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Birds and mammals of the Stikine river region of northern British Columbia and southeastern Alaska Swarth, H. S. (Harry Schelwald), 1878- 1926

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Array     University of California Publications in
ZOOLOGY
VOLUME  XXIV
1922-1926
EDITORS
CHARLES ATWOOD KOFOID
JOSEPH GRINNELL

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS
BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA  CONTENTS
PAGES
y^ A Geographical Study of the Kangaroo Rats of California, by Joseph
Grinnell    |...      3-124
*^2. Birds and Mammals of the Stikine River Region of Northern British
Columbia and Southeastern Alaska, by H. S. Swarth  125-314
y/37 Birds and Mammals of the Skeena River Region of Northern British
Columbia, by Harry S. Swarth  315-394
</4t. Report on a Collection of Birds made by J. R. Pemberton in Patagonia, by Alexander Wetmore  395-474
Index     475-482  BIRDS AND MAMMALS OF THE STIKINE
RIVER REGION OF NORTHERN BRITISH
COLUMBIA AND SOUTHEASTERN ALASKA
BY
H. S. SWARTH
(Contribution from the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology of the University of California) 
University of California Publications in Zoology
Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 125-314, plate 8, 34 figures in text
Issued June 17, 1922 
BIRDS AND MAMMALS OF THE STIKINE RIVER
REGION OF NORTHERN BRITISH COLUMBIA
AND SOUTHEASTERN ALASKA
H. S. SWARTH
CONTENTS
PAGE
Introduction     126
Itinerary and descriptions of localities  130
Topography of the region and its bearing upon animal life  141
Zonal and faunal position of the Stikine Valley  149
Check list of the mammals  157
General accounts of the mammals _  158
Check list of the birds  194
General accounts of the birds _  196
Literature cited  309 126
University of California Publications in Zoology    [Vol. 24
i||
INTRODUCTION
In years past the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology has conducted
several expeditions to the coast of southeastern Alaska, covering in
all a large part of that district, and one to Vancouver Island, British
Columbia, nearby and of somewhat similar character.1 As one result
of this field work the Museum has obtained a representative collection
of the birds and mammals of this strongly characterized northwestern
coast region of North America. Of the closely adjacent interior of
British Columbia, however, the Museum contained no specimens
whatever. •
In a general way it has been understood that the faunas of the
coast and of the interior are markedly different, that the boundary
between the two is sharply defined, and that this boundary lies very
near to the coast. It is obvious that collections could be made over a
relatively limited area and still include a strip of country extending
from the one region to the other. Such an expedition would supply
series of specimens of species new to the Museum collections or but
scantily represented therein, and would also provide valuable data
regarding distribution, especially with respect to the behavior of animal
forms at the margins of their habitats.
The valley of the Stikine River seemed to satisfy all requirements.
It crosses the boundary between the two f aunal areas, and, piercing the
formidable barrier of mountains that intervenes, affords a feasible
route from one region to the other. Furthermore, we already had
extensive series of birds and mammals from the country about the
mouth of the river, to supplement whatever collections might be made
farther up stream. Dr. J. A. Allen (1903) had published a report
upon a collection of mammals from the upper Stikine region, made
by A. J. Stone and M. P. Anderson, but this collection had been
gathered to the eastward of the debatable strip that we especially
desired to explore.
The expedition thus outlined was made possible through the generous provision by Miss Annie M. Alexander, founder of the Museum
of Vertebrate Zoology, of a sufficient sum to defray the cost, this in
i Previous field work on the northwest coast has been prosecuted as follows:
in 1906 on the Kenai Peninsula; in 1907 in the Sitkan district; in 1908 in the
Prince William Sound region; in 1909 in the Sitkan district; and in 1910 on
Vancouver Island. 1922] Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region        127
addition to her regular yearly appropriation for the maintenance of
the Museum. Miss Alexander had long been especially interested in
the natural history of Alaska and British Columbia and had herself
personally participated in previous field work carried on in those regions by this Museum.
Our party consisted of two, the writer and Mr. Joseph Dixon,
Economic Mammalogist of the Museum. Mr. Dixon collected most of
the mammals and took entire charge of the photographic work, making this an important feature of the trip. He also supplied most of
the notes regarding the nesting activities of various species of birds.
The writer collected most of the birds, and worked with the mammals
enough to enable him to better understand local conditions. The
material collected consists of 534 mammals, 638 birds, 24 sets of birds'
eggs (mostly with nests), 70 amphibians, 195 photographic negatives.
The present report is concerned with the mammals and birds; the
amphibians are not included.
In treating the birds I have followed the nomenclature of the
American Ornithologists' Union Check-List (1910) and its supplements (1912, 1920), with some modifications. I have made no attempt
to be "up to date" in the adoption of the scores of changes proposed
of recent years, not yet acted upon by the Committee and regarding
which I have no new facts to offer or upon which I cannot form an
independent opinion. There are certain cases, however, dealing mostly
with matters of ornithology rather than nomenclature, where the presentation of new facts or a new point of view, or the conviction of
the correctness of the course of some previous writer, 'at variance with
the Check-List, impels me to the use of names not included in that
standard. This, it seems to me, is proper. These changes are thus
formally presented for consideration, but their general adoption by
others prior to action of the Committee is not expected, any more than
I, myself, expect at once to adopt other changes regarding. which I
can have no personal knowledge. I have endeavored in every case at
variance with the Check-List to indicate my reason for adopting the
name in question. "With mammals there is no such standard, and the
opinion of the latest monographer of a group is usually accepted.
My sincere acknowledgments are due to a number of institutions
and individuals for aid of one sort or another. For the prosecution
of the field work I was generously granted by the following authorities
permission to collect specimens of birds and mammals: the United
States Biological Survey and the Dominion Parks Branch, Department 128
University of California Publications in Zoology     [VoL-24
of the Interior, Canada, for the taking of migratory birds; the United
States Department of Agriculture, for game mammals in Alaska; the
United States Department of Commerce, for fur-bearing mammals in
Alaska; Mr. F. Kermode, Director of the Provincial Museum, Victoria British Columbia, for game and non-game birds and mammals in
British Columbia.
I am under obligations to the Bureau of Biological Survey of the
United States Department of Agriculture, through its chief, Dr. E. W.
Nelson, for the loan of specimens, for the identification of certain
species, and for the determination of the contents of bird stomachs.
In this connection particular mention should be made of the identification of the shrews of the genera 8 or ex and Microsorex by Dr. Hartley
H. T. Jackson, who examined all my material except four specimens
in alcohol; and of the examination of a considerable number of birds'
stomachs by Mr. Charles C. Sperry.
From the Victoria Memorial Museum, Ottawa, through Mr. P. A.
Taverner, and from the Provincial Museum, Victoria, British Columbia,
through the director, Mr. F; Kermode, I received the loan of specimens
of various species of birds.
The plant names used in this report were supplied by Dr. F. J.
Smiley, of the University of California Herbarium, based upon specimens collected on this expedition that have been deposited in the
Herbarium.
Advice and information was received from Mr. Ernest P. Walker,
an employee of the United States Bureau of Fisheries who was stationed at Wrangell, Alaska, at the time we were pursuing our field
work in that region. Mr. "Walker supplied data on certain species
from the vicinity of "Wrangell, and he has presented to the Museum
of Vertebrate Zoology specimens of birds and mammals from the same
region that are desirable additions to the Museum collection.
I take pleasure in expressing my gratitude to Mr. "W. H. Dodd,
government agent at Telegraph Creek, for assistance and advice during
our stay in the region over which he has jurisdiction. 1922] Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region        129
Fig. A. Map of the lower Stikine River, British Columbia and Alaska,
showing stations from which collecting was carried on by the 1919 expedition
from the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology.
III!
HP
i
mm
if
W 130
University of California- Publications in Zoology    [VoL-24
ITINERARY AND DESCRIPTIONS OF LOCALITIES
From Berkeley we proceeded directly to Telegraph Creek, the
head of navigation on the Stikine River. There we made arrangements with the Barrington Transportation Company whereby their
river boat, running on fairly regular schedule, deposited us at various
selected camp sites. Our collecting stations were carefully chosen,
both with regard to their location on the river, and to the accessibility
of stretches of surrounding territory. The last item is of importance
in a wilderness as generally impenetrable as are the forests of the
lower Stikine.
Our itinerary, in detail, was as follows: left Berkeley, May 14;
left Wrangell, Alaska, May 21; arrived Telegraph Creek, B. C, May
23; The Junction, May 25 to June 6; Telegraph Creek, June 6 to 26;
Glenora, June 27 to July 8; Doch-da-on Creek, July 8 to 26; Flood
Glacier, July 26 to August 8; Great Glacier, August 8 to 16; Sergief
Island, August 17 to September 7; Mitkof Island, August 26 to 29;
arrived Berkeley, September 15.
TELEGRAPH CREEK
The town of Telegraph Creek is on the north bank of the Stikine
River, about 130 miles from, and 540 feet above, tidewater (Brooks,
1906, p. 49). It is about 160 miles from the general line of the coast
at the mouth of the river, following the course of the stream; less
than half that distance in an air line from the nearest point on the
coast. Telegraph Creek, the stream, flowing from the north, empties
into the river at this point. Near the town the river banks rise steeply
on either side to a series of terraces beyond. At many points these
enclosing walls are sheer cliffs of basaltic rock, several hundred feet
high, with long steep taluses extending below, sometimes to the river's
edge. Telegraph Creek, for the last mile or two of its course, flows
along a narrow canon, the steep walls rising abruptly to the level
terraces above. In its upper reaches it follows a canon the walls of
which are not particularly steep. The stream has its source in a
string of lakes at "the Summit," some twelve miles north of the point
where it empties into the Stikine, at an altitude of about 2600 feet.
The mountains rise to a much greater height on either side. About
two miles northwest of the town of Telegraph Creek is Sawmill Lake,
about a mile long. Four or five miles farther west lies the much larger
Alkali Lake. 1922]        Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Regioi
131
In the Telegraph Creek region the principal feature of the vegetation is the poplar woods. Poplars grow everywhere in the lowlands,
sometimes in almost pure stands with but a sprinkling of other trees,
and for miles in extent. In swampy places willow thickets form dense
growths that are hard to penetrate. On some of the drier ridges
these willows form open woods that are quite easy to traverse, composed of rather large trees, widely spaced and with little brush below.
At some points there are stretches of dry, gravelly benches, with a
sparse growth of small lodgepole pines (Pinus contorta) and here
and there a few cottonwoods, birches, and poplars, with very little
undergrowth and all together very park-like in appearance.
Fig. B. Looking down the Stikine River from a point about a mile below
Telegraph Creek, just above the junction of the First South Fork. The Stikine
today follows the same general course to the sea as it did before'the present
coastal ranges were elevated; the river valley was cut deeper and deeper during
the slow uplift of the mountain barrier. In the Telegraph Creek region, here
shown, the valley consists of a series of sharply defined terraces, rising step by
step from the river to the bases of the mountains on either side. These terraces
presumably indicate the level of the river at different periods of its history.
Photograph taken June 24, 1919.
The valley on the north side of the river, extending west and south
at least as far as Glenora, is relatively level with a few low hills and
ridges here and there, stretching from the abrupt banks that border
the river up to the higher mountains some miles to the northward.
This rolling country is nearly all covered with forest of poplar, willow,
cottonwood, and birch, and a few scattered pines. In places the woods
are quite dense, sometimes fairly open; some of the hills and ridges are 1.32
University of California Publications in Zoology     [VoL-24
quite destitute of trees.    There are occasional small lakes, and here
and there marshes and small streams.
On the drier slopes and ridges two species of juniper occur, Juni-
perus communis var. sibirica and Jurdperus horizontalis, both to be
seen in abundance from the river bank up to the Summit. Both species
grow as rather low, rounded bushes. On the higher mountain slopes
are groves of spruce and balsam fir, extending downward in cool,
shaded canons, as along Telegraph Creek, or occurring sometimes as
Fig. C. East end of Sawmill Lake, near Telegraph Creek. Mammals that
especially frequent the grass and bushes about the shores of the lake are shrews
(Sorex personatus personatus and S. dbscwms ohscurus), Drummond meadow mouse,
and Stikine jumping mouse. Birds that nest amid the same surroundings are
the spotted sandpiper, alder flycatcher, rusty blackbird, rusty song sparrow, and
Forbush sparrow. The lesser yellowlegs was seen feeding about the shores of
the lake, but apparently was not nesting there. Grebes, loons, and ducks were
seen daily upon the lake during June and probably were nesting. Photograph
taken June 20, 1919.
small, isolated clumps on some north-facing slope well down in the
poplar forest.
Of low-growing shrubbery, a conspicuous plant of the drier slopes
is Shepherdia canadensis (locally known as soapberry), which forms
dense thickets of considerable extent. The berries are an important
bird food. The wild cherry (Prunus demissa) was another noticeable
plant, forming dense thickets along the banks of the stream near the
town, the bushes from three to six feet high and, by the middle of
June, a mass of white flowers. The service berry (Amelanchier
fiorida) grows abundantly, forming bushes from four to ten feet high, 19223        Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region        133
and also blooms before the middle of June. Wherever land had been
cleared and allowed to go back to a wild state, there were dense growths
of lupine.
THE JUNCTION
Years ago a road led from Glenora, skirting the base of the hills
and joining the trail from Telegraph Creek at the Junction, four miles
from the Stikine, up Telegraph Creek.    The old road has long been
in disuse, and most of it is now a poorly defined trail, used by moose
Fig. D. Type of country seen in the lowlands of the Telegraph Creek region.
The terraces extending from the Stikine River northward to the mountains are
covered mostly with poplar woods. Here and there clumps of spruce occur, with
occasional groves of lodgepole pine. At the time this photograph was taken,
May 26, 1919, and at the point shown, near the base of the hills, the poplars had
not yet leaved out, though four miles to the westward, near the river, the trees
were green with foliage. Telegraph Creek, the stream, flows along the bottom
of the narrow canon in the foreground.
This is the habitat of moose, bear, and red squirrel, among mammals, of
Hammond flycatcher, Cassiar junco, robin, hermit thrush, and long-tailed chickadee, among birds.
.and other wild animals, but seldom by man. At the Junction there is a
small meadow by the side of the stream, and there we camped. Just
above this point the hills begin to rise rather abruptly.
The Junction was our first collecting station. In some respects we
would have done better to have stayed near the river, for though the
distance was short and the altitude at the Junction but little higher,
there was an appreciable difference in temperature between the two
places, which was reflected in the plant life and in the birds.   While
II I
Will
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lij University of California Publications in Zoology     [VoL-24
the air was warm on the Stikine, and most of the trees and bushes well
leaved out, at the Junction the temperature was below freezing each
night, and the deciduous trees and shrubbery were all bare or just
beginning to show bursting leaf buds. Still higher, at the Summit,
the lakes were almost entirely ice covered, and there were deep snowdrifts on all sides. The snow was melting in the daytime, however, and
the meadows as a result were nearly all flooded.
Fig. E. Looking up the river from Glenora, fifteen miles below Telegraph
Creek. Here there are extensive tracts of open meadow land, much of it covered with grass and wild strawberries, parts of it densely grown up with lupine
and fireweed. Bordering river and meadows are rows of tall eottonwoods rising
above thickets of alder and willow. Poplar is the predominant tree of the
drier ground. The mountains immediately to the eastward are low and rounded,
in striking contrast to the high, jagged peaks of the coast range, which rise but
a short distance west of this point.   Photograph taken July 6, 1919.
GLENORA
Fifteen miles down stream from Telegraph Creek, on the west
side of the river, lies Glenora, a deserted village. Years ago this was
the metropolis of the region, but circumstances caused the entire
population to move to Telegraph Creek. The houses were mostly of
logs, material that could not be moved, and they stand there today,
slowly succumbing to decay, a refuge for white-footed mice and bushy-
tailed wood rats.
Glenora occupies a strip of flat ground several hundred yards in
width, extending for perhaps a mile along the river, the stream in
front, steep banks behind, two or three hundred feet high, rising to a I922] Swarth: Birds and-Mammals of the Stikine Region        135
series of terraces above.   This low-lying strip is but slightly above the
normal, high water mark of the river.
There are extensive tracts of open meadow land, some of it grass
covered, other parts densely grown with lupine and fireweed (Epilo-
bium angustifolium). The fireweed in particular grows densely and
to a great height everywhere about the houses. There are places acres
in extent covered solidly with wild strawberry plants. Bordering
the meadows and along the river banks are rows of tall cottonwoods
ssfcfi*
Fig. F. The Stikine River just above Grand Rapids, about fifty miles below
Telegraph Creek and about 110 miles from the mouth of the river. Here the
Stikine begins its passage through the Coast Range, the mountains rising steeply
and to great heights on either side. Coastal conditons begin to be apparent,
more in the character and density of the vegetation than in the animal life. On
the west bank of the river, shown in the photograph, coniferous woods extend
down to the water's edge. On the east side poplar and birch prevail, trees that
do not extend much farther down stream.    Photograph taken July 20, 1919.
(Populus trichocarpa), in the wet places are thickets of alder, and
elsewhere mixed woods, just as about Telegraph Creek.
Glenora Mountain lies north of the town, rising abruptly from
the terraces bordering the river. It is a long ridge, rather than a
peak, much of the summit ascending well above timber line.
DOCH-DA-ON CREEK
Some thirty miles south of Glenora is Doch-da-on Creek, flowing
into the Stikine from the southeast, just above Grand Rapids. Here is
the ranch of Mr. and Mrs. Frank Jackson, where we made our camp.
Doch-da-on Creek emerges abruptly from steep rocky walls at the
base of a mountain, then, before reaching the river, flows for about a
N^A1. 136
University of California Publications in Zoology     [Vol. 24
mile along a broad, gravelly, rock-strewn wash. Half a mile to
the northward, a branch of the Stikine nearly as wide.as the main
stream enters from the east. This branch is the outlet of a slough
that begins some miles farther north and passes behind a series of
islands. The Jackson ranch thus occupies a peninsula between the
creek and the slough, a low-lying flood plain resulting from the deposits
of the creek. . ..,.,•,
Fig. G Fig. H
Fig. G. Poplar woods along shore of Sawmill Lake, near Telegraph Creek.
Poplars grow quite densely and sometimes in nearly pure stands, though there
is often an admixture of willow. Bird species that particularly frequent this
type of woods are the ruffed grouse, northern flicker, western warbling vireo,
yellow warbler, Tolmie warbler, American redstart, and olive-backed thrush.
Photograph taken June 19, 1919.
Fig. H. The spruce woods of the middle altitudes on the mountain sides
are made up of large sized trees and occupy a well defined area above an altitude of about 1500 feet. In the woods here shown we saw the goshawk, western
winter wren, short-tailed chickadee, ruby-crowned kinglet, Alaska hermit thrush,
and northern varied thrush. At the upper edge of the timber the Fleming
grouse was seen. Photograph taken on mountain above Doch-da-on Creek July
23, 1919.
On the east side of the river the mountains lie back a mile or more
from the stream, rising by alternate stretches of rather gentle slopes
and much steeper pitches, to ridges far above timber line, probably
4000 feet altitude and higher.   On the west side of the Stikine, just 1922]
Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region
137
opposite, rocky walls rise abruptly from the water's edge; exposed
granite cliffs and steep, forested slopes reach to a height of perhaps
1500 feet, then a stretch of gentler slopes ascends to the base of the
higher mountains beyond.
Vegetation here is of the interior, but the underbrush is much
denser than we found it farther up the river. Alder thickets cover
large areas of the bottom lands and poplar groves the lower slopes
of the hills. Fir (Abies amabiUs) grows in abundance down to the
level of the river, forming groves of considerable extent, mixed with
Fig. I. Stikine Valley from Flood Glacier; view toward the river from the
front V)f the glacier. The opening in the foreground, the present terminal
moraine, owes its snowy appearance to the white, glacier-polished rocks with
which the ground is strewn; there was no snow at that level. The ridge in the
middle distance is on the far (east) side of the Stikine. On the upper slopes
of the distant mountains there is a series of hanging glaciers, with running
streams descending from each one.   Photograph taken August 1, 1919.
some spruce. There are also cottonwood, willow, and birch, all growing to large size, and, of smaller trees, mountain ash (Sorbus sit-
chensis) and maple (Acer douglasii).
On the mountainside above we found a well denned belt of spruce
timber of large size, above that a belt of scrubby and prostrate balsam
(Abies lasiocarpa), and still higher an area that is destitute of any
trees or bushes, given over to heather, moss, and grasses.
11
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138 ' University of California Publications in Zoology     [Vol.24-
FLOOD GLACIER
Flood Glacier is on the west side of the Stikine, approximately
fifteen miles below the Little Canon, and about seventy miles from the
coast. Its terminal moraine is about two miles back from the river.
Our camp here was below the southern end of the glacier, on a knoll
by the river frequently used as a camp site and locally known as
"the barley cache." We found ourselves here amid conditions very
similar to those on the seacoast, in a dense forest of spruce and hemlock, with thickets of alder and devil's-club in the wet places and of
m
Fig. J Fig. K
Fig. J. Clearing through the forest below Flood Glacier. The woods here
are so dense as to be all but impassable. Immediately below the glacier, however, there are several straight, open lanes, extending down nearly to the river's
edge, apparently ploughed through the woods by descending masses, of ice or
rocks. These lanes are used as avenues of travel by moose and bear, as indicated by the tracks. We also found far more small birds in such openings than
in the surrounding woods.   Photograph taken August 1, 1919.
Fig. K. Mountain opposite Great Glacier at its southern extremity. This
point,"some thirty miles from the sea, is in the heart of the Coast Mountains;
the peaks and ridges here seen form the very backbone of the range. The
higher crests, jagged and unworn, apparently never were glacier-covered. The
sheet of ice may be seen today, below the summit of the range, extending for
many miles as a series of disconnected hanging glaciers, all at about the same
level. (See also fig. I.) According to Indian legend, an ice bridge extended
across the Stikine at the point here shown at a not very remote time. Photograph taken August 9, 1919. 1922] Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region        139
huckleberry in the drier woods. The only open ground was found in
some long, narrow lanes extending down from below the glacier, where
apparently strips of forest had been swept away by avalanches of ice
or rocks.
The moraine consists of huge, angular rocks massed in ridges and
is largely hidden by forest growth, which extends close to the glacier.
Large spruce and hemlock trees grow between the rocks, and devil's-
club, salmonberry, and other shrubbery cover the surface of the
boulders. Most of the depressions were flooded by beaver ponds, with
surrounding borders of alder.
:%l[
'111
^**^.
Fig. L. Mouth of Stikine River at low tide. The ocean tides ascend many
miles up stream. At low water extensive sand bars are exposed at the river's
mouth; the channel is then broken up into numerous small, shallow passages,
impassable to even a very small bpat. Photograph taken at Sergief Island,
Alaska, September 5, 1919.
GREAT GLACIER
The fanlike front of the Great Glacier, four or five miles across,
issues from the mountains on the west side of the Stikine about fifteen
miles above the British Columbia-Alaska boundary line. Our camp
site was below the southern end of the Glacier. The river bank at that
point is rather high and abrupt, cut through a deep layer of grave,l
that extends back to the terminal moraine of the glacier. This dry,
well drained strip is not of a nature to support such forest growths as
we found below Flood Glacier, and the woods were fairly open. There
are extensive areas grown with scattered thickets of alder and a few
scattered spruce and cottonwoods, the open ground between being
i fly i University of California Publications in Zoology
[VOL. 24
covered everywhere with thick, soft lichens, carpet-like in their effect.
On strips of damper ground nearby the spruce forest had secured a
foothold, with the accompanying tangle of devil 's-club. and alder
underneath.
Immediately below the glacier, fed by the melting ice, a string of
little ponds extends, barren of vegetation and surrounded by low,
rounded hills of gravel and rocks. Streams issuing fronx these ponds
flow over gravelly beds to the river, a mile or more distant.
SERGIEF ISLAND
This islet lies at the mouth of the Stikine, about eight miles north
of the town of Wrangell. The main rocky mass of the island is about
a mile in its greatest diameter. On the north and east sides, toward the
river, there is a flat belt of sandy soil, half a mile or more across, that
lies at a level above even the highest stage of river or tide at the present
time. This strip has some timber upon it, cottonwood, spruce, alder,
and willow, but is mostly grown with tall grass and pea vines. The
river flows close to the island. There are no mud flats on the east
side, but extensive sand bars are exposed at low tide. The rocky
backbone of the. island rises abruptly from the surrounding marsh,
and is covered with the dense forest growth characteristic of the
Sitkan district. Spruce is predominant in the woods, with tangled
undergrowth beneath, in which devil's-elub is most prominent. At the
edge of the woods is a fringe of alder, these bushes diminishing in size
and density as salt water is approached. At the upper edge of the
tidal flats the alders give way to scrubby willows, which extend far
out on the marshes, over much of the ground that is not regularly
inundated by the tides. Alders and willows together form a relatively
narrow strip surrounding the island, and beyond the last straggling
bush the grass-covered marsh land extends. Part of this marsh land
is covered by salt water every day, part of it only by the highest tides.
Large areas are covered by the marsh grass to the exclusion of all other
vegetation; in places it grows taller than a man's head. Toward the
higher ground, where there is much fresh water, this tall, coarse grass
is absent, and there is a covering of shorter growths, composed of a
number of different plants. This higher area is dotted with small
ponds, some surrounded by reeds. Beyond the margin of the marsh
grass are the bare mud flats, exposed only at low tide. The marshes
throughout are intersected by numerous channels, of varying depth and
width, extending upward from the low water mark in many cases
clear to the rocky center of the island. 1922]
Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region        141
Sergief Island is the home of Mr. W. E. Parrott, who has cleared
a small tract of land and for some years has successfully raised garden
vegetables and ginseng. We established our camp in a cabin in the
woods about a mile from his place. From Sergief Island, Dixon, in
company with Mr. Parrott, made a four days' trip to Blind Slough,
Mitkof Island, ten or twelve miles to the westward.
Fig. M. Sand flat at eastern end of Sergief Island, Alaska. On that side
of the island, deposition of sediment from the Stikine has resulted in the building up of a strip of sandy soil that now lies above, the level of the highest stage
of river or tide. This strip is grown up with tall grass and pea vines. At the
landward margin there are bordering thickets of alder and willow, and groves
of cottonwood. Beyond, steep slopes arise, covered with spruce. The tall grass
was the haunt of the rusty song sparrows. The bordering thickets at the time
of our visit harbored numbers of migrants, such as the golden-crowned sparrow,
Oregon junco, lutescent and Townsend warblers, dwarf hermit thrush, northwestern robin, and varied thrush.   Photograph taken August 20, 1919.
TOPOGRAPHY OF THE REGION AND ITS BEARING UPON
ANIMAL LIFE
The Stikine River rises in northern British Columbia east of the
Coast Range and flows southerly and westerly to the Pacific. Its headwaters interlock with those of the Liard and with streams that flow into
the Yukon. Thus, the height of land that traverses northern British
Columbia serves as a divide between several great river systems. The
Liard flows northeastward through the Rocky Mountains to the
Mackenzie, which flows into the Arctic Ocean; the Yukon flows north-
M"
Ills 142
University of California Publications in Zoology     [VoL-24
westward to Bering Sea; on the west, the Taku, Stikine, and Skeena
rivers follow parallel courses westward through the Coast Range to
the Pacific. Headwaters of all these streams rise from nearby points
in northern British Columbia.
For some distance from its source the Stikine flows from east to
west, following fairly closely the 58th parallel of.latitude, and receiving from time to time tributaries of considerable size. In the Telegraph Creek region the river gradually turns, first toward the southwest, then almost due south. Some twenty miles from the coast, about
at the British Columbia-Alaska boundary, it bends sharply to the
westward once more, and reaches salt water near the town of "Wrangell,
amid the network of islands forming the Alexander Archipelago.
A tributary of importance to the upper Stikine is Clearwater
Creek, entering from the northwest some thirty miles below Telegraph
Creek. Near the Boundary there is a small stream that is locally
called j' Clearwater Creek,'' and there is apt to be confusion between
the two if the facts are not known.
Our work did not take us above the middle Stikine Valley, with its
uppermost limit at Telegraph Creek. In this section, from Telegraph
Creek down stream nearly to Doch-da-on Creek, the valley is rather
broad, the mountains rising at a distance on either side. Just south
of Doch-da-on Creek the Stikine begins its passage through the Coast
Range. The valley, already much narrowed, becomes still more constricted ; some five miles below Doch-da-on Creek the river is hemmed
in between the rocky walls of Kloochman Canon, the uppermost of the
two narrow gorges through which the Stikine passes in the lower part
of its course. The mountains from this point on become much higher
and more precipitous. From Doch-da-on Creek looking northward and
eastward the valley is broad in extent and the mountains are relatively
low and rounded. Many of the summits are bare of snow during the
summer months. To the southward and westward a jumbled mass of
jagged peaks and ridges arises, forbidding in the extreme, and pressing
closely in upon either side of the river.
"Where the Stikine passes through the mountains, the river valley
is exceedingly rough and covered with a forest that is virtually impenetrable.   In this connection it is of interest to quote some statements of Emmons (1911, pp. 9-10) in his description of the country,
of the Tahltan Indians, who occupy the region of the upper Stikine.
The lower valley of the Stikine from just below Glenora to the coast, a direct
distance of about eighty miles, is included within the coastal range and constitutes a region of great humidity, with leaden skies and an annual precipitation If
19221 Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region        143
equalling if not exceeding that of the coast which reaches a mean of eighty-six
inches. The snowfall thereabouts is excessive, and accounts for the extensive
glaciers that fill the valleys; and long after spring has opened in the colder interior
the lower river flats are eovered with their burden of snow and ice Forests
of spruce, fir, cedar and hemlock cover the mountain slopes to the limit of tree
growth, while in the river valleys cottonwoods grow to considerable size, and
groves of alder and willow, with the devil's club and berry bushes, form an almost
impenetrable barrier It may be pertinent to remark here, that this region
which may be characterized as the wet belt has never been inhabited by either
Tahltan or Tlingit in the sense that they have permanently occupied it and it is
scarcely more popular as a hunting ground owing to its poverty and inaccessibility.
At the mouth of the river and in the channel beyond there are
numerous small rocky islands. Surrounding these centers there are
miles of meadow, marsh land, and mud flats, resulting from the deposition of silt by the river. During the period of high water in midsummer the stream is gray and opaque with silt carried in suspension,
and this silt has been dropped in the channels immediately beyond the
river's mouth until they are well-nigh filled.
A conspicuous forest tree of the lower Stikine is the cottonwood.
This tree covers all the low ground near the water, grows densely and
to a large size. It finds a foothold on sand bars and aids in the building
up of such areas into more stable bottom land. Consequently, there
are hundreds of acres of cottonwood in almost pure stands but slightly
above the level of the *river or even submerged at the highest water.
East of the Coast Range, cottonwood is much less conspicuous than
along the lower river, though still persisting in considerable numbers.
In the country in general at the mouth of the Stikine, the Sitka
spruce is the dominant tree. This tree, with other associated conifers,
extends some distance up stream, forming an evergreen forest that
covers all but the unstable bottom land where the quick-growing
cottonwoods occur. Where rocky slopes rise abruptly from the river's
bank, the conifers range down to the water's edge. The higher ground
back from the first bottom is covered densely with woods Of spruce
and hemlock, and with undergrowth of devil's-club, alder, and huckleberry. Such woods extend with but slight breaks to a point a little
above the Little Canon. Farther inland the spruce woods ascend higher
and higher on the mountain sides, until at Doch-da-on Creek the lower
limit of this belt lies at an altitude of about 2000 feet. Somewhere
below Doch-da-on Creek the Sitka spruce of the coast gives way to
other conifers of the interior, but just where this happens we did not
ascertain. On the upper Stikine, poplar becomes the dominant growth
of the valley, mixed, here and there, with groves of conifers or of
cottonwood.
! j 144
University of California Publications in Zoology     [Vol.24
The Sitkan district of southeastern Alaska is characterized by
excessive humidity and by relatively equable temperature. The annual
rainfall at many points is 100 inches or more, the number of rainy
days per year around 200. There is a great deal of foggy and cloudy
weather. The winters are not extremely cold nor are the summers
very warm. The vegetation of this region is comprised mostly of an
extremely dense growth of coniferous forest trees, and, beneath the
trees, underbrush almost tropical in its luxuriance. The Sitkan district is here considered as including the islands between Cross Sound
and Dixon Entrance, together' with a narrow strip of the adjacent
mainland coast. Its eastward limits are sharply defined by the towering and precipitous range of mountains that, rising abruptly from
the shore, parallels the coast. To the eastward of this Coast Range, in
the interior of British Columbia and Alaska, is a region of widely
different character. I have not exact meteorologic data for this section,
but certain general facts are obvious. Dawson (1889, pp. 58&-59o)
remarks on this subject as follows:
It may be stated here, as showing the broad general contrast, that while the
annual precipitation at Wrangell, at the mouth of the Stikine, is over sixty inches,
that in the vicinity of Telegraph Creek on the inland side of the mountains, is so
small that it is necessary to irrigate. cultivated land. Nor does this comparison
of rain-fall suflieiently mark the great diversity which actually obtains between
the two climates, the prevalence of clouded skies in the coast region being accompanied by a saturated state of the atmosphere, while precisely opposite conditions
are found on the eastern side of the mountain belt, at not more than eighty miles
inland from the general line of the coast.
The country east of the mountains is subject to far greater extremes
of temperature than the coast region, with hot summers and with extremely cold winters. The forest covering includes a considerable proportion of conifers, but there is also a still larger proportion of deciduous timber. The animal life in these two regions, the Sitkan
district of the coast and the adjacent interior, is widely different.
The vailey of the Stikine forms a highway between the two faunal
areas, otherwise separated by physical barriers and sharply contrasted
in nearly all particulars, though lying in close juxtaposition. The
presence of this channel of communication affords excellent opportunity for observation of the geographic behavior of the many animal
species that by this means are permitted an outlet in either direction.
Certain contrasted species and subspecies occupying comparable positions in each of the two faunal areas are brought together, and thus
into competition; others with no such direct rival in the adjacent area
are brought into contact with climatic conditions, adverse in that they
are unaccustomed. 19£
5] Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region
145
The Stikine is one of several large rivers of the northwest that
break through the Coast Range at right angles to the lines of those
mountains, their valleys thus lying transverse to the main lines of the
range. In a published report upon the geology of Alaska, A. H.
Brooks (1906) makes the following statement regarding the Copper,
Alsek, Taku, and Stikine rivers: "These, together with the other
large rivers of British Columbia, seem to traverse the coastal mountain barrier along valleys determined by antecedent conditions. Their
lower valleys at least have the same direction as before the present
coastal mountains were elevated, and the streams -maintained their
courses across the barrier during the slow uplift" (p. 286). Again:
"The valleys of the Stikine and Taku rivers, .... which lie transverse to the Coast Range, have probably inherited their courses from
a former mature drainage system which was developed on the old
peneplain" (loc. cit., p. 287).
In this connection it is worth while to note the appearance of the
river valley of the upper Stikine in the Telegraph Creek region. There,
and for many miles down stream from that point, the stream is bordered by series of terraces, rising step by step to the base of the mountains beyond. Viewed from some overlooking height the course of any
one of these terraces may be traced for a long distance. It seems
obvious that they represent the level of the river valley at different
periods of its history.    (See fig. B.)
The evidence of the geologist goes to show that, diverse as the coast
region and the interior are, as regards fauna and flora, the two have
not been absolutely separated by the Coast Range at all times in the
past any more than they are at present. A channel of communication
through the mountains has been there continuously from very remote
geologic times, save for a period when it must have been blocked by ice.
Presumably all animal life was swept from both regions when the
whole country was glacier-covered. Presumably, too, conditions in the
areas on either side of the Coast Range permitted the return of animals
and plants from the southward when the mountains between were still
mostly ice. Even now the range is glacier-covered over a large portion
of its area. The higher peaks and ridges protrude, steep and serrated,
far above the ice. From the jagged, unworn appearance of these
higher crests they apparently never were covered. The sheet of ice
as seen today lies below the summit of the range, and can be traced
as a series of hanging glaciers appearing and re-appearing for many
miles at about the same level, visible from the river below. In certain
canons and valleys, tongues of this glacial covering extend downward
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ShB
far below the general level, some of them to within a mile or two of
the river. It' cannot be such a very long period of time since ice
blocked the entire valley. In fact, there are today legends among the
Tahltan Indians of a time when an ice bridge still extended across
the Stikine at the Great Glacier, connecting ice masses that are now
perhaps four or five miles apart. Of course, as remarked by Dawson
(1889, p. 53fe) about this same tale, it is impossible to determine
whether "this is a remembered fact or a fancied inference." (In this
connection see also Emmons, 1911, p. 15.)
The hypothesis of a glacial blockade of communication between
the interior and the coast would imply the separate derivation of the
animal life of each. That is, that there was invasion from the southward on either side of the coast range, of the same or of different
species, as the case might be. Doubtless, at a still later period, there
was invasion of certain species from the northward as well. Among
birds in particular detailed comparisons may be made (see fig P),
and upon comparing the avifauna of the interior and of the coast in
the Stikine region, it will be seen that not only are comparable ecologic
niches on either side of the mountains usually filled by different species
rather than subspecies, but that frequently the species are not especially closely related. Furthermore, among the few cases where two
subspecies of a species do occur abundantly on either side of the mountains, there is hardly an instance where we were able to trace inter-
gradation along the connecting valley of the Stikine. In some few
cases where the birds were abundant enough for us to ascertain the
faet, it was evident that certain subspecies, at this particular point,
met as distinct species. All this argues for invasion from the southward, on either side of the Coast Range, of bird species and subspecies
that met at a much later period along such channels as the Stikine
Valley.
The intrusion of a range of high mountains was productive of
diverse climatic conditions in the two regions. This, in turn, resulted
in differences in the reestablished plant and animal life to a far greater
extent than would follow from the mere presence of a physical barrier
such as a mountain mass. Differences of temperature and of humidity
arose, so that at the present time the two areas, east and west of the
Coast Range, respectively, form strongly contrasted faunal areas (dependent upon relative humidity), and they are somewhat different
zonally (dependent upon temperatures).
At a considerably later period than that at which the regions on
either side of the mountains became habitable, conditions in certain 19221 Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region        147
of the river valleys traversing the barrier (as the Stikine) became
such as to permit the existence of animal and plant life, and various
species extended their ranges up or down such channels of communication, as circumstances permitted. One factor that may be of present
importance in limiting the use of the Stikine Valley as such a channel,
so far as birds are concerned, is the late advent of summer conditions
on the lower Stikine compared with the regions on either side, a
seasonal tardiness that unquestionably prevents the nesting of many
species in this intermediate strip at the time of their arrival from the
south. (In this connection see Dawson, 1889, p. 596; Emmons, 1911,
pp. 9-10.)
The general hypothesis outlined seems to accord with conditions
as we now see them. Among birds it may be pointed out that it is
consistent with the manner of occurrence of forms like Hylocichla
ustulata ustulata and H. u. swainsoni, closely related subspecies of one
species but behaving at this point like two distinct species. It is consistent with the extension inland a certain distance of forms like
Sphyrapicus varius ruber and Passerella iliaca fuliginosa, and toward
the coast of Piranga ludoviciana (see Swarth, 1911, p. 95) and Empi-
donax trailli alnorum, and it is consistent with the restriction on one
side or the other of such distinct and sharply delimited forms as
Bombycilla garrula pallidiceps and Cyanocitta stelleri stelleri.
In this connection, certain facts regarding the present-day migration of birds in the region should be considered. If there were any
general travel between the interior and the coast such river valleys
as the Stikine would be the highways most generally followed. Our
work in the region shows pretty clearly that such is not the case. It
seems evident that the birds of the interior travel north and south
almost entirely east of the coast ranges. Some of them, it is well
known, even pass east of the Rocky Mountains as they get farther
south.   Birds of the coastal region remain west of the mountains.
We found many characteristic inland species of birds, some breeding, others, perhaps, merely migrants, as far down stream as Great
Glacier, some thirty miles from the coast. The species seen there
include Penthestes atricapillus septentrionaMs, Setophaga ruticilla,
Hylocichla ustulata swainsoni, and Vireosylva gilva swainsoni, none
of which has been taken on the coast. Dendroica aestiva was an abundant migrant, though almost entirely absent at the mouth of the
river. The Stikine in its passage through the Coast Range travels
almost due south, and it is natural that birds from the headwaters
should migrate in numbers along this valley.   It is not so clear why 148
University of California Publications in Zoology     [Vo,L-24
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1 • m ■
they should not arrive at the mouth. However, a short distance below
the Great Glacier, about at the boundary, the stream turns sharply
to the westward. Just above this bend is the mouth of the Iskut, a
tributary of the Stikine that is nearly as large as the main stream. At
the point of junction the broad valley of the Iskut enters from the
southeast and its course is east and west for some distance. A perfectly feasible outlet is thus afforded for migrating birds from the
northward at just the point where the Stikine Valley would lead
them astray. I do not know that this is the course that is actually
followed, but it may very well be, and if so it serves to explain the
absence at the mouth of the river of species that were migrating southward in numbers at a point some thirty miles up stream.
There are, however, certain inland species that appear to migrate
regularly coastward, though doubtless in lesser numbers than go
directly south. Dendroica coronata hooveri has been taken in the fall
near the mouth of the Taku River (Swarth, 1911, p. 99), and we
obtained it at the mouth of the Stikine, each time in sufficient numbers
to appear to be of regular occurrence. Sialia currucoides has been found
near the mouth of the Taku under similar circumstances (Swarth,
loc cit., p. 112), and while we, ourselves, did not meet with, this species
at the mouth of the Stikine, specimens have been taken there.
The question arises as to the migration of such species as Melospiza
melodia rufina and Passerella iliaca fuliginosa, coastal forms primarily
but breeding far inland up the Stikine. "Whether or not they ascend
and descend the river in their travels is not clear, and the facts will
be difficult to ascertain.
The casual occurrence at the mouth of the Stikine in the spring of
such species as Myadestes townsendi and Sialia currucoides (see pp.
301, 309) is noteworthy. Such wanderers in the fall might be explained as individuals that had mistakenly followed the river to its
mouth. In the spring, they can not be regarded as having gone
astray. The fact that they had reached this point is evidence that they
were confidently traveling to a definite goal, though along a path not
usually followed by their kind.
At high water, quantities of drift are carried down the river. It
is probable that small mammals living in the bottom lands often take
refuge in fallen trees or in masses of brush that are suddenly floated
away, and are thus transported far down the river. This may be one
factor tending toward the more general extension coastward of inland
species as compared with the sharper restriction of coastal forms (see
%• Q). 1922]
Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region
14£
Thus there are certain species of birds and mammals for which
the valley of the Stikine River acts as a channel of communication
between interior and coast. There are none to which it acts in the
opposite role, as a barrier to farther distribution, north or south. It
would not to birds, of course, in any event. As regards mammals,
conditions here are very different from what, for example, they are in
the valley of a stream like the Colorado River, of the southwestern
United States. In that region, not only the river itself but also the
wide strips of^adjacent bottom lands absolutely prevent the passage of
certain desert mammals, so that there are a number of species and
subspecies restricted to one side or the other (ef. Grinnell, 1914).
In the Stikine Valley no local conditions ("associations") exist
that tend to keep certain groups of animals either close to or far distant from the river banks, and the same forms range unhindered from
the water's edge well up the mountain sides. For a period of months
the river is frozen over quite to its mouth, and there is no doubt that
at that season individuals of many species of mammals cross from one
side to the other.
1
ZONAL AND FAUNAL POSITION OF THE STIKINE VALLEY
The Sitkan district of southeastern Alaska has been generally
considered to be mostly of the Canadian life zone. The areas that
extend above timber on the higher mountains afford a strip of Alpine
Arctic of considerable extent, and a drawback to the recognition of
the lower altitudes as Canadian is the absence of any well defined
intervening strip of Hudsonian. Some birds and mammals that occur
elsewhere in the Canadian zone do occur in the lowlands of the Sitkan
district, but on the other hand species generally regarded as indicative
of the Hudsonian zone are found throughout the whole region. Altogether it seems as though all the Sitkan district below Alpine-Arctic
should be considered as of the Hudsonian zone, with a strong infusion
of Canadian in the southern part at least. Certainly this coastal strip
is of a higher life zone than the adjacent interior.
In the country immediately east of the Coast Range there has not
been sufficient work to permit detailed mapping of the life zones. The
most recent zonal map covering that section is the one published in
the A. 0. U. Check-List (1910, pi. 1) and is on too small a scale to
permit of much detail. On that map the Hudsonian zone covers
practically all of northern British Columbia, extending considerably
farther southward there than in southern Alaska, to the westward, or
I; Mi
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University of California Publications in Zoology     [Vol. 2*
111   I
$i
in northern Alberta, to the eastward. The adjacent coastal strip of
southeastern Alaska is indicated as Canadian, and there are narrow,
strips of Canadian extending inland along certain river valleys, of
which the Stikine is one. The interior is thus regarded as of a higher
zone than the coast. This is not in accordance with our own findings.
One of the rules upon which life zones are based is as follows • '' The
northward distribution of terrestrial animals and plants is governed
by the sum of the positive temperatures for the entire season of growth
and reproduction" (Merriam, 1898, p. 54). Exact figures are lacking
for the region we visited, but there can be no doubt that the summer
temperature of the country immediately east of the mountains is
appreciably higher than on the coast. In further illustration of the
relative zonal positions of the two regions, the following lists of some
characteristic summer birds of the lowlands should be considered.
COAST
Dendragapus obscurus sitkensis
Oyanoeitta stelleri stelleri
Nannus hiemalis pacifieus
Regulus satrapa olivaeeus
Regulus calendula grinnelli
Ixoreus naevius naevius
INTERIOR
Bonasa umbellus umbelloides
Buteo swainsoni
Nuttallornis borealis
Spizella passerina passerina
Vireosylva gilva swainsoni
Setophaga rutieilla
Furthermore, in the course of our work the interesting fact was
developed that certain species of birds that occur commonly at sea
level on the coast occur inland at constantly increasing elevations.
Ascending the Stikine it is noticeable, at a point about a hundred miles
inland, that the characteristic spruce forest found at sea level on the
coast and on the banks along the lower reaches of the river, here begins
to ascend the mountain sides, its place in the valley being taken by the
poplar woods. In the Telegraph Creek region we found the spruce
belt at an altitude of perhaps 1500 to 2000 feet, and found therein the'
bird species to which reference is made. It is an additional complication that whereas certain subspecies extend unchanged from the coast
to the interior as inhabitants of this spruce belt, some species are represented by different subspecies at the two extremes. Nannus hiemalis
pacifieus and Regulus satrapa olivaeeus belong in the first mentioned
category. In the second, Dendragapus obscurus sitkensis, Regulus
calendula grinnelli, and Ixoreus naevius naevius, of the coast, appear
to be replaced in the interior by Dendragapus obscurus flemingi,
Regulus calendula calendula, and Ixoreus naevius meruloides. Among
mammals, Marmota caligata is one conspicuous species that occurs at
sea level on the coast (M. c. caUgata) and at high elevations inland
(M. c. oxytona).   It is a matter for regret that we were unable to give 1922]        Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region
151
more study than we did to the fauna of the spruce belt of the interior
mountains, for our data are admittedly scanty; but at any rate it is
evident that the bird population, at least, of that region contains a
large proportion of forms that are characteristic of lower levels at the
coast. The presence of the several animal and plant species noted
serves for the recognition of a strip of Hudsonian zone on the mountain
Fig. N Fig. O
Fig. N. Ascending the mountains, the poplar woods are gradually left behind while spruce and fir, appearing first as scattered thickets on north-facing
slopes or in cool canon beds, gradually become the dominant forest growths.
This, the Hudsonian zone, is the home of the Canada jay, pine grosbeak, golden-
crowned sparrow, and golden-crowned kinglet. Photograph taken in the upper
reaches of Telegraph Creek, looking toward the Summit, June 28, 1919.
Fig. O. Above the spruce woods is a strip of dwarfed and prostrate balsam
fir; still higher, Alpine-Arctic slopes and ridges extend that are bare of trees
but well covered with grass, heather and moss. This timberless area is the
home of the mountain goat and marmot, among mammals; of white-tailed ptarmigan, pallid horned lark, Hepburn rosy finch and pipit, among birds. Photograph taken on the mountain above Douh-da-on Creek, July 23, 1919.
sides, as distinguished from the Canadian zone of the valley below.
There are certain birds, apparently all of high altitudes inland, of
which we learned regrettably little regarding their relationship to the
coast fauna. They are as follows: Canachites canadensis osgoodi is
believed to be mainly a bird of the spruce belt on the mountains. 152
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mm
If
WW
Perisoreus canadensis canadensis was quite through nesting when we
reached the region, but presumably does not breed in the valley near
the river. Pinicola e. fiammula appeared to belong to the spruce belt,
but this is doubtful. Zonotrichia coronata is in this latitude unquestionably a high mountain species, reaching its greatest abundance in
the scrubby balsam at timber line. The unsettled question concerns
its extension coastward. In the coast region it does not occur in the
lowlands, but may occur on the mountains. Spizella monticola
ochracea is a high mountain bird in the Telegraph Creek region,
probably near the southern limit of the bird's distribution.
We ourselves did not get far back from the Stikine Valley at any
point, and it might be argued that our finding there of certain species
not extending into the Hudsonian is no more than corroborative of the
narrow line of Canadian extending along the Stikine Valley, shown
in the zone map cited. However, recent work has been done in the
interior at Hazelton and at Atlin, which shows the general distribution
of the bird species to which reference is made; on this basis it seems
altogether likely that northern British Columbia should be regarded
as predominantly of the Canadian life zone rather than of the Hudsonian.
It seems worth while to make such comparisons as are possible of
the results- attained by the other ornithological work recently done in
northern British Columbia. Taverner (1919) has reported upon a
collection of birds from Hazelton, and E. M. Anderson (1915a) upon
a collection from Atlin. The three points, Atlin, Telegraph Creek, and
Hazelton, are about the same distance inland. Atlin is about 150
miles north of Telegraph Creek, near the head of the Taku drainage,
Hazelton about 225 to the southward, on the upper Skeena. The three
localities are thus very similarly placed as regards their relation to
the coast.
