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Reports of agents, officers, and persons, acting under the authority of the Secretary of the Treasury,… United States. Department of the Treasury 1896

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54th Congress,
1st Session.  
SENATE.
 Document 137,
 Part 2.
REPORTS
OF
AGENTS, OFFICERS, AND PERSONS, ACTING UNDER THE AUTHORITY
OF THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY,
IN RELATION TO THE
CONDITION OF SEAL LIFE ON THE ROOKERIES
    OF THE PRIBILOF ISLANDS,  
AND TO
PELAGIC SEALING IN BERING SEA AND THE
NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN,
IN
THE  YEARS 1893-1895.
In Two Parts.
Part II. 
["With maps and illustrations.   Results of investigations under the direction
of the U. S. Commissioner of Eish and Fisheries.]
WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT  PRINTING   OFFICE.
1896.    CONDITION OF SEAL LIFE ON THE ROOKERIES
OF THE PRIBILOF ISLANDS, 1893-1895.     |
By C. H. Townsend.
THE ROOKERIES  IN  1893.
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.
Washington, D. 0., February 26,1894.
Sir : I have the honor to inform you that during the summer of 1893
an inquiry was conducted on the Pribilof Islands by the United States
Fish Commission, in compliance with the following clause contained in
the sundry civil appropriation bill for the fiscal year ending June 30,
1894, namely:
And the Commissioner of Fisheries is authorized and required to investigate, under
the direction of the Secretary of the Treasury, and when so directed to report
annually to him regarding the condition of seal life upon the rookeries of the Pribilof Islands.
The report upon this investigation by the naturalist of the Fish Commission steamer Albatross, Mr. C. H. Townsend, by whom it was conducted, is herewith respectfully transmitted, in accordance with your
direction.
Yery respectfully, M. McDonald,
Commissioner.
Hon. John G. Carlisle,
Secretary of the Treasury, Washington, D. C.
INTRODUCTION.
The report herewith submitted is based chiefly upon the observations
made on St. Paul and St. George islands between July 11 and August
18, 1893, in conformity with the instructions issued for my guidance,
and with the object of determining the conditions of seal life upon the
rookeries of the Pribilof Islands during that period, as compared with
the corresponding period of the previous year. It is accompanied by 11
charts and 4G photographic views (105 plates),1 corresponding mainly
with those made in 1892 by Mr. J. Stanley-Brown, special Treasury
agent, and forming part of his report to the Secretary of the Treasury.
Views were obtained from all of the photographic stations occupied by
Mr. Stanley-Brown, but as the photographer of the Fish Commission
iThis set of charts and photographs not transmitted for publication, the accompanying series for 1895, showing more reduced condition of rookeries, being deemed
sufficient.
3 SEAL   LIFE   ON  THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS,
steamer Albatross likewise secured several excellent negatives ol some
of the rookeries from other good positions in 1892, I considered it
important to duplicate them also, and prints from these negatives of both
years have been included among the photographs transmitted. From
the appended catalogue of photographs, giving the dates upon which
t]ue negatives were made in each year, it will be seen that, with one
exception, corresponding negatives were taken on the same or very
nearly the same date, foggy weather sometimes interfering with the
work, but not sufficiently to allow of any material change in the condition of the rookeries. The exception was at Northeast Point rookery,
on St. Paul Island, which the writer was unable to reach until the seals
had spread slightly. The difference in perspective observable in the
photographs of the two years is owing to the fact that the photographic
lens used in 1893 had a somewhat different angle from the one employed
by Mr. J. Stanley-Brown.
In comparing the corresponding photographs for the two years, it
will be observed that only a few of them show any appreciable differences in the abundance of the seals upon the rookeries to which they
relate; but my personal observations clearly demonstrate that a moderate decrease in the number of seals and slight changes in their distribution did occur between the summer of 1892 and that of 1893>as described
below, these facts being also more plainly brought out by a comparison
of the charts.
In this connection, it seems proper to explain that my acquaintance
with the seal rookeries of the Pribilof Islands has not been limited to
the investigation of last summer. I first visited these islands during
June and September, 1885, at which time the rookeries were in their
prime, pelagic sealing, just then beginning, having produced scarcely
any effect upon the islands. Compared with the vast herds then observed, the body of seals now on the rookeries appears as a mere remnant.
As the naturalist ol the steamer Albatross, I also made observations on
these islands from July 28 to August 10,1891, and again between June
30 and August 14,1892, during a part of this latter period having been
temporarily attached to the revenue-steamer Cor win, then engaged in
following the breeding female seals out to their feeding grounds, on
which, up to distances of 200 miles from the islands, specimens obtained
by means of firearms were found to be in milk and to have undigested
food in their stomachs.
Recognizing the importance of designating the photographic stations
previously referred to, so that they may be found without delay in
future years, I have marked many of those located near peimanent
rocks or bowlders with their numbers in white lead, and I would respectfully suggest that this Work be completed next season. The rookeries
at which the stations have been so designated are Great East, Little
East, North and Starry Arteel, on St. George Island; and Reef and
Zapadnie, on St. Paul Island.
ITINERARY FOR THE SEASON.
Accompanied by Mr. N. B. Miller,, photographic assistant, I was
landed on St. George Island by the steamer Albatross on the morning
of July 11, and remained there until the 15th. Zapadnie rookery was
photographed on the 13th; North rookery in the morning and Starry
Arteel rookery in the afternoon of the 14th; the East and Little East
rookeries during the morning of the 15th. The areas covered by the
seals at each of these rookeries were plotted upon the charts on the
same dates.
"^MB^ij^V^t&SgyVjY SEAL   LIFE   ON   THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
5
We took up our quarters on St. Paul Island on July 16, and on the
17th attempted to photograph the rookery at Northeast Point, but a
dense log prevented. Later in the day, however, we succeeded in
photographing Ketavie and Lukannon rookeries. During the 18th,
19th, 20th, and 21st, work was entirely interrupted by log. The 22d
proved clear, and permitted us to obtain plates ol Reel rookery in the
morning, and ol Tolstoi and Zapadnie rookeries in the afternoon. A
dense log continued Irom the 23d to the 25th inclusive, followed by
clear weather on the 26th, when we visited and photographed Northeast Point rookery, the writer remaining there overnight to complete
his observations. Polavina rookery was photographed in the afternoon ol the 28th, and on the 29th observations were made at Tolstoi
and Peel rookeries.
A severe storm prevailed during the 30th, and on the-following day I
visited that part of Reef rookery lying under the cliffs lor the purpose
ol ascertaining to what extent young pups may have been destroyed
by it, but I found the damage slight. In the afternoon I visited
JZapaduie rookery, and Mr. Miller returned on board the Albatross.
On August 1 photographs were obtained ol Lagoon rookery and of
Reef rookery from Village Hill. The 2d and 3d were spent in making
general observations; from the 4th to the 7th fogs and storms prevailed;
on the 8th visits were paid to Lukannon and Ketavie rookeries, and to
the rookery on Sea Lion Rock. On the 9th I secured photographs of
Northeast Point rookery from Hutchinson Hill, but the weather was
rainy or foggy from the 10th to the 13th, permitting only of brief examinations being made ol Reel and Ketavie rookeries. August 14 I visited
Tolstoi rookery and found several hundred dead seal pups, nine-tenths
of which had undoubtedly been killed under the cliffs during the recent
storm. Their bodies were lying just along the line ol debris left by
the highest wash ol the waves, and as they were mostly near the commencement ol the sand beach, they had evidently been swept Irom the
narrow rookery at the loot ol the cliff extending out to the point.
On August 16 I was again transferred to St. George Island, where I
spent that and the two following days in reexamining the several rookeries. They were all well covered by the spreading out ol the seals
which takes place in August, and makes the rookeries look larger than
in July. A large proportion ol the young pups were also swimming
about the adjacent kelp beds off Little East rookery. In the afternoon
ol the 18th I rejoined the Albatross.
CONDITION OF THE ROOKERIES.
ST. PAUL ISLAND.
Northeast Point rookery.—The seals along the eastern side of this
rookery were found distributed as in 1892, but undoubtedly much more
thinly in the immediate vicinity ol the point. Along the western side
they were hauled out a little larther back, owing perhaps to the later
date at which the observations were made. One or two breaks in the
beach line had closed since the preceding season, but no increase can
be noted on account ol the thinning at the point. It is, therefore, probable that no appreciable change has taken place in the total number ol
seals on the rookery since 1892. No seals whatever from this rookery
have been killed lor several seasons. Photographed July 26 and
August 9.
Polavina rookery shows a decrease in seals, although the usual area
is occupied.   It will be noticed in the photographs of the main rookery 6
SEAL  LIFE   ON   THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
-(Station G) by the thinly covered spaces. There was also a perceptible
thinning among the small bands of breeding seals under the bluffs
between Little Polavina and the main rookery.   Photographed July 28.
Little Polavina rookery has apparently suffered a slight decrease.
The wide hauling ground between this rookery and the main Polavina
was practically bare throughout the season, seals being seen generally
close to the bluff in the vicinity of the slopes that give access from the
beach.   Photographed July 28.
Lukannon rookery.—On that part of this rookery where the seals atfe
crowded, chiefly between the low bluff and the beach, there has been
no apparent change, but there were certainly fewer seals than in 1892
upon the hill that divides this rookery from Ketavie. The hauling
ground had largely changed from the slope at the west end of the rookery
to the sand beach just north of it, as shown in the photograph taken at
station 26.   Photographed July 17.
Ketavie rookery, now the thinnest rookery on the inlands, shows a perceptible decrease since 1892. This decrease is distinguishable in some,
if not all, of the photographs of the rookery.   Photographed July 17.
Reef rookery.—The hauling grounds at this rookery have not been
delineated upon the chart for the reason that the bachelors were driven
too often to permit of their lying in a perfectly natural condition. This
rookery shows a shrinkage under the low bluffs just north of Garbotch
(indicated on the chart), but otherwise there has been no change that I
can detect. There was a loss of one or two hundred pups from the
storm of July 30,1893. Sea Lion Rock, lying just off this rookery, was
visited and found to be very evenly occupied by breeding seals. The
central portions of Reef Point, over which the badhelors travel more
or less, is becoming distinctively more thickly covered with grass from
year to year.   Photographed July 22.
Lagoon rookery remains unchanged since 1892. Photographed August 1.
Tolstoi rookery.—The photographs exhibit only a slight change or
-thinning out of the seals at this place, which is shown more distinctly
on the chart. There was a loss of perhaps 500 young pups from the
storm of July 30, 1893. They were swept from the narrow beacfh
below the cliff and deposited in a windrow at high-water mark near
the commencement of the sand beach to the northward. There was
no other loss of pups here, with the exception of the scattered loss
from natural causes.   Photographed July 22.
Lower Zapadnie rookery showed no change in number of seals, with
the exception of tme or two breaks along the shingle beach. Photographed July 22.
Upper Zapadnie rookery is the most difficult seal area on the Pribilof
Islands to examine, and as the weather did not permit the use of a
boat, the larger bands of seals near the beach could not be approached
without disturbing the tract of seals in their rear. There has, however, been a decrease of seal life here, which is, I think, noticeable on
the photographs.   Photographed July 22.
ST. GHEORGKE ISLAND.
East rookery shows very little change since last season, except in the
distribution of bachelors, the main body of which had hauled out north
of the pond instead of south of it as in 1892. Owing to the unfavorable points from which this rookery has to be photographed to avoid
.'^•■Utw'ttot&SRNt'
.J^vJW^vTKV SEAL   LIFE   ON   THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
7
disturbing the herd, the change that has taken place here is scarcely
perceptible in the photographs. Although the same area is occupied
by breeding seals as in 1892, and is so indicated on the chart, the
change is there expressed by the words "Thinned out slightly since
1892."   Photographed July 15.   | j§    |:
Little East rookery presents the same appearance as in 1892. I am not
able to detect any change, and the photographs taken there do not
seem to indicate any.   Photographed July 15.
North rookery.—The seals are disposed on t\iU rookery much as in
1892, but a slight decrease is perceptible, which is also shown by the
photograph taken at station 5.   Photographed July 14.
Starry Arteel rookery.—The scattered fringe of seals along the main
rookery visible in 1892 now seems to have been absorbed into the main*
body of breeding seals. The chart will be found to indicate a reced-
ence toward the bluff at two or three points. Bachelor seals seem also*
to be less numerous and were not found distributed so far back as
usual, the higher positions on the hill being mostly unoccupied this,
year.   Photographed July 14.
Zapadnie rookery shows more shrinkage than any other of the St*
George Island rookeries. The decrease is perceptible in the photograph taken at station 6. The main breeding ground on the hill slope
by the bluff is decidedly scattered as compared with 1892, and there
are two breaks in the narrow breeding ground along the beach. The?
hauling ground of bachelors is much more thinly covered, and seals,
were not found as far back as in 1892.   Photographed July 13.
'<!
CONCLUSIONS AS TO CONDITION OF ROOKERIES.
Taking all the rookeries of the Pribilof Islands into consideration, it
may be safely asserted that the total number of seals upon them has
decreased to an appreciable extent since the summer of 1892. The
annual increase of young seals has not, therefore, been quite sufficient to
offset the loss caused by the continuance of pelagic sealing in the North
Pacific Ocean. It is evident, however, that the closing of Bering Sea to
sealing vessels during the period of the modus vivendi has had a most
salutary effect upon the rookeries of the Pribilof Islands, and that their
present condition, so nearly stationary as regards the number of seals
since this regulation came in force, is distinctly traceable to the protection thus afforded.
ADDITIONAL PROTECTION FOR THE ROOKERIES.
The erection of watchhouses at all the rookeries and their connection
with the villages by telephones and roads has been commenced, and the
continuance of this work can not be too strongly urged. The organization of the natives into regular watchmen is not only desirable for the
systematic care of the rookeries, but would be a most effective system
of discipline for them, as a class of people living most of the time in
enforced idleness.
A light mounted field piece, such as a Hotchkiss rapid-firing gunr
would be a valuable aid in the work of protection. Sealing vessels
have at various times approached the islands for the purpose of sealing
or raiding the rookeries, and a thorough protection can not be assured
during the absence of Government vessels, which must sometimes
happen. 8
SEAL   LIFE
THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
OPENING OF PART OF BERING SEA TO PELAGIC SEALING.
By the provisions of the recent treaty of arbitration, pelagic sealing
will hereafter be permitted in Bering Sea after August 1 of each year
outside of a radius of 60 miles from the Pribilof Islands. Notwithstanding that the use of firearms will be prohibited, the opportunity afforded
by this privilege is likely to produce a very serious effect upon the seal
herd belonging to the several rookeries whenever the vessels find continuous good weather. Seals, when in the water, can readily be killed
by means of spears, and they are regularly taken in this manner by
most of the Indian seal hunters of the Northwest Coast. Many sailing
vessels have been accustomed to carry Indian spear hunters with their
canoes in preference to the white hunters, who use guns and boats, and
we may expect to see full advantage taken of the former method in the
free waters of Bering Sea. The open season for seals coming, as it does,
at the close of the sea-otter season, will also make available the entire
force of Alaskan spear-throwing hunters, who will be the more eager to
take advantage of the new privilege, in view of the recent restrictions
placed upon otter hunting and the present scarcity of otters. The
apparatus employed in the latter fishery is likewise largely adapted to
the pursuit of seals. After the month of August, however, the weather
soon becomes unsettled and stormy, thus somewhat limiting the period
when pelagic sealing can safely be carried on.
Observations made upon the distribution of seals in Bering Sea
between July 28 and August 13, 1892, by the steamer Corwin, showed
conclusively that the nursing seals travel distances of at least 200 miles
from the Pribilof Islands in search of food, and consequently that the
closed area about those islands, having a radius of only 60 miles, affords
them only a very partial protection. The effect of killing large numbers of these females, which must certainly take place, means also the
destruction of their pups on shore through starvation and the more
rapid thinning out of the herds upon the rookeries than has hitherto
occurred. The 'complete* protection' of the fur seal in Bering Sea,
together with such restrictions upon its killing in the North Pacific
Ocean as have been provided by the treaty of arbitration, would no
doubt permit a steady increase upon the rookeries where it breeds,
but its pursuit in any manner within part of the area it occupies as a
feeding ground during the breeding season may be expected to have a
disastrous effect upon the breeding rookeries of the Pribilof Islands.
List of the maps showing the outlines of the rookeries on the Pribilof Islands, 1893.l
ST.  PAUL ISLAND.
Northeast Point rookery Chart A
Polavina rookery Chart B
Ketavie and Lukannon rookeries Chart C
Reef and Garhotch rookeries Chart D
Tolstoi and Lagoon rookeries Chart E
Zapadnie and English Bay rookeries Charts F and G
ST.   GEORGE ISLAND.
Starry Arteel rookery Chart H
North rookery J Chart I
East and Little East rookeries Chart J
Zapadnie rookery Chart K
1 This set of maps not transmitted for publication, the accompanying set for 1895,
showing more reduced area of rookeries, being deemed sufficient. SEAL  LIFE   ON  THE  PRIBILOF   ISLANDS. \J
List of the photographs of the seal rookeries on the Pribilof Islands taken during July and
August, 189St by X. B. Miller and C. H. Toumeend, showing the dates on which they
were madef and also the corresponding views for 1S92. a
ST. PAUL ISLAND.
Rookery
N or111<•;!st Point    I
Station.
2 (north).
2 (south).
3	
Polavina
4..
5..
5..
6..
25.
21.
22.
Lukannon
Ketavie...
Reef
24 (near).
G	
126	
26 &	
13	
14	
14J	
15	
16	
17	
18	
19	
20	
Grass area
Lagoon
Tolstoi
Lower Zapadnie
Tipper Zapadnie
Village Hill.
27	
11	
F&	
8.
8"
9
10.
Number
of plates
in each
view.
Dates on which
taken.
1893.
1892.
1
1
1
3
1
5
5
o
1
2
2
2
1
5
2
2
3
1
5
o
2
2
2
1
*>
. i
:\
2
July 26
July 17.
....do ...
Do.
I....do ...
Do.
....do 	
Do.
....do...
Do.
... .do ...
Do.
| Aug.   9
Aug. 6.
. July 26
July 20.
....do ...
Do.
July 28
Do.
 do	
Do.
 do	
Do.
 do ...
Do.
....do ...
Julv 21:
July 17
July 19.
J do ...
July 14.
 do ...
J uly 19.
Do.
|....do ...
....do...
Do.
....do ...
Do.
i July 22
Do.
 do ...
Do.
 do ...
Do.
 do	
Do.
....do ...
July 20.
....do...|
No date
Aug.   1
July 18.
....do ...
July 22^
July 22 1
Julv 19.
....do ...
.J uly 20.
 do ...'
Julv 18.
 do ...|
Do.
 do ...
Do.
... .do .. .
Do.
... .do ...
Do.
ST. GEORGE ISLAND.
East    9 (near)
j A 	
Little East    B&	
North    1	
i 2
! 3	
I 5.
Starry Arteel   E6
Zapadnie   D ..
I C ..
(c)
»)
July 15
July 15
• >
....do...
July 27.
o
....do ...
July 28
1
Julv 14
Julv 14.
....do...
Do.
1
....do ...
Do.
2
 do ...
Do.
2
....do ...
Julv 28
5
July 13
—do ...
Do.
2
Do.
a This set of photographs not transmitted for publication, the accompanying series for 1895, showing
more reduced condition of rookeries, being deemed sufficient.
b United States Fish Commission station.
c One negative lost. SEAL   LIFE   ON   THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
THE  ROOKERIES  IN  1894.
letter of transmittal.
United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries,
Washington, D. C, February 23, 1895.
Sir: In accordance with your verbal request, I have the honor to
transmit herewith a report upon the condition of the seal rookeries,,
Pribilof Islands, Alaska, during the season of 1894, the same being
based upon observations made by one of the assistants of this Commission, Mr. C. H. Townsend, in compliance with the requirements of the
act approved March 3,1893.
Yery respectfully, Herbert A. Gill,
Acting Commissioner.
The Secretary of the Treasury,
Washington, D. C.
INTRODUCTION.
The report herewith submitted is based upon observations made on
the Pribilof Islands between July 12 and August 1, and again between
September 9 and 13,1894. It is accompanied by 11 charts and 38 photographic views, the former showing the outlines of the rookeries, the
latter illustrating the condition of the most characteristic portions of
each rookery, at the time of making the observations. The positions
from which the photographs were made are identical with those from
which similar views were taken in 1892 and 1893, while the dates of
both charts and photographs correspond as closely with those of preceding seasons as the conditions of weather permitted. This report
should be considered in connection with those previously submitted^
as being one of the series intended to present the yearly changes in
the conditions of the rookeries.
The steamer Albatross arrived at St. George Island on the morning
of July 8,1894, and remained there at anchor until the 12th without
being able to effect a landing on account of stormy weather. Not wishing to detain the ship longer, it was decided to begin the work upon the
rookeries of St. Paul Island, where the opportunities for landing are
better, and, accompanied by Mr. N. B. Miller, laboratory assistant of
the Albatross, and Mr. J. Stanley-Brown, I landed at Northeast Point
on the evening of the 12th, the Albatross sailing for Unalaska at once,
July 13 was spent in examining and photographing Northeast Point
and Polavina rookeries, and we reached the village by wagon in the
evening, our baggage having been taken there from the Point on the
U. S. S. Banger. On the 14th we examined and photographed Zapadnie,
Upper Zapadnie, and Tolstoi rookeries. On the 15th, clear weather
continuing, we examined and photographed Beef, Ketavie, and Lukannon rookeries, thus completing the necessary photographic work for this
island in less time than we had ever been able to do it before. I made
a further examination of the rookeries of Zapadnie, Upper Zapadnie,, seal life on the pribilof islands.
11
and Tolstoi on the 16th, and plotted upon the base maps the distribution of seals at Tolstoi and Lagoon rookeries on the 17th. Beef, Polavina, Ketavie, and Lukannon were revisited on the 18th for chart data.
Leaving Mr. Miller to develop the plates exposed on St. Paul Island,.
I sailed on the morning of the 19th for St. George Island on the U. S.
S. Alert, and succeeded in landing the same evening. On the 20th I
collected the necessary chart data for East and Little East rookeries,
St. George Island. From the 18th to the 21st, inclusive, the weather
was too stormy for photographic work, and it was not until the 22d
that I got the first photographs on St. George Island, those of North
rookery. The 23d proved stormy, but with better weather on the 24th
I secured photographs of East and Little East rookeries. Chart data
for North rookery were secured the same day, and I duplicated some
photographs of North rookery taken in 1891. From the 25th to the
c27th it was too stormy for photographic work, but I collected chart data
for Zapadnie and Starry Arteel rookeries on the 27th. On the 28th I
photographed the latter rookery.
On the 29th an opportunity was afforded for returning to St. Paul
Island on the U. S. S. Adams, and, as the most important rookeries are
located on that island, I returned without having secured photographs
of Zapadnie rookery. I immediately recommenced work on the rookeries of St. Paul Island, spending the 30th at Northeast Point and
Polavina rookeries, the 31st at Beef rookery, and August 1 at LukannoB
and Ketavie rookeries.
The Albatross returned to St. Paul Island on the evening of August
1, and thinking that my time could then be spent more profitably cruising among the fleet of pelagic sealers and observing their work than by
remaining longer on the islands. I went on board that evening accompanied by Mr. Miller.
My time while at the islands was spent on the rookeries, whether the-
weather was clear or stormy,.Mr. Miller attending to the development
of the plates, thus giving me ample opportunity for going over most of
the rookeries two or three times. Satisfactory photographs were taken
of all rookeries except Zapadnie, on St. George Island. Station 27
(Lagoon rookery) and the one on Village Hill (Beef rookery) were abandoned, as showing nothing on account of distance. The dates for
photographing the rookeries of St. George Island were changed to those
of St. Paul Island and vice versa, this change being rendered necessary,
as explained above, by the uncertainty of the landings at the former
island. St. Paul, moreover, being the more important island, is most
deserving of attention, and, in the future, I would recommend the completion of the work on that island first.
Several of the photographic stations on the rookeries were marked
with their numbers or letters in white lead, on the nearest permanent
bowlders.   The stations now marked are as follows:
St. Paul Island.—Beef, Ketavie, Lukannon, Lagoon, Zapadnie, ancl
Upper Zapadnie (Stations Nos. 12, 20, 14, 1U, 15, 17,18,19, 20, 27, 7, 8,
8a, 9, 10).
'St. George Island.—East, Little East, North, and Starry Arteel (9.
A, B, 1, 2, 3, 5, E).
For most of the remaining unmarked stations heavy stakes will have
to be driven into the sand, few permanent bowlders being available.
The photograph of the grass area on Beef rookery was not duplicated
owing to bad weather, which is to be regretted, as it would have shown
how very rapidly this portion of the Beef is becoming grass-grown. ^^B
H
^^H
^^^H
■
^|
^H
^^H|
H
^H
^^^^H
jSBjjj
■
seal life on the pribilof islands.
condition of the rookeries.
ST. PAUL ISLAND.
Northeast Point rookery.—Although a comparison of the charts and
photographs of this rookery for 1894 with those made in 1893 may indicate a slight diminution of seals, I am not prepared to state that this
is the case. Owing to unfavorable weather the observations of last
year were made later than they should have been, after the spreading
of the rookeries had commenced. The data for the present year having
been secured earlier, the difference in the records should be accounted
for accordingly. 1 note, however, an additional break in the belt of
breeding seals in the immediate vicinity of the Point.
Polavina rookery.—Although the photographs from Station G show
very little change in position, the rookery when viewed ^rom other
points appeared to have a well-marked break in the center, which will
be found indicated on the chart. Good weather having followed very
stormy weather, the seals had taken to the water to a noticeable degree
when the photograph was made. I think that no actual'decrease can
be recorded.
Little Polavina rookery apparently exhibits no diminution since last
year and very little change in position.
Lukannon rookery.—No perceptible change in the number or position
of breeding seals was noticed here.
Ketavie rookery.—This small and gradually diminishing rookery, I
believe, shows a shrinkage since last season, but not a very marked one.
Beef rookery.—No decrease is apparent. The change in distribution
is slight.
Lagoon rookery remains unchanged since last year.
Tolstoi rookery.—The seals here are perhaps a little more concentrated at the north end of the rookery; but otherwise there is no change.
Zapadnie rookery.—The hill portion of this rookery is unchanged, but
the very thin portion extending about a mile along the shingle beach
•exhibits several breaks never before noticeable.
While the fur seal, naturally so gregarious, returns year after year
under normal conditions to its accustomed breeding grounds, there are
indications that it is less at home upon tracts which are becoming thin,
.and is inclined to concentrate upon adjacent breeding tracts more
thickly covered with seals. This appears to be the case with the above-
mentioned Ketavie rookery, and in the case of Zapadnie to be borne
out by the appearance of an increase upon the adjoining rookery of
Upper Zapadnie. This scattered beach rookery is illustrated by one of
the photographs.
Upper Zapadnie rookery.—An increase since last season being indicated here, I went over the ground very carefully, and, although it may
not be apparent in the photographs, the chart will be found to show
changes which I believe mean a slight increase.
ST.  GEORGE ISLAND.
Fast rookery.—It is possible that this rookery has suffered a slight
shrinkage since last season, but I found it difficult to decide that such
was the case.
Little Fast rookery remains unchanged.
North rookery.—Slight and unimportant changes in distribution were
observed, but no apparent decrease.
Starry Arteel rookery remains unchanged.
Zapadnie rookery.—There is a widening of the break along the beach
portion of the rookery, but no decrease was noticeable.  a atiteaisfia ii** *~ v ■am
SEAL   LIFE   ON   THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
CONCLUSIONS AS TO CONDITION OF ROOKERIES.
13
At the time of my inspection in July, 1894, the seal rookeries of the
Pribilof Islands, taken as a whole, were found to be in nearly the same
condition as in 1893. While the number of seals has slowly been diminishing, the decrease having continued even during the period when
Bering Sea was closed to pelagic sealing, no decrease in general was
noticeable this year up to the date of my departure from the islands on
August 1. This is probably traceable to the cessation of sealing in the
North Pacific Ocean on May 1,1894, or soon thereafter. During the
mouths of May and June the migrating seals become massed south of
the Alaska Peninsula as they move toward the passes through which
they enter Bering Sea, and a very considerable portion of the catch has
been taken annually in that region by the fleet of pelagic sealers. By
Reason of the cessation of pelagic sealing on May 1 of the present year,
the seal herd was spared the excessive killing from which it has usually
suffered there in the past, and the rookeries, in consequence, presented
approximately the same appearance as at the time of my last examination. This was contrary to previous experience, as an annual decrease
had always been observed during the several preceding years.
i Circumstances affecting seriously the welfare of the seal herd arose,
however, before the close of the present season, necessitating a second
and later examination of the rookeries, which revealed an alarming
change in their condition. By the award of the Paris Tribunal of
Arbitration, Bering Sea, with the exception of a zone of 60 miles around
the Pribilof Islands, was opened up to pelagic sealers after August 1,
with the result of causing great destruction to the seal herd. The killing of over 31,000 seals belonging to these islands and consisting chiefly
of nursing females, was followed, necessarily, by the loss, through
starvation, of thousands of young seals upon the rookeries.
LOSS OF YOUNG SEALS IN SEPTEMBER AS A RESULT OF PELAGIC
SEALING DURING AUGUST.
After finishing the work of inspection upon the Pribilof Islands on
August 1,1 cruised with the Albatross among the fleet of pelagic sealers
until September 9, when 1 landed again upon the islands to investigate
the loss of young seals, which was reported as becoming serious.
Thirty-eight vessels known to us, hunting just outside of the prohibited
zone, took 31,542 seals during the months of August and September,
these consisting for the most part of nursing females, which resulted in
the additional loss, by starvation, of the young seals thus left without
means of nourishment. Although sealing began on August 1, no dead
pups were noticed on the rookeries until about September 1, after which
time they were found in increasing numbers, and at the date of my
departure from the islands, September 13, careful examination had disclosed a loss of at least 9,000 pup seals, with a prospective loss of nearly
as many more found in an emaciated and exhausted condition. With
the assistance of Mr. Miller, the resident agents of the Treasury, and
Mr. H. C. Chichester, I counted 2,349 pups upon the following rookeries:
ST.  GEORGE ISLAND.
North rookery, September 9 and 10, Townsend and Miller (whole rookery)  405
Starry Arteel, September 9, Townsend (whole rookery)  305
East rookery, September 10, Townsend and Agent Ziebach (hill slope only).. 130
Little East, September 9, Miller (whole rookery) .„... 140
Total counted..... J       980
Zapadnie rookery and beach portion of East rookery not counted. 14
SEAL   LIFE   ON  THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
ST.   PAUL ISLAND.
Garbotch (or Reef) rookery, September 10 and 12, Townsend and Chichester (west side only)  492
Lagoon, September 12, Townsend, Chichester; and Treasury Agent Judge
(whole rookery)  105
Tolstoi, September 12, Townsend, Chichester, and Treasury Agent Judge
(hill and nearer beach)  497
Lower Zapadnie. September 12, Townsend, Chichester, and Treasury Agcfort
Judge (whole rookery) 2?5
Total counted  1,369
Total on both islands *  2,349
On other rookeries showing a similar condition I compared the
uncounted area with that already counted, estimating the.total loss as
follows:
Upper Zapadnie       350
Tolstoi (uncounted portion)       200
Reef  1,400
Lukannon and Ketavie      350;
Polavina       ofm
Little Polavina       100
Northeast Point (greatest of all rookeries)  3,000
Total St. Paul Island, estimate for uncounted area 5,950
East Rookery (St. George, uncounted portion)  200
Zapandie (St. George)  450
Total St. George Island, estimate for uncounted area      650
Total uncounted, both islands  6, 600
Total counted, both islands 2,349
Total los3, both islands  8,949
Persons familiar with the comparative area of the rookeries will see
how low these estimates are.
The bodies counted were those of pups that had died within ten days
or two weeks and were fresh, although greatly emaciated. No rotten
bodies, such as might have died during the breeding season from injuriesr
received on the rookeries, were included, although a limited number of
such were seen.
The attempt to count weak, emaciated pups was given up, owing to
the difficulty of separating any but the very weakest from the more
active and strong pups. Large numbers of starving pups were observed, and they were, to the best of my belief, nearly as numerous as
the dead ones. In counting it was found necessary to pass over the
rookeries systematically, which resulted in clearing the section counted,
and driving most of the seals into the water or farther inland, according to the direction from which they were approached. All adults and
active pups moved off" in a body, followed by the less active and starving pups, there being occasional weak, tottering pups unable to do so.
These fell over frequently and seldom moved far. They were thin and
gaunt, and clearly starving. The majority of the pups were strong and
active and cows were observed everywhere suckling them. All dead
pups were confined to the regular breeding grounds and were evenly
distributed, indicating that they died near where their mothers had left
them.
Young seals are very fat and seem to endure a month or more of
4 starvation before they succumb.   I have, from year to year, observed CO
\- *»»^*#-* km^MfSStK^ SEAL   LIFE   ON   THE   PKIBILOF   ISLANDS.
15
occasional young seals brought into the villages on the Pribilof Islands
to be raised as pets, but in no case have they fed, except when milk
was forced into them, and even then they did not live more than three
weeks. Young seals continue to live entirely upon their mother's millf
until late in the fall. During my examination of the rookeries, from
September 9 to 13, I found the females suckling their young as commonly as they are observed doing a month earlier in the season. One*
handsome albino pup, as large as any of the others, I secured as a natural history specimen. It was coffee-colored, with white nippers. It
was left upon a high rock, and finding, upon ray return in the evening, that two quarts of thick milk had run from its mouth, I photo*
graphed it.   It weighed, after losing its milk, 18J pounds.
I dissected several dead pups, finding in all cases an almost complete
disappearance of fat from under the skin and an entire absence of food
of any kind in the stomach. Accompanying photographs of dead pups
illustrate, iu a measure, the condition in which they were found, but
most of the photographs are unsatisfactory.
List of the charts showing the outlines of the rookeries on the Fribilof Islands, July, 1S94.1
ST.  PAUL ISLAND.
Northeast Point rookery | uly 13, Chart A
Polavina rookery July 18, Chart B
Ketavie and Lukannon rookeries July 15, Chart C
Reef and Garbotch rookeries July 15, Chart D
Tolstoi and Lagoon rookeries July 17, Chart E
Zapadnie and English Bay rookeries July 14, Charts F and GIST.   GEORGE ISLAND.
Starry Arteel rookery  July 27, Chart H
North rookerv Julv 24, Chart I
East and Little East rookeries July 20, Chart J
Zapadnie rookery July 27, Chart K
List of the photographs of the seal rookeries on the Pribilof Islands, taken in July, 1894, by
X, B. Miller and C. H. Townsend, showing the dates on which they were made, a
ST. PAUL ISLAND.
Rookery.
IB
Station.
1	
2 (north).
2 (south).
o
N/umber
of plates
in each
view.
i
1
1
I
2
1
2
2
2
1
6
.    3
2
Date on
which
taken.
Rookery.
! Ketavie	
Reef	
i
i
Tolstoi
Station.
14	
13	
14*	
Number
of plates
in each
view.
4
Date on
which
taken.
Xorfcheast Point.. -
Jnlyl3
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
July 26
JulVlo
Do.
J uly 15
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do,
1    Oo-
Do
4	
16                  3
17                 5
19 '               2
20                 2
n                            -a
6	
25	
21	
22	
23	
24	
■Gk .".."."."*."
12	
26	
Do.
Julv 14
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Lukannon 	
Lower Zapadnie..
Upper Zapadnie..
F	
7	
8	
8»	
9	
10	
9
2
2
2
9
3
a Thisiset of photographs not transmitted for publication, the accompanying series for 1895, show*
ing more reduced condition of rookeries, being deemed sufficient.
1 This set of ma$s not transmitted for publication, the accompanying set for 1895,
showing more reduced area of rookeries, beino: deemed sufficient; 16
SEAL   LIFE   ON   THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
IAst of the photographs of the seal rookeries on the Pribilof Islands, etc.—Continued.
ST. GEORGE ISLAND.
Rookery.
Station.
Number
of plates
in each
view.
Date on
which
taken. '
P
Rookery.
North	
Station.
2	
Number
of plates
in each
view.
1
1
2
2
Date on
which
taken.
East	
9	
A	
B	
2
2
2
1
July 24
Do.
Do.
Do.
July 24
Do.
1 Starry Arteel	
3.
Little East	
5	
Do.
B	
July 28
OBSERVATIONS RELATIVE TO PELAGIC SEALING IN BERING SEA
;;^^P8" '  DURING THE SEASON OF 1894.    |     S
INTRODUCTION.
The report herewith presented inelndes the resnlts of observations
made at sea between Angnst 1 and September 20,1894, together with
certain data subsequently obtained at Victoria, Port Townsend, Seattle,
and San Francisco. The work at sea was carried on in connection with
the cruise of the United States Fish Commission steamer A Ibatross, at
that time detailed as one of the vessels of the Bering Sea patrol fleet.
The cruising ground assigned to the Albatross was to the westward and
southward of the islands, chiefly outside of the protected zone, but
trips were also made to the northwest and southeast of the islands.
During the cruise sealing vessels were boarded whenever met with, and
I accompanied the boarding officer at all times, for the purpose of
obtaining information in connection with their operations from day to
day. In addition to the data secured by the boarding officer, I copied
from the sealer's log books all notes regarding the positions where
seals were taken, and examined all fresh skins not yet consigned to the
kenches.
The record of positions where seals were taken by Canadian vessels
is incomplete, as most of those vessels continued sealing for some time
after being boarded, while others were not met with. Similar data
obtained from American vessels at sea were finally secured in full after
their arrival at home ports.
Sealers were constantly questioned concerning sealing matters, and
statements made by them will be found in the following pages.
I have, under a separate heading, called attention to the effectiveness
with which pelagic sealing was carried on in Bering Sea by the 38 vessels engaged in it. It will be seen, after proper consideration of this
point, how very destructive to the life of this industry the presence of
a larger fleet would be. In my report for last year I pointed out the
loss of young seals that might be looked for upon the islands if a large
number of female seals were to be taken in Bering Sea during the
breeding season. This has bee»i borne out by the experience of the
past season, 20,000 being the lowest estimate that can be made for dead
pups, and we may confidently expect to see a still greater loss of this
kind next season if sealing is continued on the feeding grounds. The
results of the season's pelagic catch in Bering Sea were already apparent on the rookeries when I went over them from September 9 to 13,
and will be still more so when the annual examination is made next
July.   The rookeries in their present condition can not lose 50,000 seals
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17
in Bering Sea, in addition to the North Pacific catch, without such a
loss being perceptible.
As stated under the heading referring to the condition of the rookeries in 1894, the beneficial results of the cessation of sealing in May
and June were apparent on the seal islands in July. This would seem
to iudicate that a respite of two months in addition to such protection
as was afforded by the modus vivendi, would be sufficient to keep the
seal herd in its present condition. We may also infer that any additional restrictions that might be placed on sealing in the North Pacific
would count as a gain, and permit an increase in the herd in proportion
to the protection afforded, provided, of course, that there be no increase
in the size of the sealing fleet.
Accompanying this report are a series of photographs illustrating
some of the features of sealing with spears, and also a chart showing
the distribution of the seal herd on its feeding grounds in Bering Sea.
DATA OBTAINED FROM THE SEALING FLEET.
The following tables1 contain the daily sealing data of the pelagic
sealing fleet in Bering Sea during August and September, 1894, giving the catch of each vessel, sex of seals taken, latitude and longitude
of each day's operations, with more or less data on the crew, boats,
and hunters of each vessel. With exception of one vessel not yet
returned it is complete for the American portion of the sealing fleet.
The data for Canadian vessels are given for such vessels as I was able
to board in Bering Sea. The remainder having turned in their log
books to the collector at Victoria I could not complete the work when
I went there.
A record of the daily operations of the pelagic sealing fleet, even in
part, yields new and valuable information. It shows the number of
males and females at different distances from the Pribilof Islands, the
portions of Bering Sea most frequented by the seals, the exact number
of days during the season when the weather permitted of seals being
taken;z it is data upon which to base an accurate map of seal distribution during the breeding season, etc. These records, kept by the sealers in accordance with the regulations put in force by the Paris award,
constitute the first accurate information of the kind and supply data
respecting the seals at sea, of which we have long been in need.
The daily records of the sealers should have been collected by the
custom-houses to which they reported, but it was neglected, and I have
had to search for them, as some of the discharged masters carried their
log books away with them, making it very difficult to collect the information.
The catch of the Canadian portion of the fleet in Bering Sear appears
to be 26,341. By questioning many of the sealers at Victoria I ascertained it to be 26,312, which tallies very closely with the figures given
in the report of the collector at Victoria, 26,341. This number, plus the
American catch of £,2t!l, i\.akes the Bering Sea pelagic catch of 1894
31,542, unless there were vessels sealing in Bering Sea of which we
have nk| knowledge, which is very doubtful.
There were 27 Canadian vessels in Bering Sea and only 11 American
vessels. The Canadian vessels hunting with Indian spearmen from
Vancouver and Queen Charlotte islands were very successful, while the
1 The tables referred to will be found appended to the report for 1895.
2 This is partly worked out in the tables following for August and September.
S. Doc. 137, pt. 2 2
IJJ SEAL   LIFE   ON   THE   PRIBILOF  ISLANDS.
American vessels, with the exception of two or three, made poor catches*
Sealing with spears in Bering Sea has therefore been profitable to Canadian rather than American vessels.
In respect to the claim that Bering Sea weather is sufficiently unfavorable for sealing to afford the seals protection from excessive spear
hunting, the accompanying tables, although based on incomplete data,
show that there was only one day during the season, from August 1 to
September 21, when seals were not taken, and it is possible that when
all the data are accessible through exchange with Great Britain it will
be shown that seals were taken daily throughout the season.
The same tables indicate that storms in Bering Sea are local in their
nature, vessels to the westward of the Pribilof Islands having been
hove-to, while others to the southward were making good catches.
COMMENT ON THE PROPORTIONS OF THE SEXES REPORTED BY
THE SEALING FLEET.
I have compared the proportions of the sexes of seals taken in Bering Sea by the Canadian and American fleets, and having considered
both in the light of depositions now in the possession of the Treasury
Department, made by London furriers, I can not admit that the proportion of male and female seals reported by the vessels is correct. American sealers reported a greater proportion of females, and in no case
reported more males than females, as some of the masters of Canadian
vessels have done. The latter were sealing very close to vessels reporting from two to five times as many females as males. When I questioned the masters of the schooners Favorite, Walter Rich, Henrietta,
etc., as to their alleged greater number of males, their explanations to me
were that their seals were skinned in the canoes by the Indians, and
the pelts thrown on deck as they returned after dark, and that under
the circumstances they had no time to bother with inspecting skins
minutely as to sex.' Such returns are unreliable, and there is no doubt
about the proportion of female seals taken by the Canadian fleet being,
much greater than reported. This is borne out by the sworn statements, now in possession of the Treasury Department, of Messrs. Martin and Teichmann, of London, as to the sex of seal skins derived
from the pelagic catch of 1894 in Bering Sea and the North Pacific
Ocean. These gentlemen personally inspected some of the largest consignments of seal skins taken in 1894 and found 85 to 90 per cent of
them to be females.
Mr. Lupp, of San Francisco, a seal hunter of several years' experience, informs me that the catch of 1,400 seals made by the vessel he
sailed with on the Japan Coast in 1892 consisted almost entirely of
females with young, there being less than 50 males in the entire lot,
and that of a catch of 1,100 seals taken by his vessel, the Louis Olsen,
in 1894, in the same region, all were females but about one dozen.
Mr. John Fanning, who cruised as a hunter with the schooners Denny
and Retriever, informs me that nine out of every ten seals taken on the
Japan Coast by him were females, and that when sealing off the Commander Islands eight out of every ten were females in milk. I questioned other sealers on this point, eliciting similar statements.
In view of the above statements of London furriers, the statements
of masters of Canadian vessels as to the uncertainty of their method
of ascertaining the sex of each day's catch, and the statements of Japan
Coast sealers as to the great proportion of females in pelagic catches,,
to say nothing of our knowledge of the subject from results apparent LBMUJ
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Q_  SEAL  LIFE  ON  THE   PRIBILOF  ISLANDS.
19
on the Pribilof Islands, the returns of the Canadian sealers operating
in Bering Sea may well be questioned. They report but 14,636 females
in a catch of 26,341, while the American fleet reports 3,813 females in
a catch of 5,201—a much greater proportion. Not one American sealer
reported more males than females. One of them, the Deeahks—captain
and all hands being Indians—reported only 155 males in a catch of
1,023, while seven Canadian sealers reported more males than females.
One Canadian sealer, the master of the Borealis, apparently without
guile, has come very near the truth in reporting only 90 males in a Catch
of 1,059 seals.
I ascertained upon inquiry at the custom-houses at Port Townsend
and San Francisco that the catches of but three of the American sealers
from Bering Sea had been examined by experts in furs to determine
the proportions of the sexes represented. These were the Therese,
Jane Grey, and Rose Sparks. The catch of the Louis Olsen, an American
sealer, landed at Victoria, was examined by my colleague, Mr. A. B.
Alexander, of the United States Fish Commission.
None of the others, either American or Canadian, were subjected to
such an examination, but their returns, as a whole, are still capable of
correction in the light of depositions by the London furriers, who
received and inspected the bulk of the pelagic catch.
The examination of the catches of the four vessels named above
shows the proportion of females to range from two-thirds to four-fifths
of their catch. As to the catches of the Flid Johnson, Deeahks, Stella
Frland, Ida Ftta, Columbia, smdAllie Algar, that of the Deeahks has evidently been faithfully recorded, while the others have at least placed
themselves on the safe side. Of the Canadian fleet, the Labrador,
Aurora, Mary Ellen, Walter Farle, San Jose, Beatrice, etc., reporting
from two-thirds to three fourths females, are also on the safe side, while
the Borealis stands unique in reporting almost an entire catch of females
(only 90 males in a catch of 1,149).
As to the Sapphire, Ainoko, Walter Rich, Favorite, Henrietta, etc.,
the less said the better. They are convicted of inaccuracy by their
own admissions. If there was intention to deceive as to the proportion
of the sexes in Bering Sea, discrepancies should have been guarded
against, as comparisons with the returns made by the Borealis, Deeahks,
Walter Farle, etc., are damaging.
The proportion of females in the Canadian catch has not been represented in good faith, as it does not correspond with what the fur trade
know to be the actual conditions; with what nine sealers out of ten say
about the composition of pelagic catches in general, and with what we
known by count and observation to have been the loss of young seals
by starvation.
ABSENCE OF FEMALES FROM ROOKERIES AFTER AUGUST FIRST,
AND EASE WITH WHICH THEY MAY BE TAKEN AT SEA.
On August 1,1894, just before leaving the Pribilofs on an extended
cruise on the pelagic sealing grounds, I examined two small rookeries
very carefully (Ketavie and Lukannor«j,for the purpose of ascertaining
the proportion of females upon the breeding grounds. On that date I
estimated that about 80 per cent of the seals present consisted of males
and young, clearly indicating the great extent to which the females
were feeding at sea.
The cruising ground of the Albatross for the first week in August was
far to the northwest of the islands, where very few seals were seen. On
the 7th, just outside the protected zone and to the northwest of St. 20
SEAL   LIFE   ON   THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
Paul, we found seals in abundance. The sea being perfectly smooth, I
went out in the dingey a few hundred yards from the ship and photographed several seals, showing their positions when asleep and awake.
The distance at which we were able to photograph them was from 30
to 40 feet. In the three-quarters of an hour 26 seals were counted.
Most of them were sleeping, and all were females, judging by size alone.
The photographs show the customary attitudes. Seals sleeping at sea
have little more than the nose, lower jaw, and hind flippers above water,
the ffire flippers being raised occasionally as the animal scratches itself
or rolls slowly from side to side. The back is always down and deeply
submerged.
As a rule sealing with spears is practicable only when seals are found
asleep, the ordinary spearing distance being 30 to 35 feet. To the fur
seal's unfortunate habit of sleeping much at sea is chiefly traceable its
diminution, for it is at such times most readily approached by the pelagic
sealer and taken with guns or spears. The number of seals to be
observed asleep in Bering Sea is greater than elsewhere, the migration
Sleeping fur seals.
being over and the animals feeding at their natural habitat. It is a
well-known fact of natural history that breeding male seals do not leave
the rookeries during the breeding season, and that young pups can not
leave the immediate vicinity of the islands until they depart on their
first migration southward.
From the almost constant presence on the hauling grounds of the
nonbreeding males, it is also well established that they do not leave the
islands to any great extent. The females alone constitute a class that
feed at long distances from the islands during the breeding season.
Their excursions in search of food extend over 200 miles, and commencing soon after the birth of their young are continued to the close
of the season. There can be no doubt but that the nursing females are
the most constantly exposed of any class of seals to the destructive
methods of pelagic sealing in Bering Sea, and that their capture during
the breeding season is, of all the agencies tending toward the diminution
of the seal herd, the one most to be deplored. SLEEPING FUR SEAL.    USUAL POSITION.    AUGUST 7, 1894,  BERING SEA.
(Floating back down, with hind flippers turned forward.   Photographed at distance of 35 feet.)
MM
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FUR SEALS JUST AWAKENED, AUGUST 7,  1894,  BERING SEA. II
TMM1MSMaBmiBBaa8g!a*^ SEAL   LIFE   ON   THE   PRIBILOF  ISLANDS.
21
The opening of Bering Sea to pelagic sealing has proved the most
fatal of all the provisions of the Paris award.
EFFECTIVE METHODS OF THE SEALING FLEET.
The effectiveness with wiiich pelagic sealing may be carried on in a
circumscribed hunting ground like Bering Sea may be more clearly set
forth by directing attention to the number of hunting boats engaged
during the past season. The sealing fleet consisted of 38 schooners,
carrying from 6 to 20 boats or canoes apiece—the average number being
about 12. The boats hunted in all directions, frequently going 10 miles
away from the vessels to which they belonged, the hunting areas of the
different schooners thus overlapping at times. I have often spoken
canoes 8 miles from their schooners. Pursuing seals in this systematic
way, 38 vessels carrying somewhat more than 450 boats, took 31,542
skins in six weeks, notwithstanding the fact that many of them were
late in reaching Bering Sea from the Japan coast, and left early on
account of having their North Pacific catches on board, for the purpose
of being early in market, on account of the impatience of Indian hunters already wearied with the long Japan coast cruise, lack of provisions,
or for other reasons.
THE USE OF SPEARS.
Of the Canadian fleet in Bering Sea, all but six schooners carried
Indian hunters from Vancouver and Queen Charlotte islands. These
natives have been taking seals off their own shores with the spear from
time immemorial, and it was a fatal mistake on the part of the Paris
Tribunal to underestimate the efficiency of spears in such hands, a fact
doubtless well known to those having charge of the British side of the
case.
The spear used during the past season is very similar to that figurecl
by Scammon twenty years ago in writing of pelagic sealing by these
natives.1 '1 he spear pole is 12 to 14 feet long, pronged, with two detachable barbed iron spear points, secured by a 30-yard line, the end of
which is tied to the boat. When a seal is struck the barbed points
slip off the pole, the latter being recovered after the seal has been pulled
alongside the canoe and clubbed. Seals fight vigorously at such times
and seldom fail to leave permanent marks of their sharp teeth on boats
and canoes, while large bulls are very dangerous to handle.
Pelagic sealing is altogether impracticable for our own Aleut natives,
their light skin-covered bidarkies not being constructed to withstand
such attacks as wounded seals make with their teeth.
CHANGE OF FEEDING GROUNDS.
The fur seal changes its feeding grounds in Bering Sea from year to
year. The changes appear to be quite marked, and are doubtless
dependent on the food supply. The pelagic catch for the summer of
1894 was made chiefly to the southeast of the Pribilofs, the rest of the
catch being made south, southwest, west, and northwest of the islands.
A small proportion only were taken along the border of the plateau.
Capt. J. W, Todd, of the sealer Rose Sparks, states that in 1889 he
found seals plentiful to the northeast of the Pribilofs, and moderate
numbers were to the northwest and southeast. In 1887, when sealing
with the schooner Lilly L., he found the herd chiefly to the southeast-,
taking 197 seals in two days.
1 Marine Mam., Scammon, p. 159. 22
SEAL  LIFE   ON  THE  PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
Captain McCauley, of the sealer Beatrice, found seals plentiful 250
miles to the westward of the Pribilof Islands in 1891. Captain McLean,
of the sealer Favorite, also reports a great abundance of seals to the
westward of the islands in 1891 (latitude 56° 50', longitude 173° 30'), ten
canoes taking (with guns) 972 seals in three days.
Captain Guillams, of the sealer Louis Olsen, having in former years
found seals in greatest numbers to the westward of the Pribilofs,
cruised persistently in that portion of Bering Sea during the past
season, taking only 84 seals.
Many other sealers confidently expecting to find the bulk of the seal
herd to the westward of the Pribilofs cruised there at the opening of
the past season without success, but later made good catches to the
southeastward.
While engaged in pelagic sealing investigations with the United
States revenue cutter Cor win in 1892 fur seals were plentiful to the
westward of the Pribilofs, the cutter Rush, cruising to the east at the
same time, meeting with very few.
NOTES ON THE FOOD OF SEALS.
Captain Todd says the food of seals taken near the mainland consists
largely of salmon, and that this is true of the Japan and Copper Island
sealing grounds as well as of the North American coast.
Captain Magnesen, of the sealer Walter Farle. reports the seals taken
on August 25, 1894 (latitude 56° 13', longitude 172° 44'), as feeding on
salmon.
Capt. S. Balcom, of the sealer Walter Rich, reported taking salmon
occasionally from the stomachs of seals speared in Bering Sea in
August, 1894.
Capt. H. F. Siewerd, of the sealer Mascot, in 1894, collected the
stomachs of three seals, containing pollock apparently, at the following
position: Latitude north 56° 10', longitude west 171° 46'; August 28,
latitude north 58° Ol7, longitude west 173° 29'; latitude north 58° 02',
longitude west 172° 45% September 8.
Captain Siewerd writes that other seals opened at the first position
contained nothing but squid, and at the second position cod and squid;
but it is possible that the fish observed were pollock, which closely
resemble cod.
Contents of the stomachs of 33 fur seals1 taken during the month of
August, 1894, at distances varying from 100 to 140 miles west and
northwest of the Pribilof Islands, along the border of the plateau,
collected by A. B. Alexander, with the schooner Louis Olsen, show
the following:
Date.
Latitude
north.
Longit
wesi
ude
Se
M.
X.
F.
Contents of stomach.
o      /
o
/
Aug.   4
6
7
7
10
11
57 50
58 SO
58   30
58   30
58   30
58   27
57   42
173
173
173
173
173
172
172
48
56
56
56
56
46
52
1
1
1
4
3
is'
Fish, much digested, apparently pollock.
Do.
Pollock or cod, with one-half dozen squid; beaks small.
Fish, much digested, apparently pollock.
Full peck of red-fleshed fish resembling salmon; bones not
determined.
Fish, digested, probably pollock.
Pollock.
1 Fifteen stomachs containing fish bones were saved for further examination, others
thrown away.   HSE
SEAL  LIFE   ON  THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
23
Mr. Alexander reports the seals taken by the Olsen to have been
feeding on pollock, whenever identification was made with certainty.
Several seals were speared in the act of eating pollock, the fresh remnants making identification certain. During the cruise large cod were
taken at sealing stations in depths of 60 and 70 fathoms, and were so
abundant that the decks could have been filled with them, although
the stomachs of the seals taken contained pollock. The stomachs of
the cod contained starfish, prawns, squid, jelly-fish, and a few small
fishes; nothing of the kind being found in the stomachs of seals taken
at the same positions. Some of the cod weighed 30 pounds, the average being 9 pounds, while an examination of the fish eaten by the
seals shows the fish to have been of the size of pollock or smaller.
It would appear that the seals taken by the Olsen were feeding near
the surface.
PROBABLE USE OF FIREARMS IN SEALING DURING  SEASON
OF 1894.
In regard to the surreptitious use of firearms in Bering Sea, I have
to state that conspicuous blood stains were noticed on several rookeries
between September 9 and 12, 1894, both by the Treasury agents and
myself, and indicated the presence of wounded animals. In a few cases
dead seals were found. The blood as noticed in a dozen or more of
places was spattered upon the rocks from the beach well back into the
rookeries, leaving distinct bloody trails, with occasional bowlders well
stained where the animals had paused. The stains were fresh, although
being rapidly effaced by moving seals and wet weather.
DEAD  SEALS FOUND  (ALL ADULTS).
North rookery, 1 female; Starry Arteel, 1 female; Garbotch, 1 male
and 5 females; Tolstoi, 3 females; Zapadnie, 1 male and 2 females;
total, 14.
The carcasses on Zapadnie were comparatively fresh, the others had
been dead probably three weeks. From the fact of these carcasses
being in the rookeries and rubbed and fouled by seals constantly crawling over them, I could not determine the presence of gunshot marks.
I have left out of the above count three rotten carcasses found on Gar-
botch, that apparently died early in the season.
Mr. A. B. Alexander reports that while cruising with the Louis Olsen
firing was heard from the vessel on August 10 during foggy weather,
and that the hunters reported hearing guns constantly while out in the
boats the same day. The crew are of the opinion that the firearms
were being used for sealing, although nothing was seen.
The hunters of the Favorite reported in Unalaska ou August 27 that
they heard firearms in Bering Sea on several occasions. When I
boarded the Walter Rich in Bering Sea September 6, the captain
reported having speared a seal on the 5th freshly wounded with buckshot.
Reports of a similar character came to our ears at times during the
season. The patrol fleet found it impracticable to search vessels at
sea.—nothing more than a cursory examination being possible under
the circumstances. If .guns are to be prohibited, sealing vessels should
be searched at the Unalaska wharf, or some other favorable place
where there is a possibility of overhauling their cargoes in an effective
manner. 24
SEAL   LIFE  ON  THE   PRIBILOF  ISLANDS.
Fur-seal catch in Bering Sea in 1894.
[From official sources.]
AMERICAN VBSSELS.
Vessel.
Males. Females.
Jfflla Johnson  322
Deeahks  155
Stella Eriand  219
Ida Etta  204
Columbia  180
Allie Algar.  128
Therese  81
Hose Sparks  37
Jane Grey  46
Louis Olsen  16
Total I 1,388
892
868
542
532
223
199
237
160
92
68
3,813
Total.
1,214
1
023
?«1
730
403
327
318
197
138
84
5,201
Kent arks.
Entered at Port Townsend.
Do.
Do.
no.
Do.
Do.
Entered at San Francisco.
Do.
Do.
Catch landed at Victoria*
CANADIAN VESSELS.
Vessel.
Triumph ....
Sapphire	
Annie Moore
Ainoko	
Minnie	
Walter Rich.
Favorite	
Beatrice	
Katherine ...
Venture	
Kate	
San Jose	
Fawn	
Walter Earle
Borealis	
Males.
1,
1,
1,
1,
163
220
938
092
679
ouo
752
342
490
417
303
256
310
155
90
Females.
Total.
2,077
3,240
879
2,105
1,009
1,947
565
1,657
986
1,005
749
1,749
488
1,240
818
1,160
569
1,059
492
909
564
807
593
749
336
046
517
672
1,059
1,149
Vessel.
Henrietta...
Kilmeny....
Saucy Lass.
Mascot	
Mary Ellen,
IJosie Olsen.
Vera	
Aurora	
Arictis .....
Shelby	
Teresa?	
Labrador...
Umbrina ...
Total
Males.
427
307
290
299
105
425
80
79
39
323
179
30
11,705
Females, i Total.
840
327
378
246
352
431
115
138
52
145
381
30
14,636
767
634
668
1,103
457
850
195
217
91
377
?670
560
60
26,341
American
Canadian.
TOTAL CATCH, AMERICAN AND CANADIAN, IN BERING SEA.
Males.
Total.
1,388
11, 705
13, 093
Females.
3,813
14,636
18,449
Total.
5,201
26,341
31,542 SEAL  LIFE   ON  THE  PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
25
Fur-seal catch of Canadian vessels for 1894.
[From official sources.]
Tons.
Crews.
Catch.
Vessels.
White.
Indians.
British
Columbia
coast.
Japanese
coast.
Copper
Island.
Bering Sea.
Total.
Male.
Female.
69
39
99
81
150
100
86
63
24
68
159
107
99
73
46
43
93
58
63
92
60
70
60
76
98
86
96
109
82
92
63
56
83
97
41
99
66
4Q
180
13
25
25
66
38
37
82
75
58
16
48
76
23
21
46
31
19
31
51
49
22
6
25
24
19
26
25
22
26
8
6
26
24
25
16
19
22
14
23
26
20
20
19
24
8
25
23
8
26
27
25
22
22
24
18
27
5
4
5
8
5
2
24
7
6
6
5
5
5
3
9
1
6
5
2
5
7
21
1,254
1,043
2,588
1,733
1,961
2,383
1,197
1,926
2, 584
1,471
911
1,707
710
1,603
1,304
874
1,010
925
1,909
1,437
606
1, 306
1,075
1,947
314
153
176
433
343
1, 568*
jR.o$ic 01s6n	
16
425
30
431
30
1,899
TTitibriD a         .............
2, 801
Oqp,ji.t fl.Tifl TTiiittiA
1,909*
T^ffiTifla
2,394
2, 726
Arietis..           ...........
39
52
1,288-
flflSPO
1,920
Dora KifiwflT'fJ
2,584
Walter A. Earle	
20
18
471
155
310
517
336
2,143
Fawn	
1, 557
Agnes Macdonald	
W P Hall
2,178:
710
TVf p/rmaifl
503
250
250.
200
907
86
2,108.
City of San. Diego	
IVfarv Tavlor
1,554
1,124
Libbie..
1, 210
Mav Belle
1,122
Mary Ellen..    	
	
