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Fort Langley, 1827-1927. A century of settlement in the valley of the lower Fraser River Nelson, Denys, 1876-1929 1927

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1827 * 1927
"H Century of Settlement"
Erected by the 'Dominion Historic Sites and Monuments Board in 1925.
Art, Sitatortral anil Srtrnttfir AaHoriatum of lanrnutupr, S. (S.
1827 - 1927
JULY, 1927.
 Denys Nelson
Died in St. Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, June 10, 1929.
Because of its great value to all who are interested in the history of this province,
the Art, Historical and Scientific Association of Vancouver deems it highly desirable to
reprint the story of the Hudson's Bay forts at Langley, as produced by the late Denys
Nelson in 1927.
Gathered from various sources, Mr. Nelson has given us the most pertinent facts in
a little booklet of 32 pages, so that the many who would like to familiarise themselves with
this history of the earliest fort in all of the Lower Mainland which was for many years
the gateway to the rich fur trade with the interior of New Caledonia, should be able to
gather such knowledge with ease.
For his service in thus doing, we who benefit thereby render to his memory grateful
thanks, and in this second edition hand on to future generations a continuance of the
praiseworthy work.
Some of those from whom Mr. Nelson received much of the information have, with
him, passed to the Great Beyond, but "their works do follow them".
Subsequent research work by others has enriched the store of knowledge then set
forth, and in this second edition the fruits of their labours are included. It is now possible,
too, to correct some misconceptions in the original text, through the work of the late Dr.
Robie L. Reid; from the letters of Dr. John McLoughlin as edited by Dr. W. Kaye Lamb,
and from the 'Washington Historical Quarterly. Quite possibly further additions may be'
made in future editions: we hope it may be so.
There were two main reasons for the establishment of Fort Langley; first, to head off
the American traders whose ships were sailing up the Fraser, monopolising the trade: and
secondly, to provide a site where farm produce might be produced in abundance to feed
the occupants of the various forts of the Company west of the Mountains.
When in 1824. Governor Simpson visited Fort George at the mouth of the Columbia,
he reported that "the management shows an extraordinary predilection for European sup-
plies without once looking at or considering ihe enormous cost it means" to get them.
He declared that "corn in abundance might be procured at little expense at the door of
every establishment. It has been said," he continued, "that farming is no branch of the
fur trade, but I consider that every pursuit tending to lighten the burden of the trade is
a branch thereof." 'Two years later, in 1826, he wrote McLoughlin that "New Caledonia
should be outfitted by way of the Fraser instead of the Columbia if the Fraser should be
found navigable, on which point, according to the various reports, there can be no doubt."8
It was with these points in mind that an expedition which composed some men who
had hunted over the area previously was despatched only eleven days after Governor
Simpson had first arrived at Fort George. They were to explore not only for a fort site,
but for a tract suitable for extensive farming operations as well. Thus it was that the
expedition passed up the Nicomekl to Langley Prairie, thence overland to the Fraser. The
Indians of the party who were chiefly interested in the building of a fort beside the water-
way demurred because of the long portage, which was really the best route to examine the
agricultural possibilities.
James McMillan was an old employee of the North West Company. This Company
did not erect their forts so thoroughly as did the Hudson's Bay Company, hence, in 1839
James Murray Yale wrote Douglas on October 14, that "we have abandoned the old fort
which was in a dilapidated condition and removed into a new fort a few miles up the
river".   Douglas had previously concurred with such procedure.
1 Introduction to McLoughlin Letters, H.  B.  Company Record  No.  2, by Dr. W.  Kaye Lamb,  Librarian of
University of B. C.
> Idem.
 It was this second fort which was burned down on April 11, 1840. It had stood
where now a sawmill stands, some short distance west of the main street of Fort Langley.
Notes in the memorandum of the expedition, written while the party was building the
original fort, record that a friendly Indian chief, T'Shoshia, reported that the Indians were
preparing to massacre the whites if they persisted in building the fort. On October 19, it
records that "a war party of Cowichans returned from their expedition. They have mur-
dered one man and a woman. The head of one of their victims was pendant at the bow
of one of their canoes, presenting a spectacle as dismal and disgusting as can well be
imagined—a spectacle the most revolting to humanity that this land of Savage Barbarism
produces." s
It was under these circumstances that the fort was first built. Their first endeavour
was to complete one of the bastions. It was completed by August 13, except for the roof
of bark. Six days later the trench for the palisades was commenced, and on August 31,
the second bastion was finished, except for the floor. The Cadboro, which had remained
moored in the river to provide protection for the builders, left on September 18.*
Governor Simpson visited Langley in October of 1828, bringing with him Archibald
McDonald, in whom he reposed full confidence as being able to develop the agricultural
resources of the locality. During the preceding fall and winter the staff had most diligently
cleared what land they could, and, having planted the "three fields" (mentioned on page
11) with potatoes, McDonald was able to harvest 2010 bushels. His predecessor had con-
tinued to.clear the ground and plant up to July 8th.
When McDonald's wife joined him at Langley, she brought her step-son, Ranald,
and her own two sons, Angus, born at Fort Okanagan in Washington on August 1, 1826,
and Archibald, born at Thompson's River on February 3, 1828.° He was prohably the first
white child to be born in B. C.
Before McDonald left Langley in March of 1833, two other sons were born there, as
told by Mr. Nelson. These five played together on the grassy sward at Old Fort Langley.
Both parents were pious Christian people who paid strict attention to the proper upbringing
of their offspring.
During the tenure of McDonald, the fur trade was at its best; his report says 2,000
beaver skins were collected in 1834, but this trade gradually declined as the beaver became
less plentiful. The development of the salmon industry and of the farm superseded it, but
it was not until the last fort had been built that both these endeavours reached their peak.
The annual salmon runs had always been checked somewhat by the rapids above Yale, and
countless thousands crowded the stream below that point. The facilities for packing were
not really perfected until about 1843, and not for two years later was there sufficient salt
available to preserve the catch. However, in 1846, 800 barrels were packed, part of which
was sold in the Hawaiian Islands for $9.00 a barrel. In 1848, no lesS than 1,703 barrels
were harvested from the river, and in 1850 the pack was 2,000 barrels. Some of this sold
for 2 pounds, 10 shillings a barrel."
Agriculture was expanded from the time of the building of the second fort; indeed it
was so that the fort might be nearer the farm that it had been moved thence, in 1839. In
1845, there were 245 acres under crop and 20 men at work on the farm: 180 pigs, 15
head of horses and °5 head of cattle were there.'
8 The original memorandum is in the Provincial Archives at Victoria.
* Idem.
6 Washington Historical Quarterly,  No.  9, page 99.
• R. L. Reid in B. C. Historical  Quarterly, April,  1937, page 80.
' Idem., p.  83.
 W. H. Newton, having married Emmeline, daughter of John Tod, on September 30,
1856, became the father of Emmeline Newton, born within the present fort,8 quite likely
the first white child to be born there. The Findlay child mentioned on page 15 was born
before this last fort was built. Jason Allard says definitely that "Mrs. Findlay was a
Jason Allard wrote that without doubt it was the discoveries of James Houston of
gold in quantity in 1857 near Kamloops that started the famous gold rush. Jason lived at
Langley and Yale in 1858. Mr. Houston came to Langley soon after. His son Alexander
lives today on the site of McMillan's original fort, and recently deeded to the municipality
the ground on which the commemorating monument stands.
Early in 1858, some Victorians proposed to subdivide the land there, and advertised
it for sale. Governor Douglas at once counteracted the move, declaring that no land had
been sold to anyone there. They had named the place Derby, and this name Douglas
accepted. He proclaimed that it would be the future capital of a new British Colony.
Joseph Despard Pemberton surveyed it.
Richard Clement Moody had been appointed to command the Company of Royal
Engineers about to be despatched from England to assist in the early development of the
new colony. He first despatched a party of surveyors under Captain Parsons, who left on
the LaPlata on September 2. They arrived at Victoria on October 29. The men were
William McColl, James Elian, Robert Armstrong, A. T. Breakenridge, Jonathan Brown,
Robert Colston, Robert Giskirk, James Duffy, David Kennedy, Murdock McMillan, Alex
Robertson, Peter J. Leach, John McQure, Thomas Lomax, John Meade, James Conroy,
Henry C. Benney, James Shannon, George Dobbs, and Andrew Munro. George Dobbs
deserted at San Francisco and Andrew Munro deserted at Sapperton.
A second party under Captain Grant sailed from Britain on September 17, and
landed at Victoria on November 8th. They were builders, and included the following:
Charles Eade, a second corporal, Henry Bruce, Walter Alexander, Fred Allen, Samuel
Dawson, William Edwards, (alias Black Bill), Samuel Johnson, William Momstrey, (drowned
at Harrison Rapids), Joseph Maynard, Lewis F. Bonson, Fred Thurgate, George Bowden,
and William Byers.'
That Moody had decided against the site at Derby before he had left England is
evident from a letter which Captain Grant sent to Governor Douglas, now in the Provincial Archives. In it Grant recommends "a site near the Pitt Paver, which is named by Colonel
Moody in his instructions to me", and in which Grant recommends "that no buildings be
commenced however temporary at Derby until a true site is vindicated for the Capital".
However, the sale of lots was proceeded with, and Grant's crew of builders proceeded with
the erection of a barracks. Two piles of earth and broken bricks today mark the spots where
the main chimneys were built, one at either end.
To inspire confidence, Douglas called for tenders on December 1, 1858, for the
erection of a parsonage, church, courthouse and gaol,10 and these were built by E. L. Fell,
under contract.11 Considerable correspondence between the new rector and Governor
Douglas resulted in an enlarged parsonage'. Judge Begbie, who held court in the barracks
in early March of 1859, criticized the courthouse plans which provided no jury-box and
no stair to the upper floor.   His letter is in the Provincial Archives.
» From family Bible record, now owned by W. H. Newton, of Port Hammond, B. C.