Species common to Atlin, Telegraph Creek, and Hazelton:
1. Bonasa umbellus umbelloides
2. Faleo sparverius sparverius
3. Colaptes auratus borealis
4. Chordeiles virginianus virginianus
5. Selasphorus rufus
6. Nuttallornis borealis
7. Myioehanes richardsoni richardsoni
8. Empidonax hammondi
9. Empidonax wrighti
10. Perisoreus canadensis canadensis
11. Euphagus carolinus
12. Spinus pinus pinus 1922
Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region
153
13. Zonotrichia leucophrys gambeli
14. Spizella passerina passerina
15. Tachycineta thalassina lepida
16. Dendroica aestiva aestiva
17. Penthestes atricapillus septentrionalis
18. Hylocichla ustulata swainsoni
19. Hylocichla guttata guttata
20. Planestieus migratorius migratorius
21. Sialia currucoides
Species common to Atlin and Telegraph Creek, probably finding
their southern limit near Telegraph Creek ■
1. Spizella montieola oehracea
2. Junco hyemalis connectens
3. Dendroica coronata hooveri
Species common to Hazelton and Telegraph Creek, probably finding
their northern limit near Telegraph Creek:
1. Dryobates villosus montieola
2. Cypseloides niger borealis
3. Chaetura vauxi
4. Melospiza melodia rufina
5. Piranga ludovieiana
6. Vireosylva gilva swainsoni
7. Oporornis tolmiei
8. Setophaga ruticilla
Species found at Atlin and not at Telegraph Creek, probably finding their southern limit between these points:
1. Surnia ulula caparoch
2. Dendroica striata
3. Penthestes hudsonicus hudsonieus
Species found at Hazelton and not at Telegraph Creek, probably
finding their northern limit between these points:
1. Cyanocitta stelleri anneetens
2. Junco oreganus shufeldti
3. Stelgidopteryx serripennis
4. Vireosylva olivacea
5. Dendroica auduboni auduboni
6. Dendroica magnolia
7. Geothlypis triehas oeeidentalis
In this discussion of the life zones of the regions involved, so much
more information was forthcoming from the birds than from the mammals, that more stress is necessarily given to evidence derived from
them. A large percentage of the mammals of the interior are of species
of which it is difficult to obtain specimens, especially in summer. A
number of species we failed to meet with at all, though possibly they
I
i
I 154 University of California Publications in Zoology      [VoL-24
':.■'
occur in fair abundance, and of others but an unsatisfactory representation was obtained.
As faunal areas, the Sitkan district and the country east of the
mountains are strongly contrasted. Differences of humidity are as
striking as those of temperature, and these differences are reflected in
the mammal, bird, and plant life of the two regions. The peculiarities
of the Sitkan district are well known, and the accepted boundaries well
defined. Of the country east of the mountains, as typified in the
. Telegraph Creek region, the peculiarities are equally well marked.
This district, of undetermined extent, save where it impinges upon the
Sitkan district, appears worthy of a name as a recognizable faunal
area, for the sake of convenient reference, at least, and I would suggest the adoption of Cassiar district, a name applied to it as a political
division.
The birds of the two regions are more widely different than are the
mammals, that is, there are more distinct types in each region. The
two mammal faunas are distinct enough, and there are certain conspicuous species in each district that are not found in the other, but
in many cases closely related species or subspecies replace one another
on either side of the dividing line. Certain species of which a large
representation was obtained (Peromyscus and Microtus) exhibit inter-
gradation between related forms along the river to an extent far beyond anything found among the birds.
The two accompanying tables (figs. P, Q) serve to show the relationships of the bird and mammal faunas of the two regions, and the
nature of the occurrence of the various species in the Stikine Valley,
as observed by us. Certain generalizations may be drawn from these
tables. (1) There are, as previously remarked, more distinct types of
birds in the two contrasted regions than there are of mammals. (2)
There are more bird forms in the interior than on the coast. (In
addition, it may be said that bird life, as regards number of individuals, is far more abundant in the interior than on the coast.) (3)
In the Stikine Valley, at least, there are a number of species of the
interior that extend far toward the coast, while very few coastal races
extend any distance inland; the fauna of the Sitkan district is closely
confined to the region west of the Coast Range. In certain respects
these tables are imperfect. It would take many seasons of field work
to fill in gaps in our knowledge that are here apparent. Also, in the
case of some species there are differences of altitude concerned (implying zonal differences) as well as those of linear distance, and such
distinctions could not be made in this table. Miles from coast
0      40       70      110     145    160
humid coast
arid interior
Dendragapus o. sitkensis1
Dendragapus o. flemingi
Falco s. sparverius
Cryptoglaux f. richardsoni
Dryobates v. montieola
Sphyrapicus v. varius
Colaptes a. borealis
Chordeiles v. virginianus
Sayornis sayus
Nuttallornis borealis
Myiochanes r. richardsoni
Empidonax t. alnorum
Empidonax hammondi
Empidonax wrighti
Dryobates v. sitkensis1
Sphyrapicus v. ruber
Colaptes c. cafer1
\	
•*	
Empidonax d. difficilis
>
•4	
Cyanocitta s. stelleri
 >
Corvus b. caurinus
Euphagus carolinus
Carpodacus p. purpureus
Loxia c. bendirei
Loxia c. sitkensis
Passerculus s. savanna
,
< ■■
<     ■
Zonotrichia 1. gambeli
<—" ■■
Spizella m. ochracea
Spizella p. passerina
Junco h. connectens
Junco o. oreganus
Melospiza m. rufina
Melospiza 1. gracilis
Passerella i. fuliginosa
Piranga ludoviciana
Petrochelidon 1. lunifrons
Tachycineta t. lepida
Riparia riparia
Bombycilla g. pallidiceps
Vireosylva g. swainsoni
Vermivora c. orestera
■<	
	
Vermivora c. lutescens
Dendroica a. rubiginosa1
i
<	
Vermivora peregrina
Dendroica a. aestiva
Dendroica c. hooveri
|
Dendroica townsendi
Wilsonia p. pileolata
Nannus h. pacifieus
Certhia f. occidentalis
Penthestes a. septen-
Penthestes r. rufescens
Penthestes g. abbreviatus
Regulus c. calendula _
Myadestes townsendi
Hylocichla u. swainsoni
Hylocichla g. guttata
Planesticus m. migratorius
Ixoreus n. meruloides
Sialia currucoides
Regulus c. grinnelli
Hylocichla u. ustulata1
Hylocichla g. nanus
Planesticus m. caurinus
Ixoreus n. naevius
 *■
?
|
1Known to occur on the coast of southeastern Alaska, but not encountered on the lower Stikine
by this expedition.
Fig. P. Showing manner of occurrence in summer of certain land birds of the Stikine
region. Species and subspecies primarily of the coast are listed in the left-hand column; those
of the interior in the right-hand column. The intervening columns indicate collecting stations
of the 1919 expedition, from the coast toward the interior reading from left to right, with the
approximate distance of each place from the coast. Arrow indicates direction and extent of
dispersal of each species from the center of abundance. Broken line indicates occurrence as
migrant beyond the breeding limits.
■■■>
■
■
Is
mil
w 156 University of California Publications in Zoology      [VoL-24
$IH
Km
"     o
o
O        -S
~ <u
Miles from coast
Sorex p. streatori1
Sorex o. longicauda
Neosorex p. alaskanus1
Ursus a. pugnax1
Mustela c. alascensis1
Mustela v. nesolestes1
Peromyscus m. macro-
[rhinus
Synaptomys b. wrangeli
Evotomys wrangeli
Microtus m. macrurus
Marmota c. caligata
Sciurus h. pieatus
Odocoileus c. sitkensis
Oreamnos m. kennedvi
0
40
70
110
145
160
humid coast           arid interior
j
1
	
 >
 *■
-«	
Sorex p. personatus
Sorex o. obscurus
Neosorex p. navigator
Microsorex eximius
Ursus a. americanus
Mustela c. richardsoni
Mustela v. energumenos
Peromyscus m. borealis
Neotoma c. saxamans
Evotomys d. dawsoni
Microtus drummondi
Microtus m. mordax
Ondatra z. spatulata
Zapus saltator
Marmota c. oxytona?
Citellus p. plesius
Eutamias b. caniceps
Sciurus h. hudsonicus
Lepus a. macfarlani
Alces a. gigas
Rangifer osborni
Oreamnos m. columbianus
1Known to occur on the coast of southeastern Alaska, but not encountered by this expedition.
Fig. Q. Showing manner of occurrence of certain mammals of the Stikine
region. Species and subspecies primarily of the coast are listed in the left-hand
column; those of the interior in the right-hand column. The intervening columns
indicate collecting stations of the 1919 expedition, from the coast toward the
interior, reading from left to right, with the approximate distance of each place
from the coast. Arrows indicate direction and extent of dispersal of each species
from the center of abundance.
The 127 species and subspecies of birds treated in this report probably form a fairly complete representation of the summer avifauna of
the region. It seems curious, though, that we should have seen no
three-toed woodpeckers (Picoides), no magpies (Pica), and no yellow-
throats (Geothlypis).
Numerous species of the mammals known to occur in the region
we did not meet. We caught glimpses of bats on two occasions, but
got no specimens. A coyote (Canis) is said to range this far north, but
we neither saw nor heard one. Vulpes, Martes, Culo, and Lynx are
fur bearers that are regularly trapped throughout the region. Whether
or not there are seasonal differences affecting local distribution we did I922]        Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region
157
not learn, but we did not come in contact with any of these species.
Sheep (Ovis stonei) occur in the neighboring mountains, of course;
we were not within their territory. Flying squirrels (Qlaucomys)
occur, we were told by trappers, but we saw none. Phenacomys const dblei was described from Telegraph Creek, but our trapping did not
produce a single specimen.
CHECK LIST OF THE MAMMALS
1. Sorex personatus personatus I. Geoffroy
2. Sorex obscurus obscurus Merriam
3. Sorex obscurus longieauda Merriam
4. Neosorex palustris navigator Baird
5. Microsorex eximius (Osgood)
6. Ursus, species?
7. Ursus americanus amerieanus Pallas
8. Canis oceidentalis Richardson
9. Mustela cicognani richardsoni Bonaparte
10. Mustela vison energumenos (Bangs)
11. Phoca richardi richardi (Gray)
12. Peromyscus maniculatus borealis Mearns
13. Peromyscus maniculatus maerorhinus (Rhoads)
14. Neotoma cinerea saxamans Osgood
15. Synaptomys borealis wrangeli Merriam
16. Evotomys dawsoni dawsoni Merriam
17. Evotomys wrangeli Bailey
18. Microtus drummondi (Audubon and Bachman)
19. Microtus mordax mordax (Merriam)
20. Ondatra zibethiea spatulata (Osgood)
21. Mus musculus museums Linnaeus
22. Zapus saltator Allen
23. Erethizon epixanthum nigrescens Allen
24. Marmota ealigata caligata (Eschscholtz)
25. Citellus plesius plesius (Osgood)
26. Eutamias borealis caniceps Osgood
27. Sciurus hudsonicus hudsonicus (Erxleben)
28. Sciurus hudsonicus picatus Swarth
29. Castor canadensis canadensis Kuhl
30. Lepus amerieanus maefarlani Merriam
31. Odocoileus columbianus sitkensis Merriam
32. Alees amerieanus gigas Miller
33. Rangif er osborni Allen
34. Oreamnos montanus columbianus Allen
II
mm
1
Win 158 University of California Publications in Zoology      LVoL-2*
11!
III!!!!
GENERAL ACCOUNTS OF THE MAMMALS
Sorex personatus personatus I. Geoffroy. Masked Shrew
Obtained only in the vicinity of Telegraph Creek and at Great
Glacier. Seven taken at Telegraph Creek and five at the nearby station
of the Junction (nos. 30527, 30535, 30554-30559, 30561, 31052-31054).
Seven specimens from Great Glacier (nos. 30544, 30562-30567), though
referred to Sorex personatus personatus, show intergradation toward
S. p. streatori. These determinations, as well as those of the other
forms of Sorex and Microsorex here treated, were made by Dr. Hartley
H. T. Jackson, of the United States Biological Survey.
Sorex obscurus obscurus Merriam.   Dusky Shrew
Seven specimens taken at the Junction, five at Telegraph Creek,
three at Glenora, two at Doch-da-on Creek, and one at Flood Glacier
(nos. 30522-30526, 30528-30534, 30536-30541).   Shrews were nowhere
abundant.
Sorex obscurus longicauda Merriam.   Long-tailed Shrew
Ten from Great Glacier and two from Sergief Island (nos. 30542,
30543, 30545-30551, 31055).   The series from Great Glacier is intermediate between Sorex obscurus obscurus and S. o. longicauda, but on
the whole is nearer longicauda.
up
M
Neosorex palustris navigator Baird. Water Shrew
An adult male (no. 30568) was trapped near Telegraph Creek on
June 22, in a bit of swampy land near the stream. Allen (1903, p. 567)
has referred the water shrew of this region to Neosorex pahistris alas-
kanus (Merriam), but our one specimen does not exhibit the characters
ascribed to that race (cf. Merriam, 1900, p. 18). As compared with
Californian examples of navigator, the Telegraph Creek specimen is
exactly similar in general size and in skull characters, but is of slightly
more grayish coloration.
I have seen one specimen of Neosorex from the coast of southeastern Alaska (in the collection of E. P. Walker), taken at Rudyard
Bay, about one hundred miles south of the Stikine River, and this
animal does exhibit the cranial peculiarities ascribed to alaskanus. It
seems likely that the latter is confined to the coastal region. 1922]        Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region
159
Microsorex eximius (Osgood).   Osgood Shrew
A single Microsorex (no. 30560) was trapped at the east end of
Sawmill Lake, near Telegraph Creek, on June 16. The skull was
crushed, debarring definite specific identification, but the specimen has
been provisionally referred to the species Microsorex eximius by Dr.
Jackson.
Ursus, sp. ?   Grizzly Bear
Grizzlies are still numerous in the Stikine region. We ourselves
saw fresh sign at many points, though no animal was encountered.
The most obvious indication of their presence was, of course, footprints,
but other evidence was frequently found, such as rotten logs ripped
to pieces by the bears for the insect food they contained. At Doch-
da-on Creek an unoccupied cabin in the woods was entered by a bear
several times during the two weeks we spent at that place, and more
or less damage done. At this point we saw grizzly tracks in the snow
at timber line, about 4000 feet altitude.
At Hyland 's store, Telegraph Creek, we examined ten grizzly skins,
killed the previous fall, all from about the same place, on the Klappan
River (a tributary of the Stikine) about 100 miles east of Telegraph
Creek. Of these we purchased a skin with the skull of an old male
(no. 31015) and a skin alone of a smaller animal, apparently a female
(no. 31016). These specimens, both skins and skull, answer fairly
well to the description of Ursus stikeenensis given by Merriam (1914,
p. 178; 1918, p. 88).
There are no less than seven species of big bears accredited to this
general region by Merriam (1918). Whether or not I have ascribed
our specimens to the correct form, I think there is no doubt that all the
skins in the above mentioned series belonged to one species, for there
was really remarkable uniformity in color and markings in the lot.
Subsequently the skin of another bear was examined, a huge male
killed on Clearwater Creek, and it again was of exactly the same type.
The noticeable color features are the general dark coloration, the yel1
lowish or grayish grizzling on the shoulders and along the back, and
the black feet, legs, and lower parts. The tanned skin of the male
specimen, an animal that, from the appearance of the skull was evidently past maturity, measures from tip of nose to base of tail approximately 1680 millimeters; the one from Clearwater Creek, above mentioned, was very much larger. The claws are short for a grizzly, the
longest claw on the male obtained measuring, with dividers, 55 millimeters.   They appear to be much worn.
ii University of California Publications in Zoology      IT0L- 24
Ursus amerieanus amerieanus Pallas.   Black Bear
Black bears occur in some abundance throughout the whole of the
region we traversed. They are frequently seen from the river boat
in its travels up and down the Stikine. On June 5 one was seen not
far from our camp at the Junction, rooting about under some rotten
logs near the trail. Fresh tracks or other sign of the recent presence
of black bears were seen practically everywhere we went except on
Sergief Island.
Five black bear skulls were purchased from Mr. A. M. Vickery,
of Telegraph Creek, the animals having been killed by him while he
was patrolling the telegraph line to the southward of that place. One
of these (no. 31017) is an old male, killed 122 miles south of Telegraph
Creek, on May 25, 1919. The others are an old female and three small
cubs (nos. 31018-31021) killed on June 17, 1919, 31 miles south of
Telegraph Creek.
The two adult skulls from the Telegraph Creek region present
certain evident points of difference from those of the black bear (U. a.
pugnax) from the islands of southeastern Alaska. In the former the
frontal region is relatively high and rounded, in the latter it is noticeably low and flat. In pugnax the whole skull is more angular in appearance. In pugnax, too, the teeth are large, as compared with those
of bears from the interior, especially the last upper molar. This last
character is one that persists in black bears from all the islands off
the coast of southern Alaska and British Columbia. It is conspicuous
in pugnax of the southern islands of the Alexander Archipelago, which
has a large, squarely built, low browed skull. It is one of the characters of carlottae, from the Queen Charlotte Islands (cf. Osgood, 1901,
p. 30), which has an elongate skull. It appears again in the black
bear of Vancouver Island, which, judging from the several specimens
at hand, is a smaller animal than carlottae or pugnax, with a rather
high, rounded skull, and with the teeth of large size, especially the last
upper molar.
There is very little material at hand from the mainland coast of
southeastern Alaska. One rather young male from Bradfield Canal
(a short distance south of the Stikine River) has the enlarged last
upper molar of pugnax, and is apparently to be referred to that form.
Thus it may be that pugnax occupies a narrow strip of coast on the
mainland of southeastern Alaska as well as the islands, and that the
type of black bear found in the Telegraph Creek region is confined to
the territory east of the coastal range of mountains. L922]
Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region        161
Of the available material, the Telegraph Creek skulls are most
nearly of the type of those from the Kenai Peninsula and Takutat
Bay, Alaska. It may be that the name given to the black bear of the
Kenai region by Allen (1910, p. 115), Ursus amerieanus perniger,
should also be applied to the bears of the Stikine section, but at present
it seems best to use the name amerieanus for the Stikine specimens.
A revision of the group is necessary to determine, among other things,
the applicability of the name Ursus americamis Pallas, and the characters pertaining to the form to which that name should be subspecifi-
cally restricted. In the present connection the main interest lies in
the apparent occurrence of two different forms of the black bear in
the Stikine region, amerieanus at the headwaters of the river, and
pugnax in the coastal region near its mouth.
Oanis occidentalis Richardson. Timber Wolf
Wolves, from all accounts, occur in some numbers throughout the
interior of northern British Columbia, along the length of the Stikine
Valley, and along the adjoining Alaskan coast and on the nearby
islands. We saw none, nor any fresh sign, until we reached Sergief
Island. There fresh wolf tracks were seen in the sand of the river
bank, and on several occasions, when shooting out on the marsh, the
reports of our guns started wolves howling in the forest nearby. On
August 20 two of the animals were seen, and investigation showed that
the place was the home of a wolf family, as it probably had been since
the young were born, two or three months earlier. The two we saw
were pups, not yet full grown, and they were probably awaiting the
parent's return from a foraging expedition. Certain areas in the
grass had been trampled flat, for beds, and a large flat rock nearby
furnished an ideal lounging place. This rock rose above the marsh
grass, and thus afforded an excellent observation station. Some cracks
in the granite gave foothold to two scrubby spruce trees, arching over
the rocky platform, and the rock below was covered with a deep layer
of spruce needles, affording a dry, soft bed. This shelter had been
occupied so much that the wolf smell clinging to it was apparent even
to the duller olfactories of a human being. Broad trails led away
through the grass over the marshes in various directions and into the
impenetrable fastnesses of the spruce woods on the adjoining hillside.
The trampled grass showed here and there bunches of feathers or a
few crushed bones of ducks and geese; water fowl were evidently a
staple food.
m
I 162 University of California Publications in Zoology      iVoL- 24
HI II
8H1?5 $
ill
Mali
Wm -
There were apparently three pups and one adult in this family.
Two of the young were taken, and the old wolf then removed the
survivor, evidently to some distance; no trace of the two was found
anywhere about the island. The parent had been seen several times
before the two young were caught.
Mr. W. E. Parrott, living upon Sergief Island, gave us the skin
of an adult male wolf that he had shot on July 20. He was sitting
at breakfast when his cat rushed into the house for protection from the
wolf, which had chased the cat through the garden. Looking through
the window, he saw the wolf, leisurely retreating toward the beach, and
shot the animal. It was no new experience for the cat. Whenever his
owner went to town a ladder' was left leaning against the house, as a
refuge in case of such pursuit, and apparently there was not infrequent occasion to use it.
The wolf thus obtained may have .been the male parent of the
family we encountered. In color this adult and the two pups are very
much alike. The adult is rather dark, though not so black as some
from this region. There is a good deal of black on the upperparts
from the eyes to the tip of the tail, produced by black tippings to long
hairs that are yellowish or reddish basally, the muzzle is reddish, the
legs decidedly reddish, and the underparts a somewhat paler brown.
It is not a gray appearing animal at all. The two pups are somewhat
duller colored, with the black not so intense, and the reddish areas
paler.   In life, however, the young wolves looked quite dark.
There is at hand an adult male wolf from Prince of Wales Island,
Alaska (southwestward from Sergief Island), that is almost entirely
black. Another specimen from the interior, the Yukon region, is also
black, so that evidently dark color alone can not be considered as distinguishing the wolves of either of these two regions. Two skulls of
fully adult wolves from Iskut Summit, sixty miles southeast of Telegraph Creek, do not present any obvious points of difference from the
above mentioned adult from Prince of Wales Island. The latter has
been recorded by the present write'r (Swarth, 1911, p. 136) as Canis
pambasileus Elliot, in the belief that that name was applicable to a
coastal subspecies. The Prince of Wales specimen presents characters
of size and color such as are ascribed to pambasileus (Elliot, 1905,
p. 79). Whether or not the name pambasileus may properly be used
for a local race from the type locality, the Mt. MeKinley 'region it
does not seem that any distinction can be made as between the wolf
Ifj 19221
Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region        163
of the coast of southeastern Alaska and the wolf of the adjoining interior. In the light of our limited material, and with the lack of a
systematic revision of this group of mammals, it is safer to consider
them as all one form, to which the name Canis occidentalis Richardson
seems applicable.
The material obtained by us in the Stikine region consists of the
following specimens: skulls and limb bones of two adults (nos. 31042,
31043) taken at Iskut Summit, sixty miles southeast of Telegraph
Creek, the gift of an acquaintance at Telegraph Creek; an adult male
(apparently not quite full grown), skin only (no. 31009), shot at
Sergief Island, July 20, 1919; and two young females (about half-
grown), skins and skulls (nos. 31010, 31011), taken at Sergief Island
on August 24 and August 25, 1919.
Mustela cicognani richardsoni Bonaparte. Richardson Weasel
Weasels undoubtedly occur throughout the region traversed, though
we ourselves did not see one during the summer. At a trapper's cabin
a few miles from Telegraph Creek a pile of desiccated weasel carcasses,
his catch of the previous winter, yielded a series of nineteen skulls
(nos. 31023-31041), with complete skeletons in most eases. These
skulls, in comparison with a series from the coast of southeastern
Alaska, exhibit the differences stated by Merriam (1896, pp. 11-13)
to distinguish the two subspecies, Mustela c. richardsoni of the interior
and M. c. alascensis of the coast. The Telegraph Creek skulls, as is
claimed for richardsoni, are perceptibly narrower between the orbits
and across the muzzle, and there is a slight difference in the shape of
the zygomatic arches in the two lots.
Allen (1903, p. 563) has described Putorius microtis from Shesley,
British Columbia, near the headwaters of the Stikine, but our series
of skulls from Telegraph Creek are evidently all of one species, Mustela
c. richardsoni.
Mustela vison energumenos (Bangs). British Columbia Mink
One trapped at Doch-da-on Creek on July 19 (no. 31002), and a
skeleton preserved that was picked up near Telegraph Creek (no.
31022). The species occurs, probably in fair abundance, throughout
the whole Stikine region. The one skin obtained is notably dark colored as compared with specimens of Mustela v. nesolestes from certain
islands of the Alexander Archipelago, and we were told that the mink
? 1 164
University of California Publications in Zoology     IT0L- 24
■ i '•is
'i«HJ:| 'HI  (■';! |
from the Stikine were all dark. The skull pertaining to this specimen
has the small sized last upper molar that is supposed to distinguish
energumenos from nesolestes, but in the skull from Telegraph Creek
this tooth is as large as in- most examples of the latter subspecies.
There is at hand a mink from near the mouth of the Taku River and
one from Wrangell, both qf which are of the same dark color as our
Stikine River specimen. Thus the specimens available suggest the
existence of a dark colored mainland form extending toward the coast
at least along the larger rivers, and reaching some of the islands lying
nearest the mainland, and a lighter colored subspecies existing upon
most of the islands of the Alexander Archipelago. There is not sufficient material available, however, to verify this surmise.
At any rate, the mink of the upper Stikine Valley is a relatively
small form, and not the large ingens of the nearby Yukon drainage.
At present it seems proper to use for this race the name' Mustela vison
energumenos (Bangs), originally applied to the mink of southern
British Columbia. Our one specimen is very similar in appearance to
an example of energumenos from the vicinity of Seattle.
I»!
Phoca richardi richardi (Gray).   Harbor Seal
Seals were observed as far up the Stikine River as Doch-da-on
Creek, at times in considerable numbers. On May 21, as we began
our trip up the river, they were seen in veritable herds over the first
thirty miles. At one place there were at least a hundred in sight at
once.- Farther up stream they became less and less abundant. No
specimens were obtained, and the identification here accorded the animals seen is purely inferential.
Peromyscus maniculatus borealis Mearns.   Northern White-footed
Mouse
Peromyscus maniculatus macrorhinus (Rhoads).   Rhoads White-
footed Mouse
One hundred and thirty-eight specimens of white-footed mice were
preserved, as follows: The Junction, 24 (all adults) ; Telegraph Creek,
29 (24 adults and 5 young) ; Glenora, 27 (23 adults and 4 young) ;
Doch-da-on Creek, 27 (15 adults and 12 young) ; Flood Glacier, 28
(10 adults and 18 young); Great Glacier, 2 adults; Sergief Island,
1 young.   (Museum numbers 30569-30705, 31050.) 1922
Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region
165
A series of white-footed mice collected at and near Telegraph Creek
in 1902 has been reported upon by Allen (1903, p. 540) under the
name Peromyscus arcticus (Mearns) (== Peromyscus maniculatus
borealis Mearns [1911, p. 102]). What is undoubtedly the same series
of specimens is listed by Osgood (1909a, p. 49) under Peromyscus
maniculatus arcticus (Mearns). Therefore, though this museum possesses no examples of Peromyscus maniculatus borealis other than our
series from the Telegraph Creek region, I feel justified, on the grounds
above mentioned, in assuming this series to be representative of the
subspecies borealis. The chief interest attaching to the Telegraph
Creek form in the present connection lies in its relationship to the
subspecies Peromyscus m. macrorhim/ws, from the region adjacent to
the mouth of the Stikine River. Of macrorhi/mis this museum possesses an abundant representation from various points in southeastern
Alaska.
Before proceeding with a discussion of the specimens we collected,
certain features of the problem should be stated, in the interest of a
clear understanding of conditions. Osgood (1909a) in his comments
upon arcticus (= borealis) and macrorhinus makes no direct comparison between the two; at that time there were no specimens extant to
show that these forms came together at any point. From his "key"
and descriptions, however, certain contrasting characters of these subspecies may be summarized as follows:
Peromyscus m. macrorhinus. General size larger; hind foot, 24 to
25 mm. Tail longer than head and body; usually more than 90, often
more than 100 mm.   Coloration darker.
Peromyscus m. borealis. General size smaller; hind foot, 19 to 21
mm. Tail about equal to or shorter than head and body; usually less
than 90 mm.   Coloration paler.
On the Alaskan coast just north of the habitat of macrorhinus is
. the subspecies hylaeus. Between hylaeus and borealis, in the region
north of Telegraph Creek, is the subspecies algidus, '' the interior representative of the dark coast form hylaeus" (Osgood, 1909a. p. 56).
According to Osgood (loc. cit.), algidus and borealis occur together in
places within the general range of the former, and maintain their distinctness. Algidus, compared with borealis, is a long-tailed form; it
differs from the latter in this respect just as macrorhinus does. Allen
(1903, p. 544) records as Peromyscus oreas a single mouse taken in
the Cheonnee Mountains (near Telegraph Creek), where borealis also
was secured. This same specimen, presumably, is recorded by Osgood
(loc. cit.) as algidus.   The Cheonnee Mountains are a short distance
1 11 III
**^rf     H Pill
!'j. i
^Jl!'1'..'"
166
University of California Publications in Zoology      IT0L- 24
southeast of Telegraph Creek; if algidus occurs in that range it should
be at Telegraph Creek also.
We obtained several long-tailed specimens of Peromyscus at and
near Telegraph Creek, and supposed that they were examples of
algidus. Study of the series as a whole, however, inclines me to another explanation of the variation, that seems more satisfactory,
namely, that there is continuous distribution of Peromyscus along the
Stikine Valley, from the habitat of borealis in the interior to that of
macrorhinus on the coast, that there is intergradation between these
two subspecies in the Stikine Valley, that Telegraph Creek is about
the easternmost point to which intergrades with macrorhinus extend,
and that the variants obtained by us at that point are all the results
of intergradation.
The long-tailed individuals from the Telegraph Creek region, aside
from this peculiarity, are not notably different in color or otherwise
from the general run of specimens obtained there. At any rate, they
could not be grouped together as presenting an aggregation of characters justifying their separation, as a distinct subspecies. Neither
were they obtained under circumstances that would tend to establish
the belief that two different races were concerned.
The Peromyscus taken at the Junction are lighter colored than
macrorhinus of the coast, and they are smaller and shorter tailed. This
station is some five miles north of the Stikine River; presumably these
mice are more nearly typical of borealis than any others we obtained.
In this series there is one aberrant individual with an exceedingly
long tail; otherwise there is great uniformity in the lot. At the town
of Telegraph Creek we obtained more long-tailed mice, and noted a
slight increase in general size, as compared with the series from the
Junction. Descending the Stikine River from Telegraph Creek, the
Peromyscus collected at our various stations were progressively larger
and darker colored as the coast was approached.
The accompanying diagrams (figs. R, S, T) show variation in hind
foot, length of tail vertebrae, and ratio of tail vertebrae to total length,
in the white-footed mice taken at our various collecting stations in the
Stikine region, as compared with macrorhinus of the Alaskan coast.
Color and general size vary in about the same way as the characters
illustrated. Barring the series from the Junction, which are probably
close to true borealis, the Stikine River Peromyscus are typical of
neither borealis nor macrorhinus. They form a series of intergrades
between the two.   It is not possible to draw a hard and fast line as a 1922]
Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region        167
boundary, both on account of the gradual change in the entire Peromyscus population of the intermediate territory and because of individual variation, which brings typical examples of each far within the
margin on either side of the debatable strip. Allowing for such variation, however, it seems proper, though an arbitrary division, to consider as borealis the mice from the upper Stikine, as far down as
Glenora, macrorhinus extending up stream as far as Doch-da-on Creek.
borealis
macrorhinus
{Ijo
H                       f
|                 3                |
E             O
o
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
-
14
A
\
2^/
15
 To
24,
r—               22
24
Fig. R. Diagram showing individual and geographic variation in length of
hind foot of adult white-footed mice (both sexes). Figures at left of the vertical lines indicate numbers of specimens measured; length of lines shows range
of individual variation; points connected by lines mark positions of averages.
White-footed mice were found in abundance about human habitations. Usually they were uncommon elsewhere. At the Junction the
trapping was done along a stream and in poplar woods, miles from
houses, and white-footed mice, while perhaps more abundant than any
other small mammal, were not at all numerous. At Telegraph Creek
most of our specimens were caught in the house in which we were
staying; a few were taken in our several trap lines a mile or more
from town. The rows of empty houses at Glenora formed a haven for
white-footed mice, and they swarmed there in almost incredible numbers.   At Doch-da-on Creek white-footed mice were abundant in the .;»
168
University of California Publications in Zoology      !T0L- 24
weed-grown bottom lands, much more so than we found them to be on
any other wild land. At Flood Glacier we had difficulty in getting
specimens, and at Great Glacier, though some small mammals were
more abundant than we found them elsewhere, only two white-footed
mice were obtained. At Sergief Island they were extremely scarce;
only one specimen was taken.
macrorhinus
1
H3
i
Ej
I
1
5
O
o
115
110
105
100
95
90
85
80
75
70
65
14.
15,
10
'"----—-Si/
22
24,
24
•
Fig. S. Diagram showing individual and geographic variation in length of
tail of adult white-footed mice (both sexes). Figures at left of the vertical
lines indicate numbers of specimens measured; length of lines shows range of
individual variation; points connected by lines mark positions of averages.
At the Junction, May 25 to June 6, all Peromyscus taken were
adult. Most of the females contained embryos, four or five in number;
one or two were nursing young. At Telegraph Creek the first week
in June young mice began to get into the traps. From the third week
in June, on during the rest of the summer, the dark coated juvenals
formed the greater part of the catch. At Glenora two Peromyscus
were caught which had their cheeks filled with a mass of small seeds.
The cheeks were distended to the utmost, just as is so often seen in 1922]        Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region
169
chipmunks and ground squirrels. This, I believe, is an unusual action
for a Peromyscus. At the same place an adult female was trapped
that had lost one hind leg at the knee and all of the tail. These mutilations were evidently of long standing and the animal was in good
condition otherwise. It may be doubted, however, whether it could
have survived them in other surroundings; the old cabins here occupied
by the mice probably afforded exceptional shelter from many dangers.
*j   03 <-]
borealis
macrorhinus
K o*.           H
i-1
O                  E
O               O
55
54
53
52
14,
51
50
15
 '     10
49
48
47
22
2|
45
WL
45
24y
24
44
43
42
41
40
Fig. T. Diagram showing individual and geographic variation in ratio of
length of tail vertebrae to total length in adult white-footed mice (both sexes).
Figures at left of the vertical lines indicate numbers of specimens measured,
length of lines shows range of individual variation; points connected by lines
mark positions of averages. ■-, *;?;;
170
University of California Publications in Zoology      IT0L- 24
i f m
Neotoma cinerea saxamans Osgood.  Northern Bushy-tailed Wood Rat
Fourteen specimens collected at the following points in the upper
Stikine Valley: Telegraph Creek, six adults, two young; Glenora, one
adult, four young; mountain above Doch-da-on Creek, one adult.
(Museum nos. 30706-30719.) At Telegraph Creek specimens were
taken in the talus at the base of certain rocky cliffs that rise back of
the town. The rats were not numerous, and after one or two had been
caught at a place the traps usually remained undisturbed. The old
houses of the abandoned town of Glenora afforded shelter to the wood
rats, but apparently not more than one or two families occupied any
one cabin. From several of the cabins the rats had well worn trails
leading into the surrounding thickets. There they cut quantities of
green vegetation, some to be carried into the houses and eaten at once,
some apparently to be dried for later use. Most of the old cabins had
the doors and windows boarded up, and in the gloom of the interior
the rats and mice were active all day.
The cabins and warehouses with their miscellaneous contents, long
abandoned, formed a veritable wood rats' paradise, and they gave their
imagination full swing in the lines of nest building and the accumulation of useless objects, for which their tribe is famous. In one place
a storeroom full of snowshoes had been entered, and of the contents
there was little but the wooden frames left. The leather thongs were
hanging in shreds. In an old barn, round masses of baling wire had
been filled out with horse manure and grass to form extraordinary
globular nests.
The one specimen of Neotoma from the vicinity of Doch-da-on
Creek was taken on the mountain side at an elevation of about 2000
feet. This was the farthest down stream that we found the species,
but I was told by a trapper that he had occasionally seen wood rats
near the mouth of the Iskut River, which empties into the Stikine a
little above the British Columbia-Alaska boundary line.
A young one taken at Telegraph Creek oh June 9 was about one-
third grown. Others were trapped at Glenora three weeks later, of
about the same size. Three adult females caught at Telegraph Creek
on June 9 contained embryos; two had three each, one had four. 1922] Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region        171
M.
Fig. U. Basaltic cliff at Telegraph Creek. The talus beneath is a favorite
habitat of the bushy-tailed woodrat. At the upper edge of the loose rocks in
particular, many sticks and other rubbish accumulated by these rats were to be
seen between the larger boulders.   Photograph taken June 12, 1919.
Jl
I til
! 172
University of California Publications in Zoology      ["Vol. 24
Sill! ill
iijl
Synaptomys borealis wrangeli Merriam.   Wrangell Lemming Mouse
Found at but one place on the river, at Great Glacier. Three
specimens obtained (nos. 30752-30754), all males, taken on August 10,
13, and 14, respectively. Just one, the largest and the only one that
is fully mature, shows the gray patches over the hip glands. All
three were trapped in alder thickets, in places frequented by Evotomys.
There have been available for comparison three specimens of lemming mice (in the E. P. Walker collection), from Wrangell, Alaska,
the type locality of Synaptomys wra/ngeU, ten from mainland points
in southeastern Alaska, ranging from Boca de Quadra to Port Snet-
tisham, and nine from the Prince William Sound region, Alaska. I
also received, as a loan from the United States Biological Survey, six
typical specimens of Synaptomys borealis dalli, three from points near
the base of the Alaska Peninsula, two from the Kuskokwim drainage,
and one from the Yukon.
As far as I can see, the specimens from the coast of southeastern
Alaska, island and mainland, are all alike. They are all wrangeli.
Furthermore, the differences between wrangeli and dalli are slight,
and as these differences in the series here assembled are bridged by
individual variation and to some extent by geographic variation, I
consider the two forms as subspecies of one species, Synaptomys borealis. (For the use of this name, see Preble, 1908, pp. 183-186. See
also Hollister, 1912, p. 19.)
The skull of dalli, compared with wrangeli, is somewhat larger, and
rather more angular, and more heavily built. Otherwise, I can see no
differences in the two lots. Some of those from the Prince William
Sound region incline toward dalli in their larger size, as compared
with more southern specimens, indicating, perhaps, intergradation between wrangeU and dalli at what is probably the northern limit of the
form wrangell. Externally, four specimens of dalli are appreciably
more reddish than any in the wrangeli series. The two remaining
dalli are of the same coloration as the mode of wrangeli.
Thus, instead of wrangeli being an insular species, confined to
Wrangell Island, my conception of it is as being a rather wide ranging
form, and a coastal subspecies, contrasted with dalli of the interior.
Its range is the coast of southeastern Alaska, from Prince William
Sound south at least to Boca de Quadra. It has been taken upon two
islands, Hinchinbrook Island, Prince William Sound, and Wrangell
Island, both but slightly separated from the mainland. 1922]
Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region
173
Another species, Synaptomys andersoni, has been described by
Allen (1903, p. 554), based upon a single specimen from Level Mountain, near the headwaters of the Stikine River. In all likelihood,
therefore, mice of this genus occur throughout the entire length of the
Stikine Valley. At present, however, with the few specimens extant
in collections, it is not possible to form an opinion as to whether or
not there are two species or subspecies in existence, at the head of
the river, and toward its mouth, respectively.
Evotomys dawsoni dawsoni Merriam. Dawson Red-backed Mouse
An adult female (no. 30720) was taken at the Junction, .June 4,
trapped during the day on a dry, poplar-covered hillside. It is apparently a typical example of Evotomys dawsoni dawsoni. The next
obtained (no. 30721) was caught at Doch-da-on Creek, July 17, in a
tangle of alders, grass, and nettles bordering a slough. This specimen
is a male, not fully mature but evidently referable to dawsoni. Somewhere in the section of the river between Doch-da-on Creek and Flood
Glacier lies the dividing line between dawsoni and wrangeli. It would
be of interest to find if the two occurred together at any point.
Evotomys wrangeli Bailey. Wrangell Red-backed Mouse
- Thirty specimens taken (nos. 30722-30751), three at Flood Glacier,
twenty-three at Great Glacier, and four at Sergief Island. Of this
series there is one old male (no: 30735, Great Glacier), with conspicuous gray patches over the hip glands, and showing rooted molars
with deeply worn surfaces. There are eleven more that may be termed
adult, as being in the adult pelage (though none of these has the gray
flank patches more than faintly indicated). The remainder are young
at various stages of growth.
The red-backed mice from these three stations are all E. wrangeli,
indistinguishable from specimens at hand from Wrangell Island. The
range of that species is thus carried far inland up the Stikine Valley,
very close to the habitat of dawsoni, if in fact the two do not meet.
The four specimens from the uppermost station, Flood Glacier, show
no appreciable departure from the mode of wrangeli; there is no
indication here of intergradation toward the nearly adjacent dawsoni.
The two species, however, resemble each other so closely in form,
and in some pelages in color also, that wrangeli would seem to be a
coastal offshoot of dawsoni, bearing somewhat the same relation to that
J 174
University of California Publications in Zoology     [Vol. 24
species as Microtus admiraltiae, of Admiralty Island, does to M. drum-
mondi of the adjacent mainland. The two Microtus, however, are less
widely separated than the Evotomys have become. Further, it may
be assumed that Evotomys phaeus, of the Alaskan mainland south of
the habitat of wrangeli, is of a different line of descent, it differs so
markedly from both dawsoni and wrangeli in its combination of large
size, pale coloration, and long tail. Much remains to be learned regarding the distribution and relationships of the red-backed mice of the
northwest.
TABLE I
Measurements in millimeters (average, minimum and maximum) of adult Evotomys
wrangeli from Wrangell, Alaska; measurements taken
by Ernest P. Walker
Total length Tail vertebrae Hind foot Ear
10 adult males 141(130-159)    35.7(31-42)       18.2(18-19) 11.8(10-13)
10 adult females 131.4 (127-152) 32.4 (28-40)       17.9 (17-18) 11.9 (10-13)
TABLE II
Measurements in millimeters of adult Evotomys from the Stikine River
Evotomys wrangeli
30724
d"
Flood Glacier
30735
•cf'
Great Glacier
30751
■'.o^
Sergief Island
30726
;9'
Great Glacier
30728
9
Great Glacier
30732
9
Great Glacier
30749
9
Sergief Island
Evotomys dawsoni dawsoni
30720 9    4 mi. N. Telegraph
30721 <?   Doch-da-on Creek
Tail
Hind
Length
vertebrae
foot
Bar
Aug. 4, 1919
135
34
19
"ii
Aug. 13, 1919
145
39
20
n
Aug. 24, 1919
135
34
20
ii
Aug. 11, 1919
140
33
20
n
Aug. 12, 1919
147
34
19
n
Aug. 13, 1919
125
33
20
n
Aug. 22, 1919
148
36
19
n
June 14, 1919
120
29
17
12
July 17, 1919
129
28
18
11
Microtus drummondi (Audubon and Bachman).
Drummond Meadow Mouse
Fifty-five specimens taken (nos. 30755-30809), from the following
points: Sawmill Lake, near Telegraph Creek, 16; Glenora, 20; Doch-
da-on Creek, 18; Sergief Island, 1.
Around Telegraph Creek we found this species at but one place, in
the immediate vicinity of Sawmill Lake. Some parts of the lake shore
were grown with tall grass, partly flooded, and strewn with logs and
other drift. Here the Drummond meadow mice had their homes; their
runways traversed the moss-grown logs, and, in the intervals between,
they evidently traveled through very deep water when necessary. Shlsl
1922 ] Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region        175
Allen (1903, p. 550) comments upon the capture of but a single specimen of M. drummondi at Telegraph Creek, compared with an abundance of M. mordax, as indicative of the two species having different
centers of abundance, but from our own experience there seems to be
demonstrated merely a preference for different sorts of surroundings.
Microtus mordax, about Telegraph Creek, was mainly caught along
stream sides, the kind of habitat it is known to frequent in other parts
of its range, and none was taken in any of the semi-aquatic runways
where M. drummondi was obtained.
At Glenora the two species occurred in exactly the same places,
runways used commonly by both traversing the weed-grown meadows
about the old houses. At Doch-da-on Creek also they were found
together in the bottom lands.
We took no Drummond meadow mice at either Flood Glacier or
Great Glacier, but the capture of a single specimen at Sergief Island
may be taken as indicative of the occurrence of the species over the
entire length of the river. There are probably times when drummondi
is abundant at Sergief Island, but our visit there was during a period
of scarcity.
Half-grown young were taken at Telegraph Creek the middle of
June, and a little later young not more than two-thirds the bulk of
adults were breeding. Embryos in gravid females ranged from four
to ten in number.
Microtus mordax mordax (Merriam).   Cantankerous Meadow Mouse
Found at every collecting station except Sergief Island, but not
equally numerous at all places. One hundred and one specimens taken
(nos. 30810-30909, 31051), from the following points: The Junction,
12; Telegraph Creek, 16; Glenora, 38; Doch-da-on Creek, 21; Flood
Glacier, 12; Great Glacier, 2. At the Junction, May 25 to June 6,
specimens came in slowly. There was a little meadow at. that point
that showed signs of having been populated by meadow mice during
the winter months, but the animals had since moved into the nearby
woods. Those we obtained were taken along the streams or in wet
places among the trees. They were apparently rather solitary in their
habits and there were no well defined runways in use. At Glenora
meadow mice were extremely abundant. The open meadow land was
not frequented to any extent, but there were extensive clearings, since
grown up with fireweed, that were intersected in every direction with
J iS
!   I!
II 176
University of California Publications in Zoology      [VoL- 24
ill
Si!
m
mi\
much-traveled runways. The shelter afforded by rail fences and the
sides of the crumbling houses was also taken advantage of, and traps
placed in such situations yielded mice night after night. A great
many more were caught at that station than the thirty-eight that were
preserved.
At Doch-da-on Creek, this meadow mouse was not especially abundant. Most that were caught were taken in weed-grown bottom lands.
At Flood Glacier, well defined runways, with many little piles of
freshly cut green stuff, gave an appearance of an abundance of
meadow mice, but despite the plentiful sign, specimens were taken but
slowly. Apparently one full-grown Microtus can establish and operate
an elaborate system of runways. One weed-grown area some fifty feet
square, intersected with well used paths in which were found fifteen
or twenty little piles of freshly cut green weed stems, yielded just one
adult meadow mouse. At Great Glacier but two specimens were
trapped.
The occurrence of a meadow mouse of the longicaudus group over
the entire length of the Stikine River is of interest as bearing upon
the relationship of Microtus mordax of the interior and M. macrurus
of the coast. The two forms are closely related, and though heretofore recognized as distinct species, the differences between them are
comparable to what is found among subspecies of some one species in
other sections of the genus. The main differences between the two
are of coloration and of length of tail. There are skull differences
also but not trenchant ones. Macrurus, like other coastal species, is
of dark brownish coloration, quite reddish-brown dorsally; mordax
is distinctly gray. Macrurus has a longer tail than mordax, longer in
actual measurement and longer in relation to total length. Both
macrurus and mordax in the northern parts of their respective ranges
(southeastern Alaska and northern British Columbia) are somewhat
smaller than they are at their southern limits.
We obtained long-tailed meadow mice at various points on the
Stikine River down as far as Great Glacier, and I have at hand several
additional specimens (from the collection of E. P. Walker) taken at
Clearwater Creek, just below the British Columbia-Alaska boundary
line. There are also available specimens from Wrangell and Mitkof
islands (near the mouth of the Stikine), and from various points on
the mainland short distances north and south of the mouth of the
river. Macrurus is abundantly represented in the collection of this
Museum from various points in the Alexander Archipelago. 1922] Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region        111
Macrurus, as represented by specimens from the more western
islands of the Alexander Archipelago, is a very different looking animal
from mordax of the interior. The brown coloration of the one, and the
gray of the other, correlated with the differences in size and length of
tail, render the two series absolutely unlike. Meadow mice from Mitkof
and Wrangell islands, however, are, in color, about midway between
the extremes indicated, and the few specimens at hand from the lower
Stikine tend still further to bridge the gap. As regards color, it is
possible to arrange specimens with regard to geographical position,
so as to produce a graded series of changes from one extreme to the
other, with no abrupt break at any point. The same is true of general
size, and of skull characters.    The accompanying diagram (fig. V)
1
mordax
macrurus
&   DO   .
o
id
p>-~ o
E->      H      1
c
P
0
|
M§
§<i
£'°
42
41
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
I
^
5;
10"
|
10
10
10
^\8
Fig. V. Diagram showing individual and geographic variation in ratio of
length of tail vertebrae to total length in adult long-tailed meadow mice (both
sexes). Figures at left of the vertical lines indicate numbers of specimens
measured; length of lines shows range of individual variation; points connected
by lines mark positions of averages.
M
m University of California Publications in Zoology     [VoL- 24
shows the manner in which ratio of length of tail to total length acts
between one extreme and the other. There is a gradual lengthening of
tail as the lower river is approached. On these grounds I believe that
macrurus should be treated as a subspecies of Microtus mordax. Microtus mordax mordax may be regarded as occurring along the Stikine
River at least as far down as a point (Clearwater Creek) some twenty
miles from the mouth of the river.
Microtus vellerosus was described by Allen (1899, p. 7) from the
Liard River, and specimens from Telegraph Creek were referred by the
same writer (1903, p. 548) to that form, regarded as a subspecies,
Microtus mordax vellerosus. Bailey, in his revision of the genus
Microtus (1900, p. 48, footnote), denies recognition to this race, regarding it as inseparable from typical Microtus mordax mordax. Comparing our Telegraph Creek specimens with series of mordax from northern California, I am unable to distinguish between them, consequently
I follow Bailey in the use of the name mordax for the northern animal.
TABLE III
Measurements in mUlinieters (average, minimum and maximum) of adult Microtus
from the Stikine region and from southeastern Alaska
Microtus mordax mordax Total length Tail vertebrae    • Hind foot
10 adults, The Junction,
Stikine River 170.6 (155.0-180.0)    55.3 (50.0-62.0)    20.9 (20.0-22.0)
10 adults, Telegraph Creek,
Stikine River 182.5 (170.0-197.0)    60.8 (51.0-70.0)    21.0 (20.0-22.0)
10 adults, Glenora, Stikine
River 192.2 (170.0-206.0)    66.7 (52.0-76.0)    21.4 (21.0-22.0)
8 adults, Doch-da-on Creek,
Stikine River 184.1 (170.0-200.0)    62.9 (55.0-70.0)    21.0 (20.0-22.0)
7 adults, Flood Glacier,
Stikine River 186.4(180.0-200.0)    66.1(62.0-70.0)    22.4(22.0-23.0)
5 adults, Mitkof Island,
s.e. Alaska 174.2 (164.0-183.0)    70.4 (68.0-72.0)    21.8 (21.0-22.0)
10 adults, Prince of Wales
Island, s. e. Alaska      189.3 (172.0-207.0)    73.3 (63.0-80.0)    21.1 (20.0-22.0) 1922] Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region        179
"   '..    .
