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The great dominion. Studies of Canada. With maps Parkin, George R. (George Robert), 1846-1922 1895

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Array Macmillan's Colonial Library 
The Great Dominion 
Studies of Canada 
BY 
GEORGE R. PARKIN, M.A. 
HON. LL.D. UNIV. NEW BRUNSWICK 
LONDON 
MACMILLAN AND CO. 
AND NEW YORK 
1895 
This Edition is intended for circulation only in India and 
the British Colonies. r
jltarmillatt's C0i0ttial Itbrarg.
All the volumes are issued in paper covers, with edges
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voL
"V THE  GREAT  DOMINION This Edition is intended for circulation only in India and
 the British Colonies. Macmillan's Colonial Library 
The Great Dominion 
Studies of Canada 
BY 
GEORGE R. PARKIN, M.A. 
HON. LL.D. UNIV. NEW BRUNSWICK 
LONDON 
MACMILLAN AND CO. 
AND NEW YORK 
1895 
No. 205. Richard Clay and Sons, Limited,
london and bungay. PREFACE
The greater part of the matter contained in the
following pages appeared during the past year in a
series of letters to the Times. Those letters were the
result of a somewhat careful study, made in behalf of
that journal during the autumn and winter of 1892-3 of
many parts of the Dominion which I had not visited
before, as well as of other portions with which I had long
been familiar. A later visit, made during the summer
of 1894, has enabled me to make many additions on
questions of interest, and in a few minor points to correct
earlier impressions. It also gave me the opportunity of
.submitting my statements on various questions to the
judgment of friends whose criticism derived special
value from their full knowledge of particular localities.
The form in which the studies originally appeared
necessarily involved the choice of a limited number of
subjects and condensed treatment. It will therefore be
understood that no attempt is here made to treat exhaustively the manifold conditions of a country which,
like Canada, covers half a continent. The object kept
steadily in view has been rather that the letters should,
so far as they go, leave upon the mind of the reader a
true impression. An endeavour has also been made to
select those subjects upon which it seems most necessary
that accurate information should be easily accessible, vi Preface
and a measured judgment formed, both  within the
Dominion and without.
The order of treatment has been determined by considerations other than those of geographical continuity.
Directly or indirectly the studies will, I think, be
found to touch upon the most significant conditions of
Canadian life, the most important of the problems
which confront Canadians, and those external relations
which have the greatest general interest.
It has been a satisfaction to find that throughout
Canada they have, in their original form, been very
generally accepted as fair statements of the questions
with which they deal. As I have never hesitated to
point out the drawbacks and limitations of the country
as well as its advantages, this approval seems to indicate
that Canadians have reached a point where they are
quite willing that the merits and defects of their country
should be freely weighed together. The fact marks an
important stage in the growth of a self-reliant feeling
in a young community.
There are good grounds for believing that the diffusion,
among British people of trustworthy information about
the various parts of the empire, and concerning the place
which each of the greater divisions, at least, is fitted to
hold in the national system, will do much to keep the
lines of further national development in true directions.
I can only hope that what is here written of the greatest of
the colonies may in some slight degree serve th is purpose.
My best thanks are due to the proprietors of the
Times for their readily granted permission to reproduce
in another form material which first appeared in their
columns.
G. R P.
Losdok, January, 1895. 1
CONTENTS
PAGE
INTRODUCTORY  1
CHAPTER I
THE NORTn-WEST  9
CHAPTER II
the north-west—continued        26
CHAPTER III
THE CANADIAN  PACIFIC RAILWAY-  46
CHAPTER IV
COAL  73
CHAPTER V
EASTERN CANADA :   ONTARIO   AND THE  MARITIME   PROVINCES 89
CHAPTER VI
EASTERN CANADA—continued: QUEBEC     .       127
CHAPTER VII
BRITISH COLUMBIA        157 :V1U
Contents
CHAPTER VIII
NORTHERN CANADA : THE GREAT   PUR COUNTRY
PAGE
173
CHAPTER IX
TRADE RELATIONS AND TRADE POLICY . .
184
CHAPTER X
LABOUR,   EDUCATION    AND  POLITICAL TENDENCIES
209
INDEX
]M5
MAPS
A MAP OP THE DOMINION OP CANADA, SHOWING THE CANADIAN
pacific railway To face page 1
ONTARIO  AND  QUEBEC RAILWAY  SYSTEM
THE MARITIME  PROVINCES RAILWAY  SYSTEM
. To face page 89
To face page 156 If X THE   GREAT  DOMINION
INTRODUCTORY
Many of the problems connected with the present
condition and future development of the Dominion of
Canada have a profound interest for the people of the
United Kingdom and of the empire at large. In these
problems are involved matters deeply affecting maritime
position, imperial defence and communications, food and
coal supply, trade relations, emigration, and many other
questions which, from a national point of view, are of
the first importance.
The study of these questions seems more necessary
now than ever before. While the growth of population
in the Dominion has not been so great during the .last
two decades as was expected, events have nevertheless
moved fast. Advances in political and physical consolidation have been made which greatly change Canada's
relation to the empire and to the world. This movement is one which, in the very nature of things, must
have far reaching national consequences.
It does not seem an exaggeration to say that the
£ B The Great Dominion
INTRO.
course which affairs take in Canada during the next few
years may have a decisive influence upon the direction
of British History. The primary reason for this impression is obvious. Canada is the first of the great
colonies which has formed a political combination which
gives her a position closely akin to that of a nation.
Her territory comprises nearly 40 per cent, of the
whole empire, and covers half of the North American
continent. It is only within the last few years that
Canadians themselves have become fully conscious of
the vast possibilities of this largely undeveloped area.
Facing upon the two greatest oceans of the globe, the
country is now brought into easy commercial communication and international relation with the rest of
the world. Across the breadth of the continent it
borders upon, and therefore has more or less intimate
relations with, the United States. Thus, though Canada
has not a nation's franchise, her people and statesmen
have been forced to consider in many ways the interests
of a nation. By the mere compulsion of circumstances
her statesmen are fast becoming statesmen of the
empire. Already more than once their advice has
been essential to the wise conduct of the most difficult
imperial negotiations. It is facts kke these which give
such extreme national significance to her present position.
In what direction will point the interests and aspirations
of a great colony which has reached this stage of growth ?
How far do these interests and aspirations coincide
with those of British people generally ? These are
large questions which  cannot be answered  off-hand. INTRO.
Introductory
That they must be answered sooner or later invites or
almost compels the careful study of Canadian
conditions.
For gaining a due sense of proportion in such study
some glance at the main geographical facts is a necessary
prehminary.
If we follow its .changes of direction the southern
boundary of Canada stretches over" fully 4,000 miles.
Along this line we find that Southern Ontario has the
latitude of Central Italy; Nova Scotia that of Northern
Italy; Vancouver and Manitoba that of Central
Germany. These latitudes, modified greatly in their
influence by maritime or continental conditions, give, as
I shall have occasion to show, very wide variations of
climate.
Northward from this frontier base (a parallel of
latitude in the West; in the East extremely irregular),
the territory well adapted by climate for comfortable
settlement varies much in breadth. Sometimes it is
narrow, as to the north of Lake Superior; in other parts
it extends north and south from three hundred to five
hundred miles. In the further growth of the country
the bulk of population will remain within these limits.
Further northward are immense areas, still habitable,
but with the range of agriculture limited to hardier
products. These areas again gradually fall away into
regions only fitted for forest gM&wth, and finally into
Arctic spaces where game, furs and fish, all of which
abound, and mineral wealth, are the only present or
b 2 4 The Great Dominion imro.
prospective incentives to exploration or industrial
occupation. Russia, extending from Asia Minor to the
Arctic, is the only other country which furnishes a
parallel range of conditions in passing from south to
north.
When we consider the country from east to west
some remarkable features are to be observed. Old or
Eastern Canada extends from, the Atlantic to Lakes
Huron and Superior. The fact which here most of all
arrests attention is that even to the heart of the continent Eastern Canada has a position essentially
maritime. The Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Bay of
Fundy, with innumerable smaller inlets, penetrate the
coast, and give the Atlantic frontage a remarkable
length of coast line. From the Gulf of St. Lawrence
the river of the same name, at first a broad estuary of
the sea, and later one of the largest of streams carries
ocean steamships to Montreal, and leads up, by ways
made navigable, to the great inland fresh-water seas
which almost encircle Ontario, and afterwards stretch
westward to the confines of the prairies. Here, half
way across the continent, the salt waters of the vast
Hudson's Bay have penetrated till they are parted from
the fresh waters of Lake Superior by only four or five
hundred miles of intervening land, thus completing the
maritime environment of the country.
New Canada Lies westward of Lake Superior.
" Taking a line drawn north and south in the longitude of the Red River Valley, which is, as nearly as
may be, the centre of Canada from east to west, it may
y INTRO.
Introductory 5
confidently be stated that by far the larger part of the
country in which agricultural settlement is possible lies
to the west, while the great bulk of the actual population lies to the east of this line."} It is thus that one
of the most competent authorities on the subject states
the relation to the rest of Canada of the great North
West. He goes on to say: " This disposition of the
cultivable land depends partly upon the physical
characteristics of the country, and in part on its
climatic conditions. Beyond Winnipeg, and stretching therefrom to the west and north-west, is the great
area of prairie, plain, and plateau, which, wider near
the forty-ninth parallel than elsewhere on the continent,
runs on in one form or other, though with diminishing
width, to the Arctic Ocean. This is, generally speaking, an alluvial region, and one of fertile soils. Very,
fortunately, and as though by a beneficent provision of
nature, the climatic features favour the utilisation of
this belt. The summer isothermals, which carry with
them the possibility of ripening crops, trend far to the
north."
One further characteristic of this division of Canada
is to be noted. Even when the centre of the continent
has been reached, and navigation by large vessels is
ended, for steamers of Light draught, and, when these
fail, for the canoes and oattecuiuz of the voyage%r and
freighter, there are still thousands of miles of river and
lake navigation, along the course of the Saskatchewan
Athabaska, Peace, Mackenzie, Nelson and other rivers
1 Dr. G. M. Dawson, of the Canadian Geological Survey. The Great Dominion
INTRO.
to the shore of the Arctic Ocean and the Hudson's Bay.
The rich furs gathered even at the mouth of the
Mackenzie and around the Arctic Circle have for generations been carried by water, save for a few miles of
land portage, from the place of collection to Fort York
or Montreal, and thence to London. Over much of
the remoter sections of this route steam is now
employed.
To the advantages derived from this unparalleled
system of inland communication there is one limitation.
For four or five winter months ice closes to navigation
alike the lakes, the canals, the St. Lawrence, and the
more remote streams. Fortunately the Maritime
Provinces give to the Dominion ports which are open
the whole year round.
The temporary cessation of free intercourse in winter
acts as a check to commercial development in some
directions, but it is far from being all loss. In the forest-
covered parts of the country especially, it is balanced
by great industrial conveniences.
After the prairies, British Columbia with its mountains and the Pacific coast. The mountains, range
behind range, stretch over a breadth of 500 or 600
miles. They presented a serious geographical barrier
to the political unification of Canada. The obstacle
has been triumphantly overcome, and in reality proved
a useful test for the strength of the forces which made
for unity. This vast mountain district lends itself but
slightly to agricultural settlement, but it, too, as I shall
have to show, will hold an important place in the economic INTRO.
Introductory
development of the Dominion. The Pacific frontage has
not the profound indentations of the Atlantic side Of the
Dominion. Numberless lesser ones, however, together
with the many islands, great and small, scattered along
its whole length, give it, too, a quite remarkable extent
of coast line, which has been estimated at 7,000 miles,
The harbours are numerous and excellent, and the
warm currents of the Pacific keep them free from ice
all the year round. They furnish Canada with an open
gateway to the commerce of the Pacific,
Such, in broadest outline, are the geographical
features which must dominate the development of
Canada; which will mainly influence the industries,
the character, and the tendencies of its people. They
open up a large field for study and speculation,
It need scarcely be added that in regions so vast and
various Nature is often seen in her most splendid and
picturesque aspects. The traveller who has-penetrated
the Selkirk and Rocky ranges of British Columbia;
who has explored the magnificent surroundings of the
National Park at Banff; who has crossed the thousand
miles of North-Western prairie; who has traversed
the expanse of the great inland lakes; who has stood
beside the Horseshoe Fall at Niagara and traced the
course of the mighty gorge below; who has sailed amid
the Thousand Isles and through the swirling rapids of
the St. Lawrence; who has looked down from the
heights of the Mountain at Montreal; from the
promontory on which stand the Parliament Buildings
at  Ottawa;   and  from the  lofty terrace  of historic
1 8 The Great Dominion intro.
Quebec, has seen some of the most striking and
impressive scenery of the world. Doubtless such
surroundings may have a profound influence in moulding the character of a people. Canada is a country
which certainly stirs the imagination of her children—
which begets in them an intense love of the soil. If
the front which nature sometimes presents to them is
severe, it is also noble and impressive. In the breadth
of its spaces, tho headlong rush of its floods, the
majesty of its mountain heights and canon depths, and
the striking contrasts of its seasons in their march
through the fervid warmth of summer, the glory of
autumnal colouring, and the dazzling splendour of a
snow-covered land to the sudden burst of new and
radiant life in spring—in all these, Canada has characteristics unique among the many lands under the
British flag. There are those who believe that it is a
country peculiarly fitted to rear a people whose northern
vigour will give them weight in the world, and will add
strength and character to the nation of which they form
a part. But it is with the practical facts of Canadian
life, rather than its ideals, that we have now chiefly to
deal. CHAPTER I
THE  NORTH-WEST
Among the Canadian problems which may fairly
be regarded as of national interest, I am disposed to
place foremost those connected with the growth and
settlement of the vast provinces of the North-West.
These provinces are sure, sooner or later, to be filled
with a population of many millions of people, English-
speaking, and for the most part of British blood. To
emigrants from the United Kingdom they now offer
the most readily accessible areas in the Empire where
homestead lands can still be easily acquired. They
equally offer abundant lands to those foreign emigrants
who are-willing to add to the strength of the Empire
by adopting British citizenship. The extent to which
this process of assimilating energetic and useful
material from other races is being carried on in Canada,
as in the other colonies, may be strikingly shown by a
single illustration. Within the last few years Manitoba
and the North-West have absorbed nearly 10,000 of
the industrious and intelligent inhabitants of Iceland,
who have voluntarily become most useful, loyal, and
\ io The Great Dominion chap,
satisfactory British subjects. This migration is still
going on, and it seems not unlikely that a considerable
proportion of the population of that interesting island
will ultimately be transferred to British soil.
Increasing population in these vacant areas means
increased powers of production in directions which
intimately concern British consumers. It is only eight
or nine years since railway communication was fully
established with the North-West, but already wheat
from Manitoba farms and cattle from Alberta ranches
are finding their way to the English market in increasing volume. Any one who studies existing conditions, who sees how comparatively small is the area
as yet occupied, who observes the facility with which
production may be increased, will, I think, be convinced
that the Great Lakes, the St. Lawrence, and Canadian
railway systems ■will soon be the channels for an
immense outflow of food products directed towards
Britain. The inevitable pressure of consumption upon
production in the United States, hitherto the chief
source of British importation, gives peculiar interest to
this question of Canadian food supply; the filling up,
moreover, of these vast territories with an adequate
population is almost essential to the complete consolidation of that remarkable, but as yet not fully
appreciated, maritime position which is secured to the
Empire by the fact that the Dominion rests with commanding outlook upon both the Atlantic and the
Pacific, where these oceans respectively furnish the
shortest and easiest access from the American continent The North-West n
to Europe and Asia, Just as the middle and western
States bind New England and the east to the Pacific
States, so the filling up of the North-West will complete
the cohesion between the Atlantic and the Pacific
provinces of Canada.
Wishing to form an estimate of the progress and
prospects of the North-West, of its food-producing
capacity, and of the conditions of settlement, I elected
to visit the country at a season not usually considered
favourable. Friends in England and Canada alike
reproached me for not planning to reach the prairies
in time to see the wonderful prospect afforded by the
wide stretches of waving grain. But we know that
in all countries not only the promise of spring verdure
and of summer growth, but. also of early autumn
ripening, may be blighted by rain or drought 0r frost,
and so I preferred to visit the North-West in the late
autumn and early winter, when the farmer had got
down to the bed rock of reality; when his stacks had
been threshed and the grain measured or sold; when
he was preparing to face the winter and was carrying
on the operations necessary to make the work of the
spring most effective. If such a time for studying a
country lacks some elements of the picturesque, it has
interest equal to any other, and perhaps more of
instruction.
A new' and strange sense of vastness grows upon the
mind as one travels day after day over the prairies, with
the distant sky-line as the chief object which fixes the
eye.    The impression is different from that produced 12 The Great Dominion
CHAP,
by wide space at sea, for the imagination at once
begins to fill up these enormous areas with homes and
busy inhabitants. At first sight it seems only necessary
to pour out population over these vast spaces in any
direction. This is soon found to be a mistake. There
are lands good, bad, and middling. Some districts are
more subject to frost than others. There are areas
where the soil is excellent, but where at some seasons
water in sufficient abundance is wanting. There is
alkali land in the far West, where the great American
desert pushes northward a considerable offshoot. One
limited district there is where, from some peculiar
configuration of the country, hail is an almost annual
infliction, and where, as in Dakota, the hail insurance
companies build up a business. All this is in the
midst of an extent of good farming land well nigh
incalculable. In such circumstances the first, second,
and third duty of those who would settle the country
is manifestly to reduce the business of land selection
as closely as may be to an exact science. To allow any
settler in the North-West to go upon land which is
not the best available is a gross mistake. The railway
companies and the Government are beginning to
realize this too long neglected truth. Lands are now
carefully surveyed and their characteristics noted.
Skilled pioneers are invited to precede parties of
emigrants and make careful choice. The Canadian
Pacific Railway Company challenges investigations of
its lands and gives free passes to those who wish to
examine them with a view to settlement.    It sends out The North-West
experienced agents to assist the individual settler in
making a choice. All this is having a good effect, and
is correcting the mistakes of earlier days. The trouble
taken will be well repaid, for of all emigration agents
the contented settler is by far the best. It is from
him that the North-West is now getting its best
impulse. The steamship in which I crossed the
Atlantic was carrying many emigrants, chiefly Scottish,
to Manitoba and the Territories. It was satisfactory
to find that in most cases they were going on the
recommendation of friends who had preceded them.
Often in the Far West I met with men and women
who were saving their money to bring out relatives,
or even, in some cases, going home to induce them
to come out. Emigration effected in this way is of the
healthiest kind, and is the best recommendation that
a country can have.
While the rush of emigration has not been so great
as the sanguine hopes of the early settlers led them to
anticipate, the progress made seems to the ordinary
observer very great. It is, as I have already said, only
eight or nine years since the main railway line across
the continent was completed. A glance at a good
railway map shows how rapidly branch lilies have been
pushed for many hundred miles in various directions,
as settlement justified their construction. What the
traveller sees in a journey over some of these branch
Lines furnishes the best proof of the progress of the
country. From Winnipeg I went over the Southern
Manitoba road to Estevan, the point to which it was 14
The Great Dominion chap.
at that time completed, and thence back to rejoin the
main line at Brandon, in all a distance of nearly 500
miles. At intervals of ten or twelve miles over nearly
all this distance prosperous little towns are springing
up, each equipped with two, three, or four elevators to
deal with the grain raised in the surrounding districts.
Wheat was being shipped rapidly at the time, and these
elevators were usually surrounded by teams waiting to
deliver their loads. Huge stacks of straw, soon to be
burned for want of any better use, showed where the
grain had been threshed in the fields where it was grown.
In the latter part of October the deliveries of wheat at
Fort William alone amounted to a thousand carloads
per week, and the railroads were finding it difficult to
deal with all that was offered. For 1891 the whole
North-Western production was estimated at between
twenty-two and twenty-three million bushels. A good
deal was then injured or lost through the difficulty of
dealing with an exceptionally heavy crop in the absence
of a sufficient supply of labour. For 1892 the output
was between fifteen and sixteen million bushels, but the
average quality was much higher than in 1891, and the
crop was generally saved in good condition. For 1893
and 1894 the aggregate production showed a large
increase over 1892. As the yield per acre has not in
either year been more than an average one, the advance
is due to increasing population and a wider acreage.
It is from considering these figures and then remembering how short is the time since no wheat for exportation was produced that we get an idea of the rapid change which is passing over the country. The peculiar
conditions of cultivation on the prairies make it
possible to effect changes in five years which in most
countries would require the work of a whole generation.
On the Canada Alliance farm, once a part of the large
colonization estate of 42,000 acres in the Qu'Appelle
Valley, in which Lord Brassey is chiefly interested, I
saw an illustration of the speedy way in which the
virgin prairie can be made ready for a crop. In May,
1890, not a sod had been broken on the farm. In 1892
1,500 acres at least were under crop, with 500 acres
additional of summer fallowing. Between June, when
the farm seeding closed, and September, when harvest
began, a new block of 700 acres was made perfectly ready
for the next spring sowing in April. The operations
consisted of a first ploughing, in which a very thin sod
is turned from the virgin prairie, and then, when this is
completed, the backset, or second deeper ploughing.
Careful harrowing follows, after which the soil is as
completely prepared for the seed drills as in the best
English farming. At an adjoining farm, lately set off
from the same estate, 800 acres were ready for seeding
where not a sod had been turned the previous spring.
It probably costs between five and six dollars (£1 to
£1 5s.) per acre to prepare land as thoroughly as that
which I examined at Qu'Appelle. I heard of cases where,
under a rougher system of farming, land was made, ready
at much less Cost. A man with two yoke of oxen and a
.gang plough breaks up a quarter section (160 acres)
during five spring and summer months, and the whole 16 The Great Dominion . chap.
expense per acre is less than three dollars (12s. 6d).
■ The rapidity and cheapness of preparation strike the
observer forcibly after he has watched the slow processes
by which farms are made in the forests of Eastern
Canada or British Columbia, in New Zealand bush,
among Tasmanian and Australian gum trees, or by reclaiming waste lands in England or Scotland. Manifestly any considerable application of capital or a large
inflow of farming population might, under such conditions, increase the wheat output very rapidly.
Farms carried on by companies on a large scale are
still on their trial in the North-West. Some have proved
unremunerative. One of those to which I have referred
has begun to pay very satisfactory dividends, and there
is no apparent reason why it should be an exceptional
case. Everything depends upon honesty and thoroughness of management. The watchful eye of the small
owner seems on the whole the most reliable means of
stopping leakages, for which there are many opportunities on a large estate, and which are fatal in a time
of keen farming competition. On the other hand, great
savings are often effected by a sufficient command of
capital, in which the company has an advantage over
the small farmer.
Another point seems worth mentioning. One of the
keenest observers of men in Canada told me that in his
opinion there would always be one barrier to successful
company farming in the West. " Able management,"
he said, "is a necessity, and a man competent to
manage successfully a great farm will not continue to
W 11
The North-West
*7
work for a salary in a country which offers so many
opportunities for private enterprise." My own observation leads me to think that the men are few and far
between who are at once able enough and reliable
enough to fill such posts.
Instances occur here and there through Manitoba
and the territories of men who have begun in the small
way on a quarter or half section, and with increasing
prosperity and enlarged experience have gradually
widened their operations till they were farming on a
great scale. But they were working entirely on their
own behalf. Lord Brassey's experience appears to have
led him to decide against the large farm as the ideal
method of dealing with prairie lands. After personal
examination of the question he has determined to break
up his large block of country into small farms, giving
every facility for purchase on easy terms, advancing to
selected settlers at a low rate of interest money sufficient for buildings and outfit, and allowing payments to
extend over several years. Such is his faith in the
country that he believes that this system, which seems
to offer great advantages to the. poor but enterprising
settler, can be carried on without financial loss to himself. Whether by large proprietors or small, however,
the north-western prairies have a capacity for rapid
increase of production which might speedily become
very great under any exigency of demand.
I pause here to guard against a possible misapprehension. It must not be thought that the rapid increase
of wheat production in the North-West has hitherto
c The Great Dominion
chap.
meant a correspondingly large surplus for export from
Canada as a whole. As the output of the newly opened
western areas has increased, that of the eastern provinces, where cereals are not produced without careful
culture, has diminished. Quebec and all the maritime
provinces make a heavy demand, for their own consumption, upon the surplus product of the West.
Ontario, as the result of the drop in wheat prices, is
gradually changing from a wheat-producing to a dairying country. Thus, though Manitoba and the territories
show a large increase of production, Canada's export as
a whole does not enlarge with corresponding rapidity.
Only a large addition to population in the West can
make it do this. But given this inflow of population,
and such a rise in price as makes wheat growing profitable, and there is scarcely any limit to the possibility
of production in the Dominion. The area of Manitoba
and the territories of Assiniboia, Alberta and Saskatchewan is 360,000 square miles, or 230,000,000 acres.
It has been estimated, and, I think, not unfairly, that
one-half of this is either good or workable wheat land.
Yet of all this vast area little more than a million acres
are now under actual cultivation for wheat.
The extent of land which the small farmer can profitably hold and cultivate is a question of some interest.
In travelling through Eastern Canada the impression
constantly left upon the mind is that the average
farmer clears up more land than is necessary and is
wrestling with a larger area than he can properly till.
If eastern experience be taken as a guide, then for the The North-West
19
man of the West an ordinary quarter section, which contains 160 acres, is quite enough for a single holding, and
this is the amount usually taken up.
But it is maintained, by some that for the most
successful farming in the North-West it is necessary to
work two sets of fields, and for this two quarter
sections, or 320 acres, are required.
Senator Perley, who for many years has made a close
practical study of North-Western farming, stated to
me the arguments for this course. The first object is
to get abundant opportunity for summer fallowing,
which, he holds, is better than fall ploughing, inasmuch
as it not only clears the land of weeds, but rests it;
can be done when the farmer has more time, and
from peculiar conditions about the retention of moisture ensures a better crop. Of this ideal farm of 320
acres, 200 acres should be arable, one-half being kept
under crop, and the other half under summer fallow.
The remaining 120 acres will suffice for pasturage and
hay. Senator Perley believes that the 160 acre farm
now commonly taken up will, as the country gets more
settled, prove insufficient. Free pasturage on unoccupied land makes it appear enough now, but this
condition will change rapidly. Even now the ordinary
farmer is far from anxious that settlers should take up
the blocks adjoining to himself, since, through exclusion
from pasturage, he at once feels the pressure. The
question is one that the intending settler should take
into careful consideration, since a false start is not
always easily remedied.
c 2 20
The Great Dominion
chap.
The North-Western farmer has his special difficulties
to contend with, Here, as elsewhere, man learns by
slow degrees to wrestle successfully with the problems
of nature, and he does so by studying them and adapting himself to new conditions. The key to successful
farming in the North-West consists in knowing how to
meet the dangers of frost. To this end the farmer must
prepare during the autumn for the work of the spring.
Abundance of fall ploughing is a necessity of the
country. The moment the harvest is off the fields the
plough is turned on, and it must be kept at work until
stopped by the freezing of the ground. Then with the
earliest April warmth seeding may begin at once. Nowhere does the first fortnight of spring count for
so much. Farmers once thought it necessary, as in
other climates, to wait till the frost was out of the
ground to begin sowing. Now they sow when barely
an inch or two of ground is thawed, sufficient to allow
the seed to be covered. After that the lack of spring
showers, very common in the West, makes no difference,
for the frost as it thaws furnishes moisture to the roots,
while the hot inland sun forces on growth with great
rapidity. Thus the frost which threatens the wheat
becomes also its salvation. It is under such conditions
that the No. 1 hard Manitoba wheat, pronounced
by experts to be the best in  the world, is  grown.
Still, after all that the farmer can do, allowance must
always be made in the North-West for a proportion of
frozen wheat, though the quantity will decrease, as
experience shows, with the cultivation of the country, the drainage of lands, and the increase of skill in farming. But the term " frozen wheat," which suggests to
most minds the entire destruction of the crop as
a mercantile commodity, means nothing like this
to the North-Western farmer. Slightly frosted wheat
is reduced for flour-making purposes perhaps 30 per
cent in value, what'is called frozen wheat 50 per cent.
Both are freely used by millers to make a cheaper kind
of flour.: But many experiments have now proved that
they are open to a much more profitable use. It has
been shown that frozen wheat, fed to pigs and cattle, is
worth much more than when sold for milling purposes.
The result of a series of tests made at the experimental
farm at Brandon has been published. Fed to pigs the
frozen wheat was found to realize 49 cents per bushel;
fed to fattening steers from 56 to 68 cents in different
trials. Other private and public tests give results
somewhat similar. These prices are nearly double the
market rate at which the wheat could be sold. In facts
like these lies one of the chief arguments for greater
attention to mixed farming than has yet been given to
it in the North-West. With. pigs, cattle, and sheep
around him the farmer could choose between selling his
inferior wheat at a greatly reduced price, and turning it
into pork, beef, butter, and other products, for which
there are always good prices and a steady demand. In
the production of pork, especially, it is claimed by good
authorities that the opportunity is very great. Taking
the relative value of pork and wheat during the last two
or three years there is some reason to think that it would 22
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
have been more profitable if every bushel even of the
very best wheat had been fed to pigs and cattle rather
than exported. The wheat-fed pork of the North-West
may yet compete with the maize-fed pork of Chicago.
So, too, in tha case of poultry. With its abundance of
refuse grain and large areas of stubble, no country
ought to produce turkeys and other fowl more abundantly and cheaply.
At present there is unquestionably a great deal of
waste. At Moosomin I went with a friend to study for
the first time the construction and watch the operation
of a grain elevator. The man in charge, in order to show
us the working of the machinery, proceeded to get up
steam, and to this end began shovelling into the furnace
the screenings of the elevator. They consisted of inferior
wheat mingled with the oily seeds of weeds, and he told
us that this was almost the only fuel that he had used
for two years. It made an excellent fire, but manifestly
would also have made excellent food for cattle, pigs,
or poultry, if properly prepared. At other places I
found that the farmers were allowed to take back from
the elevators, to feed their poultry, any quantity of
the screenings they chose to remove, merely that it
might be got rid of. Large manufacturers in Yorkshire
and Lancashire have told me that in these days of
competition their profits were often made from saving
material which a generation ago was allowed to go
to waste. The Manitoba farmer might take a leaf from
their notebooks.
The enormous quantities  of straw burned in  the 	
The North-West
fields ought also to have some economic value, considering the uses to which it is applied in other countries.
The abundance of easily obtained prairie hay now takes
away its use as fodder, and, till mixed farming prevails,
it cannot even be used to enlarge the manure heap.
But the North-Western farmer takes to mixed
farming slowly and reluctantly. For this there is at
present more than one reason. Labour is often scarce
and expensive, and the attention to detail required
in mixed farming is therefore rendered difficult.
Fencing is necessary with a variety of stock, and
fencing in some parts of the treeless prairie country
is expensive. On the other hand, there is something
of the temptation of gambkng in wheat raising. With
a good season, large crops, and a favourable price, the
profits from a few hundred acres of wheat land are
very large. As far as one could learn from rather
extensive inquiry, the production varies all the way
from fifteen to forty bushels per acre, according to the
nature of the soil and season. The price, too, has
varied in different years from 55c. to $1 per bushel for
the best grade of grain. In such circumstances the
temptation to speculate on the chances of the year is
very great. As long, however, as the farmers of the
North-West stake so much upon a single product, so
long must they be prepared for great fluctuations of
prosperity. Wheat, in sympathy with prices all over
the world, has never been so low as during the last
two years. I found many a farmer in Manitoba who
was getting only 55c. a bushel for his wheat, paying M
The Great Dominion chap.
at the same time high prices for pork, beef, butter, and
other necessary articles of food, brought from Ontario
and the United States. That this is bad farming, for
"which there can be no sufficient excuse, is a lesson
which is being slowly but certainly learned. When
it has been thoroughly learned—when mixed farming
is the rule rather than the exception—I believe that
the permanent prosperity of the North-Western farming
interest is assured. This was the opinion I found held
by men with long experience of the country, such as
Governor Schultz and Mr. Greenway, the Premier of
Manitoba. It is scarcely" too much to say that if the
depression in the price of wheat during the last three
years, sore as is the strain which it has put on the
North-Western farmer, drive him into, making the most
of farming opportunities outside of wheat-raising, a
healthier condition of things will have been brought
about in the country. The risk from frost, if faced with
far-sighted energy, does not seem to me so great as the
risk from drought in Australia—scarcely greater than
the risk from a prolonged wet season in Great Britain.
Hence I believe that this vast country will gradually be
filled up with a prosperous farming population. The
cold winter is not seriously dreaded by the people, and
the other seasons give great climatic compensations.
During the whole month of October, while I was going
westward over the prairies, there was not a drop of rain,
while the perfect sunshine which prevailed Week after.
week furnished a striking contrast to the reports of
storm and wet and cold which came from England.    As I journeyed eastward some weeks later winter was
settling down on the land, and at Winnipeg the thermometer had already been at 20 degrees below zero;
But there were the same bright sky and sunshine, and
the clear cold seemed to give an added activity to
people's steps and a buoyancy to their spirits. —
CHAPTER II
u
' the north-west—continued
What has been said in the previous chapter about the
North-West had reference chiefly to the comparatively
treeless prairie country which has hitherto been the principal area of wheat culture. It would be a great mistake,
however, to suppose that North-Western Canada consists exclusively of level prairie. Westward from
Manitoba along the Qu'Appelle, northward on the
Saskatchewan, and all along the eastern slope of the
Rocky Mountains are vast regions of a partly wooded,
partly grass-covered country, park-like in appearance,
undulating for the most part, and with striking variations of scenery formed by the grouping of mountain,
hill, lake, and river.
Country of this kind will always have for many
settlers attractions which they do not find in the abso--
lutely level prairie—attractions for which no richness
of soil or ease of culture can compensate. Parts of
these regions, while admirably suited for ranching, are,
without irrigation, less fitted for agriculture. This is
true of considerable districts in the vicinity of Calgary, CHAP. II
The North-West
where, however, the opportunities for irrigation are excellent, and only await the application of capital and
skill.
Altogether the area of the semi-arid country where
irrigation is occasionally necessary, or would give greater
security to agriculture year by year, has been estimated
to extend between 300 and 400 miles .east and west,
and more than a hundred miles north and south.
Large as this area seems it is a mere bagatelle in the
vast spaces of the North-West, and is, in reality, only a
small spur of the corresponding area in the United
.States, wholly or partly arid; an area which has been
estimated to cover more than a million square miles.
Settlers in this district have been rather slow to admit to
themselves that their part of the country labours under
any farming disability, or is liable to peculiar risks.
But it is better to face facts, and there is much reason
to think that the lands of this region will be among the
very best and the most profitable to work when irrigation has been secured. This has been American experience in California, Utah, Nevada, Colorado, and many
other states where similar conditions prevail. One
large district has already been selected for settlement
by immigrants from Utah, accustomed in that state to
deal with similar difficulties. The land department of
the Canadian Pacific Railway is preparing to irrigate
from the Bow River a plateau of about 1,000,000 acres
near Medicine Hat, and steps of a like kind are being
taken by smaller companies. Between the years 1877
■and 1891, according to an official statement, 17,000,000 28
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
acres of land were put under ditch, and nearly 14,000
artesian wells sunk for irrigation purposes in the arid
regions of the United States. Such a statement shows
how little need there is to regard the partial aridity of
the districts I have mentioned as a deterrent to agricultural enterprise, or as a permanent barrier to agricultural success. Still it has hampered early progress.
Other parts seem suited alike for grazing and agriculture. It is difficult to speak with anything short of
enthusiasm of the appearance and apparent possibilities
of one vast region which is now attracting much
attention and to which a very considerable stream
of settlers has already set in. The railway lately
opened for a distance of about 200 miles from Calgary
to Edmonton gives easy access to one part of this
country; the line between Regina and Prince Albert
to another. Between these points and both north and
south of the Saskatchewan are areas which nature
seems to have specially adapted for that mixed farming
which I have mentioned as being the most reliable and
satisfactory. There are numerous streams, large and
small, of excellent water. The nutritious native grasses,
once the only food of millions of buffalo, turn naturally
into good hay as they stand, and, as in the purely
ranching districts, give winter as well as summer food
to horses, which are accustomed to pawing away the
snow, and to cattle as well, when the snow is not deep
on the ground. Abundant shelter for cattle is furnished
by the valleys and woodland bluffs, and the latter
supply also material for fencing and fuel.    Of other II
The North-West 29
abundant fuel I shall have occasion to speak when
considering the coal supplies of the Dominion.
In a drive over a northern portion of this territory,
from Edmonton to St. Albert, I was struck with the
signs of prosperity which followed even the careless
farming of the half-breeds who have for some time
occupied this district. Wide fields of wheat stubble,
herds of sleek cattle in the fields, droves of fat pigs
around the stacks of straw in the farmyards, flocks of
poultry, all told of plenty to support in comfort a people
content to Live chiefly on the produce of their own farms.
I cannot but think that this whole range of country
offers great and varied inducements to hardy settlers,
and would yield a rich reward to those who brought
industry and intelligence to the work of farming. It is
sure to be filled ultimately with a prosperous population, whether the process of settlement goes on slowly
or rapidly.
Of the extent of territory capable of successful settlement still further north, in the direction of the Peace
River, no one as yet even attempts to form an estimate.
There is already abundant evidence to show that the
deep northward bend of the isothermal lines which
occurs as we approach the Rocky Mountains upsets
entirely all calculations based on the idea that latitude
alone determines climate. How far this fact enlarges
the supposed scope of agricultural settlement in Canada
is one of the interesting problems of the future. Our
present concern, however, is with lands actually in the
I process of settlement. 3d The Great Dominion chap.
