed, there cannot be a doubt of its proving a source
of blessing to numbers who are now looking anxiously
forward with a dim and feeble eye, yet with kindling
hope again reviving. The financial details attendant
upon such a scheme need never deter any one from
joining it, for they would prove anything but hazardous. The outlay might be easily made returnable,
and, as I have already said, the actual burden of the
expense eventually shifted from the shoulders of those
who have temporarily and humanely borne it, to those
who are relieved and benefited and ultimately enriched. How far it would be desirable to afford such
facilities for emigrating, to all who might feel inclined
to avail themselves of the boon, without distinction
and without inquiry as to their capabilities for becoming an emigrant, is a question that need not, I think,
much trouble the mind of any philanthropists interested in emigration. Eor, on the one hand, it is
more difficult than would be supposed, to truly decide
at home who are and who are not adapted for such a
new life; and on the other hand, it is a question that
should be left to the emigrants themselves. Be it for
them to say, after hearing or reading the various facts
connected with the subject, whether or no they are
fitted for a state of existence different to what perchance they have been accustomed to, and which will AND  EMIGEATION. 31
require both physical and moral activity to endure.
It is not the mere artisan at home, or mechanic or labourer of skilful mind and industrious habits that is
always found best suited for a colony where uniformity
of pursuits can never be invariably expected. The
agriculturist may be possessed of much agricultural
knowledge, and he will, undoubtedly, find his knowledge of great advantage and benefit to him in his new
home ; the blacksmith may have no superior in his
calling ; the bricklayer may be well experienced in the
art of building ; the carpenter in the workmanship of
his trade; the labourer in the manual strength requisite for his task, and they may all and severally succeed in the place whither they are bound: but, individually, they are certain not to succeed, or find
themselves so well fitted for, or "so much required by
a colony as if they could move occasionally aside from
their own straight course, and take up or assist in that
of their neighbours. It is certain that the man who,
whatever be his trade or profession, can be found apt
and ready at either the plough, the whip, the trowel,
the spade, the plane, the anvil, the pen, and any other
apparently incongruous occupation, is the man not
only best suited for a new colonial life, but is the most
certain of rapid success. A diversity of talents and
pursuits, irregularity of habits and ideas, may be anything, and assuredly is anything but productive at
home; but, per se, it has been found and often proved
to be the direct reverse abroad. A lively fancy,
a ready hand, and untiring energy are among the prominent and the best qualifications for a useful and a
successful emigrant. Eearing no danger, seeing no
obstacles, surmounting all difficulties, facing all ventures, daring all hazards ; now to-day the gentle penman ; then to-morrow the hardy labourer, next, the
following day, the bold and unflinching adventurer,
again, the day after, the staid and skilful contriver, he
is the one who carries all before him, who proves a
service to the land he has come upon, and benefits 32 BBITISH   COLUMBIA
himself in a manner most surprising. Let it not be
imagined, then, that because a person calls himself of
this trade, or of that particular craft, that he alone is
capable of pushing his way usefully in a new colony,
especially in a colony such as British Columbia.
There is required besides this, theoretical knowledge of
labour and art, untiring energy, unflinching perseverance, and a constant fund of animal life and strength,
ever looking brightly and boldly forward. With this,
no man, however gentle may be his blood or refined
may be his tastes in general, need be in fear of not
succeeding. Numerous instances could be adduced in
favour of this assertion: and to prove that, I may say
that often has the most expert and skilful handicraftsman, when unable to extend his abilities beyond the
sphere of his accustomed occupation, not succeeded so
well as the generally supposed useless being, who has
neither craft nor denomination to call himself by. My
own experiences may be named as one strong instance
of this, and numerous other cases are within my own
knowledge. The truth is, that man in a state of
highly civilized society, and man in a state of nature,
are two totally opposite beings. The former is obliged
to move and act, not according to the bent of his
own strong mind and inclination, but according to
the laws of others: the latter is at perfect freedom,
and permits every faculty of the soul to be fully and
unrestrictedly developed. The consequence is that in
society and out of society, the same man may appear
in two diametrically opposite characters. This, experience has frequently proved: and it has been the lot
of many to see with astonishment the man of fashion,
the erudite scholar, the gifted poet, the lordly scion of
nobility, and even the gently born dame of sweet and
softened bearing, act with a vigour and perform duties
when compelled that have surpassed the labours of
men whose whole lives have been engaged in practising
the same. When the hardy peasant, cast upon a desolate shore, has sat bemoaning his fate, and unable to
■iii'
I AND  EMIGEATION. 33
devise a single thought for his own benefit or help,
suddenly there has appeared the pale countenance and
the delicate form of one who had heretofore been
looked upon as a scented toy, and yet who is now directing, and planning, and labouring with a skill and
wisdom, and unceasing perseverance that would seem
incredible. In Australia, similar to this is common.
I have seen the lady who, at home, would have been
attended upon hand and foot by servants, there willingly, and cheerfully, and admirably perform the
most humble of domestic duties: ay, and reaping a
benefit both in health and comfort from so doing. I
'have also seen men whose blood, to use a social distinction, was as pure and rich as many of the highest
in our native land, yet now performing the part of ready
labourers, building their own cot, tilling their own
ground, tending their own flocks, driving their own
teams, and cooking their own food. I have, moreover,
occasionally beheld the plodding clerk throw aside his
pen, and, with the perspiration oozing at every pore,
perform the most manual and fatiguing labours, and
do so with success before unthought of. Men, therefore, as a rule, must not be looked upon in their qualifications merely by the name of a trade that they
bear. There may be others, who, when the trial hour
approaches, are their equals in ability and actual service. It were wrong, therefore, to exclude from emigration certain classes on account of their particular
position in the ranks of society, and who, possessing
talents which, on account of the superabundance of such
talents around them, are wasted at home, would yet
very speedily make those talents beneficial abroad.
The truth then to be drawn from these remarks is,
that the active and the energetic mind, whether found
in the-labourer, the tradesman, or the man of gentle
blood, is that which is undoubtedly best suited for colonial life and for the purposes of emigration.
The foregoing observations have been made not only
with a view of showing that it is difficult always to
D
— ; Hi!
34 BBITISH  COLUMBIA,
say who may or who may not be suited for the purposes of emigration, and that therefore it were better
to allow more latitude of class among those who wish
to emigrate, but also with a view of giving encouragement to all classes, whether tradesmen, labourers, capitalists, or others, who may embark their persons and
their fortunes in a foreign venture. They will perceive
that much depends upon themselves, and not so much
upon their position in society. They will find that,
whatever be their nominal calling, their habits, or
their pursuits, they must be prepared to act in any
other calling if need be. They must not listlessly
confine themselves entirely to that calling, for if they
do, they cannot expect to meet with the same success
as those who deviate from it when occasion may require. Like a case coming within my own personal
knowledge, they should not hesitate, if necessary or
desirable, in adding to the medical diploma the title
of an expert artisan, a labourer of the soil, a squatter
in the bush, and a thriving publican in the same
locality, all and each of these pursuits being coupled
with one another. By such a course of action they
may bid adieu to sorrow, to distress, and to trouble ;
and they may take up instead joy and comfort and
prosperity the moment they have fully entered upon
their new existence.
One fact, however, in connection with this prosperity, should be borne in mind by everybody ; but
more especially by the working man who emigrates to
any of the colonies. It/is that though success may,
and almost always does attend all persevering minds
despite the most inveterate habits of intemperance,
yet that success is not only most considerably lessened, but can never be expected to exist permanently
where sobriety is lost sight of. In Australia the prevailing vice of the working classes, and it may be said
also of many above them, is drunkenness. It is rare
in the extreme to find one man in ten a thoroughly
sober person.    What then must that single exception AND  EMIGEATIONT 35
be certain of meeting with, if most of his nine brethren
are seen to attain prosperity! I need hardly say,
that such a one, if he has but physical abilities to
equal his companions, must inevitably and rapidly
outstrip them all. He will be sure to reach the goal
long before the others have attained half way; and
this is so well known, that it is surprising the means
are not more attended to. But the truth is, that intemperance abroad, much more than it is at home, is
dangerously infectious. One may be a determinedly
sober man when first he arrives in the new colony.
Speedily, however, the want of companions, of some
society, causes him to visit any place where society is
found. Among the first establishments erected in
any spot where man locates, houses of entertainment
are essential. A Erench writer (Chateaubriand) has
said, somewhat reproachfully, that the English generally build a tavern first of all things. But really,
there is some necessity for this. In warm climates
both man and beast require more drink than they do
in colder spheres. To drink water rarely if ever
serves to temper the thirst. Should the water chance
to be pure, it is seldom otherwise than lukewarm.
The consequence is that other drink must be procured, and the alehouse, therefore, is always full.
Here, then, the new settler is obliged to come, to
mix with his fellow man, and to hear something that
is going on in the wide world which is at a distance
from him.1 The result is that he naturally joins in
the glass, and eventually becomes as accustomed, and
as much in need of the same, as the most inveterate
drinker from his birth. I have known a man who
could not rise of a morning till he had had his half
gill of raw spirits; who could not pursue his usual
1 My remarks more particularly apply to the bush, and to small
towns, where emigrants mostly have to go, or ought to go, on their
arrival. In the larger towns and cities of our colonies, buildings
are soon erected for intellectual and social culture. 36 BBITISH  COLUMBIA
t
work without several more half gills during the day ;
and who, finally, at evening, would think himself lost
if he had not swallowed another large quantity before
he laid himself to rest. Yet this man told me he had
originally a mortal distaste to spirits, though at the
time I knew him he could smile with contempt at a
bottle, and was then actually returning to England
on business, a moderately rich and prosperous man.
The old stagers may, perchance, be able to stand
this unceasing application to the bottle; but it undoubtedly will and must have an effect on younger
hands. Even the most sober persons, I verily believe, drink more abroad than they could dare attempt
to do at home. Detestable as drunkenness is to
myself, yet I have, in Australia, been obliged to drink
(and I don't know the time for years past when I have
been affected by drink) nearly ten times the quantity,
in proportion, to what I have ever done in England.
Nevertheless, my success was in a great measure the
result of my always being sober; and it is this sobriety
which will most materially tend to the certainty and
rapidity of success.
Let the emigrant, then, especially bear this in mind.
Let him, if he is obliged to drink, drink with caution
and with moderation; and never allow what he does
drink to usurp his faculties, to master his reason, to
overpower his senses, and to make him not only an
object of pitiful contempt and distrust to those who
employ him, but a positive disgrace to himself,—even
as reflection will afterwards point out. On the other
hand, if he invariably keeps sober, he will be honoured
and respected, trusted in, and confided with important
affairs ; selected for offices of dignity and emolument,
and enriched on every side, not only by those who
know and employ him, but by those who may hear
of him. Eor upon such a man, it is justly said,
there can be full dependance; but upon the intemperate, however much allowances may be made, there
certainly can be none.    The conclusion, then, is ar- AND  EMIGEATION. 37
rived at, that sobriety is an actual source of accumulating profit, while intemperance is an inevitable
drawback. Policy, therefore, if nothing else, should
induce the former, and destroy the latter.
But there is another degree of sobriety, however,
different to what has been spoken of, that should be
strongly attended to. The body may occasionally be
inflated with drink, and yet the mind be clear; the
mind may be anything but sober, and yet the body
perfectly calm. Either of these two positions should
be avoided by all men, but particularly by men who,
as emigrants, have to enter on a new life, and to mark
' as plainly as possible the courses of their way before
them. There can be nothing on earth more desirable
than rational and dispassionate reasoning, attended by
a like judgment at all times. Were this universal,
mankind would be more apt to perceive the senselessness of much that is disputed upon, and to come
to a general conclusion that the Divine precepts of
love and charity are the centrifugal rays which emit
the real, substantial light of moral happiness in the
world. When such reasoning comes, reflection has
already arrived; and reflection bids the man about to
undertake new schemes to I ponder and be wise." It
tells him to be " sober-minded," and to consider well
what now is only the § beginning of the end." A rational man will think of this when he is on the point
of commencing, as it were, his early life again. Hot-
brained youth may rush on with intemperate zeal, and
possibly, by mere impetuosity, surmount the obstacles
that chance to come before him. But not so he whose
few past years have given him a lesson of experience.
Wariness and caution, if in ever so small a degree,
will come upon him, and the warning voice, | Be
sober-minded," will necessarily at times strike strongly
upon his memory. Perhaps, however, the admonition
comes to him in only a moral light; yet it is one also
deserving a different view. Men may, in general,
sneer at subjects of religion being discussed or alluded 38
BBITISH  COLUMBIA,
to in any writings such as the present; but if they
would only give to it a single moment's reflection,'—if
they would but be sober-minded, rational in their reasoning and judgment, instead of being intemperate
and hasty, they would perceive that a man hardly
fulfils his task, in an attempt of this kind, who does
not call the emigrant's attention to every one of the
concerns whereon his happiness and success depend.
If one who is about to leave his native country to go
to a far-off land can confidently say he will reach that
land in safety,—that no perils shall attack him on
the voyage,—that no foes nor ills will assail him when
he lands,—that all of life henceforth shall be of his
own fair choosing,—then indeed there may appear to
be no need to call attention to a serious subject. But
when man cannot command even a moment of his
time,—when he cannot say what an hour may bring
forth even in England by his own fireside,—when he
admits this fact, and allows himself to be a creature
perfectly at the mercy of some far superior power,—j
where can be his sober-mindedness, his reflection, his
reason, or his judgment, when he ventures on a new
life far abroad upon a new and wondrous element,
where that superior Power is often awfully displayed,
and then settles upon a new and strange land, without
once attempting to place himself in communion with
that Power ? Surely it were wise, even if it be doubtful, to practise those means which are said to be
pleasing and acceptable to that Power. To ensure a
blessing on our efforts, we often find a compelling
cause from some bright hope within us. Erequently
has success attended us from the mere energy inspired
by resting steadfastly on the hope of success: how
much more so, then, by the knowledge of the certainty
of it, should it be for our actual good ! And whether
it be for our real good, or not for our real good, man
himself, even as all experience proves, is never competent to judge.
Thus, then, it is wise to be hopeful; but, to rest AND  EMIGEATION. 39
that hope on One Who is mightier and wiser than the
sons of men. Therefore I say to all, rationally and
sober-mindedly look upon the simple question ; and as
no success nor exemption from evil can be made certain
by ourselves, let it be the wiser plan to attempt gaining
it by asking Elsewhere. Surely, if we do own a superior Power, it is but manliness to ask that Power for
His aid, His blessing, and His love. Surely there can
be no littleness or wrong in acknowledging the truth
of our own helplessness, our own proneness to error,
our own worthlessness compared with what we ought
to be, and soliciting the aid of that Divine Spirit pro-
-mised to all who ask to assist us in our future attempts
in the better course we should pursue. This is no
light matter. It is one of grave import, and is not
only essential to an emigrant's internal good, but to
his benefit when abroad; and I sincerely hope that
the few lines now written may catch the eye and
strike the heart of those whose intention may be to
journey far away, that they may be induced to think
of this soberly and rationally, to review the subject
well, to examine whether it be not good, and like
a man take hold of the truth and abide by it unceasingly.
I have but called attention to the foregoing subject,
though I could well say much more from what I myself have seen abroad on each side of the question,
but it is not my province, here and now to do so, beyond what I have done. Let me, however, once more
intreat attention to it*. I am neither parson nor
preacher, and I hate, and view with the utmost abhorrence any of the cant on religion that is so prevalent in the present times. I am even doubtful in my
own mind, whether the religion of the day as pushed
forward to our notice, by all sorts of talkers, is really
Christianity. Indeed, I cannot believe it to be so.
Yet there is the truth, and the Good and Holy One
never leaves Himself without His witnesses, even in
the midst of Baal.    Therefore I urge the matter as I
—
Hnf 40
BBITISH  COLUMBIA,
do; and simply as one who has had much experience
of many things in this unceasing world of change, I do
honestly and sincerely say, that of all the gifts man
can have, there is nothing, there can be nothing equal
to the excellencies and the blessings of true religion.
If the emigrant, then, be but possessed of this as it
ought to be possessed, that is as taught by Holy
Scripture and the Church, accompanied by manliness
and truth of conduct, he will have a guiding Star to
direct, to support and encourage him wherever he may
chance to be ; and in whatever difficulty he may be
placed, he will have a cheering Eriend to smile upon
and strengthen him; he will have One Who became
man and is for ever God and man to call upon for
help in every time of need; and finally—come weal,
come woe—he has that within which lifts the heart,
which elevates the soul, and which, when death comes,
come soon, come late, enables him to meet it boldly
and in safety, and then with confidence render up his
spirit into the hands of Him Who gave it.
