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Birds and mammals of the Skeena river region of northern British Columbia Swarth, H. S. (Harry Schelwald), 1878- 1926

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Array     University of California Publications in
y^ A Geographical Study of the Kangaroo Rats of California, by Joseph
Grinnell    |...      1-124
*^2. Birds and Mammals of the Stikine River Region of Northern British
Columbia and Southeastern Alaska, by H. S. Swarth  125-314
y/57 Birds and Mammals of the Skeena River Region of Northern British
Columbia, by Harry S. Swarth  315-394
</4t. Report on a Collection of Birds made by J. R. Pemberton in Patagonia, by Alexander Wetmore  395-474
Index     475-482  


University of California Publications in Zoology
Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 315-394, plates 9-11, 1 figure .in text
(Contribution from the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology of the University of California)
Introduction  315
Itinerary and descriptions of localities  316
Zonal and faunal position of the upper Skeena Valley  320
Check list of the birds....:  323
General accounts of the birds  325
Check list of the mammals  372
General accounts of the mammals  373
Literature cited  386
In pursuance of the p]an of zoological exploration which the
Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, since its inception, has had. under way
in northwestern North America, a field trip was.made into that region
during the summer of 1921. The expenses of this trip, as of the
preceding ones, were defrayed by Miss Annie M. Alexander, whose
interest in the zoology of the northwest was the determining factor in
directing the activities of the Museum toward that part of North
America. The locality chosen for the 1921 expedition was the valley
of the upper Skeena River, northern British Columbia, centering at
the town of Hazelton. Our party consisted of two, the writer and one
assistant, Mr. William Duncan Strong, a student at the University of
California, The material collected consists of 265 mammals, 687 birds,
and 50 reptiles and amphibians.
Acknowledgments are due to several institutions and individuals
for aid, both in prosecution of the field work and in the subsequent
studies of the material collected. From the Dominion Parks Branch,
Department of the Interior, Canada, and from the Game Conservation
Board of British Columbia, Vancouver, permission was received to
n 1 li
-j==~3 316 University of California Publications in Zoology     fVoL- 24
Ii til
collect birds. I am under obligations to the Bureau of Biological
Survey of the United States Department of Agriculture, through its
chief, Dr. E.. W. Nelson, for the loan of specimens and for the identification of certain mammals. To the Victoria Memorial Museum,
Ottawa, through Mr. P. A. Taverner. ornithological curator, and to the
Provincial Museum, Victoria, British. Columbia, through the director,
Mr. F. Kermode, I am indebted for the loan of many specimens.
To Major Allan Brooks, of Okanagan Landing, British Columbia,
I am under obligations for the loan of specimens, and for critical
comments and advice bearing upon my treatment of various species
of birds and mammals. Major Brooks also made the drawing of the
tail of the rock ptarmigan that is shown herewith.
Plant names used in this report were kindly supplied by Professor
W. L. Jepson, of the University of California, based upon specimens
In treating the birds the nomenclature used is that of the American
Ornithologists' Union Check-List (1910) and its supplements (1912,
1920), with such modifications as I employed in my "Birds and
Mammals of the Stikine Region" (1922, p. 127).
' ell
'•' 11
, (ft If
We reached Hazelton the evening of May 25. On June 20 we
removed to Kispiox ValleAr, twenty-three miles north of Hazelton. On
July 15 return was made to Hazelton, and several days devoted to
packing specimens and preparing for a mountain trip. On July 21 we
ascended Nine-mile Mountain. On August 14 Ave returned to Hazelton,
and on August 16 to Kispiox Valley. Final return to Hazelton was
made on September 17; on September 19 Strong took the train for
home, and on September 26 the writer took his departure.
The town of Hazelton is at the junction of the Skeena and Bulkley
rivers. The railroad station (Grand Trunk Pacific R. R.). some two
miles to the southeast, is 177 miles from the coast, at Prince Rupert,
and 973 feet above the sea. The town is in the low bottom lands
through which the rivers flow. On either side of these bottom lands
steep bluffs rise, two hundred feet or more, above which the higher 1924]   Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Skeena River Region     317
plateau slopes gently upward toward the several nearby mountain
ranges. The most conspicuous of these, the towering, rocky peaks of
the Rocher Deboule, ten or twelve miles to the southeast, rise precipitously to elevations of more than 8000 feet.
In the bottom lands poplar (Populus tremuldides) is the dominant
forest growth, covering many square miles in almost pure stands of
dense woods. Along the river there are rows of large cottonwoods,
and on the ridges thickets of hazel, the abundance of which probably
gave the town its name.
The higher slopes and plateaus, above the river bottoms, were once
thickly covered with Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmanni), but these
areas, at least toward the southeast, have suffered repeatedly from
forest fires, so that but remnants of the woods remain standing. The
ground beneath is strewn with charred trunks, hidden during the
summer months by fire weed and bracken; and partly burned trees
remain erect at scattered intervals. The plateau region is drained by
numerous small streams, bordered with thickets of willow and alder.i
At rather frequent intervals there are muskegs, usually unaffected,'
by fire, and affording contrast in several respects to their more
monotonous surroundings.
These muskegs, often roughly circular in shape, are of varying
size, marshy, with deep, sticky mud, or sometimes a few inches of
water, and with mud and water usually concealed by grass. Scattered
over them are a few funereal black spruces (Picea mariana), festooned
with streamers of black moss. The bordering forest of Engelmann
spruce usually forms a ring of denser growth than elsewhere about
the margin of the muskeg, where, with the spruce, are mingled a few
red cedars (Thuja plicata).
Toward the base of Rocher Deboule, there are places where red
cedar grows in some abundance.   Mostly these trees had been cut out
years before, but some groves remain, and in these clumps of cedars
and in the muskegs species of birds are breeding that are not seen
elsewhere at the same altitude.
Our camp in this region was on the opposite side of the Bulkley
River from Hazelton, on what is locally known as Mission Point.
Mammal trapping was carried on in the bottom lands between the
Bulklev River and the railroad.
ii r 318 University of California Publications vn Zoology     [Vol. 24
Kispiox Valley
The Kispiox River empties into the Skeena about ten miles north
of Hazelton. Our camp in Kispiox Valley was at Beirnes' ranch,
twenty-three miles north of Hazelton. The whole valley at that point
is of much the same nature as the bottom lands near Hazelton; there
is no such extent of spruce forest as is seen in the burned-over areas
toward Rocher Deboule. The forest is mainly of poplar, large sized
trees with the dense underbrush that accompanies this growth.
Scattered spruces occur everywhere, sometimes little clumps of them,
but no extensive stands. Lodgepole pine also occurs in limited amount.
In the lower Kispiox Valley there are large areas occupied almost
solidly with this pine, small trees in. dense groves. The region we
covered in Kispiox Valley, though all in the poplar-grown bottom
lands, offered a greater variety of conditions locally than is usually
the case in this environment. There are many clearings in the woods,
mostly pertaining to small ranches that have been abandoned. Along
the river are wide expanses of open fields and pastures, some of this
cleared land, some of it marshy stretches supporting no growths larger
than thickets of willow and spiraea. Many little streams intersect
forests and fields, some of these rivulets heading from small lakes
buried in the thick woods.
Along the Kispiox River are occasional groves of cottonwood, huge
trees, in stands covering large areas, with underbrush beneath that is
of a different nature from that in the more open poplar woods. The
sun scarcely penetrates into the depths of the cottonwood groves and
the gloom of their shade is suggestive of the 'dark woods on the coast.
Rank grass, tall nettles, thimble-berry thickets, and devil's-club combine to form a tangle that can be penetrated at but few places.
There is an abundance of berry-bearing shrubs throughout the
valley. Twin-berry (Lonicera involucratum), dogwood (Cornus
pubescens), Mnnikinnick (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), and high bush
cranberry (Viburnum pauciflorum) are among the most conspicuous.
Thickets of hazel (Corylus rostrata) form a large percentage of the
underbrush. 1924]   Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Skeena River Region     319
Nine-Mile Mountain
This mountain lies a short distance northeast of Hazelton; its
southern base is skirted by the Babine trail, leading from the town.
Our camp near the summit was about twenty miles, by road and by
trail, northeast of Hazelton. In ascending the mountain, the poplar
belt is left behind almost at the very base, and a forest of spruce,
intermingled with cedar, is entered. At an altitude of about 2000 feet
the lower edge of hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) is reached; at about
2500 feet the forest is practically all hemlock, large trees, with little
or no underbrush beneath. Just below timber line (about 4500 feet
altitude) the forest is largely composed of white fir (Abies-grandis), /
though some hemlock persists to the upper limit of tree growth.
We camped at timber line in a cabin precariously clinging to a
little niche on the steep hillside. The slope was part of a huge amphitheater, the outstanding ridges on either side perhaps a mile apart,
and the crest of the mountain about five hundred feet above. Immediately below was the dark hemlock and fir forest, its upper edge as
sharply defined as though the open slopes above had been cleared
by man. Much of this amphitheater was covered with tall grass,
veratrum, and lupine; in places there were extensive thickets of alder.
Wide rock slides extended down from the divide in several places,
sometimes into the forests below. The trail to the top passed through
a notch in the ridge at an altitude of about 5000 feet; rounded summits
arose on either side about 500 feet higher. The summit of the mountain is composed of two converging ridges, each five or six miles long
at least; we did not cover their entire area Between these ridges is
enclosed a broad, steeply sloping valley.
The country above timber line, covering many miles along the
.higher ridges, is open and park-like, very attractive to the view.
White fir and mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) occur, dwarfed
and prostrate, forming scattered thickets over ground that otherwise
is mostly grass covered. Snow banks persist through the summer, and
below the melting snow are occasional little-lakes, sometimes an acre
or more in extent. On damp slopes grass is replaced by false heather
(Cassiope mertensiana), luxuriant growths that cover extensive areas.
Below the ridges the grass became much higher and was intermingled
with lupine.
An interesting feature of the Nine-mile Mountain avifauna is the
unusual number of genera and species of grouse that occur there.   At
I 320 University of California Publications in Zoology     [YoL-2i
the base of the mountain is the ruffed grouse (Bonasa) extending from
the poplars below well up into the spruce and cedar woods. In
the hemlock belt, upward to the tree limit, the Franklin grouse
(Canachites) occurs. Just below timber line, and even in thickets
above, is the Fleming grouse (Dendragapus). On the Alpine-Arctic
ridges three species of ptarmigan (Lagopus) are found. For six
species of grouse to occur so nearly in the same place is, I believe, very
!, 1
Zonal and Faunal Position op the Upper Skeena Valley
The upper Skeena Valley lies to the eastward of the coast ranges,
and its fauna and flora, as a whole, are of the interior, not of the
coast. Conditions in many respects are similar to those of the upper
Stikine Valley (see Swarth, 1922, p. 141), two hundred miles to the
northward, and observations in the Skeena Valley tend to corroborate
conclusions reached in studies of the more northern region (Swarth,
loc. cit.). The Skeena Valley is much more humid than the upper
Stikine, and neither in animal nor plant life is it so sharply contrasted
with the coastal region. The more southern coast ranges are not so
high and precipitous as the northern mountains, and the gap through
which the Skeena reaches the coast is broad, with sloping walls.
Coastal rains often drift inland up the Skeena Valley, and cloudy
skies are frequent. Certain coastal species of birds extend inland here
much farther than they do along the Stikine.
The upper Skeena Valley, like the Stikine, is in the Canadian life
zone, contrasted with the Hudsonian zone of the seacoast (see Swarth,
1922, p. 149). Study of the list of birds breeding in the lowlands of
the Hazelton region discloses many that are not found on the coast;
mostly these are species that elsewhere occur in zones lower than
Hudsonian.   Some conspicuous ones are:
Bonasa u. umbeUoides
Phloeotomus p. picinus
Nuttallornis borealis
Empidonax t. alnorum
Empidonax hammondi
Piranga ludovieiana
Certain species were seen about Hazelton that are usually found in
lower zones even than the Canadian.   These are:
Tyrannus tyrannus
Stelgidopteryx serripennis
Vireosylva olivacea
Dumetella carolinensis
Troglodytes a. parkmani 1924J   Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Skeena River Region     321
There are, it is true, a number of birds found at sea level on the
coast and in the lowlands of the Hazelton region, represented either
by the same species or subspecies in both places, or by closely related
subspecies, but these are mostly wide-ranging forms, not closely confined within any particular zone.   Some such species are:
Ceryle a. caurina
Spinus p. pinus
Melospiza m. morphna
Melospiza 1. lincolni
Hirundo erythrogaster
Planesticus m. migratorius
There are eighteen such cases.
Turning now to conditions at high altitudes, we find the following
birds in summer at timber line (Hudsonian Zone) on Nine-mile
Dendragapus o. flemingi
Canachites f ranklini
Perisoreus e. canadensis
Loxia leucoptera
Zonotrichia coronata
Passerella i. annectens
Dendroica townsendi
Wilsonia p. pileolata
Nannus h. pacifieus
Certhia f. occidentalis
Sitta canadensis
Penthestes g. abbreviatus
Penthestes h. columbianus
Regulus s. olivaeeus
Regulus e. calendula
Hylocichla g. guttata
Ixoreus n. naevius
Of these seventeen species, just four (Perisoreus c. canadensis,
Zonotrichia coronata, Penthestes g. abbreviatus, and Penthestes h.
columbianus) are not found upon the coast. The others, represented
either by the same species or by closely related complementary subspecies, are mostly common and characteristic birds of the forests at
sea level in the coastal region. In general, the avifauna at sea level
on the coast is thus seen to be closely similar to that found just below
timber line (4500 feet altitude), two hundred miles inland.
It is of interest to note that muskeg surroundings in the valleys
of the upper Skeena region produced certain birds usually found in
the Hudsonian Zone. Occasional pairs, at wide intervals, were thus
noted of the following species:
Picoides arcticus
Picoides a. faseiatus
Sitta canadensis
Regulus s. olivaeeus
Regulus c. calendula
Ixoreus n. naevius
On the treeless summit of Nine-mile Mountain the following birds
were found breeding:
Lagopus 1. alexandrae
Lagopus rupestris
Lagopus 1. leucurus
Otocoris a. areticola
Leucostiete t. littoralis
Passerculus s. alaudinus
Anthus rubescens
I' i *mmmmmm
University of California Publi-cations in Zoology     you 24
Lack of suitable open country elsewhere may be an element in the
occurrence of a horned lark and a Savannah sparrow as Alpine-Arctic
species in this region, but the other species listed are all representative
inhabitants of the Alpine-Arctic Zone.
Results of this classification of the birds by their zonal predilections
may be summarized as follows: that the valleys of the upper Skeena
region, east of the coast ranges, are in the Canadian life zone; that on
the surrounding mountains there is a well defined belt of Hudsonian
Zone; and that the treeless mountain tops pertain to the Alpine-Arctic
Zone. At this latitude the Canadian life zone does not reach the coast,
where but two life zones can be defined, Hudsonian from sea level
upward to the tree limit, and Alpine-Arctic above that.
An analysis of the occurrence of mammals in this general region,
as far as our more limited knowledge of them extends, tends to
corroborate the above statements based upon the avifauna.
The upper Skeena Valley is the northern limit reached in this
region by the following species of birds:
Phloeotomus p. pieinus    .
Tyrannus tyrannus
Hesperiphona v. brooksi
Zonotrichia albicollis
Junco o. shufeldti
Stelgidopteryx serripennis
Bombyeilla cedrorum
Vireosylva olivacea
Dendroica a. auduboni
Dendroica magnolia
Dumetella carolinensis
Troglodytes a. parkmani
Some of these get no farther north than the town of Hazelton. Of
the others, it is doubtful if favorable conditions occur for more than
fifty or sixty miles north of that point, at the outside. There are
enough of these southern species to give character to the avifauna of
this region, they all are stopped at practically the same boundary, and
some have closely related congeners in the country immediately to
the northward (see Swarth, 1922, p. 152).
Besides the species of mammals collected, certain others came to
our attention. Tracks of black bear (Ursus amerieanus) appeared
along the rivers in September when the salmon were dying. Coyotes
(Canis), though never seen, were frequently heard howling in Kispiox
Valley. Beaver (Castor canadensis) were actively at work in certain
small lakes near our Kispiox Valley camp. Fresh tracks of deer
(Odocoileus) were noted at the summit of Nine-mile Mountain, and a
single deer was seen in Kispiox Valley, September 8. A number of
shed horns of caribou (Rangifer) were found on Nine-mile Mountain,
but the animals themselves were not there at that time.
_ 19241
Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Skeena River Region
Colymbus holboelli (Reinhardt).
Gavia immer (Briinnich).
Larus brachyrhynchus Richardson.
Mergus amerieanus Cassin.
Anas platyrhynehos Linnaeus.
Mareca americana (Gmelin).
Nettion carolinense (Gmelin).
Dafila acuta (Linnaeus).
Anser albifrons (Scopoli), subsp.?
Branta canadensis (Linnaeus), subsp.?
Botaurus lentiginosus (Montagu).
Ardea herodias Linnaeus, subsp. ?
Gallinago delicata (Ord).
Pisobia bairdi (Coues).
Pisobia minutilla (Vieillot).
Ereunetes mauri Cabanis.
Tringa solitaria cinnamomea (Brewster).
Bartramia longicauda (Bechstein).
Actitis maeularia (Linnaeus).
Dendragapus obscurus flemingi Taverner.
Canachites franklini (Douglas).
Bonasa umbellus umbeUoides (Douglas).
Lagopus lagopus alexandrae Grinnell.
Lagopus rupestris (Gmelin), subsp.?
Lagopus leucurus leucurus (Swainson).
Circus hudsonius (Linnaeus).
Accipiter velox (Wilson).
Astur atricapillus atricapillus (Wilson).
Astur atricapillus striatulus Ridgway
Buteo borealis calurus Cassin.
Buteo swainsoni Bonaparte.
Aquila chrysaetos (Linnaeus).
Haliseetus leueocephalus alascanus C. H. Townsend.
Falco columbarius columbarius Linnaeus.
Falco columbarius suekleyi Ridgway.
Falco sparverius sparverius Linnaeus.
Pandion haliaetus carolinensis (Gmelin).
Bubo virginianus lagophonus (Oberholser).
Ceryle alcyon caurina Grinnell.
Dryobates villosus montieola Anthony.
Dryobates pubescens leucurus (Hartlaub).
Picoides arcticus (Swainson).
Picoides amerieanus faseiatus Baird.
Sphyrapicus varius ruber (Gmelin).
Phloeotomus pileatus picinus Bangs.
Colaptes auratus borealis Ridgway.
Chordeiles virginianus virginianus (Gmelin).
Cypseloides niger borealis (Kennerly).
Chaetura vauxi (J. K. Townsend).
■I 1
I !•
324 University of California Publications in Zoology
50. Selasphorus rufus (Gmelin).
51. Tyrannus tyrannus (Linnaeus).
52. Sayornis sayus yukonensis Bishop.
53. Nuttallornis borealis (Swainson).
54. Myiochanes richardsoni richardsoni (Swainson).
55. Empidonax trailli alnorum Brewster.
56. Empidonax hammondi (Xantus).
57. Empidonax wrighti Baird.
58. Otocoris alpestris arcticola Oberholser.
59. Cyanocitta stelleri annectens (Baird).
60. Perisoreus canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus).
61. Corvus braehyrhynehos hesperis Ridgway.
62. Agelaius phoenieeus aretolegus Oberholser.
63. Euphagus carolinus (Muller).
64. Hesperiphona vespertina brooksi Grinnell.
65. Carpodacus purpureus purpureus (Gmelin).
66. Loxia leucoptera Gmelin.
67. Leucosticte tephrocotis littoralis Baird.
68. Spinus pinus pinus (Wilson).
69. Calcarius lapponieus alascensis Ridgway.
70. Calcarius pictus (Swainson).
71. Calcarius ornatus (J. K. Townsend).
72. Passerculus sandwichensis alaudinus Bonaparte.
73. Zonotrichia leueophrys gambeli (Nuttall).
74. Zonotrichia coronata (Pallas).
75. Zonotrichia albieollis (Gmelin).
76. Spizella montieola ochraeea Brewster.
77. Spizella passerina passerina (Bechstein).
78. Junco hyemalis hyemalis (Linnaeus).
79. Junco hyemalis connectens Coues.
80. Junco oreganus shufeldti Coale.
81. Melospiza melodia morphna Oberholser.
82. Melospiza lincolni lincolni (Audubon).
83. Passerella iliaea iliaea (Merrem).
84. Passerella iliaea altivagans Riley.
85. Piranga ludoviciana (Wilson).
86. Hirundo erythrogaster Boddaert.
87. Iridoprocne bicolor (Vieillot).
88. Tachycineta thalassina lepida Mearns.
89. Stelgidopteryx serripennis (Audubon).
90. Bombyeilla garrula pallidiceps Reichenow.
91. Bombyeilla cedrorum Vieillot.
92. Vireosylva olivaeea (Linnaeus).
93. Vireosylva gilva swainsoni (Baird).
94. Vermivora celata celata (Say).
95. Vermivora celata lutesceDs (Ridgway).
96. Vermivora peregrina (Wilson).
97. Dendroica aestiva rubiginosa (Pallas).
98. Dendroica coronata hooveri McGregor.
99. Dendroica auduboni auduboni (J. K. Townsend).
100. Dendroica magnolia (Wilson).
101. Dendroica striata (J. R. Forster).
fVOL. 24 r
192*]   Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Skeena River Region    325
102. Dendroica townsendi (J. K. Townsend).
103. Seiurus noveboracensis notabilis Ridgway.
104. Oporornis tolmiei (J. K. Townsend).
105. Geothlypis trichas occidentalis Brewster.
106. Wilsonia pusilla pileolata (Pallas).
107. Setophaga ruticllla (Linnaeus).
108. Anthus rubescens (Tunstall).
109. Dumetella earolinensis (Linnaeus).
110. Troglodytes aedon parkmani Audubon
111. Nannus hiemalis pacifieus (Baird).
112. Certhia familiaris occidentalis Ridgway.
113. Sitta canadensis Linnaeus.
114. Penthestes atricapillus septentrionalis (Harris).
115. Penthestes gambeli abbreviatus Grinnell.
116. Penthestes hudsonieus columbianus (Rhoads).
117. Penthestes rufeseens rufescens (J. K. Townsend).
118. Regulus satrapa olivaeeus Baird
119. Regulus calendula calendula (Linnaeus).
120. Myadestes townsendi (Audubon).
121. Hylocichla ustulata swainsoni (Tschudi).
122. Hylocichla guttata guttata (Pallas).
123. Hylocichla guttata pallasi (Cabanis).
124. Planesticus migratorius migratorius (Linnaeus).
125. Ixoreus naevius naevius (Gmelin).
126. Ixoreus naevius meruloides (Swainson).
127. Sialia currucoides (Beehstein).
Colymbus holboelli (Reinhardt).   Holboell Grebe
An adult male (no. 41986), taken in the Bulkley River at Hazelton, September 18, was the only one seen during the summer.