Turning from the farming to the grazing districts,
we find that the ranching industry, in Alberta especially,
1 has in a few years grown to large dimensions. It is
carried on chiefly by the aid of English capital and
under English direction. At Calgary I found an interesting experiment being carried out with a view of
reaching distant markets rapidly and effectually. Large
numbers of cattle from the Cochrane Ranch were being
killed in abattoirs at Calgary, and the chilled beef was
being sent to the cities of Eastern Canada in cars
specially arranged for the purpose. The meat was
received at Montreal and Ottawa in perfect condition,
competing successfully with the best that local markets
could supply. It is claimed that, with improved transport arrangements, this is by far the best way in which
to carry the products of the ranches to English markets
as well. Some ardent believers in the system think
that the scheduling of Canadian cattle, by compelling
the use of new methods, may prove to the Canadian
farmer a blessing in disguise. In 1872 Canada had
exported no meat, live or dead, to Great Britain. The
numbers of live cattle sent had already risen in 1891
beyond a hundred thousand annually, and yet this does
not represent more than a fifth of what the British
market absorbs. A special class of ships has been
designed to meet the wants of this great trade, which
has become a considerable factor in the prosperity of
several British ports as well as Canadian, and in the
success of steamship and railway systems. Horses have
not as yet been exported in large numbers to Britain,
1 The North-West
but the stock on the ranches has increased rapidly, and
the wants of the British market are now being carefully
studied. Lately an experiment has been made in
transferring numbers of choice horses from the ranches
to Ontario farms, whence, after being thoroughly broken,
they are brought to England for sale. That it only
pays to bring to the English market horses of the best
quality is a point now well understood.
The ranching of the North-West, like its farming,
has had its entire development within the last ten years.
Experience has been painfully acquired: the ranchman
has had many fluctuations of prosperity, and has felt
his way slowly towards success. The best accessible
information indicates that the industry is now established on a permanent and fairly satisfactory basis.
Between Western ranches and Eastern farms it seems
clear that Canada will more and more become a chief
source of meat supply for the United Kingdom.
The clear, cool climate of the Dominion has proved
exceptionally favourable to the health of cattle, and the
scheduling which has been enforced for some time rests
upon evidence so doubtful that the order will probably
soon be withdrawn. The Alberta ranches, however, do
not depend entirely upon the British market or that of
Eastern Canada. They contribute to the supply of the
mining regions of the Rocky Mountains, and this
promises to be an outlet of increasing importance.
What has now been said shows to how great an
extent the Canadian North-West depends upon its
agricultural interests.    Alike in the areas principally
\\ —
32 *The Great Dominion chap,
devoted to wheat culture, in those where from the first
mixed farming predominates, and in the ranching
districts, the present and prospective prosperity of the
country will consist in finding an adequate market for
a large surplus of food products. This broad fact should
be kept constantly in mind, since it cannot but exercise a decisive influence on the future policy of the
Dominion.
I have as yet said nothing about the towns of the
North-West. These must always furnish some index
to the general prosperity of the country around them.
Winnipeg, as is well known, after springing up with
wonderful rapidity in the first years of settlement,
suffered a violent reaction as the result of over speculation in business, and especially in real estate. The
truth is that the inflow of farming population never
matched the expectations of those who first went to
Manitoba; the city increased in size beyond the
necessities of the province, and so was compelled to
wait some years for the latter to overtake it. Now
the period of stagnation is past, and Winnipeg is
making a steady and healthy growth. The constantly-
increasing mileage of railway lines which centre at
the city mark out for it an assured and large future.
Not such a future, however, as Toronto or Montreal,
for Winnipeg is without their immediate access to
navigation, the key to great development, but still to
stand at the gateway of the North-West, and to become
its commercial, social and educational capital is no
mean outlook.   Brandon, too, is becoming a considerable The North-West
railway centre; much building is going on, and the
smaller town is anxious to secure from the railway
companies the same advantages as a wholesale distributing point which Winnipeg now enjoys. From both
Regina and Calgary railway systems extend north and
south, and both have a prevailing air of substantial
prosperity. I have before referred to the numerous
small but flourishing towns which spring up along
every new Line of railway. None of these depends
upon manufactures; all owe their existence to the
increasing wealth of the surrounding agricultural
country, and furnish the most conclusive proof of its
producing capacity. One remark about all North-
Western towns should not be omitted. In them life
is as safe, property as secure, and the ordinary supremacy of law as complete as in the old towns of
Eastern Canada, or in the country towns and villages
of England and Scotland. This advantage over the
western towns of the United States the country owes
in part to the greater slowness of growth which is so
often complained of, and to the natural selection of
population effected by a northern climate—partly, no
doubt, to superiority of judicial and social institutions.
It is no small thing that the North-West can offer to
every immigrant all the social security to which he
has been accustomed in the oldest communities.
A larger population is unquestionably the greatest
need of the country. While, however, there is at
present a strong popular demand for a vigorous immigration policy on the part of the Government, I have
D The Great Dominion
CHAP.
found that this demand is always qualified by the
opinion that numbers should not be purchased at the
expense of quality. Should restraints be placed upon
undesirable immigration by the United States, Canada
will scarcely welcome what her neighbours refuse.
But there are strong reasons for thinking that the
North-West has now gained a stage of development
and established for itself a name which will draw to it
a steady and sufficient inflow of the most desirable
population.
What are the classes of settlers who succeed and
seem best fitted for the North-West ? On the whole
one is inclined to describe it as essentially a country
for the poor man or the man with a moderate amount
of means. Alberta, with its ranches, and some of the
prairie districts, such as the Qu'Appelle Valley, with
opportunities for farms on a large scale, furnish openings
for the successful use of larger capital; but men who
themselves work the land are what the country chiefly
requires, and to them it will prove most satisfactory.
Among these the advantage certainly lies with immigrants who have had some previous practical acquaintance with the farming conditions of the Canadian
climate, or of a climate similar to it. They begin at
once to make crops grow, which the unskilled immigrant rarely does. Settlers from the Eastern Provinces
or from the more Northern States easily adapt themselves to the conditions of the country; so on the
whole does the Scottish labourer. The English and
Irish farm hand has less flexibility for change, but he, The North-West
too, succeeds by dint of pluck and industry. Among
foreigners the Icelander easily takes the first place, in
virtue of his sobriety, industry, and frugality. The
Scandinavian does well, and the plodding German.
The North-West will never be a congenial home for
the Italian and other Latin races. These naturally
gravitate towards the warm southern and middle portions of the United States or towards South America
I heard very grave doubts expressed about the success
of one or two colonies of Russian Jews. The difficulty
in this case was attributed to inherent disinclination
to agricultural pursuits. It may have been quite as
much due to the fact that as emigrants they had too
much assistance. The experience of the North-West
shows that extraordinary care is required to make a
success of assisted emigration. Lord Brassey has discussed in the columns of The Times the comparative
failure of his first efforts to make easy the path of the
emigrant on the colonization estate in which he is concerned. It was interesting to find that most of the
men who appear to have been discontented, if not idle,
when receiving aid, have become comparatively successful when thrown entirely upon their own resources
and compelled to work in their own way. This I
learned on very good authority. Lord Brassey's
enthusiasm for promoting colonization has now wisely
been turned, as I have before mentioned, to giving indirect encouragement rather than direct aid to settlers.
The consideration of this point leads up to a larger
question.
d 2
ill
y 36 The Great Dominion chap.
To speak broadly, it must be said that the young
Englishman of the better classes sent out to the North-
West to be a farmer is not a success. The consensus of
opinion which I discovered among practical men upon
this point was very striking, and the general statement is
not'disproved by many exceptions. The labouring man
coming from the Eastern Provinces or from the Old
Country to the West, with scarcely a dollar of capital
will in a few years be a fairly prosperous and contented
settler, with a good farm and an increasing stock. The
young Englishman, coming with the apparent advantage of some capital, and a quarterly or half-yearly
remittance from home, at the end of the same time
has not got nearly so far—he has less land under
cultivation, often he is in debt and more or less discontented, execrating the country, and preventing a
more suitable class of emigrants from coming to it.
Wellington thought that Waterloo was won on the
playing fields of Eton. The public-school life of the
young Englishman develops qualities which make him
a good soldier or sailor, but not a good farmer; it gives
him the spirit and "dash of the racer for physical labour,
not the patient force of the draught horse. And, after
all, the farmer must be the steady draught horse of the
secial system.
Often it is not the strongest fibre which is sent out
from the better class of English homes, the market for
all that is excellent being best at home. No greater
mistake can be made by English parents than to think
that a North-Western life may prove a corrective for The North-West
tendencies to dissipation. The very opposite result
flows naturally from the absence of social restraint.
" Perfect devils to drink " was the description given by
an Edmonton hotel-keeper of two young Englishmen
who happened to be with him at the moment, and with
money to spend furnished by a new remittance. " Rum-
punch all the morning, then brandy and soda till three
or four, when they are paralysed and have to sleep some
hours, then whiskey-toddy till bed-time." And he
offered to show them to us in his bar-room in any of
these stages of inebriation. An extreme case, no doubt,
but pathetic enough to think of. A good deal of the
loafing around hotels and bar-rooms in the North-West
is done by young Englishmen, and the term " remittance
man" tends to become an expression of contempt. If
these men must come out, let the extra ladies of the
family come to exercise their better influence over them.
They will be as well employed as in slumming or
parish work at home, and they will be giving what the
North-West wants—something of England's best to
leaven social life. One never meets in the West an
Englishwoman who is not a centre of wholesome and
refining influence. It would, indeed, be a boon to the
country if the same were true of every son of an English.
gentleman who goes to it.
There are numbers, of course, who, according to their
lights, are trying to do their best. But public-school life
in England creates a very strong desire to mingle sport
with work in after Life, and often the prominence, on
the whole, is given to sport.   Conditions in the North- 38 The Great Dominion chap.
West will not at present admit of thus mingling
employment. It is the persistent worker who succeeds
there. The remittance which is intended to help too
often tends to weaken. In the North-West Mounted
Police young Englishmen have done well. The military
discipline and the life on horseback in the open air draw
out their better qualities. So with ranching and with
work on sheep and cattle stations in other parts of
the Empire. What I have said applies chiefly to
farming.
One has no compunction in pointing out instances of
failure. It is well that parents should be warned of
what their children must confront when they go abroad,
and it is equally right that any unsatisfactory form
of -emigration to the North-West should be checked.
Perhaps, too, perfect frankness of discussion about the
actual position of affairs may do something to prevent
misconceptions and to remedy mistakes.
To another matter reference should be made in this
connexion. The system of paying large premiums for
the instruction of youths in farming or ranching is
utterly discredited among practical men in Canada.
Occasionally the plan may work well, but it is open to
grave abuses. Labour of all kinds has its cash value
on Canadian farms. The best possible means by which
a young man can test his suitability for the life and
become competent is to hire out as a labourer with a
Canadian farmer for a year or two, depending entirely
upon his wages for his support. If he passes this test I
. successfully he is fit for the life of the country.    If the II
The North-West
39
work proves too severe, the experiment has not at
least been an expensive one, and he can select some
other outlet' for his energies. At the end of his
period of service the money that would have been paid
in premiums or thrown away in lightly-spent remittances will be sufficient to give him a good start in a
sphere for which he has been prepared by hard but
necessary experience. There is a good deal to be said
in favour of gaining this elementary experience in the
older communities of the Eastern Provinces before he
faces the rougher life of the West. This must be
determined by circumstances. The necessity for such a
course diminishes as the country fills up. Arrangements can often be made through friends or emigration
offices with substantial farmers to give employment to
young men, at first for their board and later for wages,
which increase with their earning capacity. The latter
point is easily settled justly by the employ6 holding
himself free to find a better market for his labour, if he
can. To send out young men with capital, but without
experience and settled characters, is practically to invite
the attentions of those who are always ready to plunder
or lead astray the weak and unsophisticated.
In addition to the settlers from the older provinces
of the Dominion, and from England, Ireland, and Scotland, there are being formed at some points in the
North-West a curious variety of small colonies of
different nationalities, mostly northern—Danes, Swedes,
Norwegians, Belgians, Bavarians, Alsatians, Icelanders,
and many others.    A small band of settlers comes at 4°
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
first under some special impulse, and gradually attracts
to itself recruits from the home centre. The numbers
are sufficient to give a degree of cohesion to these small
communities and some vitality to the languages they
speak. A more complete intermixture with the prevailing English-speaking population would facilitate the
work of assimilation. On the other hand, the emigrant
finds himself at once among friends, and so does not feel
so keenly the change from the old to the new land. It
is difficult as yet to judge how far this method of settlement will extend. It can in any case only temporarily
lengthen out the process of amalgamation.
A new and highly interesting factor has lately
appeared in the settlement of the North-West. The
United States have become an important recruiting
ground for immigrants. In the Eastern Provinces I had
heard of a movement northward from the Western
States towards the Alberta and Saskatchewan districts.
On inquiry at the land office at Winnipeg I was shown
long lists of receipts for first payments on lands in the
Prince Albert districts made by farmers in Dakota,
Nebraska, Washington, and even as far south as Kansas.
These men had already moved into the country, or
were preparing to do so in the coming spring. At
Calgary a more striking proof of the reality of the
movement was thrust upon me. In going northward to
Edmonton I found myself spending a not very comfortable, but highly interesting, day in a train packed with
emigrants, men, women, and children, most of whom
were removing from a single district in the State of II
The North-West
Washington to the banks of the  Saskatchewan.
41
I
learned that the northward trains from Calgary for
some time before had been crowded in a like way.
In conversation with the immigrants it was easy to
discover the explanation of this new and unexpected
movement of population. " Land is getting to be land
on this continent," one of them remarked to me in
Western idiom. The rush into a newly-opened district,
such as that which took place at Oklahoma a few years
ago, illustrates the extent to which land hunger is
already felt in the United States. Guided by an instinct
almost Like that which directed the buffalo to the fertile
feeding grounds of the Saskatchewan, the tide of population which filled up the older Western States and
flowed on to the less fertile regions of Dakota, or to the
mountain districts with their Limited farming lands,
seems now to have taken a bend northward. If the
expectations of its pioneers are fulfilled, it seems
probable that this movement will become very considerable during the next few years. My latest
information shows that it was kept up through the
spring and summer of the year which has just ended.
These immigrants are of a class which the North-West
most of all wants. Many are Canadians returning
after trying their fortunes in the United States. Most
seemed to be bringing with them money, horses, cattle,
and household equipment. Best of all, they bring skill
in pioneering work and acquaintance with its conditions,
in these points having an infinite superiority over the
emigrant direct from Europe.    It was striking to observe The Great Dominion
CHAP.
the confidence and reliance upon their own resources
with which these men, accompanied by their wives and
children, faced the task of finding homes for themselves
north of the Saskatchewan in the months of October
and November, when the long, severe winter was all
before them. They were doing it in order to be ready
for a good spring's work.
Once more, in Southern Alberta I found that a group
of Mormons—an offshoot from Salt Lake—had purchased to the south and east of Lethbridge more than
500,000 acres of land from the Alberta Coal and Mining
Company. About 500 settlers have already entered
this country, and preparations are being made for a
continued influx from Utah, where land has become
scarce. Other immigrants are freely accepted, as there
is not, I believe, any wish to form a distinct Mormon
colony. The capitalists who have undertaken this
enterprise expect to repeat here the process of irrigation by which the Salt Lake Valley was changed from a
semi-desert to a richly productive country. It is proposed to divert the waters of the St. Mary's river through
a canal which will make a large area as well suited for
agricultural as it now is for pastoral purposes.
The North-West is thus being approached from
various points, and by many classes of immigrants. A
great rush of population, such as marked the settlement of some of the Western States, is neither to be
expected nor desired. But everything now points to a
steady and healthy growth, such as is required for the
fuller consolidation of the Dominion. II
The North-West 43
A study of North-Western Canada enables one to
understand the main conditions of the rivalry in production going on between the wheat grower at home
and the wheat grower abroad. The North-Western
farmer has first of all cheap land of his own, worked by
machinery with singular ease, and with a store of natural
fertility which is only exhausted after many years of
continuous cropping. If he takes up a Government
homestead his land costs him little more than the
expense of survey. Even if he buys it from a railway
or land company at three or four dollars an acre, it has
not cost him in the first year, when ready for seed, more
per acre than the yearly rent of wheat land in England.
His invested capital is therefore very small. This is his
first and great advantage. Against this must be put
the fact that he is far from the market which the
English farmer has almost at his door. It costs from'
30 cents to 40 cents a bushel to carry wheat from many
points in the West to Liverpool or London. While the
wide, level stretches of prairie offer great facilities for
the use of labour-saving agricultural machinery, still
for any extra labour required there a high price must be
paid.
The English farmer, on the other hand, has cheap
capital and cheap labour, and he lives in a country
where all manufactured goods are cheap. In direct
taxes he pays more, in indirect less than the Canadian.
The contest is more nicely balanced than is generally
supposed. Agricultural depression has been felt for
some time in the new land as well as in the old. If
44 The Great Dominion chap.
Superior energy or skill may incline the advantage one
way or the other, or the chance of the season. A
lowering of rents may give it to the Englishman; a
lowering of duties to the Canadian. The cheapening of transportation both by land and sea will
have much to do with the question in the future.
When the exhaustion of his lands compels the farmer
abroad to use fertilizers, the balance of advantage will
again be shifted. The area of abundant wheat production has during the last forty years moved steadily
westward in America from New York State through
Ohio, Iowa, and Illinois to Kansas; then northward
through Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Dakota to the
Canadian North-West, and there the European farmer
will have his last keen competition with a rich virgin
soil.
As with wheat, so with cattle and horses. For the
lease of his broad pastures in the grazing country, the
ranchman pays but a trifling sum. During the whole
summer his stock feeds upon grass of the most
nutritious kind, raised without any expense for fertilizers or culture. During the greater part of the
winter it feeds upon hay cured where it stands
in the fields, without any expense for being cut. But
the ranchman, again, is distant from his market, and
the fatigues and risks of long transportation for his
cattle weigh heavily against him. Neither in wheat
nor in cattle has there been much profit during the past
two seasons for the man of the North-West. I doubt,
however, whether agricultural depression or the failure
U II
The North-West
45
of crops ever presses so closely or severely upon the
Canadian as upon the English farmer. The latter has
his rent to pay whatever happens. The former reduces
his expenses, and, owning his land and having little
demand upon him for ready cash, tides over a crisis
more easily.
I CHAPTER  III
THE CANADIAN PACIFIC  RAILWAY
To pass from study of the North-West to consideration of the remarkable railway enterprise by which
it has been thrown open to the world is a natural
transition.
Never were the fortunes of a great country and
a great commercial corporation so closely intertwined
as in the case of the Canadian Dominion and the
Canadian Pacific Railway Company. In all the Eastern
Provinces the Canadian Pacific is either absorbing
the smaller lines, or taking its place beside the
greater ones as a keen competitor. In the vast undeveloped North-West it has the field as yet practically
to itself. The 7,200 miles of Line directly owned or
worked by the company, the 1,800 miles controlled indirectly, already give it a first place among the railway
systems of the world. This mileage of both kinds is
rapidly increasing year by year and must continue to
increase, in order to satisfy the wants of a growing
country. The line competes successfully with the greatest
American systems, and is stretching out its arms to the T
ch. in.      The Canadian Pacific Railway 47
heart of the continent.    For many hundred miles south
of the national boundary its influence as a competitor is
felt through the running connexions which it has formed.
A new route completed during the past year, from
Regina across the American boundary, gives it a very
considerable advantage over any American Line in distance from the Pacific to Chicago, as it already had
in the gradients by which the mountains are crossed.
Already it has captured a large part of the tea trade
between China, Japan, and the Eastern States, as well
as Eastern Canada.    It is the only system across the
American continent which is under a single direction,
a circumstance which gives it a great advantage over
any existing line in the United States in dealing with
through traffic and special rates.    The statement made
by President Harrison in his last Message to Congress,
that the Canadian Pacific is free from the restraints of
the inter-State commerce law, is true so far as Canadian
traffic is concerned, but quite incorrect if applied, as
he apparently intended, to traffic carried on for the
United States.    The 30,000 tons of trans-Pacific freight,
the   $100,000,000   worth  of  goods which   President
Harrison mentioned as carried from point to point in
the   United   States   by   Canadian   Railways   across
Canadian territory, represent  work gained   in   perfectly   legitimate   competition-   and   in   more   than
ordinarily   strict   compliance   with   inter-State   law.
This, at least, is Sir William Van Home's assertion,
made before a large  gathering of business men of
Boston, and I see no reason to doubt its accuracy. c
f
48 The Great Dominion chap.
With the termini of its main line on the Atlantic
and Pacific, and touching the great lakes in its course
across the continent, the company is becoming deeply
concerned in transportation by water as well as by land.
It already runs one important Line of steamships across
the Pacific to Japan and China, and another upon
Lakes Superior and Huron. With the newly-opened
line across the Pacific to Australasia it works in close cooperation. The same course will no doubt be pursued
with the contemplated fast line of steamships across
the Atlantic to Britain, and it has even been proposed
that this line should be worked under the immediate
direction of the company, and as a part of its system.
The greatest activity marks the enterprises of the
company across the whole breadth of the continent.
In the East connexion has been secured with the ports
of Boston and New York, to supplement that with
Montreal, Quebec, St. John, and Halifax. In the
prairie country new branches are being pushed forward,
and wherever they go new towns are being built up
under the auspices, one may rather say under the immediate direction, of the company. The Rocky
Mountains will probably soon be penetrated by a new I
line through the Crow's Nest Pass, by which the
company hopes to reach the new mining districts of
British Columbia. Preparations are being made to
double-track the line between Lakes Superior and
Winnipeg, the most important route of wheat transportation. For the wooden trestle bridges occasionally
used in the early days of construction bridges of stone' hi The Canadian Pacific Railway 49
and steel are being rapidly substituted, so that the line
now compares favourably, in solidity of construction,
with the best on the continent.1 In connexion with the
settlement of the large areas of land granted to it by
the Government of the Dominion, a vigorous policy is
being carried out. It is preparing to deal with the
irrigation problem in the Calgary district. Mines of
coal and mines of salt are being developed on the
properties of the company. Whalebacks, those latest
monstrosities of naval architecture, said to represent
a great economy in cost of construction as well as in
running expenses as compared with ordinary vessels,
are being built on Lake Superior for the transport of
grain; steamships and barges on Lake Huron.    Vast
1 The bridging of the St. Lawrence River for railway purposes
furnishes one of the most remarkable illustrations with which I am
acquainted of the progress made during the last thirty years in
combining lessened cost in construction with complete solidity of
work. The Victoria Bridge, by which the Grand Trunk crosses the
St. Lawrence near Montreal, has always been looked upon as one
of the greatest of those feats of construction upon which the
engineering fame of Robert Stephenson rests. The cost of the
Victoria Bridge was $6,300,000, without reckoning interest on the
capital during the six years of construction. To serve precisely
the same purpose a steel bridge has been built a few miles further
up the stream for the Canadian Pacific Railway, under the direction of its present chief engineer, P. A. Peterson, C.E. The cost
of this bridge, begun in 1886 and completed in 1887, was under
$1,000,000. The Canadian Pacific Line from Smith's Falls to
Sherbrooke, a distance of 225 miles, with the St. Lawrence Bridge
at Lachine included, cost less than the Victoria Bridge alone. Such
a contrast illustrates the extent to which the managers of the
Grand Trunk are handicapped by capital expenditure.
E 5o
The Great Dominion
chap.
elevators have been constructed at essential points. A
telegraph system, which already competes successfully
with the long-established Western Union and other
companies, has been constructed across the whole
breadth of Canada, and it has established a powerful
Transatlantic cable connexion. Everywhere along its
lines a standard of travelling comfort, higher perhaps
than can be found elsewhere in America, has been inaugurated by the company. Colonist cars with excellent sleeping arrangements are provided to carry emigrants to the prairies with little of the discomfort once
thought to be the necessary accompaniment of pioneer
movement. Pullman and kitchen cars, equipped with
every modern improvement, supply the wants of the
rich. In the mountain country," at Quebec, and on the
Pacific coast hotels have been built and splendidly
equipped to meet the need of the increasing volume of
tourist travel which is attracted by the magnificent
scenery of British Columbia and the Lower St. Lawrence.
Enterprises of a minor kind are entered upon freely
whenever an opportunity presents itself of developing
business for the road. All this represents an astonishing amount of energy and effort. From Halifax to
Vancouver the " C.P.R.," as it is familiarly called, is a
factor, and often a large factor, in the affairs alike of
the country village and of the great city—in the
politics of the municipality, the province, and the
Dominion.
While ready to sharply criticize and combat details
of policy and administration Canadians are full of ad- Ill
The Canadian Pacific Railway
5i
miration for the company and its work as a whole.
They acknowledge that it has taken a leading part in
making Canada better known in the world. They
freely admit that the almost phenomenal success achieved
by the company during the last few years has contributed in no slight degree to raise the credit of the
whole Dominion, hitherto not a little injured by unsuccessful railway ventures. They are fond of pointing
out that at its head is a man who combines an extraordinary knowledge of detail with ability to deal with
the transportation problems of a continent, and that in
an age of great railway men he easily takes his place
in the front rank. They agree that business merit is
the only guarantee of promotion in the company's
service, and that as a consequence Canada has never
"before had so much business energy concentrated in a
single corporation.
But the existence of a corporation exercising such
widespread influence and holding franchises so important must always in any country give occasion for
grave questionings.
Does it enjoy too wide a monopoly of the country's
industry? Will it or will it not use aright its vast
power ? Have the people any sufficient guarantee
that its immense influence will not be exercised to the
public detriment ? These are questions which are
closely debated in Canada. It is safe to say that a
corporation which has so wide a range of interest, and
which is strenuously pushing its way further and
further into almost  every department  of  industrial
E 2 :
52 The Great Dominion chap.
activity in Canada, must always Live on the defensive,,
and always be prepared to combat hostile criticism
and justify its existence by its works.
I found a tendency in some quarters in Canada to
speak of the railway as a grasping monopoly, which
seeks to enrich itself at the pubLic expense. Part of
this talk is no doubt due to the play of party spirit;
part may be credited to that eternal vigilance which is
the price paid for liberty. But there is probably no
question which is likely to come up for discussion more
often in Canada for years to come; few about which
accurate information and a sober judgment are more
to be desired.
One point is first to be noted. The people of Canada,
after years of debate and consideration, deliberately
elected that the greatest railway system of the country
should not be under the control of the Government,
but should be carried on as a private enterprise. They
endowed it magnificently with lands; they added the
gift of a considerable mileage of line fully constructed ;
they backed up for a time its borrowings by public
guarantee. When all this was done they preferred
that it should be handed over entirely to business men
to be condueted on business principles for the benefit
of the shareholders. In effect, they invited the company to make, the ' most of its great opportunities.
Nor were these opportunities considered too great by
impartial men. The right to build the Line, with all
the privileges, land-grants, and franchises connected
with it. was for some time in the open market with- Ill
The Canadian Pacific Railway
53
out finding financiers bold enough to undertake the
task. When the task was undertaken the most gloomy
forebodings were expressed about its success. The
directors had their periods of great anxiety. The
two of them who assumed the greatest risks, and upon
whom the burden of upholding the credit of the company at critical moments in the early years of the
enterprize chiefly fell, instead of gaining by their connection with the undertaking, as is generally believed,
really lost heavily. Stock which has been in the 90's,
and, during the late years of extraordinary railway
depression, when numbers of the most important
systems of America have passed into the hands of receivers, has continued to hold a relatively good position,
once stood as low as 37; so that if the " C.P.R." is
to-day a success, it has become a success by hard
conflict; if some of its builders and managers have
won wealth which here and there provokes envy, it
has been won after great and prolonged risk.
The advocates of state railways might argue that
this risk could have best been taken by the state, and
the increment of value thus secured for the people as
a whole. But it does not follow that because a railway pays as a private enterprise it would succeed
under Government management. Canadian experience
and opinion point in quite an opposite direction. A
company can do many things which a Government
cannot do. Mr. Sandford Fleming, the distinguished
Canadian engineer, pointed out to me that when he
had the superintendence of the Government railways ir
54 The Great Dominion chap.
large sums of money were at times lost because work
that for the greatest economy required instant execution had to go through the slow process of being put
up to public tender in order to guard a Minister of
Railways from suspicion of jobbery. The president
and directors of a company are bound by no such
considerations. Again, there is no doubt that the
large revenue of the " C.P.R.," already amounting to
more than twenty million dollars annually, has been in
no small degree created by the courageous backing up
of private industries and outside enterprises which
ultimately bring freight and travel to the road. The
railway has had to make business for itself. No
Government under our system of party, politics would
dare to deal with private industries and men in the
same unfettered way that the business company has
done. To do so would be to expose itself to endless
suspicion.
This view, I think, is fully recognized in Canada,
and I could discover no regret that the original
decision of the country, so different from that arrived
at in Australia, had not been to keep the railway under
public control. Still there is a dread, perhaps natural,
that the vast growth of the system may make it a
menace to public interests. The subject is worthy of
careful consideration. In discussing it the varying
conditions under which the railway does its work in
different parts of the continent must be carefully noted.
As I have said, in the North-West the Canadian
Pacific has the work of transportation chiefly to itself.
1L Its original legal monopoly, which provided that no
line should be built across the national boundary to
bring it into competition with American systems, was
given up in 1888, when it received a considerable
compensation from the General Government for the
surrender of this privilege of its charter. For the
wheat transport of Winnipeg and the surrounding
country it has now to compete with the Northern
Pacific. Connexions are made also with American
lines near Lethbridge and near Vancouver, and others
will follow. It has itself " carried the war into Africa "
by building a line from the neighbourhood of Regina
across the national boundary in the direction of
Minneapolis and Chicago. So vigorously, however,
does it follow up the progress of settlement with new
branches, and so difficult is it for new lines to penetrate
its territory successfully, that one is still correct in
saying that it has the North-West mainly to itself, and
this position is likely to be long maintained over
w'hole provinces which are as large as European States.
One asks if the company, with its wide-reaching
monopoly of transportation, is acting fairly by the
farmers and traders of the country, and if the vast
undeveloped West has any adequate protection against
unjust railway exactions in the future. After making
the fullest examination of the case that I could, I am
disposed to answer both of these questions in the
affirmative. In regard to the fairness of present
treatment, I was challenged to make the closest inquiry
by Sir William Van Home himself.    Complaints, of 56
The Great Dominion
chap.
course, are numerous, but they require careful sifting.
The problems connected with through and local rates,
or what is called the long and short haul, with rates for
places where there is competition with water carriage
and where there is not, for places with a return traffic
and those without any, are very complicated, and often
lead to accusations of injustice which cannot be
sustained on close examination. Brandon, for instance,
feels aggrieved because it does not get the same
westward rates as a wholesale distributing centre
that Winnipeg does. But Brandon has, in proportion
to distance, a distinct compensating advantage over
Winnipeg in eastward rates for wheat, a far more vital
question for the people of the surrounding country.
One heard complaints because much more is charged
for carrying a car load of goods from Toronto to
Edmonton than from Toronto to the Pacific coast, a
greater distance. A little inquiry elicited the fact
that in the one case there was no return freight,
in the other there was, to say nothing of the
fact that on the Pacific coast the railway is compelled
to compete with ocean carriage. Rates in the mountain division were said to be excessively high in comparison with those on the prairies. But was not the
contrast in the cost of transportation far more striking
before the railway existed at all ? A British
Columbian mill-owner, whom I met in crossing the
Atlantic, told me that he had always grumbled at the
rates until he had crossed the mountains, and observed
for himself the road over which the freight had to be Ill
The Canadian Pacific Railway 57
brought.    The expense of maintaining the line through
such a country must be relatively enormous.
Principal Grant, with whom I discussed the question
before going West, said to me, " The best test is to find
out whether the introduction of the Northern Pacific
competition at Winnipeg which followed the Manitoba
agitation really resulted in a decisive lowering of rates."
This seemed reasonable. I found that the rate per
hundredweight for carrying wheat from Winnipeg to
Fort William had dropped from 24 cents to 21 cents, or
less than 2 cents per bushel, certainly not a decisive
reduction, and one which I was told by unprejudiced
parties would probably have taken place in.any case as
the consequence of a greater volume of exportation. A
good understanding as to what was a paying rate
seems to have been established at once and has been
maintained between the two companies. In addition
to this reduction I was told that merchants received
much more attention from railway officials now that
they had an alternative route by which to carry on
their traffic. These gains can scarcely be considered
sufficient returns for the subsidy of about a million
dollars, by which Manitoba induced the Northern
Pacific to carry a line into the province. But if the
practical result of the Manitoba agitation was not very
great, the sentimental result is not to be ignored. The
galling sense of an ever-present monopoly was removed.
So long as it existed there was a tendency to attribute
to it every ill from which the country might happen
to suffer.    The people and the railway company now 58 The Great Dominion chap.
appear to work together on the best of terms for the
development of the country. Curiously enough it was
the Canadian Pacific itself which really gained greatly by
the destruction of its monopoly of communication with
Manitoba. Its securities, depressed by the political
agitation which disturbed the province and the
Dominion, after the settlement of the question steadily
rose in value. It may be safely said that both
the company and the public of Manitoba learned
lessons from this great controversy which they are not
likely to forget.
It is easy, however, to understand the chief reason
why railway rates, even when intrinsically reasonable,
should appear oppressive to the North-Western farmer
at the present time. With wheat at 45 or 50 cents a
bushel he sees half or more of its value absorbed in the
cost of carriage to market. Under such circumstances
the temptation to clamour for a reduction of freight
rates is very great. Yet he should reflect that it must
cost as much to carry wheat to market which brings 50
cents a bushel as that which brings a dollar.
I return to the important point that west of
Winnipeg, over a vast extent of territory, the company
still has a practical, though no longer a theoretical,
monopoly of railway transport. Does any real danger
lie behind the fact ? I think not. It seems to me
that self-interest adequately takes the place of competition. The filling up of the North-West with a
prosperous, producing population is the one essential
to the permanent prosperity of the Canadian Pacific. Ill
The Canadian Pacific R
The contented settler is, as I said before, the best immigration agents. It is he who draws after him from
the old land a steadily-increasing stream of neighbours,
friends, and relatives. On purely business principles,
therefore, the railway company is bound to see that,
as far as possible, the settler is located on good soil;
it is bound to be considerate afterwards in giving him
access to markets at reasonable rates. It cannot
afford to be on bad terms with settlers; it cannot
afford to incur the hostility of the whole country.
This seems to me the one effective and sufficient
guarantee which the North-West has against the evils
of railway monopoly. On the other hand, the country
itself is a gainer, and is reLieved of a heavy responsibility
by the existence of a powerful company deeply
interested in the settlement of the vacant lands, and
putting forth every effort to that end. The Canadian
Pacific is to-day the most efficient immigration agency
at work in Canada. A large Federal expenditure on
immigration is not popular in the Eastern Provinces,
which, after taxing their resources in opening up the
West, now see their own population lessened by the
attractions which the prairies offer to young men.
It is therefore fortunate that a powerful and progressive
railway company, with immense interests at stake, is at
hand to take a vigorous lead in promoting the settlement of the country. The Federal Government might,
in my opinion, advantageously give it more efficient
and direct assistance than it has done. Every new
settler who goes into the West contributes, not merely t
60 The Great Dominion chap.
to the revenues of the railway company, but to the
revenues of the Dominion as well. As I have said before,
the interests of the two are singularly intertwined.
Throughout the North-West the conviction is forced
upon one that the country has everything to gain from
the enlarging prosperity of the Canadian Pacific; that
the Canadian Pacific has everything to gain from
securing and maintaining the confidence of the people.
What the living wage for a railway may be is, of
course, a question which only experts can decide. It
must be especially difficult to decide in the case of
a railway like the Canadian Pacific, built in advance
of settlement, and compelled to work great lengths
of line where local revenue cannot for years be expected
to meet expenditure. But two or three points seem to
me very clear. Should the railway carry at anything
less than paying rates, the harm done to its resources and
credit would soon react on the credit of the Dominion,
and of industrial enterprises throughout the Dominion.
During the last few years the line has created a new
standard of the capacity of the country to give satisfactory employment to English capital. Should the
prestige it has won in this respect weaken, there is not an
enterprise in Canada which would not suffer in consequence. Again, since nothing could well do more
to delay the settlement of the North-West than an
impression that it was under the heel of a remorseless
and selfish railway monopoly, the danger to the
country of having unfounded charges disseminated
against the railway is very great.
® Ill
The Canadian Pacific Railway 61
At the last session of the Dominion Parliament, in
reply to certain charges of levying excessive rates, the
directors of the Canadian Pacific Railway boldly
challenged a Government inquiry, claiming that it
could be shown that the farmers of the North-West
were in a better position, in regard to the cost of
reaching the world's markets with their wheat, than
the farmers of the Western United States, of Russia,
India, the Argentine Republic, or Australia. The
Government inquiry thus asked for has been promised,
and it might with advantage lead up to the adoption
of some general policy for dealing with such questions.
The clear and public definition of alleged grievances;
the prompt and equally public statement of the company's point of view seems the only course sufficient
for the circumstances.
From the point at Fort William where the railway
reaches the head of Lake Superior a new set of conditions prevails, since there it comes into competition
with water carriage, always formidable to a railway.
As a rule it is the water route which dictates the rate.
This competition is increasing with the improvement
of the canals. By using the American canal at Sault
Sainte Marie vessels drawing 18 feet or 19 feet can
now pass freely from the head of Lake Superior to the
extremity of Lake Erie. The corresponding Canadian
canal at Sault Sainte Marie has been pushed on with
great energy, and is now ready for use. The canals
from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario and from Lake
Ontario to Montreal are being deepened, and before 62 The Great Dominion chap.
three years there will be, according to the present
calculations of the Canadian Government, an open
14-feet canal passage from the head of Lake Superior
to the point of ocean shipment on the St. Lawrence.