Having thus carried my remarks to a point where
some of the advantages and disadvantages of emigration may be understood, I now proceed to offer a few
practical hints to the emigrant.
CHAPTER III.
A  GLANCE  AT  OUE  COLONIES.
The mind being fully decided as to going abroad,
the first question which then arises is as to the colony
that shall be selected. This question may be answered generally, by saying that every one of them
have their advantages; advantages, however, that in AND  EMIGEATION. 41
some respects differ from each other, and which, therefore, it may be desirable to briefly glance at, leaving
the querist afterwards to fix his choice.
Of the several colonies in the Australasian world,
the colony that is strictly called New South Wales, is
the oldest and the most extensively populated and advanced in position. This colony has for its chief
town, Sydney, a place of very great importance, and
originally, the first settlement of any European establishment in Australia.
It is too well known to require any description from
me. Its splendid bays and harbours, its beautiful
■scenery, its marine views, and the numerous other
enchantments that it possesses, give to it, in my eye,
charms that a lively imagination would fain linger
upon, and would try to put before the reader. But
this I must not do, neither must I forget to state
that, like everything in this world, these charms are
accompanied by many drawbacks. Dust, and heat,
and occasional drought, and to the new arrival, that
great pest, the mosquito, form part of the drawbacks.
These are what nature puts before one in the view.
As to man, so much depends upon an individual himself, that it is difficult to say what may be a charm,
and what the reverse, in Sydney, as considered socially,
politically, and practically. Certain reminiscences connected with its birth and younger days have a distasteful look to some, but my experience in many
places where all classes, high and low, good and bad,
are mixed together, teaches me that there is ,not so
much in the old population of Australia to be dreaded
or despised.
Those who laid the foundation of the greatness and
the prosperity of that colony, were principally men
whom the mother country had deemed it wise to send
away. They had sinned against the laws of their fellow-man, and they were expatriated that society might
be rid of them at home, no matter what became of
them abroad.    In the then wild land of the south.
J 42
BBITISH  COLUMBIA,
these outcasts had to begin life anew. Many a tale
of pity, of anguish, of hope, of passion, have I heard
from those who either were the original settlers, or
their children. Many a dark deed has been spoken
in my ears; many strange and thrilling adventures
narrated to me, by those who formed the pioneers of
the present successful colonists. But few now remain to see the glory of that city founded by themselves. A new race has sprung up, and the dark spot
upon the fair surface of Australian fame and glory, is
fast becoming obliterated. It is right that it should
be so. The memory of what was wrong should be
lost in the recollection of what is right. Wrong it
was to sin, right it is to repent; and as far as society
(once injured by these outcasts) could be benefited
by repentance, I wot that few persons at home so
give a proof of repentance as these did. Their labours
now rise triumphant before all the world, and Sydney,
the great capital of the great gold country in the
southern world, stands out brightly in attestation
of what could be done, and was done, by the despised
ones, and the guilty but repentant ones of a former
day. Nevertheless, so true it is, as one of themselves
has said, " When heaven accepts contrition it receives
into favour when it pardons; but man, more cruel
than his Maker, pursues his offending brother with
unrelenting severity, and marks a deviation from rectitude with a never-dying infamy, and with unceasing
suspicion and reproach, which seem to exclude him
from the pale of virtue." And thus it has been. Virtue, cold and cutting, and herself so immaculate, could
not behold all this proof of branded crime, not being
quite so incapable of good things as is so often asserted, without a feeling of haughty disdain; and
therefore, those who laid the foundation of the metropolis of the southern world, and their children and
grandchildren, were still marked as if alike in infamy.
When I think of it, and when I dwell upon that
glorious city of an Austral clime, and when I see her AND  EMIGEATION. 43
doings chronicled in golden pages far and wide, and
behold her commerce and her power, her beauty and
her wealth, I cannot help but wonder, as I pause and
lend myself to a moment of reflection. Instantly
there come to my mind those lines of the poet Her-
vey, where he speaks of these men on their way to
this distant land; and as they are so good, and may
perhaps serve to arouse the better nature of some
reader to think more kindly of all his class, especially
of those who err and go astray, I will quote them :—
1 Morn on the waters ! purple and bright!
Bursts on the billows the flashing of light;
O'er the glad waves, like a child of the sun,
See the tall vessel goes gallantly on :
Full to the breeze she unbosoms her sail,
And her pennon streams onward, like hope, in the gale.
The winds come around her, in murmur and song,
And the surges rejoice as they bear her along:
See ! she looks up to the golden-edged clouds,
And the sailor sings gaily aloft in her shrouds :
Onward she glides, amid ripple and spray,
Over the waters, away and away !
Bright as the visions of youth, ere they part,
Passing away, like a dream of the heart!
Who, as the beautiful pageant sweeps by,
Music around her, and sunshine on high,
Pauses to think, amid glitter and glow,
Oh ! there be hearts that are breaking below !
a
Night on the waves! and the moon is on high,
Hung, like a gem, on the brow of the sky,
Treading its depths in the power of her might
And turning the clouds, as they pass her, to light.
Look to the waters ! asleep on their breast,
Seems not the ship like an island of rest ?
Bright and alone on the shadowy main,
Like a heart-cherished home on some desolate plain !
Who, as she smiles on the silvery light,
Spreading her wings on the bosom of night,
Alone on the deep, as the moon in the sky,
A phantom of beauty—could deem with a sigh,
That so lovely a thing is the mansion of sin,
And souls that are smitten lie bursting within
Who, as he watches her silently gliding,
Remembers that wave after wave is dividing
> BBITISH  COLUMBIA,
Bosoms which sorrow and guilt could not sever
Hearts which are parted and broken for ever ?
Or dreams that he watches, afloat on the wave,
The deathbed of hope, or the young spirit's grave."
But, not exactly in the words of the poet did the
result prove. | The death-bed of hope and the young
spirit's grave" were for the past I but for the future—
that hope revived! God's image once stamped there
was not wholly effaced in these His creatures ; and the
new soil upon which they trod bore the impress of a
manly character again. With rapid strides a new world
sprang up in the south; and the mysterious ways of
God were never to be looked upon with more of reverence and awe than in the results produced by sending
the criminals of England to a place somewhere beneath her feet. Hear what the great commercial oracle of the day says about this once despised country.
Writing some remarks upon a letter from Sydney, the
Times in 1854 (Oct. 17) says :—
I Ten years ago we little thought that we should
ever have to give our readers the picture of a British
El Dorado. Yet such a creation, in all its extravagance, we have to exhibit this day in the letter of our
correspondent at Sydney. Here is the very thing
mankind has imagined and desired for ages,—the
Ophir of Solomon, the golden fleece of Jason, the
golden apples of Atalanta, the Pactolus and Tagus,
the lamp of Aladdin and the cap of Eortunatus, and
the inexhaustible idea of the thousand golden legends.
Who would have thought that poverty-struck Australia, good for nothing but to take out thieves off our
hands and supply us with a little tallow and wool,
would ever send us twenty millions a-year in pure
gold ? That is the change which has come over the
scene in four or five years. Australia is no longer a
set of penal settlements, but a fountain of wealth in
its most condensed and most coveted form. Every
year it brings to the surface, and actually sends to AND  EMIGEATION. 45
the mother country, a quantity of gold much more
than has ever lain in the vaults of the Bank of England."
With these remarks then, I leave Sydney and the
older Colony, and betake myself to a glance at the
others.
Van Dieman's Land has Hobarton for its chief
city. More nfild and pastoral in its features than
what New South Wales is; it presents many inducements to those who prefer a quieter existence than can
be found where gold exists. But it is already well
populated, and I imagine, has but few openings for
new speculations, or for any great efforts towards individual success. There are, however, in the Straits
dividing it from the mainland of Australia, numerous
islands which I hope yet to see teeming with inhabitants and possessing lights and beacons to warn the
mariner on his way.
Port Philip, otherwise Victoria, the great gold district of the South, is but a growth of yesterday.
When I first visited that part of the world it was unknown, except in a geographical sense. Even on my
third visit to those colonies it was but coming into
life, and I well remember its huts and the few buildings that formed the principal town. Yet, who to
see it now, not seeing it before, could well conceive
what it had been ? Who, to view the rapid progress it
is still making, would fancy that twenty years ago it
was nearly a wilderness ?
To this place then, or to Sydney, or to Van Dieman's
Land, men should go at the present time, with the
knowledge that, in going there, they must expect more
than ordinary difficulties, owing to the very great influx of classes from every part of the wrorld. What I
have said on the subject of emigration in general
should here be remembered. I might give very many
proofs of all I have advanced: but such would require
a large volume to bring them together.
Adelaide, or South Australia; Perth, and Western
— =====
46 BBITISH  COLUMBIA
j
Australia are, likewise, important places. In the
former, there are copper mines and the famous Murray
river, ^explored by the adventurous Captain Cadell.
In the latter there are facilities for a rapid advancement as a colony on the west of this great Southern
Continent, if I may so term it. There are, also, rich
lands lately discovered around it; and as we glance at
the future, still looking onward and onward with a
brightening eye and a manly trusting heart, we see, in
Australia, the townships of the west, united by iron
roads with the older townships on the east and south,
while they themselves serve as receiving-places for the
commerce of one part of the world, even as Sydney
and elsewhere about it, take the commerce of the other
part of the world.
Thus the emigrant, bound for Australia, need not
fear, even if certain parts be at present overstocked
with new arrivals. There are plenty of places farther
a-field in the same land; and there are many rich and
generous, as well as shrewd and considerate men, to
aid the persevering and the energetic, who, not altogether led away by gold, hesitate not to make a trial
where they can.
There is one place more in Australia that must be
mentioned. This is the Moreton Bay district; lately
separated from New South Wales, and now having a
local government of its own. Of it I know but little;
though that little is greatly in its favour. The cedar
and the pine grow in this district abundantly; and I
have seen places in some of the rivers, especially the
Clarence, (a river of no small importance,) that deserves much attention. There strikes me to be a fine
field for the emigrant all about here; but as I have
dwelt upon this subject in a work preparing for the
press,11 need say no more here.
Before closing this part of my subject I cannot refrain from endeavouring to call public attention to one
1 A Cruise along the East Coast of Australia, and a sojourn
among the Natives. AND EMIGEATION. 47
great fact in connection with Australia. That fact is
one to which I have already referred in relation to the
future. I cannot suppose for one moment that the
man who seriously reflects upon the changes in the
world during the last half-century will be inclined to
affirm or believe that the present era is the limit of all
advance, and that we shall henceforth remain either
stationary or make a retrograde movement. The
course of progression has, indeed, been swift and wonderful within the last few years j but there has been a
continuous path of social and physical improvement in
the civilized and uncivilized world for many ages
•past. This improvement, in former times, has been
more slow, perchance, than what men now living may
themselves have witnessed, but nevertheless it has
been unceasing. If the progress has chanced to be
arrested in one place it has advanced in another; and,
therefore, it has left and will still leave an infallible
evidence in favour of the truth of ultimate perfection.
But the lesson it teaches is one of great moment, and
negatives all idea of no further increase in the moral
and intellectual as well as social aspects of the world.
It tells us that man will yet go on and on, increasing
in knowledge, in wisdom, and in understanding; that
the earth will yet present more and more some new
features, and bring to the light and to the view of her
children parts of her surface yet hidden from human
eye: yet unexplored by human science.1 It tells us
that where the savage now roams in unrestrained wild-
ness of ferocity and will, civilization will yet be planted.
It tells us that the lands now accounted so distant and
almost unapproachable, will eventually be within the
limits of a friendly and a neighbourly visit. It also
tells us that where the canoe of a native race is only
seen, or but with rare exceptions, there will be wit-
1 The whole of these and following remarks are as they were
written by me in June, 1848. The present day proves my views
to have been correct; and will be some warranty for believing
that the future may be equally as progressive.
I ..-.u i;E
48 BBITISH   COLUMBIA,
nessed the constant passage of the vessels and the
fleets of the civilized white. There is no limit to the
advance of science; there can be no limit to human
improvement. Bearing this then in mind, it will be
considered as no stretch of fancy if a view of Australasia be presented which shall give it, in another half
century, an appearance very strongly like Great Britain
and the adjoining continent. Already has progress
been made and is still making towards such an end.
A glance at any map of the eastern hemisphere will
show that, even as England is divided from Erance by
the Straits of Dover, so is Australia divided from New
Guinea and the Louisiade Archipelago by the Torres
Straits. These Straits have of late been made more
navigable : ships more frequently go through them.
Steamers have already begun to ply between the
various ports of India and the Eastern Islands, approached at the one extremity of these Straits, and the
principal places in Australia to be reached from the
other extremity. Torres Straits, then, eventually will
become even as Dover Straits are now, a passage for
communicating between great places. I would therefore ask, whether or no that passage shall be in our
own keeping, or whether there shall be let or hindrance
from others ? Shall we have there a foreign neighbour ? Or, shall we at once secure a primary right to
possess the whole ? The occupation of New Guinea
gives the answer. Should the Erench standard once
acquire a footing and be permanently fixed there, the
generation which may follow us or our children, and
which will witness the changes I have named, will bitterly and perhaps vainly regret that more attention to
the subject had not now been deemed necessary. It
is not for me to discuss this subject. I wish merely
to call attention to it: and I leave it at present for
abler and wiser men than myself to take up the question and carry it farther. Already have our neighbours
a footing in New Caledonia, not far from East Australia.    Erom New Caledonia to the New Hebrides
VI AND  EMIGEATION. 49
is but a stride. Thence to the Solomon Isles is but
another small stride; and from the latter, New
Guinea is at no distance off. Indeed, on one of the
Louisiade group there is, or lately was, a Erench establishment. It is a Mission on Woodlark Island J
and a plan of the harbour, kindly given to me by
Mons. Joubert, of Sydney, is now before me. Thus
then, there can be little doubt in the matter to those
who look well into the future. New Zealand may be
considered, as it has been termed, the future Great
Britain of the Southern world, but if so Australia would
still be far superior to it. In the first are innumerable
physical impediments to its ever becoming so grand
or so available a mart of traffic and commerce for the
nations of the southern climes as Australia. Let
Australia then, be free to gradually take up such a
position. Let no foreign power be so located as to
cause impediments to be thrown in her way, and perhaps to stay her progress, besides being able to incessantly annoy and harass her. And let New Guinea
be well thought of in connection with every subject for
the welfare of Australia.
Erom Australia, we now take a glance at New
Zealand ; and here, my private wishes would possibly
lead me to say many good things about the colony, did
not my space and the necessity for speedily coming to
another part of the world forbid it.
My personal acquaintance with New Zealand is
none. I can therefore only speak of it geographically,
and as I have heard from others while cruising about
those seas. It has frequently been spoken of as the
" Great Britain of the South," and there is every reason so to speak of it. In more respects than one, I
think it will eventually become such as it is called.
Its tone, its habits, its European population, and its
position, come more near to our own than Australia.
This latter colony will eventually, and properly so, be
independent of the mother country; having a flag of
her own, and very probably, thinking of the parent
E 50 BBITISH   COLUMBIA
land much as the United States now think of us.
But New Zealand, I imagine, will be different. There
is that about her which marks out her future destiny
as being very dissimilar to that of Australia. Hence,
the emigrant or the settler abroad should bear this in
mind when deciding upon the colony he means to go
to. The general class that proceed to New Zealand
consists of men of another stamp than those who go
to Australia. It is difficult to explain the difference;
but, it may I think, be summed up in this : they are
persons of more learning and cultivation. Whether
we take the settlement of Canterbury, or of Otago, or
Wellington, Auckland, or Nelson, I infer that this
difference will be perceptible. In Australia, you go
into the busy, feverish mart of brisk trade and commerce : in Van Dieman's Land, to a more pastoral
life; but in New Zealand there is something, as I
conceive from what I have seen and heard of those
who dwell there, more akin to olden times at home.
Even the natives are widely different to those of Australia. I believe that they are a fine and intelligent
race of men : men too who are not to be despised
either in their physical or their mental acquirements.
I have seen them at work as sailors, and have gone a
short voyage with some of them ; consequently, so far
speak from my own knowledge.
There is about New Zealand, even in its physical
character, much to make it inviting to many who love
the magnificence and the beauties of Nature. The
splendid bays and harbours, especially on the South,
most all of which have latterly been admirably surveyed by Captain Drury and his officers, present
numerous scenes of a most enchanting description. I
have been informed that some of these places are unsurpassed anywhere in the world ; and certainly, many
of the views I have had an opportunity of inspecting
seem to warrant such an assertion.