Gavia immer (Brunnieh).    Common Loon
There seemed to be a pair of loons to each of the many little lakes
scattered through the woods. The birds were frequently seen circling
about overhead, calling as they flew. Toward the end of summer
several might be in sight at once, going through such maneuvers.
Larus brachyrhynchus Richardson.   Short-billed Gull
An immature male (no. 41987) was shot July 31 near the summit
of Nine-mile Mountain, at about 5500 feet altitude. There were several
small, snow-bordered lakes nearby, but otherwise nothing in the surroundings that might be thought attractive' to gulls. ill
University of California Publications in Zoology     [VoL-24
In late August and September, when the salmon run was drawing
to a close, many gulls were seen along the rivers. None was collected,
but the birds observed were mostly of some species larger than
Mergus amerieanus Cassin.   American Merganser
Breeding in Kispiox Valley; adults occasionally flushed from
streams and sloughs, and several broods of young encountered. On
June 28 a female with eleven ducklings appeared in the swift-flowing
creek by our camp, the young still mostly down-covered.
Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus.   Mallard
Breeding in Kispiox Valley. A nest with eggs was reported by an
acquaintance, found about the middle of June in a hayfield. We saw
single birds at various times during June and July. Toward the
end of August there was an influx of migrating ducks, a large proportion of them mallards, and flocks of forty, fifty, or a hundred were
seen daily on gravel bars in the Kispiox River. Here the ducks were
feeding on salmon roe. Mallard and green-winged teal were the only
species present in numbers, and individuals of each of these shot from
time to time invariably contained salmon eggs in their gullets. The
humpback salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), the species 'running'
at that time, was present in myriads, and the ducks formed but a
fraction of the animals that were preying upon fish or eggs.
Two adult males partly in the eclipse plumage were shot on September 10, and one (no. 41988) was preserved. In this bird the
chestnut breast and gray underparts of the winter plumage are mostly
acquired, while of the eclipse plumage there remain the brown-
streaked head and neck, many brown feathers on back and flanks, and
the tail feathers. An adult male (no. 42638) taken at Okanagan
Landing, British Columbia, on October 1, is not nearly so far advanced
in the molt, having but a few scattered new feathers over various parts
of the head and body.
Mareca americana (Gmelin).   Baldpate
One was shot on the Bulkley River at Hazelton, September 17. 1924]   Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Skeena Rimer Region    327
Nettion carolinense (Gmelin).   Green-winged Teal
Common in Kispiox Valley in September. First seen August 26,
a single bird. On August 30 a pair was noted, and a few days later
flocks of from forty to fifty birds were frequently encountered. At
the end of our stay, September 17, they were still abundant. Two
specimens preserved, a female (no. 41989) and a young male (no.
Dafila acuta (Linnaeus).   Pintail
A flock of four seen near the Kispiox River, September 1, and
others noted from time to time during the ensuing two weeks. Not
I 9
Anser albifrons (Seopoli"), subsp.?   White-fronted Goose
A flock of seven white-fronted geese passed overhead, going south,
near Hazelton, September 19.
Branta canadensis (Linnaeus), subsp.?   Canada Goose
A flock of eight geese was seen in Kispiox Valley, the evening of
June 24, flying low and apparently headed for a lake in the woods a
few miles from our camp. Their occurrence in a flock at that season
seems rather extraordinary. They were geese of the canadensis group,
and apparently of large size. The subspecific status, of course, could
not be ascertained.
Botaurus lentiginosus (Montagu).   Bittern .
A bittern was flushed from a marsh in Kispiox Valley on August
22, at close enough range to make identification certain, though the
bird was not shot. On September 3. late in the evening, a heron of
some sort, apparently a bittern, flew oyer our camp. This, I believe,
is as far to the northwest as the species has been seen.
Ardea herodias Linnaeus, subsp. ?   Great Blue Heron
One seen near Hazelton, June 10, and two in Kispiox Valley on
June 20. We were told that herons sometimes occurred in^fair
abundance along the Kispiox River. Probably it is Ardea herodias
fannini that occurs in this region. 328
University of California Publications m Zoology     you 24
Gallinago delicata (Ord).   Wilson Snipe
A fairly common fall migrant in Kispiox Valley. First seen
August 20, and subsequently on many occasions up to the time of our
departure, September 17. Two specimens preserved (nos. 41991,
Pisobia bairdi (Coues).   Baird Sandpiper
A flock of eight seen on the summit of Nine-mile Mountain,
August 5, and again (apparently the same flock) on August 10. One
shot but not preserved. A flock of six was about a mud puddle in the
town of Hazelton, August 15.
Pisobia minutilla (Vieillot).   Least Sandpiper
Two shot, one (no. 41993) preserved, on the Kispiox River, August
27. An occasional small flock of sandpipers was seen there, but not
Ereunetes mauri Gabanis.   Western Sandpiper
One bird (no. 41994) shot from a small flock on the Kispiox River,
August 27.
Tringa solitaria cinnamomea (Brewster). Western Solitary Sandpiper
One bird shot, but not preserved; in Kispiox Valley, August 18 ;
the only one seen all summer.
Bartramia longicauda (Bechstein).   Upland Plover
Appeared in small numbers, migrating, in Kispiox Valley the latter
part of August. First seen August 17 (we. were told they had
appeared some days earlier) and at intervals, two or three birds at
a time, until August 26. They frequented open fields where hay was
raised, relatively limited areas that had been cleared in recent years.
The country in general is densely forested; with settlement, more and
more of such clearings have been made, and the species may be extending its range with the opening of favorable areas. This station is, I
believe, an extreme western point of record for the upland plover in
northern British Columbia. Four specimens were preserved (nos.
41996^41997), apparently all immature birds in first winter plumage. 1924]   Sivarth: Birds and Mammals of the Skeena River Region     329
Actitis macularia (Linnaeus).    Spotted Sandpiper
A few individuals seen at intervals through the summer, on the
shores of the Skeena. and Bulkley rivers near Hazelton, and on the
Kispiox River. One specimen (no. 41995) preserved, an immature
male taken on the Kispiox River, August 18.
Dendragapus obscurus flemingi Taverner.   Fleming Grouse
Found in small numbers on the upper slopes of Nine-mile Mountain, mostly just below the upper limit of upright timber, at from 4500
to 5000 feet altitude. During the three weeks we spent at that place
we saw one adult male and eight or ten females. Small young were
encountered several times, never more than- three or four to a brood,
and sometimes only one. Several females seen were alone, and apparently without broods. Three females collected (nos. 42000-42002).
Two, taken August 5 and 8, respectively, are just beginning the annual
molt. These birds are indistinguishable from specimens taken on the
Stikine River, two hundred miles to the northwest (see Swarth, 1922,
p. 203).
Canachites franklini (Douglas).    Franklin Grouse
Seen in woods of ^pruce, fir, and hemlock, near the summit of Nine-
mile Mountain (4000 to 4500 feet altitude), and along the telegraph
line at a point some forty miles north of Hazelton. Eleven specimens,
collected (nos. 42003-42013) : an adult male, two adult females, and
three chicks from Nine-mile Mountain; an adult female, two immature
males, and two females probably immature, from the second record
station. These specimens bear -out Riley's (1912, p. 55) comments
upon the earlier molt of the adult male, as compared with female and
young. The adult male collected August 2 has nearly completed the
annual molt. Adult females taken August 10 and 11 are still in the
old plumage. The three chicks, taken with the female parent on
August 10, an entire family, are about one-quarter grown, in juvenal
plumage save for remnants of natal down on the throats of two. Two
young males and two apparently young females taken September 12
have nearly completed the molt into first winter plumage; an adult
female taken September 12 is nearly through the annual molt.
The one adult male has a nearly uniformly black tail. There is a
slight whitish tip to the central feathers, and a faintly indicated light- ill:
330 University of California Publications in Zoology     y°u 24
colored bar across the center of the tail, not to be seen unless the
feathers are widely spread. Of the two immature males, one has the
tail black except for scattered and faint reddish spots near the tips of
some feathers; the other has the central rectrices narrowly tipped with
whitish, some of the others very faintly with pale reddish. Of the
five females, all have the central rectrices with more or less of a pale
margin at the tip, and only one lacks such tipping to the lateral
The adult male has large and conspicuous whitish spots on the long
upper tail coverts. On the two immature males these spots are poorly
indicated. On the two summer females they are inconspicuous; two
of the three fall females have them conspicuously present, in one they
are slight. In this series of birds there is no evidence of two color
phases (as described by Riley, loc. cit.).
Bonasa umbellus umbeUoides (Douglas).   Gray Ruffed Grouse
Abundant throughout the poplar woods of the lowlands. On June
18 several broods of small young were seen, and from then on flocks
of growing youngsters were frequently encountered. Toward the end
of August some flocks were of such size as to make it seem probable
that they were composed of two or more broods. The cocks are solitary
through the summer; even in September extremely wary single birds
were flushed that were assumed to be old males that had not yet joined
the flocks.
Fourteen specimens collected (nos. 42014-42027), one old male,
June 5, the others all taken in September and in the latter stages of
the autumnal molt. The molt is completed about October 1. Two are
red tailed, twelve gray tailed, indicating a preponderance of the gray
phase in this region.
Two fall specimens at hand from St. John trail, upper Peace River,
Alberta, may be assumed to be representative of typical umbeUoides.
The birds from Hazelton and Kispiox Valley, though referable to
umbeUoides, are appreciably less grayish, more brownish in coloration,
than these Peace River specimens, and they are also less gray than
ruffed grouse from the upper Stikine River, to the northward. The
increased brownness of the Skeena Valley grouse may be indicative of
intergradation toward sabimi of the southern coastal region of British
Columbia.   How far north sabvni extends is as vet undetermined. • I924]   Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Skeena River Region     331
Lagopus lagopus alexandrae Grinnell.   Alexander Willow Pts
Ptarmigan are said to occur occasionally in the lowlands of the
Hazelton region in midwinter, but during most of the year they are
restricted to the Alpine-Arctic mountain tops. We found them in
limited numbers on the timberless summit of Nine-mile Mountain.
There are miles of open country on the two converging ridges that
form the top of this mountain, barren of trees save for occasional
thickets of dwarfed or prostrate Alpine conifers, and here, at long
intervals, we encountered ptarmigan. It is a curious fact, whether or
no it was a mere coincidence, that on one of the two ridges only white-
tailed ptarmigan were found, on the other, willow and rock ptarmigan
were seen, but no white-tailed. To all seeming the two ridges were of
exactly the same character. In all, ten broods of willow and rock
ptarmigan were encountered (the species were not always to be differentiated) and about five or six single birds in addition. The broods
ranged from three to twelve in number; the aggregate of young birds
seen was about fifty. The chicks grew rapidly. Some seen on July 25,
and a day or two later, were down-covered and unable to fly. At that
time they were accompanied by the female parent only, and the male
birds were flushed separately. By August 10 the young ptarmigan
were the size of quail and larger, and were strong on the wing. The
old males were then associated with the families. Tn some of the larger
broods seen the difference in size among the young was so marked as
to suggest the junction of two families. It might happen that upon
the death of a hen her offspring would seek the companionship of
another family.
Five willow ptarmigan were collected (nos. 42028-42032), four
adult males and one adult female. Three males have much white on
the lower breast and abdomen, the fourth is almost solidly in the
brown summer plumage. Many willow ptarmigan from different
localities in the northwest have been available for comparison with
these birds. Of Lagopus lagopus lagopus there is in this Museum
from northern Alaska and Yukon (Kowak and Yukon rivers) a series
of ninety-four skins, including a number in summer plumage or in
process of change. Of L. I. alexandrae, there are eleven specimens
from island localities in southeastern Alaska, including five summer
males, and one male and two females in first fall plumage. A pair
of breeding adults from Poreher Island, British Columbia, was loaned
by Allan Brooks.   There have been available, from the collection of the University of California Publications in Zoology ;   [Vol.24
Provincial Museum, Victoria, British Columbia, twenty-seven specimens from Lake Atlin, including nine summer males and eight summer
females, and a male and female from Anaham Lake.
Island specimens of alexandrae (summer males), compared with
lagopus from the Yukon and Kowak regions, are darker colored and
with smaller and differently shaped bill. (The bill difference has
been figured by Clark, 1910, p. 53.) Color is darkest in specimens
from Prince of Wales Island. Atlin birds and Nine-mile Mountain
birds are essentially alike, and are intermediate in color between
lagopus of the interior and alexandrae from the islands; the average
is nearer to alexandrae. The bill in size and shape is just as in alexandrae. Females from Atlin and Nine-mile Mountain differ from
Kowak and Yukon birds in bill characters as do the males, and also
in color. They are not of darker and richer browns, as might be
expected, but present a duller, grayer appearance. In the northern
lagopus the feathers above and below are broadly edged with bright
hazel; in the southern birds these edgings are narrow and dull. On
the basis of these comparisons I feel justified in extending the range
of alexandrae eastward from the coast, at the north to Lake Atlin,
at the south to Nine-mile Mountain and Anaham Lake. There is no
question as to the difference of these southern mainland birds from
lagopus of northern Alaska and the interior.
It is of interest to note in alexandrae the frequent presence of black
shafts on the primaries, sometimes on secondaries and greater coverts.
This character has been considered an important feature of the Newfoundland subspecies (L. I. alleni), as in the "key to the American
subspecies of Lagopus lagopus" published by Clark (loc. cit., p. 54),
but obviously it cannot be used as a feature characteristic of that race
alone. In an immature female from Prince of Wales Island (no.
31343, August 27), which has acquired the winter flight feathers, not
only are primaries and secondaries with distinct, black shafts, but there
are large, tear-shaped spots of black near the tips of. all the primaries
and most of the secondaries. Furthermore, the primaries have a black
'freckling' over much of their surface, and the greater coverts are also
marked with black though to a lesser desrree. 1924 ]   Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Skeena River Reg
Lagopus rupestris (Gmelin), subsp.?   Rock Ptarmigan
Three specimens collected on Nine-mile Mountain, two young birds
(nos. 42033-42034) partly in natal down, partly in juvenal plumage,
taken August 1, and an adult female (no. 42035) collected August 5.
Pig. A. Tail of female rock ptarmigan (no. 42035), natural size. The
outermost feather on each side is widely spread from the others to show pattern
of coloration on inner web.   Drawn by Allan Brooks.
There are not available enough summer specimens from other points
to enable me to determine the subspecific status of these birds. There
is at hand one summer-plumaged female from the Jade Mountains,
north of the Kowak River, collected May 28, 1899 (no. 32170), presumably representative of Lagopus rupestris rupestris. Compared
with the Nine-mile Mountain female, the Jade Mountains specimen is
much brighter colored. There is a great deal of bright hazel in the
plumage. The Nine-mile Mountain bird has a smaller bill (as compared also with many winter females from the Kowak River region),
and is darker colored.    Areas on individual feathers that in the
:    ! ifit
334 University of California Publications in Zoology     [Vol. 24
northern bird are rather brilliantly ruddy are of more restricted size
and of a dull tone, and there is extension of black and grayish areas.
It seems likely that these two birds represent two different subspecies.
There are no adult females of Lagopus rupestris dixoni available,
and but two summer males (nos. 37.1. 372, Port Frederick, Chichagof
Island, July 30, 1907). Two summer males from Atlin, British
Columbia, loaned by the Provincial Museum, Victoria (no. 2566, June
26, 1914; no. 2589, July 1, 1914), are quite unlike dixoni, sufficiently
so to make it seem improbable that dixoni is a southern race of general
occurrence on the mainland as well as on the Alaskan islands.
The Nine-mile Mountain female possesses one feature worthy of
comment. The six outer tail feathers on each side are white basally,
the total white area covering more than half the tail. On the inner
rectrices the white extends over about the basal three-fourths; it
decreases on the inner web of the outer feathers, though extending far
toward the tip on the outer web (see fig. A). This is exactly the
character ascribed to Lagopus hyperboreas Sundevall, of Spitzbergen
(see Dresser, 1871, p. 179, col. pi. no. 482, text fig.; Ogilvie-Grant,
1893, p. 51). The white tail was not peculiar to the one specimen
collected, for other females were seen on Nine-mile Mountain which
had the same marking. It was conspicuous in flight. No male was
noted with this character; in fact no male rupestris was positively
The two chicks collected are readily distinguished from young
leucurus by their generally browner color. Young leucurus is distinctly gray.   The young of lagopus is more ruddy throughout.
Lagopus leucurus leucurus (Swainson).   White-tailed Ptarmigan
Found only on the eastern ridge of Nine-mile Mountain. Four
specimens collected, two adult females and two chicks (nos. 42036-
42039). The young birds, taken on July 26 and August 1, respectively, have some natal down about the head; otherwise they are in
juvenal plumage. Three broods of white-tailed ptarmigan were seen,
one of two chicks, one of three, and one of twelve.
Circus hudsonius (Linnaeus).   Marsh Hawk
An adult male was seen repeatedly during parts of June and July
about the same locality in Kispiox Valley. At the end of the summer
the first migrant was seen September 10, and a few others were noted
at later dates. II
I924]   Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Skeena River Region     335
Accipiter velox (Wilson).   Sharp-shinned Hawk
Several seen near Hazelton, migrating, May 27. As single birds
were encountered at intervals during the summer in Kispiox Valley
and on Nine-mile Mountain, it seems likely that a few pairs breed in
the region. The last week in August, with the beginning of the migration, sharp-shinned hawks became fairly abundant. That is, one or two
birds were seen daily, some days four or five might be encountered.
Three specimens collected: an adult male, May 31 (no. 42040), an
adult female, just beginning the annual molt, July 13 (no. 42042),
and an immature male, August 19 (no. 42041).
: 1
Astur atricapillus atricapillus (Wilson).   Eastern Goshawk
During the third week in August migrating goshawks appeared,
and from then on, during September, they were abundant. Scarcely
a day passed without at least one being seen, and frequently seven or
eight would be noted within a few hours. The species is usually
solitary but it was not uncommon here to find two together. Mostly
they were young birds, and as a rule absurdly unsuspicious. Two of
the three goshawks collected during August (nos. 42045, 42046), all
in immature plumage, are evidently of the subspecies atricapillus, and
I believe that nearly all seen at that time were the same. They
appeared to constitute a migratory 'wave' from some more northern
Astur atricapillus striatulus Ridgway.   Western Goshawk
A female goshawk (no. 42043) of this subspecies collected at
Hazelton, on May 30 is, save for a few scattered feathers on the tibiae,
in immature plumage throughout. A male bird (no. 42044) taken
July 16 is in the midst of the molt from the immature to adult
plumage. An immature male (no. 42046) was collected in Kispiox
Valley, August 29. The last mentioned appeared at the same time
as other migrating hawks. The other two, taken in May and July,
respectively, may indicate the breeding of this subspecies in the region.
They could not be positively recognized as breeding individuals, however. Remains of flicker and ruffed grouse were found in the stomach
of no. 42044; ruffed srrouse in that of no. 42046. 336
University of California Publications in Zoology     [VoL-24
Buteo borealis calurus Cassin.   Western Red-tailed Hawk
Several pairs were breeding near Hazelton and in Kispiox Valley.
In the latter locality, not far from our camp, there was an occupied
nest at the top of a tall tree that towered above a surrounding jungle,
too impenetrable to be traversed.
Toward the end of August there was a noticeable increase in the
number of red-tails observed, due probably to an influx of migrants,
and many were seen up to the end of my stay, September 26. There
was wide variation in color; light-breasted birds were seen and some
exceedingly dark ones. One specimen was collected (no. 42048), an
immature male, taken in Kispiox Valley August 27. It is in the dark
phase of plumage, blackish throughout with extensive white streaks
and blotches partly concealed at the bases of the feathers.
Buteo swainsoni Bonaparte.   Swainson Hawk
Hawks supposed to be of this species were seen occasionally late
in August and early in September, but only one was shot. This bird
(no. 42049) is an immature male, taken in Kispiox Valley, August 24.
Its stomach contained a toad.
Aquila chrysaetos (Linnaeus).   Golden Eagle
Seen at intervals during the summer, at Hazelton, at the base of
the nearby mountain range, Rocher Deboule, and on Nine-mile Mountain. From July 16 to 20 one was seen daily at Hazelton, haunting the
river banks and evidently feeding on dead salmon. On Nine-mile
Mountain one followed a regular beat almost daily, recognizable as the
same individual through a peculiarity of marking. This bird wa«
hunting marmots assiduously and swung about the mountain side low
over the ridges, apparently trusting his sudden appearance to enable
him to surprise a marmot at a distance from shelter.
Haliaeetus leucocephalus alascanus C. H. Townsend.
Northern Bald Eagle
Seen in the lowlands at various times during the summer. As the
season advanced, the dead and dying salmon on the river banks were
a bountiful source of food to the eagles, and increasing numbers of
the birds appeared. What seemed to be entire families were seen
several times, in July, groups composed of two adults with two or
three full-grown young. 1924]   Swarth: Birds and Mammals of. the Skeena River Region     337
Palco columbarius columbarius Linnaeus.   Eastern Pigeon Hawk
Falco columbarius suckleyi Ridgway.   Black Pigeon Hawk
The two subspecies of the pigeon hawk that are found in the region
are rarely to be distinguished in life, so that birds seen can be recorded
only under the specific name. Two pigeon hawks observed near
Hazelton on May 26 were presumably migrants; none was noted
during midsummer. The first fall migrant appeared August 22. and
from then on to the end of my stay (September 26) some were seen
nearly every day, sometimes several in one day.
The pigeon hawk is a remarkably swift flier, a fact borne out by
the stomach contents of one of my birds, the remains of a black swift
(Cypseloides niger borealis). That this hawk can capture a swift in
fair chase in the open is not likely (see Meinertzhagen, 1921, p. 237),
but after observation of both species I see no reason to doubt that on
occasion the swift could be taken unawares and caught by the hawk
after a short burst of great speed. This is in opposition to a possible
explanation that in the case in question the hawk had captured a sick
or disabled bird.
Six specimens collected: one adult male, three immature males,
and two (presumably) immature females. This series is of interest
in its bearing Tipon the relationship of columbarius and suckleyi.