The anticipated completion of this canal system has
given rise to an agitation in some of the Western
American towns for the construction of a ship canal
from Buffalo to New York, and the question received
marked attention in the last Presidential Message of
Mr. Harrison. But the point on which I want to lay
stress is that the cheap lake and canal transport will
take away from the Canadian Pacific during the period
of open navigation any monopoly of trade from Fort
William eastward to the Atlantic. As a matter of
fact, the company even now uses its boats on Lake
Superior and its eastward-bound cars to keep down
freight rates from that point. Having to meet the
competition of the Northern Pacific for the wheat
traffic of the West, its constant object is to make Fort
William rather than Chicago or Duluth the most
advantageous point of shipment. This can only be
done by keeping down eastward rates from Fort
William as nearly as possible to the cost of carriage.
West of Manitoba, again, any considerable increase
of freight charges would make the shipment of wheat
impossible; thus the curious fact arises that this great
transcontinental railway makes its profit on wheat
carriage almost entirely within the four or five hundred
miles between Fort William and Winnipeg, all further
transportation being done at about cost price.    I believe that this statement, singular as it may seem, will bear
investigation.
Besides the competition of lake and canal traffic, that
of the Grand Trunk and other lines begins as soon as
Ontario is reached. Here no one questions the fact
that the Canadian Pacific, by superior activity, lias
given a decided stimulus to all railway work. It has
probably made it impossible that the Grand Trunk can
much longer be managed from England, so manifest
are the advantages of having the directorate on
the spot, and in a position to deal rapidly and effectively with every difficulty, and to make the most of
every opportunity. In this central division of the
continent, too, is brought out most clearly the necessity
that any Canadian system should be of great size if it
is to compete on equal terms with the vast organizations of the United States. On the American continent, with its widespread combinations, weak railways
are driven to the wall.
Originally the Eastern terminus of the railway was
at Montreal, but connexion has now been established
'with all the provinces immediately on the Atlantic
coast: with the City of Quebec; with New Brunswick,
by a short line across the State of Maine, and by an
alternative route entirely on British territory down the
valley of the St. John; with Halifax, through the
running powers which it -has acquired over the Intercolonial. Thus it is in touch with all the chief
Atlantic ports of Canada both for summer and winter. /!
64 The Great Dominion chap.
It is the one chain which links 'the Dominion together
from ocean to ocean.
But while it has connexion with the extreme
Eastern ports it has not in the East the same control of communication which it enjoys-in the West. It
may appear strange that a movement to give it in the
maritime provinces a command almost as absolute has
met with a good deal of support in parts of the country.
The question arose in 1892, and became a subject for
vehement discussion.
A proposal was made that the Intercolonial Railway"
the Eastern division of the transcontinental system,
which consists of about 1,100 miles of road, and has
hitherto been worked as a state railway, should be
handed over entirely to the control of the Canadian
Pacific. This road was originally built as a part of the
Confederation compact, with the object of more closely
uniting the maritime provinces with old Canada. On
the advice of the Imperial authorities, and for military
reasons, it was constructed along a route which was not
the most direct, and which therefore involved unusual
expense for maintenance. It was never expected to'
make a large return for the money spent upon it, and
rates have been designedly kept low to encourage inter-
provincial trade. Two competing lines have since been
built from the St. Lawrence to the sea coast, breaking
into the command of traffic which the Intercolonial at
first enjoyed, but also furnishing a remarkable illustration of the growth of inter-provincial trade.    Under
\i in The Canadian Pacific Railway 65
1
these circumstances. A deficit has been incurred in
working it amounting in some years to more than
£100,000. There can be little doubt that the political
and social cohesion brought about between the provinces
by the railway was cheaply purchased even at this rate.
Still the deficit long proved a distinct element of
friction in the machinery of government, and it became
the ground of much party conflict. It was attributed
by hostile critics to the inefficiency of Government
management; by friendly critics to restraints under
which Government control necessarily acts, or to the
inherent difficulties of operating a road originally constructed for other than strictly business purposes. It
should be said that skilled accountants have taken an
entirely different view of the matter, and have claimed
that the deficiency could be traced to the fact that, on
the Intercolonial, sums spent in construction were
charged to revenue which in other railways were
charged to capital. But whatever its cause a resolute
effort has been made of late to get rid of this deficit.
The attempt has so far succeeded that in 1893 it was
reduced to about £5,000, and revenue and expenditure
were nearly balanced in 1894. There seems fair ground
to hope that the improvement is permanent.
It was, however, while the deficit still recurred
annually that the proposal to which I have referred
was made. It was suggested by the necessity that
existed for undertaking another great enterprise.
Throughout Canada there is a strong desire for a
fast Transatlantic service equal to the best enjoyed by
F
J si'
iB
The Great Dominion chap.
American ports.  Several large and prosperous Canadian
steamship companies are engaged in the St. Lawrence
trade, and there is a large fleet of ships, but none of
the existing Canadian lines is fully up to the highest
standard of modern requirements; the best of them has
not built a new ship for more than ten years.    Yet the
Canadian route is much the shortest across the Atlantic;
its connexions. with every part of the continent from
Halifax, Quebec, and Montreal are now complete;  an
adequate service would revolutionize postal communication and promote the carriage of perishable products ;
it would attract a flood of British and American travel.
The St. Lawrence presents by far the most magnificent
approach to the American continent, and for two or
three days of the passage gives the quiet of inland
navigation in place of the open sea.    It is estimated,
on apparently trustworthy calculations, that by this
route a traveller could be landed or a letter delivered as
far west as Chicago as soon as they can reach New
York by existing lines.    At present, in nine cases out
of ten, time is saved by sending a letter from Britain
to Canada by way of New York, and the longer route
presents the same  advantage to   passengers.     Considerations such   as   these   have   led   the   Canadian
Government to  offer a  large subsidy for the encouragement of such a line.    Various offers have been
received, but up to 1892 none had been entirely satisfactory.     Meanwhile,  the   Canadian   Pacific,   having
completed its connexions with the Pacific coast, Japan,
. China, and   Australasia, finds that the  Transatlantic KS-	
in The Canadian Pacific Railway 6j
connexion is necessary to the perfection of its system.
Already it makes a special business at all its offices of
issuing tickets for the journey round the world—itself
carrying passengers in its own cars and boats from
Halifax to Hong-Kong—no small section of the whole
circumference. To secure a full share of the tide of
travel to and from the East and Australasia especially it
must be able to guarantee close connexion with a first-
class steamboat service across the Atlantic. This it is
now unable to do. In 1892 the president informally
proposed to start without subsidy an Atlantic steamship service up to the highest modern standard, on
condition that the Intercolonial Railway be handed
over to his company's control.
In the possibilities which the company saw of
developing industries, tourist travel, and traffic in the
maritime provinces, and thus making the Intercolonial
a paying concern, and in the advantage which the
Transatlantic connexion would be to the system as a
whole, it found an offset to the great expenditure of
capital and probable initial deficiency of revenue in
working a first-class steamship line.
This proposition met with a good deal of favour in
Ontario, where it was urged that the Dominion would
save at once the amount of the Intercolonial deficit
and the steamship subsidy, in all nearly a million and
a half dollars. Satisfaction was expressed by many
also at the prospect of thus getting rid of the Government railway, which had so often proved a disturbing
element in Federal politics.    The proposal, on the other
f 2
3 68
The Great Dominion
chap.
hand, provoked much opposition in the maritime provinces, where it was criticized as a violation of the
Confederation agreement, and as giving the railway
company, already influential enough, a hold on the
Dominion from coast to coast which is not consistent
with the security of public interests.
This dread of railway monopoly is natural, and yet
it is just possible that it was exaggerated here, as I
think it was in Manitoba. I must confess that after
observing how much energetic management on the
part of the company had done to stimulate industries
in the- West, one would like to see the same energy
trying to arouse the maritime provinces from a certain
apathy and slowness of movement which has marked
them during the past few years.
The danger of abuse might have been guarded
against, one would think, by provision for resumption
with compensation, after a number of years, if the
arrangement did not prove satisfactory.
Opposition was too strong, however; the scheme has
been for the present abandoned, and efforts are being
made to secure the fast steamship Line by means of an
independent company. Still it is a noteworthy fact,
in its bearing on the much disputed question of the
respective advantages of state-owned and private
railways, that Canadian opinion seemed for a moment
to waver on the advisability of handing over as a free
gift to a private company, a railway on which the
country had spent nearly $60,000,000.
There is no doubt that the railway company, from —
Ill
The Canadian Pacific Railway        69
its extensive connexions, would have been better able
to make the new line a great success than any company working independently of these connexions.
While the indications are hopeful, it remains to be
proved whether any other company can be found to
undertake the work on the scale which the Canadian
Government requires and the circumstances render
necessary.
The time is not far distant when the company will
practically control 10,000 miles of railway on the
American continent, and be in easy touch with all the
main centres of population. The advantage given by
such a connexion for a steamship line offering the
shortest possible voyage across the Atlantic is incalculable. It would probably pay such a system to run
the steamships at a loss.
Meanwhile the Canadian Pacific has undertaken to
give its hearty support to any company which undertakes to establish the fast Atlantic service. It may
well do so, for until such a line is in operation, it cannot reap the full benefit of its splendid position on the
American continent, and its connexion across the Pacific.
Of the efficiency of the Canadian Pacific as a route
to be used for naval and military purposes there can
be no question. It has taken its place as carrying
on regularly a portion of the trooping service of the
Empire, by transferring men-of-war crews to and fro
between the Atlantic and Pacific. The trains which
carry them are equipped with " colonist" sleeping-cars,
each accommodating about sixty men in comfort day JO
The Great Dominion
chap.
and night; a first-class sleeper for officers; a kitchen-
car in which cooking can be done for several hundred
men, besides transport for baggage, provisions, &c.
The immense plant of the company would give a power
of multiplying such trains indefinitely if the necessity
arose for the transfer of large bodies of men. The use
of this new route has made it possible to reinforce a
squadron at Vancouver from Great Britain in fourteen
or fifteen days, and the Chinese squadron in about
twenty-five days, a great contrast to the long voyage
round Cape Horn, or by way of the Suez Canal. I
had the opportunity of travelling for some time with a
detachment of sailors crossing from Vancouver to
Halifax. The enjoyment of the trip by the sailors was
manifest. The meals must have been better than any
to which they were accustomed on shipboard. The
travelling comforts provided for men and officers
apparently left nothing to be desired. Discipline, too,
was admirably maintained, and Jack, after his six days'
run over the Rockies, across the vast prairies, and
through the settled provinces of Eastern Canada, probably went on shipboard again with a new conception
of the greatness of the Empire which he defends.
There is no reason why the line should not be utilized
for soldiers as well as sailors. A regiment stationed
at Hong-Kong could be relieved by one from Halifax
with ease and speed. To effect such a movement of
troops would furnish an interesting illustration to the
world of the new independence which the Empire has
acquired of old routes of communication. in The Canadian Pacific Railway 71
I was told on high military authority that the somewhat greater cost of mixed land and sea transport, and
the want of any system of moving regiments framed
in view of using this route, are at present obstacles
to such a demonstration. But it is something to
know that in time of war the empire has this additional
resource.
The contingency of serious snow-blockade, once
dwelt upon by hostile critics, may be dismissed to the
realms of imagination. A prominent and responsible
official has stated that from the opening of the whole
line in 1886-7 up to November, 1892, not a single day
had been missed in making connexion across the continent from Montreal to Vancouver. During that
period all the American lines have been blocked, in
some cases for weeks at a time. It is even claimed
that the English Great Western has lost more time by
snow-blockade since 1887 than has the Canadian
Pacific. An exceptional season may, of course, create
a difficulty, but what has been said shows that snow-
blockade need not enter into ordinary practical consideration in speaking of the road. The triumph of
engineering skill and of watchfulness in effecting such
a result is very striking. On the other hand, the floods
in the Fraser River during the spring of 1894, great
beyond all precedent since that stream was known,
broke the communication for several days, put the
company to vast expense, and proved how great are
the risks involved in maintaining a railway line through
a  wide   range   of  mountainous    country.     On   the 72
The Great Dominion
CHAP, in
subsidence  of the floods   repairs were   effected  and
communication resumed with remarkable rapidity.
We see, then, that, both in its influence on the
development of the Dominion and in its character as
an important route of Imperial communication, the
Canadian Pacific Railway has become a line of great
national significance, a significance which is likely to
increase as time goes on. It must always hold an
important place in all discussions of Canada's permanent
relation to the Empire. Such a consideration justifies
serious study of the problems connected with its
position ; it excludes either laudation or criticism not
founded on prolonged examination of very complicated
conditions. CHAPTER IV
COAL
It has been pointed out before, but cannot be pointed
out too often, that the coal deposits of Canada make her
relation to the maritime position of the Empire one of
extraordinary interest. This is true, whether we have
regard to the needs of commerce or to the maintenance
of naval power. When a large proportion of the
world's trade is carried in steamships, and when every
effective ship of war that defends trade is propelled by
steam, easy access to coal at essential points becomes a
matter of the first consequence. This is true in times
of peace, but infinitely more so in times of war,
when coal for naval purposes can be obtained by
belligerents only in ports under their own flag. It is
generally admitted that in any future struggle for
maritime supremacy an immense advantage would lie
with the Power which can retain the widest control of
bases of coal supply. It is this idea which prompts
our large national expenditure on coaling stations; it
is, perhaps, less thought of in connexion with territories
possessing coal deposits.
J 74
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
Certainly the points at which Canada's great coalfields are found may be spoken of emphatically
as essential. Eastward and westward, on the Atlantic and on the Pacific, their location is striking
enough.
Nova Scotia projects far out into the Atlantic, and
there, at the most northern port on the continent which
is open both summer and winter, we have fixed the
great naval station of Halifax, which in time of war
would necessarily be our chief base for defending what
has become the greatest food route of the United
Kingdom. Immediately behind Halifax and closely
connected with it by rail are the Pictou and other
Nova Scotian coal mines, which already turn out about
a million tons of coal per annum. Further north is
the island of Cape Breton. A century and a half ago
long before steam came into use, the keen eye of French
soldiers fixed upon Louisburg in Cape Breton as the
point from which the road to the St. Lawrence could
best be guarded and French commercial interests
maintained upon the mainland. The strong fortress is
gone, but around the fine harbours of the island are
numerous mines far more useful than was the fortress
for the prosecution of commerce or, in case of emergency,-
for its defence. From these mines, again, are raised
yearly about a million tons of coal of excellent quality
for steaming and other purposes. The mouths of the
pits are in some cases close to the shore, and as the
mines are carried far out under the ocean a ship may
be loading directly over the spot from which the coal is IV
Coal 75
obtained. Nature could scarcely have done more to
give an advantageous position.
Great activity has been given to mining operations
in Cape Breton by the formation in 1892-3 of a
powerful syndicate of American and Canadian capitalists
to work one of the largest and most important groups
of mines. The predominant influence in the company
is American, and the action of the Nova Scotian
provincial government in granting a ninety years' lease
of the coaling privileges to a body chiefly composed of
foreigners was at first subjected to a good deal of criticism
from a national point of view.
It now seems to be clear that the transaction had no
political significance, and that the combination was
made entirely as a commercial speculation.
The application of abundant capital under the
vigorous direction of the syndicate is an unmixed good,
while the existence of other mines in the Sydney district
uncontrolled by the new company will probably act as a
permanent hindrance to the creation of a dangerous
monopoly.
Large deposits of coal are also known' to exist on the
eastern side of the island, and the development of new
mines here will in time enlarge the area of independent
production. The lowering of the duty imposed on coal
by the McKinley tariff will to some extent influence
the prospects of coal mining in Nova Scotia and Cape
Breton; the entire abolition of the duty, which seems
probable within the next few years, will affect the
industry profoundly.    The consumption of coal in the
ii The Great Dominion
CHAP.
New England states alone amounts annually to about
11,000,000 tons, and free competition for this market
must have the effect of greatly stimulating Canadian
production.
The coal measures of this eastern portion of Cape
Breton have been carefully explored, and their extent
determined with considerable accuracy. It is somewhat important to note that they stretch directly along
the coast from the north side of Sydney harbour southward in the direction of Louisburg for no less than
twenty-five miles. From the shore they do not extend
more than about four miles inland. The dip of the
seams appears to indicate that they go nearly as far out
under the sea, and in one case the galleries have already
been carried out between one and two miles, while
leases are taken to cover a distance of three miles seaward. The coal is shipped at three different harbours
along this coast line of twenty-five miles, and preparations are being made for shipping it at a fourth.
The peculiar position of the mines thus lying along a
lengthened coast line would make their protection in
time of war by land defences a difficult and very expensive undertaking. It would probably be effected more
easily by ships of war stationed in the neighbourhood.
Yet their defence would be a necessity if the maritime
superiority which they give is to be maintained.
At present the harbours in use are practically closed
to navigation by ice, from the beginning of the year till
May. To secure a port for winter shipment a railroad
is now (1894) being built to Louisburg, and the com- IV
Coal jj
mercial activity of the ancient town will soon be
revived.
With the exception of two or three weeks, when it
is liable to some slight obstruction from drift ice, the
harbour of Louisburg is open all the year round. It is
so situated as to be easily protected, and could readily
be changed into a defended coaling station.
The full significance of these coal resources to a great
maritime Power can only be fully understood when we
reflect—first, that the importance of the St. Lawrence
as a food route is fast increasing; and, secondly, that,
with the exception of what might be temporarily, stored
at Bermuda and the West India stations, these are
the only coal supplies to which British ships would
have the national right of access in time of war along
the whole Atlantic coast of America. As things now
stand, Britain is the only Power which has adequate
bases of coal supply on both sides of the Atlantic.
These supplies are, of course, as useful for inland
traffic as for ocean service. Nova Scotian coal finds its
way in large quantities several hundred miles westward
from the Atlantic coast, and supplies the provinces of
New Brunswick and Quebec with the greater part of
what they consume. During the summer it has a
water route up the St. Lawrence, and it is also carried
by the Intercolonial Railway at exceptionally low
rates, in accordance with the Government policy of
giving all possible encouragement to inter-provincial
trade.
The consumption of Nova Scotian coal in Quebec The Great Dominion chap.
which in 1877 amounted to 95,000 tons,had risen in 1891
to 775,000 tons. The whole of the Dominion Government Railways, of which 1,397 miles'are in operation,
are worked with Nova Scotian coal. Most of the other
railways of the lower provinces, including the Atlantic
connexion of the Canadian Pacific, as far west as
Montreal, draw their supplies from the same source.
New Brunswick also has bituminous coal, but the only
seam yet discovered of sufficient thickness to work is
one at Grand Lake, which gives a supply for local consumption, but does not add greatly to the product of
the country. An attempt is now being made to enlarge
the output, and to use the coal for smelting purposes.
In Albert County a large quantity of a peculiar and
exceedingly valuable coal, known to science as albertite,
has been mined in past years. The known deposits
have been worked out with great profit to their owners,
but there are many indications that other mines remain
to be discovered. Cannel coal of great richness is
also found in abundance in this county, and awaits
development.
When we cross the continent to the Pacific coast we
find, in connexion with the coal of British Columbia, a
group of facts scarcely less striking than those to which
reference has already been made. Along the whole Pacific
coast of South America no coal is found suited for
steaming purposes. There is none along the coast of
North America until we come to Puget Sound. At
different points on the Sound mines are being worked
on American territory, but the coal is all of a distinctly IV
Coal 79
inferior quality. It is only when we cross the boundary
line into Canadian territory that in Vancouver Island,
the site of Britain's only naval station on the western
coast of America, we meet with large deposits of good
steaming coal. The superiority of this coal is proved
beyond question by the published tables of the War
Department of the United States, in which are given
the comparative values for steam-raising purposes of the
various fuels found on the Pacific coast. In this statement—certainly not a partial one—the Nanaimo coal
is rated far above any found in Washington, Oregon, or
California. The annual output of the mines at Nanaimo
and Wellington has now risen beyond a million tons.
At Nanaimo the principal mine is directly upon the
shore, and the galleries are being run out far under the
arm of the sea which divides Vancouver Island from
the mainland, so that here, as at Cape Breton, ships of
heavy tonnage take in coal while moored immediately
over the place from which it is obtained. In either
case the facility for easy and rapid coaling could not
well be excelled. The very facility of approach creates a
responsibility. When ships can sail in from the open sea
and come directly to the place where large stores of coal
are ordinarily accumulated, it is clear that these stores
must have some means of defence if they are not to
fall into the hands of the first comer. The full appreciation of the value of these coaling positions ought to
secure for them some adequate defence, and this they
do not at present possess. Canada is now co-operating
with Britain in providing adequate defence for the 8o
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
naval station of Esquimalt, the importance of which was
well illustrated when I was there by the presence in the
fine graving dock of a man of war, undergoing repairs
after a serious mishap. Doubtless Esquimalt must be
the main reliance for the safety of the fleet in the North
Pacific, but some subsidiary protection seems imperative
for the security of actual coaling ports like Nanaimo,
if they are to be safe against sudden attack. Full and
joint provision for this may only be possible when the
motherland and the colonies have arrived at a clear
understanding in regard to the distribution of national
responsibility. The defence, however, ought certainly
to be given, and it would be wiser to plan carefully and
completely in time of peace for what would of necessity
have to be supplied hastily under the pressure of any
threat of war. Such a question would be fair matter
for deliberation and decision at the colonial conferences
of the future.-
A fact may here be mentioned which illustrates by
contrast the singular advantage which the Empire
possesses from the command of abundant coal on the
Pacific. The great American city of San Francisco,
with its extensive shipping and railway connexions,
draws its chief supplies of good coal from three British
sources—Vancouver, New South Wales, and Great
Britain itself. Curiously enough the two distant points
compete in furnishing this coal on practically equal
terms with Vancouver, which is close at hand. Ships
chartered to carry wheat from the Pacific coast to
Europe from want of a return cargo use coal as ballast IV
Coal 8i
in voyaging from England or Australia, and are therefore able to deliver it in San Francisco almost as cheaply
as it is brought from Vancouver. During the year 1892
San Francisco took about 600,000 tons of Vancouver
coal. The American steamship Lines to China and
Australia use it almost exclusively. It goes to the
Sandwich Islands, to Mexico, and many other points on
the Pacific, a circumstance which indicates how much
Canada's stake on that ocean is increasing.
Another suggestive fact should be mentioned. The
American cruisers employed in guarding the seal
fisheries in the Behring Sea have taken the larger part
of their coal supplies from Vancouver. The manager
of the principal mining company at Nanaimo told me
that he had thus, in a single year, sent 5,000 tons to the
Behring Sea for the use of American ships. The British
cruisers were at the same time using Welsh coal, to
which the preference was given, not from any superiority
in steaming qualities, but because it was a smokeless coal
and cleaner. The Admiral stated that he could see
American ships several miles further than they could
see him. The advantage of such a coal in time of war
is obvious, but in war time the only coal obtainable
would probably be that near at hand. I shall have
occasion, however, to speak of smokeless coal again.
The Vancouver mines furnish the Canadian Pacific
Company with fuel for their fast steamship service to
China and Japan and for their railway service to the
summit of the Rockies. Without these mines the
Transcontinental Railway and its ocean connections—
G 82
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
in other words, the new postal, commercial, and military
route to the East, would scarcely be an accomplished
fact. In the West, then, as well as the East, on the
Pacific as on the Atlantic, Canada's coal measures are
so placed as to give the greatest possible advantage for
external and internal communication; for the prosecution
of commerce in times of peace, and for its defence
in time of .war. And surely vast coal measures
lying behind defended or defensible ports must be
of more permanent worth than mere coaling stations
which have to draw all their supplies across wide
seas.
We may now consider how the coal supplies of the
coast are supplemented by those of the interior.
An important coal area has lately been opened up in the
Rocky Mountain district. A few miles from Banff, and
scarcely a hundred yards from the line of the Canadian
Pacific Railway, a mine of anthracite coal is being worked.
Many outcrops of the same deposit are found northward and southward along the line of the Rockies in
British Columbia. It represents, I believe, the only
true anthracite coal which has yet been found, or, at any
rate, -worked, in America westward of Pennsylvania.
It contains a larger amount of fixed carbon than the
Pennsylvanian coal, burns rather more rapidly, and gives
out a greater heat. On account of the peculiar excellence of the coal, the development of this mine has been
watched with much interest. The chief difficulty has
arisen from the lack of a sufficient market within a
reasonable distance.    The coal is used exclusively by iv Coal 83
the Canadian Pacific Railway in heating its cars as far
eastward as Lake Superior. For domestic purposes it
is sold as far eastward as Winnipeg, taking the place of
Pennsylvanian coal brought up the Lakes, and westward as far as Vancouver. It would be much more extensively used but for the fact that stoves and furnaces
generally throughout the country are adapted to the
use of soft bituminous coal, and the class of people
willing to change their appliances and pay a higher
price for a superior coal is limited. There has hitherto
been little sale for the refuse coal or slack, which, in the
neighbourhood of large manufacturing centres in England or Pennsylvania, adds so much to the profits of the
mine-owner. Use is now being found for it in working
electrical machinery, and this field is enlarging in the
West.
At Canmore, only ten miles distant from the anthracite mine, the Rocky Mountain deposits furnish a coal
of a different quality. The mines have not long been
opened, and their extent has not yet been fully determined, but the coal has been found to be almost
smokeless, and has the further quality of coking well.
Both these facts are of the utmost interest, as the one
suggests the possibility of our ships of war in the Pacific
being supplied near at hand with the smokeless coal at
present obtained from Wales, while the silver mines now
opening up in the Kootenay districts, as well as those
on the other side of the national boundary, create a
large demand for coke to be used in smelting. An
adequate supply of coke, indeed, is almost essential to
G 2 84
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
the fullest and most successful operation of the mining
industries of British Columbia.1
Further south along the range of the Rockies, once
more, at the Crow's Nest Pass, other outcrops of a remarkable thickness and good quality have been discovered. As there is at present no railway connection
to this point, and as the country around is comparatively
unsettled, there has been no inducement to work these
deposits, which await the advance of civilization. But
it is through the Crow's Nest Pass that an easier access
to the Kootenay country will ultimately be sought, and
the Canadian Pacific. Railway is even now feeling its
way in this direction, having made surveys with a view
to the early construction of a line.
Thus the coal mines of the Rocky Mountains promise
to supply what is lacking in the quality of those of the
Pacific coast and those of the prairies. They give
completeness to the means of transcontinental carriage.
With abundant coal on the Pacific coast, on the eastern
1 Since this paragraph was written I have had the opportunity
of observing some further facts of importance in connection with
coke production in Canada. Two years ago, at Nanaimo, Mr.
Robins mentioned to me the probability that German methods of
treatment would be applied to overcome the lack of good coking
coal in the Dominion. During the last year, in confirmation of
this opinion, an extensive plant has been erected in connection
with the iron works of New Glasgow in Nova Scotia, and the
production of what appears to be excellent coke is being carried on
with complete success. The operation consists in crushing the coal
almost to powder, and then, before it is put into the retorts,
washing out the earthy and other material which, as taken from
the mine, dimmish its coking qualities. The results seem to be
quite satisfactory. IV
Coal 85
slope of the Rockies, and in the heart of the prairies,
railways have an easy command of fuel as far eastward
as Lake Superior, where water carriage begins. Of the
coal areas of the prairies, however, I have not as yet
spoken.
In a country mainly treeless and with a cold winter
season the existence of coal decides the question of
settlement, or at least of dense settlement. This consideration for some time seemed to hold the destiny of
the Canadian North-West in the balance. Along the
river beds and in the rougher undulating country there
was wood sufficient for the purposes of the early settlers,
but it was evident that any increase of population on
the plains would soon exhaust these limited supplies.
In many districts it has already done so. Coal, therefore, has always been essential to the permanent success
of the North-West. Fortunately, vast beds have been
discovered, equal apparently to any necessities of future
population. It is of varying quality. The Gait mines
at Lethbridge are the most important of those yet
opened. The product is a good bituminous coal, excellent for railway use, and giving the farmer a not too
expensive fuel. The seam now being worked is between
5 feet and 6 feet thick, and is only 30 feet or 40 feet
beneath the surface of the prairie. The coal bed has
already been traced to the West and North-West for
many miles, and the company knows that it has a
practically unlimited supply to draw upon. The present
output of 800 or 900 tons a day could therefore be
readily increased to meet any demand.    In spite of the
J The Great Dominion
CHAP.
duty of 75 cents per ton, a considerable quantity of this
coal was sent across the American border, as none equally
good is easily obtainable from American sources.
Should the duty be removed, the Lethbridge coal would
find a large American market in the mining country to
the south, while supplying all the needs of the surrounding prairie regions. The Lethbridge coal is used
all along the line of the Canadian Pacific Railway as
far as Winnipeg, and even beyond to Port Arthur, where
it begins to meet the competition of Pennsylvania^ coal
brought up the Lakes.
Eastward from Lethbridge, and reaching along the
American boundary to the borders of Manitoba, are coal
measures which have been estimated by Dr. Dawson to
cover 15,000 square miles. The coal hitherto obtained
is not of the best quality, and many of the seams consist mainly of Lignite. They lie quite near the surface
and are easily worked. In special localities the quality
may improve. I visited the newly-opened mines at
Estevan, about 325 miles from Winnipeg. The early
product of the mines was not very satisfactory, as the
coal, which looked well when it came out of the mine,
crumbled after exposure to the air. Deeper mining is
expected to produce better results. At the worst, however, Southern Manitoba and Assiniboia are assured of
an abundance of cheap fuel, which will meet the necessities of the farming population. Outcrops are met
with in many places, and as railways are pushed forward
new mines will be opened.
When we go northward to the Saskatchewan a strik- IV
Coal 87
ing illustration of the abundance of coal in this district
is furnished by the thick seams which are visible all
along the banks of that river in the vicinity of
Edmonton. A serviceable domestic coal is delivered in
Edmonton and at most points in the country around
for about 10s. per ton. A combine of the mines about
the time I was there to raise the price to 13s. or 14s.
per ton was met by a threat on the part of the consumers to mine their own coal, as numbers of the farmers
could easily do on their own land. At this town, which
seems- from the distance of England to be on the very
frontiers of civilization, it was interesting to observe
that not only the streets, but the shops and private
houses were brilliantly illuminated by the electric light
cheaply obtained by the use of coal which can be mined
almost at the door of the engine-room. The coal-beds
of the Saskatchewan extend far down that river, and
will in due time be reached by the railway, which is
already extended to Prince Albert. We may, therefore,
say that the whole great central prairie region of North
Western Canada is encompassed by accessible deposits of
fairly good coal. Still further northwards they have
been explored far into the valley of the Peace river,
where they await and make possible the advance of
settlement. It seems scarcely necessary to draw the
conclusions suggested by this statement of Canada's
supplies of coal, and especially of those on the eastern
and western coasts, directly connected with the maritime
position of the Empire. People who talk lightly of the
possibility of Canada's becoming independent or of her
J SB
The Great Dominion
CH. IV
annexation to the United States, by either of which
changes her ports and her supplies of coal would become
closed to British ships in times of war, have reflected,
little upon the conditions which determine national
safety, under modern naval arrangements, for a great
commercial people. When we estimate the commercial*
stake which British people have upon the North Atlantic
and upon the Pacific, and when we consider that the
power of the strongest ship of war to defend commerce
is strictly limited by its coal endurance, it would seem
probable that the Dominion may yet come to be
regarded as almost the keystone of the nation's naval
position. ^
1
inces
onsideration of
\ most interest-
opment of the,
e remembered
marrow of the
:es; that these
' the country's
scisive charac-
•ong individu-
chiefly mould
/est is but a
urdy life which
ig time in the
>ng impression
re to lay the
n the West, to
pposite course
■ it.    Thegreat 88
annexation to
changes her p>
closed to Briti
little upon tl
safety, under
commercial pe
stake which Bi
and upon the
power of the !
is strictly limi
probable tha
regarded as al
position.
-==>- CHAPTER V
EASTERN CANADA
Ontario and the Maritime Provinces
I began these studies of Canada by consideration of
the North-West, as presenting one of the most interesting and critical problems in the development of the,
Dominion. But it must constantly be remembered
that, after all, the brains and pith and marrow of the
country are still in the Eastern Provinces; that these
are still the centre of political force, of the country's
progress, wealth, and culture, of those decisive characteristics which have given Canada its strong individuality, and will, for many years to come, chiefly mould
its future; that, in fact, the North-West is but a
yesterday's offshoot and creation of the sturdy Life which
has been steadily growing up for a long time in the
East. It would therefore leave quite a wrong impression
on readers in other parts of the Empire to lay the
emphasis, in discussing Canada's affairs, on the West, to
the exclusion of the East. A precisely opposite course
would at the present moment be more just.    The great The Great Dominion
CHAP.
possibilities of the prairie country have impressed the
imagination of people at a distance, and have made it,
during the last few years, rather unduly overshadow the
older provinces of which I am now to speak. As far
as political and social power go these latter still constitute by far the greater part of Canada. Of eighty
members of the Dominion Senate, seventy-two come
from the east and but eight from the west of Lake
Superior. In the House of Commons the proportion is
200 to fifteen, while of the Western representatives
themselves, excluding those of British Columbia, a
large majority were born and bred in the East. These
figures will enable the reader to form in his own mind
some fair balance of the relative present proportions
and influence of the two sections of the country.
Nor must it be thought that the developments of the
future belong to the West alone. All the Eastern
Provinces still have large unoccupied areas, while their
resources are much more varied than those of the
somewhat monotonous West. Eastern Canada is a
country of seacoast, islands, peninsulas, great rivers,
and lakes; of splendid fisheries; of varied scenery and
climate ; of coal, timber, iron, and gold; precisely that
combination of condition and resources which history
has proved most favourable to human progress.
Of the provinces, Ontario is by far the greatest and
wealthiest, at present containing well nigh one half the
population of the whole Dominion, and with great possibilities of future growth. Bounded by three great
lakes, Ontario, Erie, and Huron, and by three great Eastern Canada 91
rivers, the St. Lawrence, Detroit, and Ottawa, so that
its position, though in the middle of the continent, is
almost insular; equipped with a most complete railway
system ; having a climate which favours the growth in
abundance of grapes, peaches, melons, maize and similar
products in the south, and is singularly suited for wheat,
barley, and all the hardier cereals further north; with
petroleum and salt areas in the west, timber areas on
Lake Huron, mineral deposits of great variety and
extent on Lake Superior, the province seems almost
unique in situation and resources for production and
commerce of all kinds. Its future must be very great
indeed, and whatever may be the growth of the West,
Ontario will assuredly remain for a long time the centre
of political and commercial energy in the Dominion.
At least, if there is any lack of prosperity and influence,
it will lie in the people themselves, not in their stars.
British capital, which is content with secure investment
at moderate rates of interest, is finding much employment in Ontario, and, under judicious management,
may safely do so in much larger volume than at
present.
It is not without some feeling of geographical surprise
that one finds from a comparison of areas that this
single Canadian province of Ontario is as large as the
whole of the six New England States, together with
New York, Pennsylvania, and Virginia. Nor will its
growth be considered slow, if we remember that in
1776, when these States were populous enough to bear
the main brunt of the revolutionary war, Ontario was 92
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
practically an unexplored wilderness; while as late as
1835 the population, now nearly two millions and a half,
numbered only three hundred thousand.
When it is remembered also that this growth of little
more than half a century has not been made on a prairie
soil, but that every one of its 25,000,000 cleared acres
has involved hewing down a heavily wooded forest, the
progress made seems surprising, and explains why the
province has reared a hardy race of men.
The truth is that the southern and western districts
of Ontario—those which lie between the St. Lawrence
and the Ottawa, and those which are enclosed by the
lakes Ontario, Erie and Huron—have almost everything that could recommend them as a place in which
to make a home—a fertile soil, variety Of production, a
plentiful water supply, and a salubrious climate. I
doubt if any mainly agricultural area of equal size in
the world gives evidence of more uniform prosperity
among the mass of the people than do the older portions
of Ontario. I base the comparison on observation of the
country around Toronto, Hamilton, Niagara, London,
Woodstock, Ingersoll, St. Thomas, Guelph, Belleville
and Kingston; and any one who takes the trouble to
visit these places and study the surrounding districts
willj I think, ratify the judgment.
Speaking generally, agricultural employment and
products in Ontario are not unlike those of the
United Kingdom; a warmer summer and drier autumn
giving, in comparison, advantages in ripening fruit and
harvesting grain; a colder winter presenting drawbacks v Eastern Canada 93
in the feeding of stock and for outdoor farm work.
But there are districts with characteristics worthy of
special note.
A visit to the Niagara Peninsula of Ontario, for instance, upsets many preconceived ideas about the
Canadian climate and the range of Canadian production. It is the greatest fruit district of the Dominion.
Could Louis the Fifteenth have seen it as it is to-day
he would have understood that instead of the " few
arpents of snow " which he thought, or affected to think,
he was signing away when he ceded Canada to Britain,
he was really handing over to English people one district,
at least, which compared not unfavourably in soil and
climate with the richest and sunniest parts of France.
Grapes, peaches, melons, and tomatoes, which in England
are ripened with difficulty when not under glass, are
here raised in the greatest profusion in the open air.
As a consequence the markets of all the principal
towns of Eastern Canada are in the season supplied
with fruit in extraordinary abundance, and at a price
which makes it not merely a luxury of the rich, but a
part of the ordinary diet of the poor. When large
baskets of delicious peaches and very good grapes are
sold, as is constantly the case in the Toronto and
Montreal markets, for between 40 and 60 cents (Is. 6d.
and 2s. 6^.), these fruits are evidently within the reach
even of the ordinary working man.
