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The confederation of the British North American provinces; their past history and future prospects; including… Rawlings, Thomas 1865

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[The right of Translation is reserved.] LONDON: 
My dear Sir,
During my sojourn in England the past two years,
circumstances have caused me to seek many interviews with
you. And during those interviews I have always been impressed
with the profound interest you manifested in all that concerned
the welfare of the British North American Colonies, and the
future development of the Hudson Bay Territory. You have
done me the honour on one or two occasions to say that you
thought a pamphlet, which would carry to the public a general
idea of that-whole territory, and impress upon the Government
at home the importance of uniting by iron bands the Atlantic
with the Pacific Ocean, would be a task pleasing to me, who
had lived in America so many years. Acting upon that
suggestion, I have compiled, from the best authorities, all the
information which I thought bore upon the subject. You
will find the work fragmentary and disjointed, but a merchant
lays no claim to the dignity of a litterateur.
Faithfully yours,
Hampton Villa, Pembbidge Place,
London, February 16, 1865.  PREFACE.
I purpose, in the following pages, to treat of the migratory
movements of the human race chronologically—of the discoveries on the continent of America—of the early history,
progress, present condition, and future prospects of all that
territory lying north of the 49th parallel, the Lakes and
the St. Lawrence, and extending from the Pacific to the
Atlantic Ocean, and which will constitute the proposed
British North American Confederacy.
I desire to prove by that history, that progress, that
prosperous present, and hy that prospective future, what
a splendid territory Great Britain possesses, and how proud \
she should be of so thriving, so energetic, so ambitious a
I shall devote a few chapters to the consideration of
the Western States of the United States; I shall show by
statistical tables their progress, their development, and
their inherent agricultural and mineral wealth.
The subject of a railway communication between the
Atlantic and Pacific Oceans will also claim attention; and
it will be my endeavour to point out that route which, by
its natural advantages, offers the most feasible and least
expensive means of crossing the continent.
It will be my aim to gather, select, and compile every
item of interest, every recorded experience in pioneer life, VI
every statistical fact of importance, and every suggestion which may tend to the instruction or guidance of
the Emigrant.
I shall not hesitate to quote largely from works
which chorographically treat of America, and whose
authority may substantiate my statements, or whose
author's language will make more clear the subjects
I wish to illustrate, or the ends at which I aim.
If the facts and observations contained in these pages
add somewhat to the general information of the public
in reference to the Transatlantic World, or if the emigrant who has determined upon a new sphere of action
shall find auy remarks which may assist in guiding him
in his judgment, and result in ameliorating the early
hardships of his new career, my object is accomplished.
T. it;  cc
The British. Colonies; their Extent, Population, Imports and Exports—The
proposed British North American Confederation; their Extent, Population, Imports and Exports ; their prospective Wealth—Confederation
a Means of Security—The Great Railway Route from the Atlantic to the
Pacific Ocean—The Duty of England in reference to the Colonies ...      1
Early Efforts of the Explorer, Geographer, and Navigator—America in its
Primitive State—The Causes which operated to develop the Migratory
Movements of Mankind, and the Progress in Discovery made by various
Expeditions 9
Scandinavian Records—Eric the Red—Speculation of EuropEans;—Columbus
and his Voyages—Balboa, Magellan, Cortez—Pizarro and his Comrades—
Sir Francis Drakes-Expeditions to the Arctic Ocean and ■feeir Result.    .    15
The Colonization of Newfoundland, New Brunswick, Prince Edward's Island,
Nova Scbtia, and the Canadas (Upper and Lower) 25
Newfoundland: Agriculture; Government; Fisheries; Shipping; Imports
and Exports; Population—Prince Edwardls Island: Industrial Resources;
Imports and Exports; Comities; Towns, and Population; Education;
Government—Nova Scotia: The Seasons ; Botanical Productions; Ship- Till
ping; Agriculture; Fisheries; Commerce; Population; Quadruped*
Bird*, and Fish; Crown Lands; Education; Government; Halifax
Gold-Fields; Minerals	
nracuiPTiox of wbw Bncjrswicx.
New Brunswick—Riven and Countiea—CapabOitiea of the Prorince—Forests
—Fisheries—Mineral*—Fruit and Vegetables—Manufactures— Counties—
Commerce—Finances—Government—Public Schools—Militia—Census of
1801—Agriculture *•
The Lakes, Rivera, and Canals—The Pictured Rocks—The Great Lakes-
Mineral Wealth—Commerce, Shipping, Trade, and Statistics—Rivers—
The Kapids—Canadian Song—Emigration—Montreal, Toronto, Quebec,
Kingstown, Hamilton, Cobourg, &c.—The Farming Interest of Canada-
Agricultural Statistics and Tables 64
The Hudson's Bay Company: its Charter, Hi Profits, Hi Furs—The Fur
Trade: its Extent and Value—The Territory : its Government, its Physical
Features, its Plains, Lakes, and Rivers—The Saskatchewan Valley-
Testimony of Captain lilakiston, Captain 1'alisser, Sir George Simpson,
Monsieur Bourgeau, Father De Smct, Professor Hind, and others in
reference to its Agricultural Resources—The Railway Houte—Its Minerals,
Grass, Fish, Animals, Birds, Roots, Berries, ftc—The Red River Settlement—American Trade—Homes for the Emigrant—The Company's Lands
in the Market—Crossing the Rocky Mountains—Progress of the West—
The Future Policy of the Hudson's Hay Company	
ie Rocky Mountains: their Extent, their Altitude, their Passes—British
Columbia: Early Discovery, Boundary-line, Lakes, Rivers, am.; Gold and
the Gold-mines; Discovery of the Gold; Testimony of Governor Douglas,
G. Forbes Macdonald. Esq., and the Thm Correspondent—Gold on
Freeer River— Richness of the Mines—Mines on Thompson River -Lillooett
Gold-nunc*-Cariboo Gold River—Steele's Company—Labour la British
Colombia- Export of Gold in ISM— Fertility of Soil in the Gold
Neighbourhood Progress of the Colony--Vancouver's Island: it* Agri-
rultorei Bssawoss. Coal beds. Importance aa a Naval Station, Imports
and Export*; ProspccUng. Panning, and Washing Gold	 CONTENTS.
Early Travelling—Steam a Revolutionizer—Length of Railway in England,
France, and the United States—Opening of the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad—Professor Mitchell's Testimony as to their Value—Increase in Traffic
of American Railways—Railway System of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick—Canadian Railways—The Inter-Colonial Railway—General Review
of the Subject—The Duty of England towards the proposed British North
American Confederacy 127
Progress and Extent of Territory—Her Natural Beauties, Lakes, Rivers,
Prairies, and Mountains—English Appreciation of America, and her
Sympathy—Her Poets, Orators, Historians, and Artists—Peace and Reciprocity—The Blessings of Peace—The Reciprocity Treaty—Its Results
and Mutual Benefits—Its Continuation desirable 138
Primary Object of the Book—Captain Palisser's Testimony—Route wholly
through British Territory impossible—The only feasible Route, by way of
Michigan and Minnesota to Hudson's Bay—"Wealth of the "Western States
—Ohio : Products of Agriculture; Railways—Indiana : Area, Population,
Progress of the State, Agricultural Products, Manufactures, and Railways
—Michigan : General Statistics, Products of Agriculture, the Cereal Products, Miscellaneous Crops, and Railroads—Wisconsin : Topographical
Features, Railroads, Products of Agriculture, Valuation and Taxation—
Iowa : Agricultural Wealth, Increase, Railroads—Illinois : Agricultural
Progress, Valuation and Taxation, Railways, and Number, Extent, and
Cost of all the Railways in the United States	
Extent of Territory—St. Paul, the Capital-Physical Districts-Palls of St.
Anthony and its Water Power—Mineral Resources-Sandstone, &c—Salt CONTENTS.
Springs—The Relations of Minnesota in Reference to Internal Commerce -
—Rapid Progress of Cultivation—Agricultural Productions—Progress of
Population—The Future of Minnesota—Testimony of Hon. W. II. Seward
—Conclusion—Railway through  Minnesota—Illinois Central Railroad—
The Value of the Lands—Value of the Illinois Lands 165
Advice to Emigrants to Canada or the United States—Progress of Emigration
to America—Comparative Increase in Immigration from 1861 to 1864—
Emigration from Germany—Laws of Migration—Inducements to Settle in
America—Stock-Breeding and Raising in Hlinc-ia . 198 CONTENTS OF APPENDICES.
The British American Federation—Resolutions Adopted at a Conference of
Delegates from the Provinces of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick,
and the Colonies of Newfoundland, and Prince Edward's Island     .    .    . 205
Increased Production of Cultivated Plants near the Northernmost Limit of
their Growth—Extracts from ah Article upon the " Acclimating Principle
ofPlants,"byDr. Forry 212
Professor M. F. Maury and Pacific Railroads—The Physical, Commercial, and
Military Necessity of two Railroads, one North and one South .    .    .    .217
Table of Distances, Fares, &c, between Great Britain and North America—
Distances to Chicago, Illinois, from Quebec, New York, Boston, and New
Orleans—Table of Distances and Fares in the United States and Canada,
via Grand Trunk Railwav 223
Itineraries of Routes from St. Paul to Pembina, Fort Garry, Fort Ellice,
Edmonton House, and the Gulf of Georgia, British Columbia—Table of
Distances from St. Paul to Pembina: From St. Paul to Lake Floyd; Lake
Floyd to Pembina; Red Lake River to Pembina—Plain Trail: Route of
"Woods and Pope; Route of Ellis Smith and Party—Various Routes: Saux
Rapids to Sioux Wood River; St. Cloud to Georgetown; St. Cloud to
Goose River; Detroit Lake to Georgetown, &c—Railroad Lines—Table
of Distances from Breckinridge to Pembina—Routes and Portions of
Routes to the North and North-West of Pembina 226
St. Paul and Pacific Railroad—Statement of the Hon. E. Rice, State Senator.  233
Value of Moneys in Canada—Colonial, British, American—Value of English
Coin throughout Canada <■   M •    '  ^  THE  CONFEDERATION
The British Colonies; their Extent, Population, Imports and Exports—The proposed British North American Confederation; their Extent, Population,
Imports and Exports; their prospective "Wealth—Confederation a Means of
Security—The Great Railway Route from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean—
The Duty of England in reference to the Colonies.
The gradual development, continued progress, and sure, but increased prosperity of England's possessions, dependencies, and
colonies, should ever be a matter of careful consideration, study,
and deliberation, by the Government of Great Britain, her statesmen, and her people.
When we consider their number, their extended and yet widely-
separated distribution, geographically and climatically; the variety
of their productions; the material contributions which they make to
our unsurpassed wealth; the deep interest they have in maintaining
and extending our religious, commercial, and political influence;
how largely they share in the splendour of our prosperity and the
solidity of our power; that, in a great degree, they are the reservoirs and granaries from which we draw those materials which
ultimately clothe and feed our millions; that they are large consumers of our varied products and fabrics; that in many of
their harbours our fleets find a safe refuge from hostile foes; and
that, while travelling through them, or passing over their lakes and
rivers, there is a feeling of consanguinity and love for all that
surrounds us, and the old flag still waving above to shield and
protect us: considering these things, should we not watch over
them with parental care, support them while struggling through
their days of experimental existence, and foster every attempt
which they make to enlarge their sphere of action, extend civiliza-
!■ 2
tion and commerce, and assist them in developing their various
elements of innate wealth ?
Each of our various possessions in different quarters of the
world contributes its quota towards the full measurement of our
greatness. Our colonies in 1862 imported a total of £45,423,903,
and exported £65,283,251.
British India, comprising Bengal, North-West Province, Pun-
jaub, Madras, and Bombay, extends over 933,722 square miles, and
a population of 135,634,200. Her revenue in 1863 amounted to
In Africa we have Sierra Leone, Gambia, Gold Coast, Cape of
Good Hope, Natal, Lagoo, and St. Helena, comprising an area of
240,000 square miles, and a population of 500,000.
The Australian Colonies and New Zealand consist of New
South Wales, 323,437 sq. miles; pop. (1861), white, 351,046,
coloured, 14,589; total, 365,635. Imports (1862) £4,019,482.
Exports £2,234,592. Queensland, 678,000 sq. miles ; pop. (1862)
70,000; 8,063,612 lbs. of wool were exported. Victoria, 86,831
sq. miles; pop. (1862) 555,744. The imports were £6>073,951,
while the exports were £2,870,715.
Western Australia, 978,000 sq. miles; pop. 10,000. Southern
Australia, 383,328 sq. miles; pop. (1862) 140,329. Export of
wool 13,229,009 lbs. Imports £950,637. Exports £866,583.
Tasmania, 2S,215 sq. miles; pop. 100,000.
New Zealand, 106,259 sq. miles; pop. 165,364. Imports
£1,364,935. Exports £611,445, Total imports Australia (1862)
£12,847,325.   Exports £7,109,809.
Then we have Gibraltar, with a population of 15,462. Imports
(1862) £1,144,699. Exports £97,559. Malta, pop. 141,000.
Heligoland, pop. 2172. The Bahamas, pop. 35,287; territory
2921 sq. miles.   Bermuda, pop. (1861) 11,918.
In the West Indies we have Antigua, pop. (1861) 36,000.
Barbadoes, pop. 152,727. Dominica, pop. 25,065. Grenada,
pop. 31,500. Jamaica, 6400 sq. miles; pop. (1861) 441,255.
Montserrat, pop. 7645. Nevis, pop. 9822. St. Christoph.'s
and Anguil, pop. 20,741. St. Lucia, pop. (1802) 27,1 11. St.
Vincent, pop. 31,755. Tobago, pop. 15,410. Trinidad, pop.
84,067.    Turk's Island, pop. 4372.    Virgin Island, pop. 5000.
In South America we possess British Guinea, 76,000 sq. miles;
pop. 155,066.    Imports £524,021.    Exports £1,561,548.
In Honduras we have a territory of 13,500 sq. miles;
25,620.    Imports £118,504.    Exports £299,746.
How all these petty islands combine to form vast territory;
the thousands of populations aggregate; how the separate millions
in money make a balance-sheet in the aggregate!    These oases in
now 3
the desert of waters consume much and contribute much; they
furnish rich woods, sugars, spices, and tropical fruits; and they
absorb the superabundant articles which encumber, and accumulate
in, our manufactories and warehouses.
We next approach the colonial possessions of North America.
The individualism, of the Newfoundlander, Nova Scotian, Prince
Edward's Islander, New Brunswicker, and Canadian, will soon
become obsolete; that vast region of territory which stretches in
magnificient breadth from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, and
from the 49th parallel, the lakes, and the St. Lawrence River to
the boundaries of Russian America and the Arctic Ocean, is soon
to become united in one confederacy and under one representative of Her Majesty.
If the reader will examine the map of North America, he will
perceive what an extent of territory British North America occupies,
and how unrivalled are its lines of intercommunication by sea,
lake, and river. He cannot fail to appreciate the momentous issues
which are involved in uniting under one authority and power the
whole of this portion of the continent.
In North America, the authority of Great Britain extends over
Canada, with 350,000 square miles and a population of 2,571,000.
New Brunswick, containing 27,700 square miles, and a population of 200,000.
Nova Scotia, with 18,725 square miles, and a population of
Prince Edward's Island stretches over 1,365,400 square acres
and contains a population of 80,856.
Newfoundland, within its ocean-girt banks, is 36,000 square
miles, and its population exceeds 120,000.
The Hudson Bay Territory stretches over an.area of 2,700,000
square miles, and contains a population of 120,000.
British Columbia and Vancouver's Island together cover
295,000 square miles of territory, and contained a population, on
the 10th of May, 1864, of 64,000.
The whole of the British North American Territory contains
3,429,555 square miles, being greater in extent than Great Britain
and Ireland, France, Russia, Austria, Prussia, Spain, Turkey, Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, together with Belgium, the Netherlands,
Switzerland, and all the minor German States combined, while her
population exceeds that of either Portugal, Denmark, Hanover,
Saxony, Switzerland, or the Netherlands, being 4,000,000.    New- foundland produces over £1,000,000 a year:from her fisheries.
Prince Edward's Island exports over £300,000 annually, besides
contributing a fleet of splendid clippers to the mercantile marine,
whose reputation for strength, symmetrical proportion, and swiftness
is unsurpassed by any in Aberdeen or Boston. Nova Scotia exported
(1863) 6,546,488 dollars or £1,350,000, while her imports amounted
to 10,201,191 dollars or £2,050,000. Over 7000 vessels entered
her ports during the year. The imports of New Brunswick during
the same year were 7,658,642 dollars or £1,595,513, while her
exports during the same period, including the value of the ships
built in her dockyards, were 8,841,936 dollars or £1,842,079.
