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BC Historical Books

British Columbia pictorial and biographical. Volume II 1914

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Array     BRITISH
1914    \
Jfranfe Militant ItfUam
BANK   WILLIAM    KILLAM    possesses    that
unusual qualification known as "commercial sense.
F( vv Analysis shows the composite features to be initiative
wM keenness, persistency and unswerving determination.
This remarkable combination has established Mr. Kil-
lam in the notable position which he occupies in business circles. In the erection of buildings, and development of real
estate he has contributed greatly to the growth and advancement of
the northwest. Many important commercial enterprises, which he has
financed, owe their success to the strenuous efforts of this tireless personality. Industry and determination have served him well, and the
results would turn older heads. His business career is marked by
sound judgment, accuracy, discrimination and decisiveness. This
briefly is a word picture of the man who talks little and says much;
who has something to do and does it.
Mr. Killam comes of English ancestry. He was born in Yarmouth, Nova Scotia, May 2, 1879, the son of William Austin and
Josephine Chute Killam, who were married November 22, 1878, and
were the parents of five children. The founder of the Killam family
on the American continent was Augustine or Austin Kilham, born in
1597. It appears that Austin Kilham originally came from the
West Biding of Yorkshire, near Beverly, where the parish of
Kilham still exists. It is the principal market town of that part of
England, and the seat of the Kilham family since the time of William
the Conqueror. He with his wife, Alice, and their family, sailed from
Yarmouth, Norfolk county, England, in May, 1687, and arrived at
Salem, Massachusetts, the same year. Later they removed to Dedham
and Chelmsford, Massachusetts, but finally settled at Wenham, Massachusetts, where they both died in 1667, Austin Kilham on June 5th
and his wife on the first day of July, the same year.
The progeny of the Killam family is numerous, both in Canada
and the United States, and many of its members have risen to positions
of prominence in the various walks of life. The services they have
rendered along professional, commercial, and political lines, together
with the high standard of ideals to which they have persistently clung, jFranb gftfUfam MUam
have indelibly established them as eminent citizens in the various districts in which they participated. Ever noted for patriotic loyalty
and unswerving fidelity to the cause which they espoused, the name of
Killam stands out prominently in the pages of American and Canadian
The family home in America was maintained in Massachusetts
until the Revolutionary war, when loyalty to the English Crown
caused their removal together with other United Empire Loyalists
to the Dominion of Canada, where a settlement was made in Yarmouth
Country, Nova Scotia. Here the Canadian progenitor of the family
was granted a large tract of land, the greater part of which is still in
possession of his descendants. Eliakin Killam, 2d, the grandfather
of Frank W. Killam, was born in the old homestead in Yarmouth
Country, where he spent his entire fife engaged in farming. This was
also the birthplace of his son, William Austin Killam, the father, who
still resides there, being now actively engaged in general agricultural
pursuits, a worthy and respected resident of the community, his well
spent life here winning for him the honor and good-will of his associates and neighbors.
Frank William Killam attended public schools in Yarmouth Country, and at an early age determined to learn the building business.
Realizing that to be a master of the trade it was absolutely necessary
to possess a full knowledge in detail of eveiy branch of the work, he
went to Boston, Massachusetts, in 1898, and here applied himself as
an apprentice to the tinsmith and plumber's trades. For four years
he devoted himself most assiduously to the accomplishment of his purpose, and at the end of that time had become a thorough master of
both trades. During these years of his apprenticeship he spent every
moment aside from his chosen duties that he could spare, to promoting
his general knowledge. His close attention to night school, where he
remained a student during this time, fortified him with a liberal
After having become a practical journeyman plumber, he followed
the trade in Boston for two years, during which period he conserved his
earnings that he might later gratify an ambition to become established
in business. At the expiration of this time he located in Brook-
line, a prosperous village on the outskirts of Boston, and there inaugurated the plumbing and tinsmith business for himself. Shortly after,
he was stricken with a serious illness of several weeks' duration. The
attendant expense and enforced neglect of business during this interval, together with an exhausted capital and limited credit, caused this
venture to prove a failure.   His recovery from this illness was accom- JFtanfe Klilliam killam i
panied by renewed effort. Undismayed by the force of these unfortunate circumstances, he resolved to conquer the other branches of the
building business, and to this end applied himself.
His strong tenacity of purpose enabled him to not only accomplish
this, but he combined the most comprehensive group of the mechanical
principles of constructive art with his own natural gift of imagination
and technical skill to produce work of the highest standard. His
innate talent made him an adept student of architecture. He possessed an ardent desire for an insight into this fascinating work, so
that when the opportunity presented itself he was quick to grasp and
make the greatest use of it. This study afforded him much pleasure,
and, although not completing the course, the knowledge obtained has
proved invaluable to him. He outlines to his architect clearly and
concisely unique ideas which have been developed and demonstrated
today in the popular modern bungalows, many of which he has created. His field is a wide one, but the breadth of his experience is sufficiently extensive to embrace, as it does, a knowledge of construction,
masonry, carpentry, plumbing, heating, ventilation, lighting, plastering, tiling, painting and decorating. His art he applies to designs serving widely different purposes and the many varieties of structures call
for distinct ideas adapted to their several uses. The more common of
these find expression in dwelling-houses domestic buildings, public
buildings, office buildings, schools, libraries, etc. To meet these requirements he must plan and construct in strict accordance with clearly
defined laws and various rules which more or less control the method
of erection, and on all these matters he is recognized as a most competent authority.
The glowing stories of the west with its promise of golden opportunities lured him from the field of his early experiences. He removed
to Grand Forks, North Dakota, in the fall of 1904 and here found
the entire community engaged in harvesting the crops. He immediately became a farm hand, and later in the season found employment
at the carpenter trade in building grain elevators.
The piercing cold of mid-winter caused a cessation of work and the
number of unemployed far exceeded the demand for labor. The situation was desperate, the suffering intense. Scarcity of money made
it almost impossible to obtain either food or shelter. So dire was his
necessity that he walked twenty-one miles in the coldest day of December carrying a set of carpenter's tools for a few days work on a grain
elevator. In his later struggle for existence during this dreary winter,
he called upon physicians, professional men, in fact, upon anybody
who could afford to pay him, and rendered his services in disposing of r-
xranh mHHam Mam
ashes™ performing various menial duties that he might provide for
his family through this long severe winter.
Such experiences and fortitude proved the ability, character and
strength of his nature. Many men would have bitterly complamed
of being unable to secure employment and scorned to do this servile
work, yet his purpose to "get there" never forsook him, and accordingly the following spring he started for Kenmare, North Dakota, and
there secured work at the carpenter trade. He obtained a contract to
build a barn, which was the entering wedge of a most promising contracting business, successful from the beginning. At last he could
gratify the ambition to which he was so devoted, and which eventually
won for him enviable success. His building operations returned to him
most satisfactory financial profits, and he began acquiring real estate
in the form of vacant property, developing the same, and building
houses thereon, which he sold on the deferred payment plan. This
undertaking proved most successful, and he became the owner of much
realty. He had cleared about twenty thousand dollars from this
industry, when fortune ceased to smile and ill-luck again became his
A railroad built paraUeling the line on which Kenmare was
located, diverted all the western trade from that city. This being
accompanied by a complete crop failure collapsed the boom which
Kenmare had been enjoying, and the price of real estate in that locality took a decided decline, leaving Mr. Killam once more penniless.
With a strong resolute spirit he made his way to Vancouver, arriving
here in 1907, without money, but rich in the acquisition of his trade.
He obtained several months' work at tinsmithing. He had entered the
employ of Brown Brothers, nurserymen, and, acting as salesman, traveled through the Okanagan valley. Being a tireless worker he soon
was recognized as one of the best salesmen representing that house.
He studied the conditions of trade, and having a close knowledge of
human nature learned when to push sales or discontinue argument.
Being thoroughly reliable as well as enterprising in his dealings he won
the confidence of the public, which gained him profitable patronage.
He remained with this firm about a year and was again about to enter
business for himself when another severe illness prevailed and his hard-
earned savings were dissipated by doctor bills, enforced idleness and
medical attendance.
Appreciating the fact that fortune taunts the dreamer, but eventually surrenders to the man of resolute spirit and determination, he
again courageously faced the situation. Entering the employ of the
Aetna Investment Company of Vancouver as real-estate salesman on jftanfe TOHam killam 9-
commission basis, he was assigned to the Okanagan valley again, and
here made a record of which he may be justly proud. During the six
months he operated in this locality he cleared in commissions and real-
estate tradings about twenty thousand dollars, a notable achievement
for one-half year's work.
Mr. Killam then returned to Vancouver, and established an office
. on Park Drive, where he returned to his alma mater, and embarked
in the business for which he had for so long earnestly and laboriously
trained himself. He had never in the face of his many disappointments abandoned the plan which actuated him at the outset of his
career. During all his experiences, of varying success, or subsequent
failure, he still held to the belief that he would one day enter the contracting field permanently. He now began business under the name
of the Bungalow Construction Association, in which connection he
handled real estate, and built attractive modern bungalows. The initial cash capital he employed was only one thousand dollars, and realty
assets of about twenty thousand more. He erected his first bungalow
on Woodland Drive, Grandview. Before it was completed he began
on two more semi-bungalows, and the three were sold before any was
From now on, progress was rapid; business was crowding him and
near the close of 1911 the firm entered into a contract to build one hundred and eighty-four bungalows. They employed a large force of
workmen, and these buildings were erected at the rate of one a day.
In November, 1911, owing to the immense increase of the business
the offices of the company were removed to the ground floor of the
Pacific building at No. 416 Howe street. In May, 1912, the company
was incorporated as The Bungalow Finance & Building Company, of
which Mr. Killam became president and managing director, and so
continues to the present time. The further demands made upon the
company compelled the enlargement of their quarters, and the adjoining offices at No. 418 Howe street were acquired. The lofty and
spacious apartments, luxuriantly furnished, equipped with every up-
to-date requirement in detail and fitted with large prominent window
areas, the whole being located on the ground floor of the Pacific building, makes them the best appointed offices in the city of Vancouver.
Up to the present time the operations of the company have consisted principally of the erection of bungalows, ranging in price from
fifteen hundred dollars to as many thousands, depending entirely on
the location, size, style and finish of the buildings. The company has
sold hundreds of homes on the deferred payment plan to persons who
could not possibly have owned them under any other circumstances. 10
jFranfc cailHam ttillaro
They have never exercised the privilege under the contract of recovering a house because the purchaser through some unfortunate circumstance has failed to make his payments. Mr. Killam's trying
experiences in former years awakened in him a feeling of sympathy,
which may be regarded as generosity and kindness to those who are
undergoing similar trials. He does not press payment under these circumstances, and the result has been one of the most successful industries ever launched in Vancouver, its growth and prosperity being
attributable to Mr. Killam's practical training of former years.
One of the specialties of the real-estate department is the development and sale of ready-made farms, of from ten to forty acres each.
These farms are all going ones, each of which possesses a house, a barn,
and chicken houses; and the grounds are prepared for cultivation. The
purchaser makes his first payment, moves in, begins his work of developing and cultivating, eventually paying for the property from the
products of his labor. This innovation has met with great success, due
to the easy payments and the improvements which are already under
way or completed, for the incoming tenant.
The immense development of British Columbia has found Mr. Killam alive to the exigencies of the occasion. With every progressive
movement in this great province he has measured his identity and
broadened the environments of his offices. While originally organized
for supplying the community with good, comfortable homes at moderate prices, which he was enabled to do by a system of wholesale purchase of materials, the maintenance of his own corps of architects and
draughtsmen, he has looked farther ahead and recognizes that the development of Vancouver is altogether dependent upon the larger development of the great province that lies behind it. To cut the timber,
till the soil, and force the hidden treasures from the mines was his
ambition. His company, therefore, reached farther afield and
branched into the timber industry. They now own under Crown and
provincial grants in the province over one billion and a half feet of
timber, and undeveloped lands exceeding six thousand acres. He is
now contemplating the colonization of these lands, and expects to see
a growing and prosperous community there in a very short time. Not
alone is the colonist afforded lands at a minimum cost, but he is guaranteed employment at the standard rate of wages for a number of
years. Thus he accomplishes the double function of development and
colonization, a most laudable ambition, unique idea and ingenious plan.
It will be seen from all this that the man possesses a clear vision
of the future. He anticipates far beyond the limits of the ordinary
human being.   He converts into actual probability that which appears -\
jftanfe William killam
a mere possibility. His natural executive ability has long since been
recognized. His advice and aid are constantly in demand, and many
growing industries'throughout the country owe their existence to him.