• Lists supplied by Mr. Dare, late librarian of New Westminster Public Library.
10 Howay and Scholefield's History of B. C, volume 2, page 61.
« Fell correspondence in Provincial Archives of B. C.
 When the main body of the Royal Engineers arrived at Esquimalt they were transferred to the Eliza Anderson because its owner offered a cheaper rate than was offered by
the Thames City for the journey up to Derby.14
A letter from Moody to Douglas dated April 16 says: "I have sent the women and
children with twelve men to the barracks at Langley, there they will remain for the present,
under the charge of Assistant-Surgeon Mitchell. Dr. Seddall goes up with them, and
returns to Sapperton.
You will be sorry to hear that one child is at the point of death, and not expected
to survive the night. I have given orders that every care be taken of the poor little
The main party of Engineers, numbering over a hundred was landed at Sapperton
to clear the site, the twelve men going to Derby to do what outside work might be required.
The little invalid was the child of Sapper Welsh, said to have been a tailor at New
Westminster later. It was buried outside the present fort on the sloping ground north of
it, and the remains were removed from there when the C.N.R. right-of-way was graded.
The church was first used when on May 13, 1859, Rev. W. Burton Crickmer preached
the first sermon to the Royal Engineers. It now stands at the corner of Laity Road and
the River Road at Maple Ridge. The courthouse was removed to a new site near the second
fort, and was the first home of Otway Wilkie after his marriage in 1884.
And now, 120 years after the first settlement beside the Lower Fraser, we commend
to the attention of the reader this second edition of Fort Langley, 1827-1927. "What
is writ, is writ; would it were worthier."
George Green.
Vancouver, May, 1947.
la Letter in Victoria Colonist, from R. C. Moody, April,  1859.
18 Letter in Provincial Archives.
04 Century gf Settlement in the Valley of the
Lower Fraser (River.
HT the latter end of the month of July. 1827, the work of erecting the new post to
be called Fort Langley was begun.   The following paper is an attempt to collect
together some information about the fort and its occupants during the century
that has elapsed, in the hope that it may be of some assistance to those of the general
public who feel interested but have not access to the different volumes whence these
pages have been taken.   Let us start at the beginning.
Before the fort .... What? Who were the first people to occupy the alluvial
plain, the Delta of the Fraser?
The present occupants are classified as being members of the Cowichan group of the
Salishan linguistic stock, speaking a single dialect, occupying the shores of the estuary,
extending up the river as far as Spuzzum. There appear to have been about 21 of these
tribes, who are collectively known as the "Halkomaylem."
With regard to their origin, it is the opinion of Prof. Hill Tout of Vancouver that
the original elements of these tribes must have had a common home prior to their
separation into the present sub-divisions. "To hold their own in a strange country," he
says, "they must have been a populous band. We can well imagine that when they had
driven out, exterminated or absorbed, such tribes as occupied the Delta upon their
arrival, their numbers would compel them to separate."
It is supposed that small groups, heads of families, then separated themselves from
the main body, sought locations along the river, and founded settlements. Of these
tribal settlements, in the course of time, the most extensive and powerful became known
as the Kwantlen*, who occupied or controlled more than half of the mainland Halkomaylem lands, from the territory of the Musqueams on the North Arm of the Fraser to
the Hatzic, who dwell on the borders of the Nicomen Slough.
These people, the Kwantlen, made their head quarters upon the rising ground where
New Westminster stands to-day. They called it Skaiametl, which may be pronounced
like Esquimalt. Their summer camp and fishing ground was across the river at Kikait,
at the southern approach to the railway bridge.
In addition, there were three other main settlements: Kwantlen, situated upon
McMillan's Island, near Fort Langley; Skaiets, a village on the Stave river; and
Wharnock, now called Whonnock, a few miles below the mouth of the Stave.
Such was the situation at the time of the first known white party to make the descent
of the river, in 180S, headed by Simon Fraser.   To-day this has been entirely altered.t
'Spelling is that adopted by Prof. C. Hill Tout, British Assoc for the Advancement of Science,
tSee. Prof. Hill Tout, B.A.A.S., 1902, and J.A.I., 1904, also Dr. Boaz, B.A.A.S., 1894.
 Fort Langley
In the 30's the Kwantlen abandoned their
original home and settled under the shadow of
the guns of the fort for protection. More
peaceful than the upper coast Indians, the
River tribes (the Stalo, as they often called
themselves, which means "The River") were
frequently raided by the warlike Yukeltaws
from the Seymour Narrows. Their last raid,
which was the cause of the Kwantlen seeking
the aid of the traders at Langley, sent them
back, stricken and dismayed. The Kwantlen
fled to the fort; the traders loaded up their
cannon with • every available missile, trained
them on the canoes which covered the river,
and literally blew them out of the water,
hundreds being killed or drowned. The tribe
then made their headquarters near the fort,
which was, at that time, at (modern) "Derby",
and when the company moved to the present
site, the tribe accompanied them and settled on
McMillan's Island. This is their home to-day,
and here the aged Chief Casimir passed away
last June at an advanced age.
To-day the settlements and villages are gone, their names alone, in many cases, being
preserved in the Reserves, set apart by the government for the Indians' use, the former
tribal limits being in no way considered. The Indians have inter-married, and their
language is being less and less spoken, Chinook or English taking its place, except among
the old people.
Chief  Casimir
Simon  Fraser
Late in May, 1808, Simon Fraser, a member of the North West Company, left the
posts which he had established in New Caledonia, and with a party of men descended
the river destined to bear his name. The
object of the exploration was to decide
whether or not the river was the Columbia,
an important tributary of it, or an entirely
new waterway.
On June 29-th, at 4 p.m., the party reached
Yale at the end of the canyons. Here they
procured a canoe, and on the next morning
commenced the last part of their arduous
journey. Near Hope, Indians ; entertained
them by dancing, a civility which was reciprocated, according to Staquoisit, a Kiwant-
len friend of Jason Allard, who gave him
information about these early days.
When they started down the river, according to this informant, "one of the men put
a stick in his mouth and other sticks over
 A Century of Settlement
his shoulder and made funny sounds like music" When they stopped at Skwah, a village
of the Chilliwack band, the Indians enjoyed the music so much that they wanted to join
in the dancing, too.
At Ruby Creek they met with evidences of the white man's handiwork—a copper
kettle and an English axe. On July 2nd the party was apparently at Coquitlam, where
trouble began with the natives, who showed thievish tendencies; They stole a smoking
bag and, moreover, dogs did damage to the baggage.* The people became turbulent and
the chief excited. However, they descended the North Arm and explored the village of
Misquiame, where there was a building ISO feet long by 90 feet broad. They then
returned to "the chief's village." As it was the month of July, this would be Kikait,
modern Brownsville, their summer camp. Gabriel of Fort Langley has reported that his
grandfather was present on this occasion, at this place, and heard the Indians discuss the
question of attacking the party. Fraser's mission was now completed, and although his
journal shows that he had intended to return again from the chief's village to the mouth
of the river after procuring fresh provisions, the hostility of the natives was too
threatening to allow of this being done. Therefore the party proceeded up the river at
a good round pace, and they "continued all night in order to reach the next village before
the war party." Statquoisit threw some light upon this hostility by saying that when
the white men recovered their stolen goods they kicked the offenders. Braves do not
like to be kicked, and the insult could be washed out only in blood. According to this
informant, the chief did desire to make peace with the white men, and gave the young
men presents to quieten them. Indeed, the chiefs seem to have been in a dilemma as to
how to regard these white men. At times they were very civil, and invited Fraser to their
houses and gave him coats of mail for gifts. They obtained the release of "Little
Fellow," the guide who had been made a prisoner at Musqueam. But the young men
made trouble, and without doubt the fate of the party hung in the balance on more than
one occasion. Another piece of information given by Staquoisit tells of Fraser having
fired his gun at some crpssed sticks and knocking them down; then he offered to give
the chief the gun if he could do the same, wherein he failed.
This part of the expedition over, Fraser passes out of our story. When the two
great fur companies amalgamated, in 1821, he did not continue with them, but retired into
private life. He is buried in the Catholic cemetery at St. Andrew's, near Cornwall, in
Ontario, where the Hudson's Bay Company (to which he did not belong) has erected
a monument to his memory.
The companies merged in 1821, and it was 1824 before the governor, George Simpson,
found time to visit the Pacific coast in order to settle the new Superintendent, Dr. John
McLoughlin, in his post at Astoria, then called Fort George. The future policy of the
company had to be arranged. The Doctor is known to have strongly favoured the plan
of building posts where the natives could come and trade along the coast, and this was
the method adopted for many years. Coast trading under the North West Company
had failed owing to the great number of vessels which came from all parts of the States,
especially Boston, and ruined the coast trade, completely spoiling the Indians.* By 1810
the "Boston Peddlers," as their opponents called them, had monopolized the coast trade.f
This situation the Hudson's Bay Company determined to correct, and, with this in
view, Simpson and McLoughlin made their plans.
James McMillan, a very intelligent man, a former member of the North West
Company, was one of the officers of the Hudson's Bay Company who met Simpson at
'See Fraser's Journal.    Masson,  1889, and Howay, A.H.S. Papers,  1907-8.
tW.H.Q., 2, 261.
 Fort Langley
Boat Encampment in the autumn of 1824. He was placed in charge of an expedition to
be sent in November of that same year to explore the shore line of Puget Sound, and the
waters of the Fraser River.*
McMillan was accompanied by three clerks and an interpreter, 36 men and an
Iroquoy Freehunter and his slave. The clerks were: Thomas McKay, step-son to Dr.
McLoughlin, (the Doctor had married the widow of that McKay, who accompanied
Alexander Mackenzie on his expedition to the coast in 1793), Francis Noel Annancef,
and John Work.