Not one of the lot is typical of columbarius, though I have so
labeled five of them (nos. 42050-42053, 42055), as most closely
resembling that subspecies. One female (no. 42054, Kispiox Valley,
August 29) is a typical, even an extreme, example of suckleyi. The
second female (no. 42053, Kispiox Valley, September 12) is nearer
true columbarius than any others of this series. The three immature
males (nos. 42050-42052), taken in Kispiox Valley on August 28, 22,
and 23, respectively, are intermediate, in appearance between columbarius and suckleyi, an intermediateness that is exhibited in a rather
curious way. Ventrally they are in color and markings practically
like columbarius, but dorsally they are quite as dark colored as the
average immature suckleyi. This same sort of intermediateness, that
is, light ventral and dark dorsal coloration, is also shown in an
immature female (no. 39762) from the lower Stikine River, British
Columbia, collected August 14, 1919 (see Swarth, 1922, p. 214), and
intermediateness both above and below is shown in an immature female
(no. 40371) taken near Coulterville, California, on December 20, 19.19.
1 338
University of California Publications in Zoology     [Vol.24
The adult male collected (no. 42055, Hazelton, September 24) is
referred to columbarius, though darker colored than any other adult
of that subspecies that I have seen. There are nine adult male pigeon
hawks in the several collections housed in the Museum of Vertebrate
Zoology, and these exhibit an interesting range of variation. An
extreme of darkness is represented by the Hazelton bird above referred
to, but slightly removed from that of suckleyi At the opposite extreme,
of light coloration, is an example of richardsoni. Between, there are
seven specimens, labeled columbarius, illustrating unbroken gradation
from one extreme to the other. Thus, in adult birds as in immatures,
there is no one character of color or markings that may be taken as
absolutely indicative of any one form. The three names, columbarius,
suckleyi, and richardsoni, apply to three subspecies of one species,
between which no definite lines may be drawn.
There is this to be said, however, that the above comments are
based, not upon breeding birds, but upon specimens collected during
the migrations and in winter. The line of nicely graded adults just
described was not arranged with regard to geographic continuity.
Breeding pigeon hawks are scarce in. collections (not one was available to the present writer) and, for the most part, deductions must be
drawn as best they may from non-breeding birds.
The Hazelton series is of interest in that it includes a specimen of
suckleyi from what I believe is the northernmost point at. which this
subspecies has been definitely recorded. This place is at an intermediate point between humid coast and arid interior, and most of the
pigeon hawks taken there are intermediate in appearance. Of course
these birds were not found actually breeding, but the. conclusion does
not seem forced that they are representative of the form that does
breed in that general region.
Tja. this discussion I have ignored the recently described Falco
columbarius bendirei of Swann (1922, p. 66; type locality; Fort Walla
Walla, Washington). It may be possible eventually to demonstrate
the existence of this additional western subspecies, but the two eastern
specimens available to me are not to be distinguished from western
birds here regarded as columbarius.
■ Falco sparverius sparverius Linnaeus.   American Sparrow Hawk
A fairly common summer visitant to the lowlands. A few were
seen in the open country above timber on Nine-mile Mountain, but
that was early in August and the birds noted had probably wandered 19241   Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Skeena River Region     339
from nesting grounds at lower altitudes. Abundant in Kispiox Valley
and about Hazelton during the latter part of August, and in lessening
numbers in September. Some were seen up to the time of my
departure, September 26.
Fifteen specimens collected (nos. 42056-42070). Full-grown young
were taken July 18. An adult female taken August 20 has finished the
annual molt; an adult male taken on the same date, and another shot
September 7, are still in the midst of the change.
Pandion haliaetus carolinensis (Gmelin).   Osprey
We found no ospreys breeding in the region covered, but about the
middle of August, with the coming of the salmon, the fish hawks began
to appear. During the latter part of August and throughout September, some were seen almost dailv.
Bubo virginianus lagophonus (Oberholser).    Ruddy Horned Owl
Exceedingly abundant throughout the lowlands. At our timber-
line camp on Nine-mile Mountain we neither saw nor heard horned
owls, but they were present everywhere in the valleys, and in unusual
numbers for a large, predatory bird. The abundance of rabbits in the
region may have caused a temporary increase in the number of horned
Twenty-one specimens were collected (nos. 42071-42091). Of these,
six are young, mostly down-covered (two in one brood, June 5; four
in one brood, June 24); the rest are young and old in fresh fall
plumage. Food was found in eight' stomachs. In one case a young
owl had been fed a red squirrel, the others contained rabbit and
nothing else. This is noteworthy in view of the general belief that
the horned owl is an inveterate enemy of grouse. These owls inhabited
the poplar woods, precisely the same environment as the ruffed grouse,
and ruffed grouse were abundant.
Considerable color variation is shown in this series of owls, gray
colored birds at one extreme, brown colored at the other. The grayest
bird (no. 42091) was the last one shot, on September 9, and might be
assumed to be a migrant of a race other than the breeding form, but
there are earlier taken specimens in the series that are nearly as light
colored. I think it safe to say that the differences illustrate the extent
of individual variation existent in the subspecies lagophonus in this
one regiort. (For use of the name lagophonus, see Oberholser, 1904,
p. 185; Ridgway, 1914, p. 747.)
!l 340
University of California Publications in Zoology
[YOU 24
Ceryle alcyon caurina Grinnell.   Western Belted Kingfisher
By streams and lakes everywhere in the lowlands. Present in the
region when we arrived, May 25, and up to the time of our departure,
September 26.   One specimen collected (no. 42092).
1 ft!: •■
■ ■ ■ ' ■.'.'l\\d
Dryobates villosus montieola Anthony.
Rocky Mountain Hairy Woodpecker
Fairly common in- the lowlands, mostly in deciduous timber.
Present during the whole of our stay; probably resident the year
through. Young were seen flying about on June 22; birds taken
September 1 had finished the molt. Twelve specimens collected (nos.
42093-42104), seven breeding adults, two in juvenal plumage, and
three in fresh fall plumage.
Dryobates pubescens leucurus (Hartlaub).   Batchelder Woodpecker
In small numbers in deciduous woods in.the lowlands. Young out
of the nest were taken June 29. Two specimens collected September 5
and 8, respectively, had finished the molt. Thirteen specimens in all
were collected (nos. 42104-42117).
A specimen of downy woodpecker from Fort Babine, in this same
general region, has been ascribed by Ridgway (1914, p. 239) to the
subspecies Dryobates pubescens glacialis Grinnell (type locality,
Prince William Sound, Alaska). This induced comparison of the
Skeena Valley series with the four Alaskan specimens of glacialis at
hand, and the two lots were found to be indistinguishable. In the
original description of glacialis (Grinnell, 1910, p. 390), comparisons
are made with nelsoni, of the interior of Alaska, and gairdneri, of the
coast of British Columbia. The American Ornithologists' Union Committee (1912, p. 386) refused recognition to the race glacialis on the
grounds that it was an "intergrade between D. p. nelsoni and gairdneri." Ridgway (1914, p. 239) accords recognition to glacialis, but,
in describing the race, compares it again with the Alaskan nelsoni,
and also with the eastern medianus.
So far, no comparisons had been made between glacialis and the
downy woodpecker of the. more southern Rocky Mountains. D. p.
homorus of recent literature. The Skeena Valley series, however, was
taken sufficiently near the known range of that subspecies to suggest
the desirability of such comparisons.    Pertinent material *is at hand 1924]   Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Skeena River Region     341
as follows: Prince William Sound, Alaska, 2 specimens (including the
type of Dryobates pubescens glacialis) ; lower Taku River. Alaska, 2;
Skeena River region (Hazelton and Kispiox Valley), British Columbia, 13; Warner Mountains, California, 4; Sierra Ancha, Arizona, 2.
In my opinion, the downy woodpeckers from these several points
should all be included under one name. As shown in the accompanying table, the southern birds are slightly larger than the northern
ones, which is curious, considering north and south variation in general
in the genus Dryobates. The southern birds are also somewhat blacker,
that is, with less white spotting upon wings and coverts. Individual
variation is such, however, that it is impossible satisfactorily to
diagnose two subspecies in the material examined.
For the application of the name Dryobates pubescens leucurus
(Hartlaub) to the downy woodpecker of the Rocky Mountain region,
see Grinnell, 1923, p. 30.
Measurements in Millimeters or Dryobates pubescens leucurus
Prince William Sound, Alaska,
Sept.   7,1908
Taku River, Alaska,
Sept.   4,1909
■ Taku River, Alaska,
Sept. 13,1909
•Kispiox Valley, B C,
July  13, 1921
Kispiox Valley, B. C,
Sept.   5,1921
Warner Mts., Calif.,
June 29, 1910
Warner Mts., Calif.,
June 30, 1910
Sierra Ancha, Arizona,
June 23,1917
Prince William Sound, Alaska
Sept. 18,1908
Hazelton, B. C,
June 16,1921
Kispiox Valley, B. C,
June 29, 1921
Kispiox Valley, B. C,
July    9,1921
Kispiox Valley, B. C,
Sept.   8,1921
Warner Mts., Calif.,
June 30,1910
Warner Mts., Calif.,
July    6,1910
Sierra Ancha, Ariz.,
June 25,1917
* Type of Dryobates pubescens glacialis Grinnell.
t Rectrices shortened by wear.
Picoides arcticus (Swainson).   Arctic Three-toed Woodpecker
Not common. We had been in the region three weeks before seeing
a three-toed woodpecker of either kind. Picoides arcticus and P. a.
fasciatus were then both discovered, each in small numbers, and under
precisely the same conditions.   They were in the lowlands, but inhabit- 342
University of California Publications in Zoology     you 24
ing the little muskegs that are scattered through the woods, well
defined areas for which certain bird species showed a marked preference. No three-toed woodpeckers were seen on Nine-mile Mountain,
though both species occur as a rule in the Hudsonian zone.
A nest of the Arctic three-toed woodpecker was found in Kispiox
Valley. It was placed in a dead and charred Engelmann spruce, in
a strip of spruce woods bordering a muskeg otherwise surrounded by
poplar forest. The nest hole was eighty feet from the ground. It was
two and one-half inches in diameter and one foot deep, drilled through
an outer sheath of sound, hard wood, and downward through soft,
rotten 'punk.' On July 3 it held one young bird nearly ready to fly,
and a second, not much smaller, which had been dead for some days.
Four specimens collected (nos. 42118-42121), the young female
mentioned' above, its female parent, and, at other times, two adult
Picoides amerieanus fasciatus Baird.   Alaska Three-toed Woodpecker
Four specimens collected (nos. 42122-42125), one adult male and
three adult females. They differ from Alaskan examples of fasciatus
in the notable restriction of white dorsal markings. The white bars
on the back are limited in extent and in only one specimen is there
even a trace of the white coalescing longitudinally. All four, however,
show white spots on rump and upper tail coverts, markings that are
supposed to distinguish fasciatus from amerieanus.
Sphyrapicus varius ruber (Gmelin).   Red-breasted Sapsucker
All through the valleys this species was far more abundant than I
have ever found sapsuckers elsewhere. It is curious that there should
be this abundance here; this must be near the outskirts of the range of
the bird. Ruber is regarded primarily as a coastal species, yet nowhere
on the coast is it found in such numbers. On the southeastern Alaskan
coast, near the Skeena River, it is doubtful if an observer would in a
whole summer see twenty birds—the number counted near Hazelton
in one forenoon.
During May and June a number of nests were found, mostly
through seeing the old birds carrying food to the young. One was
drilled in a live poplar, the tree a straight column with no branching
limbs save at the very top, the nest some seventy feet from the ground.
Another was in a dead birch, sixty feet up.   Many others were noted, 1924]   Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Skeena River Region     343
all in birch or poplar, mostly dead trees, and no nest was less than
fifty feet above the ground. One male bird collected had the abdomen
bare of feathers.   It obviously had been incubating eggs.
The first young bird was seen flying about on July 7. Shortly
after, the species became notably scarce and few of the birds were
observed through July and August. This, perhaps, was from some
change in habits rather than a shifting of population. The first week
in September numbers appeared once more. Several factors contribute to bring the sapsuckers conspicuously in view. They are
assiduous drummers, on dead trees or on telegraph-poles; they have
querulous and noisy call notes, Tittered near the nest; they are active
flycatchers, using a telegraph pole or an isolated tree in a clearing as
a base from which to fly.
Fourteen specimens collected (nos. 42126^42139). These are
exactly like coastal birds in coloration, but differ in average bill structure. Compared with specimens from the nearby coast of southeastern
Alaska, the Hazelton birds have the bill noticeably short and heavy.
There is some overlapping in the two lots, for some Alaskan specimens
have bills as short as some Hazelton birds. None of the latter series,
however, has the long, slender bill that is generally characteristic of
the Alaskan birds. Adult sapsuckers from the upper Stikine River
(see Swarth, 1922, p. 220) have the same type of bill as the Hazelton
birds. (For use of the name ruber for the northern subspecies of the
red-breasted sapsucker see Swarth, 1912, p. 34.)
I i
Phloeotomus pileatus picinus Bangs.   Western Pileated Woodpecker
In June and again in late September, single birds were seen or
heard several times near the base of Rocher Deboule, southeast from
Hazelton. This must be about the extreme northern limit of the
species in this region. None was seen in Kispiox Valley, a few miles
to the northward. One specimen collected (no. 42140), a male taken
September 22.
Colaptes auratus borealis Ridgway.   Boreal Flicker
Breeds abundantly in the lowlands, mostly in deciduous timber.
Present when we arrived, May 25, and until our departure, September 26. During the last two weeks iu August flickers were extremely
scarce; then, early in September, they suddenly appeared in numbers
and remained abundant throughout the month.
>r/r 344
University of California Publications in Zoology     you 24
Hazelton is near the western limit to which the yellow-shafted
flicker might be expected to range; it cannot be far to the westward
that the red-shafted flicker (Colaptes cafer cafer) occurs. It is of
interest that, of the breeding specimens from Hazelton and Kispiox
Valley, nearly all show traces of cafer blood. The four adult summer
males collected all show more or less red in the normally black
'mustache.' In females the cafer characters are not so conspicuous,
showing sometimes in a tinge of reddish in the quills, sometimes
in certain details of body markings or color. In one case, wings add
tail are nearly as red as in typical cafer. Some young males (nestlings) show red in the 'mustaches,' but not so conspicuously as do the
The flickers that arrived so numerously in September were, I
believe, migrants from the north, from a region far removed from any
chance of admixture with cafer. Five collected at that time are all
typically auratus-like in every detail. In all, twenty-eight yellow-
shafted flickers were collected (nos. 42141-42168). The series includes
twelve nestlings, eight in one lot (the entire brood), and four from
another brood that consisted of six in all.
Chordeiles virginianus virginianus (Gmelin).   Eastern Nighthawk
Arrived at Hazelton, June 3. Fairly common in the lowlands thereafter until about the middle of August, when the birds began to
disappear. Last seen August 31. Two specimens collected (nos.
42169-42170), adult male and female.
Cypseloides niger borealis (Kennerly).   Black Swift
Abundant throughout the summer. Usually seen flying high overhead, seldom within gunshot of the ground. One specimen collected
(no. 42171), an adult female, at Kispiox Valley, August 20.
Chaetura vauxi (J. K. Townsend).   Vaux Swift
A few birds (perhaps three pairs) seen occasionally at a certain
spot in the woods near Hazelton. Small flocks or single individuals
noted at long intervals in Kispiox Valley. Last seen September 3.
One specimen collected (no. 42172), an adult male, Julv 20. 1924]   Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Skeena River Region     345
Selasphorus rufus (Gmelin).   Rufous Hummingbird
Abundant about Hazelton when we arrived, May 25. Frequenting
gardens in the town and generally distributed through the lowlands.
On Nine-mile Mountain a few hummingbirds were seen, perhaps ten
or twelve all told during our stay (July 21-August 14) ; apparently
all were young birds, wanderers from the valleys below. By the time
we descended from the mountain, there were very few rufous hummingbirds left in the lowlands. No more old males were seen, and the
last, female or young was noted on August 18. Two specimens were
collected, an adult male at Hazelton, May 30 (no. 42173), and an
immature male on Nine-mile Mountain, August 4 (no. 42174).
Tyrannus tyrannus (Linnaeus).   Eastern Kingbird
Two seen during the summer, an adult male taken near our Kispiox
Valley camp on June 22 (no. 42175), and an adult female at Hazelton,
July 20 (no. 42176). The first mentioned appeared to be in breeding
condition. The Hazelton bird was first seen flying, approaching from
a distance with all the appearance of a migrant. These captures
constitute, I believe, an extreme northwestern point of record for this
Sayornis sayus yukonensis Bishop.   Northern Say Phoebe
Apparently not breeding in this general region; at least, none was
seen until the end of the summer. First noted, a single bird, August
23, obviously a migrant. Another on August 24 and two on August 26
make up the total number recorded. These four specimens (nos.
42177-42180), two males and two females,-are all in juvenal plumage.
Besides these birds there are two other northern examples of this
species in the collection of this Museum, an adult male from Forty-
mile, Yukon Territory (no. 4594) and a juvenal female from Sergief
Island, Alaska (no. 39815). The adult has been described by Grinnell
(1909, p. 206) as showing the characters ascribed to the subspecies
Sayornis sayus yukonensis Bishop (1900, p. 115). The Sergief Island
specimen has been recorded (Swarth, 1922, p. 224) as Sayornis sayus,
with comment upon its appearance; it is exactly like the Kispiox Valley
specimens. Altogether, this series, one adult and five juvenals, bears
out Bishop's (loc. cit.) contention of the existence of a recognizable
northern form of Sayornis sayus.   In the young birds from the north, 346
University of California Publications in Zoology     lVoL-24
the darker color and the lack of rusty markings dorsally and on the
wings, as compared with southern specimens, is constant and conspicuous. The northern adult differs in measurements and proportions
from any southern skin.
Nuttallornis borealis (Swainson).   Olive-sided Flycatcher
Not common, but occurring as scattered pairs throughout the lowlands. Present when we arrived, the last week in May. Last bird
seen September 2.   One specimen collected (no. 42181).
Myiochanes richardsoni richardsoni (Swainson).
Western Wood Pewee
Common in the lowlands, usually about clearings. On our first
day in the field, May 27, wood pewees were fairly numerous. The last,
was seen September 4. Six specimens collected, all breeding adults
(nos. 42182-42187).
Empidonax trailli alnorum Brewster.   Alder Flycatcher
An inhabitant of willow thickets in lowland swamps. Not common,
and so shy that the species could easily be overlooked were it not for
the call note. First arrival noted June 5; last bird seen August 24.
Five specimens collected (nos. 42188-42192), three adult males, and
two males in first winter plumage.
Empidonax hammondi (Xantus).   Hammond Flycatcher
Abundant in the poplar woods of tie lowlands. Present in numbers
when we arrived, the last week in May, and almost up to the time of
our departure. Early in September there was a marked diminution
in numbers, but a few Hammond flycatchers appeared at intervals
up to September 21, when the last one seen was collected. Ten specimens taken (nos. 42193-42202).
A nest (no. 1852) taken near Hazelton, Jime 16, contained two
fresh eggs, probably an incomplete set. It is constructed outwardly
of 'cotton' from the fireweed, and some plant fiber, and moss; the
lining is of feathers and cattle hair.
A second nest (no. 1853), taken in Kispiox Valley, July 7, contained three slightly incubated eggs, a complete set. It was in a willow
thicket at the edge of a small stream, about twenty feet from the 19241
Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Skeena River Region     347
ground, and wedged between several limbs forming an upright crotch.
This nest outwardly is composed mostly of finely shredded strips of
bark; the lining is of cattle hair, with a few feathers of grouse and
other birds.   In each set the eggs are white, unmarked.
Empidonax wrighti Baird.   Wright Flycatcher
In the lowlands, in just such surroundings as are frequented by
Empidonax hammondi. The two species are so nearly alike in life as
to be indistinguishable to the eye, but different call notes serve for
identification. On this basis it may be said that E. wrighti was rare,
compared to the abundant, hammondi. Three specimens, all adult,
were collected (nos. 42203^2205) ; male, June 27; female, August 17 S
female, August 25. The two August birds are still mostly in worn
breeding plumage.
One nest was found in Kispiox Valley. It was in a small, isolated
clump of willows, in an upright crotch formed by several dead limbs,
and about ten feet from the ground. On July 4 it contained two eggs,
just hatching.
Otocoris alpestris arcticola Oberholser.   Pallid Horned Lark
In small numbers on the Alpine-Arctic summit of Nine-mile Mountain. The last week in July young birds were seen flying about. Three
adults collected (nos. 42206-4.2208), a male and a female on July 31,
a male on Atigust 1. The males are well advanced in the annual molt,
the female has hardly begun.
On September 22 four horned larks were seen flying overhead
near Hazelton. This, evidently the beginning of the fall migration,
was the only lowland occurrence observed.
Cyanocitta stelleri annectens (Baird).   Black-headed Jay
A few seen the last week in May and early in June, toward the base
of Rocher Deboule, southeast of Hazelton. They did not act like nesting birds, and three specimens collected were evidently not breeding.
In Kispiox Valley one appeared August 27, and thereafter, during
September, they drifted through from time to time, usually single
birds. On September 11 and 12 many were seen along the trail following the telegraph line some forty miles north of Hazelton. The last
week in September they were fairly numerous near Hazelton, where
we had seen them before in May. No black-headed jays were found
on Nine-mile Mountain, where they might have been expected to breed. 348
lift I
alii! ■
University of California Publications in Zoology
rvoL. 24
Sixteen specimens collected (nos. 42209-42224), twelve in fresh fall
plumage. In this series there is considerable variation in the white
spot over the eye, one of the diagnostic features of annectens. In nine
specimens it is conspicuously present, in five it appears in slight
degree, and in two it is absent. This.series was collected at what must
be practically the northern and western limits of the subspecies
annectens, and variation such as that described is presumably indicative of intergradation toward the coastal subspecies, stelleri. In
dorsal coloration this series is decidedly blackish, as compared with
the brownish cast seen in comparable examples of stelleri; the blue
areas are appreciably paler, more greenish. These differences are
sufficiently marked to justify the allocation of the entire series to the
subspecies annectens despite the variation shown in one particular.
There is no adequate series of tjrpical annectens available to show
the extent of divergence from the ordinary body color in that race.
Perisoreus canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus).    Canada Jay
Undoubtedly nests in the Hudsonian Zone on the mountains near
Hazelton, descending into the lowlands in fall and winter. There were
a few Canada jays on the middle slopes of Nine-mile Mountain. A
young bird shot there on July 23 had nearly finished the post-juvenal
molt; an adult taken August 2 was nearly through the annual molt.
A number seen, forty miles north of Hazelton, September 12. in Hudsonian Zone surroundings. One noted in Kispiox Valley, August 31,
and several toward the base of Rocher Deboule, southeast of Hazelton,
September 22.   Four specimens collected (nos. 42225-42228).