105
352
2,452
Viva
1,437
W. P. Savward
35
296
641
Penelope
1,602
Vera	
80
115
1,270
Carlotta G. Cox .
1,947
Triumph	
Otto	
36
1,320
1,163
2,077
4, 560^
1,014
2,118
623
1,637
E. B. Marvin .
2,118
Sapphire	
32
535
1,226
879
2,640
Annie E. Paint .
1,497
1,092
1,102
1,783
530
1,343
693
96
531
558
120
171
274
86
21
81
2,028
1,650*
Teresa .
1, 222
Sadie Turpel .
1,954
Ocean Belle .
....
804
MaudS	
1,429*
Aurora	
79
138
931
Florence M. Smith	
177
Beatrice	
22
16
37
37
14
7
17
20
26
22
20
10
17
25
13
8
20
14
12
17
22
358
606
309
308
400
418
170
303
269
467
79
34
342
299
752
938
179
818
246
488
1,009
381
1,518
Mascot	
558
1,103
Favorite	
1,846-
Annie C. Moore..
2,256
Labrador.
868
Wanderer..
400
Pioneer ..
1,263
...
1,681
290
90
490
1,092
303
232
417
1,000
378
1,059
569
565
564
145
492
749
838-
Borealis ,	
1,452
Katharine	
1,328
Ainoko	
2,124
Kate	
946'
Shelby	
411
Venture	
909
Walter L. Rich	
691
175
92
488
20
2,440
Mountain Chief	
175^
Fisher Maid	
92
Minnie	
679
256
307
427
986
593
327
340
2,153
San Jos6	
869
"R"ilTYi<vny ......
684
Henrietta	
315
357
1,082
C. D. Rand	
357
Beatrice	
1,703
1,703
Canoe catch by Indians..
3,989
3, 989^
Total	
3,866
888
518
11,703
48, 993
7,437
11, 705
14, 636
94,474
Descri
ption.
1894.
1893.
Number of vessels	
59
818
518
55*
847
Men in Indian crews       i  	
432:
tch	
British Columbia coast ca
11, 703
48, 993
7,437
26, 341
29,113
JaDan coast catch	
29, 206»
Copper Island catch	
12,013
Berina: Sea catch          	
h	
Total Canadian catc
94,474
70 332* 26
SEAL   LIFE  ON  THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
Fur-seal catch of American vessels for 1894.
[Prepared by A. B. Alexander.]
Vessel.
Alton	
Alexander	
Anaconda	
Anna Matilda.
Allie I. Algar
Bonanza.
Bowhead	
C. G.White	
Emma and Louisa..
Emma	
Eppinger	
Edward E. Webster
Ella Johnson	
Ethel	
£reo. Peabody	
Geo.R. White a	
Northwest
coast.
H. C. Wahlberg.
Henry Dennis
Herman	
Ida Etta	
•Jane Grey	
Kate and Ann	
Louis D	
Louis Olsen	
LillieL	
Josephine	
Mary H. Thomas 6..
Mascot c	
Mattie T.Dyer	
Mathew Turner d..
Penelope	
Prescott	
Retriever	
Rattler	
Rosie Sparks	
St. Paul	
Sophia Sutherland..
San Diego d	
Stella Erland	
"Teresa	
Volunteer	
Willard Ains worth.
Winchester	
Amature e	
■Columbia e	
C. C. Perkins e	
Deeahks e	
Dart e	
Felitze	
-James G. Swan e	
Puritan e	
66
Japan
coast.
1,185
810
397
785
1,395
1,724
1,407
936
1,166
Copper
Islands.
1,080
1,650
231
80
126
15
15
326
855
968
36
100
225
564
45
400
29
160
600
180
Total.
2,652
1,155
672
1,600
1,197
594
150
535
862
857
656
325
837
046
420
1,788
600
686
893
1,606
31, 376
Bering
Sea.
327
1,214
324
736
138
84
84
290
102
661
109
197
761
318
201
403
1,023
1,771      5,201
a This vessel not yet returned. cLost; 535 skins taken; none saved.
&Lost; number or skins not known. dLost; skins not saved.
e Indians from Neah Bay.
Total.
1,185
810
397
785
1,722
1,724
1,407
936
1,166
66
1,080
1,650
1,214
5
231
80
326
861
1,292
862
1,293
687
1,615
1,281
678
150
535
1,152
857
656
427
1,498
1,155
617
30
1,788
600
761
1,004
100
1,094
1,606
225
967
45
1,423
29
160
600
180
41,000
wtmm •J6U  .jskvjk
FT^- •' .-'.'••        ■ •- •• v*b *. „.     ;,r-   . •. ■•<?«.'*#
..'*.'••..    .'    •••'*.•!.    .'.. • *J>       -.11* • . . .&• VM333
.*>*!.
•.^:-:|vv.::
tf... !;•.•■■•
:::;;^:-.-m July 24.
•.k::--^.vmmission of Fish and Fisheries.
ffOLAV1NA ROOKERY
ul Island, Bering Sea,
irea occupied hy Fur Seals in 1895,
as determined by
I H. TOWIlSend, Assistant.
Scale ? 528 jftj.-linrh..
3indies
t interval/ approximately 70 ffr.
turbedL area, - rruuced, vegetation^.
uisturbecU from tun& to time ty seals hcvaZung,
or t&wfbr" m> grass.
Breeding Grounds.
 Hauling        f
kte of examination July ZUr
S Doc /<3/.._54 1
MMMliHh  rnsmm    HH?
Zapadnie $
S Doc..A£7-.54 1 KB •%rJP
\
Tuiuling,
S boc/cfX-54 1 "M«tfct«>t<*"V i*C? SEAL  LIFE   ON  THE  PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
27
THE ROOKERIES IN 1895.
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.
U. S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries,
Office of the Commissioner,
Washington, February 1, 1896.
Sir : I have the honor to forward herewith copies of two reports by
Mr. C. H. Townsend, naturalist of the United States Fish Commission
steamer Albatross, entitled as follows:
Report upon the condition of the seal rookeries of the Pribilof
Islands, Alaska, in 1895.
Eeport on pelagic sealing in 1895.
The former is illustrated by 11 charts and 42 photographic views, of
which only the charts have been completed, and are now transmitted.
The photographs are in course of printing and will be furnished at an
early date.
Yery respectfully, Herbert A. Gill,
Acting Commissioner.
The Secretary of the Treasury,
Washington, D. G.
INTRODUCTION.
In the present report are recorded the results of observations made
by the writer on the fur-seal rookeries of the Pribilof Islands, Alaska,
during the summer of 1895, in continuation of the annual inquiries
respecting that subject, beginning with the season of 1892. It is
accompanied by 11 charts and 42 photographic views, duplicating those
of previous years—the former indicating the outlines of the breeding
grounds and those of the hauling grounds in part, the latter illustrating
the condition of the more important portions of each rookery at the
height of the breeding season. The stations from which the photographs were taken are the same as those previously occupied for that
purpose, while the dates of both the charts and photographs correspond
as closely with those of preceding years as the conditions of weather
permitted or other circumstances, explained below, made advisable.
PRIBILOF  ISLANDS.
The steamer Albatross first reached St. Paul Island, of the Pribilof
group, on June 24,1895, being then en route to the Commander Islands,
Siberia, and remained at the former place until noon of the 26th. Mr.
F. W. True, curator of mammals in the United States National Museum,
together with an assistant, was landed on St. Paul Island for the purpose of making a series of independent observations respecting the
rookeries, as was also Mr. K B. Miller, assistant on the Albatross, the
latter being provided with the necessary outfit for beginning upon the
season's photographic work in case of any unforeseen delay in the return
of the ship. 28
SEAL  LIFE   ON   THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
I spent the 25th and the forenoon of the 26th in going over the rookeries of Lukannon, Ketavie, Beef, Lagoon, and Tolstoi. Female seals
were scarce, none being observed oft any of the rookeries at a distance
of more than 50 or 60 feet from high-water mark, although the usual
rookery area was occupied by bulls. The harems in course of formation
along the beaches were as yet very small, the average number of females
to each being five. About one-fourth of the females were nursing newborn pups, the others being conspicuously gravid. Some sections of
rookery ground were still covered with snow and a number of new-born
young with the red placental still attached were lying upon the snow.
Occasional females were noticed arriving from the sea, but none were
seen leaving. There were no signs of any then coming into heat. A
hasty count by harems of females and young at two favorable points
resulted as follows:
Lukannon.—10 females,5 pups; 2 females, 1 pup; 15 females,2 pups;
4 females, 1 pup; 9 females, 4 pups; 9 females, 3 paps.
Ketavie.—14 females, 6 pups; 6 females, 1 pup; 8 females, 2 pups;
7 females, 4 pups; 10 females, 3 pups; 10 females, 2 pups; 8 females, 3
pups; 5 females, 1 pup.
The hauling grounds were fairly well occupied. A drive was made
from Beef rookery on the morning of the 25th, about 1,200 being killed.
At 1 p. m. the rejected seals had in large part returned to Zoltoi Keck,
from which they had been driven, and were hauled out nearly all the
way across. A drive of about 1,000 seals from Polavina rookery was
made on the 26th, from which about 700 were killed.
COMMANDER ISLANDS.
The Albatross sailed at noon on June 26 for Bering Island, Siberia,
where we arrived on July 3. Dr. Leonhard Stejneger, curator in the
United States National Museum, was landed lor the season, in order to
study the condition of the seal rookeries and the habits of the Commander Island seals, respecting which he made an important series
of observations during the years 1882 and 1883. The 4th was spent in
visiting North rookery, 12 miles distant from Nikolski village, the trip
being made on dog sleds furnished by Governor Grebnitzky. Although
the weather was not clear, I succeeded in making highly satisfactory
panoramas of the rookery, which lies in two sections, separated by a
space of about three-fourths of a mile. The rookery is located at Yushin
Point at the extreme northern end of the island. The larger section of
the rookery occupies a flat, reef-like peninsula, the smaller being on
the beach to the south westward. Very few bachelors were present,
and these were scattered so close to the breeding seals that distinct
hauling grounds were not apparent. The breeding seals were very
densely packed upon their respective areas, a large portion of the
females having brought forth their young. The latter were beginning
to collect into groups by themselves^ and the females were rapidly
coming in heat.
North rookery, the most important of the four rookeries on the Commander Islands, I estimated to be of about the same size and importance as Tolstoi rookery on the Pribilof Islands. With but one other
rookery approaching it in size, it is evident that the seal fishery of the
Commander Islands is of very moderate value as compared with that
■of the Pribilof Islands, while it is certain that there is at present no
such supply of seals as would be necessary for the maintenance of the
large fleet of vessels now operating upon this herd during its migra-;
tions between Bering Sea and the coast of Japan. UJJUUJJ
SEAL   LIFE   ON   THE   FJRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
29
The positions where seals were taken by pelagic sealers during the
season of 1895 in the waters adjacent to the Commander Islands were>
for the most part to the eastward, southward, and westward of the
islands, within a radius of 100 miles, the catch of one vessel having
been made off Cape Nagikinsky, 200 miles to the northwest. The data
are derived from the log books of 5 American vessels whose catches
aggregate 714 seals, taken between July 5 and September 4. In the
year 1892 the schooner Henry Dennis made a catch of 563 seals between
July 2 and August 28 in these waters, all seals being taken within 170
miles of the islands. The sex of seals taken is not stated. The total
number of seals obtained by the combined Canadian and American
fleets off the Bussian coast during the season was 7,648, the positions
where seals were taken by Canadian vessels not being at hand.
During the season of 1895 a sealing fleet numbering 45 vessels took
38,732 seals belonging to the Commander Islands herd, along the coasts
of Japan and Bussia. To this number should be added the catch
made by a small fleet of a dozen or more vessels belonging to Japan, of
which we have received no record. The Japan and Bussian catch for
the season is considered small, and would have been unprofitable but
for a shortage in the total pelagic catch and a consequent advance m
the price of seal skins.
PRIBILOF ISLANDS.
The Albatross returned to St. Paul Island on July 9, when I took up
my quarters on shore for the season.
Besuming the observations left off in June, the rookeries of Lukannon, Ketavie, Lagoon, Tolstoi, and a portion of Beef rookery were
examined very minutely and the breeding females occupying them
carefully counted. This work, with brief visits to all the other rookeries,
occupied the time until the 16th, when Ketavie and Lukannon rookeries
were visited for chart data. On the 17th we went to St. George Island,
where all the rookeries were photographed and their areas platted on the
charts during the 18th and 19th. Beturning to St. Paul Island on the
20th, the chart and photographic work was taken up and pushed rapidly
to completion, the charts being finished on the 24th and the photographic series on the 27th.
From this date until August 9 I was engaged in making natural his>-
tory observations on the rookeries, and in setting up artificial landmarks to outline the present limits of the rookeries and serve as guides
for their delineation in future.
The latter work consisted in painting on suitable bowlders, in white
lead, large crosses (-f) that would be conspicuous from the photographic
stations, and would appear in the panoramas that might be made
hereafter. These crosses, placed on Northeast Point, Polavina, Beef,
Tolstoi, and Upper Zapadnie rookeries, on St. Paul Island, and on
Zapadnie rookery on St. George Island, were located with reference
to the limits of the breeding grounds or the points where seals were
massed.
On Northeast Point rookery four crosses, visible from Station 5,
mark the rear limits of the principal masses of seals.
On Polavina rookery four crosses mark the limits—two on each side
of Station G.
On Beef rookery five crosses from stations 17 to 18, mark limits or
masses.
On Tolstoi rookery five crosses mark limits.
On Upper Zapadnie rookery six crosses mark limits or masses. 30
SEAL   LIFE   ON  THE   PRIBILOF  ISLANDS.
On Zapadnie (St. George Island) a cross marks the extreme western
end of the rookery.
It seems advisable to have these artificial landmarks extended to
some of the other rookeries and located on their respective charts.
Photographic Station G, on Polavina, was marked F by mistake and
should be corrected.
Photographic Station 5, on Northeast Point, was appropriately
marked.
CONDITION  OF ROOKERIES IN 1895 AS  SHOWN BY CHARTS AND
PHOTOGRAPHS.
The changes that have taken place in the rookeries since July, 1894,
are so marked that their depleted condition in July, 1895, is in general
apparent upon comparison of the charts and photographs covering the
two seasons. The usual number of seals not having appeared at the
customary time of commencing the photographic work, the latter was
purposely delayed in order that the ground might have ample time to
fill up, the dates at which the photographs were made being mostly a
week later than in 1894. Even after the slight spreading of the breeding seals that takes place as the season advances, the grounds were
not at any time during 1895 occupied by their usual numbers of seals.
Bookeries, or breeding grounds, strictly speaking, are the tracts within
the limits of which young seals are brought forth, being perfectly distinct areas as contrasted with those over which they spread of their
own accord somewhat later. The "spreading" which results from the
swelling of the rookeries by the birth of thousands of young was
scarcely perceptible during the season of 1895, the limited number of
adults on the rookeries making it unnecessary for the animals to scat*
ter to the usual distances from the beaches. Many old breeding males
occupied their former positions in the rear of the rookeries,but remained
alone, or with but two or three females during the season, their harems
having been absorbed by harems nearer the beach and not permitted
to pass back* Many of the branches of rookeries formerly extending
well back of the breeding grounds at favorable points where the seala
lie in masses have this year been absorbed into the main body of breed*
ing seals. These changes are shown in the photographs of some of the
rookeries and are represented on the charts. In many narrow rookeries
stretched along beaches where the number of seals is not great, changes
caused by a decrease in seal life are not of such a character as to be
apparent in photographs until actual breaks occur. All such rookeries
confined to narrow beach slopes are now thinned out to the verge of
breaking apart in many places. They no longer overlap on to the level
ground usually found above the slopes, and the surplus of male seals
derived from their adjacent hauling grounds is no longer of any importance. Breaks which occur in rookeries are always carefully noted, as
they are sure indications of decrease in the seal life of rookeries heretofore continuous. Certain thin sections as observed in 1894 indicated
breaks likely to follow further decrease in seal life. As a result of the
heavy loss of female and young seals caused by pelagic sealing in Bering
Sea in 1894, many of the predicted breaka actually occurred in 1895»
The destruction of a much larger number of females and young, through
the operations of the sealing fleet in Bering Sea in 1895, will cause a
reduction in the class of breeding seals next season, amounting practically to the loss of continuity in all the thin rookeries on the islands
and rendering the business of pelagic sealing unprofitable.
^.-•jgWw^TV? SEAL   LIFE   ON  THE  PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
31
The thinning out of the breeding seals and the consequent recedence
of the breeding limits toward the beaches is followed by the encroachment of grass upon, the bare ground but recently occupied by seals.
Attention is called to a series of photographs taken annually which are
illustrative of this feature.
It is impossible to represent satisfactorily the decrease of the rookeries by photographs or charts. The former are limited in number and
have frequently to be taken from unfavorable points, while the reduction
of a great tract more or less occupied by seals to the limits of a small
photograph is often misleading except to those familiar with the ground.
The case of the charts is similar, the changes in extensive areas of
land not being impressive when indicated upon charts of small scale.
Special attention is called, however, to the large panoramas taken from
Stations 5,17, and G, showing the large rookeries of Northeast Point,
Polavina, and Beef. In all of these very comprehensive views the
decrease in the number of seals and the withdrawal of the breeding-
limits toward the sea front is apparent.
ST.  PAUL  ISLAND.
Northeast Point rookery.—The thin patches of seals upon each side of
Sea Lion Point are reduced in numbers and area. From station 6 to
the point two important breaks occur at points opposite the marshes.
From the point to Station 5 the rookery has visibly narrowed and the
seals have decreased in numbers. From Hutchinson Hill one of the
most important changes of the year is visible. The photograph from
Station 5 shows the wide rookery ground to be narrower than ever
before. At only one point were young seals born as far back as the
base of the hill. At Station 4 the change is amply shown by the photograph, which, although taken eleven days later than in 1894, shows
no indication of seals spreading to their former limits. South of Station
4 the seals for the first time failed to cover an important tract extending back in the direction of Hutchinson Hill. This is shown in the
photograph from Station 3. The animals usually somewhat massed at
this point have found room upon the immediate beach slope. From
Station 3 to Station 1 the breeding seals are confined to the narrow
beach slope, very difficult of examination. Here the rookery is exceedingly thin, which is indicated to a slight degree in rather unsatisfactory photographs. The decrease in the number of seals at this great
rookery since 1894 is very marked.
Polavina rookery.—The main rookery, situated on a comparatively
level tract, is shrunken perhaps 50 per cent in dimensions, and at no
point extends back to the limits of 1894. The small communities occupying the ledges under the cliffs north of the point were much reduced
in numbers, and with the exception of a few stragglers did not overlap
on the plateau above. The photograph of the main rookery, taken at
short range, shows the breeding line to have receded toward the beach,
while the level ground at the left remained unoccupied. Another view
from Station 21, at still shorter range, shows a loss of seals from the
foreground and extreme background.
At Little Polavina rookery the branches of the rookery extending-
back on the plateau have been absorbed, while the remnant along the
cliff is thinned and lies in patches. Foggy weather prevented satisfactory photographic work.
Lukannon rookery.—The breeding line here was drawn somewhat
lower than usual, and at no time during the season were the seals 32
SEAL  LIFE  ON  THE  PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
hauled back to the customary limits. For the first time during my
observations of this ground no young were born on the hill above
Station 12. Photograph 26 is useless for comparison, the breeding seals
being altogether in the dim background to the left. The eastern two-
thirds of Lukannon rookery was counted on July 12; it contained 1,840
females.
Ketavie rookery.—Now thinner than ever before. It is broken apart
in many places. All the young born this season were on the lower
ledges, and there was no seasonal spreading back whatever. The
ground is easily commanded, and a careful count was made. There
were only 2,070 females between Station 12 and Ketavie Point. Photograph 13 shows a reduced tract, with bulls in the rear that were unable
to form harems in 1895. The other photographs of Ketavie show a
•decrease.
Beef rookery.—A comparison of the charts and photographs of thi$
ground for the seasons of 1894 and 1895 will show in a measure the
change for the worse that has taken place. Photograph 16 shows the
recedence of seals on the hill slope toward the water's edge. Photograph 17 shows a recedence toward the sea and a very distinct decrease.
The great extent of this panorama is more graphically indicated on the
•chart (east of Station 17). No. 18 shows t}ie recedence of the seal belt
resulting from diminished numbers and the consequent isolation of old
bulls on, breeding ground no longer reached by females. Nq. 19 shows
2b recedence from the higher ground. No. 20 shows a reduction and a
recedence toward the water. The photograph of the grass area on
this rookery is especially interesting as proving the rapidity with which
grass takers possession of ground which a few years back was teeming
with seals. This area, devoid of grass in July, 1892, wa,s selected and
marked at that time for aunual observation. Being now well grass-
grown, as the photograph proves, it is valuable as showing the rapidity
with which grass grow$ on ground recently vacated by seals, a fact
denied at some length by the British Bering Sea commissioners (see
British Counter Case, Fur Seal Arbitration, Ex. Doc. 177, part S, p.
504). Not only has the area marked by cairns become grass-grown,
but the entire tract between the rookeries is now a continuous meadow
eovered with weeds and flowers.
Lagoon rookery.—Here there has been a perceptible shrinkage at the
ends. The photograph shows how the west end is breaking apart into
small harems. This long and thin rookery may be expected to illustrate next season the damage that will surely result from the past
season's loss of females and young. When counted on July 11, the
whole area contained 1,268 female seals.
Tolstoi rookery.—This rookery has diminished very perceptibly. Photograph F shows that the seals no longer ascend the hill and surround
the large bowlder on the extreme left, while photograph 11 shows a
thinning out in the foreground and a recedence from the left end.
Allowance should be made for a change in the shape of the bay itself,
a hundred feet or more of sand having filled in the bight at the left end
of the rookery. A pencil line on photograph 11 shows the true bearing of the camera. The number of female seals along the narrow beach
from the dotted line toward the point at the right (see photograph 11)
was 1,520 on July 11,1895.
Lower Zapadnie.—Photograph 7 is too dim for comparison. Photograph 7a, although made at long range, indicates a decrease. In
photograph 8a, the camera having been wrongly placed, comparison
with the preceding year is unfavorable, but diminished numbers are
indicated.   Lower Zapadnie is greatly reduced since 1894. SEAL  LIFE  ON  THE  PRIBILOF  ISLANDS.
33
Upper Zapadnie.—The view from Station 8 is too distant for satisfactory comparison, but reduced lumbers are apparent. In photographs
9 and 10 it will be noticed that some old bulls in the rear of the rookeries were unable to form harems, and in photograph 10 the continuity
of the patch of seals near the sea is broken. In general there has been
a shrinkage in territory and a marked reduction in numbers.
ST. GEORGE  ISLAND.
North rookery.—Photograph 2 illustrates, on a small scale, the absorption of the small harems in the rear into the main body of the rookery
nearer the sea—the result of lessened numbers. This ground, when
counted July 18, contained 110 females.
Little East rookery.—There is here a decrease and a shrinkage in area,
indicated to some extent in the photograph.
East rookery.—A very perceptible reduction in numbers.
Starry Arteel rookery.—A great reduction in numbers, with consequent abandonment of the high ground in the rear.
Zapadnie rookery.—The change here is shown on the chart. The
rookery has diminished in numbers and extent. The present condition
of the rookery is well shown by a new photograph from Station H.
List of the charts showing the outlines of the rookeries on the Pribilof Islands, July, 1895.
ST.  PAUL ISLAND.
Northeast Point rookery July 24, Chart A
Polavina rookery July 24, Chart B
Ketavie and Lukannon rookeries  July 16, Chart C
Reef and Garbotch rookeries July 21, Chart D
Tolstoi and Lagoon rookeries July 23, Chart E
Zapadnie and English Bay rookeries July 20, Charts F and GIST.  GEORGE ISLAND.
Starry Arteel rookery July 19, Chart H
North rookery July 18, Chart I
East and Little East rookeries July 18, Chart J
Zapadnie rookery July 19, Chart K
IAst of the photographs of the seal rookeries on the Pribilof Islands iaken in July, 1895, by
N. B. Miller and C. H. Townsend, showing the dates on which they were made.
ST.  GEORGE ISLAND.
Starry Arteel rookery July 18 (N. B.M.)
North rookerv July 18 (N.B.ltf.)
Little East rookery July 18 (N.B.M.)
East rookery July 18 (N.B.M.)
Zapadnie rookery July 19 (C.H.T.)
ST.  PAUL ISLAND.
Northeast Point; rookery July 24 (C.H. T.)
Little Polavina rookery July 24 (C.H.T.)
Polavina rookery July 26 (N.B.M.)
Lukannon rookery July 20 (N. B. M.)
Ketavie rookery July 20 (N.B.M.)
Reef rookery July 20 (N. B. M.)
Lagoon rookery July 27 (C.H.T.)
Tolstoi rookery July 24 (N.B.M.)
Lower Zapadnie rookery July 20 (C.H. T.)
Zapadnie rookery July 20 (C. H. T.)
S. Doc. 137, pt. 2 3 34
SEAL   LIFE   ON   THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
NUMBER  OF  BREEDING  FEMALES  ON  THE  ISLANDS.
Upon the return of the Albatross to the Pribilof Islands on July 9,
1895, a general examination of the rookeries was made. Some of the
narrower breeding grounds were so thinly covered with seals that it
seemed quite possible to count them. Accordingly, Mr. True and I
began on Ketavie rookery and on the 9th and 10th succeeded in taking
a satisfactory census. The harems seemed full and well defined, no
coalescing having begun, and they were therefore counted separately.
This work was continued with Lagoon rookery and portions of Tolstoi,
Lukannon, and Reef rookeries, where female seals were counted as follows: Ketavie, 2,218; Lukannon, 1,940; Lagoon, 1,216; Tolstoi, 1,539;
Heef, 566.   The whole number counted was 7,479.
Narrow places limited to the beach slope, like Lagoon rookery, were
not difficult to count from a boat when the sea was smooth, while no
trouble was encountered in doing the same with thin rookeries that
could be viewed from low cliffs. The value of the data secured can not
be overestimated, it being the first time that rookeries were found sufficiently reduced in the number of breeding females to admit of their
numbers being determined with any degree of precision. Although
these rookeries may not have quite reached their breeding height, they
were so near to it that the corrections to be applied are unimportant.
With a very fair set of figures for the extensive area thus examined, we
are able to form a more accurate estimate of the number of breeding
females on the Pribilof Islands than ever before. Adopting the scale
of the rookery charts prepared by Mr. J. Stanley-Brown (264 feet to 1
inch) we find the 7,479 seals counted to be distributed over 7.05 acres,
making 1,061 seals to the acre. The remaining area occupied by seals
has been computed at 54.47 acres, as based upon the rookery ground
delineated on the charts for 1895. The result is a total of 65,239 breeding females for all the rookeries of the two islands. Some corrections
might be applied for certain tracts on Eeef, Tolstoi, and Northeast Point
rookeries, where the seals always lie more or less massed, but I can not
admit that there were between July 10 and 15 more than 75,000 breeding females present upon the islands. There is also a correction to be
applied for a moderate number of females not on the rookeries at the
time the breeding females were being counted. As the season was
backward, and the females later than usual in arriving, their appearance
was made en masse, so it is altogether probable that the number of
absentees was not important.
From the 10th to the 15th of July the rookeries were filled with
females that had just brought forth their young. They had not noticeably begun going to sea to feed, and at no other time were so many
coming in heat. It is altogether unlikely that any very important
number of females could have been away from the rookeries at a time
when the females were still in excess of young. Mr. True found the
percentage of young to be 62 on July 9, while on July 20 the young
were everywhere in excess of females. Later in the season 50 per cent,
at least, of the females were customarily absent from the rookeries. 00&
rA1
-s.
■.  SEAL   LIFE   ON   THE  PRIBILOF  ISLANDS.
35
Census of Ketavie rookery, by harems, from North End to Ketavie Point, on July 9 and 10.
[The numbers indicate breeding females in each harem.]
14
34
75
42
1
1
10
37
14
3
7
1
1
3
14
8
32
22
2
18
15
12
1
4
88
13
14
24
27
10
60
5
5
9
31
12
12
22
11
13
40
13
6
26
28
35
17
15
25
21
10
16
11
34
5
1
21
3
27
10
8
52
1
2
27
10
13
2
22
5
8
1
18
15
43
29
13
10
18
55
23
5
50
9
1
1
4
16
34
1
24
47
21
21
29
3
9
10
3
1
28
13
17
12
145
15
13
2
10
2
43
13
23
20
64
8
16
6
23
Whole number of breeding females  2, 218
Whole number of harems      119
Average females to harem        18 ■
Census of Lagoon rookery, by harems, on July 10.
[The numbers indicate breeding females in each harem.]
8
32
18
2
19
4
5
31
19
16
9
20
31
24
1
15
2
20
1
20
38
16
8
26
23
35
16
6
3
12
12
16
4
28
4
23
6
7
67
1
4
41
37
7
67
14
9
14
20
2
16
21
4
42
48
4
26
1
25
4
1
4
1
7
39
3
10
4
18
15
1
8
1
3
24
16
22
10
25
41
Whole number of breeding females ,  1,216
Whole number of harems *        80
Average females to harem        15+
Census of Tolstoi rookery, by harems, from the Point to end of Grass Bluff, on July 11.
[The numbers indicate breeding females in each harem.]
7
9
12
7
8
15
4
14
3
10
8
16
20
12
24
13
10
12
1
1
1
4
16
16
15
31
18
17
15
1
1
10
9
6
1
13
20
15
10
34
8
19
15
1
11
18
26
4
20
1
29
3
14
3
2
25
16
3
26
28
2
9
24
27
1
11
45
8
• 7
1
45
4
20
42
6
1
21
5
2
29
1
6
11
1
1
9
1
22
51
17
15
3
32
3
37
25
6
23
15
5
18
5
47
24
11
18
10
31
13
31
1
4
1
Whole number of breeding females 1, 539
Whole number of harems      113
Average females to harem        13+
Census of Lukannon rookery, by harems, from bluff to ledge of flat rooks, on July 12.
[The numbers indicate breeding females in each harem.]
26
35
13
12
3
10
9
5
39
18
27
1
5
51
5
16
9
55
1
9
14
27
31
6
26
9
21
3
48
35
44
46
14
16
34
1
2
54
17
40
1
19
2
68
25
10
17
40
8
11
32
6
21
45
7
10
1
68
30
24
45
70
22
53
7
18
21
16
12
3
38
62
28
3
21
9
5
2
3
35
5
2
36
13
13
11
. 19
12
74
Whole number of breeding females  1,940
Whole number of harems        89
Average females to harem       21+
He
iiriifini 36
SEAL   LIFE   ON   THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
Census, by harems, of a portion of Beef rookery, below bluff north of Station 19, on July 15.
[The numbers indicate breeding females in each harem.]
12
9
4
14
10
9
2
4
4
31
16
37
7
25
8
13
11
14
9
16
90
74
16
9
14
1
55
5
21
1
20
14
1
Whole number of breeding females  566
Whole number of harems  33
Average females to harem  17
Whole number of breeding females counted on Ketavie, Lukannon,
Tolstoi, JLagoon, and Reef rookeries  7,479
Whole number of harems  434
Average females to harem  17+
RESTORATION   OF  THE ROOKERIES.
With the number of breeding females in the Pribilof seal herd diminished to about 75,000 in July, 1895, and this number further reduced
by the pelagic loss of August and September (certainly not less than
30,000 females out of the catch of nearly 44,000), we have remaining a
very limited breeding stock, and yet, notwithstanding this circumstance, if absolute protection can be guaranteed to the seals without
delay and for a term of years,* the stock is still large enough to insure
a comparatively rapid restoration of the rookeries. If there be no
further loss of females during the present winter by sealing on the
Northwest Coast, we may fully expect to find the rookeries in 1896
occupied by the present number of breeding females, about 45,000,
together with several thousand 3-year-old females that will then become
breeders. It is exceedingly difficult to calculate the increase of 3-year-
old breeding females for that time, there being no record of the proportion of 2 and 3 year old females lost during the pelagic sealing of the
past two seasons. It is evident that the loss of over 50,000 pups in
1894-95 will result in a poor showing of breeding females in 1897-98.
Supposing, however, that the existing breeding females, with their
female progeny, were secured against destruction in future, the restoration of the rookeries would be certain, and the rate of increase mor»
rapid from year to year.
The following table showing the increase in seal life that would
naturally result from the complete protection of females is based upon
the natural-history facts that they breed annually from the third year
and produce both sexes in equal numbers. The loss from natural
causes, such as old age, injuries received on the rookeries, killer whales,
etc., is probably unimportant.
Assuming a breeding class of 50,000 seals in 1896, there is shown an
increase to nearly half a million in ten years, while at the end of twenty
years the breeding females alone number over 6,500,000. The annual
increase of young males would be equal to the annual increase of young
females, or to half the breeding females. A very small proportion of
these being required for breeding purposes, this class would practically
be available annually as a surplus. Not only do seals breed early in
life, and with great regularity, but they return to their breeding
grounds with a faithfulness which demonstrates the security they feel
there. The seal rookeries of the Pribilof Islands can, therefore, unquestionably be restored, and at a known ratio of increase. These figures!
may appear startling, but they are founded on simple natural-history
facts. *
Y£**
/S37
/B36
/8S3
1200
1901
/902
1903
/904
I90S
X
*, ••••-BVWfes.V' ones
SEAL   LIFE   ON  THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
37
Table showing the increase in seal life that would naturally result from the complete protection of the females.
Year.
Breeding
females
1896	
1897	
1898	
1899	
1900....
1901	
1902	
1903	
1904	
1905....
1906	
1907	
1908	
1909	
1910	
1911	
1912	
191H	
1914	
1915	
1916	
1,
1,
1,
2
2,
3,
4,
50, 000
50, 000
50, 000
50, 000
75, 000
100, 000
125. 000
162, 500
212, 500
275, 000
356, 250
462, 500
600, 000
778,125
009,375
309, 375
689,437
194,124
848, 811
693, 529
790, 591
Annual
increase of
young
females.
1.
1
I
2,
2,
25, 000
25, 000
25, 000
37, 500
50,000
62, 500
81, 250
106, 250
137,500
178,125
231, 250
300, 000
389. 062
504, 687
654,687
844, 718
097, 062
424,405
846, 764
395, 295
818, 677
Annual
increase of
breeding
females.
Total
breeding
females.
(a)
(a)
(a)
25, 000
25,000
25,000
37, 500
50,000
62,500
81,250
106,250
137, 500
178,000
231,250
300, 000
389, 062
504, 687
654, 887
844, 718
1, 097, 062
1, 846, 764
75, 000
100, 000
125, 000
162, 500
212,500
275,000
356, 250
462, 500
600, 000
778,125
| 009, 375
1,309,375
1, 689, 437
2,194,124
2, 848, 811
3, 693, 529
4, 790, 591
6, 637,355
a Available as breeders at third year.
LOSS  OF  YOUNG  SEALS  BY  STARVATION.
The steamer Albatross having left Bering Sea in 1895 somewhat
earlier than usual, I did not visit the rookeries on the Pribilof Islands
in September to repeat the observations made by me at the same
season in 1894, respecting the loss of young seals resulting from
pelagic sealing. Arrangements were made, however, with the resident
Treasury agents for a full and explicit report as to the extent of the
damage that was certain to result from the presence of a large sealing
fleet in Bering Sea during the breeding season. Such report, recently
forwarded by Messrs. Adams and Judge, the resident agents of the
Treasury Department in charge, gives the number of dead pups upon
each rookery to October 10, the total loss of young seals for both islands
up to that time amounting to 28,066. Many weak and emaciated pups
were observed on all the rookeries, and these have doubtless since died.
Pup seals are very fat and can not be killed by starvation in less than
a month's time. Although many thousands of young seals were lost
by starvation in September and October. 1894, on account of sealing
done in August, I found no dead pups until after September 1. From
that time on, the death of the young was continuous.
The following summation of the loss for 1895 is accompanied by affidavits as to the correctness of the counts made:
Loss of young seals on the Pribilof Islands by starvation resulting from the killing of
female seals in Bering Sea in 1895.
[Count in full to October 10, 1895". J
ST.   PAUL ISLAND.
Ketavie rookery  857
Lukannon rookery  1, 347
Lagoon rookery  300
Polavina rookery  1, 970
Garboteh rookery  1,514
Reef rookery  3, 376
Upper Zapadnie rookery  5, 231
Lower Zapadnie rookery  381
Tolstoi rookery  2,582
Northeast Point rookery  4, 017
Sea Lion Rock rookery  361
Total  22,054
ST. GEORGE ISLAND.
Zapadnie rookery ,
North rookery	
Starry Arteel rookery	
East rookery	
Little East rookery	
2,083
Total.
1,559
1,131
986
253
6,012
22,054
Grand total  28,066
1
iiaHBaiiBaasEaS 38
SEAL   LIFE   ON  THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
Twenty dead bulls and 101 dead females were found on St. Paul
Island during the season of 1895, 3 of the latter having spear points
and lines attached.
The total number of seals taken in Bering Sea during the season by
the pelagic sealing fleet was 43,697. There can be no doubt that at
least 75 per cent of those were breeding females, the death of which
would necessarily involve the loss of over 32,000 young. The proportion of the sexes represented in the season's catch, as reported by
the sealing fleet, is untrustworthy, judging from our experience with
reports of this kind in the past and from what we know at present of
the actual conditions.
RECOMMENDATIONS  RESPECTING  THE  PRIBILOF  ISLANDS.
Having already questioned the propriety of the driving and culling
of seals by the lessees upon the islands, it is unnecessary to repeat the
arguments against the practice. No further culling should be permitted. It would be preferable to kill a larger quota consisting of several
grades of skins, taking all that might be driven, rather than to continue
the selection of a single grade necessitating the excessive handling of
the animals now practiced.
Should a sealing fleet be present in Bering Sea during the season of
1896, the removal of all surplus males, except yearlings and large bulls,
would be desirable. While increasing the quota of Government skins
and lowering the value of the pelagic catch, it would also have the
effect of limiting the pelagic catch entirely to females. The number of
females is now so limited that no profit will be found in taking them at
sea, where they will be so scattered as to discourage pelagic sealers and
to some extent shorten the season of their operations.
Another method, suggested by Mr. F. W. True, of reducing the pelagic
catch to an appreciable degree might be found in retaining all non-
breeding males upon the islands after August 1. Commencing about
the 20th of July, all males appearing upon the hauling grounds, and
rejected from the drives, could be placed in the larger inland lakes and
held captive there for six weeks or more. A solution of the pelagic
sealing question might be found in the branding of nursing females in
such a manner as would destroy the value of skins, while the question
of property recognition upon the high seas might be well worth raising.
Any action on the part of the authorities directed toward the killing
of female seals on the rookeries, for any purpose whatsoever, would be
deplorable. Nothing can justify the destruction of the source of supply
of anything useful to mankind.
REPORT ON PELAGIC SEALING IN 1895.
The following report embraces the results of observations made at sea
between August 9 and 30, 1895, in connection with the fishery investigations of the Fish Commission steamer Albatross, and subsequently at
Victoria, British Columbia, Seattle and Port Townsend, Wash., between
September 25 and October 18. The work at sea consisted in boarding
such vessels as were met with for the purpose of making inquiries as to
the number of seals taken, the positions where taken, their sex, age,
food, etc.
The perfecting of United States customs regulations providing for
the collecting of sealing data by American vessels left comparatively
little work to be done at sea.   The examination of a considerable num-
•»»'^**W'W<»vrfs   WHKl
{JJJJ.
SEAL   LIFE   ON  THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
39
ber of carcasses of fur seals procured from sealing vessels during the
month of August indicated that the species breed annually from the
third year. It also yielded information on the sex of seals taken at
sea and the character of their food, which appears to be pollock, squid,
small fishes, and other surface life chiefly.
Upon the return of the Albatross to Puget Sound, I began boarding
the vessels of the sealing fleet as fast as they returned. The catch for
the year on the different sealing grounds was ascertained, and a number of log books kept during former sealing voyages and containing
information on the seasonal migrations of the fur seal were collected.
During the months of August and September, 1895, there were
engaged in sealing in Bering Sea 39 Canadian and 18 American vessels, the former making a catch of 35,773, and the latter a catch of
7,924 seals.
During the same period in 1894 a fleet of 38 vessels took 31,542 seals,
while the total Bering Sea catch for 1895 (43,697 seals) required a fleet
of 57 vessels, making a lower average per vessel, although a comparison of the log books of the American fleet for the two seasons shows
the sealing weather to have averaged better in 1895, seals having been
taken every day during the month of August.
The total number of Canadian and American vessels that engaged
in pelagic sealing during the year was 96. The catch of seals from the
Pribilof herd was 55,664, and that from the Bussian herd 38,738, the
total being 94,396. Less than one-third of the entire catch was made
by American vessels, while the proportion of the American catch in
Bering Sea is comparatively insignificant, the bulk of the American
catch for the year having been made on the Japan coast.
The operations of the sealing fleet in Bering Sea in 1895 were in the
same locality as in 1894, the catch as a whole having been made southeast, south, southwest, and west of the Pribilof Islands, outside the
protected zone.
The sealing ground, platted upon a map prepared from positions
obtained from a large number of sealing vessels, appears as a nearly
semicircular belt about 60 miles in width, commencing to the northwestward of the Pribilofs and extending southward and eastward
around the protected area, widening somewhat toward the southeastward limit, where seals were taken nearer the Aleutian Islands.
The condition of the American seal herd is now very critical. Should
no changes be made during the present winter affecting the work of the
great pelagic sealing fleet, the herd breeding on the Pribilof Islands
will, by reason of sealing in Bering Sea during the coming season, be
reduced to a comparatively insignificant size, so small, at least, as to
ruin the seal fishery commercially at sea as well as upon land.
At a meeting of Canadian sealers recently held at Victoria it was
decided that but one cruise be made during the year 1896, that to be
in Bering Sea. The Northwest coast catch for the spring of 1895 proved
unprofitable, but one vessel having made expenses, while the catch in
Japanese and Bussian waters was made barely remunerative by reason
of an advance in the price of seal skins. This action on the part of the
sealers is clearly the result of diminished catches. It is now evident to
all persons interested in the pelagic sealing industry that further profit
can not be expected from sealing in the ^orth Pacific. That the sealing fleet as a whole after one more season's work in Bering Sea will be
out of employment can not be doubted.
The condition of the seal herd breeding upon the Commander Islands
is similar to that of the American herd.   With the inauguration of the 7
40
SEAL  LIFE   ON  THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
restrictions of the modus vivendi, the destructive operations of the
pelagic sealing fleet, so long directed chiefly against the American herd,
were suddenly transferred to the .Russian herd, and from that time its
decimation has been rapid, the slaughter extending annually, from the
latitude of Yokohama, in winter, to within 30 miles of the Commander
Islands, in summer. The catch for 25 Canadian vessels in 1895 was
18,686 skins, as compared with a catch of 56,430 skins in 1894 by the
same number of Canadian vessels. The total pelagic catch from the
Bussian herd for 1895 was only 38,732 as compared with a catch of
about 82,000 in 1894. a • a
A minute inspection of the rookeries on the Commander Islands during the past season revealed such a reduction in the breeding portion
of the seal herd as to render immediate restrictions on pelagic sealing
necessary, if anything more than a mere nucleus of the Bussian herd is
to be preserved.
PROPORTION OF SEXES IN THE PELAGIC CATCH.
This subject having been commented upon very fully in the report
for 1894, farther discussion as to the proportion of male and female
seals killed by pelagic sealing seems unnecessary. Sealers detecting
the danger of restrictions that might follow a discovery of the great
preponderance of females in pelagic catches have in numerous cases
misrepresented the facts. American inspectors of seal skins have found
the reports made by masters of sealing vessels on this point to be subject to correction in cases too numerous to mention. There being no
official inspection of the Canadian catch, the reports of masters are
necessarily accepted for record. Canadians are the chief offenders,
American sealers having in mind the customs inspections that accompany the lauding of their catches. The American catch is reported
(witji custom-house corrections) to consist of three times as many females
as males, no vessel reporting more males than females. The Canadian
returns represent the numbers as more nearly equal, no official inspection of catches being made, although 11 vessels state their catches as
chiefly male.
The following examples illustrate the differences usually found between the reports made by masters of vessels and those made by
inspectors of seal skins:
Vessel.
Males.
Females.
Schooner Ecrett:
Master's report'	
65
9
39
20
76
35
13
5
83
33
34
Official examination	
90
Schooner Deeahks:
Master's report	
43
Official exam i ii at ion  ....
62
Schooner Bering Sea:
M flflt Ar'a report     ..,.. ••>..  .. ^ *.,.
104
Official examination	
145
Schooner Matilda:
Master's report, ,   ■ .$....
22
Official examination	
35
Schooner Brian d:
82
Official examination	
132
Discrepancies were found in nearly all the log books in the fleet.
The skins were identified in the presence of the masters and others,
who acquiesced in the identification as they were tallied.   In all cases
:'K"'-ri *S*' SEAL  LIFE  ON  THE  PRIBILOF  ISLANDS.
41
of uncertainty the master's report was given the benefit of the doubt.
As a result of the corrections made in the masters' reports of the spring
catch for 1895, the records of the Bering Sea catch, made a few months
later, were kept more carefully. There being still considerable misrepresentation, masters of vessels, when licensed for sealing, should be
cautioned against making incorrect returns, for which the authorities
should accept no excuse. The facts of the case are apparent. The
skinning of seals in canoes by Indians makes the tally of the sexes of
skins thrown on the decks of sealing vessels after nightfall uncertain^
while the falsity of all statements of a majority of males is self-evident.
It could be demonstrated in many ways. Take, for example, the well-
known conditions existing on the Pribilof Islands; the breeding males
do not leave the islands—in fact, do not enter the water—during the
breeding season, while the surplus males resulting from the polygamous
nature of the seal have always been in large part removed by annual
killings upon the islands. Females must, therefore, necessarily constitute the great bulk of the pelagic catch. Out of a total of 123 seals
examined at random by me upon the decks of sealing vessels in Bering
Sea during the past season, 106 were females, or five-sixths of the
whole number. The starvation of young seals upon the rookeries that
follows the operations of the sealing fleet in Bering Sea is also evidence
as to the sex of the seals killed. The loss of young seals up to October 10 is reported to be 28,066 by actual count, while many were then
found in a dying condition.1
SEX, AGE, PREGNANCY, AND FOOD OF FUR SEALS
BERING SEA DURING AUGUST, 1895.
TAKEN IN
During the cruise of the steamer Albatross on the pelagic sealing
grounds in August, 1895, many carcasses of fur seals, obtained from
day to day from vessels engaged in sealing, were examined with reference to their age, sex, breeding condition, and food. Such carcasses
were readily secured from schooners after the return of the hunting
boats, while the evening work of skinning was going on, and all of
those obtained were conveyed to the laboratory of the Albatross for
dissection and examination. Of a total of 123 so examined in different
localities from August 11 to 21, 106 were of female seals. Of the latter
number 78 were nursing females, all determinations being based on
examinations of mammary glands, uteri, and ovaries. Of the remaining females, 26 in number, 15 were yearlings and 11 were 2 years old.
Of the males, 17 in number, 2 were yearlings, 4 were 2 years old, 8 were
3 years old, and 3 were 4 years old. Nearly five-sixths of the whole
number being females, and nearly four-fifths of these being females in
milk, the heavy drain made by pelagic sealing upon the producing class
of seals is apparent.
Only one of the 15 yearling females bore signs of recent impregnation, and this one, taken for a yearling on account of its small sizer
may have been 2 years old. Four of the 2-year-old females were pregnant, one showing the corpus luteum in the right and the others in the
left ovary. The breeding season not being over, the other 2-year-old
females may have been impregnated later. A few nursing females not
bearing marks of present pregnancy may have been impregnated and
1 As this report goes to press I am officially informed that the sealing schooner
Penelope on February 29,1896, entered at San Francisco a catch of 215 seals, of which
only 8 were males, all the rest—207—being females. The catch was made from Jan-
nary 24 to February 26, between the Farallone Islands and Point Conception, Cal.,.
at distances averaging 25 mUes off shore.—C. H. T., March 12, 1896.
lAUBBB£2Ki£tiGKB2fi2 42
SEAL   LIFE   ON  THE  PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
the corpus luteum not yet developed. From these studies, the first of
the kind, it would appear that female fur seals are first impregnated
at the age of 2 years, and bear their first young at the age of 3. It is
also apparent that nursing females are already pregnant when they
begin feeding at sea. In all cases in which the condition of the uteri
and ovaries could be made out with certainty it was found that pregnancy occurs annually and in the right and left horns of the uterus
alternately. Some of the nursing females examined were, from the
appearance of their teeth, judged to be very old. These observations,
apparently demonstrating a wonderful regularity in the breeding of
the seal, are of special importance in calculating the length of time
that would be required for the restoration of the Pribilof rookeries if
complete protection could be secured for female seals of all classes.
Of 123 stomachs of seals examined, 49 were empty or contained merely
abdominal worms or bloody mucus. Of 73 with food, 46 contained
chiefly squid, 23 pollock or cod, while 4 contained salmon. The majority
had mixed with the squid or larger fishes the bones of very small fishes
resembling sand lants or tomcod—perhaps the young of pollock or cod.
These examinations of seals taken off' soundings at different times
and places indicate that seals find plenty of food beyond the great fishing banks { that squid is the favorite food; that pollock and small fishes
<3ome next, while salmon and cod rank last, at least in this part of
Bering Sea.
The catches of seals for 1894 and 1895 were made for the most part
off soundings.
Table showing the results of observations made on fur seals taken at sea in Bering Seat
August 11 to 21, 1895, respecting sex, age, pregnancy, and food.
SCHOONER M. M. MORRILL.
[Latitude, 55° 12' north; longitude, 170° 25' west.   Date, August 11.]
s
3
0
•fi
©
GO
Sex.
Male...
Female
....do.
....do .
....do .
....do.
....do.
....do.
....do .
....do .
....do.
....do .
....do.
....do.
 do .
....do .
 do .
Ovaries.
Age.
Uterus,
horn showing former
pregnancy.
Scar resulting from
former
pregnancy
(corpus albicans).
Sign of
recent impregnation
(corpus
luteum).
Stomach contents.
3 years.
1 year..
2 years.
1 year..
Nursin
 do
 do
 do
 do
 do
 do
 do
 do
 do
 do
 do
 do
g.J Right    Right.
 do do
Left
Small quantity of small fish and
squid.
Do.
Do.
Small quantity of small fish and
squid (sand lants?).
Small quantity squid beaks.
Left
Left    Right.
.do   Squid; small fish.
Do.
Right ; Right   Left   Two pollock.
Left  (?) Right    Empty.
Right    Right    Left   One squid.
 do do do I Empty.
(?) (?)        I.....do I Squid.
Left
do
Lost
.....do
Lost	
 do
Right.
Right    Left
Empty.
Pollock; squid beaks.
Empty.
Small fish; squid.
Small squid.
a Serial number used only where specimens were saved. SEAL  LIFE  ON  THE  PRIBILOF  ISLANDS.
43
Table showing the results of observations made on fur seals taken at sea in Bering Sea,
August 11 to 81, 1895, respecting sex, age, pregnancy, and food—Continued.
SCHOONER VERA.
[Latitude, 54° 54' north; longitude, 168° 55' west.   Date, August 12.]
Sex.
Age.
Uterus,
horn showing former
pregnancy,
Ovaries.
Scar resulting from
former
pregnancy
(corpus albicans).
Sign of
recent impregnation
(corpus
luteum).
Stomach contents.
Female
 do.
 do .
 do.
lyear	
,  Nursing ..
.   2 years	
.  Nursing ..
Left
Left
Right.
Right    Left
  Empty.
Right  Worms.
  Three squid; small fish.
  Four squid beaks.
SCHOONER ENTERPRISE.
[Latitude, 54° 54' north; longitude, 168° 48' west.   Date, August 12.]
Female ..
 do ...
 do ...
 do ...
Male	
 do ...
 do ..
 do ..
Nursing.
2years	
Very old.
Nursing .
1 year	
3 years...
2 years	
3 years...
Left
Right....
 do ..
(?)
Right'!
(?)
Right  Many small squid beaks.
Left  Squid; very small fish.
(?) Do.
Left  Squid; few small fish.
  Squid, tentacles 3 inches long.
  Few squid beaks, pollock. ?
  Squid; very small fish.
  One squid; many small fish.
SCHOONER MAUD S.
[Latitude, 54° 43' north; longitude, 168° 45' west.   Date, August 12.]
Male	
 do	
 do....
 do ....
Female...
 do ....
 do ....
 do	
 do	
 do	
 do....
 do....
 do	
2 years..
3 years. -
 do ..
 do ..
2 years. -
 do ..
 do ..
Nursing
Virgin!!.
Nursing
2 years..
Right    Eight.
Left
Nursing ..
3 years	
Right I Right.
(?)
Right    Right.
Left
Empty.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Small squid.
Empty.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Squid.
Bones of pollock; squid beaks.
Do.
SCHOONER VICTORIA.
[Latitude, 55° 21' north; longitude, 167° 49' west.   Date, August 20.]
.do
.do
.do
do
.do
.do
.do
Female...   lyear   Empty.
 do    Nursing..   Left    Left    Right    Squid, small fish, pollock.
 do lyear    Empty.
 do do    Blood.
 do   Nursing..   Right  (?) Right j Squid,   small  fish, large   fish
j i     (cod).
 do do   Left    Left do    Squid, small fish, pollock.
 do   2 years  Do.
 do    Nursing..   Left    Left   Right    Blood.
 do ..
 do..
 do..
 do 1 do  do I do I Squid; small fish (cod?).
 do....  Left    Left       Right  Do.
lyear   Empty.
  Do.
 do do do    Squid; small fish.
 do do do    Cod.
Right   Right    Left | Empty.
 do do .,
a Serial number used only where specimens were saved.
m 44
SEAL  LIFE   ON  THE   PRIBILOF  ISLANDS.
Table showing the results of observations made on fur seals taken at sea in Bering Sea,
August 11 to 21, 1895, respecting sex, age, pregnancy, and food—Continued.
u
©
a
B
a
•a
•r"
u
9
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
Sex.
Female
 do .
 do .
 do.
 do.
 do.
 do.
Male...
 do .
Female
 do.
 do.
Male	
Female
Male	
Female
 do.
SCHOONER TRIUMPH.
[Latitude, 55° 21' north; longitude, 167° 49' west.   Date, August 20.]
 do...
 do ...
 do...
 do	
 do ...
 do	
 do ...
 do ...
 do	
 do...
 do...
 do...
 do...
 do...
 do ...
 do ...
 do ...
 do	
Male	
Female -..
 do ...
 do ...
Male	
Female ..
 do...
.....do...
Male......
Female ..
 do	
Male ,
Female ..
 do...
 do ...
 do ...
 do ...
Age.
1 year	
Nursing..
2 years ...
Nursing..
 do	
 do....
 do....
2 years ...
4 years ...
Nursing..
 do....
 do....
2 years	
Nursing..
1 year	
Nursing..
 do ....
 do ....
 do	
 do....
2 years	
Nursing..
lyear	
Nursing..
 do ....
 do	
 do ....
 do	
 do	
2 years	
Nursing..
 do....
1 year	
2 years	
Nursing..
3 years	
Nursing ..
 do ....
 do....
4 years	
1 year	
Uterus,
horn showing former
pregnancy.
Nursing..
 do
i years...
Nursing .
1 year—
3 years..,
Nursing .
 do..
 do ...
1 year.
Left
Right.
.do...
.do ...
.do ...
Left
.do ...
.do ...
Left
Ovaries.
Scar resulting from
former
pregnancy
(corpus albicans).
Sign of
recent impregnation
(corpus
luteum).
Stomach contents.
Left
Right..
 do .
(?)
Right..
Right.
Left..
 do
 do
 do
 do
Lost
Left
(?)
Left
Left	
Lost.....
 do..
Left	
 do..
Right..
(?)
Right..
Right.
Right.
Right.
Left	
Lost j Lost
 do do
(?) Both..
Left    Right.
 | Left..
Right do
Left  Left  Right.
Right  Right  Left..
Left  Left  Right.
Right  Right  Left
Right(?).J (?)
Right   Right..
Right.
...do
Right.
 do
Right.
(?)
Right.
(?)
.do
(?)
(?)
Right..
Left
do
.1 Left
Right.
Left..
Right.
Nursing
Right.
Left
do
(?)
Right.
Left..
Right.
Right.
.do
.do
.do
.do
.do
Left
Right.
Left..
 do
Right.
.....do
Right.
Left ...
Right..
(!)
Left
Small-fish bones.
Small-nsh bones; squid.
Salmon.
Small fish.
Empty.
Do.
Pollock (?).
Empty.
Do.
Do.
Squid; small fish.
Do.
Do.
Small fish.
Empty.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Cod(?).
Salmon.
Squid; small fish.
Empty.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Salmon, cod.
Squid; small fish.
Empty.
Blood.
Empty.
Pollock.
Empty.
Squid.
Small squid, worms.
Empty.
Small fish; squid.
Do.
Squid.
Small fish.
Squid, pollock.
Empty.
Small fish, squid, worms.
Empty.
Do.
Bones of pollock.
Empty.
Do.
Bones of fish.
Blood.
Pollock bones.
Empty.
Squid. SEAL  LIFE  ON  THE  PRIBILOF  ISLANDS.
45
Table showing the results of observations made on fur seals taken at sea in Bering Sea,
August 11 to 21, 1895, respecting sex, age, pregnancy, and food—Continued.
SCHOONER G. W. PRESCOTT.
[Latitude, 55° 33' north; longitude, 168° 11' west.   Date, August 21.]
6
Sex.
Age.
Uterus,
horn showing former
pregnancy.
Ovaries.
&
3
■c
Scar resulting from
former
pregnancy
(corpus albicans).
Sign of
recent impregnation
(corpus
luteum).
Stomach contents.
68
m
Female ...
 do	
Nursing ..
 do	
Left	
 do ....
 do....
Right
do ....
 do	
Left j
 do	
 do	
(?)
Right	
 do	
Right	
 do	
 do	
Left	
 do	
(?)
Left	
Right	
Left	
(?)
(?)
(?)
(?)
(?)
Squid, small fish.
Empty.
Minute squid beaks, worms.
Small squid.
Pollock or cod.
Empty.
Squid, fish bones (pollock ?).
Empty.
Three cod.
70
 do	
 do	
71
 do ....
 do .	
72
73
 do ....
 do ....
 do ....
 do ....
 do   ...
 do	
 do	
 do	
do....
 do	
74
75
76
do ....
Left
Right
 do	
(?)
(?)
Right	
 do	
77
 do	
 do	
Cod or pollock.
Cod.
78
 do	
 do	
 do ....
 do ....
 do ....
Left	
 do	
 do	
 do	
Left	
79
 do.
...do ..
Salmon.
80
 do	
 do	
Cod.
81
 do ....
 do	
Two cod.
Seals examined  123
Male    17
Female 106
Female nursing    78
Female yearling    15
Female 2 years  11
Male yearling  2
Male 2 years  4
Male 3 years  8
Male4years  3
Nursing females 3 years of age or over.
Corpus albicans, the scar indicating ovary from which former pregnancy resulted.
Corpus luteum, the sign of pregnancy or recent ovulation from that ovary.
In these observations only the gross appearance of ovaries.is considered; impregnation may have
taken place in all the 2 and 3 year old females, and the corpus luteum not yet developed.
LIST OF  PHOTOGRAPHS ILLUSTRATIVE  OP PELAGIC  SEALING.
[Photographs by N. B. Miller, C. H. Townsend, and A. B. Alexander.]
A portion of the sealing fleet at Sand Point, Alaska, in June, 1893.
Canadian sealing schooner E. B. Marvin.   Bering Sea.
Canadian sealing schooner Annie E. Paint.   Bering Sea.
Canadian sealing scljooner Dora Siewerd.    Bering Sea.
Canadian sealing schooner Katherine, formerly Black Diamond.
Canadian sealing schooner Dora Siewerd under storm canvas, showing manner of
stowing canoes.   1895.
Deck of Dora Siewerd.   1895.
Skinning seals, Dora Siewerd.    1895.
Canadian sealing schooner seized in Bering Sea prior to 1888.
Canadian sealing schooner Thornton seized in Bering Sea prior to 1888.
Canadian sealing schooner Ainoko discharging skins at Victoria.
American sealing schooner Columbia.
Types of sealing schooners.   Victoria Harbor.   1894.
Types of sealing schooners.   Victoria Harbor.   1894.
A portion of the Canadian sealing fleet, Victoria Harbor.   1894.
Sealing boats stored at Victoria.
Portion of Indian crew of Canadian schooner Favorite.   1894.
Indian hunter of sealing canoe, showing double-pointed spear pole; detaching
spear points, with line 30 yards long; paddle; killing club, and wooden boat bailer.
Indian sealing canoe, showing manner of throwing spear.
Indian sealing canoe under sail.
Indian sealing canoe with outfit and catch.
Sleeping seal—usual position, floating back down, with hind flippers turned forward over belly.   August 7, 1894.   Bering Sea.
Fur seal just awakened.
Starved seal pups, St. Paul Island.   September, 1894.
Starved seal pups, St. Paul Island.    September, 1894.
aOHKKiB
rri.frTFvrnn-Tim irnrrnf 46
SEAL  LIFE   ON  THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
Pelagic catch of the American sealing fleet for 1895.
Hunters.
Bering Sea.
Japan coast.
Russian coast.
Northwest
coast.
Vessel.
©
•1-1
s
24
5
7
5
8
4
4
6
1
a
a
M
CD
©
*
06
©
©
ft
o3
O
H
CO
cc
©
i
a
©
fa
m*3
eS
■+3
©
co
©
■a
©
p—4
1
s
©
ft
"el
©
co
©
t—i
eg
co
©
i
a
©
ft
eg
©
Ida Etta	
564
591
1,004
484
M. M. Morrill	
*20"
"21*
16
5
20
io
102
20
141
117
212
203
141
165
66
163
291
173
451
323
872
473
188
498
205
381
393
193
592
Allie I. Algar	
723
381
Deeahks	
20
62
82
~W. Ainsworth	
440
1,084
676
329
663
271
544
340
426
507
472
452
430
289
142
1,180
61
68
33
156
132
224
Stella Erland	
165
G. W. Prescott	
Bering Sea	
E. E. Webster	
1
35
145
180
766
Columbia	
	