He has extensive financial connections in European countries, and
commands practically unlimited capital. Through these associations
he has brought large sums of foreign money to British Columbia, and
in every way has been a dominant factor, as responsible for the substantial growth and development of Vancouver and province as any
man residing within its borders.
Some idea of the volume of his transactions may be gathered from
the fact that in two months he has turned over in his office business
amounting to one million dollars of profit, and now has an office force
of over thirty people, constantly employed in looking after the details
of bis ever increasing business.
It will be seen from the foregoing that what Mr. Killam undertakes he accomplishes. His energy is unabating, his industry indefatigable, and bis enterprise unfaltering. He organized and is vice
president of the Canadian Automatic Fender Company, of Vancouver, which controls the patents of the Nelson Safety Fenders for street
cars. He is also president and organizer of the Lumbermen's Trust
Company, of Vancouver, a corporation of one million dollars capital.
He also was one of the organizers, and is one of the directors of the
Hudson Bay Mortgage Corporation, which is capitalized for ten
million dollars.
Mr. Killam can turn from his important and extensive business
interests to his home life and enjoy this to the full. His pleasure in
his success comes in considerable measure from the fact, that it enables
him to provide liberally for his family. He was married September
18,1902, in Boston, Massachusetts, to Miss Rosie J. Russell, a daughter of Henry Russell, of that city. They lost one child, Franklin
William, who died in North Dakota at the age of nineteen months, and
they now have an interesting little daughter, Florence.
Such, in brief, is the life history of Frank William Killam, who,
starting out in the business world from the farm at the age of eighteen
years, with twenty-five cents, is today ranked among Vancouver's foremost capitalists, and one of the empire builders of the northwest. What
a record for a young man of thirty-four years I A record, too, that has
included several disastrous periods, and yet never for a moment has
the smile left his face, nor courage fled from his heart. Obstacles and
difficulties in his way have seemed but to serve as an impetus for
renewed effort and he has forged ahead in the face of opposition and
discouragement.   He attributes his advancement largely to his deter- Jftanfe tamtam Villain
mination to win success, a determination which he has never for a
moment put aside. He is a large man physically, well proportioned,
of impressive appearance and engaging personality, and is a forceful,
convincing and entertaining talker. The career of no one mentioned
in this volume is perhaps a better illustration of the words of Elbert
"The man who is worthy to become a leader of men will not complain of the stupidity of his helpers, the ingratitude of mankind—the
inappreciation of the public.
"These things are part of the great game of life. To meet them
and not go down before them in discouragement and defeat is the
final proof of power."
i   Militant fflamp gnlcocR
)ILLIAM MASSEY SILCOCK is secretary and
treasurer of the Bungalow Finance & Building Com-
W'jfii pany, Ltd., in which connection he has taken active
5Tw part in the substantial improvement and adornment
of Vancouver. He was born in Warrington, Lancashire, England, February 28, 1877, a son of William and Annie Royal (Nightingale) Silcock, representatives of old
Lancashire families, originally from West Houghton, near Wigan,
In private schools of Cheshire, England, William M. Silcock pursued his education and afterward was employed in Parr's Bank of
Liverpool and London, remaining in that institution in different
capacities for fourteen years. In 1907 he came to Canada and for
two years occupied various positions. In 1909, however, he came to
Vancouver and in 1911 entered into employment with F. W. Killam
in bungalow construction, the business having formerly been conducted under the name of the Bungalow Construction Association with
Mr. Killam as proprietor. In May, 1912, it was incorporated and
Mr. Silcock was elected secretary and treasurer and also one of the
directors. The bungalow is preeminently a feature of western home
building. It is splendidly adapted to this section of the country, where
the warm Pacific current so tempers the climate, that vegetation grows
in luxuriance, for the bungalow is peculiarly adapted to the adornment furnished by landscape gardening. It seems in such conditions
a very part of the scene and in the house construction there is to be
found every feature of fight, air, sanitation, utility, comfort and
beauty. The company of which Mr. Silcock is now secretary and
treasurer has erected some of the most attractive bungalows in the
city, embodying the most modern styles of bungalow architecture,
many of their buildings showing marked originality as well as beauty
of design.
Tn addition to his partnership in the Bungalow Finance & Building Company, Ltd., Mr. Silcock is also secretary and treasurer of
the Lumberman's Trust Company, Ltd., of Vancouver, and is secretary of the Canadian Automatic Fender Company, Ltd., of this city.
15 16
fflliUiam ggagggg Silcock
Mr. Silcock is a conservative in politics, a member of Christ church
and belongs to the Burrard Cricket Club—associations which indicate
much of the nature of his principles, the rules which govern his conduct and the nature of his recreation. Advancement and success have
come to him as the merited reward and logical result of capability,
close application, determination and commendable ambition.   Cbtoarb Cfjriatman Untgfjt
connected with business interests of Vancouver as
managing director of the Vancouver Lumber Company, Limited, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on the 1st of September, 1868, a son of William
A. and Sarah (Pinckney) Knight, natives of that
state, both of whom have passed away. Their son acquired his education in the Germantown Academy and in the University of Pennsylvania, taking the course in mining and metallurgical engineering in
the latter institution with the class of 1889. After his graduation
he became associated with the Illinois Steel Company and he retained
this connection for seven years thereafter, resigning it in order to go
to Mexico in the employ of the Guggenheim Smelting Company, which
later became the American Smelting & Refining Company. He acted
for them as ore buyer and general agent and rose from that position
to be manager of the Monterey and Blandena plants. He was also
a member of the executive committee during the last two years of bis
stay in Mexico. In the fall of 1908 Mr. Knight came to Vancouver
and purchased an interest in the Vancouver Lumber Company, Limited, having since remained as managing director. This is one of the
oldest concerns of its kind in the city, having been founded about the
year 1886 and was first known as the Red Mill, owned by Leamy &
Kyle. It has since been under various managements but its prosperity
has continued without interruption and its place today is among the
leading industrial institutions in this part of the province. In 1904 it
was purchased by J. E. Tucker and A. L. Clark and the present name
adopted, Mr. Tucker being president and A. L. Clark, vice president.
At Taylor, Texas, on the 22d of April, 1908, Mr. Knight was
united in marriage to Miss lone Tucker, of that city, and they have
two children, Mary and Edward Tucker. Mr. Knight has extensive
club affiliations, belonging to the Vancouver Club and the Vancouver
Royal Yacht Club, the Jericho Country Club and the Shaughnessy
Heights and Vancouver Golf Clubs, these connections indicating something of the nature and extent of his outside interests.
19    Etrifjarb $. aiexantrer
RICHARD H. ALEXANDER, whose life history
has been interwoven with that of British Columbia
for fifty years, can as' one of the oldest residents of
the province lay claim to no ordinary distinction, for
he came here in 1862, when six acres of cleared land
constituted what is now Vancouver1—a pulsing, life-
throbbing, metropolitan city; and when in retrospect he looks back to
the time when dense virgin forests covered the space where now stands
this great city, he must feel proud of having taken such an active part
in planting civilization in this section and being directly one of the
causes of that prosperity to which thousands are indebted for their
success. A member of the city board of aldermen in 1887, he has continued his interest in public affairs during his whole life and has served
with resultant effect in various official capacities.
Richard H. Alexander is secretary and the local manager of the
British Columbia Mills, Timber & Trading Company. He was bom
March 26, 1844, in Edinburgh, Scotland. His father was James
Alexander and his mother, before her marriage, bore the name of
Elizabeth Scott. In their family were five children. They emigrated
to Canada in 1855 and the father, who had been a wine merchant in
Edinburgh, followed the same line of business after settling in
Toronto but later returned to the land of his birth, where he passed
away at the age of fifty years.
Richard H. Alexander was educated in Edinburgh Academy and,
after removal to this continent, in Upper Canada College and Toronto
In 1862 the reports of gold discoveries on the Saskatchewan and
in British Columbia, together with the love of adventure, led him to
join a band of similarly minded adventurers (of which he was the
youngest) to seek the new El Dorado by a journey overland across
the then almost unknown regions to the west of the Great Lakes.
Their route was via the Mississippi, then overland to the Red river
and down it to the Hudson's Bay Post, Fort Garry, which has now
been transformed into the flourishing city of Winnipeg. There they
fitted out with oxen and the universally used Red River carts and
23 24 Hicham %>♦ aietanDet
made their way to Edmonton, across the country which is rapidly
becoming a continuous wheat field, but then was occupied only by
rovmg bands of Indians and countless herds of buffalo At Edmonton carts had to be abandoned and they proceeded to force their way,
through the Rocky mountains and with great hardship at length/
reached Tete Jaune Cache on the Fraser river, thus pioneering thrf
route now selected by two trans-continental railways. At Tete Jaune,
Cache they dug out canoes of cottonwood and committed themselves
to a stream of which they knew nothing but that it was flowing westward. When the Grand Canyon was reached Mr. Alexander and a
Mr. Carpenter, formerly a barrister in Toronto, attempted to run one
of their canoes down but upset and Mr. Carpenter was drowned; their
three companions were making a portage of their outfit tyit could
render no assistance and as Mr. Alexander had reached the further
shore, the only way he could rejoin them was by again plunging into
the mad whirl of icy waters, which during the recent railway construction has claimed so many victims. In connection with Mr. Carpenter's
death Mr. Alexander mentions a curious incident. Just before starting in the canoe Mr. Carpenter wrote a few lines in his pocketbook
and threw his coat ashore. When his companions examined it afterwards they found the following which it will be noted was written in
the past tense: "Arrived this day at the canon and drowned running
the canoe down.   God help my poor, dear wife."- After a
hard struggle against hardships and starvation Mr. Alexander and
three remaining companions reached Fort George and continued by
the river as far as Quesnel Mouth, thence by land to New Westminster,
upwards of seven months having been consumed on the journey.
Mr. Alexander roughed it with the hardy pioneers of those early
days, making his living during the first winter by cutting wood and
receiving pay at the rate of a dollar and a half per cord. Some of the
trees were of such enormous proportions that a single section of four
feet would cut up into a cord of wood. Mr. Alexander then turned
his attention to mining and packing in the Cariboo, being in 1863
attracted to those mines by favorable reports. He, however, did not
make any success in mining there and next engaged as helper on a
pack train, taking supplies to the mines, and upon his return to Victoria worked for some time as longshoreman for the Hudson's Bav
Company, later being appointed as clerk in a store and remaining in
that position until his arrival in Vancouver in 1870. Here he accepted
a situation as accountant with the Hastings Saw Mill Companv
becoming in 1882 manager of that concern, with which he has now
been connected for over forty years.    Since taking charge of the KicftatD to, aietanDec
affairs of the company their business has vastly extended and wonderfully increased, and for this no small credit must be given to the business ability and expert knowledge of Mr. Alexander. During the
early development of Vancouver, Mr. Alexander was closely related
with nearly every movement that had to do with its upbuilding and
advancement. At the first city election he was a candidate for mayor
of the city before the great fire in 1886, but was not elected, as in those
early days methods prevailed which later certainly would not have
been approved. There was no registration at the time and all residents were permitted to vote, making it easy for fraud to be perpetrated. Mr. Alexander also was trustee and secretary of the first
school board, a notary public and a member of the first board of health,
or it may be said that he constituted the board of health, for he was its
only member. He has been for many years and still is justice of
the peace. At the second city election he was chosen a member of the
board of aldermen and for some years acted in that capacity in the
municipal government. He has been chairman of the pilotage board
since 1883 and for two years was president of the Board of Trade,
greatly promoting in that important position the commercial expansion of the city. He was ever the champion of any measures and
policies which have made Vancouver the commercial queen city of the
Canadian Pacific coast. Again and again he has served as member
of the council of the Board of Trade and has also been connected with
the arbitration board of that body. He has been a decided success
on the railways and navigation committee and in fact there has hardly
been any phase of municipal endeavor with which he has not been
connected to the profit of the general public. In 1895 he was
appointed by the Peruvian government as consul of that country in
Vancouver and served for several years until his resignation. In
earlier years he was Lloyd's agent at Vancouver, his jurisdiction
extending over the mainland of British Columbia, and he served as
such for a number of years until he resigned because the work
demanded too much of his time which was needed in connection with
all his other duties. That Mr. Alexander enjoys the confidence and
esteem of his fellow citizens does not fully express the sentiment
which the people of Vancouver entertain towards him, for the efforts
which he has made on behalf of the general good have been of such
paramount importance that the high regard in which he is held is
something self-understood.