It is to the Journal kept by Work that we
are indebted for the account of this expedition.,
Work's family name was Wark, and it is said
that owing to his commission for the Hudson's
Bay Company being made out in the name of
Work, he adopted that mode of spelling. That
is the mode universally known, and owing to
the exertions of Major G. G. Aitken, representative of British Columbia on the Geographic Board of Canada, the name of "Wark
Point" at Victoria, which commemorates this
important official, has been altered, more
correctly, to "Work Point," within the last
few months. The interpreter was Michael La-
frambois, and the men were as follows:
Piere L'Etang, Jas. Portneuf Abanaker, Alexis
Aubuchon, Pierre Villandri, P. B. Proveau,
Peter Wagner, F. H. Condon, Pierre Karagara-
gab, jr., Louis Shatakorata, jr., Wm. Johnston
(Englishman), Segwin le Deranti, Cawano, jr.,
Louis Anawano, jr., Pierre Karaguana, jr.,
Chas, Jaundeau, Louis Diomilea, Andre Lonc-
toin;   Chas.   Rondeau,   Pierre   Patvin,   Ettuni
Oniager, Louis Hanatiohe, jr., Louis Vivet, Peo Bean (Islander), Thos. Toyanel
(Islander), Thos. Zawaiton (Islander), Jos. Loui Abanaker, Andre Le Chappel, J. B.
Dubian, Joseph Despard, Leo Depuis, Jacques Patvin, Louis Shorakorta (Islander),
Joseph Grey (Islander), Basil Pioner, Momonta (Islander), and Cannon (American).
The Freehunter is said to have been taken along owing to his being acquainted with the
coast line for part of the way.   The voyage was to be made in three boats.
They left Fort George on Thursday, November 18, 1824, at 1:1S. On Tuesday,
November 30th, Pierre Charles, a trader, who had been with the Indians for some time,
joined the party. He became well-known later on, for, while he was a servant, he was
considered a valuable man, being very versatile. He was a great hunter and guide,
keeping the parties with which he was engaged supplied with game. In 1841, Wilkes, of
the U. S. Exploring Expedition, visited Nisqually and secured the services of Pierre
Charles, who was then living in retirement at Cowlitz, as guide for the Johnson party
over the Cascade Mountains. It was Monday, December 13th, before they entered Mud
Bay and began to ascend the little river Nicomekl. The Indians who guided the party
were somewhat averse to the route and would have preferred to go by way of Point
Roberts, but they said that the stream led to a portage to the Coweechan river, as they
Tohn Work
*Note by J.B.T. & T.C.E. to Thompson's Narrative.   Champ, ed., pp. 415-16.
tAnnance is spelled Annanour in the W.H.Q.
 A Century of Settlement
termed the Fraser.   The stream was blocked with driftwood, through which the Indians
had cut passages for their canoes, hardly wide enough for the white man's bateaux.
The portage was commenced on Tuesday, December 14th, boats and baggage being
carried that day for 3970 yards, a little more tlia.. half the total distance. The country
is now called Langley Prairie, and they described it as being rich, swampy soil, and
abounding in beaver.
On Wednesday, the 15th, they reached the Salmon river, the end of the portage,
covering another 3930 yards, and making a total distance of 7910 yards. Mr. Stanley
Towle, of Jardine, says that the spot where the British Columbia Electric Railway trestle
bridge stands near Jardine station was called in his young days "The Portage," while a
similar name is recorded on the Nicomekl at the back of the Michaud farm.
On Thursday, the 16th, the party embarked at 11 a.m. on the Salmon river, reaching
the Fraser at one o'clock. They spent Friday, the 17th, in proceeding up the Fraser
as far as Hatzic Slough, where they spent the night at the mouth of the river, now confined by the Canadian Pacific Railway embankment and the pumping station. They
occupied themselves in getting acquainted with the natives. On the morrow, the 18th,
they started the return trip, this time entirely by water. They passed the mouth of the
Pitt River on Sunday, but without naming it, or recording any names at all, but in the
Journal for 1827 we read that they marked on this occasion, in 1824, two trees "H.B.C.",
on the south side of the Fraser river. Point Roberts and Birch. Bay were passed on
December 20th, and the leaders arrived at Fort George on Thursday, December 30th.
This, in rough outline, is the itinerary of the 1824 expedition.*
A few months later, Dr. McLoughlin moved his headquarters to a new location up
the Columbia River, which he called Fort Vancouver, destined to be the capital of the
company on the Pacific coast for the next 20 years. His policy being now settled,
another expedition was soon sent, this time from Fort Vancouver to the Fraser river, to
select a site and establish a trading post to be called Fort Langley.
On Wednesday, June 27th, 1827, James McMillan, who had headed the party of 1824,
left Fort Vancouver with two boats early in the morning. He was to be assisted by the
schooner "Cadboro," commanded by Lieut. Aemilius Simpson, who picked up the party
later on in the expedition. McMillan was accompanied by Francois Noel Annance, who
had been with him on the former expedition; Donald Manson and George Barnston, all
clerks. In addition, there were 21 men, whose names were: Amiable Arquoith, James
Baker, Louis Boisvert, Oliver Bouchard, Pierre Charles, Como (Sandwich Islander),
Joseph Cornoyer, Jean Bte Ettiers, Jean Bte Dubois, Dominique Faron, John Kennedy,
Anawiskum dit Macdonald, Peopeoh (Sandwich Islander), Antoine Pierrault, Jacques
Pierrault (2), Francois Piette dit Faniant, Simon Pomondean, Louis Satakarata dit
Rabaska, Laurent Sauve dit Laplante, Francois .Xavier Tarihonya, and Abraham Vincent..
This list is according to the "Journal of the Voyage from Fort Vancouver to Fraser's
River and of the Establishing of Fort Langley, commencing the 27th June, 1827, and
carried up to February 17th, 1828." Who wro'te this Journal is somewhat of a mystery.
Prof. W. Sage is of the opinion that the handwriting is that of McMillan himself, and
the archivists are inclined to agree with him. According to Miss Russell, who is in
charge of that department, however, there is certain internal evidence, such as McMillan
being referred to in the third person, which suggests some other of the personnel being
the recorder.   The Journal is preserved in the Archives at Victoria.
On Saturday, July 21st, the party anchored a mile within the mouth of the Fraser.
*W. H. Q..   3, 200, T. C. Elliott.
 10 Fort Langley
Two names are mentioned in the account of the expedition. On Sunday, July 23rd, they
mention "Point Garry" and on Tuesday the 24th they pass "the Hudson Bay Company's
trees" and the "Quoittle or Pitt's River." This establishes the name of Pitt River as one
o"f the oldest names in the Fraser Valley, although we are still in the dark as to the
reason for the selection.
It was Thursday, July 26th, that McMillan selected the site for the fort, which was
on the piece of land below the mouth of the Salmon river, on the south bank of the
Fraser. To-day the place is opposite to the A. & L. logging railway terminus above
Port Haney and is called Derby.
The horses were landed on Monday, July 30th, and work at clearing the land proceeded apace, which they record as being a laborious task. McMillan later wrote to his
friend, John McLeod, that the first stick for the fort was cut on August 1st, 1827.
Work proceeded rapidly, and six weeks later, on the morning of Tuesday, September
18th, the "Cadboro" left the party and sailed down the river.
The new post was named Fort Langley after Thomas Langley, a prominent
member and stockholder of that name, who was associated with Sir J. Pelly in the
management of the company.*
Life was not without its dangers by any means. Rumors soon spread to Fort
Vancouver that Fort Langley had been captured and McMillan and his party massacred.
Dr. McLoughlin was so far inclined to credit it that he was preparing to send a despatch
east with the news when it was contradicted.f
In January, 1828, however, the express from Fort Langley to Fort Vancouver was
waylaid by the Clallums of Puget Sound, and Alex. McKenzie and four men were
murdered. Justice, swift and sure, promptly followed, which was absolutely necessary
to preserve the rest from a like fate. A party under the command of Alex. R. McLeod,
C.T., was despatched from Fort Vancouver on June 17th. The party included Frank
Ermatinger, who wrote an account of the expedition, and J. M. Yale, who was to be
associated for so many years with Fort Langley in the near future. The village of the
Clallums was destroyed and the murder avenged. Later, in the same year, 1828, Governor George Simpson, paid another visit to the coast. Travelling by canoe, he made the
journey from York Factory to Fort Langley by way of the Peace River, and thence to
Fort Vancouver.
At Fort Kamloops he picked up Archibald McDonald, who had succeeded John
McLeod in that post in 1826. In 1828, McDonald had been made a Chief Trader, and in
October accompanied the governor on his journey to Fort Langley. He kept the Journal
on this expedition, and records that on Friday, October 10th, 1828, the party met the
tide from the Pacific Ocean at 3:30 in the afternoon. They passed Work's River on
the right at 5 o'clock, a name by which the Stave River was evidently first known, and
given apparently by the expedition of 1824, although not noted in their Journal. Simpson
arrived at Fort Langley at 8 o'clock precisely, where he found McMillan, together with
Annance, Manson and 20 men.
The Fort Langley Journal, already referred to, records under the date of Saturday,
October 11th: "About 8 o'clock last night we had a sudden alarm of canoes and
singing down the river, and in a few minutes after had the agreeable surprise of taking
the Governor-in-Chief by the hand.   He was accompanied from York Factory by Mr.
*See 'Ranald MacDohald," Lewis, p. 99, and also Canadian North West, Oliver, p. 223.
tLetter from William Todd to Ed. Ermatinger, W.H.Q., 1, 257.