Ondatra zibethica spatulata (Osgood). Northwestern Muskrat
Taken at but one point, on Sergief Island. Six specimens were
taken (nos. 30996-31001), on September 3, 4 and 5, of which three
are adult and three young. Of one the skin was subsequently lost,
leaving the specimen represented by a skull only. The muskrats frequented a series of little ponds just above the reach of the tides, where
the grasses of the salt marsh gave place to clusters of reeds and thickets
of alder and willow. These ponds were connected by well trodden trails
through the grass, like large Microtus runways, paths that could be
ti<
iiSrtil
Fig. W. Marsh at western end .of Sergief Island, Alaska The rocky backbone of the island, densely covered with spruce, rises abruptly from the surrounding swamps. At the base of this slope is a bordering fringe of bushes,
mostly alder, red-berry elder and willow, with, underneath, tangles of salmon-
berry and devil's club. The marshes farthest inland, as here shown, are mostly
of fresh water, with growths of tules and other fresh-water plants. This pond
and others nearby were frequented by muskrats. The surface of this pond was
in part covered with floating tules that had been recently cut by these mammals. Birds seen in such surroundings were green-winged teal, pintail, mallard,
pectoral sandpiper, and Wilson snipe. Black swifts were seen almost daily
soaring over this marsh.   Photograph taken September 5, 1919.
traced in the muddy bottom of shallow water and even across the
deeper ponds, for the line of travel parted the floating moss and other
aquatic vegetation and left just as distinctly marked a highway in
the water as elsewhere. All along these trails there were signs of
muskrat activities, masses of cut reeds floating in the ponds, and piles
of coarse grass and other vegetation in the drier places.   There were
ifi»
itiliS 11
MM k
1
II
' )■ University of California Publications in Zoology      LVoL- 24
no "houses" to be seen anywhere. Apparently the animals were
living in the shallow banks bordering some of the ponds, but this
must have been farther back in the alder thickets than we penetrated,
for we found no occupied burrows.
Muskrats presumably occur the length of the Stikine River, but if
so they are scarce, or else, perhaps, in widely scattered colonies that
are easily overlooked. Fresh sign was found about a beaver pond at
Flood Glacier, but evidently of but a few individuals. We were told
of the occurrence of muskrats at Doch-da-on Creek, but we, ourselves,
saw no evidence of their presence.
The specimens obtained present such marked peculiarities of
appearance as may very well be indicative of an undescribed race
from the coast of southeastern Alaska, but at present it does not seem
advisable to affix a name to this isolated series. In color they are dark
dorsally, and extremely gray elsewhere. Spatulata, as represented in
this Museum by comparable specimens from various parts of its range
to the northward of the Stikine, is decidedly reddish. Our Sergief
Island specimens are closely similar to fall examples of osoyoosensis
from the Puget Sound region. Some of the latter have an indication
of cinnamon on the underparts and sides, which is seen in none of the
Sergief Island specimens, but there are certain skins from the neighborhood of Seattle that are exactly like them in color. Osoyoosensis,
however, is a large species, and the specimens in question are of small
size, agreeing with spatulata in this respect. Thus the Sergief Island
muskrats are like osoyoosensis in color, like spatulata in size. The
skull is of the spatulata type, being relatively broad, with wide spreading zygomata.
There are five muskrats at hand (Mus. Vert. Zool., nos. 8353-8357)
from Revillagigedo Island, Alaska, which lies south of the Stikine
River, hence nearer the range of typical osoyoosensis. These specimens,
according to Hollister (1911, p. 23), "while typical of spatulatus in
size and color, show a slight approach toward osoyoosensis in the shape
of the audital bullae and in the high, rounded jugals." It is obviously
necessary that specimens be taken from various points along the coast
between the known habitats of spatulata and osoyoosensis before the
peculiarities of the series at hand from Revillagigedo and Sergief
islands can be explained. In the meantime, while those from the
latter point are not particularly like spatulata, I prefer to list them
by that name, as the race they most nearly resemble, rather than
apply a new one, based upon characters.the meaning of which is not
understood. r
$m\
1922] Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region        181
TABLE IV
Measurements ir
i millimet
3rs of adult Ondatra
Total length      Tail vertebrae
Hind
foot
30996
30998
31006
9 ad.
o" ad.
d" ad.
Sergief Id., Alaska
Sergief Id., Alaska
Sergief Id., Alaska
502
520
590
235
225
246
76
74
77
Average of 4 adults of Ondatra z. spatulata,
northern British Columbia and Alberta1     530
Average of 10 adults of Ondatra z. osoyoosensis,
from Oroville, Wash.2 589
'Hollister, 1911, p. 22
2Hollister, 1911, p. 25
232
271
74.5
83
J
Mus musculus muscuius Linnaeus. House Mouse
One specimen preserved (no. 30910), an immature female caught
at Sawmill Lake, June 12; several were trapped in a warehouse at
Telegraph Creek. Allen (1903, p. 540) has recorded the occurrence
of Mus musculus at Telegraph Creek in 1902, and it has probably been
established there since a much earlier date, but from our experience
it would seem not to be increasing in numbers or extending its range
to any extent. It is an interesting fact that we did not obtain any
at Glenora. House mice must have been there when the town was
occupied by people. Apparently upon the withdrawal of the human
population, the introduced Mus musculus was unable to compete successfully with the native Peromyscus, even under as favorable conditions as prevailed in the wooden houses of the abandoned city.
Zapus saltator Allen. Stikine Jumping Mouse
Found only near Telegraph Creek and at Glenora. The former
is the type locality of this species (see Allen, 1899, p. 3) and a special
effort was made there to get a series but the mice were not so numerous
as at Glenora. Altogether, thirty-seven Stikine jumping mice were
preserved (nos. 30911-30945, 31048, 31049), as follows: from The
Junction, 1; Telegraph Creek, 7; Glenora, 29. All that were taken
were adults. No young ones were seen and no gravid females were
collected until June 30. After that date embryos, three to five in
number, were found in most of the females taken.
At Telegraph Creek specimens were caught in traps set about the
edge of Sawmill Lake, mostly in thickets or under logs. At Glenora
the jumping mice were found using Microtus runways extensively, .II ii     !.;, >
182
University of California Publications in Zoology     [you
in the tall grass and fireweed. They were evidently more or less active
during the day, at least in the early morning. There is considerable
.color variation in the series we collected, about one-fourth of the specimens being notably grayish as compared with the rest, and with very
little brown on the back or oehraeeous on the sides.
Zapus saltator has been taken at the mouth of the Skeena River
(Preble, 1899, p. 32), and at the mouth of the Taku River (Swarth,
1911, p. 135). It would seem therefore that it might also range the
entire length of the Stikine River, and I believe it to be very possible
that it does so, despite our failure to obtain specimens along the lower
part of that stream.
l3§£
Erethizon epixanthum nigrescens Allen. Dusky Porcupine
Porcupines occur throughout the whole of the region we traversed,
but they are apparently not abundant. We saw very few. On June 12
one was taken a few miles west of Telegraph Creek. On July 11 one
was seen on the mountain side above Doch-da-on Creek, and on July 17
one entered our camp at the same locality. These were all that were
encountered during the summer. The one obtained (no. 31001), a
male, is not much more than half the bulk of an ordinary adult porcupine, but aside from its small size there is little about the animal to
suggest immaturity. It must have been born the preceding year at
least. It was badly infested with tapeworms, the abdominal cavity
containing packed masses of the parasite in almost incredible amount,
and this condition might, perhaps, explain the poor physical development of the host. The general coloration of this animal is pale yellow,
the long overhairs being extensively tipped with this color and the
quills being mostly yellowish. The basal portion of the body hairs is
dull brownish, as is also the entire face. The two other porcupines
that were seen, apparently normal adults, were extremely dark colored.
Marmota caligata caligata (Bschseholtz). Northern Hoary Marmot
Apparently a timber-line species in the upper Stikine region, and
descending to sea level at the coast. Whether or not it also occurs at
high altitudes in the coastal region I do not know. We saw none in
the immediate vicinity of Telegraph Creek, though the species doubtless
occurs in the surrounding mountains. An acquaintance who climbed
Glenora Mountain on July 2 told us of seeing a marmot on the heights
above the timber. We ran across more or less sign on the bare ridges
above Doch-da-on Creek in July; on July 23 one of the animals was 1922J Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region        183
seen there, far above the timber, too wary for a near approach. On
Kirk's Mountain, some miles north of Doch-da-on Creek^ Dixon heard
a number of marmots whistling.
At Flood Glacier some marmots were residing in rock piles at the
base of the mountain, several miles back from the river but at a not
much higher altitude.    Dixon shot two here on August 1, an adult
..male (no. 31005) and a young one, perhaps a quarter grown (no.
31004).   The species was not encountered farther down the river.
The marmots of the mountains about Doch-da-on Creek and Glenora
may well be Marmota caligata oxytona Hollister. This would be at
about the western limit of that subspecies. The adult male from Flood
Glacier has a large skull, well within the limits of oxytona, and exhibiting the characters of that race as detailed by Howell (1915, p. 63),
but in external measurements this animal is no larger than coastal
specimens of the subspecies caligata. The young male from Flood
Glacier is at the same stage of growth as a young caligata at hand
from the mouth of the Chickamin River, Alaska, and the two are indistinguishable in appearance. The peculiarities of the skull in the adult
may be an indication of intergradation between caligata and oxytona
in the middle reaches of the Stikine, but the material at hand does not
suffice to settle that point.
Citellus plesius plesius (Osgood).   Bennett Ground Squirrel
On June 4 two ground squirrels were taken at the Summit (nos.
30994, 30995), and one other was seen. This same place was visited on
May 29 and again on June 5 without any animals being encountered.
It was still quite wintry at that altitude, with much snow on the
ground and ice on the lakes, and it seemed likely that most of the
ground squirrels were still in hibernation. M. P. Anderson had found
them in abundance at the Summit in July and August, 1902 (Allen,
1903, p. 534). The species occurs in the Stikine region only on the
mountain slopes above timber line; it is found nowhere in the lower
valleys.
The three animals seen were all observed within a radius of two
hundred yards. There were a number of fresh looking burrows at
the same place. These holes were scattered, though sometimes there
were two or three fairly close together; some were amid thickets of
low bushes, others out in the open meadows. They were small, considering the size of the animal, and there were no noticeable mounds
of earth at the entrances.   Of the two animals collected, the stomachs
'itIII '■
■411 ■■
■WW 1
i\m 1
11 !i i
..Hi IS   J
mil fitj   i*      ^m
Pll  ii
11 University of California Publications in Zoology      IT0L- 24
were well filled with masticated moss and lichens. The female contained four small embryos. Anderson (Allen, loc. cit.) in 1902 collected young squirrels "one-fourth to one-half grown" at the same
place on July 31.
When we were at Glenora two acquaintances who were camped
nearby made a trip to the summit of Glenora Mountain, which rises
just north of the town. They reported an abundance of ground
squirrels on the slopes above the timber. We kept a careful lookout
for the species on the mountains above Doch-da-on Creek where the
surroundings were apparently ideal, but saw none of the animals nor
any burrows or other certain sign of their presence.
Eutamias borealis caniceps Osgood.   Gray-headed Chipmunk
Of general distribution in the region about Telegraph Creek and
Glenora; not abundant but apt to be encountered anywhere in the
lowlands. At Doch-da-on Creek chipmunks were noticeably less abundant, and the species was not seen at all farther down the river. While
apparently mostly at low altitudes, chipmunks were sometimes found
well up the mountain sides. On July 11 one was seen at timber line
(about 3000 feet) above Doch-da-on Creek.
Dandelions were a favorite food. Toward the end of June and in
July these were going to seed, and chipmunks were constantly seen
stripping the fluffy heads. Individuals had certain favorite spots for
eating, and at such places there were heaps of dandelion fuzz and
parts of the blossoms.
Twenty-eight specimens were collected (nos. 30946-30973), as follows : Telegraph Creek, fifteen.adults; Glenora, five adults; Doch-da-on
Creek, two adults and six young.
The chipmunk of the Telegraph Creek region was identified as
Eutamias caniceps by Allen (1903, p. 533). Preble (1908, p. 169)
considers caniceps as a subspecies of Eutamias borealis, and I am here
following his opinion. No topotypes of caniceps nor any examples of
borealis have been available for comparison.
Sciurus hudsonicus hudsonicus (Erxleben). Northern Red Squirrel
Sciurus hudsonicus picatus Swarth. Northwest Coast Red Squirrel
Red squirrels were not abundant at any point visited by us in the
upper Stikine Valley, though seen in small numbers almost everywhere.
About Telegraph Creek and Glenora from five to ten individuals might 19221        Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region
185
be encountered in the course of a day's walk. At Doch-da-on Creek
they were less numerous, due perhaps to their having been incidentally
killed by the systematic trapping that had been carried on during the
previous winter over much of the ground we covered at that point.
At Flood Glacier and Great Glacier, red squirrels were extremely
scarce. We realized, of course, the fact that this species occurred as
two different geographic races, at the mouth of the Stikine and at the
head of the river, respectively, and that there was probably continuous
distribution of the species for the entire length of the stream.    We
Nil
1
Pig. X. Thicket of wild cherry (Prunus demissa) at Telegraph Creek. This
shrub grows in abundance in that region; by the middle of June the bushes are
covered with white flowers. The gray-headed chipmunk was characteristically
found in such surroundings as are here shown, on rather broken ground that
was grown up with bushes of this sort.   Photograph taken June 15, 1919.
realized also that in all probability somewhere near Flood Glacier or
Great Glacier was the critical point where the two subspecies meet,
and for that reason we bent every effort toward getting specimens
from those stations. However, not more than two or three were seen
at each place.   At Sergief1 Island, too, red squirrels were scarce.
Altogether we collected twenty specimens (nos. 30974-30993),
fifteen adults and five young, from the following localities: Telegraph
Creek and vicinity, ten; Glenora, two adults and one young I Doch-da-on
Creek, three full-grown young; Flood Glacier, one; Great Glacier, one;
Sergief Island, one adult and one young.   The Telegraph Creek speei-
»•!!■ ,LJ -     	 186
University of California Publications in Zoology      [Vol. 24
11
mens were taken at various points between that town and the Summit,
twelve miles to the northward. Six specimens from Telegraph Creek
were submitted to Mr. B. A. Preble, of the United States Biological
Survey, for subspecific determination. His conclusion is that these
squirrels are "virtually identical with Sciurus h. hudsonicus. In some
respects, notably in the color of the back, they show some slight approach to S. h. petulans of the coast. They agree, however, with
hudsonicus as regards the color of the fringe of the tail.'' The Glenora
and Doch-da-on Creek specimens are clearly in the same category as
the Telegraph Creek specimens; they are all S. h. hudsonicus. The
squirrels from Flood Glacier, Great Glacier, and Sergief Island are
just as unequivocally S. h. picatus.
As between hudsonicus and picatus, there are differences of color
and of the skull. Red squirrels from Doch-da-on Creek (three full-
grown young) are in both respects typical of hudsonicus and they represent the farthest point down stream at which this subspecies was
taken. Our next collecting station was Flood Glacier, some forty miles
down the river, and, as noted, there was taken at that point but the
one red squirrel, typical of picatus, both as regards color and skull.
Whether there actually is a stretch of country in this intermediate
region where red squirrels are as scarce as our experience seems
to indicate, or whether we were merely unlucky in the necessarily
limited areas our field work covered at Flood Glacier and Great Glacier,
remains still to be determined. It may be, of course, that there is
actually a notable scarcity of the animals throughout this intermediate
region, that there is some attribute of the country that is unfavorable
to the red squirrel, and hence serves to keep apart these two subspecies.
(For the use of the name Sciurus hudsonicus picatus see Swarth,
1921&, p. 92.)
We gained but little information regarding the life history of the
red squirrel in the region explored. Near the Junction individuals
Were several times seen to enter holes in the ground, holes that, from
their appearance, evidently served as homes. Squirrel nests were
sometimes seen in the trees, but they were not numerous. Females
collected May 25 and 26 contained embryos, four and five in number,
and about 30 millimeters long. A young male shot at Glenora, July 2,
is about two-thirds the length of an adult, and about a quarter the
weight. The three young ones from Doch-da-on Creek, taken July 14,
17, and 22, respectively, are nearly full-grown, being but slightly
below adults in measurements and weight. 1922]
Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region        187
The first red squirrel collected near Telegraph Creek, on May 26,
had almost completely finished the molt into the summer pelage. Others
shot during the next two weeks are either in the winter pelage throughout or else variously advanced in the change, showing ragged patches
of the old coat. Those taken farther down the river are all in summer
pelage.
An adult female taken at Glenora July 4 (no. 30986) has the
incisors of both jaws malformed so that they could not meet, the two
lower teeth passing together to the left of the upper ones. All four
had grown to abnormal length, but not so much so as to endanger the
animal's life. They were evidently worn down somewhat by the friction sideways; the teeth are beveled, but not oh the same plane as in
normal individuals. This squirrel was in good condition, in fact there
was some fat under the skin. A western goshawk collected at Flood
Glacier contained in its stomach the remains of a red squirrel; doubtless
all the hawks of the region prey upon this species to some extent.
iij   ••
TABLE V
Measurements in millimeters of Sciurus from the Stikine Region and from south
eastern Alaska
Sciurus hudsonicus hudsonicus
30975
30976
30977
30978
30982
30983
30987
c? Telegraph Creek, B.
a* Telegraph Creek, B.
Telegraph Creek, B.
Telegraph Creek, B.
Telegraph Creek, B.
Telegraph Creek, B.
C.
C.
C.
C.
C.
C.
Doch-da-on Creek, B. C.
May 29, 1919
May 29, 1919
May 29, 1919
May 29, 1919
June 18, 1919
May 27, 1919
July 22, 1919
Total
length
330
315
330
332
330
330
300
Sciurus hudsonicus picatus
30991  o" Great Glacier, B. C.
30993 o* Sergief Id., Alaska
Aug. 10, 1919   310
Sept. 4, 1919     300
Tail
vertebrae
130
125
127
122
125
133
120
122
115
Average measurements of 8 males from
southeastern Alaska
Sciurus hudsonicus hudsonicus
30974   9  Telegraph Creek, B. C.
30979 9  Telegraph Creek, B. C.
30980 9  Telegraph Creek, B. C.
30984  9  Glenora, B. C.
30986   9  Glenora, B. C.
Sciurus hudsonicus. picatus
30990   9  Flood Glacier, B. C.
30992   9  Sergief Id., Alaska
Average measurements of 8 females from
southeastern Alaska. 308.25
Hind
foot
47
48
47
48
50
50
48
47
45
312.37      125.37      50.75
Ear
17
17
17
16
18
19
17
14
13
May 26, 1919
320
120
50
16
May 30, 1919
320
125
47
16
May 31, 1919
325
125
46
16
July 1, 1919
320
130
44
14
July 4, 1919
295
127
44
17
July 31, 1919
293
109
47
16
Sept. 2, 1919
.300
114
48
14
123.0
51.25 188
University of California Publications in Zoology     [Vol. 24
Lepus amerieanus macfarlani Merriam. Mackenzie Varying Hare
We were told that some years rabbits occurred in abundance in
the country about Telegraph Creek, but we were there during a period
of scarcity, and they were all but totally absent. As evidence of former
abundance we found scattered through the woods many crumbling
rabbit skeletons, bleached and weathered, which had lain there for a
year at least, perhaps longer. On June 18 fresh rabbit tracks were
seen in the dust of a trail some five or six miles west of Telegraph
Creek, and on July 7 a young rabbit about two-thirds grown (no.
31003) was taken near the Stikine River opposite Glenora. No others
were seen, nor any indication of their presence, at any other point.
Castor canadensis canadensis Kuhl.   Beaver
An abundant species on the lower Stikine, where the many miles of
flooded bottom lands, the mazes of winding channels and sloughs, and
the abundant forest growth, all combine to make conditions that are
well-nigh ideal for the beaver. Above "the Canon" the species is
scarce. There are undoubtedly many obscure little ponds hidden "in
the woods and blind sloughs and channels running back from the river
that still shelter small and scattered colonies, but the beavers have been
so nearly extirpated in this region that trapping is no longer profitable.
A few miles from Telegraph Creek there were beaver ponds, some
of considerable size, but we were told that the beavers had long been
wiped out. At Glenora, one evening, the resounding "plop" of a
beaver's tail in the water near the river's edge gave evidence of one
survivor, at least. Near Doch-da-on Creek, several miles back from
the river, there was a series of ponds, all occupied by beavers, though
so many had been caught there during the several years immediately
preceding our visit that there were probably but few still left.
At Flood Glacier and at Great Glacier beavers were seen, and also
abundant evidence of recent activities. At Farm Island, just above
Sergief Island, at the mouth of the river, Dixon found a colony of
some size, and on September 5 he trapped two at that point. These
two specimens (nos. 31013, 31014), immatures, probably born the
preceding year, were the only ones taken.
This material is too scanty to definitely determine the subspecific
position of the beaver of the Stikine region, but it may be said that the
two animals obtained are appreciably paler in coloration than phaeus
of Admiralty Island, or even than leucodonta, of Vancouver Island. 19221 Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region        189
We saw trappers' skins, also, from various points on the Stikine, and
they all appeared to be paler colored than phaeus. It seems safe to
assume that but one subspecies of beaver occurs over the entire length
of this river, and apparently it is a relatively pale-colored form. There
are probably beavers on the mainland coast of southeastern Alaska
wherever conditions are suitable, and also on most of the islands.
From this whole general region, however, specimens are available only
from Admiralty Island, where the dark colored Castor c. phaeus
occurs. Whether this form occupies a habitat more extensive than
this one island, and the extent of the area on the coast of Alaska that
is occupied by the paler colored subspecies of the Stikine region, are
points that still remain to be ascertained.
Odocoileus columbianus sitkensis Merriam.   Sitka Deer
No deer nor any sign of their presence was seen until we reached
the mouth of the river. At Sergief Island the fresh tracks of one individual were seen on the beach during the first week in September.
Deer are fairly numerous on the nearby Farm Island, but they seldom
cross over to Sergief. Dixon spent several days (August 26-29) on a
trip to Mitkof Island. Deer are abundant there, as on most of the
islands of the Alexander Archipelago, and on August 28 three were
shot. One of these (no. 31012), a spike buck, was preserved as a
specimen.
I
|§
sr
ill i
Alces amerieanus gigas Miller.   Alaska Moose
The most important game mammal of the region and the main
source of fresh meat for the residents of the country. We were told
that twenty or thirty years ago moose were scarce in the Telegraph
Creek region and almost unknown farther down the river, and that
they had steadily increased in numbers since that time. At present
they are abundant. We saw fresh sign everywhere we went, in the
immediate vicinity of each of our camps (including points within two
miles of the town of Telegraph Creek), and as far down the Stikine as
the Great Glacier. Moose are known to occur regularly even farther
down stream, and we were told of one being killed at the river's mouth
some years ago. On the mountains above Doch-da-on Creek fresh
moose tracks and droppings were seen just above timber line, at about
4000 feet elevation. 190
University of California Publications in Zoology      [Vou 24
will! |l
i
At the Junction, on May 27, Dixon was going quietly through the
poplar woods in search of birds when a cow moose suddenly burst
forth from a clump of alders some thirty yards away and charged
viciously upon him with mouth open and neck bristles all on end.
When she was within fifteen yards and still coming, he fired a load of
dust shot, whereupon she swerved to one side and went off through
the trees. A search of the bushes from which she had emerged disclosed a newly born calf, still unable to do more than totter about on
its long and very wobbly legs.
Dixon's observations upon this animal read in part as follows:
When first found, on the very spot where it was born, the calf was not frightened
but came up to me, whining like a puppy dog. Later this low whine was found
to be a usual call note of the youngster. The moose characters of large ears,
overhanging nose, high shoulders, low rump, and long legs, were all conspicuous.
The face and particularly the ears, were much lighter colored than the body.
An incipient mane of black hairs showed as a narrow line from the back of the
head to a point just back of the shoulders. The metatarsal glands were conspicuously eolored by a patch of whitish hairs covering an area one inch long
by one-half inch wide. The body was clothed with thick warm hair, plumbeous
at the basal half, then brown, and with a faint tipping of- black. In walking
on level ground the young moose stood 30 inches high at the shoulder and 27
inches at the rump. The distance from the nose to the tip of the tail in life
was 30 inches.
The sense of hearing was most keen, sight second, and smell last. A cracking
twig always startled her violently. The upper eyelid had eyelashes over an
inch long, which helped to keep the myriad mosquitoes out of the eyes. A
swarm of these bloodthirsty pests were sucking blood from the helpless youngster
when first discovered.
In attempting to nibble grass the little' moose knelt down on her front legs,
and in this position was able to bite off the tender grass with her eight sharp
lower incisors, well developed even in this 24 hour old calf- Attempts were
also made to nibble budding willow twigs. In lying down she knelt on her
front legs first, then the posterior was lowered and the long hind legs tucked
up under or to one side of the body. In getting up, the animal rose to its
knees on its front legs, and then the hind quarters were raised. By mid afternoon the young moose followed me about the camp so that I had difficulty in
keeping far enough away to use the camera.
Rangifer osborni Allen. Cassiar Caribou
We ourselves were at no time in caribou territory, and my only
reason for including the species here is to place on record information
received regarding the distribution of this animal. Telegraph Creek
is the outfitting place of hunters who visit the region each fall, and
many caribou are killed by them, but the mountains where the hunting
is usually done are reached by long pack trips to the northward and
eastward. fc
1922]
Swarth: Birds
and Mammals c
/ the Stikine
Region
191
W
"e were told by the
caretaker at Mr.
Callbreath's
farm, across
the
river
from Glenora, that
a band of ten 01
■ twelve caribou had spent the
previous winter on the unforested summit of Glenora Mountain, where
he had often watched them with a field glass. This may represent the
extreme western point reached by the species in this region. Twenty-
five miles farther down the river there are other mountains with extensive areas rising above timber line, which have been hunted over for
many years past by Captain A. B. Conover, residing at the mouth of
Clearwater Creek. He told us that he had never seen any caribou there,
nor any sign of their presence.
Pig. V. Young Alaska moose (Alces amerieanus gigas), twenty-four hours
old. The long legs of the adult moose is a feature that is much accentuated
in the calf, giving an appearance of extreme ungainliness to the short-bodied
animal, whether standing upon these stiltlike members or lying down with the
legs awkwardly folded underneath. Photograph taken near Telegraph Creek,
May 27, 1919.
Oreamnos montanus columbianus Allen. Columbian Mountain Goat
Mountain goats are probably of general distribution on the higher
mountains from Telegraph Creek west to the coast. Our own experiences were limited to three localities. At Glenora, on July 3, an
acquaintance ascended the mountain that rises behind the town, and
he told us that he saw two goats near the summit. On July 11 and 23
we climbed the mountain just south of Doch-da-on Creek. As soon as
the belt of upright timber was passed, goat sign was seen on all sides.
Broad, well-beaten trails wound through the thickets of prostrate
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balsam, to split again and again and finally become indistinguishable
on the open grass-covered slopes above. The balsam branches along
the trails were decorated with streamers of long white hair, caught from
the shedding animals as they passed along. Recently occupied beds
could be distinguished at many points, and numerous footprints and
droppings all attested to the presence of mountain goats in some numbers. We saw none here, however, though on the 11th, when we started
to descend the mountain toward evening, fresh tracks were seen at one
point where a goat had crossed our trail since morning.
Four days, July 16 to 19, were devoted by Dixon to a hunt on the
mountain above Kirk's Creek, some eight or ten miles north of Doch-
da-on Creek. He saw a number of the animals and shot an adult male
(no. 31008). Several were in sight at once when this one was killed,
and Dixon's observations on the behavior of the remainder of the band
include some interesting items.   His notes read in part as follows:
While we were skinning our specimen another goat came back, and after
grazing about awhile laid down against a granite boulder, where, with head
propped up against a stone, he watched us as we worked. Although we were
in plain sight and only 150 yards away, he lay there placidly observing us. As
soon as I started to sneak down out of sight, in an attempt to approach near
enough to get a photo, the goat got up and went over the ridge and across a
narrow ravine, where he stood waiting, watching me as I came over the crest
of the ridge 100 yards away. I followed him over the next ridge and saw him
disappear down a snow slide toward a hanging valley below. Prom this latter
point I searched the cliffs above me with the binoeulars, and saw a goat lying
in a niche in the cliff, high above me. This animal lay motionless with outstretched neck, watching me intently. Going around the ridge out of sight
at one side of the cliff, I worked my way up to a level with him, then edged
around the cliff so that when I stepped out in sight I was less than thirty feet
distant. The goat bounded to his feet, then slowly and deliberately jumped
from niche to niche along the face of the cliff until a slide was reached. Here
he bounded and slid down, scattering the rocks as he went. The spot where he
had been resting, about the center of the cliff, was like the eyrie of a golden
eagle, and about as difficult of access. It seemed incredible that so large an
animal could ever have reached it along the face of the cliff. A man certainly
could not have done so.
His tracks led across a snow slide to a cavity at the south side of a large
boulder. The snow melting away from the roek left a hole about six feet long,
three feet wide and four feet deep, and in here the goat had lain down, resting
on the snow and peering at me over the brink. Only the dark eyes and horns
could be seen, the otherwise white coloration blending perfectly with the snow.
I walked down to within 100 feet of the animal and took two photos while he
lay perfectly still. Then I crawled to the edge of the snow bank, too steep
for me to cross, and threw rocks at him. Arising, at first he stood his ground
stamping his fore feet or making feints at charging me. I finally struck him
with a stone and he jumped to the edge of the snow bank, where he stood with
arched neck and tail erect as though in challenge.    Then he started down the 19221        Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region        193
snowslide. With hind legs flexed and spread well apart, and front legs rigid,
almost on his haunches, he slid and wriggled in safety down the dangerous slide,
which at the bottom dropped over a precipice. At the top of this cliff he
crossed to the solid rock beyond, and then turned to see if I was coming.
The goat taken was a male, fully mature but not of great age. His
weight was estimated at two hundred pounds. This animal has almost
none of the long shaggy covering with which we usually associate the
species. It is white, just as in winter, but the hair is extremely short.
Over much of the body there is no more than a scanty covering of
tightly curled wool, which presumably would develop later into a dense
body covering, completely hidden by the long straight hairs of the
winter coat.
Oreamnos montanus columbianus was described from the Shesley
Mountains, in the same general region and some sixty or seventy miles
north of the place where our specimen was taken (see Allen, 1904, p.
20). Mountain goats occur on the mountains along the mainland
coast of southeastern Alaska directly to the westward of this region,
and with very little doubt at all suitable places between. Whether or
not the subspecies columbianus extends westward to the coast we have
not the material to decide, though the specimens at hand suggest
otherwise. There are three specimens available from the coast of southeastern Alaska, an adult female and two young males. The old female
has horns that are nearly as widespreading as in a female Oreamnos
kennedyi, from Cook Inlet, of about the same age. They are more
widespreading than in our adult male from the Telegraph Creek region.
These are the only comparisons that it is feasible to make. This material thus suggests the possibility at least of the existence of a coastal
race, kennedyi, as distinct from columbianus of the interior. In all
probability kennedyi should be regarded as a subspecies of Oreamnos
montanus, rather than a distinct species. There is with little doubt
sufficiently continuous distribution of mountain goats along the
Alaskan coast to insure intergradation between the several described
forms, and the goat occurring on the mainland of the Sitkan region
may well prove to be referable to kennedyi, though perhaps not
exhibiting the characters of that race in their extreme.
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CHECK LIST OP BIRDS
Colymbus holboelli (Bernhardt).
Colymbus auritus Linnaeus.
Gavia immer (Brunnieh).
Larus Philadelphia (Ord).
Sterna paradisaea Brunnieh.
Mergus amerieanus Cassin.
Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus.
Nettion carolinense  (Gmelin).
Spatula elypeata (Linnaeus).
Daflla acuta (Linnaeus).
Marila, sp.?
Glaueionetta islandica (Gmelin).
Histrionicus histrionicus  (Linnaeus).
Oidemia deglandi Bonaparte.
Branta canadensis oceidentalis (Baird).
Ardea herodias fannini Chapman.
Gallinago delicata (Ord).
Pisobia maculata (Vieillot).
Pisobia minutilla (Vieillot).
Totanua melanoleucus (Gmelin).
Totanus flavipes (Gmelin).
Tringa solitaria cinnamomea (Brewster).
Actitis maeularia (Linnaeus).
Oxyechus vociferus vociferus (Linnaeus).
Dendragapus obscurus flemingi Taverner.
Dendragapus obscurus sitkensis Swarth.
Canachites canadensis osgoodi Bishop.
Canachites canadensis atratus Grinnell.
Bonasa umbellus.umbelloides (Douglas).
Lagopus leucurus leueurus (Swainson).
Zenajdura maeroura carolinensis (Linnaeus).
Circus hudsonius (Linnaeus).
Aceipiter velox (Wilson).
Astur atricapillus atrieapillus (Wilson).
Astur atricapillus striatulus Ridgway.
Buteo borealis calurus Cassin.
Buteo swainsoni Bonaparte.
Aquila ehrysaetos (Linnaeus).
Haliaeetus leueoeephalus alascanus C. H. Townsend.
Palco peregrinus pealei Ridgway.
Palco columbarius columbarius Linnaeus.
Palco sparverius sparverius Linnaeus.
Asio flammeus (Pontoppidan).
Cryptoglaux funerea richardsoni (Bonaparte).
Bubo virginianus, subsp. ?
Glaucidium gnoma, subsp.?
Ceryle alcyon caurina Grinnell.
Dryobates villosus montieola Anthony.
Sphyrapicus varius yarius (Linnaeus). r
1922]        Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region        195
50. Sphyrapicus varius ruber (Gmelin).
51. Colaptes auratus borealis Ridgway.
52. Chordeiles virginianus virginianus (Gmelin).
53. Cypseloides niger borealis (Kennerly).
54. Chaetura vauxi (J. K. Townsend).
55. Selasphorus rufus (Gmelin).
56. Sayornis sayus (Bonaparte).
57. Nuttallornis borealis (Swainson).
58. Myiochanes richardsoni richardsoni (Swainson).
59. Empidonax difficilis difficilis Baird.
60. Empidonax trailli alnorum Brewster.
61. Empidonax hammondi (Xantus).
62. Empidonax wrighti Baird.
63. Otocoris alpestris arctieola Oberholser.
64. Cyanocitta stelleri stelleri (Gmelin).
65. Perisoreus canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus).
66. Corvus corax principalis Ridgway.
67. Corvus brachyrhynchos caurinus Baird.
68. Euphagus carolinus (Miiller).
69. Pinicola enucleator flammula Homeyer.
70. Carpodacus purpureus purpureus (Gmelin)..
71. Loxia curvirostra bendirei Ridgway.
72. Loxia curvirostra sitkensis Grinnell.
73. Loxia leueoptera Gmelin.
74. Leucostiete tephrocotis littoralis Baird.
75. Spinus pinus pinus (Wilson).
76. Calcarius lapponicus alascensis Ridgway.
77. Passerculus sandwichensis savanna (Wilson).
78. Passerculus sandwichensis alaudinus Bonaparte.
79. Zonotrichia leueophrys gambeli (Nuttall).
80. Zonotrichia coronata (Pallas).
81. Spizella montieola ochracea Brewster.
82. Spizella passerina passerina (Bechstein).
83. Junco hyemalis connectens Coues.
84. Junco oreganus oreganus (J. K. Townsend).
85. Melospiza melodia rufina (Bonaparte).
86. Melospiza melodia eaurina Ridgway.
87. Melospiza lincolni gracilis (Kittlitz).
88. Passerella iliaea unalascheensis (Gmelin).
89. Passerella iliaea fuliginosa Ridgway.
90. Piranga ludoviciana (Wilson).
91. Petrochelidon lunifrons lunifrons (Say).
92. Hirundo erythrogaster Boddaert.
93. Iridoprocne bicolor (Vieillot).
94. Taehycineta thalassina lepida Mearns.
95. Riparia riparia (Linnaeus).
96. Bombycilla garrula pallidiceps Reichenow.
97. Vireosylva gilva swainsoni (Baird).
98. Vermivora celata orestera Oberholser.
99. Vermivora celata luteseens  (Ridgway).
100. Vermivora peregrina (Wilson).
101. Dendroica aestiva aestiva (Gmelin).
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University of California Publications in Zoology     [Vol. 24
Dendroica coronata hooveri McGregor.
Dendroica townsendi (J. K. Townsend).
Seiurus noveboracensis notabilis Ridgway.
Oporornis tolmiei (J. K. Townsend).
Wilsonia pusilla pileolata (Pallas).
Setophaga rutieilla (Linnaeus).
Anthus rubescens (Tunstall).
Nannus hiemalis pacifieus (Baird).
Certhia familiaris oceidentalis Ridgway.
Sitta canadensis Linnaeus.
Penthestes atricapillus septentrionalis (Harris).
Penthestes gambeli abbreviatus Grinnell.
Penthestes rufescens rufescens (J. K. Townsend).
Regulus satrapa olivaeeus Baird.
Regulus calendula calendula (Linnaeus).
Regulus calendula grinnelli W. Palmer.
Myadestes townsendi (Audubon).
Hylocichla ustulata ustulata (Nuttall).
Hylocichla ustulata swainsoni (Tschudi).
Hylocichla guttata guttata (Pallas).
Hylocichla guttata nanus (Audubon).
Planesticus migratorius migratorius (Linnaeus).
Planesticus migratorius caurinus Grinnell.
Ixoreus naevius naevius (Gmelin).
Ixoreus naevius meruloides (Swainson).
Sialia currucoides (Bechstein).
GENERAL ACCOUNTS OF THE BIRDS
Colymbus holboelli (Reinhardt).   Holboell Grebe
A pair was nesting on Sawmill Lake in June.   They kept far out
on the lake, but with binoculars we were able to determine their specific
identity.
Colymbus auritus Linnaeus.   Horned Grebe
Small grebes were seen on Sawmill Lake several times during June,
always at a great distance, and on June 12 a pair was seen on Alkali
Lake.
Gavia immer (Briinnich). Common Loon
At least one pair on Sawmill Lake. The birds were quiet and unobtrusive, never being heard calling at that point. Another pair,
encountered in a small lake near Doch-da-on Creek, was more noisy,
and our arrival at the lake shore was invariably heralded by an outburst of sound from both birds. At that time, the middle of July,
they were caring for two young, apparently about a third grown. The
four birds were almost always seen together. 1922] Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region        197
Larus Philadelphia (Ord). Bonaparte Gull
One or two flocks were seen just after we passed Dixon Entrance,
going north, on May 19. They were apparently migrating, the only
migrants in evidence at that time, and were traveling in a manner
characteristic of the Bonaparte gull, but different from most of our
other species. The flocks were in compact formation and flying swiftly,
more like large waders than gulls in appearance; there was no soaring
whatever, and no lingering.
A single Bonaparte gull was seen on Sawmill Lake, June 17. A
small gull seen flying up stream past our Flood Glacier camp on
August 4 was probably of this species.
Sterna paradisaea Briinnich.   Arctic Tern
On our trip up stream, May 21 to 23, terns believed to be of this
species, were seen at intervals up to within thirty miles of Telegraph
Creek. On July 14, at Doch-da-on Creek, several were flying about
over some sand bars in midstream; from then on they were noted at
various times and places, always far out over the river.
Ill IS
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Mergus amerieanus Cassin.   American Merganser
On May 21, mergansers were seen in fair abundance at the mouth
of the Stikine; they lessened in numbers as we went up stream, and
finally disappeared, none being observed above "the canon." Those
that came near enough for identification were all M. amerieanus.
Later in'the summer, at Flood Glacier, at least two different broods
of mergansers were seen, but of what species could not be ascertained.
On July 29 a family of ten or twelve plunged into the stream opposite
our camp, hotly pursued by a bald eagle. The eagle was very much in
earnest, but it was curious to see, once the water was reached, the
indifference with which the mergansers regarded their formidable
pursuer. None took the trouble to dive, even, except the one specifically
selected as a victim. Then, at the last moment, that particular individual disappeared easily beneath the water, leaving the eagle flounder:
ing and gathering himself for another try at the flock. He soon gave
up the task, and the mergansers swam down stream out of our sight. University of California Publications in Zoology      [Vol. 24
Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus. Mallard
A single bird, seen June 12 in a beaver pond some five miles west
of Telegraph Creek, was the only indication we had that this species
might be breeding in the upper Stikine Valley. Ducks are quiet and
retiring during the nesting season, however, and we spent but little
time in places where we would be apt to find them, so that our negative
results are no proof of the actual scarcity of this and some other
species.
At Sergief Island, August 17 to September 7, mallards were present
in considerable numbers.   All that we shot proved to be young birds.
Nettion carolinense (Gmelin). Green-winged Teal
A pair was seen June 12 in a beaver pond some five miles west of
Telegraph Creek. At Sergief Island, toward the end of the summer,
teal were present in abundance, usually in flocks of ten or twelve
individuals. Two specimens were preserved, an immature male taken
on September 2 (no. 39705), and an adult female, September 5
(no. 39706).
Spatula clypeata (Linnaeus).   Shoveller
A single bird was seen at close range in a slough on Sergief Island
on August 29.   A Peale falcon shot at the same locality on September
1 had the remains of a shoveller in its stomach.
Dafila acuta (Linnaeus).   Pintail
Seen only at Sergief Island. There, during the whole of our stay,
pintails were present in fair abundance, usually in flocks of ten or
twelve individuals. These small flocks were, presumably, each a single
family.
The three common fresh-water ducks here were the mallard, green-
winged teal, and pintail. Of none of these species, seen almost daily
from August 17 to September 7, and in considerable numbers, were
any male birds seen in the normal adult winter plumage. Presumably
the old males were still in the eclipse plumage, but our efforts to obtain
any failed; those birds that we shot proved to be young of the year,
with one or two old females.
Marila, sp.?   Scaup Duck
Flocks and single birds were several times seen on Sawmill Lake
during June.   Most of them were males (on June 11 a flock was noted 1922]
Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region
199
consisting of ten males and one female), suggestive of the possibility
that the females Were sitting on eggs nearby. The birds were seen at
close enough range to identify them as scaups, but whether Manila
marila or M. affirtis, or both, would, of course, have required the capture of specimens for determination.
m
Glaucionetta islandica (Gmelin). Barrow Golden-eye
Seen at various points within ten or twelve miles of Telegraph
Creek: at the Summit, June 4 and 5, a flock of five females and several
single birds, both male and female; at Sawmill Lake, occasionally during June; and on a small stream south of Telegraph Creek. Two
females were shot at the Summit, June 5, and one of them was preserved (no. 39707).   These two birds were evidently not breeding.
The species encountered was apparently Glaucionetta islandica.
The identity of the one specimen saved was determined mainly through
a study of the characterization of the two forms, americana and islandica, as given by Brooks (1920, p. 356). This decision, though, is also
influenced by the fact that the adult males seen were unquestionably
islandica, the triangular white facial patch being plainly discernible
with the binoculars. This is a curious instance, in which the identity
of a specimen in hand (a normal adult female) is confirmed by sight
identification of others not obtained.
Histrionicus histrionicus (Linnaeus). Harlequin Duck
Not seen along the lower Stikine River, but fairly common along
the upper part of the stream. Frequently observed at close range
from the river boat, always seen in swift water, flying up when
approached too nearly, or perhaps swimming fearlessly through a
swirl of rapids alongside, paying little heed either to the boat from
whose path it just withdrew, or to the rocks and snags between which
it picked its way.   Seen as far up the river as Telegraph Creek.
Oidemia deglandi Bonaparte.   White-winged Scoter
Undoubtedly nesting on Sawmill Lake, where varying numbers
were seen during the month of June.   Twenty or more of both sexes
were noted on June 17, and lesser numbers on many other occasions.
Not met with elsewhere. 200 University of California Publications in Zoology     [VoL-24
Branta canadensis occidentalis (Baird).   White-cheeked Goose
We were told of the occasional, though rare, occurrence of geese
as far up the river as Telegraph Creek, but it seems doubtful that
birds seen so far inland should be occidentalis. In our ascent of the
Stikine River, May 21 and 22, flocks of geese, presumably of this subspecies, were seen at intervals about as far up as Great Glacier. None
was seen by us during the summer any farther inland. When we
camped at Great Glacier in August, we found an abundance of old
"sign" of the presence of geese, many droppings on the sand bars about
some shallow ponds, and the marks of webbed feet in sticky mud that
had since remained undisturbed. The geese themselves had probably
not visited the place for many weeks. These ponds, in a sheltered
location, apparently received a maximum of sunshine early in the
summer, and were correspondingly attractive to the birds at that time.
In our descent of the river, the first white-cheeked geese were seen
at the boundary, August 16. From there on down an occasional small
flock was noted, but not until the mouth of the river was reached were
they seen in any numbers. At Sergief Island they were abundant.
Flocks of large size frequented the marshes at that point, changing
their feeding ground as the tides advanced and receded. These local
movements covered but a few miles at most, and, of course, were gone
through with daily as regularly as the tides. Aside from this hourly
shifting, which kept some flocks on the wing practically throughout
the day, there was no appearance of migration. Flocks of white-
cheeked geese were never seen to depart in a manner suggestive of the
beginning of a long flight, nor were any seen arriving as though from
a distance.
During the last two weeks in August the geese were still molting
extensively. In some the breast and belly were almost entirely devoid
of feathers, only the down remaining, and nearly all were renewing
the tail feathers. Flight feathers were fully grown, or at any rate
sufficiently so for flying. Presumably the birds would not gather
upon these open and exposed marshes until they could fly; nesting and
the beginning of the molt, including loss of the remiges, probably takes
place in more sheltered localities.
Five specimens of white-cheeked geese were preserved, an adult
male and adult female saved entire (nos. 39708-39709), and two males
and a female (nos. 39710-39712), of which head and neck only were
preserved.    Four of the five specimens preserved have more or less 1922] Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region        201
indication of a black line on the chin separating the white cheek-
patches. In one case this bar is fairly well defined, though as each
separate feather is narrowly edged with white and has a white base, a
mottled effect is produced. In three the black is not continuous, merely
a string of disconnected black spots, and in one the white patch extends
uninterruptedly from cheek to cheek. Usually in the geese of this
region there is either a string of disconnected spots, as in the specimens
just described, or else a beginning of such a line extending forward
and backward on the center of the throat but not meeting. Very rarely
the black dividing line is continuous, broad, and well defined. I, myself, have seen two such specimens, but in neither case was there absolute assurance that they were birds breeding in the Sitkan district.
Such birds might occur as migrants from a more northern region,
where intergradation of occidentalis and minima might result in the
occasional appearance of such a marking.
Ardea herodias fannini Chapman.   Northwest Coast Heron
Only two seen during the entire summer. One observed on a sand
bar in the Stikine River some eight miles below Telegraph Creek on
July 5 may or may not have been of the coast subspecies, fannini. One
was seen flying overhead on Sergief Island, September 5.
Gallinago delicata (Ord).   Wilson Snipe
Seen only at Sergief Island. At that point, during the whole of
our stay, August 17 to September 7, Wilson snipe were abundant on
the marshes, not generally distributed, but always to be found about
certain favored spots, generally near fresh-water ponds. While the
usual manner of occurrence was for a single bird to be flushed, or perhaps two or three within a few square yards, there were times when
snipe were noted in small flocks, almost like sandpipers in their actions.
Groups of ten or twelve individuals were seen circling about through
the air, in close formation and wheeling or turning in perfect unison.
At such times almost the only thing to betray the identity of the birds
was the call note, uttered at frequent intervals. At no time, however,
did birds flushed from the ground depart in flock formation. Eight
specimens were collected (nos. 39713-39720), taken on dates ranging
from August 18 to September 1.
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University of California Publications in Zoology      [VoL- 24
Pisobia maculata (Vieillot). Pectoral Sandpiper
Seen only at Sergief Island. Upon our first visit to the marshes,
on August 18, pectoral sandpipers were seen in small numbers, just
a few single birds, or, at most, two or three together. They increased
in numbers daily, and by September 1 flocks of from twenty to thirty
individuals were frequently encountered. Like the Wilson snipe, they
favored the fresh-water ponds, and there they could be seen walking
about through the short grass, the flocks loosely spaced so that the
individual birds were from ten to twenty feet apart. They were tame
. and unsuspicious, usually permitting a near approach. Three specimens preserved (nos. 39721-39723).
Pisobia minutilla (Vieillot). Least Sandpiper
Seen only at Sergief Island, where it was present in fair abundance.
The small size of the least sandpiper kept it out of the grassy areas
frequented by some of the other waders, and it was usually found on
the bare mud banks or sand bars. There were places, however, where
the flocks of geese had trampled down the tall marsh grass, sometimes
acres in extent, and the least sandpipers were fond of feeding in such
spots, where they could run about freely over the prostrate grass. One
specimen collected (no. 39724).
Totanus melanoleucus (Gmelin).   Greater Yellowlegs
Seen only at Sergief Island.   Not abundant, but a few single birds
and sometimes two together were encountered at various times from
August 19 to September 2.   One specimen collected (no. 39725).
■■ Totanus fiavipes (Gmelin). Lesser Yellowlegs
Seen during June about Sawmill Lake and some smaller ponds near
Telegraph Creek. Probably nesting somewhere within a few miles, but
apparently not in the immediate vicinity of these lakes. Occasionally
one was seen coming down from a great height in the air, evidently to
feed on the shores of one or another of the lakes. It seemed likely,
from the birds' actions, that the nesting grounds might have been in
meadow land high up in some of the nearby mountains. Four specimens preserved, all adults (nos. 39726-39729). 19221        Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region
203
Tringa solitaria cinnamomea (Brewster).   Western Solitary
Sandpiper
This species might be expected to breed throughout the region in
which we were working, but we failed to find it doing so. It was met
with but once during the summer, an immature male (no. 39730) being
secured at Flood Glacier on August 7. This individual, a fully grown
bird of the year-, was, of course, a migrant, and might have traveled a
long distance.
if;
•Im I
Actitis macularia (Linnaeus). Spotted Sandpiper
Fairly common in the upper Stikine Valley. A nest with four
eggs was discovered at Sawmill Lake, June 14, placed in a bank of
sawdust on the site of the long abandoned sawmill. At Glenora a set
of four eggs (no. 1806) was collected on July 3. The nest in this case
was in a grassy meadow near an abandoned building. Another nest
was found at Glenora, on a sand bar at the edge of the river. At least
one brood was hatched near our camp at Doch-da-on Creek. No
spotted sandpipers were seen farther down, the river, but there is no
reason to doubt that the species occurs the whole length of the Stikine.
It is known to be a summer visitant on the coast of southeastern
Alaska. One specimen collected (no. 39731), an adult female taken
at Glenora with the set of eggs, previously referred to.