In 1867 Mr. Alexander married Miss Emma Tammadge, of Victoria, a native of London, England, and they are the parents of four
children, each and all of whom were born in British Columbia and are 26
CUchatD to. aietanDet
proud of the fact. The two younger were bom after the family home
was made in Vancouver. Richard H. H. is secretary of the British
Columbia Lumber & Shingle Manufacturers, Limited, and in this
important position has made for himself a name as one of the city's
best and most reliable business men. Frederick W. is a lumberman
located in Seattle, Washington. Eliza Scott is the wife of J. L. G.
Abbott, of Vancouver. Harry O. Alexander, the youngest, serves
in the official capacity of judge of the court of small debts and official
guardian and makes his home in his city.
Mr. and Mrs. Alexander are members of the Anglican church,
giving their moral and material support to its local institutions. Mrs.
Alexander is also honorary president of the Vancouver branch of the
Victorian Order of Nurses. He is a conservative in politics and an
ardent imperialist, being largely instrumental in founding the Vancouver branch of the Imperial Federation League. He was a delegate to the sixth congress of the Imperial Chambers of Commerce in
1906 and carried a resolution providing for the appointment of an
advisory imperial council. He again was a delegate in 1909, attending in Sydney, New South Wales. Deeply interested in the lumber
industry, he is well acquainted with all its phases and considered an
authority on that subject. In 1906 he read a paper before the
forestry convention on "Lumbering Conditions on the Coast of
British Columbia." which elicited much favorable comment. There
is also a military chapter in his life history, for in 1865 he served with
the Victoria Rifles. His fraternal relations are confined to his membership in the Masonic order, in which he has attained to the rank of
Royal Arch Mason. He is a member of the Vancouver Club, the
Union Club of Victoria and the Royal Vancouver Yacht Club, which
he served as commodore in 1906 and 1907. He takes a deep interest
in this sport and finds valuable recreation in its execution. Mr. and
Mrs. Alexander reside at Shaughnessy Heights, Vancouver, and their
many friends delight to gather at the beautiful family residence,
where they extend a heartfelt welcome and warm hospitality. The
year 1912 has been an important one in Mr. Alexander's fife, for it
marks his fifty years of residence in British Columbia and it was the
celebration of his golden citizenship. It may be said that in that long
space of time he has become an inviolate part of Vancouver and the
pride he takes in the city is returned manifold by its people, who
consider it an honor to call one of them Richard H. Alexander,
pioneer. 1  Cbtoarb ®mm, P. jfL, $., ftc, 4M- ff
JHE life work of Professor Edward Odium, scientist and educator and now a prominent representative
of real-estate and other important business interests
in Vancouver and British Columbia, has contributed
in an extraordinary degree to the development and
progress of Canada, for as lecturer and writer he has
awakened among the inhabitants of other lands an interest in this
country that has resulted in bringing about an influx of population
leading to the development and upbuilding of the country. His
efforts have been untiring and resultant in the advancement of Vancouver's welfare along material, social, political and intellectual lines.
Possessing a mind of extraordinary fertility, he early recognized the
splendid opportunities offered by this section and with firm faith in
the future of the country became a cooperant factor in the utilization
of the advantages and resources here offered.
Born in Tullamore, Peel county, Ontario, November 27, 1850,
Edward Odium is a descendant of an old Irish family that authentically traces its ancestry back to 1690, in which year existing records
give account of four brothers of the Odium family, officers of the
British army, who went to Ireland in the train of Ring William when
that monarch undertook to quell the turbulent element which would
not submit to the British crown. Abraham Odium, grandfather of
Professor Odium, was born on the Emerald isle and added luster to
the family name by his military record as an officer in the army
of the great Duke of Wellington. Subsequently he made a home on
the beautiful channel island of Guernsey, but in 1820 his ever ambitious spirit led him to charter a ship in which he sailed with his family
for America, with Quebec as his destination. His son John Odium,
who was a member of that party, participated in the war of 1837, as
did Abraham Odium.
In this country John Odium followed agricultural pursuits and
led an upright, honorable life, consistent with the tenets of the Church
of England, of which he was a devoted member. His wife, Margaret
McKenzie, was of Scotch extraction but a native of County Tyrone,
29 30
CotoatD PDium, 15,3., T5,<&c., eg.a.
Ireland. They were the parents of nine children. The mother passed
away in 1892, in her seventieth year, while the father lived to the
remarkable age of eighty-six, malting his home in Lucknow, Bruce
county, Ontario. He was not only venerated because of his advanced
vears but also highly honored for his many admirable qualities of
heart and mind.
Professor Odium spent his early boyhood on the home farm and
acquired his preliminary education in the neighborhood schools, while
later he attended the collegiate institute at Cobourg, Ontario. Subsequently he matriculated in Victoria University, which conferred
upon him the degrees of Bachelor and Master of Arts and Bachelor
of Science. Distinguished for his profound learning and deep
insight into sociological and political problems, he early recognized
the need of bringing emigration to the provinces that the natural
resources and advantages of the country might be utilized and developed. The government, recognizing his ability, sent him to England,
Wales, Scotland, Ireland and the Orkney islands and through his
ability as a lecturer he presented vivid pictures to the people of Great
Britain concerning the advantages of the country across the water,
his efforts resulting in a substantial increase in immigration. After
two years devoted to that work he returned to Canada and, imbued
with the western spirit of which he had spoken in the old world, he
made his way to the Cariboo district, where he took charge of the
affairs of a company largely engaged in gold mining. After some
time devoted to that work he advised that the company abstain from
further development, as the output of the mine was not sufficient to
cover the heavy expenses of their operation. The British Columbia
government, desiring a report to be forwarded to the botanical section of the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1898 on the
economic value of the woods within the confines of the province,
selected Professor Odium for that purpose and he prepared a lucid
and comprehensive paper on the subject. A man of wide learning
and well acquainted with the problems of education, he was chosen
as representative of the government to make a study of the educational systems employed in Manitoba and the older provinces of
Canada and report thereon and also prepared a paper to induce the
government to set aside lands to be used for the benefit of the schools.
The government of the day, Hon. Colonel Baker being minister of
education, decided to follow the suggestion and took the initial steps
toward its adoption. The proposition to set aside lands for public
educational purposes, however, was not adopted, for unfortunately
at this time the sudden death of the premier, the Hon. John Bobin-
MM OEDuiaru flDMum. lg. g» T8« &c, qg. a.
son, in Great Britain changed certain portions of the policy. A convocation was assembled at Victoria and much time spent in discussing
and investigating an act previously passed. Much adverse criticism
came from many and further action was postponed to the following
year. The death of the premier, as stated, defeated the proposition.
Had it passed the schools of British Columbia would have been
financed abundantly and forever by the wonderful increase of land
Professor Odium, who came to British Columbia in 1889, has
devoted much of his life to public instruction as teacher, lecturer and
writer and in an educational capacity was called to Japan to accept
the position of president of a college in Tokio, having six hundred
students and fourteen professors and tutors under his direction. In
his study of the Japanese and who they are Professor Odium's findings are that the race are either Assyrians or else one of the lost tribes
of Israel. He is probably the only man in America who has studied
the origin of the Japanese and his logic and his proof on this subject
are convincing.
Throughout his entire fife Professor Odium has been connected
with much scientific research and experimentation.   He, under the
direction of Dr. E. Haanel, built the first electric light, a big arc
light, used in Canada.   Dr. E. Haanel, now superintendent of mines
for Canada, was science professor of Victoria University at Cobourg,
Ontario, at that time and the electric light was used on the occasion
of a football tournament, in which five prominent teams participated
—the Vies of Victoria, the teams from Queens and Toronto Universities, the Trins of Trinity College, Toronto, and the team from Knox
College, Toronto, all playing at Cobourg.   It is said that Dr. Haanel
and Professor Odium built the first telephone used in Canada for
public  purposes.    Later  these  same  telephones  were  taken  by
Professor Odium to Japan and installed in the college there.   Professor Tyndall, experimenting with electricity in a lecture in the old
country, accidentally took a charge through his body and was somewhat injured.   Professor Odium was explaining this to a large class
in Japan and was operating a machine four times as powerful as
TyndaU's.   He warned his class of the danger of experimenting and
at the very time, by a slight movement, his hand came into contact
with the live wire and the charge passed through his body, but there
were no serious results.   Professor Odium has always been a leader
in experimental work, seeking truth and scientific fact wherever they
are to be found, going far beyond the knowledge to be gleaned from
books as a result of the researches of others. 32
(EDtoarO ff>Dlum, IB.2b Q&Sc, e&.SL.
When a freshman in the university he read much concerning
materialistic evolution and encountered the statement made by an
eminent scientist that the bushmen of Australia were but a degree
above the orang-outang. He then determined to visit Australia and
make investigation for himself. After some years he carried out his
purpose and made careful examination among many tribes. In one
instance he had opportunity to examine forty boys and girls in one
of the missionary public schools, the parents of whom at that time
were living in the forest wilds. These boys and girls he examined in
reading, writing, spelling, arithmetic, grammar and history and
found them as ready and intelligent in answer as the average farmer's
children of Canada, among whom he had taught for several years.
He was thus forced to conclude that the Australian bushmen were
more than one degree above the orang-outang.
In his science course it was necessary to pass specific examinations
in surveying and navigation and in order to master the latter Professor Odium spent several months on a sailing vessel on the Pacific,
giving many hours to practical work each day. In order to gain
thorough knowledge of surveying he worked voluntarily with surveyors on different occasions and thus added practical to scientific
training. He has ever greatly enjoyed making experiments in order
to solve scientific problems and on one occasion, when with two others
he was experimenting on a dangerous gas in a small and perfectly
enclosed room, an explosion took place and the Ley den jar which
they were using was shattered into invisibility, no fragments being
left. This led Professor Odium to further examinations. A series
of jars filled with gas were afterward exploded at once with a like
result, the glass being completely pulverized. A third experiment
was made in Japan with a similar result and these three trials made
by Professor Odium made clear to him a remarkable accident and
result which occurred when he was a boy of seventeen years. He was
at that time an apprentice at cabinet-making and one Sunday morning, with another boy, was experimenting on a large horn of powder.
He held the horn in one hand and poured the powder on the bench,
touching a match to it. In the explosion that followed the brass ring
on top and the heavy brass tacks holding the bottom of the horn were
all that remained, not a particle of the horn being found.
Another most interesting scientific occurrence with which Professor Odium was connected constitutes a part of the scientific history
of Japan. He was in that country when Dr. John Milne was at the
head of the seismologies! department of Japan. One summer morning a large portion of a high mountain was blown off by a volcanic ^
(EMuatD flPDlwtu 15.21., TB.&c, gg.&
explosion. Several towns and villages were wiped out of existence
and many killed. Nearly one thousand acres were covered with volcanic ash and the government sent Professor Seikya, head of the
geological department, with many men to survey and give an exact
report as to tile extent of damage and effects of the explosion. On
the mountain and in the adjoining valley were countless thousands of
cone shaped holes noticed by Professor Seikya. These led to an
extensive and heated discussion, the Professor claiming that the holes
were formed by falling stones, while all the foreign educators opposed
this conclusion. With no knowledge of the discussion Professor
Odium visited the mountain of Bandisan and with much cost and
labor made a careful examination. His conclusions he noted in his
book on the spot and later on his arrival at Tokio he learned of the
heated discussion and that his conclusion was the same as that of
Professor Seikya. He found that the foreign educators had all taken
sides against the finding of the Japanese professor. Professor Odium
then set off for north Japan, again hired seven or eight men and went
to the mountain. He dug into the holes and in each case found stones
and volcanic ash and beneath the stones found mountain weeds, palm
leaves and branches. On his return to ToMo he learned that Professor Seikya, in "order to save his position with the government,
was forced to defend his theory in public, undertaking the task
in a large hall in Yokahama, Rear Admiral Palmer, of the British
navy, presiding over the meeting. Professor Odium went to hear
the address, after which the foreign educators attacked Professor
Seikya's theory. Professor Odium asked permission to speak and a
few moments' time was accorded him. He went forward, reached for
a large pointer and explained to the meeting the many diagrams on
the wall, to which no speaker had as yet referred. Having covered
the ground and given facts, he finally announced his conclusion to be
that of Professor Seikya. The entire audience applauded with great
enthusiasm, for all Japan had become interested in the discussion.