153
216
369
IiOois Olsen........
660
389
350
576
785
637
926
7
8
6
7
7
10
6
7
6
5
6
6
4
8
3
8
96
108
102
113
103
93
44
330
399
390
339
327
196
98
	
	
Rattler	
225
351
J. Eppinger	
TTermaTi 	
j
Alton	
315
589
684
1,112
309
651
1
V^inchester	
102
Bowhead	
263
421
Jane Grey	
43
139       185
S. Sutherland ...
35
264
Mattie Dyer	
Penelope;	
44
on        149
	
164
208
274
98
Idler	
6
5
84
4
9
8
2
9
27
35
30
125
6
40
26
4
90
60
24
41
Matilda	
12
11
14
17
17
13
13
20
35
Elsie	
209
Puritan	
10
Emmett Felitz	
1
49
C. C. Perkins	
.2....
34
August	
6
R. Ecrett	
3
3
7
	
	
99
Teaser . ...
87
Jessie	
"
24
Kate and Ann .....
391
Total	
 il.989
5,935
7,924
12,362
1,079
463
1,151
2,005
Pelagic catch of the Canadian sailing fleet for 1895.
Hunters.
Bering Sea.
Japan coast.
Russian coast.
Northwest
coast.
Vessel.
©
•(-1
.a
•
CO
a
H
•
CO
©
*
3
co
©
a
©
ft
3
+3
0
©
00
9
r—1
e3
a
©
fa
i
■is
0
H
00
©
r—1
eS
co
©
'   1—t
2
a
9
ft
1—1
9
©
3
CO
©
•a
a
©
ft
1—1
-is
0
H
Marv Ellen	
20
106
356
462
777
845
190
790
Pioneer............
24
10
21
14
32
18
197
451
593
750
266
191
159
1,016
669
642
393
575
356
1,467
1,262
1,392
659
766
Iiibbie.............
182
52
284
Agnes McDonald..
Maud S	
8
711
185
102
287
Ann1« 15. Paint....
26
19
21
1,121
798
733
185
470
110
Sadie Turpel	
Borealis .   1........
43*
96
862
641
995
737
1,857
.....
858
Mermaid ..........
24
23
22
1,156
1,056
680
758
562
426
Ocean Belle........
Arietis . •••	
21
288
403
691
159
San Dieero .
17
18
26
25
19
23
29
870
243
434
22
562
851
367
470
15
Mary Taylor	
C. G-. Cox	
128
306
869
....
176
449
625
906
1,187
1,309
601
1,137
881
TTmbpina .   ,....
Casco       ..........
Viva..
Geneva      . ... SEAL   LIFE   ON   THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
Pelagic catch of the Canadian sailing fleet for 1895—Continued.
47
Vessels.
Hunters.
B<
CO
©
1
iring Sea.
Japan coast.
Russian coast.
Northwest
coast.
©
19
19
18
27
23
w
p
•rH
■ o
a
H
so
©
r-H
a
a
©
fa
a
©
I
02
©
1
1
©
a
©
fa
-f5
©
n
1
1
i
©
a
©
fa
j
©
l-H
cc
cc
©
i—<
i
EH
m
fa
i
©■■
H
Vera	
Diana	
Eortuna	
E. B. Marvin	
Director	
Henrietta 	
177
979
d.lQ
856
872
15
292
219
10
71
Hi
36
25
11
32
24
37
24
26
30
41
22
16
125
317
45
766
603
107
432
238
827
678
479
730
564
186
126
9.51           S7fi
946
300
156
«i a
617
201
1   577
60
n
Dora Siewerd	
287    216
90 1    91
32       19
503
Victoria	
5fifi      1   1R7
187
Labrador	
152
364
539
259
796
770
51
Otto	
30
285
Penelope  ..
i%; Sapphire	
956    1,783
534    1,212
515 !     994
812    1,542
594    1,158
597         713
134
33
167
W. L.Rich	
14S
Ainoko	
215
64
216
57
100
41
79
50
325-
A. C. Moore	
105
E.M.Smith	
285
Aurora	
107
Mascot	
Rosie Olsen	
7
223
349
787
168
.
627
Oscar and Hattie..
Teresa	
CD. Rand	
9
8
7
6
7
5
24
17
16
21
30
28
18
28
21
20
36
28
14
12
8
16
14
648
335
182
269
947
608
93
460
279
318
927
437
519    1,167
532 |      867
459 i      641
432        701
789     1. 799
:
139          8
147
42
107
152
166
156
60
36
105
102"
143
Saucy Lass	
Enterprise	
Beatrice    (Shanghai) 	
-Beatrice (Vancouver) 	
95T
55       921
838
109
316
1,446
202
77fi
74
230^
Pawn 	
6
6
5
5
7
2
1
3
2
24a
Kate 	
394         fi73
86
95
181
San Jose	
251
720
676
569
1,647
1,113
143
Eavorite	
150
May Belle 	
179
45
66
8
6
45
55
20
43
7
33
26
234
Amateur	
65
Eisher Maid	
Kilmeny	
109
	
15
Mountain Chief	
Pachwellis	
	
39
	
66
Shelby 	
10
,
	
	
124
Indian canoe catch
South Bend	
Total	
3,787
4
10
37
111
148
15,877
19.896 135. 773
18,686
6,605
9,972
SUMMATION OE THE PELAGIC CATCH EOR 1895.
Pribilof Islands herd.             Commander Islands herd.
Grand
total.
Northwest
coast.
Bering
Sea.
Total.
Japan
coast.
Russian
coast.
Total.
Canadian vessels	
9,972
2,005
35,773
7,924
45, 745
9,929
18,686
12, 362
6,605
1,079
25,291
13,441
71,036
American vessels ..........
23,370
Total	
11,977
43,697
55,674
31,048
7,684
38,732
94,406
i
* ii
as
&» 48
SEAL  LIFE   ON  THE  PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
Table showing number of days during month of August, 1894, when pelagic sealing was
earned on in Bering Sea, as indicated by log entries of a majority of the vessels of the
sealing fleet.
Date.
Aug.
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
Vessels.
Mascot, Borealis, Earle, Eavorite, Rich, Minnie, Etta, and Beatrice.
Mascot, Therese, Etta, Triumph, Sapphire, Moore, and Katherine.
Mascot, San Jose, Borealis, Earle, Favorite, Rich, Therese, Minnie, Etta, Columbia, Beatrice,
and Eawn.
Jose, Borealis, Earle, Favorite, Rich, Therese, Minnie, Etta, Columbia, Beatrice, Fawn, and
L. Olsen.
Jose, Borealis. Favorite, Rich. Erland, Minnie, Etta, Columbia, Beatrice, and Fawn.
Jose, Ellen, E irle, Rich, Kilmeny, Therese, Deeahks, Erland, Minnie, Etta, Columbia, Fawn,
and L. Olsen.
Ellen, Borealis, Earle, Favorite, Therese, Deeahks, Minnie, Etta, Columbia, Beatrice, Fawn,
and L. Olsen.
Jose, Borealis, Ellen, Favorite, Kilmeny, Therese, Deeahks, Erland, Minnie. Columbia, and
Beatrice.
Mascot, Borealis, Kilmeny, Deeahks, Columbia, Beatrice, Fawn, and Johnson.
Jose, Borealis, Ellen, Earle, Mascot, Favorite, Rich, Kilmeny, Deeahks, Minnie, Columbia,
Beatrice, Fawn, Johnson, and L. Olsen.
Jose, Borealis. Ellen, Favorite,  Kilmeny, Therese, Deeahks, Minnie, Etta, Sparks, Beatrice,
Fawn, Johnson, and L. Olsen.
Jose, Borealis, Rich, K lmeny, Erland, Minnie, Beatrice, and Johnson.
Rosie Olsen, Jane Grey, Arietis, Vera, Sapphire, and Aurora.
Borealis and Deeabks.
Borealis, Favorite, Grey, Rich, Deeahks, Minnie, Beatrice, Algar, Johnson, and Sparks.
R. Olsen, Rich, Deeahks, Erland, Minnie, and Fawn.
R. Olsen, Grey. Kilmeny, Minnie, Columbia, and Beatrice.
Borealis, R. Olsen, Earle, Favorite, Grey, Rich, Kilmeny, Deeahks, Erland, Minnie, Etta,
Beatrice, Henrietta, Algar, Fawn, Johnson, and Sparks.
Favorite, Rich, Kilmeny, Deeahks, Minnie, Etta, Columbia, Henrietta, Beatrice, Algar, Johnson, and Sparks.
Kilmeny.
Ellen. R. Olsen, Earle, Favorite, Grey, Kilmeny, Deeahks, Erland, Minnie, Etta, Algar, and
Fawn.
Favorite, Rich, Kilmeny, Therese, Deeahks, Minnie, Etta, Columbia, Beatrice, Algar, Fawn,
Johnson, and Sparks.
Favorite, Rich, Kilmeny, Therese, Deeahks, Minnie, Etta, Columbia, Henrietta, Algar, Johnson, and Sparks.
Rich, Kilmeny, Erland, Minnie, Beatrice, and Sparks.
Grey, Rich, Kilmeny, Deeahks, Minnie, and Etta.
Grey, Rich, Kilmeny, Therese, Deeahks, Erland, Minnie, Etta, Beatrice, Algar, Fawn, and
Johnson.
Grey, Rich, Kilmeny, Therese, Deeahks, Erland, Minnie, Etta, Columbia, Henrietta, Beatrice,
Algar, Fawn, Johnson, and Sparks.
Grey, Rich, Kilmeny, Therese, Deeahks, Erland, Minnie, Etta, Columbia, Henrietta, Beatrice,
Algar, Fawn, Johnson, and. Sparks.
Grey, Rich, Kilmeny, Therese, Deeahks, Erland, Minnie, Etta, Henrietta, Beatrice, Algar,
Fawn, Johnson, and Sparks.
Grey, Rich, Kilmeny, Deeahks, Erland, Minnie, Etta, Columbia, Beatrice, Henrietta, Algar,
Fawn, Johnson, and Sparks.
Table showing number of days from September 1 to 21,1894, when pelagic sealing was
carried on in Bering Sea, as indicated by log entries of a majority of the vessels of the
fleet.
Date.
Sept.   1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
Vessels.
3-rey, Rich, Kilmeny, Therese, Deeahks, Erland, Minnie, Columbia,Etta, Beatrice, Henrietta,
Algar, Fawn, Johnson, and Sparks.
Grey, Rich, Kilmeny, Therese, Deeahks, Erland, Minnie, Etta, Columbia, Beatrice, Henrietta,
Algar, Fawn, Johnson, and Sparks.'
Therese, Colombia, and Katherine.
Triumph, Sapphire, Borealis, Ainoko, and Kate.
Rich, Columbia, Beatrice^ Henrietta, Algar, Fawn, Johnson, and Sparks.
Beatrice, Henrietta, Fawn, and Sparks.
Erland, Henrietta, Algar, Fawn, Etta, Deeahks, and Johnson.
Beatrice, Erland, Etta, Deeahks, Johnson, and Therese.
Columbia, Beatrice, Fawn, Etta, Deeahks, Johnson, and Therese.
Columbia, Beatrice, Erland, Fawn, Deeahks, and Therese.
Sapphire and San Jose.
Erland, Fawn, Deeahks, and Mascot.
Columbia, Beatrice, Fawn, Deeahks, and Johnson.
Beatrice, Erland, Fawn, and Deeahks.
Beatrice, Erland, Fawn, Deeahks, and Johnson.
Beatrice, Etta, Kate, Saucy Lass, and Beatrice.
Beatrice, Etta, Shelby, Ainoko, and Beatrice.
Beatrice, Etta, Venture, Saucy Lass, and Beatrice.
Etta, Shelby, Beatrice, Sapphire, and Rosie Olsen.
Etta, Shelby, and Rosie Olsen.
Etta.
fVV%*V». SEAL   LIFE   ON   THE   PRIBILOF  ISLANDS.
49
Table showing number of days during month of August, 1895, when pelagic sealing was
cai'ried on in Bering Sea, as indicated by log entHes of a majority of the vessels of the
sealing fleet.
Date.
Aug.   1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Vessels.
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
Rattler, Maud S., M. M. Morrill, Enterprise, Vera, Victoria, Triumph,  G. W. Prescott,
Columbia, Deeahks J. G. Swan, Bering Sea, Stella Erland, J. Eppinger, Herman, and Dora
Siewerd.
Rattler, Maud S., Enterprise, Vera, Victoria, Triumph, G. W. Prescott, Columbia, Deeahks,
Willard Ainsworth, J. G. Swan, Bering Sea, Stella Erland, J. Eppinger, Herman, and Dora
Siewerd.
Maud S., Enterprise, Vera, Victoria, Triumph, Columbia, J. G. Swan, Bering Sea, Stella
Erland, Alton, and Dora Siewerd.
Rattler, Maud S., M. M. Mo rill, Enterprise, Vera, Victoria,-Triumph, Columbia, Deeahks,
Allie Algar, Willard Ainsworth, J. G. Swan, Bering Sea, Stella Erland, J. Eppinger, and
Dora Siewerd.
Borealis, M. M. Morrill, Victoria, Triumph, Columbia, Deeahks, Allie Algar,  and   Stella
Erland.
Bering Sea.
Maud S., Borealis, Vera, and Deeahks.
Maud S., Victoria, Columbia, Deeahks, J. G. Swan, Bering Sea, Stella Erland, Louisa, and
Rattler.
Maud  S„ Borealis, M. M. Morrill, Enterprise, Vera, Victoria, Triumph, Deeahks, Willard
Ainsworth, J. G. Swan, Bering Sea. Stella Erland, E. E. Webster, Bonanza, J. Eppinger,
Rattler, and Dora Siewerd.
Maud 3., M. M. Morrill, Enterprise, Vera, Victoria, Triumph, G. W. Prescott, Columbia,
Deeahks, Willard Amswort's J. G. Swan, Bering Sea, Stella Erland, Louisa, E. E. Webster,
Alton, Bonanza, J. Eppinger, and Therese.
Maud S., Enterprise, Vera, Victoria. Triumph, G. W. Prescott, Columbia, Deeahks, Allie
Algar, M. M. Morrill, Willard Ainsworth, J. G. Swan, Bering Sea, Stella Erland, Louisa,
E. E. Webster, Alton, J. Eppinger, and Therese.
Maud S., Vera, Victoria, Triumph, G. W. Prescott, Columbia, Deeahks, Allie Algar, M. M.
Morrill, Willard Ainsworth, J. G. Swan, Bering Sea, Stella Erland, Louisa, E. E. Webster,
Alton, Bonanza, J. Eppinger, and Therese.
Triumph.
Victoria, Triumph, Deeahks, M. M. Morrill, Willard Ainsworth, J. G. Swan, Louisa, Alton,
Bonanza, J. Eppinger. Therese, Rattler, Herman, and Dora Siewerd.
Victoria, Triumph, G. W. Prescott, Columbia, Deeahks, Allie Algar, M. M. Morrill, Willard
Ainsworth, J. G. Swan, Bering Sea, Stella Erland, Louisa, E. E. Webster, Alton, Bonanza,
J. Eppinger. Therese, Rattler, and Herman.
Louisa, J. Eppinger, and Dora Siewerd.
Victoria, Triumph, G. W. Prescott, Columbia, Deeahks, Allie Algar, M. M. Morrill, Willard
Ainsworth, J. G. Swan, Stella Erland, Louisa, E. E. Webster, Alton, Bonanza, J. Eppinger,
Therese, Rattler, and Hermau.
Triumph, G. W. Prescott, Deeahks, Louisa, E. E. Webster, Alton, J. Eppinger, Therese,
Rattler, Herman, and Dora Siewerd.
Victoria, Triumph, G. W. Prescott, Columbia, Willard Ainsworth, J. G. Swan, Stella Erland,
Louisa J. Eppinger, Therese, Herman, and Dora Siewerd.
Victoria, Triumph, G. W. Prescott, Columbia, Deeahks, Allie Algar, M. M. Morrill, Willard
Ainsworth, J. G. Swan, Bering Sea, Stella Erland, Louisa, E. E. Webster, Alton, Bonanza,
J. Eppinger, Therese, Battler, and Herman.
Columbia, Deeahks, G. W. Prescott, Allie Algar, M. M. Morrill, Willard Ainsworth, J. G.
Swan, Bering Sea, Stella Erland, Louisa, E. E. Webster, Alton, Bonanza, J. Eppinger,
Therese, Rattler, Herman, and Dora Siewerd.
G. W. Prescott, M. M. Morrill, Willard Ainsworth, J. G. Swan, Bering Sea, Stella Erland,
Louisa, E. E. Webster, Alton, Bonanza, J. Eppinger, Therese, Rattler, Herman, and Dora
Siewerd.
Berin» Sea, Stella Erland, Louisa, Therese, and Herman.
Columbia, G. W. Prescott. Allie Algar, M. M. Morrill. Willard Ainsworth, Stella Erland,
E. E. Webster, Aitou. J. Eppinger, Rattler, and Dora Siewerd.
Allie Algar, Louisa, J. Eppinger, iherese, Rattler, and Herman.
Allie Algar, Columbia, M. M. Morrill, J. G. Swan, Bering Sea, Louisa, E. E. Webster, Alton,
J. Eppinger, Therese, Rattler, Herman, and Dora Siewerd.
Deeahks, G. W. Prescott, AI he Algar, Columbia. M. M. Morrill, Willard Ainsworth, J. G.
Swan, Bering Sea, Stella Erland, Louisa. E. E. Webster, Alton, Bonanza, J. Eppinger,
Therese, Rattler, Herman, and Dora Siewerd.
Deeahks, G. W. Prescott, Allie Algar, Columbia, M. M. Morrill, Willard Ainsworth, J. G.
Swan, Bering Sea, Stella Erland, Louisa, E. E. Webster, Alton, Bonanza, J. Eppinger,
Therese, Rattler, Herman, and Dora Siewerd.
Bonanza.
Deeahks and G. W. Prescott.
Deeahks, G. VV. Prescott, Columbia, J. G. Swan, Bering Sea, Alton, Bonanza, Herman, and
Dora Siewerd.
S. Doc. 137, pt. 2- 50
SEAL   LIFE   ON   THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
Table showing number of days from September 1 to 21, 1895, when pelagic sealing was
carried on in Bering Sea, as indicated by log entries of a majority of the vessels of the
sealing fleet.
Date.
Sept. 1
3
4
5
6
7
8
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
20
21
Vessels.
Deeahks, G. W. Prescott, Columbia, M. M. Morrill, Willard Ainsworth, J. G. Swan, Bering
Sea, Louisa, E. E. Webster, Alton, Bonanza, J. Eppinger, Therese, Rattler, Herman, and
Dora Siewerd.
Deeahks, G. W. Prescott, Columbia, M.M.Morrill, J. G. Swan, Bering Sea, Stella Erland,
Louisa, Alton, Bonanza* J. Eppinger, Therese, Rattler, Herman, and Dora Siewerd.
G. W. Prescott, Allie Algar, Columbia, Bering Sea, and Louisa.
J. G. Swan and Bering Sea.
Therese and Rattler.
Deeahks, Columbia, M. M. Morrill, Bering Sea, Stella Erland, Bonanza, and Dora Siewerd.
Deeahks, G. W. Prescott, Columbia, M. M. Morrill, Willard Ainsworth, Bering Sea, Louisa,
E. E. Webster, Bonanza, J. Eppinger, Therese, Rattler, Herman, and Dora Siewerd.
Deeahks, G. W. Prescott, Columbia, M. M. Morrill, Willard Ainsworth, Bering Sea, Stella
Erland, Louisa. Bonanza, J. Eppinger, Therese, Rattler, Herman, and Dora Siewerd.
Deeahks, G. W. Prescott, Columbia, M. M. Morrill, J. G. Swan, Bering Sea, Stella Erland,
Louisa, Bonanza, Rattler, and Dora Siewerd.
Deeahks, Columbia, and Bonanza.
G. W. Prescott.
Bering Sea, Louisa, and Herman.
Deeahks, Bering Sea, Stella Erland, J. Eppinger, Rattler, and Dora Siewerd.
Columbia, Bering Sea, and Stella Erland.
Columbia, Louisa, and Rattler.
Stella Erland, Rattler, and Dora Siewerd.
Bering Sea.
Miscellaneous data on pelagic sealing in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea from
1878 to 1893, showing positions where fur seals wtre taken.
[Data collected by C. H. Townsend and A. B. Alexander.]
AMERICAN SCHOONER SAN DIEGO, D. McLEAN, MASTER-1883.
Date.
1883.
Lat-   ! Longi
itude. !  tude.
N.
Mar, 30     37 55
Apr.
Mav
47 23
51 04
W.
125 30
127 24
131 45
Seals.
Date.
13
29
1883.
July 17	
19	
Latitude.
Longitude.
N. W.
55 34 163 30
55 40 169 12
65 00 169 00
Seals.
22
293
AMERICAN SCHOONER MARY ELLEN, D. MoLEAN, MASTER—1884.
1884.
Feb. 1,2,3	
N.
W.
12
6
7
4
6
35
38
21
21
24
21
7
*4
23
12
3
23
16
19
8
21
12
4
23
14
21
20
12
1884.
Apr. 7	
N.
47 43
47 56
47 33
W.
127 43
127 07
125 44
18
5 ........	
38 53
37 18
39 30
38 13
39 35
124 40
128 54
8	
2
8	
9	
10	
11,12,14	
48
11
18	
16	
47 53
48 04
47 57
48 05
50 12
49 55
49 54
48 33
48 26
48 35
49 15
48 40
48 30
48 28
50 31
55 50
125 47
126 13
127 10
128 30
128 50
128 34
126 30
127 30
128 15
127 50
127 30
127 45
129 30
131 40
166 50
13
20	
18	
11
21,22,23,27,28	
19	
20	
32
29	
42 02
40 50
18
Mar. 1	
2	
24	
25	
14
2
3	
42 14
26	
13
4.	
May 11 ,
15
5	
42 18
43 10
42 58
44 29
44 48
44 50
44 22
45 54
46 38
126 50
125 30
125 48
126 12
125 39
125 31
124 50
126 00
12	
12
7	
13	
5
8	
14 ,
25
12	
22	
6
13	
23	
14
it:. ;:::
24	
a
15	
25	
7
16	
July 1-.*	
2
17	
2	
4
19,26,27	
8	
56 30
56 00
55 10
55 50
55 50
55 56
55 52
55 52
167 30
167 50
167 35
167 47
168 35
168 24
168 00
167 30
18
28	
47 37
47 39
47 43
47 10
47 42
47 31
47 24
126 06
125 58
126 00
125 00
126 03
126 44
126 19
9	
23
29 .. .	
10 ;..
16
30	
13	
7
31	
14	
44
Apr. 4 - -,, .........
15	
98
5	
18	
64
6	
19...	
22
'•••'A****-**." SEAL   LIFE   ON   THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
51
Miscellaneous data on pelagic sealing in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea from
1878 to 1893, showing positions where fur seals were taken—Continued.
AMERICAN SCHOONER MARY ELLEN, D. McLEAN, MASTER—1884—Continued.
Date.
Latitude.
Longitude.
Seals.
Date.
Latitude.
Longitude.
Seals.
July
1884.
21	
N.
55 30
55 09
54 30
54 40
55 00
54 20
54 30
54 41
54 47
54 15
55 18
55 25
55 18
1
W.
168 00
166 49
168 00
168 50
168 30
170 15
168 00
170 28
168 30
169 00
168 19
169 00
169 39
22
43
4
43
4
25
15
6
63
8
10
131
21
1884.
Aug, 9	
N.
55 10
55 13
55 08
55 10
55 00
54 35
54 43
54 25
54 53
54 50
54 50
W.
169 30
169 39
170 00
169 05
169 00
108 40
166 20
167 20
165 15
165 20
165 40
140
24	
10	
67
25	
11	
12	
63
26	
14
27	
31	
16 jj	
17	
28
41
Ausr.
1	
18	
19	
20	
26
2	
3	
10
50
4	
21	
53
6..,	
22	
66
7	
23 a	
2
8	
a Bound for walrus.
AMERICAN SCHOONER MARY ELLEN, D. McLEAN, MASTER—1885.
Jan.
1885.
Feb.
Mar.
26.
29.
4.
5.
9.
13.
16.
17.
20.
21.
25.
28.
1.
6.
7.
8.
9.
11.
12.
14.
15.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
1.
3.
4.
6.
10.
11.
16.
17.
18.
27.
May 11.
12.
15.
17.
19.
20.
21.
22.
24.
25.
26.
27.
Apr.
N.
38 34
34 42
39 43
39 42
39 35
39 36
39 50
40 11
39 55
39 50
39 38
38 57
39 00
41 20
42 50
43 02
43 07
43 19
43 50
44 54
45 09
45 40
45 40
46 00
46 51
46 57
47 25
47 46
47 40
48 05
48 00
48 10
48 42
47 44
48 14
48 01
48 10
49 00
48 20
48 34
W.
124 00
124 30
124 28
124 10
124 20
124 40
126 00
125 10
124 30
125 55
124 25
00
40
00
125 35
124 40
125
125
125
125 00
125 15
125 15
124 30
125 00
124
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
126
126
126
127
126
50
30
30
00
12
30
30
30
30
27
25
50
40
00
15
49 00
49 23
49 24
50 30
51 37
52 12
52 39
54 32
56 20
56 39
56 45
56 34
127 00
129 20
130 37
132 48
132 50
133 58
137 00
137 10
137 51
137 56
4
14
15
21
16
1
3
33
14
10
5
9
7
29
39
3
3
45
26
27
9
2
8
11
13
2
3
18
14
15
12
18
8
4
2
11
12
15
1
13
1
2
10
6
6
4
13
3
7
17
5
3
4
26
8
19
May 28.
1885.
June
July
Aug.
29.
31.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
8.
9.
11.
12.
15.
16.
19.
26.
30.
1.
2.
4.
8.
9.
10.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
24.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
1.
2.
3.
9.
12.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
N.
50 16
56 27
W.
137 51
137 43
58 11
58 00
57 40 I
57 55
57 49
58 20 i
56 13
55 58
54 20
53 50
53 37
53 30 I
53 00
138 10
138 23
139 00
140 00
139 47
144 30
148 21
151 49
157 18
158 10
162 33
164 30
167 00
55 40
56 17
165 17
168 23
56 19
56 51
55 45
55 26
168 17
55 46
55 28
55 26
.! 55 00
55 14
55 10
54 55
54 45
55 38
55 10
55 08
55 20
55 20
55 26
169 07
167 45
168 48
169 10
169 02
169 04
168 04
168 07
53
30
54
00
54
24
54 41
55
18
54
43
54 40
54 40
168.00
168 50
168 52
169 05
168 13
170 15
170 15
169 00
169 30
168 10
168 00
167 40
166 30
168 20
168 20
Ui 52
SEAL   LIFE   ON   THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
Miscella7ieou8 data on pelagic sealing in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea from
1878 to 1893, showing positions where fur seals were taken—Continued.
AMERICAN SCHOONER MARY ELLEN, D. McLEAN, MASTER—1885—Continued.
Date.
1885.
Aug. 25	
26	
27	
29	
Latitude.
N.
54 31
54 26
54 26
54 09
Longitude.
W.
168 27
168 23
169 26
169 00
Seals.
104
72
15
48
Date.
1885
Aug. 30	
Sept.   1	
2	
3	
Latitude.
N.
54 22
55 30
55 00
55 12
Longitude.
W.
169 10
168 45
168 00
167 10
Seals.
23
34
48
24
AMERICAN SCHOONER MARY ELLEN, D. McLEAN, MASTER—1886.
1886.
Feb. 3	
N.
39 00
40 00
40 10
39 35
40 01
38 31
38 33
38 30
38 35
38 33
38 00
38 31
38 48
39 47
40 27
40 40
48 15
W.
124 10
124 50
125 27
125 00
124 40
124 08
123 50
123 47
123 34
123 31
123 50
124 23
125 00
124 48
125 26
1
10
9
4
3
36
44
29
8
4
23 ■
14
11
2
5
21
5
1
24
26
9
9
7
5
19
20
3
4
1
90
16
10
13
34
5
18
32
63
20
17
53
24
1886.
June 1..................
N.
56 41
56 38
56 50
57 50
57 40
57 36
57 31
57 09
57 05
57 10
54 40
54 20
54 45
55 04
55 03
54 58
55 04
54 50
54 58
54 36
54 45
54 51
54 51
54 40
54 45
W.
138 50
139 00
138 39
139 55
139 35
139 57
140 41
140 48
139 50
139 40
168 45
168 32
168 35
169 25
169 42
168 10
169 33
168 50
170 28
170 40
168 30
168 34
168 24
168 47
139
7	
2	
151
8	
3	
44
9	
6	
95
11	
7	
8	
9	
io	
11	
12	
July 2	
3	
8	
12	
13	
15	
17	
125
17	
197
18	
179
19	
172
20	
38
21	
32
Mar. 3	
24
4	
27
5	
157
7	
79
9	
129
15	
60
24	
57
25	
18	
96
28	
47 45
47 51
48 00
47 52
47 49
47 36
47 34
48 20
48 36
50 17
50 12
49 51
50 06
49 54
48 33
48 15
47 45
48 15
48 14
48 27
49 49
49 30
49 54
49 10
125 31
125 11
125 20
125 00
125 00
124 50
125 08
126 56
127 02
128 30
128 17
128 16
128 15
125 56
125 40
126 00
125 15
125 25
125 56
127 27
128 20
128 22
127 20
21	
22	
51
29..
135
30	
24	
74
31	
25	
49
Apr. 1... 	
28	
31
2	
...v/ ..................
29	
30	
31	
230
3	
5	
135
45
7	
9	
10	
11	
12 	
13	
Aug. 1 	
2
3	
4	
5	
7	
8	
9	
10	
54 45
54 50
54 51
54 30
54 00
53 40
53 30
54 00
53 50
53 15
53 51
54 40
168 00
168 00
169 15
168 30
168 10
170 30
170 00
169 45
169 00
152
87
45
8
6
93
22	
24	
28	
61
88
127
May 2	
3	
4..
11	
18
15	
19	
44
146
6	
21	
58
7	
23	
54 45
167 20
37
8	
24	
31
10	
AMERICAN SCHOONER MARY ELLEN, D. McLEAN, MASTER—1887.
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
24.
2.
7.
17.
1.
5.
9.
15.
17.
19.
20.
21.
22.
1887.
N.
41 18
37 44
38 00
38 00
40 53
47 38
47 38
48 00
48 18
48 00
48 00
48 00
23   48 00
24.
27.
 I 48 06
1  47 42
28 1 48 00
30  49 00
2
23
7
5
4
4
7
2
5
39
27
10
59
6
6
2
29
10
1887.
N.
49 14
Apr. 6.
7 1	
8  493fr
10   49 36
12   50 07
13	
15   49 30
May 9  50 17
11   50 01
13 1	
14.
15.
W
128
16
18 | 55 45
19	
   55 38
21 1 56 13
22	
23	
56
57
52
26
127
127
128
54
29
45
127
•128
I 129
30
40
00
52 00 1 134 12
24   66 48
136
136
136
139
139
138
34
00
00
11
44
57
18
33
7
5
15
28
14
38
19
5
71
3
10
96
1
20
24
24 SEAL   LIFE   ON   THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS
53
Miscellaneous data on pelagic sealing in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea from
1878 to 1893, showing positions where fur seals were taken—Continued.
AMERICAN SCHOONER MARY ELLEN, D. McLEAN, MASTER-1887—Continued.
Date.
Latitude.
Longitude.
Seals.
Date.
Latitude.
N.
54 44
Longitude.
Seals.
1887.
May 30	
31	
N.
57 43
W.
138 00
18
7 1
32
34
9 !
23
5
1
36
7
1
1
10 .
27
28 !
20 '
10
2
1
8 |
39
29 ;
37
3
1887.
July 9	
11	
W.
168 25
4
5
June 1	
2.	
56 36
139 00
12	
13	
55 32
55 47
55 24
55 30
55 51
55 25
55 20
55 41
55 15
167 36
168 10
168 04
167 45
168 10
167 40
167 20
167 51
167 40
38
134
5	
56 53
57 32
57 44
55 46
55 01
54 38
54 30
53 43
52 57
52 43
53 57
53 30
53 17
52 50
54 40
55 40
54 00
54 02
54 19
54 20
139 32
143 02
148 28
150 56
156 17
156 20
162 02
165 18
167 05
(a)
172 30
172 16
171 10
170 20
170 10
170 48
167 21
167 18
17	
54
9	
11	
18 :	
21	
103
29
12	
22	
144
14	
15	
16	
19	
24	
25	
26	
27	
74
49
49
22
20	
22	
25	
26
31	
Aug. 1	
8 3	
5..
54 28
54 41
54 20
54 15
54 15
54 22
54 00
54 18
54 19
53 53
53 47
53 37
169 00
169 00
169 00
171 00
170 30
170 30
171 00
171 30
170 01
170 27
169 57
170 05
70
95
11
239
27	
6..     	
45
28	
7	
12
29 :..
8..
53
30..
9.
23
July 1	
2
15	
17...	
29
19
4	
8	
18	
19	
20
87
a Bering Sea.
CANADIAN SCHOONER EAYORITE (BERING SEA), D. McLEAN, MASTER—1886.
July
1886.
58
55
30
55
39
55
32
55
35
55
32
55
26
55
21
54
55
55
01
25
i]
11
08
16
09
78 i
21
113
23
106
56
173
05
149 1
20
24
00
47
00
139
25
113
11
124
50
45
10
3
15
92
30
31 i
30
16
49
154 1
July
Aug.
1886.
N:
W. |
55 15
167 43 j
55 24
168 08
55 17
168 17
54 50
168 49
54 40
168 50 j
54 39
169 23
54 35
168 40
54 50
170 07
55 06
170 40 '
54 51
170 49
54 46
171 01
55 03
176 40 ;
54 45
168 17 1
55 24
168 35
55 30
169 10
56 15
166 45
55 40
165 20
55 12
165 40
119
106
128
32
142
(a)
a From August 2 to tbe end of tbe cruise no record of seals written in tbe log.
CANADIAN SCHOONER EAYORITE (BERING SEA), D. McLEAN, MASTER—1887.
July
Aug.
1887.
N.
10   55 17
11   55 42
00 On
55 20
55 12
55
12
18 1 55 15
55 19
55 13
55 14
55 27
55 17
55 05
55 30
W.
166 41
168 37
168 30
168 18
168 30
168 24
168 30
168 30
168 25
169 00
169 12
169 00
168 50
168 45
168 40
168 50
168 40
167 40
167 45
168 30
Aug.
1887.
N.
W.
55 16
168 29
29
55 05
168 45
83
55 45
168 50
105
55 45
168 47
108
55 38
169 18
109
55 47
169 23
36
55 48
169 20
103
55 30
169 00
10
55 20
167 56
26
55 03
168 20
147
54 37
168 17 ]
3
54 30
168 25
14
54 30
168 50
57
54 25
169 00
16
54 20
169 12
122
51 06
170 04
140
53 55
170 00
19
Total  1,810
a This catcb made by white hunters. 54
SEAL   LIFE   ON   THE   PKIBILOF   ISLANDS.
Miscellaneous data on pelagic sealing in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea from
1878 to 1893, showing positions where fur seals were taken—Continued.
AMERICAN   SCHOONER 'HENRY  DENNIS   (NORTHWEST   COAST),   R.   H.  MINER,
MASTER—1891.
Date.
Latitude.
1891. N
Apr. 29  53
May    2  54
6  54
7  51
8  57
9  57
10 1 57
11  57
12  57
15 1 57
18  59
19  58
22 | 58
25  57
26  57
27  57
40
41
42
15
40
40
40
40
40
49
08
Longi-    s    ,
tude.     beal8>
W
133
135
136
137
136
136
136
136
136
138
141
30 j
49
27
48
51
51
5i:
51
51 |
50 I
08
30
3
21
8
90
64
64
55
30
35
49
Date.
58
141 19
1 |
48
140 18
31
20
136 49
1
35
136 52
10
35
136 52
1 |
i
1891
May 29	
30	
31	
June   4	
6	
7	
8	
9	
10	
11	
14	
16a ....
17b ....
18	
July 27	
Latitude.
N.
57 31
57 38
57 38
58 38
58 30
58 12
58 31
59 03
58 57
58 34
58 39
57 45
57 45
57 05
51 32
Longitude.
Seals.
n
w.
136 50
136 46
137 20
141 10
140 27
140 27
141 34
140 37
140 45
140 56
144 25
150 47
150 47
151 00
164 44
24
68
16
17
38
2
39
13
75
1
13
1
9
3
1
a Portlock Bank, 50 fathoms, 600 pounds codfish.
b Codfish plenty.
AMERICAN SCHOONER HENRY DENNIS (NORTHWEST COAST AhD OOrPER ISLAND
REGION), R. H. MINER, MASTER—1892.
1892.
Jan. 20	
21	
23	
Eeb. 5	
6	
14	
N.
48 13
47 23
46 45
46 21
46 20
46 51
46 48
46 58
46 27
46 17
46 19
48 19
48 36
49 29
57 12
56 36
57 11
57 17
57 11
56 47
56 55
55 58
56 55
57 41
57 52
57 52
58 56
58 56
W.
125 21
125 37
124 30
126 38
127 00
124 46
124 36
124 42
125 58
124 57
124 54
125 54
126 59
127 47
137 38
138 06
137 37
137 52
138 07
138 40
138 07
139 51
138 30
139 27
140 13
140 13
141 48
141 48
1
1
24
9
9
30
8
6
4
7
4
1
2
5
3
8
46
20
58
65
I
27
61
40
87
5
116
97
173
101
31
60
1
7
39
38
4
16
8
179
15
3
1
25
1892.
! May 17	
18	
21	
22	
25	
29	
N.
58 41
58 23
57 06
57 18
57 26
58 15
58 02
W.
147 50
140 40
149 38
150 05
150 18
158 20
150 15
13
11
15
18
1
84
15	
30	
31	
8
16	
121
17	
18	
19	
June 1	
7	
8	
V.. ...... ..........
58 00
55 40
55 31
55 20
52 24
150 00
152 55
154 40
155 10
E.
169 49
20
1
5
Mar. 19	
20	
21	
Apr. 3	
9	
! July 2b i\.
Ac ..
1
7
5	
6	
10	
S::::::::::::::::::
17	
22
54 00
54 09
53 46
54 01
54 14
53 59
54 13
54 27
54 39
54 01
53 52
53 46
56 37
56 40
56 27
56 20
56 37
56 43
54 21
53 35
53 53
53 35
53 10
53 18
53 41
52 36
52 18
52 38
52 24
52 24
168 28
168 53
166 52
168 28
179 17
170 00
169 39
169 38
169 20
169 17
169 21
169 30
168 30
168 38
168 13
168 07
168 10
167 50
170 00
169 49
168 30
168 50
167 14
169 45
169 51
170 53
169 10
169 45
170 02
170 06
5
6	
7	
5
6
8	
10	
34
1
12	
2
15  ....
23	
2
16	
18	
22	
25	
26...	
27	
28	
29	
1 Aug. 1	
3	
i	
5.	
6	
7	
9.	
10	
11	
12	
14	
18	
19	
22	
23	
38
3
27
23	
37
24	
25	
26	
7
1
13
27	
40
28	
108
29a	
26
30	
1
May 1	
59 14
58 45
59 28
59 20
59 17
59 09
59 15
59 06
59 15
59 16
59 22
59 13
142 18
i 143 16
145 09
145 03
144 44
147 05
146 27
145 45
146 27
145 30
148 57
145 12
2
2	
15
4   	
2
5	
24
6	
8	
11	
1
13
20
12	
3
13..
68
14	
15	
26	
27	
28	
20
31
16 *	
1
a Mount St. Elias north 50 miles.      b A few seals seen.      c Copper Island in sight, bearing west. itj^i*^TrJ#<r*!ft3^^\^»y*>^^y^^y^^ .■
SEAL   LIFE   ON   THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
55
Miscellaneous data on pelagic sealing in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea from
1878 to 1893, showing positions where fur seals were taken—Continned.
CANADIAN SCHOONER UMBRINA (JAPAN COAST)—1893.
Date.
Latitude.
Apr. 19.
20.
22.
24.
27.
28.
29.
30.
1.
May
1893.
2..
3.
6.
7.
8.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
22.
N
38
38
39
39
38
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
39
40
39
40
40
39
39
39
39
40
40
40
00
30
30
40
30
30
15
10
18
07
20
04
36
37
30
20
58
09
00
50
45
59
25
20
22
10
Longitude.
Seals. !
E.
143 00
143 00
91
143 15
144 22
3
145 55
31
145 40
79
145 17
71 !
145 10
51
| 145 30
45
. 145 20
191
i 145 09
10 1
145 00
145 15
4 1
1 145 40
19
144 40
61
i 145 35
9
144 45
75
145 49
144 51
84
144 45
18
144 15
65
145 55
27
145 15
61
144 40
105
144 35
2
143 40
2
|
Date.
May
June
23..
24..
25..
26..
29..
30..
2..
3.
4..
6..
7.
8..
9..
10.
11.
12..
13.
14..
15.
16..
18.
19..
20.
21.
22..
23..
1893.
Lat
Longi- 1
itude.
tude.
N.
E.
40 15
143 33
41 00
143 37
40 56
143 23
•40 50
143 10
39 40
144 20
40 30
144 00
39 50
145 05
40 11
145 05
40 50
144 35
42 00
145 05
41 27
145 35
41 55
143 56
41 57
143 50 1
42 04
143 50
42 16
144 35
42 55
145 20
43 00
147 00 j
43 06
147 56 I
43 06
147 41
43 09
147 20
43 15
147 00
43 35
147 05
43 25
147 18
43 12
147 33
43 12
147 33
Seals.
CANADIAN SCHOONER TRIUMPH (JAPAN COAST), COX, MASTER—1892.
Apr.
1.
2.
6!
7.
9.
10.
11.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
20.
24.
1
E.
39 17
145 06
37
39 36
145 02
95
40 00
145 08
64 |
40 28
145 28
9 i
39 48
145 10
168 ,
39 49
145 05
ill ;
39 50
145 10
13 i
40 13
145 26
43 '
40 10
145 05
104 I
45 09
144 09
38
40 30
144 25
9
39 23
145 07
18
40 53
145 28
13
40 07
145 50
27
39 37
145 08
103 j
Apr. 27
28
. 29
30
May 3
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
14
15
16
I
1
E.
40 04
145 10
39 43
145 39
39 26
145 47
39 23
146 26
40 02
145 41
39 36
145 06
40 22
145 32
40 15
146 18
40 18
145 38
40 36
145 12
40 05
145 20
40 11
145 13
40 11
145 32
40 39
145 21
40 46
145 21
m n
CANADIAN SCHOONER TRIUMPH (NORTHWEST COAST), COX, MASTER-1893.a
Apr. 10
11
12
22
23
29
30
N.
W.
57 48
138 38
57 57
138 57
58 02
139 09
57 25
139-19
57 21
138 38
57 51
139 31
58 31
140 06
May 7
16
17
N.
W.
57 41
141 52
57 38
140 59
57 45
141 22
57 57
142 37
58 06
141 43
58 08
141 50
a Captain Cox has found seals plentiful in September in latitude 49° 40' and longitude
good sealing; ground is Mount Eairweather, 115 miles north one-half west.
'6 In three days.
103
&239
147°.    A
i V
am writ 56
SEAL   LIFE   «»N   THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
Miscellaneous data on pelagic sealing in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea from
1878 to 1893, showing positions where fur seals were taken—Continued.
CANADIAN EUR-SEAL CATCH IN 1893.
[From official sources.]
[Catch by each vessel of the British Columbia fleet and the place where the skins were taken.]
Vessel.
Triumph	
Sapphire	
E. B. Marvin	
Mascot	
Dora Siewerd	
Labrador	
Minnie	
Annie E. Paint	
Miscbief	
Diana	
Venture	
Mermaid	
Eawn	
Walter A. Earle	
Beatrice, of Victoria
Ocean Belle	
Mountain Chief	
Arietis	
Cape Beale	
Kate	
Eavorite	
Borealis	
Ainoko	
W. P. Say ward	
Katherine	
San Jose	
Enterprise	
Agnes McDonald ..
Victoria	
Rosie Olsen	
British! ~
°wT cK1 -S
coast. COaat'I coast.
1,713
1,262
1,014
857
1,426
263
489
740
344
707
82
623
341
517
327
434
20
401
294
940
806
1,622
655
1,316
128
315
77
547
920
464
86
293
949
1,307
1,344
596
352
242
420
358
46
363
1,027
2.333
274
433
2,336
1,603
1,531
1,184
1,860
263
509
1,141
344
1,001
82
1,255
883
1,622
655
1,863
128
1,384
86
293
949
1,307
2,390
596
715
242
1,301
2,766
420
358
Vessel.
British
Colum- Japan
bin      coast. I
coast.
Wanderer        206
Viva	
May Belle	
Um brina	
Penelope	
Vera	
Pioneer     1,050
Otto         630
Mary Taylor         845
Brenda         845
Libbie	
City of San Diego	
Geneva I	
Casco I	
Carlotta G. Cox [	
Oscar and Hattie	
Teresa	
Sadie Turpel	
Maud S	
Mary Ellen *	
W.L.Rich      1,321
Annie C. Moore 	
W.P.Hall !	
Beatrice, of Vancouver          950
C. I). Rand      1,060
Indian canoe catch    2,035
1,441
1,852
1,827
2,291
1,910
Russian
coast.
30
625
99
1,242
942
1, 612
1,473
2,396
1,178
677
927
989
1,573
397
240
408
389
101
454
199
376
1,020
147
475
822
735
406
517
333
263
66
Total.
Total   28,613 29,173 11,955
206
1,471
1,852
2,452
2,291
2,009
1,050
1,027
1,085
1,253
1.631
1,043
2,066
1,672
2,772
2,198
824
1,402
989
1,979
1,838
1,155
998
950
1,060
2,101
69,741
Positions of fur seals observed by Lieut. Commander Z. L. Tanner, V. S. N., from steamer
City of Peking in 1878.
Date.
1878
July 1	
June 25	
June 27	
June 28	
Latitude.
Longitude.
N.
W.
43 01
161 23
E.
42 55
162 14
42 44
172 40
42 43
177 43
•*»«£.»*>» •VVo'/« r; «*„-■***■« mnm mv+++e*?
SEAL  LIFE  ON  THE  PRIBILOF  ISLANDS.
57
Positions where fur seals were taken by American and Canadian vessels in Bering Sea and
the North Pacific Ocean in 1894.
[From official sources.]
AMERICAN SCHOONER ELLA JOHNSON (BERIlsGr SEA), R. H. MINER, MASTER.
Date.
Latitude.
Longitude.
Males.
Females.
Total.
1894.
Aug. 9	
A
54 24
54 46
54 47
55 05
54 37
54 15
54 17
54 39
54 30
55 01
57 37
54 15
54 07
54 10
54 09
54 29
54 29
54 52
54 49
54 07
54 52
54 41
166 45
167 20
168 18
168 55
168 26
168 43
168 25
167 07
167 20
167. 58
169 03
168 57
168 34
168 51
168 33
168 39
167 42
168 54
168 54
168 56
169 03
167 57
1
4
20
15
18
21
14
10
2
5
35
15
16
40
10
20
28
25
15
2
6
1
10	
11  	
12	
15	
18  ..
19	
23	
55
9
95
48
47
81
71
70
10
37
63
34
32
63
45
11
40
30
30
4
17
59
9
115
63
65
102
85
24	
27	
28	
29 .♦...
30	
80
12
42
98
49
31	
48
Sept. 1	
103
2
55
5	
31
r?
68
8	
55
9	
13	
15	
45
3
26
Total	
322
892
1,214
AMERICAN SCHOONER DEEAHKS (BERING SEA), JAMES CLAPLANHOV, MASTER.
[Catch, 1,023; 155 males, 868 females.]
1894.
A-Uff. 6  	
1
54 33
54 41
54 53
55 36
56 02
56 10
56 21
55 43
55 35
55 16
55 11
54 10
54 25
54 35
54 59
55 03
54 37
54 30
54 30
54 54
54 25
54 34
54 35
54 43
54 34
54 34
54 43
54 42
54 35
54 35
I w.
167 00
168 00
170 52
172 17
172 27
172 37
173 09
11
7	
7
8	
11
9          	
2
10	
55
11 	
20
14	
1
15	
172 39
172 36
171 05
170 42
167 00
167 30
167 38
167 00
166 34
167 21
167 14
167 14
166 56
166 47
167 18
166 57
166 49
166 51
166 51
167 33
167 16
166 45
166 45
9
16	
1
18	
23
19	
13
22	
51
23	
36
24	
26	
40
5
27	
12
28	
	