Upon the whole, then, it may be said, that if Australia has very much of an exciting nature to draw to AND  EMIGEATION. 51
it a numerous band of immigrants from all the quarters-
of the globe, New Zealand has also much that is attractive and of a quieter character.
But, now, before quitting New Zealand, let me not
forget two other places not far off. The one is Norfolk
Island, the other is the Auckland group, with also,
one or two more that are in or near the track of
vessels from Australia.
With respect to the former island, once the great
prison for the most desperate criminals, it is now passably well known as the abode of certain families descended from the mutineers of the Bounty, who had
-originally located on Pitcairn Island, a place situated
about the middle of the South Pacific Ocean. Erom
Pitcairn they have lately been removed to Norfolk
Island, after that place was prepared for them. It is,
I believe, a beautiful spot, and equal to all their wishes.
I allude to them merely to show where we have colonists, and also to keep alive' attention to their condition.
As regards the Aucklands and adjoining islands,
they were, I believe, until lately, occupied by a whaling company, but are now abandoned. Situated as they
are, I conceive that it would be well if encouragement
were given to a small settlement there, on account of
passing ships. Harbours of refuge might in a similar
.way be established throughout the whole world where
the tracks of vessels lie. Liberal encouragement given
to free emigration and settlement in all our colonies
would be beneficial not only to individuals, but also to
communities. But on this subject, of establishing
harbours of refuge abroad, I may say a word or two
at another time.
The colonies attached to our Indian empire need
not here have more than a very passing notice. None
of them are within reach of the general emigrant;
nor are they likely to become very attractive in the
same sense as our other colonies. Borneo, Singapore,
China,  and the East;  the  Mauritius, Ceylon, and I
BBITISH   COLUMBIA,
other places are, no doubt, rich in themselves, but
they are not so to him who is obliged to leave home,
to seek employment for himself and family abroad.
The' Cape of Good Hope is different. There are
facilities at that place for a stream of emigration, which,
healthily maintained and wisely fostered, would prove
beneficial to the colony, as well as to those who go
there. The openings lately made by Dr. Livingstone
afford great encouragement to men of energy, perseverance, and tact. The whole range of East Africa
might be considered with reference to settlements
upon its coast, that is so far as we have any national
right to place them there. The Portuguese possess
most of the land about the Mozambique ; but the
Cape Colony and Natal, despite the native wars and
incursions that we read of, deserve careful attention
on the part of any one intending to settle abroad.
Belonging, as it were, to this part of the world,
we have settlements on St. Helena, Ascension, Eer-
nando Po, and Sierra Leone, which latter is a colony.
The mention of this place reminds me that it is the
duty of every one who may write upon the subject of
emigration to warn all persons against a state of things
generally existing in some of our colonies. Might is
too often made right; and where there is no appeal
and no immediate means for laying a grievance before
the Home Government, the poorer man is in danger
of being oppressed.
Erom some accounts I have read respecting Sierra
Leone, it appears not to be exempt from this, and
what I have, in a former work, drawn attention to
concerning another of our colonies—the Ealkland
Islands. These islands are situated in the far off,
South Atlantic Ocean, near the end of the American Continent. They are wild and barren in the
extreme, as compared with the other colonies just
mentioned. But they are most important, and I
believe may become productive. Certainly, if the
soil is not very enticing, the position of these islands —
AND  EMIGEATION. 53
ought to make them possess some attraction. They
have excellent harbours and bays; and their fishing
and other advantages make them a place not to be despised by the moneyed emigrant going far abroad. But
I have spoken at length upon the Ealklands in my
late work, 1A Two Years' Cruise in the South Seas j"1
and the views I have there expressed I still maintain.
It is a wise and shrewd speculation to make a cattle
colony on the West Ealklands ; and, if carried out
according to the extent urged upon me by the Society
possessing an island, much personal benefit must-
arise in return. The late Governor of the Ealklands
told me that a naval Captain of high repute in some
things was most earnest to get certain parts of the
West Island to establish his favourite cattle schemes;
and my own experience of those islands leads me to
believe it,—even as the gallant captain has said since
joining the society now fixed there,—to be " a most
profitable speculation." There is one drawback at
present. The establishment of a cattle colony on the
West Ealklands would be rather against the rights of
a corporate body called the Ealkland Islands Company. This company has paid high for the exclusive
privilege of claiming all wild cattle on the islands.
It was, therefore, considered that the plan intended
by the society to which I have alluded, of placing'
a number of animals on the Western lands, (emanating as that plan did from the naval captain above
referred to, and who had long been resident at the
Ealklands as partner in a firm having many cattle,) was
an attempt to set up in opposition to that company.
Whether or not, it was, in a pecuniary sense, a shrewd
idea; and such plan, with some good sealing and whaling
stations, might offer many inducements for the Ealkland Islands becoming more populated than they are.
Other important considerations connected with the
Ealklands arise before me; but the limits of my
present remarks confine me to the allusions I have
1 Published by Longman and Co.
] 54 BBITISH  COLUMBIA,
already made, and to what I have said in my larger
work. I hope yet to see Government paying more
attention to the subject.    It is needed.
Erom the South let us now rapidly advance to the
North. And here I cannot but pause for a moment
to reflect upon the singular position England holds
with regard to a great portion of the world. She
seems like a nursing mother to many nations. What
is not exactly and by birth her own, she has fostered
as her own, wherever such has been required of her.
In her natural capacity as parent she has been very prolific : in her other character she has not been idle. Yet
to look at her on the map one cannot but be surprised.
She is very small when compared with several of her
gigantic children; consequently the excusable pride
her sons must entertain for her, whether at home or
abroad, should ever be tempered with wisdom and
prudence.
So much overdue boasting as is often beheld, is not
well, nor is it just. Our national greatness too frequently leads to our despising others around us. But
the observant eye beholds in our neighbours, signs of
past, of present, or of future greatness equal to our
own. To me there seems a want of true penetration
and of calm judgment in attempting to decry another
'nation merely to vaunt ourselves. Erance especially,
has of late been so decried, and the master-mind that
rules our ally, and receives the good-will and love of
his people, has never shown greater wisdom, more
moderation, and sounder good sense than in curbing
the indignation of himself and his subjects when hearing the taunts and sarcasms of ourselves. Looking
far below the surface, he has tried to believe that at
heart we mean not what we say, and thus wisely considering, peace has been ensured. Let us hope that
it will be maintained. England's greatness—England's glory—consists in the noble arts of peace—not
in the terrible and destructive elements of war. Her
conquests may have been mighty; but results, even AND   EMIGEATION. 55
in India, show that " those who draw the sword shall
suffer by the sword;" and Australia with its great
wealth, proves the advantage of a contrary course.
But, we have no just right to despise other nations,
however small, as we often do. Spain and Portugal
as states, Genoa and Venice as cities, are but comparative units in the list of mighty kingdoms, and
places of note in the present day. Yet, look at their
glory when we were nought! See the Venetian merchants on their way to and from China and the East
in the days of our first Edwards ! Mark their fleet
of rich argosies threading the waters of the Levant
and Adriatic, and depositing the wonders of Ind at
the feet of half-barbarous Europe ! Behold the hardy
Genoese in their caravels, ploughing the wide ocean
at a time when we dared hardly dream of doing so!
Run your eye along the African coast, and throw it
upward to the Asiatic shores as you view the Portuguese flag braving the then mysterious dangers of
such a voyage while England slept at home! And,
finally, note the proud flag of Spain riding triumphant
on the seas at the borders of new worlds, discovered
and peopled by her sons and those she employed, ere
we had come into note at all! Thus then, our present
greatness is no warranty for decrying that of others.
Glorious amongst nations do we now stand in our
colonies and our dependencies; but we must not forget that once we were not so ; and the lesson I would
fain draw from these apparently unnecessary remarks
is this,—Let the emigrant going afar off bear these,
things in mind ; and, while naturally proud of his own
parent land, be not overboasting as regards it; nor
speak so disparagingly of others. It is a drawback
everywhere ; and I have, therefore, made these observations in a friendly way, to guard all who read these
pages. More especially have I done so now that I
am about to touch upon Canada and the United
States* Here we have a mixture of many nations;
and it may do some good if I say, (no matter how un- 56 BBITISH   COLUMBIA,
palatable it may be) that an Englishman is neither
loved nor respected in any part of the world so much
as he used to be. I have alluded to some of the
causes—others exist and need not here be mentioned ;
but the fact is evident to all calm thinking minds. In
the United States this is greatly so, except perhaps
in a few places more peculiarly British than elsewhere. In Lower Canada, I am told, it is much the
same; in Upper Canada, there is that sort of loyalty
which, as we occasionally read, is sound while it serves,
but no longer.
Returning now more particularly to a glance at
such places as deserve to be mentioned to the emigrant, I must say that to many, the United States
present numerous attractions. The Americans are
bold, fearless, adventurous, enterprizing, and far-seeing. While we often think about things they go and
act. One may not like all of their personal character; nor agree with that spirit of recklessness
and want of due forethought so very striking in
much of what they do ; but as excellent pioneers in
the great march of civilization towards the west, they
undoubtedly rank very high. No man better adapted
for a colonist than a Yankee. No one more capable
of surmounting any and every difficulty, no matter
where, in what, or how produced. Shrewd, and calculating, (that is superficially—and this often answers
for a beginning) and ready-witted, few in the world
can compete with him. Then too, his great natural
intelligence, his sharp intellect, and his keen sense of
all that is required to adapt himself to the requirements of any particular moment, makes him an admirable character for the opening out and improving
hidden places and heretofore wild land. Thus then,
the Englishman, willing to abandon his own birthright
(a birthright, alas ! too often one of poverty) may go
with confidence to the bold and enterprising American. He will be received in a manly way; and in
the farther borders of the land (not in the cities at AND  EMIGEATION. 57
the coast—where it cannot be expected) he may
expect to rapidly attain all that he could never hope
for at home.
Canada I can speak of only from report. But who
can doubt its great and numerous advantages ? Who
can be blinded to the fact, that suddenly, and as if
by magic, this large and growing colony has attained
a vast importance in the eyes of all who look to the
future ? To England it must and will be the great
highway to the west! That it has not already been
so is surprising; but perhaps certain interests prevented any proper attention being given to the subject. Presently I will say a word or two about this
great highway. Meanwhile, let me give an opinion
about Canada as an emigration field.
I have spoken of Australia, New Zealand, and the
lands of the South; but these have all been considered
as supposing that the emigrant had enough means to
go there comfortably, or with assistance, and cared not
to separate himself, almost wholly from his native
home. But with Canada the case is different. Here,
a man can hold almost daily communication with those
he has left behind. Here, business transactions can
be carried on nearly the same as if between Scotland
and London. Here too, the cost is very much less for
the means to come and settle; and here, one feels
himself more as if at home than can be done in the
South, where all the seasons are quite the reverse to
what they are in England. Then too, the country is
so different to Australia. The numerous rivers, lakes,
and canals, the townships, railways, traffic, and advanced state of civilization, make it more as if moving
from one part of our own country to another, than
what can be conceived in Australia. Its historical
and political associations also come nearer to us in
their familiarity. We know of and about Canada almost as we know of and about Wales. It has not, in
connection with it, aught of that to which I referred
in speaking of Australia; and, whether it be high or
1 58 BBITISH  COLUMBIA,
low, rich or poor, there can be no feeling about going
there similar to what there used to be about Australia.
Thus, then, I would say to those of limited means,
think of Canada first, and ascertain, from the numerous publications concerning it, what is best for you to
do about selecting it.
As regards the great highway to the West, too
much cannot be said upon this subject. Unfortunately,
like very many others who conceive an idea, I am in
too poor a position to do more than mention it: a
full purse may take it up and reap the benefit. As
an instance of this, and now somewhat bearing upon
the present question, I may refer to the blue books
for my letters and plans on the Eranklin Search.
There, it will be seen that I was the first in order of
date to point out the actual locality where, as it has
since been proved, the missing party could, at the
time I wrote, have been found. My plan struck
through Canada; and twice since then have I suggested other plans, varying only as years pass on, to
continue this search.
Now, in reference to this I must beg to explain.
My desire is, and was, not only to see the mystery
solved, as concerns the lost expedition, but, to open
out the country. There are thousands of hardy, and
fearless, enterprizing men at home who would gladly
pioneer the way; and, if our own land as well as the
civilized world can be benefited by it, why should
Government hold back ? Sonfe say our country will
not be benefited thereby. But in this I humbly beg
to differ. The Hudson's Bay Company assuredly is
benefited, and just as surely will the nation be, if the
whole country is well and wisely thrown open. The
Americans see advantages, and push ahead even in the
far seas, where we have been toiling towards the Pole
for many years. Already a fleet of whalers under the
Stars and Stripes have most successfully penetrated
within the icy circle on the North-west of British
America:   by and by,  these  hardy  men  and their AND   EMIGEATION. 59
dauntless resolution will carry that flag along the
Northern coast, find, or force a way to the eastward,
and make a water course for the summer through
Hudson Straits or otherwise to their own land.1 Then
will England regret she did not more strongly and
continually follow up the labours of those Arctic discoverers who, after much toil, proved that a passage
did exist. So in regard to the great highway by land.
What is to hinder a mighty movement being made ?
The United States if but possessing our capital and resources would do it directly, and, as hints of plans are
already dropping, perhaps she may. Why then shall
we ever be so backward ? There is at the present
time a golden opportunity, a golden reason for attempting it. We have a Colonial Minister who
wisely and with sound policy understands these matters : why then do we hold our hand ? Now is the
time: now is the very moment to commence. Govern-
ment will surely aid all efforts, and no doubt set on
foot some plan of its own ; but, whether or no, let it
be seen to. At once begin the great highway to the
West! It has ever been a golden West in theory,
even to our forefathers : it is so now in reality. Let
our capitalists, our wise merchants, and men of business
take up the subject without delay! I am not sufficiently acquainted with the country to venture any
suggestion as to the route or plan; but I think it
might be attempted much as a railway through a wild
part of Europe would be. Stations at fixed or convenient distances might be formed, as the "Eorts" of
the Hudson's Bay Company are. At all events, let
the route once be marked out, the country thrown
1 I cannot help still holding the opinion I have always expressed, that there is some water way to be found all along the
North coast of America, and by Fury Straits to Hudson. This
water way has been successfully traversed by the gallant Captain
Collinson, so far as within a short distance of what I name ; and
there is little difficulty for a vessel getting along from the West
during summer. 60 BBITISH   COLUMBIA
open, and made as safe as can be by Government
countenance and protection, and speedily there will be
the great highway I speak of. Leading to the new
Colony of British Columbia I have no doubt it would
soon be traversed by numbers.
I have here only very briefly glanced at this plan; but,
as soon as circumstances and my health will permit, I
hope to be personally examining the'way, either from
Canada, or, if first by sea, from the westward.
And now for a few remarks on British Columbia.
CHAPTER IV.
BBITISH  COLUMBIA.
This new colony has so lately been added to us in a
distinctive and especial character, that it is hardly possible to say much about it. Those who have had
some experience there, speak favourably of its qualifications ; but, I would earnestly caution my readers
not to be carried away by the excitement that appears
to have arisen on this subject. It is this very excitement that will injure those who possibly would otherwise be benefited. It will not hurt the Government,
nor the ship-owners, nor the merchants, because there
will be good of some kind or other come to these
parties through such excitement; but I do most
strongly advise a very attentive perusal of the opening
remarks on emigration, and a calm consideration of the
whole subject before acting too rashly in the matter.
I would not imply by this that emigration to the
new colony should be slow and cautious in an especial
degree ; but I do think that every one should urge the
necessity of much forethought and reflection. There is
no getting back easily when once taken there.   Every- AND   EMIGEATION. 61
thing is new, and rough, and disorganized. We know
but little of the real truth concerning it, for it has
only of late come before us. The tales of gold and
riches may be facts,—they may be coloured exaggerations. Even if they be the facts represented, I hope
that I have said enough to show that even greater caution than ever should be used by a man going to such
a country. There are dangers and perils stronger
and greater than can be readily conceived. Were I
faithfully to narrate all that I witnessed, and heard,
and had to endure during the time of the gold discoveries in Australia and California, I believe that it
would greatly astonish most of those who are reading
this, and have little idea of what is actually done in
newly discovered gold countries. Therefore I the
more earnestly say to one and all, pause! and seriously consider what you are about before too hastily
leaving your own home to go there. Eew have any
correct notion of what they will have to encounter.
There are not very many who can endure it. And it
would be most cruel in me or any other man writing
about the new colony, to place a picture before persons, that, however truthful it might be as to the part,
is not so as to the whole. Therefore I wish to warn
everv one not to be too rash. Government has at
present a great responsibility. It has given its official
seal and countenance to British Columbia on the Ear
West, and I venture to say it has most wisely done so.