The exports from Canada, including the new shipping," were
41,831,532 dollars or about £8,200,000, while her imports were
45,964,493 dollars or £9,192,000. The quantity of new shipping
built in all the North American Colonies in 1863 was 645 vessels,
measuring 219,763 tons register, and of the value of £1,758,104.
The customs and excise revenue of the five North American
Colonies was 8,149,329 dollars, or 2 dollars 47 cents per head, or
about 10s. sterling.
The value of the furs exported for the past year from Hudson's
Bay amounted to £200,000. The export of gold from Vancouver's
Island, British Columbia, for 1863 was 6,000,000 dollars.
When we consider the annual product of the American fisheries;
that they give employment to 40,000 seamen (useful as auxiliaries in time of emergency); the vast tracts of land as yet uncultivated, and only waiting for the coming emigrant to develop
their resources and increase the already teeming products that load
their granaries; the splendid fleets conveyed as it were from the
forests to the ocean, changed as if by magic from the lofty green-
clad tree to the graceful lines of the barque that bears her riches to
the Old World; the splendid cities, that for architectural beauty and
advancement compare favourably with any on the American Continent ; the wealth of minerals—coal, copper, iron, and gold—that
lie embedded in the mines of Nova Scotia and the Canadas, the
borders of Lake Superior, the valleys of the Saskatchewan, the
sands that lie at the foot of the Rocky Mountains and permeate the
bed of British Columbia—how unbounded are the resources of the
American Continent!
Then contemplate for a moment the extended watercourses
and outlets to the ocean—lakes vast as seas, where the commerce
of the world may sail; rivers stretching from the ocean until their
delicate^ arteries are lost in the pearling cascades of the far-oif
mountains; noble harbours plentifully distributed on the Atlantic
and Pacific coasts, each a haven for the weary voyager—and then
consider how bravely the people have foueht their way into the
have fought proud position they now occupy. Perilous obstacles that thwart the
irresolute and damp the ardour of the timid, have been but
incentives to impel them forward. How proudly must they contemplate their marvellous increase in population, in agriculture, in
mechanics, and in commerce ! Surely the consolidation of these
various provinces, the blending of interests, the political affinity, the
commercial relationship, the social commingling, and the unity of
action which a federation would enjoin, would give them a unity
of purpose which they would not otherwise possess. Old names,
old parties, old jealousies, old feuds, and bitter memories would
cease to exist; and thus, by uniting the various interests, instead
of a group of petty states, powerless against aggression, they
become by consolidation a great power, with an extended territory,
and a population which will form the nucleus of a future mighty
empire. Remember that England, at the time of Charles II., contained a population of only 5,000,000, or 1,000,000 more than the
present British American Confederation; but what a territory have
they in comparison with England upon which to erect their nation !
Power demands respect, and they should have a military, naval,
and civil force, to defend and protect themselves against all aggressive assaults.
We are all aware that nothing tempts an ambitious people so
much as opportunity, such as the discovered weakness of a
neighbouring power. History inculcates the lesson that the strong
and the many overrun the weak and the unarmed. Nothing con-
tributes so greatly to the continued harmony of commercial relationship as mutual respect, and the knowledge that both are
ready and possess the means to resent insult or resist aggression.
We do not for a moment suggest the consolidation of the British
Provinces on military grounds, or as a menace to their neighbours;
but rather it seems a judicious and politic move, which may place
them in such a position that, in any emergency, they may be prepared
to defend their territory from any sudden attack.
Lawless and armed, but unauthorized men, who recognize
neither national comity, legal rights, nor personal honour, oftentimes imperil the peace of nations by their thieving and murderous
acts, committed under the high-sounding name of war. Disbanded
armies, having no occupation, degenerate into bands of brigands,
which are alike dangerous to friend as to foe:
The great objects to be obtained by confederation should be
commercial, and, if possible, reciprocity of trade should be always
maintained with the United States. The deplorable and unfortunate
war that for the present necessarily retards the progress of that portion of America (and which God grant may soon cease!) has of
necessity affected materially all countries who hold commercial
relationship with her.   But through the Reciprocity Act the trade of the British Provinces with the United States has doubled. During
the year ^863, 3,050,369 tons of freight arrived in the United States
from the Canadas. Besides this fact, they are so narrowly separated
by natural lines of demarcation—the iron, steam, and bridge links of
travel are so numerous and continuous along and across both the
river, lake, and recognized treaty lines; the constant current of
human life, agricultural, mechanical, and manufactured products is
so continuous and unceasing; in fact, in a mercantile aspect the
Canadas and the United States are married one to the other, and
there can be no cessation of peaceful and commercial relationship,,
unless it is brought about by political demagogues desirous of inflaming the vulgar passions, or diplomatists who hold not the welfare
of the human race as a primary consideration. Macaulay remarks
(" History of England," vol. i., p. 370): " The chief cause which
made the fusion of the difFerent elements of society so imperfect,
was the extreme difficulty which our ancestors found in passing from
place to place. Of all inventions, the alphabet and the printing-
press alone excepted, those inventions which abridge distance have
done most for the civilization of our species. Every improvement
of means of locomotion benefits mankind morally and intellectually
as well as materially, and not only facilitates the interchange of the
various productions of nature and art, but tends to remove national
and provincial antipathies, and to bind together all the branches of
the great human family."   There is another aspect of the question.
We are well aware that the subject of a road from the Atlantic
to the Pacific Ocean, and the creation of a direct route for traffic and
passengers from India, China, Japan, California, Australia, and all
the islands in the Pacific Ocean, across the American Continent, has
for many years occupied the attention of various Governments.
The attempts to find a northern, or Arctic oceanic passage, have
resulted in misfortune and disaster. Their history is that of individual heroism, of self-sacrificing devotion to a purpose, of cruel
hardships bravely borne, of dreadful terrors coolly met, of determined will and tenacious purpose overcoming many obstacles, but
ending in disappointment and failure, and too often in misery,
despair, privation, a lonely death, and a monument of snow.
Topographical engineers, scientific explorers, and itineraries,
have explored the American Continent from end to end, and the
conclusion arrived at is that the most feasible route to the Pacific is
through the Fertile Belt of the Hudson's Bay Territory, and over the
Rocky Mountains north of the boundary-line ; and as it is the purpose of the proposed confederation of the British Territories to
complete, at an early period, the intercolonial line, uniting Nova
Scotia to the Canadas, with the splendid system of railway which
constitutes the Grand Trunk Railway and its connexions, we shall have already completed one-half of the passage across the American
Continent, and opened a through line which, at all seasons of the
year, will draw the products of the West through British Terrir
tory to the sea; starting from La Crosse to St. Paul, Minnesota; from Fond du Lac, at the head of Lake Superior; and from
St. Paul we have a system of railways, which are partly built and
which are now under contract and construction, to Pembina, on
the boundary-line and on the Red River Settlement. This will
open the whole of 80,000 square miles of rich prairie land in
Hudson's Bay Territory to the emigrant. But from Pembina the
great Fertile Belt offers every facility to build the Pacific Railroad;
the lands themselves will eventually pay for it. For the present
we have a waggon-road passing over these prairies, and across the
Saskatchewan Valley to the foot of the Rocky Mountains. Carry
out the project of a railroad to the Pacific Ocean, at whatever
cost to the British Government or people, and the future of
that country will present a panorama of magnificence unexampled in history, and before which the splendour of Roman
wealth, in the days of Augustus, will sink into insignificance. The
silks, teas, and opium of China will swiftly speed over the
Rocky Mountains to the warehouses of Europe; the spices
and Oriental luxuries of India will be transported over lands
where the red race but an age since had trapped the beaver and
the ermine; the re-awakened commerce of Japan would find a way
across the prairie land of Hudson's Bay Territory; the gold of
California, or British Columbia, and the Saskatchewan Valley,
would find a safe passage by the great lakes to the Atlantic; the wool
of California would find a more direct route to England; and the
homeward and the outward bound would cross the Atlantic on their
way to India, China, Australia, California, British Columbia,
British North America, and the United States, in social companionship. What scenes would be witnessed on their route ! What a
continent to journey over ! What mountains—what lakes—what
rivers—what mighty cataracts—what lovely prairies—what splendid
forests—and what a world of knowledge would daguerreotype
itself upon the brain ! Remember British Columbia is teeming with
gold, but its distance and the difficulties attendant upon reaching
it, preclude thousands from doing so, who would, were the journey
expeditious, cheap, direct, and feasible. Hudson's Bay, though
controlled by a company, that even in the days of Charles II. and
James I. could entertain the king in sumptuous magnificence, yet
till a recent period has shut out by selfish laws all emigrants, and
closed the doors of admittance to her hidden treasures. The
Canadas, with millions of acres of rich land uncultivated, and with
the surroundings of civilization attendant on them, would offer their
attractions to the exodus of people that swarm from the Old World.
New Brunswick would open her grand old forests, that in autumn
are robed in colours bright as the rainbow, and
•emmed with
I 8
sparkling icicles in the long winter, when the; axe lays them low for
the raftsman and the lumberer; Nova Scotia and Prince Edward's
Island would alike offer a home and a bright picture for the sober,
industrious emigrant and the hardy pioneer; while all along the
coasts of Labrador and Newfoundland there is employment for
thousands upon thousands who love a sailor's life.
England's duty to her American colonies.
The provinces are loyal to the British Crown; they have with
firm resolution and steadfast faith clung to the power that fostered
them when weak and sheltered them in danger; they now combine
to consolidate their interests and power and better to prepare for
the future. They can subsist a hundred millions of inhabitants. Not
a tithe of their wealth has been brought to light or discovered;
their resources cannot be even conjectured—a fit jewel to decorate a crown. New born, with every element of strength, with
every prospect of a splendid future, and with every basis for a
permanent and lasting Government. CHAPTER   II.
migratory movements of the human race.    •
Early Efforts of the Explorer, Geographer, and Navigator—America in its Primitive State—The Causes which operated to develop the Migratory Movements of
Mankind, and the Progress in Discovery made by various Expeditions.
The present chapter will be devoted to an historical resume" of the
migratory movements of the various patriarchal families, nomadic
tribes, and peoples who have from time to time spread and extended
their dominion, influence, and power over the then known world
during the different decades.
All sciences and discoveries possess an individual history, and
the continual additions made to this history serve as landmarks for
the future guidance of the explorer, the geographer,,the astronomer,
the philosopher, and the student of the different sciences. To trace
the gradual progress and development of any particular branch of
knowledge; to watch the slow but sure ehmination of light and
truth out of darkness and ignorance; to appreciate fully the boon
conferred upon the present by the laborious studies, speculations,
explorations, and deductions of those antecedent to our own time;
we must consider the difficulties which attended every step in progress and science in the earliest periods. The modern geographer
commences his studies with a recognized doctrine of the astronomical
circles or divisions of the sphere; the philosopher possesses certain
recognized truths upon which to found his theories and speculations ; the astronomer possesses the celestial map, with the locality
of certain planets and stars clearly defined; the traveller going
forth to journey and to discover, finds highways and pathways
marked out upon the map for his guidance—the labours of those
who have preceded him have left a trail which he may follow. The
ocean has been mapped—its distances from shore to shore, its
currents, its depths, its shoals, and its hidden dangers, are partially
known.    The passes of the mighty mountains—
" Rock-ribb'd, and ancient as the sun "—
are marked out for the traveller; their comparative height, their
distinctive features, the difficulties to be surmounted in traversing
them, and their applicability for commercial highways. The illimitable deserts that spread vast and desolate, without tree, shrub,
plant, or cereal to welcome the traveller, have yet been explored
by the heroic adventurer.    The jungles of India, breathing disease 10
  _eath from her miasmatic swamps, echoing with the roar of
wild beasts, and loathsome with the hissing snake, have yet been
penetrated by the fearless hunter. The almost interminable woods
that impeded the advance of the pioneer, gradually fell prostrate
and disappeared before the persevering energy and hardy strokes
of the woodman with his axe. The frail barque has battled with
the tempestuous hurricane, the angry and maddened waves, the
overtopping, freezing, and frowning iceberg, and the endless
dangers of the sea, guided by the cool navigator who bore a few
brave hearts towards a new and undiscovered world. No obstacles
that nature presented; no privations attendant upon voyaging ; no
sufferings, however appalling in their nature; no torture that the
vindictive and merciless savage could invent; no uncertainties or
doubts as to the fate of pioneers who had preceded them, or even
the pitiless tale of survivors who had left their comrades unburied
in an unexplored land; no warnings of certain death as the
denouement of an expedition. The burning heat of the tropical son
and the intense cold of the frigid zone, have failed to deter tin; brave
the unselfish, the worthily ambitious, or the resolute from attempts
to extend the dominion of the flag and the nation which they so
nobly represented; thus opening a new and congenial sphere for the
emigrant, and mapping out a new path for toe mariner ami the
trader* «& j
■I A I !•'
igo was unKnown to the dwellers of
As America four centuries ago was uuki
the eastern hemisphere, so at one time was Asia unknown to the
dwellers, of Africa and Arabia and the inhabitants of Europe.
How well-regulated have been the discoveries of new regions to
the increase of population, and its pressure upon circumscribed
territory. While Pharaoh, Augustus, Hannibal, Constantino,
Anthony, and Ctcsar were battling for the possession of increased
territory, and for the supreme dominion of the world, they remained in ignorance of a continent, the relation of whose wealth
and extent would have inflamed their ambition a thousand fold.
Niagara poured her ocean of waters in tumultuous roar as grandly
and as loudly then as she does now. The auriferous vaBeys of
California and Columbia were as ready then as now for the miner
and the sand-washer—ready to give their endless and incalculable
wealth to the first hand that sought for it. The unmatchablt
pnunw were gorgeous then as now, with a royalty of beauty glowinc
in the flowers that defied the imitative pencil of the artist to depict
<**he.P«a of the writer to describe. Forests of oak and pine rose'
spire-like from the earth, and covered the mountains almost to their
topmost peaks while they spread dense and luxurious over plain
and valley.   .Marbles of cverv hue lay buried in their richness with a
wealth of Quantity that would have h^CoiietantiiierHerc'ulanel
I ompcu, Athena, and Rome with ten thousand Colosseum* ;
and u
Vaticans.   Yes, the palaces of tiie earth.   Were there famine?—the
rich lands of the unknown continent, uncultivated, and unploughed,
armies of stalwart men, and pro-
would have given free estates
duced corn enough to fill the
Europe warred-
while new dynasties were
to  others;   while   cities
all countries.    While
rising to again decay
were  extending
boundaries, their wealth, and their grandeur till they became the
seats of vast dominions, so that fdr a time they were the wonder of
t^heir age, and then, by natural or artificial convulsions, their noble
temples, their architectural columns, their splendid palaces, and
their wealthy inhabitants were overwhelmed in ruin and death, so
that fragments and hieroglyphics only remained to tell then- story
to some traveller who, like Caius Marius at Carthage, might weep
over their ruins, and deplore the loss of their former splendour—
America, in all her wealth of treasure, her magnificence of proportion, and her loveliness of apparel, slept in her undiscovered
beauty beyond the eye of the European. Spring came budding in
emeraldic hue; summer threw her flowery and luxurious mantle
over tree, shrub, and plant; autumn glowed with her rainbow-
tinted foliage; and winter bared the naked arms of the trees,
stripped the dead and, drooping branches of decaying leaves, and
buried bleak mountains, vast prairies, hill and vale, river and lake,
beneath a mantle of profound snow. The echo of the woodman's
axe disturbed neither the meriiy warblers nor the timid game ; the
roar of trade had not as yet obtained a whisper ; the silent arrow
was the only instrument winged with death; the stealthy tread of
the Indian alone broke the silence, which was vast and measureless;
the wigwam was the only abode that approached the modern
mansions and city villas of the opulent.
" This is the forest primeval.   The murmuring pines and the hemlocks,
Bearded with moss, and in garments green, indistinct in the twilight,
Stand like Druids of old, with voices sad and prophetic—
Stand like harpers hoar, with beards that rest on their bosom."
The world moved on in ignorance, was satisfied.
But if America thus continued to remain in its primitive state
for so many ages, it must be remembered that the people of the Old
World made but little progress in discovery, despite of their restlessness and wanderings. Even to this day the geography of Africa
is being made known to the world, through the instrumentality of
heroic spirits like Livingstone, Speke, G^nt, and Burton.