153
29	
91
30	
. s
58
31	
14
Sept. 1	
2
	
170
	
80
7	
8	
2
9
17
1
5
4
13
2
21
34
4
1
7
13
27
4
30
9	
10	
12	
13	
14	
15	
51
5
1
12
17
40
Note.—Data for sex not collected by me from August 6 to September 2, but reported from custom-house at Port Townsend as 155 males, 868 females.—C. H. T.
as 58
SEAL   LIFE   ON   THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
Positions where fur seals were taken by American and Canadian vessels in Bering Sea and
the North Pacific Ocean in 1894—Continued.
AMERICAN SCHOONER STELLA ERLAND (BERING SEA).
Date.
1894.
Auj
Sept
.   5.
6.
8.
12.
16.
18.
22.
25.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
1.
o
7.
8.
10.
12.
14.
15.
Latitude.
tud<
31"
Males.
Females.
N.
W.
54 44
167
23
7
37
54 56
167
41
3
13 !
56 04
165
59
6 1
58 24
168
01
1
58 11
172
27
1
57 48
172
28
2
33
56 30
172
35
3
21 ]
56 13
171
30
1
54 40
168
59
1
5
54 24
168
57
5
9
53 47
169
35
14
32 !
53 35
169
41
31
51 1
53 34
169
21
23
35 !
53 38
169
25
39
59
53 47
169
40
21
29
54 20
167
47
17
8
54 46
166
55
32
55
54 55
166
59
3
12
55 09
166
166
55
36
1
7
54 48
22
54 47
166
15
10
112
Total.
Total.
219
542
AMERICAN SCHOONER IDA ETTA (BERING SEA), B. B. WHITNEY, MASTER.
[Crew, 17; boats, 9; hunters, 9.]
44
16
6
1
1
35
24
1
6
14
46
82
58
98
50
25
87-
15
1
29
122
761
1894.
N.
W.
Aug. 1	
54 40
169 00
5
2
7
2	
55 06
170 46
6
8
14
3	
54 46
171 25
3
4
7
4	
54 50
171 34
12
51
63
5	
54 49
171 37
1
X
12
13
6	
55 33
173 48
2
6
8
7	
55 50
173 35
6
12
18
11	
58 00
173 40
	
1
1
18 	
54 09
168 39
25
53
78
19	
54 15
168 10
6
17
23
22	
54 18
54 05
54 07
167 55
168 05
168 25
3
3
3
23	
3
24 i ^
36
36
26	
54 15
54 16
54 17
167 27
168 50
168 14
2
15
6
2
27	
37
13
52
28   	
19
29      -	
54 43
54 45
167 50
167 49
5
14
20
59
25
30	
7a
31	
54 44
169 00
2
18
20
Sept. 1	
54 25
169 35
35
46
81
o
54 26
54 24
168 35
167 25
9
18
1
27
7	
1
8	
54 17
168 09
10
2
12
9                 	
54 18
54 58
168 15
167 23
8
4
1
13
16	
1
17	
55 11
167 39
14
14
28
19	
54 32
166 03
5
38
43
20	
54 28
165 55
4
21
25
21 .1	
54 24
166 05
6
33
39
Total	
	
204
532
736 aa
SEAL   LIFE   ON   THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
Positions where fur seals were taken by American and Canadian vesssls in Bering Saa and
the North Pacific Ocean in 1894—Continued.
AMERICAN SCHOONER COLUMBIA (BERING SEA), T. J. POWERS, MASTER.
[Crew, 24; canoes, 10; bunters, 10; boats, 1.]
Date.
1894.
Aug.
Sept,
, 3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
17.
19.
23.
24.
28.
29.
31.
,  1.
2.
3.
5.
9.
10.
13.
Latitude.
Longitude.
Males.
Females.
N.
W.
55 11
171 10
9
4
55 17
171 31
26
27
55 32
173 30
6
9
56 09
173 30
3
3
56 30
173 10
7
5
56 33
172 34
5
10
56 51
172 28
172 43
1
U
56 54
16
57 09
173 19
20
27
57 01
174 20
3
2
57 06
174 14
4
8
57 49
173 50
3
9
57 49
175 01
2
2
57 54
175 09
2
1
57 00
173 52
19
23
55 46
55 25
173 07
172 55
1
3
6
55 23
172 24
18
25
54 58
172 26
1
3
54 28
167 57
19
14
54 19
167 53
3
5
30 mile
s north of
9
15
Bogos
Lof Island.
54 25
167 30
5
9
Total.
14
Total.
180
223
403
AMERICAN SCHOONER THERESE (BERING SEA), CHARLES HARITWEN, MASTER.
[Crew, 22; boats, 6; bunters, 6.]
1894.
N.
W.
Aug. 2	
56 11
175 17
1
1
3	
56 57
174 15
1
1
4	
57 54
174 06
1
3
4
6	
58 09
173 38
1
12
13
7	
58 22
173 04
1
25
26
8	
58 21
173 08
2
2
11	
58 02
55 05
171 50
166 45
2
1
2
23	
11
12
24	
54 52
166 54
37
37
27	
54 56
166 24
5
5
28	
54 43
166 52
20
31
51
29  	
54 22
54 22
166 52
166 27
13
10
23
10
36
30	
20
Sept. 1	
54 49
165 59
20
46
66
2	
54 47
166 18
6
9
15
3	
54 46
54 50
54 39
54 36
166 19
165 21
166 26
166 26
1
1
4
1
8	
5
15
1
6
9	
19
10	
1
Total	
81
237
318
AMERICAN SCHOONER ALLIE I. ALGAR (BERING SEA), WESTER, MASTER.
N.
W.
53 49
54 46
64 46
54 25
54 40
55 12
54 40
168 50
167 43
167 30
167 18
167 50
168 08
168 40
1
20
10
10
5
3
11
1
18	
49
15
13
4
5
16
69
19 	
25
22	
23
23	
9
24	
8
27	
27
28	
54 35
168 20
12
20
32
29	
54 50
168 06
23
29
52
30	
54 47
167 57
16
20
36
31	
54 20
167 19
3
3
Sept. 1	
55 12
167 36
9
14
23
2	
55 13
168 08
2
2
4
5	
56 05
167 55
2
4
6
7	
55 39
168 14
4
5
9
Total	
128
199
327 60
SEAL   LIFE   ON  THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
Positions where fur seals were taken by American and Canadian vessels in Bering Sea and
the North Pacific Ocean in 1894—Continued.
AMERICAN SCHOONER ROSE SPARKS (BERING SEA), J. W. TROTT, MASTER.
Aug. 11.
15.
18.
19.
23.
24.
25.
28.
29.
30.
31.
Sept. 1.
2_
5!
6.
Date.
1894.
Latitude.
Longitude.
N.
W.
56
42
174
23
55
48
172
27
54
42
167
48
54
48
167
20
54
31
167
15
55
26
167
57
55
45
167
47
55
06
167
48
54
54
168
10
54
48
168
20
54
54
167
30
54
42
167
34
54
42
167
25
54
31
165
45
54
28
165
35
Males.
5
1
5
1
3
5
5
2
6
1
1
1
Females.   Total.
1
2
52
2
14
2
18
25
17
2
20
1
2
2
2
2
57
3
19
1
2
21
30
22
4
26
2
3
3
Total.
37
160
197
AMERICAN SCHOONER JANE GREY (BERING SEA).
1894.
N.
w.
Aug. 13	
55 20
172 28
1
4
5
15	
56 01
175 00
1
1
17	
55 56
172 34
1
3
4
18	
55 52
173 06
2
8
10
22 1	
54 59
170 32
2
7
9
26	
54 28
54 28
168 18
168 45
1
13
7
17
8
27  	
30
28	
54 36
168 24
7
9
16
29 k	
54 32
54 20
168 16
167 45
5
4
8
7
13
30	
11
31	
54 56
55 30
167 32
167 12
1
2
1
Sept. 1	
8
10
2	
55 02
165 55
7
13
20
Total	
46
92
138
	
1
AMERICAN SCHOONER LOUIS OLSEN (BERING SEA), GXJILLAMS, MASTER.
1894.
N.
W.
Aug. 4  	
57 50
173 56
4
8
12
6	
58 30
178 56
4
15
19
7	
58 30
173 56
4
30
34
10	
58 27
172 46
1
3
4
11	
57 42
172 52
3
10
13
18           	
56 05
172 17
2
2
Total	
16
68
84
1894.
Ausr. 18 	
N.
57 07
57 05
56 47
56 40
56 56
57 47
58 00
57 58
58 01
58 01
58 08
57 47
58 09
58 13
W.
174 42
174 18
174 34
174 38
174 42
173 00
173 00
173 17
172 44
172 50
173 10
173 20
173 48
173 36
8
8
7
2
49
7
2
20
20
8
18
36
1
1
1
12
8
1
68
4
6
29
49
13
12
40
1
16	
17	
18	
1
4
20
22         	
lb
27	
28	
3
117
29 m	
It
30	
8
Sept. 1.
49
2	
69
5 ;	
21
6   	
30
7	
76
'WgSBfe; •>-.<> SEAL   LIFE   ON  THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
61
Positions where fur seals were taken by American and Canadian vessels in Bering Sea and
the North Pacific Ocean in 1894—Continued.
CANADIAN SCHOONER ROSIE OLSEN (BERING SEA)—Continued.
Date.
Latitude.
Longitude.
Males.
Females.
Total.
$Umt. 8	
1894.
N.
58 13
58 11
58 15
57 50
57 56
58 05
57 56
57 47
57 47
W.
173 39
173 11
173 09
173 09
173 16
173 08
173 22
173 25
173 21
20
24
17
11
58
34
4
76
1
10
29
12
8
35
28
1
59
4
30
9     	
53
10	
29
12	
19
14	
93
16	
62
18	
5
19	
135
20    	
5
Total	
425
431
856
CANADIAN SCHOONER UMBRINA (BERING SEA).
1894.
Auar. 7	
N.
57 40
58 20
57 53
58 07
53 12
W.
176 45
172 55
172 32
172 50
172 00
1
2
7
20
1
9	
10	
18	
 2*
6
15
7
2
8
22
22	
27
Total	
30
30
60
CANADIAN SCHOONER ARIETIS (BERING SEA).
1894.
N.
W.
Aug. 4	
56 26
172 14
7
13
20
5	
56 22
172 14
2
2
6	
56 02
171 56
2
5
7
7	
56 26
•  172 14
10
16
26
8	
56 02
171 56
5
1
6
10	
55 38
172 50
3
3
11	
55 08
171 07
2
1
3
12	
54 08
170
4
1
5
13	
54 50
54 41
168 33
166 59
1
8
1
15	
10
18
T otal	
39
52
91
CANADIAN SCHOONER WALTER A. EARLE (BERING SEA).
1894.
Any. 1........  ... ...............   ..
N.
56 00
56 17
56 13
56 00
57 58
57 10
56 00
56 12
56 27
56 24
56 52
56 23
56 43
56 43
56 43
56 19
56 14
56 21
55 58
W.
172 35
172 00
172 00
172 41
172 26
173 26
172 29
172 15
173 33
173 38
173 38
173 48
174 16
173 52
173 52
172 58
173 00
172 55
172 54
1
15
10
20
16
15
9
26
2
5
8
6
7
2
13
9
3
30
25
12
20
32
12
80
26
20
30
60
16
18
20
50
14
40
10
3	
4	
6	
7	
10	
3
45
35
32
36
18	
47
22	
21
28	
106
29	
30	
Sept. 1	
2	
26
22
35
68
5	
22
6	
25
7	
20
8	
52
9	
14
10	
53
Total	
155
517
672 62
SEAL   LIFE   ON  THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
Positions where fur seals were taken by American and Canadian vessels in Bering Sea and
the North Pacific Ocean in 1894—Continued.
CANADIAN SCHOONER FAWN (BERING SEA).
Date.
Latitude.
Longitude.
Males.
Females.
Total.
1894.
A nor. 3 !j	
i i
56 05
56 35
57 18
57 35
58 10
58 05
57 50
57 42
55 59
55 47
55 54
56 21
55 37
55 36
55 36
55 32
55 38
55 00
54 30
54 52
54 56
55 19
55 25
55 21
55 13
55 08
55 00
55 10
W.
172 02
172 05
172 40
173 30
173 30
173 23
173 03
172 50
172 17
172 11
172 12
172 41
17 L 17
171 28
171 38
171 42
171 11
170 16
-170 00
168 47
168 13
167 55
168 26
168 36
169 09
169 21
169 08
169 06
2
10
2
3
15
4
14
12
4
10
4
5
12
41
28
14
18
31
4
24
22
8
7
7
9
4
3
12
16
9
24
3
3
27
18
2
4	
14
5
6 .      	
15
7..
31
9	
13
10   	
38
11   	
15
16..
3
18..
31
22	
23        	
28
4
27 .     	
24
23
18
6
9
23
3
13
29
28 .      	
35
29..	
59
30	
34
31	
23
Sept. 1	
2
5	
41
3
44
6.. 	
4
7	
35
27
6
6
16
3
5
59
9	
10	
12	
13	
14	
15	
49
14
6
23
10
14
Total	
310
336
646
i';
CANADIAN SCHOONER MARY ELLEN (BERING SEA).
1894.
AUtfr  fiT-  Is               	
N.
57 10
57 16
57 30
56 26
56 26
56 42
56 42
57 04
57 10
57 10
57 10
57 10
57 22
57 22
57 22
57 22
57 46
57 46
57 52
57 52
W.
173 20
173 26
173 35
172 59
172 59
173 04
173 04
173 10
173 12
173 12
173 12
173 12
173 16
173 16
173 16
173 16
173 22
173 22
173 27
173 27
1
1
1
8
4
2
9
3
11
1
2
6
8
4
11
10
9
12
2
4
5
4
15
14
8
13
2
12
33
7
11
22
37
18
41
37
44
17
8
5
7	
8	
10	
6
5
23
11	
22	
18
10
23	
25 ,
22
2
27	
15
28	
44
29	
8
30	
13
Sept. 1	
28
2	
45
5	
22
6	
52
7	
47
8	
53
9	
29
10	
10
Total	
105
352
457
	
CANADIAN SCHOONER VERA (BERING SEA).
Auff.
1894.
8.
9.
10.
11.
13.
17.
18.
19.
22.
23.
24.
N.
56
56
55
55
55
55
54
54
54
54
54
54
26
25
57
57
50
04
30
30
24
17
23
30
"W".
173
173
172
172
172
172
168
167
167
167
168
168
17
17
30
30
58
35
30
56
46
37
03
07
1
3
6
9
33
3
13
12
4
1
"I'
5
1
1
80
2
1
10
6
4
1
1
7
11
10
1
113
2
4
23
18
Total.
80
115
195 SEAL  LIFE   ON  THE  PUIBILOI
Positions where fur seals were taken by American and Canadian vessels in Bering Sea and
the North Pacific Ocean in 1894—Continued.
 CANADIAN SCHOONER TRIUMPH (BERING SEA).
Date.
Latitude
1894.
Aug.
1
o
4.
5.
6.
9.
10.
11
15.
19.
22.
23 j
24.
Sept.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
1.
2.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
N
55
55
56
56
56
56
57
57
56
!6
55
55
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
55
54
55
55
55
55
33
47
03
53
58
58
06
15
29
25
46
30
38
32
30
38
30
40
53
46
54
00
57
01
04
09
20
55 18
55 05
55 20
55 20
171
172
172
173
173
173
173
173
173
171
171
168
168
168
168
168
168
167
168
167
168
168
168
168
168
168
169
169
169
169
29
20
12
00
50
40
58
18
12
20
30
20
55
09
09
08
08
30
20
4
15
80
50
38
10
20
70
80
50
42
26
80
40
7
53
97
17
40
53
Total
1,163
CANADIAN SCHOONER SAPPHIRE (BERING SEA)
1894.
N.
"W.
Auff. 1...	
54 58
170 59
53
42
95
o
54 55
171 20
171 16
31
38
69
3	
55 01
9
8
17
4	
55 50
172 01
41
42
83
5	
56 00
171 51
33
13
46
6	
57 03
173 59
12
7
19
7	
57 03
173 04
18
19
37
8	
57 v40
173 30
o
4
6
10	
56 26
172 42
25
56
81
11	
56 16
172 30
25
21
46
13	
55 32
171 49
5
13
18
15	
cc     in
55 17
168 48
30
45
75
18	
54 50
169 20
21
50
71
19	
55 00
168 39
8
20
28
22	
54 49
167 43
10
2
12
23	
54 46
167 42
66
59
125
24..  	
54 57
55 00
54 57
54 58
54 39
54 50
54 53
55 09
167 45
168 06
168 47
168 45
169 02
169 04
168 09
168 13
50
6
10
70
41
60
112
8
33
83
25        	
6
26-.
6
83
20
26
45
3
16
27       	
153
28.      	
61
29 .     	
86
80 .    	
157
31	
11
Sept. 1   	
55 13
55 11
55 00
54 57
55 13
55 05
54 50
54 55
55 09
54 40
55 03
54 52
55 09
55 23
55 05
54 10
168 05
168 37
168 48
168 18
168 21
168 03
168 02
168 01
168 09
168 40
168 58
168 23
167 04
167 02
166 11
164 38
110
42
8
98
12
28
8
62
1
2
31
20
4
24
14
21
64
25
4
30
4
9
174
2
67
12
5
128
6 .      	
16
7       	
37
Q                                .......... ...
3
9       	
49
111
in
1
11                        .......
2
13      	
11
4
1
16
42
15      	
24
5
40
1R 	
14
7
28
1,226
879
2,105 64
SEAL   LIFE   ON  THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
Positions where fur seals were taken by American and Canadian vessels in Bering Sea and]
the North Pacific Ocean in 1894—Continued.
CANADIAN SCHOONER AURORA (BERING SEA).
Date.
Latitude. *™f
Males.
Females.
Total.
1894.
Auc\ fi         ....
N.
56 23
56 30
56 25
56 45
56 12
56 17
56 40
53 55
54 04
55 28
55 18
53 18
W.
173 40
174 00
173 35
173 35
172 43
173 10
173 22
170 56
168 00
166 00
166 01
159 00
4
10
1
6
20
3
12
16
3
4
9
12
22
1
17
10
9
22
22
5
8
1
13
7	
22
8	
23
9 ...
7
10	
37
11	
1$
13	
9
15	
34
16	
18	
38
8
19	
12
23	
1
Total	
79
138
217
CANADIAN SCHOONER BEATRICE, OE SHANGHAI (BERING SEA).
1894.
N.
w.
Aug. 1	
54 49
166 35
3
10
13
3	
55 14
170 34
1
6
7
4	
54 59
170 16
55
136
191
5	
54 53
170 23
10
79
89
7	
54 50
170 49
14
72
86
8	
54 45
170 44
19
23
42
9	
54 25
170 53
11
6
17
10	
54 19
171 27
18
6
24
11	
54 32
171 49
15
14
29
12	
54 54
171 30
2
8
10
15	
54 46
170 18
4
6
10
17	
55 03
171 06
6
6
18 .r
54 52
171 00
6
48
54
19	
54 58
170 53
3
4
7
23	
55 12
169 27
1
14
15
25	
54 57
171 01
7
13
20
27	
54 34
171 34
7
43
50
28	
54 32
171 36
2
21
23
29	
55 22
171 32
5
16-
21
30	
55 08
170 40
10
40
50
31	
55 01
170 31
3
5
8
Sept. 1	
54 41
170 24
30
82
112
2
54 49
170 02
3
3
6
5	
54 24
54 57
168 41
170 14
5
6
4
13
9
6	
19
8 	
54 56
167 35
5
11
16
9	
54 55
167 28
20
75
95
10	
55 08
167 37
3
3
13	
54 36
167 14
15
13
28
14	
54 37
166 55
12
3
15
15	
54 39
167 03
19
20
39
16..     	
54 53
55 09
166 44
167 04
3
20
3
17	
16
36
18	
54 51
166 42
4
2
6
19	
54 22
166 36
1
1
Total	
342
818
1,160
CANADIAN SCHOONER MASCOT (BERING SEA).
1894.
Aug. 1.
2.
3!
9.
10.
11.
22.
28.
29.
30.
Sept. 1.
o
N
W.
55
06
168
54
40
167
54
20
167
55
34
171
55
40
171
56
10
172
56
05
171
57
56
173
57
56
173
57
50
173
57
47
173
57
49
173
58
03
173
20
18
20
2
10
1
33
2
15
33
00
11
15
12
29
31
29
4
11
5
15
16
13
15
46
18
5
4
2
3
22
7
10
26
7
4
25
35
12
23
6
3
5
55
18
22
57
11
9
41
50
30
irefflmmieiffiBTf SEAL  LIFE   ON  THE  PEIBILOP   ISLANDS.
65
Positions where fur seals were taken by American and Canadian vessels in Bering Sea and
the North Pacific Ocean in 1894—Continued.
CANADIAN SCHOONER MASCOT (BERING SEA)—Continued.
Date.
Latitude.
Longitude.
Males.
Females.
Total.
Sept. 6	
7 	
1894.
N.
58 02
58 04
58 14
58 02
58 00
(a)
W.
174 00
173 50
173 45
173 35
173 35
(a)
11
39
21
16
23
21
11
19
19
4
20
11
22
58
8	
40
9	
20
12. 	
43
32
Total	
299
246
1,103
a Canoe lost and picked up by scliooner Wanderer with 32 skins.
CANADIAN SCHOONER FAVORITE (BERING SEA).
1894.
A tut. 1.   -.   	
N.
54 40
55 05
55 13
55 03
55 40
55 40
56 46
56 26
56 26
54 41
54 21
54 25
54 39
54 39
54 38
W.
166 20
168 05
168 20
168 40
173 00
173 30
173 15
173 20
169 46
169 18
169 10
168 00
168 10
168 10
169 29
98
49
150
70
60
10
50
25
25
60
39
40
67
9
64
2
30
67
52
14
13
48
25
22
28
30
24
60
9
162
2	
2
3	
79
4	
217
5 	
122
7	
74
8	
23
10..	
98
11	
50
15	
47
18	
88
19	
69
22	
64
23	
127
24	
18
Total	
752
488
1,240
CANADIAN SCHOONER ANNIE C. MOORE (BERING SEA).
1894,
Aug. 1	
2	
3	
4	
5	
N.
57 50
57 50
57 50
58 00
58 00
57 55
58 00
58 00
58 10
57 50
57 55
55 40
56 45
57 00
57 50
57 56
58 00
58 03
57 55
58 05
58 00
58 00
58 03
58 10
58 15
58 20
173 00
172 48
173 00
172 45
173 00
173 00
173 00
173 00
173 10
173 00
173 05
172 00
172 30
172 40
173 04
173 10
173 10
175 00
173 15
173 07
173 30
173 30
173 22
173 10
173 20
173 10
24
11
12
40
3
25
95
50
10
10
5
10
50
15
9
112
28
30
50
70
60
28
100
40
21
30
24
13
14
20
5
15
95
66
29
8
4
38
56
20
8
110
31
29
52
80
70
23
90
48
20
41
48
24
26
60
8
9	
10	
11	
13	
15..
40
190
116
39
18
16	
9
18	
48
22..
106
23	
35
26 •	
17
28	
222
29	
59
30	
59
Sept. 1	
2	
5	
6	
7	
102
150
130
51
190
8	
88
9	
41
10..
71
Total	
938
1,009
1,947
S. Doc. 137, pt. 2- 66
SEAL   LIFE   ON  THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
Positions where fur seals were taken by American and Canadian vessels in Bering Sea and
the North Pacific Ocean in 1894—Continued.
CANADIAN SCHOONER LABRADOR (BERIXG SEA).
Aug. 3.
4.
5.
6.
8.
9.
10.
12.
16.
18.
19.
Date.
Latitude.
1894.
N.
55 05
55 00
54 32
54 40
55 13
55 04
54 50
54 55
54 45
54 40 |
54 25
Total.
Longitude.
W
167
167
166
167
166
167
167
167
167
167
167
00
10
20
00
45
25
05
20
24
30
10
Males.  Females.
3
12
27
10
4
1
20
48
1
33
20
179
10
70
10
16
14
7
32
100
2
100
20
381
Total.
13
82
37
26;
18
8
52
148
3
133
40
560
CANADIAN SCHOONER SAUCY LASS (BERING SEA).
1894.
Au2. 6	
N.
54 28
54 28
55 08
54 30
54 44
55 09
54 56
55 24
54 56
55 07
55 23
54 52
55 05
54 51
54 05
W.
166 44
172 13
169 01
168 16
167 42
167 33
167 40
166 52
167 49
167 30
167 54
167 40
167 30
167 14
166 40
7
25
6
29
40
90
7
6
8
20
5
8
25
8
6
9
39
10
25
69
109
9
10
6
26
7
10
27
12
10
16
22	
27	
28	
64
16
54
30	
Sept. 1	
2	
5......................	
109
199
16
16
8	
14
9      	
46
10 .        	
12
13      	
18
15	
52
16	
20
18  	
16
Total	
290
378
668
CANADIAN SCHOONER BOREALIS (BERING SEA).
1894.
Aug.  1
3.
4.
Sept.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
14.
15.
18.
19.
22.
23!
25.
27.
28.
29.
30.
1.
4.
5.
6.
7.
12.
N.
W.
57 36
166
43
3
3
56 04
167
22
6
6
56 12
167
21
4
28
32
56 05
167
22
4
33
37
55 33
170
25
2
184
186
55 27
170
21
3
25
28
55 26
170
14
5
33
38
55 27
170
55
6
198
204
55 36
171
00
3
38
41
55 20
171
00
1
4
5
55 26
171
09
1
1
55 32
170
36
1
19
20
55 27
169
54
4
41
45
55 30
170
36
1
1
2
55 31
170
04
1
1
55 44
171
15
1
2
3
56 34
172
20
2
2
56 37
172
LI
6
6
56 50
172
49
6
89
95
56 49
172
49
1
26
27
56 33
172
33
8
8
55 30
170
05
4
77
81
55 35
168
30
1
1
54 59
168
42
9
48
57
55 06
168
33
12
74
86
55 02
168
10
7
49
56
55 20
169
41
16
62
78
Total.
90
1,059
1,149 ;--!^*.tt.-w>^>.yjj.»!*>^>:» ■
SEAL  LIFE  ON  THE  PRIBILOF  ISLANDS.
67
Positions where fur seals were taken by American and Canadian vessels in Bering Sea and
the North Pacific Ocean in 1894—Continued.
CANADIAN SCHOONER KATHERINE  (BERING SEA).
Date.
Latitude.
Longitude.
Males.
Females.
Total.
1891.
Aug. 1   ....... . ..
N.
56 05
56 23
56 30
56 35
56 30
56 25
56 27
56 20
56 20
56 25
56 18
56 14
56 16
56 18
56 05
56 30
54 20
54 10
54 16
54 22
54 15
54 20
54 40
54 25
54 35
W.
173 09
172 57
173 17
174 09
173 30
173 10
173 00
172 01
172 10
172 50
173 11
173 15
172 45
172 22
172 16
174 00
168 30
168 25
168 35
167 40
167 45
167 30
167 25
167 20
167 06
2
20
40
3
28
3
5
16
50
1
2
8
9
5
8
1
30
38
6
57
20
105
13
20
2
13
21
20
31
4
9
100
11
3
8
4
24
12
54
3
4
51
42
37
25
52
24
2
13
4
2	
33
4	
61
6	
23
7	
59
8	
7
9	
14
10	
116
11	
61
13	
4
16	
10
17	
12
18	
33
19	
17
25	
62
26	
4
27	
34
28	
89
29	
48
30	
94
31 :	
45
Sept. 1	
157
2	
37
3	
2
5	
33
Total	
490
569
1,059
CANADIAN SCHOONER AINOKO (BERING SEA).
1894.
Aug. 1.
2.
4.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
17.
18.
19.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
Sept. 1-
2.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
13.
14.
15.
17.
Total
N.
54
55
55
56
56
56
56
56
56
54
54
54
55
54
55
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
55
55
55
55
54
55
55
54
56
05
07
42
55
48
50
35
37
29
30
23
05
47
03
42
35
45
34
57
12
23
28
31
23
00
05
16
07
53
04
07
27
~W.
171
171
172
173
173
173
173
173
172
168
168
169
167
169
168
167
167
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
166
12
49
44
54
30
34
28
13
40
59
45
12
31
02
08
42
33
39
19
06
13
27
43
30
43
35
37
42
06
27
08
01
23
8
20
60
13
14
12
5
15
18
5
42
35
70
25
10
7
62
75
62
61
5
107
8
1
69
32
14
76
30
10
45
68
8
1
6
41
9
13
4
3
12
24
6
45
24
6
5
58
43
18
18
12
65
20
3
26
20
25
10
7
1
10
30
66
41
115
49
16
12
120
118
80
79
17
172
28
4
95
52
39
86
37
11
55
98
8
1,092
565   1,657 68
•SEAL  LIFE   ON  THE  PRIBILOF ISLANDS.
Positions where fur seals were taken by American and Canadian vessels in Bering Sea and
the North Pacific Ocean in 1894—Continued.
CANADIAN SCHOONER RATE (BERLNG SEA).
Date.
Latitude.
Longitude.
Males.
Females.
Total.
1894.
N.
W.
Aug. 3..^	
55 56
167 31
1
5
6
4	
56 21
167 28
1
20
21
5.	
en     on
57 o7
166 43
1
14
15
7,-	
58 40
167 48
1
1
!©,..	
58 03
172 00
4
11
15
1L	
58 01
172 30
4
7
11
S&M&.	
55 29
171 14
8
8
18~	
55 05
170 20
5
38
43
22	
54 41
168 50
29
54
83
23	
54 37
169 00
36
67
103
25	
54 51
167 56
3
3
6
26	
54 47
168 42
9
9
21	
54 49
169 06
31
62
93
28	
54 36
169 24
15
45
60
29	
54 31
54 39
168 43
168 41
1
10
3
44
4
30-	
54
31	
54 45
167 59
3
3
6
Sept. 1	
54 58
168 03
52
40
92
2	
54 29
168 25
8
11
19
4	
54 18
167 40
1
1
2
5	
54 42
167 37
12
12
24
■6	
54 45
168 23
2
2
7. 	
55 05
54 32
54 45
168 56
169 . 00
168 35
9
15
12
10
13
19
19
8	
28
9	
31
12    	
54 50
54 47
54 47
54 41
54 35
167 37
167 39
167 39
167 33
165 24
1
12
8
25
4
1
•M        13	
15
10
34
3
27
14..    	
18
15     	
59
16 .     	
7
*
Total.	
303
564
867
CANADIAN SCHOONER VENTURE (BERING SEA).
1894.
N.
54 36
55 02
55 00
55 24
55 14
55 28
55 26
55 12
55 05
54 49
54 38
54 48
54 53
54 23
54 23
54 24
54 33
54 38
54 36
54 31
54 50
54 46
54 59
54 43
54 37
54 35
54 49
54 38
54 39
54 26
W.
163 37
166 18
167 11
167 17
167 36
167 14
168 15
168 50
169 55
169 55
170 08
169 43
169 46
168 27
168 20
168 05
168 13
168 14
168 18
168 19
168 11
168 08
168 01
168 04
167 58
168 12
168 36
168 20
167 51
161 07
9
5
21
4
1
5
44
6
16
5
47
5
16
19
27
14
13
21
74
5
12
3
13
5
2
24
1
11
1
7
31
6
1
2
2
6
34
9
13
7
63
13
24
41
42
21
19
17
87
3
7
1
5
2
1
16
20
1
3      	
12
52
10
1
7 :;:::::::::::::::::"::::::::::::.:...
2
3
ii       	
11
78
15
18        	
29
19       	
12
22              	
110
18
24 .      	
40
27 .     	
60
69
35
32
31             	
38
Sent 1
161
2         	
8
19
4
9.
18
13        	
7
3
15        	
40
18           	
1
Total.       	
417
492
909
1
BBBi SEAL   LIFE   ON  THE   PRIBILOF  ISLANDS.
69
Positions where fur seals were taken by American and Canadian vessels in Bering Sea an<&
the North Pacific Ocean in 1894—Continued.
CANADIAN SCHOONER WALTER L. RICH (BERING SEA).
Date.
Latitude.
Longitude.
Males.
Females.
Total.|
1894.
Aug. 1	
N.
55 05
55 17
55 17
55 10
55 00
55 15
55 11
55 05
55 12
54 56
55 00
54 58
54 40
54 48
54 53
55 05
54 35
54 35
54 42
54 36
54 40
54 40
54 50
54 40
W.
166 48
166 51
166 51
167 10
166 36
167 44
167 59
167 10
167 20
167 45
167 30
168 20
168 44
168 10
168 00
168 10
168 10
168 15
167 45
168 34
167 50
168 22
166 54
166 25
1
3
53
10
20
37
96
73
12
143
60
87
12
3
12
3
30
40
32
60
133
21
53
6
23
7
50
4
5
19
80
6
2
36
4
16
22
25
31
32
75
45
14
34
145
9
60
5
24
3	
10
4	
103
5	
14
6	
25
10	
56
12	
176
15	
70
16	
18	
19	
23	
14
170
64
103:
24	
34
25	
28
26	
43
27 1	
35
28	
105
29	
85
30	
46
31	
94
Sept. 1	
278
2	
30
5	
6	
113
11
Total	
1,000
749
1,749
1894.
A Tig. 1.. . .'	
N.
54 48
54 37
55 12
55 28
55 03
54 50
54 55
54 43.
54 44
54 51
54 23
54 52
54 47
54 54
. 54 53
54 31
54 48
55 09
54 59
54 39
55 05
55 04
54 55
54 54
55 06
55 09
55 16
55 20
55 14
55 02
55 52
55 08
55 07
55 02
W.
165 51
165 31
165 07
166 29
166 44
166 30
166 31
166 14
165 29
165 30
168 30
168 24
168 13
168 00
168 07
167 39
167 34
168 00
168 23
168 03
167 42
167 39
167 35
167 49
167 55
167 36
167 51
168 00
167 41
167 30
167 25
167 22
167 19
168 08
20
2
16
18
21
7
31
24
12
47
12
4
15
18
14
33
81
103
58
10
76
12
10
8
6
1
1
14
5
45
1
28
1
23
55
6
1
41
63
27
1
1
114
44
14
58
50
1
3
20
60
90
30
12
116
9
15
10
11
2
65
3	
3
4	
44
5	
1
6	
41
7	
76
8	
13
10	
1
11	
72
12	
87
15	
39
16	
1
17	
1
18	
161
19	
56
22	
18
23	
73
24	
68
25	
1
26	
27	
IT
53
28	
141
29	
193
30 1
88
31	
22
Sept. 1.,	
192
2	
21
7	
P   25
8	
18
9	
17
10	
3
12	
1
13	
20
9
5
34
15	
14
a)	
5
Total	
679
1
986
1,665
a Boat of schooner Minnie picked up by schooner Favorite with 5 skins.
aarfiyfttWiffittrra 70
SEA.L  LIFE   ON  THE   PRIBILOF  ISLANDS.
Positions where fur seals were taken by American and Canadian vessels in Bering Sea and
the North Pacific Ocean in 1894—Continued.
CANADIAN SCHOONER SAN JOSE (BERING SEA).
Date.
Aug;
Sept
3.
4.
5.
6.
8.
10.
11.
12.
18.
19.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
1.
2.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
13.
15.
1894.
Latitude.
Longitude.
Males.
Females.
Total.
N.
W.
54 54
166 28
2
2
4
54 54
166 28
10
74
84
55 01
167 05
8
15
23
55 01
167 23
12
20
32
55 12
168 15
4
5
9
55 04
169 04
2
1
3
55 02
170 37
2
1
3
55 13
170 55.
3
2
5
55 11
168 10
8
3
11
54 25
166 34
30
13
43
54 56
166 44
15
8
23
54 54
167 33
13
4
17
55 29
168 00
1
1
55 10
166 54
2
2
54 57
167 13
26
26
54 55
167 30
3
40
43
55 01
167 11
6
20
26
55 04
167 50
14
40
54
54 57
168 06
4
9
13
55 11
168 36
7
50
57
55 13
168 36
9
20
29
55 17
168 10
4
9
13
55 15
168 55
20
50
70
55 15
169 20
43
80
123
55 14
169 24
1
2
3
55 00
169 00
10
20
30
55 05
168 10
14
40
54
55 16
168 25
3
7
10
54 48
169 03
1
2
3
54 35
166 36
4
18
22
54 28
166 00
4
9
13
Total.
256
593
849
CANADIAN SCHOONER KILMENY (BERING SEA).
1894.
N.
W.
Aug. 6	
55 30
165 00
8
11
19
8	
55 00
166 00
7
9
9	
55 10
55 00
165 00
167 00
1
6
1
10	
7
13
11	
55 55
55 30
166 30
167 00
2
50
2
13	
43
93
18	
55 12
167 00
2
3
5
20	
55 10
55 00
167 40
167 00
50
10
59
11
109
22	
21
23	
55 00
165 00
4
4
8
24	
' 55 10
166 00
20
15
85
25	
54 40
166 25
4
8
12
28	
54 20
168 20
4
2
6
29	
54 40
167 00
53
43
96
30	
54 50
167 20
4
40
44
81	
54 30
167 40
4
10
14
Sept. 1	
54 30
167 30
40
34
74
2
54 35
167 28
29
9
38
7	
54 40
54 10
167 15
167 15
1
3
4
6
5
8	
9
9	
54 35
167 20
3
10
18
10	
54 40
167 05
2
2
13	
64 00
166 03
1
2
8
15	
53 15
165 10
1
2
3
Total	
307
327
634 SEAL  LIFE   ON   THE   PRIBILOF  ISLANDS.
Positions where fur seals were taken by American and Canadian vessels in Bering Sea and
the North Pacific Ocean in 1894—Continued.
CANADIAN SCHOONER HENRIETTA (BERING SEA).
Aug. 7.
8.
10.
11.
13.
15.
18.
22.
26.
27.
28.
29.
31.
-Sept. 1.
2.
5.
6.
7..
8.,
9.
17.
19.
20.,
Total.
Date.
Latitude.
Longitude.
Males.
Females.
Total.
1894.
Aug. 18	
N.
54 50
55 00
55 46
54 40
54 16
54 05
54 47
54 57
54 56
55 02
55 15
55 00
55 05
55 10
54 40
W.
166 20
166 30
166 30
168 46
169 19
169 27
169 16
168 53
169 10
168 52
168 40
169 36
169 34
168 56
167 00
8
15
18
12
100
21
12
120
40
20
10
3
3
20
25
15
24
21
11
20
5
15
65
21
31
32
4
9
33
34
23
19	
39
24	
39
28	
23
29	
120
30	
26
31	
27
Sept. 1	
185
2	
61
5	
51
6	
42
7	
7
8	
12
9	
53
15	
59
Total	
427
340
767
CANADIAN SCHOONER SHELBY (BERING SEA).
1894.
N.
54 40
54 50
55 14
55 20
55 41
55 38
55 52
55 05
56 32
56 10
56 20
56 19
55 28
55 19
55 14
55 32
55 32
55 23
55 06
55 13
55 32
55 28
55 21
W.
167 32
168 14
170 32
170 44
171 50
171 07
172 35
171 54
171 55 72
SEAL  LIFE   ON  THE  PRIBILOF  ISLANDS.
Positions where fur seals were taken in 1894 off the Japan coast by Canadian and American vessels.
[Data collected by C. H. Townsend and A. B. Alexander.]
CANADIAN SCHOONER UMBRINA (JAPAN COAST), CAMPBELL, MASTER.
Date.
Lat- Longi-
itude. tude.
Dec. 28.
29.
1893.
N.
43 40
43 40
1
1894.
Jan. 1  4124
5  40 19
15  39 06
Apr,
I
Mar. 17.
18.
19.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
11.
12.
13.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
22.
23.
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
36
37
20
13
30
05
12
16
10
20
40
40
25
15
20
10
20
17
35
24
27
20
30
12
14
19
16
55
06
W.
141 00
142 00
150 00
146 10
173 55
Seals.
E,
145
143
144
146
146
146
145
145
146
146
146
145
142
04
04
37
40
20
27
15
35
19
07
00
38
20
145
145
145
145
146
146
146
145
145
146
146
145
145
40
26
33
40
05
00
08
50
45
00
03
50
45
31
17
5
1
90
11
67
90
60
56
79
135
88
48
42
103
41
18
57
74
23
1
15
91
33
58
33
Date.
1894—Continued.
Apr.
May-
June
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
1.
3.
12.
14.
15.
18.
21.
22.
23.
24.
26.
28.
29.
31.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
21.
22.
Lat
Longi
itude.
tude.
N.
E.
36 40
146 25
36 48
146 ..
36 50
(a)
37 34
146 23
37 35
145 55
36 56
145 55
36 40
145 47
37 40
146 50
37 49
146 58
37 51
147 26
37 16
145 00
38 11
146 35
38 22
146 25
38 37
146 10
38 36
146 20 j
40 11
144 46
41 50
144 12
41 35
145 00 i
43 03
147 30
41 23
145 40
40 55
145 56
.. 29
146 10
40 37
146 02
40 45
145 50
40 46
145 52
40 30
145 41
40 40
146 00
41 09
145 37
41 02
145 55
40 00
145 55
41 57
146 08 ,
43 10
147 12
43 41
147 30
43 45
147 05
43 40
1
147 10
Seals.
84
14
1
19
16
70
19
104
21
119
1
61
51
57
9
27
7
2
6
5
92
11
31
79
55
36
4
8
1
15
2
81
9
11
a No observation.
AMERICAN SCHOONER EDWARD E. WEBSTER (JAPAN COAST), McLEAN, MASTER.
1894.
N.
37 46
38 00
Jan. 29.
Feb. 2.
5 ...I 36 35
17  38 30
24  36 30
Mar. 5  37 32
Apr.
15 i 38 01
19  38 10
21  38 00
23 | 37 20
24 | 37 20
26  38 31
1  37 11
2  37 07
3 j 37 02
4  37 06
5 | 36 56
8	
  37 15
10 j 38 00
11  39 10
12  39 10
E.
146 15
144 40
145 00
146 00
145 46
144 35
146 16
145 30
146 10
145 27
145
146
145 21
145 35
145 25
145 20
145 40
146 10
146 03
145 51
145 51
30
18
29
30
17
61
27
25
31
36
47
65
57
28
61
58
40
17
29
33
26
47
73
May
June
1894.
Apr. 16.
18.
19.
22..
26..
23..
24..
30...
1..
3..
6a
8..
10..
13..
28.
29.
July 1.
2.
8.
9.
N
40
37
37
36
36
40
40
39
41
41
00
40
40
57
44
00
10
52
04
42
41
41
41
42
42
42
43
42
43
14
10
24
02
04
12
30
56
15
E.
144 20
145 25
145 07
145 00
144 33
144 00
144 08
143 30
142 20
142 30
143 18
143 15
142 36
W.
179 02
178 15
177 20
177 00
175 15
174 44
27
17
128
84
101
17
21
41
29
24
38
18
22
24
30
7
17
11
27
38
a Cape Yerimo east 25 miles.
II SEAL  LIFE  ON  THE  PRIBILOF  ISLANDS.
73
Positions where fur seals were taken in 1894 off the Japan coast by Canadian and American vessels—Continued.
AMERICAN SCHOONER ALLIE I. ALGAR (JAPAN COAST), WESTER, MASTER.
Date.
Mar.
May 2
27.
30.
5>
1894.
Lat- I Longi-
itude. I tude.
N
  23 1 39 22
24  39 45
26  40 00
29  39 12
31  40 00
Apr. 1  39 54
3	
4	
39 15
39 25
6 | 39 28
8	
 I 39 25
18 v  39 29
23  39 27
24  39 51
25  40 15
26  40 13
  (a)
  40 03
  («)
  (a)
 I 41 39
11 1 41 36
E
144
142
144
143
144
144
144
144
143
143
142
142
142
142
143
(a
143
(a
(a
142
143
23
57
00
13
00
17
06
24
31
10
54
21
00
23
00
)
06
)
)
05
20
Seals.
8
37
23
2
36
17
78
32
16
47
38
10
3
29
40
2
26
45
11
47
25
Date.
May
1894.
June
July
12.
13.
14.
21.
24.
25.
26.
29.
1.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
12.
18.
19.
23.
24.
25.
26.
I
Lat
Longi
itude.
tude.
N.
E.
41 57
143 08
42 05
142 38
41 35
142 40
42 50
143 50
42 35
144 56
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
43 16
147 00
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(&)
(b)
(O)
(6)
(&)
(b)
(&)
(b)
(6)
(b)
53 48
167 32
53 57
168 56
55 02
169 59
55 36
169 13
a No position.
& Ten miles off Scoutan Island.
17
28
31
6
50
8
30
7
34
12
34
32
102
22
67
20
19
2
6
3
4
AMERICAN SCHOONER LOUIS OLSEN (JAPAN COAST), GUILDAMS, MASTER.
Mar.
1894.
Apr.
Ma^
12.
13.
15.
17.
19.
21.
1.
o
3]
4.
5.
6.
8.
12.
18.
19.
20.
22.
23!
26.
28.
29.
30.
1.
1 1
E.
36 26
145 23
1
36 17
145 43
7
36 23
147 41
67
38 36
147 52
14
37 40
146 15
42
37 47
144 22
6
38 16
146 46
54
38 22
147 39
50
39 20
146 05
15
38 59
146 46
8
38 34
145 47
39
38 20
145 50
30
38 08
144 52
24
40 13
144 18
10
37 06
145 56
5
37 02
146 03
• 53
37 30
146 20
28
37 08
146 39
8
37 18
146 03
33
36 15
146 26
60
36 41
146 09
8
37 14
146 15
5
37 01
146 05
29
35 54
144 43
36
May 16..
J 17..
19..
20..
21..
24..
25..
28..
30..
31..
1.
1894.
June
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
N
40
41
41
41
(a
41
41
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
00
45
37
57
)
00
47
38
42
38
46
38
37
22
52
59
55
42
37
56
E
142
143
143
142
{a
143
142
142
144
144
145
143
144
144
144
58
35
03
27
)
00
28
54
58
38
03
57
06
30
53
1 144
57
145
28
145
56
145
59
146
08
3
35
65
19
50
30
3
7
1&
63
35
10
5
10
3
12
12:
11
33
2
Total 1 1 161,055
a Cape Yerimo SE. by E. 28 miles.
6 Fifty-seven seals additional belong to the catch; they were taken by the boats that went astray
id were picked up by the Penelope, making the total catch 1,112.
gg&g^
&GCAS*£*r3
irrnifri'nYirmTTfiT 74
SEAL  LIFE   ON  THE   PRIBILOF  ISLANDS.
Positions where fur seals were taken in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea in 1895.
[From official sources.]
AMERICAN SCHOONER J. EPPINGER (BERING SEA), MICHAEL WHITE, MASTER.
Date.
Latitude.
Longitude.
Males.
Females.
Total.
1895.
Ausr. 1.. 	
N.
54 55
55 07
54 58
54 59
54 40
54 46
54 54
55 17
54 55
54 35
54 38
54 35
54 30
54 46
54 46
54 17
55 23
55 07
56 08
57 04
56 44
56 40
56 33
56 18
W.
167 47
167 27
167 16
167 40
167 30
167 46
167 47
168 00
168 01
168 35
168 40
168 35
168 30
167 52
167 52
167 51
169 00
173 40
173 50
173 03
173 25
172 40
172 32
175 10
6
3
1
1
8
13
1
1
12
13
8
7
7
2
10
5
7
4
4
5
5
3
11
2	
8
4	
4
9	
1
10	
42
48
3
4
23
1
22
2
1
27
16
16
3
22
11
10
1
25
41
2
50
11	
61
12	
4
14	
5
15	
35
16	
1
17	
35
18	
2
19	
1
20	
35
21	
23
22	
23
24	
25.	
5
32
26	
16
27	
17
28	
1
Sept. 1	
29
2	
45
8	
2
9	
56 50
54 20
174 22
169 35
113
333
5
1
446
5
15	
1
Total	
113
339
452
AMERICAN SCHOONER HERMAN (JAPAN COAST AND BERING SEA), SCOTT, MASTER.
1895.
Mar. 20 ,	
N.
a 36 47
36 45
36 40
36 44
36 39
636 44
636 40
638 38
39 02
38 48
38 06
37 30
37 28
37 30
39 27
39 25
39 22
39 23
39 31
39 27
39 36
39 26
40 22
40 31
40 38
40 59
40 54
41 12
E.
145 26
145 40
145 05
146 20
146 06
145 50
146 24
146 17
146 14
146 32
146 35
146 28
146 52
146 35
143 02
142 51
142 45
142 25
142 21
142 40
142 30
142 31
142 28
142 16
142 31
141 56
141 47
142 00
1
21	
4
27	
1
Apr. 1	
2	
40
26
3	
2
5	
4
11	
1
12	
7
13	
13
15	
9
16	
21
18 ,  	
5
19	
7
23	
1
25	
5
26	
4
27  	
5
28 '.	
66
29 ,
3
30	
11
May 1	
ll
3	
7
4	
38
5	
9
6	
19
7	
23
S	
2
9	
Cruising from 20
to 40 miles E. off
Cape Yesan.
Cane Yftaan W.
5
10	
11
12	
about .
41 53
42 13
41 48
42 07
41 51
!0 miles.
142 18
141 26
142 25
142 40
142 31
10
13	
10
14	
32
15	
18
16	
1
a Observation*
6 Dead reckoning. ■ jillntWM   **v •.»- *■» *•*••?■ ** *"^ t^&*?*$**.
SEAL  LIFE  ON  THE  PRIBILOF  ISLANDS.
75
Positions where fur seals were taken in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea in 1895—
Continued.
AMERICAN SCHOONER HERMAN (JAPAN COAST AND BERING SEA), SCOTT, MASTER—
Continued.
Date.
Latitude.
N.
Canft T"p,t
Longitude.
■
Males.
Eemales.
Total.
1895.
May 17 *	
20	
E.
imn NT. 20
1
miles.
41    49 1      142    27
29
23	
41    58
41     50
142   07
142    20
19
24    ,	
29
25	
CapeYerimo ENE.
*E.
Distance 30 miles.
Shotan   NW.   15
miles.
Shotan NNE.  10
miles.
W. end of Yetorufie
Island  NW. 25
miles.
 do	
13
26	
9
Jane   1	
2
o
14
7	
16
8	
8
10	
S. side west end W.
25 miles.
10 miles S. of Jap
Bay, Yetorufie.
44    57 |      147   51
W.   end Yetorufie
Island NW. 25
miles.
W.   end Yetorufie
Island NNW. 35
miles.
Otter  Island N. 6
miles, S. of Yetorufie.
Otter Island N. 10
miles.
W. ftTid of Yfltmrififi
23
12	
1
13	
M
13
14     	
2
15	
	