Corvus brachyrhynchos hesperis Ridgway.   Western Crow
A few crows were seen in the immediate vicinity of Hazelton
during the latter part of May and the first two weeks in June. None
was seen later in the summer or at any other point. Four specimens
collected, two adult males and two adult females (nos. 42229-42232).
Agelaius phoeniceus arctolegus Oberholser. Northern Red-wing
An immature male that was collected in Kispiox Valley, September 7 (no. 42233), was the only red-winged blackbird seen; its capture
constitutes an extreme northwestern point of record for the species.
This bird has a remarkably heavy bill. In depth of bill at base (14
millimeters) it reaches the maximum of this measurement as given
by Oberholser (1907, p. 335) in his description of the subspecies
wmmm 1924]   Swarth: Birds'and Mammals of tile Skeena River Region     349
Euphagus carolinus (Miiller).   Rusty Blackbird
Fairly common in the lowlands about Hazelton and in Kispiox
Valley, but so quiet and secretive during the nesting season as easily
to be overlooked. A female shot June 4 had laid part of its set. On
July 5 a flock of old and young together first appeared. An adult
female shot August 20 had nearly finished the annual molt; an
immature male taken September 9 had finished the post-juvenal molt.
The species was present in abundance at the end of my stay, September 26. By the middle of September the birds had gathered into
flocks of from twenty to fifty individuals. Thirteen specimens collected (nos. 42234-42246).
Hesperiphona vespertina brooksi Grinnell.
British Columbia Evening Grosbeak
Small flocks seen near Hazelton during the last week in May and
the first week in June. No evidence of breeding was found. Three
specimens collected, two adult males and one adult female (nos.
42247-42249). This, I believe, is the northernmost record for the
species in British Columbia. (For characterization of the subspecies
H. v. brooksi, see Grinnell, 1917, p. 20.)
Carpodacus purpureus purpureus (Gmelin).   Eastern Purple Finch
Not found above the floor of the valley. Single birds and small
flocks seen about Hazelton the latter part of May and in June; a
female shot June 4 was incubating eggs. In Kispiox Valley, the latter
part of August, purple finches were seen occasionally, the last on
August 29. Seven specimens collected, four red males, one male in
the streaked plumage, and two females. These are all typically of the
subspecies purpureus.
Loxia leucoptera Gmelin.   White-winged Crossbill
Small flocks (eight to twelve birds each) seen at Hazelton, June 14,
in Kispiox Valley, July 8, and again near Hazelton the latter part of
September. On Nine-mile Mountain (July 21 to August 14), white-
winged crossbills were present in small numbers in the hemlock forest
immediately below timber line, that is, four or five individuals might
be seen during a forenoon. This was evidently the nesting ground,-
as single males were spaced at intervals through the woods, and were
in full song. Four specimens collected, three adult females and one
adult male (nos. 42257-42260). 350
University of California Publications in Zoology     [VoL-24
Leucosticte tephrocotis littoralis Baird.   Hepburn Rosy Finch
Seen only on Nine-mile Mountain. Not abundant, or at any rate
not seen frequently. An occasional small flock or a single bird might
whirl overhead now and then, or the elusive call note might be heard
faintly in a gust of wind, such as often prevailed about the crags and
snow banks where the> rosy finches dwelt, but the birds were seldom
found feeding quietly. On July 26 three adults and three young
(nos: 42261-42266) were collected from a flock of several times that
number. The juveniles were as large as their parents, and with wing
and tail feathers grown to their full length, but they were still being
fed by the old birds.
Spinus pinus pinus (Wilson).   Pine Siskin
The most abundant species of bird in the Hazelton region, both in
the lowlands and on the mountains, even above timber line. Present
when we arrived, May 25, and at our departure, September 26. On
July 19 an old bird was seen feeding a full-grown young one. Siskins
were in flocks throughout the summer; there must have been many
of the birds that were not breeding. Toward the end of summer the
flocks increased in size. On Nine-mile Mountain, at the end of July,
twenty-five to thirty was an average sized gathering; the middle of
August, forty or fifty would be seen together; and by September 1
flocks numbering a hundred, or more were of frequent occurrence.
Two adults collected (nos. 42267-42268).
Calcarius lapponicus alascensis Ridgway.   Alaska Longspur
A fairly common fall migrant. Arrived in Kispiox Valley, September 1, and from then on, during September, small flocks were seen
almost daily. Two specimens collected, immature males (nos. 42269-
Calcarius pictus (Swainson).    Smith Longspur
An immature male (no. 42271) collected in Kispiox Valley, August
25. This was undoubtedly a migrating straggler to this point.
Whether the species breeds east of the Rocky Mountains in northern
British Columbia is not known, but it may very well do so. The one
previous record for the province is of a single bird taken at the summit
of "Boundary Pass" (the extreme southeastern corner of British
Columbia), May 15, 1858 (Blakiston, 1862, p. 6; 1863, p. 72).
wm 1924]   Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Skeena River Region     351
Calcarius ornatus (J. K. Townsend).   Chestnut-collared Longspur
An adult female (no. 42272) in worn summer plumage collected in
Kispiox Valley, July 8. I do not believe that this bird was breeding
at the point where it was taken; it was most likely a wanderer that
had strayed far from the breeding grounds. This is an even more
extraordinary occurrence than the capture of the Smith longspur six
weeks later at the same place. The latter species is known to breed
to the northeast of this region, and a slight deflection to the westward
by a south-bound migrant, would account for the stray we collected.
The chestnut-collared longspur, however, is not known to breed nearly
so far north as this in the interior: presumably it required a long
flight to the northwest to bring this bird to the place where it was
found. I believe that this is the first recorded occurrence of the species
in British Columbia.
Passerculus sandwichensis alaudinus Bonaparte.
Western Savannah Sparrow
There were a few Savannah sparrows migrating through Hazelton
during the last week in May. In Kispiox. Valley a little later small
numbers were breeding in hay fields and pastures. In the open
country at the summit of Nine-mile Mountain (5000 to 5500 feet
altitude) the species was breeding in fair abundance. In Kispiox
Valley again, the third week in August, there was an influx of
migrating Savannah sparrows; they came in swarms, reaching the
maximum of abundance about the middle of September. Some were
seen up to the day I left, September 26.
Nineteen specimens collected (nos. 42273-42290, 42410) : at Hazelton, May 30, two, adult male and female; Kispiox Valley, adult female,
July 9; juvenal male, July 12; two adult females, four immature
females, three immature males, August 24 to September 10; Nine-mile
Mountain, July 23 to 29, three adult males, three adult females. The
Nine-mile Mountain specimens are alaudinus; they are exactly like
Savannah sparrows from more northern points in the interior of
British Columbia and Alaska. The status of the Savannah sparrow
breeding in the lowlands of the region cannot be settled at this time.
The one adult collected that was actually breeding (no. 42275, female,
Kispiox Valley, July 9), is of small size and with short, stubby bill.
The two shot at Hazelton on May 30 were not breeding; they may or
! I!
■K 352 University of California Publications in Zoology     CVoL-24
may not have been about to nest nearby. They, too, are of rather
small size and with short bill, as compared with typical alaudinus.
The juvenal from Kispiox Valley, compared with young of alaudinus
from Kotzebue Sound, is slightly darker colored and with noticeably
more stubby bill. Savannah sparrows taken in Kispiox Valley during
late August and early September are alaudinus, presumably migrants
from the northward.
To summarize: The Savannah sparrow breeding on the mountain
tops of this region is Passerculus sandwichensis alaudinus. The
Savannah sparrow breeding in the lowlands appears to be another
race. Presumably it would be Passerculus sandwichensis brooksi
(Bishop, 1915, p. 187), described from the lowlands of southern
British Columbia. There is no series of brooksi available for comparison. For the present the entire series from the Hazelton region
may be left under the name alaudinus. None of the lot bears any close
resemblance to Passerculus sandwichensis savanna of the coast of
southeastern Alaska, a short distance to the westward.
Zonotrichia leucophrys gambeli (Nuttall).   Gambel Sparrow
A fairly common summer visitant, restricted to the lowlands.
When we reached Hazelton, May 26, Gambel sparrows were evidently
nesting. Singing males were established in many of the gardens in
the town; elsewhere scattered- pairs were encountered at rather wide
intervals in sparse timber. In Kispiox Valley a few were seen early
in July; by the middle of the month they had disappeared. This
species is remarkably secretive in its nesting. Specimens in the
juvenal plumage were desired and special search made for them, but,
although adults were seen in fair abundance, not only were no nests
discovered but not a single young bird was seen. Then, the second
week in July, came the apparent disappearance of the species for a
period of several weeks. On August 24 a bird in first winter plumage
was shot, the first of a migratory wave, and the next day the bushes
were full of Gambel sparrows. These were all immatures, with brown
head stripes; the first adult was seen September 1. When I left,
September 26, the species was still fairly abundant.
Six specimens collected (nos. 42291-42296), three adult males, one
adult female, and two immature males. 1924]   Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Skeena River Region    353
Zonotrichia coronata (Pallas).   Golden-crowned Sparrow
Breeding in fair abundance above timber line on Nine-mile Mountain. When we arrived there (July 22) the young were out of the
nest and flying about; the old birds could be seen singing from perches
above the thickets in which they dwelt. Specimens in juvenal plumage
were among our special desiderata and every effort was made to shoot
them, but so wary were these young birds that we deemed ourselves
lucky to get even the three we eventually collected. At the first sign
of danger a loud chip from the parent sends every youngster within
hearing scuttling for the nearest tangle of prostrate balsam, but not
to remain there. A prompt retreat is made to the far side of the bush,
followed quickly by flight to another thicket perhaps a hundred yards
away. Pursuit is heralded by warning alarm notes from the parent,
and the youngster again flees to another refuge. Further pursuit is
generally useless. In fact, young birds were seen to go five hundred
yards or more in one flight when followed up. Meanwhile, the old
bird, perhaps joined by others, remains nearby, giving warning from
some conspicuous perch, utterly indifferent to approach within a few
yards. The warning chip of the adult golden-crowned sparrow was
a familiar note in the balsam thickets along the ridges. It accompanied
us nearly everywhere in our travels on the summit.
The extreme wariness of the young golden-crowned sparrow is a
trait that reeewes emphasis from the fact that, when the first winter
plumage is attained a few weeks later, these same young birds are
peculiarly tame and unsuspicious. Then they will permit of close
approach, will in fact come themselves to inspect the stranger in the
The first migrating golden-crowned sparrow appeared in the lowlands, in Kispiox Valleys on September 1. For a short time thereafter
they were fairly common.
Six specimens collected (nos. 42297-42302) : two adult males, two
juvenal males, and one juvenal female from Nine-mile Mountain; one
immature male from Kispiox Valley. The three young (collected
July 25, 26) are in juvenal plumage throughout. They are heavily
streaked above and below, save on the center of the abdomen, and are
generally similar to the same stage in the various races of Zonotrichia
leucophrys. Compared with juvenal Z. I. leucophrys, young coronata
is darker throughout, the ventral streaking is darker, heavier, and
more extensive, and the lateral crown stripes are less plainly indicated. 354
University of California Publications in Zoology
rvoL. 24
Compared with young Z. I. nuttalli (which is darker-colored than
leucophrys), young coronata is again darker, more reddish dorsally,
more heavily streaked ventrally, and with less plainly indicated crown
stripes. Tip of bill and most of upper mandible is blackish; base of
bill and most of lower mandible, yellowish. Feet are whitish ^ eyes
Zonotrichia albicollis (Gmelin).   White-throated Sparrow
An adult male (no. 42303), one of a mated pair, was collected in
Kispiox Valley, June 21. The female was seen repeatedly at the same
place, a partly cleared pasture with scattered thickets of second
growth, and remained there up to the time of our departure, July 15.
When we returned late in August, she had gone. This, I believe, is
the farthest northwest that this species has been found.
Spizella montieola ochracea Brewster.   Western Tree Sparrow
One specimen collected (no. 42304), an immature female at Kispiox
Valley, September 13. This was evidently a forerunner of the fall
migration; the species was not breeding in this general region.
Spizella passerina passerina (Bechstein).   Eastern Chipping Sparrow
Fairly common in the lowlands about Hazelton when we arrived,
May 26, and evidently settled upon the nesting ground. A female
collected June 8 had laid part of its set; by the middle of July young
out of the nest were seen. The chipping sparrows apparently leave
for the south at an early date. By the middle of August their
numbers had decreased markedly; one in juvenal plumage, collected
August 22, was the last seen. The species was encountered only in
the lowlands.
Eight specimens collected (nos! 42305-42312), two adult males,
five adult females, one juvenal male. To my eye the chipping sparrow
of northern British Columbia is much nearer to the eastern passerina
in appearance and measurements than to typical arizonae.
Junco hyemalis hyemalis (Linnaeus).    Slate-colored Junco
Seen, not abundantly, during the fall migration. The first was
collected August 29; no more appeared until September 13. During
the next two weeks they were encountered almost every day. Ten
specimens collected (nos. 42316-42325), nine males and one female, all
immatures in first winter plumage. 1924J   Swarth: Birds and Mammals- of the Skeena River Region     355
Junco hyemalis connectens Coues.   Cassiar Junco
There were a few of this species breeding in Kispiox Valley,
twenty-three miles north of Hazelton, the extreme southern limit of
the breeding range. Junco oreganus shufeldti was the common species,
present in large numbers, but at least two pairs of connectens were
observed, and they were evidently nesting. An adult male (no. 24313)
was taken on June 22, and an adult female (no. 42314) with a juvenile
(no. 42315) on July 9.
I" expected to find connectens appearing in numbers at the beginning of the fall migration, but the slate-colored juncos that were
collected at that time are nearly all like typical hyemalis rather than
like our Stikine River series of connectens (see Swarth. 1922, p. 243).
One specimen (no. 42326), an immature male taken in Kispiox Valley,
September 13, does appear to be connectens. The female of that form
frequently is so much like female shufeldti in appearance that the two
are distinguished in life with difficulty, which may be one reason why
specimens were not taken.
Junco oreganus shufeldti Coale.   Shufeldt Junco •
Abundant nearly everywhere. On May 26, at Hazelton, a nest was
found with eggs just hatching; on June 6 the first young were seen
flying about. On *July 19 a nest was found, just finished but with
no eggs as yet, an unusually late date. On Nine-mile Mountain
(July 21 to August 131 a great many juncos were seen, mostly spotted
young, frequenting the open slopes and basins immediately above
timber line. By the first week in September the molt had been accomplished by most of the juncos and they were then gathered in flocks
of from ten to twenty birds. They were present, though in diminished
numbers, when I left, the last week in September.
Fifty-four specimens collected (nos. 42327-42380) : eight breeding
adults (seven males and one female), seventeen in juvenal plumage
or undergoing the post-juvenal molt, three adult males and one adult
female in winter plumage, and twelve' males and thirteen females in
immature (first winter^ plumage.
This series from the Hazelton region may be taken as representative of conditions at the northwestern limit of the subspecies shufeldti.
Breeding birds show a tendency toward Junco hyemalis connectens,
of the country immediately to the northward, exhibited mostly in the
grayer dorsum.   The flocks of birds in fresh fall plumage yielded no 356 University of California Publications in Zoology     [VoL-24
specimens showing this sort of variation, but they did contain a
percentage of individuals with a decided leaning toward Junco
oreganus oreganus. This might be taken to indicate a slight migratory
movement inland at the end of the summer from the region to the
westward. Typical oreganus inhabits the coastal region less than
two hundred miles west of Hazelton. Some of the fall specimens
taken, if collected on the. coast, might be considered as oreganus; they
come within the limits of variation of that subspecies, though not
exhibiting oreqanus characters in their extreme.
Melospiza melodia morphna Oberholser.   Rusty Song Sparrow
In the immediate vicinity of Hazelton there is not much country
suitable for this species and it occurs as scattered pairs in little swales
or along small streams. In Kispiox Valley, in the marshes and pastures, it was abundant. None was seen in the mountains. Song
sparrows were present, apparently paired and nesting, when we
arrived at Hazelton, May 26. A young bird being fed by its parents
was seen as late as August 29. By the third week in September the
song sparrows were mostly gone; one was seen on September 23.
Twenty-one specimens (nos. 42381—42401) collected, as follows:
six breeding adults, one adult in fresh fall plumage, eight immatures
in first winter plumage, and six juveniles. (For use of the subspecific
name morphna for the song sparrow of this region see Swarth, 1923,
p. 214.)
Melospiza lincolni lincolni (Audubon).   Lincoln Sparrow
Exceedingly numerous in the lowlands; next to the siskin probably
the most abundant species of bird. There were some even at the
summit of Nine-mile Mountain; young in juvenal plumage were seen
there during the fourth week in July.
At Hazelton, male birds singing in the gardens were noted May 30;
I young bird just out of the nest was collected June 23; young in
completely acquired first winter plumage were taken during the third
week in August; an adult nearly through the annual molt, August 26.
During the latter part of August, in Kispiox Valley, the species was
peculiarly abundant. Fifteen or twenty might be routed out of a
thicket at once, and some birds might be found at any point where
one cared to search for them. By the second week in September their
numbers had decreased markedly; the last was noted on September 14.
MHMMMBMB I924]   Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Skeena River Region     357
Thirteen specimens collected (nos. 42402-42409, 42411-42415) :
five breeding adults, one adult and four immatures in fresh fall
plumage, and three birds in juvenal plumage.
Passerella iliaea iliaea (Merrem).   Eastern Fox Sparrow
On September 14, two fox sparrows were shot from a flock of five
or six flushed from a thicket. The two collected proved to be of the
subspecies iliaea, and from the glimpses I had of the others they all
appeared to be the same. The two specimens collected {nos. 42416,
42417) are females in completely acquired first winter plumage. One
is typical of the subspecies iliaea in every respect. The second, though
obviously of this same subspecies, is darker colored than the mode,
and not so conspicuously streaked on the back. It is more nearly
uniform reddish above. Near Hazelton, on. September 22, a single
fox sparrow (no. 42418) was collected, an immature male. It is closely
similar to the second bird just described, perhaps a trifle darker and
more uniformly reddish. These birds were undoubtedly migrants
from farther north.
The only previous record of the eastern fox sparrow in British
Columbia is of a specimen collected at Sicamous, September 25, 1893
(Swarth, 1920, p. 118).
Passerella iliaea altivagans Riley.   Alberta Fox Sparrow
Breeding, not abundantly, at and a little above timber line on
Nine-mile Mountain. In the same general area as the golden-crowned
sparrow and in similar surroundings, though not so much in the
balsam thickets as in tangles of alder and veratrum. Constantly heard
singing but so shy generally as to avoid observation. The young birds
(July 22 to August 13) were flying about; mostly they were in
process of change from juvenal to first winter plumage. In Kispiox
Valley the first migrating fox sparrow of this subspecies appeared on
August 29, and a few more were seen at intervals up to September 7.
Fourteen specimens collected (nos. 42419-42432) : on Nine-mile
Mountain, two adults (male and female), six in juvenal plumage and
in the post-juvenal molt; in Kispiox Valley, three males and three
females, all in first winter plumage. These birds, though properly
referred to altivagans (see Riley, 1911, p. 234), are not typical of that
subspecies. In more uniform coloration above and in darker streaking
below they show an unmistakable trend toward the darker coastal 358
University of California Publications in Zoology
"Vol. 24
■mm ?•!■
races whose 'habitat they approach so nearly. There is hardly a trace
in any specimen of the obscure dorsal streaking seen in altivagans
from more southern and eastern stations. The Kispiox Valley
migrants are even more questionably referred to altivagans than the
Nine-mile Mountain specimens. Our collecting station in that valley
was northwest of Nine-mile Mountain. Migrating fox sparrows collected there must have traveled from somewhere still farther north,
possibly from some region even nearer the coast. These migrating
birds in appearance are not unlike some specimens of sinuosa. They
differ in shape of bill and in darker, less reddish, coloration, especially
dorsally. I believe that they are unquestionably intergrades between
altivagans and the nearby coastal subspecies, fuliginosa. When such
birds are taken far to the southward, in the winter habitat, it is
admittedly difficult to recognize their true relationships (though similar
specimens passing through my hands have been hesitatingly labeled
altivagans), but in this ease the place of capture affords a valuable
clew. No undoubted specimens of sinuosa have been found migrating
anywhere in the interior of Alaska or British Columbia.
Piranga ludoviciana (Wilson).   Western Tanager
Rather uncommon summer visitant in the lowlands. First noted
near Hazelton on June 3, when two were seen ond others' heard calling.
Not more than ten or twelve, all told, seen during the summer, the
latest on August 30. Four specimens collected (nos. 42433-42436),
an adult male, and three immature males.
Hirundo erythrogaster Boddaert.   Barn Swallow
A few pairs were nesting in buildings in Hazelton. Elsewhere, an
occasional bird passing overhead was all that Avas seen. First, noted
on June 1. On July 20 small flocks were observed flying southward,
apparently migrating.
Iridoprocne bicolor (Vieillot).   Tree Swallow
Abundant in the lowlands, and already nesting when we reached
Hazelton. May 26. Seen entering crevices in buildings in the town,
and old woodpecker holes in trees elsewhere. Apparently migrates
south at an early date for none was seen after our descent from the
mountains. August 14. One specimen collected, an adult male (no.
^^m^w^'ib,.:.-^. vjcf"  -..;:- 1924]   Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Skeena River Region     359
Tachycineta thalassina lepida Mearns. Northern Violet-green Swallow
The most abundant species of swallow. Like the tree swallow it
was nesting when we arrived, the end of May, and, similarly, occupying sites in buildings in town and on the farms. Seen only in the lowlands. The latter part of August the species disappeared, and I
supposed had already gone south, but on September 24 and 26 large
flocks appeared circling about over Hazelton.
Stelgidopteryx serripennis (Audubon).   Rough-winged Swallow
Breeds in small numbers about Hazelton and in Kispiox Valley,
twenty-three miles to the northward. Present when we arrived, the
end of May. Seen only in the lowlands, and not met with after our
return from the mountains, the middle of August.
Bombyeilla garrula pallidiceps Reichenow.   Bohemian Waxwing
First seen in Kispiox Valley, July 5. Five birds appeared, and
three were collected. They seemed to be birds that had finished nesting: Next encountered August 22, a flock of twenty or more at the
same place. During the remainder of our stay flocks numbering from
ten to twenty were seen occasionally, generally flying overhead, in
Kispiox Valley and about Hazelton, Five specimens (nos. 42438-
42442) were collected, all adults. One bird shot August 22 is just
beginning the annual molt; another, taken August 27, is in the midst
of it. Both these molting birds have new tail feathers (some of them
less than half-grown) and. in one specimen the yellow-marked wing
feathers also are new. It is a curious fact that these yellow markings,
especially those on the tail, are not so brilliant in these adult birds as
they are in certain nestlings at hand. (For description of these young
birds see Swarth, 1922, p. 279.) In the juveniles the tail band is
decidedly orange, a color not seen in any other specimen examined,
summer or winter. Winter flocks must be composed largely.of young
of the previous season, and the absence of any birds with orange
colored tail band probably means that this color fades appreciably
soon after the feathers get their growth. It seems strange, though,
that similar changes cannot be traced in the rectrices of the adult.