But it must not do things by halves ; nor do I think
that at present it is doing so. Nevertheless, it should
guard against those evils that are likely to occur from a
sudden influx of gold-seekers and others from all parts
of the world. Even in Melbourne, where a local
Government had existed for some years and great
means were at command, starvation, disease, death,
and unimagined misery wrere things frequently known.
I have seen scores of persons sleeping about the
wharves and in iron boilers, packing cases, or on the
bare  earth.    I  have witnessed  scenes  of suffering 62
BBITISH   COLUMBIA,
amongst the newly-arrived immigrants that beggar
description; and I have almost daily heard of, or read,
or seen deaths either from violence, from reckless
carelessness, from sudden disease, or from broken
heart. What then must it be now in British Columbia? I will tell you. It must be fully equal to all
that, if not worse; and unless there has been a wise
provision made to meet this rush to a new gold
country, murder, crime, want, and a general famine
must prevail there. Consequently, men should be
wise in time. The earth may produce gold; but I
am not aware that it produces food; and as man is
not an animal to live upon air alone, he would stand
a fair chance of perishing by starvation, though heaps
of the glittering metal lay around him.
I will mention a circumstance that occurred in the
year 1856, at the colony of the Ealkland Islands. I
was there in command of a Schooner awaiting the
arrival of a large party of persons from England. Eor
some weeks previous there had been a scarcity of farinaceous food in the settlement. I had written home to
the party expected to say so. At length they arrived ;
nineteen souls, bringing no food with them, save a
small private supply, and yet going to a place away
from the settlement, and where they would be worse off.
In the colony nothing could be obtained, except beef
and a few other things. The Governor himself had
to buy at a very high price; and individuals could get
none. The result was, that had not an American
vessel suddenly come in, there would have been something like a famine, and this too in an established
place of several years' standing.
Therefore I cannot help urging the necessity, not
only on Government but on individuals themselves,
to look somewhat a-head in this matter. It is not
an old and well-established place, where settlers already located there require and can pay for the labour
of fresh arrivals, but it is exceedingly young, and
can hardly yet support itself.    Indeed, there ought AND  EMIGEATION. 63
to be depots of provisions or continuous supplies kept
up at this new colony, so that want and starvation
may be avoided. Prices should be fixed, and regulations made as to the consumption: and, in addition, if
a Government invites a population to a new and distant colony, and endorses that which will be sure to
attract thousands and thousands to its shores, there
should be every means afforded to the new arrival for
his maintenance, support, and existence, dependent
only upon the labour of his hands.
Having then thus placed before my readers the
serious drawbacks to be guarded against in a new
colony like that in the far west, I will now add a few
words upon the better side of the picture.
This, to nearly the full extent has, in a general way,
been done in the Introduction and other portions preceding what I have last said. But as regards Columbia itself, another remark or two may be necessary.
Hitherto that part of the world was to us almost a
terra incognita. The policy of the Hudson's Bay Company seems to have been the keeping quiet all about
their territories. They have, apparently, been very
studious in preventing the country over which they
ruled from being opened out. Consequently, British
Columbia under its former name and former rule was,
even to many who are far from generally ignorant, all
but perfectly unknown. It is not my purpose to go
into any historical details concerning it, for this pamphlet is for the general emigrant, and there is not space
for many minute details. But I would simply call
attention to its position. A reference to any moderate-sized map will show the situation of British Columbia with regard to India, China, and Japan I also
to the Polynesian Islands, Australia, and New Zealand.
Now it is this situation that I wish to draw attention
to. It is, or it can be made, the key of the west. In a
latitude the same as that in which we now live, and
with a climate in many respects better than our own,
there needs but little to call it a second England.    Of
— 64 BBITISH   COLUMBIA,
course by this term I mean Great Britain ; and I speak
in a general sense more than with exact reference to
its physical character. If we attentively consider the
position of Vancouver's and Queen Charlotte's Islands;
take into account what has already been done in the
Pacific Ocean, and what may yet be done, and carry
ourselves forward another half-century,—that is to
the period when our children's children will be men,
and those few of us who then live, sitting quietly down
with silvered locks and bent form, talking of the past
as we now speak of the last fifty years—what will be
the picture ? Why, judging from the events of our
own day and calculating all probabilities, it will, I
conceive, be this:—A Columbian flag on the west
having its seat of power at Vancouver, under British
rule and protection, with its ports and harbours, its
trade and commerce, its towns and cities, churches,
schools and universities, steam and sail, road and
rail, busy and thriving population, and the nucleus of
something more mighty hereafter. There will be quick
and safe communication direct with the mother country
through her own American territories; a rapid transmission of intelligence with all countries ; an opening
to the north—an opening to the west—the same (and
probably by river and canal) to the east; and finally,
in addition to much more than might be named, a
great and constant intercourse with the entire Pacific.
The very position of British Columbia, now that it
has become an acknowledged colony, bids fair for all
this, and to be exactly as her mother country is. Let
anyone carefully examine what I have said, and there
will be ample proof to warrant such a result in the
days of our children's children.
There is, however, at the very outset, one great
drawback to all this; and I hope that it will be seen
by our Government and attended to. This drawback
is the unrestricted admission of foreigners. Now, as
sure as wTe allow them to muster too strongly in our
new colony, so sure do we sow the seeds of early discord AND  EMIGEATION. 65
and ultimate discomfiture. We are too far away to
protect our own at a moment's warning ; and it will be
no joke to England if she is to found a new colony and
have it taken away from her after she has gone to the
expense of it. While we are thinking how to durably
build a town and form ourselves into a social state,
others may run up houses of some kind or other, and
have their "hundredth street,"1 their newspaper, bar,
and assembly room. True, all this may be very brittle
or flimsy, and the first breeze, or the slightest accident, may tumble it down and burn it away; but
even if so, it is but to begin again; and with the same
rapidity and perhaps more largely the whole is made
as before.
Now let but such in large numbers get a permanent
footing in British Columbia, and subject to no law of
naturalization or other restriction, and I warrant me
the new colony may remain not many years our own.
Therefore, immediate steps should be taken to establish the colony on a permanent basis, by attending
to what Governor Douglas has already spoken of
in this respect, and also by ensuring to all who may
feel inclined to settle there a legal and lasting right to
the soil they may have an opportunity of possessing.
Let a self-protecting power be formed there by the
Government giving large and generous encouragement
•to all classes of British subjects who desire to settle
in this new colony; and to others under certain
restrictions. Let grants of land be made to those
who will undertake to populate and improve the land.
Gold may be an inducement for thousands to visit
the colony; but gold found in the bowels of the
earth does not ensure the prosperity of any place.
It is the cultivation of the soil; the attention to a
future: the opening out new marts of trade and
commerce, and the implanting from an overstocked
1 In New York they call streets by numerals.    I believe they
now have a 300th street.
E 6d BBITISH  COLUMBIA,
parent land some of the superabundant talent, energy,
fresh blood, and capacity for work to be found wasting
there. This is better than mere crying up gold. This
will be more sure to add another gem to the many
sparkling round our sovereign's brow, and will here--
after produce results far greater than may be ordinarily
imagined at the present time.
In regard to what may be done, and I submit ought
to be done by a government founding a new colony
such as British Columbia, there are several things
which no doubt strike the thoughtful mind of our
present Colonial Secretary. Some of these things are,
as I conceive, most important; and not the least is a
necessary support to a well regulated local government. It is hopeless to expect a governor and his
officers can wisely carry on an administration if he
has no power at hand to back him. The power he
requires is—not so much a military force (though that
in a rude state of society and with so many Asiatics
and foreigners visiting the place is somewhat necessary,) as a population from the mother country such
as I have named. With a body of men to whom encouragement is given by Government, Government
may hope to succeed. Without such men all the
police and all the military that could be sent would be
useless.
A small naval force too might be usefully engaged
there upon surveys and such like, as well as to be useful
in any other form; and in fact, it should be borne in
mind that from the moment the cry of gold was raised,
and the word of the Colonial minister went forth giving name and title to the new colony, a population of
some sort was already formed. The straggling and
somewhat disorderly elements wanted only bringing
properly together to make out of it what was required.
Consequently, unlike a poor settlement just fixed upon
by one or two individuals, here was abundant material
to work upon; and governor, secretaries, magistrates,
lawyers, and all the paraphernalia of a local govern-
■JW m
AND  EMIGEATION. 67
ment had but to be appointed and sent to establish a
political rule nearly equal to that of many years'
standing.
CHAPTER V.
EMIGEATION AS  CONCEENS  INDIVIDUALS.
I have now to address myself particularly to a class
which possibly will form a very large and prominent
portion of those who go to British Columbia: I mean
the young men of the day. To these I have a few
words of earnest exhortation to offer. I hope they
may not be taken amiss; and I also hope that forbearance will be shown should I say aught distasteful
to some who may differ from me.
My own opinion is that the young men of this age
are much more intellectual, and given to deeper
thought, than were our fathers or ourselves at the
same period of life. In many of them there is an acquaintance with things that prove this. Whether, in
the main, it is better or worse for them, and for the
society they live in, I shall not express any opinion:
it is enough that to them belongs the power of accomplishing great things, and effecting much good. To
them, as the strength of this generation, are attached
responsibilities far more important than perhaps they
imagine. If I am asked, How? I can only reply
that it would take too long for me to explain, except
as regards the present state of religious parties here
at home. Almost everywhere I find I Young men's
Christian Association," &c, &c.; and, really, seeing
this, one mMht suppose that we were not in a Christian land, but in some Pagan country.   Yet it is on 68 BBITISH  COLUMBIA,
this very point, and in connection with emigration,
that I wish to speak.
England, at the present day, is | as a beacon set on
a high hill." Surrounding nations view her with
varied feelings of envy, dislike, dread, and perhaps,
occasionally, of respect. To the many she is, just
now, a spectacle for rebuke. The spirit of true charity,—the charity which " envieth not, vaunteth not
itself, is not puffed up ; doth not behave itself unseemly, seeketh not her own, is not. easily provoked,
thinketh no evil; rejoiceth not in iniquity, but re-
joiceth in the truth ; beareth all things, believeth all
things, hopeth all things, endureth all things," appears
to be utterly lost sight of in the dogmatism, intolerance, and self-righteous sectarianism of the day. The
thinking mind views this with alarm. He fears that,
with many, it must produce a falling off into infidelity. He knows not what to do, or where to go ;
and what he has been taught to revere in the book
his young hands clasped as his Church's Book of
Common Prayer, is now denied or explained away:
and should he humbly search the Scriptures, seeking, as he ought to do, for guidance from above, he
is soon told, by one or the other, that those Scriptures have a different meaning to what the Church
there puts upon them. What then is he to do ?
Where is he to go ? To England he would cling as
:the land of his birth ; but in England, the vast amount
of opposition to Christianity that is in reality everywhere displayed staggers him. He sees that ideas
are considered, more than facts; preaching, more
than practice; and self-estimation, more than true
humility and Gospel love. With amazement he beholds consecrated ministers of God seeking for occasion to find fault, and to damage, if not to ruin, a
brother minister; and he hears of their habitual
indulgence in virulence, slander, abuse, and contempt of all that beautiful, calm, and holy consideration for each other, which is so characteristic of AND EMIGEATION. 69
true Christianity. In his own ignorance, he is confused, and hardly able to know what is right, and
what is wrong. Yet a little reflection points out to
him the heat and angry bearing of the one side, and
the quiet and patient endurance of the other. He
perceives, also, that invariably the practice of the one
side is more consonant with the teaching of a Divine
Master than the practice of the other side. But he
cannot feel at ease in the matter of the disputes which
prevail in his Church. He fears for her downfall,
and also for the peace of his own loved land. He is
not blind to the watchfulness of neighbouring powers,
•whose words, though often bitter in their pointedness,
are yet too frequently true to be wholly disregarded.
He may be derided, abused, humiliated, contemned as
of nought, for any expressions he may utter on this
point; but, if he be the man to stand firm, let him
care not, for assuredly the truth must win its way,
and ere long be triumphant. Nevertheless, as a lover
of his native land, he grieves for the malevolence and
the unchristian dissensions of the day. He would
fain see peace, though not at the sacrifice of probity
and right. Hence he beholds, with rejoicing, new
fields opening out for all who are inclined to try their
strength in the Christian warfare, and, in their own
generation, to do what good they can for those who
follow them.
Therefore avoiding the dissensions at home, let the
young and healthy minds of the day who go to this new
land in the West, avail themselves of the opportunities
there to be found for establishing the principles they
profess, and spreading far and wide the knowledge of
the true Christian faith; and the advancement of
God's honour and glory!
What I consider to be the best and most comfortable plan for voyaging to any distant place, when the
voyager has but moderate means at his disposal, I now
purpose to lay before the reader. 70
BBITISH  COLUMBIA,
Let us, for example, take the Colony of British Columbia or New Zealand. Here, then, we have a voyage,
the duration of which may be reckoned at about four
months; and during which several changes of temperature are experienced. It will, therefore, afford a good
test for making an approximation of the cost and outlay for a long voyage.
Now, in the first place, it is necessary to select a
vessel; and this, undoubtedly, is more important than
many suppose. Much of the comfort and happiness
of the voyager and of his family depends upon it.
Names and reputed worth in regard to this or that
ship, and to this and that owner, are not always well
to go by. Eor, it does so happen that when once a
reputation or a business is established, all care for
that which led to the success of those who hold such
reputation and such high name is thrown aside in the
eagerness and desire to make the most of their position. I am not sure that I would, as a humble passenger, care to go with the highest names in preference
to those of less acknowledged worth. Therefore I
urge the necessity of caution and much inquiry before
selecting a ship, even though it be that the said ship
and her owners have a high reputation.
Eew persons can over-estimate the value of this. If
the ship be old, or leaky, or dull, the fact has great
influence in the scale of comfort during the voyage.
Captain and officers often show it. Their manner is
much in accordance with their vessel; and, thus, in
arranging for a voyage it should be one of the first
considerations to ascertain all that can be ascertained
in regard to the ship.
Now to do this, it is not enough to take for granted
what is told by those who are interested in her; but
an examination should be personally made as to her
age, her last employment, and the sailing qualities she
may possess. All this can be done, in a short time,
and by a little trouble, at the Port the vessel belongs
to. IPP1
AND  EMIGEATION. 71
That it is important, may be inferred from the fact
that some ships have been put on the berth for passenger traffic just as they have returned home from a
previous voyage; and I have known vessels conveying
crowds of respectable persons aboard, not only leaky,
and dull, but with vermin and reptiles about their hull
in abundance.
Having selected the vessel, and given the proffered
accommodation a careful inspection, the terms of passage should next be well and carefully settled.
It may seem unnecessary to press this so pointedly
and so strongly as I here wish to do; but I assert
.that too much care and attention on this point cannot
be bestowed. There are some gentlemen in command
of ships of whom it is a pleasure to speak. There are
others of whom it may be said that, in very truth, they
are low-minded, cunning, and insufferable tyrants.
To distinguish between the two, without a previous
acquaintance, is, of course, difficult; yet it may be
done in a very little time by any one accustomed to
society, or to the habits of his own class. It is not
the most plausible man who, in going on board his
ship, makes you believe he is so affable and attentive,
that is the best to sail with on a long voyage : nor is
it he who will hardly condescend to exchange a word
with you; but—it is that person who considerately
points out to you what it is you will have to undergo,
what to conform to, and wherein your life must, unavoidably, differ from your previous habits on shore.
He is not too bland,—too polite; neither is he too surly
and too boorish. The rough sailor-captain of a past
generation has disappeared, or, at least, ought to be no
longer found now that the great increase of intellectual
qualifications amongst the Commanders of our Mercantile Navy is the rule more than the exception. Hence
it ought not to be expected that a captain of a passenger ship should be other than a gentleman; though from
the peculiarities connected with his profession and his
great severance from general society, his acquaintance BBITISH  COLUMBIA,
with the blandishments of artificial life is, necessarily,
small, and therefore he is unable to be always quite so
smooth spoken as men are capable of becoming on
shore. Thus, then, in securing or arranging for a
passage, strive to see the captain, and arrange with
him, at least as far as the preliminaries are concerned.
At all events, be sure that all particulars as regards-
your passage are rightly understood.
In the case of a voyage to New Zealand, let not
Auckland be implied for Canterbury in the direct destination, if time be an object, and time generally is, in
a long voyage. ' Eour months on board ship causes a
weariness to be felt that soon becomes irksome.