Not a single reply was made by any of the opposition. When the
meeting was closed the members of the Scientific Society immediately
held a meeting and decided to ask "the stranger" to prepare a paper
on the subject and read it before the society. He was made a member
of that society for the express purpose of presenting his paper, which
was acknowledged to be final and conclusive on the subject. At government expense large numbers of pamphlets were published containing Professor Odium's paper and were freely distributed in many
educational centers throughout the world. f
OBDtoatD flPDlum, 13. a., 15, <Sc, ag. a.
While in Japan Professor Odium lost his wife, her death resulting from malaria and pneumonia. This decided him to leave the
country, after which he traveled extensively in Australia, New Zealand, and the United States, studying conditions and weighing in his.
mind the advantages for settlement offered in various countries. He
considered Vancouver, however, most attractive for residence and
for investment and upon his arrival here made extensive purchases,
of city property, the value of which has greatly increased with the
rapid development of the city. He purchased and sold valuable city
tracts, built houses both for sale and rent and through his activities
greatly promoted the growth of the town. He is still the owner of
extensive holdings. After twenty years of activity in educational
circles he decided to abandon that profession, although he received
various highly flattering offers of college professorships. He now
gives his attention largely to the supervision of his real-estate
interests and to other business affairs and investments. He is a
director of the Trustee Company, the Terminal City Press Company,,
the Orange Hall Association, the British Columbia Oil Refining
Company, president of the Grand Trunk British Columbia Coal-
Company, connected with the National Finance Company, a director-
of the Thompson Stationery Company, a stockholder in the Canadian
Pacific Oil Company of California, and the Pacific Coast Fire Insurance Company.
It is but natural that a man of Professor Odium's intense mental
activity should use literature as a means of expression.   He has contributed valuable articles to newspapers on various subjects, writing-
not only upon the question "Who are the Japanese," to which previous
reference has been made, but also upon the subject "Who are the
Saxons."   These papers show marked literary ability, wide research
and a profound understanding of the nature of the peoples with
whom he has dealt.   His progress and patriotism have found expression in many ways.   In 1892 he was elected a member of the board'
of aldermen of Vancouver, being honored with the largest vote ever-
cast up to that time in the city for a candidate for that office.   It was-
on the expiration of his term of service that he undertook his two-
year trip to Great Britain in the interests of emigration and upon his
return in January, 1904, he was again elected to the aldermanic-
board—a vote of confidence given by the people which should be-
highly satisfactory to the Professor.   His decided public spirit has
been strongly manifest in his service as an official, for he has always
stood for the promotion of any measure that would result in benefits ■
to the city or tend to elevate mankind, and he has not only helped im (jBDuiatD flPDlum, 13.3., 15. &c, 9®.2L.
bringing about the acceptance of favorable proposals. but has also
been the champion of many progressive movements. He has been
president of the Central Executive Rate Payers Association and
chairman of the Carnegie Public Library Board of Vancouver. He
is likewise connected with the Central City Mission. He served with
the Thirty-sixth Regiment from Peel county, Ontario, during the
Fenian raid of 1866 to 1870 and received one hundred and sixty acres
of land in Ontario in recognition of the aid which he rendered.
In 1877 Professor Odium was married to Miss Mary Elvira
Powell, a native of Ontario and a descendant of a distinguished
family of United Empire Loyalists of English extraction. The first
of the name in America had located in the United States, but when
the American Revolutionary war began they crossed the border into
Canada. Having lost his first wife, Professor Odium was married
to Miss Martha M. Thomas, of Toronto. Professor Odium has four
sons by bis first wife. Edward Farady, the eldest, was for a time
head bookkeeper and part owner in Thomson Brothers Stationery
Company, Ltd. The second is Victor Wentworth, of Vancouver,
who has a controlling interest in the Clapp, Anderson & Odium,
Limited, insurance brokers. The third, Garnet McKenzie, died in
South Africa after the Boer war, and the fourth son, Joseph Welles-
ley, holds a position in one of the stores of Vancouver. Three of these
sons offered their services in the Boer war, the youngest being then
but sixteen years of age and the eldest twenty-one. These two, after
participating unscathed in many battles, returned to Canada, entering
the army here as lieutenants. The record of Professor Odium and
his father as soldiers in the Fenian war, together with the record of
his sons, establishes the valor and loyalty of the family. Professor
Odium has two sons by his second wife, Arthur George, and Oswald
Professor Odium is connected with a number of organizations
founded for intellectual advancement and scientific research. For
some time he belonged to the Australian Science Association and the
Asiatic Society of Japan, and was a member of the British Science
Association in Canada and also of its main body in Great Britain.
He is a fellow of the Royal Colonial Institute. He has prepared and
read before these societies valuable and instructive papers which have
brought him wide recognition.
Professor Odium spent the year 1905 in central and northern
Europe, continuing a comparative study of ethnology, botany and
geology, which for many years have been his chief scientific pursuits.
He made sojourn in western Russia and the far north beyond the OEDtoacD flPDlum, 05. &, 15. &r., e$. g.
Arctic Circle, where he had a rare chance to study the Finlanders
and Laplanders and their lives and habits in their homes and villages.
Toward the end of this year, or early in 1914, Professor Odium
intends to set out on a long trip around the world, during which he
will study ancient Egypt, Persia, Babylonia and Assyria by the help
of the modern races now representing the ancients in those countries
.and the works of specialists, including those of the noted excavators
of those regions. Apart from the continued study of comparative
botany and geology, he will give special attention to and make a close
examination of ethnology, especially as bearing upon the origin of
the British peoples who inhabited in early times the "Isles of the
Blessed" in the north Atlantic ocean. The theory forming the basis
of this historic research is that the early British passed in part through
Europe and also the south of Spain from the regions formerly known
as Assyria, Babylonia and Armenia.
The work to which Professor Odium has given much attention for
thirty-five years and which may jusdy be said to be the chief effort
of his life is an investigation along the line of theistic science, the
study of God in nature. The estimate which his scientific colleagues
place on the value of his labors is manifest to some degree in his election as president of the Arts and Science Association of Vancouver,
which position he filled for many years. It might well be said of him,
as it was said of an eminent man of old, that "he has done things
worthy to be written and has written things worthy to be read, and
by his life has contributed to the welfare of his province and the
happiness of mankind."
,iH Ai±!hj,u-u,vj.,!4^.^.mm   \
Jfofm   Jpenbrp
gsfsOHN HENDRY enjoys distinction as a most active
Jj$) factor in the mammoth operations that have charac-
[vy terized the development of the lumber industry of
ff| the northwest. He has worked his way steadily
SvKM upward, passing on to positions of executive control
and subsequently bending his energies largely to
organization, to constructive efforts and administrative direction.
Possessing broad, enlightened and liberal-minded views, faith in himself and in the vast possibilities for development in his country's wide
domain, with recognition, also, of its specific needs along the distinctive lines chosen for his life work, his has been an active career, in
which he has accomplished important and far-reaching results, contributing in no small degree to the expansion and material growth of
the nation, and from which he himself has derived substantial benefits.
His name is known from ocean to ocean in connection with the lumber trade and he is equally popular with social acquaintances from
the east to the west. He is today at the head, as president, of the
British Columbia Mills Timber & Trading Company, the oldest and
largest enterprise of the kind in the northwest, and was prominently
and actively identified with railroad interests and many other extensive and important corporations having to do with the prosperity and
upbuilding of the province.
Mr. Hendry was born in Gloucester county, New Brunswick,
January 20, 1848, and is a son of James and Margaret (Wilson)
Hendry. His education was acquired in bis native province and in
his youth and early manhood he received both practical and theoretical training in sawmill and flourmill engineering. For some years
he followed that pursuit in the maritime provinces.
In September, 1872, Mr. Hendry arrived in British Columbia,
but the lumber business was undergoing a period of temporary
depression—comparatively speaking1—and he made his way therefore
to the state of Washington and at Seabeck was in the employ of the
Washington Sawmill Company, assisting in the survey of logs and
timber, and superintending millwright work.
39 40
31ohn IpcnDtg
In 1878 he moved to Port Gamble, where he entered the employ
of the Puget Sound Sawmill Company in the same capacity. In this
and in other connections he became familiar with every phase of mill
operation and also became an excellent judge of timber, especially
that for export. In 1874 the Moodyville Sawmill on Burrard Inlet
was destroyed by fire and George Haynes, superintendent, went to
Puget Sound to secure millwrights for its reconstruction. He engaged Mr. Hendry, who in the capacity of foreman superintended the
rebuilding of the mill and then took charge of its operation as night
In 1875 the Red River country was drawing to itself wide attention and Mr. Hendry, believing that it would be long before the timber in southwest British Columbia would be valuable, made his way
to Winnipeg, where high prices in lumber were already prevailing.
There had been a grasshopper scourge in that part of the country,
however, and the region being so new and undeveloped the time was
inopportune for building operations, and the consequent use of lumber, so he returned to the coast by way of California remaining at
San Francisco for a time. He then returned to British Columbia
and built a small sawmill for W. J. Armstrong at New Westminster.
All through these changes he was learning more and more of the
timber resources of the province and was gradually advancing in his
connection with the lumber interests of the northwest.
It was in the fall of 1876 that he formed a partnership with David
McNair and erected a sash and door factory at Nanaimo; and the
same year went to San Francisco to purchase machinery. On his
return to the north he completed his sash and door factory in
Nanaimo, and in 1878 the firm of Hendry, McNair & Company was
organized, the partners being Messrs. Hendry, David McNair,
Andrew Haslam and R. B. Kelly. They carried on business at
Nanaimo for a time and then moved the machinery to New Westminster where they built a sash, door and box factory, and Mr. Lees
joined the partnership. The rapidly developing fishing industry of
the Fraser river created a demand for boxes and a liberal patronage
was accorded them. Their business grew rapidly and in 1880 they
incorporated and the Royal City Planing Mills Company, Limited,
was formed, with Mr. Hendry as president and general manager.
In 1885 the Nanaimo sawmill at Nanaimo was purchased by this
company, which was afterwards disposed of to Messrs. Haslam and
Lees. The rapid development of the business continued and when
the city of Vancouver came into existence a branch was established
here.  The great fire during the early history of the city spared their 31ofm fceriDtg
partially constructed mill and from the outset their enterprise in
Vancouver proved a profitable and growing one, Mr. Hendry
eventually becoming a leader in the movement which resulted in the
merging of all his milling interests. The company secured extensive
timber limits in the province. About that time they entered upon
the export trade at New Westminster, having in the interim purchased the business of the Dominion Sawmill Company of New
Westminster and thus greatly enlarged their facilities there. Owing
to the dangerous condition of the Fraser river ships were chary about
going up that stream and Mr. Hendry as president of the Board of
Trade, succeeded in inducing the Dominion government to make surveys and improvements at the mouth of the river, so that in 1888
foreign ships were loading at their mill for all parts of the world.
In 1889 the Hastings mill was purchased by the Royal City
Planing Mills Company and Mr. Hendry was made president and
general manager of the larger plant. The legislature issued a special
charter consolidating the two companies and thus came into existence
the British Columbia Mills Timber & Trading Company. At first
their output consisted of seventy thousand feet per day; something
of the growth of the business is indicated in the fact that in 1890 the
manufactured product amounted to two hundred and fifty thousand
feet per day and employment was furnished to more than two thousand men. The daily product in the three mills had reached about
four hundred thousand feet in ten hours. Doors, sash, blinds, and all
building materials were manufactured. The equipment of the different plants was most complete and the latest improved machinery
facilitated the work in every particular. The company built many
miles of railroad, extending from their timber limits to the water,
owns a large number of logging engines and seven locomotives and
utilizes seven steamers in its lumbering operations. The company
ships its products to Australia, China, Japan, South Africa, South
America, Great Britain and every known part of the civilized globe,
reached by rail or water. They own the wharves, dry kilns and railroad facilities for shipping and to the initiative spirit and carefully
formulated plans of Mr. Hendry is largely due the credit for the
development and upbuilding of this vast business enterprise. Their
branches included the Hastings Sawmill and the Royal City Planing
Mill at Vancouver, the Royal City Planing Mill at New Westminster and the Moodyville Sawmill on Burrard Inlet.
Not the least important of Mr. Hendry's projects has been his
operations in railroad building, among which was the construction
of the Kaslo & Slocan Railway which was afterwards taken over bv 42
31ohn toetrtty
the Great Northern. He was the prime mover in the construction of
the Vancouver, Westminster & Yukon Railway from New Westminster to Vancouver, which was taken over by the Vancouver, Victoria & Eastern Railway Company, and over which road the Great
Northern Railway enters the city of Vancouver.