Oxyechus vociferus vociferus (Linnaeus). Killdeer
On the evening of August 22, Dixon heard the unmistakable notes
of a killdeer from a mud bank in the river near our camp at Sergief
Island. Search the next day, and for several days thereafter, failed
to bring the bird to our sight, but the call note is so distinctive that a
person familiar with the species could not mistake it for any other.
luiin
IB 1
Dendragapus obscurus fiemingi Taverner. Fleming Grouse
In summer, at least, this species is restricted to high altitudes in
the mountains of the upper Stikine region. We met with it at but one
point, at timber line, in the mountains above Doch-da-on Creek. A
female with a brood of small young was seen there, at about 4000 feet
elevation, on July 11.    On July 23, two broods were found near the- University of California Publications in Zoology     [Vol. 24
same place, the young ones the size of mountain quail (Oreortyx),
strong on the wing, and apparently well able to care for themselves.
On July 11 a cock bird was flushed from the heather at the edge of a
snow bank, far above the timber. Another was seen by Dixon at the
upper edge of the timber on Kirk's Mountain on July 17. No males
were heard hooting at any time.
Of the two broods seen on July 23, one consisted of three young,
the second of but one. These birds were found in open, grassy patches,
close to dense and extensive thickets of prostrate balsam fir, that
afforded shelter from almost any enemy. The parent of the brood of
small young seen on July 11 was extremely solicitous for their safety.
She was not aggressive in her solicitude, however, as is the ruffed
grouse under similar circumstances, nor did she feign a broken wing
or other disability. She simply sat on the top of a thicket, obviously
greatly worried, clucking nervously to the chicks until they had reached
what she considered a safe distance, when she followed after through
the bushes. The larger young ones seen on July 23 were evidently expected to look after themselves to a great extent; they were as wary
and resourceful as their parents.
Five specimens were secured (nos. 39732-39736), two adult females
and a male and two females in juvenal plumage. These birds appear
to belong to the subspecies Dendragapus obscurus flemingi, described
by Taverner (1914, p. 385), from Teslin Lake, one hundred and forty
miles north of the Stikine. This form is most nearly related to D. o.
richardsoni; it is widely different from fuliginosus and sitkensis, the
coastal subspecies. Richardsoni and flemingi are not "hooters." The
call note of the male bird is not the loud, far-reaching hoot that is so
characteristic of fuliginosus and sitkensis, and also of the California
race, sierrae. In these latter subspecies the male bird has on each side
of the neck an area of bare skin that is brilliant yellow, greatly thickened, and- capable of wide distention, part of the hooting apparatus
and not highly developed in the non-hooting forms. (See Brooks,
1912, p. 252.) This is a structural difference of sufficient importance
to warrant the specific separation of these groups of grouse. Whether
or not D. o. obscurus of the southern Rocky Mountains is a hooter I
do not know, and any changes of nomenclature would hinge upon this
fact.
Flemingi is described as differing from richardsoni in darker general coloration and in having the tail rounded, not truncate. Both are
described as lacking a terminal tail band.   The general dark colora- 1922]
Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region
205
tion, including extension of dark areas and restriction of light ones, is
evident in the Stikine birds, as in topotypes of flemingi loaned me by
the Victoria Memorial Museum, and is sufficiently marked to justify
the recognition of flemingi. It is doubtful whether the tail characters
are valid. The sharply truncate tail of the male richardsoni is a feature that is not acquired until the second year at least. The young
male, the first year, has the whole tail rounded, and the individual tail
feathers are narrow and rounded as compared with the broad, truncate feathers of the old bird. Also, richardsoni can hardly be said
to lack entirely a terminal band on the tail. An indication, at least, of
this marking is always present.
Dendragapus obscurus sitkensis Swarth. Sitka Grouse
On May 21, on the trip up the river from Wrangell, we stopped
at the Canadian custom house, just above the Alaska-British Columbia
boundary, and while anchored there heard a grouse hooting in the
nearby woods. Presumably this was the coast subspecies. The only
specimen collected during the summer was an adult female (no. 39737)
taken by Dixon at the southern end of Mitkof Island, during a three
days' hunt for deer which he made to that point, August 26 to 29. A
number more were seen at the same place. (For the use of the name
Dendragapus obscurus sitkensis see Swarth, 1921a,, p. 59.)
Canachites canadensis osgoodi Bishop. Alaska Spruce Grouse
Canachites canadensis atratus Grinnell. Valdez Spruce Grouse
From the reports we heard it is to be inferred that the spruce grouse
is of general distribution in the region we visited, and in fair abundance though locally restricted to suitable surroundings. We were informed that about Telegraph Creek this grouse was usually found in
the spruce forests on the hillsides well up above the river valley. We,
ourselves, met with the species at but two points. Late in the evening
of July 5, as we were returning to our camp at Glenora, a young spruce
grouse flew up into a tree by the road and was taken. It was still
partly in the natal down, too young to be supposed to be shifting for
itself, but neither the parent nor any other of the brood was seen.
At Flood Glacier an adult female and one chick were taken on
August 4, an adult male on August 7. No others were seen. These
birds were collected in dense spruce woods, in the bottom lands between the river and the glacier. The old male was feeding on huckleberries. 206
University of California Publications in Zoology      you
Hi
Of the specimens collected, the adult male (no. 39740, August 7)
had virtually completed the annual molt. There are partly grown
feathers over various parts, but the old plumage is all discarded. The
adult female (no. 39739, August 4) is still mostly in the worn, last
year's plumage, though feather renewal is in progress in some tracts.
The two young (no. 39741, male, Glenora, July 5; no. 39738, female,
Flood Glacier, August 4) are at precisely the same stage of development, though taken just a month apart. The natal down persists upon
head, throat and belly, and the juvenal feathers clothe the back, breast,
flanks, and wings.
The two adults are noticeably different from examples of Canachites
c. osgoodi from points in the interior. Of the latter I have had for
comparison specimens from various points in northern British Columbia, Yukon, and Alaska. Osgoodi, described from Lake Marsh, some
250 miles north of Telegraph Creek, is a grayish colored bird, compared with other races of C. canadensis, a character that becomes more
and more accentuated to the northward. Birds from the Kowak River
region reach the extreme of differentiation in this regard (see Grinnell,
1900, p. 30). Our Flood Glacier adults are extremely dark colored,
matching exactly examples of the coastal race, Canachites c. atratus,
from Prince William Sound, Alaska (Grinnell, 1910, p. 380). C. c.
atratus was not admitted to the Check-List by the A. O. U. Committee
(1912, p. 385), its characters being deemed "insufficient for recognition," but it seems to me to be a recognizable form. The inference
resulting from the capture of our Stikine birds is that that race of
spruce grouse will prove to be of continuous distribution in the coastal
district between the Stikine River and Prince William Sound.
The two young birds, from Glenora and Flood Glacier, respectively,
are somewhat different in appearance. The Glenora bird is more grayish in coloration, the Flood Glacier specimen more rufescent and with
more extensive black areas upon individual feathers. These differences might pass unnoted, perhaps, were it not for the peculiarities of
the Flood Glacier adults as compared with typical adult osgoodi. As
it is, I believe the observed differences in the juvenals to be of significance, for they are just the sort of differences that would be expected
to distinguish the young of atratus and osgoodi. The Glenora juvenal
may be an example of Canachites c. osgoodi. This indicates the possible presence of two forms of Canachites canadensis in the Stikine
Valley (as is the case with so many other species of birds), C. c. osgoodi
of the interior extending westward at least to Glenora, C. c. atratus
of the coast extending inland at least to Flood Glacier. 1922
Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region        207
Bonasa umbellus umbelloides (Douglas).   Gray Ruffed Grouse
Fairly common in the poplar forests of the upper Stikine Valley.
We ourselves saw none below Doch-da-on Creek, but the species undoubtedly ranges farther down stream, regularly. We were told of its
occasional occurrence at the mouth of the river, but whether breeding
or merely in winter I do not know.
During the first week in June single birds were several times seen
at the Junction. Three that were shot at this point were all males; the
females were undoubtedly sitting on eggs at that time. On June 12
the first young were seen, two broods being encountered near Telegraph
Creek. The young of one brood were still unable to fly. Our first
knowledge of their presence was derived from the mother bird, who
burst forth from the bushes and charged us furiously. She kept tail
and ruff widely spread, the head crest depressed. She was mewling
in a very catlike fashion, and also hissing from time to time. There
was an occasional faint peep from the grass nearby, and once I caught
a glimpse of a yellow chick slipping away through the shrubbery, but
the young were too agile to be captured.
The young of the second brood were somewhat larger and able to
fly. This second mother tried to toll us away from the chicks by
feigning a broken wing; the noise she made was not unlike the whining of a small puppy. Her actions, all together, gave the impression
that she was frightened rather than angry. However, if frightened,
she still did not desert her trust, but remained nearby, dragging herself back and forth across the road, with wings drooping and all her
feathers pressed closely against her body. Her tail was not spread
nor were her ruffs displayed at any time, all in striking contrast to the
behavior of the first bird met that morning.
From later observations it appeared that these two parents were
fairly typical of their kind in such an emergency. The mother either
charged the intruder viciously, in an apparent attempt to frighten
him, or else she endeavored to distract attention from the chicks to
herself by feigning injury and inviting pursuit. On one occasion the
parent of a brood came charging at me through the woods from a
distance of fifty yards.
At Doch-da-on Creek, July 8 to 26, ruffed grouse were seen on many
occasions. On July 15 an adult male was shot that proved to be in
the midst of the molt; only one or two of the old rectrices were left and
the body was covered with pin feathers. On July 18 the last drumming was heard.
11
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The series collected comprises four adult males, one adult female,
one in juvenal plumage, and one in natal down (nos. 39742-39747).
These birds are relatively gray colored, but not so ashy as Bonasa um-
bettus yukonensis, from the Yukon region (see Grinnell, 1916, p. 166).
I have had for comparison three specimens of Bonasa u. umbeUoides
from points on the Saskatchewan and Athabasca rivers, Alberta, practically topotypes of that form,, loaned me by the United States Biological Survey. The Stikine River birds are of exactly the same type of
coloration.
Of our series of five adults, three are in the gray phase, two in the
red. Apparently these color phases occur throughout the entire range
of the species Bonasa umbellus. The point arises as to whether the
confusion that exists between the subspecies umbeUoides and togata
(cf. A. 0. U. Committee, 1910, p. 140), a relatively gray race and a
relatively reddish one, is not largely due to a misunderstanding of the
color variation within any one subspecies. No attempt has been made
by me to go thoroughly into this question, but it may be said that the
reddest umbeUoides examined is a very different looking bird indeed
from the few grouse I have seen from eastern Canada, the habitat of
the reddish colored togata.
The crop contents of two ruffed grouse from the Stikine region
(determined at the United States Biological Survey) are as follows:
No. 39742, adult male. Percentage of vegetable matter. 100. Contents of crop: 1 pupa of plant louse, many leaves and a few stems of
Populus trichocarpa (75 per cent), leaves, stems, etc., of Galium tri-
florum (25 per cent), 1 leaf of Artemisia, sp., and bits of leafy moss.
No. 39748, adult male. Percentage of vegetable matter, 100. Contents of crop: 105 leaves of Populus tremuloides and a few bud scales
of the same (90 per cent), 9 berries and a leaf of Viburnum pauciflo-
rum (10 per cent), bits of vegetable debris.
Lagopus leucurus leucurus (Swainson).   White-tailed Ptarmigan
Met with at but one place, on a mountain above Doch-da-on Creek.
Here, on the heather covered slopes above the timber, two broods were
seen on July 11.   Of one, the entire family was obtained, the adult
female and three downy young (nos. 39749—39752).   The second lot
a female with seven or eight young, escaped.
While we were camped at Glenora an acquaintance climbed Glenora
Mountain, nearby, and informed us that he saw a single ptarmigan 19221 Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region
209
on the summit during the day. This same man had spent several winters trapping on the Iskut River some miles above the junction of Jhe
latter with the Stikine, and he told us that at times ptarmigan were
plentiful there during the winter months. He described them as of
two species, one smaller and entirely white (obviously leucurus), the
other larger and with black feathers in the tail. The latter was evidently either rupestris or lagopus; both species may occur there.
The three young taken on July 11 are in the natal down throughout, save that the wing feathers had grown out to a slight extent.
They could fly a little, skimming down hill a few inches above the
ground.
The crop contents of these birds (determined at the United States
Biological Survey) are as follows:
No. 39749, adult female. Percentage of vegetable matter, 100. Contents of crop, fragments of mosses, a few leaves of Geranium, sp., 24
flowers of Dryas octopetala (25 per cent), many leaves, stems, etc., of
Sali-x, sp. (75 per cent).
No. 39750, young. Percentage of animal matter, 30; of vegetable,
70. Contents of crop: 1 Scymnus, sp., at least 1 Sciara, sp., about 50
plant lice (including Psylla, sp.) (30 per cent) ; vegetable matter, including Myrica gale, unidentified leaf buds (probably Salix, sp.), and
Ranunculus, sp. (70 per cent).
No. 39751, young. Percentage of vegetable matter, 100. Contents
of crop: fragments of several leaf buds, probably Salix, sp.
No. 39752, young. Percentage of animal matter, 60; of vegetable,
40. Contents of crop: 12 plant lice and several unidentified leaf buds,
probably Salix, sp.
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Zenaidura macroura carolinensis (Linnaeus).   Eastern Mourning
Dove
On June 17 a mourning dove was seen near Telegraph Creek. Mr,
W. H. Dodd, who has been government agent at that point for some
years past, informed me that the species occurs in the fall with a fair
degree of regularity. That is, one or two of the birds might be expected to appear each year.
On September 3 an adult female (no. 39753) was collected on
Sergief Island, at the mouth of the Stikine River. Mr. Fred H. Gray,
of Wrangell, a deputy of the Bureau of Fisheries, and a man whp has
observed and collected birds for many years, informed me that he had
f if I 210
University of California Publications in Zoology      [VoL- 24
seen mourning doves in and about Wrangell on several occasions. Mr.
Allen Hasselborg, of Juneau, once informed me of seeing a dove near
that city, in November, 1911. Straggling individuals have been recorded from Metlakatla, 'British Columbia (Kermode, 1904, p. 28),
from Sitka, September 14 (Willett, 1914, p. 81), and from Hydaburg,
Prince of Wales Island, September 1 (Willett, 1917, p. 22).
The bird I took was flushed from tall marsh grass, at a point that
was regularly covered by the tides. In many places on the marsh this
grass was beaten down by rain or wind, and it was from one of these
flattened patches that the dove was flushed.
If southeastern Alaska is an unusual point of occurrence for the
species, at any rate this individual reached the place without suffering
any undue hardships, for it was excessively fat. The crop contents of
this bird were as follows: percentage of animal matter, 1; of vegetable, 99; of gravel, etc., a trace. Contents of crop: 16 Oribatid mites
and 2 young Polygyra, sp., 1 per cent; 9 Carex, sp., 4 per cent; 388
Alsine, sp., 20 per cent; 221 Impatiens, sp., 75 per cent.
The Sergief Island specimen, compared with examples of Zenai-
dura macroura marginella from California, is darker colored throughout, with richer brown coloration on scapulars, and with larger black
spots upon the latter. It is not marginella. It bears closer resemblance to the eastern form, Zenaidura macroura caroUnensis, and for
the present may remain under that name. There is not enough material available to demonstrate whether the birds that occasionally reach'
southeastern Alaska really are examples of the eastern race, extending
northwestward into northern British Columbia and sometimes to the
coast, or northern strays of the coastal subspecies, Z. m. caurina, described by Ridgway (1916, p. 348) from Oregon.
I Ii
Circus hudsonius (Linnaeus).   Marsh Hawk
First noted at Sergief Island on September 3, when two brown
immatures appeared, beating over the marsh.   A number more were
seen during the next few days.
Accipiter velox (Wilson). Sharp-shinned Hawk
Not seen until the close of the nesting season. First noted at Flood
Glacier, August 3; next on August 6, and thereafter almost daily. At
Great Glacier, on August 11, a Steller jay was shot and wounded, and,
being retrieved, screamed loudly. Almost instantly a sharp-shinned
hawk appeared, evidently drawn by the cries of distress, and lit in a
tree as near by as he dared to come. 1922] Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Regi
ion
211
Two specimens collected, an immature male at Great Glacier, August 11 (no. 39754), and an immature female at Sergief Island, August
22 (no. 39755).
ill
Astur atricapillus atricapillus (Wilson).   Eastern Goshawk
Astur atricapillus striatulus Ridgway.   Western Goshawk
Goshawks doubtless occur in summer throughout the region east of
the coast ranges, but apparently in widely scattered pairs. We saw
them at various localities, single individuals encountered at considerable intervals of time. At our camp at the Junction, the end of May,
a recently dropped wing quill was evidence of the passage of one of
the birds. One was seen flying overhead at the Summit, May 29, another at Glenora, July 7. On July 11 an adult male was shot at the
upper limit of timber (about 3000 feet altitude) on the mountain above
Doch-da-on Creek. On August 4 an immature female was taken at
Flood Glacier. This bird contained in its stomach the remains of a
red squirrel.
The adult male collected (no. 39756) is referable to the eastern
subspecies, Astur atricapillus atricapillus, and is, I assume, representative of the form that inhabits the entire region east of the coast ranges.
The young bird taken at Flood Glacier (no. 39757) may or may not
have been hatched in that immediate neighborhood. No other goshawks were seen there, and other species of hawks (pigeon hawks and
sharp-shinned hawks) were at that time beginning to appear, apparently migrating. At any rate, this individual appears to be an example of the western subspecies, A. a. striatulus. It is closely matched
by four young of striatulus from their nesting ground in the Warner
Mountains, California, and it is quite unlike a series of six immatures
of atricapillus from the Yukon region. Compared with the Yukon
series the Flood Glacier bird is darker colored throughout, it is more
heavily marked below, and the brown edgings to the feathers dorsally
are broader and of a darker brown. Specimens of striatulus taken on
the coast of southern Alaska during the migrations are closely similar
to the Flood Glacier bird.
Buteo borealis calurus Cassin.   Western Red-tailed Hawk
Red-tailed hawks were seen at several points in the interior, but
never in any numbers.   Two or three were noted near Telegraph Creek
at close enough range to enable their rufous tails to be distinguished;
some dark colored hawks, supposed to be of this species, were seen at
iff!
1
111
111 EH
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University of California Publications in Zoology      [Vol- 24
a distance. At Glenora, July 1, an extremely dark individual was seen,
the body almost black; this again was identified by means of the characteristic tail color. Others were observed at Doch-da-on Creek, during
July.
All the birds of this species seen thus far had been either in the
dark phase or else were light breasted birds that were not notably
light colored otherwise. Then, at Flood Glacier, a family of extremely
light colored individuals was encountered. On July 26, and on subsequent days, an adult red-tail was several times seen from our camp,
sometimes perched in a tall spruce, sometimes flying past. The breast
and belly of this bird appeared to be gleaming white, and the back
seemed to have much white spotting.
On July 31 Dixon found this adult feeding two full-grown young
ones in an opening in the forest; though the parent was too wary to
be captured, he took both the immatures. These, like the old one, are
extremely light colored. Chin, throat and breast are continuously
white, the breast with a buffy suffusion, and the lower abdomen and
lower tail coverts are white. In the spotted tract across the middle of
the body below, and on the flanks, the dark spots are relatively small
and separated by wide areas of white. The area immediately surrounding the eye, and between eye and bill, is white. In the feathers
on the top of head and back of neck are small central spots of black
or dusky, and extensive basal and marginal areas of white. Over the
entire upperparts the feathers are extensively white spotted and with
broad margins of white or pale buffy.
In a large series of young calurus from various parts of the western
United States we have nothing at all like these birds. An immature
male borealis from Wisconsin is like the Stikine River specimens in the
uniformly white chin, throat, and breast, and in the restriction of the
black spots below, but it is not so white on the head and upperparts.
Buteo borealis krideri has been recorded from Alaska on the basis of
a light colored bird taken at Eagle during the winter of 1903 (B. H.
Bailey, 1916, p. 321). The red-tails, however, form a puzzling aggregation of geographical races and color phases, and it does not simplify
matters in this case to assign to the subspecies krideri a range covering
part of the habitat of calurus. The present writer is disinclined to
regard the light colored birds just described as examples of krideri,
thereby extending the range of that form far to the westward. Most
of the red-tails seen throughout the Stikine region were of the recognized calurus type.    Until the meaning of   the diverse phases of 1922] Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region        213
plumage seen is thoroughly understood it is safer to regard all the
birds of that part of the country as of the one subspecies, calurus.
Of the two young birds collected, the female had crop and stomach
filled to distention. In the partly digested mass there could be distinguished the remains of at least four mice and one toad. The mice
could be identified as Microtus mordax. The male bird had its stomach
filled with a mass of Microtus bones and hair. The meadow mice that
the young hawks had eaten must all have been fed to them by their
parents. While Microtus mordax was a fairly common species at that
point, still it is noteworthy that a red-tailed hawk should be sufficiently
agile to catch so many of them in as short a space of time as must have
been the case. The mice in the river bottom, where the hawks were
found, were in cover so dense that it was surprising to find a red-
tail there at all. The hunting of the latter, may of course, have been
done on the nearby mountain sides, above the denser timber, but even
so it seems rather remarkable that they should find so little difficulty
in catching these small rodents.
Mm
Buteo swainsoni Bonaparte. Swainson Hawk
Seen only in the vicinity of Telegraph Creek. A number of dark
colored hawks were observed thereabout, some of which were identified
as red-tails, while others of lighter build were assumed to be of the
present species. Dixon shot one on June 1, but was unable to find the
bird until two days later, when it was unfit to preserve as a specimen.
One wing, one leg, and the tail were preserved (no. 39760) to make
identification certain. The birds seen were undoubtedly nesting
near-by.
Aquila chrysaetos (Linnaeus).   Golden Eagle
One seen at fairly close range near Telegraph Creek on June 22,
another at Glenora, July 7.
Haliaeetus leucocephalus alascanus C. H. Townsend
Northern Bald Eagle
In all probability bald eagles extend inland much farther than the
points where we were collecting, dependent perhaps upon local conditions, but we ourselves did not see any farther up the river than
Doch-da-on Creek. Here, the latter part of July, they were noted
on several occasions. On July 23 two were seen circling above the
mountain tops, at about 5000 feet altitude. Descending the Stikine
from Doch-da-on Creek, bald eagles were seen at various points. 214
University of California Publications in Zoology      you 24
On our trip up the river in early May, many nests were noted along
the lower parts of the stream, easy to see at that season as the trees
were still bare of leaves. On our return trip in August the abundant
foliage hid most of the structures, but one at least was noted (on
August 16) with a young bird still sitting on the edge of the nest.
|At Sergief Island bald eagles were seen daily.
If
Falco peregrinus pealei Ridgway. Peale Falcon
One shot on the marsh at Sergief Island on September 1. This
bird, an immature of the year, differs appreciably from the mode of
young anatum, as represented by specimens from various parts of
North America. The main difference consists in the Sergief Island
specimen being more heavily marked beneath, in its almost totally
lacking the cinnamon tinge below that is so characteristic of anatum,
and in the lack of paler edgings to the feathers of the upperparts.
This falcon contained in its stomach the remains of a shoveller
(Spatula clypeata).
. Falco columbarius columbarius Linnaeus. Pigeon Hawk
Not seen until the latter part of the summer, when the migration
had begun. If the species breeds throughout the region we were
exploring, it is to be supposed that the birds are few in numbers and
in widely scattered pairs. First seen at our Flood Glacier camp,
August 1, next, on our way down the river to the Great Glacier,
August 8. On Sergief Island, the latter part of August and the first
week in September, pigeon hawks were seen almost daily, but they
were wary and seldom came within shooting distance.
Two specimens were secured, a female at Great Glacier, August 14
(no. 39762), and a male (no. 39763) at Sergief Island, September 2.
Both are immatures. The Sergief Island bird is an average example
of columbarius at that stage. The Great Glacier specimen is darker
colored. Below, it is indistinguishable from columbarius, but dorsally
it is about as dark as examples of immature suckleyi from Vancouver
Island.   On the whole, it is best referred to columbarius.
Falco sparverius sparverius Linnaeus.   American Sparrow Hawk
Seen from time to time in the vicinity of Telegraph Creek, generally not far from the river.   There were probably several pairs nesting within a few miles of the town.   At Doch-da-on Creek, in July, 1922] Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region .      215
sparrow hawks were seen several times. On July 11 one was observed
at about 3000 feet altitude, sitting on a tall dead stub on a burnt-over
hillside. On July 23 an adult female was secured at the upper limits, of
timber, about 4000 feet. At Flood Glacier, August 5, a sparrow hawk
was seen several times swooping at a bald eagle that spent that day
moping in the rain on the top of a dead tree near our camp. At
Sergief Island, sparrow hawks were noted on several occasions. The
only previously reported occurrences of this bird in southeastern
Alaska seem to have been the capture of one on the lower Taku River,
September 16, 1909 (Swarth, 1911, p. 63), and the observation of
two at Craig, Prince of Wales Island (Willett, 1921, p. 128), but it
is probable that the sparrow hawk is of fairly regular occurrence in
the fall at some points on the southern Alaskan coast.
The bird taken at Doch-da-on Creek (no. 39764), an adult female, is
essentially like the Taku River specimen referred to, also a female.
They are both noticeably dark colored, as compared with California
birds, with broader black cross bars on the dorsal surface, and with
the rufous areas of a darker shade.
It seems safe to say that the sparrow hawk,, as occurring in this
general region, is a bird of the interior, and that a few individuals find
their way to the coast in the dispersal that takes place in the late summer or early fall. Such migrants would be likely to wander down some
large river valley that extends from one region to the other, and it
is near the lower ends of such valleys that most of the birds thus far
recorded have been seen.
wf
III
Asio flammeus (Pontoppidan). Short-eared Owl
One seen on the marshes of Sergief Island on September 2, presumably a migrant from some other place. As these same marshes
had been assiduously hunted over for two weeks previously without
seeing any of this species, it is fair to assume that the bird noted represented the arrival of its kind at this point on the southward flight.
mil
Cryptoglaux funerea richardsoni (Bonaparte). Richardson Owl
One specimen, a young bird, molting into first winter plumage,
obtained in dense spruce woods at Flood Glacier, July 28. This
species, presumably of general distribution throughout northern British
Columbia, is a bird of the interior, not known to occur in the humid
coast belt, and our specimen may be assumed to have been taken at the
extreme western limit of its range in this region.
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University of California Publications in Zoology      [VoL- 24
III
Bubo virginianus, subsp.? Horned Owl
Horned owls occur throughout the country we were visiting, but
apparently not in abundance, at least during the summer months. We
were told of their presence at Telegraph Creek, but we saw none, nor
did we hear any hooting. At Doch-da-on Creek we were shown the
desiccated remains Of one that had been killed the previous winter.
On Sergief Island, August 31, I found a horned owl's feather in the
marsh, far from the timber. At the latter point, the subspecies present
is doubtless Bubo v. saturatus; I had no means of ascertaining the
subspecific identity of the horned owl of the upper Stikine River.
If i j fill;
Glaucidium gnoma, subsp. ?   Pigmy Owl
One seen at Doch-da-on Creek on July 14, sitting on a dead tree in
a clearing.   I had a good enough view of the bird to be certain of its
specific identity, but it was too wary to permit a near approach.   On
July 22 one was heard calling at about the same place.
There is available a specimen of Glaucidium (no. 41193), a mounted
bird, taken at Wrangell, Alaska, date of capture and sex unknown.
This bird is not an example of the extremely dark colored Glaucidium
gnoma swarthi of Vancouver Island, a coastal form that might be supposed to range northward into Alaska. It is closely similar to a specimen of G. g. grinnelli from Humboldt Bay, California (no. 24851),
an individual that is not of the rufeseent coloration usually seen in
this subspecies, but of a decidedly duller brown.
The available information, scanty as it is, indicates the occurrence
of Glaucidium in the upper Stikine Valley and on the Alaska coast at
the mouth of the same river. There is little doubt that it ranges
through the territory intervening between those two points. Whether
or not two subspecies are represented in the two regions on either side
of the coastal mountains is something that can be determined only by
the capture of specimens.
Ceryle alcyon caurina Grinnell.  Western Belted Kingfisher
Kingfishers were unaccountably scarce.   The region might be supposed to be a favorable one for the species, but it was encountered on
just two occasions:  one bird seen at Doch-da-on Creek, July 17, and
another at Flood Glacier, July 28. 1922] Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region        217
:w&
Dryobates villosus montieola Anthony. Rocky Mountain Hairy
Woodpecker
The only species of woodpecker that was at all common in the
region. About Telegraph Creek there were but few of the birds seen
in May and in early June, but by the middle of June, when the young
were beginning to fly, hairy woodpeckers were encountered rather frequently. Farther down the river they were decidedly scarce. A few
were seen at Doch-da-on Creek. At Flood Glacier, one bird was taken
and one other was heard calling.
Two occupied nests were found near Telegraph Creek. One, discovered June 11, contained nearly full-grown young, which could be
seen at the entrance calling for food. This nest was in a partly dead
poplar, about twenty feet from the ground. The second, found in an
exactly similar situation on June 12, contained one young bird, which
left at the first disturbance.
By the third week in June the nesting season seemed to be entirely
over, and the young were flying about independently of their parents.
An adult male shot June 19 was beginning to molt. New remiges
have appeared at the junction of primaries and secondaries, and there
are new feathers along the center line of the breast and abdomen.
Hairy woodpeckers may be expected to occur continuously along
the Stikine River, thus bringing the subspecies montieola and sitkensis
together. Unfortunately the birds are so rare along the lower river
(as in the southeastern Alaskan coast region in general) that it is
difficult to get enough specimens to ascertain the nature of conditions
where the two meet.   We failed to see any at all at the crucial point.
Sitkensis, in its relatively light ventral coloration, is intermediate
between the extremely dark harrisi and the white-breasted montieola.
The dark breasted type of coloration reaches its extreme development
in picoideus of the Queen Charlotte Islands, interposed between the
ranges of harrisi and sitkensis. Thus, while specimens of sitkensis as
laid out in trays may be arranged to illustrate a step between harrisi
and montieola, the geographical distribution of the several forms is
not in accordance with this idea. The geographical chains appear to
lie as follows: Starting with the white-breasted races of the interior
of the northwest, septentrionalis and montieola, there is an extension
westward on the coast of a slightly darker breasted race, sitkensis.
Starting again with the dark breasted type, harrisi, of the Puget
Sound region, and going northward, we reach the extremely dark
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University of California Publications in Zoology      you 24
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f
colored picoideus. Thus, sitkensis and harrisi are really far apart
genetically, and the-appearance of sitkensis as a seeming intergrade
between montieola and harrisi must be explained on grounds other
than those of such actual intermediate relationship. Sitkensis, as an
offshoot of the white-breasted type of the interior, may have arrived at
the humid coast at too recent a date to be yet affected by its surroundings to the extent that harrisi and picoideus have been; or it may be
more resistant to such an environment. In either case the slight modification of the clear white breast of montieola produced by the humid
surroundings would result in an apparent intergrade toward harrisi.
In this connection it may be remarked that the highly distinctive
avifauna of the southeastern Alaskan coast is, for the most part, composed of species that occur on the Pacific coast farther south and
extend northward along a narrow coastal strip, more or less modified
in appearance. Most of these birds extend farther north than does the
hairy woodpecker of the same region. Cyanocitta stelleri, Penthestes
rufescens, Junco oreganus, and the coastal forms of Melospiza melodia
are all birds of this type, and they all occur farther north than does
Dryobates villosus sitkensis.
The latter apparently belongs to ah aggregation of bird species
that has more recently invaded the coast from the eastward along a
few favorable avenues of approach. The northern limit reached in
such cases would be governed by the chance terminus of the route that
happened to open up from the eastward, with, of course, later extension from the new base. Other species in this same category are:
Dryobates pubesce/ns, Piranga ludoviciana, Bombycilia cedrorum,
Empidonax trailli, and perhaps Geothlypis trichas. These birds are
for the most part not nearly so abundant in the coastal region, nor
are they so evenly distributed, as species of the first category listed.
Fourteen specimens of Dryobates villosus montieola were collected
(nos. 39766-39779), eleven adults and three young. Twelve are from
Telegraph Creek, one from Doch-da-on Creek, and one from Flood
Glacier.
Sphyrapicus varius varius (Linnaeus). Yellow-bellied Sapsucker
On June 18 an adult male was taken. Immediately after this bird
was shot its mate appeared and disclosed the location of the nest. On
June 19 another male bird was taken within half a mile of where the
first was shot. This was about five miles from Telegraph Creek. The
nest referred to was twenty-five feet from the ground, in a dead birch '«*:>
19221 Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region        219
in rather open woods. The cavity appeared to be newly finished, and
was empty. The two birds at the nest drew attention to their presence
by their raucous call notes, screams worthy of a large hawk. The
second specimen collected was traced through his noisy drumming upon
a dead limb.
These three sapsuckers were the only ones that were seen near
Telegraph Creek. The first one obtained (no. 39780) is close to typical
varius. It has no red on the nape, and the red chin and throat patch
is separated from the white subauricular stripe by a strip of black,
these characters being just as in varius. It has less white on the back
than most eastern examples of varius, but there is one specimen available from" Illinois that resembles it closely. Taken by itself, this specimen would pass unquestioned as an example of varius. The mate of
this bird was not obtained, but it was seen for a brief moment close
enough to note that it had a great deal of red about the head, almost
obliterating the black pectoral patch. The one collected on June 19
(no. 39781) has the red nuchal stripe, and the red of the chin and
throat has obliterated the black malar stripe, invaded the white sub-
auricular stripe beyond, and covers the entire black pectoral patch.
In the latter marking the black feathers are tipped with red; the
posterior border of this patch is sharply defined against the-whitish
belly. The dorsal region is but scantily spotted with white. It is just
such a specimen as, taken in winter in California, would be defined
as an example of nuchalis showing a decided leaning toward ruber.
Ridgway (1914) regards varius and ruber as specifically distinct.
In the upper Stikine Valley the two forms do appear to meet as separate species, but intergradation through individual variation occurs
elsewhere and by that criterion the two should be regarded as subspecies
of one species. A parallel case in the Stikine region is found in the
thrushes, Hylocichla ustulata ustulata and H. u. swainsoni. The facts
derived from our specimens of Sphyrapicus are as follows: At Telegraph Creek we took one typical example of varius, and one bird that
has more the appearance of a hybrid between two species (varius and
ruber) than an "intergrade" between two such forms, regarded as
subspecies. At Doch-da-on Creek, some fifty miles down the river, we
collected specimens of ruber, specimens absolutely typical of that form
(see postea, p. 220). We have here no series of intergrades, difficult of
allocation and from an intermediate region. There are instead examples of two extremes, varius and ruber, nesting within a short distance of each other.   The one doubtful specimen does not accord with
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220 University of California Publications in Zoology      [VoL- 2
typical nuchalis, but has all the appearance of what a hybrid should
be between two distinct species, varius and ruber. Presumably the
form nuchalis does not occur this far north.
m
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Sphyrapicus varius ruber (Gmelin). Red-breasted Sapsucker
Five specimens taken at Doch-da-on Creek during July, two adult
males, one juvenal male and two juvenal females (nos. 39782-39786).
Probably several pairs had nested within the area we covered in this
region, for the birds were encountered at widely separated points.
There were certain favored spots, one clump of willows and one large
birch, in particular, where one or more sapsuckers were seen almost
every time we passed. These trees showed large areas of scars, the
results of assiduous work by the sapsuckers for a considerable period
of time.
The five birds taken are typical examples of the dark colored northern race of the red-breasted sapsucker (Sphyrapicus v. ruber). This
locality, Doch-da-on Creek, may be regarded as the easternmost limit
of ruber in this region, yet the race persists in typical form to this
extreme boundary. There is no indication of intergradation with
varius or nuchalis at this margin of its habitat, such as might be expected to occur. The relationships of the three forms, varius, nuchalis,
and ruber, present an unsolved problem, whether we regard them as
species or subspecies. As between ruber and daggetti, however, there
is gradual intergradation exhibited by specimens from intermediate
points, such as we are accustomed to see in most geographic races, or
subspecies.
Colaptes auratus borealis Ridgway. Boreal Flicker
Fairly common in the vicinity of Telegraph Creek, but so shy and
wary as readily to elude observation. The call note was frequently
heard, but days might pass during which none of the birds was seen.
Usually they kept out of gunshot. The few obtained were taken in
dense poplar thickets, where the birds were sometimes observed feeding
on the ground.
On June 14 a nest was found containing one egg. On June 15 a
female was shot with partly formed eggs in the ovary. None had been
laid as yet. On June 17 a nest was found containing newly hatched
young. This was in the broken stub of a dead birch, about ten feet
from the ground. 1922 ] Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region        221
3ifvS3
A few flickers were seen in the woods about Glenora, perhaps one
or two daily. At Doch-da-on Creek a few were seen, at long intervals.
None was observed any farther down the river.
Three specimens were obtained (nos. 39787-39789), all adult
females, two from Telegraph Creek and one from Glenora. Specifically, they are all purely of-the yellow-shafted auratus type, as regards
color and markings. None shows any admixture of cafer characteristics, though the breeding ground of the northwest subspecies of that
species (Colaptes cafer cafer2) approaches this region very closely. No
red-shafted flickers were seen by us at any point, though cafer may
be expected to ascend the Stikine for some distance. Subspecifically
the large size of these birds places them with the form Colaptes auratus
borealis Ridgway (1911, p. 31).
TABLE VI
Measurements in millimeters of Colaptes auratus borealis from the upper Stikine
Valley
No.        Sex       Wing Tail Culmen
39787 9       162 106 37
39788 9       163 105 32
39789 9      160 106 33
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Chordeiles virginianus virginianus (Gmelin). Eastern Nighthawk
Abundant at Telegraph Creek. The first was heard calling the evening of June 8, the next day one was seen flying overhead, and soon after
the birds became common. The species was about as numerous at
Glenora; at Doch-da-on Creek it occurred in lesser numbers. None
was seen farther down the river.
Three sets of eggs were taken (nos. 1807-1809). On June 20, a
single fresh egg, an incomplete set, was found near Telegraph Creek,
laid on the bare ground in open woods.. The female, shot before the
egg was found, contained a second egg, nearly ready to be laid. A
set of two eggs, slightly incubated, was taken June 26 in the same
tract of woods. This was an area that had been burned over, leaving
a scattering growth of small lodgepole pines, with but little underbrush between. A third set was collected at Doch-da-on Creek, July 18.
These were incubated within a few days of hatching. The eggs were
placed on the bare ground in an open place in the woods. On all sides,
some thirty or forty yards distant, there was dense brush, but the
ground was open in the immediate vicinity of the eggs.
2 Por the use of this name for the northwestern flicker, see Palmer, 1916, p. 322. 222
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University of California Publications in Zoology      you 24
The parent of the second set was extremely solicitous of their safety.
She flew as we approached, coming toward us with a peculiarly halting
and uncertain flight, with her tail depressed until it pointed almost
straight down, and with her mouth open. Alighting near-by, she
wallowed on the ground, thus luring us in pursuit for about twenty or
thirty yards, then flew off in a circle through the woods. The parent
of the set at Doch-da-on Creek acted quite differently. She left the
eggs while the intruder was still some distance away, departing quietly
and without any manifestations of solicitude. In just twenty minutes
she returned, -as secretively as she had left. This course of action was
followed without variation on three different occasions.
Four specimens were collected (nos. 39790-39793), two adult males
and two adult females. To my eye they are indistinguishable from
specimens of Chordeiles v. virginianus from the eastern United States.
II
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Cypseloides niger borealis (Kennerly).   Black Swift
A few seen about six miles from Telegraph Creek on June 12,
circling overhead just out of gun shot. From this circumstance the
species may be assumed to breed somewhere in that general region.
One or two were observed at Glenora early in July. The next place
the species was noted was at Great Glacier, where, on the morning of
August 9, a flock of fifteen or more was seen.
At Sergief Island, August 17 to September 7, black swifts were
abundant, though seen only in cloudy or rainy weather. Then large
flocks appeared, as many as seventy-five or a hundred being in sight
at once flying over the marshes, the individuals moving about in wide
circles, and the flock as a whole moving in a definite path. The birds
sometimes flew very low, occasionally skimming along just over the
tall grass. A flock would appear, circle about overhead awhile, and
then vanish. About fifteen or twenty minutes later, others, or perhaps
the same flock, would come in sight again.
Compared with Aeronautes and Chaetura, the flight of Cypseloides
(at least as seen thus feeding) is rather slow, a steady sailing with
relatively little fluttering of the wings. A high rate of speed can be
attained, however, so great that when individuals passed by in pursuit
of one. another the rush of their wings could be heard to a distance of
two hundred yards or more. A weak, chattering note was uttered
from time to time, but mostly the birds were silent.
Seventeen specimens were obtained at Sergief Island (nos. 39794-
39810), five males and twelve females.   It might be supposed that a to
pMj
19221
Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region
223
series of specimens taken when these birds were collected (August
19-30), would contain a large percentage of immatures, but if such
young birds are included in the lot they possessed no features, either
of internal anatomy or external coloration that enabled me definitely
to recognize them as such. According to Drew (1882, p. 182) the
young of this species is appreciably different from the adult in coloration, the dark feathers being extensively white-tipped, both above and
below. Of the five males, two have extremely faint light colored tips
to the feathers of the lower abdomen and on the lower tail coverts.
One of the five has the tail very slightly forked, in the others it is
deeply indented. Of the twelve females, one is uniformly dark colored;
it has no trace of any whitish tips to the feathers of the lower parts.
In the others such markings are present in varying degrees. The dark
colored female has a truncate tail, just as do the, others. In every
individual, both male and female, the sexual organs were clearly visible.
They were shrunken in size, as would be expected in adults at that
season, but they were never difficult to see, as is so often the case with
young birds. The birds collected had entirely finished the annual
molt and were all in the new plumage.
Chaetura vauxi (J. K. Townsend). Vaux Swift
On June 26 a single bird was noted some five miles from Telegraph
Creek. At Doch-da-on Creek, the middle of July, a few were seen on
several different days. At Flood Glacier, August 3 and 5, several were
observed, flying low in the rain that was falling, and all traveling down
stream.
Two specimens were collected (nos. 39811, 39812), an adult male
and an adult female, taken at Doch-da-on Creek, on July 16 and 14,
respectively.
Selasphorus rufus (Gmelin). Rufous Hummingbird
Seen at every collecting station, but nowhere in abundance. The
species was at Telegraph Creek at the. time of our arrival, May 23;
at that time it was restricted to the near vicinity of the river, where
there were already some flowers in bloom. On the higher slopes the
vegetation was not so far advanced, and the hummingbirds were absent.
A nest found at Doch-da-on Creek, July 10, was in a clump of large
timber, built near the tip of a spruce limb, about five feet from the
ground.    The outer surface of the structure was well covered with
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University of California Publications in Zoology      [Vol. 24
lichens. Attention was drawn to this nest by the sudden flight of the
two young birds it contained, when approached too closely.
During the second week in July a female hummingbird was repeatedly seen in the vicinity of our camp. On the 14th a male bird
was seen going through his courtship flight, associated with this same
female, so nesting may have been going on at that date. In the courting flight the male bird rose slowly to a height of about sixty feet, then
swooped down and swung up again for a very short distance. A
diagram showing the course of this evolution would be about the shape
of a fishhook. When the lowest point was reached, three or four rasping notes were uttered. The evolution finished, he slowly arose' once
more and repeated the performance. This was done five or six times,
when he lit on a nearby limb.
For a hummingbird to appear as a menace to a farm crop was a
new role for a member of that family, but we heard one such complaint
of damage done. Mr. W. E. Parrott, of Sergief Island, had a large
strawberry patch, the fruit of which he marketed in the nearby town
of Wrangell. Time and again, so he told us, he had seen a hummingbird dash at one of the bright red berries, apparently under the impression that it was a flower, and the bird's bill would be thrust through
the fruit, which, of course, was ruined. He had found a number of
berries pierced in this way, and was puzzled to account for the damage
until he saw a hummingbird in the act.
Two specimens were preserved (nos. 39813, 39814). These are
adult males taken at Glenora, June 29 and July 3, respectively.
Sayornis sayus (Bonaparte). Say Phoebe
Several pairs seen on the upper Stikine River. At Telegraph
Creek at least two pairs were domiciled on different houses in the town.
On June 6, one pair was seen at work nest building on a beam over the
entrance to Hyland's store. At Glenora, June 29, a nest with young
was found in one of the deserted houses of the Hudson's Bay Company. A day or two later the birds were gone and search of the adjoining fields failed to disclose their presence; evidently the brood had at
once traveled some distance.
On August 21 an immature female was collected on Sergief Island,
perched on some drift far out on the marshes. This, I believe, is the
first time the species has been reported from the coast of southeastern
Alaska. It is, of course, a transient, perhaps no more than a straggler
into that region. The bird collected on Sergief Island had probably
wandered there from the interior along the Stikine River. 1922] Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region        225
Sayornis sayus yukonensis was described by Bishop (19006, p. 115)
from Glacier, White Pass, Alaska, as a northern form, differing from
S. sayus sayus in darker coloration and in certain structural details.
The subspecies was denied recognition by the A. 0. U. Committee
(1901, p. 312), nor has it been generally recognized since that time.
Grinnell (1909a,, p. 206) uses the name S. s. yukonensis for a specimen
from Forty-Mile, Yukon, which is shown to exhibit the characters
claimed for the race by Bishop. The young bird (no. 39815) collected
by myself differs appreciably from juvenals from the southwest. It is
of darker coloration and has much less rufous on the upperparts, thus
agreeing with Bishop's (loc. cit.) description of the juvenal plumage
of yukonensis. Thus the two northern specimens of Sayornis sayus in
this Museum are of a character to justify the recognition of S. s.
yukonensis, but the material is so scanty that, rather than formally
affix that name to these two individuals, I prefer to let the description of their peculiarities rest as evidence for use at some future time
when additional material has been acquired.
Nuttallornis borealis. (Swainson). Olive-sided Flycatcher
There were a few pairs in the more open wooded country about
Telegraph Creek. The birds were extremely shy, not permitting a
near approach, and their habit of perching in the tops of tall trees also
aided in keeping them out of gun shot. Seen at but the one collecting
station.
Myiochanes richardsoni richardsoni (Swainson)
Western Wood Pewee
Fairly common about Telegraph Creek. First seen on May 27; a
few days later present in numbers. A female shot at Glenora on July 7
had laid part of its set. None seen farther down the river than
Glenora, though, as the species is known to occur in summer at some
points on the coast of southeastern Alaska (Swarth, 1911, p. 75), it
might be expected to range through the entire Stikine Valley.
The birds were extremely shy. They were partial to more sparsely
wooded areas, especially burnt-over tracts, where they perched upon
dead trees affording a wide outlook. In such places they could seldom
be approached to within a hundred yards.
Three specimens collected (nos. 39816-39818), one adult male and
two adult females. Besides these birds there are in the Museum collection, specimens from the coast of southeastern Alaska and from
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University of California Publications in Zoology      [Vol. 24
Vancouver Island. A northern race of this species has been designated
by Bishop (19006, p. 116) as Contopus richardsoni saturatus. Certain
of the characters ascribed to this race may be discerned in some of the
specimens from the several points indicated, but these features seem
all to be too inconstant to serve in differentiating a northern subspecies.
ilPilii
Empidonax difficilis difficilis Baird.   Western Flycatcher.
Seen nowhere along the upper Stikine, and the call note is sufficiently loud and characteristic to render it unlikely that we should
have overlooked the bird, if present.   One specimen, an immature male
(no. 39819) taken on Sergief Island, August 19.
W
Empidonax trailli alnorum Brewster. Alder Flycatcher
Occurs in some numbers in suitable willow and alder thickets as
far down the river at least as Doch-da-on Creek. One heard calling
near Telegraph Creek, May 23. None seen at the Junction, but at
Sawmill Lake there were several pairs in the dense thickets bordering
the water. Here, at Glenora and at Doch^da-on Creek, our experience was the same. The birds could be heard calling, and occasionally
one could be seen in flight through the bushes, but their habitat was
so impenetrable and the birds were so shy and wary that they were
almost impossible to approach.
After leaving Doch-da-on Creek the alder flycatcher was seen on
but one occasion. On Sergief Island, September 3, an immature
female was collected in a tangle of alders. The capture of this bird,
of course, is no proof that the species breeds on that island, though
it has once been recorded from another point on the coast of southeastern Alaska under circumstances apparently indicative of nesting
(Swarth, 1911, p. 76).
Two specimens were collected, an adult male near Telegraph Creek
June 18 (no. 39820), and the young bird above mentioned (no. 39821).
The adult somewhat resembles Empidonax t. trailli in its large bill and
short wing, but in general coloration: and in character of wing bars,
it is clearly alnorum. The young bird appears to be a typical example
of alnorum.
Empidonax hammondi (Xantus).   Hammond Flycatcher
Abundant on the upper Stikine, where it is largely a bird of the
poplar woods.   Near Telegraph Creek many were seen during the last 1922] Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region        227
week in'May, usually sitting high up in the leafless poplars and conspicuous from their frequently reiterated, sharp che-bec. Like the
other small flycatchers of the region, they were extremely shy, but,
through peculiarities of habit and habitat, Hammond flycatchers were
more easily collected than some of the other species. The olive-sided
flycatcher and wood pewee, perched upon isolated lookout points, could
not- be approached unawares. The alder flycatcher was in tangled
thickets not to be penetrated save with much labor and with the accompaniment of threshing branches and broken boughs. The Hammond flycatcher was mostly in woods that could be traversed with fair
ease, but which yet afforded some cover to the hunter.
The species was quite abundant at Telegraph Creek and at Glenora,
and in lesser numbers at Doch-da-on Creek. Several were seen at
Flood Glacier, though whether the species breeds at that point we had
no means of telling.   One was collected at Great Glacier, August 10.
A female shot near Telegraph Creek, May 27, was incubating a set
of eggs. One collected June 1 had laid part of its set. An adult male
taken at Glenora, June 30, shows the beginning of the molt. An
adult female from Flood Glacier, July 27, had renewed a large part of
its plumage. Two specimens in juvenal plumage were taken at Flood
Glacier, August 3 and 6. A young bird from Great Glacier, August
10, shows the beginning of the molt into the first winter plumage.
It is strange that the Hammond flycatcher has not yet been found
on the coast of southeastern Alaska south of Skagway. It is abundant
in the interior and approaches the coast quite nearly at some points.
It is also abundant in the coastal region farther south, as on Vancouver
Island. Consequently it is hard to understand the cause of its exclusion from the southern Alaskan coast.
We collected ten specimens (nos. 39822-39831), seven adults and
three juvenals.
Empidonax wrighti Baird. Wright Flycatcher
Three specimens taken near Telegraph Creek. This species was
not to be distinguished from E. hammondi in life; in fact it was not
until our return from the field, when the entire collection was brought
together, that both species were found to be included in the series of
small flycatchers collected. Consequently if there is any difference in
local habitat between the two we failed to distinguish it. The three
birds taken were obtained at points where examples of hammondi
were also collected.