 Chief Trader Archibald McDonald, Doctor Hamlyn, and 20 men, exclusive of Mr. James
Murray Yale and 7 men from New Caledonia and Thompson's River. They left the
mouth of that river on the morning of the 9th, and to there took them from Kamloops
House a day and a half. It would appear the river is much worse than any idea we
could have found of it; and indeed the practicability of opening a regular communication
with the Interior most doubtful." The Journal continues (October 12th and 15th) :
"Since the Governor's arrival here, it has been settled upon that Mr. McMillan will be
allowed to avail himself of his rotation of furlough next season; and, as a change of
this kind may be attended with danger and inconvenience in the Spring, he now
accompanies the Governor to Fort Vancouver, and Mr. McDonald assumed the charge
of this place, keeping Mr. Yale in the room of Mr. Manson, and the complement of
men reduced from 20 to 17 continued by Mr. Archibald McDonald."    The first
entry by McDonald is Thursday, October 16th, 1828.*
A remarkable feature of this journey must have been the piper, Colin Fraser, who
accompanied the governor, clad in full regalia of kilts, sporran, plaid, shoon and pipes.
He played on all important occasions, such as entering or leaving a post, taking his
Scottish hearers back again to their homes they had not seen since boyhood, but the Fort
Langley Journal makes no notation of this.
After an inspection of the fort, the governor and his party proceeded on their
way, taking with them James McMillan, who was replaced by Archibald McDonald and
Donald Manson, replaced by James Murray Yale, while the number of men at the fort
was reduced to 17, as already noticed above.
The following description is given by McDonald in his journal of the Governor's
journey: "The fort is 135 x 120 feet with two good bastions, and a gallery four feet
wide all round. A building^of three compartments for the men, a small log house of two
compartments in which the gentlemen themselves reside,, and a store, are now occupied,
besides which there are two other buildings, one a good dwelling house with an excellent
cellar and a spacious garret. A couple of well-finished chimneys are up, and the whole
inside is now ready for wainscoating and partitioning. Four large windows are in front,
and one in each end, and one, with a corresponding door, in the back. The other is a
low building with only two square rooms, with a fireplace in each, and a kitchen adjoining
made of slat. The out-door work consists of three fields, each planted with 30 bushels
of potatoes, and looks well. The provisions shed, exclusive of table store, is furnished
with 3000 dried salmon, 16 tiers salted salmon, 36 cwt. of flour, 2 cwt. of grease, and 30
bushels of salt."
Archibald McDonald, who took charge of Fort Langley as its second chief, in
October, 1828, was born at Leeckhentium, on the south shore of Loch Leven, Glencoe,
Appin, in North Argyleshire, Scotland, on February 3rd, 1790. He was well educated,
and is said to have studied the rudiments of medicine at the University of Edinburgh.
He became a member of Lord Selkirk's Colony at Red River and assumed a considerable
share in the management of its affairs. This later led to important posts with the Hudson's
Bay Company. In 1824 he was one of the clerks on the Thompson River district, and, as
already mentioned, succeeded McLeod at Kamloops in 1826, and McMillan at Fort
Langley in 1828. While at Langley, we are told that he inaugurated the business of
salting and curing salmon for the market, and in 1833 he introduced to the notice of
the company the idea of raising flocks and herds on a commercial scale on the Pacific
coast. This was the origin of the Puget Sound Agricultural Company. In 1823 he
married a daughter of the famous chief Com-com-ly.   She died next year, after giving
"Letter from Miss A. M. Russell, Pac. N.W. Hist. Dept., Prov. Lib. Victoria.
Fort Langley
Archibald McDonald
birth to their son Ranald. McDonald married
a second time, in 1825, to Jane Klyne, who survived him, daughter of Michael Klyne, postmaster at Jasper's House. Of the 13 children
Jane bore him two were born at Fort Langley.
Alexander, born October 28th, 1830, who died
July 7th, 1875, at Moose Factory, Hudson Bay;
and Allen, born May 19th, 1832, and died
November 28th, 1891, at Winnipeg, Manitoba.
Archibald always spelled his name McDonald,
but his family used the clan form MacDonald.
He retired from service in 1844 and died at
St. Andrews, on the Ottawa river, January
15th, 1853. On his gravestone is recorded:
"One of the Pioneers of Civilization in Oregon."*
McDonald remained in charge of Fort Langley until March, 1833, with James .Murray Yale
as his clerk and ultimate successor. Hard work
was necessary for the rebuilding of the coast
trade. The "Boston Peddlers" had it all their
own way for many years, yet, in 1831, Archibald was able to write that "in the face of two
vessels our trade is not 150 skins less than the
If the Americans are off this year, I hope things will
great returns of the year before,
be still better."f
Two years later, shortly before he left, he wrote: "Here, this year, in the face of
three American vessels, we collected 2000" H's letters disclose the fact that in
1831 the small deficit in the skins was more than made up by 220 barrels of salmon. He
was then "preparing from 200 to 300 barrels to be at the salmon immediately, in the
commencement of the season. "A cooper is to be sent to him, he adds, but he has not
seen anything of him at the time of writing.*f" In 1833 the name of James Rindale is
recorded at Nisqually House as having come there from Fort Langley, where he had
been the cooper, but had to quit owing to ill health. He is described as being an educated
man, being able to write a letter to Dr. Tolmie, then recency come out to the Pacific
coast, on the occasion of a serious accident to the hunter and guide, Pierre Charles.
Another man was sent from Nisqually to take his place, but the name was not mentioned.}
The barrel industry became an important part of the Langley work, and the Stave River
is said to derive its name from the fact that the material for the barrels was largely
obtained from that vicinity.
Again, in 1832, McDonald writes to McLeod that Fort Langley was up from 1400
to 2500 beaver, and adds that "our salmon, for all the contempt entertained for everything out of the routine of beaver at York Factory, is close upon 300 barrels, and I have
descended to oil and blubber, too, though not on your large scale, so that altogether,
whatever others may think of Fraser's River, I am well satisfied with its proceeds myself  «"
*W.H.Q., 9, 93 and also "Ranald McDonald.'
tW.H.Q., 1, 259.
ttRanald MacDonald, p. 8., Lewis.
•tW.H.Q., 1, 259.
tW.H.Q.,  6,   186.
ttW.H.Q., 1, 266.
79, both by W.  S. Le
 A Century of Settlement
There was a seamy side to the life as well. On February 20, 1831, he records, writing
to a friend in the East, " I have buried two men. J no. Kennedy, who was unwell but
still able to walk about, entered the kitchen one day in the month of April and dropped
dead on the floor. In the month of August, another of them (Therien) ran out of the
fort in sound health, and was brought in a corpse in a very few minutes. His case was an
accident—shot by one of the guns of the Vancouver." This vessel was built at Fort
Vancouver in 1826, and was 150 tons burden. She is described as being poorly constructed and a losing proposition from the first. She was wrecked on Rose Spit in the
Queen Charlotte Islands by her commander, Capt. Duncan, in the spring of 1834.*
The old graveyard where these men and many others lie is on a knoll amongst the trees
which line the modern Allard road, near Mr. Brouse's farm. Few know its location
to-day, but Jason Allard knows it well.
Life brings its responsibilities, and McDonald was a high principled man, who had
no wish to shirk them. He had his family to think of. On February 20th, 1833, he
writes that he has been directed to report to Fort Vancouver early in March. J. M. Yale
is to succeed him at Langley, with 12 men, and a cooper as assistants. This staff
McDonald thought sufficient, but, as a matter of fact, Yale had to part with 4 out of
his 13 the following May, since they were required for service at the new post of
Nisqually House.f Archibald leaves Langley with some regret, for it is, he says, a
snug, comfortable place, but where he finds it is high time to get his boys to school.
"God bless them—I have no less than five of them, all in a promising way."
As has been shown by his letters, he was devoted to garden work, and he found
that the farm at Langley made life more tolerable and increased his comfort. "Four
milch cows in already; killed three pigs this winter and three more f attening."}
On leaving Langley, he went to Fort Vancouver, and, after selecting the site and
laying the foundation of Nisqually House in June, 1833, he accompanied William Connolly
of New Caledonia up the Columbia River in July that same year.
James Murray Yale, the third chief, who now presided over Fort Langley. retained
that position for over 25 years. He entered the service of the Hudson's Bay. Company
about 1815 when but a boy, and did not receive any promotion until 21 years later. He
was of small stature, and even after his death was known as "Little Yale." In later
years he afforded an amusing contrast to the huge stature of James Douglas, who was
of noble proportions, a fact of which Yale seems to have been painfully aware. But, while
small, he was strong and courageous, and has been described as "recklessly brave,"
which is supposed to have been the cause of his slow promotion, as being a source of
danger to the company. Soon after the time that Yale entered the service of the
company, John Clark, with 100 men, set out for the Rocky Mountains and beyond, for
the purpose of establishing new posts for the Hudson's Bay Company. Disappointment
in food supplies, on which they had depended, reduced the party to starvation, although
their rivals were in the same district with supplies, which they would share with them
only on the condition that they gave up their service with the Hudson's Bay Company.
They refused, and an Indian reported that there was food to be obtained at his camp,
some way off. Some of the party started out, Yale going along with them. One after
another  fell by the wayside, overcome with starvation, says  Bancroft,  who got the
♦W.H.Q., 7, 184.
ttt'.H.Q., 6, 180.
iW.H.Q., 1, 266.
 14 Fort Langley
tale from A. C. Anderson, and at length little Yale's legs began to fail him, too. He
had greatly endeared himself to a stalwart old voyageur, who encouraged him in every
way to keep moving. The boy finally threw himself down on the snow and bade his
friend leave him to his fate. Finding that all his efforts were in vain, and the boy
could not keep up with him, the French Canadian, "swearing as only a French Canadian
can swear," exclaiming "Sacre! Sacre! Misere! c'est trop de valeur! Embarque!
Embarque!", by which expressions Canadians were wont to tell little people to get upon
their backs; he seized the lad, swung him over his shoulder, and carried him to safety.