Hence if Canterbury be your destination, take care
that you know whether it be the first or the last
place to be visited out of the two or three others often
named. In like manner, ascertain whether landing
persons and effects is included and expressed in the
terms of the contract entered upon. Also, as to the
meaning of the word used as referring to the intended
destination. Eor instance, on one occasion, the passengers by a ship to Port Philip were, in accordance
with their receipts, taken to Port Philip, but, had to
find their way as best they could from the Bay to
Melbourne, seven miles off! This too, when everything was at a frightful price, and conveyance scarcely
to be had. Hence, it behoves the voyager to be
cautious ; and I strongly urge the necessity of having
it clearly expressed as to whether landing on the wharf
at the destination fixed upon, be understood or not.
Let the Captain personally give the information and
be answerable.
No ordinary passenger vessel should be chosen that
has not a good height between decks, say six to seven
feet, and is roomy, and well appointed. It is no real
saving of expense to go in a ship, except a yacht, other
than thus named, unless wear and tear, and loss of all
comfort, and means to profitably employ your time, be
disregarded. AND  EMIGEATION. 73
Single young men may be less careful about these
things than those with families; yet, even they might
wisely pay some attention to the subject. However,
as regards them I shall, presently, offer a few remarks
more particularly relating to their position. Let me for
the present confine myself to those who are not single.
We will now suppose that a vessel has been selected
and preliminary inquiries made. The next thing is to
try and secure as good a place as possible in the ship;
and this good place, for landsmen, that is for those
who are not chief cabin passengers, is, as near as can
be to the centre of the- vessel. Of course, much in
this choice must depend upon the taste, and habits of
life of the passenger. If he dislikes rough society,
and can afford to pay more, he had better keep as
much to the afterpart of the ship as he can; for in
the forepart there is generally and unavoidably an assortment of all classes. If, however, a ship is chosen
where there are not many passengers, then the choice
of place and of space is not so good, inasmuch as the
part allotted to passengers is often very limited.
Many ships are-fitted between decks before some
of the intending passengers have an opportunity of
inspecting them. In such case, what accommodation you will receive for your passage-money is at
once seen; but where the vessel is not so fitted, or
where the passenger has no opportunity for a personal
inspection he ought to bear in mind that the accommodation offered at the general low terms advertised
is of a very limited kind. At most, he will have but
a sleeping | berth" of about five and a half feet long,
by some eighteen or twenty-one inches broad, with
barely standing room alongside of it, and, in the same
enclosure, called a "cabin," will be another inmate in
a similar berth above or below him. These | berths,"
or sleeping cribs, are frequently placed athwartships
or acrossways in the ship, instead of lengthways; and
the consequence is, that a novice will frequently find
himself sleeping with his head much lower than his
— BBITISH   COLUMBIA,
heels when the wind, having shifted in the night,
comes round to the side he is upon. These and numerous other things, form part of what a passenger
should consider about when taking a passage. I have
seen and inspected many passenger vessels, and have
belonged to not a few; but I have not yet had occasion to alter my opinions concerning the plan I shall
now propose for the consideration of those who desire
as much comfort as they can have on board ship. It
is not a new plan, though one improved upon ; and I
may tell those who read this that I have personally
tried it on more than one occasion. Before I mention
it, however, let me say that it would not be wise to
trust to it unless the voyager understood somewhat of
domestic economy and household management, and
could apply such management to the rules of life at
sea. To help him in this latter respect, I will go more
minutely into it than perhaps might be considered necessary ; and I will arrange my plan so as to embrace
a threefold division/applicable to the threefold classification into which I here consider Emigration may
be systematized.    That is,—
First, as regards Families going out by themselves.
Secondly, as a community, embracing the several
classes, or as a company of individuals united together
for a specific object.
Thirdly, as a government, a church, or a philanthropic undertaking, j
And first, as regards families. These often form, at
the commencement of a voyage, a great tie upon their
head. A number of young children, or a newly
wedded and perhaps delicate wife will naturally cause
much anxiety to the mind of the master; but, a little
attention to what I will now suggest, may possibly relieve him from much of that anxiety.
In the first place, then, let the voyager to a distant
land try and secure for himself, and according to his
means, such space in the ship as will give tolerably
good accommodation for the whole party.   I will sup- AND EMIGEATION. 75
pose that a man, wife, and four children, form the
number of this party. In such case the space required should be, say eight feet by nine, and thus arranged,—two sleeping berths one over the other,
eighteen inches wide on the nine feet length, and two
sleeping berths thirty-six inches wide, one over the
other on the eight feet length. This will leave a clear
space of six feet by six and a half, with a recess of
three feet by one and a half. Now, if the family provide themselves, two feet of that space should be fitted
with lockers well tinned, and shelves over them for
the stores. These lockers, though securely fastened
- on board, should be made so as to be readily moved
when leaving the ship. On the top of the lockers
good oil-cloth, or thin lead and oil-cloth, as a cover,
to prevent wet getting in to the dry provisions. This
top could then be used as a table, if the shelves are
raised from it about four inches. On top and
around the upper berths, other shelves may be placed;
while such of the baggage required on the voyage
can be arranged as seats close to the lower berths.
Management and skill will effect a great deal in
stowing; and I should perhaps astonish many who
read this, were I to state the quantity of things I have
packed in my cabin on a voyage, and yet had a degree
of comfort not surpassed by those who were paying a
very large sum for chief accommodation. Indeed, I
have no hesitation in saying that a family such as I
have named, (and for a larger or smaller family, more
or less space could be taken) as much room can be
obtained as in many of the first class cabins. At all
times there may be a clear space in the cabin of two
feet by six; and this will be ample for the parents and
one of the children to get their meals in, while the
other children remain in their berths. But, even the
having food in the cabin need not be; for most ships
have a long table in the centre of the vessel, for passengers to have their meals on.
If the family do not provide their own provisions, BBITISH  COLUMBIA,
but the ship furnishes food, then more room can be
made. Moreover, there is sometimes a difficulty in
making such an arrangement with the owners. In
general, they prefer that the ship find everything.
Nevertheless, for those who wish to keep as much as
possible to their own habits and tastes, I should recommend the plan I have named, where it can be
adopted. I have tried it on two occasions, when my
wife and I were passengers on a long voyage; and
every one on board could bear witness to the room,
comfort, and similarity to home, with the abundance
of good things that we enjoyed. In the Appendix I
will give a list of such stores as may be useful; and
as the space you hire (the owners agreeing to properly and securely enclose it) is your own, you can
put in what you like, and save some of the freight.
This latter you will have to pay at so much per ton
measurement for all that you do not carry in your
cabin, unless, perchance, it is allowed, as is generally
the case, to use the outside of your own accommodation
for fixing a box or two as seats. But it is rare that, in
some way or other, ample room is not found, by adopting the plan I have named.
As regards the expense, a calculation should be
carefully made, in accordance with what is demanded
by the ship for the space you require. It is impossible to name any fixed sum; but at the end I will
give some idea, so as" to form an estimate. No one,
however, but those who are good managers, should
attempt provisioning themselves; for, be it remembered, there are no shops to go to should the voyage be
longer than was expected, and you happen to fall short.
It is better to take too much than too little ; for the
surplus, if any, will (even to a grain of salt) all come
in when you land, and have to begin life anew. One
thing more let me strongly impress upon all who proceed upon this plan, or, indeed, go on any plan, and
take with them aught in the shape of stores. Be very
careful of whom you buy your provisions.    I could tell AND  EMIGEATION.- 77
a tale that would harrow the feelings of readers;
but, to all—to emigrants, working people of England,
—you who are the very strength and sinews of a land,
—I say that the system is such, that I dare not do
more than caution persons as I now.do. The gross
imposition practised upon emigrants, and the horrors
connected with some passenger ships, bring upon
any unlucky one who may try to expose such atrocity
a hornet's nest that he cannot escape from. How
many times have I said, | God pity those poor.creatures !" How many times have I seen heaps of
loathsome stuff (sold as and called "food for emigrants") thrown overboard, while awful curses have
been heaped upon the heads of those beings in human
form, who were fattening at home, and heaping up
to themselves riches, thus produced literally by the
tears and blood of their poor victims! Let me then
warn the voyager to warily examine for himself, and
be sure of what he buys. A keg of fine-looking
butter may, when out at sea, prove, at an inch or
two below the surface, nothing but common grease;
even as I have seen it, much to the dismay of the poor
owner, who now could get no other. So with | good"
preserved meats, sold as solid and pure: many of
these have I seen one third bone, and the other two-
thirds putrid I
But, bless your hearts! emigrants, voyagers, and
you the hard-worked ones at home ! bless your ignorance of these things! Happy indeed are you who
know nothing about them; and in your contented
ignorance may perhaps condemn me for speaking as
I do! Happy indeed are you ! Would that I had
been the same! for my bitter experience of the last
1 It is my bounden duty to state that at no time have I found
any of Hogarth's provisions thus. What I have always had there,
either for ship's use or for private use, has been excellent. Many
other respectable names could, no doubt, be mentioned ; but I
repeat, to every one, be cautious. My remarks apply to a certain
. class of provision dealers found in every seaport town. jit
78 BBITISH   COLUMBIA,
few years, has shown me that cruelty, oppression,
and injustice are but too much practised on those who
have no power to call those who practise them to
account.
Secondly; a community embracing the several
classes, or as a company of individuals united together
for a specific object voyaging to a new or far off land.
But here I feel doubtful how to bring my ideas clearly
forward. I can, myself, act better than I can talk
about it; yet let me as briefly as possible try to explain
what my view is*
I conceive that a very wise plan for emigrating is, to
try and go in small communities rather than as stragglers. My notion is, that young men intending to
emigrate (and I am speaking only of those who can
afford to pay their passage) should, beforehand, join
together even as I believe a number did on one occasion to Melbourne during the gold discoveries, and
when their plans and intentions are fully matured
carry them into effect by themselves. The way to do
this I will mention in a moment; but of its several
advantages I will just point out one or two.
What one person cannot do, two or three often can.
Also, what would be a great expense to one, is a less expense to two or three. As for instance: a cooking apparatus must be had for only a single individual if he
intends to get his own food—as he generally must do-
by himself in a new land, that is, if he can provide anything at all, even if it be but a tin pot. Consequently
it will be a saving to him if another joins in the expense of it. So with food. One man can eat this,
another that. One may be hungry to-day, another
to-morrow, and the meat that might be wasted by a
solitary person when perhaps ailing, serves to give
greater strength to him who is not ailing when a few
are together. Then too in the cooking, how much
can be better managed (and this all good house-wives
know) where there are .several clubbing together.
The allowance of fresh meat for a single person will ——
AND  EMIGEATION. 79
not, by itself, make him a bason of soup, but three or
four allowances will give to each man a good quantity.
Likewise in combining together there is the advantage of one man being handy at this thing, another at
that; for I have always found, that no matter what
the profession of an individual, he is, generally, acquainted with something else that he loves and cultivates even apart from the accident of his particular
calling. I know a friend who is a hardwareman,
yet he is a skilful naturalist, spends much of his spare
time as such, and has as fine a private museum as
any one need wish for; yet he has to work hard in his
business, and is persevering and indefatigable in it.
Another of his family in the same line is a botanist;
and a third who was in the earthenware trade has as
keen a taste for the fine arts as any gentleman of fortune educated in the highest schools could have. On
the other hand I have seen a young man of the most
refined tastes, and when at home, even of foppish appearance and manner, handle an axe and a tool as well
as many craftsmen. Thus then a community of persons joining each other and becoming somewhat acquainted before departure, cannot fail to be beneficial
to one and all.
That there are several drawbacks to perfect unanimity or to the successful carrying out such an arrangement as this I admit. There will be, especially
on a long voyage, dissensions and many unpleasantnesses. All human nature is subject to it. But
well considered rules for guidance will much obviate this. A plan should always be followed that
keeps in mind the state of mutual dependence upon
each other, so necessary if future success be considered.
A community of this kind should agree to certain institutions of their own drawn up beforehand, and
enforced or (if need be at any time,) altered by their
own voice through some of themselves elected at
various periods to act in the matter. Even as the
Americans in their overland journeys to California had 80
BBITISH COLUMBIA,
in their respective companies a captain, second captain, doctor, and other officers, with a committee to
arrange all points of difference, &c.; so might it be
with "numbers who go abroad from England, especially
from particular localities, when their object is not to
be straggling about, but to do the best they can for
themselves in a new colony. Even should they be
separated when out there, the plan might still be followed by keeping up the connection as a member of
the company. And this advantage would accrue from
it, that if sickness or oppression, or injustice arises,
the individual is not alone. The more healthy, the
more prosperous, the more fortunate in their intercourse with others can rally together to help their
brother or sister who came out with them. And
here, let me observe, is not this, or something like it,
more beautiful, more akin to our feelings as men—as
Christians, than the cold and sometimes heartless
estrangements that too frequently exist ? See what
immense benefit might arise even at an after day by
this arrangement. Instead of isolated individuals
going far away into new fields and often dropping
there, unpitied and unknown, we should have little
bands of brotherly men with their wives and children thinking of each other, aiding each other when
needed, and proving a mutual defence in all things,
while they add strength to the colony they proceed to.
With regard to the means for carrying out this
plan of emigration, I think that it is here where
Government might step in. The officials distributed all over the kingdom could assist in organizing such companies, .and bringing individuals together who have a desire to go. It would not give
much trouble to what already pertains to their office,
and I think must tend to increase that healthy stream
of emigration I wish so strongly to urge. Eixed sums,
as agreed upon amongst the several persons emigrating, should be settled, and seen to by these officials, AND  EMIGEATION. 81
so as to ensure, as concerns the voyage, all the comfort and wise care that is necessary. Suitable vessels
could be recommended, and every information afforded. The arrangements about the voyage, the proper sum to give for accommodation, and what provisions would be required, might all be clearly laid
before the party prior to any of them breaking up
their home. Eull particulars thus obtained, their next
step might be taken with more confidence, and with
no loss of time or money. They could go and hire so
much space according to their number, and arrange
for the voyage in a way most agreeable to themselves.
-If it were possible with their means, a vessel could be
chartered; but this I name only for those who have
money enough and% understand the subject. At all
events, this I do strongly urge: always take out to
any new colony food enough to last for some time
after arrival. A tent, or a small wooden house, where
timber is scarce, is also necessary; and I think that
with prudence and wise management, a company of
really persevering men and women going out upon
this principle, and looking carefully ahead, would be
sure to succeed anywhere.1
One other piece of advice let me give the emigrant
who has a family with him. Let him, on arriving in
any new colony, where land can be obtained, secure to
himself enough, according to his means, so as to be
able to put on it a log-hut, a shed, or anything indeed
that will be a shelter and a home for the present.
Let him turn up the ground, dress it as well as he
can, put in seed, and prepare the way for something
better. Doing this on his arrival, he will then be
better able to attend to other things when his mind is
more free from the excitement of landing, and has
gained some slight experience; and if he has to go
1 It is probable that I may, before long, say a word or two
more on this and other subjects connected with Emigration in a
series of Lectures. Meanwhile I shall be happy to attend wherever I can be of service if applied to in writing.
G
J BBITISH  COLUMBIA,
away for a time, he leaves with a better heart, knowing
that his wife and little ones have a shelter for them.
To single young men, labourers, it will only be necessary to say, that, having no incumbrances, they
need never want work and food, if they choose not to
keep in towns.
Thus far I have spoken only of what I would suggest to others to try and do. But I will now briefly
glance at what I would wish to attempt with reference to the new colony of British Columbia.
The great • drawback to emigrants, or any persons
going there, is the absence of all means at present to
support the enormous influx of strangers brought to
those shores by the cry of gold. Now, as it is almost
certain that, with prudent management, and not
making that gold the sole cause of visiting the place,
hundreds of strong and energetic minds who cannot
get on here will be benefited there; I conceive that
an effort might be made to induce those who have the
means required to do so, to go out, taking with them
the nucleus of a little colony in themselves. Everything needed to begin a new existence in this colony, and to support themselves for a twelvemonth
from the time of their departure should be taken ;
provisions, stores, materials for building (in a primitive way) ; and the means to leave the colony at the
end of the twelvemonth (which would be giving seven
or eight months' trial of it there) should be thought of.
Now the plan I have in view, will give all this, with
comfort and security; and as soon as circumstances
permit me, I hope shortly to mature it. If so, an
offer shall be made for those who will, and are suited
for it, to join me. The outlay will not be very considerable ; and the number of persons will be limited.
Moreover, for our better comfort, we ought all to be
of similar views and ideas.
And now, thirdly, as a Government, a Church, or a
Philanthropic undertaking.
It has been asserted that Government has no right AND  EMIGEATION. 83
to give Free Emigration to those who desire to go
abroad; and in this I partly agree, but only in part.