Mr. Hendry is honorary president of the British Columbia Lumber & Shingle Manufacturers Association, Ltd. He occupies a
prominent position in connection with a number of organized business interests, being vice president of the Canadian Lumbermen's
Association, and past president of the Canadian Forestry Association of Canada, and a member of the commission of conservation of
Canada. He was president of the Canadian Manufacturers Association in 1910, and he was president of the Vancouver Board of Trade
in the early days of Vancouver, following several terms' service as
vice president and also was president of the New Westminster Board
of Trade. He was the promoter of the Stave Lake Power Company,
Ltd., later absorbed by The Western Canada Power Company,
Limited, and chairman of the Burrard, Westminster & Boundary
Railway & Navigation Company and a director of the British Columbia Sugar Refining Company.
His intense and well directed activities have also featured in connection with municipal affairs. In 1878 he was elected a member of
the city council of New Westminster and was chairman of the committee that had in charge the resurveying of that city. He acted for
six months as mayor of New Westminster when the new charter was
introduced, but resigned because of the conflict of his official position
and his connection with the New Westminster Southern Railway
In 1881 Mr. Hendry was united in marriage to Miss Adaline
McMillan, a native of Nova Scotia and a daughter of Donald
McMillan of Pictou, Nova Scotia. They have one daughter, Aldyen
Irene Hendry, the wife of E. W. Hamber. Mr. and Mrs. Hendry
are members of the Presbyterian church, to which they have been most
liberal contributors and are equally generous in support of many
benevolent and charitable projects.
Mr. Hendry has attained high rank in Masonry, being a Knight
Templar and a Consistory Mason, having taken the thirty-second
degree. He is also identified with the Ancient Order of United
Workmen and the St. Andrews and the Caledonian Society. He
finds recreation in motoring, yachting and fishing and he is identified
with many of the prominent clubs of the country, holding membership in the Vancouver, Terminal City, Jericho Country, Canadian, 31oim IDcnDtg
Vancouver Automobile, Royal Vancouver Yacht and Vancouver
Athletic Clubs; the Brockton Point Athletic Association of Vancouver; the Union, of Victoria; Westminster, New Westminster;
Rideau, Ottawa; Wellington and American Universities, London,
England; the Touring Club de France, Paris; the Touring Club
Italiano, Milano; the American Automobile Association, New
York; the Automobile Association and Motor Union, London, England; the Pacific Power Boat Association, Seattle, Washington; the
Pacific Highway Association of North America and others.
Since 1908 Mr. Hendry has resided in Vancouver, although his
extensive business interests take him to all parts of the country. His
identification with the northwest covers more than forty years and
there is perhaps no representative of important industrial, commercial and manufacturing interests who has had more to do with the
material growth, development, upbuilding and prosperity of the
country than he. His influence along other lines, social, intellectual
and moral, has also been on the side of progress and the consensus
of public opinion accords John Hendry a central place on the stage
of activity in British Columbia.    $eter Curran Bunlebp
|0 PHASE of pioneer development in the northwest
was unfamiliar to Peter Curran Dunlevy and in
NyM   many ways he was closely connected with the work of
ki    development and improvement as different lines of
business were introduced and the country was opened
up to the business enterprises which have promoted
its greatness and wrought its prosperity.
Mr. Dunlevy was born in. Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, October 21,
1833, a son of Jeremiah and Rose Dunlevy, and the public schools of
his native city afforded him his educational privileges. In 1854, when
a young man of but twenty-one years, he went to the Feather River
district of California and there engaged in buying gold from the
miners. In 1857 he left that state and made his way northward to
British Columbia. He immediately afterward entered the Cariboo
country as a goldseeker, being one of the first to arrive in that district,
in which he continued to make his home for forty-five years. In 1858
he mined on the Fraser river, which he followed from Yale, mining all
the way along the Quesnelle river and eventually proceeding up that
river to the Forks. He followed the discovery of the first gold strike
on Butler creek and later proceeded on to Williams creek. No phase
of mining life and experience in the Cariboo country was unknown to
him. He went through the usual experiences of the miner who seeks
gold in a region to which civilization has not hitherto penetrated. He
opened a store at Beaver Lake when the Cariboo trail was finished in
1864 and subsequently removed to Mud Lake and thence to Soda
Creek. In 1871 he made a trip to the Peace river, returning in one
season. At Beaver Lake he established a store and later founded
trading posts throughout the Cariboo and Peace River districts until
at one time he was the owner of a chain of nine trading posts. He
traded furs with the Indians and furnished outfits for the miners, and
in fact utilized all the different opportunities for trade that were
offered in the frontier country. He was continuously engaged in
these enterprises until 1896, when he closed out the different outposts
but continued his trading at Soda Creek, in connection with which he
47 48
Peter Curran Dunleog
was also engaged in farming and in the cattle business. He owned
one thousand acres of land, one half of which was under cultivation.
His last days were spent at Soda Creek, where he passed away
October 15,1905, at the age of seventy-two years.
The efforts of Mr. Dunlevy were an important feature in the
development and upbuilding of the sections in which he operated.
He it was who conceived the idea of the building of a railway from
Victoria to Sidney, assisted in getting a charter for a company and
in the raising of capital for the construction of the line. He was also
influential in securing the charter and financing the Nelson-Fort
Shepard Railway and was interested in mining on a large scale
throughout the province, especially in the Cariboo district. He spent
nearly two hundred thousand dollars in the installation of a stamp
mill at Island Mountain and his business affairs in all these different
connections were an element in public progress as well as in individual success, so that the name of Peter C. Dunlevy is written high on
the roll of western Canada's honored and valued pioneers.
On the 9th of November, 1875, Mr. Dunlevy was united in marriage, at Victoria, British Columbia, to Miss Jennie Huston, daughter
of Mr. and Mrs. Guy Huston, who were natives of Ireland and at an
early day made their way to San Francisco. It was in that city that
Mrs. Dunlevy was born, November 9,1854, but during her early girlhood her parents removed with their family to Victoria. Since her
husband's death Mrs. Dunlevy has become the wife of Dr. S. E.
Mostyn-Hoops and still resides at Soda Creek. By her first marriage
there were five children: Canissa, now living in New York city;
Carlton, who died in Vancouver in 1910; Gertrude, the wife of
George E. Powell, a barrister of Vancouver; Stanley P., living in
Vancouver; and Marvin, who is attending college at Portland,
Mr. Dunlevy was conservative in his political faith and a Catholic
in his religious belief. For many years he continued a resident of the
northwest and was a link between the pioneer past and the progressive present, his memory reaching back to the days when all travel
was done by way of the rivers or on pack horses over a trail; when it
was the desire to win wealth in the mines that brought the majority
of people to the Cariboo, and when conditions showed every evidence
of a frontier existence. The miner's camp or the settler's rude cabin
constituted the principal features in most districts into which the
white man had penetrated, and around him were all the evidences of
^ani Peter Curran Dunleog
primeval nature. Mr. Dunlevy witnessed the great changes which
brought about modern development and was active among the business men whose labors wrought present day conditions. Success
attended his efforts and he won not only a comfortable competence
but also a good name among his many friends and acquaintances.  I  Htcfjarb Jfflarpole
jICHARD MARPOLE, the present general executive assistant for British Columbia of the Canadian
Pacific Railway, was bom in Wales, October 8,1850.
He is a son of Richard and Eleanor (Evans) Mar-
pole, who were also natives of the little rock-ribbed
country of Wales, where the father was for several
years engaged in the mercantile business and during the later years
of his life in agriculture.
Richard Marpole attended the common and grammar schools of
Wales and finished his education in Glasgow. At the age of eighteen
he entered upon his railroading career which has been the only occupation that he has ever followed. His first connection was with
English railroads, with which he continued for several years. He then
came to Canada and was for some time in the employ of the Northern
Railway of Canada. In 1881 he became associated with the Canadian
Pacific Railway, first as a contractor, and in 1882 he was appointed
a member of the official staff of that company in the capacity of
assistant manager of construction on the Algoma branch and the
Nipissing division of the main line. The next step in the course of his
promotion was when he was made superintendent of construction and
operation of the Lake Superior division, and in March, 1886, he was
transferred to the Pacific division in the same capacity. In 1897 he
became general superintendent of the Pacific division, successfully
holding that office until 1907. It was in that year that he was
appointed to his present position of responsibility as general executive
assistant for British Columbia. He is also vice president of the
Esquimalt & Nanaimo Bailway, having direct charge of its affairs,
including its vast land and lumber interests. Thus step by step he
has advanced, the recognition of his ability bringing him larger
responsibilities in more arduous positions until he is today a most
prominent figure in railway circles of Canada and especially in
British Columbia, which has now been his home for nearly thirty
Mr. Marpole holds a unique position in the history of the
Canadian Pacific Railway Company.   In addition to being one of
53 54
ffUcfratP gigatpole
the oldest officials in the service he had charge, as superintendent of
construction and operation, of the Lake Superior division, five hundred miles, when the first passenger trains were run through from
Winnipeg to Montreal and vice versa. This was in 1885. He occupied the same position on the Pacific division in July, 1886, when the
first train was run through from Montreal to Port Moody. He was
the first to prepare time tables based upon the twenty-four hour
system in America, which were used on that occasion. He also had
the honor of laying the track, joining the rails and driving the last
spike on the Lake Superior division in the spring of 1885, joining
the main line between Montreal and Winnipeg. That winter he
handled the transfer of the troops for the Riel rebellion over that
section, including transportation by team over the eighty-six miles of
break between the rail ends. It is a notable fact in his career that
whatever he has undertaken he has carried forward to completion and
that obstacles and difficulties in his path seem but to serve as an impetus for renewed effort. He has been and is still an important factor
in the growth and upbuilding of this great province through his
operations in railway development. He has studied this country
and its conditions from many viewpoints and has advocated the
extension of railways into those sections, the rich natural resources
of which constitute a promising field for labor and for settlement.
All this has brought him wide knowledge concerning Canada and
particularly of the west.
Aside from his important business activities, which have constituted so valuable a factor in the settlement and improvement of the
last great west, he has done much active work along lines that promote
general welfare and public progress. He was the first president of
the Anti-Tuberculosis Society of British Columbia and his efforts
in that direction were of lasting value,—in fact his life work has been
of signal service to mankind.
Mr. Marpole has had three sons by his first wife, who was a native
of Cornwall, England. In 1905 he was united in marriage with Miss
Anna Isobel Holmes, a daughter of Colonel Holmes, of Victoria,
formerly district officer commanding the British Columbia military
district. Mr. and Mrs. Marpole reside in a beautiful home on
Shaughnessy Heights. He holds membership in the Union Club of
Victoria, the Vancouver Club, and is president of the Shaughnessy
Heights Golf Club with its five hundred members.
^aaMH   foim Jfflattfjeto Hefebre, 0L 3B,. 0. 2&. C. ft.
|HE construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway
brought to British Columbia a number of men who
TvW ultimately settled in this province and contributed
Is i not a little to its development. Vancouver as the terminus of the Canadian transcontinental railway presented opportunities which these men were not slow
to perceive and among them was the late Dr. J. M. Lefevre. On the
paternal side Dr. Lefevre came of French ancestry. His great
grandfather was one of the early settlers in the province of Quebec
and bis family took a not unimportant part in the history of that
Dr. Lefevre was born in Brockville, Ontario, October 12, 1858.
He attended McGill University, Montreal, and in 1879 took the
degree of M. D. He studied under the late Dr. Howard and Dr.
(now Sir William) Osier and achieved academic honors, winning the
first Sutherland gold medal that was awarded. Not long afterwards
he entered into a partnership with Dr. Morden and settled in Brockville. In 1886 he left Brockville and came to Vancouver, having been
appointed as surgeon to the Pacific division of the Canadian Pacific
Railway. He continued to reside in Vancouver until his death in
September, 1906. Realizing as he did the future growth of this city
he associated himself with many of the enterprises which have contributed to its progress. He was also active in public affairs. He
was elected to the city council in 1886; he served one year as president
of the Board of Trade and on one occasion stood as a conservative
candidate in a political contest.
Among the enterprises with which he was connected was the
British Columbia Telephone Company and the magnitude and far-
reaching development which the company has now attained are due
in no small degree to the ability and strenuous efforts of Dr. Lefevre
in the early period of its existence. Indeed, it is generally recognized
that to him is due the credit for having foreseen the possibilities of
such an enterprise as the population and commerce of the province
increased, and the foundations of the company laid by him and his
associates have successfully carried the great structure of business
57 58
3lohn ffiattfteto iLefeoce, qp.D., <p. &♦€♦&>
that the company has at the present time. It is a public utility which
has kept pace with the demands made upon it and has a still greater
sphere before it with the growth of population. With this successful
enterprise the name of Dr. Lefevre will always be associated.