We will now diverge somewhat from these genial remarks
and endeavour to give a concise and succinct history of the progress
and discovery made from time to time in various lands, describing,
the manner and the date of their peopling and settlement, and
consider for a moment what are the causes which operate as a
stimulus and incentive to force people to leave home and country
in search of an uncertain future.
The love of power inherent in the, human race;  the desire 12
manifested in all ages for extended dominion; the restless ambition
of discontented and grasping sovereigns; the tyranny and oppressive
terrorism exercised over the subjugated and the weak by both
conquerors and rulers; the visionary hopes of adventurers in search
of auriferous wealth; the earnest desire evinced by scientific
navigators and explorers; the speculations and prophecies of astronomical and geographical savans; the wanderings of nomadic
tribes; and the continued pressure of a cumulative population
within certain circumscribed limits : have each and all combined to
enlarge, extend, and complete our geographical knowledge by the
discovery of new countries whose existence remained for ages a
matter of speculation and conjecture.
Tracing our way through the dark labyrinth of antiquity, we
perceive that the progenitors of the multitudinous races that people
the earth were but little nomadic populations, who wandered from
place to place till they found a congenial climate, when they settled;
and in process of time, from families they became tribes, and at
length they grew into great nations, that founded empires and built
stately cities on the spots where their progenitors had pitched their
simple tents and tended their flocks and herds. As time progressed,
they changed their simple and peaceful habits : the herdsman, the
shepherd, and the hunter, became the trader, the merchant, and the
warrior; and then strifes breaking out between adjacent countries,
through various influences, aggressive action was soon taken by the
stronger—their domain was extended by conquest, while the weaker
were compulsorily forced to migrate to other lands. We read also
that as the different countries became densely populated, it was
customary to select representatives from various tribes, who were
required to go forth and travel, and by lengthened journeys
endeavour to discover new countries which might become the
nurseries for branches of the various increasing tribes. Josephus,
the Jewish historian, relates that in the days of Noah, and in
consequence of the confusion of tongues at Babel, the people were
dispersed abroad, and went out by colonies everywhere, and each
colony took possession of such lands as they lighted upon, so that the
whole continent was filled with them, both the inland and maritime
countries; there were some also who passed over the sea in slaps
and inhabited the islands. " Abraham advised his sons
forth and  establish   colonies  in  Arabia,  Africa, and   A
o to go
.sraehtes, after many years wandering, into
5y the dispersion of the various peoples at
Joshua conducted the
the land of Canaan.
Babel, and their compulsory wandering
directly the foundation of the aboriginal inhabitants who occupied
the country when the first European navigators appeared on the
newly discovered shores of the American Continent.
voyagings, we trace 13
When the  Mesopotamian  plain  and Western Asia became
filled with a numerous, powerful, and warlike people, which they
soon overran, they determined to extend their influence and power
by migratory journeys and conquest.    First, Upper Armenia) then
Caucasus,  then  Scythia;   after which we find migrations were
made round and into the interior of Africa.    We are informed by
Herodotus, surnamed the " Father of History," and who wrote the
first real and authentic history of Greece, that Necho or Pharaoh
Necho (one of the kings of Egypt, who flourished in the seventh
century before Christ) manned a small fleet with Phoenicians, and
gave them directions to steer their course down the Red Sea and
endeavour to double the land, so as to return into the Mediterranean
by the Atlantic Ocean and the PiEars of Hercules.    Steering into
the Southern Sea, the Phoenicians, when autumn approached, drew
their vessels to shore, and having landed  and  built  temporary
abodes, they sowed crops; and having reaped them, they put to
sea again.     In this wise they toiled onward for two years.    In
the third year they passed the Pillars of Hercules and reached
Egypt.    Thus  the  whole of Africa had been  circumnavigated.
Yet all the discoveries made at that period were mere itineraries.
Geography without astronomy could never expect to rise above a
chaos of empirical systems ; without a knowledge of the spherical
figure of the earth, of the stellary arrangement of the heavens, and
the application of the stellary latitudes and longitudes to the various
corresponding points of the earth, no correct or precise geographical
knowledge could be attained.    It is only by slow degrees that
geography has struggled out of the slough of error into genuine
scientific truth; and so long as we were left ignorant of the phenomena of the heavens which affected the globe as to its various
climates, its seasons, and the different productions which are severally peculiar to different regions—so long as we were ignorant of
the true figure of the earth, its magnitude, the relative position on
the surface of continents, isles, oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, mountains,
countries, and peoples—so long we were compelled to rely on the
veracity of adventurous and enterprising voyagers, and the deductions of empirical philosophers.   The continued additions of patient
and laborious astronomers; the accumulation of statistics furnished
by military surveyors; the dry details collected by missionaries, and
too long buried in the archives of monasteries ; the different wars
which mark the various epochs—all lent their aid; for the moment
lands were conquered the regions were mapped and surveyed, and
every distance traversed was described with accuracy.    Thus, as
we before remarked, war, science, religious fanaticism, compulsory
migration, the extension of commerce, political necessity, and indi -
vidual curiosity and enterprise, have contributed their share towards
the exploration and discovery of distant lands.
««— 14
As asttbhomers and geographers who have eliminated truth
and knowledge out of the chaos of incongruous systems, and whose
contributions and researches have gradually developed the various
erroneous systems into a recognized science, dissipating ignorance,
and separating the false from the true, we have the .names of Eratosthenes, Hipparchus, Pliny, Ptolemy, Sebastian Munster, Artelius,
and Mercator: in more modern times, we have Cassini, Picard,
La Hire, Herschel, and Humboldt.
Of travellers who have attained celebrity, we may mention
Necho, who sent the expedition round Africa; Carpini and Rubru-
quis, who travelled by the north of Russia, along the shores of the
Black Sea arid the Caspian, to the central plain of Asia Minor;
Marco Polo, a Venetian, who travelled through Tartary to China,
and spent over twenty years in exploring the least known regions
of Asia, and who afterwards glowingly described the barbaric
wealth and splendour which he had seen. Louis the Fourteenth, of
Prance, at a later day, sent Maupertius and Condamine, the one to
explore the regions of the Arctic Circle, and the other the Equator.
But a volume Would not contain a tithe of the history of modern
explorations in different parts of the World; we have, therefore,
not attempted anything beyond a mere outline of the various geographical discoveries and migratory movements which have marked
the extension of the influence of civilization. 1*5
Scandinavian Records—Eric the Red—Speculation of Europeans—Columbus and
his Voyages—Balboa, Magellan, Cortez—Pizarro and his Comrades—Sir
Erancis Drake—Expeditions to he Arctic Ocean and their Resiilt.
The discovery of a New World, With all its attendant novelties,
must certainly form an epoch in the history of the times when it
was made known. To trace the progress of its discovery and the
gradual advancement made in exploring the various regions and
their peopling, must prove of interest to those who purpose to
follow the footsteps of countless thousands who reclaimed the woods
and the prairies from the savage.
If the reader will take a cursory look at the map, he will perceive the close proximity of Norway, Sweden, Iceland, and Greenland, and the various groups of islands in the north-east, while upon
the north-west he will find that Asia and North Arherica are only
separated by a narrow strait, called Behring Strait. It will at
once be obvious that the peopling of North America from both
Asia and Europe by this route, is not only within the bounds of
possibility, but probability. The adventurous spirit of man would
lead him to at least venture a few miles from his own coast in order
that he might understand the nature of those boundaries or
surroundings which were peculiar to his abode; and, therefore,
while remaining ignorant of the history of America previous to the
year 986, a.d., and only partially and meagrely being able to trace
any history up to the time of the discovery by Columbus, yet we
have sufficient evidence furnished by Scandinavian records to prove
that America was known to the inhabitants of Iceland and Norway
long anterior to the voyages of Columbus. It is true these discoveries were made of no practical utility to the inhabitants of the
Old World, but it is undeniable that adventurers who had been
nurtured amidst the perils and hardships of a seafaring life did
penetrate into the American Continent and establish commercial
relationship to a limited extent with the natives. Iceland was
discovered, by some Scandinavians in 861, a.d., and circumnavigated
within three years afterwards; at a later date a Norwegian colony
was established there. We next find these colonists proceeding
towards the south as far as Greenland, where it is related that Eric
the Red established a colony which he christened Erico-Fiord,
and which continued to exist for nearly four centuries.   During the
ill 16
whole of this time constant communication and intercourse was held
with Norway. Large quantities of whale oil and seals were transmitted to the parent country, while in return the settlers received
theirnecessary supplies.
In the same year in which Eric the Red migrated to Greenland, Biarne, the son of one of his companions, sailing in a similar
direction, was carried by northerly winds out of his intended course
and beyond his destined point. He reached a land which was
without mountains,. exhibiting only gentle elevations covered
with wood, and still further to the southward another land which
was flat and also overgrown with wood. Standing thence out to sea,
and sailing for three days with a south-west wind, Biarne and his
companions arrived at a large island, the shores of which were high
and covered with icebergs. Prom this last-discovered land they
returned by four days' sailing to the colony of Greenland. The
discoveries of Biarne were speedily followed up. Lief Ericson—
that is, Lief, son of Eric the Red—in the year 1000, a.d., came to
the same land which Biarne had seen, and to which he gave the
name of Helluland. He next met with a country which he called
Woodland; from thence he continued to journey to the eastward
till he discovered an island where they found many vines and
To this island they gave the name of Vineland, and here
that time
ng into a
difficulty with the natives (Esquimaux), Thomald, the brother of
Lief Ericson, being slain, the remainder of the expedition returned
to Greenland in 1005. The observations they made, and the
descriptions which they gave upon their return of the country
they had visited, soon prompted others to undertake voyages
in the same direction, in hopes of making still further discoveries. The King of Norway himself seems to have been
impressed with the story related by the returned adventurers, and
he therefore authorized Thorform, surnamed Karisfene (one who
is destined to be an able or great man), and related to the king, as
well as Snorre Thorbrandsen, a noted geographer—both of whom
were men occupying exalted and influential positions in their
country — to form an expedition, and endeavour to reach still
further south, and if possible establish a colony as a nucleus from
which explorations might be made into the interior of the country.
In the spring of 1005 the expedition, which consisted of two ships,
and contained one hundred and sixty men, with all the attendants
of such scientific instruments as were then known, with many of the
party who had accompanied the former expeditions, and with ample
provisions and all the necessaries for a three years* voyage, left
Greenland. They found the first part of their journey both
dangerous and tedious, and the navigation intricate, in consequence
of the great icebergs and immense fielf
progress; they, however
he and his companions spent three winters, and during
explored the  adjacent country;   but afterwards   fall-in
soon passed
i oi ice wmcn impeded their
elluland, discovered by Lief I*
Ericson, and Markland, discovered by the same explorer. Next
they reached Kialarnes, inhabited by the Esquimaux. They continued their journey southward, passed numerous islands near the
mouth of a river, and finally reached Vineland, where they landed.
They found a country more beautiful to the eye than their own,
and rich in trees, corn, and flowers. They record that cattle could
feed without being housed, and that fruit', delicious to the palate,
but new to them, grew in abundance; that there were vast mountains luxuriant with great forests; that they were full of deer and
game, and that the rivers were full of fish. But although they
spent three winters in this attractive land—although they found,
that the seed which they had brought with them, and which they
sowed, thrived wonderfully, and the climate was healthy and
pleasant—yet unfortunate bickerings and quarrels with the natives
soon brought about discord and war, and they were compelled to
depart to their own homes after a three years' sojourn. Still the
intercourse between Greenland and Vineland did not cease, but on
the contrary it Was carried on for over a century, that is, to 1121.
The testimony here given is taken from the Scandinavian
records, and is most particular in the relation of details; and there
can be no doubt that the Helluland of the Northmen was our present
Newfoundland, with its naked and rocky approaches; Markland
answers to Nova Scotia and the adjacent forest-covered regions;
the keel-shaped Cape Kialarnes is the well-known Cape Cod, with
its deserts and long narrow beaches of sand; in the island between
which and the neighbouring mainland Biarne sailed, we recognize
Nantucket, with its adjacent shoals; and the pleasant Vineland is
the region beyond the Connecticut and neighbouring New England
States of our modern maps.
But from the year 1121 to 1492 we have a blank in the
progress of discovery. No tales had ever reached the nations
of Southern Europe of the adventures of the hardy Northmen
—not a whisper of the existence of a territory that was to be
the theatre of actions so marvellous, and of a progress so unparalleled, that in its contemplation the mind is lost in wonder—not a
fugitive leaf from the Scandinavian records ever found its way into
the libraries of Southern Europe, to tell the enthusiastic dreamers
that their mental visions were but the positive reflex of a Hving,
moving world—no wanderer ever made his way to England or
Spain to guide the barques of Columbus over the unfathomable
deep. The currents of the ocean might fill the mind with speculation and conjecture; the shipwrecked mariner washed on some desolate shore pauses, and starts with mingled fear and amazement, when
for the first time he sees clearly defined upon the sand the outKne
of the human foot; he knows at once he is not alone—that there
c 18
before him is palpable evidence of the existence of a being like
unto himself; and though he may doubt whether he be friend
or foe, yet he is convinced that there must be within his reach the
means of sustaining human life. Did the idle wanderers, as they
strolled along the Atlantic shore, toying with the glistening pebbles in the sunshine, gathering the floating seaweed that had
journeyed over many thousand miles, or examining the strange
natural curiosities that were wafted to them by wave and tide, ever
pause to reflect from whence they came ? Did they think that the
ocean swept onward without boundary and beyond the navigator a
reach ? Did the rich and rare fruits, perhaps half decayed, that
were left hy the waves upon the sandy shore,! never create conjectural thoughts as from whence they came? In shape, in taste,
and in colour they were strange to the eye and to the palate. 1 )id
they not wonder at the beauty and newness of the flowers that grew
from the seeds they gathered from the faded! and drooping plants
that lay upon the wave-washed beach? Did the botanist never
gaze with delight on the branches of trees whose formation puzzled
his intelligence—on trees whose character differed from those indi-
genous to his own soil, whose trunks were greater in circumference,
whose wood was rich, in colour and beautiful in grain, and whose
branches were arranged with marvellous beauty? What more
perfect to his eye than the expanding fan-like leaf of the palmetto,
or sweeter to the taste than the stately sugar-cane ? There were
branches of innumerable and yet unknown varieties of trees; there
were weeds of exquisite and delicate texture and form; there were
images quaint, grotesque, and peculiar; there were, finally, the poor
silent bodies of the dead of an unknown race (that peopled not their
own land) found lying on the rugged rocks and bare sands where
the receding waves had left them. Was it to be wondered at that
men of a contemplative and reflective character conjectured that
these were the evidences of a land peopled beyond the Atlantic—
that they interpreted it to mean that these were signs to tell them
that if they would but venture they might discover " a land flowing
with milk and honey." The spherical nature of the earth had become a positive belief in the mind of Columbus; the marvellous
narrative of Marco Polo had strengthened his belief in a Western
World, or at least in a passage to India and China—the fond hope
of the explorer to discover. All the evidences which the shore could
give, all the theories he could build up from the study of the map of
Ptolemy, the golden-tinted pictures of Marco Polo, and the fond
hopes of his own buoyant nature, assisted him in battling against
every obstacle, every disappointment, and every opposing force that
seemed to delay the accomplishment of that which had now become
to him the dream of his life. It is said that " all great discoveries,
whether in the physical or the moral world, are the consequences of
prior trains of thought and events." The classic fable of a Minerva
springing full armed from the brain of Jupiter, has no parallel in <■
the actual world of human nature. The dreams of the visionaiy
enthusiast point towards the conclusions which a later age carries
into active being—the loose and scattered events which, taken singly,
point to no conclusion, are combined by the philosophical observer
into a connected train, and important consequences educed from the
consideration to which they lead. All the signs on the sandy
shores—all the fervid belief of the age was in favour of the existence of a great western region; and Columbus, besides this, believed that, by philosophic induction, he was certain of its existence.
Once convinced, and his whole soul was in his dream of success.
He petitioned Ferdinand and Isabella—he conversed with the most
celebrated savans of Spain upon his projects—he endeavoured to
obtain the assistance of all who had power within the magic circle of
the Court—he tried to enlist the sympathies of the rich and the
influential. Long were his delays and patient were his endeavours,
but he never faltered. Ever earnest, ever steadfast, and ever hopeful
of success, despondency never claimed him as a victim for an hour.