The fruit growing industry of the Niagara district is
already important, but a steadily widening market
seems likely to give it a great expansion.    Few parts of
J I
94
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
Canada illustrate more fully the advantage which has
come from the extension of the railway system of the
Dominion.
The prairies of the North-West produce little or no
fruit, and are never likely to minister much to their
own wants in this respect.
Already many hundred tons of grapes, pears, tomatoes,
&c, are shipped yearly from the country between
Hamilton and Niagara to Winnipeg, whence it is distributed as far west as the Rocky Mountains, The
growth of Western population will steadily increase the
importance of this market. Eastward a market is
found as far as Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia,
the latter of which, though an excellent apple region,
does not favour the growth of grapes and peaches.
Special daily fruit trains are run regularly during the
autumn to Toronto and Montreal, and fruit transport
forms at this season an important item in the receipts
of the Grand Trunk and other lines. The business
must be a profitable one, since it bears the express rate
of $200 per car-load which is charged between Hamilton
and Winnipeg. One would think that with good
appliances for cold storage, grapes and tomatoes, at
least, could be cheaply and profitably placed upon the
English market.
I had heard that hopes were entertained of the
Peninsula becoming a large wine producing area. There
are, of course, many difficulties involved in producing
wines of the best quality to compete with those of Europe,
and, in addition to this, I was told by one of the largest Eastern Canada 95
growers that it only paid to use the grapes for making
wine when the price had fallen to what seemed a
ridiculously low point; I think below a cent per pound.
Under these conditions the growing demand for the
grapes as a fruit must, one would think, check for a
long time any attempts at wine production on a large
scale.
Still a good deal of wine has already been made, and
there are growers who take a much more hopeful view
of the industry than that here stated. Their opinions
may be based on a wider study of the facts than I could
give to them. It is significant that a vigorous protest
was made by the vine-growers of Ontario against the
lately concluded French Treaty, providing for the freer
introduction of light French wines. The protest was
based on the rapid growth of vineyard culture, the extreme cheapness of production, and the hopes entertained of making the wine output a valuable adjunct of
the general fruit business of the province.
Besides the expanding home market for more perishable fruits of which I have spoken, the export of apples
from Ontario to Britain is very large. In favourable
years it has amounted to four or five hundred thousand
barrels and the quantity increases with improve facilities
for transportation.
The success of the apple trade has in many cases
been much lessened by want of care in selecting and
packing fruit, but the Fruit Growers' Association, which
publishes a useful monthly magazine and holds regular
meetings for the discussion of all subjects connected lit
M
96
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
with the business, is now making resolute efforts at improvement in these particulars. A law has already
been passed by the Dominion Parliament providing for
the inspection of fruit. Unfortunately this inspection
is voluntary only, and must be paid for by the dealer.
The association aims at a general and compulsory inspection and grading carried out at the expense of the
Government.
If the external appearance of the farms and farm-
buildings furnishes a reliable indication of prosperity,
the business of fruit-growing in the Niagara Peninsula
is a profitable one. The opportunities seem equally
good for orchards on a large or small scale. One which
I visited near Grimsby contained about 100 acres, all
in a high state of cultivation. Attention was about
equally divided between peaches, pears, grapes, apples,
plums, cherries, tomatoes and small fruit, such as
currants, gooseberries and blackberries.
For men experienced in fruit culture, and with some
capital, this district of Canada offers very distinct
opportunities. Orchard land already planted is, of
course, expensive, but I was told that plenty of land,
as good as that which now produces' the best results,
could be got at a reasonable price. But every one with
whom I discussed the question laid stress upon the
necessity for experience. It is not a business at which
any casual beginner can succeed.
In other districts of the province there are the best
opportunities for mixed farming. Stock raising and
dairying have of late years steadily taken the place of Eastern Canada 97
wheat growing, once the farmer's chief reliance. The
policy which has dictated the change is a wise one, for
■ the relative depreciation of price in the case of cattle
and cattle products has been slight as compared with
that in cereals. It has been stated on good authority
that throughout the period of agricultural depression,
the exchange value of cheese and butter—that is, the
amount of tea, sugar, manufactured goods, or other
necessities which a given quantity of these products
would purchase, has been as great as it ever was
before.
The farmer of Ontario is beginning to find out that
in producing wheat. only he commits himself to the
chances of competition not merely with the easily
tilled expanses of the fertile prairie, but also with the
poorly paid and poorly fed peasant of India, Russia, and
South America. The higher form of product demands
greater intelligence and expenditure of thought, but
gives a larger and more reliable return.
Ontario supplies much the larger proportion of the
cheese and live cattle which the Dominion sends to
England, and now aims at increasing its output of
butter, especially during the winter season, in alternation
with the cheese making of the summer.
Ontario is the province also which has benefited most
largely by the protective policy; manufactures of great
importance have sprung up at many points. In agricultural implements, pianos and cabinet organs, sewing
machines, carriages, furniture, and railway plant, the
people of Ontario could now probably hold their own in
H iff-"
98
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
the markets of the world without protection. Large
shipments of farming tools are now being made to
Australia, the British manufacturer not yet having
sufficiently learned the art, common to American and
Canadian, of making tools which combine a maximum
of .strength with a minimum of weight, the special
requirement of warm countries. The coarser forms
of cotton manufacture have also advanced rapidly in
Canada, but this centres chiefly in Montreal and the
Lower Provinces, where the French population furnishes
a cheap and steady supply of factory labour. The same
is true of the sugar-refining industry, which has made
immense strides under the national policy. Raw sugar
is now admitted free of duty, and in this important
poor man's luxury the Canadian is almost on a level
with the British consumer, as he is on a higher level
in respect of tea and coffee, which are untaxed. The
" free breakfast table " has had much to do with reconciling the farmer and working man of Canada to a
revenue system otherwise pressing heavily upon them.
Among the cities of Ontario, Toronto, the capital,
tends to become the literary and intellectual centre of
the Dominion, and almost the rival of Montreal in commercial prestige. Its population is close upon 200,000.
The largest and most influential daily newspapers of the
Dominion are published here; those of the larger city
of Montreal being somewhat handicapped by appearing
in the midst of a bi-lingual population. The state-
supported University and the well-endowed collegiate
institutions of several religious bodies adorn Toronto Eastern Canada 99
with groups of fine buildings, and give it a considerable learned society.
The situation of the city immediately upon Lake
Ontario mitigates the severity of inland summer heat.
Boating clubs and yachting clubs around the harbour
illustrate the tastes and amusements of the people, and
explain the aquatic reputation of the place. By means
of good steamboat connection across the lake, and of
the electric railway, Niagara has been brought within
the limit of a day's pleasant outing. On summer afternoons and evenings the populace streams across in cheap
ferryboats to the Island which fronts the harbour, to
enjoy the fresh breezes of the lake. In default of the
sea shore, fashionable Toronto escapes, for outdoor life
in holiday time, to the charming Muskoka Lake district,
a hundred miles to the north, the numerous islands of
which are becoming dotted with the huts, cottages or
villas of its summer visitors.
Altogether Toronto has advantages which make it,
among the cities of the Empire, a distinctly pleasant
place in which to live. It has been ambitious, and like
other ambitious communities has suffered in late years
from over-speculation in real estate, and from building,
in advance of the actual wants of the population. But
the lesson of moderation was quickly learned, and its
prosperity has had no permanent check.
In sentiment Toronto is intensely British. The
foundation of the place by United Empire Loyalists
after the American Revolution, and the part which it
has taken in various crises of Canadian history since
H 2 IOO
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
that time, sufficiently account for the peculiar strength
of this feeling. The remark applies equally to much
of Southern Ontario, which owes its early settlement
chiefly to the Loyalist migration. In the war of 1812
its borders formed the chief line of attack and defence.
Along them are found the battle-fields on which aggression was resisted, and security won for Canadian territory. Noble tradition has thus been added to original
sentiment to form a persistent and aetive force which
still profoundly influences the whole community.
Hamilton, beautifully situated on a bay at the head
of Lake Ontario, with London and Woodstock further
inland, are other towns of the province which derive a
very marked prosperity chiefly from being the centres
of splendid agricultural districts. Kingston, at the foot
of Lake Ontario, has a history dating back to the early
days of French occupation, and is now the seat of a
flourishing University, and of the Military College of
the Dominion.
Ottawa, the political capital of the Dominion, is also
in Ontario. When selected in 1858 to be the seat of
government, it was a remote and unimportant lumbering village, chosen as a compromise between the rival
claims of Montreal, Quebec and Toronto. Since that
time it has grown rapidly and has now 50,000 inhabitants. Canadians are proud, and with some reason, of
the Parliament buildings. Favoured by a splendid site
on a high bluff overlooking the Ottawa River and the
Chaudiere Falls, their architectural effect is distinctly
imposing.    The buildings are a monument to the fore- ^
Eastern Canada i o i
sight of Sir John Macdonald. It was chiefly under
his guidance that, years before confederation was an
accomplished fact, construction was begun and continued with resolute reference to the future greatness
of the country. Ottawa continues to be the centre of
an extensive lumbering industry, and the saw-mills
along the river, with the pulp-mills which utilise the
refuse wood, are the main dependence of the labouring
population. The outskirts of the city still indicate its
recent origin, or perhaps the inability of municipal
government to keep pace with the wants of a rapidly
growing community. Possibly the perfection of the
tram system which reaches out in all directions, driven,
lighted, and in winter warmed with electricity obtained
by utilising the Chaudiere Falls, makes attention to
suburban streets a secondary question. Many think
that the American plan of making the seat of the
general government an area exclusively under federal
control "might have been adopted with advantage at
Ottawa.
Passing by the Province of Quebec for the present, as
requiring individual treatment, I go on to the Maritime
Provinces—New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince
Edward Island—where the population is practically homogeneous with that of Ontario. One geographical fact
makes the relation of these provinces to the Dominion
and to the Empire of the utmost significance. They
contain the only good ports on the eastern coast of
Canada open to navigation in all seasons of the year.
As a harbour Halifax ranks among the best in the The Great Dominion
CHAP.
world, as a naval station among the most important in
the Empire, The whole British navy could float, with
room to spare, at the splendid anchorage in Bedford
Basin. The harbour is strongly fortified, the length
and narrowness of the entrance channel making it singularly adapted to defence. When two or three more
guns of the heaviest metal and most modem type have
been placed in the casemates prepared for them, when
a complete search-light system has been installed, and
telegraphic and telephonic communication completed
between the various forts and batteries, Halifax harbour will be practically unassailable. Those whose
professional opinion is entitled to great weight complain of an incredible hesitation on the part of the
authorities in adding these final touches which are
necessary to give full effect to a position already so
nearly impregnable. Halifax has direct cable connection with Bermuda, which stands only second to it in
importance as a station for the North Atlantic
Squadron. This Bermuda cable has been laid almost
exclusively for strategic purposes, and under imperial subsidy. It should be extended at once to
the West Indies, not merely to establish connection
with the remaining stations at St. Lucia and Kingston,
but for commercial reasons in which Canada, the
West Indian Islands, and the mother country are
alike interested. Telegraphic communication with the
islands is now carried on entirely through the United
States, and at heavy rates.
St. John, on the Bay of Fundy, stands next in im- Eastern Canada 103
portance to Halifax. As a commercial port it has the
advantage over the latter of saving two or three hundred
miles of land carnage to the Western Provinces. The
harbour has often been represented as difficult of access
on account of fog, but reliable statistics seem to prove
that there is no real ground for this opinion. St. John
has an important commerce, and is Likely to have more,
but it is practically undefended. I know of no place of
equal importance in any part of the empire which
would in time of war be so entirely at the mercy of
any one who chose to attack it. Halifax owes its
defence to the imperial treasury; that of St. John—
and the opportunity for either torpedo or battery
defence is excellent—might well be undertaken by the
Dominion Government.
There are several minor ports. It has already been
pointed out that Louisburg in Cape Breton, long since
fallen into decay, could easily be transformed, if necessary, into a well-defended coaling station.
The industrial position in the Maritime Provinces
during the last fifteen or twenty years has been very
peculiar. For a long time the chief industries, those
which occupied the great mass of the population, were
lumbering, shipbuilding, and fishing. The finest pine
timber has now become partially exhausted. Spruce
timber, which at present constitutes the principal export, grows on soil not very well suited for agriculture,
reproduces itself rapidly if the forests are protected
from fire, and will therefore remain a permanent industry, though not one capable of maintaining a large J!
104
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
population. Besides, the timber trade is very uncertain, and subject to serious fluctuations from variation
of snowfall and flood, as well as from ordinary commercial competition.
The substitution of iron for wood in shipbuilding has
had a disastrous effect upon several formerly prosperous
communities. Places like St. John and Yarmouth,
which twenty-five years ago had more tonnage afloat in
proportion to population than any places of equal size
in the world, have seen the carrying trade which brought
them wealth gradually slipping away without the chance
of recovery, and in the effort to maintain an almost
hopeless contest many large shipping firms have come
to grief.
The fishing and agricultural industries have been
seriously affected by American legislation; in the case
of agriculture chiefly from want of organisation among
the people to meet new conditions.
All these circumstances have weighed heavily against
the provinces. The destruction by fire in 1877 of
nearly the whole city of St. John, and the consequent
ruin, though in many cases delayed a few years, of
leading commercial firms, made the situation worse.
The city has shown remarkable elasticity in retrieving
its losses, but the effects of such a blow long remain.
The falling off of the West Indian trade left Halifax for
a time without one of its chief means of support, but this
is now again reviving. Once more, the opening of the
prairies of the North-West has not only had the effect
of carrying the tide of immigration almost entirely Eastern Canada 105
westward past Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, but
has also drained away a proportion of the young and
enterprising population.    As a consequence the increase
of population during the decade between 1881 and 1891
was very slight indeed.    The facts which I have mentioned are quite sufficient to account for severe depression in any communities   not   having   extraordinary
energy.    But there has been a lack, among the mass of
the people, even of such energy and adaptability to
changing conditions as might fairly have been expected.
This is perfectly manifest to the observer who has the
opportunity of making comparison with other communities, but would require too much space to discuss
fully here.    Partly a business fatalism, the offspring, I
think, of long subjection to the incalculable chances of
the lumber and fishing industries; partly careless habits
of farm work induced by the same employments; partly
the hope constantly indulged of help from some god's
hand   thrust  out  from  the political machine;   this,
perhaps, embodies in the fewest possible words what
one wishes to express.    Surely nowhere in our wide
British Empire, or in any other country, have so much
talent, effort, and time been spent in trying to squeeze
public and private prosperity out of politics as in the
Maritime Provinces of Canada.    The attempt has not
succeeded ; the provinces by the sea, though with most
varied   resources,  remain   comparatively   poor, while
Ontario grows increasingly rich, and Montreal begins to
add up its long lists of millionaires.    A high average of
comfort widely prevails, but there are few examples of io6
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
the great business success often achieved in other parts
of the Dominion.
But it must not be thought that the poorer
provinces are without their compensations for the
present or their hopes for the future. I am not sure
that both are not such as fairly to balance the
situation. If these provinces have not the prestige
of wealth, they have the severer and, as some may
think, the higher glory of moral influence and intellectual power. One of the most remarkable facts
connected with the growth of federated Canada has
been the influence—quite disproportionate to population—of the public men of the Maritime Provinces
in the Councils of the Dominion. Ontario owed to
Scotland Sir John Macdonald, George Brown, Alexander
Mackenzie, and Sir Alexander Gait. Montreal also has
drawn its merchant princes and organizers of industry
chiefly from Scotland and England. The smaller
provinces have bred their own men, and they need not
be ashamed of the type. No doubt it was Sir John
Macdonald's mind, with its Imperial turn of thought,
which first fully grasped the idea of a United Canada
as a part of a United Empire, but no one who knows
the prejudices and problems he had to face believes
that he could ever have realized his dream without
having had at his back the political fighting energy
of Sir Charles Tupper and the remarkable financial
prudence and ability of Sir Leonard Tilley, the one
a son of Nova Scotia, the other of New Brunswick.
When the veteran Premier died, the first and second
S>U Eastern Canada 107
choice for a successor, after the temporary leadership of
Sir John Abbott, was from among Maritime Province
men.
The late Premier of the Dominion, Sir John
Thompson, the Minister of Marine in his Cabinet, Sir
Hibbert Tupper, and the scientific specialist, Dr.
Dawson, who contributed so much by their services to
secure a favourable issue for the Behring Sea award
—work which was warmly recognized by the Imperial
Government—are all Maritime Province men. Those
who know most of the conduct of the Halifax Fisheries
Commission in 1877, the first great national arbitration
won by Great Britain, are aware that success was
largely due to the presentation of the British case by
the late Mr. S. R. Thompson, the brilliant New Brunswick advocate. The present able Finance Minister,
Hon. George E. Foster, is from the same province, as
was the late Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of
the Dominion.
This range of influence is not confined to politics.and
law. Very singular it is to observe how these comparatively poor provinces, with their simple and some-
-times rigorous conditions of life, are furnishing brains
to other parts of the continent. Sir William Dawson
the distinguished scientist and head of M'Gill College,
Montreal; Principal Grant, of Queen's University,
Kingston; Dr. Rand, President of the new M'Master
University at Toronto; Dr. Bourinot, of Ottawa, the
keen analyst and exponent of Federal Government;
Dr. Schurman, President of Cornell University, New io8
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
I
; 0
IT?
York; Professor Simon Newcomb, of the Washington
Observatory, admittedly one of the foremost astronomers of the world; Archbishop O'Brien, the most
conspicuous figure of the Roman Catholic Church in
Eastern Canada, are all from the same provinces. So
are Charles Roberts and Bliss Carman, whose names as
poets, well known in Canada and the United States,
are also beginning to be known in England, and who,
whatever estimate critics may ultimately put upon
their work, are certainly genuine outgrowths of their
native soil, and catch their inspirations from the conditions amid which they live. Professorships, editorial
chairs, and the pulpits of all denominations, not only
across the breadth of the Dominion from Quebec to
Vancouver, but through the Eastern and Western
States, are in a singularly large proportion supplied
'■from the same source.
Britain herself owes no small debt to these Maritime
Provinces. They gave her General Fenwick Williams,
the hero of Kars, whose name will always be associated
with one of the most brilliant episodes in our country's
military history, as well as Sir Provo Wallis, whose
memory is still fresh in the minds of English people.
Inglis of Lucknow was the son of a Nova Scotian
Bishop. Stairs, Robinson, and Mackay, the three
brilliant Canadian youths who have laid down their
lives for the Empire in Africa within the last two or
three years, were all from the Maritime Provinces.
Samuel Cunard, whose wise and far-sighted plans laid
the  foundations of  what   has   long been the most perfect steamship service in the world, and gave Great
Britain the foremost place, which she has always
retained, in this great field of national enterprise,
worked out these plans in his native city of Halifax.
A whole range of modern humorous literature took
its rise from the fertile brain of Haliburton, the wise
and witty Nova Scotian Judge. His friend Joseph
Howe, with extraordinary prescience, anticipated by
forty years nearly all that statesmen and thinkers
are now saying about the unity of the Empire, and
advocated it with a warmth of eloquence and power
of statement as yet absolutely unmatched. The more
serious work of Haliburton, too, embodies some of
the earliest and best discussions of the same question,
and the writings of these two men make it clear that
in the remote province of Nova Scotia there existed
half a century ago a foresight in national affairs not
then found in the central councils of the Empire.
This is a long list, but it is worth going over. It
is not at all clear that in the longer judgments of
history the people of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick,
and Prince Edward Island will be thought to have
sufficient reason for envying the material prosperity
of Ontario and the milUonaires of Montreal.
But to me the business possibilities of these provinces in the future, given well-directed energy,
enterprise, and thought, seem in the highest degree
promising. Fisheries, coal mines,-forests, gold-bearing
quartz reefs, iron, gypsum, arid Lime deposits are all
large and fairly remunerative fields of industry. The Great Dominion
CHAP.
A good deal still remains to be done to improve the
profits of the fisheries, by studying the requirements
of the best markets.
The methods of curing fish are often inferior—the
result, probably, of much trade with the negro population of the West Indies and other tropical countries,
among whom the standard of quality is low.
Coal mines already do well, and will do better as
the market widens. Iron presents greater difficulties.
The iron ores of Nova Scotia are excellent in quality
and unlimited in quantity. At New Glasgow, the chief
centre of manufacture, they are in immediate proximity
to coal and limestone, so that all the natural conditions seem most favourable. As iron is one of the
highly protected industries of the Dominion, one
studied the growth of the manufacture here with
special interest. There is a considerable output of
pig iron, and large steel works. The most striking
energy and skill have been shown in the organization
of the industry, but still there is lacking something to
complete success.
One finds that the cheap water transport across
the Atlantic, which hits the farmer in England so
hard, equally hits the iron master in Canada, since
iron can be conveyed from Glasgow to Montreal for
a mere fraction of what it costs to carry it by rail from
New Glasgow to the Upper Provinces; this cancels
at once fully half the advantage derived from the protective tariff of ten dollars a ton. Water transport is available at New Glasgow also,  but special •\
Eastern Canada in
circumstances   make   carriage   by  rail   necessary in
most cases.
Iron, again, is a material which particularly requires
a wide market for the cheapest production. The
special machinery used is expensive, and almost as
much is required to give a small finished output as
a large one in any given line. Hence small orders are
not filled with much profit.
The conclusion I formed was that though iron manufacture in Canada is not a failure, it is not yet a
brilliant success. An immense production of iron and
steel at cheap rates has been the result of protection
in the United States, but that end has not yet been
attained in the Dominion.
There was a prevalent opinion in the early days of
Confederation that the Maritime Provinces were to
become in manufacturing to the rest of Canada what
New England has been to the West of the United
States. That expectation has not been realized, and
may be still remote. But there are other opportunities.
The farming resources of these provinces have only as
yet been tapped. Let the earnestness and common effort
so long turned upon party politics be bent more fully
upon agricultural improvement; let something better be
substituted for the present careless, rough-and-ready
methods of farming and marketing; let cheese and
butter factories be established everywhere at intervals
of a few miles, as in Ontario, over which the provinces
have the greatest possible advantage in pasturage; let
a thoroughly organized means of rapid transit with cold 112
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
storage be provided to England; let rigid inspection
and grading of all products before shipping—apples,
hay, butter, cheese, 'fish, poultry, eggs, &c.—be provided, and the people of the Maritime Provinces will
awake to find out that they hold an almost unequalled
position with relation to external markets. Better trade
conditions are evidently soon coming with the United
States. The Provinces will then stand practically midway between, and in easy sea communication with, the
two richest purchasing communities of the world—one
actually free to their products, and the other on the
way to become so—communities which will be competing for their products, and are ready to pay
the highest price for everything which is of the very
best.
It has been said that the Maritime Provinces have
special advantages over those of the St. Lawrence in
pasturage.    This is in large part due to the greater
dampness of the climate caused by the vicinity of the
sea and the mists borne in from the Gulf Stream, but
partly to other conditions.
The rushing tides of the upper part of the Bay of
Fundy carry in   their waters a  fine   detritus with
curiously fertilizing   properties.     For a considerable
distance inland along the rivers which flow into the
Bay from New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, there have
been formed by the deposit of this material large areas
of marsh land of well nigh inexhaustible fertility.    The
broad marshes of Tantramar, Grand Pre, and other
similar districts produce to-day the same luxuriant Eastern Canada
11
crops of hay that they did when they were dyked, and
so rescued from the sea a century and a half ago by the
early Acadian settlers. Meanwhile they have received
no fertilization save that which has come from an
occasional overflow of the tide and a new deposit of
the marsh mud. Scarcely inferior to these marshes
are the intervalle lands found along the large rivers of
New Brunswick Prince Edward Island, again, has a
soil of great natural fertility, while for agricultural
purposes the island possesses a unique advantage in
immense deposits of " mussel mud"—the decayed
organic remains of various kinds of shell fish—which,
in the course of centuries, has accumulated to a great
depth in the bays and river mouths of the coast.
Raised by dredging through the ice during the winter
months and applied to the soil, this proves a most
valuable fertilizer, and adds greatly to the productive
capacity of the island.
As a fruit-growing country Nova Scotia stands only
second to Ontario. The orchards of the Annapolis
and Cornwallis valleys are famed far and wide, and
the export of apples to both Britain and the United
States has already grown to large proportions. ■ In
the interests of this industry a school of horticulture
has been opened at Wolfville, under the auspices of
the Nova Scotia government. For emigrants with a
moderate amount of capital, willing to acquire some
skill in horticulture, and. aiming at a life of modest
independence amid pleasant surroundings, I know of
few places throughout the empire which would seem
I U4
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
more attractive than these picturesque orchard districts of Nova Scotia.
Of the Maritime Provinces generally it may be said
that the climatic conditions are singularly favourable.
Nearness to the sea mitigates alike the heat of summer
and the cold of winter. The tide of tourist travel is
now turning this way, and the Gulf of St. Lawrence
and Bay of Fundy, with their cool breezes and beautiful scenery, promise to become one of the chief summer
resorts of dwellers in the heated inland regions of
America.
Although manufactures have increased much in the
Dominion, agriculture is still, and will be, the main-
stay of general prosperity in Eastern as well as
Western Canada, in Ontario as well as in the Maritime
Provinces. It still offers a sufficient opening for emigrants, but under very different circumstances from
those of the West. The attraction of the prairies, the
facility with which farms are created there, have during late years diverted emigration from the wooded
Eastern Provinces. But a wooded farm has its very
distinct advantages, although involving more pre-
Liminary labour. Plenty of timber for building and
fencing, abundance of fuel close at hand, occupation
during the winter season, shelter from the extreme
severity of winter—all these are weighty considerations
in fixing a home. Hardy working men, especially
those accustomed to the use of an axe, or wilLing to
acquire it, not afraid of a fourteen or fifteen hours day
during the summer, balanced by the hope of greater Eastern Canada
ii5
leisure in the winter, still have, in my opinion, an
excellent opportunity to make comfortable homes for
themselves and provide a healthy life for their families
by taking up the unsettled woodland districts of
Eastern Canada, where ungranted lands of excellent
quality can still be obtained on easy terms. Railways
have been so extensively built in all the provinces that
nowhere will the settler be far removed from ready
access to markets and civilization, and the severe privations and the isolation of the early pioneers of the
country need not be undergone.
Such things are largely a matter of personal inclination, but I must confess, after much observation of
the two sides of Canadian life, that the East would
have for me the - greater attraction. The nearness of
the sea, the varied scenery and range of industry, the
easier access to the best educational advantages, or to
European and American markets and social centres,
weigh heavily against what is the supreme advantage
of the West—facility in the immediate creation of a
farm.
To emigrants who may prefer to undertake to make
a farm in the same way that all those of Eastern
Canada have hitherto been made—that is, from forest
land—there are still many opportunities. In Nova
Scotia and Prince Edward Island most of the better
land has already been taken up by settlers. In the
northern part of New Brunswick, however, between
and along the rivers Restigouche, Tobique and
Miramichi, there are tracts containing some millions
1 2 I!
116
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
of acres almost entirely unsettled and only partially
explored, but known to contain large blocks of fertile
and. As the good soil alternates with much of an
inferior quality only suited for timber growth, great
care should be used by the immigrant in getting competent and reliable advice before selecting a spot for
his farm. It is to be feared that carelessness on the
part of government in allowing people to settle on
inferior soils has in the past done something to
diminish that contentment which induces further
immigration.
In the northern part of Ontario, again,, there is
another large area of still ungranted forest land which
recent explorations have shown to be as well adapted
for settlement as much of that which now constitutes
the best farming lands of the province.
One hesitates about advising the old country emigrant
to face this forest life. It is true that thousands have
succeeded under like conditions before. But his ignorance of backwood arts handicaps him heavily, and it
takes some time to acquire the easy use of the axe—
the one implement upon which he must constantly
depend. On the whole it is better that the pioneer
work of such districts should be left to native settlers,
while new comers should settle on farms partly
cleared.
Besides the labouring man who looks forward to
making a home by dint of sheer work, Eastern Canada
offers very distinct opportunities to other classes of
British people.    First among these may be placed what Eastern Canada
117
are known in England as tenant-farmers; men who
would bring some capital, together with skill for
agricultural work, to their new homes. A fair degree
of flexibility in adapting themselves to new conditions
of climate and farm management would seem to me all
that is necessary to insure for such men reasonable
and perhaps very considerable success, better on the
whole than what is now easily gained in Great Britain.
For settlers of this class the condition of things in the
older provinces makes the present a favourable time
for migration. Land values have decreased of late in
Canada as in England, and it is easy to buy farms
partly improved and with buildings on them at a
reasonable rate.
I also think that people with a fixed income of from
£200 to £400 a year, with simple habits and a liking
for country life, and with families to bring up, would
make their money go further and improve the prospects
of their children by buying small and manageable
places in many districts of the older parts of Canada.
Near all the smaller provincial towns, Windsor,
Amherst, Fredericton, Kingston, London, Woodstock,
and a dozen others which might be mentioned, they
would find many of the advantages of pleasant society,
cheap education, and comfortable living to an extent
which their money will not command in the crowded
old country, and which they cannot obtain for years to
come in the thinly-settled West.
The fact that there are partly improved farms to be
bought cheaply in the East is no indication that these n8
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
farms are useless or cannot be made profitable. Everybody who knows America knows that the pioneer spirit
sometimes runs through whole classes of society like a
fever; it induces people to give up what is good on
the mere hope of finding what is better; it leads them
to despise the solid advantages of settled society for
the uncertain chances of new regions. I remember
in a visit to the American West, twenty-five years ago,
hearing a Wisconsin farmer saying with all seriousness
that he would not exchange a thousand acres of
Western farm land for a whole township in the Eastern
States, which were his old home. The sentiment was
not peculiar; the whole Western atmosphere was full
of it at the time. Yet the ordinary observer could see
that it was clearly a mania; the choice of advantages
was in reality very nicely balanced. A wave of Like
feeling has been passing over Eastern Canada during
the last ten years—in the Maritime Provinces stimulated
by the circumstances to which I have before referred;
the men who go to the West may or may not find the
success they look for; those who take their places, if
men of moderate desires, may congratulate themselves
on reaping solid advantage from the adventurous spirit
of their predecessors.
To men with moderate capital, wishing to avail
themselves of such opportunities as I have described, a
word of counsel may be given. English experience
does not furnish any reliable guide for buying land and
stock in Canada, and emigrants of the class I speak of
must take this into consideration.    Two suggestions Eastern Canada
119
for new-comers from Britain occur to me. One is the
sharpening of their own wits a bit, before making their
purchases. If a man with some capital who wants to
settle in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, or Ontario, is in
a position to engage himself quietly as a labourer for a
year or so on a farm, keep his eyes open, and thus,
while gaining experience, get a true idea of land and
stock values in Canada, he would be in an excellent
position to deal on fair terms; at any rate, he should
spend some time in careful examination of the country
before purchasing. A second method of more general
application may be suggested, and I think it deserves
careful consideration. The governments of the older
provinces profess to be anxious to draw out settlers of
the type I have referred to—tenant-farmers and others
with a small capital. Let them appoint perfectly competent men in the various districts, to whom newcomers could be officially referred for sound advice on
farm values, or even for arbitration if necessary. If
the services of thoroughly reliable men could be secured
this would give an assurance of fair treatment to the
inexperienced, which does not now exist, and which is
greatly required. As I have said in treating of the
West, the contented settler is the best of all emigration
agents, and I believe that this method of guarding
against discontent is reasonable and practicable.
Something must still be said of the remarkable,
maritime position of Eastern Canada, and of what has
been done to improve it. I have previously spoken of
the great expenditure made by Canadians to get in )
railway touch with their vast Western heritage. But
railways are far from representing the full measure of
their efforts in this direction. The canal system and
the means taken to create it deserve study. No
country in the world has such a marvellous system of
natural inland navigation as Canada. After one has
fairly entered Canadian waters at the Straits of
Belleisle, there are still 2,259 miles of navigation to
the head of Lake Superior, a distance slightly greater
than the sea voyage from Liverpool to Belleisle. But
at several places this line is broken by shallows, falls,
or rapids, and to overcome these has been a work of no
slight difficulty. It is not so many years since a large
seagoing steamship could not ascend the St. Lawrence
from Quebec to Montreal. The dredging of a channel
through Lake St. Peter has changed all this, and so
given Montreal her true position as the Liverpool of
Canada. This very considerable undertaking has also
made it possible for ironclads to ascend the river to the
same port—a fact which I have not hitherto seen noted
as a new element in the defensive conditions of the
Empire.
In all it has been necessary to construct over
seventy miles of canal, the rapids of the St. Lawrence,
1 the peninsula through which the river Niagara flows,
and the Sault Ste. Marie offering the chief points of
obstruction. The 600 feet which represent the
difference of level between the tidewater on the St.
Lawrence and Lake Superior are overcome by no fewer
than fifty-three locks.    Canada has.already spent upon
S : If Eastern Canada 121
her canals nearly $60,000,000; their completion to an
average depth of fourteen feet, so as to accommodate
seagoing vessels, is now being pushed forward with
much energy. A convention of business men, from
Western Canada and the United States, has considered
at Toronto the question of deepening them to twenty-
one feet, and has passed resolutions urging the advisability of such a course. Montreal is naturally not
enthusiastic about a project which would make Toronto
and other points on the great Lakes ports for oceangoing vessels, and a scheme of such magnitude will
take a good while to mature. That this canal system
will in any case gradually become the outlet for an
enormous traffic cannot be questioned. It is already
very considerable. Nearly 1,000,000 tons of freight
were moved in 1893 on the Welland Canal, between
Lakes Erie and Ontario; as much more on the canals of
the St. Lawrence ; and 650,000 tons on those of the
Ottawa. Although I had previously studied the
figures, I must confess that the proportions which the
commerce of the inland lakes of America has already
assumed came to me, on actual examination, as a
surprise. It is at the Sault Ste. Marie canal, the point
of connection between Lake Huron and Lake Superior,
that the volume of this traffic makes the most vivid
impression upon the imagination. The single lock in
operation there on the American side, when I visited
the place, holds three or four large vessels or barges at
a tune. The ship in which we were to cross Lake
Superior, one of  the fine vessels  of  the  Canadian
J t.
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122
Z/&0 Great Dominion
CHAP.
Pacific line, came to the foot of the canal, which is
only about a mile long, at noon on Sunday. But,
though the lock was filled and emptied as rapidly as
possible all the rest of the afternoon, it was night
before our turn came to enter, so great was the pressure
of shipping. The work goes on by night as well as by
day, and throughout the seven days of the week. The
canal is open only about 220 days during the year,
but during the last two seasons the shipping passing
through it has exceeded by one or two million tons
that which goes through the Suez Canal. After
making allowance for the fact that the voyages are
much shorter than those made by vessels using the
Suez Canal, and the cargoes less valuable, enough
remains to make this picture of water-borne commerce
at the heart of the continent a very remarkable one.
But its development, hitherto chiefly American, and on
the south side of the lake, has only begun. Preparations on a large scale are being made for the vast
expansion which is sure to come. On the American
side a second and larger lock is being constructed,
while on the northern side of the falls, a mile away, the
Canadian Government has constructed a third, more
capacious than either of the American ones, at an
expense of between $3,000,000 and $4,000,000. I
think that this lock is the largest in the world. It is
900 feet long, 60 feet wide, and 20 feet 3 inches deep-
Now that it is completed there is a clear Canadian
waterway for ships from Fort William to the Atlantic.
American shipping already uses Canadian canals to the Eastern Canada
12;
extent of about 600,000 tons per annum. This canal
system furnishes a striking proof of the prevailing eastward and westward trend of the trade. It is an equally
striking proof of the community of trade interest
between the East and the West. The large expenditure
already made by the East to improve these waterways
can only be fully compensated for by Eastern ports becoming the outlet towards Europe of Western
products, the distributing points from which the West
will receive its imports.
Further east, at the southern part of the Gulf of
St. Lawrence, a remarkable enterprise, which it seems
most natural to mention in connection with the canal
system of Canada, and which is practically a part of
it, has been brought almost to completion. In order
to avoid the somewhat dangerous coast of Nova Scotia,
and to save from 500 to 700 miles of navigation, a
a ship railway is being constructed, instead of the
canal long thought of, across the Isthmus of Chig-
necto, to connect the navigation of the St. Lawrence
with that of the Bay of Fundy. About $4,000,000
have now been spent upon this work, and to complete
it an expenditure of about $1,500,000 more is required.
When the works were nearing completion the operations were suspended as a' result of the financial
difficulties arising out of the Baring failure and the
condition of affairs in Argentina, where the contractor
for the railway was involved in very heavy engagements. But it is impossible to believe that so important an undertaking will be left unfinished after 124
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
so large an expenditure has already been incurred,
and there is reason to believe that the work will soon
be resumed. The inception and execution of the
project furnish a remarkable example of courage in
supporting a novel enterprise on the part of the
Canadian Government, and of persevering energy on
the part of the Canadian engineer, Mr. H. G. C.
Ketchum, its projector. The idea of transporting
laden ships over seventeen miles of railway from sea
to sea was at first met with ridicule and incredulity.
But Mr. Ketchum, by dint of hard argument, secured
for his plans in succession the support and endorsement of the local communities, of the leading provincial
journals, of the boards of trade in the neighbouring
towns, and finally of the Dominion Parliament, which,
after full discussion, voted a subsidy of something over
$170,000 per .annum for twenty years in support of the
undertaking. Sir John Fowler and Sir Benj amin Baker,
the distinguished English engineers, are now associated
with him in responsibility for the satisfactory construction of the work. Finally, financiers and contractors
were found to undertake its execution, and, though
the latter have been temporarily embarrassed by a
financial crisis almost without precedent, there is little
doubt that the work will yet be completed. Without
being able to bring to the subject the knowledge or
judgment of an expert, I personally believe that the
undertaking, backed as it is by the Dominion subsidy,
will succeed, and will do much to develop the great resources in coal, timber, building stone, fish, and agri-
11 & Eastern Canada 125
cultural produce of the Gulf districts especially, for
which better trade relations with the States will open
up a very large market in New England, while the
Bay of Fundy ports will be put in easy touch with
the West. But of this commercial aspect of the
question it is for financiers and traders to judge. They
have before them all the data by which the Dominion
Parliament and other representative bodies were originally convinced of the merits of the undertaking.