The Indian women in tears, rushed forward, carried the unconscious boy into the camp,
rubbed his limbs and treated him as one of their own children.ft
Life in New Caledonia was hard for Yale. Another tale recorded by Bancroft is
based on a description by John Tod of a dinner party after coalition in 1821. He writes
with irony of the situation, where men who had been deadly enemies only a few months
earlier were now sitting side by side. "I allude," he says in one note, "to the man who
some years before in Peace River had tried to poison poor little Yale, but could not
succeed, for so invulnerable had the integuments of the latter's stomach become by long
acquaintance with the tough fare of that inhospitable stepmother, New Caledonia, that
the diabolical attempt altogether failed.*
The district over which Yale had control reached from Whidbey Island to Millbank
Sound, and all the inhabitants within that era were expected to trade at Fort Langley.
Another post was planned to be placed at Whidbey Island where a site was surveyed
by Mr. Heron for a new post in August, 1833, near to Ebey's Landing and Fort Casey,
as the site would be described to-day.f In December, Ouvrie, one of the men, was sent
with a small party to break ground for the post, and, owing to a storm arising, Mr. Heron
went to their relief, leaving Pierre Charles in charge at Nisqually House. On his
return he found, to use his own words, that he "had been sadly deceived in Pierre
Charles," and the place was in a bad condition. Having no one else to depend upon, he
reluctantly abandoned the design of an establishment upon Whidbey's Island. It is
suggested, and perhaps is remotely possible, that, had he carried out this plan, San Juan
and the adjacent territory might have been secured to the British Empire.}
From 1833 the company was experimenting along agricultural lines, under the
guidance of Doctor McLoughlin, urged along by Archibald McDonald, who proposed that
a subsidiary concern should be formed for the purpose of raising cattle and farm produce in the West on a commercial scale. It was feared, however, that this would tend to
interfere with the main business of fur trading and the matter was dropped. At the
same time the company found that it was essential to produce such large quantities of
farm produce for the consumption of the staffs at the various posts that certain establishments were turned into small farms, of which Nisqually House was an example.
In February, 1834, John Work wrote to Frank Ermatinger that the quantity of
grain that the doctor was raising at Fort Vancouver was enormous.
By 1838 the agricultural business had become so great that the Puget Sound
Agricultural Company was formed to handle that end of the trade. While not identical
with the Hudson's Bay Company, it was so closely allied to it that to all intents and
purposes it was the same concern. The officers of the fur company were in many cases
also those of the Agricultural Company as
ttBan., B. C, 171 N.
♦Bancroft, B.C., 79.
tW.H.Q.,  6,  194.
tW.H.Q., 6, 272.
TtV. L. Farrar, W.H.Q., 10, 205.
 A Century of Settlement IS
On February 6th, 1839, an agreement was entered into with the Russian American
Company whereby the company leased the "pan handle portion" of Alaska, the rental
to be paid in farm produce. The result was that Fort Langley entered into the agricultural scheme on a large scale. For many years their farm at Langley Prairie, occupying
the lands between the Salmon and Nicomekl Rivers, was famous. The first ploughing
is said to have been done by Etienne Pepin, known to people still resident in the district.
This was abolished after the termination cf the Russian agreement, and in 1877 the
land was sub-divided and sold in lots.
Ovid Allard joined the staff at Fort Langley in 1839. He had entered the service
of the Hudson's Bay Company in 1834, having spent his childhood at Lachine with an
uncle, who was a former official of the company. Sent westward with a party by way
of the Great Lakes to the buffalo country on the plains, they remained there for five
years, with occasional visits to Fort Boise, which they helped to build. Trapping and
trading occupied their time, meeting at Rendezvous for the exchange of furs and replenishing of their outfits. These were momentous events and lasted a week, with sports
that were rough but suited to the times. Douglas, at Fort Vancouver, was preaching
economy, and staffs were being reduced or re-organized; consequently in 1839 Allard was
sent to Langley as Indian trader, a post which needed tact and diplomacy.
In April, 1840, shortly after his arrival, fire completely destroyed Fort Langley.
This was a serious blow to the company, which had begun to look more and' more to
Langley for salt supplies for the other posts, and the season was now too far advanced to
make other arrangements in that way. However, in the end an agreement was made
with the Russians whereby permission was granted to purchase venison in their territory.*
Allard would in later years tell his family about the fire and the events of that
catastrophe. Mrs. Findlay, the wife of the guard at the entrance to the fort, was in
charge of the dairy, and was very proud of her butter. This was her chief concern
during the fire. At the time' great fears were felt lest the gunpowder should explode.
This was stored in barrels within the fort, and was very dangerous. While being
removed to a safer place, Mrs. Findlay ran about appealing to the men to save the
cream, and, in despair, ran into the burning buildings herself and brought it out. Not
until that important matter had been attended to did it occur to her that her infant
child was still within the blazing structure, and, while her offspring was being rescued,
the fire reached the cream and ruined it. "Qh I dear," cried Mrs. Findlay, "What a fine
batch of butter will never be made now !"f
On April 22nd, 1840, Douglas left Cowlitz for Nisqually House and there learned of
the loss of Langley. He proceeded thither on the S. S. Beaver and arrived at Fort
Langley to find Yale hard at work rebuilding the place upon a new site, the present site
of Fort Langley, some 2^6 miles further up the Fraser River. He loaned some 20 men
from the Beaver to expedite the rebuilding for a short time and then went on his way
up the coast.
In August, 1841, the fort had the solace of a religious visit, for the Rev. Modeste
Demers, one of the pioneer Catholic priests on the north-west coast, came here on a
visit from Fort Vancouver. Afterwards he became Bishop of Vancouver's Island. He
records that he was very courteously entertained by Mr. Yale and found work to do
among the French Canadians, as well as the Scotsmen, besides the Sandwich Islanders
or Kanakas, and an Iroquois.
•"Ranald McDonald,"  Lewis, p.  99.
tjason Allard.
  A Century of Settlement 17
In 1846 the Treaty of Washington created the boundary between the possessions
of Great Britain and the United States at the 49th parallel, west of the Rocky Mountains.
While in theory the right of the Hudson's Bay Company to trade with freedom south
of the line was respected, in practise it became imperative to secure a route to the
interior, other than that by tne Columbia River.
Victoria had been established on Vancouver Island in 1843, with an eye to future
contingencies, and the company decided to make Fort Langley the point of transshipment.
But to this plan there was a great obstacle in the rapids in the river Fraser and the
terrible canyons. ■
Business was excellent in 1846. In addition to the vast fur trade, the Fraser River
fisheries were now exporting annually from one to two thousand barrels of salted
salmon.* It is also to be noted that "since 1851, when fresh salmon sold at San Juan
Island at the rale of 60 for a $4.00 blanket, smoked salmon cured at Langley was worth
in the Sandwich Islands $16.00 a barrel, the fisheries of British Columbia have given
rise to one of the leading industries of the province."f
To solve the problems of transportation from Fort Langley to the Interior, Mr.
A. C. Anderson left Fort Alexandria in May, 1846, with five companions. He made an
exploration for a route travelling by way of The Fountain, Lillooet and Harrison Lake,
and arrived at Langley on May 24th. He condemned the route as useless for the
company's purposes.ft Leaving the fort again on May 29th, he accompanied a party
from the fort, which was ascending the Fraser to establish a salmon fishery on the
banks of the Chilliwack (now Vedder) River. The abandoned remains of this establishment were seen and recorded by Mayne in the year 1859.*t
On reaching the mouth of the Tlackullum, just below the Coquahalla River where
the town of Hope now stands, Anderson and his party, with an Indian chief for guide,
"plunging into the Cascade Range, hoped for the best."J
The Indians did not at all approve of this move of the white man, and Blackeye,
of Kamloops, reported to Anderson that Pahallok, chief of the Fraser Indians, had
attempted to persuade him to mislead the party, and so discourage the making of the
Anderson wrote to the Board of Management at Fort Vancouver on June 21st, and
again on June 23rd, pronouncing practicable the route by the way of the Coquahalla and
Nicola lakes, but that it would be available only between July and September, owing to
the heavy snow.
Douglas did not approve of this plan, and, at his wish, again on May 19th, 1847,
Anderson set out from Kamloops with five men and travelled up the Coldwater River
and across the Cascade Mountains, and eventually reached the Fraser near to Spuzzum,
near the site of the suspension bridge, reaching Langley on May 29th.
On June 1st they departed, taking with them a large Northwest coast canoe, with
which Anderson proposed to test the navigability of the rapids. In course of time he
arrived at Forts Kamloops and Alexandria.
Anderson himself expressed a preference for the. way by Kequeloose, near the
present site of the bridge, if the rapids could be overcome.   His suggestion was that the
C, p. 59.
*Ban., B.  C,  132.
tBan., B. C, 748.
ttHoway.    Raison d'etre, etc.,
p. 53.
*tMayne, "Four Years in V.
I. and B
tBan., B. C.  162.
tJBan.,  B.   C,   165.
Fort Langley
Annual Brigade should not leave Alexandria before May 25th, timing their departure
so as to reach Langley about June 20th, to admit of a delay of two days there, and to
depart about the first of July, a day or two later than the brigade usually left Vancouver
by the then existing route.
While these explorations were taking place, things were becoming more impossible
than ever on the Columbia river. Matters came to a head when, in November, 1847, the
shocking "Whitman massacre" took place at Waiilatpu, near Walla Walla. Peter Skene
Ogden, the Hudson's Bay Company's Chief Trader, then at Fort Vancouver, by sheer
A. C. Anderson
force of his personality, effected the rescue of the prisoners, • numbering about sixty
altogether.* This affair no doubt hastened the inevitable, and in 1848 word went forth
to the various posts that they must break their way through to Fort Langley at all costs,
and that their supplies for the ensuing year would await them there.f
Bateaux, capable of carrying about three tons, like those in use on the Columbia
River, were constructed at Langley for the purpose of carrying goods for trading with
*See P. S. Ogden, by Elliott, Or
tBan., B.  C,  173.
Hist., Quart. XL, 3, 1910.
 A Century of Settlement 19
the Indians, and a new post was erected on the Fraser just below the rapids, and named
Fort Yale, in honour of J. M. Yale, still in charge of Fort Langley. H. N. Peers
received the orders, but Ovid Allard seems to have actually done the work.