7
16	
1
17	
5
18	
.
6
23	
NNW.
45   19
N.
56   07
56   10
55 45
56 19
55   19
55 08
56 45
56 37
57 18
57   18
56   27
55 55
56 03
55    56
55 54
56 02
56   12
56   56
55   56
55 49
56 42
56 16
57 44
12 miles.
149   27
W.
167 15
166   25
164 51
165 10
168 11
168   47
172 43
173 43
173   29
. 173   30
173   43
173   21
173   21
173   23
173   45
173   35
173    32
172   50
172   35
172 55
173 41
173   37
172   39
1
Auff.   1	
4
6
1
1
8
7
9
14
16
1
5
22
4
1
3
1
10
10
1
4
1
14
11
4
5
11
2
28
14
19
17
53
9
8
60
12
3
31
10
2	
14
10	
1
12	
4
14	
1
15	
20
17	
12
18	
4
19	
6
20	
11
21	
2
22	
36
23	
21
25	
26 i	
27	
28	
28
31
69
10
31	
13
Sept.   1	
2	
8	
82
16
4
9 	
i    34
13           	
1
Total	
103
327
1,067
AMERICAN  SCHOONER EDWARD E. WEBSTER (JAPAN COAST AND BERING SEA),
A. C. EOLGER, MASTER.
1895.
Mar. 20	
N.
a 37   22
37   34
37   17
37 38
38 46
39 06
39    10
39    08
38   53
E.
141 55
142 04
141 45
143 02
145   00
143   53
142 31
142   20
142   26
15
21	
100
22	
14
24:.:....::..: ::.:..::.:::::
1
Apr.    3	
4	
10
11
8	
21
10	
13
11	
21
a Observation.
-. jinnffljjfflDtn— 76
SEAL  LIFE   ON   THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
Positions where fur seals were taken in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea in 1895—-
Continued.
AMERICAN SCHOONER
EDWARD E. WEBSTER (JAPAN COAST
A. C. EOLGER, MASTER—Continued.
AND  BERING  SEA)y
Date.
Latitude.
Longitude.
Males.
Females.
Total.
1895.
Apr. 14 	
N.
38 50
39 48
39 47
39 37
39 24
39 49
39 50
39 45
41 26
41 50
41 53
42 18
41 14
42 11
42 20
42 16
42 27
42 09
(a)
41 47
43 04
43 18
43 24
43 26
43 26
43 28
43 50
44 10
(a)
(a)
(a)
44 20
(a)
(a)
44 12
(a)
N.
655 10
55 30
c54 56
c55 13
c56 01
c55 08
c55 08
c55 25
c55 27
c55 16
c54 56
c54 57
c54 54
c55 54
c54 50
c47 47
E.
142 30
142 32
142 39
143 26
(a)
142 32
142 17
142 24
143 02
142 53
142 02
141 24
141 20
141 18
141 16
141 05
(a)
141 00
(a)
143 05
146 55
146 51
146 24
146 23
146 23
146 50
147 02
147 10
(a)
(a)
(a)
147 30
(a)
(a)
147 15
(a)
W.
171 35
171 30
171 40
171 15
171 45
171 01
170 30
169 10
169 36
169 59
168 00
168 55
168 55
168 56
168 00
165 18
3
19	
35
20	
3
22	
2
23	
	
5
27	
36
28	
........
44
30	
4
May 2	
10
3	
	
3
4	
15
5	
	
8
6	
34
7	
34
8	
6
10	
1Q
12	
12
13	
8
14	
23
15	
28
23	
13
24	
18
25	
41
26	
4
31  	
4
June 1	
3
2	
9
6	
27
7	
29
8	
18
lO...'	
25
13	
9
14	
..
9
15	
15
18	
9
19	
5
Aug. 9	
2
6
3
3
9
1
13
12
4
2
2
3
2
3
1
3
13
21
17
22
15
o
50
24
16
4
6
6
2
4
3
10	
15
11	
27
12 	
20
15	
25
17	
24
18	
6
20	
68
21	
33
22	
20
24	
6
26	
8
27	
28	
Sept. 1	
8	
9
4
7
1
Total	
66
205
1,03T
a Not noted on log.
b Dead reckoning.
e Observation.
AMERICAN SCHOONER ALTON
(JAPAN COAST AND BERING
MASTER.
SEA), A. J. ANDERSON,
1895.
Mar. 26	
N.
36 40
37 07
37 50
38 59
38 55
41 40
41 18
40 14
E.
141 23
141 54
144 00
144 00
144 57
143 28
141 52
142 51
6
27	
1
29	
1
30	
3
Apr. 2	
14
7	
1
10	
1
11	
20
■*>%UW4m «VW»« Hftjv SEAL  LIFE   ON THE  PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
77
Positions where fur seals were taken in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea in 1895—
Continued.
AMERICAN SCHOONER ALTON (JAPAN COAST AND BERING SEA), A. J. ANDERSON,
MASTER—Continued.
Date.
1
Latitude.'
Longitude.
Males.
Females.
Total.
1885.
Apr. 12	
N.
39 53
39 33
39 55
39 42
39 56
39 34
39 47
39 06
40 14
40 24
40 13
40 30
40 89
41 50
41 33
42 13
42 26
40 14
40 22
41 30
41 36
43 00
42 03
42 47
43 58
23 01
42 40
55 01
55 15
55 04
55 07
55 32
55 11
55 23
55 22
55 31
55 13
55 24
55 25
55 07
55 01
54 55
55 16
55 20
55 21
E.
143 07 1
142 45
143 5
143 40
144 00
143 00
143 05
143 00
142 49
142 52
142 48
142 17
142 50
142 15
143 00
145 41
144 00
142 49
142 56
142 16
142 51
145 40
147 04
166 00
174 16
178 48
179 10
178 44
W.
167 40
167 36
167 46
169 03
169 40
169 47
170 24
170 43
171 14
170 55
170 46
169 26
169 15
169 00
169 38
169 37
170 00
40
15	
5
17	
1
18	
31
19	
16
20	
12
22	
19
May 1	
3
3	
6
4	
	
56
5	
20
6	
9
7	
6
9	
4
10	
16
15	
3
16	
i
19	
1
20	
3
June 10	
4
11	
3
15	
2
18	
3
28	
1
July 2	
6	
1
1
7	
1
Aug;. 3	
1
5
3
3
4
5
1
6
7
1
1
6
2
1
10 •	
11	
1
1
1
2
6
15
1
9
9
10
1
1
12 i	
14	
1
2
15	
11
17	
18
18	
1
20	
12
21	
13
22	
15
24	
1
26	
7
14
1
|
16
2
13
27 i.
21
28	
2
31	
4
Sepfc 1	
22
2	
4
Total	
45
98
458
AMERICAN SCHOONER MATTIE T. DYER (JAPAN COAST), C. E. MOCKLER, MASTER.
Date.
1895
Aug.   7	
8	
9	
10	
16	
17	
20	
21	
23	
24	
26	
btiti
ade.
N.
54
00
53
40
53
38
55
12
53
43
(a
)
53
28
54
18
54
20
54
37
54
16
Longitude.
Seals.
E.
166 00
12
166 04
10
166 14
1
164 10
2
170 10
1
(a)
4
165 47
8
165 47
5
165 10
12
164 10
1
164 10
4
Date.
1895.
Aug. 27.
30.
31.
Sept.   2.
3.
4.
8.
9.
Total
Latitude.
N.
54
34
54
20
54
30
55
45
55
45
54
38
(a)
54
38
Longitude.
■pi
164' 40
163 30
163   40
W
163   50
163   20
(a)
162   30
Seals.
149
a No observation.
b No longitude.
V"-OTvV'J ;-.;•». w^<ev«'»»«*>-* 78
SEAL  LIFE   ON  THE   PRIBILOF  ISLANDS.
Positions where fur seals were taken in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea in 1895-
Continued.
AMERICAN SCHOONER EMMA AND LOUISA. (BERING SEA), A. McLEAN, MASTER.
Date.
Latitude.
Longitude.
W.
171 14
171 48
172 18
172 55
173 01
173 00
173 20
173 30
173 37
173 12
172 48
173 04
173 16
173 30
Males.
Eemales.
j
Date.
Latitude.
Longitude.
Males.
Eemales.
1895.
Aug. 8....
10....
11	
12....
14....
15....
16....
17....
18....
19....
20....
21....
22
N.
55 08
55 48
56 30
56 12
56 20
56 07
56 15
56 17
56 06
56 02
56 12
56 00
56 06
56 10
3
4
1
3
2
1
3
9
1
6
4
3
7 |
16
29
4
20
1
22
12
21
40
19
33
19
1895.
Aug. 25...
26...
27...
28...
| Sept. 1...
2..
3".
8...
9...
10...
13...
18...
Total.
N.
55 47
55 44
55 50
55 59
57 27
57 00
57 00
56 50
57 21
57 12
56 59
54 09
W.
173 00
173 15
173 15
173 10
172 56
172 48
173 00
174 03
173 00
173 07
173 03
167 15
2
18
22
14
2
2
2
2
2
5
8
35
29
9
3
28
11
8
3
13
2
4
23	
108
399
AMERICAN SCHOONER BONANZA (JAPAN COAST), GEORGE WESTER, MASTER.
Date.
Latitude.
Longitude.
Males.
Eemales.
Total..
1895.
Mar. 30	
N.
a 39 27
38 33
39 26
b 39 29
a 37 26
37 15
36 41
36 30
&39 48'
a 39 28
39 28
39 48
39 48
6 39 36
a 39 16
40 56
41 07
41 07
41 21
41 42
41 34
641 31
E.
146 22
144 20
142 40
142 07
145 01
145 44
145 08
145 01
142 40
142 37
142 38
142 48
142 14
142 16
142 21
142 08
142 16
141 58
141 58
142 10
141 54
141 36
u
Apr. 2	
3	
5
7
5	
5
13	
u
27
16	
26
18	
16
19	
13
23 .                     	
6
25	
10
26	
2
27	
41
28	
56
30	
1
May 1	
3	
38
23
4	
124
5	
41
6.. ,	
61
7..   	
42
8	
9
9 	
5
10..        	
26
12 	
a 42 07
42 03
41 52
41 49
142 02
141 59
19
]3..               	
63
14.    	
142 08
142 27
40
15 „.
26
17.. 	
9
23	
a42 33
42 42
42 42
42 48
42 58
42 58
42 32
43 11
43 05
43 38
43 31
643 43
145 53
145 47
145 46
145 34
145 30
145 59
146 35
147 30
146 32
146 58
146 50
147 04
11
24	
19
25	
57
26	
2
27 	
2
28	
1
30   	
3
31.	
5
June 2 	
8
5..........	
2
6	
13
7	
10
8.   .... 	
1
10 :::	
a 43 23
6 43 50
146 42
147 10
3
14	
9
16 „	
2
17..   	
643 43
a44 01
57 20
57 40
6 57 38
a 55 18
55 26
55 17
55 06
146 52
147 51
172 54
172 47
172 47
170 40
170 13
170 32
169 47
9
18.. ,  ,	
17
Auff. 9	
2
1
2
4
17
1
3
2
2
6
48
38
10
3
10	
4
12	
14	
15.         	
3
8
52
17	
20	
55
11
a O bservation.
6 Dead reckoning.
•ijasfertw';; SEAL  LIFE   ON  THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
79
Positions where fur seals were taken in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea in 1895—
Continued.
AMERICAN SCHOONER BONANZA (JAPAN COAST), GEORGE WESTER, MASTER—Cont'd..
Date.
Latitude.
Longitude.
Males.
Eemales.
Total.
1895.
Aug. 21 v	
N.
54 55
a 55 06
654 32
54 44
55 20
55 15
55 15
55 14
55 28
55 34
54 46
55 05
a 55 00
■pi
170* 30
169 50
168 03
167 54
170 30
169 23
169 24
169 41
171 31
171 51
171 07
170 50
169 50
5
2
3
7
6
33
6
1
m      2
1
5
17
2
1
1
12
34
6
1
4
1
3
10>
22	
19
27	
§
28	
i
29   	
1
31	
18
Sept. 1	
67
2	
12
7	
2
8	
6
9	
1
10	
3
11	
1
Total	
93
196
1,215
a Dead reckoning.
6 Observation.
AMERICAN SCHOONER BOWHEAD (JAPAN COAST), W. P. NOYES, MASTER.
1895.
Jan. 14 	
N.
36 14
36 48
36 40
36 42
36 21
36 20
36 20
36 37
36 05
37 11
37 01
37 12
37 17
39 09
39 26
39 40
39 38
39 50
39 57
39 40
40 12
40 10
39 58
39 48
40 00
40 20
40 10
40 12
40 01
40 08
40 18
40 39
40 26
41 00
42 16
42 45
42 50
42 53
42 28
42 45
43 10
43 15
42 56
43 00
43 35
43 37
43 56
43 53
W.
123 44
E.
146 01
145 50
145 10
145 48
146 01
145 43
146 00
145 36
146 28
146 09
146 08
146 31
146 40
146 34
147 17
147 22
147 25
148 08
148 40
148 30
148 35
148 30
148 02
148 15
148 18
148 12
148 12
148 34
147 53
148 30
148 40
146 48
146 44
145 50
145 36
145 50
145 30
145 50
145 35
145 55
146 22
146 06
146 05
147 10
147 15
147 58
173 25
1
3
3
10
6
2
1
1
1
8
7
8
1
5
11
1
3
16
3
8
42
2
10
17
8
11
7
2
2
3
1
5
8
1
3
4
9
5
2
1
1
16
1
18
9
11
2
24
46
17
6
12
1
18
Mar. 25-... ................... . ...
10
27	
14
30	
2
Apr. 1 -	
27
2	
56-
3	
23
5	
6	
9	
12..               	
8
1$
2
1
13	
15	
16	
17	
18	
27
23
7
1
7
14
3
1
3
22
5
14
54
2
14
26
4
10
35-
30
15
2
12
19	
25
20	
4
21	
1
22	
&
23	
38
26	
28	
8
22
Mav 1	
96
4	
4
5	
24
6	
43
7	
12
8	
21
9	
7
11	
2
13	
1
1
a
16 	
4
20	
i
24	
2
14
1
7
25	
22
26	
1
27	
1
30     	
1
2
1
6
2
4
31	
6
June 2	
lO-
5	
ll
6	
4
7	
1
15	
1
1
5
2
17	
1
18 ,
21
July 6	
1
Total	
^263
421
684
asm 80
SEAL  LIFE   ON  THE  PRIBILOF  ISLANDS.
Positions where fur seals were taken in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea in 1895—
Continued.
AMERICAN SCHOONER WINCHESTER (JAPAN COAST), FRANK JOHNSON, MASTER.
Date.
Latitude.
Longitude.
Seals.
Date.
Latitude.
Longitude.
Seals.
Dec.
1894.
13	
N.
36 59
37 06
37 15
38 00
38 00
38 24
38 33
38 31
37 55
38 08
38 15
38 03
37 45
37 36
37 34
36 53
36 43
36 22
36 14
36 21
36 15
36 30
36 39
36 25
36 25
36 26
39 38
39 15
40 04
40 06
39 55
40 37
42 22
42 37
42 25
42 00
41 11
39 46
W.
123 55
123 30
123 43
123 37
123 20
123 49
123 50
124 10
123 32
123 13
123 50
123 24
123 31
123 21
122 51
123 53
123 46
E.
144 30
147 00
145 06
145 33
146 10
146 02
145 49
145 49
146 25
142 29
142 46
142 56
143 00
143 25
143 42
145 02
144 40
144 30
145 24
146 10
143 52
8
8
9
16
7
11
47
11
9
4
8
1
3
27
1
45
17
52
9
16
1
33
25
38
16
7
18
18
4
13
44
8
1
2
9
1
13
8
1895—Continued.
May 9	
N.
39 39
39 37
39 32
40 00
39 54
39 53
40 12
40 44
42 29
40 09
43 15
43 20
42 59
43 33
43 43
43 57
43 47
43 40
43 30
43 37
43 29
43 29
43 40
43 30
49 30
52 37
52 58
53 40
53 48
53 09
53 45
53 51
53 24
53 27
53 25
53 58
53 27
53 30
53 16
■pi
146 ' 20
146 49
146 13
147 08
147 13
147 41
146 30
147 19
147 21
146 45
147 00
147 26
147 40
147 49
147 27
147 07
147 16
147 03
148 19
148 14
147 51
147 12
147 40
148 16
158 52
165 38
166 52
168 33
168 10
168 22
168 16
168 36
167 36
168 07
168 32
168 28
168 56
168 20
168 50
14
14	
10	
50
16	
12	
32
18	
13..
11
19	
14..
3
22	
15  	
6
23	
16	
20  	
25	
1
24	
5
29	
20
30	
31	
30	
4
June 1.......	
1
1895.
1	
2	
11
5	
3
Jan.
6	
7	
5
5	
6	
10
8..
6
9	
9	
1
10	
10	
13	
4
11	
16
21	
14	
14
Mar.
15
9
BBOCh if
24	
17	
18	
19	
10
27	
5
BHOCE H
30	
1	
6
Apr.
30	
3
2	
July 5	
2
3	
7	
14	
16	
21	
22	
25	
28	
29	
30	
1
5	
4
6	
29
15	
11
16	
4
17	
2
18	
8
19	
10
23	
11
26	
27	
31	
Auff. 1	
1
9
May
4	
2	
5	
9
5	
1
6	
8	
Total	
923
AMERICAN SCHOONER SOPHIA SUTHERLAND (JAPAN COAST), A. O.' SUTHERLAND,
MASTER.
1895
Mar. 9	
13	
21	
24	
30	
Apr. 2	
6	
7	
8	
11	
12	
13	
15	
16	
18	
19	
22	
23	
27	
N.
36 16
36 53
36 26
38 13
39 27
38 01
38 05
38 37
39 42
38 01
37 33
37 27
37 50
38 47
39 15
38 44
39 20
39 56
39 42
E.
144
36
1
141
46
3
144
45
54
142
27
12
143
28
6
145
53
21
143
51
1
142
53
2
142
49
3
145
43
7
145
05
13
145
29
11
145
03
1
145
50
3
145
01
1
145
37
6
144
56
1
145
31
28
145
37
2
Apr. 30
May   8
9
10
12
13
16
17
19
25
26
June 1
11
13
14
15
1895.
N
E.
40
41
142
21
17
41
21
142
31
15
41
05
142
20
45
41
13
141
47
21
40
54
142
19
3
41
31
143
08
11
41
22
145
38
2
40
06
150
14
1
42
02
152
23
1
41
52
174
58
1
42
30
178
W.
21
2
40
42
177
47
4
40
31
150
21
1
40
46
148
15
(a)
(a)
6
40
55
147
46
3
Total
309
a Calm.   No observation.
•»«'»{:.:{«:> . jiT,MpaT.i i|iir.Turr^rOTM"**'Tt''
SEAL  LIFE  ON  THE  PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
81
Positions ivhere fur seals were taken in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea in 1895—
Continued.
AMERICAN SCHOOLER RATTLER (JAPAN COAST AND BERING- SEA), FREDERICK
NIELSEN, MASTER.
Date.
Latitude.
N.
39 22 1
39 18 !
39 45 i
39 54
40 59
40 13
39 41 <
39 35
39 08
39 42
40 58
40 41
m  40
41 01
42 08
42 07
41 55
41 42
41 40
41 23
41 55
41 52
41 40
41 38
41 38
42 08
42 08
42 10
41 33
42 11
42 39
43 06
43 10
43 10
43 10
44 06
41 42
42 03
43 15
43 09
43 34
54 57
54 52
55 09
54 59
55 05
55 03
55 00
54 49
55 04
54 55
55 13
55 11
54 44
54 51
55 05
56 49
57 09
56 55
57 03
57 22
58 36
57 35
56 41
56 54
56 43
56 42
54 38
54 42
54 30
Longitude.
1
Males.
10 !
7
1
19
	
4
2
11
3
4
8
19
S
11
3
3
1
3
2
11
4
4
1
2
2
§1   5
3
1
1
2
29
21
7
10
3
3
3
12
15
6
6
3
6
1
6
6
7
7
1
3
1
2
1
Females.
Total.
1895.
Apr. 11  *	
E.
142 41
142 32 1
142 45
142 35 I
142 01
143 55
144 16 j
144 48 1
145 11
144 55
143 11
142 58
142 35
142 47
142 16
142 08
142 17
142 38
142 43
143 32
143 47
144 42
144 00
142 25
142 25
142 10
142 10
142 00
143 24
144 38
145 32
146 11
147 16
147 16
147 16
148 14
175 56
176 21
176 00
175 58
175 55
W.
167 45
167 32
169 37
169 12
169 10
169 22
169 20
169 10
169 30
169 24
170 38
170 36
168 51
169 31
170 38
174 49
173 43
173 51
173 50
173 48
173 32
173 54
174 52
173 47
174 33
173 30
166 48
166 22
165 35
12
17
1
2
2
22
12	
38
13	
3
15	
9
16	
2
18	
1
19	
39
4
2
21
5
36
7
4
2
3
58
23	
4
28	
2
May 1	
3	
25
7
4	
47
10
7	
8
9	
10
10	
15
12	
5
13	
17
4
28
14	
7
15	
3
16	
1
24	
1
4
25	
2
26	
17
2
1
7
7
28
27	
6
June 1.......	
5
c\
8
4	
9
5......................	
2
6	
11
8
1
2
16
7	
11
8	
1
10	
2
11	
1
15.  	
4
5
is::;:::::::;: :::.:...:::::::::::;::::::::::
2
29	
12
3
71
24
2
21
7
7.
1
4
48
57
7
28
9
28
1
6
1
24
1
44
29
1
13
2
16
1
5
2
1
1
5
41
30	
3
July 6	
92
7	
31
8	
2
Ausr. 1	
31
2                   •
10
4	
10
8	
1
9	
7
10	
60
11	
72
12	
14	
15	
17	
13
34
12
34
18	
2
20	
21	
12
1
22	
30
24	
25	
26	
27	
28	
Sept. 1	
2
1
51
36
2
13
2
19
6	
8	
2
7
9                 	
2
10	
15	
18	
20	
Total ,	
1
1
5
1
327
721
I
1,048
j
S. Doc. 137, pt. ?„ 6
i -^•"^■-»»-«^^»' 82
SEAL   LIFE   ON   THE   PRfBlLOF   ISLANDS.
Positions where fur seals were taken in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea in 1895—
Continued.
AMERICAN SCHOONER JANE GRAY (COAST OF JAPAN AND RUSSIA), S. H. BURTIS^
MASTER.
Date.
Latit
N
35
37
37
37
38
38
37
38
38
39
37
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
39
39
40
40
41
41
41
41
41
41
41
41
41
41
41
41
41
41
41
41
41
41
ude.
58
12
06
30
06
08
40
07
29
31
40
19
27
28
15
11
09
50
00
37
58
09
50
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
30
25
25
55
40
35
25
45
Longi-
t ude.
Seals.
2
31
2
12
21
9
23
11
6 1
9
2
14
30
7 i
10 !
I5 i
11 !
III
30
5
58
19
4
6
32
33
89
32
94
55
1
16
14
24
51
8
26
4
19
23
14
Date.
1895.
May 26	
27	
Latit
ude.
Longitude.
Seals.
1895.
Mar. 24	
25	
E.
141 08
141 18
141 20
141 37
141 55
142 22
143 20
142 30
142 20
142 25
142 21
143 13
142 15
142 05
142 16
142 25
142 24
143 00
143 00
142 22
142 30
142 12
142 15
142 00
142 00
142 00
142 00
142 00
142 00
142 00
142 00
142 00
142 00
142 10
142 15
142 15
142 40
142 40
142 15
142 15
142 45
N
41
41
41
41
41
42
42
42
43
44
44
44
44
44
44
43
42
36
06
06
06
30
44
55
47
00
15
10
JS
12
10
21
E.
142 49
142 46.
143 20
143 20
143 20
146 24
146 20
146 16
148 35
147 10
146 10
146 55
147 03
147 28
147 40
148 00
19
2
26	
June 1	
2
27	
o
1
29..
4
30	
1
Apr  2..............
6	
10
3	
12
5..............
13	
10
9	
14	
10
12	
15	
5
15	
17	
10
16	
18	
19	
7
17..
4
18	
23	
6
19	
24	
5
20..
Total	
22	
a 1.111
23
25..
52
53
53
54
55
56
56
56
56
561
56
53
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
52
52
59
17
09
44
09
09
09
09
09
45
20
12
01
10
10
10
10
164 11
165 48
165 49
165 02
163 44
164 25
164 10
164 10
164 10
164 10
164 10
164 00
165 29
165 37
165 39
165 35
165 35
165 35
165 35
1
27	
7	
42
28	
8	
2
30	
9	
1
Mav 1	
10	
3
2	
16	
28
3	
17	
g
4	
is..:.:..:. .:
2
5...,	
19..
1
6	
20....:....::::
13
7	
21	
13
9	
22
5
10	
26	
1
13	
27	
26
14	
28	
2
15	
31 t	
4
16	
Sept. 2	
16
20	
3	
4	
5
21	
12
23
Total	
24	
185
25	
1
a June 19, one skin taken in trade, making 1,112 skins in all landed at Yokohama, Japan.
AMERICAN SCHOONER THERESE (BERING SEA), JGHN WORTH, MASTER.
Date.
Latitude.
Longitude.
1895.
Aug. 10.
11.
12.
14.
15.
17.
18.
19.
X
56
a 54
54
55
54
56
55
a 56
46
58
36
11
48
00
58
00
Sept.
20.
21.
22.
23.
25.
26.
27.
28.
6.
8.
9.
56
22
56
28
a 56
25
tt56
30
56
32
56
17
56
39
56
48
57
11
56
82
56
56
25
43
57
04
Total.
W.
168
168
168
168
168
172
172
172
172
172
172
173
173
173
172
172
174
172
173
41
50
32
35
23
00
10
12
Males. Females.
8
3
4
2
3
11
8
2
1
11
19
11
17
6 31
45
11
45
8
10
4
00
o
12
5
48
5
30
18
30
5
48
48
1
20
1
28
4
34
1
45
12
23
9
34
15
53
10
3
18
8
9
Total.
30
11
2
1
15
21:
14
28
122
56
20
27
11
39
20,
71
15
3
19
1
12
10
96
330
426
a Dead reckoning.
b August 20, latitude 56° 22' north, longitude 173° 14' west, the above number of skins and sex found
to be correct by E. V. D. Johnson, lieutenant, United States revenue steamer Perry.
. <►.»{«<«. SEAL  LIFE  ON  THE   PEIBILOF  ISLANDS.
83
Positions Where fur seals were taken in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea in 1895—
Continued.
AMERICAN SCHOONER COLUMBIA (NORTHWEST COAST), CHESTOQUA PETERSON,
MASTER.
Date.
Latitude.
N.
48 07
48 10
48 06
48 12
48 15
48 00
48 07
48 08
48 12
. 48 10
48 15
48 40
47 42
48 00
47 48
47 46
47 39
47 33
47 44
47 43
47 52
47 44
Longitude.
Males.
Eemales.
Total.
1895.
Jan. 24	
W.
126 00
126 01
126 00
125 58
126 03
125 58
126 00
125 58
125 59
125 20
125 30
125 00
125 05
125 02
125 21
125 25
125 25
125 20
125 50
125 45
125 08
125 07
10
16
12
18
12
9
%
8
3
1
2
4
2
11
1
12
2
2
13
5
15
3
9
4
7
10
7
5.
6
6
2
15
25	
31
26	
15
27	
27
28	
16
29	
16
Feb. 7	
34
8	
6
9	
15
Mar. 4.	
8
5	
7
6	
8
7	
6
8	
2
21	
39
3
2
50
23	
a
24	
a
25	
i
26	
20
15
2
41
32
27 *	
17
28	
4
29	
54
Total..       -	
165
204
a 369)
a Shot 40, speared 329.
Customs examination, 216 females and 153 males.
AMERICAN   SCHOONER   COLUMBIA   (NORTHWEST   COAST),   O.
MASTER.
F.   CHRISTIANSON,
1895.
Aug.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
8.
10.
11.
12.
15.
17.
19.
20.
21.
24.
26.
27.
28.
31.
Sept. 1.
2.
3.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
16.
18.
Total.
N.
54 34
54 35
55 07
55 05
54 53
54 42
54 43
54 43
54 35
55 27
55 20
55 02
54 56
54 59
55 07
54 22
54 15
54 35
55 41
55 35
55 28
54 30
55 02
55 12
54 47
54 35
54 51
54 35
54 19
W.
166 55
167 07
166 39
166 27
166 46
166 58
166 55
166 55
166 14
167 10
167 18
167 28
167 28
167 28
167 03
167 33
167 33
167 16
167 10
167 08
166 50
166 43
166 27 |
166 37
166 38
166 31
166 40
166 24
166 14
163
381
544 84
SEAL  LIFE   ON  THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
Positions where fur seals were taken in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea in 1895—
Continued.
AMERICAN SCHOONER JAS: G'. SWAX (XORTHWEST COAST), PETER BROWN, MASTER.
Date.
Latitude.
N.
Longitude.
W.
Males.
Females.
Total.
1895.
Feh
2
48 00
48 07
126 00
125 58
9
22
6
12
15
3	
34
7 	
48 12
126 03
3
4
7
8	
48 09
126 05
10
17
27
Mar
o	
48 05
125 15
o
0
2
5
6	
47 50
125 20
1
1
7	
47 40
125 19
3
5
8
8	
47 45
125 21
5
6
11
Apr
21	
	
47 49
125 23
10
13
23
22	
47 50
125 20
2
2
24..	
47 40
125 22
1
1
2
.25	
47 42
125 23
3
2
5
26..	
47 50
125 30
14
7
21
27	
47 51
47 44
125 21
125 05
3
14
5
41
8
29..	
Total	
55
100
124
a 224
\
a Shot 30, speared 194.
•Customs examination. 156 females and 68 males.
AMERICAN SCHOONER J AS. G. SWAN (BERING SEA), J. W. TODD, MASTER.
1895.
N.
W.
Aug. 1	
54 22
166 59
7
3
10
2	
54 38
167 43
3
5
8
3	
54 42
167 38
8
7
15
4	
54 44
166 55
12
10
22
8	
55 24
171 42
.
1
1
9    	
55 10
55 20
171 02
170 11
3
10
8
81
11
10	
91
11	
54 52
170 15
9
64
73
12	
54 48
170 22
4
5
9
14	
55 18
170 30
8
68
76
*5	
55 18
170 17
7
57
64
17	
55 22
170 09
16
73
89
19	
55 07
169 53
1
I
30	
55 30
169 58
16
82
98
21	
55 22
170 08
11
55
66
•22
55 22
55 08
55 04
55 14
170 06
170 40
170 45
170 40
12
8
25
7
68
52
55
23
80
26	
60
27	
80
28	
30
31	
55 22
55 24
169 48
169 54
3
31
4
121
7
Sept. 1	
152
2	
55 24
55 24
170 25
170 20
8
4
13
16
21
10	
20
Total	
212
872
1,084
AMERICAN  SCHOONER STELLA ERLAND (NORTHWEST COAST), H. K. NEWGARD,
MASTER.
1895.
Feb. 7	
N,
48 16
47 51
48 03
47 46
47 46
47 45
47 57
47 45
47 34
48 01
47 47
47 32
47 33
47 45
47 42
48 00
W.
125 36
125 18
125 29
125 10
125 50
125 25
125 02
125 35
125 50
126 00
125 05
125 45
125 30
125 30
125 25
125 14
3
5
10
1
4
2
2
7
3
4
1
15
7
19
6
1
6
9
8	
6
9    	
16
Mar. 4	
1
5	
4
6	
7	
1
3
2
8	
9  *..
8
15
3
21	
24	
25	
26	
27	
28	
29	
6
2
2
18
5
1
26
10
2
3
33
12
1
45
Total	
1
83
8^
a 165
"\"
a Shot 2, speared 163.
Customs examination, 130 females and 35 males. SEAL   LIFE   ON   THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
85
Positions ivhere fur seals were taken in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea in 1895—
Continued.
AMERICAN SCHOONER STELLA ERLAXD  (BERING SEA), B   B. WHITNEY, MASTER.
Date.
Latitude.
N.
. 54 28
54 32
54 29
54 17
54 12
54 03
54 56
54 56
54 37
54 21
55 04
54 56
55 14
55 10
55 03
55 12
54 26
54 33
54 38
54 41
55 00
55 13
55 49
55 50
55 05
55 56
54 31
Longitude.
W.
166 19
166 34
166 29
167 55
168 33
168 03
168 03
168 05
167 30
167 11
166 54
167 27
167 32
167 51
168 14
167 26
166 17
167 17
165 46
165 56
168 37
172 60
172 23
172 15
167 02
165 34
165 32
Males.
29
1
1
5
1
1
13
16
20
5
12
5
9
8
7
12
8
18
1
3
6
2
20
Females.
43
6
o
Total.
1895.
AUfiT. 1	
72
2	
7
3	
4	
3
5
5	
8	
1
3
44
47
17
57
19
ia
26
12
12
16
23
15
47
1
1
9	
10	
11	
12	
15	
17	
4
57
63
37
62
31
19 1	
23
20	
35
21	
20
22	
12
23	
23
24	
27	
28	
35
23
65
Sept. 2	
1
F   y                                          «
4
28
4
3
2
24
7
9	
34
10	
6
15	
3
16	
2
20	
44
Total	
203
473
676
AMERICAN SCHOONER PURITAN (NORTHWEST COAST), IDIS WOODWARD, MASTER.
B .
Date. Males.   Females.   Total.
Between March 8 and March 25, 1895.
Between March 25 and April 30, 1895.
Total.
2 j
2
2
4
6
a 10
a Speared.
AMERICAN SCHOONER TEASER (NORTHWEST COAST), MAC OLESON, MASTER.
Date.
1895.
Latitude.
Longitude.
Mar.   5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Apr. 8.
21.
22.
26.
27.
N.
48 08
47' 45
47 10
47 56
47 56
48 05
47 44
47 49
47 43
47 43 I
W.
125 42
125   18
125 58
126 18
126 25
126   26
125 12 j
126 26
125 '34
125   24
Males.
Females.
o
6
4
8
8
Total
41
8
2
2
2
1
4
8
3
6
10
46
Total.
a 87
a Shot 2, speared 85.
Customs examination, 64 females and 23 males.
gggrtTTrTi 8.6
SEAL   LIFE   ON  THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
Positions where fur seals were taken in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea in 1895—
Continued.
AMERICAN   SCHOONER  AUGUST   (NORTHWEST   COAST),  CHARLES  WEIBERHARD,
MASTER.
Date.
Males.
Females.
4
Total.
Between March 8 and March 25, 1895 ,	
2
a 6
a Speared.
AMERICAN SCHOONER MATILDA  (NORTHWEST COAST),  JAMES YOKUM, MASTER.
Date.
Latitude.
Longitude.
Males.
Females.
Total.
Jan. 29	
1895.
N.
48 06
48 01
47 53
47 40
47 42
48 00
47 00
47 40
48 00
• 48 06
W.
125 32
125 26
125 40
125 54
125 43
127 00
135 26
127 43
126 00
125 32
1
1
1
1
1
8
4
4
Feb. 9	
1
Mar. 5	
8	
1
1
1
9	
1
Apr. 21	
22
5
1
2
7
2
6
1
24
26	
27	
3
15
2
Total	
13
22
a35
a Shot 3, speared 32.
Customs examination, 30 females and 5 males.
AMERICAN SCHOONER C. C. PERKINS (NORTHWEST COAST), TOEASKO, OR LIGHT-
HOUSE JIM, MASTER.
Date.
Between February 28 and March 25, 1895.
March 25 to April' 30, 1895	
Total
Males.  Females.
o
3
17
9
Total.
22
12
8
26
a 34
a Speared.
AMERICAN SCHOONER ELSIE (NORTHWEST COAST), N. T. OLLIVER, MASTER.
Date.
Latitude.
Longitude.
Males.
Females.
Total.
1895.
Feb. 8	
N.
48 07
47 50
48 02
48 03
47 51
47 45
47 55
48 01
47 53
47 28
47 56
47 50
48 00
47 50
47 50
48 02
47 40
47 56
47 50
47 48
47 57
48 20
W.
125 28
125 30
125 33
124 50
125 12
125 00
125 04
125 05
125 32
124 50
124 55
125 25
125 03
125 12
125 12
125 00
125 12
124 52
125 12
125 15
125 12
125 45
11
26
3
1
2
11
4
3
2
1
1
4
3
4
1.
1
1
3
4
11
15
9	
37
13	
3
22
1
oo
2
5
1
3
2
2
1
	
11
5
6
26
6
4
11
3
18
4
24	
Mar. 3	
4  	
16
8
4
5
6	
9         	
2
2
10	
31	
Apr. 4	
8	
20	
21	
22..               	
2
1
15
8
10
27
6
24	
26	
27	
29	
5
13
4
21
Total	
84
125
a 209
tp|
a Shot 204, speared 5. SEAL  LIFE  ON  THE  PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
87
Positions where fur seals were taken in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea in 1895-
Continued.
AMERICAN SCHOONER BERING: SEA (NORTHWEST COAST), L. LARSEN, MASTER.
Date.
Latitude.
N.
48 30
47 28
47 39
47 50
48 09
48 05
48 46
48 30
48 30
48 20
48 07
48 10
48 15
Longi-,
tude.
Males.
1
3
;
4
7
12
1
21
2
16
Females.
Total.
1895.
Mar. 4	
5	
6	
7	
9	
W.
125 19
125 00
125 10
125 30
127 00
127 10
126 30
126 40
126 30
126 15
126 30
126 20
126 15
3
5
2
1
19
2
5
11
21
4
8
2
2
27
10	
Apr. 19	
20.	
21	
22.. 	
2
9
18
33
1
27	
12
2
21
33
28	
29	
4
37
Total	
76
104
a 180
a Shot 8, speared 172.
Customs examination, 145 females and 35 males.
AMERICAN SCHOONER BERING SEA (BERING SEA), L. LARSEN, MASTER.
1895.
Ansr. 1...,,,-,...,.,    TT - -r,,,,
N.
54 35
54 52
54 54
55 03
54 55
54 57
54 49
54 50
54 40
54 42
54 34
54 30
54 19
54 40
54 40
54 48
54 38
54 24
54 18
54 35
55 00
55 24
55 21
55 05
55 20
55 10
55 15
54 51
54 50
54 34
54 25
W.
166 50
166 51
167 10
166 54
166 57
166 03
167 10
167 23
166 45
166 17
166 09
166 40
167 04
166 44
166 24
165 35
167 56
167 15
167 15
166 25
166 30
166 24
167 30
168 24
169 30
169 46
169 50
168 08
167 00
166 30
166 00
18
2
	
1
1
10
32
17
7
6
4
4
10
4
4
7
9
6
8
1
I
3
41
18
1
7
59
2
20
3	
1
4	
7
6	
1
8	
1
3
31
105
2
53
16
4
7
10
27
6
2l
8
12
19
8
2
23
19
1
20
1
15
10
5
1
9	
4
10	
41
11	
137
12	
2
15	
70
20	
23
21	
10
22	
11
23	
10
24	
33
26	
10
27	
33
28	
12
31	
16
Sept. 1	
26
2	
8
3	
2
7	
32
8	
25
9   	
1
10	
28
13	
1
15	
W	
21	
16
15
8
Total	
165
498
663
1
AMERICAN SCHOONER DEEAHKS (NORTHWEST COAST), JOHN JAMES, MASTER.
Mar.
Apr,
1895.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
21.
23.
Total.
a No position for these days.
Customs examination, 62 females and 20 males.
N.
48
47
47
47
47
fa)
(a)
(a)
00
56
38
24
19
W.
125
125
125
125
125
(«)
(a)
(a)
00
12
05
16
08
o
4
3
4
3
8
o
39
b Shot 9. speared 73.
3
8
5
5
6
10
43
8
12
8
9
9
18
2
16
682 88
SEAL  LIFE   ON   THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
Positions where fur seals were taken in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea in 1895—
Continued.
AMERICAN SCHOONER DEEAHKS (BERING SEA), BEN MARTLNIUS, MASTER.
Date.
Latitude.
Longitude.
W.
Males.
Females.
Total.
1895.
N.
A Tiff.   1...................	
54   22
166   58
6
5
11
2	
54   18
54   32
54   30
54 50
55 04
54   56
64   48
54   52
54 50
55 20
55   14
55   14
55   15
54   20
54   18
168   15
167   45
167 51
165 55
166 01
165 55
166 00
166 09
165 45
168 18
168   08
168   28
168   39
167 03
166 49
4
2
3
1
6
11
15
5
8
13
2
1
8
3
4
3
12
1
17
60
46
13
39
49
19
.4
35
10
8
4	
5
5	
15
7	
1
8	
1
9	
23
10	
71
11	
61
12	
18
14	
47
15	
62
17	
21
18..' i	
5
20 ;	
43
21	
13
27	
55   02
166   46
2
19
21
28	
54   52
166   20
15
33
48
30	
54   35
166   40
2
1
3
31	
54   28
167   34
6
16
22
Sept.  1	
54   25
167   26
to
15
25
2	
54   50
167   40
1
8
9
7	
55   25
167    10
8
20
28
8	
55   30
167   38
6
8
14
9	
54   55
167   00
3
3
10	
55   05
166   52
2
9
11
11	
55   25
166   10
1
1
15	
54   50
165   32
i
1
2
Total	
141
451
592
AMERICAN SCHOONER EMMETT FELITZ (NORTHWEST COAST), JAMES CLAPLANHOZr
MASTER.
Date.
Males.
Females.
Total.
1
3 1
3
6
3 1
3
19
Date.
1895.
Apr. 22	
Males.
Females.
Total.
1895.
Mar     4..
3
1
3
3
5
3
3
16
1
1
1
7
1
5
25	
 \
1
2
6	
7	
8	
Apr. 21	
26	
27	
Total	
2
7
9
40
a 49
a Shot 16, speared 33.
AMERICAN SCHOONER IDLER (NORTHWEST COAST), L. A. LONSDALE, MASTER.
Date.
Latitude.
Longitude.
Males.
1
4
i
Females.
1
4
1
1
2
1
3
8
1
9
6
3
Total.
Jan.
28	
1895.
N.
47 25
48 05
47   50
47   50
47 50
48 00
48   20
48   00
48   00
48    10
48   20
48   20
W.
125   00
125   40
125   10
125   10
125   10
125   00
125   35
125   50
125   30
125   00
125   00
125   30
2
Feb.
6	
8
8	
1
9..
1
10	
2
Mar.
5	
1
Apr.
9	
8
21	
28	
26	
27	
4
1
9
6
29	
Total	
	
3
6
35
a 41
a Shot. SEAL  LIFE   ON  THE  PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
Positions where fur seals were taken in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea in 1895-—'
Continued.
AMERICAN SCHOOLER JESSIE (NORTHWEST COAST).
Apr. 10,1895
Date.
1895.
™*>**\ *at
N.
48   09
W.
125   04
Males.
a Shot 2, speared 22.
Customs examination, 24 females; 22 were pregnant when caught.
AMERICAN SCHOONER R. ECRETT (NORTHWEST COAST)
1895.
Mar. 5	
N.
47 50
48 00
48 00
47 30
47 45
47 45
47 50
48 20
48 14
47 30
48 31
47 30
48 25
48 20
W.
125 20
125 30
125 30
125 20
125 25
125 25
125 40
125 20
125 30
125 30
125 35
125 30
125 00
125 00
5
4
5
4
4
3
1
7
4
2
9
4
13
I
6
6	
7	
7
5
8	
	
3
4
8
9	
4
10 	
7
Apr. 14	
7
20	
3
2
2
2
7
2
5
11
21...1	
0
23	
6
24	
4
27	
12
28	
6
29	
16
Total	
65
34
a 99
wt
a Shot 50, speared 49.
Customs examination, 90 females and 9 males.
AMERICAN SCHOONER CEO. W.  PRESCOTT (BERING SEA), HENRY McALMOND,
MASTER.
1895.
Aug.  1.
2.
10.
11.
12.
15.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
24.
27.
28.
30.
31.
Sept. 1.
2.
3.
8.
9.
10.
12.
N.
54 40
54 30
54 34
54 27
54 24
54 30
54 40
54 45
54 40
54 50
55 30
54 30
55 17
54 35
54 34
54 48
54 45
54 40
54 38
54 35
55 00
55 15
55 15
55 05
Total.
W.
168 10
163 00
166 00
166 30
166 40
166 49
168 25
168 20
168 24
168 35
168 01
168 20
167 40
165 25
165 30
165 30
165 35
165 40
165 45
165 50
167 40
167 40
167 40
166 15 SEAL  LIFE   ON  THE   PRIBILOF  ISLANDS.
Positions where fur seals were taken in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea in 1895*
Continued.
AMERICAN SCHOONER ALLIE I. ALGAR (BERING SEA), H. B. JONES, MASTER.
Date
1895.
Latitude.
^"df  ^l™.
N.
55 27
55 42
55 36
55 17 |
55 01 i
55 40
55 17
55 02
55 44
55 12
55
20
54
56
54
31
56
41 1
w.
166 46
167 07
167 11
167 13
167 24
167 23
166 50
167 20
iB7 24
168 54
169 13
169 20
169 32
167 06
2
1
2
2
1
Females.
3
52
34
2
27
13
1
1
10
10
6
7
20
173
Total.
8
4
56
1
89
2
29
14
1
1
12
12
7
7
193
SCHOONER WILLARD
AINSWORTH
MASTER.
(BERING SEA), E. E. CROCKETT,
1895.
N.
54
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
54
54
54
55
54
54
49
10
08
16
10
00
06
20
21
09
18
82
00
57
55
86
00
39
40
W.
166
168
168
168
168
167
168
168
168
168
169
168
169
169
168
167
171
167
166
30
1 j
29
6
14
25
5
25
12
20
4
40
2
46
15
32
7
35
2
10
18
53
20
57
1
57
7
00
6
30
4
85
7
13
00
117 1
12
2
15
51
19
4
32
36
5
38
38
20
11
9
9
19
2
1
1
18
2
20
63
28
0
47
43
7
56
58
21
18
15
18
26
2
1
323
440
SCHOONER M. M
1895.
MORRILL (BERING SEA), EDWARD CANTILLION,
MASTER.
N
W
54
27
166
54
51
169
55
05
170
55
16
170
55
10
170
55
12
170
55
12
170
55
12
169
54
58
169
65
20
169
55
10
169
55
13
169
55
07
169
55
17
169
54
53
169
55
00
170
55
10
170
54
50
167
54
40
167
55
18
167
54
00
167
54
33
166
54
27
166
50
44
20
30
12
25
18
47
25
28
46
47
24
10
4
7
4
6
7
5
13
45
1
00
11
09
1
15
10
20
1
12
2
00
2
50
1
50
4
102
,)
15
7
1
30
37
14
10
24
16
46
7
13
1
2
24
6
6
1
9
11
4
2
291
15
20
11
1
34
44
18
16
81
21
59
7
17
1
8
35
7
16
2
11
18
5
6
393 SEAL  LIFE  ON  THE  PRIBILOF  ISLANDS.
91
Positions where fur seals were taken in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea in 1895—
Continued.
AMERICAN SCHOONER KATE AND ANNA (NORTHWEST COAST), CHARLES LUTZEUS,
MASTER.
Date.
Latitude.
Longitude.
Males.
Females.
Total.
1895.
Jan. 15
1
6
2
3
4
4
5
5
13
1
25
18 miles SW	
Point Reyes	
	
6
26
38 00 N	
123 36 W	
2
28
37 09 N	
123 10 W	
3
29
37 04 N	
122 55 W	
4
31
15mile8SW	
S. Farallon	
4
Feh.    1
15 miles SW  	
Point Reyes	
5
3
38 17 N	
123 33 W	
5
4
38 16 N	
123 25 W	
	
13
5
38 14 N	
123 15 W	
2
1
2
14
15
3
10
5
8
8
1
2
5
8
2
7
19
2
14
2
20
3
2
11
6
8
9
7
14
24
29
10
1
11
5
3
30
16
15
38 06	
123 24 W	
3
16
38 00	
123 20 W	
3
13
19
15 miles SW	
Point Reyes	
5
20
22 miles SW	
 do IB	
8
21
20 miles -	
 do	
8
23
38 42 N	
123 50 W	
1
27
38 25 N	
123 45 W	
2
Mar.   1
5
2
20 miles M E. hy E	
20 miles NE. hy E	
25 miles ESE	
20 miles E.hyS	
18 miles ESE	
Point Reyes	
8
3
4
5
 do..:	
 do	
 do	
1
2
7
20
6
 do	
2
7
16 miles E. hy S	
 do	
4
18
15
37 34 N	
123 50 W	
2
18
8
28
22
38 00 N	
38 08 N	
123 40 W	
3
23
123 25 W	
2
24
Point Reyes............	
1
12
25
38 16 N	
123 47 W	
6
30
42 00 N	
124 25 W	
8
Apr.    6
44 04 N	
124 30 W	
1
10
7
44 01 N	
124 25 W	
7
18
47 12 N	
47 20 N	
47 27N	
47 21N	
47 25N	
47 27 N	
47 45 N	
47 24 N	
125 08 W	
5
5
1
4
19
19
125 05 W	
29
20
125 15 W	
30
21
125 00 W	
14
25
129 05 W	
1
26
125 25 W ..  	
4
15
27
125 10 W	
5
28
124 30 W	
3
29
18 miles NE. by E	
Total	
3
33
43
347
a 390
a Shot.
Miscellaneous data showing positions where fur seals were taken by Canadian and American vessels in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea in 1895.
[Data collected by C. H. Townsend and A. B. Alexander.]
CANADIAN SCHOONER VICTORIA (NORTHWEST COAST AND BERING SEA).
Mar. 1.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
16.
Apr. 9.
10.
12.
10.
17.
19.
Date.
1895.
Latitude.
N.
48 10
48 00
48 20
47 50
47 45
48 00
48 30
49 00
58 10
58 25
58 30
58 30
58 44
Longitude.
W.
125 30
125 40
125 50
125 10
125 20
126 30
126 30
127 49
139 00
139 40
140 08
140 08
140 00
Males. Females
4
4
6
3
2
2
6
4
4
5
21
1
es.
Total.
4
8
6
10
8
14
10
13
6
8
8
10
5
5
8
8
3
9
1
5
4
3
8
10
31
3
4 SEAL  LIFE   ON  THE  PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
Miscellaneous data showing positions where fur seals were taken by Canadian and American vessels in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea in 1895—Continued.
CANADIAN SCHOONER VICTORIA (NORTHWEST COAST AND BERING SEA)—Cont'd.
Longitude.
40
40
36
44
44
50
50
12
02
45
48
15
48
15
16
15
28
20
17
25
15
47
Males.   Females.
6
4
o
4
17
25
11
t
5
9
81
94
33
21
28
34
5
12
1
30
8
15
9
8
5
56
172
18
15
22
48
3
15 1
TotaL
7
6
2
1
4
29
1
55
19
5
28
16
13
14
137
266
51
36
50
82
8
15
AND  BERING   SEA), COXt
30
1
31
3 1
18
2
20
4
20
2-
36
4
47
n I
07
6
03
•j  1
o
24
4
48
2
32
6
51
88
56
4
28
4
09
9
08
11
45
3
19
20
05
9
25
6
56
70
56
20
46
3
50
24
15
15
33
7
18
24
18
46
21
7 1
15
1 !
20
13
40
60v
09
99
09
5
18
39
49
24
5
6
10
17
9
10
13
2
1
3
30
10
7
10
3
9
2
59
18
4
54
13
5
30
80
8
9
74
107
4
44
59
6
9
12
21
11
14
24
8
3
6
3
9
118
4
14
16
21
6
29
9
8
129
38
7
78
28
12
51
126
15
1
22
134
216
9
83
83 SEAL  LIFE   ON  THE  PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
93
Miscellaneous data showing positions where fur seals were taken by Canadian and American vessels in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea in 1895—Continued.
CANADIAN SCHOONER FAVORITE (NORTHWEST COAST), L. McLEAN, MASTER.
Date.
Latitude.
N.
48 00
49 06
48 42
48 45
50 03
56 49
57 30
57 18
57 53
57 45
58 12
58 15
58 30
57 48
57 46
58 00
58 15
58 12
57 46
57 46
Longitude.
W.
128 23
127 39
127 17
127 23
129 50
138 05
138 30
138 45
139 26
138 50
140 56
141 00
139 40
140 50
141 30
141 38
. 141 40
139 41
138 45
138 00
Males.
4
7
3
3
15
4
2
3
5
20
4
8
7
10
5
8
4
4
1
5
Females.
Total.
Mar. 9	
1895.
4
13
2
9
14	
3
15	
16	
22	
*>5	
3
5
2
	
1
12
6
20
6
2
26	
28	
A r»r. 3	
3
6
32
8	
4
9	
8
10	
11	
12	
2
7
12
5
18	
8
19	
23	
	
1
4
4
24	
25	
2
5
Total	
122
28
150
If • y
"■■■■' ~m
CANADIAN SCHOONER SAPPHIRE (NORTHWEST COAST), COX, MASTER.
1895.
Feb. 23	
v.
48 30
48 00
47 32
48 16
50 57
55 01
57 22
57 38
57 48
57 28
57 15
58 30
58 30
58 38
58 45
58 27
58 58
59 10
59 04
58 24
58 37
58 11
W.
125 20
125 57
125 56
126 04
131 57
135 19
139 30
138 49
138 26
139 38
139 30
139 54
141 15
141 11
141 30
141 46.
140 50
143 18
143 06
140 30
139 36
139 07
•
2
7
5
11
7
4
•5
1
13
2
2
2
25
14
17
5
13
4
3
4
5
3
4
5
4
7
6
4
3
6
Mar. 1	
3	
5	
16 i	
20	
22  	
24	
12
9
18
13
8
8
1
25	
13
27	
2
28	
2
31	
2
Apr. 3	
25
4	
14
10	
17
11      ,
5
12   	
13
16.. ,	
4
17  	
18	
3
4
19  	
5
24	
3
Total	
154
33
187
CANADIAN   SCHOONER  DORA   SIEWERD   (NORTHWEST   COAST),   H.  F.   SIEWERD,
MASTER.
1895.
N.
W.
Feb. 26	
47 47
125 25
16
7
23
20	
47 25
125 10
29
13
42
22	
48 01
47 56
125 00
125 06
4
6
3
5
7
23	
11
24	
47 58
125 28
6
3
9
28	
47 13
124 24
19
13
32
Mar. 1	
47 20
124 50
2
6
8
3	
45 55
124 42
14
24
38
6	
47 12
47 19
47 28
124 45
125 08
124 27
8
2ll
4
16
3
12
36
8	
4
9	
46 55
46 44
124 50
124 56
19
5
16
8
10	
35
12	
46 37
124 51
17
39
48
13	
47 10
125 00
2
4
6
14	
46 26
124 51
3
5
8
26	
50 07
129 00
29
34
63 94
SEAL   LIFE   ON   THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
Miscellaneous data showing positions where fur seals were taken by Canadian and American vessels in North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea in 1895—Continued.
CANADIAN   SCHOONER  DORA   SIEWERD   (NORTHWEST   COAST), H.  F.  SIEWERD,
M ASTER—Continued.
Date.
Latitude.
Longitude.
W.
135 00
135 00
140 00
140 45
139 43
142 15
142 00
141 12
140 20
' 140 39
140 30
135 39
Males.
Females.
Total.
1895.
Apr. 1	
3	
9	
10	
12	
17	
N.
55 27
55 27
58 46
58 35
58 46
58 31
58 00
58 14
58 42
58 43
58 23
56 05
2
1
13
10
11
6
9
3
14
4
3
12
2
1
4
4
4
2
17
10
15
6
18	
	