It would seem that the railway might also be of
great service, in case of necessity, for coast defence,
through the facility it would give of transferring gunboats of moderate tonnage or torpedo-boats from one
side of the isthmus to the other. I had an opportunity
of looking over a portion of the line. The greater part
of the roadway, the heavy stone work, and the excavations for the terminal docks are completed—:in all,
about three-fourths of the work, the whole presenting
a remarkable example of solid construction, apparently
quite equal to the heavy work the Line will have to do.
It will be a striking fact if the completion and
successful operation of this Canadian undertaking
prove definitely the advantage, as its promoters claim
it will do, of railway transportation for laden ships,
since it cannot but profoundly affect opinion in regard
to other even more important points of commercial
transit.
I have dwelt upon these matters somewhat in detail,
because I wish to show with ■ what quiet but persistent
energy and foresight Eastern Canada is supplementing 126
The Great Dominion
CHAP, v
I! i
¥ l
its great natural advantages, and laying broadly the
basis of commercial expansion. When it is remembered that the Dominion, in addition to her vast
expenditure on railways and canals for inland development, is also heavily subsidizing steamship routes to
Japan and China, to the West Indies and to Australia,
and that she is entering into engagements to support
still more energetically a Transatlantic service of the
first class, and a new Imperial cable system across the
Pacific, I think a sufficient answer is given to Mr.
Goldwin Smith when he claims that provincial feeling
still dominates the public life of the Dominion.
^-. CHAPTER VI
eastern Canada.—Continued
Quebec
The French Canadian question is the crux of
politics in the Dominion. It does not present so many
difficulties or arouse such bitter animosities as does the
Irish question in Britain; it is not so impracticable as
the race and colour questions which are clouding the
national horizon in the United States; it does not
even seem to me so perplexing as the questions which
the contact of a temperate and tropical cLimate, and
therefore of strong and weak races, is beginning to
produce in Australia, but still it is difficult, and for a
good while to come will test the temper, the tact, and
the patriotism of the Canadian people, whether French
or English.
In some of its aspects, however, there has been of
late a tendency to exaggerate the magnitude of the
question. People in England were so accustomed less
than a generation ago to think of Canada as a country
chiefly inhabited by Frenchmen, they were so con- 128
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
scious of the fact that the presence of a French element
dominated all questions of Canadian policy, that the
impression has scarcely yet died away. It is well,
therefore, to form an accurate idea of the place which
Quebec and the French Canadian hold and are likely
to hold in the Dominion.
At the time of confederation in 1867, Quebec was
one province among four; it is now, through the introduction of new provinces, but one among seven.
But the work of carving out new provinces has only
begun. Its representation in the Dominion House of
Commons was fixed permanently at sixty-five, the
proportion of this number to the population of the
province being taken as a basis from which all other
provincial representation should be calculated at each
decennial census. These sixty-five representatives
sat at first in a House of 181 members; under the
automatic rule of expansion they now form part of a
House of 215 members. Of these sixty-five members seventeen are at the present time English-
speaking, and may be taken as fairly representative of
the English population of the province. The strictly
French vote of Quebec in the Federal Parliament may
therefore be placed at about forty-eight.
Out of the whole population of the Dominion, which
was 4,833,237 in 1891,1,404,974 were French-speaking;
of these 1,186,346 were in the Province of Quebec.
These proportions, it will be seen, are weighty, but
not dominant.
So much for the present.    In forecasting the future VI
Eastern Canada
129
one or two main points must be kept in view.' The
first is that the French population of Canada is not
reinforced from without. France, with her declining
population, now sends very few emigrants abroad, and
she sends them least of all to Quebec. In the whole
province of Quebec there were found in 1891 only
2,883 persons who were born in France, and this
number must have represented the migration for an
entire generation.
On the other hand, the French Canadian has himself become an emigrant from his native country.
In an article in the Forum, Louis Frechette, the
French Canadian writer, estimates the number of his
compatriots in the United States at between eleven
and twelve hundred thousand. This estimate appears
to be much exaggerated, but the number is certainly
very great. An American estimate places the numbers
in the six New England States alone at something over
300,000.
One qualifying feature of this exodus to New
England is, however, to be noted. Numbers of the
people do not go to remain. The Commissioner for
the census of 1891 pointed out to me at Ottawa the
remarkable fact that in the returns Quebec was often
given as the birthplace of the elder children of a
large French family, the United States as the birthplace of a succeeding group, to be followed again by
others bom in Quebec. The migration, therefore, is
in part temporary, and the present inclination of the
habitant is to gravitate back to his native soil.
K n
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
ill
n>y:
This • exodus is almost exclusively confined to the
poorer and less educated population of the province;
for the able, educated, and ambitious French Canadian
the best field is still found at home among his own
people and under the Canadian system, where he has
a far better opportunity to win political, professional,
or literary success. In the United States he could
only succeed by using the English language and
becoming entirely Americanized; in Canada he can
succeed even while remaining a Frenchman; a moderate
adaptation to English ideas opens freely to him all
the avenues to power.
But, whatever qualification we give to it, a migration which has already advanced so far must profoundly
affect the future of the French race in Canada, unless
some change of industrial circumstances or of race
feeling—and neither is impossible—should result in
a refluent wave of movement on a corresponding scale.
The tendency of the French Canadian both in Canada
and the United States to drift into the cities and to
become a factory operative, instead of the hardy and
adventurous pioneer of Western civilization, such as.
he once was, is another element in the question; it is
almost as significant as the change which has made
France cease to be a colonizing power in the true sense
of the expression. Had the whole tide of migration
from Quebec been directed to the newly opened West
instead of to New England the results must have been
very considerable.
Again, it  has  commonly  been supposed that the VI
Eastern Canada
131
natural increase amongst the French Canadians is far-
beyond that in the English provinces. Certainly the
contrast between the large families commonly found
among the devout, moral, and conservative French
of Canada, and the strictly limited families which
are the rule in France is striking enough, and
furnishes a singular problem for the student of social
or national evolution.
There are apparently few things which give to the
habitant of Quebec such unalloyed satisfaction as to
see HmseLf surrounded by a numerous offspring, whatever the degree of comfort in which he may be able to
maintain them. In this feeling he has, curiously
enough, public support.
Three or four years ago the government of the
province, reverting to the policy of the French Kings
in the early days of Canadian colonization, instituted
a system of premiums on large families, by offering to
give a grant of a hundred acres of land to all heads of
families who had twelve or more children. This grant
has already been made in nearly 2,000 cases, and applications are said to be still flowing in. Families of
twenty children are common; families of twenty-five
or more are not unknown. But in spite of special
facts Like these the last Canadian census proved that
the advantage in the natural rate of increase of
Quebec over the other provinces was comparatively
slight—in the case of Ontario it amounted to scarcely
more than 1 per cent.
A higher death-rate, possibly arising from  lower
K 2 m:
132
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
conditions of life, in part neutralizes the higher birthrate.
There is a still more important point to keep in
mind. While Quebec is not reinforced from without,
all the rest of Canada is being strengthened by a
steady stream of people who, even when they come
from the German, Scandinavian, and Latin countries
of Europe, hasten to learn the English language,
and within a generation or two become thoroughly
Anglicised. In a previous chapter I have referred
to a movement of pioneers from some districts of the
United States towards the North-west of Canada.
This migration alone, under the pressure of land
hunger in the Western States, might easily grow to
proportions which would add to the English speaking
population of the North-West as much as is subtracted
from that of Quebec by the exodus to New England.
It is a significant circumstance that at the last census
Ontario had 405,000 inhabitants returned as born in
other countries and therefore representing the flow of
immigration, while Quebec had only 82,000 or one-
fifth as many of the same class.
All these facts—and they are mentioned only as facts—
go to show that the relative weight of French Canada
in the Dominion must steadily and perhaps rapidly
decline. But though Quebec is thus becoming a
secondary factor in Canadian development it presents
problems which, as I have said, are perplexing.
To understand the situation, it must, in the first
place, always be remembered that the Frenchman, so
It far from being an alien in the country, is a Canadian of
the Canadians. The love of the soil is burned into
his very soul. He looks back to a long period in the
early occupation of the country which the brilliant pen
of Parkman has shown to present not merely the most
picturesque page in the history of America, but one of
the most picturesque in the history of the world. He
underwent the greatest hardships in settling the
country; he suffered and fought and died to keep it
under the French flag. Since he was abandoned by
France he has fought with even greater intrepidity and
has died as heroically to keep his country under the
British flag.
The many thousands of French Canadians who go to
work in the mills and factories of New England the
American looks upon as aliens—just as he looks
upon the Italian or the Polish Jew—almost as he
looks upon the Chinaman. A limited naturalization,
which has made the Frendh Canadian vote count in
elections, may suggest modification of this statement;
but it is still, in the main, true. In Canada, on the
other hand, and, above all, in Quebec, the French
Canadian is on his native heath. No sense or right of
citizenship is stronger than his. His English fellow-
subjects not only freely acknowledge this perfect equality
of citizenship, but they even look upon him as a fellow-
citizen who has special claims upon their consideration,
in view of the anomalous position which he has so long
held—that of a loyal citizen of an Empire to which
he is not tied by either race or religion. BH
j|
1
ME
1
1
il
:
jjf M
■
H
134
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
Nor can any-just sense of irritation be connected
with his British citizenship. It came as the result of a
conflict honourable to both the parties engaged in it.
It brought him a freedom of self-government he never
knew before. It gave him a security for his religion
which he could not have expected under the rule of
France subsequent to the Revolution. It gave stability
to his institutions which would have been out of the
question had he been connected with a country which
has passed since 1759 through many revolutions. It
has left him free for more than a century to pursue his
avocations in peace, while France has been desolated by
internal convulsions and external attacks. From the
first, or at least as soon as the necessity for -military
rule had disappeared, he has received a consideration
very unusual in the case of countries won by arms. He
now. enjoys in the fullest sense and without any qualification all the rights of British citizenship, and in
Quebec additional privileges altogether peculiar, conceded in deference to his sensitiveness in matters of
language and religion.
All these circumstances have made a profound and,
it may fairly be assumed, a permanent impression upon
the mind of the great body of French Canadians.
With all their most responsible and reflective men,
loyalty to the British connection has long been a first
tenet. Sir George Cartier described himself -as an
Englishman speaking French. Sir Etienne Tache"
emphasized the loyalty of his people by affirming that
in any national conflict, it would be a French Canadian "^
VI
Eastern Canada 135
who would fire the last shot in defence of the British flag
in America. At Winnipeg, the late Archbishop Tache*
quoted to me his relative's words with the warmest
approval and satisfaction. Throughout nearly the
whole of the present century, the clergy of Quebec
have uniformly looked upon British connection as the
best guarantee of the secure position of themselves,
their church, and their people. Their highest representatives have not hesitated to state this in formal
ecclesiastical declarations.
English Canadians have certainly met these indications of a common loyalty with goodwill. If they
have had at times some difficulty in working harmoniously with Englishmen speaking French, they are quite
prepared, under favourable conditions, to go far with
Frenchmen speaking English, or reasonably in sympathy
with English ideas. Mr. Laurier has been for some
years the leader of the Liberal Opposition in Parliament. It would to-day be possible for him, in'any
change of Government, to become Prime Minister with
the loyal following of the Liberal party throughout the
whole Dominion. But this is the first time in Canadian
history that such a thing has been possible, and it is
only now made possible by the fact that Mr. Laurier is
English as well as French speaking, Liberal in the
larger sense of the word, free from some of the most
inveterate prejudices of his compatriots, and inspired
by a patriotism which reaches far beyond Quebec.
And this, perhaps, brings us to the point where the
line of difficulty and dangerous friction may be most The Great Dominion
CHAP,
i .
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I i"   i
;
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136
clearly discerned. Unfortunately, not all French
Canadian leaders are responsible and moderate men.
The Frenchman is a Canadian of the Canadians, but
the Canada of to-day is not, as he sometimes seems to
think, the Canada of Louis XV. Within the past few
years, however, a persistent attempt has been made to
narrow the French Canadian's patriotism to Quebec; to
fill him with the idea that it is possible to create on
the banks of the St. Lawrence something which, as
pictured to him, is practically a separate French
nationality in Canada; a nationality, too, which
belongs to a past century rather than to the present.
The late Mr. Mercier was responsible for much of the
marked development of this feeling which took place
during the period of his political ascendency in Quebec.
Mr. Mercier's power crumbled to pieces long before his
death, but the ideas .which he planted are not so easily
got rid of, and, indeed, already had a favourable soil in
which to grow. There are those who still affirm that
he represented French Canadian aspirations more
completely than, any other man whom Quebec has
produced. One of the most prominent of their public
men once said to me that, as a matter of fact, a
majority of French Canadians look forward to an ex-
clusiveness on the American continent as complete
both in race and religion as was ever that of the
Hebrews. No one familiar with Quebec will doubt
that the statement has in it much truth. My informant
was not himself in sympathy with this feeling, and he
referred to it with regret.    His own influence has been
i used to bring his people more freely into the general
tide of Anglo-Saxon movement on the continent. But
he preaches to comparatively deaf ears. Amalgamation was never, perhaps, to be expected. It makes as
little progress among the scattered Acadians of the
maritime provinces as in the concentrated population
of the province of Quebec; as little in the United
States as in Canada. Does the obstacle lie in race,
language, or religion ? The strong objection of the
Roman Catholic Church to mixed marriages does not
altogether account for it, since amalgamation with
Irish Roman Catholics, who are numerous in Montreal,
is almost as uncommon as with the English or Scottish
Protestants. It is, therefore, probably in large part a
matter of race, and, in a less degree, of language, and.
must be accepted as a permanent condition.
But there may be a broad national sjmipathy, unity
of public effort and aim, a reasonable yielding to the
will of the majority, and a delicate respect for the constitutional rights of others without amalgamation, as
we see from the example, say, of Switzerland, where
cantons which differ in race, religion, and language act
with the most patriotic unanimity. Should Quebec
push provincial rights to the utmost in her own case,
and yet use all her political influence to interfere with
the right of majorities in the other provinces to deal
freely, within the limits of the Constitution, even with
educational questions, she will awaken a profound distrust in the English provinces. If she pursue a policy
of studied race isolation she will become more and 1
138
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
more fossilized amid all the progress and activities of a
strenuous continent, and will destroy her own just
weight in the councils of the Dominion. If any
impression is created that French Canadians sympathize with a policy of national disintegration in any
form, they will find themselves face to face with a wall
of adamant in the consolidating national purposes of
the rest of the Dominion.
These are the warnings which all prudent and
impartial thinkers in the Dominion express openly or
have in their minds when they consider the position of
the French Canadian. They are warnings which are
needed, though they are meant more for a few of the
leaders, political and ecclesiastical, than for the body of
the people. The habitans are a simple and docile
people, far from aggressive or discontented if left to
themselves, but with a Parisian facility for being
stirred to sudden and what seems to colder-blooded
men unreasoning effervescence. They are what their
teachers and leaders make them to a degree almost
beyond parallel. It is upon the moderation and self-
restraint of these leaders, lay and clerical, more than
upon anything else, that freedom from serious friction
in the government of the Dominion must depend.
These leaders must say, too, whether French Canada
is to be narrow, bigoted, and isolated, or liberal, progressive, and with a legitimate influence constantly increasing. French dominance on the American continent
received its death-blow a century and a half ago from a
policy which sought to make Canada and Louisiana a
iU close preserve for a single set of ideas and a single type
of Frenchman; a like policy pursued now would mean
in the long-run the certain weakening of French influence in the Dominion.
Outside the province of Quebec the French question
has no very important bearings. Of 1,404,974 French-
speaking people in Canada, all but 218,628 are in
Quebec. Those in Manitoba and the North-West only
number about 13,000, and can now never form more
than a very small fraction of the increasing population.
The overflow from Quebec into the counties of Ontario
which lie along the Ottawa gave a population in 1891
of 101,123.
One fact about this overflow, however, seems worthy
of remark. It was well known that during the ten years
preceding the census of 1891 a good deal of land had
been taken up in the border counties of Ontario by
French Canadians. Yet when the decennial census
appeared it was found, to the surprise of everybody,
that the French-speaking population of Ontario showed
numbers actually a little less than those of 1881.
When the Commissioner for the census was reproached
by French members of Parliament for inaccuracy in
this particular, he pointed out that the census only
asked for a return of language, not of race descent.
The conclusion seemed irresistible that a portion of
the French settlers in these border districts had preferred to return themselves as English-speaking rather
than French-speaking. The fact is suggestive. Doubtless the French language will have to struggle for its ill
1
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If
140
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
existence on a continent where all other races tend at once
to become Anglicized in tongue. That it has withstood
the effects of its environment so successfully for a full
century indicates a singular and, in its way, admirable
tenacity of purpose and habit in the French people.
Perhaps it is more due to isolation than to any set
purpose. Now that the habitant goes abroad from the
province more freely, indications are not wanting that
even in language he cannot altogether resist the
influence of his smToundings. The operative in the
mills of New England, and the lumberman in the
woods of Michigan, when he.returns to Quebec has had
his native patois interlarded with numerous expressions
which are certainly not French, though but doubtfully
English. This would be still more true were it not for
a gregarious habit which, combined with natural race
preference, makes him, when abroad, associate almost
entirely with his compatriots. To New England the
mre" follows the people and gathers them into congregations. Churches are built for worship, and convents
for education; in most of the States French Roman
Catholic dioceses have been established. The French
shopkeeper comes to supply the wants of the French
artisan; local French newspapers give him his news.
Thus the liabitant has almost as Little use for English
in a New England town as in Quebec itself. Still his
isolation is not quite complete.
When I landed in Quebec I found that the French
papers, both of the ancient capital and of Montreal, were
vigorously discussing how far importations of English words were affecting the purity of the French tongue as
spoken throughout the province. There seemed a consensus of-opinion that nothing but a vigorous resistance
would give security to the French language. The limits
to which that resistance should be pressed bring up a
nice question for the French Canadian. No one can
doubt for a moment that the man on the American
continent who does not know the English language is
handicapped in the race for success of any kind. If
the French Canadian chooses to isolate himself in this
respect, he does it at his own expense; he loses opportunity and influence. It is a heavy price to pay for the
maintenance of a sentiment. He can see for himself
that his most successful men are those who have
mastered the prevailing tongue of the continent.
" Why," one asks, " in the face of facts so manifest,
does he not, like the great German communities of the
Western States, the Icelanders of the North-West, the
people of all races who come to America, hasten to
learn the language which they all find is the readiest
key to the opportunities of the continent ? Why do
not the clergy and public men of Quebec, who would
gladly see their people prosper and grow in power and
influence, insist that English shall be well and carefully
taught in every school ?"
There can be but one answer. Devotion to the
French tongue has become associated in the minds of
the clergy with devotion, to religion. The habitant has
had this lesson inculcated till it has become well nigh
an instinct in his nature, and to-day we find him con-
d 142
The Great Dominion
CHAPr
trolled by a feeling precisely opposite to that which??
influences  every other   race   which   has   settled   in
America.    He prefers,  on   the  whole,  not to  leam
English.
To the Anglo-Saxon the theory that religion needs
support of this kind seems absurd; the French pastor>
whose personal hold might be weakened by the change,
gauges his people by a different standard.
Though a French speech may  still  frequently be
heard in the Dominion Parliament, French members.
who aspire to really influence the house and country
almost invariably speak in English, and it is a note-,
worthy fact that the most conspicuous orators of Parliament have been English-speaking Frenchmen.    Mr.
Laurier and Mr.  Chapleau are  masters of polished:
English speech, and few men secure a better hearing
from English audiences.    In perfect enunciation and
clearness of English diction Sir Adolphe Caron might-
give lessons to  the  majority of his English fellow^-,
members.
While the industrial position of the habitant would
be greatly improved by a knowledge of English, as is,
the political position of hisJeaders, no one would wish-
to see him give up entirely the tongue which has for
him such a wealth of association. Rather is. it to be
regretted that more of the people of the English provinces do not make themselves familiar with French.
Such a knowledge, especially among pubLic men, would
create a very real bond of sympathy which does not
now exist.
I VI
Eastern Canada 143
Occasionally one hears regrets expressed in Canada
that the French language was ever given any official
status in the Federal Parliament. The objections to its
employment are manifest, but superficial. The argument on which its permissive use rests is fundamental.
Sir Henry de Villiers, when pointing out, during the
Colonial Conference, to a French Canadian audience at
Quebec, that he could not speak French because the
language of his French ancestors had been crushed out
under the Dutch rule at the Cape, added that a man or
a people " can be all the more loyal when they are able
to express their loyalty in their own language." Such a
remark as this embodies the pith of the whole matter.
It is the glory of British government in Canada that
it has cheerfully accepted the inconveniences arising
from the use of mixed languages that it may give unmixed liberty to the French people of Quebec.
Quebec gives to Canada an industrious, patient, and
moral body of peasants, fishermen, and operatives in
its lower classes; in its upper classes brilliant speakers
and writers, jurists of distinguished ability, and a clergy
which in its superior ranks has weight and administrative capacity. But the men who have individual weight
and the qualities which win social distinction are singularly few in number compared with the whole population.
This may be traced in part to the fact that after 1759 the
seigneurs and noblesse, with their traditions of culture and
education, forsook Quebec and returned to France; it is
probably still more due to the limitations placed on indi- 144
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
vidual development by a rigid ecclesiastical system. One
cannot but think that with more liberal views of education, a policy which encouraged free intercourse with the
other provinces, a faith in their religion too robust
to fear contact with the outside world, the mass of
the people would show a more progressive spirit; the
movement from the bottom to the top of the social
scale would be as active as in the English provinces,
and the whole moral weight of the community would
be increased.
Not that Quebec has too much influence in the
Dominion, but that she has too little of the weight
which comes from culture, widespread intelligence, and
progressive energy is,, or ought to be, the anxiety of
English Canadians. That French taste, courtesy, polish,
social influence, should make the same impression in
America that it has in Europe might well be a dream
and inspiration for the French Canadian.
One has no hesitation in discussing frankly this
question of race inertia in Quebec. The most clearsighted men of the province admit and deplore it.
Doubtless it has been due in part to unavoidable
circumstances. Cut off from easy contact with the
higher standards of France, and not yet in sympathy
with those of British people, the difficulty of maintaining social and intellectual activity over a thinly settled
country during a large part of this century can easily
be understood. But a supreme effort should be made
to change these conditions. Something like an attitude
of helplessness in face of the immobility of the habit- VI
Eastern Canada 145
ant seemed to me to prevail among able and earnest
Frenchmen who were thinking much on the question.
A most intelligent priest spoke to me of one form which
this immobility took. " A young man in our French
villages," he said, " has little encouragement to work his
way up to that social distinction of which you speak.
If he begins to acquire the culture and adopt the habits
of refined society, there is a disposition to look upon
him askance, as one who is willing to forsake his own
people and their ways for alien forms of life and
thought."
Such a feeling as this, if correctly stated, must be a
great barrier to progress. It does not represent the
aspiring spirit of the France from which the habitant
sprang, nor that of the Britain with which he is now
associated.
Whether the future of the French Canadian is to be
a growing or diminishing one seems to me to be hanging just now more than ever before in doubtful balance,
and he himself holds the scales, or, to be more precise,
a few of his leaders do so. There are many signs of
encouragement, and others of an opposite kind. " If
you want to find loyalty, come to Quebec," I have
heard said over and over again by French Canadians,
representative men of different classes and of unquestioned sincerity. I am convinced that the majority
of the people of Quebec could honestly re-echo the
sentiment. But another note is sometimes heard in
the press and on the platform, and it is not easy to
measure the real force behind it.    One thing may be
L 146
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
W
said definitely. If the ideas and policy which Mr.
Mercier represented have much vogue or prevail, there
are troublous times ahead. The larger hope of Quebec
lies in the unconditional acceptance of her Canadian
destiny. In any attempt to pursue an individual
course without reference to the sentiment of the whole
Dominion the French Canadian will make shipwreck
of his fortunes.
If a gospel of moderation and liberality must be
preached to some classes of French Canadians, one
of patience and generous consideration must equally
be preached to certain sections of their English-
speaking fellow-citizens. The average Frenchman of
Canada can no more be calm than the Frenchman
of France: under excitement he is apt to lose his
head, and to say far more than he means. The stolid
Saxon rarely says as much as he means, and makes
little allowance for a contrary temperament. This
latter he must learn to do. There is no sufficient
reason why the Orangeman of Ontario should treat
so seriously as he does every sign of temporary
effervescence in Quebec. Perhaps he too has a strain
of Celtic blood. If so, then the mass of reasonable
Canadian opinion must restrain the excesses of both
alike. The English provinces can afford to be calm
under all conditions. They have only to be studiously
just, to employ all fair means for dirninishing friction,
and then rest upon their natural weight of influence.
Their real political danger lies not in Quebec and
the   Frenchman,   but   in   the  recklessness   of party VI
Eastern Canada 147
conflict, which has more than once tempted their politicians to sacrifice principle in order to win the French
vote. The French vote, on the other hand, has seemed
at times open to be won rather by the particular concession it had in view than by a reasoned and honest
policy.
Mutual respect between the races cannot spring
from such relations. Yet for mutual respect there is
abundant ground. The Frenchman may well reflect
how just and considerate, on the whole, has been the
dominant Briton. The Englishman should equally
think how loyal, on the whole, has been the French
Canadian under peculiar circumstances. If there
cannot be in Canada the same mingling of blood
which followed the Norman Conquest of England, and
made the characteristics of both races the common
heritage of all their descendants in England to-day,
there can at least be hearty recognition of the better
qualities in each, mutual toleration of constitutional
differences, common and sympathetic effort for the
general good.
The Acadians of the Maritime provinces number
about 100,000. Many circumstances have conspired
to make this interesting people far from homogeneous
with the habitans of Quebec, and more jn touch with
the English among whom they live. Not long since,
in one of the maritime -provinces, an Acadian French?
man was for the first time raised to a seat on the
bench of the Supreme Court. In political life he had
filled with great credit important administrative posts,
L 2 I
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
and had won a high reputation among English as well
as French constituents for integrity of character,
honesty of purpose, and painstaking care in the
management of public affairs. The Acadians are now
an extremely contented people—almost too contented,
some think, with their comparatively humble lot; and
one of the greatest merits of the new judge is the
energy with which he has always pointed out to his compatriots that under the constitution of the country in
which they live all positions are freely open to them,
provided they take the trouble to place themselves on
an intellectual equality with their English fellow-
citizens and competitors. His example might with
advantage be followed throughout French Canada.
Under a reckless and corrupt system of expenditure
the local finances of Quebec, during Mr. Mercier's
regime, became greatly embarrassed, but they are now
carefully managed, and are slowly gaining strength,
while, as a member of the confederation, the province
enjoys its full share in the high financial position
achieved by the Dominion at large.
Not much can be said about the opportunities
offered by Quebec to emigrants from the United
Kingdom. It should be pointed out that in all the
old provinces of the Dominion the ungranted and
unsettled crown lands are under the control, not of
the Dominion Parliament, as in the North-West, but
of the Provincial Legislatures, the policy of which is
directed by local considerations^ Quebec has still
large unoccupied areas, but the prevailing inclination ^
VI
Eastern Canada 149
seems to be to fill them with a native French-speaking
population rather than from outside. Of late years a
very vigorous effort has been made by a colonization and
repatriation society, working under clerical supervision,
but with the aid of the provincial government, to
colonize new districts with young men taken from
the older settlements, or others drawn back to the
soil from the factories of the United States. The
period of depression through which the latter country
lately passed has greatly favoured this movement,
and the number of those returning to take up homesteads in new districts has been large.
South of the St. Lawrence, in what are known as the
Eastern townships, a very flourishing English population has long been established in a good agricultural
country. Sherbrooke is the principal town of this
portion of the province, and is a centre of manufacturing as well as agricultural industry. Mines of asbestos
give employment to a large body of workmen. There
are also marble quarries and deposits of copper. A
college and a public school on the English model near
by at Lennoxville give exceptional opportunities for
education.
This is one of the districts to which the attention
of settlers with some capital, wishing to obtain partly
improved farms, within reach of English and American,
as well as Canadian markets, can be with some confidence directed.
In fisheries and timber the resources of the province
are very great, and the habitant is singularly expert
I i5<>
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
:|M
both as fisherman and lumberman. He is, however, a
bad farmer—the worst in Canada—partly, perhaps,
because he tries to combine farming with fishing and
lumbering, but chiefly from ignorance. In travelling
through the purely French portions of the province,
one is everywhere struck by the manifest exhaustion of
the soil from lack of intelligent cultivation, both in the
past, and at present; by the inferiority of the stock to
that in the other provinces; and by the apparent
content of the people with primitive and long obsolete
methods and implements of agriculture. Steps are
now being taken by the Church as well as by the
civil authorities to remedy this state of things. The
bishops of the Roman Catholic Church have issued a
pastoral letter calling the special attention of their
flocks to the importance of improved methods of farming. I was told of cure's among the Acadian French
who had taken upon themselves the management of
co-operative dairy works in their parishes, and who
seized the opportunity offered by the Sunday sermon
to address a homily on agriculture to their parishioners.
The success of their efforts would do more than almost
anything else to raise the standard of comfort among
the people. For a race like the French Canadians,
with their willingness to listen to clerical direction,
it is a matter of the utmost importance that their
clergy are awake to considerations of this kind. A most
intelligent priest of a large parish on the Ottawa, with
whom I discussed the question in crossing the Atlantic,
spoke with  enthusiasm of the advantage which his VI
Eastern Canada
151
parishioners had derived from having settled near them
a colony of careful and successful Scottish farmers,
whose methods were a constant object lesson to the
neighbourhood. A Trappist brotherhood near Oka, on
the Ottawa, devotes itself to agriculture, with a view to
teaching improved systems to the people. It receives
the sons of farmers for instruction, and is said, by the
mere force of example, to have raised the whole standard
of farming in its vicinity. The Quebec Government
has sent agents to study Danish methods of dairying,
and the province is now making rapid progress in the
production of cheese.
Montreal is the greatest city of Quebec and of the
Dominion. If the St. Lawrence were not frozen in
winter, it would be the commercial rival of New York,
and probably one of the greatest cities of the world.
Even as it is Montreal's future must be very great,
standing as the city does at the meeting-place of ocean
navigation and of an astonishing inland water system,
at a point where immense combinations of railways
tend more and more to focus themselves. The Canadian
Pacific, controlling about nine thousand miles of railway in the United States and Canada, the Grand
Trunk, controlling four- or five thousand more, both
have their chief offices and termini here. So have the
great inland and ocean navigation companies. The
city is in close railway connexion with St. John and
Halifax, Portland, Boston, and New York, all of which
it uses as convenience determines for winter ports.
Every considerable  expansion of Canada's  exporting !''■■
11
152
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
and importing capacity must mean extending business
for Montreal. The completion of the canal system
seems likely to bring it a share of the export business
of the Western States as well. It is the chief point for
Canadian wheat, timber, cattle, pork, cheese, butter,
and fruit export; it is the greatest wholesale distributing centre for manufactured goods. Not very far from
one half of the whole import and export trade of the
Dominion passes through Montreal. The largest business firms of the Dominion, the most powerful banking
houses, the greatest organizers of industry, of the
carrying trade, of railway construction, are here. Among
the monetary institutions of the world, very few stand
higher than the Bank of Montreal. The finer streets
of the city indicate clearly that it is the home of
merchant princes, and the centre of much realized
wealth. A vast amount of business capacity, chiefly
imported from Scotland and England, has gone to
build up Montreal, deepen its harbour, open the way
to the sea, establish steamship lines, create industries,
and organize railway connexion with all parts of the
continent.
Montreal is also the meeting-place of the two
nationalities of Eastern Canada. The two sides of
the city are in striking contrast, yet each is the
industrial complement of the other; one the home of
capital and business energy, the other of a crowded
population distinguished by patient and, on the whole,
contented industry.
English Montreal complains that, as compared with VI
Eastern Canada
153
Toronto, it is handicapped by French inertia, and that
it has to pay heavy penalties in the shape of taxation
for being connected with a province and a municipality where vast accumulations of Church property
are free from civic burdens, where the French vote
prevails, and French politicians are sometimes extravagant at the expense of their richer neighbours. It
freely utilizes the French voter, however, as a workman, and grows wealthy in the process. An excellent
workman he is too—not over-strenuous, but intelligent.
IA born carpenter " was the phrase by which a large
employer of labour described him. Industry in Montreal has enjoyed a singular immunity from disastrous
strikes, and the fact should be remembered to the
credit of the artisan class. An organised effort to
improve municipal government gives promise of good
results.
Montreal refines sugar, spins cotton, and manufactures tobacco on a large scale. In these and minor
industries, as well as in its great export and import
trade, its railway and steamboat lines, its financial
institutions, and, above all, its geographical position,
the city has the foundations of a prosperity more solid
and enduring, in the opinion of good judges, than that
of any city of its size on the American continent.
The prosperity of Montreal has to some extent been
secured at the expense of the ancient capital, Quebec,
where shipping has decreased since the deepening of
the St. Lawrence, where the timber trade has fallen 154
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
%
off, and from which the vigorous English business
element seems to have in part withdrawn. Of this
last point a proof appears to be given in the fact
that English members are now but rarely elected to
the municipal council. With an abundance of cheap
labour, for its French population numbers nearly 60,000,
and a situation well adapted for commerce, it is a little
difficult to see why the city does not become more of
an industrial centre than it is. It manufactures boots
and shoes, but not even these to an extent commensurate with its available working population, which
ought to make it the Lowell or Birmingham of
Canada.
The bridging of the St. Lawrence near the city,
which has been contemplated and is believed to be
quite practicable to modern engineering, has been
thought of as a means to renew the commercial importance of the place. It is claimed, too, that as the
export of wheat from the St. Lawrence increases,
through the development of the North-West and the
completion of the canal system, the climatic advantages offered by Quebec as a point of storage, and in
other ways as a point of shipment, may revive its
fortunes.
Much more is to be hoped for, I think, from the introduction of capital to give employment to the cheap
labour of the place.
But no industrial change can. take away from the
historic interest of a spot which was for so long one VI
Eastern Canada
155
of the pivots of the world's history, or from the picturesque grandeur of the massive fortress as it towers
over the ancient city. More and more the St. Lawrence
becomes one of the greatest routes of American and
Canadian tourist travel, and Quebec is the central
feature of enduring interest. A splendid hotel has
lately been completed on the terrace beneath the
Citadel, to meet this increasing volume of travel. From
its windows the traveller looks out upon one of the
noblest prospects that his eye is ever likely to meet—
the broad St. Lawrence, stretching away in gleaming
brightness between the blue hills which rise on either
side; the Island of Orleans, where Wolfe's army was
encamped through many weary weeks of waiting; the
cliffs of Levis opposite, from which his batteries rained
shot upon the Citadel; the Beauport shore, where the
bulk of the French army lay watching his movements;
the Citadel itself, which was the prize in this great
game of war.
Outside the Avails is the simple and noble monument
erected by England on the spot where her hero fell.
Inside the walls is another on which French and
British Canadians have united to link together the
memory of Montcalm and Wolfe.
In its wealth of picturesque association Quebec is
by far the most interesting city on the American
continent. So long as the memory of great deeds
moves the human heart, it will continue to be a
of pilgrimage. 156
The Great Dominion
CHAP. VI
But as one studies the French Canadian province he
becomes convinced that what it most needs is some
great awakening of the people to the splendid
opportunities which lie before them if they would
but throw themselves more heartily into the tide of
Canadian progress. -3&&~
/%m^SM HI
Scaiia.
Zcmdcm,:Sia7tforc& Geogtrllsbfc #
n CHAPTER VII
BRITISH  COLUMBIA
To learn the price Canada was ready to pay for
confederation and for a pathway from ocean to ocean,
the traveller must climb by rail up from the prairies at
Calgary through the gorges of the Rocky Mountains to
the summit of the Kicking Horse Pass, and then sweep
down through the defiles and valleys of the opposite
slope, across the Selkirk and Coast ranges, and past
the canons of the Fraser and Thompson Rivers, till he
has reached the Pacific. He must study the line of
railway in winter, when, as he looks up, at a hundred
points avalanches of snow are seen ready to descend
upon it from lofty peaks; he must visit it in spring,
when, looking down, he sees the tremendous torrents
that roar beneath swollen from the melting snows ; he
must observe with what elaborate care these dangers
have been successfully overcome; he must feel the
sensation of ghding by day and night over bridges
which stretch like immense slender spiders far over the
tops of lofty pines; he must ride under miles of sheds
built with strength sufficient to resist the avalanche
n\ 158
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
rush of snow; he must look down almost from the
carriage windows into the depths of the Albert cation;
he must be whirled, ascending and descending, around
the curves of the Great Loop; he must look out for
two or three days continuously on the marvellous
succession of mountain peak and range and gorge and
embattled cliff guarding the long narrow valleys, all of
which go to make up the impressive and magnificent
scenery of the greater part of British Columbia. When
he has wondered at the courage of the engineers who
faced such a task of railway construction, and the
energy of the contractors who transported the material
and fed the armies of labourers by whom the work was
done, and when he has studied the organized watchfulness which has kept this line day and night for several
years practically free from danger or serious obstruction, he has yet other even more striking conditions
connected with its construction to consider.
Ontario, the base from which the task was approached
on the side of Eastern Canada, is 1,600 miles away.