As I have already said, I think that Government
should place every means in the hands of the working
classes to go abroad if they so desire it. But I do
not think that Government ought to relieve every
man that is poor, because he is poor. That might
be doing an act of injustice to others. Therefore, it
is only the placing within reach of the humblest
ready opportunities to better his condition abroad,
that I venture to urge as a duty.
Generally speaking new colonies are benefited by an
influx of immigrants, provided that all prudence and
forethought be not thrown away.    Consequently it is
a wise\ and paternal act on the part of a Government
to send to such of our dependencies as require labour
that portion of our overstocked population unable to
use it here.    But it strikes me as being most unwise
to do so at present, as regards British Columbia.    I
see no prospect there just now for the poorer labourer,
for thousands of persons are already on the spot,1 and
out of those thousands there will be hundreds unable
to do anything but labour with their hands in the
most common and ordinary way.    Therefore, not to
British Columbia, but to New Zealand, at the present
time, would I urge the attention of Government, with
a view of sending out free emigrants on the plan of repayment.    But on this point I have already spoken;
and wThat I have said on a previous page I repeat here.
There is, however, this to be urged in reference to
British Columbia.    Government has established a new
colony on the very frontiers of the American States.
Good.    It is, no doubt, politically as well as socially,
a wise thing.    But, let us hope, it will be practically
so.    Many things are most brilliant in theory, yet
very much the reverse in practice.    Here we have a
colony, not only on the borders of the United States
1 Fifty thousand persons are, as we read, already in Columbia ! w
84
BBITISH  COLUMBIA,
U I
territory, but actually with vast numbers of American
and other citizens flocking into it. What then must
we* expect, if due provision be not made as regards
the protection of this colony ? Why, that it will not
be very long our own; or, if we strive to keep it soj
that blood and carnage will be plentifully bestowed
for the purpose. Consequently it would not be amiss
to guard against all this beforehand. The political
and geographical limits of the colony are tolerably
well defined; but we want a sound bulwark there
to aid in its own protection should it ever be necessary. Therefore encouragement to proceed there, on
certain terms, might be given by Government to
such of our population as would be willing to open
out the country, defend it when called upon, and
serve as a sturdy barrier against encroachments. Security to life and property ought to be given by the
Government when it invites (as it has invited by what
it has lately done) men to go there who have some
means, and some capacity to make the new colony a
thriving and prosperous settlement.
Thus, then, in this way, and with certain restrictions as to a labour return given for the conveyance
thither, and the after-keep, Government might send
out free emigrants of all classes, and benefit a large
portion of our impoverished community at home.
Of course, in what has now been said, I bear in mind
and refer to the fact that British Columbia is a planting of the Government, and a wise plan on the part of
our rulers to establish a sound and healthy colony
under British rule in the far West. In any other
Way my remarks would hardly apply. AND  EMIGEATION. 85
CHAPTER VI.
CHUBCH  COLONIZING.
I now come to the remaining portion of my remarks
on emigration to the new colony, or to any other distant
place. I must, however, make some excuse for what
I am about to say; for, perhaps, like much of what I
have already said, it may seem out of place. Nevertheless, as I have rather strong feelings on this subject, I cannot let my ideas pass without mentioning
them, especially as I find that the subject, in another
form, is being taken up.
No colony is rightly formed without placing there
means of sound religious and moral instruction. We
may all of us, when abroad in wild lands, suppose ourselves to be indifferent to it; but I am certain that
no man can honestly state that he is not more humanized, to say the least of it, by having near him some
place of worship. Hence I conceive that, if we have
a Church established in our own land, we ought to
provide, in a similar way, for the wants of all those we
send abroad.
Now I have seen very great evil on board ship, and
in out-of-the-way places, from the want of some system
in religious worship. I am not about to argue any
point of dispute, but merely to give my own opinions ;
and, in order that they may be better understood, I
will say, that what I urge in accordance with my own
feelings, may also be urged by others in accordance
with theirs. All men have perfect freedom to believe as they please; though I myself might consider that I am bound to believe quite another way.
Thus, then, I bring forward my plan for sending into
any new colony the teaching of that religion we ourselves, politically and socially, believe in. No place
can be well formed without such proper teaching; BBITISH  COLUMBIA,
therefore this is the way I would suggest it should be
done.
My plan is as follows :—According to the funds at
disposal in the hands of those I speak of, so let a ship
be bought and equipped. Her size should be such as
to give room and good accommodation to all on board,
and also to have a place specially set apart for the
celebration of Divine Worship. She ought to be of
light draught of water, so as to enter the shallow harbours and rivers of any part visited. The internal
arrangements might be such as to suit each person's
taste, but having on the whole, a fitting approach to
the character of the vessel. If built expressly, or the
shell of a new ship is bought for the purpose, I would
suggest that the following arrangements* be made.
I will suppose that the Church now has, as she ought
to have, an especial habitation upon the waters, and
particularly in the way I speak of with reference to this
new colony of British Columbia. A clerical staff, numbering in all twelve persons, young men of the Church,
might form the spiritual department; and a like
number of persons form the crew, or lay department.
The former are to be absolute in all relating to religious matters; the latter absolute in all concerning
secular affairs. Over the clerical department will be
a Clergyman superior, to whom all the others submit ; and, of course, over the laymen will be the captain and officers in the usual way. The destination of
the vessel and her movements when at the colony to
be at the direction of the Clergyman Superior, subject to the suggestions and considerations of a council
of &ve, if the captain deems the orders given to him
to be unwise. Rules and regulations, drawing the
line as nearly and as clearly as can be between each
other's duties on board, to be formed and made
binding before leaving England. Eor, however much
men of the same faith and feeling may love and esteem one another on shore, it is certain that a long
confinement on board ship, where persons are thrown AND  EMIGEATION. 87
greatly together, will cause human nature to display
its infirmities more than elsewhere. Consequently, it
is wise to guard beforehand, as much as possible,
against any evil, by marking out each man's duties
and especial position. In order to aid in maintaining
harmony, I would suggest that the members of the
clerical department be to themselves, and the officers
and crew apart by themselves. I do not mention this
as implying anything like a want of true brotherly
feeling, which, in such a plan as I am naming, would
I hope be found to exist; but because I full well
know that the duties of those who work the vessel,
and those who do not have to work her, are so dissimilar, as to frequently create some confusion and
perhaps irritation when all are thrown promiscuously
together. Hence I think that a vessel should be thus
apportioned : one third to the crew forward, one third
to the officers and stores, and the remaining third aft,
to the clerical party. Eor the church, I would have it
in what is called a "round house" on the after part of
the deck. My plan is simple in its details, though I
would object to its being too simple in carrying it
out. I am one of those who delight in seeing our
churches adorned in a becoming manner, suitable to
the great and holy title they bear. I love the magnificence of ancient times in the church, and though I
grant that the primitive Christians had little of it displayed, yet that is no solid argument against it now.
Our Master did not discard the Temple of Jerusalem, but regularly visited it, when, too, it was in all
its glory. And from the time that the Church had
triumphed over the obstacles that at first beset her
she has ever delighted in doing honour to the name
she bears by marking her respect in outward tokens
al well as inward sincerity and faith. But all this is
matter that belongs to others to discuss and not to
me. I but express my own thoughts and feelings;
and I repeat that, in any plan I may venture to submit concerning the formation of a floating church for
Iii 88 BBITISH  COLUMBIA.
a new colony like British Columbia, the portion of the
vessel set apart for the celebration of Divine Service
should be furnished with all due honour to Him to
WKom it is consecrated.
According to my plan the * space I would give to
this church on board ship should be—if in a vessel of
120 tons, not less than 20 feet long by 20 broad, and
the usual height of a cabin. This space might be fitted
up precisely as a church on shore, having the after
part for the chancel, 10 feet by 10 in the middle;
another part on the right hand side of the chancel 5
feet by 10 for the organ, and a similar portion on the
left hand side of the chancel for what might be likened
to the vestry. The nave of the church would fill up
the rest of the space. The front, facing the open deck
of the vessel should be built very strongly with pillars
and panelled doors or partitions so as to take away
the upper portion and admit of any larger number of
visitors than usual sitting outside under an awning
and yet being able to see and join in the services.
As regards the accommodation below, I would have
the Clergyman Superior provided with a private cabin
and a sleeping cabin right aft: and adjoining to
him stairs leading to the vestry above. Next follow,
on either side, the cabins of those who belong to the
clerical department. ^; "Then comes a general sitting
and dining room with the library arranged all round.
Next, the stairs leading to the deck, with, on either
side, a pantry, and steward's room, conveniences, &c.
Then the Captain's accommodation, similar to the
Clergyman Superior's—afterwards the officers—the
stores, and then the place for the crew. Beneath, in
the hold, provisions and ballast, &c.
Having thus briefly detailed my plan, let me rapidly
glance at its advantages.
The clerical department will not be idle when on the
voyage, even though at sea. Services carried on: the Gospel preached and practically illustrated in wild lands:
educational purposes might be thought of: science, art, AND  EMIGEATION. 89
and literature attended to: scattered communities of
civilized men visited and encouraged by words of love
and Christian brotherhood: chaplaincies inspected,
and given support and countenance to: and, lastly,
when at the Colony itself, each portion of the new land
to receive sound and proper instruction such as may be
suited to its spiritual wants. Here, the young men
belonging to the clerical department of the mission,
would be expected to come more particularly forward.
Following the example, as to work, of the Jesuits of
old, they would have opportunity for going hither and
thither wherever required. By their practice, and
their truthfulness, it is not too much to expect that a
very great deal of good may be done. There would
be none of those drawbacks which must and will unavoidably arise when men go upon this work quite
alone. They would know that, not far off, they have
a brotherhood on board their floating home ready to
assist them if need be, or to follow up any advantage
they themselves have gained should it occur that sickness or misfortune suddenly come upon them. To
the wants of the sick, the wretched, or the outcast,
they could administer with more confidence, knowing that means are not far away to replenish what is
wisely bestowed. Thus acting—thus attending to
the behests of their Divine Master when He sent
His Disciples away on a similar errand, two by two,
and thus carrying into practice what they preach
as they hold on high the sign of man's redemption, is
it not more than probable that a blessing would indeed
attend such efforts, and many souls be won ? Ah!
talk not of pretty theories and poetical abstractions,
substituting the ideal for the real, and virtually
mocking Him whose cause (in a sort of blind security
and ignorance) it is fancied will be furthered in this
strange world of vain conceits, by elegant verbiage or
a combination of the sweets of mammon with the assumption of piety, while truth and reason point out a
more plain and practical way for the advancement of
;	 BRITISH  COLUMBIA,
God's honour and glory! Nevertheless, I will not say
that the plan I here propose is altogether the especial
way to be followed; but this I do say, that it may perchance lead to a consideration of the proper way. Sure
am I that that way is not as some have made it appear!
Sure am I that it is not by cunning, deceit, guile, and
a cloaking of the truth for the purpose of gaining an
end at any and every means. No: God forbid ! No
blessing can attend such a way; but, a blessing can,
and will attend that way which, following in the footsteps of Him Who pointed it out to us, marks its
progress everywhere by acts of love, goodwill, peace,
and holiness. Fostered by the Church it belongs to,
confidence is given even as it is received ; and, though,
as human beings, those engaged in it may occasionally
err, yet we have a certain hope of more than ordinary
strength being afforded to one and all through the
promise made to His Church that He would be with
her to the end of the world !
And now let me add a word or two about the expense of this plan for a floating church. I have not
closely estimated it; but I know sufficient to be
able to say that after the first cost and equipment
of the vessel, £150 pounds per month would cover
the whole. Of course, I consider in this, that the
Church at home maintains the whole party; but, if
it is a purely voluntary undertaking on the part
of those to whom I have especially addressed myself, then the expenses would be considerably less.
Moreover, it might be that offerings from those who
were deriving benefit from this floating church in
the new gold colony, would come in. At all events,
whatever may be thought of my plan, I venture to submit it, if only to be improved upon by better heads than
mine. But,, again I must say, lest it be thought I
have an eye to myself in this matter, I am at present
tied here in England, and could have no part or parcel
in it, except so far as gladly to give any hints that
* might strike me as useful, if anything of the kind is AND  EMIGEATION. 91
attempted. In this stormy and unsettled period at
home, when one is frequently tempted to ask, Is the
prevalent religion of the day really Christianity ?
there are, no doubt, many young men of the Church
who could, and perhaps would, gladly join together in
trying to plant the true principles of that Church in
the New Land just added in a political sense to our
Gracious Queen's Dominions. It is to them, and
those who may feel an interest in such matters, that I
venture to address these remarks. Let them bear in
mind that men will not come to the Church, if the
Church does not first seek them. There are quite
- enough enemies of the Church to throw many impediments in the way; and there are, besides, many
barriers to break down or leap over which surround
the man himself, especially in a gold country. But,
reckless, sometimes dissipated, half-barbarian as many
of us become who have | roughed" it abroad in these
or similar places, there is in all mankind a tendency to
be won by persevering kindness and sincere affection.
This, practically displayed, is of far more importance
than all theoretical teaching.
Then again the solemn observance of a sacred service impresses the mind even of the most depraved.
The talk of a man, be he never so earnest, is nought in
comparison with that solemnity of worship. Many
are the instances I could mention of this. Frequently
have I seen rough characters affected, more than they
thought for, by the chant and the hymn of a band of
worshippers in a duly ordered House of God. And I
humbly conceive that no place of worship ought, if
possible, to be without the accompaniment of vocal
and instrumental music. Not that I mean these are
at all indispensable in the communion between a man's
soul and his Maker; nor do I say that the beautiful
simplicity of men preaching in the wilderness, in no
temple but God's great and universal temple, is of no
effect. On the contrary, where other means are not
to be had, I think it has great effect j and much do I ■■■I
92
BBITISH  COLUMBIA,
admire it. But I do submit that the means I have
named are most essential aids in drawing man towards
that communion. How frequently have I seen the
poor wild savage lost in wonder, amazement, and delight, at the tones of an organ, or an harmonium,
that we had on board in my voyages to distant
lands! How often, too, have I witnessed the outcasts
of a convict land touched to the very quick by the solemn notes of sacred music ! Perchance a chord has
been struck in their half-seared hearts that may be for
good. Who knows what sudden flash of memory has
recalled to that hard man of crime and guilt, a note
of innocent days gone by!    Who knows ?—Who ?
Let us pause at this, and in all humility reflect!
Who knows ?—'■Who can tell the good that has been
done, and that yet may be done, by wisely considered
plans, bringing in those accompaniments which, despite
all cold philosophy and unsound argument, there are
few of us can well dispense with in this world ! Who
can tell the benefit to others by these things done
in a right spirit;, and having the blessing and support
of a Church founded by the Master of our Faith!
Few can give an answer ; for, it is more hidden than
exposed; and it will only be in that day when the
truth shall be fully known. Meanwhile, let us live in
hope, and in patient well doing. Faint not, fear not,
you who are working earnestly in the right way.
God will reward you ! More it is not meet for me to
say. More, however, I have not now to utter on this
especial subject, save and except that in all good will
I have put my pen to paper concerning it. AND  EMIGEATION. 93
CHAPTER VII.
GENEBAL  EEMABKS  ADDBESSED  TO  THE  WOBKING
CLASSES.
And now for some especial remarks addressed to
the great mass of the people. And oh ! that I had
the pen of some of those living writers of the day who
can so much arouse their readers, in order that I
might rapidly indite all that I feel upon this subject!
But, feeble as my own powers are; trifling as my
abilities may be, yet let me strive to awaken men's
minds and get them to think and act for themselves.
There never was a greater need for it than now!
There never was a better opportunity! And, if I
were gifted with eloquence enough to do so, and had
but the means, I would go throughout the length and
breadth of the land : I would say by mouth, as I now
most earnestly say by pen,—Bestir yourselves, sons
of toil and suffering! Awake! Lift up your head !
Let your countenance beam bright again! Throw
upward a manly look, and let the spirit of your birthright as sons of freedom, obtain the mastery! Arouse
you then! Put forth a manly front! Join together,
and in. numerous bands, and with wise forethought,
go to the Far West, or any other place in the known
world where you will be able to live as men, and as
free ! Again I say, Arouse you! " The present age
is," as I have said elsewhere, "an age of progress,
and of increased and still increasing knowledge. We
have become a very different race of people to what
even our immediate fathers were. Throughout the
length and breadth of the land, mental cultivation is
at work."
Arouse you! then, men of England! Hark-workers!
Labourers! Mechanics whose skill, and ingenuity,
and mind, often suggest the good idea which others 94 j   BBITISH  COLUMBIA,
can so readily lay hold of and seize as an invention of
their own! Arouse you! humble careworn toiler,
whenever you be ! God has given us the whole world
to dwell in, and numerous islands and places everywhere exist where man may by the sweat of his brow
and the ready labour of his hands maintain his freedom !