5
14
19	
3
23	
4
1
2
4
18
24	
25	
28	
5
5
16
Total	
287
216
503
CANADIAN SCHOONER WALTER L. RICH (NORTHWEST COAST), BALCOM, MASTER.
1895.
Mar. 13	
N.
48 58
58 08
57 29
57 20
58 20
58 24
58 41
59 03
55 35
W.
128 35
138 36
138 40
140 00
140 00
140 00
140 07
140 50
135 20
.5
12
6
10
6
8
12
20
4
2
12
2
9
6
11
10
7
3
7
25	
24
28	
Apr. 1	
»	
10	
19	
23..         	
8
19
12
19
22
27
28	
7
Total	
83
62
145
AMERICAN SCHOONER IDA ETTA (COASTS OF JAPAN AND RUSSIA), HUGHES,
MASTER.
Date.
May
Mar. 25.
30.
Apr.    1.
1895.
Latitude.
N.
36 15
"*36 32
Longitude.
E.
142 25
144*47
Seals.
15 miles off shore.
39 41
39 48
40 06
39 06
39 42
39 44
40 30
41 45
144 11
143 56
146 07
146*49
146 27
145 58
145 55
144 00
Off Cape Yerimo,
NW. 15 miles.
Off Cape Yerimo,
NNE. 10 miles.
Off Cape Yerimo,
N. 20 miles.
Off Cape Yerimo,
WNW. 15 miles.
Off Cape Yerimo,
WNW. 8 miles.
Off Cape Yerimo,
E. by N. 20 miles,
Off Cape Yerimo,
E. 25 miles.
Date.
1895.
May 12.
Lati
Longi
tude.
tude.
N,
E.
Off Cape
Yerimo,
ENE. 2
0 miles.
40 03
146 02
39 57
146 25
40 20
145 44
40 12
146 30
39 57
145 55
40 03
146 19
39 50
145 55
39 55
145 46
39 15
146 00
39 30
146 10
39 38
146 29
39 36
146 26
Seals.
June
Aug. 20    Cape Nagikinski,
SW. 30 miles.
21    Cape Nagikinski,
SW. 20 miles.
24 do	
26 do	
27    Cape Nagikinski,
W. 30 miles.
31 1 do	
Sept.   1 1 Cape Nagikinski,
WSW. 25 miles.
2    Cape Nagikinski,
SW. 20 miles.
3    Cape Nagikinski,
SW. 30 miles.
4    Cape Nagikinski,
SW. 25miles.
16
32
35
15
33
29
5
4
21
1
11
31
9
37
35
28
28
10
3
25
6
4
4 SEAL   LIFE   ON   THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
95
Miscellaneous data showing positions where fur seals were taken by Canadian and American vessels in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea in 1895—Continued.
AMERICAN SCHOONER ALLIE J. ALGAR (JAPAN COAST), JONES, MASTER.
Date.
Mar.
|Apr.
May
June
July
9.
11.
12.
14.
20.
21.
22.
24.
26.
29.
30.
3.
5.
12.
13.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
22.
23.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
2.
5.
6.
7.
8.
10.
11.
13.
15.
17.
18.
30.
1.
1895.
Latitude.
Total.
N.
36 24
37 00
36 39
36 24
36 33
37 00
37 09
37 47
37 22
37 26
38 57
39 14
37 35
37 50
38 07
37 59
37 22
37 35
39 05
39 14
39 37
39 35
39 44
41 54
41 49
41 28
41 29
41 21
42 00
41 45
41 43
42 00
41 57
42 10
41 39
43 12
42 23
43 27
43 24
43 28
43 00
43 37
43 50
43 53
44 00
44 17
44 50
45 14
45 00
44 05
44 40
49 09
43 35
Longitude.
E.
141 39
141 00
142 13
141 59
142 18
143 35
143 25
142 14
141 41
142 18
143 35
142 48
142 25
141 53
146 32
145 50
145 50
147 07
146 15
146 35
146 23
146 07
145 45
144 30
143 55
142 56
142 28
142 00
141 40
142 40
142 48
142 52
142 49
142 40
142 50
146 39
146 40
146 36
146 21
146 40
146 59
147 00
147 11
147 14
147 20
147 40
148 47
149 00
148 55
148 40
147 45
157 13
156 25
Males.
6
1
50
12
10
8
1
2
20
5
12
14
5
Females.   Total.
1
18
12
5
1
49
32
31
29
4
3
39
51
2
2
6
1
5
37
15
19
9
39
37
3
5
3
1
9
23
6
19
4
4
9
20
1
1
701
5
11
I
17
6T
4
16
5
15
3
11
3
4
2-
8
28
7
12
8
20
4
18
1
6
1
1
1
7
25
7
19
2
7
4
5
19
68
22
54
22
53
15
44
2
6
1
4
13
52
11
62
4
6
2
3
9
1
4
9
15
52
11
26
11
20
3
12
9
48
7
44
1
4
1
6
1
4
1
5
14
3
26
3
9
17
36
2
1          2
1
5
3
7
4
18
3
23
1
1
302
1,003
■jBEEaSEEBSZEBi
, ?>c>«*nfa£<W*<H«tttt* .
96
SEAL   LIFE   ON   THE  PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
Miscellaneous data showing positions where fur seals were taken by Canadian and Ameri<
can vessels in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea in 1895—Continued.
CANADIAN SCHOONER BOREALIS (NORTHWEST COAST), ROBBINS, MASTER.
Date.
Latitude.
N.
48 10
48 00
48 20
47 50
47 45
48 00
48 30
49 00
58 10
Longitude.
W.
125 30
125 40
125 40
125 10
125 20
126 30
126 30
127 49
139 00
Males.
4
4
6
3
2
2
6
4
5
21
1
6
4
2
Females.
4
6
8
10
6
8
5
8
3
1
Total.
1895.
Mar. 1	
3	
8
10
4	
5	
6	
7	
£::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
14
13
8
10
5
8
Apr. 9	
9
10..                    	
5
12	
58 25
58 30
139 40
140 08
4
16	
3
10
3
1
2
..........
8
17	
31
19         ,	
58 44
58 13
140 00
141 40
4
23..                        	
7
24  	
6
25..
58 17
58 30
142 36
142 44
2
26       ...    	
1
27     	
4
17
1
4
28	
30	
	