The day of triumph came—the day when the means were to be
placed at his disposal for the fulfilment of his project had arrived.
A generous and noble Castilian lady, with a crown upon her brow,
became his patron, and through her agency Columbus was provided
with an armament sufficient, with good fortune and fair winds, to
accomplish his desire. To Isabella of Spain is the honour due of
encouraging with her money, her good wishes, and her smiles, the
expedition which discovered America; and yet in all that land no
single monument is erected to her honour and her glorious memory.
Three small vessels carrying ninety men set sail from Palos, on
the coast of Spain, on a bright September morning. The shores
were lined with a noble concourse* of spectators. Proud Castilian
maidens and noble Spanish cavaliers cheered Columbus as he departed, though they looked upon his errand as madness. A long and
stormy passage ensued, dissention and mutiny broke out amid the
crew, and all the anticipations of a successful issue seemed gradually
passing away; but the heart of the bold and heroic navigator was true
as steel, and his resolution never faltered. Firm in the conviction that
ere long he would descry the wished-for land—strong in the belief
that a glorious conclusion would be the result of his laborious
journey—he sailed on; and as the sun went down, crimsoning the
west, on the 11th day of October, 1492, a new world, and the home
of future millions, dawned upon his delighted eye.
The spot on which Columbus landed was the small island of
Guanahani, or San Salvador, one of the Bahama Archipelago.
After visiting Hayti, or Hispaniola, where he left some of his crew
who desired to settle, he returned to Europe to report the result of
his discoveries, and to receive the congratulations of his sovereign.
c 2 Columbus made four voyages to America. The second was in-1493,
when he discovered Jamaica. The third in 1498, when Trinidad
and other islands were added to his previous discoveries. In his
fourth and last voyage, in 1508, he visited the western shores
of the Caribbean Sea, and then explored the coasts of Central
Among those who formed the second expedition of Columbus
was Alonso de Hojeda. This individual, impressed with the belief
that Columbus had neither realized the true value nor vast extent
of the territories lying in the western hemisphere, determined upon
following up the discoveries of his former master. He, in conjunction with Amerigo Vespucci, a Florentine pilot, set out upon
their voyage of discovery, the result of which they gave to the world
in a series of volumes. All the discoveries of Columbus were confined to Central and South America, and the existence of North
America was unknown to him, so that he died in ignorance of the
full value of his discovery, he believing he had arrived at the verge
of the Indies. To Amerigo Vespucci, who gave his name to the
New World, we contend, belongs the honour. " History presents
elsewhere no example of the universal excitement which the discoveries of Columbus awakened, and of the sustained enthusiasm
by which they were followed up. The young, the adventurous,
the needy, the discontented of every grade—those who felt the
pressure of social wrong (real or imagined), under whatever form,
in the countries of Europe—hastened to amend their lot in the
newly-found lands beyond the Atlantic. The cry of ' Westward,
ho!' became the rallying signal for people of every class, and of
every age; and still, after the lapse of nearly four centuries, the
fervour called into being by Columbus maintains its existence, and
produces its active fruits. Visions of £1 Dorado glittering in their
golden wealth floated before the eyes of the earlier and more
sanguine adventurers from Spain, and lent their charm to not a few
of those bold spirits who ere long hoisted the flag of Britain above
the western waters. To discovery, and the first fruits of discovery
—reaped amidst ferocious and unrelenting barbarity practised by
the early Spaniards towards the simple ana unoffending natives of
the New World—succeeded permanent settlement, with its attendant commerce and social polity; and cities grew up b»sidc the
coast and rivers of the newly-colonised regions of the West." The
works of the European race supplanted those that already existed
ere the white man had placed his foot on the American shores; the
native erections, abandoned to neglect, became buried amidst the
thick overgrowth of the forest and tike tropical jungle, to be rediscovered in the present time, and to excite regret that they alone
remain to tell of the partial civilisation which the Indian population
had attained, and which the tide of Spanish conquest so ruthlessly-
destroyed. Prescott and Sqnier in their laborious history have
preserved descriptions of the magnificent ruins that attest the might v 21
splendours that adorned the Montezumas and the palaces of Central America.
In 1513, Nunez Balboa crossed the isthmus that divides the Gulf
of Darien from the Pacific. Seven years later Fernando Magellan,
who believed in the existence of a continuous ocean round the
southern half of America, determined on attempting its discovery.
He sailed from San Lucar, on the coast of Spain, in 1519, and
having wintered at Port San Julian, in latitude 49°, early in the
spring, he pursued his way until he passed though a strait, which
he named Magellan, and then entered the Pacific Ocean. In three
months and twenty days Magellan crossed the immense sea and
reached the Philippine Islands. Here he engaged in a conflict
with the natives, when he lost his life. His companions, with the
Vittoria—the only remaining ship of the five comprising the expedition—returned to Europe, having passed across the Indian
Ocean and round the Cape of Good Hope; and thus, in three years
and fourteen days, had achieved the remarkable and memorable
accomplishment of the first circumnavigation of the globe.
Pursuing in chronological order the advancement in discovery,
we next meet with the stories of Cortez and Pizarro. Fernando
Cortez landed on the coast of Mexico in 1519; with a few hundred
followers he overthrew the empire of Montezuma, and conquered
Mexico. A few years later, Peru and the sovereignty of the Incas
were conquered by Francisco Pizarro. Almagro, a companion of
Pizarro, about the same period made himself master of Chili. Next
we hear of Francisco de Orellana, who accompanied Gonzales
Pizarro across the mountain ranges of the Cordilleras. After
leaving Pizarro, who became disheartened, he built boats and
canoes, and having launched them on the river which crossed
his path, he descended its current until he reached the Atlantic
Ocean, having travelled over a thousand leagues. This was in the
year 1541.
In the year 1500, Pedro Alvarez Cabral, a Portuguese, while
making a voyage to the Indies by'the way of Good Hope, discovered Brazil. In 1514, Juan de Soils discovered the river La
Plata. This river was christened La Plata, or the " River of Silver,"
by Sebastian Cabot, who ascended it in 1526.
In 1577 Sir Francis Drake sailed from Plymouth, and having
passed through the Strait of Magellan, carried the banner of England into the Pacific Ocean. He explored the coasts as far up as
28° N., and returned to Europe after an absence of two years and
ten months. 09
Sir Francis Drake was followed by the expedition of Sarmiento,
a.d. 1581, and the Dutch expedition under Schonter in 1615, both
of which sailed along the extreme southern extremity of the New
• White the minds of so many were directed to the. southern and
central regions of America) and? seemed to rest self-satisfied with
the conviction that they Bad discovered the track to India, others
believed in the existence-of* a north-western passage, and turned
their energies'fn a novAern direction, in hopes of crossing from the
Atlantic to the PacifKrby the Arctic Circle.
" When we contemplate," says Cooley, in his ** History of Maritime and Inland Disqp.very," " the early discoveries of the Spaniards
and Portuguese, we see needy adventurers and men of desperate
character Tttid fortune pursuing gain or licentiousness with violence
and bloodshed. But the English navigators who, in the reign of
Elizabeth^ sought to extend our knowledge of the globe, were men
of a. different stamp, and driven forward by motives of a more
honourable nature. They undertook the most difficult navigation
through seas perpetually agitated by storms and encumbered with
ice, in vessels of the most frail construction and of small burthen ;
they encountered all the difficulties and distresses of a rigorous
climate, and in most cases with a very distant or with no prospect of
ultimate pecuniary advantage."
Among these was John Cabot, a native of Venice, but who had
settled in Bristol, in England, during the reign of Henry VII. In
1496 a patent Was granted to Cabot and his three sons, Louis,
Sebastian, and Sansius, giving the right to acquire and settle in the
unknown lands which they were in search of. Sebastian Cabot
'* understanding," says the chronicler, " by reason of the sphere, that
if he should sail by way of the north-west, he should by a shorter
track come to India, he thereupon caused the king to be advertised
of his device." Setting out accordingly in two small " caravels "
furnished for the purpose, he sailed to the north-westward from the
English coast, " not thinking to find any other land than that
of China, and from thence to turn towards India." Thus was the
famous search after the " north-west passage " inaugurated.
On the 24th of June, in 1497, they arrived at the banks
of Newfoundland, where they landed. During the autumn of
this year and the spring and summer of the following year
they explored a great part of the coast of North America. In
1576-7-8, Martin Frobisher made three voyages, and reached
as far north as Frobisher's Strait in 1685-6-7. John Davis
attempts to discover the north-west passage. Henry
llowed, 1607 to 1610, and discovered Hudson's Bay.
Thomas Britten entered Hudson's Bay and crossed to the extreme
western side in 1613.   William Baffin, in 1615, though he failed to find a north-west   passage,   added   largely to the geographical
knowledge of the day; the highest point reached by him was the
immense inlet which is called Baffin's Bay.     In 1728, Behring, a
Pole, in the employ of Peter the .Great of Bussia, crossed over from
Asia, and discovered Behring's Strait, proving the separation of
the American and Asiatic continents.     In 1762,  Captain  Cook
passed through this  channel and coasted  the Arctic shores   as
far as Icy Cape, under the .meridian of 162° W.     In 1669, the
Hudson's Bay Company was. established.  In 1771, Samuel Hearne
discovered and traced the course of .-the Copper-mine Biver.     In
1789, Alexander Mackenzie traced the Mackenzie Biver to its
source.    In 1818, another attempt was made«to find an opening to
the Western or Pacific Ocean.     The expedition consisted of two
vessels, the Isabella and the Alexander, under the command of
Captain (afterwards Sir John) Boss and Lieutenant (afterwards Sir
Edward) Parry.     This expedition proceeded as far as Lancaster
Sound, and proved comparatively a failure.    Parry, in a-second
voyage, however, passed through Lancaster Sound, Barrow's Strait,
and wintered at Melville Island, at the meridian of 113°, _ having
advanced  over  half the distance 'towards  Behring's Strait—600
miles.    At the same time that Parry was sailing through .Lancaster
Sound, Lieutenant (afterwards Sir John) Franklin, Doctor (afterwards  Sir John) Bichardson, and Mr. (afterwards Sir George)
Back, passed overland and traced the Coppermine Biver to its
outlet in the Arctic Ocean.     During this journey they explored
many thousands of miles of the Hudson's Bay Territory.
In 1825, Franklin, Bichardson, and. Back undertook a second
expedition overland, and through the dreary regions of the frozen
north, and again explored the territory between the Coppermine
and the Mackenzie rivers. In 1826,1837-8,1838-9, other expeditions through these regions were made by Beechey, Dease, Simpson,
and Back, who went as far as the meridian 148° 52', and to the Icy
Cape, discovered by Captain Cook. In 1845, the spirit of Polar
adventure awoke with renewed ardour, and Sir John Franklin set
out upon that journey which has thrown such a lamentable cloud
over all connected with that region, and which for so many years
excited the sympathy of the world, and the noble efforts of brave
souls to trace his wanderings, his sojournings, and his grave. In
May, 1845, the Er»bus and Terror set sail from Sheerness, and the
last ever seen of them was near Baffin's Bay, by the Esquimaux,
on the west coast of King William Land, in 1850. We know that
Franklin died in the summer of 1847. The survivors abandoned
the ships, and started for the Great Fish Biver. Exhaustion and
intense severity of climate must have completed the work which
prior suffering" had already commenced,    j They dropped by the 24
way " (to quote the expressive words of the Esquimaux), and not
one of the brave adventurers who composed Franklin's party ever
returned within the confines of civilized life. The names of Bae,
M'Clintock, M'Clure, Penny, Inglefield, Belcher, Heme, Hall, and
others, are indissolubly connected with the history of Arctic discovery; they enlarged and extended our geographical knowledge,
and the continuity of an icy channel between the two oceans was
proved conclusively through their researches. Their unselfish
heroism—their nobie tenacity of purpose, manifested during unexampled hardships and sufferings—their earnest devotion to science,
and their contributions to our geographical knowledge, have
crowned their names with imperishable glory. 25
The Colonization of Newfoundland, New Brunswick, Prince Edward's Island,
Nova Scotia, and the Canadas (Upper and Lower).
Newfoundland was discovered on the 2-lth of June, 1497, by
John Cabot, who attempted its colonization in conjunction with his
sons and those of his companions who were desirous of settling with
him. He bore a charter and grant from Henry VII. of England,
giving him the right and title to all such lands as he should discover. The aborigines who dwelt upon the island were, however,
of a most savage character; and, after suffering severe hardships, and engaging in hostile conflicts with them, they finally
abandoned the attempt, and sailed for Nova Scotia. In 1576 Sir
Humphery Gilbert, a half-brother of Sir Walter Baleigh, made an
attempt to colonize the island, but it proved equally unsuccessful.
In 1583 he made another attempt, landed at St. John's, and took
formal possession in the name of his mistress, Queen Elizabeth. He
was accompanied by two hundred adventurers, whom he left there,
and departed for England, but on the voyage the ship in which he
had embarked foundered at sea. In 16*20 Lord Bacon and others
established a colony at Conception Bay. In 1617 Captain AVhit-
bourne established a settlement at Little Britain; they found the
land sterile and uncultivated, abounding in great white bears
and elks. The discoverers called this country by a name signifying
" rich in fish," from the numbers which swarmed in the rivers and
along the sea-coast. The inhabitants were wild and unfriendly,
clothed with the skins of beasts, and painted with a reddish clay.
In 1623 Sir George Calvart (Lord Baltimore, who settled
Maryland) formed a settlement here. In 1631 Lord Falkland sent
a number of Irish families here, and, providing them with every
means necessary for fishing and agriculture, they obtained a permanent footing on the island, and for a long while prospered
harmoniously. In 1646 there were sixteen settlements flourishing
on the coast of Newfoundland; there were at that time over 350
families of British extraction, a large addition to which was made
by Sir David Kirk in 1654. But after years of toil, suffering, and
hardship, the British Government, whose duty and interest would
seem alike to extend their protection and fostering care, commenced
that mistaken policy towards the colonists which in the end cost us
so dearly on the American Continent.   An edict, cruel in its nature, 26
impolitic in principle, and insane in its intent, was promulgated by
the " Lords of Trades and Plantations." They seemed afraid that
the colonists might succeed; they systematically discouraged
agriculture, and finally entirely prohibited it. The colonists who
rebelled at this edict were expelled from the territory, their lands
confiscated, their houses destroyed, and in some instances death was
inflicted upon them. It was the policy of the British Government
at that time to force *the colonists to occupy themselves with the
fisheries, and to draw their supplies from the old country. In
1696 the French seized the English settlements, and from this
period till the year 1815 the whole island was a scene of bloody
conflict, atrocious cruelty, and inhuman oppression between the
French and the English. The treaties of TJtrecht, 1715 ; of Paris',
17(63; of Versailles, 1783; and of Paris, 1814 and 1815, finally,
settled the right of possession, and it was adjudged to be the
property of Great Britain.
The natives met with in the first discovery of Newfoundland
were supposed to be the descendants of Biorn, a sea-king of Iceland, who took possession of this island in the year 1001. The
author of " Hochelaga" gives the following history of the natives
found here by the European settlers:—"They were fierce men, of
stalwart frame, and intractable disposition; their complexion was of
a dark red; they were bold fishers and hunters, and of courage in
battle. From the first, they and the white men were deadly foes.
The Mic-Mac Indians of Nova Scotia and these red men carried on
a war of extermination against each other for centuries ; each
landing with destructive swoop on the other's coasts, scalping the
men, and carrying the women into slavery. The Esquimaux warriors were more frequently victorious, till, in an evil hour, they provoked the wrath of the pale-faces. The rifle and the bayonet soon
broke their spirit. Abandoning the coasts and the hunting-grounds
of their fathers, they fled into the dreary forests of the interior.
Sometimes, in the long winter nights, they crept out from their
wild fastnesses, and visited some lonely hamlet with a terrible
vengeance. The settlers in return hunted them down like wolves.
In the course of years their life of misery reduced their numbers
and weakened their frames so much that they never ventured to
appear. It was known that some few still lingered, but they were
almost forgotten.
" The winter of 1830 was unusually severe in this country, and
prolonged beyond those of former years. Towards its close a
settler was hewing down trees at some distance from one of the
remote villages, when two gaunt figures crept out from the neighbouring 'bush;* with sad cries and imploring gestures, they-tried
to express their prayer for help. The white man, terrified by their
uncouth and haggard looks, seized his sjun, which lay at hand, and
shot the foremost; the other tossed lus lean arms wildly into the
sir—the woods rang with his despairing shrieks as he rushed away. 27
Since then none of the fallen race have been seen. The emaciated
frame of the dead man showed how dire had been their necessity.