There is a slight difference in the sexes of the Bohemian waxwing
described by Tischler (1918, p. 85) that had apparently escaped the
notice of earlier observers.   In his opinion the only passably sure mark 360
University of California Publications in Zoology     CVoL-24
im  ti
of difference lies in the coloration of the throat. In the males the
black is darker, more extended and sharply separated from the rest
of the underparts. In the females the throat patch is smaller, duller,
and not so sharply delimited, fading more gradually into the gray of
the underparts. The present writer has tested this character on two
occasions, series of Bohemian waxwings being laid out with the labels
hidden from view, and the sexes then separated by the above criterion.
In each case the division was made without a mistake.
(For use of the name pallidiceps see Reichenow, 1908. p. 191.)
I f
Bombyeilla cedrorum Vieillot.   Cedar Waxwing
On June 17 a small flock was seen near Hazelton. Others were
noted in Kispiox Valley a few days later; by the last week in June
these flocks were breaking up into pairs. When we returned, the
middle of August, nesting was finished and young and old were
gathered in flocks once more. During the last two weeks in September
cedar waxwings were seen daily about Hazelton.
Seven specimens collected, five adults and two juveniles (nos.
42443-42449). An old bird shot August 22 is just beginning the
annual molt; another collected September 5 has finished it. One
young bird still in juvenal plumage throughout was collected September 5. One of the two juveniles has small but distinct red tips
to four secondaries on each wing, whereas in four of the five adults
these markings are utterly lacking.
Vireosylva olivacea (Linnaeus).   Red-eyed Vireo
Fairly common in poplar woods near Hazelton. On the evening
of June 7 the first arrival was heard singing; the next day a number
were encountered. Hazelton is apparently the northern extreme
reached by the red-eyed vireo, none being seen in Kispiox Valley, a
few miles farther north. Five specimens collected, four adult males
and one adult female (nos. 42450-42454).
Vireosylva gilva swainsoni (Baird).   Western Warbling Vireo
Fairly common in the lowlands. Present when we reached Hazelton (May 26), and beginning breeding activities. On June 3 a warbling vireo was seen at work at a nest. The species remained in fair
abundance through August, leaving rather abruptly at the end of that 1924]   Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Skeena River Region
month. Last seen September 3. Eight specimens collected, five adult
males, and two males and one female in first winter plumage (nos.
Orange-crowned Warbler
Vermivora celata celata (Say
An orange-crowned warbler in juvenal plumage (no. 42463), collected on the summit of Nine-mile Mountain, July 31, is either of the
subspecies celata or orestera. The young of these subspecies are
difficult to distinguish, but as no undoubted examples of orestera were
taken I am ascribing this individual to the race celata, of which other
specimens were collected. Celata may well have been breeding on
Nine-mile Mountain, but the presence of this young bird cannot be
taken as proof, for a juvenile lutescens also was collected during the
same week. It is most unlikely that both subspecies were breeding
there, but which (if either) was nesting, and which the migrant, was
not ascertained.
Migrating celata first appeared in Kispiox Valley on August 26,
and until September 14 was of daily occurrence. Eight specimens
collected (nos. 42464-42471), three males and five females, all
immatures in first winter plumage.
Vermivora celata lutescens (Ridgway).   Luteseent Warbler
A young luteseent warbler (commented upon above), in juvenal
plumage throughout (no. 42472), was collected at the summit of Nine-
mile Mountain, July 24, an immature female in first winter plumage
(no. 42473), in Kispiox Valley, August 28. These are all that were
seen of this subspecies, and presumably they were migrants from the
coast. It is possible, however, that lutescens occasionally breeds this
far inland, at high altitudes. A bright colored warbler of this species
(subspecies uncertain) was seen near Hazelton on May 27, among the
last of the spring migrants to pass through.
Vermivora peregrina (Wilson).   Tennessee Warbler
A rare summer visitant. A male bird was seen singing near
Hazelton on June 2, and another observed in a garden in the town on
July 19. On June 22, in Kispiox Valley, a male (no. 42474) was
collected, and his mate seen. On July 10, at the same place, a pair of
Tennessee warblers was discovered making a great fuss over some
young hidden in a thicket nearby. These were the total of records for
the summer. 362
University of California Publications in Zoology     you 24
Dendroica aestiva rubiginosa (Pallas).   Alaska Yellow Warbler
Yellow warblers were extremely scarce, in notable contrast to the
abundance in Avhich I found them on the upper Stikine River, two
hundred miles to the northward (see Swarth, 1922, p. 287). Furthermore, the yellow warbler of the upper Stikine is the eastern subspecies, D. aestiva aestiva, that of the upper Skeena is the coastal subspecies, D. aestiva rubiginosa. The scarcity of this bird in the migra-.
tions as well as in midsummer shows that the travels of aestiva to and
from its more northern breeding ground follow a northwest-southeast
line that lies to the eastward- of Hazelton.
The first yellow warbler was seen near Hazelton on June 6; from
then on a few were encountered from time to time through the summer.
On June 23, in Kispiox Valley, a nest was found containing five eggs.
On Nine-mile Mountain, the first week in August, several yellow
warblers were seen, presumably migrants; during the latter part of
the month a very few were observed migrating in Kispiox Valley, the
last on August 22.
Five specimens (nos. 42475-42479) collected. Three breeding birds
(one male and two females) are unequivocally rubiginosa. Two adult
females just finishing the annual molt, taken August 19 and 22,
respectively, are not so certainly of that subspecies. They may be
migrating individuals of aestiva from farther north, but their molting
condition and the lack of comparable specimens in the several subspecies precludes a decision.
Dendroica coronata hooveri McGregor.   Alaska Myrtle Warbler
Myrtle warblers had already passed through on their northward
journey when we reached Hazelton, May 26. In the fall they appeared
in numbers, abruptly; "on September 10 the first one arrived, on the
11th they were abundant. They were still present when I left, September 26. Two specimens collected, immatures in first winter
plumage (nos. 42480-42481).
Dendroica auduboni auduboni (J. K. Townsend).   Aububon Warbler
Fairly common in the lowlands through the summer, both at
Hazelton and in .Kispiox Valley to the northward; not seen at high
altitudes. Present when we arrived, May 26, and apparently then in
pairs.    During the first week in September the Audubon warblers 1924]   Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Skeena River Region     363
began to disappear. The last to be positively identified as such was
seen on September 9, but Alaska myrtle warblers arrived from the
north in numbers a day or two later and the two species are sufficiently
alike so that a few Audubon warblers might have lingered somewhat
later and been overlooked.
Thirteen specimens collected (nos. 42482-42494) : nine summer
adults (six males, three females), three males in first winter plumage,
and one male in juvenal plumage. These birds were taken at the
northernmost points at which the Audubon warbler has been found.
Two hundred miles farther north, in the Telegraph Creek region, it is
replaced by the Alaska myrtle warbler, there near its southern limit
(see Swarth, 1922, p. 289). Comparing the two series, auduboni from
the upper Skeena Valley and hooveri from the upper Stikine Valley,
there cannot be seen the least approach of one to the other. Specimens
of auduboni from its northern limit are exactly like others from California; specimens of hooveri from its southern limit show no departure
from the characters of specimens from northern Alaska. The two
species, though closely related, evidently preserve their distinctness
where their ranges most closely adjoin. It would be interesting to
ascertain if there is any place between Hazelton and Telegraph Creek
where both species breed. A hybrid between the two has been
described (Taylor, 1911).
Dendroica magnolia (Wilson).    Magnolia Warbler
Fairly common summer visitant to the lowlands about Hazelton,
where it arrived June 3. In Kispiox Valley, June 21 to July 15, it
was decidedly rare, not more than five or six birds being seen in that
period of time. At the same place when the migration began, the third
week in August, magnolia warblers became more numerous and they
were seen daily up to the first week in September. Last noted on
September 5. Six specimens collected (nos. 42495-42500), two adult
males, one adult female, two immature males, one immature female.
Dendroica striata (J. R. Forster).   Black-poll Warbler
Two immature males (nos. 42501-42502), migrants, were collected
in Kispiox Valley on August 18 and September 1, respectively. No
others were seen. University of California Publications in Zoology     LVoii-24
Dendroica townsendi (J. K. Townsend).   Townsend Warbler
This species-ma}' have been breeding in the Hudsonian Zone on
Nine-mile Mountain. Two were seen there, one observed in hemlock
woods just below timber line on July 30, and one collected on August
5. The latter is still largely in juvenal plumage. Townsend warblers
appeared in Kispiox Valley the latter part of August, migrating.
First seen August 27, and thereafter, in small numbers, until September 15. Four specimens collected (nos. 42503-42506), one young
bird from Nine-mile Mountain and three immature females from
Kispiox Valley.
Seiurus noveboracensis notabilis Ridgway.   Grinnell Water-thrush
Breeding in fair abundance along marshy streams in Kispiox
Valley. A young female mostly in juvenal plumage was collected
July 14; a young male but slightly more advanced in the post-juvenal
molt was taken August 27. Seven specimens in all collected (nos.
42507-42513), the two juveniles mentioned, two adults (male and
female), and three in first winter plumage (two males, one female).
Oporornis tolmiei (J. K. Townsend).   MacGillivray Warbler
Abundant summer visitant to the lowlands; one of the commonest
birds of the region. First seen on June 6 though possibly present at
an earlier date. A nest with four eggs (no. 1856) was found in
Kispiox Valley on June 22. Remained in considerable numbers until
September; last seen September 14. Three specimens collected (nos.
42514-42516), adult male, adult female, and one bird in first winter
Geothlypis trichas occidentalis Brewster.   Western Yellowthroat
Breeding in fair abundance in Kispiox Valley, but secretive in
habit and easily overlooked. Last seen September 12. Eleven specimens collected (nos. 42517^2527), two adults (male and female),
four males and four females in first winter plumage, and one male in
juvenal plumage. 1924 ]   Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Skeena River Region     365
Wilsonia pusilla pileolata (Pallas).   Pileolated Warbler
On May 26 and 27 (our first days at Hazelton), pileolated warblers
were migrating abundantly through that region. They then abruptly
disappeared, one shot on May 30 being the only other one seen in the
spring, and were not found breeding anywhere in the lowlands. An
adult male shot near the summit of Nine-mile Mountain, July 30, was
just beginning the annual molt. It was one of two birds seen together,
perhaps a mated pair nesting there. An immature male taken at the
same place August 11 was in first winter plumage throughout, and
may have been a migrant. The three were the only birds of this
species seen upon the mountain.
The first migrant appeared in Kispiox Valley on August 19.
Pileolated warblers were then fairly common until the first week in
September; the last was seen September 11. Six specimens in all
collected (nos. 42528-42533) : two adult (summer) males, one adult
male in fresh fall plumage, and three immature males.
Setophaga ruticilla (Linnaeus).   American Redstart
Abundant in the lowlands. Present when we reached Hazelton,
May 26, and in increasing numbers during the next few days. Several
nests were found in Kispiox Valley late in June and early in July,
all very similar in 'structure and location. The usual site was an
upright fork of Willow or alder, from eight to fifteen feet from the
ground. The supporting branches were generally so large as nearly
to conceal the tiny nest, or else to make it appear as part of the fork.
Nests were in exposed situations more often than in thick shrubbery,
sometimes in dead branches, but nevertheless, because of this peculiarity of construction, they were not easy to see. One nest collected (no.
1857, Kispiox Valley, June 27) contained four eggs; others examined
held either two eggs or two young birds.
Redstarts remained in fair abundance until the end of August; the
last was seen September 8. Unlike some species, of which the adults
leave ahead of the young, sometimes before the molt, the adult redstarts seemed to linger quite as late as the juveniles. The adult males,
of course, are readily distinguishable, contrary to the rule covering
most small birds in the fall, and the number that were seen justifies
the statement. An adult female was collected August 29, an adult
male September 7. Thirteen specimens in all taken (nos. 42534-
!1 366
University of California Publications in Zoology     you 24
Anthus rubescens (Tunstall).   Pipit
A large flock that was seen near Hazelton on May 26 was the last
migrating band to pass through. The species was next encountered
on the summit of Nine-mile Mountain, where it was breeding in small
numbers. A special effort was made there to get birds in the juvenal
plumage, but the young were extremely wary, in striking contrast to
the tameness of their parents, and only one was collected. Pipits
reappeared in the lowlands, in Kispiox Valley, on September 2. and
were seen in fair abundance there and at Hazelton until September 20.
In Kispiox Valley, September 4, two pipits were collected, the two
together and not otherwise accompanied. One was still mostly in
juvenal plumage. The other, in fully acquired winter plumage, I
assumed to be an attending parent, but on dissection it proved to be
an immature bird. The occurrence is of interest, first, as indicating
that a young bird still in juvenal plumage can start to migrate and
travel a considerable distance, for the juvenal mentioned must have
come a long way from where it was hatched, if only from the nearest
mountain top; and secondly, as demonstrating the early age at which
a young bird can care for itself, independent of its parents.
Pipits in late March and early April undergo an extensive molt
whereby the breeding plumage is acquired. In this plumage the upper
parts are grayish, compared with the brown winter plumage, and the
lower parts cinnamon buff. The female, as compared with the male,
is less gray (more brownish), above, and more heavily spotted below.
The cinnamon is evanescent, and by the end of July has almost all
faded away. Then, by the fall molt, in late August and early September, the winter plumage is acquired, differing from the breeding
garb in being brown above and more heavily streaked below, but, in
both old and young, distinctly cinnamon tinged ventraUy. Again the
cinnamon fades out and by the end of November the birds are dull
brown above, and whitish, streaked with dusky below, as we usually
see them in their winter home.
Thirteen specimens collected (nos. 42547-42559).
Dumetella carolinensis (Linnaeus).   Catbird
On June 10 a catbird was shot within a stone's throw of the railroad station at Hazelton. This bird (no. 42560) was an adult male
and in breeding condition, but his mate was not seen, nor was any
other of the species encountered during the summer. This, I believe,
is a material extension northwestward of the range of this species. 19241   Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Skeena River Region     36rt
Troglodytes aedon parkmani Audubon.   Western House Wren
An adult male (no. 42561) was collected in Kispiox Valley on
July 2, the only one seen during the summer. It had the appearance
of a breeding bird. This is considerably farther north than the species
has heretofore been found in British Columbia.
Nannus hiemalis pacifieus (Baird).   Western Winter Wren
Breeding in dense spruce woods on the higher slopes of Nine-mile
Mountain. Young out of the nest were seen July 30, and the same
day an adult was encountered that was carrying feathers as though
engaged in nest building. Winter wrens appeared in the lowlands at
the end of the summer. First noted in Kispiox Valley on September
10; others were seen at intervals during the rest of the month. Three
specimens collected (nos. 42562-42564), an adult and two juveniles
from Nine-mile Mountain.
Certhia familiaris occidentalis Ridgway.   Tawny Creeper
One in juvenal plumage taken on Nine-mile Mountain, July 29;
on August 28 a creeper was seen in Kispiox Valley. These are all
that were noted during the summer. The specimen collected (no.
42565) is nearest C. f. occidentalis in appearance, though not so
reddish above as extremes of that subspecies.
Sitta canadensis Linnaeus.   Red-breasted Nuthatch
Breeds in small numbers in the lowlands and more abundantly at
high altitudes. On Nine-mile Mountain some were seen daily in the
hemlock forest just below timber line. A nest was found in Kispiox
Valley, placed in a dead stub at the edge of rather dense poplar woods.
The stub was perhaps four or five inches in diameter at the base, and
was broken off about twenty feet from the ground. The nest hole
was near the top and was about one and one-half inches in diameter.
On July 12 it contained at least two young birds, nearly ready to fly,
whose heads could be seen protruding from the opening. They called
incessantly, uttering the characteristic nasal yang of the species until
either parent appeared, when this was changed to a hissing and
squalling, like most other young birds appealing for food.
In August and September red-breasted nuthatches became fairly
common in the lowlands, frequently seen in company with chickadees,
kinglets, or migrating warblers. One specimen collected (no. 42566),
an adult male taken in Kispiox Valley, July 2.
ii 368
University of California Publications in Zoology      [VoL-24
11 'ill
Penthestes atricapillus septentrionalis (Harris).
Long-tailed Chickadee
Of general distribution in the lowlands though nowhere abundant.
Not encountered in the mountains. One specimen still in the juvenal
plumage was collected on September 5, but by the last week in August
both adults and young had for the most part finished the molt. At
that time the species seemed much more abundant than earlier in the
year; a flock of chickadees usually served as a nucleus around which
were gathered a few individuals of various other species, such as
kinglets, warblers, and nuthatches. Seven specimens collected (nos.
Penthestes gambeli abbreviatus Grinnell.
Short-tailed Mountain Chickadee
Seen only on Nine-mile Mountain, in spruce and hemlock woods
just below timber line, at about 4500 feet altitude. Small flocks seen,
on July 30 and again on August 10. Two specimens collected, an adult
male (no. 42574) in extremely worn plumage, shot on July 30, and a
juvenile female (no. 42575), collected on August 10. (For use of the
name abbreviatus see Grinnell, 1918, p. 510.)
Penthestes hudsonicus columbianus (Rhoads).   Columbian Chickadee
Found only near the summit of Nine-mile Mountain. On July 30
and on August 10 Hudsonian chickadees were seen, each time in company with mountain chickadees. Four specimens collected (nos.
42576-42579), a male and three females, all in juvenal plumage. Eight
adults at hand from more southern points in British Columbia
(Okanagan, Edgewood, Gold Range, Pearson Mountain, and Mabel
Lake) bear out the color characters ascribed to the subspecies columbianus (Rhoads, 1893, p. 23; Ridgway, 1904, p. 414) and thus justify
the use of that name for the British Columbia Hudsonian chickadee.
There are no young birds at hand from the known habitat of columbianus, nor any of typical hudsonicus, for comparison with the young
birds taken on Nine-mile Mountain. The last mentioned, however, are
appreciably darker colored than adult hudsonicus and of about the
same shade as columbianus, so it seems safe to regard them as
columbianus. 19241
Swarth': Birds and Mammals of the Skeena River Region     369
Penthestes rufescens rufescens (J. K. Townsend)
Chestnut-backed Chickadee
Apparently occurs this far inland as a rare migrant in late summer.
On August 24 two were seen in Kispiox Valley and one (no. 42580)
was collected, a male in juvenal plumage. On September 23 a small
flock was encountered near Hazelton and one bird (no. 42581) was
shot, a male in first winter plumage.
Regulus satrapa olivaeeus Baird.   Western Golden-crowned Kinglet
Breeds in small numbers in the lowlands near Hazelton and more
abundantly in the nearby mountains. In the valley an occasional pair
found shelter in spruces growing about little muskegs, and some were
seen in a dense stand of cedar toward the base of Rocher Deboule. On
Nine-mile Mountain the species was rather more abundant; by the end
of July flocks of old and young together appeared near our camp.
In Kispiox Valley, the second week in September, flocks of golden-
crowned kinglets were frequently encountered. Two specimens collected, an adult male near Hazelton, June 3 (no. 42582), and a juvenile
male on Nine-mile Mountain, July 31 (no. 42583).
Regulus calendula calendula (Linnaeus).   Ruby-crowned Kinglet
In manner of occurrence about the same as the golden-crowned
kinglet. In the lowlands, an occasional ruby-crown was heard singing
in spruces about the muskegs; on Nine-mile Mountain the species was
a little more abundant, in spruce and hemlock forests immediately
below timber line. In Kispiox Valley an influx of ruby-crowned
kinglets began about September 1. They were not numerous, but one
or two could usually be found in the mixed flocks of chickadees and
warblers that were then traveling through the woods. Some were seen
up to the day of my departure, September 26.
Ten specimens collected (nos. 42584-42593), two adult males and
one adult female from Kispiox Valley in June and July, two (male
and female) in juvenal plumage from Nine-mile Mountain, and one
adult female and one male and three females in first winter plumage
from Kispiox Valley in September. These are indistinguishable from
specimens of the eastern ruby-crowned kinglet from Illinois and
Connecticut. They are not the paler-colored R. c. cineraceus of the
sierras of California.
I 370
University of California Publications in Zoology     y°h-24
Myadestes townsendi (Audubon).   Townsend Solitaire
Extremely rare, though as one was seen in Kispiox Valley on
June 24, the species probably breeds in the region. Others seen on
September 2, September 13 (two birds), and September 17, make up
the total of observations. One specimen collected (no. 42594), an
immature male taken in Kispiox Valley on September 2.
Hylocichla ustulata swainsoni (Tsehudi).   Olive-backed Thrush
Common in the lowlands; not seen at high altitudes. The first
arrival was heard singing on June 1; on June 3 olive-backed thrushes
were everywhere in the woods. In August they became very scarce,
so much so that none was seen for some weeks and I supposed they
had already gone south. Then, the last week in August a few reappeared, and, while not abundant, one or two were seen almost daily
until late in September. The last was noted on September 21. Eleven
specimens collected (nos. 42595—42605), six adult males, two adult
females, and three immature males in first winter plumage.
Hylocichla guttata guttata (Pallas).   Alaska Hermit Thrush
There were a few hermit thrushes on Nine-mile Mountain, breeding
in the spruce and hemlock forest immediately below timber line. The
song was heard occasionally and at longer intervals a "glimpse was
caught of one of the birds flitting through the dense shrubbery. Two
specimens collected (nos. 42606-42607), both adult males, taken on
July 29 and August 10, respectively. They are essentially like breeding birds from the upper Stikine River, and, as with the latter series,
are not to be referred to Hylocichla guttata sequoiensis, a name that
has been applied to the hermit thrush of this general region (see
Swarth, 1922, p. 303).
Hylocichla guttata pallasi (Cabanis).   Eastern Hermit Thrush
During the second week in September a very few migrating hermit
thrushes appeared in the woods of Kispiox Valley. Two were shot
September 10, and others seen up to September 14. The two collected
(nos. 42606, 42607), both immature males in first winter plumage, are
obviously not the same as the breeding bird of this region, and appear
to be best referred to the eastern subspecies, Hylocichla guttata pallasi.