I have not the means, nor the space in this little
work to enter upon any further discussion as to wrongs
and remedies, beyond what I am now attempting in
favour of Emigration. This, with me, seems the best
and most effectual medicine that could be administered
to the patient who now suffers under various ills at
home. It will give him new ideas, new thoughts, new
feelings, new desires. He will have to exercise every
faculty of his mind and body in a new field; and when
away from the worst part of home, he will soon cease
to remember the evil and think only of the good in
his native land. Thus I conceive that Emigration is,
decidedly, the great remedy for many of the ills at
home. But I would not advise any Emigration to new
lands unless in communities. In this latter way, and
as I have already explained, with prudence, care, and
forethought, success is almost certain to attend the
individual as well as those with him. Companies of
men may thus go abroad and frame new laws for
themselves; so far as is consistent with the rule under
which they live ; and have equity and justice for their
guide. Indeed I see not why a general Exodus towards the West should not now commence. What
is to hinder the regions beyond Canada from being
peopled by well-organized and carefully arranged companies of men from England. By and by, if, as is probable, a great highroad is formed through British
America to the Pacific, there is none of that ground
but what will be of immense value. Consider! It is
not more than two centuries and a half back that a
band of hardy pilgrims landed on the shores of the
then wild regions of the present America.    Yet, what AND  EMIGEATION. 95
have they now become! A great—a mighty nation !
A people whose very existence seems to have been
produced by magic, when we glance at the extent of
their territory, their power, and their abilities ! Then
why should not a similar thing be done now ? Let,
then, such as can, unite, go to another land where,
by their honest labour, and, self-producing reward, they
and their families will ever be relieved from the things
that here weigh them down. If it be a migration to
the West by land, let it be done as others have done,
in caravans and all needful appliances with them: if
it be to go westward by the great sea, then, I say,
" engage the ship to be your home till you are prepared
on shore, and let arrangements be made for the purpose. But do not go at hap-hazard, and without well
and wisely preparing everything beforehand.
As regards the answer that will naturally be made
by those who might wish to go and have not the
means, I may observe that, to well organized schemes,
Government might lend assistance; also, in certain
cases, the Poor Law; and, in other cases, the nobility and landed proprietors. For myself, I have
too little knowledge of these latter to say much of
them; but I confess to a liking for the nobleman, and
the squire, as well as the yeoman. I think that there
is more real and natural good in them than is often
admitted; and I fancy that they would not be backward in aught that would benefit the country, by removing some of its abundant population, and placing
means in the way of all who wish to go abroad.
There always will be, in every state of society,
abroad or at home, three distinct classes,—the high,
the middle class, and the low. It is well that it
should be so. Even in the United States this is the
case, though apparently otherwise; for there are the
land proprietors, the traders, and the labourers. The
former are, by their wealth, akin to our nobility; while
the other two bear an approximation to our Commons
and working class.   And so it must be everywhere.
Hi 96
BBITISH  COLUMBIA,
Thus, then, in any scheme for a new colony, let each
class be fitly represented.
I will now conclude, with one word or two more of
a practical bearing. You who may be induced to go
abroad, well reflect upon what is said in Scripture, to
the effect that " No man should build a house without
first considering the cost." This, then, let me strongly
impress upon you. Think that no pains nor time can
be too much bestowed upon this important point.
It is only to-day I have seen it stated, that California could be reached for £30, and from thence to
the gold fields in British Columbia at something
trifling more. But, be not led into error by this.1
Even if it be that the gold fields can be reached for,
say, £40, (and perhaps that does not include food
upon the way,) yet what is to be the expense when
arrived there, or what the chance of getting any food
at all ? Therefore, think well and deeply of this
before starting. Make every possible calculation ere
you break from your present home—no matter how
humble that home may be. Consider. It is a wild
land, and over a wild sea, you are going to. Therefore count the cost well. Wisely prepare beforehand.
Not only do you want to get there, but you must
live when there ; consequently, an estimate should be
made that will include a length of time after arrival,
sufficient to enable you to determine whether to proceed in your venture, or abandon it altogether. The
latter would be foolish to do, unless from some strong
cause ; and the former can be well done only by good
management and much previous forethought.
Now, I have made a careful estimate, throwing
upon it all that could be brought to bear from my
past experience; and I venture to say that a well-
formed band might admirably succeed there at the
present moment, and for a time without any fear of
want, if attention be given to what I have said. My
own plan involves a trifle more expense than what ordinary ventures may; but then it provides for all AND  EMIGEATION. 97
contingencies, gives a home and food for some months,
and guards against the possibility of failure or disaster
in the colony. I have carefully consulted the lists of
requisites furnished by the different manufacturers as
suitable for a young colony, and though I little like
mentioning names, yet I feel bound to say that in
going abroad, the ample catalogue of Messrs. Deane and
Co., Monument Yard, London Bridge, will be of much
service in making calculations. They are too well
known to need a word from me, nor have I had any
previous dealings with them ; but the Priced List forwarded to me at my request seemed so useful, that
.1 thus acknowledge it.
In conclusion, I once more say to the intending
emigrant, be cautious and most prudent in all you do.
What I have put before you in this little book has
been with a sincere wish for the good of all who may
be led to try their fortune abroad. I have pointed
out the kind of men that I conceive to be best suited
to battle with the difficulties attending emigration to
a distant colony; and while I say to some, 1 Be
guarded, and reflect well what you are about," I would
likewise add to those who are capable, 1 Away, my
friends ! away, and cross the sea! You need not fear;
for, to the bold, unflinching heart,—the man of ready
wit and persevering industry,—our colonies will give
a ready welcome, if you but choose to extend their
limits by your willing labour." Therefore, such as
can, go, and God in His goodness be with you. Think
of the poet's words, which I now again repeat:—
1 Look not mournfully into the past : it comes not
back again. Wisely improve the present. It is thine.
Therefore go forth into the shadowy future with a
bold and manly heart!"
And now, craving an allowance and forgiveness for
my own shortcomings in what I may have blindly said
or done amiss in these pages, and once more bidding ,
the manly emigrant, God speed! I conclude.
H APPENDIX.
i.
REMARKS   ON  MISSIONARY  EFFORTS  IN NEW COLONIES.
The following remarks have been taken from the body of
the work, and inserted here by themselves, in consequence of
their particular character. To me, the subject appears one
of more importance than may be supposed. The welfare of
a young colony much depends upon the behaviour of the
wild natives who of right belong to the land. Hence, having
had some experience about these things, I may be pardoned
for what I now say.
Some persons to whom I am known fancy that I have imbibed a complete dislike to all Missionary undertakings
abroad; but, in the main, they are mistaken. True, I no
longer view the proceedings of new and self-formed societies
for I the conversion of heathens abroad | as deserving support or encouragement, because I cannot help the conviction
coming to my mind that such societies are often "got up §
to benefit a few officials, and to give an eclat to certain
names that would otherwise, if left to their own personal
talents or doings in some other work, for ever remain in obscurity. But I must emphatically say, that I do not mean
by this to deny the wisdom and necessity of true missionary work abroad. To properly explain myself would
necessitate something like a disquisition into what really is
and is not missionary work ; and as this would be out of my
particular province, and, moreover, is rather apart from my
present subject, I shall content myself with a few brief remarks upon such portions of my own experience in these
matters as may perhaps serve the same purpose.
Sometimes, when I am sitting at my desk, in the quietude
and comfort of my room at home, I cannot help reflecting
upon the strange vicissitudes of life I have passed through. APPENDIX. 99
Such reflection is at all times beneficial, inasmuch as it helps
to purify and soften the mind; but it frequently makes me
look upon myself—and, I must be-pardoned for saying, upon
all of us highly civilized beings—as of less importance than
we too often considered ourselves to be. Now, it is precisely this very view of us that is taken by the wild savage of
distant lands. We tell each other that | he beholds us with
amazement and awe m but it is our own vanity and self-
esteem that makes us fancy so, and hence we spread abroad the
mistake. A shrewd and practical mind—one not wedded to
ideas, and willing to see the truth—will at once discover that
the naked savage, in almost every case, regards us with contempt and disdain. I do not mean that he shows this at a
first interview; but I do venture to assert that, upon any
acquaintance with us, he speedily betrays the opinion he entertains of our " civilized" state, by evincing many marks of
contempt for it. Let every impartial and reasoning traveller
say whether this is not actually so. As in the case of some
Australian natives I once had to be amongst, who, whenever
I chanced to do aught to their satisfaction, in the way of
ascending a tree or tracking a path through the bush, would
pat me on the back and say, 1 Budgeree, budgeree you; by
bye you tumble down, and come up black fellow I"1 so with
all the wild beings of the human race that I have ever
visited. They undoubtedly consider themselves superior to
us. They can hunt, they can fish, they can see, smell, taste,
hear, and much besides (that is not artificial) better than we ;
and in their primitive garb, their freedom from restraint,
and in their perfect self-dependence at all times, they certainly, to themselves, rank above us.
In saying this, I hope that I shall not be misunderstood.
I am merely endeavouring to speak of the savage as he
thinks of himself, after he has made our acquaintance; and
I venture to maintain that it is in the light in which he con
siders himself, and not as we consider him, that he should be
viewed by all who go to try and turn him from his natural
and accustomed state to that of ours. It is our too frequent
boast,—and a boast that, I fear, though made with good intent, will have to be accounted for hereafter,—that we Christians go to the wild savage for his good; but how much
more true it would be to say, instead of for his good, for our
good ! for such in reality it is.    The child of the South or of
1 Meaning, | Good, good, you.    By and by you will die, and
have the honour to rise up again a black fellow !" 100
APPENDIX.
the North does not ask us to come to him: he prefers his
own land, his own ways, even after he has been taught something of ours: and, in spite of all arguments, eloquent
speeches, and pious rhapsodies, there has been no proof yet
given sufficient to satisfy the reasoning, impartial, and thinking mind that what is called | spiritual conversion | has benefited the natives of wild lands. The enlightened and better
spirit of the age may, with God's blessing, do more towards
graduallv changing and improving the condition of the
barbarous nations of the earth than all the fanciful ideas of
the most zealous-minded enthusiasts under the sun. A
Livingstone, marching through Africa, and practically illustrating what h,e wants to teach, can do, as he has done, infinitely more than hundreds of mere preachers who talk, and
talk as if those who heard them were even as ourselves.
Now, fancy how the case really is with the wild savage of
distant lands.    A stranger—a  white  face—visits  him :   at
jag
first, he cannot understand his visitor. Presently, however,
he is able to comprehend what is meant, so far as to make
out that the new comer wants him to change all his previous
ideas, and take up with those of his self-made tutor. But
those ideas are complex in the extreme; they are, to this
savage, not even natural: nay, more, they are absolutely
absurd, nauseous, and vile. He understands not why all that
is told him should be; and, without my entering further
into the matter, let me say that the talking of the white man
is to the black much akin to what the bellowing of the wild
savage is to us,—unintelligible, as to its practical utility.
Experience has shown this to be the case. Out of the vast
amount of mere preaching abroad, how little has there been
of fruit in return !
Mere preaching, therefore, is not enough; and, indeed, is
in itself visionary. To | convert the heathen," practical
illustrations of Christianity are more needed than speech and
outward prayer. I may venture to say that my wife and I
have given the natives visited by us, a better notion of the
white man and his creed than what could be impressed by a
missionary teaching in the ordinary way of missionaries.
Tending the sick, giving food to the hungry, helping the
weak, and joining with the wild creatures in their accustomed pursuits, gave to them an idea concerning us that was
kindly and good.
Here, then, is what I conceive to be the secret of success
in winning the heathen to us, and to our mode of thinking APPENDIX. 101
and acting. We must not expect to gain him by mere talk,
but by going to his haunts, and there showing, by our example and practice, the better life we lead.
In some attempts now making in a wild land I lately
visited, it is said that young men are going, singly, among
the natives. Now, he who does this, and in a right spirit,
deserves to be ranked as a true hero ! To such a man, imbued with a pure and holy feeling, I could give my warmest
esteem and most fervent wishes. The hazard is great in the
extreme; and ought not to be attempted except with much
prudence, care, and forethought. This doMe, and the brave
young man fulty determined, then may he go with the hope
of God's blessing upon him. But it is ever best, as I think,
to have a mission vessel, especially with screw power near you.
In the foregoing remarks, I have kept aside what may be
called f| spiritual aid 1 in attempting to convert the heathen.
I have only considered the matter as to plans formed by societies.
Now, however, let me glance at this subject in its spiritual
light. In doing so, I feel my own inferiority and insignificance. It has always appeared to me that man should never
approach holy things in an irreverent and unbecoming manner. The fate of Nadab and Abihu should be oftener before
us than it is. I do not say this with any sentiment of
bigotry; but simply as the reflections of one who wishes to
look at everything fairly and from a correct point of view.
Hence, in speaking of the spiritual character of missionary
work, I do so with a request that what I say be considered
simply as the words of an unlearned layman, uttering merely
what he conceives to be right and proper. There are so
many excellent men of all denominations, who have quite
different views of missionary work to those I possess, and
who would consider my remarks as 1 outrageous in the extreme," that I could readily believe myself in the wrong,
were it not that I find even amongst themselves practical
proof that I am right. Nevertheless, I would say to all,
% Let everyone be convinced in his own mind," and where
honest and true efforts are put forward let due praise be given
to those who make such efforts for the good of others, no
matter how far apart they may be from our own ideas.
Thus premising, I now express an opinion that no missionary work as a spiritual undertaking should be attempted,
or can hope to succeed, except it be solemnly blessed and
consecrated by the true Church.    Beyond that I will say no 102
APPENDIX.
more; for my unlearned faculties speedily become lost in
amazement and doubt when I seek to inquire concerning the
ancient and the present faith. I therefore mean the Church
of England, as represented in her Prayer-Book and Canons,
as that to which I refer. Missionary work, then, in my
opinion, should not be attempted spiritually except through
the Church. There may be attempts to civilize the savages
of other lands : but to preach to these wild natives all sorts
of doctrines, and call them Christianity, seems to me impious as well as absurd! The. very first missionaries under
the Christian dispensation were sent by Him Who founded
our religion, after He had given them authority, and ordained
them.1 Thus, those who preach the Gospel to savages abroad
should be all of one mind in the faith, and should be especially
appointed by the Church. I do not imply that no one else
is at liberty to teach our religion; but I mean that if they
do, it should be in a different light to that of appearing as
the true exponents of Christian doctrine. Let it be as a
lay work or temporal undertaking; and not, as is too often
the case, mixing up God and mammon together, by speaking
of it as spiritual. Consistency is thrown aside, and every
one seems at liberty to preach and teach what he chooses, and
not what the Church he belongs to tells him. Therefore, I
again repeat, that I consider no real blessing can come, neither has it come upon such undertakings.
And now for a few words as to what I conceive should be
the mode of carrying abroad the religion we ourselves believe
in. I have said that there ought to be either an entirely
temporal work carried on, after the manner of Livingstone
in Africa, or of those who quietly settle amongst the natives
themselves ; or, the Church we belong to should appear prominent in the undertaking. In the latter case, the Church
should be fitly represented; and the nature of the work
ought to be clearly understood by those who are sent out.
The character of the wild beings who are visited should also
be considered. Like plastic, unformed clay, they require
more than cold and feeble hands to impress anything upon
them. Their senses must be taken captive as well as their
will; otherwise, the impression conveyed will speedily be
lost. If the Cross as a means of salvation is to be preached
to them, the Cross in a tangible form should be presented
before their gaze. They will never understand what you
mean without it. How should they ? Even S. Paul seems
to me to imply this in his Epistle to the Corinthians.2 For
1 S.JVIarkiii. 14. 2 i Cor. xiv.
■
SSSB^H APPENDIX. 103
he speaks of tongues (or languages) as a sign 1 and if those
who are addressed cannot understand the parties addressing
them, how is it possible to make a lasting and beneficial impression ? Signs and emblems must be used; and that they
be not used improperly, the Church should be the only power
to use them.
These, then, are my ideas, so far as any new colony is concerned at the present time. I have introduced them, because
I have a deep feeling upon the subject, and because I consider
that everything tending to the real good of the aborigines
of wild lands visited by the white man should be carefully
thought of in a proper way.
II.
INFORMATION   FOR  EMIGRANTS.
The following will give some idea of what is required in the
way of provisions for a voyage. I suppose that the passenger
has arranged for cooking and water to be supplied to him, if
he finds his own food; and also that he has secured a space
and fitted it up as I have already advised. I may mention
that on one occasion I paid ^50 for lower deck cabin accommodation without food (merely cooking and water) and had
a space of eight feet by nine, with a good port hole. On another occasion I paid £Ti*> for a space six feet by eight, with
food for myself and wife.