There is no doubt that the last of the red men perished in that
bitter winter."
New Brunswick, now a distinct colony, formed a part of Nova
Scotia till the year 1785. It was first settled in 1762, by a party
from Massachusetts. When the independence of the United States
was declared in 1783, numerous bodies of Boyalists sailed from
New York and settled in New Brunswick. Most of these were
the men and their families who had joined the British army during
the revolutionary struggle. For two or three years they were
greatly assisted by the Government until they had cleared sufficient land, erected houses, and gathered in crops, and were prepared
alike to resist the inclemency of the seasons, the rigours of the climate, and the assault of savages. From the time that New Brunswick was separated from Nova Scotia, in 1785, until 1803, the
province was governed by Sir Guy Carleton, under whose paternal,
firm, and judicious administration the country gradually advanced
from a rude wilderness to a permanent and prominent position
among its sister colonies. In 1815, on the conclusion of the second
war with the United States, another large body of disbanded- military was added to the inhabitants. From this time forward the
population steadily increased—in 1824 it being computed at
prince Edward's island.
This island was discovered by Sebastian Cabot in 1497.
It was first used by the French as a fishing-station, in 1663;
they began to colonize it about the beginning of the eighteenth
century. The settlers evinced a great interest in the continual wars between the French and English, and took an aetive
part in the contests that were waged. In 1752 the population was
estimated at 1354. In 1758, in consequence of the expulsion of
the Acadians from Nova Scotia, the population nearly doubled.
By the treaty of Fontainbleau in 1763, it became a dependency of
Great Britain. In 1764, the whole territory was surveyed and
divided into sixty-seven townships. " These townships or lots, or
parts of them, with certain reservations, were to be granted to
parties having claims upon the Government, upon certain conditions
of settlement, and the payment of quit-rents. Lot 66, about
six thousand acres, was reserved for the Crown; lots 40 and
59 had already been promised to parties who had made improvements on them. Sixty-four townships or lots remained to be
disposed of. There were more applicants than lots; so they were
disposed of by means of the ballot-box. When an individual was to
receive a whole lot, his name alone appeared on the slip of paper ;
am 28
in other cases, two and sometimes three names were inscribed -on
one paper, as sharers in one lot. Upwards of one hundred individuals participated in these grants, which were made in 1767.
The quit-rents were of three rates: six shillings, four shillings,
and two shillings annually per hundred acres. The grantees were
to settle on each lot—a settler for every two hundred acres. This
arrangement proved a failure, for in 1781 nine whole and five half
townships were sold for the payment of quit-rents. The non-
residence of the proprietors, the coercive measures adopted by the
Home Government (which compelled the emigrants to be Protestants
who were not from Great Britain), and the pressure of the quit-
rents, combined to retard emigation. It was not until these burdensome conditions were removed, and the Earl of Selkirk settled
eight hundred Highlanders there in 1803, that the first permanent
impulse to settlement was given. The settlers who now took up
their homes were a frugal and industrious class of small farmers,
and soon advanced in comfort and wealth. Since this time, with
the natural increase of population and the importations from Great
Britain, the colony has flourished and prospered; and in 1832 the
population had increased to 32,292,
The attempts to colonize Nova Scotia date back to an
early period. In 1598 Henry IV. of France empowered the
Marquis de la Roche to make a settlement; in 1613 the governor
of Virginia, Sir Samuel Argall, broke up this settlement. In 1621
James I. of England granted the whole country, by letters patent,
to Sir William Alexander, a Scottish nobleman. A large fleet of
vessels, with several hundred hardy pioneers, soon set sail for the
colony, whose name had been changed from French Acadia to
Nova Scotia. In 1632 Charles I. ceded both Acadia and Canada
to France. In 1654 it was captured by the British. In 1677 it
was. again ceded to France by the treaty of Breda. In 1690 it was
recaptured for the British by Sir William Phipps. By the treaty of
Ryswick in 1696 it was restored to France. In 1710 the people of
Massachusetts conquered a portion of Nova Scotia : hut by the
treaty of Utrecht in 1713 "all Nova Scotia, with its ancient
boundaries, as also the city of Port Royal and the inhabitants of
the same," were ceded to Great Britain.
In 1749 the Hon. Edward Cornwall is was appointed governor*
and he sailed for Nova Scotia with 3760 families. He landed
and commenced the erection of a city, which he named after his
patron, the Earl of Halifax. The French settlers in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Cape Breton, caused the new comers great
trouble and annoyance. They allied themselves with the Indians
and made continual depredatory excursions, which resulted in a
succession of conflicts and disasters.   In 1755 the French ( Acadians) 29
were removed to the number of nearly seven thousand. In 1763
Cape Breton was annexed to Nova Scotia—separated in 1784—
and finally, in 1819, they were permanently joined. In 1784 New
Brunswick was separated from Nova Scotia and erected into a
separate province. Nova Scotia owed much of her early advancement to the Royalists from the American Colonies, who, during and
after the War of Independence, emigrated there to the number of
twenty thousand.
In the month of May, 1535, Jacques Carrier, having visited
Newfoundland, set sail again westward, passed the north side
of Anticosti, and ascended the St. Lawrence River until he
reached the mouth of a river which he called the Saguenay.
The country round about he christened Hochelaga. In a
called  " Hochelaga;    or,  England in  the  New  World"
(London, 1846), we find many interesting and pleasing descriptions
of the  early history  of the British Colonies of North America.
Speaking of Jacques Cartier's early voyage, it says : " During the
voyage  up the stream they passed shores of great beauty;   the
climate was genial, the weather warmer than that of France, and
everywhere they met with unsuspicious friendship.    They found
Hochelaga a fortified town among rich corn-fields, on an island
under the shade of a mountain, which they called Mont Royal.
Time has changed it to Montreal.    The old name, like the old
people, is long since forgotten.    The inhabitants had stores of corn
and fish laid up with great care ; also tobacco, which the Europeans
saw here for the first time.    The natives were courteous and friendly
in their manners—some of them of noble beauty.    They bowed to
a great Spirit, and knew of a future state.    Their king wore a
crown, which he transferred to Jacques C artier.    But when they
brought their sick and infirm, trusting to his supernatural power to
heal, the Christian soldier blessed them with the cross, and prayed
that Heaven might give them health."    Soon after this the adventurers returned to France, carrying with them one of the kings or
chiefs, who soon died of melancholy and grief.    Four years later,
another adventurer, the Sieur de Roberval, landed at the mouth of
the St. Charles River, but, instead of being met in the same friendly
spirit the Indians had received Jacques Carrier and his compatriots
upon the former visit, they at once declared them invaders, and
threatened their extermination.    To protect themselves against the
hostility and vengeance of the justly offended Indians, who remembered the forced extradition of their king, they erected a strong
fortification at the village of Charlesbourg.    In 1549, after a few
years of internal contention and external violence with the savages,
they returned to France.    Many years—in fact, nearly half a century—elapsed before any attempt was made to extend French sway
IP 30
in this territory. Some few individuals succeeded in trading and
bartering with them for fur to a limited extent, but no combined
attempt to colonize was made until De Mont, with a great piratical
fleet, made his appearance, and marked his path with crime, cruelty,
bloodshed, devastation, and. extermination. Next came Champlain,
who sailed, up the St. Lawrence River, and founded the city of
Quebec; and, after cultivating for a time the rich valleys of the St.
Charles, he, in company with many of his followers, set out upon
an exploring expedition to the great Western Lakes. All the territory north of the St. Lawrence River and. the lakes he called Canada,
or New France. The new settlers met at the outset with the same
obstacles to the peaceful pursuit of their voyage which had marked
the history of all attempts at settling or permanently occupying the
country. The Indians attacked them vigorously and continuously,
and often with the most deplorable results; in the end, however, they
were compelled to succumb to their less numerous but more civilized
opponents, and after a time they sought their alliance. But other
antagonistic elements were at work to retard their progress—other
agents, which are ever the accompaniments of civilization, quickly
decimated their numbers, and the pale-face soon domineered as lord
and master. The continuous wars, too, that were desolating Europe
found their dark shadows sweeping over the young colonies in the
NewWorld. The blood of England and France had been transplanted
to these shores, and, instead of the emigrant pursuing his peaceful
occupation and reclaiming the soil, he seized the flint-lock instead
of the pruning-hook. The Indians were invited to display, in all
its merciless and horrible aspect, their mode of warfare upOn the
English, who occupied the southern banks of the St. Lawrence.
Success alternately smiled upon the fortunes of both parties, but the
atrocities that were committed on the defenceless and the helpless,
the uncalled-for cruelties that characterized that long period of
warfare which culminated in the battle on the heights of Abraham
and decided the supreme sovereignty of Britain, is one of the darkest
pages in the history of that period. Still emigration did not flourish,
or the settler make much progress in penetrating the dense forests,
for we read that " Upper Canada, only eighty years ago, was a
wilderness from the Ottawa to the St. Clair." Despite the attempts
which had been made so continuously by the French, this great
province seemed to have remained in almost its primeval purity.
vastness, and extent. About 1783,the British settlement commenced^
and a revolution of progress was at once apparent In 1791, Upper
Canada was made a distinct province, and divided into four districts
—the Eastern, Midland, Home, and Western. I a 1782, Upper
Canada had only 10,000 inhabitants; in 1824 she had 152,000;
while in 1829 she possessed a population of 225,000. In the year
1S29, agricultural societies were introduced in the several districts
of the province, and the Imperial Government lent every assistance
to promote the cultivation of the lands 31
Newfoundland: Agriculture; Government; Fisheries j. Shipping ; Imports and
Exports; Population—Prince Edward's Island: Industrial Resources; Imports
and Exports ; Counties, Towns, and Population ; Education; Government—
. Nova Scotia : The Seasons; Botanical Productions ; Shipping ; Agriculture ;
Fisheries; Commerce ; Population; Quadrupeds, Birds, and Fish; Crown
Lands; Education; Government; Halifax; Gold-Fields ;. Minerals.,
Newfoundland embraces 36,000 square miles. It lies upon the
eastern side of the Gulf of St. Lawrence; the Strait of Belleisle
divides it from the coast of Labrador. The coast is open to the
Atlantic on three sides—north, south, and east. The shores are
exceedingly rugged and irregular in outline, and exhibit a succession of deep bays and estuaries, with peninsulas and headlands
between. Many of the inlets form good and commodious harbours!
The principal bays are the Bay of Conception, Bonavista, Notre
Dame, Trinity, White, and Hare upon the eastern and northern
coasts; of St. George upon the western side; and of Fortune,
Placentia, and St. Mary upon the south.
Newfoundland is a series of barren and rocky districts, with here
and there a few tracts of alluvial soil along the rivers. But few
cattle are reared, and the crops of barley and oats scarcely ripen.
The interior is hilly and swampy, and traced and dotted with
many lakes and rivers.;
The winter is long and very severe. Fogs are prevalent during
many months of the year. The summers are dry and the heat
intense. In winter the snow-storms are violent and accompanied
by hurricanes.
The following statistics show the progressing increase in agriculture and neat cattle :—
In 1845 there were 83,435| acres of land in possession, and
29,656f acres under cultivation, the value of which was 2,990;625
dollars ; horses, 2409, valued at 120,450 dollars; neat cattle, 8135
—value, 203,375 dollars ; sheep, 5750—value, 23,750 dollars;
goats, 5791—value, 28,955 dollars; hogs, 5077—value, 39,075
dollars; bushels of potatoes, 853,352£; bushels of grain, 11,695;
tons of hay and fodder, 11,013.
In 1857 (the latest census taken) the whole of the improved
land of the. island was 46,616| acres. Tons of hay cut, 16,250;
bushels of oats raised, 9438; bushels of wheat and barley, 1932|; bushels of potatoes raised, 571,480; bushels of turnips, 12,832;
bushels of other roots, 3502 ; bushels of clover and timothy seed,
731£. Number of neat cattle, 12,962; milch cows, 6924; horses,
3509; sheep, 10,737; swine and goats, 17,551. Butter made,
134,968 lbs.; cheese, 158 lbs. There are a few factories, which
are principally devoted to the manufacture of cod-liver oil.^
In 1857 there were 80 vessels built, of the combined tonnage of 2427; there were also 630 boats built, besides which
the island owned 212 vessels, the tonnasre of which was 6229.
The Government of Newfoundland is conducted and controlled
by the Lieutenant-Governor,-appointed by the Home Government,
and he is assisted by the Legislative Council and the House of
Assembly. Every male member of the population being twenty-
one and renting a house is entitled to a vote for any elective officer.
The Judiciary consists of a Supreme Court, with a Chief Justice
and two Assistant-Justices. There is also a Central Circuit Court
and a Court of Vice-Admiralty. There are five hundred and fifty
miles of electric telegraph laid, as well as a, submarine line from
Aspy Bay, Cape Breton, to Cape Ray, Newfoundland. The tariff
is three dollars, or twelve shillings sterling, for ten words.
The Fisheries are of course the principal source of income to
Newfoundland, and we shall, therefore, give a somewhat detailed
description of them. They are of great value, and comprise salmon,
cod, herrings, mackerel, c a pi in, and seal. .
The banks of Newfoundland are of submarine elevation, and
spread over an area of six or seven hundred miles in length. The
Great Bank is 300 miles from north to south and 250 miles from
east to west. The depth of the water is various, in some places
being only fifteen fathoms, in others eighty fathoms; and the temperature is lower by 10° than that of the surrounding ocean.
The abundance of codfish which are found here is extraordinary
and unparalleled.
The fishermen who are usually engaged in cod-fishing, employ
the early months of the year in catching seals, which they find in
great quantities upon the floating ice; early in June this occupation
is changed for cod-fishing. In a commercial sense there are-three
qualities of cod—first, the best and largest fish, called merchantable
fish; second, the Madeira fish, a medium variety, which serves to
supply the Spanish or Portuguese markets; third, the inferior
qualities, which are exported to the West Indies for ike use of the
In 1849 the dried codfish exported was valued at 2,825,895 J3
dollars; in 1857 the value was over three millions of dollars, or
In 1852 there were 367 vessels, of 35,760 tons, manned by
13,000 men, which took 550,000 seals. In 1857 there were
802 vessels, with a tonnage of 57,898; men on board, 14,442;
number of seals taken, 428,143.
In 1857 there were 157,354 barrels of herrings cured, 2940
tierces of salmon cured, and 913 of fresh salmon disposed of at St.
No better idea can be formed of the increase and progress of
Newfoundland than by presenting a tabular view of the imports and
exports for a series of years. The whole of the exports may be said
to consist of fish :—
Imports. Exports.
liars    .    .    4,697,190 dollars
„ .    .    3,795,515     „
4 032 825
4 187 905
.    .    4,207,521     „
.    .    4,683,676    .,
.    .    4,293,876    „
.    .    4,306,376     .,
.    .    6,693,985    .,
„        .    .    8,255,855    „
.    .    0,594,180    „
„        .    .    6,785,565    „
.    .    6.358,560    .,
1829 .
. 4,006,650
1846 .
. 4,011,435
1847 .
, 4,217,045
1848 .
. 3,848,140
1849 .
. 3,700,912
1850 .
. 4,163,116
1851 .
. 4,609,291
1852 .
'. 3,857,468
1856 .
. 6,356,830
1857 .
. 7,067,160
1858 .
. 5,864.310
1859 .
. 6,620,680
1860 .
. 6.270,640
In 260 years there has been shipped from Newfoundland, fish
and oil to the value of £130,000,000. The revenue of the colony for
the year 1862, was £116,929, and the expenditure for the same}'ear
was £138,058. The revenue is derived entirely from customs, there
being no other tax of any kind. The colonial debt is £173,642.
The value of the exports from the colony (1862) was £1,171,723,
and of the imports, £1,007,082. The number of ships owned and
registered in Newfoundland (1863) was 1386, measuring 87,030
tons. The number of arrivals was 1345; departures, 1159; vessels
built during the year, 26. Of the imports in 1862, the value of
£345,797 was from the United States; and of the exports, £47,729
was to the United States. There are two banks at St. John's—the
Union Bank, capital £50,000, and the Commercial Bank, capital
£50,000. The number of schools in 1857 was 280, attended by
10,266 pupils. The number of inhabited buildings in 1857 was
D !■:!!