They are not so bright reddish dorsally as are most eastern specimens,
but they are distinctly more reddish than guttata, they are larger than
guttata, and they have the buffy flanks of pallasi.    The subspecies l924J   Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Skeena River Region     371
pallasi has been reported as breeding at Lac La Haehe, British
Columbia (Rhoads, 1893, p. 58), and as migrating at Quesnelle
(Brooks, 1903, p. 284).
Planesticus migratorius migratorius (Linnaeus).   Eastern Robin
Found everywhere in the lowlands; absent from the dense woods
of the middle altitudes on the mountains, but reappearing in the open
country above timber. When we reached Hazelton, May 26, robins
were already sitting on eggs. The first young out of the nest appeared
on June 16; by July 1 spotted young were about in numbers. During
the second and third weeks in August there was a notable scarcity of
robins; by September 1 an influx of migrants had set in, and soon
they were as numerous as ever. During the third week in September
the southward exodus was in full swing. Day after day migrating
flocks of robins trailed overhead, in loosely assembled companies and
flying at a great height. There were a good many still around though,
up to the time of my departure, September 26.
Eighteen specimens collected (nos. 42610-42627) : six breeding
adults (four males and two females), seven birds in the spotted
juvenal plumage or in the post-juvenal molt, two adult males in fresh
winter plumage, and one male and two females in first winter plumage.
I have ascribed this series to the subspecies migratorius, the form
to which on the whole it bears closest resemblance, but there is-considerable individual variation, with obvious intergradation toward the
coastal subspecies caurinus. It might be that further collecting would
show such intergradation to be mostly in breeding birds from this
region, while September migrants, presumably from more northern
points, are closer to typical migratorius. However, spotted young
from the Hazelton region are more nearly like young migratorius than
like caurinus at the same stage.
Ixoreus naevius naevius (Gmelin).   Varied Thrush
Ixoreus naevius meruloides (Swainson).   Northern Varied Thrush
One family of varied thrushes was found in a lowland locality, in
Kispiox Valley. They were in a grove of huge cottonwood trees bordering the Kispiox River, a dark, gloomy place, grown up underneath the
trees with an impenetrable tangle of devil's-club, thimble-berry, and
alder, in appearance just such a jungle as this thrush frequents on the
coast. Here, on June 22, a brood of young, out of the nest, were being
attended by their parents.   The old male was collected (no. 42628). University of California Publications in Zoology     you 24
There were a few varied thrushes breeding on Nine-mile Mountain,
in the dense woods just below timber line. An adult female (no.
42629) collected there on July 23 had laid part of its set.
The two specimens mentioned above, the only breeding birds collected, belong to the coastal subspecies,' naevius. At the end of the
summer, migrating varied thrushes of another sort appeared. The
first was seen September 1, a week later they were abundant, and
there were numbers in the woods about Hazelton (mostly feeding in-
the sumac bushes) when I left, September 26. These migrating varied
thrushes, judging from three males collected (nos. 42630-42632), were
of the subspecies   I. n. meruloides.
Sialia currucoides (Bechstein).   Mountain Bluebird
A summer visitant to the lowlands, not abundant but of general
distribution in the more open country. Present and in pairs when we
arrived at Hazelton, the last week in May. The first young bird out
of the nest was seen July 4. In August the species disappeared from
sight, but early in September a few migrating bluebirds appeared
from time to time, and they continued to be seen until September 22,
when the last was observed.
Three specimens collected, all adult males (nos. 42633-42635).
Sorex personatus personatus I. G-eoffroy.
Sorex obscurus obscurus Merriam.
Microsorex eximius  (Osgood).
Myotis longicrus longicrus (True).
Mustela cicognani richardsoni Bonaparte.
Mustela vison energumenos (Bangs).
Peromyscus maniculatus borealis Mearns.
Neotoma cinerea saxamans Osgood.
Synaptomys borealis dalli Merriam.
Phenacomys intermedius Merriam.
Evotomys gapperi saturatus Rhoads.
Mierotus drummondi (Audubon and Baehman).
Mierotus mordax mordax (Merriam).
Ondatra zibethiea spatulata (Osgood).
Zapus saltator Allen.
Zapus hudsonius hudsonius (Zimmermann).
Erethizon epixanthum nigreseens Allen.
Marmota caligata oxytona Hollister.
Marmota monax petrensis Howell.
Eutamias amoenus ludibundus Hollister.
Lopus amerieanus columbiensis Rhoads. 1924]   Swarth: Birds and-Mammals of the Skeena River Region     373
Sorex personatus personatus I. Geoffroy.   Masked Shrew
Six specimens collected (nos. 32526, 32528-32530, 32543, 32552),
three from Hazelton and three from Kispiox Valley. A female taken
at Hazelton on June 7 contained nine embryos.
For identification of the three species of shrews collected, I am
indebted to Dr. Hartley H. T. Jackson of the United States Biological
Sorex obscurus obscurus Merriam.   Dusky Shrew
Twenty-two specimens from Hazelton (nos. 32527, 32531-32542,
32544-32551, 32788), six from Kispiox Valley (nos. 32553-32558),
and eleven from Nine-mile Mountain (nos. 32559-32569). According
to Jackson there are some specimens from each locality that
approach to Sorex setosus Elliot in cranial characters.
On Nine-mile Mountain shrews were trapped on a steep slope just
above timber line (4500 to 5000 feet altitude), in dense growths of
veratrum, lupine, and grass.
Microsorex eximius (Osgood).   Osgood Shrew
A specimen of Microsorex (no. 32570) that was collected near
Hazelton on June 8 has been provisionally identified by Jackson as
M. eximius. It measures in millimeters as follows: total length, 88;
tail vertebrae, 28; hind foot, 10.
Myotis longicrus longicrus (True).   Northwestern Long-legged Bat
Two specimens collected, one at Hazelton, June 18 (no. 32571), and
one in Kispiox Valley, July 9 (no. 32572). The Hazelton specimen
was found, freshly killed, on the ground under a telephone line. At
that point the wire was strung through timber and not easily seen
amid the trees, but even so it is noteworthy that this bat should have
collided with it. The wire had struck the upper part of the breast
and had cut through to the spine; the animal was all but cut in two.
The Kispiox Valley specimen was dislodged from a crack in the
trunk of a dead poplar, felled for firewood.   The first few blows of 374
University of California Publications in Zoology     you 24
the axe sent it fluttering out, quickly to take refuge in a similar crevice
in a nearby tree. Small bats were seen occasionally up to August 21,
but not many and always late at night.
I it
Mustela cicognani richardsoni Bonaparte.   Richardson Weasel
Five specimens taken (nos. 32573-32577), four males and one
female, all from Kispiox Valley. These exhibit the cranial characters
of richardsoni, as contrasted with the subspecies alascensis of the coast
(see Merriam, 1896, p. 13). Besides skull variation, there are color
differences distinguishing the forms in the summer pelage. The five
Kispiox Valley specimens are of a dark, dull brown, close to raw
umber, the underparts almost pure white. The alascensis series at
hand (thirteen stimmer skins from the coast of southeastern Alaska),
are more reddish, the brightest colored specimens close to auburn, and
the underparts are often strongly tinged with yellow.
Weasels are probably fairly abundant in the region, for, besides
those collected, others were seen at various times. On July 5 one was
encountered in the daytime, carrying a freshly killed Drummond
meadow mouse. The weasel dropped his prey and escaped in the tall
grass; the meadow mouse on examination was found to have the marks
of four tiny canine teeth, two in the base of the skull, above, and two
in the neck just below the skull. Weasels sometimes took mice from
our traps, and, acting on this hint, we were able to catch several in
steel traps baited with mice or birds.
If  |
Mustela vison energumenos (Bangs).   British Columbia Mink
One specimen (no. 32578, adult male) collected in Kispiox Valley,
September 4. It is a dark-colored animal, similar to others at hand
from the lower Taku River and Wrangell, Alaska, the upper Stikine
River, and Seattle.    (In this connection see Swarth, 1922, p. 163.)
Peromyscus maniculatus borealis Mearns.
Northern White-footed Mouse
Thirty-seven specimens collected near Hazelton (nos. 32579-
32615), twelve in Kispiox Valley (nos. 32616-32627), and ten on Nine-
mile Mountain (nos. 32628-32637).
The series as a whole is so nearly intermediate between Peromyscus
maniculatus borealis and P. m. macrorhinus that neither name is 3924]   Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Skeena River Region     375
satisfactory to use. There are some differences apparent between the
series from the three different localities. Among the mice taken at
Hazelton there is a preponderance of small, short-tailed, bright-
colored specimens (borealis-like) and there are no large, long-tailed
individuals. From Kispiox Valley and Nine-mile Mountain there are
certain large, long-tailed, dark-colored specimens (macrorhinus-Mhe),
and there is none that is as near typical borealis as are some specimens
in the Hazelton series. The darker colored mice differ from typical
macrorhinus in their duller shades; they lack the rich brown apparent,
in coastal specimens of macrorhinus.
Skulls, also, in size and character are variously intermediate
between borealis and macrorhinus. There is individual variation,
notably in the series from Nine-mile Mountain, some skulls being
generally long and slender, especially as regards the rostrum, others
more short and broad.
The differences between the series from Hazelton and those from
Kispiox Valley and Nine-mile Mountain are not obviously correlated
with geographic position; for Hazelton, with the more borealis-YUke
mice, is nearest the habitat of macrorhinus, and in a broad valley that
leads direct to the coast.
Individual variation obtains in each series to a notable extent.
Relative length of tail is a conspicuously variable feature, apparent
as soon as the animals were handled. Other variations appeared upon
closer study. It may be suggested that two distinct forms are represented in the series under discussion, but in contravention to this idea
is the fact that the several distinguishing characters of either subspecies are not always uniformly developed in the same specimen. Size,
color, length of tail, and character of skull, are the characters used
in differentiating these races, and some individuals possess certain
features more nearly like one subspecies, some that are more nearly
like the other.
It will take many specimens representing numerous localities in
northern and central British Columbia, to demonstrate the distribution
and relationships of the forms of Peromyscus maniculatus occurring in
that general region. In the northern interior of the province is borealis,
on the northern coast is macrorhinus, at the southwest is oreas, and
at the southeast, artemisiae. These subspecies are distinct enough at
the centers of their respective ranges, but at the edges of their habitats
there are many difficulties in the way of satisfactory allocation of
specimens.    It will require an immense amount of detailed work to 376 University of California Publications in Zoology     [VoL-24
arrive at an understanding of conditions. Osgood (1909, pp. 50, 52,
59) has commented upon the situation and pointed out some of the
difficulties. If, as he asserts, there are places where two subspecies
occur together, each in typical form, the problem is even more involved
than appears from my own material. I did not find this to be the
case in the critical regions worked on the Skeena River or on the
Stikine River (see Swarth, 1922, p. 164).
IV; ill If
Measurements in Millimeters (Average, Minimum, and Maximum) of
Adult Peromyscus
Peromyscus m. borealis
(10 spec.)
Telegraph Creek, B.C.
Peromyscus m. borealis
(10 spec.)
Hazelton, B.C.
Peromyscus m. borealis
(8 spec.)
Kispiox Valley, B.C.
Peromyscus m. borealis
(10 spec.)
Nine-mile Mt., B.C.
Peromyscus m. macrorhinus (10 spec.)
SE. Alaska.
Neotoma cinerea saxamans Osgood.   Northern Bushy-tailed Wood Rat
Seven specimens collected (nos. 32699-32705) : three adults and
two juveniles on Nine-mile Mountain; one adult and one juvenile in
Kispiox Valley. They are indistinguishable from specimens from the
Stikine River and all are apparently typical of the subspecies
The local distribution of the bushy-tailed wood rat in this region
presents some puzzling features. The animals are abundant in the
mountains, where they are preeminently rock dwellers, and it is an
easy matter to find sign of their presence in such surroundings. The
valleys generally are covered with forest, with dense underbrush
beneath the trees, and there are vast areas where no rock formation
of any sort is to be seen. Tn such woods I was never able to find wood
rat sign. In many places in these poplar-covered lowlands, however,
ranching has been attempted, ground has been cleared and cabins 1924 ]   Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Skeena River Region     377
erected, and wherever a cabin is built the wood rats take prompt
possession. Where they come from is not evident, their natural
habitations in the poplar woods not being visible, but they are
abundant enough to be a decided nuisance.
Synaptomys borealis dalli Merriam.   Dall Lemming Mouse
One specimen (no. 32641) was trapped in a Phenacomys runway
at the summit of Nine-mile Mountain (5500 feet altitude), on August
10. Synaptomys andersoni was described from the interior of British
Columbia to the northward of this regon (Allen, 1903, p. 554), and
S. ckapmani from, the Selkirk Range of southern British Columbia
(Allen, 1903, p. 555), but there probably is not sufficient material
extant anywhere to determine the validity of these species. The one
lemming mouse at hand from Nine-mile Mountain did not seem to me
sufficiently different from the specimens of dalli in the collection of
the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology to justify the use of another name.
Mr. A. Brazier Howell, to whom I forwarded the specimen, making
comparison with more extensive series in the United States National
Museum, came to the same conclusion.
Phenacomys intermedins Merriam.   Kamloops Phenacomys
On the summit of Nine-mile Mountain the extensive masses of false
heather (Cassiope mertensiana) were in places criss-crossed with well
defined runways much like meadow-mouse paths in appearance. These
runways occurred at scattered intervals, usually in patches of cassiope
that were greener than elsewhere, as about the edges of snow banks
or little lakes, and they favored also places where there were breaks
in the ground, such as a little earth bank or some protruding rocks.
They connected tiny holes that ran back into the ground or under
rocks; here and there round nests were found, eight or ten inches in
diameter, made of soft grass and moss, and not unlike birds' nests in
appearance. At intervals there were piles of faeces, in extraordinary
amount. Fresh faeces and green cuttings of grass and cassiope were
evidence that the runways were in use, but trapping brought meager
results. One Phenaconnys, one Synaptomys, and one Evotomys was
the sum total of two weeks' trapping. The runways I took to be the
work of Phenacomys, for I had never found similar trails elsewhere
where I had trapped the other two species that were taken here. 178
University of California Publications in Zoology     you
The specimen of Phenacomys above mentioned (no. 32639) was an
adult male, taken August 28 at an altitude of about 5500 feet.    Two
young males (nos. 32638, 32640) were trapped on July 26 and August
11, respectively, in growths of lupine and veratrum just at timber line
' (about 4500 feet), near our camp.
I am indebted to Mr. A. Brazier Howell for the identification of
these three specimens of Phenacomys.
Evotomys gapperi saturatus Rhoads.
British Columbia Red-backed Mouse
Found in small numbers in poplar woods at Mission Point, near
Hazelton, where eight specimens (nos. 32642-32649) were trapped
from June 2 to June 18. Trapping in similar surroundings in Kispiox
Valley produced no red-backed mice. One specimen (no. 32650) was
taken at the summit of Nine-mile Mountain, about 5500 feet elevation,
in a Phenacomys runway.
I am indebted to Mr. A. Brazier Howell for the identification of
this series of Evotomys.
Microtus drummondi (Audubon and Bachman).
Drummond Meadow Mouse
Seventeen specimens collected at Hazelton, twelve in Kispiox
Valley, and one on Nine-mile Mountain (nos. 32651-32681). Apparently of general distribution in the lowlands, though not abundant at
any point Avhere we trapped. The single specimen from Nine-mile
Mountain was caught in a tangle of grass and veratrum just at timber
line, about 4500 feet altitude. It was the only one of the species that
was seen at that point.
Microtus mordax mordax (Merriam).   Cantankerous Meadow Mouse
Six specimens, four adult and two juvenile (nos. 32682-32687)
trapped at timber line on Nine-mile Mountain. The species was not
found in the lowlands. The four adults are distinctly dark colored
as compared with mordax from the upper Stikine River, and while
the series is too small for satisfactory comparison, it apparently illustrates intergradation between mordax of the interior and macrurus
of the coast, such as we found in the meadow mice of the lower Stikine
(see Swarth, 1922, p. 175). 3924]   Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Skeena River Region     379
Ondatra zibethica spatulata (Osgood).   Northwestern Muskrat
Fairly common in Kispiox Valley, where three adults and eight
young (nos. 32688-32698) were collected in August and September.
These specimens are decidedly dark colored, compared with Alaskan
skins, and are probably intermediate toward osoyoosensis. In external
measurements also they are similarly intermediate according to the
figures given by Hollister (1911, pp. 22, 25).
Zapus saltator Allen.   Stikine Jumping Mouse
Twenty specimens collected near Hazelton, three in Kispiox Valley,
and one on Nine-mile Mountain (nos. 32706-32728, 32731). All are
adult. Our latest lowland capture of Zapus was on July 13, and up
to that time apparently no young were yet born. No nursing females
were caught, and only two that were pregnant, one taken on June 14
containing five small embryos, one on June 16, containing six. The
one specimen from Nine-mile Mountain (adult female, July 27) was
caught in a thick growth of veratrum just above timber line, at about
4500 feet altitude. It is small, compared with lowland specimens, but
does not otherwise depart from the characters of saltator, and this
small size may indicate nothing more than an extreme of variation in
the species.
This series of Zapus saltator from the Skeena Valley, compared
with a somewhat larger series from the upper Stikine Valley, presents
no obvious points of difference. In each lot there is considerable
variation in color, a number of specimens being noticeably grayish, as
compared with a larger proportion of reddish-colored ones.
Zapus hudsonius hudsonius (Zimmermann).
Hudson Bay Jumping Mouse
Two specimens taken near Hazelton, an adult male on June 15, an
adult female on June 18 (nos. 32729, 32730). These were caught in
the same trap line with the more numerous Zapus saltator. They were
submitted for identification to Mr. Edward A. Preble, of the United
States Biological Survey, who remarks that he j' cannot separate them
from typical hudsonius.'' In this connection it is of interest to recall
the capture by the present writer of a jumping mouse of the Zapus
hudsonius group (tentatively identified as Z. h. alascensis), on Revillagigedo Island, Alaska (see Swarth, 1911, p. 135), which island is 380
University of California Publications in Zoology     you
' 'S. !i
about eighty miles north of the mouth of the Skeena River. Much
collecting must be done, and in localities as yet unworked, before an
understanding can be reached regarding the distribution and relationships of the species of Zapus occurring in the northwest, but certain
ideas of Mr. Preble, expressed to me in a letter, seem to point so
surely toward a solution of the problem, in its general features, that
I append his comments here.
I believe Z. saltator to be related to Z. princeps, a supposition which is borne
out in a measure by its distribution in northern British Columbia. There it
supplements in some degree the Rocky Mountain distribution of Z. princeps,
reaching, the coast from the mouth of the Skeena northward. The Z. hudsonius
group has evidently intruded into British Columbia from the east, being represented by the colony named Z. tenellus, and by your Hazelton specimens. Doubtless
it covers a wide area. Your Revillagigedo Island (Portage Bay) specimen may
represent an intrusion from the north, where Z. hudsonius (or alascensis) is
common. Zapus h. alascensis, though reeognizable in its typical form, is a rather
faintly characterized subspecies, and the Portage Bay specimen, like the
Hazelton ones, is very close to typical hudsonius.
Erethizon epixanthum nigrescens Allen.   Dusky Porcupine
Porcupines were abundant at timber line on Nine-mile Mountain.
The lowlands are doubtless visited frequently during the winter
months, but in summer the species seems to be rather closely restricted
to the Hudsonian Zone of the higher mountains. Rock slides, just
above the limit of upright timber, evidently form the preferred
habitat. The animals were numerous enough to be a decided nuisance.
They are nocturnal for the most part, and but few were seen abroad
in daylight; activities began at dusk, and during the three weeks we
spent upon the mountain there was not one night when we were not
disturbed by visiting porcupines.
Three specimens were preserved: no. 32755, skin and skull; no.
32757, skin and skull; no. 32756, complete skeleton. All are adult
males. There was great variation in color among the animals we saw;
the two skins preserved were taken as representing- extremes of light
and dark coloration. Number 32757 is very dark, black in general
effect, and is doubtless the same sort of animal as served as the type
of Erethizon epixanthum nigrescens Allen. Number 32755. yellowish
in general appearance, is not to be distinguished in color from four
California specimens at hand.
Porcupine skulls are said to exhibit great individual variation (see
Hollister, 19126, p. 27), but as far as our series goes, there are cranial
characters which can be used to differentiate the animals of British 1924]   Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Skeena River Region     381
Columbia and California. In the skulls from British Columbia the
nasals are short and the zygomata are rather evenly bowed for their
whole length. The skulls from California have longer nasals, and
straight, angular zygomata. In the four skulls from California, a
straight edge (such as a rule) laid alongside the zygomatic arch will
touch the bone for distances of from 20 to 33 millimeters. In the
skulls from British Columbia the contact is from 10 to 15 millimeters.
There is not much individual variation among the specimens in each
series, the four skulls from California, on the one hand, and the three
from Nine-mile Mountain on the other. Porcupines from the coast of
southeastern Alaska have skulls that most nearly approach the British
Columbia type of structure. One from Telegraph Creek, upper
Stikine River, is closely similar to the specimens from Nine-mile
Marmota caligata oxytona Hollister.
Robson Hoary Marmot
Abundant on Nine-mile Mountain, at timber line and higher.
Occupied burrows were mostly in the rock slides, but not invariably so.
Some were found on sunny slopes that were not especially rocky, one
or two in dense spruce woods (not far from openings), and a number
that were hidden in thickets of prostrate balsam above the limit of
upright timber. Yoiing marmots, a quarter-grown or less, were seen
during the last week in July. Two such youngsters with their parent
were in view daily at the mouth of a burrow a stone's throw from our
Five marmots (nos. 32760-32764) were collected, three adult males
and two young females. Besides these I examined eight or ten Indian
robes made of about thirty marmot skins each, all from animals killed
in the general vicinity of Hazelton. Skins from this region are dark
colored ventrally, compared with average caligata from the coast of
Alaska, and, in the five specimens from Nine-mile Mountain, there is
almost complete elimination of the white mark found between the eyes
in caligata. Otherwise, marmots from the Hazelton region are not
markedly different from caligata in coloration. The skulls of the
specimens from Nine-mile Mountain show the elongation attributed to
oxytona (Hollister, 1912a, p. 1; Howell, 1915, p. 63), as compared
with the broader skull of caligata. Thus marmots from the Hazelton
region appear to be intermediate between caligata and oxytona, much
like the former in general coloration, like the latter in skull characters. 382
University of California Publications in Zoology     you 24
Marmota monax petrensis Howell.   British Columbia Woodchuck
A resident of the lowlands of the Hazelton region; possibly
common but, from its shyness and the nature of its surroundings,
difficult to see. We collected two specimens in Kispiox Valley, all that
we encountered, and were told of several others seen nearby. The two
collected were an adult female (no. 32758), taken August 21, and a
male of the previous year (no. 32759), on September 8. The year
following our visit to the region four additional specimens (nos.