The attempt was made in June, 1848. Three brigades, from New Caledonia,
Thompson River and Colville, respectively, took part, numbering fifty men and 400 horses,
under the command of Donald Manson and A. C. Anderson. The trip was made, it is
true, but the difficulties were so great and the loss so heavy that the route was no
sooner tried than at once abandoned. One of the company was so overcome by the
hardships that he committed suicide, and was buried near the track at (now) Chapman's
Bar.* The route was not quite that intended by Anderson, who had proposed making
Kequeloose (the suspension bridge site) the horse station, but the rapids proved too
dangerous for this to be done, and Yale had to be built below them.
Since all this focussed around Fort Langley, the post of transhipment, it seems
pertinent to include in this paper this rather minute description of the efforts made to
link the fort with the interior in the early days. It is quite clear that prior to Anderson's
explorations there was no known practicable route to New Caledonia from the Pacific
Coast north of the line.
While Anderson was- doing all this work, Yale had sent his son-in-law, H. N. Peers,
from Langley in the summer of 1847 to take a second look at the Cascade Mountains,
and a more favourable report was made. Anderson now strongly favored the adoption
of some such route. In the fall of 1848. therefore, James Douglas gave orders for the
erection of another fort at the junction of the Coquahalla and Fraser Rivers, the name
of which breathed an inspiration and a prayer, "Fort Hope." The post was established,
but the trail was not completed in time for the brigade of 1849, which, perforce, had to
descend the Fraser canyons again. But on the return journey, on arriving at Hope, the
whole Brigade, reinforced by men from the fort, set to work in dead earnest, and pushed.
the trail across the mountains, which remained the main route for travel until the construction of the government road in the Colonial Days.
The arrival of the Brigade was a fine sight, and inspired many who saw it to write
enthusiastically about the scene. "A fine sight was the Brigade with its hundreds of
horses with no broken hacks in the train, but every animal in its full beauty of form and
colour, and all so tractable."t
The year 1849 witnessed, also, the removal of the company's headquarters to Fort
Victoria and the formation of the colony of Vancouver Island. This affects Fort Langley
only indirectly, but an incident, typical no doubt of many, may be referred to here.
Captain James Cooper, an Englishman, entered the service of the Company in 1844, and
commanded the bark "Columbia" at one period. Owing to ill health he left the sea and
started farming on a large scale on Vancouver Island, taking up land at Metchosin. He
brought out an iron vessel from England in sections, which were "assembled" at Victoria,
and, with Thomas Blenkhorn as partner, proposed trading with the Indians. In 1852
"the partners came up the Fraser to the KatseyJ Indians, now Hammond, and bought
cranberries and potatoes for the San Francisco market. Cranberries were plentiful in
the Delta, and Cooper purchased a barrel for 75c, to be sold later for $1.00 a gallon.
Cooper had, however, relied upon being able to procure his barrels, so necessary for this
purpose, at Fort Langley, where they were made extensively for the salmon industry.
He estimated that the cost to the company would be about 30c each. The company,
however, strongly disapproved of the stranger poaching upon their preserves, and would
*Howay,  Raison d'etre,
t Malcolm McLeod.
(Pronounced Kate-sey.
20 Fort Langley
only sell 100 barrels for $3.00 each cash* Douglas furthermore sent orders to Langley
.to purchase all further berries so that no such matter would occur again. Jason Allard's
father, Ovid Allard, was still Supervisor and Indian trader, and, when Yale was smarting under Douglas' rebuke for neglect of the company's interests, he in turn laid the
blame upon the trader, Allard. Jason relates that Yale kept closely to the officer's
quarters, where he maintained a number of fierce dogs, so fierce that more than once
Allard had to shoot one when visiting the house to get the key to the store, to which,
as trader, he had access every day. Shortly after the affair of the cranberries, Allard
shot Yale's favourite dog, and soon afterwards found himself transferred to Victoria.
In March, 1853, he was again transferred to Nanaimo, the new mining centre for the
company.   Here he took his family, but we will not' accompany him thither.
In 1851, Mr. Pemberton, a surveyor, came to the colony of Vancouver Island, and
brought with him Mr. W. H. Newton, as chainman. Not liking the work, Mr. Newton
entered the service of the Hudson's Bay Company and was sent to Langley as clerk, where
he remained during the fifties, and took charge of the fort upon the departure of Mr.
Yale. His widow, now Mrs. Mohun, is still residing at Victoria, having married Newton
in 1857. Life at the fort in these early days must have had some attractions, since men
stayed there for so many years without apparent complaint. Hard work they did not
mind; poor pay (as to-day it would be regarded) was no jection. On the whole, they
seem to have been happy in their work. Jason Allard was born at the fort in the house
of the Indian Trader, his father, on September 8th, 1848. He was thus only five years
of age when the family removed to Nanaimo, but he was back again at Langley in his
tenth year, a sharp lad, and conditions in the early part of 1858 were much the same,
no doubt, as previously. Few would anticipate the tremendous changes the fates had in
store for Langley and the Mainland.
Based upon his own knowledge, and the stories of his father, Jason tells us something of the life at Langley in the early days. There were employed there French
Canadians from the East, Scotchmen, Iroquois, Sandwich Islanders (or Kanakas as they
were called), and native Indians. All the employees lived within the fort, except the
Indians. The work included that of farmers, boat-builders, carpenters, coopers, blacksmiths, huntsmen, trappers and boatmen. All work started at 6 a.m. and ceased at 6
p.m., rain or shine, and kept at the work all the year around except for a half-holiday on
Saturdays, which meant scrubbing quarters. At noon on Saturday the men got a gill of
rum rationed out to them, and later on non-drinkers did a great trade.- Fancy shirts, silk
handkerchiefs and tobacco were the medium of exchange. Inter-marriage with the
Indians was greatly encouraged by the company, as it tended to promote the safety of the
fort and encouraged trade. At first the Indian mode of marriage sufficed, but, after the
arrival of the priests, that was changed. Rev. Father Demers has been mentioned as
visiting the fort in 1841, from Fort Vancouver, while visits are recorded of Rev. Father
Lemfrit in 1852, and Rev. Father Lootens in 1856, both from Victoria. Yale was
particular in getting his men married into good Indian families.
All work ceased on Christmas Eve, and men were treated to a gill of rum, and
then allowed to make purchases for their families. On Christmas morning the men,
dressed in their best clothes, marched up to the Officer's Quarters, called the Big House,
and there Mr. Yale held a reception, smoking and chatting for a couple of hours, after
which rations were issued at the store: ducks, geese, beef, venison, peas, tallow, Sandwich Island molasses, and a small allowance of tea. Dancing was kept up day and night
during the Christmas week. On Christmas afternoon, the men's wives were invited to
the Big House, and given a glass or two of wine.   They were told to bring, their blan-
*Cooper*s Mar. Matters, Ban., B. C, 256 N.
 A Century of Settlement 21
kets with them, and these were filled with cookies, cranberries, blueberry jam, and
ship's biscuits. After they had departed, and the wine had begun to take a little effect,
the wives began to show some spirit, since those who had married white men were
daughters of chiefs, and drew a line between those who had married Kanakas and
themselves. The whole week, from Christmas to the New Year, was one round of
enjoyment, and on New Year's Day there was a repetition of the previous engagements.
In the afternoon the Indian chiefs came to the Big House, and the usual ceremonies took
place, after which a whole beef was given to them to make a celebration with for the
tribe, together with an allowance of peas, tallow and molasses.*
Besides these festivals, the arrival of the annual Brigade was an important event in
the life of the fort, and eye witnesses still living, although they were at the time mere
children, describe the scene as very fine. Ships, too, anchored in the river near the fort,
bringing with them suggestions of far-off lands. Ballast from the barques and ships
could formerly be seen in the water just below the fort.
Early in the year 1858, the Hudson's Bay Company's steamer "Otter" arrived at
Nanaimo with Governor Douglas (of Vancouver Island) on board. He told of the
discoveries of gold on the mainland, and predicted a rush of prospectors during the
coming spring. He foresaw that Yale would be an important place in this event, and
requested the services of Ovid Allard to take charge there, since he was thoroughly
conversant with the Indians' character and could be relied upon to keep the peace
between the natives and the miners, as far as was humanly possible. Allard was still
mindful of his treatment by J. M. Yale and at first demurred, but, upon being assured
that he would be directly under Douglas, and need have but little intercourse with Yale,
the post was accepted. During the height of the gold rush, from 1858 to 1864, Ovid
Allard was in charge at Yale.
On February 6th, 1858, Allard and his family left Nanaimo on board the "Otter,"
and were detained at Fort Langley until May. Jason has prepared a list of the persons
who were at the fort during that period, as follows: J. M. Yale, Chief Trader and Officer
in charge; George Simpson, C. T. and Accountant, awaiting orders; William Henry
Newton, Clerk; Donald Manson and family, retired Chief Trader, en route to Oregon;
Ovid Allard and family, en route to Fort Yale; August Willing, Supervisor and Indian
Trader; Napoleon Dease, Assistant Trader; Etienne Pepin, Farm Overseer; William
Cromarty, Foreman Cooper; Kenneth Morrison, Assistant Cooper; John Mclver,
Assistant Cooper; Phineas Manson, Assistant Cooper; Robert Robertson, Assistant
Cooper; Peon Peon, Sandwich Islander; Nahu, Sandwich Islander; Apnaught, Sandwich
Islander; Joseph Mavo> Sandwich Islander; Samuel Robertson, Boatbuilder; Basil
Brosseau, Dairyman; Basil Brosseau, jr., Dairyman; also 7 Indians, as milkers for about
70 to 80 cows; James Taylor, Blacksmith; Richard Bailey, Assistant Blacksmith; William
Emptage, Shepherd; Donald Gunn, Teamster; O. Sturgeon, Teamster; Narcisse Fallerdo,
Steward, and 3 assistants, besides anywhere from 20 to 50 or more hired Indians.