Dr. Lefevre was also interested in the British Columbia Electric
Railway, an enterprise that has contributed not a little to the development of the lower mainland and Vancouver island. He built one of
the earliest business blocks in Vancouver and was a considerable
owner of real estate in this city.
With all these varied interests Dr. Lefevre never ceased to take
a deep interest in his own profession. He was a student of medicine
to the last. After coming to Vancouver he made a visit to London
where he studied for several months and took a degree as member
of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. He always took a
deep interest in the British Columbia Medical Council; was connected with it for many years; at one time its president, and ever
ready to lend his aid to any proposal designed to advance the welfare
of bis profession.
In 1883 Dr. Lefevre married Lily Alice, daughter of Richard
Plunkett Cooke, C. E. A genial man, ever ready to do anything to
aid a friend or advance a worthy cause, Dr. Lefevre's name will not
be forgotten as long as any of his associates of the early days of Vancouver survive.
I   &tci)ar& ^iunkett Cooke, C C
JMONG those men who, having spent many years of
their active life in eastern Canada, made Vancouver
Ay/tj:    their home in their latter years was Richard Plunkett
\5i    Cooke.
He was born in Birr, Bang's county, Ireland,
belonging to the family of Cookes of Gordangan.
His father, Thomas Lalor Cooke, was crown solicitor of Birr for
many years. He was a man of wide and scholarly attainments and
was known as an antiquarian and astronomer. He possessed a valuable collection of works of art, some of them of very great antiquity
which after his death were purchased by the British Museum. He
married Lucinda Antisell, of Sraduff, King's county.
Richard Plunkett Cooke graduated from Trinity College, Dublin, in 1848, with the degree of Bachelor of Arts. He studied engineering under Professor, Sir John McNeill and was awarded a
diploma from the school of engineering attached to the university.
In 1852 he came to Canada and was engaged on the construction of
the Grand Trunk Railway, west of Toronto. Later he was appointed
engineer of that division and encountered all the engineering difficulties and problems incident to the construction of a railway in a new
and undeveloped country. In 1861 he severed his connection with
the Grand Trunk and resided in Brockville, having been appointed
managing director of the Brockville & Ontario Railway. In 1867
he resigned that position and entered into private practice as an engineer and contractor. He continued in this for a number of years
during which he was engaged in many important works in this country and the United States. Among them may be mentioned the
Boston, Barrie & Gardner Railroad, the Carillon Canal works and
the harbor works at Nicolet.
In 1853 he married Miss Anna Plunkett, daughter of the late
Lyneh Plunkett, of Castlemore, County Mayo, Ireland. To them
were born three daughters who are, Mrs. J. M. Lefevre, Mrs. F.
Baker and Mrs. F. J. P. Gibson, all of Vancouver and it was largely
the desire to be near them that caused Mr. Cooke to make this city
his home.
61 62
KichatP plunkett Cooke, €♦ <ff.
it r
As soon as he had settled in Vancouver he began to take an interest and an active part in enterprises designed to advance the growth
of this city. For several years he was prominent in the management
of the British Columbia Iron Works. When the foundation of a
provincial university was first proposed, he was an enthusiastic supporter of the project and was elected vice chancellor. He was president of the St. Patrick's society for some time. His ability as an
engineer was recognized by his advice being sought in regard to
various engineering enterprises in British Columbia.
A stanch conservative in politics, a genial and generous gentleman of the old school, he had many friends throughout Canada and
his name is held in esteem by them.
W_l!i!BU^U,iiRLnjj,jj|   Captain Ifytntp &ugu$tua JffleUon
FTER an eventful career rich in life's adventures, rich
in attainment and successful in the truest sense of
the word, Captain Henry Augustus Mellon now lives
practically retired in Vancouver, British Columbia,
resting from years of incessant endeavor and toil.
He is, however, notary for marine insurance at the
present time. Coming to this city in 1886, shordy after the great
conflagration, he was one who witnessed its rebuilding as it rose
Phenix-fike from its ashes and grew into a greater and more beautiful city than ever before.
Although Captain Mellon lives practically retired, he still keeps
in touch with shipping interests, an industry to which he has devoted
practically all his life, as representative of the New York Board of
Underwriters. Captain Mellon was born May 22, 1840, at the manufacturing city of Nottingham, England, and after having received
a fair education became a sailor. At the early age of fourteen years
the lure and attractions of the venturesome, many-sided life appealing strongly to the young man, he embarked as an apprentice on board
of the Chimera and his first trip took him from London to Calcutta.
The life aboard appealed to him and has held him in thrall in its fascination for all his life. Liverpool remained his home port for a
number of years and between his sailings he from there visited his
home folks in the old city. The Chimera remained Captain Mellon's
home for about five years and despite the rough and ready regime he
fully enjoyed a sailor's life and served out on her his apprenticeship.
Shortly after that time he joined the Royal Navy, becoming a
member of the crew of the Zenobia, and speaks reminiscently of
sailor's life at that time as follows: "In those days life for the sailors
aboard naval ships was what I call 'scratch and go,' pretty rough and
plenty of hard tack, but, on the whole, I liked the experience. Most
of the battleships were wooden walls. There were a few steamers,
and the Zenobia was a paddle boat." While in the navy Captain
Mellon, in the course of a cruise, was at Calcutta when the Indian
mutiny broke out and he thus was afforded an opportunity to participate in the quelling of this bloody revolt until on account of a wound
.  65
Httaa^B m
Captain toemy flugugtug ggellon
in the leg he had to unfortunately give up the service. In Calcutta
he joined what was afterward known as the Peel Brigade and as the
regulars had gone to the front to relieve unfortunate English in the
different sections where there were uprisings, it devolved upon
Peel's Brigade to garrison Fort William, where the white women
and children of Calcutta had sought refuge. Shortly afterward
Captain Mellon made one of a force sent to the relief of some point
in danger and during the mutiny he was fighting in different parts
of the country. The first actual encounter he saw was at Chittering-
ham, where his regiment was engaged in driving out the different
Sepoy troops as they mutinied, and he still vividly remembers the
first regiment which was disarmed by the brigade at Barrackpoor.
The force of which he formed a unit reached Lucknow very shortly
after the relief but on the way to that city in an engagement with the
Sepoys, the Captain was wounded in the foot and had to be carried
the remainder of the way to Lucknow in an ox cart. After his arrival
there he was invalided to England. Asked what his most vivid memory of the mutiny was, Captain Mellon replied: "The bitter feeling
engendered against the Sepoys on account of their fearful treatment
of our women and children. We came across some places where
every white man had been massacred, but the women and children
suffered most." He holds a most pleasant memory of the splendid
way in which the faithful Sikhs fought for the English crown and
has always a word of commendation to say in favor of their loyalty
and brave and courageous spirit. Upon recovering from his wound,
Captain Mellon once more embarked aboard a sailing vessel, but
later joined the Allan Line, in the employ of which company he
remained for about ten years. The first ship of this line with which
he was connected was the Hibernian, which brought to England the
news of the assassination of President Lincoln. As his qualities and
ability as a master were recognized he was promoted to more important positions and subsequently became the commander of the passenger finer Prussian. After severing his connection with the Allan
Line he entered the service of the Dominion Steamship Line and
with that company remained for seven years, being most of the time
captain of the Memphis, but holding in between several important
temporary commands. The Memphis was an iron screw steamer of
three hundred horse power and fifteen hundred ninety-five tons
register. As she approached the shore the storm obscured the shore
lights and the ship struck the Perido reef. It floated at the next
tide, but struck on the Pena de las Animas rock. The Captain
devoted his attention to getting the passengers safely off and all Captain lj)cntp augugtug cgellon
were taken to shore but the ship was wrecked. The cause of the
wreck was decided' as a mistaking of a brilliant and unusual light on
shore, where a carnival was being held, for the San Antonio light,
which it greatly resembled. It was the only light visible for a while
and when the storm lifted and the San Antonio was visible, it was
too late to correct the course of the ship and avoid the rocks. The
Captain was fully vindicated. In the course of his eventful career
as commander of big liners bound to all ports of the world Captain
Mellon gradually reached the high position of commodore captain
of the Dominion Line.
In 1879 or 1880 Captain Mellon determined to seek the opportunities offered in the Canadian northwest, of the riches of which
he had heard a great deal in England and from his passengers. Letting the deed follow the word he came to Canada and made his way
to Winnipeg, reaching that city during its first boom and in connection with the Dominion Steamship Reserve helped to establish
Rapid City. He was the pioneer settler and took the first passenger
there. He was the leader of the party and its whole soul. Mrs.
Mellon becoming sick, however, her husband returned with her to the
motherland, but the expected relief did not come to her and she
passed away only one week after their arrival. Returning to Winnipeg, he subsequently married Susanna Gertrude Clarke, formerly of
Meaford, Ontario, who came with him to Vancouver, where she is
well known in social circles and has a large number of friends.
Extended mention of Mrs. Mellon is made on another page of this
By the first marriage Captain Mellon had but one child, who is
still living; Henry R. G. Mellon, who resides at Port Mellon on
Howe Sound in charge of a pulp and paper plant. This port was
named for Captain Mellon.
After the death of his first wife Captain Mellon, however, went
to sea again, commanding the Berbice, a cargo and passenger boat
engaged in trade to the West Indies, but after two voyages he
decided to give up seafaring life and returned to Winnipeg. He
had planned to go to Texas, U. S. A., to engage in the raising of
horses and cattle, but was persuaded to come to British Columbia by
Mrs. Mellon, who had long had a desire to make her home in western
Canada near the ocean. After remaining there for a year he crossed
the Rocky mountains and made for Victoria and en route they met
the Hon. John Turner, who encouraged their belief in the coming
greatness of Vancouver. In December, 1886, he arrived in Vancouver, shortly after that city had been scourged by its historic con- 68
Captain totmy flugiistug cpellon
flagration. It was a small place then, bent.low, but not broken, by
this tragic disaster—a place where everybody knew everybody, yet
where that helpful spirit prevailed which comes with sorrow and loss
and where all tried to help each other to rebuild their homes.
Although Captain Mellon has lived practically retired, he has kept
in touch with shipping interests, representing a number of New York
underwriting firms. He has also been connected with other business
interests, for he was the founder and the first president of the
British Columbia Wood, Pulp & Paper Company, Limited, at Port
Mellon, which was the first pulp mill built in British Columbia.
When in April, 1910, Captain and Mrs. Mellon were about to
embark for Europe, they were presented with some handsome gifts
by the pulp company and also by the Arts and Historical Society.
Of the latter Mrs, Mellon was the real founder and in all of her work
in that connection has had the hearty cooperation and assistance of
her husband. In recognition of their services they have been made
honorary life presidents of the society which has placed their pictures
upon the walls of the museum. Captain Mellon is also a member
of the Royal Colonial Institute. He is surveyor for the Bureau
Veritas and his surveys have never once been questioned. For a
number of years he was Spanish vice consul for British Columbia.
He has ever been deeply interested in the welfare of seafaring men
and in New Orleans he gave a lecture to aid in the building of the
Bethel Home for Sailors, at which about fourteen hundred dollars
was raised. By an unanimous vote he was elected a life member of
the New Orleans Cotton Exchange. He has lectured frequently,
always before large audiences, and the full proceeds have been given
to charity. His charitable and philanthropic work and also his public
service have kept him for many years prominently before the public.
In politics he has been a stanch conservative. During early days in
Vancouver he filled the office of police magistrate for several years
and he was examiner of masters and mates, appointed by the liberal
government. He founded and was the first president of St. George's
Society, organized for philanthropic purposes and he and his wife
belong to the Church of England.
He is truly a pioneer of this section and of the city to which he
came when it received its real impetus of growth in its rebirth. Many
are the pictures which Captain Mellon can recall to mind of the old
Vancouver when there were just roads where now are splendid
streets; plank sidewalks, on which one had to walk with lanterns, where
now stretch miles of asphalt; when there were empty lots where now
stand resplendent and monumental public buildings; and where once Captain fcentg flugtigtug gggUon
one could hear naught but the singing of the frogs now throbs
the life of a great city. Humorously the Captain compares
the wonderful reception which was recently given to the Duke and
Duchess of Connaught on the occasion of the opening of the Cambie
Street bridge with the first public celebration held here, when the
population of the city at the most was eight hundred souls and the
first Canadian Pacific train came through. It was this in the year
1887, the golden jubilee of England's queen, when there were but a
few streets which comprised Vancouver, which were also decorated
for the occasion, but far differently than the wonderful arrangements which greeted the governor general and his illustrious wife
when thousands thronged the streets.