32965-32968, three males and one female), were sent me by an
acquaintance, Mr. Charles Lindahl, who shot them at the same locality,
in May, 1922.
Measurements in Millimeters op Skctlls of Marmota monax petrensis from
Kispiox Valley, B. C.
Howell (1915), upon the basis of skulls without skins, ascribes to
Marmota monax ochracea a range extending south to the Babine Mountains and Stuart Lake, a little southeast of the place where we were
collecting. Our specimens, however, are not ochracea; in color at least
they are widely different from that subspecies. Five of the six are
almost, uniformly black. The one in 'normal' pelage is in markings
closely similar to a Wisconsin specimen of rufescens at hand, though
darker colored throughout; it has not the cinnamon-colored tail of
The five black skins came all from the same small clearing on the
Kispiox River, but nevertheless the melanism exhibited by them is
not to be regarded as peculiar to a limited strain, a single family
group. We were told by several people that most of the lowland
woodchucks of this general region were black, and that it was only an
occasional one that showed the yellow-brown type of coloration.   Of 1924 ]   Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Skeena River Region     383
the five black skins, the four taken in May are black throughout save
for a more brownish appearance upon the head. The September skin
has an infusion of chestnut on neck and shoulders, and scattered white
hairs elsewhere.
We had slight opportunity of observing the habits of this wood-
chuck, but we were told that the preferred habitat was in clearings,
such as were afforded by abandoned ranches. All our specimens came
from such places.
Eutamias amoenus ludibundus Hollister.
Canadian Mountain Chipmunk
Occurs in small numbers in the vicinity of Hazelton. Chipmunks
came to the barns and corrals at Mission Point, where we were camped,
in fair abundance, attracted by the scattered grain, and they were
seen also in the burned over areas toward Rocher Deboule, but they
were absent from the dense woods that cover most of this region. None
was seen in Kispiox Valley nor on Nine-mile Mountain.
Five specimens were collected (nos. 32732-32736). These were
identified by Mr. A. H. Howell, of the United States Biological Survey.
Sciurus hudsonicus picatus Swarth.   Northwest Coast Red Squirrel
Twelve red squirrels were collected near Hazelton. five in Kispiox
Valley, and one on Nine-mile Mountain (nos. 32737-32754). The
squirrel of this region, as exemplified in the series collected, is referable to the coastal subspecies picatus; in just one specimen (no.
32742, Hazelton, June 6) is there shown any intergradation toward
hudsonicus, of the interior.
Squirrels collected about Hazelton during the last week in May,
one even as late as June 2, were in winter pelage throughout; one
taken on June 16 was in complete summer pelage. Squirrels in the
lowlands had entirely finished the molt by the end of June. One that
was shot at timber line (4000 feet) on Nine-mile Mountain on August
2 was about midway through the change. (For the use of the name
Sciurus hudsonicus picatus see Swarth, 1921, p. 92.) 384 University of California Publications in Zoology     you 24
Ii I
Lepus amerieanus columbiensis Rhoads.
British Columbia Varying Hare
Twenty-two specimens collected (nos. 32765-32786) : sixteen summer adults (skins with skulls), four juveniles, one skeleton (without
skin), and one flat winter skin without skull (the gift of an acquaintance). This series seems with fair certainty to belong to the subspecies columbiensis (though collected far north of the known range
of that form), judging from the characterization of the northwestern
hares given by Nelson (1909), and from the appearance of a single
specimen (no. 33412), an adult female, taken at Vernon (the type
locality of columbiensis), November 6, 1922. Specimens from the
Hazelton region are essentially like this topotype of columbiensis, due
allowance being made for seasonal difference. The Skeena Valley
hares are small for macfarlani, occurring immediately to the northward (see table of measurements), and, also, in summer pelage the
feet are brown. According to Nelson (op. cit., pp. 49, 50, 86), in
macfarlani the feet in summer pelage are white, in columbiensis they
are brown.
Considerable field work and study is still required to arrive at an
understanding of the distribution of the species of Lepus in British
Columbia. Thus, the type locality of Lepus amerieanus columbiensis
is Vernon, British Columbia. Nelson records L. a. columbiensis from
Vernon (1909, p. 104), and L. bairdi cascadensis from 'Okanagan'
(op. cit., p. 114). Vernon and Okanagan are practically the same
locality, Vernon being the principal town in the Okanagan Valley.
There is no town of Okanagan, though there is a locality called
Okanagan Landing some four miles south of Vernon. Thus Nelson
in his text has L. bairdi cascadensis and L. amerieanus columbiensis
occurring at the same place; in the map of the ranges of these animals
(op. cit., p. 85, fig. 8) they are not shown to overlap. If the two forms
actually do occur together in any one locality it is a matter of some
importance, as bearing upon their specific distinction (see Nelson,
op. cit., pp. 84, 85).
There is at hand a specimen of Lepus (no. 32789), an adult female,
collected by the writer near Okanagan Landing, October 1, 1921, that
differs in color and skull from the Hazelton hares and from the
specimen from Vernon referred to above, and it is apparently Lepus
bairdi cascadensis.    There may be local differences of environment 1924]   Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Skeena River Region     385
separating the two species in this region, or their ranges may really
overlap for some distance. More data are required to establish the
actual conditions.
We happened to visit the Skeena Valley in a" good rabbit year''
and the animals were abundant everywhere in the lowlands. None was
seen at high altitudes. In the poplar woods the ground was conspicuously crisscrossed with rabbit trails, and these trails were in
constant use. The rabbits themselves were most often encountered
about dusk; at that time, too, in a walk through the woods there
could be heard again and again the resounding thumps of rabbits'
feet, as the startled creatures fled unseen.   This alarm note, usually
Measurements in Millimeters of Lepus amerieanus columbiensis from the
Upper Skeena Valley, B. C.
Ear from
repeated many times, presumably serves some good purpose, but it
seemed as though in this region it could act only as a guide for some
pursuing horned owl that otherwise would have had difficulty in
following its prey through the bushes.
By the middle of June young rabbits were seen in some numbers,
but we found it impossible to shoot them. They were much more
active than the adults, and in the tangles of windfall and brush where
we saw them, usually close underfoot, they could dart under cover
with amazing speed.   The juveniles collected were all trapped.
Adults taken early in June still retained some of the white winter
pelage. One collected on June 6 is pure white below, the feet are
white (with pale cinnamon under-fur), and there are scattered white
hairs on the rump and sides. The white lingers longest upon the feet,
traces being seen even upon one or two rabbits that were shot in July.
Pregnant females taken on Jane 1, June 12, and July 11, contained,
respectively, eight, one, and five embryos.
J 586
University of California Publications in Zoology      [VoL-24
By the middle of August rabbits were noticeably less abundant
than they had been a month earlier. Then, too, we began to find them
dead in the trails, evidently from some disease. It seemed apparent
that they were beginning to suffer from the ravages of the epidemic
that periodically reduces the northern rabbits, though from all
accounts their numbers locally had not yet reached the maximum that
was to be expected. This was but the second year of increase since
the last period of scarcity, we were told.
Allen, J. A.
1903. Mammals collected in Alaska and northern British Columbia by the
Andrew J. Stone expedition of 1902.   Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.,
19, 521-567.
American Ornithologists' Union Committee.
1910.    Check-list of North American birds.    Ed.  3, revised   (New York,
American Ornithologists' Union), 430 pp., 2 maps.
1912.    Sixteenth supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union checklist of North American birds.    Auk, 29, 380-387.
1920.    Seventeenth supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union checklist of North American birds.    Auk, 37, 439-£49.
Bishop, L. B.
1900.    Descriptions of three new birds from Alaska.    Auk, 17, 113-120.
1915.    Description of a new race of Savannah sparrow and suggestions on
some California birds.   Condor, 17, 185-189.
Bi.akiston, T. W.
1861-1862.    On birds collected and observed in the interior of British North
America.   Ibis, October, 1861, pp. 314-320; January, 1862, pp. 3-10.
1863.    On the birds of the interior of British North America.   Ibis, January,
pp. 39-87; April, pp. 121-155.
Brooks, A.
1903.    Notes on the birds of the Cariboo District, British Columbia.    Auk,
20, 277-284, pi. X.
Clark, A. H.
1910.    The birds collected and observed during the cruise of the United
States Fisheries Steamer "Albatross" in the North Pacific Ocean,
and in the Bering, Okhotsk, Japan, and Eastern seas, from April
to December, 1906.   Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 38, 25-74.
Dresser, H. E.
1871-1896.    A history of the birds of Europe, including all the species inhabiting the western Palaearetic region (9 vols.), 7, viii 4- 660,
col. pis. 456-544, text figs.
Grinnell, J.
1910. Birds of the 1908 Alexander Alaska expedition, with a note on the
avifaunal relationships of the Prince William Sound district. Univ.
Calif. Publ. Zool., 5, 361-428, pis. 33-34, 9 figs, in text.
-=-—^~ I924]   Swarth: Birds and Mammals of the Skeena River Region     387
1917.   The subspecies of Hesperiphona vespertina.    Condor, 19, 17—22, text
. 1918.    The subspecies of the mountain chickadee.    Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool.,
17, 505-515, 3 figs, in text.
1923.    The status of the Rocky Mountain downy woodpeeker in California.
Condor, 25, 30-31.
Hollister, N.
1911.   A systematic synopsis of the muskrats.   U. S. Dept. Agr., Biol. Surv.,
N. Am. Fauna, 32, 47 pp., 6 pis.
1912a. New mammals from  Canada, Alaska,  and Kamchatka.    Smithson.
Misc. Coll., 56, no. 35, 8 pp., 3 pis.
19126. Mammals of the Alpine Club expedition to the Mount Bobson region.
Canadian Alpine Journal, special number, pp. 1-44, pis. 1-12.
Howell, A. H.
1915.    Revision of the American marmots.    U. S. Dept. Agr., Biol.  Surv.,
N. Am. Fauna, 37, 80 pp., 15 pis., 3 figs, in text.
Meinertzhagen, B.
1921.    Some preliminary remarks on the velocity of migratory flight among
birds, with special reference to the Palaearetie Region. Ibis, April,
pp. 228-238.
Merriam, C. H.
1896.    Synopsis of the weasels of North America.    U. S. Dept.  Agr., Div.
Ornith. and Mam., N. Am. Fauna, 11, 44 pp., 5 pis., 16 figs, in text.
Nelson, E. W.
1909. The rabbits of North America. U. S. Dept. Agr., Biol. Surv., N. Am.
Fauna, 29, 314 pp., 13 pis., 19 figs, in text.
Oberholser, H. C.
1904. A revision of the American great horned owls. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.,
27, 177-192.
1907. A New Agelaius from Canada.   Auk, 24, 332-336.
Ogilvte-Grant, W. B.
1893. Catalogue of the game birds (Pterocletes, Gallinae, Opisthoeomi,
Hemipodii) in the collection of the British Museum. Catalogue of
Birds, 23, xvi 4- 585 pp., 8 pis., text figs.
Osgood, W. H.
1909. Revision of the mice of the American genus Peromyscus. U. S. Dept.
Agr., Biol. Surv., N. Am. Fauna, 28, 285 pp., S pis., 12 figs, in text.
Beichenow, A.
1908. Neue Vogelarten.    Ornith. Monatsber., 16, 191.
Rhoads, S. N.
1893.    Notes on certain "Washington and British Columbia birds.    Auk, 10,
Ridgway, R.
1904.    The birds of North and Middle America.    U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull., 50,
pt. Ill, xx + 801 pp., 19 pis.
1914.   Idem, pt. VI, xx + 882 pp., 36 pis.
Riley, J. H.
1911. Descriptions of three new birds from Canada. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash.,
24, 233-236. 388
University of California Publications in Zoology     [Vol. 24
1912.   Birds collected or observed on the expedition of the Alpine Club of
Canada  to   Jasper Park,  Tellowhead  Pass,   and  Mount  Robson
region.    Canadian Alpine Journal, special number, pp. 47-75, pis.
Swann, H. K.
1922.    [Remarks upon a visit to American museums.]  Bull. Brit. Ornith. Club,
42, 65-68.
Swarth, H. S.
1911. Birds and mammals of the 1909 Alexander Alaska expedition.   Univ.
Calif. Publ. Zool., 7, 9-172, pis. 1-6.
1912. Report on a collection of birds and mammals from Vancouver Island.
Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool., 10, 1-124, pis. 1-4.
1920. Revision of the avian genus Passerella, with special reference to the
distribution and migration of the races in California.   Univ. Calif.
Publ. Zool., 21, 75-224, pis. 4-7, 30 figs, in text.
1921. The red squirrel of the Sitkan district, Alaska.   Jour. Mammalogy, 2,
1922. Birds and mammals of the Stikine River region of northern British
Columbia and southeastern Alaska.    Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool., 24,
125-314, pi. 8, 34 figs, in text.
1923. The systematic status of some northwestern song sparrows.    Condor,
25, 214-223, 1 fig. (map).
Taylor, W. P.
1911.    An apparent hybrid in the genus Dendroica.   Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool.,
7, 173-177.
Tischler, F.
1918.    Die Geschleehtsunterschiede beim Seidenschwanz (Bombyeilla garrula).
Ornith. Monatsber., 26, 85-89.  EXPLANATION OF PLATES
Rocher Debouli Mountain from Hazelton; the Bulkley River in the foreground.
Photograph taken September 26, 1921.
[390]  M
>> 1 'I:
If  I
Fig. 1. Woods and clearing in Kispiox Valley. Marmota monax petrensis
was found in the meadow here shown.   Photograph taken September 10, 1921.
Fig. 2. Ridge at the summit of Nine-mile Mountain, about 5000 feet altitude. The thiekets are of dwarfed white fir and mountain hemlock. Habitat
of caribou and marmot, of ptarmigan, pipit, and golden-erowned sparrow.
Photograph taken July 29, 1921.
[392]  III.!!''
I Hi
Fig. 1. Rock slides at timber line (about 4500 feet altitude), on Nine-mile
Mountain. The expedition's eamp was located in the tongue of timber extending up the slope in the middle distance. These roeky mountain slides are the
preferred habitat of marmot and porcupine, fox sparrows inhabit the thiekets,
arid the Fleming grouse is found at the edge of the big timber. Photograph
taken July 25, 1921.
Fig. 2. Upper edge of spruce and hemlock forest at about 4500 feet altitude
on Nine-mile Mountain. In these woods (Hudsonian zone) were found Franklin
grouse, white-winged crossbill, Hudsonian chickadee, mountain chickadee, and
hermit thrush.   Photograph taken July 30, 1921.
[3941  m INDEX
Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool., vol. 24.
Titles of papers and new systematic names are in boldface; synonyms are in
Abernathy, Frieda, acknowledgment, 4.
Accipiter chilensis, 423.
velox, 210, 335.
Acknowledgments, 3, 4, 126, 127, 128,
315, 316.
Actitis macularia, 203, 329.
Actodromas bairdii, 427.
Agelaius phoeniceus arctolegus, 348.
thilius chrysopterus, 457.
thilius, 457.
Agriornis striata striata, 446.
montana, 446.
Alauda rufa, 451.
Alcedo stellata, 435.
Alces amerieanus gigas, 189.
Alecturus flaviventris, 451.
Alexander, Annie M., 4, 127, 315.
Anabates gutturalis, 443.
Anaeretes flavirostris, 451.
Anas cinerea, 418.
coscoroba, 416.
eristata cristata, 416.
cyanoptera, 417.
flavirostris, 417.
leucoptera, 415.
melancoripha, 415.
platalea, 418.
platyrhynchos, 198, 326.
sibilatrix, 417.  •
specularis, 416.
spinicauda, 417.
versicolor, 417.
Anser albifrons, 327.
Anthus correndera chilensis, 456.
correndera, 456.
fuscus, 439.
rubescens, 294, 366.
Aphrastura spinicauda, 441.
Aquila chrysaetos, 213, 336.
Ardea cocoi, 413.
cyanocephala, 412.
egretta, 413.
galatea, 413.
herodias, 327.
fannini, 201.
Asio flammeus, 215.
breviauris, 435.
flammeus, 435.
Astur   atricapillus   atricapillus,   211,
striatulus, 211, 335.
Attagis gayi gayi, 430.
malouinus, 430.
Baldpate, 326.
Bartramia longicauda, 328.
Bat, Northwestern Long-legged, 373.
Bear, Black, 160.
Grizzly, 159.
Beaver, 188.
Belonopterus chilensis chilensis, 429.
lampronotus, 429.
Bennett Ground Squirrel.   See Squirrel.
Birds and Mammals of the Skeena
River Region of Northern British Columbia, 315-394.
Birds and Mammals of the Stikine
River Region of Northern British Columbia and Southeastern
Alaska, 125-314.
Bittern, 327.
Blackbird, Rusty,  231, 349.
Bluebird, Mountain, 308, 372.
Bombyeilla cedrorum, 360.
garrula pallidiceps, 266, 359.
Bonasa   umbellus   umbeUoides,   207,'
Botaurus lentiginosus, 327.
Brachyspiza capensis eanicapilla, 464.
Branta canadensis canadensis, 327.
occidentalis, 200.
British Columbia Mink, 163.
Bubo virginianus, subsp., 216.
lagophonus, 339.
nacurutu, 433.
magellanicus, 433.
Buteo borealis calurus, 211-, 336.
erythronotus, 422.
polyosoma, 422.
swainsoni, 213, 336.
Calcarius   lapponicus   alascensis,  239,
ornatus, 351.
pictus, 350.
California, maps showing: relative
humidity, 15; mean annual cloudiness, 16; mean annual rainfall,.
17; distribution of kangaroo rats,
40, 78, 92, 109.
Calopezus elegans elegans, 410.
Canachites canadensis atratus, 205.
osgoodi, 205.
franklini, 329.
Canis occidentalis, 161.
Capella paraguaiae, 428.
Capri/mulgus longirostris, 435.
Carbo albiventer, 412.
[475] Index
Caribou, Cassiar, 190.
Carpodacus purpureus purpureus, 232,
Casmerodius albus egretta, 413.
Castor canadensis canadensis, 188.
Catbird, 366.
Cerchneis sparveria cinnamomina, 421.
Certhia familiaris  occidentalis,  295,
Ceryle aleyon caurina, 216, 340.
Chaetura vauxi, 223, 344.
Charadrius falklandieus, 428.
lampronotus, 429.
modestus, 428.
ruflcollis, 428.
Chickadee, Chestnut-backed, 298, 369.
Columbian, 368.
Long-tailed, 296, 368.
Short-tailed Mountain, 297, 368.
Chipmunk, Canadian Mountain, 383.
Gray-headed, 184.
Chloephaga leucoptera, 415.
hybrida, 415.
inornata, 415.
magellanica, 415.
poliocephala, 415.
Chloroenas araueana, 431.
Chlorospiza plumbea, 460.
(?)xanthogramma, 462.
Chordeiles   virginianus   virginianus,
221, 344.
Cinclodes fuscus fuscus, 439.
patagonicus rupestris, 439.
Circus cinereus, 422.
hudsonius, 210, 334.
Cistothorus platensis hornensis, 454.
Citellus plesius plesius, 183.
Colaptes auratus borealis, 220, 343.
.pitius eachinnans, 437.
Columba araueana, 431.
melanoptera, 431.
Columbian Mountain Goat, 191.
Colymbus auritus, 196.
calipareus, 411.
chilensis, 411.
holboelli, 196, 325.
major, 411.
occipitalis occipitalis, 411.
Condor, Andean, measurements, 419.
Corvus brachyrhynehos caurinus, 231.
hesperis, 348.
corax principalis, 230.
Corydalla chilensis, 456.
Coscoroba coscoroba, 416.
Creeper, Tawny, 295, 367.
Cricetodipus agilis, 87.
panamintus, 63.
Streatori, 43.
Crossbill, Bendire, 232.
Sitka, 233.
White-winged, 233, 349.
Crow, Northwest, 231.
Western, 348.
Cryptoglaux funerea richardsoni, 215.
Cyanoliseus patagonus patagonus, 432.
Cyanocitta stelleri anneetens, 347.
stelleri, 229.
Cygnus melancoriphus, 415.
Cypseloides niger borealis, 222, 344.
Dafila acuta, 198, 327.
spinicauda, 417.
Deer, Sitka, 189.
Dendragapus obscurus flemingi, 203.
sitkensis, 203.
Dendrocolaptes albo-gularis, 443.
Dendroica aestiva aestiva, 287.
rubiginosa, 362.
auduboni auduboni, 362.
coronata hooveri, 289, 362.
magnolia, 363.
striata, 363.
townsendi, 291, 364.
D[ipodomys\. agilis, 47, 53, 96.
Heermanni, 43.
Wagneri, 87.
Dipodomys, methods of measuring, 4;
subdivisions of genus, 7; specific
and  sub-specific  characters,  10;
limitations, measurements, 11—36;
life-zones,  30;  illustrations:   ear,
19;   facial   marking,   114;   hind
foot, 21-23; maxillary arch, 26;
skull,   5,   6,   25,   116,   118,   122;
whole animal, 124.
agilis, 79, 92, 93.
agilis, 87, 92.
cabezonae, 92, 95.
perplexus, 92, 96. .
simulans, 92, 93.
calif ornicus, 37, 93, 98.
calif ornicus, 37, 41.
eximius, 41.
pallidulus, 37.
trinitatis, 37.
deserti, 106, 109.
deserti, 106.
helleri, 106.
elephantinus, 92, 101.
goldmani, 53.
heermanni berkeleyensis, 28, 40, 51.
calif ornicus,   37,    40;    pictured;
dixoni, 40, 50; pictures, 124.
eximius, 40, 41.
goldmani, 27, 40, 53.
heermanni,  40,  43.
jolonensis, 40, 55. •
swarthi, 40, 56.
tularensis, 40, 47.
ingens, 67, 109.
jolonensis, 55.
leueogenys, 40, 62.
levipes, 92, 104.
merriami, 73.
arenivagus, 79.
brevinasus, 85.
[476] Index
exilis, 84,
Eustaphanus, 437.
kernensis, 73.
Eutamias amoenus ludibundus, 383.
merriami, 73, 79.
borealis caniceps, 184.
mortivallis, 73.
Euxenura galatea, 413.
nevadensis, 73.
maguari, 413.
nitratoides, 82.
Evotomys dawsoni dawsoni, 173.
nitratus, 73.
gapperi saturatus, 378.
parvus, 78, 81.
wrangeli, 173.
simiolus, 73, 78, 79.