The population in 1785 was 10,000; in 1845, 96,295; in
1851, 101,600; in 1857, it was 122,638. The increase of population cannot be attributed to immigration, but simply to the natural
increase of the inhabitants. The soil offers no inducement to the
settler, and it is only the hardy mariner and fisherman who can
expect to find a sphere of employment suitable for them. Mr.
Warburton thus humorously describes St. John's, the capital of
Newfoundland:—" Bound a great part of the harbour are sheds,
acres in extent, roofed with cod split in half, laid on like slates, drying in the sun, or rather in the air, for there is not much of the
former to depend upon. Those ships, bearing nearly every flag in
the world, are laden with cod ; those stout, weatherly boats, crowding up to the wharves, have just now returned from fishing for cod;
those few scant fields of cultivation, with lean crops coaxed out of
the barren soil, are manured with cod; those trim, snug-looking,
wooden houses—their handsome furniture—the piano, and the
musical skill of the young lady who plays it—the satin gown of the
mother—the gold chain of the father—are all paid for in cod ; the
breezes from the shore, soft and warm on this bright August day,
are rich, not with the odours of a thousand flowers, but of a thousand cod. Earth, sea, and air are alike pervaded with this wonderful
fish. There is only one place which appears to be kept sacred from
its intrusion, and, strange to say, that is the dinner-table. An
observation made on its absence from that apparently appropriate
position excited as much surprise as if I had made a remark to a
Northumberland squire that he had not a head dish of Newcastle
Prince Edward's Island is on the southerly side of the St. Lawrence. It is 140 miles in length and 34 in breadth. It occupies
an area of about 2000 square miles. The features of this country
are softer than those of its neighbours; there are no mountains, but
gentle and fertile undulations, clothed to the water's ed^e with
valuable woods and rich verdure. The north shore is very beautiful—many cheerful villages and green clearings, with small lakes
shady arbours, and numerous streams, diversify its scenery. The
land is admirably adapted for pastoral and agricultural purposes.
Crops are produced almost immediately after the land is redeemed
from the forest. The island was at one time crowned with a complete and continuous canopy of trees, such as the elm, ash, maple,
spruce, pine, cedar, birch, hemlock, juniper, and beech. The rivers'
abound with an excellent variety'of fish, such as the mackerel,
salmon, trout, eels, flounders, and lobsters; while the coast is alive 35
with cod, oysters, halibut, and sturgeon.    Game is also very plentiful, such as wild duck, pigeons, brandt, and geese.
The census of different dates gives the following statistics in
reference to the industrial resources of the province :—In 1846,
82 vessels were built, the tonnage of which was 12,012,. valued at
330,000 dollars. In 1847, 96 vessels were built; tonnage, 18,445;
value," 553,350 dollars. In 1860, 66 vessels were built; value,
309,225 dollars. In 1861, there were 89 fishing establishments,
1239 boats, employing 2318 persons. Lieut.-Governor Dundas, in
his annual report for 1863, says : " There is one great source of
wealth round the coasts of the island, which is almost neglected by
the inhabitants; I allude to the fisheries. During the summer
months hundreds of schooners are attracted to the shores of this
island from the neighbouring provinces, and from the United States,
while it is the exception to find a vessel belonging to the island
engaged in this occupation.
" The inhabitants are chiefly engaged in agriculture. Sudden
vicissitudes of fortune do not, therefore, frequently occur; but there
appears to be a gradual improvement in the culture of the soil, and
new farmhouses and buildings are invariably of greater pretension
than those which preceded them—signs, I trust, of increasing
The census of 1861 gives the following agricultural returns:—
Wheat, 346,125 bushels; barley, 223,195 bushels; hay, 31,100 tons;
potatoes, 2,972,335 bushels ; oats, 2,218,578 bushels ; buckwheat,
50,127 bushels; turnips, 348,784 bushels ; horses, 18,765; neat
cattle, 60,115; sheep, 107,242 ; hogs, 71,535.
In 1861 there were 350,000 acres under cultivation. The
population in 1822 was 24,600; in 1833 it was 32,292; in 1841,
47,034; in 1851, 55,000; and in 1861, 80,856.
The value of the imports in 1847 was 718,270 dollars; the
exports, 356,130. In 1850 the imports were in value 630,475
dollars ; of exports during the same period, 325,990 dollars. The
value of the exports for 1860 was 1,015,970 dollars. The value
of the imports for the year 1862 was £211,240.18s. 6d., an increase
of £1305. 2s. 7d. on the value of 1861. The value of exports was
£150,549. 2s. Id., £12,565. 5s. 9d. less than that of the preceding
year. The value of 57 vessels of 7715 tons transferred to other
ports is not taken into consideration. The revenue of the colony
for the year 1862 was £25,861. 13s. 6d.
The public debt of the island on the 31st of January, 1861, was
155,324 dollars..
d 2 36
The island is divided into three counties—Queen's County,
Prince's County, and King's County. The whole population of
the colony, according to the census of 1861, was 80,857, of whom
40,880 were males, and 39,997 were females. Divided according
to their religious faith, there were 44,975 Protestants, and 35,882
Catholics. The population of Charlottetown was, by the same
census, 6706. Georgetown, in King's County, has a population of
about 800.
The Prince of Wales College, established at Charlotte-
town in 1860, is the most important educational institution
of the colony. It is supported from the public revenue. St.
Dunstan's College is a private establishment near Charlottetown.
In 1856 a normal school for the training teachers was established.
The number of schools in the same year was 260, and of pupils
11,000. in 1861 there were 302 public school-houses, and 280
teachers; but we have no returns of the number of scholars for that
year. The amount of money disbursed from the Colonial Treasury,
in 1862, for public education was £11,000 sterling, or 55,000
dollars. In 1863 an Act was passed by the Legislature transferring
a portion of this expense to the people individually.
Lieutenant-Governor, Commander-in-Chief, Vice-Admiral, &c,
his Excellency George Dundas, Esq., appointed Januarv, 1859.
George Dundas, Esq., formerly an officer of the Rifle Brigade;
retired from the army 1844 ; represented Linlithgow in Parliament
Executive Council, or Umistry.—linn. Hamilton Gray, President ; Hons. Edward Palmer, James Yeo, Jr1*
C. Pope, David Kaye, James M'Lare~
i r     t»  i~ti     i        r . i      ti . •
ohn Longworth, James
C. Pope. David Kaye, James M'Laren, Daniel Davies, and William
Henry Pope. Clerk of the Executive Council, Charles Des Brisay,
Esq.    Assistant-Clerk, Donald Currie, Esq.
Principal Executive Officers.—Colonial Secretary, Hon. Wm.
rl. Pone:   Colonial  Treasurer. Georo-e Wriffht.   .•   Attnmov.
-on. Wm.
jt-. rope; vjoioniai Lreasurer, George Wright, Esq.; Attorney-
General, Hon. Edward Palmer; Comptroller of Customs, Hon.
Francis Longworth; Commissioner of Crown Lands and
Surveyor-General, Hon. John Aldous; Postmaster- General
Lemuel C. Owen, Esq. The Lieutenant-Governor is appointed by
the Crown, and is the royal representative in the colony. The
Executive Councillors are appointed by the Lieutenant-Governor
from the majority side of the Colonial Parliament, and they are
responsible for the Government while in office.
finlntitnl   7 nntvl rtl ii.t* . 'II.,.    l«~;..l.. *-^,.~         _ C   .1  l •
^w..~..^.~   .v.     *..v^    v^ w . .   i i ii ii.   ii L     ,> Hilt   |U   UI1I1   r   ,
Colonial Legislature.—The legislative power of the c
olony ii 37
exercised (subject to the revision of the Crown) by a Legislature
composed of a Council and a House of Assembly. Formerly the
members of the Legislative Council were appointed by the Crown
for life, but they are now (since Feb., 1863) elective. They are
thirteen in number, chosen by the property-holders of the colony
for a term of eight years; six of those now in office to retire at the
end of four years, so that one-half of the Council may be renewed
every fourth year. The members of the House of Assembly are
thirty in number, and are chosen by the qualified electors of the
colony, by districts, to serve for a term of four years. No property-
qualification is required to enable persons to vote for members of
the Assembly. Officers of the Legislative Council—Hon. Donald
Montgomery; Clerk, James Barrett Cooper, Esq. Officers of the
House—Hon. T. Heath Haviland, Speaker; Chief Clerk, John
M'Neill, Esq.
Judiciary : Court of Chancery.—Chancellor, the Lieutenant-
Governor ; Master of the Rolls, Hon. James H. Peters ; Registrar,
Charles Des Brisay, Esq.
Supreme Court.—Chief Justice, Hon. Robert Hodgson ; Assistant-Judge, Hon. James H. Peters ; Puisne Judge, John Barrow,
Esq.; Clerk and Prothonotary, Daniel Hodgson.
Besides the foregoing tribunals, there is an Instance Court of
Admiralty, of which the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court is
Judge; a Court of Probate of Wills, &c, of which Hon. Charles
Young is Surrogate; and a Court of Marriage and Divorce, composed of the Lieutenant-Governor and Executive Council. The
terms of the Supreme Court commence on the first Tuesday in
January and May, and on the last Tuesday in June and October.
Ecclesiastical.—Church of England : the Lord Bishop of Nova
Scotia, Rt. Rev; Hibbert Binney, D.D., has jurisdiction of the
island. Catholic Church: Rt. Rev. Peter M'Intyre, D.D , Bishop
of Charlottetown.
Nova Scotia and the island of Cape Breton form one province.
Nova Scotia is a peninsula, and has an area of 15,600 square
miles, being 256 miles in length by 100 miles in breadth. Cape
Breton is 100 miles in length, and 72 in breadth, and possesses an
area of 3000 square miles. The two conjoined present a surface of
18,600 square miles, or 12,000,000 acres. The interior of Nova
Scotia forms a table-land, some parts of which are rather hilly, and
abounds in lakes. Cape Breton is generally hilly in the interior.
The climate resembles that of Lower Canada, the winters being
severe and the summers hot, but the air is generally healthy. Fogs
are experienced along the Atlantic coast. The harbours, bays,
lakes, and rivers are numerous and extensive. 38
The harbour of Halifax is pronounced " one of the best in the
world." It is easy of access for the largest ships, and is capable of
floating the combined-fleets of Europe. It is protected against the
winds, and after narrowing itself just above the city, it expands
itself into a lovely basin, called the Bedford Basin, which covers an
area of nine square miles; this basin is from four to thirty fathoms
in depth. We have never sailed round a more beautiful sheet of
water; the shores crowned with forest-trees, and interspersed with
snow-white cottages and flowering orchards, lend a charm to it that
isnot easily to be forgotten. The coast-line of Halifax extends a
distance of 1000 miles.
The principal bay is the Bay of Fundy. " This remarkable bay
is fifty miles in width, and after extending a hundred miles inland
divides into two branches. The* northern branch is called Chieg-
neeto Bay, the southern branch, the Basin of Minas. The extraordinary height and rapidity of its tides are famous. At the mouth
of the Minas Channel the tide rises to about fifty feet, while at the
mouth of the Shubenacadie, near the head of Cobequid Bay, at the
spring-tides it obtains the height of seventy-five feet. *
The principal rivers are the Shubenacadie, the Avon, and the
Annapolis, flowing into the Bay of Fundy; the St. Mary*s, Mus-
quodoboit, La Have, and Liverpool, flowing into the Atlantic
Spring commences in Nova Scotia with the beginning of
April. Seed-time and planting continue till the middle of
June. Summer begins with the latter part of June, and embraces
July and Angust. Vegetation is very rapid in the middle and
western parts of the province, where the hay crop and usually
all the grain crops, are harvested by the last week of August or first
week in September.
Autumn is the finest season in Nova Scotia. It is mild, serene,
and cool enough to be bracing, and the atmosphere is of a purity
that renders it peculiarly exhilarating and health-giving. The
" Indian summer" occurs sometimes as late as the middle of
November, and lasts from three to ten days.
The winter in Nova Scotia may be said to comprise about
four months. It begins, some seasons, with the 1st of December
and runs into the month of April. Other seasons it begins in the
middle of December and ends with the last of March.
Nova Scotia is remarkably rich in her botanical productions,
the principal of which are the white and red pine, the hemlock, the
black, red, and white spruce, the fir, and the juniper ; those are the
soft wood. The hard woods are the white soft maple, the white 39
sugar maple, the black sugar maple, the red maple, the striped
maple, the mountain maple, the white ash, the black ash, the white
beech, the red beech, the white oak, the black oak, the yellow, the
white, the canoe, and the poplar-leaved birch, and the hazel. The
principal ornamental trees are the sumach, the wild pear, the mountain ash, the wild hawthorn, the wild red cherry, the willow, the
aspen, the poplar, the white-leaved poplar, the acacia, the black
cherry-tree, and the sarsaparilla. The wild plants are numerous,
and some of exquisite beauty; the May flower, the white pond
lily, the wild rose, the Indian cup, Solomon's seal, the tree cran-r
berry, the pigeon berry, the Indian hemp, the wild pea, the star
flower, and the violet. The fruit-bearing trees are the raspberry,
blackberry,-strawberry, blueberry, whortleberry, cranberry, and
gooseberry. The various products of the forests gave employment
in 1862 to 1401 saw-mills, 130 shingle-mills, and 6 lath-mills,
which turned out 25,072 M. feet deals, 46,607 M. feet pine boards,
36,422 M. feet spruce and hemlock boards* The return of staves
for the same year year is 7659 M. timber, 22,592 tons.
The number and amount of shipping built between 1853 and
1861 is shown in the following table of statistics :—
of Vessels.
203    .
.    31,376    .
.    1,557,090 dols.
,          m
244    .
.    52,814   .
.    2,546,595   „
<236    .
.    40,460    .
.   2,240,710   „
.     .
208    .
.    39,582    .
.    1,852,540   „
151    .
.    16,336   .
757,900   „
233    .
.    20,684    .
852,831    „
216    .
•23,634   .
.       972,448   „
In 1846, Nova Scotia owned 141,093 tons of shipping; in 1853,
189,093 tons; in 1861, 248.061 tons. The number of vessels is
3258 ; value, 6,487,490 dollars. In 1862 the number of registered
vessels was 3408, measuring 277,718 tons ; the number built was
201, measuring 39,383 tons.
The agricultural progress of Nova Scotia is most satisfactory.
By the census of 1861 it appears there are 37,897 farmers and
9306 farm labourers. The number of acres under cultivation at
three successive periods was as follows :—In 1827, 292,009 acres;
in 1851, 839,322 acres ; in 1861, 1,028,032 acres. Divided into
silt marsh, 20,729 acres; dyked marsh, 35,487 acres; cultivated
mwm 40
intervale, 77,102 acres; and cultivated upland, 894,714 acres; the
total value of which is estimated at 18,801,365 dollars. The average
value per acre is—Dyked marsh, 62-06 dollars; salt marsh, 8604
dollars; cultivated intervale, 27'45 dollars; and cultivated upland,
15 "58 dollars. In some counties the cultivated upland sells for
50, 60, and 80 dollars; dyked marsh land brings 80 dollars, and
some as high as 300 dollars, or £60 sterling.
The agricultural produce of 1851 shows—Wheat, 297,157
bushels; barley, 196,097 bushels; rye, 61,438; oats, 1,384,437
bushels; buckwheat, 170,301 bushels; Indian corn,37,475 bushels;
potatoes, 1,986,789 bushels; turnips, 467,127 bushels; hay, 287,837
tons ; butter, 3,613,890 lbs.; cheese, 652,069 lbs.; horses, .28,786;
sheep, 282,180; swine, 51,533; neat cattle, exclusive of cows,
156,857; milch cows, 86,856.
The census of 1861 gives the following as the products of agriculture and the number of live stock:—Wheat, 312,081 bushels;
barley, 269,578 bushels; rye, 59,706 bushels; oats, 1,978,137
bushels; buckwheat, 195,340 bushels; Indian corn, 15,529 bushels;
peas and beans, 21,333 bushels; potatoes, 3,824,864 bushels; turnips, 554,318 bushels; other roots, 87,727 bushels; apples, 186,484
bushels; plums, 4385 bushels; hay, 354,287 tons; maple sugar,
249,549 lbs.; butter, 4,532,711 lbs.; cheese, 901,296 lbs.; horses,
41,927; sheep, 332,653; swine, 53,217; neat cattle, exclusive of
cows, 151,793 ; milch cows, 110,504.
The value of the agricultural products for the year 1861 is
estimated at 8,021,860 dollars. The value of the live stock at
6,802,399 dollars.