58 45
143 50
12
29
1
Total	
96
91
187
__
CANADIAN SCHOONER BOREALIS (BERING SEA), ROBBINS, MASTER.
[Record to August 9 only.]
CANADIAN SCHOONER VERA (BERING SEA), SHIELDS, MASTER.
[Record to August 12 only.]
1895.
Aug. 1	
N.
54 18
54 51
54 49-
54 45
54 53
54 47
54 54
54 49
54 55
W.
167
189
169
169
168
168-
168
168
168
25
15
10
10
25
18
23
25
52
-
1 ...
.......
1
o
8 j
3
5 |
2
24
5
16
32
- 3	
4	
7	
8
21
2
9	
7
14
7 '
6
47
13
4
It
10	
11	
61
20
12	
4
CANADIAN SCHOONER ENTERPRISE (BERING SEA), DALEY, MASTER.
[Record to August 11 only.]
1895. N
Aug.  1  54
I  g
o ......I 55
4  55
9  54
10  54
11  54
W.
34
- 166
55
40
166
30
07
166
35
00
167
04
50
168
50
50
168
30
50
168
30
14
4
10
19
30
65
35
30
9
19
34
10?
119
—■mMjM**?*'^ a   ^iiniiimiiaait:
'TmiiiHiii'iiiiitil      -     1iiiiiiiniiuiiiii| liigiiiihjjjjljijjl—
t>oc A2/....54 1   ■    "  • .    -
If
• ■I 8 Doc .-lH/__ .54 l
•C 83t>t .-.«<••>.•-*«•**
*jy^T*TOy.-n  SEAL  LIFE  ON  THE  PRIBILOF  ISLANDS.
97
Miscellaneous data showing positions where fur seals were taken by Canadian and American vessels in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea in 1895—Continued.
AMERICAN SCHOONER RATTLER (BERING SEA), NEILSEN, MASTER.
Date.
1895.
Latiti
ide.
N.
54
57
54
52
55
09
Longitude.
W.
167 45
167 32
169   37
Males.
Females.   Total.
CANADIAN SCHOONER MAUD S. (BERING SEA), McKIEL, MASTER.
Aug. 1.
2.
Total.
1895.
N.
54 57
54 52
54 32
54 46
55 13
54 51
54 48
55 53
54 57
54 43
W.
169 35
169 14
169 18
169 35
169 01
168 51
169 39
169 21
169 20
168 55
309
21
301
610
FUR   SEALS  OBSERVED   BY   THE   AMERICAN   WHALER   OLGA   (NORTH  PACIFIC
OCEAN), KNOWLES, MASTER.
Date.
1895.
Apr. 16	
17	
18	
19	
20	
Latitude.
N.
48 14
50 13
51 38
53 05
54 45
Longitude.
W.
162 30
160 21
159 20
158 07
157 00
S. Doc. 137, pt. 2-
wnwr°^i^i^rrTrxr\\  FROM A REPORT ON THE FUR-SEAL ROOKERIES
1 OF THE PRIBILOF ISLANDS. 1895.
By F. W. True.
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.
XL S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries,
Office of the Commissioner,
Washington, February 4, 1896.
Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith certain ifextracts from
a report relative to the natural history of the fur seals and the condition of the rookeries on the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, based upon
observations made during the season of 1895 by F. W. True, curator
of mammals, United States National Museum."
You will recall that Mr. True spent the summer of 1895 in making a
study of the seal rookeries of the Pribilof Islands independently of
Mr. C. H. Townsend. His final report, which will be taken up largely
with a discussion of the natural history of the fur seal, will not be completed for some time, but in the preliminary account of his inquiries he
covers fully all the main points of direct interest in connection with
the present sealing controversy, so far as that subject came within the
range of his observations. It is that part of his report which is now
forwarded.
Yery respectfully, Herbert A. Gill,
Acting Commissioner.
The Secretary of the Treasury,
Washington, D. C.
DEAD PUPS.
The matter of dead pups is one which I can only discuss briefly, as
the terrible mortality reported in recent years occurs late in the season,
after the date on which my observations closed.
I saw a number of dead pups during my sojourn, but do not think that
the total would exceed 150 for all the St. Paul rookeries. The largest
number were at the north end of Tolstoi rookery, where I observed 70
in one small area and about 25 more a little farther south, on the 15th of
August. The area referred to was occupied earlier in the season by a
great mass of seals, and I regard the number of dead pups found here
as representing the ordinary mortality of the young.   These pups were
99
reCTg»gzrarts«ggffPE s^rercin™ seal life on the pribilof islands.
not in the water or at the water's edge or in positions where they could
be supposed to have been cast up by storms.
On August 2 I counted 23 dead pups on Ketavie rookery. These
were all on the higher parts of the rookery, and there were none at the
water's edge. A few dead pups were found on the highest parts of several of the rookeries, aud these, as Mr. Townsend suggested, were such
as had been worried to death by the bachelors which hang about the
rear of the rookeries. On several occasions I saw young bachelor seals
snatch pups away from the pods on the higher parts of the rookeries,
and badger them about as if they had been cows.
On Ketavie rookery, on J uly 27,1 saw a youngish bull at the back of
the rookery seize a pup out of one of the upper pods with his teeth and
«carry it up the hillside. He dropped it several times, but picked it up
:again. The pup presently bit at his assailant, and when the attention
of the latter was distracted, ran away down the hill again. Another
pup, apparently brought up the slope by this same bull, had crawled
in under a rock, so that it could not be reached.
On August 5, on Ketavie, I saw a bachelor attempting to copulate
with one of these pups. The instinct of reproduction seems to spring
up at an early age in the seals, and hence these unnatural assaults on
the pups. I agree with Mr. Townsend in thinking that a portion, at
least, of the dead pups found high up on the rookeries are such as have
been worried to death in the manner indicated. Some of these pups,
however, are doubtless such as have wandered away from their mothers,
beyond the confines of the rookery, and have died of starvation.
ESTIMATES   OF  NUMBER  OF  SEALS.
When Mr. Townsend arrived on St. Paul in July we endeavored to
obtain data for an estimate of the number of seals present. With this
in view we went to Ketavie, Lukannon, Tolstoi, and the Lagoon rookeries and made an actual count as far as the conditions would permit.
As we proceeded it soon became apparent that to count all of the
several classes of seals was impracticable. The first difficulty that we
encountered lay in the fact that the roughness of the ground prevented
us from seeing some of the harems distinctly, and we were unable to go
down among the seals without stampeding them. Later we came upon
the triangles or wedges of breeding seals massed as close together as it
was possible for them to lie. It was necessary to use a field glass in
investigating these groups, and as there were no salient points which
could be picked out, as the count proceeded the eye soon became confused and the count lost. The larger groups of pups presented the
same difficulty. This class was omitted later on, because on areas which
had to be viewed from a distance so large a proportion of pups were
concealed by the bowlders that the count could not be at all relied upon.
We came eventually to count only the cows. At the Lagoon we counted
by passing in front of the rookery in a boat, using a low-power glass.
The harems were separated here by considerable intervals, and as the
whole rookery was in plain view there was no obstacle to counting.
On Ketavie we counted without a glass for the most part, going down
among the seals as best we could, and the same course was pursued at
Lukannon and Tolstoi.
It can not be claimed that our count is mathematically accurate, but
I believe that a sufficiently large area was covered to render the inaccuracy of comparatively little consequence. An actual census could
be made only by driving all the seals inland and passing them in t* v«t ..;■;•*- ..._'■« .1 w .v -*;■
SEAL  LIFE   ON  THE  PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
101
review, or photographing the rookeries from overhead, both of which
proceedings are impracticable.
The enumeration of cows on the Lagoon, made July 10, was by harems,
as follows:
[The numbers indicate breeding females in each harem.]
8
7
28
20
15
20
67
1
1
16
8
1
10
1
9
16
8
18
4
20
31
2
41
14
7
1
22
4
1
16
2
41
1
16
3
23
38
1
2
10
18
6
3
25
16
3
4
32
31
4
25
2.
19
1
26
24
2
37
20
4
6
9
48
14
19
16
4
21
15
12
35
7
12
23
16
39
4
26
4
67
24
5
Total, 1,264.
The enumeration of cows on Ketavie, made July 8 to 10, beginning
at the south, was as follows:
[The numbers indicate breeding females in each harem.]
1
21
1
47
29
1
38
12
15
22
1
9
145 (3)
1
9
17
16
1
9
19
12
23
10
2
13
4
50
1
24
3
12
9
2
29
4
10
8
1
18
3
9
93(?)
52
64
5
11
10
25
21
4
4
12
10
1
1
5
24
35
36
35
1
20
29(3)
12
40
11
17
15
28
10
28(4)
1
9
5
9
1
5
19
8
28
13
60
11
45 (3)
14
2
7
75
34 |
8
6
21
13
8
14
10
1
10
52
25
2 •
2
2
15
29 (2)
13
30
42
43
34
5
14
14
30
19
47(4)
23
49
13
3
22
15
0
7
4
10
12
16
8
55
89
32
60(3)
18
1
9
17
Total, 2,640.
Note.—The figures in parentheses refer to the number of bulls with the group of cows.   In these
cases several harems were of course consolidated.
Mr. Townsend made an enumeration of a portion of Lukannon rookery
on July 12, and found 1,940 cows. The portion of this rookery on which
he made no enumeration is sixteen one-hundredths of the total area of
Ketavie and Lukannon, and it is necessary, therefore, to add 732 cows
in making up the total for the two rookeries, which will then be 5,312
cows.
On July 111 counted the cows on that portion of Tolstoi rookery
under the cliffs at the south end, as follows:
[The numbers indicate breeding females in each harem.]
10
7
32
62
4
19
11
22
33
27
7
3
5
20
10
9
11
7
2
3
8
9
2
4
26
15
19
21
27
25
25
13
10
46
3
51(2)
8
17
8
21
43
41
14
43
13
6
14
8
2
23
6
61
60(3)
34
9
6
3
18
2
16
18
31
11
14
3
12
13
4
17
3
2
44
13
20
9
41
15
13
5
3
20
10
1
7
7
11
6
10
7
5
24
8
1
16
9
4
29
1
27
13
11
14
9
11
Total, 1,624.
This portion of Tolstoi rookery is only a small part of the whole area,
and the enumeration is chiefly valuable as a basis for ascertaining the
average size of harems and for forming an estimate for the whole area.
: -1'J pqy ttitct: m^j> 102
SEAL  LIFE   ON  THE   PRIBILOF  ISLANDS.
The area of the several rookeries on St. Paul in July of the present
year, as indicated on the maps made by Mr. C. H. Townsend, is shown
below. I have divided the total area in the case of each rookery into
two parts, on one of which the seals are distributed about as on the
parts counted as regards density, and on the other are massed together.
The areas are as follows:
Upper Zapadnie	
Lower Zapadnie ...	
Tolstoi	
Lagoon	
Reef	
Ketavie and Lukannon
Little Polavina	
Big Polavina	
Northeast Point	
Not massed.      Massed.
Square feet.
168,734
131, 725
160, 580
82,241
330,523
226, 303
29, 969
64, 748
378, 240
Square feet.
51,
854
4,
600
80,
220
115,
138
16, 239
361,443
Employing again Mr. Townsend's maps, I find that the 1,264 cows
counted on the Lagoon rookery covered an area of 82,241 square feet,
making the average occupied by each cow 65 square feet. The 4,110
cows counted on Ketavie and Lukannon rookeries covered 189,712 square
feet, or 46 square feet for each cow.
On Tolstoi 1,520 cows occupied 44,699 square feet, or 29 square feet
for each.
The average is as follows:
Square feet.
Lagoon rookery  65
Ketavie and Lukannon rookeries 46
Tolstoi 29
Average 46
If we divide the number representing the tofal area of the rookeries
on St. Paul by 46 we should find thereby the number of cows. It
happens, however, as already stated, that on certain portions of the
rookeries the seals are massed together, and for these areas it has been
decided to consider the average density as double that of the remaining
parts, which would give us 23 square feet as the average area occupied
by each cow.
The cows on the whole area of the Lagoon rookery having been
counted, the number obtained by this enumeration will be included
instead of an estimate, and the same course will be taken with Lukannon and Ketavie rookeries.
The result is as follows:
Cows.
Lagoon rookery     1,264
Ketavie and Lukannon rookeries     5, 312
Tolstoi, Reef, Little Polavina, Big Polavina, Northeast Point, Upper Zapadnie,
and Lower Zapadnie rookeries 54,860
Total  61,436
•*"aB.n»)i«»v» K«**r/*l<WV*"<t«»
SEAL  LIFE  ON  THE  PRIBILOF  ISLANDS.
103
On St. George, by the same method, we find the following:
Rookery.
Zapadnie	
Starry Arteel
North	
Little East	
"East	
Total ..,
Area.
Sq.feet.
128,171
64,329
128, 868
24,254
67,884
■Numher
of cows.
2,786
1,898
2,800
527
1,476
8,987
The total for the two islands will be as follows:
Cows.
St. Paul  61,436
St. George        8,987
Total  70,423
The number of breeding bulls, providing one for every 16 cows, as
already determined, will be as follows:
Bulls.
St. Paul     3,839
St. George        563
Total ,     4,402
ESTIMATE  OF  BACHELORS.
To count the bachelor seals on the hauling grounds is a much more
/difficult task than to count the breeding cows. The bachelors are much
of the time in movement, going down to and returning from the water,
fighting among themselves, etc. Furthermore, they lie pretty evenly
distributed over the areas they occupy, rendering it extremely difficult
to select a single point on which the eye can rest as the count proceeds.
For these reasons a count of the bachelors is in most places practically
impossible. But there are other difficulties as well. The bachelors at
the water's edge and back of the rookeries are scattered and frequently
in situations in which they can not be well seen. On the large hauling
grounds the udrives" cause the number to rise and fall. Where there
are a thousand to-day there will be only a hundred to-morrow. Under
certain conditions of weather these young males resort to the land in
great numbers, while under other conditions they remain in the water.
All these disturbances and changes cause any direct count to be of little
value.
The counting of the bachelors being deemed impracticable, it remains
to consider whether an estimate of their number can be made. It is
known by official count how many seals are killed during the season,
and counts were also made by myself and by the assistant Treasury
agent this year of the number rejected from the majority of the killings.
There is great confusion in the u pods n or little bands of seals when
the killers attack them, and the seals rejected when once started often
move off rapidly. Hence the enumeration of the rejected seals can
not invariably be made with entire accuracy. Still, as I learned by
recounting, the error is only slight, and not sufficient to affect the
general result. We have then an exact count of the number killed
and an approximately accurate account of those rejected. Upon ascertaining what relation the latter bears to the former we can determine 104
SEAL  LIFE  ON  THE  PRIBILOF  ISLANDS.
quite accurately how many seals are driven off the hauling grounds.
The following table embodies these data for St. Paul Island:
Date.
1895.
June 20
24
26
July   1
2
3
9
10
15
17
19
22
27
Aug.   1
Rookery.
Northeast Point.
Reef	
Halfway Point..
English Bay	
Zapadnie	
Lukannon	
Northeast Point.
 do	
Eeef	
Halfway Point...
Zapadnie	
Northeast Point..
Lukannon	
Beef (Zoltoi) only.
Total
Numher
Numher
Percentage of
rejected.
killed.
rejected.
Per cent.
1,961
1,607
a 45
1,548
1,487
a49
575
575
50
751
1,126
60
861
1,405
a 62
364
647
64
960
1,440
60
431
800
65
1,138
2,322
70
324
793
71
834
1,856
69
827
2,236
73
286
931
76.5
185
704
79.2
I
Total (estimated) of
seals
driven.
3,568
3,035
1,150
1,877
2,266
1,011
2,400
1,231
3,460
1,117
2,690
3,063
1,217
889
28,974
a Estimated.
Note.—Some bachelors were killed before June 20, but the number was very small and will not
affect the general estimate.   These killings were as follows:
Date.
Rookery.
Number
killed.
May 27
28
Northeast Point	
6
Reef	
79
June   1
Northeast Point	
3
4
Reef	
76
8
Northeast Point	
3
13
Tolstoi	
184
16
Northeast Point	
2
Total	
353
The total number, 28,970, which represents quite accurately the number of seals driven from the hauling grounds during the season, would
also represent the number of individual seals on those grounds during
June and July, did not the rejected ones return to their place. As it is
known, however, that many do so return—and may be considered probable that all those rejected return to one or other of the grounds—it is
evident that in this total some seals are counted twice or three times.
To find the correct total it will be necessary to make a reduction for
those seals which appear in the drives more than once, and this is a most
difficult matter on account of the complexity of the problem. Some
facts indicated in the foregoing table are of interest in this connection.
It will be observed that the number of seals on each of the rookeries
is practically the same at different parts of the season. This agrees
with what appears to the eye to be true; that is, in a short time after
the bachelors have been driven from a hauling ground there appear to
be as many seals present again as there were at first. The numbers
from the foregoing table are as follows:
Northeast Point:
June 20  3,564
July 8 (to 10)  3,631
July 22  3,063
Reef:
June 24...  3,035
July 15 3,460
Halfway Point:
June 26  1, 150
July 17  1,117 SEAL LIFE ON THE PBIBILOF ISLANDS.
105
Zapadnie:
July 2  2,266
July 19  2,690
Lukannon:
July 3   1,011
July 27  1,217
Again, the proportion of seals rejected from the killing grounds-
increases gradually as the season advances. As shown by the table at
the first killing I.observed that 50 per cent of the seals driven up wrere
rejected. This was on June 26. On August 1, the last killing of the
season, the per cent rejected was 79.2 of the whole number driven up.
The increase in the proportion of rejected seals is reasonably regular.
That there should be such a proportional increase is of course to be
expected, but it appears to be a fact that the relative proportion of
killable seals decreases as the season advances, whether a hauling
ground has been swept over previously or not. Thus, 50 per cent of
the seals were rejected from the first drive from Polavina on June 26,
and 64 per cent from the first drive from Lukannon on July 3. Similarly, we find that 73 per cent were rejected from a third drive from
Northeast Point on July 22, while 76.5 per cent were rejected from a
second drive from Lukannon, which took place five days later.
Another matter to receive attention before a general estimate is
made relates to the length of the period during which the bachelors
are arriving at the island. My own observations are of no value in
this connection, because, as the foregoing table shows, the two largest
hauling grounds at least were full before I arrived. It is necessary,,
therefore, to refer to the statement of other observers on this point.
Bryant, referring to the year 1869, states that "by the middle of June
all the males, except the great body of the yearlings, have arrived.""
(N. A. Pinnipeds, p. 384.) The American Bering Sea commissioners,,
quoting various observers, state that they "begin to arrive in the vicinity of the islands soon after the bulls have taken up their positions upon
the rookeries, but the greater number appear toward the latter part of
May."    (United States, No. 6, Bering Sea Arbitration, p. 120.)
These statements are not so definite as could be desired, and I do not
find any others that are more so \ but from the foregoing table it appears
probable that while the hauling grounds fill up early in June, bachelors
continue to arrive in greater or less numbers until August. If this is
not the case it is difficult to understand how so comparatively large
numbers of killable seals can be found late in July.
Whether the seals return to the same hauling grounds as that from
which they are driven is perhaps of no great moment, as the net result
appears to be the same whether they do or do not.
Taking the six weeks in the foregoing table as the period during
which the hauling grounds are full, we can arrive at a conclusion
regarding the number of bachelors in the following way:
The number killed between June 20 and August 1, as shown by the
official count, is 11,045. Earlier in the year 353 were killed, making a
total of 11,398. To this amount is to be added the number rejected
from the first drives from each of the several hauling grounds, viz:
Northeast Point  1,603
The Reef  1,487
Halfway Point  575-
English Bay  1,126
Zapadnie r  1,40&
Lukannon  647
Total  6,843: 106
SEAL  LIFE  ON THE  PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
We have then to find out how many new individuals were among
the seals rejected from the subsequent drives. The proportion rejected
from the first drive from Northeast Point was estimated as 45 per cent;
from the second drive, 60 per cent and 65 per cent, or an average of 62.5
per cent; from the third drive, 73 per cent. The increase in the second
and third drives is 17.5 and 28 per cent, respectively. These percentages we may take to be those of the new individuals.
We may make up the total, therefore, in the following manner:
Number killed June 20  1,961
Rejected June 20  1, 607
Number killed July 9 %nd 10  1, 391
Additional per cent rejected July 9 and 10  216
Number killed July 22  827
Additional per cent rejected July 22  413
Total  6,415
This may be taken as the number of seals on the hauling ground during the six weeks. Treating the other hauling grounds in the same
manner, we have the following amounts:
Northeast Point :  6,415
Reef  5,933
Halfway Point  1,692
English Bay  1,877
Zapadnie  3,551
Liukannon  1, 581
Total  21,049
This, it will be observed, is considerably less than the number driven,
viz, 28,970, but it represents, in my opinion, much more nearly the correct number of seals present on the hauling ground during the period.
This total, 21,049, is based on the assumption that all the bachelors
have arrived by August 1. But as at the last killing, on that date,
about 20 per cent of killable seals were still obtainable from the number driven up, it would appear that if killings were made later (at
least up to the end of August) a small number of new seals would be
obtained.
I calculate that this would not exceed 2,000 seals for all the hauling
grounds. Adding this to the total previously obtained, we have 23,049
for the whole number of bachelor seals on the hauling grounds during
the season. This includes only the grounds from which drives were
made, and we have yet to consider the grounds at Ketavie and the
Lagoon, which were not disturbed; also the areas back of the breeding
grounds and the fringe at the water's edge. For the Ketavie hauling
ground I estimate from my observations that the number should be
about 500, for the Lagoon hauling ground 400.
For the areas back of the breeding grounds and the water front no
reliable estimate can be made. These bachelors are constantly moving^
about, and were also more or less disturbed in some places this season,
at least by persons passing to and fro. The bachelors at the water's
edge doubtless go to the terminal hauling grounds, and may perhaps
.safely be regarded as already estimated for.
If one-tenth were added for these scattered bands of bachelors, it
would probably be sufficient; but this is a purely nominal estimate.
To recapitulate, the total is made up as follows:
Number of seals killed May 27 to August 1  11,398
Additional seals on the hauling grounds from which drives are made     9, 651
Seals on the hauling grounds from which drives are not made (Ketavie and
Lagoon)         900
Number of seals in scattered bands back of the rookeries     2,195
Total 24,144 .%;.....Mf **^.>I..*'^/.-,;i«;'* i*'~^-i_x
SEAL  LIFE   ON  THE  PRIBILOF  ISLANDS.
107
Bringing together the estimates for all the classes of seals, we have
the following:
St. Paul:
Bachelors 24,144
Breeding bulls     3,839
Cows  61,436
Paps 46,077
 135,496
St. George:
Bachelors	
Breeding bulls        563
Cows     8,987
Pups     6,741
 20,481
Total number of seals on both islands  155, 977
In my judgment the foregoing estimate is fairly reliable; but it
should be remembered that it is only an estimate. In a matter so
extremely complex, and with factors so constantly varying, I do not
think any estimate can be made which will approximate the truth more
than somewhat remotely.
The chief use of such calculations in the present connection is, in my
opinion, for the elimination of fanciful estimates of the number of seals.
Thus, a statement that there are a million or half a million seals on the
islands may safely be disregarded, as may equally any claim that there
are but a few thousand remaining. It is probably as important to know
how many seals are on any one or two of the rookeries as to know how
many are on all of them, and this can be ascertained with fair accuracy,
as shown by the enumerations of Ketavie and the Lagoon rookeries
made this year. If it is found in July, 1897, that there are 3,000 cows
on the Lagoon rookery, it may be fairly asserted that this rookery has
doubled in two years.
PRESENT CONDITION OF THE ROOKERIES AS REGARDS THE
DECREASE OF SEALS.
The three questions to which my attention was directed before visiting the islands as the most important ones for consideration are
extremely difficult to answer. They relate to the present conditions as
regards the decrease in the number of seals, the cause of the decrease,
and the remedy. I realize now, perhaps even more fully than before I
visited the islands, how difficult it will be to find a solution to these
problems which will fill every need and meet every objection. Nevertheless, I address myself to the task, with the hope that what I have to
offer may prove at least suggestive.
As regards the decrease in the number of seals, there is little to say.
All persons who have visited the islands in recent years are agreed that a
decrease has taken place, and I found no reason to dispute this conclusion.
Being on the ground during only one season, 1 was unable of course
to make comparative observations, but the condition of the rocks and
herbage back of the present rookeries testifies in an unmistakable manner to the fact of their greater magnitude in past years. To take one
instance: On the great inclined plain or "parade ground" on the reef,
which is now covered with low grass and flowers, and from a little distance resembles a lawn of large extent, the cavities of the lava bowlders are filled with a dull felt-like substance, which upon examination
proves to be composed chiefly of hairs of fur seals interwoven and
matted down.   This substance could not be made up from stray hairs
C WyM .-• ,»«•/■*•■•*»*• •f.'.'^'V.ttfHl 108
SEAL  LIFE   ON  THE  PRIBILOF  ISLANDS.
blown hither and thither by the wind, or from such as might be left by
the passing seals during a drive. It betokens the former presence of
numerous seals for a considerable period on ground now completely
abandoned.
Wherever this matted hair is found abundantly the tops of the rocks
are worn smooth, a condition due clearly to the presence at some time
of living seals.
At the back of all the rookeries, often for a distance of 200 to 300
feet or still more, this phenomenon is observable, and even among the
high grass farther back, where the rocks are abundantly covered with
lichens, a careful examination reveals the presence of matted hair,
though usually in a friable and decomposed condition.
On the Beef "parade ground" I examined an area about 50 feet
square, which, according to photographs taken by the commission in
1891, was completely bare in that year, and found that it was fully one-
half covered with grass and flowering plants. This indicates that some
of the changes at least are of very recent origin, and can in nowise be
regarded as ancient.
Such facts as I have mentioned demonstrate that at no distant time
in the past the seals covered much more ground than they did this year.
Of the changes which have taken place since last year I can not speak
entirely from personal experience. For a knowledge oi' the conditions
in 1894 I have relied on the photographs and charts prepared by Mr.
Townsend, naturalist of the Albatross. These charts and photographs
for 1894 I examined to some extent while on the ground this summer,
and more in detail since returning to Washington. In the latter
instance I have had the advantage of comparing,"side by side in company with Mr. Townsend, those of 1894 with those of 1895.
The work this year was done about ten days later than last, on
account of the backwardness of the season. Making all allowances for
seasonal and other influences, I have no hesitation in affirming that the
seals were considerably less abundant this year than last.
As already explained, the photographs were made under conditions
unfavorable in many ways, and some of them are not serviceable for
comparison. In others the shrinkage of the rookeries is very noticeable
and should be evident to untrained eyes. This is true of the views
from stations 1, 4, and 5, Northeast Point; stations 21 and 24, Polavina; station 12, Lukannon; stations 14, 14£, and 15, Ketavie; stations
16,17, and 18, Reef; station 11 and Station F, Tolstoi; station 7a, Lower
Zapadnie; station, 2 North rookery (St. George), and Station B, Little
East rookery (St. George). The changes which are observable result
chiefly from a recession from areas of the rookeries, or a general shrinkage along the inland borders. Accompanying these changes is a tendency in breeding grounds, formerly of great continuous length, to break
up into detached areas. This is very noticeable at Northeast Point,
Polavina, and Lower Zapadnie, St. Paul, and Great East, North, and
Zapadnie rookeries, St. George, and may be observed both in the photographs and charts of 1895, when compared with those of 1894. As
Mr. Townsend informs me that he will report on these changes in detail,
and as the photographs and charts are his own work, and furthermore,,
as his experience runs back over many seasons, I do not deem it important
to enter more into details here. I agree with Mr. Townsend that a
noticeable shrinkage of the breeding grounds has taken place since
1894. I regard the herds as in a very precarious condition as regards
preservation, and while it is obviously impossible to fix limits in such a
case, if the off-shore sealing operations continue as at present I should
expect to see the cows practically exterminated in less than five years. —MMfe >X«^.™*^^'-:';-Sr?'V1'*^'V'l'->''y'^"'v"'iv'^"-1;''
SEAL   LIFE   ON   THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
109
CAUSE OF THE DECREASE OF SEALS.
It has been generally conceded that the decrease of the seals is due
to human interference, and in view of the many known cases of extermination by human agency there is no reason for dissent from this opinion.
When we go a step further, however, and inquire what special form of
interference is responsible for the results observed, we are met at once
by diversity of opinion. Men have located and carried on the ordinary
operations of life on the seal islands. They have killed seals on the
islands. They have intruded upon the resorts of the seals and driven
off certain classes of these animals. They have killed mature males and
young on land, and both males and nursing and pregnant females at
sea. Some of these operations ceased many years ago, and others are
still carried on. Out of all these factors of destruction, old and new,
we are called upon to select the one or ones which are responsible for
the effects observed, and wnth whose cessation the decrease would likewise cease. In the present state of knowledge I conceive that this can
not be done in such a manner as to place the matter beyond dispute.
Oonclusions have to be based largely on opinions, rather than on facts,
and as long as these opinions can be challenged the conclusions will
fail to receive universal acceptance.
Putting aside the effects of all past forms of interference, however,
as intangible, we know what operations are going on to-day and what
is the condition of the seal herds. We know that the seals of all classes
have greatly decreased in number and have shown that the decrease is
still going on. We know that considerable numbers of male and of
nursing and pregnant female seals are killed at sea, and that considerable
numbers of male seals are killed on land. Now, whether few or many
males remain is of no consequence, so long as there are enough to
fertilize the females.
My observations during the past summer show that there are enough,
and that they are desirous of taking part in reproduction. If this is
not true, why are there always males hovering about the water's edge
and attempting to intercept the females as they leave the rookeries'?
Why are there small harems at the water's edge (and even in the water)
which are constantly being broken up by the stronger bulls near by?
Why are there new harems formed at the back of the rookeries
(the cows with pups) at the close of the season? Why are the pups
harassed? If there were not enough bulls to fertilize the females, or if
the bulls lacked vigor, none of these things would occur. But they do
occur, as I witnessed with my own eyes. Hence, I do not hesitate to
state that, in my opinion, the number of bulls is sufficient for present
purposes of reproduction, and that the bulls are virile. It is not to be
inferred, however, that the number of males has not decreased. This
is conceded, but, as already stated, the fact is of no interest in the
present connection if enough remain.
When we turn to consider the female seals, we find that the question
assumes a very different aspect. It is useless to inquire whether there
are enough females. Even if the islands of St. Paul and St. George
were covered completely with female seals, there still would not be too
many, provided there were males enough to fertilize them. When,
however, we find the females decreasing year by year, there is every
cause for alarm. Taking the condition regarding males as they are
to-day, the question we are considering resolves itself to this: What is
the cause of the decrease of female seals ?   If we can not find a cause
*;'*^A*.-«-u*yi;..vv*;^,%-.St-j^^<'^?jji*^*i-»~»*' 110
SEAL  LIFE   ON  THE  PRIBILOF  ISLANDS.
which will be accepted by the unwilling as the sole cause, we can at
least point to one which everyone must admit demands serious consideration. We have the sworn testimony of the Treasury agents of the
islands that they counted this fall on St. Paul 23,000 dead pups. Every
unbiased observer is convinced that the cows suckle only their own
offspring; hence, unless these pups died of natural causes, it is certain
that 23,000 cows were destroyed at sea. That a large number of cows
were destroyed by sealers we know from the investigations of the commission, and we know, also, that the pups were in such positions and
condition as to indicate clearly that they died of starvation. Is there
any reason to look elsewhere for the cause of the decrease of the females ?
Certainly not.
Now, whether this is the only cause of the decrease of females or not
is of no great moment, since, in its operation, it is a sufficient one to
depopulate the rookeries. He would be regarded a very foolish man who
should spend time and money in investigating obscure causes of the loss
of his fowl while the fox was openly stealing hens from the roost. So
long as a sufficient cause of destruction is discovered, it is of no practical importance to search for others, since if this one continues to operate
it will destroy the rookeries, whether other causes are discovered and
eradicated or not.
As it was a part of my instructions to search for obscure deleterious"
agencies, however, I will say that I kept the matter constantly in mind,
but was unable to discover anything of importance. The seals appeared
to be healthy and vigorous. I did not see more than five adult dead seals
about the rookeries during my sojourn on St. Paul. These were all
males. Mr. Townsend informed me of the presence of a dead female on
Ketavie rookery, but I did not see it myself. It may be said that there
is no mortality of females on the islands before the pelagic sealing begins,
as there certainly would be if the seals were in anywise diseased.
No recognized enemies were observed about the islands, with the
exception of two killer whales. These I observed for a short time in
front of Ketavie rookery, but they appeared only once. The imperfections which one finds among the seals are all such as have their origin
in wounds received during combats or result from falling or jumping
from high places on rocky ground.
REMEDIES FOR THE DECREASE.
If it be true that the present shrinkage of the rookeries is due to
human interference, as I believe it is, the simplest and most effectual
remedy would, of course, consist in stopping for a term of years all
sealing operations of whatever character and wherever prosecuted. It
is certain that no harm could result to the seal herds from this proceeding, and even if the proposition that the decrease is due to human
interference should not be sustained (improbable as that may be), the
experiment would be worth all it might cost. It may be deemed, perhaps, that the application of this remedy is impracticable for reasons
of state, as well as on account of the injustice to those persons who have
money invested in apparatus of the fishery. If the present international
situation is such that no change covering the whole fishery can be made,
it is useless to consider the subject of direct remedies.
It is not within my province to decide whether such a cessation of all
sealing operations can or can not be brought about. .Taking it for
granted that it can not, I may mention two plans, in the nature of indirect remedies, which seem to me worthy of consideration.   One of these SEAL  LIFE  ON  THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
Ill
at least has occurred to other investigators, but whether prior to my own
studies I can not say.
It appears to me entirely feasible to brand the seals with a property
mark. If the cows are to be so treated, it would be best to place the
brand on the back, where it could be plainly seen. This would also*
have the effect of rendering the skins of the cows unmarketable, and
there would be no object in destroying them.
It is, of course, taken for granted in proposing this plan that property so branded would be recognized as property on the high seas-
Whether this would be the case I can not venture to decide.1
KILLING  OF  FEMALES  BY  THE  GOVERNMENT  OBJECTIONABLE
In conclusion, it may be proper for me to remark that I should deprecate most earnestly the adoption of any plan to bring the fur-seal question to an end by a wholesale butchery of all the seals, male, female,
and young, on the Pribilof Islands. I do not think that our Government or any other could maintain its dignity while pursuing such a
course. It could only be regarded as a work of spite, which would be
unbecoming in an individual and much more so in a nation.
No one having the smallest spark of love for nature and her works
who had visited the fur-seal islands could for an instant entertain a
proposition for the slaughter of the seal herds. To any such it would
seem little less than wholesale murder.
Putting sentiment aside, it does not seem to me that such a course is
necessary. Even if the patrol of Bering Sea is suspended and sealers
are allowed to approach the islands, the time will speedily come when
sealing as an industry will cease to be profitable and will be abandoned.
There will still be a remnant of seals which, unmolested, will increase
and once more cover the breeding grounds. In the interval there would
be time for the cultivation of public sentiment in this country and
Europe favora]ble to the preservation of the seals, and to arrange plans
of international protection.
On the other hand, if the breeding seals are slaughtered on the rookeries, one more species will be added to the already formidable list of
those which have been exterminated by unwise and improvident human
action. Such a proceeding would be in the highest sense immoral, and
no less inconsistent with the true aims of a civilized nation.
1 Mr. Trne suggests further in respect to this subject that, in case of the presence
of pelagic sealers in Bering Sea next season, the entire body of seals might be driven
back from the rookeries and retained in the inland lakes and lagoons for about six
weeks, or during the period when pelagic sealing is mainly carried on in that region.
The execution of such a plan is entirely practicable with regard to all grown seals
of both sexes, but it would result in the destruction of the pups born that season.
If, however, the seals were held inland for only three or four weeks, the majority of
the pups would probably be saved, as they could exist for that length of time without
feeding, while the retention on land of the grown seals, even for so short a space of
time, would undoubtedly cause the abandonment of nearly all pelagic sealing.
cyg^TEgpgys: j i f
WTO-M^-am^^: « OBSERVATIONS DURING A CRUISE ON THE SEAL'
ING SCHOONER LOUIS OLSEN, AUGUST, 1894.
'•.;•
By A. B. Alexander.
LETTER  OF  TRANSMITTAL.
IT. S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries,
Washington, D. C, January 5, 1895.
Sir: In response to your request of the 3d instant for copies of the
reports for 1892, 1893, and 1894 of Mr. Townsend on the seal rookeries
of Alaska, and the report for 1894 of Mr. Alexander on-pelagic sealing,
I beg to state that no report on the condition of the seal rookeries in
1892 was made by Mr. Townsend, the subject having received the attention of Mr. J. Stanley-Brown, a special agent of the Treasury Department. Mr. Town sen d?s report for 1893 was transmitted to the Secretary
of the Treasury on February 26, 1894, and a second copy, as also Mr.
Townsend's preliminary report covering the work of 1894, to the Assistant Secretary, Mr. Hamlin, on December 4 and 5, 1894. Herewith I
have the honor to forward copy of the report of Mr. Alexander cover -
ing his observations during the summer of 1894 on pelagic sealing.
Yery respectfully,
Herbert A. Gill,
Acting Commissioner.
Hon. C. S. Hamlin,
Acting Secretary of the Treasury.
CRUISE OF THE LOUIS OLSEN IN BERING SEA.
On May 28,1894,1 left Seattle, Wash., in the City of TqpeJca for Sitka,
and from there took passage in the Crescent City for Unalaska. Soon
after arriving at the latter place I joined the Albatross and remained
by her until the evening of the 29th of July, when I joined the pelagic
sealing schooner Louis Olsen, of Astoria, Oreg., Captain Guillams,
master, who very willingly gave me passage for the purpose of making
observations on the seals taken by him during the open season in
Bering Sea.
The next day, in latitude 54° 38' north, longitude 167° 04' west, we
saw our first seals, 20 in number, 12 of which were " sleepers.'7 In the
afternoon we saw 6 seals about a half mile from the vessel playing in a
bunch of seaweed. The sea at the time was perfectly smooth, with a
light air stirring.   Two hunters and myself started out in a boat to
113
S. Doc. 137, pt. 2 -8
j^i^iiiUjitW!****'*-*-* 114
SEAL  LIFE  ON  THE  PRIBILOF ISLANDS.
1   -
watch them and see how near we could approach without disturbing
them. We soon learned that they were unusually tame, as we approached near enough to touch one with a spear pole. They showed
little signs of fear notwithstanding that we were within 30 feet of them
for fully five minutes. Diving under the seaweed and suddenly thrusting their heads up through it seemed to afford them great pleasure.
They paid but little attention to us and seemed almost indifferent as to
how near we approached, so long as we did so quietly. This caused
the hunters to exclaim several times, "If we only had a gun we could
kill them all." Under the circumstances it was but natural that the
thought of a gun should be uppermost in their minds. Early in the
spring, both on the Northwest coast and off the coast of Japan, seals are
sometimes found which evince little signs of fear, but after one day's
shooting on the ground they become very wild and mistrustful, and, like
a crow and some land animals, seem to scent a gun in the air.
The lollowing day, July 31, seals were plentiful. The wind being
light during the previous night, our position had changed but little.
On August 1, at a very early hour, the spears were brought forth
and the seal on them broken. While this was going on many remarks
were made in regard to the first day's trial. Some of the hunters were
already discouraged, and were confident that they were only wasting
time by attempting to use spears. The thought of being obliged to
adopt the primitive weapon of the Indian was indeed humiliating to
them. A few on board felt more hopeful and were willing to give the
spear a fair trial. Ever since leaving Unalaska the hunters had been
practicing at throwing the spear pole. Every piece of floating seaweed
or other object which came within range had been a target. On several
occasions the boats had been lowered and a supply of chips and small
pieces of wood taken along. These were thrown ahead of the boat as
targets to throw at. It was soon found that an object that could be
readily hit at a distance of 25 or 30 feet from the vessel was not so
easily reached from a boat, as the smallest wave would cause the latter
to move just enough to make the pole go wide of its mark. A day's
practice in throwing from the boats had the effect of teaching the
hunters the various ways of holding the spear to make more sure of
its hitting the mark under the many conditions of sea and wind. All
this time spear throwing had been carried on with lifeless objects for a
mark. The opportunity was about to present itself of exhibiting skill
in throwing at something which, if missed the first time, would not be
likely to remain stationary long enough to give the marksman another
trial. A cool head and steady nerves would be the special requirements
to insure a successful day's hunt should seals be plentiful.
The first day of August did not prove a success so far as sealing was
concerned, the weather being too foggy to send out the boats. Scattering seals were observed all day, but they were all " travelers"; that is,
they were all moving in various directions. Our noon position was latitude 56° ll7 north, longitude 172° 01' west. The next day seals were
less numerous. None were observed in the forenoon; in the afternoon
12 were seen, of which all but 1 were traveling to the westward. This
individual was asleep; a boat was quickly lowered and the hunter on
watch was rowed toward it. Before the boat had covered half the distance the seal showed signs of waking and shortly after becoming aware
of approaching danger it disappeared. Our noon position on this day
was latitude 57° 21' north, longitude 173° 46' west. Seals here were
n6t so plentiful as they were farther south. In the afternoon we hove
to and caught 2 cod in 65 fathoms of water.   No more seal life was <m^nwj«i*tw,T~f.'v»»»f."*w».
SEAL   LIFE   ON   THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
115
observed until the afternoon of the following day, when 2 sleeping seals
were sighted in latitude 57° 50' north, longtitude 173° 48' west. Five
boats were sent out. They returned at 5 p. m., having taken no seals,
although 8 had been seen, but they were all " travelers." Heavy fog
and strong indications of the wind breezing up fresh caused the boats
to return earlier than they otherwise would. In the evening, the vessel
being hove to, several seals came close alongside. They seemed to be
very curious to know what we were. All the spears on board were
repeatedly thrown at them, but they had the good sense to keep just out
of range. Whistling had the effect of enticing them close aboard, but
the sight of a spear or two being aimed at them would cause them,
without any apparent effort, to increase their distance by 20 or more
feet.
The first seal captured by the Olsen was on August 4 in latitude 57°
50' north, longitude 173° 48' west, the same position recorded on the
previous day. At 8.45 a, m. sail was made and at 10.45 the boats were
lowered, 2 "sleepers" having been seen. The weather being foggy
the boats were soon lost to sight. The vessel was hove to, it being
much easier for the boats to keep the bearing of the vessel than for
the vessel to keep track of the boats.
As soon as the boats had left, a hand line was put over in 70 fathoms of water. An hour's fishing resulted in 18 cod, the average
weight of which was about 12 pounds; the largest weighed not far from
30 pounds. All but 2 of the cod were in a healthy condition; these
2 had sores on their backs about the size of a half dollar, which had
eaten nearly to the back bone. This instance is especially mentioned
on account of the position of the sores. In both cases they were situated near the neck directly over the vertebra; they were as round and
smooth as if cut with a knife.
Notwithstanding that the fog did not lift during the day, the boats
remained out until 9 p. m. The resulu of the day's hunt was 12 seals,
4 males and 8 females. One of the seals had previously been speared
in one of its flippers, as it was nearly severed from its body, showing
that the seal must have had a hard struggle to free itself. The largest
number of seals was taken by two boats, each bringing in 5; two other
boats captured 1 each, and the remaining two boats brought in nothing.
About 50 seals had been observed from the boats, the most of which
were awake. Only an occasional individual had been noticed during
the day from the vessel, the fog being too dense to see more than an
eighth of a mile. In no instance was the first seal thrown at captured,
and it was only after repeated attempts by each hunter that one was
hit. The excitement produced by the desire of each hunter to be the
first to capture a seal, combined with the inexperience of throwing the
primitive weapon, was no doubt the chief cause of the poor results.
The 8 females captured were all nursing seals: but little food was found
in their stomachs, and that was too much digested to determine its
character.
On the 5th the wind and weather were not suitable for sealing, a
very fresh southeast wind prevailing, and in order to keep our position
the vessel was hove to under easy sail. A large number of seals was
noticed. They apparently had no fixed course, but would swim in one
direction a half a mile or so, and then turn and go in an opposite way.
The wind continued fresh, with a rough, choppy sea until the following
noon, when the fog which had come in during the night lifted and the
wind suddenly subsided into a calm. The boats were put in readiness
and sent out for an afternoon's hunt.   Considering the state of the sea
jjgMBBiiSggjfliBBSiigftgl 1
116
SEAL  LIFE   ON  THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
and the time of starting, a fair afternoon's work was done, 19 seals
being landed on deck by 8.30 p. m. Fifteen of the number were females
and 4 males. Only 6 had food in their stomachs. Every hunter
reported seals numerous, about half of the number being asleep.
They slept in bunches of 6 and 8, and when aroused from their slumber were very tame, but owing to the inexperience of the hunters with
spears in a comparatively rough sea, the successful throws were few
and far between. Had the hunters been provided with shotguns,
instead of spears, it is safe to say that a hundred or more seals would
have been nearer the day's catch. During the absence of the boats a
large number of traveling seals had been seen from the vessel, and also-
an occasional "sleeper." One of the latter was observed close aboard
a little on our lee. It evidently was sleeping soundly, for neither the
slatting of the sails nor the blowing of the fog horn had the effect of
awakening it, and it was only when the scent of the vessel reached it that
it showed signs of life. After being fully aroused it did not exhibit any
great signs of alarm, but played about not far off for sometime. It
seldom happens that a seal will show such indifference to its surroundings as this one. The captain and mate said they had never in all their
experience seen a seal so tame. The general opinion on board was that
it was due to there being no firearms used or hunting allowed in Bering
Sea for the past few years that caused the seals thus far observed to
show so little fear of man.
The largest catch during any one day was taken on August 7. The
day commenced with a gentle breeze from the south and a smooth sea.
A light fog hung low over the water, which prevented the boats from
being seen more than 20 yards. At 8 a. m. the last boat shoved off, and
they did not appear again until evening. The noon position of the
vessel was latitude 58° 30' north, longitude 173° 56' west. In the
forenoon hand-line fishing was carried on. The depth of water here was
60 fathoms. Six good-sized cod were caught in quick succession; 2
males and 4 females. Their stomachs were well filled with food. In
the stomach of a large female was found an octopus which had recently
been swallowed, as its skin showed no discoloration. Cod were abundant, and we could have filled the decks in a day's fishing with a single
line. Their abundance may have been the cause of seals being plentiful in this region. In the evening the boats all returned nearly at the
same time, bringing in 34 seals, 30 of which were females. Twenty-
four of the number had food in their stomachs. The material, however, was finely masticated and hard to identify, but a portion of it
looked very much like the flesh of cod. If this supposition is correct,
the question arises, Did the seals dive to the bottom in 60 fathoms and
bring their prey to the surface? As a rule cod are found very close to
the bottom, especially in deep water, and it is not probable that they
were at or near the surface here. The most satisfactory evidence the
writer ever had that seals are deep divers was obtained two years agd
on the Fairweather Ground, a large bank off the coast of Alaska, while
on a cruise in the revenue cutter Corwin. We were about to return to
the ship, at the end of a successful afternoon's hunt, when a large male
seal suddenly came up close to our canoe—not over 30 feet away—with
a very large red rock fish in its mouth, which it immediately proceeded
to devour. The fish was alive, and could plainly be seen struggling in
the seal's mouth. Our position at the time was some 75 or 80 miles offshore from Yfakutat Bay. We had no means of ascertaining the depth
of water, but it could not have been much less than 100 fathoms. The
red rockfish, like the cod, also generally swims close to the bottom, i-.^vAj-'^^^f «i'*"*-*y.' ?¥ ^y*r *&
SEAL  LIFE   ON  THE   PRIBILOF  ISLANDS.
117
although it may possibly sometimes feed near the surface. The writer
does not maintain that seals can go to the bottom in 100 fathoms, but
he does believe that they can dive much deeper than is generally supposed.
All the hunters on this day reported seals plentiful, but could find
very few asleep. Had the sun been shining it is safe to say that the
majority of those with food in their stomachs would have slept during
the greater part of the day, for as a rule seals with full stomachs sleep
when the sun is out, the air warm, and the sea smooth, or comparatively
so. Their time of sleeping, however, is not always when conditions are
favorable, for after a gale of long duration they are frequently seen
asleep when the air is cold and the sea uncommonly high, at such times
being completely exhausted. It is not an infrequent sight during the
winter and spring months, at the end of a long and heavy gale, to see
seals sleeping soundly in a snow storm, the exposed portion of their
body being covered with snow. In consequence of the seals being restless on this day, a great many of the 34 taken were what is known to
sealers as " tinners," that is, about half asleep, rolling about and scratching themselves. Sometimes "tinners" are hard to approach, and at
other times very easy. A restless one will try very hard to take a nap,
but just as he gets comfortably fixed something disturbs him, and holding
his head up he will take a look all around as if danger were scented.
They are then difficult to spear.
Indians seldom pay any attention to moving seals when hunting with
spears; they think it a waste of time. White hunters, when they can
find no sleeping seals, frequently give chase to " tinners" and " travelers," and in many cases are rewarded for their trouble. The hunters
on the Olsen soon found that few seals could be taken on certain days
if they only selected sleeping ones. Many haphazard throws were made
at swimming and finning' seals, the majority of which wTere failures, but
enough good shots were made to make the experiment a paying one.
For several days seals had been observed chasing some kind of fish,
and during this last day's hunt they were quite plentiful. Only a
single individual would be seen; it would dart first in one direction
and then in another, and occasionally would make a desperate leap
out of the water. Presently a seal would be noticed not far off swimming as rapidly and in as many different directions as the fish. On
the day in question 2 seals were speared just as they came to the
surface, each with one of these fish in its mouth. The seals did not
relinquish their hold when speared, but kept a firm grip until knocked
on the head. The fish proved to be Alaskan pollock. Both of the
seals were large males, one probably between 8 and 10 years old.
The two following days, August 8 and 9, the weather was too boisterous for sealing; wind southeast and every indication of a gale. We lay
to under the foresail in order to keep as near our position as possible.
A heavy sea set in from the westward, but the wind did not increase
above a strong breeze. Scattering seals were about each day, all traveling to the westward. From observation we learned that during
stormy weather seals traveled in an opposite direction to the wind. In
a gale they are far more numerous on the lee side of the Pribilof
Islands than to the windward of them.   When the wind is heavy and
ft/
the sea rough seals as a rule travel from the seal islands directly to
leeward or nearly so. Just how much the wind changes the course of
the main body of seals would be hard to say, but so far as our investigations extended, in connection with the traveling herd which came
under our notice, we are inclined to think that seals within 100 miles
of the seal islands bound to the feeding grounds will, in most cases, 118
SEAL  LIFE   ON  THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
seek the grounds to the leeward of the group. Seals in a gale take
every advantage of wind and sea; it is necessary that they should, for
there is evidently a limit to their endurance.
On the morning of the 10th light winds prevailed, but a choppy sea,
combined with a long, rolling swell from the west southwest, rendered
it unfit for sealing, although scattering seals had been noticed. Two
days of idleness had made everybody on board anxious to get out in
the boats. In the afternoon the wind fell to a calm, and the boats were
put over in latitude 58° 27' north, longitude 172° 46' west, and remained
out until evening, bringing in only 3 seals. Yery few were seen from
the boats, although they covered considerable ground during the day.
Seals were equally scarce in the vicinity of the vessel, only 6 being
observed. One of these, more bold than the others, kept circling
around the vessel, coming nearer each time. Finding that it was
inclined to be inquisitive its approach was encouraged by continual
whistling by those on board. It was finally enticed alongside and
captured, the spear passing through one of its hind flippers. It fought
bravely for life while in the water, but on being hauled on board its
power was greatly lessened. It did not, however, give up without a
desperate struggle to regain its liberty. At one period of the fight it
drove everybody from the main deck, and it was only when a noose was
thrown over its neck and its head hauled down to a ring bolt that it was
mastered and could be knocked upon the head. The catch of seals for
the day was 4, 3 females and 1 male. The total catch to date had
been 69,13 males and 56 females.
The next day, August 11, the boats made an early start. Everything
looked favorable for a good day's hunt, the wind being light and the sea
smooth—two things which are almost indispensable in seal hunting. No
seals had been noticed during the morning, but it does not necessarily
follow that because none are observed from the vessel they are not about,
for,it frequently happens that good catches are made under those circumstances. This was not one of those exceptional day®, however, the
catch amounting to only 13—3 males and 10 females. Seals had been
comparatively plentiful, but were not inclined to sleep and were too wild
to approach. A piece of au Alaskan pollock taken from a seal's mouth
was brought in by one of the hunters. A series of trials was made
for bottom fish, but with negative results; we seemed to be drifting over
barren ground. The noon position on this day was 57° 42' 38" north
latitude, 172° 52' west longitude.
Our pleasant weather was about to be broken for a considerable
length of time, for the 12th began with a gale from the southeast,
accompanied by a heavy sea. We lay hove to under jingle-reefed foresail and trysail. In the afternoon spoke with the schooner Teresa, of
San Francisco; also saw the schooner Kate, of Victoria, British Columbia, a short distance away. Seals were frequently seen all through the
day. In the early part of the night the wind increased to a heavy gale,
but in the latter part it decreased in force and hauled to the west-
southwest. A heavy sea kept up all day. In the forenoon a vessel
was sighted low on the horizon.   An occasional seal was observed.
On August 14 the weather was pleasant, but the wind fresh from the
westward. In the evening we boarded the schooner Fawn, of Victoria,
British Columbia, which reported losing a boat and three men on the
11th, but they were afterwards picked up. The Fawn had an Indian
crew and had taken 20 skins in Bering Sea. This news gave our
hunters considerable encouragement. The noon position was latitude
57° 37' north, longitude 173° 14' west. SEAL   LIFE  ON  THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
113
August 15 was marked with pleasant weather in the early part of the
day, becoming very squally in the latter part, with rough sea. Noon
position, latitude 57° 11' north, longitude 173° 09' west.
On August 16 we had variable weather; clear in the morning, thick
and squally in the afternoon, with very rough sea. But few seals were
seen. The noon position of the sl^ip was latitude 57° 04' north, longitude 172Q 30' west.
At 7 a. m. August 17 made sail and ran to the southward; wind
northwest and fresh, gradually decreasing to a light breeze iu afternoon.
A heavy fog came in later in the day. Noon position, latitude 56° 54'
north, longitude 172° 45' west. We continued on our course until 8
a. m. the next day, when we saw a seal "finning" close by. A boat was
quickly manned and started in pursuit, but the seal was on the alert
and escaped. Shortly after this a "sleeper" was noticed not far off on
the weather bow. Another boat was hoisted out and rowed quietly
toward it, no attempt being made to throw the spear until within 20
feet. It was easily captured. Its stomach was found to be well filled
with food, which was no doubt the cause of its sleeping so soundly.
Later in the day all the boats went out, but returned at the end of
three hours with only one seal. The sea was smooth, with little wind
stirring, but the air grew suddenly chilly and the sky very cloudy,
which practically put an end to the chances of seals sleeping for the
day. The hunters claimed that had they been provided with guns the
day's catch would have been at least 60 or 70 seals. On a day like this
when seals showed no inclination to sleep shotguns in the hands of
skillful hunters would have done very destructive work. In the early
days of pelagic sealing the hunters sought sleeping seals only, but they
have learned the movements of the seal so thoroughly that " travelers"
and "tinners" are almost as readily taken as sleeping ones.
Hand-line fishing was carried on from the vessel in 60 fathoms of
water. In one hour 10 cod were caught, their average weight being
about 9 pounds. It was estimated that the largest weighed 30 pounds,
the smallest 4 pounds. In their stomachs were found small starfish,
prawns, squid, medusse, and a quantity of decomposed fish.
Unfortunately, this was our last day's hunt, as from this time on we
had stormy weather and heavy gales. Eighty-four seals had been
taken—16 males and 68 females. All the females were nursing cows
except one, which was a yearling. The last seal caught by the Olsen was
taken in latitude 56° 05' north, longitude 172° 17' west.
Early in the morning of August 19 the weather was pleasant, with
indications of a suitable day for sealing, but shortly after the wind
began to freshen from the southeast, gradually increasing in force and
hauling to the westward. We lay to under a double-reefed foresail,
encountering heavy squalls at times. Our noon position was latitude
55° 39' north, longitude 172© 12' west.
On August 20 there was a heavy gale from the northwest and a very
high sea running. We ran before the wind for three hours hoping to
escape the heaviest part of it, but no perceptible difference was felt. We
then lay hove to until 10 p. m., at which time we again kept off before
the wind, and ran until 10 a. m. the next day. About this time we saw
several seals, and soon after ran close to a bunch containing five, all
huddled together. It was evident that they were well tired out, or else
they would not have been asleep in such weather. Our noon position
was latitude 54° 38' north, longitude 168° 017 west. In the afternoon
we sighted several vessels.
On the 22d we bore away for Unimak Pass, the wind north-north' 120
SEAL  LIFE   ON  THE  PRIBILOF  ISLANDS.
west and blowing a gale, followed by a heavy sea. On the morning of
the 23d sighted the lower part of Akutan Island, the top of which was
enveloped in a heavy fog. All through the day seals were plentiful,
and many of them asleep. During the past few days enough seals
had been seen to induce a vessel to lay by and wait until the weather
should moderate, but the captain thought bad weather had set in for
the fall, and accordingly had made up his mind to go home. He made
a mistake in so deciding, for after we had left and were on our way
home good catches were made by all the vessels that remained.
At 6 o'clock in the evening we had left Unimak Pass behind us and
were standing on an east by south course. The next day, when about
75 miles from the pass, saw a sleeping seal, and 10 miles farther on
saw two more. When about 200 miles off shore salmon were noticed
jumping. They were so near that we could hardly mistake the species.
Whales were also plentiful. For the first two or three days after leaving Bering Sea the weather was pleasant, but during the greater part
of the voyage home heavy gales from the westward prevailed. On the
evening of September 6 we arrived at Victoria, having been twelve
days on the voyage home.
. The writer was very kindly treated by the captain, officers, and crew
of the Olsen, who did everything in their power to forward his inquiries.
Had the Olsen encountered the favorable conditions which many of the
vessels did, much more extensive and important observations could
have been made. It was subsequently learned that during the time we
were having exceedingly stormy weather, often hove to in a gale, many
vessels of the fleet operating several degrees farther south were having pleasant weather and making good catches every day.
SYNOPSIS OF THE SEALING CRUISE OF THE LOUIS OLSEN
I ON THE JAPAN COAST IN 1894.
The schooner Louis Olsen, of Astoria, sailed on a sealing voyage,
bound for the coast of Japan, January 1, 1894. Like the majority of
sealers intending to hunt on that coast, she made a southern passage,
going to the southward of the Sandwich Islands and close to the Bonin
Islands. Sealers frequently call at the latter group for water and make
such repairs as may be needed. These islands are situated not far from
the sealing ground where seals are taken early in the spring.
The boats were lowered for the first time on March 12. The next day
and the following one 74 seals were taken. On the 16th a heavy gale
from the southeast came on, but subsided on the 17th, when hunting
was resumed.
On March 22, in latitude 37° 44' north, longitude 144° 02' east, a
schooner was sighted bottom up, which proved to be the sealing schooner
Mascot. She was afterwards seen by other vessels, and attempts were
made to cut through her side and secure the skins, of which, it was
understood, there were about 500 in her hold, but without success.
It had been noticed that the current was very strong and very irregu*
lar, making it difficult to trace the vessel's track by dead reckoning.
On the 25th a clear sky afforded the opportunity for a good observation,
and it was found that the current had carried the vessel 75 miles to the
north-northeast, although she had been headed southwest by south.
An irregularity in the currents was subsequently noticed on all parts
of the coast visited. SEAL   LIFE   ON   THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
121
On March 26, in latitude 38° 39' north, longitude 144° 27' east, a sealing boat was discovered bottom up, painted green on the outside and
red inside. It had been hove* to, with mast, sails, and oars out, for a
drag. A shotgun, a " sticking" knife, with the letters " W. B." cut in
the handle, and a seal skin were found in it, the skin being considerably
decayed.
We spoke the schooners Lillie L., of San Francisco, and Penelope, of
San Pedro, on March 28 and 31, in latitude 39° 02' north, longitude 144°
44' east. Heavy gales prevailed until the 1st of April. Fair weather
continued until the 9th, during which time 210 seals were taken.
Stormy weather again came on, which lasted for three days. On May 11
spoke with the schooner Casco, of Victoria, in latitude 39° 43' north,
longitude 142° 54' east. Very little sealing was carried on until the 18th.
On the 19th, two of the boats went astray in latitude 37° 02' north,
longitude 146° 03' east, and no tidings of them were obtained until the
26th, when the schooner Kate and Ann, of Victoria, was spoken and
reported that they had been picked up by the schooner Penelope, of
Victoria.
Sealing was carried on till May 3, when a heavy gale came on, which
continued until the evening of the 7th, at which time the Olsen sailed
for Hakodate. In the afternoon of the next day she entered the Straits
of Tangar, and in the evening came to anchor in the above-mentioned
harbor.
On May 16 sealing was again commenced in latitude 40° 55' north,
longitude 142° 58' east, when she also spoke with the Dora Siewerd,
which reported having 1,300 skins. The following day fell in with the
schooner Penelope, and received on board the hunters that went astray
on April 19. On May 26 picked up a boat and crew belonging to the
schooner Enterprise, of Victoria, in latitude 41° 50' north, longitude
142° 26' east. The next day spoke with the schooner JJmbrina, of Victoria, which had taken 2,100 skins.
Hunting was carried on without interruption until June 10, the total
number of skins taken up to date being 1,055. No more hunting was
done on the Japan coast. On June 25 the Olsen arrived at Attu
Island and on July 15 at Unalaska.
I was informed by the captain and hunters of the Olsen that full nine-
tenths of the seals taken on the Japan cruise were females, and that it
is very seldom that a bull is killed. I have since talked with a number
of hunters belonging to other vessels, and they all say that the Japan
catch of seals consists mostly of females. A few more males are found
at the Copper Islands, but the percentage there is small.
am   . :     ■     ,
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IliifllflliWIS -.j?^{VWS^hr'*S;?6« ■
OB
ERVATIONS DURING A CRUISE ON THE DORA
SIEWERD, AUGUST-SEPTEMBER, 1895.
By A. B. Alexander.
LETTER   OF   TRANSMITTAL.
U. S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries,
Office of the Commissioner,
Washington, March 9, 1896.
Sir: I have the'honor to transmit for your information a report by
Mr. A. B. Alexander, fishery expert of the United States Fish Commission steamer Albatross, entitled, "Beport of observations made during a cruise in Bering Sea in the sealing schooner Dora Siewerd, in
August and September, 1895." The preparation of this report has only
recently been completed.
^?'    Very respectfully, Herbert A. Gill,
Acting Commissioner.
The Secretary of the Treasury,
Washington, JD. C.
CRUISE OF THE DORA SIEWERD IN BERING SEA.
Pursuant to instructions from the Hon. Marshall McDonald, United
States Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries, to secure passage on a
pelagic sealing vessel for the purpose of making a cruise in Bering Sea,
with the object of gathering information concerning the pelagic habits
of fur seals, the methods employed for their capture at sea, their food,
the proportion of each sex represented in the catch, etc., I left the Albatross at Unalaska, the middle of July, 1895, to await the arrival of the
sealing fleet. Subsequently accommodations were obtained, through
the kindness of Capt. H. F. Siewerd, on his vessel, the Dora Siewerd,
a schooner of 100 tons register, and one of the largest in the fleet. She
carried 18 canoes and 2 boats, and a crew of 36 Indians and 9 white
imen. As two Indians go in a canoe, the spearsmen and boat steerers
were equally divided.
The writer went on board the Siewerd in the evening of July 27, but
owing to stormy weather she did not sail until the morning of the 31st,
getting under way in company with 27 other sealing vessels. The wind
being light we were obliged to anchor off Ulakhta Head.   Hand lines
123
M8*gggg*a 124
SEAL  LIFE  ON  THE  PBIBILOF  ISLANDS.
were put over here and fishing carried on for two hours, resulting in
the capture of 22 cod and 4 halibut.
Early in the afternoon, with a light wind from the eastward, we worked
toward Cape Cheerful, which, the next morning (August 1), bore southeast 25 miles, the fleet by this time being considerably scattered. At
9 a. m. 2 sleeping seals were observed, and shortly afterwards the vessel
was hove to and the canoes put over. Each hunter among the Indians
was anxious to secure the first skin, a superstition prevailing that he
who kills the first skin at the beginning of a cruise will be attended
with good luck during the remainder of the season. No time was lost
in getting the canoes in the water, as a number of other vessels in sight
had already lowered their boats. After the canoes had gotten about 2
miles ahead, the vessel followed in their wake; and as the day was clear
they could be seen for a long distance: Occasionally a sail would be
seen to lower, which indicated that the canoes were among seals.
Before entering into a discussion of the details of my observations it
may be well to state that the "positions of each day's catch will be found
in appended Table No. 1, the same corresponding with those given in
the vessel's official log. The noon position each day is shown in Table
No. 2, in which is also recorded the direction and force of the wind,
the barometer reading, and the temperature of the air and water.
The temperature of the water was taken 5 feet below the surface. The
material found in the stomachs of seals has been labeled with reference
to the noon position.
In the afternoon we passed numerous patches of seaweed and kelp.
In a few instances seals were seen with their heads and flippers thrust
up through this floating material. Occasionally they would dive and
swim a short distance, soon returning to the surface, however, rolling
over and over in the tangled seaweed, but sometimes stopping in their
play on the alert for danger. When on sealing ground, hunters always
carefully inspect floating seaweed, and, as a rule, if there are seals about,
they are almost sure of finding one or more in each large patch. Late
in the afternoon we passed close to such a patch, covering a considerable area, in which 6 seals were playing. They paid no attention to the|
vessel, although within 100 yards of them. A hunter with a shotgun
could have captured 2 or 3 of the number, and an Indian with a spear
would have secured at least 2.
At 5 p. m. the canoes returned with a catch of 42 seals. Three of
the males were about 5 years old, all the others of both sexes being!
from 2 to 4 years old. Their stomachs were nearly all empty, a few containing some material, which, however, was too much decomposed to be?
identified. The hunters reported seeing but few seals asleep, and these
appeared uneasy. Most of those observed awake were finning. No
great body of seals had been noticed, and in such pleasant weather, if
there had been many on the ground, 18 canoes and 2 boats could have
picked up 100 or more. This number of boats, traveling, as they do, in
a path from 10 to 15 miles wide, must necessarily see nearly every seal
within that belt. The few seals seen traveling to-day were going toward
the northwest.
The chief of the tribe reported hearing the discharge of firearms a
short distance to windward of his canoe, but he could not tell to what
vessel the boat belonged.
The next day, August 2, the boats were lowered at 7 a. m. The
weather bid fair for a successful day's hunt, the wind being north-
northwest and light, and the sea smooth. In the early part of the forenoon we jogged close to 3 seals playing.   Frequently they would roll
■ ■«■—.■>-.-i   SEAL  LIFE   ON  THE   PRIBILOF ISLANDS.
125
over several times, stop suddenly to scratch themselves, and stand
upon their heads with their hind flippers about 2 feet out of water.
They repeatedly performed this operation. When quite near them one
of the seals lifted its head up, but the sight of the vessel caused no
alarm. Having no boat to lower or spear to throw, a loud noise was
made by shouting and beating upon a tin can. This did not have the
effect of frightening them, but a light thump on the rail of the vessel
caused them to dive instantly, and when next seen they were about
200 yards away. Pausing to look at the object which had frightened
them, they then swam rapidly away in an easterly direction.
From the above it would appear that seals are ordinarily but little
frightened by the presence of vessels, provided they are to leeward of
them. Had we been on the windward side the seals would have taken
alarm almost instantly, and would either have dived or swam rapidly
awav.
At 1 p. m. a heavy fog bank appeared in the northwest, and shortly
afterwards the canoes and one boat returned. The other boat had evidently gone astiay, but as the weather was smooth no great anxiety
was entertained for her safety. Forty five seals were brought on board,
26 being males and 19 females. All the females except 2 were with
milk.   Their stomachs were mostly empty.
Through the night the weather continued foggy. Early the next
morning, August 3, a sharp lookout was kept for the missing boat, and
also for seals. No attempt had been made to lower the canoes although
the sea was comparatively smooth. The light fog which hung over the
water, in connection with the fact of the missing boat, caused the
Indians to hang back. At 7 a. m. a sleeping seal wras observed under
our lee close aboard, but not in a position to detect us by the sense of
smell. A canoe was soon launched and started in pursuit, but the short,
choppy sea made it somewhat difficult to capture it. In calm weather,
or at times when there is only a light wind stirring, a canoe in approaching a seal is generally paddled directly from the leeward, but in a
choppy sea, such as prevailed on this occasion, an Indian always
approaches side to the wind, which brings the canoe in the trough of
the sea and prevents it from making any noise that would disturb the
" sleeper."
About noon the missing boat returned, bringing the skins of 2 seals,
1 male and 1 female.
At 1 p. m. another sleeping seal was observed close under our lee.
In ninety-nine cases out of a hundred a sleeping seal will awaken when
a vessel is close to it to windward, but not so with this individual, for
it slept on wholly unconscious of danger, and was easily captured. At
this time the weather showed signs of clearing, and soon afterwards the
canoes were lowered. The vessel continued jogging to the westward
under sealing canvas. One vessel was in sight. Three hours later the
canoes began to return, the wind having increased in force, accompa- •
nied by a choppy sea, which prevented seals from sleeping. They were
reported scarce, and the few taken bore out this statement. The day's
hunt amounted to only 13 skins, 6 males and 7 females. Four of the
females were with milk. Two of the males were quite large, about 5
years of age or over, the others from 3 to 4 years. Very few seals had
jbeen observed from the canoes, and those noticed awake were traveling
to the southwest.
In the morning of August 4 the weather was foggy and the wind
^northwest and moderate. White hunters would not have hesitated
about going out in this kind of weather, but the Indians indulged in
. ***m**Jb6**n ii***** * 26
SEAL  LIFE   ON  THE  PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
considerable unnecessary talk and paid no attention to a few scattering
sleeping seals that were observed among patches of seaweed. It was
only when an occasional glimpse of the sky was seen through the
clouds and fog, and indications of good weather were plainly visible,
that the Indians showed a disposition to hunt. At 10 o'clock all the
boats went out. At the time of lowering two other sealing vessels were
in sight. During the absence of the canoes no seals were observed from
the vessel, although floating seaweed was plentiful.
The canoes returned early in the afternoon, on account of a heavy
fog bank which suddenly shut down. Only 16 seals had been taken, 8
males and 8 females. Their stomachs were entirely empty, which would
seem to indicate a scarcity of surface fish in this locality. One of the
hunters spoke the schooner Annie C. Moore, which reported having
taken 65 seals, a comparatively poor catch, considering that the weather
had been fairly good.
The following day (August 5) the weather was not suitable for sealing, owing to fog and mist most of the time. The wind was from the
west-southwest to east-southeast, gradually increasing from a gentle
to a fresh breeze, accompanied by a sea sufficiently choppy to prevent
seals from sleeping. One " sleeper," however, was observed from the
vessel and captured.
On stormy days a lookout is kept by the hunters, and the one who
first sees a seal is entitled to stand in the bow of the canoe as spears-
man. At such times three men go in a canoe, the weather usually being
too rough for one man to manage it. No selection of canoe is made,
the most handy one being used, and also the first spear that can be
gotten hold of.
In the afternoon we stood to the east-southeast 18 miles, and during
the night to the south by west 17 miles, sighting Unalaska Island on
the morning of the 6th. The weather was stormy and blowing a moderate gale from southeast, with falling barometer. The noon observation placed us in latitude 55° Ol7 north, longitude 168° 07' west, which
showed that we had been in a strong southerly current for the past
twenty-four hours. Later in the day we ran 19 miles on a northwest
course and hove to on the port tack under a two-reefed foresail and
fore-staysail and trysail. In the evening we passed close to the
schooner San Jose. During the night the wind hauled to the southwest and decreased in force to a very fresh breeze. At times during
the following day the sea was very rough, not wholly due to the wind,
but caused by a strong current running to the southward. At noon
the fog and clouds cleared enough to enable us to get an observation—
latitude 54° 56' north, longitude 167° 27' west. In the afternoon we
stood to the northward at a rate sufficient to offset the effect of the
current. Late in the day we spoke the schooner Walter L. Rich, which
had taken only 65 seals. She had been cruising to the westward of our
present position, near the 60-mile zone, and while in that region had
seen but few seals.
Toward evening two young seals played about the vessel for some^
time. They were enticed quite near by whistling, but not close enough
to spear. It is only rarely that seals are speared from the deck of a?
vessel. The young will often approach very near and play about, some-1
times for an hour or more, but keeping out of reach. Occasionally,
however, their curiosity overcomes their customary prudence, and at!
such times they are generally captured.
In the morning of August 8 there were indications of clearing weather,
with rising barometer and an occasional clear spot in the sky.   A dozen papsESESEEHSSS
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SEAL  LIFE  ON  THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
127
or more seals, in bands of three and four, were noticed, causing considerable commotion among the Indians. A week of the sealing season
had already passed, and only a few seals had been captured, in consequence of which the Indians were becoming restless. At 8 a. im, wore
ship and shook the reef out of the foresail, but in a short time the fog
again settled down, and remained so for the remainder of the day.
In the afternoon we saw quite a large number of seals, more than at
&ny time since entering the sea. They were not moving in any particular direction. Orcas or killer whales were plentiful, and kept close
to the seals, but they did not have the effect of driving them from the
ground. The sealers claim that the orcas destroy large numbers of
seals annually, especially in and about the numerous passes through
the Aleutian Islands and off the coast of Japan. Many hunters say
that when out in their boats it is not an unfrequent occurrence to see
orcas devour seals. Cue hunter on board of the Siewerd informed me
that on two occasions, off the Japan coast, orcas attempted to take the
seals that he had shot. During the afternoon we saw five other sealing
vessels.
On August 9 the canoes were put over for the first time in five days.
The white hunters made a start at 9 a. m., the weather having moderated, and being prompted so to do by the sight of a sleeping seal.
The Indian hunters held back for a time, but several other seals being
observed, the remaining canoes were lowered. During most of the time
while the hunters were absent, numerous birds and whales and several
porpoises were observed about the vessel. Early in the afternoon the
wind began to increase in force and the canoes to return. By 4 o'clock
they were all on board, having secured 20 seals, of which 13 were males
and 7 females. The stomachs were nearly all empty, a piece of squid
being taken from one and a few fish bones from another. One of the
females had lost a hind flipper, and shot were found in two of the skins.
One of the seals represented by these skins had been recently wounded,
the other probably some time early in the spring, the shot being found
encysted. All of the females were in milk; the males were all young
bachelors.
Two vessels, the F. M. Smith and Saucy Lass, were in sight at the
time the canoes returned. The captain of the former came on board
and reported having taken 105 skins. He also said that the schooner
Triumph had obtained 283; Maud S., 240; C. D. Band, 100, and the
Saucy Lass between 60 and 70.
On the following morning (August 10) the weather was cloudy and
cool. At 7 o'clock the canoes and boats started out; at. the time of
their going the sea was long and rolling, and the temperature of the
water 2 degrees below that of the air. When the air is a great deal
colder than the water, experienced hunters do not, as a rule, expect to
find many sleeping seals. They state, however, that there are exceptions to this rule, but in most cases extra cold air makes them restless
and very difficult to approach within spearing distance; but with shotguns they may, when in this condition, be killed with comparative ease.
In the middle of the forenoon two vessels were sighted. Only one
seal was noticed from the vessel. This individual was "mooching," a
term used by the hunters to indicate swimming at the surface of the
water with only a very small portion of the body exposed, occasionally
thrusting the head out far enough to breathe. Seals frequently swim
this way on raw, cold days, when they may readily be shot with guns,
but are not easily approached with spears.
At 2 p. m. the Indians began to return, much earlier than they should
BMiKW'Ji^l
k. .MtinW********1 128
SEAL   LIFE   ON  THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
I
have done, having lost patience and become discouraged. They lack
the persistence and judgment of the white hunters, and will give up
the chase on the slightest pretext. The latter, on the contrary, will
remain out as long as a chance remains of adding another skin to their
catch. One hunter, however, had secured 14 seals, the largest catch of
any one canoe since entering the sea. The total number of seals in the
day's catch was 73, 18 being males, and 55 females. Their stomachs,
like those previously examined, contained but little food; only a few
pieces of fish and fish bones were found. In one of the canoes 3 female
seals had been skinned; of those brought on board 3 were without
milk. When asked if the seals skinned in the canoe were in milk, the
Indians said they had not noticed. If the condition of the seals had
been observed the same answer would have been given, for as soon as
these Indians learn that certain information is wanted they are very
reticent, and but little dependence can be placed in what they do say.
Seemingly they have been taught to look with suspicion on every
person in search of sealing data.
The canoes that went to the northwest of the vessel were more successful than those that went in other directions, and the one that
brought in the 14 seals hunted about 6 miles to the northwest of all the
other canoes in that locality. A great many traveling seals were
observed, all bound to the northward. Nearly all information concerning the direction in which seals were traveling was obtained from the
white hunters. Indians, as a rule, pay but little attention to traveling
seals, generally attempting to capture only those that are asleep, but
sometimes they will endeavor to spear them when rolling and finning.
In two of the seals taken shot were found, the wounds being comparatively fresh—not more than a week old.
On August 11 the canoes and boats went out at 5 o'clock, light
wind and cloudy weather prevailing all day. In the afternoon sleeping
seals, two and three in a bunch, were frequently observed from the
vessel. Whales were plentiful from sunrise until dark. The smoke of
a revenue cutter could be noticed to the southwest all the morning,,
the sight of which caused our canoes to hover much nearer the vessel
than usual, the Indians having a dread of all Government vessels. At
10 a. m. a canoe belonging to the schooner Triumph came alongside
with 5 seals. Our canoes began to return at 5.30 p. m. and continued
to come in until 7 o'clock, when the last one arrived. The largest catch
was 10 skins and one canoe obtained nothing. Sleeping seals were
reported in small bunches from 1 to 2 miles apart. The hunters who
happened to be near these bunches did fairly well, but a few miles to
the southwest only few seals were found. Traveling seals were also
plentiful among the bunches. Considering the fine weather prevailing
and the number of seals observed from the vessel the catch was com-1
paratively small, only 89 having been taken—10 males and 79 females.
Sixty-five of this number were examined. The stomachs in 49 were
empty, 13 contained liquid matter, and 7 material which it would be
possible to identify; the latter was preserved. A large number of
canoes hunting on the same ground tends to destroy the chances of a
good catch by any of them. Canoes from other vessels were in close
proximity to ours and none of them did well. This day's catch was
made 12 miles north and 9 miles west from that of the day before.
On August 12 the hunters made an early start, the weather being
cloudy and cool, the wind from the westward and light; sea smooth;
temperature of air and water the same.   Later in the forenoon a heavy   BSB
SEAL   LIFE   ON   THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
129
fog bank threatened to envelop us, and shortly after noon it came in
thick, causing all the canoes to return, having obtained only 15 seals.
On August 13 the weather was unsuitable for sealing, being cloudy
and threatening; the wind fresh from the southwest and west southwest.
In the morning we were in company with the schooners Triumph and
Sapphire, of Victoria, the former having taken 500 skins and the latter
450 skins. Captain Siewerd and the writer went on board of the Sapphire. It had been uoticed that the water about us was very dark in
color, much darker than usual, and it had also been observed that in
localities where we had taken the most seals the water had been the most
discolored. Captain Siewerd had on more than one occasion noticed
that seals frequent water of this character in considerable numbers, and
had noted the fact in his log. Captain Cox, of the Triumph, stated that
when in Bering Sea last year he got most of his catch in this locality,
namely, latitude 54° 56' north, longitude 168° 15' west. He found seals
at the commencement of the voyage in water very much discolored, and
he endeavored to keep in such water as much as possible. This experiment resulted in his averaging 126 seals for each time the canoes were
lowered during the month of August, 1894. On the strength of meeting with such good success, he has been cruising this season on the
same ground, and is now more conviuced than ever that seal life is
more abundant in discolored water than in clear water. Captain Cox
attributed the poor catch of seals on August 11 to the great number of
canoes roaming over a comparatively small area. On the day mentioned
the Sapphire took only 68 seals and the Triumph 73. A few days before
a large bull seal was captured by the Sapphire with two spears embedded
in its body.
On the forenoon of the next day (August 14) the weather did not bid
fair for sealing, the sea being choppy and the wind fresh from the west-
southwest. No seal life was observed until the middle of the day, when
one seal was noticed asleep not far from the vessel, and so soundly that
the flapping of the canvas did not disturb it. It was captured. Its
stomach was empty.
At 12.15 p. m. the weather began to show signs of moderating, and
soon afterwards the canoes were lowered in latitude 55° 3' north, longitude 167° 45' west, where a number of seals were observed playing.
The good weather was of short duration, however, the canoes returning
by 3.15 p. m., a heavy fog having settled over the water. The white
hunters did not come in until nearly dark, thus showing the difference
between the two classes. The fog lifted in about an hour after the
Indians returned, but they could not be induced to go out again. In
several instances where Indians have become discouraged and wanted
to return home they have, in order to accomplish their purpose, broken
their spears and smashed their canoes, thereby breaking up the voyage.
Previous to about two years ago there was no law in British Columbia
regulating the conduct of Indian hunters on sealing vessels, and the
result was that every possible advantage was taken of the situation.
Under the law recently passed Indians are now held accountable as
much as white men for the success of the voyage.
The boats containing the white hunters brought back 4 seals, making
the total number for the day 30, of which 14 were males and 16 females.
The females were all adults, and with milk; the males were small, from
3 to 4 years old. Only three stomachs contained food. In one young
male's stomach was found a number of squid beaks; in the stomach of
S. Doc. 137, pt. 2 9 M
' VU--*»^v«»i^<^«i*'tf&r^'ii^ JIWW.WWW****' 130
SEAL   LIFE   ON   THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
a female, a piece of squid; and in another, material resembling partly
digested crustaceans.
The water through which we had passed was considerably discolored,
and the few seals taken were captured where crustaceans were the most
abundant. In the evening large flocks of guillemots, petrels, and auks
were noticed, apparently feeding. No small fish being noticed, it was
supposed that the birds were feeding on minute surface life.
On August ^ii} the weather was very pleasant, only light airs disturbing the water, and a finer day for sealing could not be desired. By 5
a. m. all the boats had left the vessel, not returning until about the same
hour in the evening. A considerable number of sleeping and traveling
seals were in sight most of the day. Those that were traveling were
not, so far as was observed, going in any one direction. Sometimes a
bunch of two or three would suddenly start toward the southeast, swim
rapidly for a few minutes, stop, and go in an opposite direction. Frequently four or five would make a complete circle around the vessel at
a distance of a quarter of a mile. In a few instances young seals came
and played about, diving and swimming, etc.
An abundance of seals was seen from the vessel, but as they occur
in bands more or less widely separated, it was not certain that the
canoes and small boats would get among them. All through the day
whales and birds were numerous and the water was very much discolored, signs now looked upon as favorable indications for a successful
day's hunt.
At 4 p. m. the boats began to return and by 6 o'clock they had all
arrived except one. The day proved fairly successful, 99 seals having
been taken, 31 males and 68 females. Nine was the highest catch and
1 the lowest by a single boat or canoe. They were by far the largest
seals yet obtained, only 8 of the females being under 3 years of age.
All of the stomachs were examined, but only 10 of the number contained
food, some a small amount of liquid matter, and others Alaskan pollock
and what appeared to be pieces of cod.
In the evening the wind began to freshen from the east-southeast
and later the stars were visible for the first time since we had entered
the sea. All through the night the wind was fresh, causing a choppy
sea by morning. During this time we had worked 20 miles to the westward. A sharp lookout had been kept for the missing canoe and a
torchlight was displayed at frequent intervals.
No boats were lowered during the day, the conditions being unfavorable. The wind did not blow hard at any time, but was strong enough
to prevent the seals from sleeping. In the afternoon we spoke the
schooner Louis Olsen, which had taken 30 seals the day before. At 4
p. m. we attempted to sound in latitude 55° 15' north, longitude 1689
west, but got no bottom, although we were close to the edge of the
bank. Just before dark a young seal came alongside and began to
play about the vessel, first on one side and then on the other, affording
great amusement to the Indians. After a good many wild throws it
was captured and proved to be a female.
On August 17 a fairly good day's work was accomplished. Light
airs prevailed from southeast and east-southeasjb, with frequent calms.
Light fog and showers occurred several times during the day, but they
were not heavy enough to prevent seals from sleeping. Early in'Jfche
morning a young seal came alongside and was taken. At 0 a. m. all the
canoes were lowered; after their departure no seals were seen from the
vessel. Early in the afternoon a canoe belonging to the schooner San
Jose boarded us and reported that vessel as having 530 skins.   At 7.30
• ■■■•■•--■*. " imaaaauJLU^
SEAL   LIFE   ON   THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS;
131
p. m. our hunters returned bringing 85 seals, 28 males and 57 females;
All of the females were exceptionally large; the males were all young
bachelors, from 4 to 5 years old. A careful examination was made of
the stomachs, only 6 of which contained food. In one stomach was
found small pieces of squid, in the others small bones and pieces of
fish. The catch to-day was not very evenly distributed among the
boats, the highest bringing in 14, and four 1 each.
On August 18 the wind was from the southeast by south to souths
southwest, decreasing from a stiff* to a gentle breeze. The sea was
choppy in the morning, and a long rolling swell prevailed in the afternoon. The weather was foggy and variable, all of which conditions were
unfavorable for sealing. At noon there were signs of clearing up, and
shortly after that the canoes were lowered in latitude 55° 51' north,
longitude 168° 32' west. The Indians had no great desire to go out,
and probably would not have ventured had it not been that the schooner
Willard Ainsworth was a short distance away and had already lowered her boats. Five other vessels were also in sight. At the end of
three hours the hunters returned, having secured only 2 seals—1 male
and 1 female. Very few seals had been seen, the only "sleepers" being
the 2 that were captured. The others were traveling in various
directions.
The next day, August 19, rain prevented seals from sleeping. At 8
a. m. the canoes were lowered, but the weather did not give promise of
satisfactory results, even in case seals were plentiful. The canoes
remained out only two hours, returning with 2 males and 2 females.
Their stomachs, like those of yesterday, were empty. The mate of our
vessel while absent had boarded the schooner Florence M. Smith, and
learned that she had taken 546 seals. On the 15th she secured 160
seals; her position on that day having been not far from where we
hunted—latitude 55° 08' north, longitude 167° 40' west. He was also
told that our canoe which went astray on the 15th had taken 12 seals,
making our total catch for that day 111 skins.
Shortly after the boats returned a sleeping seal was observed close
aboard, and although it was raining hard it slept on, wholly unmindful
of the weather. Such an occurrence is very unusual, for it is seldom
that seals rest well while it is raining, unless they have become
thoroughly exhausted by a long spell of rough weather. Later in the
afternoon a few traveling seals were seen; they frequently changed their
course, but the general direction of their movements was northwesterly.
We had been in discolored water all day, but late in the afternoon we
.suddenly jogged out of it into clear water. The noon observation, latitude 54° 56' north, longitude 168° west, indicated that we were in a
strong south-southwest current.
On August 20 a very satisfactory catch was made, the wind being a
light breeze from the westward, and the sea smooth. A light fog hung
low over the water at times, occasionally clearing for the space of half
to three-quarters of an hour, which enabled the hunters to keep track
of the vessel. The boats were lowered at 4.30 a. m., at which time
seven other sealing vessels were in sight. During the afternoon we frequently saw canoes lower their sails, indicating that they were among
seals. We could not tell to which vessel they belonged, as both boats
and vessels were well mixed up together.
One canoe returned early in the afternoon with 11 skins, and by 7
p. in. Ill seals had been lajided on deck, 44being males and 67 females.
Sixty-two of the latter were nursing females. All the males were from
4 to 5 years old except 2, which were about 6 years old.    Squid and
«*?•£*« ^SWES^MKrrt"? ^,*^**'*U^.*t»*Ut«*^^*^«*»*w<'* 132
SEAL  LIFE   ON  THE  PRIBILOF  ISLANDS.
pollock made up the bulk of the food found in their stomachs, a few
being gorged with it. In proportion^ to the number of seals taken,
however, only a few contained food. The squid and pollock were in a
comparatively fresh state. From the stomach of one male an eelpout
was taken.
It is a fact worth mentioning that all the seals taken by us to-day
were found in "streaks" of discolored water from 1 to 3 miles wide,
and extending nearly in a north and south direction. The character of
the water could hardly be accounted for by our close proximity to the
bank, for if such had been the case it would have been the same all
over. It had previously been noticed that these discolored bands ran
parallel to each other in northeast and southwest or northwest and
southeast directions. Water in this condition would not ordinarily be
noticed from the deck of a steamer unless on the lookout for it. The
mate reported seeing an abundance of Alaskan pollock jumping and
many traveling seals in pursuit of them.
Most of the seals taken to-day were captured asleep, only four having been awake when speared.   The latter weie "mooching."
In and about the neck of a male seal were found several shot wounds,
with blood oozing from them. Another seal had a bullet hole close to
its right forward flipper.
On the morning of August 21 there was every indication of favorable
sealing weather. The sky was dark and cloudy, but the wind was light
and the sea smooth. The Indians went out at an early hour. Not
long after their departure we spoke the schooner Agnes McDonald,
which had picked up our hunters who went astray on the 15th. The
McDonald reported having 900 skins. Her white and Indian hunters
were equally divided as to numbers, and the former had taken between
40 and 50 more seals than the latter.
The Indians of the Northwest Coast have always been of the opinion
that white men could never become expert in the use of the spear, and
this spring they ridiculed the idea when told that white hunters were
to be employed on a few vessels. If white men will only exercise the
same patience when hunting with spears as with shotguns, they will
soon become as proficient in its use as the Indians. Such a result
would be greatly to the advantage of captains and vessel owners, as
the Indians have had the opportunity heretofore of dictating their
own terms.
At noon a heavy fog settled down, causing the boats to return; but
fairly good results were obtained, 69 seals being taken—12 males and
57 females The males were small, ranging in age from 2 to 4 years.
Forty-eight of the females were exceptionally large, 4 medium in size,
and 2 about 2 years old. The first mentioned were all with milk, the
others without. An examination of their stomachs showed that they
had been feeding largely on squid, Alaskan pollock, and salmon, a considerable amount of which could not have been in their stomachs more
than a short time, as it was very fresh in appearance.
The mate reported seeing, while hunting, a small school of squid,
but observed no seals among them. The other white hunters noticed
numerous small fish jumping, and frequently seals in pursuit of them.
The fish could not be approached near enough to determine their
species.
At the time of lowering the canoes a dead whale was seen to windward, about 1^ miles distant. We kept in sight of it all day. In the
evening, after the work of skinning had been finished, a party of
Indians went to it and brought back a quantity of blubber.   The head mmmuumu
SEAL   LIFE   ON   THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
133
had been cut off. Numerous birds were hovering over the carcass and
many were feeding on it, but no seals were noticed near at hand.
On August 22 the boats were lowered at an early hour, the weather
being similar to that of the day before, with light and gentle winds
from the westward. At the time of lowering 4 other vessels were
in sight, directly to windward. This, of course, placed our boats in a
bad position, as a windward berth is superior to all others. When
following in the wake of other boats only poor results are to be
expected, as the windward hunters disturb the sleeping seals.
At noon a hunter on the Agnes McDonald, who came on board,
reported his vessel as having 920 skins, the highest catch for one day
having been 253, and the next highest 180. The 253 seals were taken
on the 15th, and not far from our position on that date. The hunter
informed the writer that on the day before he speared a large male
just as it came to the surface with a red rock fish in its mouth. The
fish was alive, and as it was not at all mutilated it was taken on board
and cooked. He also stated that he speared a sleeping seal close to
the floating carcass of a dead one. Indians claim that seals will not
remain where carcasses are floating, but this is not always true, for on
several occasious we had noticed seals among such objects.
At 4 p. m. a heavy fog set in, putting an end to further hunting for
the day. Forty-four seals composed the catch, 12 being males and 32
females. The males were all young bachelors and all the females were
in milk except 2. The stomachs of 33 were empty, 11 contaiued pieces
of squid, salmon, pollock, and numerous fish bones.
In the evening we shaped our course to north-northeast, and during
the night ran 25 miles in order to get near our position of the 21st. In
the morning the weather was unfit for sealing, and as the day advanced
the chances grew less favorable.
At 10 a. m. we sounded in 90 fathoms, the first time we had been on
soundings since leaving Unalaska. At 4 p. m. our longitude by observation was 168° 05' west, latitude at noon 55° 28' north, near where
the 69 seals had been taken on the 21st. In the evening we were
boarded by officers from the revenue cutter Bush.
On August 24 the weather was too variable to entertain hopes of success at hunting. A heavy, wet fog in the morning, combined with a
moderate breeze and choppy sea, prevented an early start. At 7.30 a. m.
a slight clearing caused the canoes to be lowered. The signal gun was
kept firing at short intervals until 10 o'clock, when the fog entirely
cleared. The spell of good weather was of short duration, however,,
for at noon a squall from the north brought all the hunters back. In
the short time that the boats were out 21 seals were taken. This was
encouraging, for it indicated that we were on good sealing ground.
Most of the seals captured were restless, few being sound asleep, or, in
sealers' parlance, they did not " lay up " well. The mate came across
two seals sleeping side by side, one of which was speared. Instead of
the other one becoming alarmed and diving, as is usually the case, it
remained near its struggling companion until the latter was hauled
into the boat. The food found in the stomachs of the seals to-day dicL
not vary much from that recorded in those previously examined in this,
locality, namely, squid, squid beaks, salmon, pollock, and fishbones.
The males were comparatively large; the females were all adults and
with milk.
During the night we stood to the westward 50 miles, and then hove to.
The weather on August 25 prevented sealing, being cold with a fresh
breeze from north to north by east, accompanied by a rough sea.   The 134
SEAL   LIFE   ON  THE   PRIBILOF  ISLANDS.
vessel was hove to under sealing canvass. Excellent observations were
taken, it being the first time the sun had remained out for any length
of time since the cruise began. All day birds had been numerous, and
occasionally a sleeping seal was observed; sometimes two and three
were seen together. This, combined with the great number of birds,
assured us that we were on good ground. We frequently wore ship in
order to hold our position.   In the evening rain squalls passed over.
On the morning of August 26, the wind and sea having subsided, the
canoes were lowered in latitude 55° 15' north, longitude 170° 53' west.
The weather was pleasant but cool, the air being 2 degrees colder than
the water. This difference, according to the theory of many sealers,
would cause seals to "lay low," or, to put it in clearer terms, they
would sleep with less of their bodies exposed.
In view of the number of seals observed before the boats went out, a
large catch was anticipated, nor were we disappointed, for in the even-
Jog when the last canoe had returned there were 157 seals on deck.
The opinions advanced to the effect that seals are more plentiful where
birds occur seem to be entitled to consideration, and it is very probable
that had we not heeded their presence yesterday, and had sailed by
them, our catch to-day would not have been large. Our captain had
become thoroughly convinced of the value of these signs after years of
experience.
The canoes were all back at 6.30 p. m., having been absent over twelve
hours. In the forenoon seals were inclined to be restless, but occasional
warm rays of sun in the afternoon caused them to sleep soundly. It was
noticed that a large portion of to-day's catch was speared either in the
breast or back, close to the forward flippers, indicating that the seals
slept soundly, with their bodies largely exposed, which gave the hunters
an opportunity to strike the most vital part. Aside from the favorable
condition of the weather, the absence of other vessels from the ground
materially aided in increasing the day's catch.
In only 12 stomachs was food found which could be identified, the
others being empty. In the full stomachs were observed squid, j)ollock,
and one piece of salmon. Fifty of the 62 males were 4 to 5 years old,
the other 12 about 3 years old. Ninety-two of the females were adults,
and 2 under 3 years of age.
All through the night of the 26th and the morning of the 27th the
weather was calm, or nearly so. At daybreak a light fog hung over
the water; in the middle of the day it cleared away. On the strength
of yesterday's success the hunters went out at an early hour. From
the vessel scattering seals were observed all through the day. The
water was very much discolored, and whales and porpoises were abundant, but there was a marked scarcity of birds as compared with yesterday. At noon a good observation of the sun was taken, which placed
us in latitude 55° 10' north, longitude 170° 47' west.
At 4 p. m. the hunters began to return, and at 7.30 o'clock th^ last
one had arrived. The catch nearly equaled that of yesterday, amounting to 146 seals, 68 being males and 78 females. It will be seen by this
that there are times when the sexes are nearly equally distributed, but
as a rule the majority of seals taken at sea are females. Sixty of the 146
seals were opened; food was taken from 6 males and 14 females, consisting of squid, pollock, and a small quantity of fishbones. The stomachs
of the females opened contained a greater quantity of food than the
males. Thus far, in the examination of stomachs, it had been noticed
that those of the males contained much less material than the females.
Most of the males caught to-day were very young, 3 and 4 years old; *TH^Wffff* ^WTlfo'M K
K«*^v.*^v*!^<%.'W:^^tV-:y'-?:ATr-i^:~.:<.
SEAL  LIFE   ON  THE  PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
135
the females were much larger. Seventy-four of the latter were in milk;
those that were not were from 2 to 3 years old.
On the morning of August 28 the weather looked favorable for a
repetition of the previous day's work. The hunters were well clear of
the vessel at 5.30 o'clock, at which time another vessel and the smoke
of a steamer could be seen low on the horizon. In the middle of the
day a canoe belonging to the schooner James G. Swan came alongside
and reported that vessel as having 860 skins. During the latter part
of the day the weather became threatening. The barometer had been
falling rapidly since noon, the wind had shifted from southwest to southeast, and no seals had been observed from the vessel. At 6 p. m. the
hunters returned, bringing 57 seals. Two of the males were large, the
others were all small.
As soon as the canoes and boats were hoisted in and secured for the
night, a single reef was put in the foresail and a reefed trysail set, and
preparations made for stormy weather. At dark the wind began to
increase in force, and by midnight it was blowing a moderate gale,
which continued until the following noon. Occasional heavy rain
squalls passed over, which kept the sea down somewhat. In the evening two sleeping seals were noticed, which was unusual under the
circumstances.
In the morning of August 30 the wind had again increased to a moderate gale, and since midnight had changed 2 points to the southward.
The sea was very rough; weather clear and sunny.
At 10 a. m. wore ship and lay to on the starboard under close-reefed
sails. Both in the forenoon and afternoon we saw scattering seals.
They were seemingly not bound in any particular direction, and most
of them were playing.   One was observed asleep.
We had been in comparatively clear water all day, but late in the
afternoon suddenly jogged into discolored water. At 5.30 p. m. the
jib was set, and we stood on a southeast by south course, so as to give
the 60-mile limit a wide berth, the wind and sea for the past twenty-
four hours having carried us toward it. We worked to the south and
west all night. In the morning of August 31 the wind and sea had
gone down considerably, and one vessel was in sight. At noon we
were in latitude 55° IP north; longitude 170° 05' west. We spoke
the schooner Enterprise, of Victoria, with 1,387 skins on board. She
reported the schooner Libbie, with 1,040 skins, and the Carlotta Cox,
with 600. The last-named vessel carried only 6 boats, and white hunters, which speaks well in their favor as seal hunters with spears.
Shortly after meridian we passed several sleeping seals, but the condition of the weather prevented the hunters from going out. About
two hours later several more were seen, and at 4 p. m. we came across
a bunch of " sleepers." At this time the weather showed signs of clearing, and 7 canoes were lowered, but they were out only a short time
when the weather again became threatening. Eleven seals was the
result of this short trial, 5 being males and 6 females. They were all
very small and only one contained food. Four of the females were
without milk.
Through the day we had been in markedly discolored water, and the
other indications were favorable to the presence of a considerable body
of seals on this ground, which turned out to be the fact, as proved by
the results of the hunting on the following day.
The wind had been moderate all through the night, and in the morning of September 1 a light air was moving from the southwest, the sea
being smooth.   The sky was cloudy and the air cool, but as the day
TjSNl^fci!- fiaiJH" *-^.«»^~.^ 136
SEAL   LIFE   ON   THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
advanced it grew warmer. Whales could be heard blowing through
the night, and at daylight a number were seen close by; also immense
flocks of birds. At 5.30 a. m. the hunters started under very favorable
conditions, the sea being smooth and nothing in the atmosphere indicative of a change. The wind being very light, the vessel remained in
one position most of the day. Numerous seals were observed, both
awake and asleep. The former were moving only slowly, seldom going
over 100 yards, and spending most of the time in finning, rolling, and
scratching themselves. In the afternoon we were boarded by the
revenue cutter Rush. At 5.30 p. m. the canoes began to return, each
one.bringing a good catch, the largest amounting to 25 seals, the
smallest to 11. The total catch was 336. This was a phenomenal day's
work, affording the greatest number of seals ever taken in Bering Sea
in one day, except that the schooner Sapphire in 1894 captured about
400 in the same length of time.
There were 120 males and 216 females. The stomaehs of those opened
showed a remarkable scarcity of food. The material from 8 males
and 10 females was all that was in suitable condition to identify, and
consisted chiefly of, squid, although pollock and what looked like cod
made up a portion of the food preserved. Taking into consideration
the amount of surface life observed from day to day, it has appeared
remarkable that so few7 seals should have food in their stomachs.
To day both Indian and white hunters reported numerous seals, finning, rolling, and asleep. In the early part of the day they were inclined
to be restless, but iu the afternoon the warm sun caused them to sleep
soundly, and so plentiful were they that sometimes it was a hard matter
to decide which one to spear first. Of course, where seals sleep so near
together, those in close proximity to the one speared are liable to.be
disturbed, but there were enough others in the near vicinity to keep the
hunters busy without paying much attention to the disturbed ones.
They were reported as lying about like logs, as far as the eye could reach.
The hunters claimed that in all their experience they had never before
beheld anything like the sight presented. Small schools of squid, pollock, and other fish were plentiful. One of the white hunters reported
seeing several Atka mackerel, and from the description given it is pos-
sible he was correct. The day had been a perfect one for sealing, and
no other vessels were on the ground.
During the night we jogged to the southwest 14 miles. In the morning of September 2 the hunters were out at an early hour, weather being
clear and pleasant, the sea smooth, and the wind light from northeast
by north. At 10 a. m. two of the canoes returned, the hunters claiming
that the air was too raw and chilly for seals to sleep well, there being
2 degrees difference between the air and water. Only a few scattering
seals had been seen, and they were rolling and finning. It was uot long
before all the canoes returned, bringing altogether 10 seals—6 males and
4 females. Three of the latter were nursing females. Their stomachs
were comparatively empty, what little food they contained being of the
same character as on the previous day, namely, squid.
At 4 p. m. an observation of the sun placed us in latitude 55° 22/
north, longitude 170° 36' west. At this time we saw several patches of
sea weed in which seals were finning and playing. We spoke the
schooner Enterprise and learned that she had captured 236 seals on the
1st, about 12 miles south of our position. We were also informed that
a number of other vessels had been very successful, which would indicate that the seals covered a considerable area on that day and were
not wholly confined to our immediate vicinity.
\W SSBBggg
SEAL   LIFE   ON   THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
137
September 3 was cold and cloudy, the wind being northeast and fresh,
the sea short and choppy. A few "mooching" and finning seals were
occasionally seen; no travelers were observed. At 5 p. m. we spoke the
schooner Ainoko\ which had taken 750 skins. For the past week she
had been cruising in the vicinity of Akutan Pass, but had not found
seals abundant enough to remain on that ground. Last season good
catches were made there. She was now bound to the westward in
search of a large body of seals which had been reported a few days
previous by the revenue cutter Grant.
We continued to jog to the northward for about 20 miles and then
hove to. All the afternoon scattering seals had been observed, most
of them in our wake. They would follow the vessel for a half hour at
a time, seemingly through curiosity. At times during the night seals
could be heard playing around us. In the morning several bunches
were noticed close by, a few playing, but the majority going in a northwesterly direction. In the early part of the day the barometer began to
fall, the weather became threatening, with the wind east and sea rough.
At 10 a. m. wore ship and jogged to the southeast under snug canvas,
wind a moderate gale from the east-northeast. From daylight until
dark more seal life had been observed from the vessel than at any previous time since entering Bering Sea. Our attention was especially
attracted to the character of the water, which had the appearance of
being filled with minute surface life. Birds were numerous, and an
occasional whale was in sight.
During the next three days stormy weather prevailed, the wind being
east-northeast and blowing from a moderate to a strong gale; the sea
was heavy most of the time. On the morning of the 7th the wind had
subsided to a moderate breeze. During this long spell of boisterous
weather seals were frequently observed, some playing and others traveling in a southwesterly direction. Birds were plentiful most of the
time. At noon on the 7th we were in latitude 56° 22' north, longitude
171° 50' west, and it was quite evident that we had encountered a strong
northwesterly current. At 8 p. m. wore ship and stood to the southeast so as to give the GO mile zone a wide berth. A vessel cruising near
this line without getting an observation for several days, and having
no means of knowing the direction of the current, is very apt to be
from 30 to 40 miles out in her reckoning.
At 6 a. m. on September 8 the hunters were making preparations to
lower, the sea being smooth and a light breeze blowing from the eastward; the weather was cloudy. At 10 a. m. the hunt was interrupted
by a heavy, damp fog. Ten seals had been obtained—7 males and 3
females. Five of the former were between 4 and 5 years old; the other
2 were very small, about 1 year old; the females were all nursing cows.
The stomachs of these seals were nearly all empty. Only a few of the
hunters saw seals, and according to appearances there were but few in
this locality. Two of the boats rowed and sajjed fully 15 miles each
without encountering a single one. Fish and other surface life were
correspondingly scarce. As our position—latitude 56° 35' north, longitude 172° 20' west—placed us very near the bank, the scarcity of seals
was surprising.
While a number of the canoes were waiting alongside to be hoisted
on board a small seal came up in our wake, apparently attracted by the
blasts of the fog horn and remaining unconscious of danger until one
of the canoes had closely approached it and the spear had been poised
for striking.   It was captured.
At 3 p. m. we made all sail and stood to the southeast.   Shortly after
I 138
SEAL  LIFE   ON  THE   PRIBILOF  ISLANDS.
this the fog lifted for a short time and an observation of the sun was
taken, placing us in latitude 56° 32' north, longitude 172° 45' west.
The next morning we had made 50 miles in a southeast direction; the
weather was pleasant, the sea smooth, and the sky periodically clear.
A few seals were noticed early in the day. At 9 a. m. the presence of
3 seals, supposed to be sleeping, prompted two hunters to launch,
their canoes, but they dived just as the spears were being V >wn. The
appearance of seals, however, acted as an incentive for Wfc .e canoes
to go out, but they soon returned in consequence of fog. Nine seals,
only were obtained, 4 being males and 5 females. Although fish were
reported jumping, nothing was found in the stomachs of these
Specimens.
In the night we had worked to the east-southeast, and in the morning
we were in latitude 55° 50' north, longitude 171° 49' west. At 5 a. m. a
sleeping seal was speared close to the vessel; its stomach was well filled
with food, consisting apparently of Alaskan pollock. At this hour the
weather was very foggy and the Indians were not inclined to start.
Presently, however, the fog lifted somewhat and several more seals
were seen. A signal gun could now be heard, indicating that a sealing
vessel was near and that her boats were out. This circumstance stim-<
ulated the hunters to action, and in a short time the canoes were
hoisted out. As the fog cleared birds, whales, and porpoises could be
seen to the northwest, and also flocks of petrel on the water close by.
The season being now well advanced, the hunters were expected to take
advantage of every opportunity, and, moreover, on the strength of
their previous good success, they were quite eager to add a few more
skins to the number on board. The weather could no longer be trusted
for any length of time, and that proved to be the case on this day. At
11 a. m. the fog became so dense that the captain was as anxious to get
the hunters back as they were to return. Seventeen seals composed
the catch, 5 being males and 12 females. Eleven of the females were
nursing cows, and the males were all young. One canoe obtained 5 of
the number, all of which were asleep and separated just far enough so
the noise made in capturing one did not disturb the others. A consid>
erable number of "rollers" and " finners" was noticed, but the damp
fog seemed to prevent them from sleeping. Had the day been warm it
is probable that a good catch would have been secured.
In proportion to the number of seals taken, a greater amount of food
was found in their stomachs than on any previous occasion. Squidl
and pollock mixed with crustaceans composed the greater part of the
material identified.- Squid beaks were very conspicuous in every
stomach in which food was found. As in previous cases the stomachs
of the females were much better filled than those of the males.
The second mate while out hunting had boarded the schooner
Triumph, whose gun had been heard earlier in the day. She reported
having 1,800 skins. The day before she took 20 skins 30 miles to the
eastward of our present position. For the past few days she had been
gradually working to the westward, but only a few scattered seals had
been noticed. To-day her hunters brought in 42 skins. Captain Cox
expressed the opinion that if good weather should prevail for a few
days encouraging results would follow, as there was every indication
that seals were plentiful on this ground. The elements were against
us, however, and for the next four days the weather was rough and
boisterous.
On September 11 the wind blew a very fresh breeze, varying in
direction from south by east to southwest, accompanied by a rough
sea.   No seals were seen, but many birds were about.   During the   MM!&B!mi!BaffiaMaM
SEAL  LIFE  ON  THE  PRIBILOF  ISLANDS.
139
night of the 11th and the morning of the 12th the wind increased in
force and hauled to the westward. The sky was filled with heavy
clouds, the air was raw and chilly. Occasionally we wore ship to hold
our position. Scattering petrels and other sea birds were frequently
seen, but only one seal was sighted during the day. At sundown the
barometer began to rise. In the evening the sky cleared and the stars
came out, but the sea continued heavy and was accompanied by a
flying scud.
On September 13 the wind varied in force from a light to a stiff
breeze, with changeable weather, lain, mist, fog, and rough sea, ocea-'
sionally clearing. Birds were plentiful, one of which was seen to dive
close to the vessel and bring up a fish about 10 inches long. In the
afternoon 3 seals were observed sleeping side by side, the vessel almost
running over them before they awoke. They must have been much
exhausted from loss of sleep in the recent gale.
In the morning of September 14 the wind had again increased to a
moderate gate. The weather was f< ggy and misty at times, with a heavy,
rough, and tumbling sea. Two seals were observed in the forenoon.
Near noon we ran into an area of discolored water, in latitude 55° 20*
north, longitude 171° 25' west, in which were a number of seals. Notwithstanding the very rough condition of the sea and the moderate1
gale prevailing, several of them were asleep. Their bodies were but
little exposed, and it was only when we were quite near them that they
could be made out. The gale finally broke, and in the morning of
September 15 only a light, variable air was moving. The sea had also}
gradually gone down with the wind. At 7.30 a. m. several seals were
observed and the canoes were lowered. Two sleepers were captured a
short distance from the vessel. At 11a m., however, a heavy fog and
mist settled down, accompanied by a cold wind from the northwest,
which had the effect of bringing back the hunters, all of whom were on
board at 1.30 o'clock, having captured 24 seals, 16 males and 8 females.
Pieces of squid were found in the stomachs of some of them. Fourteen
of the males were very small, and 2 between 4 and 5 years old. The
females were larger, 5 being with milk. The hunters reported seeing
a large number of seals rolling and finning.
Numerous birds and a great many whales were in sight all day. At
noon we were in latitude 55° 10' north, longitude 170° 06' west, which
was not far from the position where we had taken 157 seals on August
26 and 146 on August 27. The color of the water varied but little on!
these dates, the strips of discoloration also running in the same general direction. It would appear as though these bands of discolored
water were governed chiefly by the currents, being but little affected
by the wind. Late in the day the fog gave way to occasional rain
squalls. Birds were exceedingly abundant, and we frequently sighted
scattered seals, the most of which were playing. In the evening several hail squalls passed over, after which the sky cleared.
Preparations were made to lower the canoes on the following morning, but the work was interrupted by the sudden breezing up of the
wind from the westward. In the afternoon the clear weather suddenly
changed to mist and rain, with an occasional squall. Only 2 seals
were seen, 1 asleep and the other playing. A canoe was lowered for
the "sleeper," but it was lost sight of in the choppy sea. Whales and
birds were plentiful all day, and in some places immense flocks of petrel were sitting on the water. They were evidently feeding on small
marine organisms, for as soon as we had jogged past they would settle
down in the same spot from where they had been frightened.
Early in the evening a sealing vessel passed to windward with her 140
SEAL   LIFE   ON   THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
flag set, indicating that she was homeward bound. The sight of this
vessel put the Indians in high glee, for the season was now getting late
and they were anxious to go home.
On September 17 the weather was a repetition of that of the previous
day. In the early part of the day we saw 9 seals circling around in
various directions and occasionally rolling and finning. Observing
this number of seals from the vessel with a choppy sea running was a
good indication that under better conditions they would be found plentiful. At noon the weather showed signs of moderating, but the Indians
could not be induced to venture out on account of a few squally looking
clouds low on the horizon. At 2 p. m. two white hunters started out,
but after a two hours' hunt they returned empty-handed. Only 4 seals
had been seen, 3 finning and 1 asleep. At the time the boat left the
vessel the water was comparatively clear, but about 3 miles to the
northwest it came into very much discolored water, in which birds were
plentiful and a few fish were seen jumping.
Early in the following morning, September 18, the canoes were lowered, the wind being light from the southeast and the sea smooth. The
barometer indicated no change, but in a short time the wind began to
increase. No seals were observed either by the small boats or from the
vessel during the day.
On September 19 the weather was similar to that of the previous
day. Four seals were seen, 2 asleep, the others traveling to the
north-northeast. The former did not awake until the swash of the
water from our bow struck them. In the evening we headed for Unimak
Pass. As the season was now late it was thought inadvisable to remain
longer in the sea. The condition for the last ten days had convinced
the captain that little, if any, more sealing weather could be expected.
The next morning we sighted the schooner San Jose, which had made
a catch of 600 skins. Her captain came on board and reported that
until recently he had been hunting northwest of the Pribilof Islands.
In that region seals were abundant, but the weather had been too stormy
to operate. On September 13, in latitude 58° 30' north, longitude 172°
30' west, several hundred seals had been observed, but the sea was
too rough for lowering the boats. In the latter part of August the
San Jose had hunted near Unimak Pass, but few seals were found there.
At 10 a. m., the wind being light, 8 of the canoes were put over, but
at 2 p.m. a dense fog settled down. Ten seals were secured, 4 males
and 6 females. They were all small, and their stomachs were empty.
On this ground birds were plentiful and one orca was observed. At
2.45 p. m. we continued on our course, and at 6 p. m. Cape Cheerful
bore abeam about 15 miles. The next day we were off the northern
entrance of Unimak Pass, four other sealers being in sight. In the
evening we cleared the southern entrance of the Pass and shaped a
course for Cape Flattery. On the morning of October 8 we anchored
off Ucleuet, an Indian village situated on the north side of Barclay
Sound, Vancouver Island, where most of our Indians belonged. We
reached Victoria on October 8, having been twenty days on the passage
home.
OBSERVING SEALS.
In sealing weather hunters do not wait until seals have been seen from
the vessel before lowering the boats. They start out as early as possible and search for them, as otherwise the catch of the entire fleet would
be small. Very often when no seals are observed from the vessel's deck
the boats will be among bunches of them, only a mile or two away, and,
on the other hand, it sometimes happens that when scattered seals are   SEAL   LIFE   ON   THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
141
noticed from the deck the boats may be cruising over barren ground.
As a rule, however, the number observed from the vessel is small as
compared with the number sighted from the boats. A vessel while jogging will naturally frighten a great many which lie in her path; the
flapping of the canvas and the creaking and slatting of the booms
arouse the sleepers long before they can be seen, and give them ample
time to escape. In the early days of pelagic sealing the boats used to
be stationed at different distances and in different directions from the
vessel, and would drift, waiting for seals to come near. This method,
however, proving unremunerative, it was given up, and the hunters
began to cruise, which custom they have continued to follow ever since.
MANNER  OF  COUNTING  THE SEXES.
Considerable controversy has arisen from the accounts rendered by
sealing captains regarding the proportion of male and female seals
taken in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea. Previous to the
time when sealing vessels were required to enter the number of each
sex taken in their official logs little thought was given to this question,
and it was always claimed that the two sexes occurred in about equal
numbers. All sealers knew which sex predominated, but clung to their
original story, and there was no one who could controvert their assertions, although there was every reason to doubt them. An order from
the United States Treasury Department requiring the catch of all
American sealers to be examined on their arrival in port was the
means of throwing considerable light on the subject, and the information gained from this source fully established the fact of the great
preponderance of females.
It has generally been supposed by most sealers, and the view is still
entertained by many, that if it were known that a greater number of
females than males were taken it would greatly affect and possibly
restrict their privileges when the time came for a readjustment of
pelagic regulations. The fact has generally been lost sight of that the
condition of the rookeries at the end of five years will have the most
weight in deciding that matter.
That pelagic sealers should pay little attention to the sexes of the
seals taken was but natural, as they had no object in determining which
sex predominated, the thought uppermost in their minds being to capture as many seals as possible.
No check is placed upon the official logs of the Canadian sealers by
the custom-house officials at Victoria, who accept such records as
authentic. If the skins landed at Victoria were subjected to the same
rigid examination as those landed in United States ports, little or no
difference would be found in the proportion of each sex represented in
the catch by the vessels of the two countries. It seems strange that
on several occasions when American and Canadian sealers have hunted
on the same ground and in close proximity to each other, the catch of
the former has always been composed largely of females and the latter
of males. There are days when more males than females are taken,
but such times are not frequent. It is only fair, however, to state that
a number of both American and Canadian sealing captains have
admitted the truth to the writer, and all United States hunters with
whom he has conversed admit that the majority of seals captured off
Japan and around the Commander Islands are females.
During the season of 1894 the schooner Louis Olsen kept an account
of the seals taken off the coast of Japan, and it was found that out of
1,600 two-thirds were females.   In 1895 the schooner Brenda obtained 142
SEAL   LIFE   ON   THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
896 seals on the same coast, fully two-thirds of which were also females,
according to the statement of one of her hunters. In nearly every
instance where the writer has spoken with hunters on this subject they
have admitted that in all waters where the northern seal herd is found,
with one exception, females largely predominate. This exception is the
Fairweather ground, where, a few years previous to the beginning o|
the close season now in force, most of the pelagic sealing was carried
on during the month of May. On this ground, as recorded by the
writer in a previous report, is found a great number of large males.,
and according to the statemeut of all sealers and of others it is now
quite well established that large breeding males frequent this ground
in greater numbers than any other known region.
It may be well to illustrate briefly a few of the conditions under which
the record of seals is kept. When seals are brought on board in small
numbers it is very easy to identify the sex, but when they arrive in
large quantities, a hundred or more, it requires considerable time to
examine each one, and sealers have, to them, more important duties to
attend to. It often happens that the hunters are forced to return on
account of bad weather or an approaching storm, at which times the
safety of the canoes and vessel is of more consequence than the determination of the character of the catch. When the boats and canoes
are being hoisted in, the officers and men are stationed at either side of
the vessel to do this work, as well as to keep the records, and, as is to
be expected, in the bustle and excitement a very correct account of the
sexes is not given. In many cases the seals are not examined at all.
By the time the last canoe is lashed on board the weather is rough and
stormy and the hunters are anxious to go below; and if it be dark the
seals will be left until morning for skinning. No further examination
is made, and, right or wrong, the first account rendered is accepted.
The fact of the matter is, that in only a few cases is the sex correctly
recorded.
Inaccuracies in this respect also result when the seals are skinned in
the boats. Upon arrival at the vessel the skins are at once thrown into
the hold without examination, and nobody knows or cares whether they
are male or female.
Although United States revenue cutters have the privilege of boarding vessels and overhauling the catch made in Bering Sea, the conditions under which this work is carried on, however zealous the officers
may be,render it difficult for the sexes to be separated, and they return
to their ship little wiser than when they came.
CONDITIONS  OF  THE  FEMALE   SEALS  TAKEN   BY  THE  DORA
SIEWERD.
Of the 982 female seals secured by this vessel, 882 were opened and
examined by the writer. Of this number 839 were found to be adults,
and 66S were clearly in milk. Many of the remaining 171 may also
have been nursing females, which at the time of their capture had not
obtained sufficient nourishment to cause their milk glands to fill.
SEALS   MADE  SHY BY HUNTING.
Inquiry was made of several captains and hunters as to whether
seals were as easy to capture this year as last in Bering Sea. They all
give it as their judgment that seals were more difficult to approachth is
season than in 1894.   Captain Cox, of the schooner Sapphire, said he aSg^Vft^teHiiiwttliyitfiifi
SEAL  LIFE   ON  THE  PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
143
had noticed a marked difference in that respect, and attributed it to the
hunting that had been carried on. In many cases they appeared to be
unusually shy when there was no apparent cause for it.
FOOD   OF  SEALS.
The material which has been found in the stomachs of seals taken in
different parts of Bering Sea indicates that only a small percentage is
composed of fish which inhabit deep water. It is only reasonable to
suppose, however, that when seals are in shallow water they feed both
on bottom fish and on those swimming near the surface. A not uncomr
mon component of their food is the red rockfish, which occurs both in
deep and shallow water and possibly also near the surface at times,
which would account for its being found in the stomachs of seals captured where the water is 100 fathoms or more deep.
On August 22,1895, in latitude 55° 04' north, longitude 168° 35' west,
the head of a macrurus was found in the stomach of a male seal. This
group of fishes inhabits considerable depths and much speculation
arose as to how it had been obtained by the seal. It was subsequently
learned, however, that the Albatross had been dredging in deep water
near our position from the 18th to the 22d, and during that time there
had been thrown overboard many rejected specimens, among which
were a number of macruri, which would be apt to float for some time at
or near the surface if not molested.
It has been claimed that seals will not eat dead fish, but this is a
mistake, for the writer has seen them devour salmon that had been
dead several days.
Surface fishes, and especially squid, seem to be the natural food of
the seal. In the stomachs that have been examined a variety of material was found, such as pieces of Alaskan pollock, salmon, and other
fishes, but it has also been observed that in localities where squid are
plentiful very little other food may be looked for. I am informed by
hunters that on the coast of Japan and off the Commander Islands squid
occur in great abundance, and that it is not an uncommon sight to see a
half dozen or more seals together feeding on the tentacles of octopus
floating at the surface. Sealers usually find squid plentiful off the
island of Kadiak, and in that locality they have often been found in
large quantities in the stomachs of the seals.
WHITE  HUNTERS  AT A  DISADVANTAGE.
The white hunters on the Dora Siewerd did not have the same opportunity of getting seals as the Indians for several reasons, one of which
was that, as a rule, they were the last to leave the vessel in the morning and the first to return at night. They were expected to hoist out
all the canoes, and in the evening to hoist them in again, stow them
away and lash them. Indians are useless in this kind of work, and
upon their arrival alongside, their duties have ended, as the skinning of
the seals devolves upon the steersmen.
The Indians, therefore, had every advantage iu respect to hunting.
On leaving a vessel the boats nearly always form a line so that each will
have a clear space to windward. When all the boats start out together
they are all on an equal footing; but when one or two boats, as was the
case with our white hunters, are obliged to follow in the rear of others^
their chance of seeing many seals is greatly lessened, for they are hunting in water already passed over, but the situation improves as the
^*^»-i*-^:;st*'^i*i,fa-v it'***v.<iU',^..»t#*;u«t .y^^<^* * SEAL  LIFE   ON  THE   PRIBILOF  ISLANDS.
boats become more widely separated. Sometimes, also, a sudden change
of wind favors the last boats to go out and places them to windward, a
coveted position which they could not otherwise have secured, a windward position being always considered the best. In perfectly calm
weather one position is as good as another.
Record of the position of the vessel and of the catch of fur seals each day by the sealing
schooner Dora Siewerd during a cruise in Bering Sea in August and September, 1895,
showing also the number of each sex taken daily as entered in the official log of the vessel.
Date.
Latitude.
Longitude.
Males.
36
26
7
8
14
18
29
6
14
48
(a)
38
1
2
44
26
20
10
74
68
28
5
191
6
7
4
5
16
5
Females.
Total.
1895.
JLtlg. 1	
N.
54 28
54 41
54 43
54 37
54 42
54 58
55 10
55 02
55 03
55 08
W.
167 08
167 51
167 00
167 20
167 43
167 31
167 40
167 48
167 45
167 40
6
19
6
8
6
55
60
9
16
51
(a)
47
1
2
67
43
24
11
83
78
29
6
145
4
3
5
12
8
5
42
2	
45
3	
13
4	
16
9	
20
10	
73
11 .   	
89
12 .     	
15
14	
30
15	
99
15    	
12
17	
55 15
55 21
54 56
55 15
55 28
55 06
55 26
55 15
55 08
55 06
55 02
55 28
55 25
56 32
55 51
55 55
55 18
54 36
168 30
168 32
168 00
168 15
168 05
168 38
168 30
171 55
171 45
170 43
170 10
170 26
170 50
172 50
171 56
171 45
170 06
167 33
85
18 .   	
2
19	
4
20.     	
111
21	
69
22	
44
24	
21
26.        	
157
27	
146
28	
57
31	
11
Sept. 1	
336
2	
10
8	
10
9	
9
10	
17
15	
24
20   	
10
Total	
756
809
1,577
a On August 15 a canoe went astray, but afterwards returned, bringing in 12 skins, of which the
sexes were not determined.
Record of the catch of fur seals and of the number of each sex taken daily by the sealing
schooner Dora Siewerd during a cruise in Bering Sea in August and September, 1895, as
determined by A. B. Alexander.
Date.
Males.
Females.
Total.
•
Date.
Males.
Females.
Total.
1895.
Aug. 1	
2	
34
26
1
13
18
10
3
14
31
(a)
28
I
2
44
12
8
19
I
8
7
55
79
12
16
68
(a)
6I
2
67
57
42
45
13
16
20
73
89
15
30
99
12
85
2
4
111
69
1895.
Aug. 22	
12
10
62
68
14
5
120
6
I
5
16
4
32
11
95
78
43
6
216
4
3
5
12
8
6
44
24	
21
3.. 	
26	
157
4. 	
27	
28	
31	
Sept. 1	
2	
8	
9	
10	
15	
20	
Total	
149
9	
87
10  	
11
11. 	
336
12	
10
14	
10
15	
0
15	
17	
18	
10
17
24
10
20.. 	
583
982
1,577
21.,	
a On August 15 twelve skins were taken, of which the sexes were not determined. ^'/•Viri*1t!id}tt7t?WS&*&*iF**lw' •
SEAL   LIFE   ON   THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
145
Approximate ages of the seals and the number of nursing females taken during the cruise of
the sealing schooner Dora Siewerd in Bering Sea in August and September, 1895, based
upon examinations made by A. B. Alexander.
Males.
Fern
ales.
Numher
of nursing
females.
5
Numher
Date.
Numher
taken.
3
21
10
18
8
6
Age.
Tears.
5
3
2
3
2
3 to 5
Numher
taken.
5
3
Age. a
Years.
ad.
2
not examined.
1895.
Aug.   1                      ...
2	
17
2
6
1
4
4
7
ad.
2
ad.
2
ad.
2
ad.
17
3 „	
6
4	
5
3
12
1
1
8
9
10
4
5
4
5
6
4
3
3to5
4
9	
6
10	
55
ad.
47
11	
70
9
9
3
16
ad.
2
ad.
2
ad
50
24
12	
2
1
12
2
27
4
4
5
3
4
5
4
9
14	
16
15	
60
8
1
57
ad.
2
ad.
ad.
58
16	
17	
20
8
1
2
35
9
5
4
3
12
4
5
3
4
4
5
4
3
2
4
35
18	
1
2
67
ad.
ad.
ad.
1
2
62
19..
20	
21	
54
3
ad.
2
48
	