It must be added that, when Jason Allard stayed at the fort in the sixties, he spent
much time in reading over the Journals of the fort, and made mental notes at the time.
Where these journals are to-day has not transpired.
Descendants of many of the above are still residing around Fort Langley.
The following'description of the fort may be inserted here, as it is based upon
Jason's recollections of this period, together with his conversations with other men at
subsequent times.
The new fort was considerably larger than the former building, and is said to have
•Based upon Articles by Jason, e.g., Prov., Oct. 25th, 1924, and Conversations.
  A Century of Settlement 23
enclosed an area of approximately 630 x240 feet within the palisade. There was one
rather unusual feature, in that there were four bastions, one at each corner, instead of
the more usual two, placed diagonally. The bastions were about 20 feet square, with 18-
foot walls, and a shake roof. In each there were two nine-pounder guns, and also some
smaller cannon, about 2% pounds. A specimen of the 9-lb guns may still be seen at the
Scowlitz Indian Reserve near Harrison Mills, while one of the small cannon was
recently presented to the fort by Mr. Jimmy Robertson, of Albion, whose father obtained
it from the fort in the days of its abandonment. These were used mainly for salutes
and festivals, since the relations between the fort and the Indians was most amicable.
The palisade was of heavy logs of split cedar, 15 to 18 inches in diameter, set close
together on end in the ground, above which they extended to about 18 feet. Flattened
on the inside, they were held together by stout wooden pegs inserted in holes bored
through the logs. A lookout and firing step extended along the north and part of the
west side, inside the palisade.
The gates were hung on heavy iron hinges and were of double-door design, of hand-
sawn planks. They were only opened on certain occasions, and each had a little wicket
gate, admitting one person at a time, for ordinary use. In the early days, watchmen
were stationed at the gates.
The officer's residence, or "Big House," was a log building two storeys in height.
This was the residence of the Factor and Clerk, and their families. The rooms on the
second floor were reserved for the officers of the Brigade, during their brief stay at the
fort. It was in the reception room on> the ground floor that the ceremony of installing
Governor James Douglas took place on November 19th, 1858, thus bringing into existence
the Crown Colony of British Columbia.
Near the Officers' Quarters was the cook house, where the meals were prepared for
the occupants of the Big House. Then came the steward's quarters, who attended to the
tables of the officers. Residence of the Supervisor and Indian Trader—this, position
called for much tact and diplomacy and knowledge of the Indian character. It was held
for many years by Ovid Allard, his son Jason being born here in 1848; residence of the
Cooper and Boatbuilder; residence of the Blacksmith and Dairyman; houses of the
Labourers; Sandwich Islanders or Kanakas; Cooper's Shop, where the barrels were
made for the salted and smoked salmon; Trader's Shop, where trade was carried on
with the Indians through a wicket (an armed guard was maintained on an upper floor,
commanding the wicket during trading operations) ; Store Room, where the rations were
kept, brought periodically by the Company's ships for the men at the fort; Blacksmith
Shop; Warehouses, Storerooms for the wheat, oats, tallow, salt beef and pork, etc.,
produced for export; and the Carpenter's Shop, where the furniture for the fort was
From February to May, 1858, Allard's family resided at Fort Langley. Jason was
then a boy nearly ten years of age. Ovid Allard, the father, spent his time in taking
supplies to the prospectors, now strung out along the Fraser River Canyons, and who had
reached as far as 30 to 40 miles above Yale by June, 1858* He then settled at Yale
and proceeded to take down the three former buildings erected by himself in 1848, and
used the material in constructing a large store in anticipation of the'days when steamers
would land their passengers here.
The story of the Fraser River Gold rush is part of the history of Fort Langley, but
would take far more space than can here be spared. We will therefore limit the notes to
such matters as directly concern the fort itself.
•Bancroft, B. C, 441.
Fort Langley
At this time, Langley was considered the head of steam navigation, and thither the
"Otter" and "Seabird" made regular trips from Victoria. Passage rates were $20.00 and
upwards to $65.00, so that canoes often took the adventurous course from Victoria,
where alone mining licences could be obtained, and proceeded up the river beyond Langley to Hope and Yale. The steamer passengers were often detained at Langley, in the
meanwhile, owing to the scarcity of canoes.
On June 4th, 1858, the American side-wheeler steamer "Surprise," with Capt. Tom
Huntingdon in charge, anchored at Fort Langley and demanded a pilot for Fort Hope.
The pilot was an Indian named Speel-set, who went on board the Surprise, barefooted,
and in a blanket. He returned, his mission successful, having navigated the boat safely
to Fort Hope, dressed in a pilot cloth suit, with a white hat and calfskin boots, the
proudest Indian in the valley, and his name was Captain John. Moreover, he was paid
the sum of $160.00, through Mr. Yale, for pilot's services, eight $20.00 gold pieces. The
job was worth it, for the river had now been proved navigable to Fort Hope, and boats
thereafter made that the terminus, a blow to Fort Langley, whose day of glory were
well nigh run.
On August 22nd, 1858, the Home Parliament passed an act to provide for the
government of the Crown Colony of British Columbia, and one month later the license
of exclusive trade granted to the Hudson's Bay Company for 21 years from May 30th,
1838, was revoked. James Douglas was appointed Governor for British Columbia, and
his commission for Vancouver Island was renewed.*
^g^asswsg. Prior to this Douglas ascended the river
in May on board the Otter. At Fort Langley
he found that speculators had seized upon the
idea that Fort Langley would become the
capital of the new colony, and had surveyed
a townsite, which they apparently called
Derby, at the site of the Old Fort. The
name "Derby" is not used by Douglas prior
to October, 1859, when he refers to the place
under that name in a letter to the Duke of
Newcastle.t From Yale, in September, 1858,
Douglas, issued a proclamation warning the
public that no crown lands had been sold, and
followed this up by confiscating the work of
the speculators, and on October 1st he
announced an intended sale of town lots on
his own account.ft
While these things were taking place,
Sir E. Bulwer Lytton proposed sending out a
picked party of Sappers and Miners, and the
first contingent arrived under Capt. Grant,
R.E., with 12 men, on November 8th. Barracks
were constructed at Old Fort Langley, and
the men stationed there. They were supplemented shortly afterwards by Capt. Parsons,
R.E., and another small party. Here, on November 17th, came a party from Victoria,
on board "Satellite," to Point Roberts, the "Otter" to the mouth of the River Fraser
Sir James  Douglas
•Ban. 384.
tNote from Geog.  Bd. of Can.
ttS. & H.2.60.
Mr. Douglas, Sec.
 .  A Century of Settlement 25
On Friday, November 19th, 1858, in the
reception  room  at the  Big  House  at  Fort
Langley, since the weather was too wet to
allow the ceremony being performed outside
Douglas  handed  Begbie  his  commission  as
Chief Justice of the new colony of  British
Columbia,   and  in turn  Begbie,  now  Chief
Justice,  handed Douglas  his  commission as
Governor in the new colony. Oaths of office
were then taken; proclamations were read revoking the Hudson's Bay Company's executive
privileges; past irregularities, due to extraordinary circumstances attending the gold
rush were indemnified, and English law
adopted. Guns were fired, and in a drizzle of
rain the Crown Colony of British Columbia
came into being. From this moment the
glory of Fort Langley began to wane.
Douglas had decided to make the Old
Fort the capital of the colony. Lots were
therefore sold by auction at Victoria on November 25th, 26th and 29th. They were
64x100 feet, the upset price being $100.00.
Adjoining the town were 10 square miles of
land reserved for the Hudson's Bay Company.
$68,000 was realized from about 400 lots at
from $40.00 to $725.00 each.
But fate willed otherwise for the site of the new capital. On the arrival of Col
Richard Moody, R.E., at Christmas, 1858, strong objection was at once taken to the
selection. As the Colonel was Commissioner of Lands and Works in the colony, and had
a dormant commission as Lieutenant Governor, should occasion arise for its use he had
to be reckoned with. On February 14th notice was given that the new capital would
be situated on the north bank of the Fraser, and that the lots sold at the Old Fort would
be exchanged for others at Queensborough, as the town was to be called. This name
was later changed to New Westminster by Royal Proclamation on July 20th, 1859.
The Old Fort, or Derby, received a church, barracks, a parsonage and a gaol, all
of which have gone to-day. The church was taken apart and floated over the river
about the year 1882, and still is used by the Church of England at Maple Ridge, at the
corner of Latimer Road and River Road. The barracks, gaol and parsonage house
have all been burned, only the marks of their foundations being left to tell the tale
M.  B.  Begbie
In 1863 Hudson's Bay Company's stations in the Lower Fraser Valley were- Fort
Langley, in charge of W. H. Newton; Fort Hope, in charge of W. Charles; and Fort
Yale, in charge of Ovid Allard.
Fort Langley
In 1864, 0\id Allard was transferred to Fort Langley. The fort was by this time
being gradually dismantled. The front and part of the stockade were taken down by
degrees between 1861 and 1864, and the remainder was allowed to fall into disrepair and
not preserved. Its day as a fort was over. In 1872 the Big House, built in 1840,
became quite unsafe. Allard made repeated representations to the Board of Management at Victoria, but nothing was done. Early in the year, Jason relates, Dr. W. F.
Tolmie, the senior member of the Board, paid a visit to the fort. That night the wind
rose to a hurricane, and the old house shook and groaned with the stress and buffeting.
The doctor, who sought the assistance and comfort of Allard, was assured that that was
the usual thing to expect at Langley, and that the only really safe place was in the
potato cellar, where, it is said, the doctor spent the remainder of the night. The order
came soon afterwards to rebuild, which was done, the old house being removed and
replaced by the building which was taken down in 1925. This was erected by William
Cromarty, formerly foreman cooper at the fort.