The first 400 miles of road round the north side of Lake
Superior had to be cut through a wilderness of rough
granitic country, uninhabited, and well-nigh uninhabitable, save for the mining populations, which
draw supplies from outside. Then followed 1,200
miles of prairie, all of which was also uninhabited, or
very thinly inhabited, until the railway opened the way
for settlers. All this had to be traversed before the
foot of the mountains was reached, where the really
serious work began.    And for what purpose was this VII
British Columbia
159
mighty barrier of the Rockies and Selkirks, 600 miles
wide, to be crossed ?
Not to unite two great communities striving for
closer intercourse, as was the case when the 40,000,000
people of the Eastern and Western States, already
advanced far beyond the Mississippi, made the first
American line across a narrower range of mountains
to get in touch with San Francisco and the large
population of the Pacific States, which was also pressing
up to the base of the Rockies. In Eastern Canada
there were only 4,000,000 people ; in British Columbia
there were less than 50,000 white people—the population of a small English manufacturing town—and few
of these on the mainland, when the railroad was undertaken. It was to complete and round off a national
conception; to prepare the way for commercial and
political advantages as yet far remote, and by many
deemed imaginary, that the work was faced. British
Columbia, insignificant in population, was significant
enough in position and in some of its resources. It
fronted on the Pacific; it had splendid harbours and
abundant coal; it supplied a new base of sea power
and commercial influence; it suggested a new and short
pathway to the Orient and Australasia. The statesmen
at Ottawa who in 1867 began to look over the Rockies
to continents beyond the Pacific were not wanting
in imagination; many claimed that their imagination
outran their reason; but in the rapid course of events
their dreams have already been more than justified.
They were, perhaps, building even better than they i6o
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
knew. When Japanese and Australian mail and trade
routes are already accomplished facts, when Pacific cable
schemes are being discussed, and when the docks and
fortifications of Esquimalt are being completed jointly
by Britain and Canada, we can see clearly that they
were supplying the missing joints and fastening the
rivets of empire. While they were doing this they were
also giving political consolidation to the older provinces
of Canada. Common aspirations and a great common
task, with the stirring of enthusiasm which followed on
the sudden widening of the Canadian horizon, did
more than anything else to draw those provinces out
of their own narrow circles and give them the sense
of a larger citizenship.
So, though British Columbia made no great addition
to the population of Canada, its absorption into the
Dominion some years after confederation, and the
pledge of a transcontinental railway which Was the
condition of that absorption, marked a great turning-
point in Canadian history. It also added new and
interesting features to the already manifold conditions
of Canadian life.
It gave the Dominion a new climate, or, one might
rather say, a variety of new climates, for between the
summit of the Rockies and the shore of the Pacific
there are gradations of temperature and climatic effect
for both summer and winter as marked as between
Norway and northern Italy. It gave a Pacific seaboard many hundreds of miles in length, as rich in
the wealth Of the ocean-as that of the Atlantic, and wonderfully picturesque in its mingling of gulf, inlet,
sound, and fiord. It opened up new and diversified
fields for enterprise.
I have shown how much the problems of the North-
West differ from those in Eastern Canada; those of
British Columbia have an individuality quite as marked,
and distinct from both of the others. This might be
inferred from the nature of the country. British
Columbians are somewhat inclined to object to the
phrase " a sea of mountains " by which their province
has been described, probably thinking it likely to deter
those in search of new homes. Yet the phrase expresses accurately the chief impression left upon the
mind of a visitor, and it furnishes the best starting-
point from which to discuss the capabilities and
limitations of the province.
British Columbia is not, and can never be in any
large way, an agricultural country. The people will
have reason to congratulate themselves when the
production of food fully matches the consumption.
This is not the case now, though it ought to become
so in respect of many products within a few years.
On the coast and islands, along the streams and in
mountain valleys, there are considerable patches of
good alluvial soil. A moist and warm climate makes
it most productive. There are other areas less fertile,
but well fitted for pasturage. In many cases they
require irrigation, but for this the numerous unfailing
mountain streams give abundant opportunity. Northward, as the mountains sink down towards the Peace
M
1 l62
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
River, there is said to be a wide extent of pastoral
land, but this is still inaccessible, and ranching is now
confined to more southern valleys.
Here is obviously a new set of conditions. In
writing of the North-West I described it as especially
a country for the poor man; one might have added, a
country which gave even the unskilled labourer a
chance. Something very nearly the opposite of this'
must be said of British Columbia. No province of
Canada so little admits of indiscriminate immigration.
The good farming land is limited in quantity, and,
compared with that in other provinces, expensive.
The vast deep-sea fisheries of the coast, on account of
their distance from markets, can only be developed by
degrees, or else by some great organization of collecting
and distributing agencies involving the use of much
capital. The plans for such an organization have been
devised and submitted to the Legislature, in connexion
with a scheme for settling Scotch fishermen along the
coast, but the practicability of the scheme has yet
to be established. The salmon fisheries and tinning
establishments of the rivers require comparatively little
labour, and even then employment is intermittent.
Mines can only be worked with capital, and capital
which, does not demand a very quick return. The
same is true of timber industries, and in this case, even
if abundant capital were forthcoming, the difficulty
of access to adequate markets hinders the full and
rapid development of enterprise in dealing with a
bulky material of commerce.    In short, the capacity of vii British Columbia 163
British Columbia to receive immigrants is strictly
dependent upon the previous influx of capital, which,
courageously and yet intelligently applied to the development of the resources of the country, will gradually draw in its train the skilled and general labour
required for its operations. Labourers should not go
to the province on the mere chance of finding employment, as they may without excessive risk go to some
parts of Canada. If this is clearly understood, much
disappointment will be avoided. But for men with
capital, energy, and common-sense in business: men
not afraid to risk something in the hope of large gains:
men who can afford to wait, study the country, and
watch for opportunities, ^the openings are varied and
most promising.
In the depths of these great mountain ranges are
vast stores of mineral wealth. The gold mines of the
Fraser and Carriboo districts, the silver and copper
mines of the Kootenay, the coal of Canmore, Anthracite,
and the Crow's Nest, are only suggestions, but striking
ones, of what lies behind. Fifty million dollars' worth
of gold was taken in a few years after the first discovery from the rich Fraser and Carriboo alluvial
deposits. The almost insuperable- obstacles to the
transport of heavy machinery to these districts are
being gradually overcome, so that hydraulic operations
and quartz-crushing are now being substituted for the
old placer mining. Geological opinion points to places
close at hand as the sources of the alluvial gold, and
there are known to be large areas of auriferous, gravels.
M 2 164
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
The first returns from two properties near Quesnelle
Forks, in the Carriboo district, where hydraulic
machinery has for the first time been applied, are most
satisfactory, and probably mark the beginning of a new
era in British Columbian gold mining.
The richness of the silver deposits of the Kootenay
districts has been fully established by the discoveries
of the last two years. Making due allowance for the
usual exaggerations of prospectors and company promoters, it seems clear that the district will ultimately
prove to be one of the most important areas of silver
production on the continent. Still its development
will probably be for some time slow. The present
difficulty of access, the heavy import duty on lead and
on silver ores entering the United States, which
furnish the nearest smelting furnaces, and the depreciation of silver during the past two years have all
contributed to delay operations. So has the exaggerated price at which silver claims are held by men or
small companies not able to work them. The Canadian
Pacific Railway appears to be feeling its way past Fort
M'Leod towards the Crow's Nest Pass as a means of
access to the Kootenay countrj7. Great deposits of
coal are also found-in this pass, some of which make
good coke, so that the means of transportation and
the material for smelting may soon be within easy
reach. The New American Tariff also provides for a
lowering of the duties on silver ores, so that on the
whole the prospects of the district are encouraging,
American  much  more  than  British  capital  is at 1\
VII
British Columbia 165
present seizing the opportunities offered by the
Kootenay silver deposits. The truth is that much
experience in Nevada and Montana has made the
American an expert, beyond all others, in silver, and in
the methods of dealing with it. Besides, he goes to
new fields of enterprise not merely to invest his money,
but to look personally after his investments, as the
British capitalist seldom does.
One peculiarity of the industry should be mentioned.
Veins of silver ore are singularly uncertain and variable.
I found an agreement of opinion that they can be most
successfully dealt with by large companies taking up
numbers of claims, and so able to balance successes
and disappointments over considerable areas. This
is the prevailing American system, and it should be
adopted by British capitalists if they seek a footing
here.
The resources of the mountainous interior are supplemented by those of the coast. The seal fisheries, in
spite of restrictions, are still of considerable value.
More than 70,000 skins were taken in 1893. The
abundance of fish in the rivers and in the coast waters
is probably without parallel in the world. The export
of tinned salmon alone amounts annually to nearly
three million dollars. Of the whole output, the
markets of the United Kingdom absorb about five
sixths; the rest goes to Eastern Canada and Australia.
The Fraser River is the centre of the salmon-packing
industry, and this stream also abounds in sturgeon,
which have lately become an article   of commerce. 166
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
Halibut and black cod are found in the greatest
abundance off the Island of Vancouver, but the
development of a large fishery is hindered by the
difficulty of access to adequate markets. The splendid
pine of the province is in demand all round the Pacific,
It goes to San Francisco, to South America, to China,
to Japan, and to Australia.
In the last named country I have seen it used in
large quantities at the silver mines of Broken Hill, 300
miles from the coast, in the heart of the desert, the
cost of long ocean and land carriage being more than
counterbalanced by the facility with which, in comparison with the Australian gum-tree, it can be worked
and handled. It finds a market also in Queensland,
where I was told that it resists better than most
woods the attack of the white ant. The gum-tree, on
the other hand, is now being sent to Vancouver, to be
used for block pavement, for which it is peculiarly
fitted. A striking illustration, certainly, of the possibilities of profitable exchange of products.
The Douglas pine is also exported to the Eastern
States, where for many purposes it is preferred to
Southern pine, to Cape Colony, and to England. A
cargo has quite recently been sent to Egypt. I believe
that it can be obtained of greater lengths, squaring to
a larger size, than any other wood of equal quality.
Cedar also is abundant, and of astonishing size. It is
used chiefly in the manufacture of shingles, which on
account of their excellence find their way far across
the continent. \ Three hundred   feet is not an un- VII
British Columbia 167
common height for both pines and cedars. The girth
of the trunks is proportionate.
A friend at Vancouver, the manager of a large saw
mill, mentioned to me the number of kegs of powder
he had used within a year in blowing away the sides
of heavy timber in order to reduce the size sufficiently
to allow it to pass through his large gangs of saws.
I hinted at the boldness of Western exaggeration,
but a visit to his mill was at once arranged, and I saw
enough to prove that his statement had a reasonable
basis of fact upon which to rest.
There is still a great extent of unexhausted timber-
land. One of the largest operators told me that with
a widened market and more capital his firm could,
from the land it had actually under lease, as easily
turn out 100,000,000 feet of timber as the 30,000,000
feet which represented its present annual output.
Considering the rapid exhaustion of forest going on in
the United States, the value of the best timber on the
American Continent must increase rapidly, and the
present limitation of output in British Columbia is
perhaps not entirely a subject for regret.
Nowhere in the world can more impressive forest
scenery be met with than along this Pacific coast of
the Dominion. Even where the heavier timber has
been cut out, the thickly growing pine-trees which
remain, with their clean trunks, straight and lofty
as palm-trees, and crowned by dark-green foliage,
form a striking picture, which remains long in
the memory.    Often   the  heaviest  growth is  found 168
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
on soil of comparatively poor quality, suggesting that
the nourishment of these forest giants is derived as
much from the atmosphere as from the earth. The
fact also suggests the possibility of a continuity of
forest products in British Columbia, since the soil
is often unfitted for agriculture or pasturage. La the
Government reservation of Stanley Park, at Vancouver,
the traveller can see, with little trouble, an excellent
example of British Columbian forests, with specimens
of the great trees, fifteen or twenty feet in diameter,
which once covered the site of the town. It is much
to be desired that this fine remnant of the original
forest may be guarded with jealous care.
Of the extensive coal-measures of Vancouver Island
and. of their national importance I have written in a
previous chapter. Tasmania has not a better cLimate
than parts of British Columbia for the production of
all the ordinary fruits. Many species of fruit, like the
trees of the country, grow to an unusual size. Hops
promise to be an important product, and are grown in
great perfection.
It will be noticed that the prevailing industries are
such as require special skill even among the workmen.
A green hand does not easily fit into the work of the
saw mills and lumber woods. Hop-growing and fruit-
raising are occupations which require special knowledge.
So are cattle-raising and dairying, which, in the dry
inland valleys, have often to be carried on by the aid
of irrigation. The coal mirier and fisherman must grow
up to their business.    Gold and silver prospecting and VII
British Columbia 169
mining in America tend more and more to drift into
the hands of specialists, men to whom it becomes well-
nigh an instinct to detect the " colour" of gold and
estimate the value of ores.
For small farmers who have some money to invest
in good lands within marketing distance of the towns,
and skill to work them when bought, there is an
excellent chance, perhaps the best in Canada. The
province still imports much of its food, and prices are
high. As the population increases, good farming land,
which is scarce, is sure to improve in value. But it is
a country for small, not large farming. Lord Aberdeen
has bought and is working a large estate in the
Okanagan Valley, but he has adopted the sensible plan
of encouraging the acquisition of small holdings.
Among the towns, Victoria, though not on the mainland, still holds the foremost place. Originally a
Hudson Bay trading post, it sprang into importance
when gold was discovered on the Fraser River. The
wealth then gained has been increased by the mining,
sealing, and fishing industries, and by its being the
chief centre of wholesale supply for the province. In
this last particular it still holds its own against the
rivalry of Vancouver. The immediate vicinity of
Esquimalt, with which it is connected by tramway,
makes Victoria practically our naval base for the
North Pacific. As Esquimalt has the only British
graving dock on the Pacific coast of America, the
defences of the place, which are now being pushed on
rapidly, have not been begun too soon.    The docking
\
l
I 170
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
facilities must soon be increased. When the Warspite
in 1892-3 occupied the single dock for three months,
its inadequacy to meet the prior rights of the Navy
and the growing demands of merchant shipping was
made clear. Victoria has a distinctly English look.
With a climate like that of the warmest parts of
Devonshire, and picturesque surroundings, it attracts
numbers of holiday visitors from San Francisco. Connexion with California has perhaps had something to do
with raising the rate of wages and cost of living.
Here we see the Far West begin to merge into the
Far East. At Victoria we meet with the advanced
guard of that Chinese host which many believe only
steady resistance can prevent from revolutionizing the
industrial condition of America. To the Chinaman,
however, Canada, and particularly British Columbia,
owe a debt of gratitude. Without the army of 15,000
or 20,000 Chinese labourers who assaulted the western
slope of the Rockies, the railway across the mountains
could scarcely ha,ve been built, or only at disastrous
cost. The Chinaman has received his reward in
kinder treatment than he has met with in the United
States or in Australia. The restrictions placed upon
his coming are not severe; he is safe under the protection of the laws, though not admitted to all the
rights of citizenship. He is doing good work for the
country as a domestic servant, gardener, or laundryman
in the towns; far up in the mountains, as a gold miner,
winning the precious metal from old washings where
others could not make a living. VII
British Columbia 171
Vancouver, the terminus of the Canadian Pacific
Railway, and one of the termini of the Northern Pacific,
furnishes an illustration of the magical change that
can in modern times be quickly wrought by the application of capital in combination with science and
labour. Eight years ago its site was entirely occupied
by a dense forest of the magnificent pines and cedars
of the Pacific coast; now it has nearly twenty thousand
inhabitants, enjoying all the comforts and most of the
luxuries of civilization. The signs of rapid growth are
already disappearing; dynamite . has blown out the
stumps; fire has burnt up the wood; massive blocks
of buildings are seen on all sides; the telephone is
everywhere; electricity lights the streets, the hotels,
even the private houses; it works the excellent tram
system which connects Vancouver with the beautiful
and flourishing town of New Westminster, ten miles
away. The people, coming chiefly from Eastern Canada
and England, have retained their eastern and English
habits. On Sunday the place has an aspect of quiet
respectability like that of an English cathedral town.
In spite of its rapid growth it has never known anything
of the roughness of new towns across the border. The
site of the city is admirable. A moderate elevation
gives it an air of dignity; the eye looks down upon the
broad and placid waters of the harbour, beyond which
are noble ranges of mist-covered hills. Close at hand
is Stanley Park, a splendid reservation of primeval
forest, covering many hundred acres. Already intersected by pleasant walks and surrounded by a carriage 172
The Great Dominion
CHAP. VII
drive which winds along the cliffs and bays of the
peninsula, giving, wonderful panoramic glimpses of land
and sea, the whole forms a recreation ground for this
community, born but yesterday, that the proudest and
most ancient capitals of Europe might envy.
Vancouver is the meeting-place of the Empire's extreme west and east and south, for of the two main
lines of steamships which frequent the port one has
its farther terminus at Hong Kong, the other at Sydney
Their presence vindicates the policy which led Canada
to make such sacrifices to secure a base upon the
Pacific. Three million pounds of tea from China, and
Japan have been landed on the wharves of Vancouver
in a single week, and the Canadian Pacific Railway has
made provision to add special freight steamers to its
present fine line of passenger boats. Australian steamships already carry away full cargoes of freight. In
addition to these two great ocean routes, minor steamship lines give water communication with San Francisco;
with Tacoma, Seattle, and other towns on Puget Sound;
with Victoria, Nanaimo, and the small ports of the
coast farther north. An air of commercial activity
pervades the place, and is an augury of further growth. 1
CHAPTER VIII
NORTHERN CANADA—THE GREAT FUR COUNTRY
I have said before that climatic conditions will
always keep the bulk of Canada's population within a
belt which has, speaking roughly, a breadth varying
from 300 to 500 miles, and which stretches all the way
across the continent. It is of this belt alone that I
have hitherto spoken. It includes the old provinces
and those western regions out of which new provinces
are being gradually carved, where fifty or a hundred
millions of people could manifestly find the same
opportunities of comfortable existence as does the
present population of five millions.
But this belt represents barely one-third of the
whole land area of the Dominion. North of it is
another with features of great interest. In parts the
limit of possible wheat culture runs far to the north;
in other parts the hardier crops, such as barley,
rye, hemp, and flax, together with rapidly-maturing
vegetables, can be successfully cultivated. This belt
is known to contain large sections where the soil has
all the natural fertility which characterizes the more
southern lands hitherto referred to. 174
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
Regions similarly situated in respect of climate, and
lands inferior in point of fertility, maintain considerable
populations in the north of Europe, and furnish much
and varied material for commerce. In Canada their
settlement for agricultural purposes will no doubt be
slow, and dependent to some extent upon the occupation of the more favourable lands to the south. But
settlers will meanwhile be attracted for other industrial
purposes, and it is clearly impossible to form a just
conception of what the Dominion really is, or is likely
to become, without taking them into consideration.
In the past this second belt, itself a fur-producing
country, has been associated almost exclusively in
people's minds, even in Canada, with the still more
northern regions, also vast in extent, where agriculture
is yet more difficult or impossible, where even timber
is in places wanting, and where furs furnish practically
the whole material of commerce and industry. But
this association of thought is a very misleading one.
Information is still very incomplete, but enough has
been obtained to lead to important conclusions.
A committee of the Canadian Senate was appointed in 1887-8 to inquire into the resources of
Northern Canada, and particularly those of the great
Mackenzie Basin. The field of inquiry covered the
regions which He between Hudson's Bay and the
Rocky Mountains, and from the watershed of the
Saskatchewan northward to the Arctic Ocean. After
hearing and comparing the evidence of fur traders,
missionary bishops and clergy, geological experts and viii Northern Canada 175
travellers, the Committee reported that of this region
274,000 square miles could be considered good arable
land; that the climate permitted wheat to mature over
316,000 square miles, barley over 407,000, the potato
over 656,000 square miles, and that the area suitable
for pasturage was even greater. It was shown that
the deep northern inclination of the summer isotherms
brought it about that spring flowers and buds appeared as early north of the Great Slave Lake as at
Winnipeg, Kingston, or Ottawa, while the length of the
northern summer day was singularly favourable to the
rapid growth of cereals. Along the Peace, Liard and
other western affluents of the Mackenzie River spring
came still earlier, and here, under the influence of
warm south-westerly winds, the summer weather resembled that of Ontario, and the growth of nutritious
native grasses was especially luxuriant.
While the heavier timber of Eastern Canada and
British Columbia is wanting, the supply of smaller
timber suitable for house and ship building, for railway, mining, and other like purposes was found to be
practically inexhaustible, and Likely to prove of great
value in supplying the needs of the treeless regions of
Canada and .the United States further south. The
lakes and rivers yield fresh-water fish of various kinds
and of excellent quality in extraordinary abundance.
The auriferous region at the head of the Peace, Liard,
and Peel Rivers- is large, while mineral deposits of
various kinds are found in sufficient number in the
vast mountain districts especially to justify the ex- 176
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
pectation that the country will not prove inferior on
the average in mineral production to other areas of like
extent.
Along the valleys of the Athabasca and Mackenzie
Rivers deposits of coal occur at frequent intervals, and
the existence of a very remarkable petroleum field has
been established. For a great distance along these
rivers the sandy soil is saturated to a depth sometimes
of a hundred feet with tar or asphalt, and this is
believed by geologists to have its origin in petroleum
oozing from the Devonian rocks beneath. Oil has already-
been observed at several points, but the difficulty of
introducing the necessary machinery into the country
has hitherto prevented sufficient tests of the value of
the field being made by boring. The recommendation
of the Committee that parliament should reserve from
sale a tract of about 40,000 square miles in order to
include this petroleum area, furnishes some suggestion
of its supposed extent.
While these are among the general conclusions
arrived at by the Committee, it must be borne in mind
that they were based, not on detailed knowledge of the
whole districts under consideration, but on the evidence
of observers at widely separated points. Fur traders,
missionaries and explorers have hitherto followed for
the most part the great water-courses of the country,
and have made observations extending over the whole
year only at a comparatively few stations. The spaces
still left between for fuller exploration are therefore
very large.    Dr. G. M. Dawson, in a careful study of the VIII
Northern Canada 177
question, enumerates no less than sixteen different
areas, varying in size from 7,500 to 289,000 square
miles, none of which has been subjected to intelligent
and adequate examination. He sums up by saying
that, " while the entire area of the Donvinion is computed at 3,470,257 square miles, about 954,000 square
miles of the continent alone, exclusive of the inhospitable detached Arctic portions, is for all practicable
purposes entirely unknown."
Part of this almost unexplored country consists of
the " Barren Grounds," which are chiefly known as the
home of the musk ox, and as being frequented by
astonishing herds of caribou, which migrate southward
during the depth of winter, and return to the shores of
the Arctic Ocean during the breeding season. These
" Barren Grounds " have not, probably, much to yield to
investigation. But there are other parts, such as the
great Labrador peninsula, which give distinct promise
of rewarding the adventurous explorer by mineral and
other discoveries.
Dreary as much of this vast northern region is, however, severe as are the conditions of life which its more
remote parts offer, the extent to which its products of
one kind have long ministered to the comfort and luxury
of mankind is very striking. It supplies furs in larger
numbers, of finer quality and of greater value than any
other part of the world. For more than two centuries
the fur trade has been vigorously prosecuted, and still
the supply, save in the case of two or three varieties of
animals, shows no signs of exhaustion.    The furs are, in
N
6 H
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
the first instance, brought almost exclusively to the
London market. The permanence of the supply, as well
as the number and proportion of the furs obtained, may
be illustrated by taking the statistics of the annual sales,
of which full returns are published, of the Hudson's Bay
Company, at intervals of ten years during the last half
century. The ten year period has been selected at
random from the whole series, but except in one or two
cases it represents a fair average of the annual product.
Badger   .
Bear   .   .
Beaver    .
Ermine   .
Fisher
Fox, Blue
Fox, Cross
Fox, Kitt
Fox, Red
Fox, Silver
Fox, Whit
Lynx   .   .
Marten   .
Mink .   .
Musquash
Musk Ox
Otter, Land
Otter, Sea
'orpoise .
Rabbit    .
Raccoon .
Seal, Fur
Seal, Hair
Skunk    .
Swan  .   .
Wolf   .   .
Wolverine
1853
1863
1873
1,754
1,545
2,705
7,484
7,571
8,172
55,456
114,149
149,163
2,002
1,178
4,012
5,861
6,053
3,639
46
29
90
2,307
1,946
2,315
2,563
5,542
6,930
6,869
6,402
8,339
847
588
694
3,966
3,365
7,325
5,361
4,448
5,123
73,055
79,979
66,841
25,152
43,961
44,740
493,952
357,060
767,896
8,991
13,331
11,263
214
106
99
54,858
6
39,510
10,064
1,695
3,883
3,636
403
2,073
1,425
16,933
9,862
1,619
1,969
1,759
1,016
877
338
8,508
3,932
6,413
1,302
1,426
2,095
1
1883
1,510
11,188
109,462
5,112
4,640
37
1,762
491
5,869
506
5,886
7,599
62,711
47,508
1,069,183
368
11,992
176
17,830
841
652
3,888
7,178
222
2,121
1,883
1893
2,518
11,775
56,508
9,120
4,828
51
2,673
299
11,964
615
4,708
8,659
100,257
58,171
806,103
888
8,671
8
323
50,281
194
404
1,366
9,214
28
1,577
1,017 vni Northern Canada 179
Experts in the trade will easily recognize from this
enumeration how much the world depends for its finest
and most expensive fur products upon Northern
Canada.
But the figures given by no means represent the whole
output of the country. The Hudson's Bay Company
has now no monopoly of the trade, and Large quantities
of furs reach the market through other channels.
The estimate given by the Senate Committee in their
report of 1888 places the whole annual Canadian production at more than four million skins, the proportions
of the various kinds not differing much from what
appears in the statistics of the Hudson's Bay Company.
It can scarcely be said that the furs of Siberia
compete with those of the Dominion. As a matter of
fact the Russian supply is not equal to the home
demand. Quantities of the finest furs obtained in
Canada and brought to London are sold in Germany,
and especially at Leipsic, whence they find their way to
the Novgorod fair, and other large centres of Russian
trade.
Northern Canada has therefore been rightly called
I the last great fur preserve of the world." This
character it is likely to retain. The buffalo, whose hide
was once an important article of commerce, has disappeared before the advance of civilization. The limits
over which the beaver is found have steadily narrowed,
and this animal, too, can apparently only be saved from
extinction by the reservation of areas where it can
multiply undisturbed for fixed periods, and by limita-
N 2 i8o
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
tions put upon the catch. With these exceptions, there
seems to be no reason why the furs of Northern Canada
may not remain a permanent element in the industry
and commerce of the country.
Very picturesque and romantic is the aspect which
this chief industry of the far north has given to
Canadian life. The long, lonely winter on the borders
of the Arctic Circle; the shrewd and fearless Scotch
factor, devoted to the interests of his employers, and
cut off for years from friends and civilized society in his
re'mote fort or post, with perhaps a mail once or twice
in the year; the hardy voyageurs, carrying the bales of
furs over one or two thousand miles of rapid river and
rough portage to reach the point of shipment, and then
retracing their weary course with loads of supplies for
another year; the trapper, pursuing his solitary and
dangerous work by night or day in the depths of the
forest and along the frozen northern streams; all these
have lent themselves naturally to the pages of romance
and adventure. It may be doubted if any service ever
produced a more hardy, courageous1, and resourceful
class of men than did that of the Hudson's Bay
Company in the wide-spread domains over which it so
long held sway. From the days of the Cavaliers and
Prince Rupert, who was the first Governor of the
company, to the present time seems a long bit of
history; but during all that period the Hudson's Bay
Company has been a vigorous and progressive commercial body, and an important agency in maintaining the
good will and peaceful attitude of the native Indian VIII
Northern Canada 181
tribes which are scattered over the remote parts of the
Dominion. The present Governor is Sir Donald Smith,
and it is understood, that among the many honours of a
successful life he values as much as any the fact that he
has worked his way to the head of the historic eompany
in whose service his career began.
Until 1868 the Hudson's Bay Company's Charter
gave it almost absolute control over not merely the more
Northern regions of Canada, but over what we now know
of the North-West. In that year it handed over its
territorial rights and governing powers to the Dominion.
But it is still a powerful organization with far-reaching
influence. Besides maintaining its distant posts and
transport system for the fur trade, it carries on an
immense business throughout the newly settled parts
of the North-West, having established shops for the
sale of goods at almost every important centre- of
population from Fort William to Victoria. By the
terms on which it surrendered its territory to the
Dominion it became entitled to one-twentieth of all the
land laid off for settlement in the Fertile Belt. Three
million five hundred thousand acres have thus already
been assigned to it, and as much more will probably
fall to its share, so that the company is now deeply
interested in the sale and settlement of land. The
changed conditions of the country have also introduced
new features into the fur trading operations of the
company. There is still a great extent of territory
over which the old methods of transport by canoe and
portage obtain.    But much  of the goods once sent
J I'
I
I
182 The Great Dominion chap.
to the remote north by way of York Factory and
Moose Factory on Hudson Bay are now despatched by
rail from Montreal to Winnipeg, -which is the chief
distributing centre for the northern districts. A steamer
plies on the Saskatchewan in the summer for the
transport of goods and furs, and another on Lake
Winnipeg. On the Athabasca and Mackenzie Rivers
three steamers are employed for the delivery of outfits
and for bringing back the furs which have been collected.
There are thus at present fully two thousand miles
of steam navigation where the paddle and pole of the
voyageur were once the only dependence.
There is still the regular annual despatch from
England of ships to Fort Churchill and Moose Factory,
and the return cargo consists not only of furs, but
also of the oil and salted salmon which have been
collected at the various posts of the company along the
Labrador coast.
It will thus be seen that the Hudson's Bay Company
continues to hold a most important relation to the
industry and development of Northern Canada.
There remains for mention one problem Connected
with Hudson's Bay itself, the solution of which may profoundly affect the future of some parts of the Dominion.
Many practical men believe firmly in the possibility
of successfully establishing a route by way of Hudson's
Bay for the transport to Europe of the products of the
North-West. The practicability "and safety of the
navigation for four if not five months of the year for
vessels partially prepared to deal with ice, seems to be fairly well established. Among others, Admiral
Markham confidently holds this opinion. The Hudson's
Bay Company sends ships annually to its ports on the
Bay, and in its long history has only lost two of these
ships. It is known that at various times since the
Bay was discovered between 700 and 800 vessels have
successfully navigated its waters. These included
English and French war ships as well as trading and
exploring vessels. Fort Churchill furnishes an excellent
harbour, though it is the only one on the western coast
of the Bay, for the largest sea-going ships. Five or
six hundred miles of railway would put Fort Churchill
in close connection with existing lines of communication
which extend over the great wheat and cattle region
of the' North-West. Such a line would be expected to
tap the products of the Western States as well. Transr
port by a route so much shorter than those now used
by Montreal and New York would mean a saving in
time and expense so considerable as to distinctly modify
the conditions of farming in the western regions of
Canada. This saving has been estimated at £3 per
head for cattle and five shillings per quarter for wheat.
Though the difficulties are considerable, the inducements
to the establishment of such a line are therefore great.
The question of construction will probably be decided
by the extent to which production in the North-West
presses upon the means of transportation. That again
will depend in part on the completeness of the water-
carriage established from the head of Lake Superior to
the sea.. CHAPTER IX
TRADE RELATIONS AND TRADE POLICY
What may be called the national interest of Great
Britain in Canada as an integral part of the Empire
is out of all proportion to her immediate trade interest.
Although Canadians take of British goods about three
times as much per head as do their neighbours in the
United States, still Canada at present furnishes only
about 3 per cent, of the whole volume of British imports ; the percentage which she takes of British exports is little, if any, greater. Canadian exports to
Britain are certain to increase greatly, especially in the
matter of food supply; imports from Britain will also
increase with the growth of population and wealth, or
still more from a change of trade policy. But even a
large increase would furnish no measure of Canada's
significance to the Empire. What has been said in
previous chapters about her naval stations, her coal
supply, her facilities for communication across the
American continent, her essential relation to the maritime position of the Empire, seems to make the national
relationship of the Dominion, entirely apart from trade, ch. ix   Trade Relations and Trade Policy   185
a matter of vital concern to British people. It is this
fact, more than the actual volume of her commerce,
which justifies in England and throughout the Empire
careful study of her trade interests and trade incLina-
tions. Are they such as are likely to modify her
national relationship, as is often asserted ? Has the
idea of annexation to the United States taken any
stronghold on the Canadian mind, or are there decisive
trade reasons why it should do so in the future ? As
to the prevailing state of feeling at present, taking
the country as a whole, there can be no reasonable
doubt. It may be questioned whether there is in
Canada to-day, from Atlantic to Pacific, any political
passion so strong as opposition to absorption into the
United States. It is practically accurate to say that
no avowed annexationist could be elected to the
Dominion Parliament. If any believer in annexation
gets a seat there, it is by concealing his views. Mr.
Goldwin Smith, who has placed himself openly at the
head of a society formed to bring about annexation,
or, as he terms it, continental union, has quoted in
a letter to the American press the name—apparently
the only one he could discover—of Mr. Solomon White,
then member of the Ontario Local Legislature for a
border constituency, but since defeated, as a Parliamentary advocate of the idea. I had the opportunity
of discussing the subject rather thoroughly with Mr.
White, and certainly, if annexation has no more ardent
advocate than he, the cause is not likely to make,
progress. ;
4
i86
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
While the opinion of the people as a whole is thus
clearly defined, it may be admitted that along the
borders, where the frontier, with its Custom houses
carrying out the regulations of a high protective tariff,
offered hindrances to local trade, a certain amount of
annexation talk was in past years heard. It has also
been heard from time to time among bitter and disappointed political partisans. The question is never
discussed on grounds of political, social, or moral advantage, but entirely from a trade basis. Into this
discussion it was deeply interesting to enter. One
preliminary condition I found it necessary to fix. It
is useless to discuss the local or peculiar trade relations
of a parish, a town, or a county in a country which
covers half a continent. Even observatioris which extend only over a single province may be extremely
misleading in drawing general conclusions for so vast
an area. Only those great dominating industries or
interests which must finally determine national policy
are worth taking into account. Narrowing the subject thus, a person finds himself face to face with one
primary consideration—What is the natural market
for Canadian products ? This is a question much
debated in Canadian party politics; it is a question
which should be studied closely in England, where it
is often carelessly assumed that the contiguity of the
United States creates for Canada an overwhelming
interest in the market nearest at hand. Without
detailed examination of the facts, this conclusion is a
natural one.    That 65,000,000 of people on its im-
1A 1
ix       Trade Relations and Trade Policy    187
mediate borders should make a far greater demand
on the products of the Dominion than 40,000,000 of
people 3,000 miles away, seems, on first thought, a
reasonable inference. It does not seem so reasonable
when we reflect on the one simple fact that the
staple products of Canada are, with one or two exceptions, staple products of the United States as well,
and that, therefore, over a large range of industry, the
two countries are natural rivals in markets where their
surplus products are required. There is a physical
fact, too, which must be once more specially noted
in considering the question. Almost to the heart of
the continent Canada enjoys the advantage of water
carriage—a circumstance which beyond everything
else minimizes for commercial purposes the effect of
distance. When the canal system is complete, as it
soon will be, it will be possible to send Canadian products in ships of 2,000 tons burden from the head of
Lake Superior to Montreal, for transference to larger
vessels, or even direct to Liverpool, Manchester, or
London, without breaking bulk. Keeping these considerations in view, it seems to me capable of demonstration that the great and dominant trading interests
of Canada Lie with Britain rather than with the United
States—with the far market rather than with the
near. This is, I think, true at present; it is still more
strikingly true if we consider the country's prospective
development. The statement will bear investigation
in detail, and we may begin with   a   great staple
roduct. i88
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
If there is one thing about which Canadians feel
confident, it is that the settlement of population in the
North-West will result in the production of a large
surplus of wheat. That wheat will necessarily find
its natural market, as the small surplus now does,
across the Atlantic, not in a wheat-exporting country
like the United States; its carriage implies the prosperity of the lake shipping, the canals, the railways,
the ocean ports, and ocean shipping. A' million or
two more of wheat-producing settlers on the prairies
would make this interest one of the greatest importance all the way from Regina to Montreal, St. John,
and Halifax.
The cattle trade of Canada with Britain has grown
rapidly; more than 100,000 live cattle have been sent
across the Atlantic in a single year. In this trade
the United States, which sends more than 300,000, is
her greatest rival. Any increase of the cattle export-—
and it is likely to increase largely—will manifestly be for
the British market. With dead meat and cattle products
the same is true. Cheese goes almost exclusively to
the United Kingdom: for the best quality of butter
the same market is best. I have pointed out in a
previous chapter the probability that pork, in the
production of which inferior qualities of wheat can
be profitably utilized, may become a large Canadian
export. It would not go south to compete with
American corn-fed pork and the great packing establishments of Chicago. The pork-packing establishment now   at Ingersoll sends all its surplus output ix       Trade Relations and Trade Policy    189
to England; a larger one has also been started by
an English company at Woodstock, with the express
purpose of inducing farmers in the neighbourhood to
rear animals best suited for the home market, as the
same company and others have already led Irish and
Danish farmers to do, to their immense advantage.
The United States have till lately been the best
market for such horses as Canada had to selL A blow
was struck at this trade by the imposition of a high
duty, but the substitution of electricity for horses on
tramway systems seems Likely to destroy altogether the
American market for ordinary horses without reference
to tariff. For the best quality of horses Britain has
always been the better market, and the development of
the trade will depend upon the attention paid to
improved breeding. More than 5,000 horses were
sent from Canada to the United Kingdom during
the shipping season of 1894.