14P
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University of California Publications in Zoology      [Vol. 24
IlilBr
These specimens are a male (no. 39832), taken at The Junction,
May 28; a female (no. 39833), from Sawmill Lake, June 11, not yet
laying; a female (no. 39834), taken four miles west of Telegraph
Creek, June 18, containing eggs nearly ready to be laid. These facts
point to a somewhat later time of nesting than is the case with
hammondi.
The species has been reported from Wilson Creek, near Lake Atlin,
about 150 miles north of our station, and as far as I know the northernmost point of record (E. M. Anderson, 1915a, p. 13). The specimens
we took are typical examples of the species, presenting all the characters of measurements and proportions that distinguish wrighti from
hammondi. No equivocal specimens were collected, that is, none that
could not be referred without question to one species or the other.
Otocoris alpestris arcticola Oberholser. Pallid Horned Lark
Seen in small numbers on the mountain tops above Doch-da-on
Creek. There, on July 11 and again on July 23, they were found on the
open, moss-covered slopes above timber line, associated with rosy
finches and pipits. This station is, in a straight line, not more than
sixty miles from the coast, farther to the westward than horned larks
have been found in this region heretofore. From the mountain we
were on, however, we could see many similar peaks and ridges far to
the westward, where the species would probably be found could these
summits be reached. These mountains are so steep and rough, with
such impenetrable forests at the lower levels, and, toward the coast, so
frequently encircled by glaciers, that their ascent at most places is
extremely difficult. Horned larks may well occur at favorable points
but a few miles back from the coast, but the circumstances are such
that it is doubtful if this possible habitat will soon be invaded by any
collector.
We collected four specimens (nos. 39835-39838), two adult males,
one adult female, and one juvenal male. The two adult males, taken
July 23, are beginning the annual molt, shown mostly in the wing
coverts. The young bird, taken July 23, is in juvenal plumage throughout. Compared with the young of various of the southwestern subspecies of Otocoris alpestris, it is extremely dark colored. Ground
color of the upper parts is blackish, throat and lower belly are white,
and there is hardly a trace of rufous or vinaceous anywhere. 1922] Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Reg
ton
229
Cyanocitta stelleri stelleri (Gmelin). Steller Jay
Closely restricted to the coastal region. On our way down stream
we saw the first Steller jay at Flood Glacier, some forty miles up the
river from the boundary. At that point one was noted on July 26,
another on August 1. At Great Glacier, about ten miles above the
boundary, two were observed together on August 11, and proved to be
both adult males. The species is sufficiently conspicuous and noisy to
draw attention to itself when present, and as the above records constitute all of our observations on the upper river, it is obvious that this
jay is of relatively uncommon occurrence in that region.
At Sergief Island many were seen, sometimes under circumstances
suggesting migration. They were frequently in small gatherings,
seven or eight together, and often on the tidal marshes, far from timber,
apparently traveling in a definite direction. When thus seen they
were flying by easy stages from one drift log to another, in a southerly
direction.
An adult female (no. 39839) taken at Flood Glacier, August 1,
is in the midst of the annual molt. Two adult males taken at Great
Glacier, August 11 (nos. 39840, 39841), are in the new plumage
throughout. Two immatures from Sergief Island (nos. 39842, 39843)
obtained on August 23 and 31, respectively, are likewise through the
molt, and have fully acquired their first winter plumage. These birds
are all typical stelleri. Those taken the farthest inland evidently represent extreme points of dispersal from the coast. There is no evidence
that Cyanocitta stelleri stelleri in this region extends inland to the
habitat of C. s. annectens, with intergradation between the two forms.
Annectens probably does not range so far north in British Columbia.
•1§|
I 19
151
111111!
mail
Perisoreus canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus). Canada Jay
When we arrived at Telegraph Creek, the fourth week in May, this
species was through with its nesting. It was not a common bird nor
was it ordinarily noisy or conspicuous. Family groups, old and young
together, were seen at several points between Telegraph Creek and
the Summit, and single individuals were occasionally encountered
slipping quietly through the woods.
This jay was one of several species that appeared to be restricted
during the breeding season to a higher zone than that immediately
bordering the Stikine River. None was seen nearer the river than
The Junction, a point four miles north of Telegraph Creek, several
■ »•, 230
University of Califorma Publications in Zoology     you 24
■■    m?
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fill
hundred feet higher in altitude, and about two weeks later in the
development of the vegetation. On June 4 at the Summit, a gathering
of jays was encountered composed of at least two broods. The old
birds were busily engaged in feeding the young, though the latter were
also foraging a little for themselves.
We did not see the species either at Glenora or Doch-da-on Creek,
but it can hardly be doubted that it occurs at both places. There was
at least one brood in the woods about our camp at Flood Glacier. The
forest at that point is not of the type most favored by this species,
being almost entirely dense spruce woods such as are seen along the
coast, and it is questionable whether the occurrence there of this
family of Perisoreus can be assumed to represent a breeding record.
None was seen farther down the river.
Individuals taken the last week in May and the first week in June
had in several cases already begun the annual molt. Two adults taken
at Flood Glacier on July 28 were in the midst of this molt. Two
young birds taken at the same place July 28 and August 6 are molting
from the juvenal into the first winter plumage.
There have been available for comparison a series of adult Peri-
soreu,s canadensis canadensis from Minnesota, and old and young of
P. c. fumifrons from the Kotzebue Sound and Yukon River regions,
Alaska. The Stikine River adults are similar to fumifrons in general
body color, but have more white on the crown. They resemble
canadensis in head markings but are rather darker colored. The
young birds from the Stikine region are distinctly darker colored, more
of a slaty black, as compared with the juvenals from Kotzebue Sound
and the Yukon River. This dark type of coloration is a character
ascribed to the young of P. c. canadensis by Ridgway (1904, p. 366).
On the whole, the Stikine River series may be assigned to the subspecies Perisoreus canadensis canadensis, though showing a tendency
toward P. c. fumifrons.'
We collected thirteen specimens of the Canada jay (nos. 39844-
39856), five adults and four juvenals from points within twelve miles
of Telegraph Creek, and two adults and two juvenals from Flood
Glacier.
Corvus corax principalis Ridgway.   Northern Raven
Probably occurs throughout this whole region, but, judging from
our observations, not abundant at any point.   We were at Telegraph
Creek three weeks before we saw one.   The first was noted on June 17,
and afterwards others were seen on several occasions.   At Doch-da-on 1922] Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region        231
Creek ravens were occasionally observed, and at Great Glacier several
were seen. There were a few at Sergief Island, seen from time to
time, or heard croaking in the distance.
Corvus brachyrhynchos caurinus Baird. Northwest Crow
Seen only at Sergief Island. Here, during the latter part of August
and the first week in September, crows were fairly abundant, usually
in small flocks. Young birds were still being cared for by their parents,
and the gatherings seen were apparently family groups, though sometimes two broods may have joined forces. This bird is strictly a
"beach comber," apparently not venturing inland any distance whatever. We saw none above the mouth of the river. No specimens were
taken. This form appears in the A. 0. U. Check-List as a distinct
species, but it should be regarded as a subspecies of Corvxis brachyrhynchos (cf. Rhoads, 1893, pp. 18-21; Ridgway, 1904, p. 272; Oberholser, 1919a, p. 84).
Euphagus carolinus (Miiller). Rusty Blackbird
Breeding in the vicinity of Telegraph Creek. There were, several
pairs nesting about Sawmill Lake, at different points, not in any one
gathering or colony. A female shot June 11 was incubating eggs.
At Doch-da-on Creek the species was seen about some swampy meadows
and lakes during the latter part of July, when young birds, full grown,
though still in the juvenal plumage throughout, were being cared for
by their parents. The young sat in the willows, while the adults were
foraging through the swamps for the food that was hurried back to the
squalling youngsters as rapidly as it was found.
Seen at one other collecting station. On Sergief Island, September
5, a single bird passed over my head, out of gun shot, while I was out
on the marsh.
Ten specimens collected (nos. 39857-39866), an adult male and
female from Telegraph Creek, and eight in juvenal plumage from
Doch-da-on Creek. There is an appreciable difference in appearance
in the two sexes in juvenal plumage. The young male is much more
black beneath the prevailing rusty or yellowish hue of the feather tips.
Pinicola enucleator fiammula Homeyer.   Kadiak Pine Grosbeak
Apparently rather rare in summer in the upper Stikine Valley.  We
saw single birds or pairs at scattered points and at long intervals of
time; they were always shy and it was with difficulty that specimens
were taken;
i
I 232
University of California Publications in Zoology      you 24
ill
1 111
III III
III III
At The Junction, single red-colored males were seen May 27, 29,
and 31. Another was noted some five miles west of Telegraph Creek,
June 12. At Doch-da-on Creek, a mated pair was taken July 9, apparently preparing to nest. On July 17, at the same place, a flock of seven
or eight was encountered, feeding near the ground in some thick
bushes; on July 14 a brilliant red male was seen; on July 22 a dull-
colored male was secured. The last mentioned was in full song; it
was beyond doubt a breeding bird. On August 2, at Flood Glacier, a
red male was seen singing in a tree top near camp.
Five specimens collected (nos. 39867-39871), two adult males from
The Junction, May 29 and 31; the mated pair from Doch-da-on Creek,
July 9 (the male in the female plumage) ; a dull-colored male from
Doch-da-on Creek, July 22. These were identified as Pinicola enu-
cleator flammula by Dr. H. C. Oberholser, of the United States Biological Survey.
Carpodacus purpureus purpureus (Gmelin). Eastern Purple Finch
We had collected during most of the month of June in the vicinity
of Telegraph Creek without once encountering this species. Then on
July 5, in a section we had previously worked most thoroughly about
a mile from Telegraph Creek, we encountered several small flocks of
purple finches. Three were taken (nos. 39872-39874), a male and two
females, all birds that apparently were just through breeding. The
male is in the streaked female plumage, with just one pink feather on
the breast.   Both females show some reddish on the rump.
These birds are unequivocally of the subspecies purpureus, and
their capture at this point constitutes, I believe, a material extension
of range northwestward. The species probably breeds somewhere
within a few miles of where the birds were collected.
Loxia curvirostra bendirei Ridgway. Bendire Crossbill
During the latter part of June a few red crossbills were seen flying
overhead in the vicinity of Telegraph Creek. On June 22 a' small
flock was encountered, apparently a single family, and four birds were
collected (nos. 39876-39879), an adult male and three juvenals. It
is of interest to note that these birds are of the subspecies bendirei,
widely different in appearance from the form inhabiting the nearby
coastal region of Alaska. This would indicate that the range of the
small sized, red crossbill of the Pacific slope of British Columbia and 1922]
Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region
233
southeastern Alaska is entirely cut off from that of Loxia curvirostra
minor of eastern North America through the interven^jm of the form
bendirei. The Alaskan bird has been named Loxia curvirostra sitkensis
by Grinnell (19096, p. 223), based largely on color characters in the
adult male. Birds from Vancouver Island do not exhibit the same
sort of differentiation from minor, in fact to my eye they are indistinguishable. Nevertheless it seems evident that the Vancouver Island
birds also occupy part of the territory that is separated from minor
by the habitat of bendirei. The proper nomenelatural treatment of
such a form as the Vancouver Island race of Loxia curvirostra is an
open question. It seems evident that genetically it is as far from
minor as is bendirei; yet, since the birds from the Pacific and Atlantic
regions are indistinguishable in appearance, we call them all by the
same name.
The characters ascribed to L. c. bendirei by Ridgway (1901, p. 50)
are as follows: "Similar to L. c. minor, but decidedly larger; adult
male averaging rather lighter or brighter in color, the adult female
slightly lighter and grayer." These characters are well borne out by
the specimens of bendirei in the collection of this museum. In addition, the young birds from Telegraph Creek, all in the streaked juvenal
plumage, exhibit well defined features of size and color. They are
appreciably larger than comparable examples of sitkensis and minor,
and are grayish toned. Juvenals of the small coastal race are much
more greenish and olivaceous in general body color.
III
li
I
Loxia curvirostra sitkensis Grinnell. Sitka Crossbill
On Sergief Island, during August and September, a few red crossbills were seen at various times. On August 28 an adult female was
collected (no. 39875). This bird was evidently incubating a set of
eggs, judging from the bare breast and the condition of the oviduct.
It seems curious that nesting should have been going on at that season,
when we had taken full-grown juvenals of bendirei at Telegraph Creek
in June.
••■■:■
;li! I in
Loxia leucoptera Gmelin.   White-winged Crossbill
First positively identified at Glenora, July 4, and near Telegraph
Creek, July 5, though small flocks had been seen several days before
that were suspected to be this species.   During the first three weeks
in July flocks were seen daily, in rapidly increasing numbers.   Then, 234 University of California Publications in Zoology      [Vol, 24
!■    ■.':■■!•> *
m\\m
H'l 111
at Doch-da-on Creek, July 21, a male bird was shot that was one of a
pair. Several pairs were seen there subsequently, and the flocks appeared to be breaking up. At Flood Glacier, July 26 to August 8,
the species was present in great numbers, and breeding. No nests
were discovered, but several females were shot that had laid parts of
their sets. The birds were fairly numerous at Great Glacier, August
9 to 16, several were seen about the custom house at the boundary,
August 16, and they were frequently observed at Sergief Island up to
the time of our departure.
It was a surprise to me to find this crossbill nesting so late in the
summer. That this is not the invariable custom of the species is shown
by Grinnell's (1900, p. 45) account of their habits in the Kotzebue
Sound region, where eggs were found in May. Their actions in the
Stikine country may have been influenced by food conditions, for in
1919 throughout the region there was a tremendous crop of spruce
cones, which were ripening at the time of the appearance of these birds.
At Glenora the crossbills were feeding on the seed pods of the
cottonwoods, as they were also in some degree at Doch-da-on Creek,
but farther down the river, and a little later in the season, the spruce
cones had their undivided attention.
The song of the white-winged crossbill was one of the most notable
features of the bird life of the Stikine Valley. As the flocks broke up,
the male birds sang more and more. During our stay at Flood Glacier
they were at the height of their efforts, and the music was in our ears
at all times. It was a continuous, rollicking, trilling song, lasting for
minutes at a time without cessation, and loud enough to be heard several hundred yards. The singer was usually on some high perch,
preferably the dead top of a tall spruce; frequently he would fling
himself into the air on wide extended, slow beating wings, singing as
he went, flying sixty or seventy yards, perhaps, to another perch. The
song is somewhat suggestive of that of a caged canary; we also found
it reminiscent of that of the California house finch (Carpodacus mexi-
canus frontalis). The song-flight especially is suggestive of a similar
spring performance of the house finch.
Nine specimens collected (nos. 39880-39888), four adult males and
five adult females, two from Glenora, two from Doch-da-on Creek, and
five from Flood Glacier. 1922]
Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region        235
Leucosticte tephrocotis littoralis Baird.   Hepburn Rosy Finch
Met with at but one locality, on the mountain tops above Doch-da-on
Creek. We made two trips to the higher ridges above timber line, and
saw rosy finches in some numbers each time. They appeared in view
soon after we emerged from the upper edge of the forest (about 3500
feet) and they evidently inhabited all of the open country from there
on upward. Upon our first visit to their territory (July 11) not many
of the birds were seen, and they were mostly drifting about through
the air by twos and threes, as horned larks do at times.
The next time we climbed the mountain, on July 23, we found
them in much greater numbers. Just at the upper edge of the timber
a flock of twenty or thirty was encountered, feeding in •tall dry grass
that had grown up in an area previously swept by fire. Many dead
trees stood on this slope, and the rosy finches when startled flew to the
tree tops. This entire flock was of adult birds; two males were collected, and my impression was that they were all males, beginning to
flock together after the nesting season. A little farther on females
and young were found, mostly near extensive snow banks. The young
were all in juvenal plumage and were not quite full grown; that is,
wing and tail feathers had not reached their full length. The old
birds were assiduously feeding the young, and in the pursuit of this
duty we several times saw them fly into the air to capture flying insects,
which were then carried to the waiting offspring.
Twenty-one specimens collected, all taken July 23 (nos. 39889-
39909), four adult males, seven adult females, six juvenal males, three
juvenal females, and one juvenal with sex not ascertained.
The adults are all in worn breeding plumage, though the feathers
are not so ragged as might be expected. Some are just beginning the
annual molt. The main plumage variation concerns the gray coloration
on chin and throat. In some the brown of the breast extends well up
on the chin, in others there are scattered gray feathers extending
downward from the throat on to the breast. The juvenals, as compared with the similar stage in Leucosticte tephrocotis dawsoni from
the Sierras of California, are noticeably dark colored throughout.
The gullets and stomachs were preserved of sixteen birds, all that
contained any food. From these it is evident that insects form a
large part of the diet of both old and young during the summer months.
Stomach contents (determined at the United States Biological Survey)
in detail are as follows:
OT
I
i
•[» 236
University of California Publications in Zoology      y°h- 24
M,
I'; i« .--■' *
m
\m
III
No. 39889, adult male. Contents: 1 Elaterid, 1 Ichneumonine, 1
Tipulid, fragments of many plant lice, about 370 seeds of Potentilla,
sp., at least 58 seeds of Caryophyllaceae, about 200 small seeds (probably Mollugo), 1 Polygonum viviparum, some vegetable debris.
No. 39891, -juvenal male. Contents: 2 Lina interruptum, 1 Seoly-
tid, 1 Lampyrid, 1 Elaterid, 1 Anisotoma, sp., 1 small Jassid, bits of
a caterpillar, fragment of a spider, several Tipulids, 6 Empids, 1
Anthomyiid, 1 Syrphid, about 30 Aphids, 1 Camponotus, sp., 1 Lepto-
thorax, sp., about 750 Caryophyllaceae seeds (near Silene), about 152
Polygonum viviparum (small bulblets), and about 54 seeds of Potentilla, sp.
No. 39892, juvenal male. Contents: 1 plant louse, Hymenoptera
fragments (including 1 Myrmicinae), Dipterous remains, including
Tipulids, 1 Anthomyiid, 1 Mycetophilid, 9 Caryophyllaceae, several
bulblets of Polygonum viviparum.
No. 39893, juvenal female. Contents: fragments of a Tipulid, a
few Aphids, 216 stamens of Pentstemon, sp., 1 seed of Potentilla, sp.,
and 17 Caryophyllaceae (near Silene).
No. 39894, juvenal male. Contents: 1 Elaterid, 1 Syneta, sp., 1
Haltica, sp., 2 Scolytids, bits of a weevil, 1 Pytho, sp., 2 Aphids, fragments of Diptera, 33 Potentilla, sp., 22 seeds of Carex, sp., 1 Arenetra,
2 Ichneumonids, 1 Protopanteles, 1 Pteromalid, 3 Belytids, 1 Aphidius,
1 Nematine, 1 Emphytina canadensis, and 1 Amauronematus.
No. 39896, juvenal male. Contents: 1 Megastigmus, sp., 3 Lepto-
thorax, sp., about 150 Aphids, 4 Empids, 1 Plecopteron, 18 stamens
of Pentstemon, sp., 21 seeds of Caryophyllaceae (near Silene), and 20
small Dicotyledons.
No. 39897, juvenal, sex not determined. Contents: 1 Neuropterous
insect, 214 stamens of Pentstemon, sp., 1 Potentilla, sp., 15 Caryophyllaceae (nesac Silene).
No. 39898, juvenal male. Contents: fragments of Diptera (including Tipulidae), 25 seeds of Caryophyllaceae (near Silene), about
24 stamens of Pentstemon, sp., 2 seeds of Potentilla, sp., and 1 small
sedge seed.
No. 39899, juvenal female. Contents: 1 Emphytina-canadensis, 3
Tipulids, several Aphids (including 2 Psylla, sp.), 19 Caryophyllaceae
(near Silene), and 81 immature bulblets of Polygonum viviparum.
No. 39900, adult female. Contents: fragments of an Acridid nymph
and about 300 seeds of Cyperaceae (probably Carex). 1922]
Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region        237
No. 39901, adult male. Contents: bits of a Carabid, 1 Bythosco-
pinae, about 40 Aphids, Tipulid remains, 2 Aealyptrate flies, 3 Ten-
thredinids (Pachynematus), 1 Pteromalid, 1 Camponotus, 1 Diaeretus
rapae, 1 Ichneutes reunitor, 1 Braconid, and 1 Diplazon laetatorius,
2 small bulblets of Polygonum viviparum, 18 Caryophyllaceae (near
Silene), and 8 small Dicotyledonous seeds.
No. 39903, adult male. Contents: 1 Scarabeid (probably Ataenius),
1 Camponotus, sp., 1 Stenomacrus, 1 Diaeretus rapae, 1 Ephydrid,
about 25 Aphids, 1 caterpillar, about 120 seeds of Potentilla, 1 sedge
seeds, 10 stamens of Pentstemon, sp., 26 Vaccinium, sp., 2 seeds near
Mollugo, sp'., 8 Caryophyllaceae seeds (near Silene, sp.), and 3 small
Dicotyledonous seeds.
No. 39904, adult female. Contents: 1 Pteromalid, 1 fly (Empidae),
about 58 plant lice, 1 insect pupa (probably Lepidopterous), 1 immature bulblet of Polygonum viviparum.
No. 39905, adult female. Contents: 1 nymph of Geocoris, sp., head
of a Microlepidoptera, 2 Lycosids, 2 Tipulids, 3 moths, 2 seeds of
Cyperaceae.
No. 39906, adult female. Contents: fragments of 2 Lina inter-
ruptum, 1 Aealyptrate fly, 1 Psylla, sp., about 75 Aphids, bits of a
spider.
No. 39907, adult male. Contents: 3 moths, 1 Tipulid, 225 seeds of
Carex, sp.
TABLE VII
Percentage of animal and vegetable matter in stomachs of Leucosticte tephrocotis
littoralis
No.
Sex
Age
Percentage
of
animal
matter
Percentage
of
vegetable
matter
Percentage
of
gravel,
etc.
39891
M
juv.
46
54
39892
o*
juv.
80
20*
39893
9
juv.
2
98
39894
1
juv.
88
12
18
39896
I
juv.
84
16
39897
juv.
1
99
trace
39898
1
juv.
40
60
39899
9
juv.
50
50
39889
1
ad.
45
55
trace
39900
9
ad.
100
39901
|
ad.
95
5
39903
|
ad.
60
40
39904
9
ad.
99
1
39905
9
ad.
.99
1
39906
9
ad.
100
39907
|
ad.
Ave)
55
"age      59
45
41 238
University of California Publications in Zoology     [Vol. 24
TABLE VIII
Measurements in millimeters of adults of Leucosticte tephrocotis litloralis
All from mountains above Doch-da-on Creek, B. C, July 23, 1919
Wing
Tail
Culmen
Depth of
bill
Tarsus
39889
c?
104.
69.
11.5
7.5
20.
39903
I
103.
68.
12.
8.
19.5
39901
&
100.
65.
10.5
7.5
18.
39907
&
103.
69.
11.
8.
20.5
39900
9
95.
. 61.
11.5
7.5
19.5
39902
9
98.
64.
11.
8.
18.5
39904
9
96.5
64.5
11.
7.5
19.
39905
9
96.
61.
11.5
7.5
19.
39906
9
101.5
65.
11.5
8.
19.
39908
9
97.
61.
11.2
8.
19.
39909
9
93.
59.
11.8
7.5
19.
Spinus pinus pinus (Wilson).   Pine Siskin
Fairly common throughout the whole region traversed, and seen
in flocks during the entire nesting season. At Telegraph Creek birds
were seen carrying building material during the first week of June,
and on June 20 a set of three eggs was taken. The extensive open
fields at Glenora were thickly grown up with dandelions when we arrived there at the end of June, and the siskins were present in large
flocks, feeding upon the dandelion seeds. At the same place they were
seen about the log cabins picking at the plaster between the logs.
At Doch-da-on Creek, at Flood Glacier, and at Great Glacier, siskins
were encountered daily, usually in small flocks. During our brief stop
at the boundary, August 16, the pine siskin was one of the few species
of birds noted.   It was present at Sergief Island, but not numerous.
The one nest found (no. 1810), taken near Telegraph Creek, was
in a small lodgepole pine in very open woods, the same tract where the
Bohemian waxwings were nesting. It was about six feet from the
ground, resting against the main stem and well-nigh hidden by the
clusters of needles upon the small supporting branches. The structure is well built and compact, composed outwardly of small twigs and
the white down from the fireweed; the lining, of grasses and some moss
from the trees. The outside diameter of the nest is about 90 millimeters,, depth, about 60; inside diameter, about 60, inside depth, 25
millimeters.
The eggs, three in number, were slightly incubated. They are a
little paler than lichen green; in two cases there is a wreath of reddish 1922] Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region        239
spots at the large end, in the third egg this wreath is reduced to a few
minute spots. Seven specimens of this bird were collected, all adults
(nos. 39910-39916). Four are from the vicinity of Telegraph Creek,
one from Glenora, one from Doch-da-on Creek, and one from Flood
Glacier. These birds are grayer in general coloration than most of the
specimens in a comparable series from the Alaskan coast, but there
are individuals in the coastal series not to be distinguished from those
taken in the interior.
Calcarius lapponicus alascensis Ridgway.   Alaska Longspur
Seen only at Sergief Island, where it occurs merely as a migrant.
' First noted on September 3, and the two following days, our last in
the field, small flocks appeared from time to time.   All the birds seen
were flying, passing overhead in a southerly direction.
Passerculus sandwichensis savanna (Wilson). Savannah Sparrow
Seen only at Sergief Island. Upon our arrival there, August 17,
Savannah sparrows were present though not abundant. Some days
later they increased greatly in numbers, and at the end of August
were found everywhere over the marshes. They kept mostly to the
flooded grass lands, a much wetter habitat than that favored by the
song and Forbush sparrows, also abundant at the same station.
Nine specimens were collected (nos. 39921-39929). The discovery
that the subspecies alaudinus breeds but a short distance inland (see p.
240) was an incentive toward an accurate determination of the status
of the quite distinct coastal subspecies. This coastal subspecies, formerly lumped with Passerculus s. alaudinus, has been latterly referred
to savanna, of eastern North America, to which it bears'a close resemblance (see Grinnell, 19096, p. 227; Swarth, 1911, p. 85). There is
no doubt, however, that the form occurring on the coast of southeastern
Alaska is entirely cut off from the habitat of the eastern savanna by
the intervention of the range of alaudinus. It is a local race that is
probably confined almost entirely to the Alaskan coast, and with but
a limited migration, one extending usually not much farther southward
than the Puget Sound region. There is apparently no place where it
approaches at all closely the habitat of the eastern savanna. A thousand miles or more, must intervene. Nevertheless, despite the wide
difference in habitat, birds from the two regions are so much alike in
appearance that I am unable to detect any character whereby they
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can be distinguished. It is a puzzle just what should be the proper
nomenclatural treatment of these forms. In all probability the relationships of the two are not particularly close. It seems likely that
there is continuous distribution of Savannah sparrows along the
Pacific coast of North America, with probable intergradation between
the Alaska forms and the darker colored California subspecies, and
this, I believe, is the line of closest affinities.
I am willing to admit geographical distribution as one of the characters of a form, but to make distribution the sole character is farther
than I care to go. So, on the ground of external resemblance, the
Savannah sparrow of the coast of southeastern Alaska is here recorded
as P. s. savanna, but with no belief that it is genetically the same as
the eastern subspecies bearing that name. The case is closely paralleled by the red crossbills (Loxia curvirostra sitkensis and L. c. minor).
Passerculus sandwichensis alaudinus Bonaparte.   Western Savannah
Sparrow
Found at but one or two points in the upper Stikine Valley. On
May 31, at the Junction, the mangled remains of one were found in a
mousetrap, our first intimation of the arrival of the species. Several
were seen at the Summit, June 4; a male bird collected at that time
appeared to be breeding. At Glenora there were a few scattered
through the weed-grown fields, and they were evidently nesting there.
The males were uttering their wheezy trills from the tops of low bushes
or from fences or stakes, and could be found at about the same spots
day after day.   Females collected were evidently incubating.
No Savannah sparrows were seen farther down the river than
Glenora until we Teaehed the coast, the habitat of another subspecies.
There are not many places in the Telegraph Creek region that afford
the needed surroundings for this bird, for extensive clearings supplying the open ground they favor are found in but few places. Where
we saw them at the Summit is at about the upper limit of timber, and
it may be that the species occurs commonly in such a habitat. We
saw no Savannah sparrows, however, on the mountain top above Doch-
da-on Creek.
Four specimens collected (nos. 39917-39920), two adult males and
two adult females. These are obviously different from P. s. savanna
of the coastal region. Compared with the latter the Telegraph Creek
birds are of grayer coloration, have a longer wing, and a more slender 19221
Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region        241
bill. They are apparently the same as the form occurring in the uplands of west central and southern California in winter, to which the
name Passerculus s. alaudinus has been applied (see Palmer, 1918,
p. 123).
Zonotrichia leucophrys gambeli (Nuttall). Gambel Sparrow
Fairly common in the river valley at Telegraph Creek. This may
be taken as near the western limit of the summer habitat of this
subspecies in this region, for although the birds were numerous in
and about the town of Telegraph Creek, they became notably scarce a
very few miles farther down the river. In our two weeks' collecting
at Glenora but one bird was seen, and none was observed farther down
stream, with the exception of one at Sergief Island after the fall migration had begun.
Several nests were found near Telegraph Creek. On June 6 a
bird was seen carrying building material. On June 11 and 14 three
nests were discovered on certain slopes near Sawmill Lake where most
of the timber had been removed. They were much alike in site and
construction, placed on or near the ground under the piles of brush
left from the trees that had been cut away. Each contained newly
hatched young, three and four in number. The parent bird, when
frightened by our near approach, did not fly direct from the nest, but
skulked through the brush for ten or twelve yards before flying.
Two specimens collected, an adult male at Telegraph Creek (no.
39930), and an immature female (no. 39931), taken at Sergief Island,
September 4, the only one seen at that point.
Zonotrichia coronata (Pallas). Golden-crowned Sparrow
The closely related golden-crowned and Gambel sparrows occupied
different local habitats, although both occurred commonly in the same
general region. Presumably Telegraph Creek is near the eastern limit
of the habitat of coronata, just as it is at the western confines of the
summer home of gambeli. Their segregation apparently is due to
zonal limitations. The golden-crowned sparrow is a bird of a higher
zone than the Gambel sparrow, consequently, in the Stikine region,
confined to higher altitudes. No coronata was seen near the town of
Telegraph Creek (altitude 540 feet), where gambeli was common, but
on the trail to the Summit (twelve miles north of town and at about
2700 feet altitude) they appeared in some numbers where the timber
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became dwarfed and scattered. The birds were in full song during
the first week in June. A female shot June 5 contained eggs just beginning to form.
As we went down stream the species was seen nowhere in the bottom
lands, but it was encountered once more on the mountains above Doch-
da-on Creek. There we found the birds at timber line, on July 11
and again on July 23. Dixon found them amid similar surroundings
on a mountain a few miles north of Doch-da-on Creek ("Kirk's Mountain") on July 16, and saw two bobtailed young. At these several
points they were at the extreme upper limit of timber, at about 3000
to 4000 feet altitude, and mostly in dense thickets of prostrate "mountain balsam" (Abies lasiocarpa). From these shelters could be heard
a sharp, far-reaching chip, a note that was difficult to locate, but was
finally traced to the golden-crowned sparrow. The birds were undoubtedly nesting in the balsam thickets. Probably they had young
at the time, but careful search failed to reveal any except the two that
Dixon saw while stalking a mountain goat. On July 23 the birds were
noticeably fewer in numbers than they had been on our first visit to
their habitat on July 11, and it seemed probable that they had already
begun to leave.
It seems likely that the timber-line habitat of coronata extends
westward nearly or quite to the Alaskan coast. With field glasses we
were able to see, at various points down the Stikine, ridges and mountain tops that appeared to be much like the high altitudes we reached
from the upper river. Near the coast, however, the mountains are in
most places extremely hard to ascend, and the fauna of their summits
is as yet unknown. The golden-crowned sparrow is a species of high
Hudsonian and Alpine-Arctic. It is a bird of the coastal region rather
than of the interior, but, except at the northern end of its habitat, is
apparently restricted to high altitudes during the summer months.
During the migrations this sparrow is abundant at sea level. At
Sergief Island the first one appeared on September 1. The next day
the species was present in considerable numbers. Seven specimens
collected (nos. 39932-39938), three at the Summit, June 4 and 5, one
on the mountain above Doch-da-on Creek, July 23, and three on Sergief
Island, September 1 to 5.
Spizella montieola ochracea Brewster.   Western Tree Sparrow
Seen at but one place.   At the Summit, some twelve miles north
of Telegraph Creek and at about 2600 feet elevation, several pairs of
western tree sparrows were seen on May 29, June 4 and 5, evidently 1922] Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region        243
nesting there. The birds were seen feeding on the ground at the edges
of marshy meadows, usually near the shelter of thickets of scrubby
willow brush. The three specimens collected (nos. 39939-39941) are
not to be distinguished from examples at hand from the Yukon and
Kotzebue Sound regions, Alaska. I have seen a specimen collected by
E. P. Walker-at Wrangell, January 16, 1919. This capture may
indicate the occasional passage of the species down the Stikine Valley.
Spizella passerina passerina (Bechstein). Eastern Chipping Sparrow
Abundant at low altitudes in the upper Stikine Valley. Many
seen near Telegraph Creek, in sparsely wooded sections, the males frequently singing from some low perch. Two nests were found here, on
June 19 and 24. Each was in a lodgepole pine sapling, some ten feet
from the ground, and in each case the tree was too slender to be
climbed. The species was likewise abundant at Glenora and at Doch-
da-on Creek. It was not seen farther down the river. Seven specimens collected, all adults (nos. 39942-39948). These, and others from
northern British Columbia, in color and measurements are much nearer
to eastern passerina than to typical arizonae from Arizona.
Junco hyemalis connectens Coues. Cassiar Junco
We collected forty-four specimens of this junco, as follows: vicinity of Telegraph Creek (between that point and the Summit), twenty-
eight (fourteen adult males, twelve adult females, and two juvenals) ;
Glenora, seven (one adult male, three adult females, and three juvenals) ; Doch-da-on Creek, three (one adult male, two juvenals) ; Flood
Glacier, six adult males. (Museum nos. 39949-39988, 39990, 39993,
39998, 39999.)
The systematic status of the junco of the Stikine region is a matter
of more than ordinary interest to both the taxonomist and the student
of geographic distribution" and evolution. Any treatment accorded
this form would doubtless arouse criticism from some direction, but
it seems to me desirable that the race be accorded formal subspecific
status. This junco is, in my opinion, a "good subspecies," a geographic race, in the sense that the birds over a certain area (of undetermined extent but undoubtedly a considerable stretch of country)
exhibit a combination of characters distinguishing them from other
described forms, and they remain true to these peculiarities within as
close limits as do most recognized subspecies.
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The outstanding characteristics of the Cassiar junco are as follows:
Most nearly related to Junco hyemalis hyemalis. Males of the two
subspecies are very closely similar, differing in minor particulars as
detailed beyond. The average female of Junco h. connectens is quite
unlike female hyemalis. It has ordinarily more or less pink on the
sides and brown on the back; the head is of a darker color and is
sharply cut off from the brownish back above and from the pink sides
and white belly below. The general appearance of the female is like
that of the female Junco oreganus shufeldti, from which it differs in
having usually less brown on the back and less pink on the sides.
Now, as regards the name to be used for this form. My first impression was that here was an undescribed subspecies, a "new" race
that required a new name. It was evident, however, that this was a
migratory form, and that individuals must have been collected in their
more southern winter home, even though the summer habitat had not
heretofore been explored. There was at least a chance that a winter-
taken specimen had served as the basis of a description at some time.
A search through junco synonymy disclosed one name that seemed to
require investigation, Junco hiemalis connectens Coues (1884, p. 378),
which has been applied in various ways. Two specimens, the one upon
which this name was based, together with another like it, females collected at Colorado Springs, Colorado, April 26 and 27, were described
in some detail by Allen and Brewster (1883, p. 189) under the name
Junco hiemalis oregonus. They are there considered as '' intermediates
between hiemalis and oregonus." Ridgway (1901, p. 276) lists Coues'
connectens as a probable hybrid under the heading "Junco hyemalis
x Junco oreganus shufeldti." In a footnote (loc. cit.) he makes the
following comment:
This type specimen, which I have carefully examined and compared, is No. 7046
of Mr. Brewster's collection, and was taken by Mr. Brewster at Colorado Springs
April 26, 1882. It is very nearly typical of J. hyemalis, with sides only slightly
tinged with cinnamomeous and the back slightly brownish. It may be a young
female, of the preceding year, of /. hyemalis; at any rate it has nothing to do
with the form of /. oreganus (J. o. shufeldti), to which the name connectens was
unadvisedly applied by action of the A. O. TJ. Committee in 1896.
Dwight (1918, p. 289) remarks as follows:
This is perhaps an appropriate place to discuss briefly and to dispose of the
"Junco hyemalis connectens" of Coues. The original description (1884, Key
North Amer. Birds, 2d ed., p. 378) is a curious mixture of fact and fancy but,
fortunately, the type is extant in the collection of Mr. Wm. Brewster (No. 7046, 1922]
Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region
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$, April 26, 1882, Colorado Springs, Colo.). I have examined it and, as correctly stated by Mr. Ridgway (1901, Birds North and Middle Amer., Pt. 1,
p. 276, footnote), it is clearly a specimen of hyemalis, and shows the characters
common to sex and season.
The American Ornithologists' Union Committee (1897, p. 128;
1910, p. 266) follows Coues (1897, p. 94) in applying the name connectens to the form named Junco hyemalis shufeldti by Coale (1887,
p. 330) and re-named (as I believe) Junco oregonus couesi by Dwight
(1918, p. 291).
It is thus seen that the two men (Ridgway and Dwight) who have
most carefully studied the genus Junco in recent years unite in the
belief that connectens is not a recognizable form. It is after some
hesitation that I offer a contrary opinion, but I believe that the new
material at my disposal justifies my view. As to the treatment of the
name connectens by the A. 0. U. Committee, I am of the same opinion
as Ridgway, that it is wrongly applied in the Check-List to the form
that should be called Junco oreganus shufeldti Coale. The description
by Allen and Brewster (1883, p. 189) of the Colorado bird that served
later as the type of connectens, obviously a migrant or winter visitant
at the point of capture, fitted so nearly my specimens from the Stikine
region as to lead me to suspect them to be the same. This bird, as part
of the Brewster collection, is now in the collection of the Museum of
Comparative Zoology, at Cambridge. I have not examined it myself,
but at the kind suggestion of Mr. Outram Bangs I sent him a selected
series of the Stikine birds for comparison with the type of connectens,
and, incidentally, with any other pertinent material. He remarks upon
them as follows:
I have compared the skins most carefully with our very large series of eastern
birds     The very black, sharply marked off top of the head in your male
birds I cannot match. The type of J. connectens Coues is a female taken at
Colorado Springs, Colorado, Apr. 26, 1882. It is a counterpart of your no. 10945
(Mus. Vert. Zool., no. 39957). Indeed you would have difficulty in telling the
two apart, except that the type of connectens is, although taken at an earlier
date, in a little more worn plumage. I can't find spring females from the east
just like these, but on the other hand, autumnal females much resembling them
(probably young birds of the year?) are common in our series.
For comparison with hyemalis, the form to which I believe connectens is most nearly related, I have had an abundance of non-breeding birds from various places in the eastern United States, and a few
from western points. No series of breeding birds of the eastern Junco
h. hyemalis is available.
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The adult male of connectens is very similar to hyemalis. At first
glance, in the field, there was no doubt in my mind that hyemalis
was the form encountered. Comparison with eastern birds, however,
shows certain appreciable differences. Connectens is darker colored
throughout, and, compared with the more uniformly slaty hued
hyemalis, is seen to possess a blackish head, quite sharply defined at a
line above the shoulders. Beneath, in connectens, the outline of the
black breast is convex against the white belly, forming a sharp angle
where it joins the gray sides. In eastern hyemalis the slaty breast
and sides usually form a concave outline against the white belly. In
most cases, a specimen of connectens viewed laterally is seen to possess
a black head pattern above and below, just about as in Junco oreganus,
though, of course, more obscurely indicated than in that species. These
distinctions, as just detailed, would not amount to very much in a
single bird, perhaps, but viewed in mass effect, with specimens of the
three forms arranged in parallel rows, the differences are readily
noticeable. The black-headed appearance of the male is a feature that
is conspicuous in the live bird.
The female of connectens is, as a rule, more nearly like the female
of a subspecies of the black-headed Junco oreganus group than like
female hyemalis. The sides are more or less tinged with pink (often
quite strongly so), and the back with brownish. The blackish head is
sharply defined against the back and against the pink sides and white
belly. Two among the fifteen females from Telegraph Creek and
Glenora have no pink on the sides, though with brown on the back.
These two birds are most nearly like hyemalis. Of the others it is safe
to say that not one would be ascribed to hyemalis if taken in its winter
home, with nothing but the appearance of the bird as a guide to its
specific identity. There are certain winter specimens of Junco oreganus shufeldti at hand from southern Arizona, that, so far as color
and markings are concerned, are indistinguishable from some Stikine
River females. Arizona specimens of shufeldti, however, are distinctly
longer winged.
Thus there is here a race in which the male bears a strong resemblance to one specific group (Junco hyemalis), and the female to another (Junco oreganus), this race occurring at a point where the
boundaries of the two species mentioned come close together. Different
authorities take different views regarding the relationship of the two
forms, hyemalis and oreganus. In the A. 0. U. Check-List of North
American Birds (1910, p. 266) they are treated as two subspecies of flfe
1922J        Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region        247
one species. Ridgway (1901, pp. 278, 283) regards them as specifically
distinct, each divided into several subspecies. Dwight (1918, pp. 285,
'291) also considers them as two species. Dwight, however, regards
as of hybrid origin several forms of Junco that are accorded subspecific,
or even specific, rank, by Ridgway and others. All "confusing
plumages,'' found in the borderlands where different species of Junco
come together, he regards as the result of hybridism.
In view of these different opinions, it is of interest to secure specimens and study conditions at places where two distinctly characterized
forms' meet. The upper Stikine Valley is such a place, and, with these
points in mind, the junco of that region received special attention in
our field work. Though anticipating some interesting discoveries in
the distribution of the forms involved, it could hardly be foreseen that
this borderland should be occupied by a race so curiously combining
the characters of the eastern hyemalis and the western oreganus. With
the ascertaining of this fact there now remains the proper application
of it, and in this I fancy there will be difference of opinion.
First, is the occurrence of birds of this description (in a sense, intermediate between hyemalis and oreganus) to be taken as indicative of
intergradation between the two ? Are hyemalis and oreganus therefore
to be regarded as two subspecies of the same species? I think not.
There is no adult specimen in the connectens series that could for a
moment be confused with the coastal junco (Junco oreganus oreganus),
the subspecies geographically most closely adjacent to the upper Stikine
race. There are no doubtful specimens as between these two forms,
hence no intergradation. The measurements of connectens do not show
intergradation between Junco h. hyemalis and Junco o. oreganus (see
table, p. 254). The resemblance of the female connectens is toward
Junco o. shufeldti (—Junco h. connectens of the A. 0. U. Check-List),
a pale colored form of Junco oreganus occurring to the southward.
There may be intergradation between connectens and shufeldti farther
south in British Columbia, but as yet we do not know that to be the
case.
Then, as to the theory of hybridizing, used to a great extent in
comparable cases by Dwight in his study of the juncos (1918). Such a
decision in the present case (as in certain others so disposed of by
Dwight) seems to me to distort the meaning of the word hybrid out of
all recognition, and to apply it to facts and conditions it is not commonly called upon to cover. I am willing to admit that a name such as
Junco annectens Baird may have been applied to an individual bird
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actually of hybrid parentage in the usually accepted sense, in that
particular case with one parent Junco caniceps, the other, Junco
mearnsi; and I am willing to admit (see postea) that individual hybrids
may occasionally occur between any species of Junco whose ranges
adjoin. To consider as hybrids, however, all the birds (juncos in this
instance) of a whole region, despite the facts that they comprise the
only representative of the species in. that region, that they all exhibit
the same combination of characters over a wide stretch of country, and
that they breed true, that is, transmit these same characters to their
young, is an utterly misleading use of the term. The junco of the
Stikine River should not be regarded as a hybrid.
As bearing upon the fact that it is the female of connectens that
shows variation from the hyemalis type, attention may be drawn to
the following statement by Dwight (loc. cit., p. 289) : "The variation
in females of the three species [i.e., hyemalis, oreganus, and mearnsi]
complicates the question still more, for the average females of the
three differ much less from one another than do the males, and the
hybrids between them would seem therefore to be much more numerous." I suppose the application of this to the present case (the
junco of the Stikine region) would lead to the conclusion that here
on a large scale is an example of sex-linked inheritance; that in the
hybridization of hyemalis and oreganus the female offspring only show
the oreganus characters. That such is not the case is shown .by specimens collected at Flood Glacier (described farther on), where the race
here designated connectens comes into actual contact with oreganus.
My own conclusions are as follows: The junco of the Stikine region
is a recognizable form, apparently the same to which Coues applied the
name Junco hiemalis connectens. It is most nearly related to Junco
hyemalis hyemalis, and may be conceded to exhibit intergradation of
a sort, as between Junco hyemalis and Junco oreganus. That is, the
peculiarities of this subspecies undoubtedly have some bearing upon
the relationship of those two aggregations of races. The intergradation exhibited, however, is apparently as between the two species Junco
hyemalis &nd,Junco oreganus, rather than between two adjacent subspecies, Junco hyemalis connectens and Junco oreganus oreganus. It
is not of the sort that is usually found between two subspecies of the
same species, and for the present it may well be disregarded as a sub-
specific criterion. It seems to me that this is a proper place for a
somewhat arbitrary division, and that Junco hyemalis and Junco
oreganus should still be regarded as separate specific groups.   Then, 1922]
Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region
249
as previously shown, the junco of the Stikine region, although-in a
sense intermediate in appearance between hyemalis and oreganus, can
not properly be considered as an aggregation of hybrid individuals.
The only alternative left, therefore, is to consider this form as a distinguishable geographical race of the species it most nearly resembles,
and apply a separate name, as I have done.
As we descended the Stikine, leaving the habitat of connectens
behind and drawing nearer to that of oreganus, every effort was made
to secure juncos.   At Telegraph Creek and Glenora, juncos (connectens) were abundant.   At Doch-da-on Creek, though in lessened numbers they were still fairly numerous, and all still of the same subspecies.
Our next stop was at Flood Glacier, some forty miles down stream
and about seventy miles from the coast.   There we were in a region
where either coast or inland species might occur, and the junco was
one of several birds that we searched for especially at that point.
Juncos were not numerous, however, and our two weeks of collecting
there yielded but fifteen specimens.    Of these, eight are adults, six
males and two females.   The two females are Junco o. oreganus-, beyond
a doubt.    Of the male birds, one (no. 39999) is typical connectens.
It is in extremely worn plumage but is evidently of exactly the same
character as Telegraph Creek specimens.   One bird (no. 39993), while
not an average connectens (it shows some rusty on the back), can be
matched by one variant taken at Telegraph Creek.    Another  (no.
39998) is somewhat more reddish on the back, though the sides are
slaty.   The remaining three adult males (nos. 39987, 39988, 39990),
if taken farther south, in their winter home, would undoubtedly be
considered as examples of Junco oreganus shufeldti.   They are shorter
winged than Arizona winter specimens of shufeldti, but they have
the black head (a glossier black above than in connectens), brownish
back, and pink sides of that race.    However, despite their general
appearance, I cannot believe that these birds are shufeldti.   I do not
believe it possible for the habitat of that subspecies to extend northward as a tongue inserted between the ranges of connectens and
oreganus.    Juncos can not be distributed uninterruptedly from the
southward over the glacier covered mountains that constitute so large
a part of this intermediate region.   Their distribution must lie in narrow ribbons along the river valleys extending from the interior to the
coast, such as the Stikine, and the affinities of birds taken at any one
point in these valleys must lie with others immediately adjacent, above
and below.    Therefore, despite the superficial resemblance of these 250
University of California Publications in Zoology     [YoJj- 24
Flood Glacier juncos to shufeldti, I decline to consider them as of that
subspecies, or to call them by that name. This despite Dr. Dwight's
belief that "we must name a bird by the plumage it is wearing not
by the one that it ought to be wearing because it has been captured
within the bounds assigned to another geographical race" (1918,
p. 294).
Flood Glacier is close to the point where the change in the character
of the country takes place, between the humid coast and the arid
interior. It is the uppermost point on the river reached by certain
coastal species of birds; very few indeed go any farther inland. Not
many inland species extend farther down the river. We took here
specimens of typical connectens and of oreganus, besides these intermediates. Forty miles up stream nothing but connectens was seen.
Thirty miles farther down the river, at Great Glacier, nothing but
typical oreganus.
In view of these facts it seems to me that these few specimens of
indeterminate character, taken practically on the boundary line between the habitats of the two forms, may be regarded as veritable
hybrids between the two. They are certainly not indicative of intergradation as it usually appears between closely related subspecies.
The seven juvenals from Flood Glacier naturally offer difficulties
in their allocation such as are not encountered in adults^ Young of
connectens taken early in the season in the upper Stikine Valley,
compared with the corresponding stage of oreganus from the coast,
present certain obvious differences. As the juvenal feathers become
faded and abraded, however, these distinctions are much less apparent,
and the young birds from Flood Glacier had worn the juvenal plumage
to the molting time. Those that do show specific peculiarities all lean
toward oreganus, and one or two, otherwise indeterminable, were taken
in company with an adult female oreganus. There are available but
very few breeding specimens of slate-colored junco from Alaskan
points. These specimens on the whole look more like eastern hyemalis
than like Stikine River connectens. The only breeding females, one
from Cordova Bay and one from Rapids, Yukon River, are quite
unlike any females in the Stikine series.
I have had for examination a series of seventeen adult juncos,
eight males and nine females, from the collection of the Provincial
Museum, Victoria, British Columbia, taken at Atlin, during June and
July, 1914. Atlin is at the northern boundary of British Columbia,
about one hundred and fifty miles north of Telegraph Creek.   For the 1922] Swarth: Birds andjdammals of the Stikine Region        251
most part these birds are essentially like the Stikine specimens. One
male (Prov. Mus., no. 3683) is much paler colored than the others,
more of the slaty gray of eastern hyemalis, a variation that may be
indicative of intergradation with hyemalis in Alaska, a little to the
northward. One female of the lot (Prov. Mus. no. 3698, Wilson Creek,
Atlin, B. C, June 29, 1914) is so very different in appearance from
the rest of the series as to suggest its belonging to another species.