Falco  columbarius  columbarius,   214,
mierops, 92, 102.
mohavensis, 40, 60; pictured, fron
suckleyi, 337.
cinnamominus, 421.
morroensis,   27,   40,   58;   pictured
fusco-caerulescens  fusco-caeru-
lescens, 422.
nitratoides brevinasus, 78, 85.
peregrinus pealei, 214.
nitratoides, 78, 82, 83.
plancus, 420.
ordii columbianus, 70, 78.
polyosoma, 422.
monoensis, 71, 78; pictured, fron
sparverius sparverius, 214, 337.
Falcon, Peale, 214.
panamintinus, 40, 63.
Finch, Eastern Purple, 232, 349.
parvus, 81.
Hepburn Rosy, 235, 350.
Phillipii, 37.
Flicker, Boreal, 220, 343.
phillipii, 47, 53, 87.
Flood Glacier, description, 138.
phillipsi, 37, 53, 60.
Flycatcher, Alder, 226, 346.
phillipsii, 98.
Hammond, 226, 346.
sanctiluciae, 99.
Olive-sided, 225, 346.
simiolus, 79.
Western, 226.
stephensi, 40, 65.   .
Wright, 227, 347.
swarthi, 56.
Fringilla arvensis, 458.
tularensis, 47.
barbata, 464.
venustus, 98.
diuea, 463.
sanctilueiae, 92, 99.
fruticeti, 459.
venustus, 92, 98.
gayi, 459.
D[ipidops~\. agilis, 87.
Fuertes, L. A., acknowledgment, 4.
Diuea diuea, 463.
Fuliea armillata, 423.
minor, 464.
ruflfrons, 424.
Dixon, J., 51.
'Gallinago delicata, 201, 328.
Doch-Da-On-Creek, described, 135.
Gavia immer, 196, 325.
Geobamon ruflpennis, 438.
Dove, Eastern Mourning, 209.
Geographical Study of the Kangaroo
Dryobates pubescens leucurus, 340.
Rats of California, 1-124.
villosus montieola, 217, 340.
Geositta cunicularia hellmayri, 438.
Duck, Harlequin, 199.
ruflpennis, 438.
Steamer, 418.
Geothlypis trichas occidentalis, 364.
Scaup, 198.
Geranoaetus australis, 423.
Dumetella carolinensis, 366.
melanoleucus, 423.
Dyctiopicus lignarius, 436.
Glaucidium gnoma, 216.
Eagle, Golden, 213, 336.
nanum nanum, 434.
Northern Bald, 213, 336.
Glaucionetta islandica, 199.
Elaenia albiceps albiceps, 452.
Glenora, description of, 134.
Emberiza carbonaria, 460.
Goat, Columbian Mountain, 191.
Empidonax difficilis difficilis, 226.
Golden-eye, Barrow, 199.
hammondi, 226, 346.
Goose, Canada, 327.
trailli alnorum, 226, 346.
White-cheeked, 200.
wrighti, 227, 347.
White-fronted, 327.
Enicornis phoenicurus, 440.
Goshawk, Eastern, 211, 335.
Erismatura vittata, 418.
Western, 211, 335.
Eremobius phoenicurus, 440.
Great Glacier, description of, 139.
Erethizon epixanthum nigrescens, 182
Grebe, Holboell, 196, 325.
Horned, 196.
Eudromia elegans, 410.
Grinnell, J., 1-124.
Euphagus carolinus, 231, 349.
-    Grizzly Bear, 159.
[477] '
Grosbeak, British Columbia Evening,
Kadiak Pine, 231.
Grouse, Alaska Spruce, 205.
Fleming, 203, 329.
Franklin, 329.
Gray Ruffed, 207, 330.
Sitka, 205.
Valdez Spruce, 205.
Gull, Bonaparte, 197.
Short-billed, 325.
Haematopus leucopodus, 427.
palliatus durnfordi, 427.
Haliaeetus   leucoeephalus   alascanus,
213, 336.
Hare, British Columbia Varying, 384.
Mackenzie Varying,  188.
Hawk, American  Sparrow,  214,  338.
Black Pigeon, 337.
Eastern Pigeon, 334.
Marsh, 210, 334.
Pigeon, 214.
Sharp-shinned, 210, 335.
Swainson, 213, 336.
Western Red-tailed, 211, 336.
Hazelton, description of, 316.
Heermann, A.  L., type collected by,
Heron, Great Blue, 327.
Northwest Coast, 201.
Hesperiphona vespertina brooksi, 349.
Heteromyidae, 2.
Himantopus melanurus, 426.
Hirundo erythrogaster, 264, 358.
patagonica, 453.
Histrionicus histrionicus, 199.
Howell, A. B., acknowledgment, 378.
Hummingbird, Bufous, 223, 344.
Hydrocorax vigua, 412.
Hylactes tarnii, 445.
Hylocichla guttata guttata, 303, 370.
nanus, 304.
pallasi, 370.
ustulata swainsoni, 301, 370.
ustulata, 301.
Ibycter albogularis, 420.
Ipocrantor magellanicus, 436.
Iridoproene bicolor, 265, 358.
meyeni, 453.
Ixoreus naevius meruloides, 307, 371.
naevius, 307, 371".
Jacobs, A. W., acknowledgment, 15,
16, 17.
Jay, Black-headed, 347.
Canada, 229, 348.
Steller, 229.
Junco, Cassiar, 243, 355.
Oregon, 253.
Shufeldt, 355.
Slate-colored, 354.
Junco hyemalis, 354.
connectens, 243, 355.
oreganus oreganus, 253.
shufeldti, 355.
Kangaroo  Bat.    See Rat, Kangaroo.
See also Dipodomys.
Kangaroo   Rats,   of   California,   A
Geographical Study of the, 1-124.
Killdeer, 203.
Kingbird, Eastern, 345.
Kingfisher, Western Belted, 216, 340.
Kinglet, Ruby-crowned, 299, 369.
Sitka, 299.
Western Golden-crowned, 298, 369.
Kispiox Valley, description of, 318.
Lagopus lagopus alexandrae, 331.
leucurus leucurus, 208, 334.
rupestris, 333.
Lark, Pallid Horned, 228, 347.
Larus braehyrhynchus, 325.
dominicanus, 425.
glaucodes, 426.
maeulipennis, 425.
Philadelphia, 197.
LeConte, Dr. J. L., original description of Dipodomys heermanni, 44.
Leptasthenura aegithaloides pallida,
Lepus amerieanus columbiensis, 384.
macfarlani, 188.
bairdi cascadensis, 384.
Lessonia rufa rufa, 451.
Leucosticte tephrocotis littoralis, 235,
Lichenops perspieillata andina, 448.
Literature cited, on Birds from Patagonia, 465;  on Birds and Mammals of the Skeena River Region,
386;  on Birds and Mammals of
the Stikine River Region, 309; on
Kangaroo Rats, 110.
Longspur, Alaska, 239, 350.
Chestnut:collared, 351.
Smith, 350.
Loon, Common, 196, 325.
Lophonetta, 416.
Loxia curvirostra bendirei, 232.
sitkensis, 233.
leueoptera, 233, 349.
Mallard, 198, 326.
Mareca americana, 326.
sibilatrix, 417.
Maxila, sp.?, 198.
Marmot, Northern Hoary, 182.
Robson Hoary, 381.
Marmota caligata caligata, 182.
oxytona, 381.
monax petrensis, 382.
Megaceryle torquata stellata, 435.
Melanodera melanodera princetoniana,
xanthogramma xanthogramma, 462.
Melospiza melodia caurina, 259.
morphna, 356.
ruflna, 255.
lincolni gracilis, 260.
lincolni, 356.
[478] Index
Merganetta armata, 419.
Merganser, American, 197, 326.
Mergus amerieanus, 197, 326.
Metriopelia melanoptera melanoptera,
Microsittace ferruginea, 432.
Microsorex eximius,  159,  373.
Microtus drummondi, 174, 378.
mordax mordax, 175, 378.
Milvago ehimango chimango, 420.
Mimus patagonicus patagonicus, 455.
Mink, British Columbia, 163, 374.
Molothrus bonariensis bonariensis, 457.
Moose, Alaska, 189.
Motadlla magellanica, 444.
spinicauda, 441.
Mouse, British Columbia Red-baeked,
Cantankerous Meadow, 175, 378.
Dall Lemming, 377.
Dawson Red-backed, 173.
Drummond Meadow, 174, 378.
House, 181.
Hudson Bay Jumping, 379.
Northern White-footed, 164, 374.
Rhoads White-footed, 164.
Stikine Jumping, 181, 379.
Wrangell Lemming, 172.
Wrangell Red-backed, 173.
Mus musculus musculus, 181.
Muscipeta albiceps, 452.
Muscisaxicola eapistrata, 450.
flavinucha, 450.
frontalis, 449.
hateheri, 448.
macloviana mentalis, 449.
maeulirostris, 450.
mentalis, 449.
Muskrat, Northwestern, 179, 379.
Mustela  cicognani  richardsoni,  163,
374. |
vison energumenos, 163, 374.
Myadestes townsendi, 299, 370.
Myiochanes richardsoni richardsoni,
225, 346.
Myiotheretes ruflventris, 447.
Myiosympotes flaviventris, 451.
Myotis longierus longicrus, 373.
Nannus hiemalis pacifieus, 295, 367.
Nelson, E. W., cited, 59.
Neosorex palustris navigator, 158.
Neotoma cinerea saxamans, 170, 376.
Nettion carolinense, 198, 327.
flavirostre, 417.
Nighthawk, Eastern, 221, 344.
Nine-mile Mountain, 319.
Nothura maculosa, 410.
Notiopsar curaeus, 457.
Nuthatch, Red-breasted, 296, 367.
Nuttallornis borealis,  225, 346.
Nyeticorax cyanocephalus, 412.
tayazu-guira, 413.
Odocoileus eolumbianus sitkensis, 189.
Oidemia deglandi, 199.
Ondatra zibethica spatulata, 179, 379.
Opetiorynchus rupestris, 439.
Oporornis tolmiei, 292, 364.
Oreamnos montanus columbianus, 191.
Oreopholus ruficollis ruficollis, 428.
Orpheus patagonicus, 455.
Osprey, 339.
Otocoris alpestris arctieola, 228, 347.
Owl, Horned, 216.
Pigmy, 216.
Richardson, 215.
Ruddy Horned, 339.
Short-eared, 215.
Oxyechus vociferus vociferus, 203.
Pandion haliaetus carolinensis, 339.
Pardirallus rytirhynchos sanguinolen-
tus, 424.
Parra chilensis, 429.
Passerculus   sandwichensis   alaudinus,
240, 351.
savanna, 329.
Passerella iliaea altivagans, 357.
fuliginosa, 261.
iliaea, 357.
unalaschcensis, 261.
Pemberton, J. R., collection, 395.
Pehthestes atricapillus septentrionalis,
296, 368.
gambeli abbreviatus, 297, 368.
hudsonicus columbianus, 368.
rufescens rufescens, 298, 369.
Pepoaza montana, 446.
murina, 447.
Perisoreus canadensis canadensis, 229,
Peristera auriculata, 431.
Perodipus agilis, 87, 93, 95, 96.
agilis, 87, 93, 95.
streatori, 47, 60.
tularensis, 47, 56.
berkeleyensis, 51.
cabezonae, 95.
eolumbianus, 70.
dixoni, 50.
elephantinus, 101.
goldmani, 53.
ingens, 67.
leucogenys, 62.
levipes, 102.
mierops, 102.
levipes, 1Q2.
mierops, 102.
mohavensis, 60.
monoensis, 71.
morroensis, 58.
ordi columbianus, 70.
panamintinus, 60, 63, 102, 104.
perplexus, 96.
simulans simulans, 93.
stephensi, 65.
streatori, 43, 60, 96.
simulans, 58, 93.
streatori, 43.
[479] Index
swarthi, 56.
venustus, 98, 99.
Peromyscus maniculatus borealis, 164,
macrorhinus, 164.
Petrochelidon lunifrons lunifrons, 264.
meyeni, 453.
Pewee, Western Wood, 225, 346.
Phaenicopterus chilensis, 414.
Phalacroeorax albiventer, 412.
vigua vigua, 412.
Phenacomys intermedius, 377.
Phenacomys, Kamloops, 377.
Phleocryptes melanops melanops, 441.
Phloeotomus pileatus picinus, 343.
Phoca richardi richardi, 164.
Phoebe, Northern Say, 345. s
Say, 224.
Phoenicopterus chilensis, 414.
Phrygilus carbonarius, 460.
frutieeti fruticeti, 459.
gayi, 459.
patagonicus, 458.
prineetonianus, 462.
unicolor geospizopsis, 461.
grandis, 461.
montosus, 460.
nivarius, 460.
plumbeus, 460, 461.
unicolor, 460.
Phytotoma rara, 452.
Pieoides amerieanus fasciatus, 342.
arcticus, 341.
Picus lignarius, 436.
magellanicus, 436.
Pinicola enucleator flammula, 231.
Pintail, 198, 327.
Pipit, 294, 366.
Piranga ludoviciana, 264, 358.
Pisobia bairdi, 328.
bairdii, 427.
maeulata, 202.
minutilla, 202, 328.
Planesticus migratorius caurinus, 306
migratorius, 305, 371.
Plegadis guarauna, 414.
Plover, Upland, 328.
Podiceps antarcticus, 411.
chilensis, 411.
occipitalis, 411.
Podilymbus podiceps antarcticus, 411
Polyborus albogularis, 420.
chvmango, 420.
plancus plum-us, 420.
Porcupine, Dusky, 182, 380.
Porphyriops melanops melanops, 424.
Progne elegans, 453.
fwcata, 453.
Pseuiochloris lebruni, 458.
Pseudoseisura gutturalis, 443.
Psittacus ferrugineus, 432.
patagonus, 432.
Ptarmigan, Alexander Willow, 331.
Rock, 333.
White-tailed, 208, 334.
Pterocnemia pennata, 409.
Pteroptochos rubecula, 444.
tarnii tarnii, 445.
Ptyonura capistrata, 450.
frontalis, 449.
Pygarrhichas albo-gularis, 443.
Pygochelidon  patagonica  patagonica,
Querquedula cyanoptera, 417.
versicolor versicolor, 417.
Ballus melanops, 424.
' sanguinolentus, 424.
Rangifer osborni, 190.
Rat, Kangaroo.
Allied, 79.
Berkeley, 51.
Big Desert, 106.
Cabezon, 95.
Carrizo Plain, 56.
Columbian, 70.
Dulzura, 93.
Elephant-eared, 101.
Fresno, 84.
Gambel, 87.
Giant, 67.
Heermann, 43.
Jolon, 55.
Lesser California, 41.
Light-footed, 104.
Merced, 50.
Merriam, 73.
Mohave, 60.
Mono, 71.
Morro Bay, 56.
Northern California, 37.
Pale-faced, 62.
Panamint, 63.
Salinas, 53.
San Bernardino, 81.
Santa Cruz, 98.
Santa Lucia Mountain, 99.
Short-nosed, 85.
Small-faced, 102.
Stephens, 65.
Tipton, 82.
Tulare, 47.
Walker Basin, 96.
Rat,   Wood,  Northern  Bushy-tailed,
Rats,   Kangaroo,   of   California,   A
Geographical Study of the, 1—124.
artificial key to kangaroo, of California, 32.
Raven, Northern, 230.
Redstart, American, 293, 365.
Red-wing, Northern, 348.
Regulus   calendula   calendula,   299,
grinnelli, 299.
satrapa olivaeeus, 298, 369.
[480] Index
Report on a Collection of Birds Made
by  J.   R.   Pemberton  in  Patagonia, 395-474.
Rhea americana, 409.
pennata, 409.
Bhinocrypta fusca, 444.
Riparia riparia, 266.
Robin, Eastern, 305, 371.
Northwestern, 306.
Rynchops cinerascens, 426.
Sandpiper, Baird, 328.
Least, 202, 328.
Pectoral, 203.
Spotted, 203, 329.
Western, 328.
Western Solitary, 203, 328.
Sapsucker, Red-breasted, 220, 342:
Yellow-bellied, 218.
yukonensis, 345.
Scelorehilus rubecula, 444.
Sciuroidae, 2.
Sciurus   hudsonicus   hudsonicus,   184.
picatus, 184, 383.
Scolopax guarauna, 414.
melanoleuca, 427.
paraguaiae, 428.
Scoter, White-winged, 199.
Scytalopus magellanicus, 444.
Seal, Harbor, 164.
Seiurus noveboracensis notabilis, 292,
Selasphorus rufus, 223, 345.
Sephanoides galeritus, 437.
Sergief Island, description of, 140.
Setophaga ruticilla, 293, 365.
Shoveller, 198.
Shrew, Dusky, 158, 373.
Long-tailed, 158.
Masked, 158, 373.
Osgood, 159, 373.
Water, 158.
Sialia currucoides, 308, 372.
Sicalis arvensis arvensis, 458.
lebruni, 458.
Siptornis anthoi'des, 443.
modesta, 442.
patagonica, 442.
sordida sordida, 442.
Siskin, Pine, 238, 350.
Sitta canadensis, 296, 367.
Skeena Valley, zonal and faunal position, 320.
Snipe, WDson, 201, 328.
Solitaire, Townsend, 299, 370.
Sorex, obscurus obscurus, 158, 373.
longicauda, 158.
personatus personatus, 158, 373.
Sparrow, Alberta Fox, 357.
Eastern Chipping, 243, 354.
Eastern Fox, 357.
Forbush, 260.
Gambel, 241, 352.
Golden-crowned, 241, 353.
Lincoln, 356.
Rusty Song, 255, 356.
Savannah, 239.
Shumagin Fox, 261.
Sooty Fox, 261.
White-throated,  354.
Western Savannah, 240, 351.
Western Tree, 242, 354.
Vakutat Song, 259.
Spatula elypeata, 198.
platalea, 418.
Speotyto cunicularia cunicularia, 435.
Sphyrapicus varius ruber, 220, 342.
varius, 218.
Spinus barbatus, 464.
pinus pinus, 238, 350.
Spizaetus melanoleucus, 423.
Spizella montieola ochracea, 242, 354.
passerina passerina, 243, 354.
Spizitornis flavirostris flavirostris,
parulus curatus, 452.
Squirrel, Bennett Ground, 183.
Northern Red, 184.
Northwest Coast Red, 184, 383.
Stelgidopteryx serripennis, 359.
Sterna hirundinacea, 426.
paradisaea, 197.
Stikine River, map, 129.
Stikine   River  Region  of  Northern
British Columbia and Southeastern Alaska, Birds and Mammals
of the, 125-314.
Stikine Valley, topography, 141; zonal
and faunal position, 149.
Stone, Dr. W., 44.
Strix cunicularia, 435.
flammea, .435.
nacurutu, 433.
nana, 434.
perlata, 433.
rufipes, 433.
tuidara, 433.
Sturnus militaris, 456.
Swallow, Bank, 266.
Barn, 264, 358.
Cliff, 264.
Northern Violet-green, 265, 359.
Rough-winged, 359.
Tree, 265, 358.
Swarth, H. S., 125-314, 315-394.
Swift, Black, 222, 344.
Vaux, 223, 344.
Sylvia rubrigastra, 452.
Sylviorthorhynchus desmurii, 441.
Synallaxis anthoides, 443.
modestus, 442.
patagonica, 442.
sordidus, 442.
Synaptomys borealis dalli, 377.
wrangeli, 172.
Tachuris rubrigastra rubrigastra, 452,
[481] Index
1 lir I
Taehyeineta  thalassina  lepida,   265,
Taenioptera murina, 447.
pyrope ignea, 447.
rubetra, 448.
Tanager, Western, 264, 358.
Tanagra bonariensis, 457.
Tantalus melanopis, 414.
Teal, Green-winged, 198, 327.'
Teledromas fuscus, 444.
Telegraph Creek, 130.
Tern, Arctic, 197.
Tetrao malouinus, 430.
Theristieus melanopis, 414.
Thermochaleis longirostris, 435.
Thinoehorus  orbignyianus, 430.
rumicivorus rumicivorus, 429.
Thrush, Alaska Hermit, 303, 370.
Dwarf Hermit, 304.
Eastern Hermit, 370.
Northern Varied, 307, 371.
Olive-baeked, 301, 370.
Russet-backed, 301.
Varied, 307, 371.
Tinamus maculosus, 410.
Totanus flavipes, 202.
melanoleucus, 202, 427.
Tringa solitaria einnamomea, 203.
Trochilus galeritus, 437.
Troglodytes aedon parkmani, 367.
hornensis, 454.
musculus chilensis, 454.
magellanicus, 454.
Trupialis militaris militaris, 456.
Tuliea ruflfrons, 424.
Turdus curaeus, 457.
magellanicus pembertoni, 455.
thilius, 457.
Tyrannus rufiventris, 447.
tyrannus, 345.
Tyto alba tuidara, 433.
Upucerthia dumetaria dumetaria, 439.
Ursus, sp.1, 159.
amerieanus amerieanus, 160.
Varney,  B. M.,  acknowledgment,  15,
16, 17.
Vermivora celata celata, 361.
lutescens, 286, 361.
orestera, 286.
peregrina, 286, 361.
Vireo, Red-eyed, 360.
Western Warbbng, 285, 360.
Vireosylva gilva swainsoni, 285, 360.
olivaeea, 360.
Vultur grvphus, 419.
Warbler, Alaska Myrtle, 289, 361.
Alaska Yellow, 361.
Audubon, 362.
Black-poll, 363.
Eastern Yellow, 287.
Luteseent, 286, 361.
MacGillivray, 292, 364.
Magnolia,  363.
Orange-crowned, 361.
Pileolated, 293, 365.
Rocky Mountain  Orange-crowned,
Tennessee, 286, 361.
Townsend, 291, 364.
Water-thrush, Grinnell, 292.
Waxwing, Bohemian, 266, 359.
Cedar, 360.
Weasel, Richardson, 163, 374.
Wetmore, A., 395-474.
Wilsonia pusilla pileolata, 293, 365.
Wolf, Timber, 161.
Woodehuck, British Columbia, 382.
Woodpecker, Alaska Three-toed, 342.
Arctic Three-toed, 341.
. Batchelder, 340.
Rocky Mountain Hairy, 217, 340.
Western Pileated, 343.
Wren, Western House, 367.
Western Winter, 295, 367.
Yellowlegs, Greater, 202.
Lesser, 202.
Yellow-throat, Western, 364.
Zapus hudsonius hudsonius, 379.
saltator, 181, 379.'
Zenaidura aurieulata auriculata, 431.
macroura carolinensis, 209.
Zonibyx modestus, 428.
Zonotrichia albicollis, 354.
canicapilla, 464.
coronata, 241, 353.
leucophrys gambeli, 241, 352.


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