The Fisheries are very productive and exhibit the following
results :—
1851. 1861.
Vessels         812 . .        900
Boats 5,161 . .     8,816
Men employed 10,394 . .    14,322
Quintals of dry fish    .    .    . 196,434 . . 396,425
Barrels of mackerel   .    .    . 100,047 . .    66,108
Barrels of shad 8,536 . .     7,849
Barrels of alewives....      5,343 . .    12 565
Barrels of salmon  ....      1,669 . .      2 481
Barrels of herrings -.738
Boxes of herrings, smoked .   53,200 . . 194 170
Barrels of smoked salmon    .    15,409 . .   35557
The value of the vessels, boats, and nets, is estimated at
1,7X0,450 dollars. The value of the fish and oil in 1861 was
2,376,721 dollars.
In 1860 the total value of fish exported was 3,094,499 dollar*• 41
in 1854 it was 2,093,415 dollars. The total value of live stock and
agricultural products exported in 1860 was 786,526 dollars; lumber,
767,136 dollars ; products of mines and quarries, 658,257 dollars;
furs, 72,218 dollars; manufactures,69,978 dollars; vessels, 168,270
dollars; miscellaneous, 151,132 dollars; imported from other countries and re-exported, 1,019,788 dollars; making the total exports
for 1860, 6,787,804 dollars.
The value of imports into Halifax from the United States
in 1861 was 1,736,879 dollars; from Great Britain to the
same port, 2,222,266 dollars; from British North American Provinces, 760,800 dollars ; the West Indies, 107,443 dollars ; from all
other countries, 678,571 dollars. The value of the imports and
exports from 1852 to 1861 is shown in the following table :—
1852    .
.    5,970,877 dollars.   .
.    4,853,903 dollars
1853    .
.    7,085,431
>)        '
.    5,393,588     „
1854   .
.    8,955,410
»        '
.    3,096,525     .,
1855   .
.   9,413,515
)>        '
.   4,820,654    „
1856   .
.    9,349,160
»        •
.    6,864,790     „
1857    .
.   9,680,880
.    6,967,830     „
1858   .
.    8,075,590
)>        '
.    6,321,490     „
1859   .
.   8,100,955
.    6,889,130     „
1860    .
.    8,511,549
>}        '
.    6,619,534    „
1861    .
.    7,613,227
>j        •
.   5,774,334     „
1862   .
.   8,445,042
)>        •
.    5,646,961     „
The number of vessels which entered in 1861 from Great
Britain was 194, the tonnage 97,538, manned by 5111 men; from
British West Indies, 259 vessels, 31,436 tons, and 1916 men; from
British North America, 2681 vessels, 227,596 tons, and 14,451 men;
from the United States, 2851 vessels, of 303,638 tons burthen, and
18,225 men; other countries, 338 vessels, 36,555 tons, and 2101
men.    Total, 6323 vessels, 696,763 tons, and 41,804 men.
The following table will show the increase of the population
during the last ten years in the different counties :—
Population Tnereasp   Rate per Cent.
1851. 1861. increase.     ofIncrease.
Halifax (city) 19,949        25,026        5,077       25-44
„     (outside city) 19,163       23,995       4,832       2521
Total in county 39,112       49,021       9,909       25-33 42
Kate per oe
Brought forward
9 99.Q
Victoria                )
{ 9,643)
Cape Breton (co.-)j
'" v Y-*«
10 9KC>
276,117     330,857     54,740       19-82
The quadrupeds, birds, and fish of Nova Scotia are numerous
in variety and of great value. Of quadrupeds there are the moose,
cariboo,' bear, fox, lynx, weasel, martin, otter, minx, squirrel,
fisher, woodchuck, hare, racoon, porcupine, beaver, musquash, rat,
and mouse. The birds comprise the bald-eagle, the fish-hawk,
the hen-hawk, the sparrow-hawk, the white owl, great-eared
owl, speckled owl, horned owl, and barn owl, besides warblers,
thrushes, fly-catchers, chatterers, pinches, crossbills, crows, creepers,
humming-birds, kingfishers, swallows, night-hawks, grouse,
pigeons, herons, snipe, plovers, ducks, and geese. The fish are to
be found in every bay, lake, and river in marvellous quantities, and
are of the choicest kind—such as mackerel, herring, cod, haddock,
halibut, alewives or gaspereau, pollock, salmon, shad, trout, and
perch, besides the lobster, mussel, sea-clam, cockle, blue crab,
nipple-fish, oyster, periwinkle, quatrog, scallop, razor-fish, shore-
clam, sea-spider, soldier-crab, sea-crab, and star-fish.
The quantity of granted and ungranted lands in the province is as follows:—In Nova Scotia—quantity already granted,
4,985,849^ acres; remaining ungranted, 4,112,884^ acres; estimated as available for settlement, 556,664^ acres; lands open for
settlements, 8,412,384£ acres.     Cape Breton—granted, 813,543f, 43
ungranted, 1,207,4384; available for settlement, 356,676^; open
for settlement, 777,4381. Total—5,748,893 granted; 5,819,822|
ungranted; 913,340f available; 4,189,822| open for settlement.
The gross proceeds of lands sold in 1860 was 20,846 dollars 28
cents ; in 1861, 16,598 dollars 73 cents.
The revenue for 1860 was 870,055 dollars; the expenditure,
852,133 dollars.    The expenditure for 1861 was 870,771 dollars.
In 1860 the debt of the province was 4,901,305 dollars 42
cents—viz., provincial bonds, 4,000,000 dollars ; provincial notes,
447,458 dollars ; Savings' Bank, 453,847 dollars 42 cents. Total,
4,901,305 dollars 42 cents.
There are six colleges in Nova Scotia—viz., King's College,
at Windsor, commenced in 1788; Acadia College, in Wolfville
County, Baptist denomination ; Goreham College, in Liverpool,
Queen's County; St. Mary's College, in Halifax; St. Francis Xavier's
College, in the town of Atigonish; and Dalhousie College, in
Halifax. Six academies : the Windsor Academy, the Horton Academy, the Sackville Academy, the Presbyterian Academy, and the
Arichat Academy. There are 44 academies and 1227 school-
houses ; 128,222 dollars 22 cents were subscribed by the population, and 53,519 dollars 25 cents contributed by the Government,
for the common schools; and 9814 dollars 9 cents by the people,
and 3274 dollars 95 cents by Government, for the grammar-schools.
The Government consists of a Lieutenant-Governor; the Legislative Council, consisting of 22 Members, who hold their position
for life and are chosen by the Crown; the House of Representatives, consisting of 55 Members, chosen every four years. Every
male inhabitant who is either native or a naturalized subject of
Great Britain, and is twenty-one years of age, is entitled to a vote.
The principal towns and villages are Annapolis, Royal, Yarmouth, Pictou, New Glasgow, Sydney, and Arichat, in Cape Breton;
Windsor, in Hants; Dartmouth, opposite Halifax; Baddeck, in
Victoria ; Port Hood and Maybon, Truro ; Liverpool, Bridgetown,
and Digby.
Halifax is the principal city. This city occupies a most commanding position, and extends in length over three miles; it is
situated on the slope of a hill, and in its rear, far above and overlooking it, rises a bold and frowning fortress, which, in conjunction
with other fortifications situated at appropriate points, gives it at
once military strength and an imposing aspect.
nwm 44
Halifax is the great British North American seaport, and its
future prosperity looks promising indeed; for when the great intercolonial railroad shall have been completed, much of the grain of
the West will find its exit through this channel. Steamers and
ships will also pour into this port thousands of emigrants* who can
find a direct road to the Far West; while the gold-fields promise
to prove a source of wealth and temptation that will soon rapidly
increase the population of the surrounding country.
That the gold is not a myth we can assert from ocular testimony,
having visited the mines within a few months; and certainly the
various specimens shown to us prove that the quartz is extremely
rich in metal. Some of the specimens quarried while we were
present were equal to any we had ever seen, and the opinion of the
miners was that, when the proper machinery and organized labour
were brought to bear, the product will be such as to astonish those
who have not at present a full belief in the material existence of
this precious metal. The ascertained extent of the gold-field comprises an area of 6000 or 7000 square miles, being the entire region
occupied by the metamorphic lower Silurian rocks of the Atlantic
coast. So rich are the quartz veins at " The Ovens," 70 miles west
from Halifax, that 1-J- ton of quartz has produced 72 oz. of gold,
valued at 1296 dollars. One nugget has been1 discovered valued
at 300 dollars, or £60 sterling. At Tangier, 2400 dollars has been
realized in a short time; at another, 1300 dollars. The daily
yield of gold is about 100 ounces, valued at 18 dollars per ounce.
The Provincial Government have surveyed and divided the principal gold-fields into claims of twenty feet by fifty feet, and exact an
annual licence-fee, or rent, of 20 dollars for each claim. " In one
important respect," says Dr. Gesner, " the Nova Scotian gold-fields
possess a very great advantage over those of Australia, California,
or British Columbia—namely, that the rocks containing the gold in
the greatest abundance are near the Atlantic coast, and intersect a
number of the smaller rivers and harbours, whereby facilities are
afforded to supply the requirements of mining. It is not at all probable that the richest gold and deposits in Nova Scotia have yet
been discovered; but there is enough known to satisfy the most
sceptical that the province contains an ample amount of the precious
metal to warrant the most extensive operations, and the employment of machincrv for its mining and purification."
Coal.—Dr. Dawson, in his work styled "Acadian Geology,"
describes the coal-fields of Nova Scotia as vast in extent, and verv
Kir. Tl,n     ^,.,\,„; 1      „„• .L.        11L-    _ -,,- *
pal mines are the Albion mines, at Pictou. 45
These mines gave employment to over 2000 persons in 1851, and
60,000 chaldrons were raised. The quantity of coal raised, sold,
and exported at Pictou in 1861 was 104,952 tons. The coal-mines
of Sydney, at Cape Breton, produce annually about 80,000 tons.
There are numerous other mines in Nova Scotia and New Breton,
which are capable of supplying the wants of the steam marine to
any extent. The total quantity of coal raised in Nova Scotia in
1861 was 200,000 chaldrons.
Iron.—Dr. J. L. Hayes, of Massachusetts, U.S., speaks of iron
veins'in high terms. He savs there are immense fields of iron ore,
and that iron ore can be raised for 4 dollars per ton. " I have no
doubt that iron of the first quality for purity and strength, and
which will command the highest prices in the market, can be made
from these ores. If Mr. Mushet's opinion, based on his own experiments—that these ores will furnish steel-iron equal to the best
Swedish brands—should prove correct, they possess a rare value;
for, of the many charcoal iron establishments in the United States, I
know but one which furnishes iron suitable for making the first
quality of steel."
Gypsum.—The common gypsum is found in abundance, and is
quarried at Windsor, Newport, Walton, and other places. In 1861
there was shipped to the United States 150,000 tons for agricultural
purposes, which averaged 2 dollars a ton. Surely, when we review
the natural resources and productiveness of Nova Scotia, she presents
a picture of present prosperity which her inhabitants may well be
proud of; and, with the increased means of development wh^ch the
union of the provinces promises, she may look forward to a continued
and steady increase of her agricultural, manufacturing, and mercantile wealth. 46
New Brunswick—Bivers and Counties—Capabilities' of the Province—Forests—
Fisheries—Minerals—Fruit and Vegetables-—Manufactures—Counties—Commerce—Finances—Government—Public Schools—Militia—Census of 1861—
New Brunswick lies to the eastward of Canada, and upon the
eastward boundary of the State of Maine, U. S. On the east and
south it borders the St. Lawrence and the Bay of Fundy; on the
west the small river of St. Croix and the meridian of 67° 53* divide
it from the territory of the United States; on the north it is terminated by the river Restigouche, which falls into the Bay of Chaleurs
on the western side of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The landscape is
of great variety and of most picturesque beauty, being alternations
of attractive valleys and hills, which northward assume a bold outline. It is 230 miles in length and 130 in breadth, and is covered with
a mantle of magnificent forests that are unrivalled, and constitute a
source of industry and wealth which is well nigh inexhaustible. It
comprises an area of 27,037 square miles, or about 17,677,360 acres
of land, the whole of which abounds in lakes and rivers. Its
astronomical position is between latitude 45° 05' and 48° 04' nortn^
and between longitudes 63 47' and 67° 53" west from Greenwich.
Seat of Government, Frederictown. The surface of New Brunswick is varied along the shores; it is generally flat, but a little inland
it rises into hills, some of which are sharp and bold, and serve to
protect the interior table-lands and declivities. The quantity of
good land sold up to 1861, was 6,000,000 acres, leaving 11 000 000
unsold, 7,500,000 of which are admirable lands for cultivation and
farming purposes.
RIVERS and counties.
The longest river of New Brunswick is the St. John's • this
remarkable and beautiful river rises in the high lands which separate Maine from Canada, and empties into the Bay of Fundy, at St.
John's Harbour, after traversing a distance of over 600 miles. The
river and its affluents afford navigation for over 1300 miles • it is
navigable for sloops up to Frederictown, a distance of 80 miles, and
for flat-bottomed boats up to the Great Falls, a distance of 200
miles from its mouth. The shores of the St. John are mostly
covered with primeval forests.    In some parts, the banks rise in 47
grand rocky hills, forming in their lilies and interfacings pictures of
wondrous delight.
The chief tributaries of the St. John, besides the St. Francis
and other waters already mentioned, are Aroostook, the Oromocto,
and the Eel, on the west; and the Salmon, the Naskwaak, the
Tobique, the Kennebecasis, and the Washedemoak, on the east.
The St. John affords most valuable fishing, the salmon being
as delicious and delicate as the Severn salmon of England. As
many as 40,000 salmon, 16,000 barrels of alewives (a species of
shad}, and 1000 barrels of shad are caught annually, giving employment to 200 boats and 500 men, and producing 100,000 dollars, or
£20,000 sterling, annually. The other rivers are the St. Croix,
which falls into the Passamaquoddy Bay ; the Miramichi, which
flows eastward into the Gulf of St. Lawrence, having a course of
120 miles, and being navigable for nearly 40 miles ; and the Restigouche, which falls into the Bay of Chaleurs, has a length of about
85 miles.
The climate is healthful, but subject to great extremes of heat
and cold; the mercury rising sometimes to 100 in the day-time, and
falling to 50 at night. The country is covered with snow for four
months in the year.
New Brunswick is divided into ten counties. Frederictown, the
political capital of the province, is situated on the south bank of the
St. John's River. The other principal towns are—St. Andrew's,
situated on the shore of the Passamaquoddy Bay; Liverpool, upon
the coast of the Gulf of the St. Lawrence; Newcastle, at the mouth
of Miramichi River; and Bathurst, on the south side of the fine
Bay of-Chaleurs.
Professor J. F. W. Johnstone, F.R.S., in a report made to the
Government, speaking of its agricultural capabilities, says, " The
stranger, if he penetrates beyond the Atlantic shores of the province, and travels through the interior, will be struck by the number
and beauty of its rivers, by the fertility of its river islands and intervales, and by the great extent and excellent condition of its roads,
and, upon the whole, of its numerous bridges. He will see boundless forests still unreclaimed, but will remark at the same time an
amount of actual progress and prosperous advancement, which, considering the recent settlement and small revenue of the province, is
really surprising.'*
Major Robinson, R.E., in his report, thus describes the province :—*' Of the climate, soil, and capabilities of New Brunswick
it is impossible to speak too highly. There is not a country in the
world so beautifully wooded and watered. An inspection of the
map will show that there is scarcely a section of it without its
streams, from the running brook up to the navigable river.    Two- Ijjj-S
thirds of its boundary are washed by the sea; the remainder is embraced by the large rivers—the St. John and the Restigouche.
For beauty and richness of scenery, this latter river and its branches
are not surpassed by anything in Great Britain. The lakes of New
Brunswick are numerous and most beautiful. Its surface is undulating, hill and dale, varying up to mountain and valley. It is
everywhere, except a few peaks of the highest mountains, covered
with a dense forest of the finest growth. The country can everywhere be penetrated by its streams. In some parts of the interior,
by a portage of three or four miles, a canoe can float away either to
the Bay of Chaleurs and the Gulf of St. Lawrence, or down to St.
John's in the Bay of Fundy.