It is appreciably larger than the others, actually so in length of wing
and tail, and to all appearances in bulk also, as well as can be judged
from prepared skins. It is faintly brownish on the back, and with a
suggestion of pink on the sides. This bird may, perhaps, be an
example of montanus, which has been recorded as occurring at Alaskan
points not very far distant.
Altogether, the scanty material from Alaska, together with the
British Columbian series, points to the restriction of the race connectens to a region mostly south of Alaska, and probably almost entirely in
British Columbia. In this connection, attention should be drawn to
a record by Bishop (1900a, p. 86) of the occurrence of "Junco hyemalis connectens, Shufeldt Junco," at White Pass City and Glacier,
Alaska, a record that may, perhaps, pertain to connectens as here
regarded. Osgood (19096, p. 41) records Junco hyemalis montanus
from points on the upper Yukon: "An adult female having vinaceous
sides and pronounced of this form by Mr. Ridgway was collected by
Hollister at Circle July 7 Also a specimen collected by myself
near Charlie Creek in 1899 appears to be of this form."
When we arrived at Telegraph Creek, May 23, juncos were abundant and in pairs; evidently nesting was well under way. The male
birds at that time were fond of perching on some elevated position, a
telegraph pole or a house in town, a dead tree top out in the woods,
where, over and over again, they gave utterance to a brief, monotonous
trill, hardly long enough or loud enough to merit being termed a song.
The first nest was found on June 4, about midway between Telegraph
Creek and the Summit, a region in which there was still much snow.
This nest was placed in an overhung crevice in the dirt wall bordering
the trail, and was discovered through the brooding bird's sudden departure. It contained four eggs with incubation just begun (see
fig. Z). From then on, nests were found at intervals up to July 5.
On that date two were discovered at Glenora, one with four fresh eggs,
one with four young about five days old.
• 1;!' 252
University of California Publications in Zoology     [Vol. 24
All nests discovered were on the ground, but in a variety of situations. Some were in the shelter of a bank or stump, others on open,
level ground with little or no concealment. Five nests with sets of eggs
were preserved (nos. 1811-1815), four sets of four eggs each, one of
five. The nests are all much alike in structure, rather flimsily built,
mainly of rather fine dry grass or weed stems, with occasionally some
shreds of bark or coarser twigs or straws on the outside, and with
finer grass or hair for lining.
Fig. Z. Nest of the Cassiar junco (Junco_hyemalis connectens), placed under
a fallen tree at the side of a trail. Photograph taken near the Junction, June
6, 1919.
The first young out of the nest was taken on June 14, hardly able
to fly. Shortly after young birds began to appear in considerable
numbers. Up to the third week in July they were still in the streaked
plumage throughout, the post-juvenal molt had not yet begun; shortly
after that time we left the territory of this subspecies, so that no
specimens in autumnal plumage were collected.
This junco is mainly a bird of the valleys, mostly in rather open
woods. A few were seen well up in the mountains, not in the dense
spruce forests of the middle heights, but at the upper edge of the
timber, where the trees were more scattered and of smaller size. This
was at about 4000 feet elevation.
The male junco was sometimes seen making a display of his
plumage. The tail was widely spread, so as to expose the white outer
feathers, about the only sharply contrasting feature of the junco's KS^-
19221 Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region
253
plumage. This was done, not on the ground, but up in the shrubbery;
the tail was held stiffly spread and pointed straight downward, while
the bird hopped from branch to branch about the female.
Young birds, just out of the nest, were several times found infested
with parasitic larvae. The first bird in this condition was collected
near Telegraph Creek, June 15. On picking it up after shooting it,
a maggot dropped to the ground, and I noticed then a bare spot on the
bird's head with a small hole where the larva had been attached. Upon
skinning it, two more larvae were found, between the skin and skull,
surrounded by a mass of yellow serum. Later on other young juncos
were taken similarly afflicted, with the larvae always on the top of the
head. The larvae were white in color, seven millimeters long and about
three in diameter.
Junco oreganus oreganus (J. K. Townsend).   Oregon Junco
Twenty-seven specimens referable to this subspecies were collected
at three different points, as follows: Flood Glacier, two adult females,
four juvenal males, three juvenal females; Great Glacier, one adult
male, one adult female, seven juvenal males, two juvenal females, one
juvenal, sex not ascertained; Sergief Island, three males and three
females, all immature birds in freshly acquired first winter plumage.
(Mus. Vert. Zool. nos. 39989, 39991, 39992, 39994-39997, 40000-40019).
Specimens of oreganus in juvenal plumage from the coast of Alaska,
compared with the same stage of connectens from the upper Stikine
Valley, are much more buffy beneath and more reddish dorsally; the
red dorsal patch of oreganus is clearly indicated in the young. Young
oreganus is a ruddy appearing bird, young connectens, grayish. While
these differences are apparent in fresh plumage, they are not so
obvious when the feathers become worn. The young birds from Flood
Glacier, at about the dividing line between the ranges of oreganus and
connectens, are ready to discard the juvenal plumage, and in some
specimens it is not possible to tell to which species they belong. However, those which do show specific peculiarities are apparently oreganus.
Two young males, beginning the post-juvenal molt, are acquiring
pink sides, and in one of them the new feathers on the head are distinctly blacker than in connectens. Young females, undeterminable
in appearance, were taken in company with an adult female oreganus.
For these several reasons I have assigned the entire series of streaked
plumaged young from Flood Glacier to oreganus.
ii!
9 ii   t! I
h ft! ii
1
!i 254
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y 5! 1922] Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region        255
Young birds taken a week or two later at Great Glacier are in most
cases well advanced in the post-juvenal molt, and are clearly oreganus.
The adult male from this station (no. 40002) may perhaps be of intermediate character, like some of the Flood Glacier birds previously
described, but it is in the midst of the annual molt, and the duller red
of the back may be an appearance that is largely due to this cause.
The six specimens from Sergief Island, in fully acquired first winter
plumage, are all typical oreganus.
Neither at Flood Glacier nor Great Glacier were juncos abundant,
and it was only by the closest search that specimens were obtained.
When we arrived at Sergief Island (August 17) there were no juncos
to be seen anywhere. On August 23 two were obtained, the first noted,
and a day or two later they became fairly numerous.
11
Melospiza melodia rufina (Bonaparte).   Rusty Song Sparrow
Song sparrows are rare in the upper Stikine Valley, or, rather,
the species occurs in relatively few place's. We found some birds
around Sawmill Lake and about marshy spots near Telegraph Creek,'
and a few in similar surroundings between that town and Glenora.
A female collected at Sawmill Lake on June 9 contained an egg that
would have been laid in a day or two. A young bird just out of the
nest was taken on June 18.
Near Doch-da-on Creek and a mile or two back from the Stikine
there were certain marshy meadows where song sparrows were really
abundant. Bordering the grassy areas were sloughs grown with reeds
and surrounded by willows. Here the song sparrows had evidently
been nesting, and at the time of our visit (July 8 to 26) were apparently engaged with their second broods. Full-grown young were more
abundant than adults, and by the middle of July we found these
young birds spreading out farther and farther away from the central
swamps and down toward the river. The old birds remained closely
within the more restricted meadows where we first found them, and
those collected had every appearance of being engaged in nesting.
These adults were extremely shy at all times, and specimens were
obtained with difficulty.
At Flood Glacier there were a few song sparrows, seen mostly in
patches of fireweed near the river. All taken were juvenals, apparently
wandering from the nesting ground, as we had found them at Doeh-
da-on Creek.   We found no place near Flood Glacier offering suitable
li
; . • 256
University of California Publications in Zoology     you 24
breeding grounds for song sparrows. None of the birds was seen at
.Great Glacier but one was noted near the custom house just above the
boundary, August 16.
At Sergief Island song sparrows were abundant. They were mostly
at the upper edge of the marsh land, just below the coniferous forest,
where a bordering strip of dense underbrush (alder, willow, devil's-
club, and other shrubbery) afforded shelter to many birds of similar
habits. The song sparrows ventured some distance out onto the
marshes, but always along narrow tidal channels where tall grass overhanging the sloughs made arched passageways beneath which the
birds found concealment when need arose.
A large proportion of those seen at Sergief Island were young birds,
and young and old were mostly in various stages of molt. A young
male taken August 18 is in first winter plumage throughout. Most of
the young birds seen at that time were still in juvenal plumage; one
taken as late as September 1 had not yet begun the molt from that
stage. Two adults shot August 18 and 22, respectively, had not yet
begun to molt; another taken on September 1 had almost completed
the change.
Forty-four specimens were collected (nos. 40020-40044, 40047-
40065), as follows: Telegraph Creek, three adult males, two adult
females, one juvenal female; Doch-da-on Creek, three adult males, ten
juvenals; Flood Glacier, four juvenals; Sergief Island, two adult
males, one adult female, five immature males (first winter plumage),
thirteen juvenals.
I had anticipated that the song sparrow of Telegraph Creek would
prove to be different from the coast bird, and that it would probably
be Melospiza m. inexpectata, as a specimen ascribed to that race was
recorded from Telegraph Creek by Riley (1911, p. 234) in his description of the subspecies. I am, however, unable to distinguish any
points of difference between birds from the upper Stikine Valley
and those from the coast.   They seem to me to be all referable to ruflna.
Upon first consideration it seems strange that in two regions with
such diverse faunas in general, as is the case in the upper Stikine
and the coast regions, the song sparrow, usually so variable, should
be one of the few birds to remain the same in both places. This is by
no means inexplicable, however, upon consideration of some of the
factors involved. The species Melospiza melodia extends much farther
north along the coast than it does inland; there is no subspecies of the
interior that ranges nearly as far north as does ruflna of the coast. 19221
Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Reg
ion
257
It follows that any song sparrow colony of an interior point closely
adjacent to the coast (such as the Telegraph Creek region) must have
been derived from the coast region.
Song sparrows in other sections are known to be influenced in their
distribution by extent of riparian surroundings suited to their needs.
They will follow a favorable water course through otherwise unsuitable
surroundings, less regardful of faunal or zonal limitations than of
the associations of plants and water. It therefore seems apparent that
the occurrence of the song sparrow at the headwaters of the Stikine
River represents an outpost of ruflna, an overflow of birds that have
penetrated to that point by ascending the river from the coast; not
part of another race that is of general distribution throughout the
interior. Melospiza m. inexpectata may be a recognizable race in the
region of the type locality (Moose Lake, British Columbia), in southeastern British Columbia, and southwestern Alberta (cf. Oberholser,
1918a, p. 187), but the song sparrow of northwestern British Columbia
is unmistakably ruflna.
Apparently the song sparrows of the inland regions are not completely enough isolated from the parent stock, or have not been for a
sufficient length of time, to produce distinguishable differences. As
to the length of time that they have been there we have no means of
knowing. As to the completeness of isolation in the upper Stikine
Valley, my impression, derived from the season's observations, is that
there is practically continuous distribution of song sparrows along
the river. Breeding colonies are doubtless scattered, and perhaps at
rather wide intervals, but apparently migrating birds occur at any
point.
There is an interesting point involved in the migration of the song
sparrows at the upper end of the Stikine Valley. Do these birds
travel north and south to the eastward of the coast range, as is the
case with so many other species of that region, or do they follow the
Stikine to and from the coast? Our own observations shed no light
upon this question. It can hardly be solved save by some person who
is permanently residing in the country.
In this connection it may be noted that Brooks (1912, p. 253)
definitely cites the subspecies ruflna as the form occurring at Okana-
gan, British Columbia, where the fauna otherwise is mostly of the
interior. Also, Taverner. (1919, p. 84) records ruflna as the song
sparrow at Hazelton, in the interior of British Columbia, some two
hundred miles south of Telegraph Creek. I have seen some of Taverner's Hazelton specimens and agree with him in his determination. 258
University of California Publications in Zoology      [Vol. 24
lill
i       11
in Pill
The bird collection of this Museum contains sixty-three specimens
of ruflna from the islands and mainland of southeastern Alaska, representing many island localities and several points on the mainland.
The largest series from any one place is that from Sergief Island.
The Alaskan series as a whole displays considerable variation, in color,
in general size, and in size and shape of bill. Whether these differences
can be correlated with different habitats, island and mainland, or
whether they are merely differences between individual specimens,
cannot be settled with the material at hand; there are too few breeding birds from any one place. The variation is considerable, and it
includes breeding birds that are just like the Telegraph Creek specimens. For the present, at least, the whole aggregation had best be left
under the name ruflna.
There is one kind of departure from the normal ruflna that is comprehensible, and that is a variation illustrated in many individuals
tending toward caurina, the subspecies breeding just north of the
habitat of ruflna. This trend is especially noticeable among the birds
collected upon Sergief Island in August and September, birds which
I believe were mostly migrants from the north. Typical ruflna and
caurina are widely different in appearance, in size, color, and shape
of bill, but there are specimens at hand forming almost every link in
a chain connecting one extreme with the other. The same individual,
however, does not necessarily exhibit the same intermediate condition
in all characters; there are various combinations in different specimens.
I III:
TABLE X
Measurements in millimeters (average, minimum and maximum)
of Melospiza melodia rufina
Wing Tail Culmen Depth of bill
10 adult males from
the coast of southeastern
Alaska1 68.4 (66.2-71.5)    64.8 (60.0-70.0)    12.2 (11.2-12.8)    6.7 (6.0-7.0)
6 adult males from
the upper
Stikine river2 67.0 (65.0-71.0)    65.9(62.0-70.0)    12.2(11.5-12.8)    6.5(6.0-7.0)
'Glacier Bay, 1; Admiralty Island, 2; Chichagof Island, 1; Kuiu Island, 3; Prince of Wales
Island, 1; Warren Island, 1; Sergief Island, 1.
2Telegraph Creek, 3; Doch-da-on Creek, 3.
During our stay at Sergief Island (August 17 to September 7) it
was evident that there was more or less migratory movement of song
sparrows. The numbers present fluctuated from day to day in a way
that could not otherwise be explained. Typical examples of caurina
were taken from time to time, as noted elsewhere in this report, which, 1922] Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region        259
of course, were migrants, and the assumption is that those individuals
of intermediate character that were taken at the same time were also
migrating birds, presumably from some intermediate region near the
northern limit of the habitat of ruflna. Our experience on the upper
Stikine leads me to believe that very young birds, even before the
juvenal plumage is discarded, may wander many miles from the nesting ground.
Melospiza melodia caurina Ridgway.   Yakutat Song Sparrow
A fairly common migrant at Sergief Island, amid the same surroundings as ruflna. One was seen the day of our arrival, August 17,
and the birds were present in fluctuating numbers up to the date of
our departure, September 7. The third week of August was the time
of greatest abundance. Usually caurina and ruflna could be told apart
in life, the greater size and grayer color of the former serving to distinguish it ordinarily. There are, of course, equivocal specimens, as
mentioned in this report under ruflna, that are practically intermediate
between the two subspecies, and difficult of determination even when
in hand. There are also in the series of caurina from Sergief Island
some specimens closely approaching the larger kenaiensis in appearance. As, however, the latter reach only the minimum measurements
of that subspecies it seems best to place them all under caurina. There
is thus in the available series of caurina a considerable range of variation exemplified, from small, reddish colored birds not widely different
from ruflna, to large, gray colored ones that could be inserted in a
series of kenaiensis without violence.
There is one bird from Sergief Island (no. 40045, female, August
18) that I refer to caurina despite the fact that it is largely in juvenal
plumage and was collected in the breeding range of ruflna. Such of
the first winter plumage as has been acquired is distinctly of the
caurma type, and in the flesh the bulk of this bird was decidedly
greater than that of the average ruflna. Despite the youth of this
individual, I believe it to be a migrant from the distant habitat of
caurina. Juvenals of ruflna also were found traveling far from the
nesting ground.
Fourteen specimens of Melospiza m. caurina were taken at Sergief
Island, on dates ranging from August 18 to September 5 (nos. 40045,
40046, 40066-40077). The series comprises one adult male, one adult
female, five immature males, six immature females, and the juvenal
female above described. 260           University of (
California
Publications in Zoo
logy
[Vol
24
Melosp
iza lincolni
gracilis
(Kittlitz).
Forbush
Sparrow
Probably
occurs throughout th<
i upper Stii
ine Valle
y, but,
judging
from our experience, in small numbers and at widely scattered points.
A female shot June 9 at Sawmill Lake had laid part of its set of eggs;
just one other bird was seen at that locality. The species was next
encountered at Doch-da-on Creek, where one pair, perhaps more, had
nested in the tall grass of a meadow. A young bird caught in a mousetrap at Flood Glacier was the only one seen at that station.
At Sergief Island the species was abundant. Many of the birds
wercthere when we arrived on August 18, and they greatly increased
in numbers within the next few days. At the upper margin of the
marshes, that section which is but rarely inundated by the tides, there
is much willow brush, increasing in density and size of the trees as the
salt water is left behind. The lower edge of this strip, where the willow
brush was about waist high and rather scattered, and with thick grass
beneath, was the preferred habitat of the Forbush sparrow, and here
the birds literally swarmed. I was accustomed to think of this species
as being rather solitary in its habits, but here, whether or not the
birds were in constantly associated flocks, their choice of surroundings
brought hundreds of them closely together. In traveling through the
willow brush one flushed them from every thicket. On August 22 I
stopped to count those that hopped up into the branches of one small
bush, preparatory to taking flight at my approach, and there were
fifteen in sight at once. The species was still present at the end of
our stay, September 7, but much fewer in number.
Fifteen specimens were collected: an adult female and an adult
male from Sawmill Lake (nos. 40078, 40079), two adult females and
two juvenals, male and female, from Doch-da-on Creek (nos. 40080-
40083), one juvenal male from Flood Glacier (no. 40084), and eight
specimens from Sergief Island, two adult females, five immature males,
and one immature female (nos. 40085-40092). The young birds from
Sergief Island have all completed, or nearly completed, the post-
juvenal molt. An adult female taken August 18 is in the midst of the
annual molt. The tail feathers are all gone, and the wings so nearly
bereft of flight feathers that the bird could scarcely fly. The second
adult female, taken August 22, has finished the molt.
The specimens from the upper Stikine Valley are to my eye indistinguishable from the coast birds, and I therefore consider them all
of the subspecies gracilis.   There is no question of the distinctness of 1922]
Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region
261
this northern race from the paler colored and more narrowly streaked
form breeding in the high mountains of California which is regarded
as lincolni, but just what relation either of these races bears toward
typical Melospiza lincolni lincolni from eastern North America I do
not know.   I have no material available from any eastern points.
For the use of the name Melospiza lincolni gracilis (Kittlitz) rather
than M. 1. striata Brewster (as in the A. 0. U. Check-List), see Oberholser, 1906, p. 42.
if
■
•V
1
Passerella iliaea unalaschcensis (Gmelin). Shumagin Fox Sparrow
Two fox sparrows taken upon Sergief Island, September 5, are
referable to this subspecies, an immature female (no. 40107) and an
immature male (no. 40108). The two birds were together, in an assemblage of song sparrows, golden-crowned sparrows, and hermit
thrushes, feeding in a tangle of red-berry elder, alder, and devil's-
elub. The Shumagin fox sparrow is a migrant through this region,
and it is probably of rare occurrence.
Passerella iliaea fuliginosa Ridgway. Sooty Fox Sparrow
Among the" most interesting of the season's discoveries were those
relating to the manner of occurrence of Passerella in the region explored. Our first experiences were disappointing. I had confidently
expected to find some form of this species in the Telegraph Creek
region, either P. i. iliaea or P. i. altivagans, but failed to do so. It
does not follow; of course, that one or the other of these birds does not
occur locally somewhere in that general region, but if so I believe it
will be found on the higher mountain slopes. I do not believe we
could have overlooked the species had it been present in the lower
valley.
Fox sparrows were first encountered at Doch-da-on Creek. On
July 17 an adult male was obtained, first heard singing from its perch
near the top of a small willow. A young bird was taken near-by the
same day. Both were in brushy bottom land near a slough, a tangle
of willows growing amid nettles, tall grass, and other shrubbery, not at
all the kind of place that fox sparrows might be supposed to inhabit.
Later on, at Flood Glacier and again at Great Glacier, fox sparrows of the same subspecies were shot at various times. The birds
were far from abundant, and it was only through the most assiduous
search that specimens were obtained.    They inhabited the densest
in
11 <
*-1 in
«
\ 262
University of California Publications in Zoology      [Vol. 24
brush, where they remained out of sight for the most part, and there
were neither songs nor call notes to draw attention to their presence.
At Sergief Island one specimen referable to this subspecies was taken,
on August 27.
In all, fourteen specimens were collected (nos. 40093-40106), as
follows: Doch-da-on Creek, one adult male, one juvenal male; Flood
Glacier, one adult female, one juvenal male, two juvenal females, one
juvenal, sex undetermined; Great Glacier, one adult male, two adult
females, two juvenal males, one male in first winter plumage; Sergief
Island, one male in first winter plumage. The adults are all in worn
breeding plumage or just beginning the annual molt. Of the young
birds, some are in juvenal plumage throughout, some are partly
through the post-juvenal molt, and two, from Great Glacier, August
10, and Sergief Island, August 27, respectively, are in first winter
plumage throughout.
I had supposed that the form of fox sparrow that would be found
inhabiting the mainland coast of this part of Alaska would necessarily
be P. i. townsendi, which is known to occur much farther south on certain of the islands. Our Stikine birds, however, unquestionably are
not townsendi; for the present, at least, they must be considered as
fuliginosa. In my "Revision of the avian genus Passerella" (1920,
p. 149), I have described a series of fox sparrows, winter visitants,
taken mostly in the vicinity of Berkeley, California, that I have referred to fuliginosa, although they are not typical of that form. The
statement there made is that these birds are too unlike summer examples of fuliginosa from Washington and Vancouver Island to come
from that region, and that they must be migrants from some other
section. It was intensely interesting to discover that the Stikine River
summer birds exactly matched the winter birds described from California.
As between Alaskan examples of townsendi and the Stikine River
fuliginosa, we have in both series, for comparison, adults in similarly
worn breeding plumage; also young in juvenal plumage, molting into
first winter plumage, and in first winter plumage throughout. The
color differences are apparent in every stage. The discovery of fuliginosa in this part of Alaska and British Columbia discloses certain
departures from the distribution of that subspecies and of townsendi
as given by me in the "Revision" above cited (Swarth, 1920, pp. 144,
149; map, fig. N). Fuliginosa evidently occurs from Puget Sound
northward to the Stikine River, but, north of Vancouver Island, probably on the mainland only or perhaps on islands close to the British 1922] Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region        263
Columbia coast. Townsendi occurs southward on various islands off
the coast of southeastern Alaska, and on the Queen Charlotte Islands,
British Columbia; its occurrence in summer on the mainland of southeastern Alaska is questionable. I know of no breeding records from
that region. On the map above cited there is a cross indicating an
occurrence at Helm Bay (south of the Stikine River), but the bird
upon which that record is based was an August specimen and may
have traveled some distance. I, myself, in 1909, collected many specimens of townsendi at Port Snettisham and the Taku River, Alaska
(north of the Stikine River), and under circumstances that make it
seem likely that those were breeding stations, but no nests were actually found. In field work of that same year at Boca de Quadra, the
Chickamin River, and Bradfield Canal (on the mainland south of the
Stikine River), and at Thomas Bay (a short distance north of the
Stikine), no fox sparrows were seen (see Swarth, 1911, p. 93). There
is a record of the occurrence of townsendi in June on Wrangell Island,
near the mouth of the Stikine River (Swarth, 1920, p. 146).
The facts now indicate that the summer distribution of fuUginosa
is from extreme northwestern Washington and Vancouver Island
northward on the mainland only, at least to the Stikine River. On
the latter stream, it extends inland about a hundred miles, following
the course of the river. Its extension inland elsewhere is unknown to
me. In fact, I know of no records of fuUginosa from any mainland
station between the two extremes of its range, Puget Sound and the
Stikine River.
There is another point to be considered, namely, the possibility of
subspecific difference between fuUginosa of the Puget Sound region
and the bird I have called fuliginosa from the Stikine River, sufficient
difference, that is, to be worthy of recognition in nomenclature. This
is a contingency that may have to be met in the future. In another
connection I have pointed out in some detail differences that appear
to exist between the two lots (Swarth, 1920, pp. 149-150). Briefly,
the series comprised of the Stikine River specimens and the winter
birds from Berkeley differ from certain Vancouver Island specimens
and from the type specimen of fuliginosa in being of a duller tone of
brown, in having the lower tail coverts less tawny, and in the more
stubby bill. The differences are real, as far as the series go, and appear to be fairly constant; the difficulty lies in the few specimens available of typical fnMginosa. Under the circumstances further subspecific
division does not at present seem desirable. 264
University of California Publications in Zoology     [Vol. 24
'lill'f'.
llll
m
Fall specimens of townsendi from Port Snettisham and the Taku
River are notably dark colored, as compared with summer specimens
of the same subspecies from the adjacent islands. While this may be
due in some degree to seasonal differences of plumage, it may also be
indicative of intergradation toward fuUginosa at those points.
Piranga ludoviciana (Wilson). Western Tanager
A few seen in the vicinity of Telegraph Creek and Glenora, not
more than seven or eight individuals in- all. The first noted, a male,
was encountered near Telegraph Creek on June 18. A nest was found
at Four-Mile Creek, between Telegraph Creek and Glenora, in an alder
in the rather dense vegetation that bordered the stream, about twenty-
five feet from the ground and four feet from the main trunk. The
female was seen on the nest July 5.
Two specimens of the western tanager were preserved, both adult
males, and both taken at Glenora, on June 30 and July 4, respectively
(nos. 40109-40110).
mm ■
Petrochelidon lunifrons lunifrons (Say).   Cliff Swallow
There were a few pairs of cliff swallows breeding at Telegraph
Creek, the only place where we saw the species.   Nests, old and new,
were placed on several houses in the town.    One specimen collected,
an adult female, on June 23 (no. 40111).
This specimen is of notably large size, as compared with breeding
birds from California and from Illinois. Presumably it belongs to the
northern subspecies that Oberholser (1919c, p. 95) has named Petrochelidon albifrons hypopoUa. As far as it goes, this single bird substantiates the claim of larger size in the northern race. The color
differences claimed for that form are not so apparent. The specimen
measures as follows: wing, 114; tail, 52.5; exposed eulmen, 7; tarsus,
13.
Without wishing to decry the probable existence of a recognizable
northern race of the cliff swallow, the writer prefers, in this connection, to use the older name, pending a determination by the A. O. U.
Committee on Nomenclature of the several questions involved.
Hirundo erythrogaster Boddaert.   Barn Swallow
Breeding in fair abundance in the town of Telegraph Creek.   The
species was already there at the time of our arrival, May 23, and the
birds were occupied with nest building.    Nests were seen only on 1922
Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region        265
buildings, and the birds themselves rarely strayed far outside the
town. One nest noted, which was placed upon a telephone insulator
on the government agent's office, must have been used for some years,
for it was built up to a height of six inches or more.
Flocks of migrating swallows that were seen in August at several
points down the river were apparently of this species, but could not
be satisfactorily identified. These flocks were invariably traveling up
stream. In the harbor at Wrangell, August 16, were large numbers
of barn swallows, mostly young, flying about and alighting on the shipping and wharves. On Sergief Island, during the next two weeks, the
species was seen frequently, traveling southward in large flocks. The
flocks diminished in numbers toward the end of the month; the last
bird observed was a single individual on August 30.
Two specimens of the barn swallow were preserved, an adult male
and an adult female, both taken at Telegraph Creek on June 11 (nos.
40112, 40113).
Iridoprocne bicolor (Vieillot). Tree Swallow
Just one pair seen, at Sawmill Lake, near Telegraph Creek. They
were nesting in an old woodpecker hole in a dead birch stub at the
margin of the lake. A pair of mountain bluebirds were nesting in
the same stub. The swallow's nest held three eggs on June 11; the
complete set of seven, with the nest, was taken on June 17 (no. 1816).
The nest was built largely of coarse grass and pine needles, mixed
with some mammal hair, and was lined with large duck feathers. The
two parent birds were taken (nos. 40114, 40115).
Tachycineta thalassina lepida Mearns.   Northern Violet-green
Swallow
Abundant about Telegraph Creek. Nesting in crevices in the buildings and in a cliff overlooking the town from the northeast. The birds
were settled in their nesting sites when we arrived (May 23), but individuals collected on June 8 had not yet laid their sets. The species
was fairly abundant at Glenora. At Doch-da-on Creek, the latter part
of July, violet-green swallows were seen frequently.
At Sergief Island, toward the end of August, the species was
encountered on so many occasions that it seems probable that it is of
regular occurrence as a migrant at some points, at least, on the coast
of southeastern Alaska, despite the paucity of records. As far as I
know, my own observations on the Chickamin River and at Thomas
iii '* 266
University of California Publications in Zoology     you 24
Ijllfi
lilt
Bay are the only ones from the region that pertain to this species (see
Swarth, 1911, p. 96).
At Sergief Island small flocks were seen passing over the marshes
in migration, usually in company with barn swallows, upon various
dates, ranging from August 20 to September 2. On August 28 a flock
of a hundred or more circled about over our camp for several hours.
Last noted on September 2, when a single bird was taken, the only one
observed. It is a question whether the individuals seen migrating at
this point were travelers from points to the northward, or whether
they- had followed the Stikine River from the interior. I am inclined
toward the first alternative, for, in our own leisurely descent of the
river we had seen no indication of any such migration of these swallows.
Five specimens preserved, two adult females from Telegraph Creek,
one adult male from Glenora, and two juvenal males from Sergief
Island (nos. 40116-40120).
VM
II   II
Riparia riparia (Linnaeus). Bank Swallow
A few seen at Glenora, hovering over the fields or flying up and
down the river, skimming low over the water. Probably nesting somewhere in the -river banks nearby, but we failed to discover where.
At Sergief Island a few were seen from time to time (August 18, 19,
and 20), passing over the marshes in migration.
Two adults secured, male and female, taken at Glenora, July 2
and 6, respectively (nos. 40121, 40122).
Bombycilia garrula pallidiceps Reichenow. Bohemian Waxwing
Found in the lowlands bordering the Stikine River, from Telegraph Creek down stream as far as Doch-da-on Creek. There was no
obvious reason why the species should not extend still farther down
the river, save that a few miles below this point those changes first
begin to be apparent in the general character of the region that culminate in the thickly forested and humid conditions prevalent on the
coast. Food conditions appeared ideal, for berries of various species,
eaten freely by other birds, occur in abundance throughout this region.
If it is solely the question of food that governs the erratic wanderings
of the waxwing, as is so frequently contended in connection with its
appearance in winter farther south, it would seem that the species
should have been noted by us along the entire length of the Stikine.
It seems evident, however, that there must be some barrier, more subtle 19221 Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region
267
than that formed by the abundance or scarcity of food plants, that
keeps the waxwing closely restricted to the upper part of the Stikine
Valley.
Similarly, restriction to the lower altitudes near the river is probably significant of zonal limitation. We saw no waxwings at high
elevations until July 23, when a flock of about twenty birds was
encountered at timber line (about 4000 feet) on the mountain above
Doch-da-on Creek.
During our first two weeks of field work, at the Junction, the
species was not once observed. Presumably the slightly greater elevation at that point was enough of a barrier to keep the waxwing in the
warmer section by the river. When we moved from the Junction to
Telegraph Creek the birds were encountered at once, and they were
found in some numbers thereafter at various nearby points.
A wood road, following the creek from which the town derives its
name, turns abruptly aside some half a mile up stream, ascends the
steep embankment on the west, and thus reaches a terrace that extends
for several miles. Here waxwings were seen upon our first visit to the
place, and it was later found to be a favorite resort.
On the morning of June 9 I had my first glimpse of the birds;
my attention was attracted by the call note, and a moment later a
flock of a dozen or more swung past and disappeared over the tree tops.
Later in the day others were seen at almost the same place, two together at two different points. During the next ten days waxwings
were seen continually in the same general locality, sometimes two together (mated pairs we supposed at the time), sometimes in small
flocks. We shot a few, but mostly we watched them and followed the
"pairs" about, hoping, but scarcely expecting, that they would lead
us to a nest. The actions of these birds were extremely puzzling, for
they seemed quite carefree, and many were in flocks. When we did
obtain both birds of a "pair" they proved to be two males. Finally
it began to dawn upon us that the waxwings were coming daily to a
favorite feeding ground—nothing more; when disturbed they always
disappeared in the same direction over some low hills to the westward;
and our search was pursued in accordance with this suggestion, with
satisfactory results.
The terrace or plateau above mentioned, of which so far we had
merely skirted the eastern edge, extends westward a mile or more, is
quite level, and but sparsely covered with forest growth. A year or
more before our visit it had been swept by fire and a large part of the 268
University of California Publications in Zoology      [Vol.
timber destroyed. As we saw the place there was very little underbrush of any sort, a great many dead trees, mostly pines with some
poplars, and a scattering growth of live trees that had escaped destruction. The conifers were the lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), and
were all small trees.
On June 19 we first saw evidence of nesting activities, though, as we
afterward learned, the birds must have been busy for some time. On
this occasion a pair of birds flew past, each with nest material in its
bill, and disappeared in a clump of little pines a short distance away.
A short search discovered the nest, just well started, in one of the
pines, some six feet from the ground, and quite conspicuous to the
view. A second nest was found a short distance away at a point where
there had been an Indian wickiup, occupied by a solitary old witchdoctor. Several days before, this habitation had been destroyed by
fire, and some of the surrounding trees, including the one with the
nest, somewhat scorched. Apparently the fire, smoke, and noise had
been too much for the parent waxwings, and they deserted the nest,
which contained five newly hatched young. The young were pretty
well dried up when found.
On June 22 the third nest was discovered. Two birds were seen
in flight toward a pine a hundred yards or so distant. One, the male
presumably, lit in the top of the tree, the other disappeared in the
foliage below. Almost instantly the male flew high in the air, joined
two others that were passing by, and all three went off together toward
the slopes where we had previously found so many of the birds feeding.
An inspection of the pine disclosed the waxwing's nest. The tree was
only about twenty-five feet high, with straggly branches and little
foliage. The nest rested upon limbs and against the trunk, about
fifteen feet from the ground. It contained six eggs, almost ready to
hatch.
During the next few days several other nests were found. A record
was kept of each one, though they did not all yield sets of eggs. Following are the particulars of all the nests discovered:
No. 1 (Mus. Vert. Zool., no. 1819). Found June 19, nest just begun ; June 21, nest completed; June 22, contained one egg; June 24
3 eggs; June 25, 4 eggs; June 26, five eggs, set taken. Nest in lodge-
pole pine (tree about twelve feet high), six feet from the ground, resting on two small branches and against trunk. Greatest outside diameter about 230 mm.; inside diameter, 77; outside depth of main nest
structure, 90; depth of nest cavity, 51.   Material used: dead twigs 1922]        Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region
269
from pines and poplars, dry black moss from the trees, white, cottony
plant fiber, and, for lining, dry grass and a few feathers. See figures
AA, DD.
No. 2 (Mus. Vert. Zool., no. 1817). Found June 19; a recently
abandoned nest containing five dead young, newly hatched. In situation a duplicate of the last: in a little pine, about six feet from the
ground, and resting on two small limbs and against the trunk.
Greatest outside diameter about 230 mm. (straggling twigs projecting
farther) ; inside diameter, 95; outside depth, 77; depth of nest cavity,
Fig. AA. Waxwing on nest in small lodgepole pine; found near Telegraph
Creek.   Photograph taken June 25, 1919.
32. This was the only nest found with none of the black tree moss in
its composition. There is relatively more of the white plant fiber.
It is possible that nest no. 1 was built by the pair that abandoned this
nest.
No. 3 (Mus. Vert. Zool. no. 1818). Found June 22, with six eggs,
within a few days of hatching. Nest in a small lodgepole pine, about
fifteen feet from the ground, on three small limbs and against the
trunk. Greatest outside diameter about 230 mm.; inside diameter, 90;
outside depth, 90; inside depth, 51. Material used: dead pine and
poplar twigs, a great deal of black moss, white plant fiber and dry
grass.   See figure BB.
No. 4. Found June 22. In a little lodgepole pine, about seven
feet from the ground.   This was the merest beginning of a nest when 270
University of California Publications in Zoology      you 24
1 \\wm
1 ''lil"
discovered. The birds were seen building rapidly on the morning of
June 22, but on June 23 they were just as busily engaged carrying the
same nest material elsewhere.   The new nest was not found.
No. 5. Found June 23. In a dense grove of young pines. Nest
much like the ones just described, but with a great deal of the moss
and not much white fiber. Contained one fresh egg. The nest was
deserted when we found it.
No. 6. Found June 24. In top of a slender pine, about 25 feet
from the ground. Nest resting on limbs and against the trunk. Contained five young.
No. 7 (Mus. Vert. Zool. no. 1820). Found June 24. The only
nest discovered that was not placed against the tree trunk. This nest
was in a lodgepole pine of larger size than most in this locality, in the
fork of one of the larger branches, about three feet from the trunk.
Both birds were building here at 1 p.m. At 4 p.m. both birds were
seen hard at work carrying the nest material elsewhere." When we
ceased watching there was very little of the nest left. On July 5 we
happened to pass this place and were surprised to see the nest intact
and a bird upon it. It yielded a set of five eggs. This nest is not so
bulky as some of the others. Outside diameter, 153 mm.; inside diameter, 7-7; outside depth, 77; inside depth, 45. Construction as usual,
of twigs, moss, white plant fiber and dry grass.
No. 8. Found July 5, about half-finished. In the usual location:
against the trunk of a small lodgepole pine, about ten feet from the
ground.   We were not able to return to this nest.
Waxwings were discovered nesting at Doch-da-on Creek, fifty miles
down the river, under slightly different conditions from those at Telegraph Creek. On July 9 two occupied nests were found there, and
two apparently of the previous year, all in the same patch of woods.
This tract was composed mainly of balsam firs of rather large size,
with an admixture of cottonwoods and poplars, and with but little
underbrush. While these woods were thus fairly open, they were still
much denser than those in which we found the waxwings nesting at
Telegraph Creek. The two occupied nests were less than a hundred
yards apart, were exactly alike in location and structure, and when
found each contained one fresh egg. Each was near the top of a fir,
about twenty-five feet from the ground, supported upon a branch and
by surrounding twigs, and close to the trunk. On July 15 one of these
nests was taken, together with a set of three eggs. The other contained
two eggs, and was left undisturbed. No more eggs were laid in this
nest, the female being still incubating the two eggs some days later. 1922]
Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region
271
The nest taken (no. 1821) is more compact than most of those
found at Telegraph Creek, due to the firmer support given by the
short, stiff fir twigs, closely encircling the structure, as compared with
the sparse and slender branches of the lodgepole pine. It measures
as follows: outside diameter, 178 mm.; inside diameter, 76; outside
depth, 76; inside depth, 38 mm. The black moss enters into the construction of this nest to a greater extent than in any of the others.
There is but the scantiest framework of twigs on the outside, lending
support to the moss, which forms about nine-tenths -of the entire structure. There is but very little of the white fiber that is so conspicuous
in some of the others.
Pig. BB.   Nest and eggs of waxwing found near Telegraph Creek; nest near
the top of a small lodgepole pine.   Photograph taken June.22, 1919.
It will be seen that the waxwings' nests were all very much alike
in structure and location. All were in conifers, in rather open woods,
and not far above the ground (six to twenty-five feet). The nests
with one exception were against the trunk of the tree. The building
material was always the same, an outer structure of dead twigs, lending support to a mass of black moss and white plant fiber. Dry grass
was used as a lining sometimes but not always. The black moss was
the one material that was used in the greatest amount, and it appears
in all but one of the nests. This moss grows abundantly on the conifers
of the region, depending from the branches in great masses, like coarse
hair. The white plant fiber that is also so conspicuous in the. nests is
from the seed pod of the previous year's dead "fireweed" (Epilobium
angustifolium).
;P    1
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ill
II
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if
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< SI I 272
University of California Publications in Zoology
[Vol. 24
There was one additional feature in which the nests were all alike,
something that could not be preserved. Invariably there was a mass
of stuff depending six or eight inches below the nest proper, so loosely
attached as to seem on the verge of dropping away. This stuff was
mostly the moss and the white plant fiber; usually additional tufts of
these materials were adhering to nearby branches.
„- -.
i«
Pig. CC Pig. DD
Pig. CC. Grove of small fir trees where waxwings were found nesting at
Doch-da-on Creek. A nest may be seen in the tree in the center of the picture,
near the top of the tree and close to the trunk. Photograph taken July 15,
1919.
Pig. DD. Grove of small lodgepole pines where waxwings were found nesting near Telegraph Creek. There, is a nest in the tree at the left of the picture,
about halfway up and against the trunk.   Photograph taken June 20, 1919.
The nests seemed large for the size of the bird, and they were not
well hidden. Usually they were conspicuous, once we had found them,
and no difficulty was experienced in finding a nest we had reason to
suppose was in a certain locality. It was surprising, though, how
frequently we both walked past nests without seeing them, not having
noted the birds, though once found we marveled how we could have
overlooked them. 19221
Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region        273
The Bohemian waxwing, that is, the subspecies Bombycilla garrula
pallidiceps, has been discovered nesting at so few points in North
America that it seems worth while to give a resume of the findings of
previous observers for comparison with our own.
The first North American breeding record was announced by Baird
, (1866, 406), as follows: "The only instances on record of their discovery in America are of a nest and one egg by Mr. Kennicott, on the
Yukon, in 1861, and a nest and single egg on the Anderson River, by
Mr. MacFarlane, both of which, with the female parents, are in the
possession of the [Smithsonian] Institution."
Kennicott's nest was described by Brewer (in Baird, Brewer, and
Ridgway, 1874, 398) : "At Fort Yukon, July 4, Mr. Kennicott met
with the nest of this species. The nest, which contained but one egg,
was about eighteen feet from the ground, and was built on a side
branch of a small spruce that was growing at the outer edge of a clump
of thick spruces, on low ground. The nest was large, the base being
made of small, dry spruce twigs. Internally it was constructed of
fine grass and moose hair, and lined thickly with large feathers.''
In 1901, Brooks discovered the waxwing breeding at 158-Mile
House, in the southwestern corner of the Cariboo district, British
Columbia.
I first noticed them there on 11th June, when I came across a small flock and
shot one which proved pn dissection to be a female about to lay. On returning
to the same spot I found the Waxwings, consisting of a colony of five pairs of
birds, still there, and soon discovered a nest in a Murray pine, near the end of
a limb and about twenty-five feet up, this then (12th June) contained two eggs.
On the 15th I took this set, which then consisted of four eggs. The nest was
loose and bulky, composed of Usnea moss, dry grass and weed stems, and lined
with fine material, with a few green aspen leaves in the lining, no doubt to
render the eggs less conspicuous. On the 26th June I carefully Jooked over all
the trees in the neighborhood with my binocular, and found three more nests, all
in tall Douglas fir trees; two of these I was able to climb to; each contained
four eggs within a few days of hatching. The nests were similar to the first
but without the green aspen leaves, probably jhie to the fact that the nests were
better concealed from above (Brooks, 1903, p. 283).
11
On June 10, 1908, R. M. Anderson found the species nesting near
Fort Smith, at the boundary between Alberta and Mackenzie.    In
nearly all respects the circumstances were as we found them on the
Stikine.
Soon I saw what appeared to be a nest, a moss-covered bunch near the top
of a straight, slender jack-pine (Pinus banksiana), about 45 feet fromthe ground.
The nest, however, was so artfully concealed and draped with mosses that I
could not be sure that it really was a nest until I actually peered over the edge
of it. 274
University of California Publications in Zoology      you 24
The nest contained six eggs, which proved to be almost fresh; incubation
less than one day	
The nest measured 6% inches in outside diameter, and 2% inside; depth
(outside) 3 inches, (inside) 1% inches; composed externally of small, short,
dead pine twigs loosely arranged and partially covered with pale green moss,
and small bunches of white cottony vegetable fibres. The nest lining consisted
of a few fine grasses, a few bunches of fine wooly black mos3, and bunches of
the soft white cotton.
The tree containing the nest was at least twenty feet from any other tree
and had no limbs for at least twenty feet from the ground. The nest was placed
close to the body of the tree and supported by two small nearly horizontal limbs
and a few lateral supporting twigs from these (E. M. Anderson, 1909, pp. 11—12).
Pig. BE. Map showing the known breeding range of the Bohemian waxwing in North America. Circles indicate points where the species has been
found nesting. 1. Port Yukon, Alaska, July 4, 1861 (Baird, 1866, p. 406). 2.
Port Anderson (Baird, loc. cit.). 3. 158-Mile House, Cariboo District, British
Columbia, June, 1901 (Brooks, 1903, p. 283). 4. Port Smith, Alberta, June 10,
1908 (E. M. Anderson, 1909, pp. 11-12). 5. Atlin Lake, British Columbia, July,
1914 (E. M. Anderson, 19156, pp. 145-148). 6. Telegraph Creek, British Columbia, June and July, 1919 (Swarth and Dixon, MS). 1922]
Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region
275
In July, 1914, Ernest M. Anderson found the Bohemian waxwing
breeding1 on islands in Atlin Lake, in the extreme northwestern corner
of British Columbia. On July 8 he took four sets of eggs (E. M.
Anderson, 19156, pp. 145-148). Without going into details, it may
be said that in all essential respects of nest construction and location,
his findings accord very closely with our own.
These few records, covering six localities in the .Canadian northwest
and Alaska, appear to be the only authenticated instances of the actual
taking of nests and eggs of the waxwing in North America. In addition may be cited Riley's statement (1912, p. 69) of the probable nesting of the species at Moose, in southeastern British Columbia. Though
he found no nests, the conditions under which he found the birds were
sufficient proof of their breeding.
The nesting of the European subspecies (Bombycilia garrula gar-
rula) was most carefully described by John Wolley (1857) in his
memorable account of the first discovery of the nest and eggs of the
Bohemian waxwing in Finland, and by Newton (1861) in a longer
paper describing the same material. Wolley's description of the nest
reads in part as follows:
". . . . the main substance [of the nest] is of the kind of lichen
commonly called tree-hair This main substance of the nest is
strengthened below by a platform of dead twigs, and higher up towards
the interior by a greater or less amount of flowering stalks of grass,
and occasionally pieces of equisetum." He also found a little reindeer lichen, green moss, .willow cotton, and fiber of grass leaves in the
structure \ sometimes one or two feathers in the lining. The nests were
". . . . built on the branch of a tree, not near the bole, and rather
.... standing up from the branch . . . ., than supported by twigs
touching it at the sides Of six nests, four were in small spruces,
one in a good-sized Scotch fir, and one in a Birch—all placed at a
height of from 6 to 12 feet above the ground .... the nest seems
generally much exposed In parts of the forest considerably
open.
"Five seems to be the ordinary number of eggs; in one nest only
there were as many as six.
"In the backward and cold spring of 1856, Waxwings had their
full complement of eggs about the 12th of June" (Wolley, 1857, pp.
55-56).
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The eggs of the four sets of the American subspecies obtained in
1919 on the Stikine River, and now in the Museum of Vertebrate
Zoology, measure as follows:
Set no. 1818. 25.0 x 17.8, 24.2 x 17.8, 25.5 x 18.5, 25.2 x 17.5, 25.5 x
18.2, 26.0x18.0.
Set no. 1819. 24.2x17.0, 27.0x17.0, 27.0x17.2, 26.0x17.5, 26.2
x 17.2.
Set no. 1820. 26.8 x 17.8, 25.0 x 18.0, 26.5 x 18.0, 25.5 x 18.0, 26.8
x 17.8.
Set no. 1821.   24.8 x 18.0, 23.5 x 17.5, 24.0 x 18.0.
In color, three of the sets are much alike, a pale glaucous blue, close
to Ridgway's "pale dull glaucous-blue," but more washed out. This
ground color is marked rather profusely with blackish dots and with
a few fine, irregular lines, the dots mostly quite small and occurring
over nearly the entire egg, though less numerously at the smaller end
than elsewhere. There are also obscure underlying spots of bluish, but
faintly seen. The fourth set (no. 1821) is more olivaceous, the ground
color close to Ridgway's "mineral gray." The spots are fewer in
number than in the other sets, larger, and more sharply defined.
As to plumage, the more conspicuous variable features in the wax-
wing's markings are the waxlike tips to the secondaries, the white and
the yellow markings on primaries, primary coverts, and secondaries,
and the yellow tips to the rectrices. The most elaborate study yet made
of the plumage of this species is that written by Henry Stevenson
(1882), based upon 144 specimens killed in England during the
winter of 1866-67. Many of his statements are of interest in connection with the series of waxwings now in the collection of this
Museum.
First, as regards the wax secondary tip, he gives the following
table, including those birds of which the sex had been ascertained by
dissection.
Males
3 had 4 tips
7 had 5 tips
14 had 6 tips
14 had 7 tips
3 had 8 tips
41
Females
*1
had
2
tips
4
had
3
tips
7
had
4
tips
6
had
5
tips
7 had
6
tips
2
had
7
tips
1
had
8
tips
28
Sex uncertain. 1922
2] Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region        277
A similar table of 38 specimens of the American subspecies in this
Museum of which the sex has been ascertained is as follows:
Males
2 have 3 tips
6 have 4 tips
5 have 5 tips
8 have 6 tips
1 has 7 tips
22
Females
has no tips
has traces of
have 3 tips
have 4 tips
have 5 tips
7 have 6 tips
1 has 7 tips
tips
16
Besides those thus tabulated there are certain other variants. One
male has a faint trace of a wax tip on a secondary on one side only.
One female has two on one side, three on the other. One female has
four on one side, two on the other. One female has five on one side, six
on the other. Stevenson seemed to believe that such irregularities were
due to accidents or wear, but in these birds there is no evidence to
show that the unadorned secondaries had received any injury. One
female is indicated in the table as having traces of two tips. They
are so faint that they can be seen only by the most careful scrutiny,
and are devoid of red color. Of all the adult specimens examined,
forty-five in number, just one was found (a female) with absolutely
no trace of the wax tips. In several cases these tips show a decided
tendency to split up like feather barbs. It thus appears that these
appendages are formed by the coalescing of barbs, and not by an enlargement of the tip of the central shaft, though the shaft, too, is
involved in the general change. The ornamentation, in fact, may well
have begun with the coloring of the shaft, spreading later over the
adjoining feather barbs. The last stage would have been the coalescing of the barbs, forming the waxlike scale as it is now seen. Various
steps of this hypothetical evolutionary development are supplied in the
wing and tail feathers of different birds of this series.
The primaries of the waxwing have a white or yellow marking near
the tip. This marking is sometimes confined to the outer web, and
sometimes continued on to the inner web; the latter, producing a
V-shaped marking, has been designated by Stevenson (loc. cit.) as the
"return margin." In the brightest colored birds these markings are
bright yellow on the inner primaries, becoming more and more white
on the outermost ones. In the duller colored birds they are white
throughout.    The V-shaped character is invariably accompanied by
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bright yellow outer margins, but the yellow color is not restricted to
the individuals that have this "return' margin." Some of the birds
with the primary markings absolutely confined to the outer feather
margins still have them of brilliant yellow. None of the birds with
white primary spots have the "return margin."