Captain Mellon has passed the seventy-third milestone on life's
journey—a life that has given him wonderful opportunities, which
he has made use of, and that has been filled with events which make
it rich in its evening tide. In him we see a man who, by the force of
his character, his ability, his foresight and his initiative has built up
a fife's success. He is highly esteemed and honored in the city which
he proudly calls his home and can look back with satisfaction upon
the performance of such duties in life as fell to his lot. To his
especial credit stands his brave and courageous conduct in the hours
of the dark Indian rebellion, when the richest of Britain's colonies
was on the verge of being torn from its crown. Nature has been kind
to him and with him one connects not old age as a period when mental
and physical powers weaken, for his old age has made him stronger
and brighter mentally and morally and as the years go by he gives
out of his rich store of wisdom and experience for the benefit of
others. Kindly and humorous, he is a bom raconteur and the
recount of his experiences has often given pleasure to those who have
been privileged to hear him. His life has been one of worth, filled
with action, and he is not only one of the most venerable men of Vancouver but also one of the most honored citizens of this city, and the
honor its people do unto him reflects back upon them in so doing.    feutfamta <@ertrube Clarke jWeHott
was born in London, England, a daughter of Frederick Clarke of Goswell street, London. When she
was a child her parents brought the family to Canada,
settling at Meaford, St. Vincent, Ontario, in 1851.
They made their home on the shore of the Georgian
bay, and the habitation was quite crude and primitive compared to
the home in England which they had left. They had to go more
than fifty miles for provisions. It was winter when they arrived and
at Toronto they were met by friends, who took them in sleighs the
long journey to their new home. The father was injured at an old
time barn raising and for twenty-five years was an invalid. However, he for six years survived his wife, who passed away on the old
home farm. In their family were seven children, all of whom, save
one, were born in England. Of these but four are now living, two
of whom, Mrs. Mellon and Frederick Clarke are residents of British
Columbia. The father was uniformly styled "Gendeman Clarke"
because of bis gracious and courtly manner. In his agricultural pursuits he was strongly inclined towards scientific farming and devoted
much of his life to experiments along scientific lines. In England
he had been a member of the Anti-Mephitic Maneur and Sanitary
Improvement Association. He was the inventor of a device which
gave great promise of civic improvement, but it was ahead of the
times. Undertaking its manufacture, he invested heavily and lost
heavily. Later, however, this device proved a great success and many
are now in use in England.
In 1882 Susanna Gertrude Clarke went to Winnipeg, where she
remained for four years. While there she was married to Captain
H. A. Mellon and in 1886 they came to British Columbia, where she
has since made her home. Mrs. Mellon had long heard of the far
western province and, desiring to go to the ocean side she used her
influence to persuade her husband to remove to British Columbia
instead of to Texas, as he had planned. Since coming to Vancouver
Mrs. Mellon has been active in social, society and club life and has
contributed liberally of her time and money to many worthy causes.
» g>uganna tgetttuDe Clatfee ageUon
Especially has she been helpful in connection with the Victorian
Order of Nurses, of which she was one of the first organizers and for
several years she was a director of the society. She is also one of the
charter members of the Canadian Club and holds membership in the
Arts and Crafts and also in the Arts, Historical and Scientific
Society. Of the last named she was practically the organizer. Her
inspiration for the founding in British Columbia of a fitting memorial to the great navigator, Captain James Cook, had its source in a
letter from her illustrious cousin, the late Dr. Hyde Clarke, F. R. S.,
D. C. L., of London, who was first a civil engineer and later was sent
to Constantinople as a government attache. Another cousin, Professor Bull of London, England, was with Lord Kelvin on the first
Atlantic Cable Expedition. Dr. Hyde Clarke was a celebrated
linguist with a knowledge of over one hundred languages and was a
well known newspaper man. He felt that British Columbia should
erect a fitting memorial for Captain Cook. Other places among the
British possessions had done so and Dr. Clarke wrote a letter to the
Hon. Carter-Cotton of Vancouver on the 22d of September, 1887,
calling attention to the need for such action. Mr. Carter-Cotton
wrote editorially in response urging the founding of such a memorial
society, to collect and preserve data. Mrs. Mellon had been associated with an art society in Winnipeg and enthusiastically entered
upon the work here, laboring untiringly to establish and build up a
society of such character as would endure and grow in its far-reaching
and helpful influences. It is hoped that some time a building in keeping with the dignity and greatness of British Columbia will be
erected to carry on the work of the society, which is now on a firm,
substantial basis. Through the untiring efforts of its officers the
association and its museum are recognized as of marked educational
value and worth by the public at large. It entertains as many as five
thousand visitors per month. The present president is His Honor,
Judge Howay, who for three years has been the presiding officer and
his assistance and able counsel have been of material help and greatly
appreciated by the other officers.
The development of the society to its present thriving condition
has come through many hardships and disappointments, Mrs. Mellon
making three distinct attempts to organize the work which has ultimately been brought to a most successful point. First a society was
started called the Historical and Literary Association, of which Mr.
R. E. Gosnell of Victoria was secretary pro tern. In 1883 a second
attempt was made, the society being known as the Columbian Institute.   A failure also ended this endeavor.   On the 8d of April, 1894,
jCumiuimJ Susanna ®etttuoe Clatfee ageUon
the Arts, Historical and Scientific Society came into being, largely
through the efforts of Mrs. Mellon, who was chosen the first vice
president and served as such for several years. For five years she was
treasurer and later was again made first vice president, continuing
thus to the present time. The society during its first year, from the
1st to the 8th of November, under the patronage of the Earl and
Countess of Aberdeen, held an art and loan exposition to further the
work of the society. In recognition of her efforts and her contagious
enthusiasm in this work Mrs. Mellon has been made a life member.
This association was the first to affiliate with the local council of
women and Mrs. Mellon has had representation on the board of the
council of women from the beginning. The Arts, Historical and
Scientific Society has passed through its struggle for existence. It
will be remembered that in 1909, when delegates of the International
Council of Women met in Toronto, twenty-nine of these delegates
came on to the coast. With them was Mrs. Withington of Great
Ayton in York, England, where Captain Cook was educated. They
visited the museum and Mrs. Withington was much impressed by a
portrait of Captain Cook there exhibited. She asked who it was that
showed such a regard for the intrepid navigator as to secure his picture. She was introduced to Mrs. Mellon and became so interested
in the attempt to raise a fund that while en route to Chicago she took
a collection from the delegates with whom she was traveling and sent
it back to increase the fund. Also upon her return to Great Britain
she gave a lecture in Great Ayton, the proceeds of which went for the
same purpose.
In the same year Mrs. Mellon went to Europe intending to make
an appeal for help to the English people. She had taken editorials
and documents of various kinds to use, but she found that Sir James
Carruthers, ex-premier of New South Wales had just appealed to
the people of London to erect there another suitable monument to
Captain James Cook. This prevented Mrs. Mellon making her
appeal as the time seemed inopportune. At present the nucleus for
a fund for the British Columbia memorial to Captain Cook exists and
Mrs. Mellon plans to enlarge it, hoping to secure a building worthy
of both the city of Vancouver and the pioneer navigator of the
Pacific. Mrs. Mellon is a councilor of the League of Empire, of
London, England. She is'also a member of the committee of the
Pauline Johnson Fund, organized to secure the publication of the
writings of this celebrated Indian poetess and lecturer, who, in 1918,
passed away, and whose beautiful verse and legends have made her
famous and have called especial attention to Vancouver.
1    5|on. 3fof)n ftetettan ^elmcKen,
JWL ft. C ft., H. ft. 9.
JHERE is no more distinguished citizen, no more venerated and venerable pioneer in Victoria than Hon.
John Sebastian Helmcken, an eminent physician who
came to this city early in 1850 and has witnessed its
growth from the building of the first modest little
house to its present magnificent size. He was born
June 5,1825, in London, England, and comes of pure German ancestry. His father was a native of Bremerlee, Germany, and his mother's
father a native of Miskirch.
John Sebastian Helmcken acquired his early education in his native
city. His father having died, Dr. Graves, of Trinity Square on Tower
"Frill, London, a well known physician in his day, took a liking to the
boy and, with the consent and thanks of his beloved mother, very
kindly gave him a position in his surgery with pay, intending him to
become a druggist. Eventually young Helmcken was articled as an
apprentice, during which time he had to put up all of the prescriptions,
including the making of pills, which, in those days, was a matter
entirely different from today. Before the expiration of the four
years' apprenticeship he became a student at Guys Hospital, London,
one of the most famous institutions of the kind, its capacity being six
hundred beds. At the end of four years' connection with the hospital,
having fulfilled the legal requirements, Mr. Helmcken obtained a
diploma from the Royal College of Surgeons, England, also a license
from the Apothecaries Society. During his first two years' residence
at Guys Hospital he saw all of the operations, great or small, performed without an anaesthetic. After this he witnessed the first
operation performed under the newly-discovered ether, Dr. Gull administering the anassthetic. The effect was astounding to all beholders
and to the patient himself, who would not believe that his leg had been
amputated until the nurse threw back the clothes and said "Look I"
Through his strenuous work Mr. Helmcken's health became impaired and a Mr. Harrison, a liberal supporter of Guys Hospital and
treasurer of the institution, offered him, as a reward of merit, for
he had captured several prizes during the course, an appointment to
the Hudson's Bay Company's ship, Prince Rupert, on its voyage to
79 ■ill
rf f
80   Il^on. 3fohn Sebastian l^clmcben, g0,K.C.&., £.&.&
York Factory on Hudson Bay and return. Accompanying the Prince
Rupert was a vessel containing a government expedition in search of
Sir John Franklin, the Arctic explorer, which had to travel from
York Factory to the Mackenzie river. Mr. Helmcken returned from
this journey accompanied by Dr. Rae, of the Hudson's Bay Company,
the celebrated explorer, who was a passenger on the Prince Rupert.
Restored to health, Mr. Helmcken then spent another year in
study, graduating from the Royal College of Surgeons, becoming a
full-fledged M. R. C. S. He was then detailed to enter the British
navy but fortunately was dissuaded from that course by Mr. Barclay
and soon afterward received the appointment of surgeon to the passenger ship Malacca, Captain Conset in command, bound for Bombay.
This vessel was owned by Messrs. Wigram and Green, who it is interesting to note, built the pioneer Pacific steamer Beaver for the Hudson's Bay Company. For a year and a half the Malacca with
Mr. Helmcken on board sailed the Indian seas. At that time Hong
Kong and Singapore were in their infancy, while the gates of Canton
were shortly to be opened. Colombo had an open roadstead. These
places were malarious, the mosquito, the cause of it, being unknown.
Returning home, Mr. Helmcken met Mr. Barclay, secretary of the
Honorable Hudson's Bay Company, who gave him an appointment
as clerk and colonial surgeon in the company's service and in process
of time he was promoted to a chief-tradership in the service. He sailed
with the eighty pioneer emigrants, mostly servants of the Hudson's
Bay Company, on the ship Norman Morrison, Captain Wishart master, and early on this voyage was successful in quelling an epidemic of
smallpox with the invaluable assistance of Captain Wishart. He succeeded so well that at the end of the trip he had to report but two
deaths as the result of this terrible scourge. The Norman Morrison
arrived in Esquimalt harbor in March, 1850, and there her passengers were placed for three weeks in quarantine. At this time the whole
northern country, extending as far .south as California, was a vast
wilderness sparsely inhabited by aborigines.