The Old Hudsoris Boy fort which still remains
Here Ovid Allard died on August 4th, 1874, after 40 years' service with the
company. He is buried in the graveyard near St. George's Church in Fort Langley.
W. H. Newton succeeded him, but also died a few months later in the same room, in
January,  1875.
In turn there followed Henry Wark, nephew of John Work, of the expedition of
1824; Sinclair, Drummond and Powell. The trading post became a store and finally
ceased to be needed. "The mining rush ended the period of barter and brought the
period of sale; it therefore spelled disaster to the little fur trade still remaining at Fort
Langley. The termination of the lease of the Alaskan strip ended the raison d'etre of
its large farming operations; the advent of fanmers and the growth of general farming
in the colony caused the Company to abandon this line of operations in June, 1896.
Thus Judge Howay closes the scene for the fur traders. There is yet one more period
before the century is closed.
The Municipality of Fort Langley inherits the traditions of the fort. Taking
advantage of the Municipalities' Act of 1872, Fort Langley applied for letters of
Incorporation, which were granted, dated April 26th, 1873.*   Mr. James Mackie was the
•Information from the Municipal Hall, Murrayville.
 A Century of Settlement 27
first Reeve. The present Reeve, Mr. Poppy, has held office during fifteen years.
Subsequently, these letters were cancelled and re-issued, so as to include the stretch
of land 2% miles wide, near the International Boundary, known as the Railway Belt.
This was done as from January 1st, 1895. Prior to the building of the Fort Langley
town hall, the municipal meetings were held in a school building at the Fort. Later
the seat of government was moved to Murray's Corners, now Murrayville, to quarters
above the general store. The present municipal hall was built in 1912. The Municipal
records suffered much loss when the residence of the clerk was burned down December
27th, 1895. This necessitated the passing of a special Act at Victoria, "An Act for
the Relief of the Municipal Corporation of the Township of Langley, April 17th, 1896."
The arrival in the valley of the Canadian Pacific Railway did nothing to help
Langley, except, indirectly, through the opening of the Valley and the development of
the Province. The coming of the British Columbia Electric Interurban Railway in
1910 did still less, for it took away much of Fort Langley's previous trade, which had
been largely carried on by shipping the farm produce down the Fraser river to New
The district is, however, unsurpassed as an agricultural, mixed farming and dairy
country, and, with its great historic interest, should develop rapidly in the coming
The fort has grown into a municipality, the principal business centres of which
are: Fort Langley, Langley Prairie, Aldergrove, Murrayville and Milner. This year,
1927, witnesses the hundreth anniversary of the establishment of the fort by James
McMillan The place deserves well of the people of the Province, and it is to be
hoped that immediate steps will be taken to strengthen the hands of the Historic Sites
and Monuments Board of Canada, which is preserving the remaining building of the
fort as a national memorial. This same year, 1927, the Dominion is celebrating its
Diamond Jubilee, and the Lower Fraser Valley cart look back with pride upon 75 years
of Confederation and 100 years of settlement, 6000 miles away from London, yet a vital,
living part of the British Empire to-day as in the past.
To conclude, the words spoken by Mr. C. H. French, head of the Fur Department
on the Pacific Coast for the Hudson's Bay Company, at the unveiling of the bronze
tablet at Fort Langley on May 2nd, 1925, may fittingly be taken as summing up the whole
of the glorious past.    In part, he said:
"It is a great pleasure to be with you to-day as the representative of the glorious
old Company of Adventurers of England. Langley is a name that is destined to be
handed down in history from generation to generation, carrying with it that spirit of
adventure that goes with miners, fur traders, trappers and empire builders.
"It was here that the fur trader on the Coast first shook hands with the trappers.
"It was here that the fur traders grasped the hands of miners from California,
and we cannot overlook the fact that while the fur trader opened up the country,
pacified the natives and ensured British rule, the miner had a large share in effecting
developments that would have taken many years to achieve had he npt arrived.
"What wonderful men were these old fur traders 1 The more one knows about them
the more one wonders how it was possible to gather such picked men together at these
remote spots. It took years to get supplies, and for many years one mail each year was
as much as could be expected.   Ordinary wages would not do it.
 28 Fort Langley
"They had to subsist on the natural resources of the country, and, on that account,
one can readily understand why such feverish haste was made to establish farms where
potatoes, cereals, beef, butter, etc., could be raised to supply not only Langley but also
other posts further inland.
"Langley, then, became a food depot of no mean size, where a large number of
servants were employed.
"Langley became a depot for storing furs while being gathered for exportation to
London. It was considered to be the only safe place on the Coast that the Russians
•could not molest during the Crimean War of 1855.
"In the development of new countries, changes become necessary from time to time,
and while Langley was the Mother of all British Columbia posts up to 1842, it was
then found necessary, owing to the Oregon Boundary Question, to build a new center
at Victoria. This new center was not able to deprive Langley of its place in the sun.
She was yet the spot where almost all industries of the Province had their being, and,
in spite of being burned down in 1840, she arose again from her ashes to renewed active
"Langley was the original exporter of salt salmon.
■''Langley exported hemp to England, to be made into rope.
"Langley sent large consignments of cranberries to San Francisco during the fifties.
"Langley was the first to make an export of barrels.
"Langley made milk pans from birch-bark.
"Langley made brooms from birch sticks pounded into strips on one end.
"Langley made all their horse-collars from birch, also many other things of this
material, such as wedges, axe handles, mall handles, toboggans, etc.
"Langley ground flour from wheat with crude stones.
"Langley's blacksmiths made locks, nails, hinges, axes, and many other articles
required in the trade and for the use of the posts.
"This glorious spot, where East met West for so many years, where so many
industries of the Province first had their being, has just as many - possibilities as ever.
"Therefore, I again say to you that I am glad to be here, and that the object of the
gathering is such a worthy one. •
"On behalf of the Governor and the Committee of the Hudson's Bay Company, let
me extend to you greetings. These gentlemen who guide the Company's destiny from
London are delighted to find that, by such actions as you are taking to-day, they are
encouraged to make further efforts to keep fully alive the golden rule, which policy
was set by their predecessors . . . . "
 A Century of Settlement 29
In 1925, three acres of land surrounding the one remaining building of the
old fort were purchased for a recreation ground and public park Funds were raised
for this purpose by public subscription through the united efforts of the Native Sons of
B. C, Post No. 4, New Westminster; and the Fort Preservation Committee, Fort
Langley. The Dominion Historic Sites and Monuments Board accepted the custody
of the building, with one acre of land, and erected the cairn and tablet referred to.
Much, however, remains to be done to make the place attractive and worthy of its
name. It is hoped that this paper may arouse further interest in suggestions that are
being made to make the Fort site a museum, or at least self supporting, as a public place
of historic interest.
A complete list of the descendants of former members of the Fort staff, who are
still resident in the Valley, is very desirable. The secretary of the Art, Historical and
Scientific Association, Mr. T. P. O. Menzies, who is also the Curator at the Vancouver
City Museum, will gladly record names which may be sent to him, as well as any
other information relative to this subject.
Geographic Board of Canada, Ottawa,
April 6th, 1927.
Sir:- W.-1-27.
At the Board Meeting yesterday, it was unanimously agreed to revise the decisions
Wark; channel, island, mount and point, to Work; channel, island, mount and point, as
recommended in yout
letter o
f 7th
Your obedient
Major G. G. Aitken,
on Geographic Board of British Columbia,
Department of Lands,
Victoria, B. C.
 30 Fort Langley
An adequate list of acknowledgements would be out of all proportion to the length
and value of the present paper. But to do what one may, where so many have helped,
mention must first of all be made of His Hon. Judge Howay, of New Westminster, who
for a number of years has given encouragement.
Prof. C. Hill Tout, of Vancouver, has provided the material which has supplied the
notes on the Indians, in many conversations.
Jason Allard is well known to the inhabitants of the Lower Fraser Valley. In
many talks, and from his own articles in the Province, such matter has been selected
as seemed most suitable for the present purpose. His father, Ovid Allard, spent almost
all of his life at the Fort, or its vicinity.
The City Librarian, Mr. E. S. Robinson, and Miss Annis.
The Library, U.B.C., Miss Woodworth and Miss Jefford.
The Provincial Archives, Mr. John Hosie and Miss A. M. Russell.
The Vancouver City Museum, Mr. Menzies, curator.
The Art, Historical and Scientific Association of Vancouver, Rev. J. C. Goodfellow.
Mr. C. H. French, Head of Fur Department, Hudson's Bay Company, Winnipeg,
Man., formerly of Vancouver.
Mr. Ormsby 'Lee, Chief Factor, Native Sons of B. C, Fort Langley Post.
The Vancouver Daily Province, Cuts,
G. Y. Timms, Langley Prairie, B. C, Cuts,
and many more too numerous to mention.
Books more particularly cited are:
Schofield and Howay, British Columbia.
Howay, Raison d'etre of Forts Yale and Hope.
Howay, Early History Fraser River Mines, Arch. Mem. No. VI.
Howay, Articles in the "Beaver" for November, 1921, on Fort Langley, through
kindness of the editor, Mr. Robert Watson.
Bancroft, British Columbia.
Washington Historical Quarterly. Various articles in volumes 1 -10.
Work's Journal, Washington Historical Quarterly. Edited by T. C. Elliott.
McMillan's Journal, 1827, in Judge Howay's library.
"Peace River, etc.," edited by Malcolm McLeod.
"Ranald McDonald," Lewis.
Canadian North-West. Oliver.
Thompson's Narrative.    Champ, ed. Tyrrell.
Historical Sketches.   Archbishop Blanchet.
Fraser's Journal.   Masson, Vancouver Public Library.
Mainland Guardian, New Westminster Public Library. Mr. Dare.
 A Century of Settlement
McM ill an  Island, Looking North From Fort Langley
Fort Langley of To-day.    All That Remains of the Old Fort.
ov FINIS <-3


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