22	
28
4
11
1
78
ad.
2
ad.
ad.
2
ad.
28
	
24	
10
50
12
65
3
14
I
119
1
6
5
2
4
5
4 to 5
3
3 to 4
4 to 5
3 to 5
3 to 5
3 to 4
5
4 to 5
4 to 5
1
2 to 3
11
65
26	
72
27	
74
60
28	
43
6
216
ad.
ad.
ad.
37
4
80
31	
Sept.   1	
156
2	
4
3
ad.
ad.
3
I
8	
9	
3
2
11
\
ad.
1 to 2
ad.
1
ad.
3
10	
5
2 to 4
11
15	
14
2
3
1
2 to 3
4 to 5
3
5
3
20	
6
ad.
.
i
a All females above 2 years old are classed as adults, "ad."
S. Doc. 137. pt. 2 10       §
mummm^m ES
146
SEAL   LIFE   ON  THE  PRIBILOF  ISLANDS.
Beoord of physical observations made during the cruise of the sealing schooner Dora Siewerd
in Bering Sea, August and September, 1895, by A. B. Alexander.
Time of day.
Temperature.
Wind.
Barometer
reading.
29.90
Noon position.
Date.
Air.
Surface
water, a
Direction.
ENE.
NE.
NE.byE.
Force.
i Latitude.
N.
Longitude.
1895.
Aug.   1
8 a. m	
o
51
o
47
47
47
47
Miles.
3
2
2
2
W.
10 a. m          49
12m          48
4p.m          47
8p.m	
29.92
29.90
29.90
54   25
167   04
2
7 a. m           47
8a.m           48
10a.m          48
12m           48
2p.m          48
4p.m          48
6p.m          47
8 D. m 	
45
45
46
46
46
46
46
NNW.
NNW.
NNW.
NW.byW.
NNW.
W.
NW.
2
2
3
3
3
4
4
29.90
•
54   51
167   52
29.90
29.90
29.92
3
7a.m           47
8a.m          47
10a.m          47
12m          47
2p.m          48
4 p. m          47
6 p. m          45
8 p. m           44
8a.m {        45
10 a. m             4J»
47
47
47
47
47
46
46
46
43
44
46
46
46
46
NW.byN.
NW.byN.
NW.byN.
NW.
NW.
NW.
NNW.
NNW.
NW.byW.
WNW.
W.
W.
W.byS.
W.
3
3
3
4
4
4
5
4
4
3
8
3
8
2
29.92
30.00
54   43
167   00
30.00
30.10
30.14
4
12 m	
46
1R
30.20
54   37
167   25
2l>. 71)	
in. m             44
30.20
6p.m........
44
.
8 p, m	
30.10
30.10
5
8 a.m .   ,...---
45
4JS
46
45
45
47
44
46
46
46
46
46
43
43
44
45
44
45
45
45
46
46
46
45
44
44
44
44
44
46
46
46
47
47
47
47
W.byS.
S. by B.
SSE.
S.byE.
S.
SE.
SE.
S. by E.
S.
S. bvW.
SW.
SSW.
SW.
SW.
SW.
WSW.
w.
w.
SW. by W.
SW. by W.
8W.
WSW.
WSW.
W.byS.
W. by N.
W. by N.
W. by N.
W. bv N.
W. by N.
W.byS.
W.
SW. by W.
SW. by W.
SW. by W.
3
4
4
5
4
8
8
7
7
8
7
6
5
5
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
3
8
4
5
4
8
3
8
3
8
2
2
in n. m	
12m          45
4 p. m           46
finm                                    ±K
30.10
30.08
30.00
29.76
55   01
168   07
6
8 a. in	
10 a. m	
12 m	
45
45
45
46
46
46
46
46
46
46
45
46
46
45
45
44
47
47
48
47
45
45
43
45
45
44
45
45
45
29.65
29.64
29.50
•29.60
29.71
54   45
167   50
4 p. m	
8 p. m	
8 a m
7
12 m	
54   56
167   27
2 p m
4 p. m
29.74
29.74
29.78
8 p. m ■
8 a m
8
10 a.in 	
12 m	
29.78
29.80
55   01
167   80
4 p m
6 p m
8 p in
29.82
29 96
o
8 a m
12m	
29.98
54   42
167   45
2 p. in.
4 p m
29.98
80.00
8 n in
10
7 a in
8 a in
80.20
•
10 a. m	
12 m	
80.20
54   58
167   31
2 p, xn
80.20
6 p in
80.20
80.12
i
11
46
46
47
47
46
45
46
47
47
47
47
46
46
46
47
47
46
46
46
47
47
46
46
46
Var.
WNW.
Var.
Var.
N.
NE.
WNW.
W.by N.
W.
W.by N
W.by N.
W. by N.
1
1
1
1
2
2
3
8
8
8
2
8
10a.m	
12m	
80.10
55   00
167   45
2 n to
80.00
29.98
80.00
12
12 m	
80.00
55    06
167   50
2 p m
80.12
6 p. in
30.20
J
a The temperature of the water was taken 5 feet below the surface. SEAL   LIFE   ON  THE   PKIBILOF   ISLANDS.
147
Record of physical observations made during the cruise of the sealing schooner Dora Siewerd
in Bering Sea, August and September, 1895, by A. B. Alexander—Continued.
Date.       Time of day.
1895.
Aug. 13
15
16
17
18
23
8 a. m
2 p.m..
8 a. m ..
10 a. m.
12 m ...
2 p.m..
4 p.m..
8 p.m..
8 a. m ..
10 a. m .
12 m...
2 p.m..
4 p.m..
6 p.m..
8 p.m..
8 a.m..
12 m...
2 p.m..
4 p.m..
8 p.m..
8 a. m ..
10 a. m.
12m ...
2 p. m..
4p.m.,
8 p.m..
8 a. m..
10 a. m,
12 m ...
2 p.m..
4 p.m..
6 p.m..
8 p.m..
8a.m..
10 a. m.
12m...
2 p. m..
4 p. m..
6 p.m..
8 p.m..
8 a. m .
10 a.m.
12 m...
2 p.m..
Temperature.
Air.
Surface
water, a
Wind.
Direction.
SW.hy W.
WSW.
WSW.
WSW.
SW.
WSW.
WSW.
WSW.
w.
Var.
Var.
Var.
SE.
ESE.
"sse."
SSE.
SSE.
SSE.
*ESE."
Calm.
SE.
SE.
Calm.
SSE.
SE. by S.
SE. bv S-
SSE.
S. by W.
ssw.
SW. by S.
SW.by W."
SW. by W.
SW.
SW.
SW.
SW.
SW. by S.
W.
W.
AVNW.
WNW.
AVNW.
WNW.
NW. by W.
WNW.
WNW.
WNW.
WNW.
WNW.
WNW.
W. by N.
NW. by W.
WSW.
WSW.
WSW.
WSW.
"*s"bYW\"
SSW.
ssw.
S. by W.
SSW.
ssw.
S. by W.
SW.
NNE.
N.
N.
N.
NNE.
Force.
Barometer
reading.
Noon position.
Latitude.
30.20
30.20
30.28
30.30
30.30 j
30.30 I.
30.32 |.
30.32
'36.66
30.28
30. 00
30.00
29.96
29.96
29.98
'36.66
29.98
29. 94
29.78
29." 72"
29*65
29.65
29.72
29.70 I.
29.62   .
'29.68 1
29." 78*!
29.78   .
29.90 I.
j
29." 92*'
29.91
"29.'9i'|.
30.10 1
30.10
30.00
36.66
29*98"
"29.*98
30.00
55   03
55   08
Longitude.
W.
168   15
167   45
167   40
55   07
55   15
55   21
54   56
55   14
55   29
55   04
55   28
168   10
168   30
1
168   32
168   00
168   15
168   05
168   35
168   10 148
SEAL   LIFE   ON   THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS.
Record of physical observations made during the cruise of the sealing schooner Dora Siewerd
in Bering Sea, August and September, 1895, by A. B. Alexander—Continued.
Date.
1895.
Aug. 25
26
29
30
31
Sept.   1
28
Time of day
2 p.m..
4 p.m..
8 p.m..
8a. m..
10 a. m.
12 m   ..
2 p.m..
4 p. m..
6 p.m..
8 p. m..
8 a. m..
10 a. m.
12 in ...
2 p. in..
4 p. m..
6 p.m..
8p.m..
8 a.m..
10 a. m.
12 m ...
2p.m..
4 p.
6p,
8 p.
8 a.
10 a. m
12 m ..
2 p.m.
4 p. m.
6 p. m.
8 p. m.
8 a. m .
10 a. m
12m ..
2 ]). m.
4 p. m.
8 p.m.
8 a. m .
10 a. in
12m ..
2 p.m.
4 p.
6 p.
8 p.
8 a.
10 a
m.
m.
m.
m.
m.
m.
m.
m.
. m
12 m ...
2 pm..
4 p.m.
6 p.m..
8 p.m.
8 a.m..
10 a. m
12 m ..
2 p. m..
4 p. m..
6p.m..
8 p. in..
8 a. in..
10 a. m.
12m ...
2p.m.
4 p.
6 p.
8 p.
8 a.
10 a. m
in
m.
m.
in
in
2 p.m..
4p.m..
6 p.m..
8p.m..
8 a.m..
10 a.m.
12 m ...
2 p.
4 p.
m.
in
Temperature.
Air    I Surface
Air'      wafer, a
Wind.
Barome
ter
Noon position.
47
47
47
45
45
46
45
46
45
45
46
48
49
46
44
44
46
46
46
46
45
47
47
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
45
46
46
49
45
45
45
47
46
45
45
44
45
45
46
46
45
45
45
45
46
46
46
46
46
46
46
46
46
47
47
47 |
47
47 I
47
47
47 I
47
Direction.
N.
N. .
N.
N.
NW.byN
AVNW.
WSW.
WSW.
WSW.
I
force,   reading.   Latitude. Longitude.
47
47
48
48
49
49
WNW.
SW.
W. by S.
W.
W. bv N.
NNE.
48
48
48
48
48
48
W. hy S.
SW. hy S.
SW.
s. hv W.
S. by E.
SE.
Miles.
6
6 ;
s
2
2 !
1
2
2
9,
N
1
1
1
O
Ad
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
47
47
47
47
47
47
SE.
SE.
S. by E.
S.
S.hy W.
S. by W.
8
8
8
7
6
6
29.50
29.52
47
47
47
47
47
47
47
47
47
47
47
47
SW. hy S.
SW. by S.
SW. by S.
SW. by S.
SW.by
SW. bv
SW\
SW.
SW. by
SW.
SW.hv
SW. bv
W.
W.
W.
8
8
8
8
8
29.80
29.85
OO     2SO
4
4
4
4
29.90
29.94
30.40
47
47
47
47
47
47
SW.
Var.
Var.
Var.
Var.
NW.
47
47
47
47
47
47
NE.by
NE.by
NE.bv
NE.
NE.
NE.
3
4
4
4
4
4
30.60
47
47
47
47
47
47
46
46
47
47
47
47
NE.
NE. by E.
NE.
NE.by E.
NE. by E.
NE. by E.
NE.byE.
E.
BNB.
ENE.
ENE.
ENE.
ENE.
ENE.
ENE.
ENE.
ENE.
ENE.
ENE.
o
5
6
6
6
6
7
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
Wi
30.08
■ •
30.00
55 15
170 58
29.98
29.95
29 92
29.90
55 10
170 47
29.90
29.98
29.82
29.90
55 07
170 45
29.76
29.70
29.40
29.40
55 28
170 15
170   10
30.50
55 11
170 05
30.52
30.60
30.60
30.58
55 29
170 26
30.58
30.60
30.60
170   50
30.58
30.56
30.40
30.40
55 29
170 86
30.40
80.40
30.20
•••••• ■••••
30.15
55 55
170 50
30.14
	
	
30.12
80.00
29.98
55 22
170 15
a The temperature of the water was taken 5 feet below the surface. SEAL   LIFE   ON   THE   PRIBILOF   ISLANDS:
149
Record of physical observations made during the cruise of the sealing schooner Dora Sieiverd
in Bering Sea, August and September, 1895, by A. B. Alexander—Continued.
Date.      Time of day.
1895.
Sept.   5
6
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
8 p. m..
8 a. m..
10 a. m.
12 in ...
2 p.m..
4 p. m..
6 p. in..
8p.m..
8 a.m..
10 a. m.
12 m...
2 p.m..
p.m..
p.m..
p.m..
a. in..
10 a.m.
12 m...
2 p.m..
4
6
8
8
10
12 m
p.m..
p.m..
p.m..
a.m..
a.m.
m..
m..
in..
m..
8 a. m..
10 a. m.
12 m...
2 p.m..
p.m..
p.m..
p.m
a. m..
10 a.m.
12 m..
2 p.m..
p.m..
p.m..
p.m..
8 a. m. .
10 a. m .
12 m ...
2 p.m..
4
6
8
m.
m.
m.
4 p.
6 p.
8 p.
8 a. m...
10 km..
12m	
2 p. m	
4 p. m	
6 p. m	
8 p. m	
8 a. m	
10 a. m..
12 m	
2 p.m...,
4. p.m...
6 p.m	
8 p.m	
8 a. m	
10 a. m...
12m	
2 p.m	
m.. %
m	
4 p.
6 p.
8 p.m.
8a.m.
10 a. m
12 m..
2 p.m..
4 p.
6 p.
m.
m.
Temperature.
Air.
Surface
water, a
46
47
47
47
47
47
47
47
47
46
46
46
46
48
45
45
44
44
47
47
47
47
47
46
47
47
47
48
47
47
46
47
47
47
47
46
45
46
46
46
45
45
44
46
46
46
46
46
47
47
47
47
46
46
44
45
45
44
43
42
44
46
46
42
42
42
46
46
45
45
45
45
46
46
46
46
45
45
47
47
47
47
47
47
46
47
47
47
47
47
47
47
47
47
47
47
44
44
45
46
46
46
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
46
46
46
46
46
46
Wind.
I Barome. i       Noon position.
ter I
Direction.       Force,   reading.    Latitude, j Longitude.
ENE.
NE. by E.
NE.byE.
NE. by E.
NE. by E.
NE. bv E.
NE. by E.
NE. by E.
E. by N.
E. by N.
E.
E.
E.
E.
ft
E. by S.
E.
E.
E.
E.
E.
•pi
E.by N.
E. by N.
E. by N.
E. by N.
SE.
SE.
SE.
ESE.
ESE.
E
E. by S.
ESE.
SE. by E.
SE. by E.
S. by E.
S. by W.
S. by W.
I
S.
s.
s.
SW.
SW. by W.
WSW.
WSW.
WSW.
WSW.
WSW.
W. by S.
SW.by W.
W. by S.
W.
W.
S W.byS.
ssw.
ssw.
ssw.
ssw.
SW. hy S.
SW.hy S.
Var.
NW.
NW.
NW.
NNW.
NNW.
W.
w.
w.
W. hy S.
SW.
SSW.
Miles.
8
9
8
8
8
8
8
8
4
4
4
3
3
6
3
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
8
8
8
8
8
8
1
3
3
4
5
5
5
5
5
4
4
5
3
3
3
3
4
4
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
8
8
9
9
8
8
8
4
5
4
*>
O
2
3
29 96
30.00
29.38
29.35
29.35
29.32
29.40
N.
W.
30.
10
56
10
170
45
30.
10
30.
20
30
30.
30.
31
56
22
171
50
30.
32
30.
38
40
30.
30.
40
56
35
172
20
30.
40
30.
40
18
30.
30.
10
55
49
171
54
30.
02
30.
00
90
29.
29.
80
55
50
171
49
29.
60
29.
55
40
29.
55   57
171   B0
29.55
55 44
171 30
29.65
29. 72
29.90
 .;>
.
**	
29.90
55 44
171 51
29. 90
29.98
29.68
	
■
	
" .*■
	
29.62
55 20
171 25
29.65
. 29.65
29.60
	
29.60
55 10
170 06
29.78
29.80
30.00
	
30.02
	
55 20
170 32
30.00
...........
flHfiH
a The temperature of the water was taken 5 feet below the surface. 150
SEAL  LIFE   ON  THE  PEIBILOF   ISLANDS.
Record of physical observations made during the cruise of the sealing schooner Dora Siewerd
in Bering Sea, August and September, 1895, by A. B. Alexander—Continued.
Time of day.
Temperature.
Wind.
Barometer
reading.
Noon position.
Date.
Air.
Surface
water, a
Direction.
Force.
Latitude.
•
Longitude.
1895.
Sept. 16
17
8 p.m	
o
o
Miles.
29.98
30.40
N.
W.
8 a. m	
41
42
44
44
44
43
45
45
45
45
45
45
W.
W.
WN. W.
W.
W.
W.
4
5
3
3
1
10 a. m	
12m	
2 p.m	
4 p. m	
6 p. m	
30.45
30.50
55   17
170   36
8 n. m	
30.58
30.48
18
8 a. m 1         44
10 a. m 1         44
12 m I         45
4 p. m j        45
6p.m |        45
8 p. m	
45
45
45
46
46
SE;
SE.
SE.
SE.
SE. by S.
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
3
2
1
2
4
4
30.40
30.32
55   30
169   55
30.25
29.82
19
8 a. m           46
10 a. m '         47
12m !         47
2p.m ]        47
4 T). m !          47
45
46
46
46
46
45
N.E:
NE. by N.
NE.by N.
NE. by N;
NNE.
N. bv E.
N.by E.
NE. b"y N.
NE.hyN.
Var.
SE.
SE.
SE. by S.
29.74
55   28
170   40
29.72
6 p. m	
46
8 "n. m	
29.70
29.70
20
8 a. m j         45
10 a. m | •       45
12m 1         44
2p.m !   •     43
4 p.m j         43
6 n. m            43
45
45
45
45
45
45
29.70
55   36
167   30
29.70
29.70
a The temperature of the water was taken 5 feet below the surface.
Record showing the principal food found in the stomachs of seals taken in Bering Sea by
the schooner Dora Siewerd.
Date.
1895
Aug.
Sept.
1
2
3
4
9
10
11
12
14
15
17
18
19
20
21
22
24
26
27
28
31
1
2
8
9
10
15
20
Number of
seals
taken.
Principal food found in the stomach.
42
45
13
16
20
73
89
15
30
99
85
2
4
111
69
44
21
157
146
57
11
336
10
10
9
17
24
10
Nearly all empty; a few could not be identified.
Do.
Empty.
Do.
A piece of squid and fish bones.
Pieces of fish and fish hones.
Do.
Do.
Pieces of squid and squid beaks.
Alaskan pollock and pieces of fish.
Squid, pieces offish, and fish bones.
Empty.
Do.
Squid, squid beaks, fish bones, pollock, and other fish.
Squid, pollock, and salmon.
Squid, pollock, salmon, and fish bones.
Squid, squid beaks, salmon, pollock, fish bones.
Squid, pollock, and pieces of salmon.
Squid, pollock, and fish hones.
Do.
Pollock.
Mostly squid and what looked like cod.
A few pieces of squid.
Pollock.
Empty.
Squid, squid beaks, mingled with Crustacea.
Squid.
Empty. W&B££bmuaiiiis2jwfimm&mimTi?i*w
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fWc;'£t?tt&ii<&Ai(<V<$. »»»*•.««,. jm^wi^u.  INDEX TO PART II.
Page.
Ainoko, schooner, log entries of _           67
Albatross, steamer, work of  _ 3,10,13,16,19,28,41
Alexander, A. B __ 19,22,23,26,113,123
Allie I. Algar, schooner, log entries of  .__ 59,73,90,95
Alton, schooner, log entries of.    ... 76,77
Annie C. Moore, schooner, log entries of    _         65
Arietis, schooner, log entries of _           61
August, schooner, log entries of          86
Aurora, schooner, log entries of         64
Bachelors, counting of._ _    103,104,105,106,107
driving of  28,38,104,105
proportion Mlled_   104,105,106
rejected  _ H   105,106
returned to hauling ground _.   104,105
Beatrice, schooner, log entries of        64
Bering Sea, schooner, log entries of          87
sealing in 8,13,16,18,20,21,31,39,113,123,127
weather conditions   8,17,18,48,49,50,115,125,126,138
Bonanza, schooner, log entries of   78,79
Borealis, schooner,log entries of    _.. 66,96
Bowhead, schooner, log entries of          79
Breeding females, percentage on rookeries          34
number of    34,36
grounds, shrinkage of    _  30,108
males  __   .._       30
regularity of    36,39,42
Bulls, virility of    |     109
Carcasses, examination of    41,42,43,44,45,134
floating of        133
Catch, American....     17,24,26,39
1895 _   -          46
Canadian  p  17,24,25,39,40
1893  - -       56
1895  j    46,47
C. C. Perkins, schooner, log entries of  -         86
Columbia, schooner, log entries of    59,83-
Commander Islands            28
Corwin, steamer  -  4,22,116-
Customs regulations  -          38
Dead pups, counting of  —  13,14,37,100
seals       -  23,38
Decrease, cause of    - -- — - 109,110-
remedies for._   - I --       HO
Deeahks, schooner, log entries of. _    57,87,88
Discolored water, sealing in_._ _ - - - -- 128,130,132,135
Dora Siewerd, schooner, catch of -       144
cruise of, 1895  I —     12B
log entries of   93,94
physical observations  146,147,148,149,150
Edward E. Webster, schooner, log entries of   72,75,76
Ella Johnson, schooner, log entries of           57
Elsie, schooner, log entries of             86
151
VJ
f
**t »•*♦«»«.. 'j*-.-«'«'M>;*!*".,"» 152
INDEX   TO   PART   II.
Emma and Louisa, schooner, log entries of.
Emmett Felitz, schooner, log entries of	
Enterprise, schooner, log entries of 	
Favorite, schooner, log entries of	
Fawn, schooner, log entries of  	
Feeding grounds, changing of	
range, extent of...    	
Females, absence from rookeries 	
Bage
78
88
96
53,65,93
62
.. 21,22
20
19
branding of  .     .. 38, 111
counting of   28,34,35,100,102
killing by Government    38, 111
loss of 36,38
pregnancy of     41,42,43,44. 45
Firearms, use .     _       23
Fish Commission, investigations of, 1893    3
George W. Prescott, schooner, log entries of          89
Grass, growth on rookeries  11,107,108
Hauling grounds       103,104
Henrietta, schooner, log entries of        70
Henry Dennis, schooner, log entries of        54
Herman, schooner, log entries of  74,75
Hunters, white         143
work of        115
Ida Etta, schooner, log entries of   58,94
Idler, schooner, log entries of   	
    88
Indians, sealing by  21,124,125,127,128,129,132
James G. Swan, schooner, log entries of  84
Jane Grey, schooner, log entries of    60,82
Japan coast, proportion of sexes      122
    89
  74
  91
  68
 ___ 67
  __  127
    70
 *  66
   18
Jessie, schooner, log entries of
J. Eppinger, schooner, log entries of .
Kate and Anna, schooner, log entries of.
Kate, schooner, log entries of	
99
Katherine, schooner, log entries of    _. 	
Killer whales    	
Kilmeny, schooner, log entries of    	
Labrador, schooner, log entries of.  .	
London furriers, depositions of    	
Louis Olsen, schooner      li
log entries of    60,73
cruise of, 1894          113
Japan cruise of      120
Maps, seal distribution _   17,39
of rookeries   8,10,15,27,30,33,108
Mary Ellen, schooner, log entries of  50,51,52,53,62
Mascot, schooner, log entries of    64,65
Matilda, schooner, log entries of           86
Mattie T. Dyer, schooner, log entries of          77
Maud S., schooner, log entries of   .        97
Miller, N. B_    4,5,9,10,11,13,15,27,33
Minnie, schooner, log entries of.
M. M. Morrill, schooner, log entries of
69
91
Modus vivendi  ._ _    »**-. 17,40
Northwest coast	
Olga, whaler, log entries of
  85,89
            97
Pacific Ocean, sealing in..          13,17,18
Paris Tribunal
Pelagic sealing
award of       13,17,21
1894       113
1895   J        27
methods of     21,124
inquiries  11,16,19,38,39,113,123
Japan coast    --        18
Russian coast           29
photographs of           45
Photographic stations.._»_ _ _ 3,10,27,108
marking of  _ 4,11,29.
Pup seal, albino         18 \*^***£>:?r**M>rtVS"^**^V«.7?*-'vv^
INDEX  TO  PART
153
Pasre
Pup seals, birth of _           28
loss of  5,13,14,16,30,36,37,38,99,100,110
nursing of _ _  14,15,110
swimming of  _ M          5
sex of  _         36
starving of  13,14,15,37,110
Puritan, schooner, log entries of            85
Rattler, schooner, log entries of   81,97
Recommendations _ __ _ _         88
R. Ecrett, schooner,log entries of..         89
Rookery, Ketavie .    5,6,12,32,35,101
Polavina     5,6,12,31
Little Polavina    5,6,12,31
Upper Zapadnie   6,12,33
Lower Zapadnie    _    6,3$
Reef     4,5,6,12,32,8$
Lagoon  _   6,12,32,35,101
Tolstoi  __ ...5,6,12,32,35,101
Sea Lion Rock           5,6
Northeast Point. _    5,12,31
Zapadnie       4,7,12,33
East      4,6,12,38
Little East  ,   4,7,12,33
North     4,7,12,38
Starry Arteel  .._.   - 4,7,12
Lukannon   5,6,12,35
grounds, abandonment of     107,108
Rookeries, area of          102
condition of, 1893    3,5,7
1894.   .--.  10,11,13
0,99
97  Q
1895. „--.-
breaking apart of    -- 	
changes in          30
Commander Islan ds          28
photographs of, 1893    9
1894     15,16,108
1895  27,30,33,108
protection of      7
restoration of               36
Rosie Olsen, schooner, log entries of   60,61
Rose Sparks, schooner, log entries of           60
Russian seal herd   28,29,39,40
San Diego, schooner, log entries of           50
San Jose, schooner, log entries of _          70
Sapphire,schooner,log entries of    63,93
Saucy Lass, schooner, log entries of  _ _         66
Seaweed, seals among    114,124
Seal catch, position of...  17,39
inspection of    19,40,41,141,142
harems, formation of  *           28
herd,protection of. _  17,39
distribution of   _. 17,19,39
life, rate of increase    36,37
Sealing boats, number of    21,124,129
loss of     121,122,125,130
data collected           50
grounds, extent of           39
vessels, examination of            23
number of   _ 17,21,39
log entries of
17
Seals, age of   41,42,43,44,45
decrease of   4,7,13,28,29,30,31,39,40,107
diving of  _ ..      116
fearlessness of    116,125,126,130
feeding grounds of      _. __ 16,22
food of... 22,23,39,41,42,43,44,45,116,128,129,130,132,133,134,138,143,150
finning  .  _      117
.«i«4v<<.»t*««u»»-j 154 INDEX  TO  PART  II,
Page
Seals, habits at sea  8,19,20,21,22,23,113,114,125,130,181
habits on land _          41
health and vigor of      110
in lakes, keeping of __ 38, 111
proportion of sexes 18,19,39,40,41,141,142,145
restlessness of_  117, 183, 134
shooting of  _ _       132
skinned in canoes  _ 18,41
sleeping of     19, 115,116,125,128,136
tameness of      114
traveling of 114, 128
Seal skins, sex of        18
Shelby, schooner, log entries of.. ^        71
Sophia Sutherland, schooner, log entries of   80,81
Spear, description of        21
Spears,useof  8,17,18,20,21,114,134
Stanley-Brown, J   3,34,113
Stejneger, Dr. L  _        28
Stella Erland, schooner, log entries of _  58,84,85
St. Paul Island, observations oh, 1893  8
Teaser, schooner, log entries of        85
Therese, schooner, log entries of 59,82
Townsend, C.H., report of 3,10,27,38,99,100,102,108,113
Triumph, schooner, log entries of. 55,63,92
True, F. W  27,88,99
XJmbrina, schooner, log entries of - 55,61,72
Venture, schooner, log entries of        68
Vera, schooner, log entries of 62,96
Victoria, schooner, log entries of _ 91,92
Walter A. Earle. schooner, log entries of __        61
Walter L. Rich, schooner, log entries of _ 69,94
Weather, effect on seals      117
Willard Ainsworth, schooner, log entries of        90
Winchester, schooner, log entries of        80
l§: ■ O   AGENTS, OFFICERS, AND PERSONS, ACTING UNDER THE AUTHORITT^^^p ~"
ll| OF THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY, '    :    7.    ..   ;   : :
CONDITION OF SEAL LIFE ON THE ROOKERIES
f H OF THE PRIBILOF ISLANDS.
AND TO
PELAGIC SEALING IN BERING SEA AND THE
llji NORTH PACIFIC, OCEAN,   \ ; % ;
THE YEARS 1893-1895.
I3ST  TWO  PARTS.
; - : ^;;;''Part II. *.. •    - ■*]• ;•=■','
[With maps and illustrations.   Results of investigations under the direction
of the U. S. Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries.]
WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT  PRINTING  OFFICE.
1896.          r
Chart A.
NortREastTt.
2 Mct,rams   only
Stallion.
'
Thin
;-^v- >■   ■■ >'Y v '.. * --r; -..■■as   •    " %'-7'. :■' , - - • .J  ,:"=   \ V%*   •
-■.'.■•■I?-     .    ■■il... ■ . .  .  rr-       .   . . £^~   .' . .ifflffiSiHSSc >■'?
Massed
Breeding Grounds.
-  Hauling "
Date of examination July 2*
U. S. Coinmission of Fish and Fisheries
NORTHEAST POMT ROOKERY
S? Paul Island, Bering Sea.
Showing area occupied by Fv,r Seals in 1895
as determined by
C. H. Townsend, Assistant.
Boato' S8S ft-liiu^. .
-4      *-. ■*
Contour intervals approximately TO feet/.
VivSistarbed/ area< - TtiiocedsvegetatioTV.
.XorOuEastPl.
... * .4-"| ^lr<M. distur&ai from, time, to tunc by seals AauZtrig,
U^.Y-:\ scant or- uniform,grass.
Bum Map prepared by Joseph Stanley-Brown.
S PCTEtre CO.. PHOTO-LtThO., WASHING TON. I
S D6C./J.1. .54 1 Chart BTuhf 24-
U. S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries.
j
PO^iWXNA rookeky
S! Paul Island, Bering Sea.
Showing area occupied by Fur Seals in IS95,
as determined hy
0. H. TO"WllSeil(I, Assistant
Scale: 528±^.=iin£h.
'.£,64        132  66    9  \ ?
'1
66-  ?
2=53=
finches
Contour interval appr ox,imately 70 ft/
Undistur bed, area.' - mixed, veget&MorU.
.&V6&> d/i&tivrbefdt from tuna to time ~by seats hanjilung,
sccunt- or Trnvfor mgra&s.
Breeding Grounds.
Hauling u
Date of examination July 2&
Base Map prepared, by Joseph Stanley-Brown.
THE NORRIS PETERS CO., PVlQTO-LtTHO., WASHINGTON. 0. C. Chart D
CRart   C
a   r - ~      *■
* * %7 "■* *,Y
■ ^ '^.''"^^
* .':.'*>'•
U. S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries.
KETifi?IE &,IiHKAKNONI10(mEIlY
S* Paul Island, Bering Sea.
Showing area occupied by Fur Seals in 1895,
as determined l>y
C. H. Townsend, Assistant.
'3L
Scale: 5 Z8 ft. - linch..
yittrjics
:—HxtaSta. .26
**•«'« ^«yy
**•.:* ;„ »..,.^«-:■■:■■■■ Gar.rv
*^V'-V«v*. "'111
Contour interval approximately 70'fir.
Undisturbed, area, - rrnxtd,-ve^etaMoTV.
Area, disturbed, from time, to time, fry seals hauZin/},
scantror uniform, grass.
,r1 Breeding Grounds.
 Hauling        "
Date of examination July 16
Lukannon
Only 1840 famates o/i Eastern
of £t/tra?tJiQ?%,ott dft&lutZ
r>ioCoSte,.S2.
IKelacvie
x(y ZQ70 females on
?iecv/e av Jtttu to
Base Map prepared by
Brown.
S Doc. LJ..7_„54 i Chart E
■m
Y:fls
yg.i-.
B.
^•g&h.
•/
Y
^tbur*hy
m
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aaaaaaasaa a A  ;^ 7Y
Mcbssed
*;*,*.*. ,*,4** *.Yi),i ■*•;*•.;
Sis i
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It- -.-J*: -r. . .-'
_   .£, -.1, A
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77
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:a a:aaa;asH: a„
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i:'^*
i*t■••-.■'•.■."•'■■.•■;■.-..- ■>. .
Ar/i .■■•: -.'.■ r1 •:: ij
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wr<yi:-:<.-''i
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.y*7*»
mm
U. S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries.
TOLSTOI AND LAGOOlfROOKERIES
Sc Paul Island, Bering Sea.
Showing area occupied by Fur Seals in 1895,
as determined by
C. H. TOWnSetld, Assistant.
 Map prepared by Joseph Staidey- Brown. Charts F &. G.
ZAPADNIE ILOOKEBX
.ANP
ENGLISH: BAST.
S? Paul Island, Bering Sea.
Showing area occupied by Fur Seals in 1895,
as determined by
C. H. Townsend, Assistant.
Very Th.
Seal

\ inches
Contour inzervaZ/ approximate TOfb.
0'Mli,- Vndisturbed/area/, Ttuaxebvegetation,.
Area, disturbed/ from time-to time, by seals TuutUng,
scarcb or -uniform, grass.
§ Breeding Grounds.
 Hauling        "
Bate of examination July ZO
5ase Jfap prepared by Joseph. Stanley-Brown.
the norris PtTERS co, pnoTo-LtTHO., Washington, d c
S TKx.Mrf. .54 1       Base Map prepared by the U. S. Coast & Geodetic Survey.
S Doc 13 7 .54 1

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