In 1893 Canada sent more than 600,000 barrels of
apples to the United Kingdom. One of the largest
dealers in Ontario told me that this was the only market
to be relied on, and that though about 100,000 bushels
were sent to the United States in the same year the
fact was exceptional.
The great timber trade of the St. Lawrence and
maritime provinces is chiefly with Great Britain; and
British Columbia, which has hitherto chiefly supplied
Pacific ports, is now beginning to ship to England also.
The exhaustion of American forests, however, is no
doubt stimulating the demand in the United States for I.
190
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
some kinds of Canadian timber, and a large trade will
result from the abolition of the import duty.
Experiments made on a large scale of shipping
poultry from Ontario to England have proved successful, and the trade is capable of indefinite development.
A single exporter in Western Ontario told me that for
seven years he had each season sent several carloads of
turkeys through New York (in order to secure the most
rapid transit) to Liverpool, and had found the operation
profitable and satisfactory. The market thus reached
through the United States at a distance of 3,500 miles
was, he added, practically unlimited, and he was amazed
that the nearer maritime provinces did not avail themselves of it more fully. For the small and slipshod
dealer along the border the near market for poultry is
no doubt the best; for the large exporter, carefully
studying methods of treatment and transportation, the
distant market makes the best returns.
Canadian trade with Great Britain is in some particulars much less than it will be when proper organization in the carrying trade has been secured and careful
study given to the needs of the British market. Of
what these can do we have a striking illustration in
the case of cheese. Twenty-five years ago Canada sent
scarcely any cheese to the United Kingdom; the
methods of manufacture were poor; the industry was
without efficient organization. A resolute effort was
made to improve, the best systems were adopted,
factories established, and the greatest care was taken
to ship only the best qualities, with the result that ix       Trade Relations and Trade Policy    191
an export which in 1868 was valued at |500,000
had in 1881 risen to $5,000,000, and in 1891 to
$10,000,000. In the latter year Canada sent to Great
Britain 106,000,000 lbs.; the United States, its chief
competitor, only 82,000,000 lbs., or one half of what it
was sending in 1881. In 1893 the Canadian export
had risen beyond 133,000,000 lbs., which was 53 per
cent, of the whole British import, while the American
export had dropped still further to 81,000,000 lbs. In
that year Great Britain took Canadian cheese to the
value of $13,360,237, while all other countries took less
than $50,000 worth.
The quality of Canadian cheese also has become so
distinct that steps are being taken to have all produced
within the country for export officially branded. At
the Chicago Exhibition the superiority of Canadian
cheese was strikingly maintained. In the spring
exhibit, out of 136 awards no less than 125 fell to
Canada, and the proportion at the fall exhibit was nearly
as large. Most of the Canadian output is from Ontario
and Quebec, where I found that cheese is considered
one of the most profitable farm products. One observes
that the farming districts of the Eastern peninsula of
Ontario, apparently the most generally prosperous in
Canada, are those in which cheese manufacture has
been most carefully developed. In the maritime
provinces the opportunities are even better, since a
moist climate gives superior pasturage, and there is
much land singularly adapted for raising hay.
What has been done with cheese could unquestion- &
192
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
ably be done with butter. There are no better butter-
producing districts in the world than the marsh and
intervale lands of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, but
the introduction of factories capable of turning out a first-
class article of even quality, points essential to a command of the best English markets, has only begun, and
means of transportation have not been perfected. It is
a distinct rebuke to Canadian enterprise to find that
New Zealand and the Australian colonies, which have to
send their products 12,000 miles, and across the tropics,
are taking the lead in this important particular, simply
by superior skill and completeness of organization.
Much attention is now being given to the matter, the
General Government has arranged a system of instruction in butter making, and the cheese factories are being
adapted to the production of butter during the winter. It
has been mentioned that the apple trade, too, large as it is,
has been much hampered by bad packing and the export
of inferior fruit. The care and, I may add, honesty in
these particulars shown by the Tasmanian grower might
well give a lesson to the over-sharp Nova Scotian or
Ontario packer, by which he would secure better returns.
If the latter could but watch the keen faces of a group of
London costermongers at Covent Garden when the heads
of the apple barrels are knocked out, and the contents
exposed to the centre before sale, he would understand
that his clever packing is sheer stupidity. The name
of any unequal apple-packer in Canada should be posted
for pubLic execration, so great is the harm that he does
to one of the most promising industries of the country. ix       Trade Relations and Trade Policy    193
Of products not now of importance, but Likely to
become so, nickel and silver are worthy of mention. I
visited the mines of nickel ore at Sudbury, in Ontario,
which surpass anything yet found in the world. It is
difficult to obtain accurate information about these
deposits, since, in the uncertainty as to the future of
the metal, both the English and Canadian companies
which have works here are exceedingly reticent about
the extent and value of their possessions. But the
reports of Canadian geologists and of experts sent
by the American Government to institute inquiries
make it clear that the supply of nickel in the" district
is practically inexhaustible. At present a considerable
quantity of ore is smelted, and shipped chiefly to South
Wales and the United States. The output could easily
be increased, but it is fixed by the comparatively limited
application of the metal in the arts. If nickel realizes
the expectations conceived about it, and becomes a
necessary ingredient in armour-plating, it will no doubt
seek the English centres where armour-plating is
chiefly manufactured.
From the Kootenay district in British Columbia a
large production of silver seems assured. Like the
silver of Broken Hill in Australia, it will flow to English
markets, rather than go southward to compete with
Nevada and other States which have the largest silver
output in the world.
Summing up, then, it would appear that for wheat,
cattle, dead meat, cheese, butter, pork, apples, timber,
nickel, and silver, the distant market is, or can easily be
o 194
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
made, the better; the one to which these products will
naturally go. That they include the dominant industries of Canada, those which must always furnish the
largest surplus for export, cannot, I think, be successfully denied.
Against this group of products we must now put
another before we can fully weigh existing trade conditions. In this second group the chief place must be
given to coal. The bituminous coal of Vancouver
Island, though supplying British Columbia west of the
Rockies, and sent to many points in the Pacific Ocean,
still finds its largest market in San Francisco and other
American towns. Here it has been for some years faced
by a duty of seventy-five cents per ton, the removal of
which unquestionably ineans an enlarged market and'
increased profits. The same is true of the Lethbridge
mines of Alberta. The Nova Scotia mines, in the last
few years, through special favour shown to them by the
Government railways, and under a protection similar to
that given to American coal, have found a home market
better than they ever enjoyed in New England, under
reciprocity, but to them too the freedom of the American
market will give a decided stimulus.
Next to coal is barley, which has hitherto found its
way chiefly to the United States. There seems no
sufficient reason why Canadian barley should not come
to supply the large demand in England, and, judging
from what has already been accomplished, it will probably do so in time. When the American market was
closed by the McKinley tariff, the farmers had to make a ■\
ix       Trade Relations and Trade Policy    195
change from the four-rowed barley commonly grown
and bought for American breweries to the two-rowed
variety which brewers prefer in England. The export
to Britain has increased under this change, but the
Canadian farmer has not yet learned to exercise the care
required to match the sensitiveness of the English buyer
to the least variations of colour and grading. Eggs,
shut out by the McKinley tariff, have been diverted with
singular rapidity to Britain—more than 40,000,000
having been sent over in 1892, and nearly 50,000,000 in
1893. The trade has proved profitable, but still, for so
perishable a commodity, the advantage of a near market,
at least as an alternative, is manifest. The United
States duty on eggs has now been reduced nearly one
half.
The interests of the large fishing industry are divided.
Tinned salmon and lobsters, of which there is a large
export, go almost exclusively to Britain, salted fish to
the Mediterranean, the West Indies, and South America,
fresh fish to the States.
If now we add spring lambs and chickens, vegetables,
and other minor farm and mineral products, some too
bulky for distant exchange, some too perishable for
long carriage—chiefly such as the maritime provinces
furnish to New England towns—-we have pretty well
exhausted the lines of production on which Canada
must look to the United States for the best market.
This group, then, comprises barley (for the immediate present only), coal, fresh fish, and minor farm
products, to which should be added, I think, timber
o 2 196
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
in some forms, and some varieties of iron ore peculiar,
to Canada. But in regard to most of these products
Canada holds on the American continent a natural
superiority which is beginning to assert itself. San
Francisco, as I have pointed out, depends on British
sources for all its good coal. New England factories
want Nova Scotia coal, and the towns of Northern
Montana require that of Lethbridge, because it is the
cheapest and the best accessible. The brewing interest of the States is united in pressing for the
removal of the duty on Canadian barley, which has
long been considered the best on the continent. The
extraordinary prices at times paid for Ontario timber
limits by American operators prove the comparative exhaustion of American forests. For fresh fish the great
American cities depend more and more upon the northern
Canadian waters.
The conclusion seems to be irresistible that for the
main lines of Canadian export the British market is
infinitely the more important. In several of the other
cases I have enumerated, where the near market is
advantageous, the American people have already in
their own interests been induced to open their
country more freely to Canadian products. Only a
feeling of trade animosity such as was displayed in
the last Message of President Harrison can prevent
them from doing this still further.
To any policy dictated by this feeling Canadians,
will undoubtedly reply in the future as in the past, by
either finding new markets for what they have to sell, ix        Trade Relations and Trade Policy    197
or by turning their attention to production of other
kinds. The unlooked-for result upon Canadian commerce of the operation of the McKinley tariff proves
that even this prospect need not be discouraging. The
returns for 1892 indicate that the trade of Canada for
that year was the largest in her history up to that
time, and that while there was a decline in the case of
the United States, chiefly owing to the exclusion of
barley and eggs, there was a large increase with every
other important country with which the Dominion
deals, and especially with Great Britain. Compared
with 1891, the exports to Great Britain rose from
$49,280,328 to $64,900,549; those to the United
States dropped from $41,138,625 to $33,830,696.
This change is very remarkable and significant. A
vigorous effort to open up a larger trade with the
West Indies has met with fair success, and exchange with
Australia has increased rapidly with the introduction of
better steam communication across the Pacific.
In what I have said there has been no intention to
question the great value to Canada of the freest trade
relations attainable with the United States. My object
has been to show that they are not absolutely essential
to her prosperity; that, in fact, Canada holds upon the
American continent a fairly independent trade position,
which, if properly made use of, is quite sufficient to give
security to her political status. Both countries have
much to gain from increased interchange of products,
but to suppose that the greater commercially dominates
the smaller is an utter mistake.    It is a remarkable 198
The Great Dominion
CHAP,
fact that in the midst of almost universal depression—
a depression which has particularly affected the United
States—the increase of Canadian trade referred to as
taking place in 1892 was maintained in 1893.
These truths need to be impressed upon Canadians
themselves. In some parts of the country one heard
statements made, by otherwise intelligent men, which
indicated that party politics were too absorbing to
permit study of the bare arithmetical facts of trade and
commerce. The Liberal party has exaggerated the
importance of the United States market, and has
shown a readiness to make excessive sacrifices to obtain
it. The Conservative party, or rather a section of it,
has staked too much upon the hope of preferential
trade with Great Britain instead of depending upon the
innate advantages and opportunities of Canada itself.
To make the most of these last much yet remains to be
done. The lack of close study of the British market and
of a resolution to put upon it only the best products in the
best condition has been referred to. An improved freight
service across the Atlantic should be provided. Sir
William Van Home has pointed out to the Toronto Board
of Trade on a public occasion that the use of modern
ships, with the best coal-saving appliances, would mean,
by reduction of freight charges alone, an addition of
10 per cent, to the present value of a large volume of
Canadian exports. Most important of all, perhaps, is
tariff revision. These three things—great care in
studying and meeting the demands of the British
market, improved means of transportation, ,and such ix       Trade Relations and Trade Policy    199
lowering of duties as will reduce the cost of agricultural
production to the lowest possible point and encourage
exchange with the mother country—will do more for
Canada than she can ever hope to gain from preferential
treatment by Great Britain. The latter is distant and
doubtful, the others practicable and open to immediate
adoption.
On the question of tariffs, something more must be
said, With the export trade of Canada in many lines
turning so decisively towards the United Kingdom,
English people will naturally study with interest the
prospects of an equivalent return trade, and ask
whether Canada shows any inclination to relax her protective system either towards Britain or towards the
world. The prolonged political conflict over trade
policy has not yet ceased, and one hears widely varying
expressions of opinion based sometimes on party feeling,
sometimes on genuine conviction. The Dominion, like
the United States, is manifestly in the midst of a
transition period. Some conclusions, however, seem to
me clear.
It may be said with confidence that protection has
now reached its highest point in Canada. It would
probably never have got the hold it has, save for the
example and neighbourhood of the United States. The
example was to some extent misleading. Protection
always had a better chance of success, temporary or
permanent, in the United States than in Canada,
because the former country had naturally a greater
variety of production within itself, and also because it
J vv)
I
200
The Great Dominion
chap.
started upon its protective career with a population
large enough to give an immense area of internal free
trade. Yet I cannot think that the adoption of a pro*
tective system by Canada was at the time a mistake, or
has been without good results. It was entered upon
under peculiar circumstances, The North-West had
just been acquired; its opening up seemed a national
necessity; a pledge had been given to connect by rail
the Pacific coast with the Atlantic, The older
provinces shrank from a task so vast, which involved
raising revenues beyond precedent. It is safe to say
that without the hope held out by the protective policy
of an increased manufacturing population at home, and
a wider exclusive market in the West, the work would
never have been undertaken or carried rapidly on to
successful completion. Again, the neighbouring republic had just denounced a mutually beneficial reciprocity treaty, and adopted a fiscal system which, in its
operation, exposed the incipient industries of a weaker
country like Canada to the greatest dangers.
Monopolist manufacturers at home might be bad, many
a free trader reasoned, but their work was, at least, done
within the country. To be at the mercy of highly protected-manufacturers in another land, where rings and
trusts held almost unbounded sway, had about it no
redeeming feature. Once more, the large revenues
which it was necessary to raise could not be obtained by
direct taxation, to which the habits and prejudices of
the people had long been utterly opposed.
What the public men of the day had to consider, in :
ix       Trade Relations and Trade Policy    201
carrying out their daring but, as events have proved,
their well-judged plans, was how to extract from the
taxpayers a very large revenue in the form that seemed
least objectionable. A tariff at once high and incidentally protective was the method adopted. If we grant all
that may be urged as to the fallacies of the protective
idea, still, politicians no more than doctors can be greatly
blamed for giving a sugar coating to an unpleasant
medicine.
As it was, the stimulus of the national policy, as the
system was called, whether artificial or otherwise,
carried the country through a period of great strain and
effort—a period, too, in which it acquired a self-reliance
never known before. Conditions have now greatly
changed. Several circumstances combine to make a
more or less decisive change of policy not only advisable
but possible of adoption. The limit of large capital
expenditure undertaken for necessary works has now
been almost reached. The essential railway systems
are practically completed. The same will soon be true
of the canals. Industries for which temporary protection was deemed necessary have now had a good start,
and may fairly be asked to begin to stand alone. The
general expansion of trade gives buoyancy to the
revenue, and the Government had in 1890, 1891, and
1893 a large surplus to deal with, and a small one in
1892, though sugar had just been made entirely free.
There seems to me to be a consensus of opinion
throughout the North-West, in the agricultural communities of the East, and among men of independent
S 202
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
thought everywhere, that the first object of Canadian
statesmanship should now be to make the Dominion a
cheap country to live in. A large inflow of population
to the unsettled areas, the greatest good of the greatest
number in all parts, seem to depend on this. Even
manufactures which have made great strides under the
impulse of protection now feel a still greater need of
the wide market which only a large and prosperous
agricultural population can supply, The extreme
depression in the price of agricultural produce has led
farmers to consider more closely than they ever did
before the price of the manufactured goods they buy
and in some provinces there has been much organization to give political effect to their views.
Greater freedom of trade, then, is gradually coming
in response to a strong popular demand. It might have
won in the last general election against all the strength
of Sir John Macdonald and a powerful Government, had
not a small section of the Liberal party allowed its
advocacy to be mixed up with suspicions of their fidelity
to national connexion—suspicions which can in no wise
attach to the party as a whole. That election, and still
more the bye-elections which followed, killed the idea
of commercial union with the United States as then
suggested, which involved discrimination against the
motherland. With the idea of commercial union has
since completely vanished any inclination which here
and there may have been harboured towards political
union. In 1892 some remnants of this feeling could
yet be discovered;  in 1894 it was gone.      The un-
II I
ix       Trade Relations and Trade Policy    203
paralleled wave of business depression which swept over
the United States during the interval; the spectacle
of Coxeyite armies of the unemployed moving on
Washington; of Atlantic steamboats and Canadian
railway trains crowded with emigrants returning from
the United States; of industry paralyzed by strikes
which divided authority made it difficult to repress—
all made Canadians more conscious than they had ever
been before of the serious social and political problems
which their neighbours have to confront. The fact
that Canada's industrial condition was meanwhile
scarcely affected emphasized the advantages of her
independent position on the continent.
Now that the struggle against commercial union is
over, a broader and truer conception of improved and
freer trade relations is growing up. The Conservative
leaders are not, I think, unwilling to recognize this new
tendency of the public mind. Any one who studies
Canada from coast to coast will be convinced that in
doing so they will be serving their own interests. The
Government, however, secure in a large majority, can,
until the approach of a general election, suit its own
convenience in dealing with the question. In the
Session of Parliament for 1893 the growing feeling in
favour of a reduction of protective duties was staved off
by the promise of a searching inquiry into the working
of the national policy in all parts of the Dominion, an
inquiry which has since been carried Out by the Finance
Minister and his assistants. This inquiry led to a
revision of the tariff, and very considerable reductions, ■ i
204
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
though not so large or so numerous as had been
expected. The process of reduction is likely to go
further. The Conservative party seems resolved to
cling to its traditional policy of protection in the case
of special industries, while proposing from time to time
a considerable advance in tariff reform as circumstances make this possible. The Liberal party claims
that it is the truer representative of unshackled
trade. The tendency is the same in both political
parties.
There will be difficulties to overcome. Large
revenues must still be raised; vested interests will
make themselves considered. The manufacturing
centres of the East will make their influence felt
as well as agricultural interests West and East. Some
industries will make a strong plea for continued.support. Still there are numberless directions in which
fetters can be removed from trade, and the tendencies
are manifestly in that direction. As changes are made
there will be a strong desire to make it favour trade
with the motherland. It is claimed that this is done
by the recent revision. Any allusion to such freer
trade made in popular assemblies is sure to draw
out enthusiastic applause. Mr. d'Alton M'Carthy,
the most prominent private member of the Conservative party, has openly declared himself in favour of a
direct and unconditional reduction of duties on English
goods. This is not sentiment, but business. A return
cargo makes cheap freights. A country which hopes
to cover the North Atlantic with  ships carrying its ix       Trade Relations and Trade Policy    205
products to  England cannot, if it is wise, wish to
see those ships return in ballast.
There are one or two things which it seems well to
point out to the British manufacturer who looks on the
Canadian as his rival. The impression left upon my
mind by the study of Canadian manufacturing development in relation to British trade is this. In new
countries like Canada, under a protective system, and
even without it, there will be a tendency to develop all
the rougher forms of manufacture locally. The cheap-*
ness of the article produced, the small margin of profit,
the cost of carrying material, all contribute to make
this natural. I believe that coarse cottons or woollens,
for instance, can be produced in Eastern Canada to-day
and placed upon the market as cheaply as those
from Manchester or Yorkshire. The policy of the
English manufacturer, under such conditions, is manifest. He must make up his mind to turn more and
more—and he might as well do it without grumbling—
from the lower to the higher forms of manufacture.
With his abundant capital, with greater attention to
technical education among his workpeople, with the
fuller command that he has of mechanical and artistic
skill, he can easily do this. In this field he will find
a constantly enlarging market in proportion as both
manufactures and agriculture increase the prosperity
and buying capacity of the new communities. Let me
give a practical illustration of what I mean. I have
observed a large  cotton null  started  in one of the 206
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
maritime provinces of the Dominion, giving employment to many hundreds of hands. Cheap land, cheap
building material, lowtaxes, easy water carriage for the
raw cotton, adundance of cheap fuel from the waste
wood of saw mills, and excellent facilities for railway
distribution make it possible for this mill, even with a
greater outlay for wages, to compete successfully in gray
and other coarse cottons with those of England. In
this particular line of goods, therefore, the Manchester
trade is checked. But, if the Manchester manufacturer
could observe how each year the shops at which these
prosperous Canadian artisans deal become more and
more packed with the finer goods which they require,
he might learn two lessons—first, that it is stupid to
try to force his old wares on a market where he
is handicapped; and, secondly, that with a little
adaptability the new condition of things might be
turned to his own great advantage. All observation of
colonial markets convinces one that the English manufacturer has as much reason to study the changing
wants of the colonists in manufactured goods as the
colonist has to study the needs of the home consumer
in the matter of food supply.
At Woodstock, Ontario, I glanced hurriedly, under
the conduct of the proprietor, through the largest high-
class "dry goods" (drapery, millinery, &c.) establishment in the town. Seventy or eighty per cent, of all
the goods sold were of British production, he told me,
" But," he added, as we passed through a room devoted ix       Trade Relations and Trade Policy    207
almost exclusively to ladies' mantles," all these are from
Germany." " Why Germany ?" I asked. " More taste,
better material, better work for the same amount of
money than can be got in England." He left the
impression on my mind that the Canadian mantle
trade now centres chiefly in Berlin. That is something
for the English manufacturer to consider and remedy if
he can. It was but a passing observation, but close
inquiry might discover many such cases, and close
inquiry is what the manufacturer is bound to make in
these days.
There are, of course, difficulties in the way of giving
preference to British trade. It has hitherto been
supposed that under existing treaties Germany and
Belgium can claim the advantage of any reduction
made to Britain. Whether this be true or not, the
anxiety of Canada that these treaties should not be
renewed indicates the tendency of her policy.
On all sides the business outlook for Canada seems
most encouraging. She has in actual fact a rapidly
increasing trade with Britain. She has the hope of
better trade relations with the United States. She
is carefully cultivating minor but useful lines of exchange with the far East, Australasia, the West Indies,
and South America. Her credit stands higher than
that of any other great colony of the Empire. She
has prudently ceased to be a great borrower, but for
her three per cent, loans thrice the amount for which
she asks has been offered.    Her equipment for internal 1
208
The Great Dominion
CHAP. IX
V
development is excellent, and she has abundant room
to receive the population which has been her greatest
lack. The mass of the people are industrious, and
her producing power is steadily increasing. Finally
there is the fact which I have tried to prove—that
her industries and the inclinations of her people alike
point to close commercial and political consolidation
with the nation of which she forms a part.
I CHAPTER X
LABOUR, EDUCATION,  AND POLITICAL TENDENCIES
From what has already been said it will be easily
inferred that Canada is not a " paradise" for the
working man, nor for anybody else who looks for an
easy time or for great results with little effort. In
other words, it is not a land of illusions. Any visitor,
who is able to make comparisons with other countries
will be struck as he travels through the rural districts,
and especially through those of the older provinces,
by the large proportion of comfortable-looking homes
which he sees. If he has an opportunity to study
them closely he will find that the comfort is very
real and substantial, but he will also find that they
are homes which have in almost all cases been won by
steady, unflinching industry.
For success, an emigrant to the Dominion must
therefore have something in him, whether on the
prairie or woodland. " Is Canada a good enough
country for a working man to go to ?" one is often
asked in great British centres of population. " Is the
working man good enough to go to such a country as
p
J sp
B
Hi
2IO
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
Canada ? " is often a more pertinent inquiry. Has he
the necessary backbone, the capacity to adapt himself
to new circumstances, such an appreciation of the
benefits of a healthy life, physical and moral, that he
is ready to sacrifice other things to obtain it ? Are
cheap music-halls, and cheap beer at every street
corner, and a loaf ready baked for a wife untrained to
domestic cares, more to him than fresh air, and plenty
of space, and conditions of life which, if rough, are at
any rate wholesome, and have in them the promise of
health, independence, and improved social opportunities
for his children ?
Fifty years ago the British emigrant was almost
always welcomed abroad, for he was usually a son of
the soil, accustomed to a simple life, hard work, and
long hours. But the emigrant who is the product of
half a century of the artificial life of great towns,
fresh from the atmosphere of trade unions, strikes, and
social agitations, is looked at rather askance in Canada.
The popular thought crystallizes itself into the advice
which colonial agents give concerning the best classes
to emigrate—farmers with a little capital, agricultural
labourers, country girls to be trained for domestic
service. For these there is always plenty of room
and occupation.
The reports which occasionally cross the Atlantic of
an unemployed class in Canada must never be looked
at in the same light as the question of the unemployed
in England, or even in Australia. They only mean
that people have drifted thither who are unfitted for Labour and Political Tendencies      211
Canadian life. If any man is out of work it is because
he cannot or will not adapt himself to the abundant
work there is to do. Artisans who can or will only do
one kind of work run a good deal of risk in going to a
country where versatility, a willingness and capacity
to turn the hand to anything, is often the key to
success. For men with plenty of backbone there are
the best of opportunities in Canada; for men without
it the country is not to be recommended.
" There is plenty of work and plenty to eat in this
country," were the words in which an Aberdeen woman
at Dunmore, after speaking of hard times in the old
home, and hard work followed by prosperity in the
new, summed up to me her view of Canada. The
remark has a very general application. But it should
be said that the hard work is of a kind which does not
depress. The climate appears to lend itself singularly
to the necessity for vigorous effort. Lady Cathcart's
agent told me that he asked one of the crofter emigrants,
whom he had found persistently shiftless and careless
at home, how he managed without additional help
to keep everything neat and tidy on his Manitoba
farm. " One never seems to get tired in this air," was
the reply. No doubt the sense of personal ownership
and independent effort was a co-operating influence,
but the difference between the moist, enervating atmosphere of the Hebrides and the electric air of the
North-West would account for a good deal. The farm
labourer of the Southern or Eastern English counties
seems a heavy, awkward fellow when compared with
P 2
1
J 212
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
the wiry, active, and versatile backwoodsman of Eastern
Canada. Climate doubtless has something to do with
this also, for the step of the same labourer seems to
quicken and his eye to brighten when he has been for
a time on Canadian soil.
Curiously enough, although strenuous work is thus
the distinctive* note of Canadian life, one may yet
travel for months through the country without hearing
the subject of labour discontent specially referred to..
Labour problems as they are known in England and
Australia, for instance, do not fill any large place in
people's thoughts. The reasons for this contrast are
not hard to discover.
In the first place, the country is not crowded.
Canada's prime characteristic is the abundance of
land which is easily accessible and which gives a fair
and speedy return to individual labour with a comparatively slight expenditure of capital. There is no desert
interior, as in Australia, to limit the range of settlement, and the people are free to spread over the whole
country from the Atlantic to the Pacific. The prevailing occupations are agricultural, and as a rule each
farmer owns the land he works. A man who is hurrying
to get through with his fall ploughing before the frost
comes on, or to make the most of the first fortnight's
seeding in spring, or is trying to get the greatest
possible amount of his own work squeezed into the
short summer, or the autumn which presses so closely
upon it, has not much leisure to think over the eight
hours' question, or to spend time on labour agitations.
n t^_ HB?
Labour and Political Tendencies      213
Not how many hours he ought to work, but how much
work he can put through in a day, is the paramount
question. This applies to the warmer seasons. In the
lumber woods and on the farms in winter labour has
a natural limitation in the shortness of the northern
day. There is then much time for recreation or self-
improvement. When a man is his own master and
retains the profits of his industry, the labour problem
takes on new aspects for him. Fortunately for Canada
the majority of workers are their own masters. The
natural conditions of the Dominion thus appear to
relegate serious labour problems to a very remote
future.
In the next place, the winter climate squeezes out
for a part of the year the "tramp" and "swagger"
class—the incorrigible loafer who.takes no pains to
provide a roof for himself, and who poses as unemployed
while really unwilling to work. For nine months of
the year, in most parts of Australia, a man of this
type can sleep without discomfort under the open
sky; there are nearly nine months in Canada when
some provision for shelter is a necessity. The advantages of a mild climate are doubtless many, and one is
more conscious of the luxury of easy living in Australia;
a climate like that of Canada, severe for lengthened
periods even while it is exhilarating, has merits which,
though less obvious, are far-reaching in their influence
on national character. It drives men back on home
life and on work; it teaches foresight; it cures or kills
the shiftless and improvident; history shows that in 214
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
the long run it has made strong races. It certainly
saves Canada from a class which everywhere does harm
to genuine industrial improvement. The Canadian
winter exercises upon the tramp a silent but well-nigh
irresistible persuasion to shift to a warmer latitude.
It is a permanent barrier to the influx of weaker races.
It is a fundamental political and social advantage
which the Dominion enjoys over the United States,
where the gradual and inevitable spread of a black
zone across the South, and the increasing attraction
of the warm Middle States for the races of Southern
Europe, infinitely complicate the processes of national
development, and qualify the undoubted industrial
advantage of varied production.
In what has been said one speaks chiefly of the
country, but even in the towns there has hitherto
been little labour agitation. The inclination to drift
from country to city life is noticeable in Canada as
elsewhere, but unhealthy pressure towards the centres
has not as yet become serious, and there is little
sympathy with an unemployed class created by such
a tendency. Till a man has tried what he can do on
the land, he is not, even in the cities, thought to have
much right to grumble or demand help from private
charity or from the State.
Canada has a still further safeguard against labour
troubles in the neighbourhood of the United States.
If a man is not suited with the work and wages he
gets in his own country, he can go to another close
at hand.    The extent to which the French Canadian x Labour and Political Tendencies      215
of Quebec thus migrates vx order to find a market
for his labour as a factory hand has been before
referred to.
While the States in this way serve as a safety-valve
for labour questions to the Dominion, it must be
confessed that they have in past years drawn from
Eastern Canada a great deal of material which it would
gladly have retained. This so-called " exodus" has
undoubtedly retarded the growth of the Dominion, and
has been a fiercely discussed question in Canadian
politics. One of the chief grounds on which protection, or, as it was called, the " national policy," won
favour in Canada was the belief that the development
of manufactures, by creating a variety of industry,
would retain in the country many who were going
away. This, to a certain extent, it has done. The
opening up of the North West has also contributed
to divert this flow of population westward, and will do
so more in the future. Still, a limited migration to
the States goes on, and is likely to do so. It is the
natural penalty which Canada pays for being a
northern country with those rigorous conditions of
life which develop a strong type of character and
physique. She is, in fact, repeating the experience of
Scotland and New England. A climate which tends
to produce a hardy race, a Puritan turn of mind which
gives moral strenuousness, good schools, the leisure of
winter for thought and study—all these tend to
produce men likly to go abroad to win their way by
their wits.    The Anglo-Saxon element of the United
\ 216 The Great Dominion
CHAP.
I
States, deluged as it is by a foreign population chiefly
of the labouring class, and lacking many of the moral
qualities which give the native American his superiority, gladly turns to Canada for a higher class of
workers. Young men raised on Canadian farms and
educated in Canadian schools and colleges are
paid high wages, and everywhere rise to position of
trust as railway and telegraph managers, as clerks,
foremen, or organizers of industry in a hundred forms;
the more highly trained, as teachers, professors, and
journalists. Women obtain highly remunerative employment as matrons or nurses in hospitals and other
institutions where a good physique and high intelligence
are essential.
Only the opening of large fields of enterprise or the
growth of great and wealthy centres, such as everywhere
attract special ability, can prevent migration of this kind.
This exodus of talent and energy is, therefore, likely
to be continuous, and to extend to other countries as
well as to the United States. It is fostered by the educational advantages everywhere within reach. On education almost every province of the Dominion spends
sums exceedingly large when compared with the whole
amount of revenue. The free school is everywhere,
and the system extends in most of the provinces from
the elementary grades up through the secondary
schools to the door of the university. But the free
school in Canada is not like the free school of England—practically a gift from the rich who make no
use of it to the poor who  do.    The  Canadian  free Labour and Political Tendencies      217
11
I
i
school is paid for by all classes and is used by all;
is, in fact, a method of social co-operation for obtaining the best educational results with the least waste
of force.
Excellent results are obtained and great public spirit
is shown in the maintenance of good schools, considering that' in fixing expenditure much is left to be
decided by public sentiment in each province and
each school district. Government does not, as in
Australia, maintain schools; it gives assistance on a
scale graduated to the amount of local effort, and
exercises a general superintendence. On the whole,
the plan is probably the most efficient for a common
school system, and in Canada it works well. It must
be said that the not uncommon mistake is made of
spending money more liberally on machinery than upon
men. But educational appliances are very good. In
the country towns the schoolhouses are almost invariably among the finest public buildings, the class rooms
are large, the sanitary arrangements of the best. In most
of the cities the grading and organization of the schools
are very complete, their danger perhaps lying in that
excess of organization which tends to make teaching
mechanical. In rural districts the village school forms
no small part of the social system. In the Far West,
as new areas are surveyed for settlement, provision is
from the first made for education by setting aside
certain sections of land in each township for school
purposes. In newly opened districts, of course, the
difficulty for the first generation of settlers lies in the HI 'I
218
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
sparseness of population, but wherever a few children
can be got together the means are provided for
establishing a school. All towns of any size have good
secondary schools. There is, therefore, no good reason
why every Canadian child should not receive a fair
education, or, if he has ability and perseverance/a really
good one. The long winter lends itself to mental
improvement. The lull in farm work leaves the children of the family comparatively free, and it is at this
season that the country schools are full. The transition from the best country schools to the university is
not difficult, and for poor students is often bridged over
by a period of teaching in the common schools combined with study. The scale of college expense is
more on the level of what obtains in Scottish than
in English universities, though it has risen during
the last few years.
• University education is making rapid strides, partly
by means of public funds, but much more by private
benefactions. The readiness shown by wealth to
support higher educational work is one of the most
satisfactory features of Canadian life at the present
time. When Sir William Dawson delivered his farewell address as Principal of M'Gill College not long
since, he was able to say that the gifts of the citizens
of Montreal to that University during the previous four
years alone had amounted to no less than a million and
a half dollars. There have been very recent proofs that
this stream of munificence has not been exhausted.
Mr. John Henry Molson continues from time to time 1
Labour and Political Tendencies      219
to add to the extremely generous support which has
connected the name of'his family with McGill from
the earliest stages of its growth. The museum
and library, presented before his death and endowed
for permanent maintenance by the late Peter Red-
path, form a noble monument to a large-hearted
and patriotic liberality. Altogether Mr. Redpath's
gifts must have amounted to more than half a million
dollars. The claim that the engineering and physics
departments of M'Gill are the most perfectly equipped
in the world seems justified to any one who has inspected the fine buildings in which they are installed.
Both are the gift of another generous citizen of
Montreal—Mr. W. C. Macdonald, who has spent upon
them nearly a million dollars. The medical school has
grown into importance, and retains numbers of students
who once flocked to Edinburgh and to the colleges of the
United States. This school especially has received
very large support from Sir Donald Smith. The same
benefactor has provided for the higher education of
women in connection with the University by a splendid
and separate endowment, and he is still carefully
maturing plans to make the work' of this department
as perfect as possible. The standard of teaching and
examination is the same as that for men, though the
provisions for instruction are distinct. Montreal may
well be proud of the public spirit which prevails
among its merchant princes. Altogether the university
has now   seventy-four professors and lecturers, with ilN
II r1'
220
The Great Dominion,
CHAP.
; t\
well nigh a thousand students in general or special
subjects.
Toronto University presents a different set of conditions. It depends chiefly for support upon the
provincial revenues of Ontario, of whose altogether
admirable school system it forms the crown. The fact
that the college has this State aid seems, however,
to have operated against large private benefactions.
In comparing these two greatest universities in the
Dominion it is interesting to note that the one which
has depended chiefly upon private generosity within
a single city has a more liberal endowment even than
that which is supported by a wealthy province noted
for its interest in education. Although the State has
done so much for Toronto University, still some of its
friends, and among them, I believe, members of the
Faculty, hold the opinion that its position would be
strengthened if it relied entirely upon voluntary support. It is not easy to decide upon the truth of this
view, though the facts I have mentioned give it some
justification. Indications are not wanting in other
parts of Canada that while the common and intermediate schools can safely depend for adequate support
upon the tax-paying public, the higher learning in
new countries as well as old must look for assistance to the enlightened liberality of the wealthy few.
Often religious sentiment furnishes the motive now
as in earlier centuries. The Presbyterian, Church of
England, Baptist, and Methodist bodies all   support Labour and Political Tendencies      221
colleges—some of them very well endowed—in Ontario,
and their position is so strong that an attempt to
affiliate them with the provincial university has only
been partially successful.
Apart from State aid, the gifts made to a few of
the leading colleges in the English provinces of the
Dominion during the last ten years alone have
amounted to at least $5,000,000. This estimate I had
from Principal Grant, whose great and successful exertions in building up Queen's University at Kingston
entitle him to speak with authority upon the subject.
It seems to me to represent a very striking degree
of liberality in a country which has only very lately
known large accumulations of private wealth.
In French Canada higher education is mainly supported from ecclesiastical funds, is almost exclusively
under clerical direction, and is largely employed in
training men for the service of the-Roman Catholic
.Church. Laval University at Quebec has a long and
not undistinguished history. A number of classical
colleges scattered throughout the province are, for the
most part, affiliated with Laval.
In the Maritime provinces smaller colleges, some
dependent on public and some on private and denominational support, do exceedingly good work, though the
course of study is necessarily more limited.
These institutions grew up under the impulse of a
very genuine ardour for higher education at a time
when the provinces were isolated, when communication
was difficult, and when, therefore, each small community s
i
222
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
had to provide for its own wanta They have proved
how much there is to be said for the work of the small
college, with the better opportunity which it gives for
attention to the development of the individual student,
since they have, I think, turned out more men who
have achieved distinction in public and intellectual life
throughout the Dominion than the larger and more
richly endowed universities. But with the increased
facility of access to large centres the struggle for
existence among these small colleges becomes more
keen every day, and the necessity for some general
reorganization of educational force among them is
manifest. As things are, their ablest professors and
students are apt to be drawn away to wider spheres,
or, if not, they suffer from loyalty to local interests.