There are several birds of both sexes at hand with more or less
indication of red at the tips of the tail feathers. This is never at all
conspicuous, and is usually confined to the shaft of the feather at the
extreme tip. In one or two instances the color spreads out over the
adjoining vane, but without any coalescing of the red colored barbs;
not one bird in the series has any well defined wax tips to the tail
feathers similar to those on the secondaries. There is some variation
in the yellow tip to the tail feathers, both in intensity of yellow and
in the breadth of the marking. There are also some specimens with
one or more tail feathers longer or shorter than the rest and of a
different tone of yellow, giving the appearance of having been held
over from a previous plumage.
Stevenson (loc. cit.) after careful study of the extensive series of
birds at his disposal was unable to discover any external character distinguishing male from female, though he was inclined to believe '' that
the assumption of the yellow tinge [on the primary markings] is probably more gradual in the female than in the male." The series before
the present writer does not shed any additional light upon this question. Although there is considerable variation in the character of wing
and tail markings, it appears to be purely individual. It so happens
that the brightest colored bird of the lot is a female (Mus. Vert. Zool.
no. 17437, sexed by C. I. Clay). In size (but not in number) of wax
wing tips, in "return margins" of primaries, in yellow on primaries,
and in size of white spots on secondaries, it is superior to any of the
males. In this bird the wax secondary tips are 7 mm. in length, a size
attained by only one or two males.
The brood of young birds we collected was naturally of more than
ordinary interest. The nest was discovered on June 24, containing
five young not more than two or three days old. On July 5 we returned. The nest was in a slender tree that swayed under the least
pressure, and at the first disturbance the young birds fluttered to the
ground. The brood was about two weeks old at this time. In two or
three days more, at most, all would have left the nest voluntarily.
The brood consisted of four males and one female. 1922] Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region
279
These young waxwings presented a most striking appearance in
life, for to my surprise they exhibited all the characteristic markings
of the adult. Not only that, but the yellow tip to the tail was much
brighter, more of an orange yellow, than it is in any of the old birds.
The wax tips to the secondaries were present in each of the four males
but not in the female. Two of the birds had four such tips, one had
five, and one had seven, as many as are seen in any of the adults.
These wax tips are as large as in many old birds. As rectrices' and
remiges were but partly grown out, the brightly colored tips occupied
a much greater proportion of the whole than is the case in fully feathered birds. The resulting color effect was most bizarre. The young,
with their remarkably vivid markings, looked utterly unlike the soberly
colored adults.
The four young males are very much alike in color and markings,
the only differences in appearance being those arising from the slight
difference in stage of development. The marginal primary markings
are present, sharply defined, and in each case bright yellow. In many
adults these markings are white. In the young males the terminal
tail band is orange-buff, the primary tips, light orange-yellow. In the
brightest adult at hand the tail band is light cadmium, the primary
tips, lemon chrome. In the young female the tail band is somewhat
paler than in the males, though still more orange than in any adult..
The primary tips are but slightly tinged with yellow.
A still more remarkable feature in the young males is the fact that
in each one the rectrices are distinctly tipped with red. These red
tips are not fully developed sealing-waxlike scales such as are on the
secondaries, but are produced by red coloration of the terminal portion
(4 or 5 mm. in length) of the feather shaft of the rectrix.
The female parent of this brood (the only one of the pair collected)
is a highly plumaged bird. It has six secondaries of one wing, five
of the other, with wax tips, the primary margins are bright yellow,
the tail is broadly tipped with yellow, and there is a faint suggestion
of red in one or two of the tail feathers.
As regards the young birds, it is seen that they possess all the
peculiar markings of the most brightly colored adults except the j' return margin" upon the primaries. This is not seen in any of the
young. The yellow wing and tail markings are much brighter than in
any adult at hand, even than in freshly molted birds with these feathers
but partly grown. While the young birds possess all the markings of
the adults, they are appreciably different in general body color.   They
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have a somewhat streaked appearance, though not as much so as in
the young cedar waxwing, the whole body is of a duller, darker gray
than in the adult, and the young bird has none of the vinous coloring
about the head that is seen in the adult. The crest is present but only
slightly developed. The young has a dull black line from the nostril
to the eye and posteriorly on the head, in resemblance to that on the
adult, but in our specimens of young there is just an indication of the
black throat. This may be due to the fact that in these birds the
feathers of chin and upper throat are but partly developed, but appearances would indicate that in the fully acquired juvenal plumage
the throat is whitish, bordered on each side by a line of dull black.
The middle of the belly is whitish, the under tail coverts a paler and
duller chestnut than in the adult. One feature in which the young
waxwings differ notably from the adults is the color of the inside of
the mouth. This was a bright reddish (spinel pink of Ridgway) with
a short, sharply defined streak of Mathews purple on each side, at the
corner of the mouth. In adults the inside of the mouth is flesh color
with but a suggestion of bluish at either side on the roof of the mouth.
In the young birds, the iris is dark. In adults there is a narrow but
distinct red ring surrounding the black pupil.
Although the fact that the young Bohemian waxwing possesses
practically all the distinctive markings of the most highly developed
adult was a surprise to the writer when the birds were first encountered in the field, it is not new in ornithological literature. There
have been a few juvenals collected, but although their appearance has
been commented upon at the time of capture, apparently the compilers
of the more general handbooks have never cited these scanty specimens as representative of the usual condition. Casual mention of an
early streaked stage, "similar to that of the cedar bird," is the information usually given. Wolley's description of a young bird, in his
account of the first discovery of the nesting of the European subspecies, is as follows:
A young bird caught on the 5th of August, as it fluttered from the nest, had
a general resemblance to the adult, though all the colours were more dull. The
wax-like ends to the wing-feathers, the yellow tip to the tail, the black patch
between the eye and the beak are all there, whilst the rich mahogany of the
under tail-coverts is of a quieter brown; the blooming vinous colour of the head
and back has not yet emerged from a homely neutral, and the crest is but just
indicated by the longish feathers of the crown. The most marked difference
between the adult and young is in the throat and under surface generally.
There is at present scarcely a trace of the deep black patch of the chin, and the
delicate tint of the general under surface of the adult is replaced by mottled 1922]
Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region        281
neutral and white. This upon examination is found to owe its appearance to
those longer webs, which arising towards the root of each feather, extend as
far outwards as the webs which arise nearer its tip, being very pale or white,
and thus relieving, on both sides, the last mentioned darker webs (Wolley, 1857,
p. 56).
-In Gould's "Birds of Great Britain" there is a colored plate figuring adult birds, a nest, and five young. Of the young, three show
the back and wings, all with wax tips to the secondaries. These figures
are from young taken by Dresser, July 4, 1858, but although five
juveniles are figured, in the text the statement is made that four
young were in the nest and just two were caught. (Gould, 1873, vol.
I pi. 21.)
Bishop (1900a, p. 89) describes three fully fledged young from the
Yukon region as having the waxlike appendages to the secondaries,
but of a paler red than in the adult. One of these same young birds
is described in detail by Ridgway (1904, p. 106). Evidently but few
young birds of this species have been collected. Judging from those
that have been taken, the waxlike secondary tips occur as frequently
in the juvenal plumage as in the later stages. In fact, with respect-
to all the variable features in this species, wax tips, white or yellow
wing markings, and yellow tail band, it is not possible to detect any
correlation between the extent of these markings or the intensity of
their color, and either age, sex, or season. We have, as described, birds
in juvenal plumage as brightly marked as any adult. The fact that
in the brood of five collected the four males have the wax tipping and
the one female lacks these appendages, gives the appearance of this
being a sexual feature. To offset this, the female parent of this brood
had the wax tips fully developed. Then, the female parent of a set
of five eggs, taken the same day, has the wax tips almost entirely
lacking.
In commenting upon the Bohemian waxwing as a winter visitant
to Montana, where they were abundant, Cameron (1908, p. 46) says:
Only a small proportion had yellow primary bands; in the great majority
these were white. Most birds had no red sealing wax appendages visible and
were presumably the young of the year. Others, besides showing white edging
to the ends of all the primaries except the two first, had four wax tips on the
secondaries. These may have been birds of eighteen months old which had
moulted twice, having regard to the fact that the waxwing moults only once a
year—in October. A few of the birds had brilliant yellow wing-bars and
numerous vermilion appendages, and I concluded that this small minority were
old birds.
!■ ,
1
w
1
w,
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Similar lines of reasoning have been followed regarding other birds
than the waxwing; that is, different types of plumage have been taken
as indicating different ages, rather than descriptions of plumages
being based upon specimens whose ages had been definitely ascertained in other ways. There is probably hardly a species where it
would seem a more obvious or safer thing to do than to judge the
age of a waxwing from the number and size of the waxen wing tips,
yet inspection of the juvenal plumage shows how unsafe such assumptions may be.
The most surprising statement in Cameron's account is the assertion that "most birds had no red sealing wax appendages visible."
Of the forty-five adults, examined in the present connection only one
lacks any trace of such an appendage, and except for Cameron's comment I should have believed that it was unusual for a Bohemian waxwing to lack these ornaments. In the smaller cedar waxwing the case
is different. An examination of the latter species as represented in
this Museum discloses 36 specimens with more or less wax tips to the
secondaries, and 41 without a vestige of such marking. Judging from
the material at hand, therefore, this character seems to be much more
fully developed in Bombycilla garrula than in B. cedrorum.
The flocking instinct is strong in the waxwing at all times. The
nests we found, at two different localities, while not sufficiently close
together to merit the term '' rookeries,'' were gathered in close proximity, and to the exclusion of surrounding areas apparently just as
well adapted to the purpose. The birds obviously prefer to nest in
fairly close company. When a sitting bird left the nest for the short
time necessary to feed each day, it was to join one or two others and
do the foraging in company. While both birds of a mated pair work
at nest construction, apparently all the labor of incubation falls upon
the female. Her mate, thrown upon his own resources, usually joined
some other unoccupied male. Usually two males fed together; occasionally there were more in company. Flocks were noted all through
the breeding season, usually of not more than twelve or fifteen individuals; by the end of July gatherings were seen that were several
times as large.
In nest building, male and female worked together. Dixon (MS)
observed one pair at their labors for some time and made the following notes: After the observer had taken his station the female arrived
with some white plant fiber. She put this fiber in place, and then, sitting in the nest, she turned around and around, shaping thus, with her
breast, the nest cavity.   Then the male arrived with more of the plant 1922]
Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region
283
fiber. He placed it within reach of the female, who proceeded to weave
it into the structure. The birds worked so assiduously that the nest
was nearly finished by noon of the. second day after it was begun.
In approaching and leaving the birds were usually together. Instead of flying directly to the nest they generally lit in some nearby
trees, then approached unobtrusively by several short flights through
the thicket. In departing similar precautions were used. When
perching they almost invariably chose a tree top or some elevated and
projecting limb. This was especially noticeable in birds disturbed at
their nests, and it was also the manner in which they perched when
engaged in flycatching activities.
Different birds varied in the degrees of tameness they showed about
the nests. The female of the first set taken remained upon the eggs
until the collector's hand was within a few inches of her. Male and
female together hovered about for a few minutes, occasionally uttering
the usual call note, and raising and lowering the crest. Then they
left and did not return at all in the two hours that we remained in
the vicinity.
A sitting bird when closely approached invariably pointed the bill
almost straight up, and kept the crest closely pressed to the head. The
young birds frightened from the nest resorted to the same tactics. On
one occasion One of a pair of waxwings, presumably the male, was seen
strutting about and exhibiting his beauties to his mate. Considering
that the two sexes are alike in every respect, it seemed rather a
superfluous performance, but at any rate the one bird was hopping
excitedly about from branch to branch, while the other sat still and
looked on. The active performer kept the tail partly spread, wings
drooping, and crest raised, and the whole body was held stiffly upright.
After several minutes the other seemed to tire of the performance and
flew away, followed at once by its mate.
Waxwings were seen feeding on insects and also on berries and other
vegetable matter. About Telegraph Creek, the first week in June, they
were usually seen perched on bare branches and making short sallies
after flying insects in true flycatcher style. Early in July a berry-
bearing shrub (Shepherdia canadensis) of general distribution in the
region came into bearing, and the waxwings, as well as other species of
birds, fed upon the berries of this plant to a great extent. The young
waxwings we took from the nest had also been fed upon these same
berries.
Under ordinary circumstances the only sound uttered by the waxwing is a sibilant call note much like that of the more familiar cedar
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bird. While notes of the two species are of the same character, still they
are distinguishably different. This difference may, perhaps, be indicated
by describing the cedar bird's call as a hiss, the Bohemian waxwing's
call as a buzz. The note of the latter is somewhat coarser; the listener
has an impression of hearing a series of very slightly separated notes,
rather than of a continuous sound such as the cedar bird utters. The
call note has been commented upon by Cameron (1908, p. 47), who
says: "When flying the birds keep up an incessant twittering, so that
high passing flocks are immediately recognized by their call of zir-r-r-r
—a sort of trill."
Griseom and Harper (1915, p. 369) make the following comments
upon the waxwing's call: "Though similar in general form to the
'beady notes' of B. cedrorum, they are less shrill, are more leisurely
uttered, and have a more noticeable rolling sound. They are also more
distinct, there being a comparatively greater interval between each
syllable in the series. The call has been represented by Seebohm as
cir-ir-ir-ir-re (quoted in Sharpe's 'Hand-book to the Birds of Great
Britain,' Vol. I, p. 177) and by Cameron as zir-r-r-r . . . . , but
neither rendering seems to express exactly the decided sibilant quality
of each syllable."
E. M. Anderson (19156, p. 146) makes a rather surprising statement regarding the voice of the waxwing. "While on the wing the
birds uttered a short succession of high-pitched, screaming notes,
closely resembling in character, though not in volume, the cries heard
on nearing a Pigeon Guillemot rookery on the seacoast." As far as
I am aware this is the only published statement that ascribes to the
waxwing any note other than the well-known hissing sound.
A bird shot by the present writer, which fell to the ground wounded,
uttered a loud, chattering noise, the only time I ever heard anything
of the kind. The young birds we removed from the nest called a great
deal. One of the five fluttered off into the bushes where he escaped
observation, but he soon began calling and was thus discovered. According to Dixon's notes at the time, the call note of the young waxwing was much like that of a young California shrike.
The American waxwing was given the name Bombycilla garrula
pallidiceps by Reichenow (1908, p. 191), with the type locality the
Shesly River, northern British Columbia. The Shesly River, a tributary of the Inklin, which in turn empties into the Taku, has its source
some twenty-five miles northwest of Telegraph Creek, its mouth,
some sixty miles beyond. Thus for all practical purposes our Telegraph Creek specimens of the waxwing may be regarded as topotypes. 1922
]        Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region
285
I had the opportunity of comparing a selection of these skins with
European examples of B. g. garrula in the United States National
Museum. The color differences distinguishing the two forms were
readily apparent in the series thus brought together, and the differences appear to me to be sufficiently pronounced to justify the recognition of the American subspecies, pallidiceps. (Cf. Oberholser, 1917c,
p. 333.)
We collected seventeen specimens of the waxwing, nine adult males,
three adult females, four juvenal males, and one juvenal female (nos.
40123-40139).
Vireosylva gilva swainsoni (Baird).   Western Warbling Vireo
Common in the poplar woods of the upper Stikine Valley. First
taken near Telegraph Creek on May 29; shortly after, the birds arrived
in numbers. They were seen daily at Glenora and Doch-da-on Creek,
undoubtedly breeding at both places. When we arrived at Flood
Glacier, July 26, the species was present in some abundance; at the
time of our departure, August 8, the birds were nearly all gone.
Whether or not this vireo breeds at the last mentioned locality was
not definitely ascertained, but I am inclined to think that it does,
judging from the actions of certain individuals. On July 31 a pair
of the birds spent nearly the whole day in an alder thicket near our
camp, scolding continually at some disturber of their peace that I
could not discover. Possibly an owl was roosting near-by. Anyway,
the vireos acted much as though they were concerned over the safety
of their brood.
At Great Glacier, August 10, two were seen. This was the latest
date of occurrence, and Great Glacier the westernmost locality at
which the species was noted. Our several points of record apparently
constitute the farthest known extension of the range of this subspecies toward the northwest. It is not included by Anderson (1915a)
in his list of birds from Lake Atlin, some two hundred miles north
of Telegraph Creek. The occurrence at Great Glacier carries the
range to within ten miles of the Alaskan boundary, and to within
about thirty miles of the coast.
Five adult specimens were collected, two from the vicinity of Telegraph Creek, one from Doch-da-on Creek, one from Flood Glacier,
and one from Great Glacier (nos. 40140-40144). These birds are in
no wise to be distinguished from others from more southern points
in the range of the subspecies, as in California.
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Vermivora celata orestera Oberholser.   Rocky Mountain Orange-
crowned Warbler
Warblers of this species are rare in the upper Stikine Valley, or
else they are so secretive during the nesting season as to avoid observation.   Two males (nos. 40145, 40146) were taken near Telegraph Creek
on May 27 and 31, respectively, probably migrants, and no more were
seen for some time.   At Doch-da-on Creek, July 18, when many birds
were beginning to move about after the close of the nesting season, a
female in juvenal plumage (no. 40147) was obtained.   Another young
bird, molting into first winter plumage  (no. 40148)  was taken at'
Great Glacier, August 11.
The two adults, compared with Vermivora celata lutescens of the
coast region, are of greater size and duller coloration. Compared
with V. c. celata, they are more yellowish, and lack the grayish tinge
of that race. Thus they exhibit the characters ascribed to Vermivora
celata orestera Oberholser (1905, p. 242; 19176, p. 326). The juvenals
may be distinguished from young lutescens by their gray juvenal
feathers, yellow in the latter race.
II Li v.
il'iliS1!
Vermivora celata lutescens (Ridgway). Lutescent Warbler
An immature' male just finishing the molt from the juvenal
plumage (no. 40149) was taken at Great Glacier, August 11. At
Sergief Island some were seen almost daily, evidently migrating and
usually in company with other transient warblers and kinglets. Five
specimens were taken, all immature, on dates ranging from August 18
to September 22 (nos. 40150-40154).
Vermivora peregrina (Wilson). Tennessee Warbler
Met with on but one occasion. On June 12, at a point some five
miles southwest of Telegraph Creek, my attention was drawn to an
unfamiliar, wheezy song, heard at the edge of a swamp. The singer
was discovered flitting from one twig to another in rather slow, vireo-
like manner, giving his song at frequent intervals. It proved to be an
adult male Tennessee warbler, and was undoubtedly nesting near-by.
This specimen (no. 40155) was the only one taken or observed, although
I kept careful watch for the species from that time on. 19221
Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region        287
Dendroica aestiva aestiva (Gmelin).   Eastern Yellow Warbler
A few seen near Telegraph Creek on May 26 were the first observed, but the species may have arrived some days earlier. The first
week in June the birds were abundant and quite generally distributed
through the lower valleys. The males were especially noticeable from
their habit of perching at the tops of dead and leafless trees, and there
singing. The loud song and brilliant color, with no concealing verdure round about, rendered them as conspicuous as such small birds
could well be. On June 14 a set of three slightly incubated eggs was
taken (no. 1822). The nest was in a cottonwood sapling, some twelve
feet from the ground, at the edge of a dense thicket.
At Doch-da-on Creek, the latter part of July, yellow warblers were
fairly numerous, and apparently on the move. At Flood Glacier,
early in August, and at Great Glacier, about the middle of the month,
they were seen frequently, though not in such numbers as had been
present farther up the river.
Eighteen specimens of yellow warbler were collected at points
on the Stikine River (nos. 40156-40173). The series comprises six
adult males and three adult females from Telegraph Creek, three adult
males from Glenora, one juvenal female from Doch-da-on Creek, and
one adult female and four immature females from Flood Glacier.
Dendroica aestiva rubiginosa is commonly considered as occupying
both the coast and the interior of Alaska and northern British
Columbia (see A. 0. U. Committee, 1910, p. 311; Ridgway, 1902,
p. 514; E. M. Anderson, 1915a, p. 16), but on how extensive a representation of specimens these opinions were based I do not know. My
Stikine River series is certainly sufficiently different from the coastal
bird to forbid the two lots from being considered of the same subspecies. The series of rubiginosa in the collection of this Museum
includes thirteen adult males from Vancouver Island and southeastern
Alaska. These birds are distinguished in color from other North
American races of Dendroica aestiva primarily by the combination
of dark dorsal coloration, paler yellow underparts, and narrow and
scanty chestnut streaking below. The Telegraph Creek birds do not
fit into this category at all. In this series the underparts are more
brilliantly yellow, and the chestnut streaks, are, in most of the specimens, numerous, broad, and conspicuous. As a series the lot fits in
absolutely with D. aestiva aestiva, in regard to ventral coloration.
In dorsal coloration they average somewhat darker than is the case
in an equally extensive series of eastern examples of aestiva, though 288
University of California Publications in Zoology      you 24
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selections can be made of closely similar specimens in the two series.
The variation in dorsal coloration is, I believe, at least partly due to
different degrees of wear and fading of the feathers. Specimens of
the two series that were taken at approximately the same dates are
practically indistinguishable. Measurements of the three lots are
given below.   They are of little diagnostic importance.
In my opinion the Stikine River birds should not be classed with
rubiginosa. They present certain differences in appearance; and in
habitat and migration they are as sharply set off from the coastal
birds as is the case with practically all the other bird species of the
region where they were taken. On our trip down the river I watched
for yellow warblers carefully and purposely, and they are rather
more conspicuous in migration than most small birds. The frequently
uttered zip-zip, as they fly from bush to bush, attracts attention, and
the yellow color is easily seen. At Doch-da-on Creek, at Flood Glacier,
and at Great Glacier, yellow warblers were in evidence, obviously
migrating, but below Great Glacier I could not see that there were
any traveling down stream. My belief is that they find an outlet
through the mountains to the southward, and that they do not reach
the coast. When we reached Sergief Island, in the habitat of the
coastal race (Dendroica aestiva rubiginosa), yellow warblers abruptly
became scarce. We saw very few, whereas this island was directly in
the line of travel down the river. During the first two weeks of our
stay, the latter part of August, none was seen. On September 1 several were noted in company with other migrating warblers, and on
September 2 a single bird was observed.
On both scores, of physical characters and of distribution, I regard
the yellow warblers of the upper Stikine River as best referred to
Dendroica aestiva aestiva., showing some variation toward rubiginosa. Females and immature birds do not show the subspecific characters as do the adult males, and such of the former as were collected
at Flood Glacier and Great Glacier are ascribed to aestiva on the
grounds of probability.
TABLE XI
Measurements in millimeters  (average, minimum and maximum) of Dendroica
aestiva aestiva and Dendroica aestiva rubiginosa
Wing Tail
Dendroica a. aestiva     10 males1   62.3 (60.0-64.0)    43.9 (42.0-46.0)
Dendroica a. aestiva       9 males2   62.4 (60.5-64.0)    44.5 (42.5-46.5)
Culmen
9.6 (9.0-10.0)
9.3 (8.5-10.0)
Dendroica a. rubiginosa 10 males3   61.5(59.5-64.0)   43.6(42.0-46.0)    9.7(9.0-10.0)
1Ontario, Canada, 4; Wisconsin, 4; Michigan, 2.
^Telegraph Creek, 7; Glenora, 2.
•Prince William Sound, Alaska, 2; Sitka, 1; Chickamin River,
s.e. Alaska, 3; Vancouver Island, 4. 1922] Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region
289
Dendroica coronata hooveri McGregor.   Alaska Myrtle Warbler
Apparently not common in this region, though some were seen at
each collecting station. At the Junction the species was first seen on
May 28. Two females taken on May 29 were evidently not breeding;
from their actions, these birds and others seen the same day were as
yet not even paired. To all appearances they had just arrived. None
was seen in the immediate vicinity of Telegraph Creek, but a few
pairs were encountered at scattered points some miles away. A few
were seen at Glenora. At Doch-da-on Creek, July 8 to 25, small flocks
occasionally appeared, sometimes a single family, sometimes evidently
composed of two or more broods. The species undoubtedly nests at
that point. Whether or not it nests at Flood Glacier, our next station
down stream, is questionable, though I should think it likely that a
few pairs might extend that far. Several specimens were taken there,
and others were seen, some each day. At Great Glacier, August 9
to 16, Hoover warblers were seen frequently, migrating then and
evidently traveling down stream. At the time of our arrival at Sergief
Island, at the mouth of the river, on August 17, there were none of
these warblers present. The first was obtained there on August 30,
and in the next day or two the birds were arriving in considerable
numbers.
We found no nests. Not many of the birds were seen under such
circumstances that it seemed profitable to make search, and when
we did attempt to watch individuals that were obviously nesting
near-by the results were fruitless. For one thing, the suspects we
selected invariably dropped all other interests in order to follow us
about, and, each time, the warbler we were watching proved able to
sit around doing nothing longer than we ourselves cared to.
The first young bird was collected on June 18, and others in juvenal
plumage were taken at later dates, to July 10. One taken at Doch-
da-on Creek, July 22, is well advanced in the molt into first winter
plumage; another from Great Glacier, August 14, has just begun
this change. One from Sergief Island, September 1, still retains
much of the juvenal plumage. It is interesting to note that this bird
probably traveled some distance from its birthplace while undergoing
the molt. Another specimen taken at Sergief Island the same day
has practically completed the change into first winter plumage.
Adults in various stages of wear were taken up to the end of July.
A female taken July 26 is in extremely shabby and abraded plumage,
': I
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but with no new feathers as yet. A male shot August 2 shows the first
indication of the postnuptial molt. This is evident only in the flight
feathers, the first primary and the adjoining secondary of each wing
being partly grown out.   No adults were taken at a later date.
This species is one of the few that migrates coastward at the close
of the breeding season. There is probably a movement directly southward east of the coast mountains also, but there is no doubt but that
there is a regular late-summer line of travel down the Stikine River
to the coast. The birds were noted traveling down stream, and the
arrival of the species at Sergief Island was in sufficient numbers to
warrant the movement being regarded as of regular annual occurrence.
Similar conditions have been noted in the late summer at the mouth of
the Taku River, another large stream flowing from the interior to the
coast, and emptying about one hundred and fifty miles north of the
mouth of the Stikine River (see Swarth, 1911, p. 99). There is no
information at hand regarding a return in the spring through the same
regions.
Twenty specimens were collected (nos. 40174-40193), the series
comprising four adult males, seven adult females, six in juvenal
plumage, and three in first winter plumage. These were assembled
with other material in this Museum for comparison with the eastern
Dendroica c. coronata. Gomparable material in the tw_o subspecies
comprised, of coronata, 14 adult (summer) males, 10 adult (summer)
females, 4 immature (first winter) ; of hooveri, 13 adult (summer)
males, 15 adult (summer) females, 11 immature (first winter). There
are also midwinter and juvenal specimens of hooveri, stages at which
there are no comparable specimens of coronata available.
Judging from this material, the subspecies Dendroica c. hooveri is
but faintly characterized. As claimed by the original deseriber
(McGregor, 1899, p. 32), hooveri averages slightly larger than coronata (see table), but there is much overlapping in measurements. I,
myself, am unable to perceive most of the differences of color and
markings that have been said to characterize the two subspecies.
McGregor (loc. cit.) claimed differences in measurements only. Bishop (1900a, p. 90) advanced certain color characters, found in a series
collected by himself in Alaska, notably in the summer plumage of the
adult male. He says: "Adult males average paler below than typical
D. coronata, the black markings being narrower, thus giving an effect
of broad longitudinal markings rather than black clouding on the
chest."    This statement is endorsed by Grinnell  (19096, p. 235). 1922]
Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region
291.
Bishop (loc. cit.) claims further that there are color differences in the
juvenal plumage. Oberholser. (19186, p. 465) upholds the validity of
hooveri, asserting "that it differs from Dendroica coronata coronata
not only in its larger size but in the coloration of male, female, and
even young." Ridgway (1902, p. 548, footnote) and Riley (1912,
p. 70) each refuse recognition to hooveri.
The series assembled by myself in the present connection demonstrates the average size, differences claimed to exist. I fail to appreciate
any differences whatsoever of color or pattern between adult males
and females of the two lots. The juvenal plumages I have been unable
to compare. As regards immatures in first winter plumage, examples
of hooveri are slightly (but distinguishable) darker, more brownish,
than comparable specimens of coronata (see in this connection Swarth,
1911, p. 99).
Ill
TABLE XII
Measurements in millimeters (average, minimum and maximum) of Dendroica
coronata coronata and Dendroica coronata hooveri
Wing
Length of white spot
on outer
tail feather.
Tail Culmen
Dendroica coronata coronata, 14 males1
72.4 (70.5-76.0)       56.8 (55.0-59.2)       8.9 (8.5-9.5)       20.8 (18.0-22.5)
Dendroica coronata hooveri, 12 males2
75.7 (73.5-79.0)       58.8 (57.2-60.0)       8.8 (8.0-9.2)       22.0 (20.0-25.0)
Massachusetts, 3; Connecticut, 1; New York, 1; NewJersey,2; District of Columbia, 1; Virginia.l;
Indiana, 2; Illinois, 1; Wisconsin, 1; Minnesota, 1.
!Kowak River, Alaska, 4; Yukon River, Yukon and Alaska, 4; Stikine River, British Columbia, 4.
I
Dendroica townsendi (J. K. Townsend). Townsend Warbler
Very few seen at any point, and none under circumstances that
would lead to the belief that the species was breeding east of the
coastal mountains. First noted at Flood Glacier, where it may, perhaps, have been breeding, or where the birds seen may have wandered
from nearer the coast. The first was taken on July 28 (no. 40194)
and another on August 3 (no. 40195), both molting from juvenal to
first winter plumage. Several more were seen. A male in first winter
plumage throughout (no. 40196) was taken at Great Glacier, August
14, and others were observed at the same point. At Sergief Island
but one or two were noted, the last on September 1. 292
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Seiurus noveboracensis notabilis Ridgway.    Grinnell Water-Thrush
At Glenora, July 7, an adult male was obtained that was undoubtedly nesting near-by.   At Doch-da-on Creek, July 21, another
adult male was taken.
Of these two birds, the Glenora specimen (no. 40197), as compared with the one from Doch-da-on Creek (no. 40198), is appreciably
smaller, with smaller bill, is darker colored throughout, and is
noticeably more yellowish below. This may represent individual variation toward the eastern subspecies, Seiurus n. noveboracensis. The
two Stikine specimens, however, resemble each other more nearly than
either one resembles any eastern example at hand.
Oporornis tolmiei (J. K. Townsend). MacGillivray Warbler
Abundant throughout the- whole of the region we explored. First
noted at the Junction, June 1, one bird seen and another heard
singing. During the next few days they were evidently arriving in
abundance, and thereafter the song was heard nearly everywhere we
went. The first young out of the nest was seen July 13, at Doch-
da-on Creek. A day or two later they were emerging in numbers,
and as we went through the woods fussy parents in attendance
followed us about. The species was noted in moderate abundance
at each of our subsequent stations—Flood Glacier, Great Glacier,
and Sergief Island. Last noted, a single bird on Sergief Island,
September 3.
Nine specimens were collected (nos. 40199-40207). An adult male
taken at Flood Glacier, August 4, is finishing the annual molt; the
body plumage is practically renewed, but wing and tail feathers are
but half-grown. Two young birds taken August 4 and 12, respectively,
are in first winter plumage throughout.
Although the MacGillivray warbler is so abundant in the upper
Stikine Valley, that region must be nearly the northern extreme
reached by the species. It is not included in E. M. Anderson's (1915a)
list of birds of the Atlin District, less than two hundred miles to the
northward. I do not know whether this warbler should be considered
primarily as a species of the interior or of the coast, or whether it is
one of the few birds that occurs in equal abundance in both regions.
It has been found in summer at various points on the Alaskan coast
(Swarth, 1911, p. 101). 19223 Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region
293
Wilsonia pusilla pileolata (Pallas). Pileolated Warbler
In our experience a rare species in the upper Stikine Valley. A
few were seen from May 29 to June 1, between Telegraph Creek and
the Junction, but these appeared to be migrants. None seemed to
be nesting. Next encountered at Flood Glacier, where, on August 4,
a bird was caught in a mouse trap. The fall migration was then
setting in, and a few days later, at Great Glacier, pileolated warblers
were noted from time to time with other migrating warblers. At
Sergief Island, the latter part of August they were seen almost daily,
the last on September 1.
Six specimens were collected (nos. 40208-40213), two adult males
and one adult female from the vicinity of Telegraph Creek, an immature (sex not determined) from Flood Glacier, and an immature
male and immature female from Great Glacier. These specimens, in
my opinion, are all referable to the subspecies pileolata. The three
Telegraph Creek adults are slightly darker and duller colored throughout than coastal birds, and to that extent, presumably, lean toward
pusilla, but they are not so dark colored as eastern specimens of that
subspecies. In measurements they do not differ from coastal pileolata.
With the material at hand it is not possible to tell whether the im-
matures collected in August at Flood Glacier and Great Glacier are
migrants from the inferior or from the coast. They are not appreciably
different from immature pileolata from Alaskan coastal points.
Setophaga ruticilla (Linnaeus). American Redstart
First encountered near Telegraph Creek on June 11. From the
actions of the birds seen on that date and the number that were
observed, it seemed as though they might have arrived some time previously, but the same ground had been traversed two days before
without any redstarts being seen or heard. From this time on the song
of this species was heard by us practically everywhere we went in the
poplar woods of the lowlands. Males in the plumage of the female,
supposed to be birds of the previous year, sang just as did those in the
brilliant black and orange livery. That the dull feathered males were
breeding was shown in one instance in the capture of a mated pair,
evidently preparing to nest. This was on June 15. The male was
just like the female save for a few black feathers scattered through
the body plumage.   The female was almost ready to lay. 294
University. of California Publications in Zoology      you 24
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At Doch-da-on Creek, the. latter part of July, redstarts were present
to the same extent as about Telegraph Creek. They were probably
still nesting. During the third week in July certain birds could be
found daily at the same places in the woods, and they always evinced
concern at the presence of an intruder.
That we saw no redstarts at Flood Glacier was probably just chance.
The species may not breed that far down the river, but it undoubtedly
occurs as a migrant, at least in the fall. At Great Glacier, August 8
to 16, the birds were frequently seen, and to the last day of our stay.
This station is about ten miles, from the Alaska-British Columbia
boundary, and the redstarts were sufficiently numerous there to make
it seem certain that some individuals must occasionally stray the few
miles farther that would take them into Alaskan territory. I looked
carefully for the species on Sergief Island, at the mouth of the river,
but did not see it there.
A set of four eggs was taken near Glenora, July 5 (no. 1823). On
July 2 this nest was found containing two eggs. It was placed in an
upright crotch in a willow sapling, about eight feet from the ground.
Ten specimens of the American redstart were collected (nos. 40214-
40223), three adult males, two males, breeding but in female plumage,
one adult female, three immature males, one immature, sex not determined. I cannot see that these birds differ in any particular from
specimens of Setophaga ruticilla from the eastern United States.
mm
Anthus rubescens (Tunstall).   Pipit
Small flocks that were seen at Telegraph Creek, May 23 and 24,
were undoubtedly of migrating birds, for the species does not breed
in that region at so low an altitude. On May 29 a number of pipits
were seen at the Summit, twelve miles north of Telegraph Creek, and
at an altitude of about 2700 feet. They should have been breeding
thereabout, for the locality is suitable, and birds taken on this date
appeared to be in breeding condition, but on a later visit to the same
place, June 4, no pipits were seen.
Next encountered July 11 on the mountains above Doch-da-on
Creek at 4500 feet altitude and higher, where they were fairly abundant and evidently feeding young. They were extremely shy, and
though a good many were seen they were usually drifting about
through the air, and keeping well out of gun shot. They were calling continually, uttering a note that I have never heard in the winter.
This was a sharp, oft-repeated wheet, wheet, wheat, the notes given 1922]
Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region        295
singly at intervals of several seconds, and uttered both in flight and
from the ground. No nests were found and no young seen. When we
reached Sergief Island, August 17, the pipits had not yet arrived.
The first was seen on August 25, then they increased in numbers
rapidly, and were abundant at the time of our departure, September 7.
Three specimens were collected (nos. 40224-40226), an adult male
and female from the Summit, May 29, and an adult female from the
mountains above Doch-da-on Creek, July 11.
Nannus hiemalis pacifieus (Baird). Western Winter Wren
Found nowhere in the lowlands of the upper Stikine Valley. On
July 23 an adult female (no. 40227) was taken in a spruce forest on
the slope of a mountain above Doch-da-on Creek, at about 3000 feet
altitude. This was the only one seen at that point. The species was
next encountered at Flood Glacier, where a juvenal was collected on
August 2 (no. 40228). At Great Glacier, several were seen and two
juvenals collected (nos. 40229-40230). Whether or not the two latter
places, at the level of the river, are breeding stations I cannot say.
The bird collected upon the mountain above Doch-da-on Creek was,
I believe, upon its nesting ground.
At Sergief Island the western winter wren was found amid most
unusual surroundings in tall grass and reeds, far out on the marshes.
The birds were seen thus daily, foraging over the water just as do the
marsh wrens. Sometimes they were in small gatherings, five or six at
a time being flushed from the grass.
rH'J    .-If     J
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Certhia familiaris occidentalis Ridgway. Tawny Creeper
A young male just finishing the molt into first winter plumage was
taken at Flood Glacier, August 2. On Sergief Island, August 24, two
birds in juvenal plumage were collected. These were all that were
seen. Once or twice I thought I heard a creeper's call notes at high
altitudes in the mountains but was never able to verify my belief. It
seems likely that some form of this species breeds throughout the
Stikine region, but if so the birds are certainly present in but small
numbers or we would have encountered some.
The three specimens collected (nos. 40231-40233) are apparently
best referred to Certhia f. occidentaUs, though they all exhibit a decided leaning toward C. f. montana. They may all have been migrants
from some inland point, not far distant, inhabited by the subspecies
montana. S*
296
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Sitta canadensis Linnaeus.   Red-breasted Nuthatch
Not breeding at any point visited.    One was seen at Doch-da-on
Creek on July 22, at a time when birds were generally beginning to
move about, and several more on July 26.   An immature male (no.
40234) was taken at Flood Glacier, August 2.   No more were seen.
Penthestes atricapillus septentrionalis (Harris).   Long-tailed
Chickadee
Seen at every collecting station east of the British Columbia-Alaska
boundary line. Near Telegraph Creek, the last week in May and the
first week in June, those seen were quiet and unobtrusive, and doubtless there were many more pairs nesting in the general vicinity than
appeared to be the case from the few we saw. A. nest found near
Telegraph Creek contained nine young, about ready to leave on
June 14. At Glenora, during the first week in July, full-grown young
were collected, from flocks formed by the junction of two, sometimes
of three, families. Encountered at Doch-da-on Creek and certainly
nesting there, but not so abundant as farther up the river. At Flood
Glacier there were a few of the birds about, but it seems unlikely that
they had nested there. We were not at that station at the proper
season to definitely ascertain this, but the woods are not of the character that is most favored by this chickadee; there are no' poplars at
all, the forest is, for the most part, of conifers with but a few cottonwoods, and is dense and dark. Where the long-tailed chickadee appears to be most at home is in rather open and sunny poplar woods.
Several small flocks were seen at Great Glacier, August 9 to 16,
but again it does not seem likely that the species had been nesting
there. The Great Glacier is only about ten miles from the British
Columbia-Alaska boundary, so that it is probable that the long-tailed
chickadee occurs at times quite to the mouth of the river.
The nest discovered near Telegraph Creek was in a tract of rather
open woods, mostly of small poplars. It was in a dead poplar stub
about three inches in diameter, a mere shell of dead and decayed wood,
hardly strong enough to hold the tightly packed and rapidly growing
young, who did actually break through the wall at one place. The
entrance hole was five inches from the base, the nest itself, flush with
the ground.   The lining appeared to be entirely of matted moose hair.
Both parents carried food to the nest assiduously after foraging
expeditions that lasted from two to five minutes. In approaching the
nest, the old birds came through the trees and bushes until within 1922 ]        Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region
297
about eight or ten feet of their destination; then they dropped to the
ground and hopped to the entrance. To the casual observer they disappeared at a point some distance from the nest, and it was not until
they had been observed for some time that this subterfuge was detected.
The staple food that was being brought to the young was a small green
caterpillar infesting the poplars at that time; also a white grub, a
green katydid, and many mosquito-like insects.
Thirty specimens were collected (nos. 40235-40264), six adults,
eighteen in juvenal plumage, and six in various stages of the molt from
juvenal to first winter plumage. Two of the latter category, from
Great Glacier, August 12, have nearly finished the change. The birds
of this series, in color and size, exhibit the characters ascribed to the
subspecies septentrionalis, that is, as regards differentiation from the
eastern atricapillus. Within the rather extensive habitat of septentrionalis there appears to be some variation in color, perhaps enough
to separate the Stikine River birds as distinguishably darker colored
than typical septentrionalis. A few specimens at hand from the middle
west suggest this possibility, but there is not enough material available
to verify the supposition. The buffy coloration on the sides and flanks
appears to be an extremely evanescent character, conspicuously present in the fresh fall plumage, but absent in breeding adults (in which
this same plumage has been subject to several months of wear). In
very young birds (nestlings) it is strongly apparent, but in juvenals
that could have been out of the nest no more than a month it has
almost entirely vanished.
;h
Penthestes gambeli abbreviatus Grinnell.
Chickadee
Short-tailed Mountain
The limited opportunities we had for observation of this bird did
not suffice to demonstrate its ecological relationships with P. atricapillus septentrionalis. That is, as regards choice of local habitats of
the two—an interesting point where two such closely related species
of one genus occur in the same general region. Septentrionalis, as
previously remarked, strongly favors the poplar woods, and other
subspecies of the species atricapillus are known as denizens of
deciduous forests elsewhere. The species gambeli, on the other hand,
is largely an inhabitant of coniferous woods, and it seems likely that
in the Stikine region P. gambeli abbreviatus makes its summer home
amid the spruce and balsam of the higher mountain slopes, where we
never  encountered P.  atricapillus septentrionalis.    At Doch-da-on 298
University of California Publications in Zoology     [VoL-
Creek, at the end of the nesting season, small flocks of P. gambeli
abbreviatus were seen on several occasions; it was observed nowhere
else. Five specimens were collected (nos. 40265-40269), four on
July 14 in woods at the river's edge, and one on July 23, on a mountain slope at about 3000 feet elevation, close to timber line. The
series consists of two adults in extremely worn plumage, and three
in juvenal plumage. Oberholser (19196, p. 424) has reported the
occurrence of this subspecies at Thudade Lake, British Columbia.
The present point of record is about two hundred miles northwest of
Thudade Lake, and, in a direct line, about sixty miles from the coast.
It must indicate about the extreme northwestern limit reached by this
bird. For the use of the name Penthestes gambeli abbreviatus see
Grinnell, 1918, p. 510.
■Mill
Penthestes rufescens rufescens (J. K. Townsend).   Chestnut-backed
Chickadee
A number of small flocks seen in the dense spruce woods at Flood
Glacier. The occurrence of this common coastal species at that point
implies its continuous distribution along the river below that station.
That we did not meet with it at Great Glacier and Sergief Island was
probably fortuitous. Nine specimens were collected at Flood Glacier
on dates ranging from July 31 to August 7, all young birds in juvenal
plumage (nos. 40270-^0278).
Regulus satrapa olivaeeus Baird.   Western Golden-crowned Kinglet
Very few kinglets were seen anywhere. From May 27 to June 4
several of the present species, apparently migrants, were observed at
different times along the trail from Telegraph Creek to the Summit.
Our failure to find the species subsequently may, perhaps, have been
because the birds were breeding in the spruce timber of the higher
mountain slopes, to which we made but few visits. Several times I
thought I heard the sibilant call note of the golden-crowned kinglet in
some dense timber above Doch-da-on Creek (at about 3000 feet altitude), in July, but I was unable to see the birds. At Flood Glacier,
August 7, one was seen in a mixed flock of migrating small birds, and
there may have been others passing through at the time. Two specimens were collected during the summer, an adult male at the Junction,
May 27 (no. 40279), and an adult female at Flood Glacier (no. 40280). 19221
Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region
299
Regulus calendula calendula (Linnaeus). Ruby-crowned Kinglet
Occurred in about the same manner as the golden-crowned kinglet.
A few were seen between Telegraph Creek and the Summit during the
last week in May and the first week in June. Then on July 18 an adult
female was collected on a mountain slope near Doch-da-on Creek, at
about 4000 feet altitude, presumably upon its nesting ground. This
bird (no. 40281) is in very worn plumage, but, even so, there is no
doubt that it does not belong to the coastal subspecies, R. calendula
grinnelli. It is of a paler colored race of the interior. Whether or
not this is the same as the ashy colored subspecies, R. c. dneraceus,
of the mountains of California, the material at hand does not suffice
to determine.
Regulus calendula grinnelli W. Palmer. Sitka Kinglet
A few migrating ruby-crowned kinglets were seen at Great Glacier
on August 10, 11, and 13, and four specimens were collected (nos.
40282-40285). At Sergief Island a single bird was seen on September 1. The four obtained are all young birds molting from juvenal
into first winter plumage.   They are clearly of the subspecies grinnelli.
Myadestes townsendi (Audubon). Townsend Solitaire
Fairly common at low altitudes in the upper Stikine Valley. There
were at least three pairs nesting within half a mile of the town of
Telegraph Creek, and others were seen down the river as far as Doch-
da-on Creek. The solitaires had already reached the region when we
arrived, on May 23; in fact, nesting activities must have been well
under way by that time. On June 7 a nest was found containing five
eggs, just hatching; the next morning it held three young birds. Two
of the eggs were apparently not fertile. This nest, close to town and
by the side of a road we traversed almost daily, was kept under observation until the family departed. On the morning of June 20 the
young were gone, having left since the previous evening.
The nest was placed under the overhanging bank on the upper
side of a wood road. The slope was south facing and the nest well
exposed to the sun's rays. This exposure, advantageous as far as
warmth was concerned, placed the bulky structure conspicuously in
view of anyone passing along the road, for there was no concealing
vegetation on the bare, dirt bank. 300
University of California Publications in Zoology     you 24
A second nest, in a somewhat similar situation, was discovered,
unfinished, on June 8. Both birds were around at that time, but they
deserted this home before any eggs were laid.
The solitaires did not sing much but the call note was uttered continually. From our rooms in town at Telegraph Creek, this was one
bird note that could be heard hour after hour, monotonously repeated
nearly the whole day through. To our ears it sounded so nearly like
the distant barking of a California ground squirrel (CiteUus beecheyi)
that the sound would surely have been disregarded as a bird call had
we been in a region where the squirrels occur.
Fig. FF. Townsend soKtaire (Myadestes townsendi) on nest. This nest was
placed in a cut bank at the side of a road, a southern exposure that received the
full benefit of the sun's rays. Photograph taken near Telegraph Creek, June 9,
1919.
At Glenora, early in July, and at Doch-da-on Creek, toward the end
of the same month, solitaires were seen at intervals, single birds, and
apparently migrating, though nearly all that were seen were still in
the juvenal plumage. While none was observed by us any farther
down the river, the capture of one at Wrangell on April 30, 1919, by
E. P. Walker (no. 41286) indicates the possible occurrence of the
species at any point in the Stikine Valley during the migrations.
Two specimens were collected, a male and a female, both in juvenal
plumage, taken at Glenora on July 5 and 7, respectively (nos. 40286,
40287). Compared with Calif ornian birds at the same stage, the Stikine
River specimens show some difference in coloration.   The ground color 1922
Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region        301
of the upper parts in the northern birds is appreciably more gray, less
buffy, and the spots are less yellowish. We obtained no adults, but
the Wrangell adult, above mentioned, and others from the Rocky
Mountain region farther south are not perceptibly different from the
Californian birds. The differences seen in the juvenals may be significant, but our material is not sufficient to demonstrate the fact.
Hylocichla ustulata ustulata (Nuttall).   Russet-backed Thrush
There were a very few individuals of this species still lingering in
the region when we arrived at the. mouth of the Stikine River, about
the middle of August. One was seen on Sergief Island, August 18,
and another on September 4, both in the alder thickets that surrounded
our camp. As neither one was taken, it is, of course, possible that the
birds seen were of the subspecies swainsoni, rather than ustulata. Our
experience on the Stikine disclosed the presence of swainsoni so far
down the river that it would not be surprising if occasional individuals
should wander quite to the coast during migration. However, as
Sergief Island is within the known range of ustulata, while swainsoni
has never yet been taken on the coast, it is proper to refer the records
from that point to the race known to occur there.
Hylocichla ustulata swainsoni (Tschudi).   Olive-backed Thrush
One of the commoner species of the upper Stikine Valley. First
noted at the Junction on May 28; the next three days saw an influx
of considerable numbers. On May 31 the first song was heard, so
similar to the, to us, more familiar notes of the russet-backed thrush
as to be indistinguishable. On June 5 a female was shot, with eggs
beginning to enlarge in the ovary, on June 9 one was taken which
had laid part of its set, and on June 12 the first set of eggs was obtained. A young bird, just out of the nest, was taken at Glenora on
July 7, and full-grown juvenals were collected at Flood Glacier early
in August.
This is a bird of the poplar woods and willow thickets of the lowlands, primarily, but we found it also in small numbers well up the
mountain sides. On July 17 Dixon saw several at the upper edge of
the spruce timber (about 4000 feet) on the mountains above Doch-da-on
Creek.
Nests found were all at the lower levels. The first discovered was
in fairly open woods, mostly of small willows, and in a very exposed
III;
V ill 302
University of California Publications in Zoology      [VoL- 24
ij'li':
1
situation. The nest was about four feet from the ground, between
four upright willow branches, and there was no concealing green
growth about it. The material used was mostly dried weed stems,
grass, and shreds of bark. The lining differs from the Outer structure
only in that it consists of finer material of the same sort. Dimensions
of this nest are as follows: greatest outside diameter, 170 mm.; inside
diameter, 68; outside depth, 100; inside depth, 40. It contained four
eggs, partly incubated.
A second nest was collected on June 19, essentially like the first
except that it is less bulky. This was in an alder, about four feet
from the ground, alongside a seldom used road, and again in a most
exposed situation. The set was of four eggs. On June 19 still another
nest was found, in a crotch in a dead willow, about eight feet up. In
this one there are more and coarser bark strips used, and a good deal
of the cottony fiber from the fireweed pods. It contained five eggs.
The last occupied nest was found at Doch-da-on Creek, July 21, containing three eggs nearly ready to hatch. This was in an alder, about
three feet from the ground. In the case of the nest last described, the
parent bird, presumably the female, was in great distress and did not
go very far away. With each of the others, the sitting bird slipped
unobtrusively away and did not return until some time had elapsed,
probably never under twenty minutes.