I now lay before the reader the following, which I have
taken from an old prospectus of the Canterbury Association.
It will apply in almost every case to vessels going upon a long
voyage:—
I One half the passage-money to be paid on securing the
passage, and the remainder three days previous to embarkation | if the person do not proceed in the ship, the amount
first mentioned becomes forfeited.
| Freight is allowed free of charge, in the proportion of
twenty cubic feet, to each adult passenger, for baggage only;
and extra freight, at the rate of 45s. per ton measurement of
forty cubic feet; 25s. per ton dead weight; and special articles as may be agreed on. But early notice must be given
in writing of any extra freight required.
"An experienced surgeon is appointed, and medicines and
medical comforts provided. 104
APPENDIX.
"Weekly Dietary put on board for Twenty-
four Weeks.
Articles.
Chief
Cabin.
Second
Cabin.
Steerage.
Prime India Beef    .    .
1 lb.
l|lb.
1 lb.
Prime Mess Pork    .    .    .
1 lb.
Hlb.
1 lb.
Preserved Meat or Fish
1 lb.
Ill
l|lb.
Fresh Meat	
See below
—
—
4 lbs.
H lbs.
5J lbs.
Flour         .    .    .
•        •
4 lbs.
3| lbs.
If lb.
Rice      	
•        •
lib.
lib.
lib.
lib.
—
—
Preserved Potatoes, if ob- "]
tamable; if not, Rice, >
fib.
fib.
fib.
&c, to be substituted   j
Preserved Carrots    .    .
lib.
lib.
—
Peas      ....
| pint.
| pint.
I pint
Oatmeal
—
| pint.
1 pint'
Milk     .    .
See below
—
—
Raisins
10 oz.
8 oz.
6 oz.
Currants    ,
10 oz.
8 oz.
6 oz.
Suet      .    ,
4 oz.
4 oz.
4 oz.
Butter
8 oz.
8 oz.
.8 oz.
Cheese .
8 oz.
—
— I
Sugar
20 oz.
16 oz.
16 oz.
Tea .    .
4 oz.
4 oz.fH
2 oz.
Coffee   .
4 oz.
4 oz.
2 oz.
Salt .    .
2 oz.
2 oz.
2 oz.
Pepper ,
\ oz.
\ oz.
i oz.
Mustard
I bz.
| oz.
i oz.
Vinegar or Pickles
| pint.
I pint.
I pint
Water   ....
28 quarts.
24| quarts
21 quarts.
| One sheep, one pig, and a dozen head of poultry, will be
put on board, in addition to the above, for each adult chief
cabin passenger, together with an assortment of spices, curry
powder, salad oil, herbs and celery seed, sauces, preserved
fruits, tamarinds, apples when in season, macaroni, dried
yeast for making bread. Preserved milk, and a limited
quantity of eggs, for the use of passengers of all classes.
I Children of all classes, above the age of one year, receive
each one-half of the rations of an adult: but those of one
year old and under seven receive each one pint per week of APPENDIX. 105
preserved milk extra, and either four ounces of rice, or three
ounces of sago, in lieu of salt meat, at the discretion of the
surgeon, three times a week. Infants under one year old do
not receive any rations; but the surgeon is empowered to direct an allowance of water, flour, and sago, for their use, to
be issued to their mothers.
i The several articles of diet are varied from time to time,
under the direction of the surgeon, so as to promote the
health and comfort of the passengers, especially of children.
Every article is of the best quality, and examined by the
Inspector before shipment.
I The Commander of the vessel is allowed to supply to the
chief and second cabin passengers moderate quantities of
port and sherry wine at 3s. per bottle, and of ale and porter
at lOd. per bottle; but no spirituous liquors are permitted
to be sold on board, except under the direction of the surgeon.
"Memorandum for Passengers.
I The Ships will sail on the day appointed; and as the comfort of individuals during the voyage very much depends upon
the arrangements made by themselves before embarkation,
exactness and punctuality are earnestly recommended.
I The usual length of the voyage is about four months, or
120 days. At most seasons of the year, passengers have to
pass through both hot and cold weather, and should therefore
be prepared for both. Such articles should be selected, whether of clothing or of furniture, &c, as are likely to be useful
in the colony, and as occupy least space.
"All baggage must be alongside, and cleared,previous to
the day fixed for leaving the dock. Each article should be
distinctly marked with the name of the owner, the port of
destination, and whether it is to be put into the owner's
berth or the hold. A neglect of these precautions, especially
by persons arriving in London by railway or steamer, will
subject the parties to a risk of having their baggage placed
not merely in an inconvenient part of the ship in which they
are about to embark, but on board of a vessel bound to some
different country. It is impossible to prevent such mistakes
when articles are placed together upon one platform or jetty,
without names and addresses to distinguish them.
| In the cabin, everything should be cleeted, or otherwise
secured, before the ship begins to move; and, if possible,
nothing whatever left to be done at the last moment. 106
APPENDIX.
" Clearances, dock, and other charges, and the expense of
reaching the port of embarkation, are required to be paid by
the passengers themselves-"*
"«No spirits or gunpowder are allowed to be taken on
board.
I The Association reserve to themselves the right of refusing to allow any passenger to embark, in the event of their
becoming satisfied that the party is not of good character.
i<
CHIEF   CABIN.
I The passengers provide their own furniture, bedding, and
whatever else they consider necessary within their cabins.
" The Association or the Owners of the ship supply everything that is required for the table, such as plate, linen, glass,
&c, as well as provisions according to the dietary stated on
the other side.
"The provisions are cooked and served, and attendance is
provided, as is usual in passenger ships. The captain presides as at his own table; the passengers are considered as
his guests; and in deportment and dress they are expected
to govern themselves accordingly.
a
SECOND   CABIN.
1 Berths are constructed in each cabin, but the passengers
find bedding and everything else for use at table and otherwise
during the voyage, excepting provisions and cooking utensils.
| The groceries and small stores are issued weekly; other
provisions daily; a cook and a steward-boy are appointed;
each family manages its own mess.
a
te
STEERAGE.
Provisions and cooking utensils are found by the Association, and the provisions are issued and cooked daily for each
mess, under regulations laid down for genera] convenience.
"Mattresses and bolsters are also found by the Association ; but blankets, sheets, and coverlets are not supplied,
and of these the passengers must provide a sufficient stock
for themselves and their families, at the rate of two blankets,
six pairs of sheets, and a coverlet for each bed. They must
also bring their own towels, soap, knives and forks, tin or
pewter plates, spoons, and drinking mugs.
"The passengers must bring their own clothing; as a
general rule it may be stated that the more abundant the
stock the better for health and comfort; and all parties are
particularly desired to observe that they will not be allowed
to embark unless they provide themselves with a sufficient APPENDIX. 107
supply for their health during the voyage. The lowest
quantity should consist of the following, viz.:—
I Two suits of outer clothing, including two pairs of shoes ;
and one dozen changes of under clothing, including stockings.
" Each family should furnish itself with two canvas clothes'
bags, as the heavy boxes and chests will be put away in the
hold, and there will only be access to them once in every
three or four weeks.
" The whole quantity of luggage for each adult passenger
must not measure more than 20 cubic or solid feet. It should
be divided into two or three boxes of not more than 2~ or 3
feet long, by about 20 inches wide and 18 inches high, for
the convenience of being more easily moved and got at.
" Extra freight must be paid for in London, at the rate of
45s. a ton measurement. A great saving can be made by
packing close, and not shipping boxes half filled.
"It is expected that, for the sake of themselves and of all
on board, the passengers will pay the readiest attention
throughout the voyage to the rules of the Ship, and the suggestions and regulations of the surgeon."
With regard to particular information, in detail, concerning
any of the Colonies I cannot help noticing the useful little
books published by, or to be obtained through Algar and
Street, S. Clement's Lane, City; as also a serial issued by
Silver and Co., Cornhill. Stanford, Charing Cross; Smith
and Elder, Cornhill; Chambers, Edinburgh; and many other
publishers could be mentioned as having issued useful works
worth consulting; but in truth they are so numerous, that
all I can well do is to advise the emigrant who can afford to
buy books, to ask any respectable bookseller to give him a
list, and mark such as are considered best for him to examine.
It may, however, not be amiss to say a few words on this
subject. Hitherto, in accordance with the plan I proposed
to myself in writing this little book, I have spoken of nothing
concerning which I have not been well assured : consequently, there are but few names mentioned, and those only
because, from my own personal experience, I can confidently
put forth what I say. Had I been acquainted with more, no
doubt I could have said the same of others; but I chose to
be independent in my remarks, and judge for myself. Thus,
in recommending the little publications of Algar and Street,
I do so without the smallest personal knowledge of them as
individuals, and without anything else but quietly marking
their apparent earnestness for the good of emigration.    I I s
108
APPENDIX.
have been much struck with the great facilities they afford to
the emigrant for obtaining information respecting the colonies ; and their system of putting forth a series of cheap
little handbooks concerning the places most frequented, appears to me worthy of much commendation.
1 had purchased most of their publications when the above
is written, and since then one or two others have, at my
w
request, been forwarded to me. Those I have read show
such a manliness and truthfulness in the advice given through
their pages, that I am compelled, in my duty as a faithful
writer speaking to the masses, to recommend them as I have
done. Therefore, J repeat, go or send to these gentlemen,
and purchase the little books and the newspapers they issue*
Their address is given above? and all you need do is to
name the work you want, or the colony you are going to,
and by sending postage stamps enough to cover the price,
the proper publications will be forwarded to any address you
give. These little books will also furnish information as to
the several shipowners and brokers to whom the emigrant
can go about his passage.
In reference to the remarks I have made about choosing a
ship, it is to be understood that I more particularly apply my
observations to those against whom others besides myself have
cautioned passengers. One writer expressly says: " We would
recommend the emigrant, whose means will not permit of his
taking a steerage passage in the steamer to Quebec or Portland, to use the greatest caution in the selection of a sailing
ship, and to deal only with responsible and respectable parties." And so, again, say I. But, as regards the well-known
shipowners and brokers of London, Liverpool, Bristol, and
other places, passengers have but to select and choose for
themselves. Nevertheless, as it is impossible for the principals of large houses to be always personally aware of everything about the different vessels belonging to them, and as
much is necessarily left to subordinates, I again repeat my
word of caution; and I urge that, where there is any doubt,
or aught of wrong, written application should at once be
made to the head of the firm you are dealing with, who, no
doubt, will with gentlemanly courtesy attend to you, if the
matter is important.
Finis. OBKS   PUBLISHED,
By W. PAEKEE SNO
VOYAGE OF THE "PRINCE ALBERT" IN SEARCH
OF SIR JOHN FRANKLIN. A Narrative of Every-day
Life in the Arctic Seas. With Charts and Illustrations. One
Volume, post 8vo., cloth 12s. 6d.
Longman & Co.
2. A TWO YEARS' CRUISE OFF TIERRA DEL FUEGO,
THE FALKLAND ISLANDS, PATAGONIA, AND
THE RIVER PLATE. A Narrative of Life in the
Southern Seas. With Charts and Illustrations. Two Volumes post 8vo., cloth 24s.
Longman & Co.
3. A CATALOGUE OF THE ARCTIC COLLECTION IN
THE BRITISH MUSEUM ] with a List of the Arctic Relics
in the United Service Museum, and the Painted Hall at
Greenwich.    Price 3d.
Masters & Co.
4. REMARKS ON BAFFIN BAY.    Printed by order of, and
for the Hydrographic Office, Admiralty.    Price 6d.
J. D. Potter, Poultry.
5. LETTERS AND PLANS SUGGESTIVE OF THE LOCALITY WHERE THE LOST ARCTIC EXPEDITION
MIGHT BE FOUND. Parliamentary Papers (Arctic Blue
Books) for 1850 and 1851.
Note.—The ideas put forth in those letters and plans, have since been
proved correct, and all new information still further confirms them. 6. THE DEATH OF CHRIST.    A Tract for  Good Friday;
being a Narrative of the Passion, as supposed to have been
, seen in a Vision.    Price 2d.
Masters & Co.
7. | PATAGONIAN MISSIONARY SOCIETY," and some
Truths connected with it. Addressed to the Subscribers and
Friends of Missions.    Price 6d.
Piper, Stephenson, and Spence.
8. BIBLIOTHECA CLERICALIS AMERICANA. A Catalogue of the valuable Library of a Clergyman of New York,
and containing a list of 4500 works on Divinity, Sacred and
Profane History, Chronology, Biography, and Miscellaneous
Subjects, besides many rare copies of Latin and Greek
authors. With Notes and Annotations. One Volume.
241 pages, 8vo.
The following works are ready or preparing for Publication, upon which the Author will be happy to
receive any communication I
9. ANECDOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF LIFE IN
THE POLAR SEAS. A Descriptive Hand-book to the
Arctic Collection.
This work embraces a variety of information concerning the Esquimaux,
such as an account of their Habits, Manners, and Customs -, sundry interesting particulars connected with the late Exploring. Expeditions \
Adventures, and Travelling Incidents; Ice and Land Journeys ; the Mystery of the lost Voyagers; Opinions as to their Fate ; Probability of some
yet returning; HistqMlal, Geographical, and Biographical Sketches; an
outline Chart; and a General Index to the Official Blue Books and other
works published on the Arctic Regions. 10. PASSENGER LIFE AT SEA, AND WORKING LIFE
ON SHORE IN AUSTRALIA ; being the personal experience of the Author.
This work puts forth the daily life of those who are on their way to the
golden land of the South, and the common everyday occurrences of those
who have arrived there. It gives information on various matters, and is
anecdotal as well as descriptive.
11. A CRUISE ALONG THE EAST COAST OF AUSTRALIA, and a Short Residence amongst the Natives. A
Narrative of Land and Sea Adventure.
12. NEW YORK AND THE UNITED STATES, as described
by the Americans themselves, and illustrated by Notes and
Observations made there during a twelvemonth's residence.
13. SPIRIT OF THE GLOBE; or, a Voyage in the Air. A
descriptive and anecdotal work on Geography and the Manners and Customs of different people; given in the form of
an Allegorical Tale.
14. A PILGRIMAGE  THROUGH   THE   PAST;    or,  the
Travels  of a  Wanderer through bygone  History.    By a
Seacher after Truth.
This work is, also, in the form of a Vision; taking the reader through
varied and interesting scenes of history to the period of the birth of
Christianity; and apparently as a Narrative of Adventure and Travel, introducing numerous facts relating to the past.
15. PICKINGS  FROM  MY JOURNALS.    A Collection of
Facts and Anecdotes made during my various wanderings.
Some have appeared in print, others are in manuscript.
16. THE WIND IN ITS CIRCUITS. A Meteorological Register, accompanied by diagrams, of the Winds and Weather
for five years in several parts of the Globe.
17. SOCIAL ECONOMICS, OR CHRONICLES  OF THE
TIMES.    A Tale of the Day.
This is a work of fiction in its plot and character, but having nearly
every striking circumstance illustrated by facts recorded in the present
day. 18. HARRY MARCHANT; or, the Modern Sailor. A Tale
illustrative of Nautical Life, abroad and at home, in the
present day.
* Note.—It works out the Arctic question, touches upon the Crimea, and
dwells upon the subject of the Mercantile Marine generally.
19. A JOURNEY MADE BY A SAILOR THROUGH
FRANCE, SWITZERLAND, ITALY, GERMANY, part
of PRUSSIA and BELGIUM ; with a glance at Spain and
Portugal.
20. A LETTER TO THE TIMES on the 10th of April, 1848,
concerning the Chartist disturbances ;   also, other Letters to
the Press on various subjects.
These are what have appeared in print, except the first one.
21. THE OCEANIC.    A Shipboard  Newspaper,  written  and
published at Sea, by W. P. S.
22. THE SLAVE-SHIP.     A  circumstance in the  Life of a
Bluejacket.
It has been printed as an article in a publication.
23. A REPLY TO  SOCIALISM.
24. THE PEOPLE'S ILLUSTRATED CYCLOPAEDIA OF
THE BIBLE, and General Expository Index to the Sacred
Writings.
A few numbers were px*inted; the rest in seven volumes folio MS.
making about three volumes of print. The object of this work is to
illustrate the Bible by facts chiefly obtained during the author's wanderings abroad.
25. AN HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE PATRIARCHS
AND THEIR TIMES, with an account of the great Israel-
itish Emigration from Egypt.
26. NARRATIVE OF MY LIFE AND  WANDERINGS.  

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