The immigrants were sent out by the Hudson's Bay Company to
fulfill its agreement with the Crown to colonize Vancouver island, in
fact, to take possession of the island for future commerce. No opposition was made to the landing by the Songhees. At this time there
was nothing in the place but the Hudson's Bay fort and a dairy outside with some cultivated land. All of the people lived in the fort and
were in a state of restless agitation because of the gold discoveries in
California. The officers of the company had to keep watch against
the desertion of the company's people to the Eldorado.   Many of the %>on. 3Mbn ^eoagtian helmcken, et9.K.€.&., &♦$.&   si
emigrants had to return on the Norman Morrison as sailors, some of
the sailors having deserted.   About six weeks after his arrival in Victoria Mr. Helmcken was transferred to Fort Rupert, proceeding to
that place on the historic steamer Beaver.   This was at the time when
the first coal mines were being opened at that place.   He found that
the miners had struck from some grievance and the place was in a restless condition on account of the gold fever in Califomia.   The arrival
of the ship England for a cargo of coal seemed to further agitate the
people and in the end the miners deserted in that ship.   It was at that
time that the tragedy occurred, the account of which has been previously written.   The United States warship Massachusetts, Captain
Golsburgh in command, came up for a cargo of coal, and because of
the state of affairs took a long time to coal.   When leaving Captain
Golsburgh said to Blenkinsop, who had charge of the fort: "Well,
Blenkinsop, why do you think we have been so long coaling?   I have
stopped here just to give you a hand in case you should have trouble
with the Indians outside.   I think you are pretty quiet now and we
are off."   Governor Blanshard sent Mr. Helmcken a commission as a
justice of the peace, recommending him to call out special constables.
This was an impossibility, however, as all of the men were in the same
box.   Hearing of this the governor wrote him that the Queen's name
was a tower of strength, but at Fort Rupert it did not seem to be of
much avail without the Queen's bayonets.   He, the governor, said that
he would soon be at Fort Rupert with force at his command.   After
a few months' residence at Fort Rupert, Mr. Helmcken was called to
Victoria to attend Governor Blanshard, Dr. Benson, his predecessor,
having been transferred to Fort Vancouver, on the Columbia river.
He returned in a canoe paddled by Indians—a wild lot in those days.
For two hundred miles or more down the coast the party had to run
the gauntlet of hostile red men and were all of the time in considerable danger.   They only escaped because the savages had great
respect for the Hudson's Bay Company's men, whom they termed
"King George's men."   Arriving in Victoria at the end of December
Mr. Helmcken found Governor Blanshard by this time recovered
from his illness and ever since that period, from the building of the
first house to the present time, Mr. Helmcken has maintained his residence in this city, where he practiced his profession with success.
Mr. Helmcken has occupied several public positions. In those
days officers were appointed as public exigencies demanded, for temporary purposes, and Mr. Helmcken, having but little to do, generally
had to fill these offices, acting as coroner and in other positions. In
1855 Governor Douglas received a dispatch from Her Majesty's gov
n /ft
82   Ipon. 3lobn &eoagtian toelmtktn, ct3-U.C.%., &♦%♦&
ernment to institute a legislative assembly. An election was held at
which Mr. Helmcken and others were returned. At the meeting of
the legislature, which was, of course, a rudimentary body, meeting in
a rudimentary official building—the Batchelor's Hall of the old fort—
all had to learn. The members soon discovered that the house was
isolated, had no official connection with the executive, and further that
although composed of the very best people its powers were crippled.
As the lands belonged to the Hudson's Bay Company it had no borrowing powers but could levy taxes. As the population was very
small, however, they did not do so, and this left the total expense of
government to be paid at the settlement of accounts by Her Majesty's
government, which was done when the Crown grant of the island to
, the Hudson's Bay Company was revoked. The members served
without pay until after confederation. It therefore fell to Mr.
Speaker to form the missing link and to hold communication with the
executive. As there was much writing to do, the records to be kept,
etc., and there not being any clerk, this gave much work to
Mr. Speaker. The parliamentary business at first was very brisk, but
after awhile it became slower and slower and having nothing to do,
Mr. Speaker had an audience with His Excellency, acquainting him
with the fact that the house had no work to do and suggested a dissolution, to which His Excellency rather sarcastically replied, "I think,
Mr. Speaker, the house may yet find some work to do." Mr. Speaker
heard sufficient to learn that if this house of assembly wished to avoid
extinction it must provide a law about elections, etc. Mr. Speaker set
to work to draw up a necessary bill, drawn for the most part from
England's statutes, a voluminous document, but this was declared to
be too cumbersome, and so Chief Justice Begbie came to the rescue
and drew up a short bill, which was afterwards agreed to by the house'
of assembly. In those days a council existed, first instituted by
Governor Blanshard. Thus ended the first session of the first parliament and a new election called.
This next session met at the picturesque building erected at the
expense of the Colonial Hudson's Bay Company, which stood on the
ground now occupied by the grand and stately parliament buildings. The house was opened by His Excellency, Governor Douglas,
with all due formularies, Mr. Helmcken being elected speaker, and
Mr. Porter appointed clerk of the house, a position he filled with
distinguished ability. At the end of His Excellency's speech,
Mr. Speaker, in accordance with ancient usage, asked the governor for
free speech and access to His Excellency at all times. After graciously granting the request, His Excellency retired. During the first toon. 3tolm ^eoagtian tozlmtUn, g0.1R.C.&., &.&.&   m
session the San Juan imbroglio occurred, the legislative assembly supporting Governor Douglas. It is impossible to describe the almost
frenzied feeling in Victoria at this time, aggravated not only by the
boundary question but also by the rowdy element in Victoria, combined with the element on the American side of the straits threatening
to filibuster Victoria. This, however, was put to an end by a gunboat from Esquimalt, being dispatched to Victoria harbor. A few
years afterward a military man of high standing, "a major," delivered a lecture published in the newspaper on Puget Sound, giving his
opinion that General Harney had unjustifiably seized San Juan island
in order to bring about international troubles and so make secession
easy for the south. The consequences of the Fraser river gold fever
fixed Victoria as the commercial city of Vancouver island.
Mr. Helmcken was elected speaker and retained this office until the
union of the colonies in 1866, after which the legislature met at Sap-
perton, New Westminster. With this union of the colonies the
Vancouver island legislative assembly came to an end and with it representative government, and likewise the dual governorship of the colony. The government of the mainland was under the crown colony
system, partly representative and partly appointive, the official members being in the majority. Mr. Seymour succeeded Sir James
Douglas as governor of the mainland, and after the union he was
appointed governor of the whole colony. The assembly was called to
meet at Sapperton, New Westminster, Mr. Helmcken soon after
being appointed a member of the executive council. Then came the
burning question there of the seat of government. Considerable public interest and anxiety at this time existed with regard to the future
site of the seat of government, Governor Seymour being more than
supposed to favor New Westminster, therefore the friends of Victoria, as well here as in England, desired Victoria to be the site of the
future capital and used great exertions to secure it. Mr. Helmcken
moved that the seat of government be at Victoria. This, after strong
debate, was carried and according to rule left to the decision of
Her Majesty, who decided in favor of Victoria. In the interim
Mr. Helmcken had bis hands full writing and telegraphing to his
friends and coworkers in England.
At this session Amor De Cosmos brought forward the subject of
confederation and a resolution was passed in favor of the proposal, but
little notice was taken of it. Governor Seymour thought it premature, but confederation was in the air. Permission at that session
was given to an electric telegraph company to carry their wires through
British Columbia en route to Asia, by way of Bering's Strait, but the \WY:
1   !
84   ^on. 3foim ^eoagtian helmcken, C0.iR.C^ *U^.&
project suddenly came to an end when the Atlantic cable proved a
success. The wires communicating with the United States, however,
were left in working order.
The question of the seat of government having been settled, the
legislature afterward met in Victoria and, Governor Seymour having
died, Mr. Anthony Musgrave was appointed to fill his place and
resided at Carey Castle. Although this change had occurred British
Columbia was still under the crown colony system of government.
Mr. Helmcken discovered that one British Columbian consumed three
times as much dutiable go.ods as one Canadian. This discovery made
it evident that the population of British Columbia had to be nominally
increased threefold so as to put this province on a footing as far as
head money was concerned, equal to those of the older provinces.
Governor Musgrave, seeing this letter in a newspaper, sent for Mr.
Helmcken. "Your letter," said the governor, "makes confederation
financially practicable," etc., but Mr. Helmcken replied that he had
written the letter for an altogether contrary purpose, as he had been
elected to oppose confederation. Like many of his influential friends
and coworkers he was strenuously opposed to confederation, chiefly
on the ground that British Columbia was isolated from Canada and
had no means of communication therewith, and cut off from all land
immigration excepting from the United States and its attache, Alaska;
further, there would be a financial loss; and further, the loss of independence and the few representatives sent to the federal government
would be of little avail. On the other hand, his opponents wanted confederation because it would bring with it responsible government and
do away with the crown colony government—apparently their panacea
to cure all evils. The truth is, very few knew anything about confederation. Soon after this interview with the governor the subject of
confederation was brought before the executive council, it being understood that Her Majesty's government desired that the province
should enter the confederacy but leaving the terms of union to be
arranged by British Columbia. This was considered as a sort of command by the executive council, most of whom were official members,
and therefore it made confederation unavoidable, it following that
the question of confederation was reduced to the simple question of
terms. The governor and the official members of the council were as
anxious as the appointed members that good terms should be demanded
from the Canadian government.
Mr. Helmcken was a member of the executive council and after
one of its meetings Mr. Trutch (the governor's emissary), said to him:
"I know you want a railway to the interior but I mean to propose a
^-'■in7r*:ajr,-<rg^ny?T Ifton, 3fojm ^cbagttan helmcken, gp.ia.C^,, &♦&♦&
railway to the eastern provinces. Without it the country will continue isolated and stagnant. I do not see any advantage of going
into confederation without railway communication." "That's rather
astounding," replied Mr. Helmcken, "but I will support you through
thick and thin." The executive council formulated the terms of confederation which were subsequently sent to the legislative assembly,
where they were agreed to, and in the end Mr. Trutch, Dr. Carroll
and Mr. Helmcken were appointed delegates to carry the terms of
confederation to the federal government at Ottawa, where they were
in substance agreed to. Mr. Helmcken brought back the amended
terms which were subsequently agreed to by the legislative assembly
and are generally known as the Terms of Union, the chief condition
embodied in the terms being the construction of the railway. With
these terms the public generally were satisfied but there were some
who declared that the Canadian government had not the means to
build the railway and if built, the income would not pay for the axle
grease. The old opposition was satisfied because the terms gave the
colony railway connection with Canada, and the remainder because
they got their panacea for all evils.
Mr. Helmcken subsequently was offered a senatorship but declined
the honor on account of "Angusta Res Domi," preferring to take
care of his children and his medical practice. Later he suffered an
attack of typhoid fever which incapacitated him, compelling him to
permanently retire. Mr. Helmcken still takes an active interest in the
happenings of the day and has written many letters, particularly advocating a railway to the north end of Vancouver island, published in
the sessional papers of the government, others relating to the early
history of the colony, and other public matters, published chiefly in the
Colonist and Times of Victoria.
The marriage of Mr. Helmcken and Miss Cecilia Douglas occurred on the 27th of December, 1852, the latter being a daughter of
Sir James Douglas, the governor of the colony. There being at this
time no church, the ceremony was performed by the Rev. Mr. Staines,
chaplain of the Hudson's Bay Company, in the mess room of the fort.
Mrs. Helmcken was a most devoted wife and mother and has preceded
Mr. Helmcken to the home beyond. Of their seven children three are
living: Amelia, the wife of G. A. McTavish; James Douglas, a prominent member of the medical profession in Victoria, the city of his
birth; Edith Louisa Higgins, a widow, who makes her home with her
father; and Harry Dallas, deceased, who was an ex-member of parliament and a well known king's counsel, practicing in Victoria.    3 ofm Work tEofatte
[CCUPYING one of the old picturesque homes in Victoria, the place being known as Cloverdale, is John
Work Tolmie, a representative of one of the oldest
pioneer families of the northwest. He was born at
Fort Nisqually, Washington, in March, 1854, a son
of Dr. W. F. and Jane (Work) Tolmie, of whom
extended mention is made elsewhere in this work. Much interest has
been felt by members of the family in tracing back the origin of the
family name, which appears in Egypt, Denmark, north of Scotland,
and there is also a Greek word "Tolme," signifying "I dare." In
Egypt the name was Ptolemy. The name Alexander Tolmie appears
and reappears in the different branches of the family, but in old
Egypt and Greece it was written Ptolemy Alexander. The subject
of this review was also descended from the Frasers of Lovat, but the
father would never use the Fraser crest and motto. The Frasers
were originally a French family, named Duberry, from Brittany.
They crossed the channel about 800 A. D. and at the battle of Ban-
nockburn one of the Frasers supplied Robert Bruce with three successive mounts when the horse he was riding was killed. It was this
that won the family the three crowns upon their arms.
Dr. W. F. Tolmie was one of the most picturesque figures in the
history of the northwest. He was a graduate of Glasgow University
ere he had attained his majority and