At Great Glacier, August 11, a young bird was collected, not yet
able to fly, that is clearly referable to swainsoni. This last record is
of considerable interest as it carries the breeding range of swainsoni
westward in this region to a point about thirty miles from the coast,
the habitat of Hylocichla u. ustulata. Although the habitats of the
two subspecies thus approach so closely, there is no evidence of intergradation of characters between them. In the Stikine River series of
swainsoni there is not one specimen of an equivocal character. On the
contrary, these birds-, like those from the Yukon region, show an extreme- of grayness, compared with typical swainsoni from eastern
North America, that carries them farther from ustulata in appearance
than are specimens from the Atlantic coast. (In this connection see
Oberholser, 1898, p. 305.) It may be pointed out also that although
ustulata and suminsoni breed in different parts of northern California,
there is no section of that state that is known to be occupied by birds
of intermediate character. As in the Stikine region, both occur in
typical form quite to the margins of their respective habitats. Thus,
if ustulata and swainsoni are to be regarded as two subspecies of one 1922] Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region        303
species, it must be on the criterion of individual variation rather than
on that of gradual blending through the population of contiguous
territories. In the Stikine region the two forms occur, in the interior
and on the coast, respectively, and within a few miles of each other,
as distinct in appearance as any two species. On the other hand, as
regards song, nesting habits and eggs, these features all supply evidence to show close relationships between the two. In none of these
respects is there any apparent difference.
Twenty-one specimens of the olive-backed thrush were collected
(nos. 40288-40308), fifteen adults and six young.
Hylocichla guttata guttata (Pallas).   Alaska Hermit Thrush
There were a few pairs nesting along Telegraph Creek to within a
mile or two of the Stikine, but mostly the birds were at higher elevations. None was seen in the immediate vicinity of Glenora or of
Doch-da-on Creek, but the species was encountered in spruce woods
on the mountains above the latter point, at about 3000 feet altitude.
Two nests were taken. The first (no. 1827) was found on May 23,
with three eggs, and collected on May 26 with a set of five. It was in
the creek bottom, about two miles north of the town of Telegraph
Creek, some three feet from the ground, in a spruce sapling. The nest
rested against the trunk and upon some small branches. The outer
structure is of twigs, weed stems, rootlets and bark strips; the lining
is of fine rootlets and grass, with a good many of the long overhairs
of a porcupine. It measures as follows: greatest outside diameter
about 160 mm.; outside depth, 90; inside diameter, 60; inside depth,
40 mm.
The second nest (no. 1828) was taken June 4, with four slightly
incubated eggs. This was found near the Junction, four miles north
of Telegraph Creek, amid similar surroundings to the first one. It
was placed between two small spruce trees, thirty inches from the
ground. In general appearance and in details of structure, it is very
similar to the first one found, even to the porcupine hairs in the lining.
Both were in situations where there was little concealing vegetation,
and were easily seen from some distance.
Five specimens, two males and three females, were collected between Telegraph Creek and the Summit (nos. 40309-40313). The
hermit thrush of this general region has been referred to Hylocichla
guttata sequoiensis by Ridgway (1907, p. 44) ; specimens from Atlin,
two hundred miles north of Telegraph Creek, have been recorded as 304 University of California Publications in Zoology      you 24
sequoiensis (E. M. Anderson, 1915a, p. 17). I cannot agree with this
determination, as applied to the Telegraph Creek series. These birds
are not the same as the hermit thrush of the Sierra Nevada of California (sequoiensis). They are appreciably smaller than the latter
and they are not so gray. They come very close, both in color and
size, to a series of guttata, from Prince William Sound, Alaska, being
perhaps a trifle paler colored. They are quite different in appearance
from the dark colored nanus, of the coast region of southern Alaska.
I   |S
lillHi
111
Wing
Tail
Culmen
Tarsus
89
69
13
28.5
87
69.5
12
28.5
84
67
12
29
83
66
12
28.5
85
66.5
12
26.5
94
72
14
30
97
72
14
30
97
75
13
27.5
91
70
14
30
TABLE XIII
Measurements in millimeters of Hylocichla guttqta guttata and Hylocichla guttata
sequoiensis
Hylocichla guttata guttata
40312 c? Telegraph Creek, B. C, June 4, 1919
40313 cf Telegraph Creek, B. C, June 4, 1919
40310 9  Telegraph Creek, B. C, June 1, 1919
40311 9  Telegraph Creek, B. C, June 4, 1919
40309   9  Telegraph Creek, B. C, May 26, 1919
Hylocichla guttata sequoiensis
22668 c? Independence, Inyo Co., Cal., May 9,1912
22669 d" Kearsarge Pass, Inyo Co., Cal., June 12,1912 97
22670 d> Kearsarge Pass, Inyo Co., Cal., June 13,1912 97
22671 9 Kearsarge Pass, Inyo Co., Cal., June 15,1912 91
Hylocichla guttata nanus (Audubon). Dwarf Hermit Thrush
The hermit thrush appears to range the whole length of the Stikine
Valley; it is one of the few species of whieh we found specimens at
intermediate points the characters of which indicate a likelihood of
intergradation in that region between the two unlike subspecies at the
two ends of the stream. A specimen taken at Flood Glacier on July 27
(no. 40314), an adult female not yet beginning to molt, is intermediate in color between the gray Telegraph Creek specimens and
the dark colored birds of the coast. Despite the lateness of the season
and the consequent greater wear upon the plumage, it is still appreciably browner than the Telegraph Creek birds. On the whole, it
seems best regarded as nanus, though not typical of that form. A
young bird (no. 40315) from Great Glacier, August 11, in the juvenal
phimage throughout, is referred to nanus. 1922 ] Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region        305
On Sergief Island, hermit thrushes were fairly numerous up to
the first week in September. One was taken on August 23, still in
the juvenal plumage (no. 40316), and one on August 27, which had
finished the molt into the first winter plumage (no. 40317).
Fig. GG Fig. HH
Fig. GG. The olive-backed thrush (Hylocichla ustulata swainsoni) is a bird
of the dry woods of poplar, alder, and willow, as contrasted with the hermit
thrush, a denizen of coniferous woods. The nest of olive-backed thrush here
shown was in a thicket of alder and willow mixed, and in all respects is typical
of the species as it occurs in this region. At the time this nest was photographed (on June 19, and near Telegraph Creek) it contained four eggs.
Fig. HH. Alaska hermit thrush (Hylocichla guttata guttata) standing over
nest. The nest was built upon the interlaced branches of two small spruee
trees, about three feet from the ground, and at the bottom of a cool, shady
canon.   Photograph taken near Telegraph Creek, June 4, 1919.
?!   '
Planesticus migratorius migratorius (Linnaeus). Eastern Robin
At the time of our arrival at Telegraph Creek, robins were present
in full force. They were abundant along the river and scarce at higher
altitudes, but some were seen clear to the Summit. On May 30 one
bird was seen carrying building material, but this must have been
rather late, for young were out of the nest on June 9. Robins were
fairly numerous at Glenora and at Doch-da-on Creek. By the time we
reached the latter place, the middle of July, the spotted young comprised a large proportion of the birds seen. 306 University of California Publications in Zoology      you 24
At Flood Glacier, our next stopping place down stream, robins
abruptly became very scarce. Call notes were heard on July 29, but
the birds were not seen. At Great Glacier, too, there were very few
around. Two seen, but not obtained, on August 11, were the only
ones noted.
Nine specimens (nos. 40318-40326) were collected on the upper
Stikine River, at Telegraph Creek, Glenora, and Doch-da-on Creek.
The series comprises two adult males, five adult females, and two
juvenals. These birds are referable to the eastern subspecies, Planesticus migratorius migratorius. The outer rectrices are conspicuously
tipped with white, which is not the case with the coast form, P. m.
caurinus, a differentiating character that is readily apparent, even
in the live birds. The young from Telegraph Creek are of a differ-
entflsolor from the coast birds, being less brownish and more gray,
especially on the upper parts.
Just how far down the river P. m. migratorius extends we did not
definitely ascertain, but, as noted above, robins wfere abundant as far
down the river as Doch-da-on Creek, and abruptly became very scarce
just below there. A little below Doch-da-on Creek, and from that
point down, forest conditions are such that it seems doubtful -that there
are many robins breeding anywhere along the lower river. While we
saw and heard a few at Flood Glacier and Great Glacier,-we obtained
no specimens, so cannot be certain which subspecies occurs at those
points.
Planesticus migratorius caurinus Grinnell.   Northwestern Robin
Fairly numerous at Sergief Island, though irregularly so, during
the whole of our stay at that place, August 17 to September 7. Most
of the birds seen were in the midst of the molt. One specimen was preserved (no. 40327), a young female molting into first winter plumage.
Planesticus migratorius caurinus Grinnell (19096, p. 241) has been
refused recognition by the A. O. U. Committee (1909, p. 302), but
nevertheless it seems to me a sufficiently distinct subspecies. Additional material acquired since the Committee's action is all corroborative of the describer's diagnosis. (Cf. Swarth, 1912, p. 81; Oberholser,
1917a, p. 195.) 1922] Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region
307
Ixoreus naevius naevius (Gmelin).   Varied Thrush
Seen on Sergief Island at various times during our stay there
(August 17 to September 7). The subspecies is, of course, a summer visitant and reasonably abundant throughout the coast region of
southeastern Alaska. One specimen was collected (no. 40332), a young
male, just beginning to molt into first winter plumage.
Ixoreus naevius meruloides  (Swainson).    Northern Varied Thrush
There were no varied thrushes in the immediate vicinity of Telegraph Creek, nowhere in the river valley at least. We were constantly
on the lookout for them, and both the birds and the call notes are
sufficiently conspicuous to be readily detected by any one familiar
with the species. Subsequent experience farther down the river leads
me to believe that they probably breed at higher altitudes throughout
the region; we ourselves, found them at but one such station.
At Glenora, early in the morning of July 1, the call note of a varied
thrush was heard distinctly, several times repeated. The bird was in
thick shrubbery at the river's edge, and could not be seen. It was
assumed to be a wandering individual, finished with family cares and
straying from the breeding ground on the nearby mountains. On
July 11 a male varied thrush was seen on the mountain side above
Doch-da-on Creek, at about 3000 feet altitude. The bird was perched
high on a dead spruce stub, a hundred feet or more above the ground,
uttering at frequent intervals the disconnected notes comprising the
song of this species. Later on others were seen or heard at about the
same elevation.
On July 18 a young bird was seen at the level of the Stikine River,
at Doch-da-on Creek, and from then on a few others were observed
from time to time. There were a few in the woods at Flood Glacier
and at Great Glacier, exceedingly wary and most difficult to see. Three
specimens were collected at'Flood Glacier (nos. 40328-40330), an adult
male and two juvenal females; and one at Great Glacier, an adult
female (no. 40331). These birds are all referable to the interior subspecies, Ixoreus n. meruloides. 308
University of California Publications in Zoology     [Vol. 24
Sialia currucoides (Bechstein).   Mountain Bluebird
There were two or three pairs in the town of Telegraph Creek,
presumably nesting about some of the buildings. A few others were
seen within a radius of ten or twelve miles, usually around small clearings, where there had been some attempt at cultivation of the ground,
or in burnt-over areas, where fire had swept away most of the large
timber.
Two nests were found. On June 14 a set of four eggs (no. 1829),
about half incubated, was taken. The nest was in an old woodpecker
hole in a dead birch stub, eight feet from the ground. This was near
the shore of Sawmill Lake, on a slope that had been lumbered and
burnt over, so that it was nearly cleared of large trees. A second nest
was found in another birch stub nearby, a trunk that was occupied by
a pair of tree swallows, as well as the bluebirds. This nest on June
17 contained four newly hatched young and one egg about ready to
hatch.
Curiously, no bluebirds were seen near Glenora, though the open
fields and old houses were features that should have attracted them,
and the species undoubtedly does occur thereabout at times. On July
23 a small flock was seen at timber line, about 4000 feet altitude, above
Doch-da-on Creek, apparently the beginning of the migratory movement at the close of the nesting season. I have seen specimens of the
mountain bluebird taken at the mouth of the Stikine River on April 10,
1919, in migration, by E. P. Walker.
Ten specimens preserved (nos. 40333-40342), three adult males,
three adult females, and four newly hatched young preserved in alcohol. 1922] Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Regi
on
309
1903.
1904.
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1911. A systematic synopsis of the muskrats.   U. S. Dept. Agric, Biol. Surv.,
N. Amer. Fauna, 32, 47 pp., 6 pis.
1912. Mammals of the Alpine Club expedition to the Mount Robson region.
Canadian Alpine Journal, special number, pp. 1-44, pis. 1-12.
•*-
1
13
•  .'ii! J
'Ill 312
University of California Publications in Zoology     [VoL-24
I if Ii
Howell, A. H.
1915.    Revision of the American marmots.    U. S. Dept. Agric, Biol. Surv.,
N. Amer. Fauna, 37,. 80 pp., 15 pis., 3 figs, in text.
Kermode, F.
1904.    Catalogue  of British  Columbia Birds   (Provincial Museum,  Victoria,
British Columbia), 69 pp.
McGregor, R. C.
1899. The myrtle warbler in California and description of a new race.   Bull.
Cooper Ornithological Club, 1, pp. 31-33.
Mearns, E. A.
1911.    New names for two subspecies of Peromyscus maniculatus (Wagner).
Proc. Biol. Soe. Wash., 24, pp. 101-102.
Merriam, C. H.
1896.    Synopsis of the weasels of North America.   U. S. Dept. Agric, Div.
Orn. and Mam., N. Amer. Fauna, 11, 44 pp., 5 pis., 16 figs, in text.
1898.    Life zones and crop zones of the United States.   U. S. Dept. Agric,
Biol. Surv., Bull. no. 10, 79 pp., 1 pi. (map).
1900. Descriptions of twenty-six new mammals from Alaska and British
North America.   Proc. Washington Acad. Sci., 2, pp. 13-30.
1914.    Descriptions of thirty apparently new grizzly and brown bears from
North America.   Proc. Biol. Soc Wash., 27, pp. 173-196.
1918.    Review of the grizzly and big brown bears of North America (genus
Ursus) with description of a new genus, Vetularctos.    U. S. Dept.
Agric.) Biol. Surv., N. Amer. Fauna, 41, 136 pp., 16 pis.
IP 11!
fl.fr
Newton, A.
1861.   Particulars of Mr. J. Wolley's discovery of the breeding of the waxwing (Ampelis garrulus, Linn.).   Ibis, pp. 92—106, pi. IV.
Oberholser, H. C.
1898.    Description of a new North American thrush.   Auk, 15, pp. 303-306.
1905. The forms of Vermivora celata (Say).   Auk, 22, pp. 242-247.
1906. An earlier name for Melospiza lincolnii striata.   Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash.,
19, p. 42.
1917a. Notes on North American birds. I.   Auk, 34, pp. 191-196.
19176. Notes on North American birds. II.   Auk, 34, pp. 321-329.
1917c. A synopsis of the races of Bombycilla garrula (Linnaeus).   Auk, 34,
pp. 330-333.
1918a. Notes on North American birds. V.   Auk, 35, pp. 185-187.
19186. Notes on North American birds. VI.   Auk, 35, pp. 463-467.
1919a. Notes on North American birds. VII.   Auk, 36, pp. 81-85.
19196. The range of the short-tailed mountain chickadee (Penthestes gambeli
abbreviatus Grinnell).   Auk, 36, 424.
1919c. A new cliff swallow from Canada.   Canadian Field-Naturalist, 33, p. 95. 19223 Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Stikine Region        313
Osgood, W. H.
1901.    Natural history of the Queen  Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, j
U. S. Dept. Agric, Biol. Surv., N. Amer. Fauna, 21, pp. 1-50, pis.
1-5.
1905.   In Alaska's rain belt.    Condor, 7, pp. 68-71.
1909a. Revision of the miee of the American genus Peromyscus.   U. S. Dept.
Agric, Biol. Surv., N. Amer. Fauna, 28, 285 pp., 8 pis., 12 figs, in
text.
19096. Biological investigations in Alaska and Yukon Territory.   U. S. Dept.
Agric, Biol. Surv., N. Amer. Fauna, 30, 96 pp., 5 pis., 2 figs, in text.
Palmer, T. S.
1916.    The type locality of Colaptes cafer.   Auk, 33, pp. 322-324.  .
1918.    Another reference to early experiments in keeping hummingbirds in
captivity.    Condor, 20, pp. 123-124.
Preble, E. A.
*
1899.
1908.
Revision of the jumping mice of the genus Zapus. U. S. Dept. Agric,
Biol. Surv., N. Amer. Fauna, 15, 42 pp., 1 pi., 4 figs, in text.
A biological investigation of the Athabaska-Mackenzie region. U. S.
Dept. Agric, Biol. Surv., N. Amer. Fauna, 27, 574 pp., 25 pis., 16
figs, in text.
;l
if
Reichenow, A.
1908.    Neue Vogelarten.   Ornith. Monatsber., 16, p. 191.
Rhoads, S. N.
1893.    Notes on certain Washington and British Columbia birds.   Auk, 10,
pp. 16-24.
Ridgway, R.
1901. The birds of North and Middle America.   U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull., 50,
pt. 1, xxx -f- 715 pp., 20 pis.
1902. Idem, pt. II, xx + 834 pp., 22 pis.
1904.    Idem, pt. Ill, xx + 801 pp., 19 pis.
1907.    Idem, pt. IV, xxii + 973 pp., 34 pis.
1911.    Diagnosis of some new forms of Picidae.   Proc Biol. Soc. Wash., 24,
pp. 31-36.
1914.    The birds of North and Middle America.   U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull., 50,
pt. VI, xx + 882 pp., 36 pis.
1916.    Idem, pt. VII, xiii + 543 pp., 24 pis.
Riley, J. H.
1911. Descriptions of three new birds from Canada.   Proc. Biol. Soc Wash.,
24, pp. 233-236.
1912. Birds collected or observed on the expedition of the Alpine Club of
Canada to Jasper Park, Yellowhead Pass, and Mount Robson region.
Canadian Alpine Journal, special number, pp. 47-75, pis. 1-2. 314
University of California Publications in Zoology
["Vol. 24
till
Stevenson, H.
1882. On the plumage of the waxwing, Ampelis garrulus, Linnaeus, from
the examination and comparison of a large series of specimens
killed, in Norfolk, in the winter of 1866-67. Trans. Norfolk and
Norwich Naturalists' Society, S, pp. 326-344, 2 figs, in text.
—t* $
Swarth, H. S.
1911. Birds and mammals of the 1909 Alexander Alaska expedition.   Univ.
Calif. Publ. Zool., 7, pp. 9-172, pis. 1-6.
1912. Report on a collection of birds and mammals from Vancouver Island.
Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool., 10, pp. 1-124, pis. 1-4.
1920. Revision of the avian genus Passerella, with special reference to the
distribution and migration of the races in California.   Univ. Calif.
Publ. Zool., 21, pp. 75-224, pis. 4-7, 30 figs, in text.
1921a. The Sitkan race of the dusky grouse.   Condor, 23, pp. 59-60.
19216. The red squirrel of the Sitkan district, Alaska.    Jour. Mammalogy,
2, pp. 92-94.
Taverner, P. A.
1914.   A new subspecies of Dendragapus  (Dendragapus obscurus flemingi)
from southern Yukon Territory.   Auk, 31, pp. 385-388.
1919.    The summer birds of Hazelton, British Columbia.    Condor, 21, pp.
80-86, 1 fig. in text.
Willett, G.
1914.   Birds of Sitka and vicinity, southeastern Alaska.    Condor, 16, pp.
71-91, 1 fig. in text.
1917.   Another Alaska record for the mourning dove.   Condor, 19, p. 22.
1921. Ornithological notes from southeastern Alaska.   Auk, 38, pp. 127-129.
Wolley, John, Jun.
1857.   On the nest and eggs of the waxwing (Bombycilla garrula, Temm.).
Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 25, pp. 55-56, pi. aves CXXII.
Transmitted May 7,1921. INDEX
Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool., vol. 24.
Titles of papers and new systematic names are in boldface; synonyms are in
italics.
Abernathy, Frieda, acknowledgment, 4.
Accipiter chilensis, 423.
velox, 210, 335.
Acknowledgments, 3, 4, 126, 127, 128,
315, 316.
Actitis macularia, 203, 329.
Actodromas bairdii, 427.
Agelaius phoeniceus arctolegus, 348.
thilius chrysopterus, 457.
thilius, 457.
Agriornis striata striata, 446.
montana, 446.
Alauda rufa, 451.
Alcedo stellata, 435.
Alces amerieanus gigas, 189.
Alecturus flaviventris, 451.
Alexander, Annie M., 4, 127, 315.
Anabates gutturalis, 443.
Anaeretes flavirostris, 451.
Anas cinerea, 418.
coscoroba, 416.
eristata cristata, 416.
cyanoptera, H7.
flavirostris, 417.
leucoptera, 415.
melancoripha, 415.
platalea, 418.
platyrhynchos, 198, 326.
sibilatrix, 417.  •
specularis, 416.
spinicauda, 417.
versicolor, 417.
Anser albifrons, 327.
Anthus correndera chilensis, 456.
correndera, 456.
fuseus, 439.
rubescens, 294, 366.
Aphrastura spinicauda, 441.
Aquila chrysaetos, 213, 336.
Ardea cocoi, 413.
cyanocephala, 412.
egretta, 413.
galatea, 413.
herodias, 327.
fannini, 201.
Asio flammeus, 215.
breviauris, 435.
flammeus, 435.
Astur   atricapillus   atricapillus,   211,
335.
striatulus, 211, 335.
Attagis gayi gayi, 430.
malouinus, 430.
Baldpate, 326.
Bartramia longicauda, 328.
Bat, Northwestern Long-legged, 373.
Bear, Black, 160.
Grizzly, 159.
Beaver, 188.
Belonopterus chilensis chilensis, 429.
lampronotus, 429.
Bennett Ground Squirrel.   See Squirrel.
Birds and Mammals of the Skeena
River Region of Northern British Columbia, 315-394.
Birds and Mammals of the Stikine
River Region of Northern British Columbia and Southeastern
Alaska, 125-314.
Bittern, 327.
Blackbird, Rusty,  231, 349.
Bluebird, Mountain, 308, 372.
Bombycilla cedrorum, 360.
garrula pallidiceps, 266, 359.
Bonasa   umbellus   umbeUoides,   207,'
330.
Botaurus lentiginosus, 327.
Brachyspiza capensis eanicapilla, 464.
Branta canadensis canadensis, 327.
occidentalis, 200.
British Columbia Mink, 163.
Bubo virginianus, subsp., 216.
lagophonus, 339.
nacurutu, 433.
magellanicus, 433.
Buteo borealis calurus, 211-, 336.
erythronotus, 422.
polyosoma, 422.
swainsoni, 213, 336.
Calcarius   lapponicus   alascensis,  239,
350.
ornatus, 351.
pictus, 350.
California, maps showing: relative
humidity, 15; mean annual cloudiness, 16; mean annual rainfall,.
17; distribution of kangaroo rats,
40, 78, 92, 109.
Calopezus elegans elegans, 410.
Canaehites canadensis atratus, 205.
osgoodi, 205.
franklini, 329.
Canis occidentalis, 161.
Capella paraguaiae, 428.
Capri/mulgus longirostris, 435.
Carbo albiventer, 412.
[475] Index
Caribou, Cassiar, 190.
Carpodacus purpureus purpureus, 232,
349.
Casmerodius albus egretta, 413.
Castor canadensis canadensis, 188.
Catbird, 366.
Cerchneis sparveria cinnamomina, 421.
Certhia familiaris  occidentalis,  295,
367.
Ceryle aleyon caurina, 216, 340.
Chaetura vauxi, 223, 344.
Charadrius falklandieus, 428.
lampronotus, 429.
modestus, 428.
ruflcollis, 428.
Chickadee, Chestnut-backed, 298, 369.
Columbian, 368.
Long-tailed, 296, 368.
Short-tailed Mountain, 297, 368.
Chipmunk, Canadian Mountain, 383.
Gray-headed, 184.
Chloephaga leucoptera, 415.
hybrida, 415.
inornata, 415.
magellanica, 415.
poliocephala, 415.
Chloroenas araueana, 431.
Chlorospiza plumbea, 460.
(?)xanthogramma, 462.
Chordeiles   virginianus   virginianus,
221, 344.
Cinclodes fuscus fuscus, 439.
patagonicus rupestris, 439.
Circus cinereus, 422.
hudsonius, 210, 334.
Cistothorus platensis hornensis, 454.
Citellus plesius plesius, 183.
Colaptes auratus borealis, 220, 343.
.pitius eachinnans, 437.
Columba araueana, 431.
melanoptera, 431.
Columbian Mountain Goat, 191.
Colymbus auritus, 196.
calipareus, 411.
chilensis, 411.
holboelli, 196, 325.
major, 411.
occipitalis occipitalis, 411.
Condor, Andean, measurements, 419.
Corvus brachyrhynehos caurinus, 231.
hesperis, 348.
corax principalis, 230.
Corydalla chilensis, 456.
Coscoroba coscoroba, 416.
Creeper, Tawny, 295, 367.
Cricetodipus agilis, 87.
panamintus, 63.
Streatori, 43.
Crossbill, Bendire, 232.
Sitka, 233.
White-winged, 233, 349.
Crow, Northwest, 231.
Western, 348.
Cryptoglaux funerea richardsoni, 215.
Cyanoliseus patagonus patagonus, 432.
Cyanocitta stelleri anneetens, 347.
stelleri, 229.
Cygnus melancoriphus, 415.
Cypseloides niger borealis, 222, 344.
Dafila acuta, 198, 327.
spinicauda, 417.
Deer, Sitka, 189.
Dendragapus obscurus flemingi, 203.
sitkensis, 203.
Dendrocolaptes albo-gularis, 443.
Dendroica aestiva aestiva, 287.
rubiginosa, 362.
auduboni auduboni, 362.
coronata hooveri, 289, 362.
magnolia, 363.
striata, 363.
townsendi, 291, 364.
D[ipodomys\. agilis, 47, 53, 96.
Heermanni, 43.
Wagneri, 87.
Dipodomys, methods of measuring, 4;
subdivisions of genus, 7; specific
and  sub-specific  characters,  10;
limitations, measurements, 11—36;
life-zones,  30;  illustrations:   ear,
19;   facial   marking,   114;   hind
foot, 21-23; maxillary arch, 26;
skull,   5,   6,   25,   116,   118,   122;
whole animal, 124.
agilis, 79, 92, 93.
agilis, 87, 92.
cabezonae, 92, 95.
perplexus, 92, 96. .
simulans, 92, 93.
californicus, 37, 93, 98.
californicus, 37, 41.
eximius, 41.
pallidulus, 37.
trinitatis, 37.
deserti, 106, 109.
deserti, 106.
helleri, 106.
elephantinus, 92, 101.
goldmani, 53.
heermanni berkeleyensis, 28, 40, 51.
calif ornicus,   37,    40;    pictured;
frontispiece,
dixoni, 40, 50; pictures, 124.
eximius, 40, 41.
goldmani, 27, 40, 53.
heermanni,  40,  43.
jolonensis, 40, 55. •
swarthi, 40, 56.
tularensis, 40, 47.
ingens, 67, 109.
jolonensis, 55.
leueogenys, 40, 62.
levipes, 92, 104.
merriami, 73.
arenivagus, 79.
brevinasus, 85.
[476] Index
exilis, 84,
Eustaphanus, 437.
kernensis, 73.
Eutamias amoenus ludibundus, 383.
merriami, 73, 79.
borealis caniceps, 184.
mortivallis, 73.
Euxenura galatea, 413.
nevadensis, 73.
maguari, 413.
nitratoides, 82.
Evotomys dawsoni dawsoni, 173.
nitratus, 73.
gapperi saturatus, 378.
parvus, 78, 81.
wrangeli, 173.
simiolus, 73, 78, 79.
Falco  columbarius  columbarius,   214,
microps, 92, 102.
337.
mohavensis, 40, 60; pictured, fron
suckleyi, 337.
tispieee.
ffinnamominus, 421.
morroensis,   27,   40,   58;   pictured
fusco-caerulescens  fusco-caeru-
frontispiece.
lescens, 422.
nitratoides brevinasus, 78, 85.
peregrinus pealei, 214.
nitratoides, 78, 82, 83.
planeus, 420.
ordii columbianus, 70, 78.
polyosoma, 422.
monoensis, 71, 78; pictured, fron
sparverius sparverius, 214, 337.
tispieee.
Falcon, Peale, 214.
panamintinus, 40, 63.
Finch, Eastern Purple, 232, 349.
parvus, 81.
Hepburn Rosy, 235, 350.
Phillipii, 37.
Flicker, Boreal, 220, 343.
phillipii, 47, 53, 87.
Flood Glacier, description, 138.
phillipsi, 37, 53, 60.
Flycatcher, Alder, 226, 346.
phillipsii, 98.
Hammond, 226, 346.
sanctiluciae, 99.
Olive-sided, 225, 346.
simiolus, 79.
Western, 226.
stephensi, 40, 65.   .
Wright, 227, 347.
swarthi, 56.
Fringilla arvensis, 458.
tularensis, 47.
barbata, 464.
venustus, 98.
diuea, 463.
sanctilueiae, 92, 99.
fruticeti, 459.
venustus, 92, 98.
gayi, 459.
D[ipidops~\. agilis, 87.
Fuertes, L. A., acknowledgment, 4.
Diuea diuea, 463.
Fuliea armillata, 423.
minor, 464.
rufifrons, 424.
Dixon, J., 51.
'Gallinago delicata, 201, 328.
Doch-Da-On-Creek, described, 135.
Gavia immer, 196, 325.
Geobamon ruflpennis, 438.
Dove, Eastern Mourning, 209.
Geographical Study of the Kangaroo
Dryobates pubescens leucurus, 340.
Rats of California, 1-124.
villosus montieola, 217, 340.
Geositta cunicularia hellmayri, 438.
Duck, Harlequin, 199.
ruflpennis, 438.
Steamer, 418.
Geothlypis trichas occidentalis, 364.
Scaup, 198.
Geranoaetus australis, 423.
Dumetella carolinensis, 366.
melanoleucus, 423.
Dyctiopicus lignarius, 436.
Glaucidium gnoma, 216.
Eagle, Golden, 213, 336.
nanum nanum, 434.
Northern Bald, 213, 336.
Glaucionetta islandica, 199.
Elaenia albiceps albiceps, 452.
Glenora, description of, 134.
Emberiza carbonaria, 460.
Goat, Columbian Mountain, 191.
Empidonax difficilis difficilis, 226.
Golden-eye, Barrow, 199.
hammondi, 226, 346.
Goose, Canada, 327.
trailli alnorum, 226, 346.
White-cheeked, 200.
wrighti, 227, 347.
White-fronted, 327.
Enieornis phoenicurus, 440.
Goshawk, Eastern, 211, 335.
Erismatura vittata, 418.
Western, 211, 335.
Eremobius phoenicurus, 440.
Great Glacier, description of, 139.
Erethizon epixanthum nigrescens, 182
Grebe, Holboell, 196, 325.
380.
Horned, 196.
.
Eudromia elegans, 410.
Grinnell, J., 1-124.
Euphagus carolinus, 231, 349.
-    Grizzly Bear, 159.
•
[477] '
Index
Grosbeak, British Columbia Evening,
349.
Kadiak Pine, 231.
Grouse, Alaska Spruce, 205.
Fleming, 203, 329.
Franklin, 329.
Gray Ruffed, 207, 330.
Sitka, 205.
Valdez Spruce, 205.
Gull, Bonaparte, 197.
Short-billed, 325.
Haematopus leucopodus, 427.
palliatus durnfordi, 427.
Haliaeetus   leucoeephalus   alascanus,
213, 336.
Hare, British Columbia Varying, 384.
Mackenzie Varying,  188.
Hawk, American  Sparrow,  214,  338.
Black Pigeon, 337.
Eastern Pigeon, 334.
Marsh, 210, 334.
Pigeon, 214.
Sharp-shinned, 210, 335.
Swainson, 213, 336.
Western Red-tailed, 211, 336.
Hazelton, description of, 316.
Heermann, A.  L., type collected by,
47.
Heron, Great Blue, 327.
Northwest Coast, 201.
Hesperiphona vespertina brooksi, 349.
Heteromyidae, 2.
Himantopus melanurus, 426.
Hirundo erythrogaster, 264, 358.
patagoniea, 453.
Histrionicus histrionicus, 199.
Howell, A. B., acknowledgment, 378.
Hummingbird, Rufous, 223, 344.
Hydrocorax vigua, 412.
Hylactes tarnii, 445.
Hylocichla guttata guttata, 303, 370.
nanus, 304.
pallasi, 370.
ustulata swainsoni, 301, 370.
ustulata, 301.
Ibycter albogularis, 420.
Ipocrantor magellanicus, 436.
Iridoproene bicolor, 265, 358.
meyeni, 453.
Ixoreus naevius meruloides, 307, 371.
naevius, 307, 371".
Jacobs, A. W., acknowledgment, 15,
16, 17.
Jay, Black-headed, 347.
Canada, 229, 348.
Steller, 229.
Junco, Cassiar, 243, 355.
Oregon, 253.
Shufeldt, 355.
Slate-colored, 354.
Junco hyemalis, 354.
connectens, 243, 355.
oreganus oreganus, 253.
shufeldti, 355.
Kangaroo  Rat.    See Rat, Kangaroo.
See also Dipodomys.
Kangaroo   Rats,   of   California,   A
Geographical Study of the, 1-124.
Killdeer, 203.
Kingbird, Eastern, 345.
Kingfisher, Western Belted, 216, 340.
Kinglet, Ruby-crowned, 299, 369.
Sitka, 299.
Western Golden-crowned, 298, 369.
Kispiox Valley, description of, 318.
Lagopus lagopus alexandrae, 331.
leucurus leucurus, 208, 334.
rupestris, 333.
Lark, Pallid Horned, 228, 347.
Larus braehyrhynchus, 325.
dominicanus, 425.
glaucodes, 426.
maeulipennis, 425.
Philadelphia, 197.
LeConte, Dr. J. L., original description of Dipodomys heermanni, 44.
Leptasthenura aegithaloi'des pallida,
441.
Lepus amerieanus columbiensis, 384.
macfarlani, 188.
bairdi caseadensis, 384.
Lessonia rufa rufa, 451.
Leucosticte tephrocotis littoralis, 235,
350.
Lichenops perspieillata andinn, 448.
Literature cited, on Birds from Patagonia, 465;  on Birds and Mammals of the Skeena River Region,
386;  on Birds and Mammals of
the Stikine River Region, 309; on
Kangaroo Rats, 110.
Longspur, Alaska, 239, 350.
Chestnut:collared, 351.
Smith, 350.
Loon, Common, 196, 325.
Lophonetta, 416.
Loxia curvirostra bendirei, 232.
sitkensis, 233.
leueoptera, 233, 349.
Mallard, 198, 326.
Mareca americana, 326.
sibilatrix, 417.
Maxila, sp.?, 198.
Marmot, Northern Hoary, 182.
Robson Hoary, 381.
Marmota caligata caligata, 182.
oxytona, 381.
monax petrensis, 382.
Megaceryle torquata stellata, 435.
Melanodera melanodera princetoniana,
462.
xanthogramma xanthogramma, 462.
Melospiza melodia caurina, 259.
morphna, 356.
ruflna, 255.
lincolni gracilis, 260.
lincolni, 356.
[478] Index
Merganetta armata, 419.
Merganser, American, 197, 326.
Mergus amerieanus, 197, 326.
Metriopelia melanoptera melanoptera,
431.
Microsittace ferruginea, '432.
Microsorex eximius,  159,  373.
Microtus drummondi, 174, 378.
mordax mordax, 175, 378.
Milvago ehimango chimango, 420.
Mimus patagonicus patagonicus, 455.
Mink, British Columbia, 163, 374.
Molothrus bonariensis bonariensis, 457.
Moose, Alaska, 189.
Motadlla magellanica, 444.
spinicauda, 441.
Mouse, British Columbia Red-baeked,
378.
Cantankerous Meadow, 175, 378.
Dall Lemming, 377.
Dawson Red-backed, 173.
Drummond Meadow, 174, 378.
House, 181.
Hudson Bay Jumping, 379.
Northern White-footed, 164, 374.
Rhoads White-footed, 164.
Stikine Jumping, 181, 379.
Wrangell Lemming, 172.
Wrangell Red-backed, 173.
Mus musculus musculus, 181.
Muscipeta albiceps, 452.
Muscisaxicola eapistrata, 450.
flavinucha, 450.
frontalis, 449.
hateheri, 448.
macloviana mentalis, 449.
maeulirostris, 450.
mentalis, 449.
Muskrat, Northwestern, 179, 379.
Mustela  cicognani  richardsoni,  163,
374. |
vison energumenos, 163, 374.
Myadestes townsendi, 299, 370.
Myiochanes richardsoni richardsoni,
225, 346.
Myiotheretes ruflventris, 447.
Myiosympotes flaviventris, 451.
Myotis longierus longicrus, 373.
Nannus hiemalis pacifieus, 295, 367.
Nelson, E. W., cited, 59.
Neosorex palustris navigator, 158.
Neotoma cinerea saxamans, 170, 376.
Nettion carolinense, 198, 327.
flavirostre, 417.
Nighthawk, Eastern, 221, 344.
Nine-mile Mountain, 319.
Nothura maculosa, 410.
Notiopsar curaeus, 457.
Nuthatch, Red-breasted, 296, 367.
Nuttallornis borealis,  225, 346.
Nyeticorax cyanocephalus, 412.
tayazu-guira, 413.
Odocoileus eolumbianus sitkensis, 189.
Oidemia deglandi, 199.
Ondatra zibethica spatulata, 179, 379.
Opetiorynchus rupestris, 439.
Oporornis tolmiei, 292, 364.
Oreamnos montanus columbianus, 191.
Oreopholus ruflcollis ruficollis, 428.
Orpheus patagonicus, 455.
Osprey, 339.
Otocoris alpestris arctieola, 228, 347.
Owl, Horned, 216.
Pigmy, 216.
Richardson, 215.
Ruddy Horned, 339.
Short-eared, 215.
Oxyechus vociferus vociferus, 203.
Pandion haliaetus carolinensis, 339.
Pardirallus rytirhynchos sanguinolen-
tus, 424.
Parra chilensis, 429.
Passerculus   sandwichensis   alaudinus,
240, 351.
savanna, 329.
Passerella iliaea altivagans, 357.
fuliginosa, 261.
iliaea, 357.
unalaschcensis, 261.
Pemberton, J. R, collection, 395.
Perithestes atricapillus septentrionalis,
296, 368.
gambeli abbreviatus, 297, 368.
hudsonicus columbianus, 368.
rufescens rufescens, 298, 369.
Pepoaza montana, 446.
murina, 447.
Perisoreus canadensis canadensis, 229,
348.
Peristera auriculata, 431.
Perodipus agilis, 87, 93, 95, 96.
agilis, 87, 93, 95.
streatori, 47, 60.
tvlarensis, 47, 56.
berkeleyensis, 51.
cabezonae, 95.
columbianus, 70.
dixoni, 50.
elephantinus, 101.
goldmani, 53.
ingens, 67.
leucogenys, 62.
levipes, 102.
mierops, 102.
levipes, 1Q2.
mierops, 102.
mohavensis, 60.
monoensis, 71.
morroensis, 58.
ordi columbianus, 70.
panamintinus, 60, 63, 102, 104.
perplexus, 96.
simulans simulans, 93.
stephensi, 65.
streatori, 43, 60, 96.
simulans, 58, 93.
streatori, 43.
[479] Index
swarthi, 56.
venustus, 98, 99.
Peromyscus maniculatus borealis, 164,
374.
macrorhinus, 164.
Petrochelidon lunifrons lunifrons, 264.
meyeni, 453.
Pewee, Western Wood, 225, 346.
Phaenicopterus chilensis, 414.
Phalacroeorax albiventer, 412.
vigua vigua, 412.
Phenacomys intermedius, 377.
Phenacomys, Kamloops, 377.
Phleocryptes melanops melanops, 441.
Phloeotomus pileatus picinus, 343.
Phoca richardi richardi, 164.
Phoebe, Northern Say, 345. s
Say, 224.
Phoenicopterus chilensis, 414.
Phrygilus carbonarius, 460.
frutieeti fruticeti, 459.
gayi, 459.
patagonicus, 458.
princetonianus, 462.
unicolor geospizopsis, 461.
grandis, 461.
montosus, 460.
nivarius, 460.
plumbeus, 460, 461.
unicolor, 460.
Phytotoma rara, 452.
Pieoides amerieanus fasciatus, 342.
arcticus, 341.
Picus lignarius, 436.
magellanicus, 436.
Pinicola enucleator flammula, 231.
Pintail, 198, 327.
Pipit, 294, 366.
Piranga ludoviciana, 264, 358.
Pisobia bairdi, 328.
bairdii, 427.
maeulata, 202.
minutilla, 202, 328.
Planesticus migratorius caurinus, 306
migratorius, 305, 371.
Plegadis guarauna, 414.
Plover, Upland, 328.
Podiceps antarcticus, 411.
chilensis, 411.
occipitalis, 411.
Podilymbus podiceps antarcticus, 411
Polyborus albogularis, 420.
chvmango, 420.
plancus plum-us, 420.
Porcupine, Dusky, 182, 380.
Porphyriops melanops melanops, 424.
Progne elegans, 453.
furcata, 453.
Pseuiochloris lebruni, 458.
Pseudoseisura gutturalis, 443.
Psittacus ferrugineus, 432.
patagonus, 432.
Ptarmigan, Alexander Willow, 331.
Rock, 333.
White-tailed, 208, 334.
Pterocnemia pennata, 409.
Pteroptochos rubecula, 444.
tarnii tarnii, 445.
Ptyonura capistrata, 450.
frontalis, 449.
Pygarrhichas albo-gularis, 443.
Pygochelidon  patagoniea  patagonica,
453.
Querquedula cyanoptera, 417.
versicolor versicolor, 417.
Ballus melanops, 424.
' sanguinolentus, 424.
Rangifer osborni, 190.
Rat, Kangaroo.
Allied, 79.
Berkeley, 51.
Big Desert, 106.
Cabezon, 95.
Carrizo Plain, 56.
Columbian, 70.
Dulzura, 93.
Elephant-eared, 101.
Fresno, 84.
Gambel, 87.
Giant, 67.
Heermann, 43.
Jolon, 55.
Lesser California, 41.
Light-footed, 104.
Merced, 50.
Merriam, 73.
Mohave, 60.
Mono, 71.
Morro Bay, 56.
Northern California, 37.
Pale-faced, 62.
Panamint, 63.
Salinas, 53.
San Bernardino, 81.
Santa Cruz, 98.
Santa Lucia Mountain, 99.
Short-nosed, 85.
Small-faced, 102.
Stephens, 65.
Tipton, 82.
Tulare, 47.
Walker Basin, 96.
Rat,   Wood,  Northern  Bushy-tailed,
170.
Rats,   Kangaroo,   of   California,   A
Geographical Study of the, 1—124.
artificial key to kangaroo, of California, 32.
Raven, Northern, 230.
Redstart, American, 293, 365.
Red-wing, Northern, 348.
Regulus   calendula   calendula,   299,
369.
grinnelli, 299.
satrapa olivaeeus, 298, 369.
[480] Index
Report on a Collection of Birds Made
by  J.   R.   Pemberton  in  Patagonia, 395-474.
Rhea americana, 409.
pennata, 409.
Bhinocrypta fusca, 444.
Riparia riparia, 266.
Robin, Eastern, 305, 371.
Northwestern, 306.
Rynchops cinerascens, 426.
Sandpiper, Baird, 328.
Least, 202, 328.
Pectoral, 203.
Spotted, 203, 329.
Western, 328.
Western Solitary, 203, 328.
Sapsucker, Red-breasted, 220, 342:
Yellow-bellied, 218.
Sayornis
sayus,
34.
yukonensis, 345.
Scelorehilus rubecula, 444.
Sciuroidae, 2.
Sciurus   hudsonicus   hudsonicus,   184.
picatus, 184, 383.
Scolopax guarauna, 414.
melanoleuca, 427.
paraguaiae, 428.
Scoter, White-winged, 199.
Scytalopus magellanicus, 444.
Seal, Harbor, 164.
Seiurus noveboracensis notabilis, 292,
364.
Selasphorus rufus, 223, 345.
Sephanoides galeritus, 437.
Sergief Island, description of, 140.
Setophaga ruticilla, 293, 365.
Shoveller, 198.
Shrew, Dusky, 158, 373.
Long-tailed, 158.
Masked, 158, 373.
Osgood, 159, 373.
Water, 158.
Sialia currucoides, 308, 372.
Sicalis arvensis arvensis, 458.
lebruni, 458.
Siptornis anthoi'des, 443.
modesta, 442.
patagonica, 442.
sordida sordida, 442.
Siskin, Pine, 238, 350.
Sitta canadensis, 296, 367.
Skeena Valley, zonal and faunal position, 320.
Snipe, WDson, 201, 328.
Solitaire, Townsend, 299, 370.
Sorex, obscurus obscurus, 158, 373.
longicauda, 158.
personatus personatus, 158, 373.
Sparrow, Alberta Fox, 357.
Eastern Chipping, 243, 354.
Eastern Fox, 357.
Forbush, 260.
Gambel, 241, 352.
Golden-crowned, 241, 353.
Lincoln, 356.
Rusty Song, 255, 356.
Savannah, 239.
Shumagin Fox, 261.
Sooty Fox, 261.
White-throated,  354.
Western Savannah, 240, 351.
Western Tree, 242, 354.
Yakutat Song, 259.
Spatula elypeata, 198.
platalea, 418.
Speotyto cunicularia eunicularia, 435.
Sphyrapicus varius ruber, 220, 342.
varius, 218.
Spinus barbatus, 464.
pinus pinus, 238, 350.
Spizaetus melanoleucus, 423.
Spizella montieola oehraeea, 242, 354.
passerina passerina, 243, 354.
Spizitornis flavirostris flavirostris,
451.
parulus curatus, 452.
Squirrel, Bennett Ground, 183.
Northern Red, 184.
Northwest Coast Red, 184, 383.
Stelgidopteryx serripennis, 359.
Sterna hirundinacea, 426.
paradisaea, 197.
Stikine River, map, 129.
Stikine   River  Region  of  Northern
British Columbia and Southeastern Alaska, Birds and Mammals
of the, 125-314.
Stikine Valley, topography, 141; zonal
and faunal position, 149.
Stone, Dr. W., 44.
Strix cunicularia, 435.
flammea, .435.
nacurutu, 433.
nana, 434.
perlata, 433.
rufipes, 433.
tuidara, 433.
Sturnus militaris, 456.
Swallow, Bank, 266.
Barn, 264, 358.
Cliff, 264.
Northern Violet-green, 265, 359.
Rough-winged, 359.
Tree, 265, 358.
Swarth, H. S., 125-314, 315-394.
Swift, Black, 222, 344.
Vaux, 223, 344.
Sylvia rubrigastra, 452.
Sylviorthorhynchus desmurii, 441.
Synallaxis anthoides, 443.
modestus, 442.
patagonica, 442.
sordidus, 442.
Synaptomys borealis dalli, 377.
wrangeli, 172.
Tachuris rubrigastra rubrigastra, 452,
[481] Index
1 IP I
Taehyeineta  thalassina  lepida,   265,
359.
Taenioptera murina, 447.
pyrope ignea, 447.
rubetra, 448.
Tanager, Western, 264, 358.
Tanagra bonariensis, 457.
Tantalus melanopis, 414.
Teal, Green-winged, 198, 327.'
Teledromas fuscus, 444.
Telegraph Creek, 130.
Tern, Arctic, 197.
Tetrao malouinus, 430.
Theristieus melanopis, 414.
Thermochaleis longirostris, 435.
Thinoehorus  orbignyianus, 430.
rumicivorus rumicivorus, 429.
Thrush, Alaska Hermit, 303, 370.
Dwarf Hermit, 304.
Eastern Hermit, 370.
Northern Varied, 307, 371.
Olive-baeked, 301, 370.
Russet-backed, 301.
Varied, 307, 371.
Tinamus maculosus, 410.
Totanus flavipes, 202.
melanoleucus, 202, 427.
Tringa solitaria einnamomea, 203.
Trochilus galeritus, 437.
Troglodytes aedon parkmani, 367.
hornensis, 454.
musculus chilensis, 454.
magellanicus, 454.
Trupialis militaris militaris, 456.
Tvliea ruflfrons, 424.
Turdus curaeus, 457.
magellanicus pembertoni, 455.
thilius, 457.
Tyrannus rufiventris, 447.
tyrannus, 345.
Tyto alba tuidara, 433.
Upucerthia dumetaria dumetaria, 439.
Ursus, sp.1, 159.
amerieanus amerieanus, 160.
Varney,  B. M.,  acknowledgment,  15,
16, 17.
Vermivora celata celata, 361.
lutescens, 286, 361.
orestera, 286.
peregrina, 286, 361.
Vireo, Red-eyed, 360.
Western Warbling, 285, 360.
Vireosylva gilva swainsoni, 285, 360.
olivaeea, 360.
Vultur grvphus, 419.
Warbler, Alaska Myrtle, 289, 361.
Alaska Yellow, 361.
Audubon, 362.
Black-poll, 363.
Eastern Yellow, 287.
Lutescent, 286, 361.
MacGillivray, 292, 364.
Magnolia,  363.
Orange-crowned, 361.
Pileolated, 293, 365.
Rocky Mountain  Orange-crowned,
286.
Tennessee, 286, 361.
Townsend, 291, 364.
Water-thrush, Grinnell, 292.
Waxwing, Bohemian, 266, 359.
Cedar, 360.
Weasel, Richardson, 163, 374.
Wetmore, A., 395-474.
Wilsonia pusilla pileolata, 293, 365.
Wolf, Timber, 161.
Woodehuck, British Columbia, 382.
Woodpecker, Alaska Three-toed, 342.
Arctic Three-toed, 341.
. Batchelder, 340.
Rocky Mountain Hairy, 217, 340.
Western Pileated, 343.
Wren, Western House, 367.
Western Winter, 295, 367.
Yellowlegs, Greater, 202.
Lesser, 202.
Yellow-throat, Western, 364.
Zapus hudsonius hudsonius, 379.
saltator, 181, 379.'
Zenaidura aurieulata auriculata, 431.
macroura carolinensis, 209.
Zonibyx modestus, 428.
Zonotrichia albicollis, 354.
canicapilla, 464.
coronata, 241, 353.
leucophrys gambeli, 241, 352.
[482]    

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