There is abundance of excellent material and sufficient
endowment of higher education in the Maritime provinces to maintain an effective university. Oxford and
Cambridge prove that it is possible to combine the
advantages of the college which takes charge of a
limited number of students with the opportunities of
a great university. The problem before educational
statesmanship in the Maritime provinces, of harmonizing
local and denominational interests and prejudices, presents difficulties, but should not be insoluble.
Throughout Canada there is an increasing tendency
for students to take a post-graduate course of study in
British or Continental Universities. It is a tendency
which deserves encouragement, for the greatest obstacle
to the attainment of the highest educational results in Labour and Political Tendencies      223
Canada, as in other young countries, is the haste to rush
into professional and business' life without allowing time
for thorough mental training. Besides, contact with great
and ancient centres of learning is the best of all correctives for provincialism in thought and literary effort.
At Kingston the Dominion Government has established and maintains at considerable expense a college
which gives a sound military training, and it is a noteworthy fact that in the few years since it was established
nearly a hundred of its graduates have taken active
service in the imperial army. It has been stated on
the highest authority that in training and attainments
they compare favourably with those turned out by the
military colleges at home.
The Imperial Government assigns each year, without
further examination, a small number of commissions
to students who have distinguished themselves at the
college. The link in military employment thus being
gradually formed between the Dominion and the Empire
seems of some significance and of mutual advantage.
Canada secures the benefit of a large field for the training of its military students; the imperial army has a
widened area from which to draw material.
I have dwelt at length upon the educational question,
partly to show that intellectual has kept pace with
material development, and partly to explain why it is
that, beyond most of the other colonies of the Empire,
the need of Canada is for hand-workers rather than
head-workers. Of the latter j the country produces
within itself more than it can employ.    The avenues to 224
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
1    ■■'
y
professional success are everywhere crowded by home-
born and, except for very special work, home-trained
men. As I have shown, they go abroad in considerable
numbers, for work they cannot find at home. Canada
must, I think, reconcile itself to this exodus, which is
the outcome of natural conditions. It is not without
its compensation in extending influence. Still, there
are many who maintain that the tendency of things in
Canada is to give literary education beyond the needs
of the country; that, while the professions are overcrowded, farms and the more practical avocations of
life become neglected.
It is therefore interesting to note another exceedingly
practical direction which educational effort is taking.
As I have said, the country is and will continue to be
mainly agricultural. It is beginning to be recognized
that in an age of extreme competition the farmer, like
others, can only succeed by adopting the best and most
scientific methods. A beginning, at least, is now being
made in bringing scientific training and the results of
scientific research within his reach.
This work takes two different forms. At Guelph the
Ontario Government has established an Agricultural
College, with an efficient staff of professors. A large
farm is attached to the college, so that provision is
made' for practical as well as theoretic instruction in
farming during the three years' course for which the
plan of study is arranged. The institution has been
in operation for more than twenty years, and improvements have steadily been made, so that now the facilities x Labour and Political Tendencies      225
afforded to the students of becoming familiar with
all kinds of farm work seem to a visitor very complete.
In addition to the ordinary work of field and garden,
of laboratory and lecture room, a great variety of experiments in culture, the results of which are made public
from time to time, are being carried on under the eyes of
the students. Horses, cattle, pigs, sheep, and poultry of
the leading breeds and varieties are reared, to illustrate
the teaching of the college, and to give practice in
methods of treatment. Class-rooms into which animals
of all kinds can be freely introduced strike the observer
as a novel part of college equipment, but among the
most useful.
Particular attention is paid to the department of
dairying, and the lecture-rooms are furnished with all
the best appliances for testing milk, for separating
cream, and for butter and cheese making. A special
short winter course, for dairy teaching exclusively, has
been established, and has met with much success. Its
classes are open to women as well as to men.
The college has steadily grown in public favour, and
has now no lack of students. All are expected to take
a part in the farm work, and that this may be done
the more cheerfully, and on equitable terms, arrangements are made by which students pay in part by their
labour for their education. While the majority are
Canadians, a good many have come in past years from
the United Kingdom, and one asked with a good deal
of interest how this system of combined field labour
Q 226
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
and education worked in the case of young Englishmen.
The report was not altogether what one would wish.
The type of young man from the United Kingdom
whom his parents are most anxious to get settled on a
Canadian farm does not easily take up the role, of a
field labourer, but rather expects to find an agricultural college something like an English public school.
The alternation of study and physical labour is naturally not so pleasant as that of study and play. To the
Canadian farmer's son the former is something like the
normal experience of life, and so for him the college
puts no special strain on prejudices and habits. A
course at Guelph should serve admirably as an introduction for a young Englishman to a farrning life in
Canada, but if he cannot face the labouring conditions
there it is a pretty reliable proof that he is not fitted
for the life to which he looks forward.
As the college can only receive a limited number of
regular students, various means are taken to widen the
sphere of its influence throughout the agricultural
community. Farmers' excursions are arranged, to
visit the college and inspect the practical work of the
farm. Addresses on agricultural subjects are given,
and the methods pursued and experiments carried on
are explained to groups of the visitors by the heads of
the various departments. No less than 9000 persons
are reported as having thus visited the farm during the
single month of June 1893. Again, at certain seasons
of the year members of the college staff attend the
meetings  of farmers' institutes, to give lectures and Labour and Political Tendencies      227
take part in the discussions. These institutes are
voluntarily established by the farmers in most of the
counties of Ontario, and have a marked influence in
stimulating thought on farming questions and introducing improved methods of work. They are encouraged by a small grant from the provincial revenues.
The college also sends out competent men with
travelling dairies to go into every part of the province,
and thus brings instruction on an industry which
has become of the utmost importance in Ontario
almost to the farmer's door. It is found that
young men attend the college in order to qualify
themselves for undertaking the management of
cheese and butter factories, so that the diffusion of
the best methods through the instrumentality of the.
college thus becomes very general. The result of such
work is best shown in the wonderful strides made in
the cheese production of Ontario, and the exceptional
position which Canadian cheese has gained in English
markets during the last ten years.
While Ontario has thus taken the lead in founding
a college for farmers, the Dominion Government is
carrying out on a larger scale another scheme with
somewhat similar objects. For the last six years a
large sum of money has been annually spent in organizing and maintaining a number of experimental farms
at widely separated points across the continent. The
Central Farm, from which the rest are directed, is
in the vicinity of Ottawa. Of the other four, one is
at Nappan, in Nova Scotia;   another in Brandon, in
Q 2
J '*
228
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
i
nil
Manitoba; the third at Indian Head, in the Qu'Appelle
district; and the fourth at Agassiz, in British Columbia.
Climate and conditions extremely different, and representative of the characteristic areas of the country, are
thus embraced in the operations of the farms.
The establishment of these experimental centres by
Government may perhaps best be described as an
endowment of agricultural research. Where a country
has so much staked on the prosperity of its farming
classes as has Canada, money could not be better spent,
and it was satisfactory to be told that no sums were
more cheerfully voted by Parliament than the grants
required for this purpose.
No visitor to Ottawa should miss the opportunity of
seeing the work that is going on at the central farm
near that city, under the direction of Professor Saunders
and his able corps of assistants. Experiments and
investigations of the most varied kinds are being, made
in agriculture, horticulture, and arboriculture, under the
direction of a specialist in each. A system of exchange
has been established with foreign countries, and the
adaptability to the Canadian climate of plants and
seeds thus obtained, especially from northern latitudes, is carefully tested. Farmers are encouraged
to correspond with the heads of the various departments, and submit to them their special difficulties. Any farmer is free to forward seeds to the
Central Farm, where arrangements are made for testing
and giving private reports upon their vitality. The
chemical department receives samples of soils, natural Labour and Political Tendencies      229
manures, &c, analyzes them, and gives advice about
their treatment or use. In the botanical and entomological department plant diseases, noxious weeds, and
injurious insects are carefully studied; communications
are received concerning them; private advice is given
or public bulletins are issued about the best methods
of dealing with them.
Numerous experiments in cross fertilizing are constantly carried on, and new varieties of promise thus
procured are widely distributed among farmers for
further trial. In 1893 more than 20,000 samples of
choice varieties of cereals in three-pound packages
were distributed gratis to all applicants. Great
quantities of tree seeds, with seedling forest trees and
cuttings, have also been distributed, and especially in
the North-West, with a view to encourage tree-growing
on the prairies.
Most of the problems which confront the farmer in
dealing with cattle, sheep, swine, and poultry are being
studied, and the very full and accurate reports of the
heads of departments on their various experiments in
rearing and fattening stock, or combating disease, are
scattered broadcast throughout the farming community. The Agriculturist of the the Central Farm,
Mr. J. W. Robertson, is also Dairy Commissioner for
the Dominion, and it is not too much to say that, by
his energy and enthusiasm, he has begun to organize
the dairying industry in the Maritime provinces on a
new basis.
At the branch farms special attention is given to
J I
I
i
230
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
those agricultural problems which most particularly
affect the particular localities. On the two prairie
stations the testing of varieties of trees suited for the
prairies, and of cereals adapted to the short northern
summer, receives special attention. In British Columbia
hundreds of varieties of fruit are being tested, and
the same department receives special care in Nova
Scotia.
At all the experimental centres the country people
of the neighbourhood are encouraged to visit the
farms, and every facility is given them to observe the
methods pursued and the progress of experiments.
At Ottawa one found that large picnics to the farm,
varied during the day by lectures from the specialists
on the staff, had become a favourite farmers' outing.
Educational effort such as I have described cannot
but assist the farmer in economizing force and making
the most of his opportunities. Its value, however,
lies not merely in the. improvement of agriculture, but
in the interest added to the farmer's life by giving it
a scientific and intellectual side. To make farm life
attractive should surely be one of the aims of an age
perplexed by the problems which have arisen out of
an overgrown city population. The steps being taken
in Canada to attain this end seem practical and eminently noteworthy.
We may now turn to another line of inquiry.
The spirit and tendencies of political life in the
greatest colony of the Empire must always be interesting to British people.   - That interest will necessarily x Labour and Political Tendencies      231
increase and become more practical as time goes on.
Unobtrusively and almost unconsciously, through the
sheer weight of her concern in national affairs,
Canada's influence is making itself felt in imperial
councils. Some time since, in private conversation,
Lord Rosebery remarked that no change had more
struck him in English political life during the last ten
years than the new status which Canadians had
obtained in this country, and the ready way in which
Canadian advice was accepted in matters of great
imperial importance by statesmen of all parties.
The change is only natural. The Dominion includes
nearly forty per cent, of the land area of the Empire. Its
ports, harbour defences, and coal supplies must always
constitute considerable elements in determining the
maritime strength of British people on the Atlantic
and Pacific coasts of America. It lies midway between
Europe and Asia, and is in easy touch with both. It is
in close international relation with the other half of the
American continent. Its population of five milions is
double that of the United States when they became
independent, and greater than that of the England of
Elizabeth's time. Whether its voice, now that of a
united people, not of detached colonies, is heard in
imperial questions by courtesy as at present, or by
representation on defined principle as will probably
come in time, should the unity of the Empire be maintained, such a State must necessarily have increasing
weight in national and international discussions. It is
manifestly of the  utmost importance to the Empire
J »
I
i!
232
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
that public opinion in the Dominion, situated as it is,
should be sober, reasonable, and conscious of its
responsibiHties; that political evolution should proceed
on sound and healthy Lines. So far, Canadian statesmanship has justified the greater attention paid to it
on large questions of imperial policy. Results such as
those achieved at the Halifax and Behring Sea arbitrations are the best proofs of this. Both were the outcome of a firm stand taken by Canada in regard to
what she thought her rights; both were conducted
mainly on Canadian advice; and in each case an
impartial tribunal maintained the Canadian as against
the American contention.
In many ways Canada holds a curious middle
position in political thought between Great Britain and
the United States. At first sight it might appear that
the impact of so immense a community as the United
States would entirely dominate Canadian lines of growth
in politics and social life, and determine their tendencies. But this is very far from being the case.
Canada has retained a very distinct individuality of its
own. This is true of the greater and English-speaking
part, as well as of that French Canada which might be
expected to retain its peculiarities of thought and
institution. The circumstances under which the leading provinces of Canada were founded, about the time
of, or shortly after, the American Revolution, created a
line of demarcation between the two countries which
never has been, and probably never will be, entirely
The   feelings   with which   the   United
obliterated. Labour and Political Tendencies      233
Empire Loyalists came to Canada between 1776 and
1783 were not such as favoured the adoption
of the political and social ideals of the States from
which they had been driven out. American action
in the war of 1812 deepened the Line of separation. While the United States cherish the recollection of Lexington and Bunker's Hill, Yorktown and
Saratoga, as memorials of a struggle against what they
thought was oppression, Canada finds the record of
her heroic period in spots like Queenstown Heights,
Lundy's Lane, Chateauguay, and other places where
stern and successful resistance was made to high-handed
American aggression. The circumstances in the one
case are as much calculated to inspire patriotic feelings
as in the other. Temporary difficulties, such as those
which occurred at the time of the Trent affair, in the
Fenian invasion of 1866, in the various boundary
disputes, and the policy of commercial isolation which
has prevailed of late years, have constantly tended to
turn Canada in directions of its own, and given it the
stamp of individuality. That stamp it will certainly
retain.
But, while living its own life, the Dominion grows
more cordial with its great neighbour as the latter
learns to respect it.
At the point which they have now reached, the
business of Canada and the United States is to live on
friendly terms with each other, and there is little to
prevent them from doing so, given common honesty of
dealing and respect for each other's rights.    The great 234
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
boundary questions have been settled, with the exception of that in Alaska, and here the necessary surveys
are now being carried harmoniously forward. Other
points of dispute have been cleared away. Mr. Goldwin
Smith always assumes that Canada's presence as a part
of the British Empire on the American continent is a
standing irritation to the United States. Possibly it is
to a baser element in the United States, but that is not
a thing to which a free people should pander. It is
much more likely that Canada, in the middle ground
that it occupies, will prove to be the solvent which
will unite in sympathy and on honourable terms the
two great nations with which she is allied in race and
language. Certainly it is in dealing with Canadian
questions that these nations have made the greatest
advance in the matter of national arbitration. In
framing her system Canada took many hints from the
United States. In the practical work of government
the United States might well take many lessons from
Canada. In maintaining a high respect for the law
and the judicial office, in the management of native
races, in organizing a non-political Civil Service, in the
unification of marriage laws, to mention a few special
points, the greater success of the smaller and younger
federation has been marked, and is generally admitted.
Doubtless much has yet to be done for the complete
purification of public life in Canada, but in this too
no impartial observer can doubt that the smaller State
has the better record. The professional politician has
no such large and accepted place as in  the United x Labour and Political Tendencies      235
States, and the severest critic of Canadian politics has
admitted that the people as a whole are sound. The
strongest Government that the Dominion ever knew
was swept from power merely on a suspicion that
public trusts were being loosely dealt with. A strong
belief in the public mind that the late Sir John
Thompson was a man bent on ruling the country
honestly, constituted one of the chief elements in his
political strength. The same is true of Mr. Laurier,
the Liberal leader.
On the other hand, by applying the federal principle of
government on a great scale while keeping the system
in harmony with British institutions, Canada must
not be thought of as becoming Americanized, but as
making a most important addition to the political
experience of the Empire. There is no sufficient
ground for doubting the success of the experiment.
Friction there has been, but nothing that for a moment
can be compared with what the United States had to
deal with in the earlier years of the Union; nothing
that has not yielded to judicious treatment. Friction
there will doubtless still be, but the principle of
union has now passed through the critical stage, and
no single province would be allowed to violate the
federal compact.
The success of federalism in the Dominion and the
increased weight it has given to Canada cannot but
have far-reaching results upon other parts of the
Empire. It will forward the idea of unity in Australia
and South Africa, and point the way to its successful
J 236
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
R
adoption. It may suggest the lines of further political
development for the Empire. It is not unlikely to
have considerable effect even upon political ideas in
the United States. The Dominion is now illustrating
on the American continent the admitted fact that the
popular will under the British system works much more
rapidly and effectively in a democracy which is not a
republic than in one that is.
But while this first British application of the federal
idea has been a distinct success, there have been many
lessons to learn. There is ground for the opinion that
since confederation Canada has been over-governed.
The weak point of the system in this respect has manifestly been in the provincial Legislatures.
Confederation transferred to the Federal Parliament
very extensive powers previously exercised by the provinces, and particularly powers which influence vital
constitutional change. In this the Canadian system
goes far beyond the example of the United States.
While the importance of the local Legislatures was thus
lessened, the machinery of government was left much
as before, in deference to provincial feeling, which at first
resisted any loss of prestige, even when it was artificial.
This machinery has proved too complicated and expensive, especially in the smaller provinces.
Practical communities soon adapt themselves to new
conditions, and all the English-speaking provinces except
Nova Scotia, where some resistance is still offered, have
abolished their Upper Chambers. When the power to
make grave constitutional amendment has been removed x Labour and Political Tendencies      237
from the sphere of legislation, and where the work to
be done is mainly administrative, the check furnished
by an Upper House is no longer needed. This is the
explanation of the change which has taken place in the
direction of a single Chamber for provincial Legislatures.
There would be the strongest objection to doing
away with the Upper House in the Federal Parliament,
though there the nominated Chamber has never been a
strong force in politics—perhaps not so strong as the
framers of the Constitution expected or intended.
The tendency will be to strengthen rather than to
abolish it.
It is likely that still further means will be found to
reduce the complexity of the governing machinery in
the smaller provinces. The most practicable reform
seems to be the legislative union of the maritime provinces—Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince
Edward Island. A regular system of government by
Ministries based on party lines tends to become absurd
when applied to such small constituencies, and ends by
personal considerations and mere wire-pulling taking
the place of anything that can be dignified by the name
of policy.
Until some substitute has been found for government
by party the best remedy for the pettiness of provincial
politics seems to lie in widening the constituency as far
as possible. There seems to be no good reason why
a single Governor, Legislature and Civil Service should
not serve for the Maritime provinces. Their population, when united, would not be equal to that of Ontario. 238
The Great Dominion
CHAP*'
,)
The interests which have grown up around the small
capitals are now the chief obstacles to this useful
change, which will probably come in time.
On some general questions of political tendency the
Dominion presents striking contrasts to Australia.
The centralization of government which prevails in
most of the colonies of Australia, and which apparently
tends to increase on lines of State interference, would
not, in the present state of public opinion, meet with
much sympathy in Canada. I doubt if in any country
there is so complete a devolution of the powers and
responsibilities of government upon the right shoulders,
all the way up through the school district, the parish,
the county or city municipality, and the province to
the Federal Government, as in most of the English-
speaking provinces of the Dominion. The rural
municipality, conterminous with the county, has especially been organized with marked success. In this
Ontario led the way; the example has been closely
followed in New Brunswick and other provinces. It is
almost universally found that the men selected represent
the most solid and reliable portions of the farming and
trading community; they need no guidance of an upper
and specially educated class as in the English county
council; they form simple but dignified consultative
bodies; their county administration is usually marked
by economy and care. The range of political training,
from the district school committee to the Dominion.
Parliament, is thus rendered very complete. If Canadians;
are ever badly governed it is their own fault, certainly. Labour and Political Tendencies      239
not that of the completely free and representative
system under which their local affairs are managed.
Public opinion in Canada, again, has gone entirely
against the State control of railways which has found
favour in Australia. Railway enterprise has been
lavishly subsidized, the greater part of the federal and
provincial debts having been incurred in this way; but
the people have deliberately preferred to hand over the
assisted railways to private control. There is a deep
sense of the danger to constitutional government in
unnecessarily burdening the legislative powers with
complicated administration, with the control of vast
expenditure, and with the exercise of extensive patronage. It is also believed that a community derives
great advantages, through the increased self-reliance
of the individual, from holding out the fullest inducements and giving the widest possible scope to private
energy. The Intercolonial system, embracing about
1,100 miles of railway, is the only line now under public
control. It was built and is maintained as a part
of the confederation compact, but its State management
is very widely regarded as a necessary evil. Whether
Australian or Canadian tendencies in the particulars
I have mentioned represent the more healthy and
useful forms of political development would form an
interesting study, and about it, no doubt, opinions
would greatly differ. They illustrate the wide range
of political experience furnished by a large Empire.
Statesmen who wish to strengthen the political tie
between Canada and the motherland need not think
J 240
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
Jl1
of doing so by other than very practical methods. When
Lord Carrington returned from Australia, he suggested,
if I am not mistaken, that such an end might there
be attained by the extension to colonists of K.C.B.,
G.C.B., or some such titular distinctions, in addition to
the ordinary K.C.M.G. of colonial knighthood. I doubt
if he is right about Australia; I am quite sure that
new links of connexion must take more practical forms
so far as Canada is concerned. Some regard the conferring of a peerage and a baronetcy or two upon
well-known Canadians as a move in the right direction,
arguing that the highest honours of the Empire should
be open to all British subjects. But there is absolutely
no sympathy with the establishment of an hereditary
nobility or aristocracy on Canadian soil. I think I am
right in saying that the objection to it is marked.
Curiously enough, this is not connected with any theoretical objection to a House of Lords at the centre of the
Empire, where a Chamber, in part at least hereditary,
.is considered more congruous with the existing order
of things. There is little popular dislike, however,
to the conferring or acceptance of ordinary imperial
honours, provided the subjects be worthy. On the
whole the knighthoods given in Canada have, with a few
exceptions, been' conferred on those whom Canadians
themselves would select for honour, and are practically
ratifications of popular opinion. In.many cases the
honour has been declined.
There is one kind of life peerage, practical and useful,
and carrying with it profound meaning, which could, Labdur and Political Tendencies      241
when the time is ripe, be bestowed with telling effect
in Canada. A great Canadian lawyer raised to the
peerage for life, and sitting on the Judicial Committee
of the Privy Council, would form a real and practical
bond, honourable to the colony and useful to the Empire.
It need not be doubted that Canada will be prepared
to furnish men of adequate calibre when they are
needed. To say nothing of English Canada, more than
one Chief Justice of Quebec, whose general legal ability
and special knowledge of French law would be a distinct addition to the judicial resources of the House
of Lords, would have filled the position with dignity
and success. Such an appointment would profoundly
affect French imagination. The name of Sir John
Thompson was, before his lamented death, sometimes
mentioned in connection with such an appointment,
and it was one for which he was admirably qualified.
It is quite possible that in other directions life peerages
might be made representative of great Canadian interests, and so act as genuine bonds of union. Admission to the Privy Council, especially if connected with
actual consultative functions, would probably prove a
popular and practical link of closer connexion and a
useful direction for poLitical development. That the
official representative from time to time in London of
five millions of British people, who control the destinies
of half a continent, should ex officio be of the Privy
Council of the Empire seems like the dictate of political
common-sense. The establishment of such a precedent
would be accepted in the Dominion as a decisive recog-
R 242
The Great Dominion
CHAP.
nition of the growing importance attached to Canadian
opinion.
One often hears regrets expressed in England that
the growth of the Dominion has not been more rapid.
It is true that Canada has grown slowly when compared
with the sudden expansion of the Western States, or
with Australia during the period of its greatest prosperity. Unthinking people attribute this exclusively
to the more rigorous climate and the hard conditions of
life, but the reasons are really various. The circumstances of Australian growth after the discovery of gold
in 1851, and also when the colonies were spending
large sums of borrowed money in assisted emigration,
were essentially abnormal. During the period, again,
when the American West filled up most rapidly, wheat
was bringing an exceptionally high price. It was the
farmer's golden age. Now he has fallen on his age of
iron. Never in the memory of man has wheat been so
low as since the opening of the wheat areas of the
North-West. In European countries, moreover, the
class from which the best emigrants were chiefly drawn
has now been much reduced in numbers through the
depression of agriculture, the introduction of farming
machinery, and the transfer of the people to an artisan
life in towns. These and many other like considerations must be kept in mind.
But it is a very superficial view to regard the slow
growth of the Dominion as a disadvantage to the
country. There are many compensations, and the gain
has probably been greater than the loss.    Law and Labour and Political Tendencies      243
social order have always maintained their supremacy.
The native Canadian and the British elements have
never been swamped by an alien population untrained
to citizenship. There has been no unnatural inflation,
to be followed by a corresponding depression, no revolt
of labour, no excessive concentration of population, with
the evils which follow in its train.
The best friends of Canada are perhaps those who
are far-sighted enough to prefer that her growth should
still not be too rapid for her powers of healthy assimilation. It is impossible to sympathize with the feverish
haste shown in the Western States to reproduce within
a single generation in a new country the social conditions of crowded Europe, to reckon national progress
by numbers rather than by quality and soundness of
organization. It may fairly be claimed for Canada that
in her somewhat slow development political training
and social organization have kept pace with material
growth.
All these are fitting her to take a place of increasing
influence in the Empire to which she belongs. That it
is her highest interest and the prevailing wish of her
people to maintain connexion with that Empire is one
of the conclusions to which my study of the country
has led me. That she cannot be separated from the
Empire without results incalculably hazardous to the
maintenance of the national position of British people
is another.  INDEX  INDEX
f
Aberdeen, Lord, estate in British
Columbia, 169
Acadians, 137, 147, 148
Agassiz, experimental farm at,
228
Agriculture, 19-25, et seq.
Agricultural College, 224-7
Alaska, 234
Alberta, 30, 31, 34
Alkali land, 12
Annexation, objection to, 185;
sometimes discussed, 186 ; any
feeling in favour of, now gone,
202, 203
Apples, export of, from Ontario,
95 ; from Nova Scotia, 113 ;
to Britain and United States,
189 ; bad packing of, 95, 192
Athabasca River, 5, 176, 182
Australia, British Columbian
timber used in, 166 ; trade
with, 197, 207 ; Canadian tendencies contrasted with those
of, 238, 239 ; growth of, 242
Banff, 7
Barley, markets for, 194, 195
Barren grounds, 177
Beaver, 178, 179
Bedford Basin, 102
Behring Sea, 81; arbitration, 232
Bermuda, cable connection  with
Halifax, 102
Boundary,   southern of  Canada,
3 ; Alaska, 234
Bourinot, Dr., 107
Brandon, 14; railway rates at,
56 ; experimental farm at, 227
Brassey, Lord, colonisation estate,
15 ; decides to encourage small
farms, 17 ; experience in promoting colonisation, 35
British Columbia, 6, 157-172 ; not
agricultural, 161, 162 ; mineral
wealth, 163-5; fisheries of,
162, 5; timber of, 166-167 ; coal
of, 78-84 ; fruit and hops, 168
Brown, George, 106
Buffalo, 179
Butter, 97, 192
Calgary, 26, 30, 33, 40
Canadian Pacific Railway, 46-72 ;
mileage of, 46 ; advantage over
other trans-continental lines,
47 ; steamship connections of,
48, 66-7 ; bridges of, 49; encourages     many     enterprises,
49, 50 ; early difficulties of, 53 ;
monopoly of transportation in
North-West, 55-61 ; position
of in Eastern Canada, 61-4;
proposal to hand over Intercolonial Railway to, 64-68;
use of as naval and military
route, 69-71
Canal system, 120; expenditure
upon, 121 ; freight carried by,
121 ; Sault Ste. Marie, 121,122
Cape Breton, 74-6
Carman, Bliss, 108
Caron, Sir Adolphe, 142 ' Cartier, Sir George, 134
Cattle trade, 30, 31, 188
Chateauguay, 233
Cheese,    largest    exports
Ontario and Quebec,  97,
sent to United Kingdom, If
190, 191
Chignecto Ship Railway, 123
China, 47,48
Chinese in Canada, 170
Climate,   3;   compensations   for
. cold, 24, 25, 211, 212; squeezes
out inefficient, and keeps out
weak races, 213, 214
Coal, relation of to commerce and
imperial defence, 73-77,87, 88 ;
in Nova Scotia and Cape Breton,
. 74-78; in British Columbia,
78-84 ; on the prairies, 85-87 ;
in New Brunswick, 78 ; anthracite near Banff, 82-3 ; smokeless, at Canmore, 83 ; market
for in United States, 194
Cochrane ranch, 30
Coke, 83, 84 (note)
Colonist cars, 50
Crow's Nest Pass, 48
Cunard, Samuel, 108
Dakota, 41
Dawson, Dr. G. M.,  5,  86,   107,
176
Dawson, Sir Wm., 107, 218
Edmonton, 28, 29, 40, 87
Education, 216-226
Eggs, export of, to United States
and United Kingdom, 195
Elevators, 14 ; waste in, 22
Emigration, Icelandic, 9 ; Scottish, 13 ; from United States,
40 ; young Englishmen of better
classes not alw.ays suited for,
36, 226; kind of required in
•North-West, 34; in Canada
generally, 210
Esquimalt, 80, 169
Estevan, 13, 86
Exodus to  United  States,
215, 216, 224
Experimental farms, 227-23
Fall ploughing, necessity for,
20; compared with summer
fallowing, 19
Farms, on a large scale, 16, 17 ;
small preferable, 17 ; best acre-'
age for, 18, 19 ; from forest
land, 115, 116; partly improved, 117, 119
Fish, where exported to, 195
Fisheries, of Eastern Canada, 109-
110 ; of British Columbia, 165
Fleming, Sandford, 53
Fort William, 62
Foster, Hon. George, E., 107
Frechette,     Louis,    Article     in
Forum, 129
. Fredericton, 117
French, in Quebec, 128 ; in Manitoba and North-West, 139; in
Ontario, 139; Acadian, 147;
language, 139-143
Frost, 12, 20, 24
Fruitgrowing, 93-96, 113
Fundy, Bay of, 4, 112
Fur, carriage of, 6 ; country,
173-183; permanence and
quality of supply, 178
Galt, Sir Alexander, 106
Gold, 109, 163
Grand Trunk Railway, 49 (note),
63
Grant, Rev. Principal, 57, 107
Guelph Agricultural College, 224
Habitant, 129, 131, 138, 140;
immobility of, 144, 145 ; good
fisherman and lumberman, but
bad farmer, 149-150
Hail and hail insurance, 12
Haliburton, Judge, 109
Halifax, 74, 101,102
Hamilton, 92, 100 Index
249
Harrison, President, refers to
Canadian Pacific Railway, 47 ;
to Ship Canal, 62 ; trade animosity of, 196
Horses, ranch, 31; exports to
Britain, 189
Howe, Joseph, 109
Hudson's Bay, 4, 174; route to
Europe, 182-183
Hudson's Bay Company, 178, 179,
180-183
Iceland,    emigrants    from,    to
North-West, 9
Icelanders, 35, 39
Imperial titles in Canada, 240
Indian Head, experimental farm
at, 228
Institutes, farmers', 226, 227
Intercolonial Railway, 64, 65-67,
68, 239
Irrigation, 27, 49
Isothermal lines, 5, 29
Jewish colonies, 35
Judicial   Committee   of     Privy
Council, 241
Ketchum, H. G. C, 124
Kingston, 92, 100, 117
Kootenay, 164, 193
Labour, conditions of, 210 ; does
not depress, 211 ; problems not
prominent, 212—215
Labrador, 177, 182
Lachine Bridge over St. Lawrence,
49 (note)
Latitude, comparative, of points
in Canada, 3
Laurier, Hon. Wilfrid, 135, 142,
235
Lethbridge, coal, 85-86, 194, 196
London, 92, 100
Louisburg, 74, 76, 103
Loyalists, United Empire, Toronto
founded by, 99, 233
Lundy's Lane, 233
Macdonald, Sir John, 101, 106
Macdonald, Mr. W. C, gifts to
McGill College, 219
Mackenzie, Alexander, 106
Mackenzie River, 5, 176, 182
Manitoba, comparative latitude
of, 3, 9, 24
Manufactures, in Ontario, 97, 98 ;
of iron, 110; of cotton and
woollen, 205, 206
Maritime Provinces, 101 ; industrial position of, 103, 104 ; influence in Dominion affairs of,
106; agricultural prospects,
111, 112 ; climate of, 114 ; improved farms in the, 118, 119 ;
legislative union of, 237
McCarthy, Mr. d'Alton, 204
McGill College, 218, 219
McKinley tariff, 195-197
Mercier, Mi. 135, 148
Military College, 223
Mixed farming, arguments for,
21; objection of North-Western
farmer to, 23
Molson, Mr. J. H, gifts to McGill
College, 218
Montreal, 151-153; public spirit
of its wealthy men, 219
Mormon enterprise in Southern
Alberta, 42
Muskoka, 99
Musk Ox, 177
Nanaimo, 79, 80, 81
Nappan, experimental farm at,
227
Navigation, inland, 4, 5 ; limitation to, 6
Nelson River, 5
New Brunswick, marsh and intervale lands of, 112, 113 ; coal in,
78 ; business conditions of, 105,
106 ; forest land of, 115, 116
Newcomb, Professor Simon, 108
New Glasgow, 110
Niagara Peninsula, 93-96
Nickel, 193 250
Index
NortK-West, relation to rest of
Canada, 5 ; general consideration of, 9-45
Nova Scotia, coal in, 74-78 ; as
part of Maritime Provinces,
101-119 ; fruit growing in, 113;
iron ores of, 110; best forest
lands taken up, 115
O'Brien, Archbishop, 108
Ontario, 90-101 ; forest land of,
116;   agricultural   college   of,
224-226
Ottawa, 100, 101
Pacific Coast, 6
line, 7
Pacific  Ocean,
ship lines on,
Peace River, 5,
Perley, Senator,
length of coast
Canadian   steam-
172
29
opinion on North-
Western farming, 19
Petersen, P. A., C.E., 49 (note)
Petroleum, in Ontario, 91 ; in
Northern Canada, 176
Pork, wheat fed, 21, 22 ; surplus
sent to United Kingdom, 188
Poultry, trade with the United
Kingdom, 190
Prairies, impression of vastness
from, 11 ; variety of land on,
12 ; cultivation of, 15 ; undulating and partly wooded, 26
Premium system, 38, 39
Prince Albert, 28
Prince Edward Island, 113
Privy Council, 24, 241
Protection, 199-204
Qu'Appelle, 34
Quebec, 127-156 ; population and
representation of, in parliament,
128 ; small emigration to, from'
France, 129 ; exodus from,
129; repatriation and settlement, 149
Quebec, city of, 153-155
Queenstown Heights, 233
Ranching, 30, 31, 44
Rand, Dr. T. H., 107
Redpath,   Mr.    Peter
McGill College, 219
Red River, 4
Regina, 28, 33
Roberts, Charle:
Robertson,   Mr
Commissioner
229
Roseberv, Lord,
108
J.
for
gifts   to
W.,   Dairy
Dominion,
231
Rupert, Prince, first Governor of
Hudson's Bay Company, 180
San Francisco obtains coal from
British sources, 80, 81, 196
Saunders, Prof., 228
Saskatchewan,    River,    farming
lands along the, 28, 41, 42
Sault Ste. Marie, 61, 121
Scenery.magnificence of Canadian,
7
Schultz,   Governor,   opinion   on
mixed farming, 24
Schurman, Dr., 107
Security of  life and property in
North-West, 33
Sherbrooke, 149
Silver in British Columbia,  164,
165, 193
Smith,  Mr.   Gold win, 126,  185,
234
Smith, Sir  Donald,  Governor of
Hudson's Bay Company, 181 ;
gifts to McGill College, 219
St. Albert, 29
St. John, 102; harbour of, and its
defence, 103 ; decay of shipping,
104 ; great fire at, 104
Stephenson, Robert, 49 (note)
Straw, burning of, 14, 22
Sudbury, nickel mines at, 193
Sydney, coal mines at, 76
Tache, Archbishop, 135
Tachd, Sir Etienne, 134
Tariff, 199-202 ; effect of McKin- .
ley, 197
u Index
251
Thompson, Mr. S. R., 107
Thompson, Sir John, 107, 235,
241
Tilley, Sir Leonard, 106
Timber of British Columbia, 166,
167 ; of Northern Canada, 175 ;
trade, 189
Toronto, 98 ; British sentiment
of, 99 ; journalistic and literary
centre of Dominion, 98 ; university of, 220
Trade, relations and policy, 183-
208 ; cattle, 188 ; apple, 189 ;
timber, 189; poultry, 190;
with Great Britain and United
States, 197; greater freedom
of, 202
Trappists at Oka, 151
Tupper, Sir Charles, 108
Tupper, Sir Hibbert, 107
United Empire Loyalists, 99,
100
United States, trade relations
with, 186 ; safety valve for
labour troubles, 214, 215 ; migration to, 129, 130, 215, 216
Universities:   McGill, 218, 219
Toronto,   220 ;   Queen's,  221
gifts   to,   221 ;   Laval,    221
single   university    needed    in
Maritime Provinces, 222
Vancouver, comparative latitude
of, 3 ;   large timber of,  167 ;
growth and position of,  171,
172
Vancouver Island, coal of, 79
Van Home, Sir Wm., 47, 51, 55,
198
Victoria, 169, 170
Victoria Bridge, 49 (note)
Villiers, Sir Henry de, 143
Voyageurs, 180
Wellington mines, 79
West India, telegraphic connection with, 102 ; trade with, 197
Whalebacks, 49
Wheat, output of, 14 ; increase in
production of, 17,' 18 ; possibility of increase, 18 ; preparation of land for, 15; frosted
and frozen, 21 ; cost of carrying, 43, 57; rivalry between
Canadian and British farmer in
production of, 43-44 ; Canadian
market for surplus, 188 ; low
price of, 242
White, Mr. Solomon, 185
Wine, production in Niagara
peninsula, 94, 95
Winnipeg, 32
Woodstock (Ontario), 92, 100,
117, 206
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