As we have before stated, New Brunswick is unusually
rich in the amount and variety of her forest-trees, the principal
of which are the white pine, the black spruce, the American
larch, the black and yellow birch, the white and red beech, the
white and red elm, the hemlock spruce, the butternut, the white and
black ash, the white cedar, the white maple, and red flowering maple,
the white and canoe birch, the balsam poplar, the American aspen,
the alder, the willow, the wild cherry, the basswood, the hornbeam,
the ironwood, the white spruce, the American silver fir, and last,
but most useful of all, the maple sugar-tree. This tree is not only
useful for its wood, but furnishes a syrup superior to treacle and.
molasses, and a sugar which is not only consumed at home, but
proves a profitable article of commerce; besides this, it furnishes
the best fuel, the best charcoal, and its ashes are rich in alkaline
matter. The maple sugar is not only admirably adapted for tea and
coffee, but it is delicious as a candy. All that is required to obtain
it at the proper season—usually about the 1st of March—is to bore
small holes in the trunks of the trees, and the sap. is caught in
boilers. This is boiled to the consistency of a syrup, kept skimmed
to remove impurities, and then poured into moulds. Each tree
ordinarily yields about 20 gallons of sap, which will make five or
six pounds of sugar. The quantity of sugar obtained in 1861 in
New Brunswick was 500,000 lbs.
The amount of timber exported from New Brunswick in 1854
was 127,567 tons; deals (M. feet), 258,004; boards and planks
(M. feet), 19,256 ; masts and spars (No.), 3794; ship knees (No.),
15,248; lathwood (cords), 2223; sawed laths (M.J, 19,672; shingles
(M.) 24,837; box-shooks (No.), 142,672; besides wood in many
other shapes.
In 1850 there were 86 vessels built, the total tonnage of which
was 30,356, and the value £242,852 sterling. In 1860 there were
100 vessels, 41,003 tons, value £328,024 sterling.
In 1860 St. John's owned 492 vessels,  123,425 tons, value 49
£.987,400; Miramichi, 132 vessels, 14,910 tons, value £119,380;
St. Andrew's, 201 vessels, 8748 tons, value £69,984. Total in 1860
owned in New Brunswick, 825 vessels, 147,083 tons, value
£1,176,664 sterling; in 1861, 813 vessels, 158,240 tons; in 1862,
814 vessels, with a tonnage of 157,718.
The produce of the forest in 1860 was 3,180,428 dollars; in
1861, 3,447,910(dollars; in 1862, 2,810,188 dollars.
In the Bay of Fundy there is the cod, pollock, hake, haddock,
herring, mackerel, halibut, and sea-shad, besides numerous tribes
of small fish. The Gulf of St. Lawrence, the Bay of Chaleurs, and
the mouth of the Miramichi River, swarm with cod, hake, mackerel,
salmon, and striped bass, besides oysters, lobsters, clams, crabs,
"shrimps, and mussels.
In the rivers the fisherman will find fresh-water trout in abundance, with striped bass, white and yellow perch, roach, dace,
carp, and white fish.
Minerals.—Among the most valuable productions are its minerals which may be thus enumerated—bituminous coal, iron ore,
manganese, plumbago, lead, copper, granite, gypsum, limestone,
marble, red sandstone, grindstone, oilstone, iceland-spar, roofing-
slate, sulphuret of iron, bituminous shale (from which kerosine or
paraffine is produced), plastic clay for bricks or pottery, peat,
barytes, felspar, quartz, chlorite, jasper, soap-stone, and salt and
sulphurous springs.
Fruit and Vegetables.—New Brunswick produces apples, pears,
plums, currants, gooseberries, strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, great whortleberries, cherries, besides butter-nuts, hazelnuts, and beech-nuts. The principal vegetables are potatoes, peas,
and beans, turnips, beets, carrots, parsnips, cabbages, cauliflowers,
celery, cucumbers, and squashes.
Manufactures.—In 1861 the value of manufactures was as follows:—Boots and shoes, £89,377; leather, £45,162; candles,
£19,860; wooden ware (not cabinet-work), £20,505; chairs and
cabinet-ware, £13,472; soap, £18;562; hats, £6360; iron castings,
The various counties are Restigouche County, Gloucester
County, Northumberland County, Kent County, Westmoreland
County, Albert County, St. John County, Charlotte County,
King's County, Queen's County, Sunbury County, York County,
Carleton County, Victoria County.
■\w.\ 50
Restigotjche County contains 1,426,560 acres, of which 156,970
acres are granted and 1,269,581 acres are vacant; 8895 acres only
are cleared.   The soil is fertile, and produces fine crops.
Gloucester County contains 1,037,440 acres—332,902 acres
have been granted, and 704,538 acres are yet vacant. The cleared
land is 19,812 acres. In 1851, 14,302 grindstones were made and
21,157 lbs. of maple sugar.
Northumberland County contains 2,980,000 acres, of which
986,168 acres were granted and 1,993,882 are still vacant. The
cleared land amounts to 30,221 acres.
Kent County contains 1,026,000 acres—386,398 granted,.
640,002 vacant, 35,496 cleared.
Westmoreland County contains 878,440 acres—577,440
granted, 301,000 vacant, 92,822 cleared.
Albert   County   contains  438,560   acres—233,700 granted,
199,860 vacant, 32,210 cleared.
Albert County.—This county contains 414,720 acres—
309,147 granted, and 105,573 vacant. The population in 1861,
with Portland, was close upon 50,000 souls. It occupies a commanding position, and contains 4500 inhabited houses and 4300
stores, barns, and outbuildings. It possesses numerous saw-mills,
grist-mills, tanneries, foundries, breweries, factories, and ship-yards.
There are three banks—the Bank of New Brunswick, the Commercial Bank of New • Brunswick, and a branch of the Bank of
British North America. The commerce is large and increasing—
about 2000 vessels entering and departing each year.
Charlotte County contains 783,360 acres—317,245 granted,
466,115 vacant, 45,656 cleared.
King's County contains 849,920 acres—662,752 granted,
187,168 vacant, 120,923 cleared.
Queen's County contains 961,280 acres—^514,204 granted,
444,076 vacant, 63,719 cleared.
Sunbury Corntv contains 7^2,002 acres—377,078 granted,
405,002 vacant, 15,587 cleared.
York  County contains 2,201,600 acres—970,914 granted
1,230,686 vacant, 69,017 cleared.
Caki.kton County contains 700,000 acres—465,802 granted,
234,198 vacant, and 55,537 cleared.
Victoria County contains 2,872,000 acres—345,600 granted,
2,526,400 vacant, 26,834 cleared.
In 1860 the imports from the United States were £688,217
the total imports were £1,446,740; the exports to the Tinted
States were £248*378, the total exports, £916,372. In 1861
the imports from the United States were £628,070, the
total  imports were £1,238,133;   the   exports to   the  United 51
States were £175,654, the total exports were £947,091. In 1862,
the imports to the United States were £616,814, the total imports
were £1,291,604; the exports to the United States were £185,295,
the total exports £803,445. The value of exports and imports in
1862 was—exports, 3,856,528 dollars; imports, 6,199,701 dollars.
Of the imports, 2,960,703 dollars were from the United States, and
of the exports, 889,416 dollars were to the United States.
The produce of mines and minerals for 1860, was 395,540
dollars; in 1861, 332,970 dollars; in 1862, 303,477 dollars. The
produce of fisheries was, in 1860,874,408 dollars; in 1861,269,249
dollars; in 1862, 303,477 dollars.
finances (1862),
The receipts for the year were 668,197 dollars, and the
expenditure was 675,189 dollars; or, in sterling, the revenue
was, 1862, £148,960. In 1863 the revenue was £176,000.
The expenditure in 1862 was £166,766 sterling; that of 1863 considerably within the income.
Principal Sources of Revenue. — Railway impost, 93,000
dollars; import duties, 515,000 dollars; export duties, 55,000
dollars; casual revenue, &c, 20,000 dollars; court fees, 4300
dollars; proceeds of seizures, 1000 dollars; auction duty, 200
Principal Items of Expenditure.—Civil list, 58,000 dollars;
legislature, 47,343 dollars; judiciary, 12,130 dollars ; collection of
revenue, 40,346 dollars ; post-office, 26,400 dollars; public works,
124,290 dollars; education, 116,275 dollars; interest on railway
debt, 146,170 dollars; interest on debentures, &c, 45,364 dollars ;
lunatic asylum, 16,000 dollars; agriculture, 9734 dollars; penitentiary, 7200 dollars.
Public Debt.—The public debt of the province appears to be
divisible into three classes, as follows:—Funded debt, 398,733
dollars; floating debt, 649,553 dollars—total of debt proper,
1,048,286 dollars. Railway debt, 4,739,880 dollars. Aggregate,
5,788,166 dollars. The railway obligations were incurred on
account of aid extended to the European and North American
Railway and the St. Andrew's and Quebec Railway.
Lieut.-Governor Commander-in-Chief, &c, since Oct. 26,1861,
His Excellency the Honourable Arthur Hamilton Gordon, C.M.G.
Executive Council, or Ministry.—Provincial Secretary, Hon. S.
L. Tilley—salary, 2400 dollars ; Attorney-General, Hon. J. M.
Johnson, jun.—salary, 2400 dollars; Surveyor-General, Hon. J.
M'Millan — salary, 2400 dollars; Postmaster-General, Hon. J.
Steadraan—salary, 2400 dollars; Chief Commander of Board of
e 2 Works, Hon. G. L. Hathway—salary, 2400 dollars; Solicitor-
General, Hon. C. Watters—salary, 1000 dollars. Without office:
Hon. E. Perley, Hon. W. H. Steeves, Hon. P. Mitchell.
Other Executive Officers.—Provincial Treasurer, B. Robinson,
Esq.; Auditor-General, J. R. Partelow, Esq.; Comptroller of
Customs, &c, Wm. Smith, Esq.; Emigration Agent, R. Shives.
The Lieutenant-Governor is appointed by the Crown, and is the
representative of royalty in the province. He selects the Executive
Council from the majority side of the Provincial Legislature, and
they are responsible for the government. Of the members of the
Ministry above named, all are from the House of Assembly excepting Messrs. Steeves and Mitchell, who are from the Legislative
Provincial Legislature.—This body consists of a Legislative
Council of 21 Members, appointed for fife by the Crown (with the
concurrence of the Executive Council), and a House of Assembly
of 41 Members, chosen by the qualified electors of the province for
a term of four years. The qualification for membership of the
Assembly is the .ownership of a freehold of the clear value of £300
—about 1500 dollars. All elections are by ballot; and every male
British subject is a voter who is not legally incapacitated, and who
is assessed on the registry for real estate to the value of £25, or
personal estate to the value of £100, or having an annual income
of £100.
Judiciary: Supreme Court."—Chief Justice, Sir James Carter,
Kt.; Master of the Rolls, Hon. Neville Parker; Judges, Hon. R.
Parker, Hon. S. Ritchie, Hon. L. A. Wilmot.
Public- Schools.—From the report of John Bennett, Esq., Chief
Superintendent of Schools, we compile the following statistics,
exhibiting the condition of the public schools of the province for
the year 1862:—Whole number of children between the ages of
six and sixteen, 64,000; attendance during the year, 29,500;
number of teachers, 810. Provincial expenditure on account of
schools, 94,437 dollars; amount of local contributions, 106,524
dollars—total expenditure for schools, 200,961 dollars. Expended
for superior schools, 5288 dollars; superior schools in operation,
23; number of pupils in superior schools, 1164; average armual
salary of teachers in superior schools, 566 dollars. Number of
school-houses built, 1862, 68. In the superior schools Greek was
taught in 2, Latin in 15, French in 9, and the mathematics in all.
Besides the foregoing, there is a training-school for educating
teachers, into which 167 applicants were admitted after passing an
examination, at which 27 applicants were rejected. There are
also 12 grammar schools, in which there were, in 1862, 397 pupils. 53
Latin and the mathematics were taught in all these schools, Greek
in 7, and French in 8.
Militia of the Province.—The return of the enrolled mibtia for
1862 is as follows :—Volunteers, 1738 ; 1st class—single men, and
widowers without children, 18,859; 2nd class—married men, and
widowers with children, 6131; sedentary militia (over 45), 3714.
Total, 30,442.
Census of 1861. — Inhabitants: males, 129,948; females,
122,099—total, 252,047. Native born, 199,445; foreign born,
52,602. Indians, 1112; coloured, 1591. Religions: Catholics,
85,238 ; Baptists, 57,730 • Episcopalians, 42,776; Presbyterians,
36,072; Methodists, 25,637; Congregationalists, 1290; Christians,
1326; Universalists, 646; Covenanters, 559; all others, 773.
Deaf and dumb, 166; blind, 172; insane or idiotic, 518. Births
in 1860, 8722; marriages in 1860, 905; deaths in 1860, 2390.
Dwellings inhabited, 33,700 ; dwellings uninhabited, 1537; houses
building, 1695 ; stores, barns, &c, 46,464. The increase of population in the province in the ten years, from 1851 to 1861, was
30-05 per cent. Of the whole population 49-76 per cent, are
agricultural, or very nearly one-half; 2T71 per cent, are labourers ;
15-90 per cent, are mechanics and handicraftsmen; 4-48 are
engaged in commerce; 3*98 in the fisheries and at sea; 1'85 are
professional; and the remainder miscellaneous.
Agriculture (1860).—Wheat, 279,775 bushels; barley, 5227
acres; barley, 94,679 bushels ; oats, 96,268 acres ; oats, 2,656,883
bushels ; buckwheat, 41,936 acres ; buckwheat, 904,321 bushels;
Indian corn, 635 acres; Indian corn, 17,420 bushels; rye, 3944
acres; rye, 57,504 bushels; potatoes, 37,667 acres; potatoes,
4,041,339 bushels; flax (scutched), 4,501,477 lbs.; butter, 218,067
lbs.; wool, 633,757 lbs.; pork (slaughtered), 9,692,169; maple
sugar, 230,066 ; hay, 324,169 tons.
The Lieutenant-Governor, in his report to the Colonial Secretary, says:—-• The year 1862 has, on the whole, been one of
progress ; and, although the effects of the war on this continent are
undoubtedly still severely felt, prosperity has revived more rapidly
than could have been anticipated. Agricultural occupations were
attended with abundant success, and I may safely conclude with
the expression of my belief that the province at large is thriving
and contented."
ii in 54
The Lakes, Rivers, and Canals—The Pictured Rocks—The Great Lakes—Mineral.
Wealth—Commerce, Shipping, Trade, and Statistics—Rivers—The Rapids-—
Canadian Song—Emigration—Montreal, Toronto, Quebec, Kingstown, Hamilton,.
Cobourg, &c—The farming Interest of Canada—Agricultural Statistics and
Canada is bounded on the south by the United States; upon the
north side it has no defined limit, but is regarded as including all
the country watered by streams which flow into the St. Lawrence—
that is, all the land which lies within the watershed between the
St. Lawrence and the rivers falling into Hudson's Bay. Itextends
in an irregular line for 1300 miles, while its breadth varies from
100 to 300 miles.
Its astronomical position is between latitudes 41° 47' and 52° 40'
north, and between longitudes 61° 54'and 90° 20' west.
The whole area covered by the Canadas is 340,000 square miles'
(or 240,000,000 acres), 140,000 of which belong to Upper Canada
and 200,000 to Lower Canada. The frontier between Canada and
the United States is formed bv the great lakes and the course of the
river St. Lawrence, as far as the point where that stream is intersected by the parallel of 45°, thence by the line of that parallel as
far east as the meridian of 71° and to the south-east of the river,
and terminates at the head of the Bay of Chaleurs, on the west side
of the St. Lawrence. To the north of the 49th parallel, therefore,
both banks of the St. Lawrence are included within British territory..
The general topography is as follows:—The province is divided
into Upper or Western Canada and Lower or Eastern Canada.
Lower Canada contains five districts—Gaspe, Quebec, Three Rivers,
St. Francis, and Montreal, which are subdivided into thirty-six
counties. The two important cities of Montreal and Quebec are
in this portion of the province.
Upper Canada is divided into twenty districts, which are again
subdivided into counties. Toronto, Ottawa, Kingston, Cobourg,
London, Oxford, Guelph, Stratford, Chatham, Goderich, and
Amherstburg, are all cities and towns which will contrast favourably with the best of the interior cities and towns of England,
while in a progressive sense they are far in advance.
Upper Canada is generally level, with but few variations,
excepting some table heights, and is considered the most fertile.
Lower Canada is extremely varied and beautiful in its physical 55
aspect, presenting to the delighted eye a magnificent gallery of
charming pictures of forest wilds, prairies, hill and rock bound
rivers, rushing waters, bold mountain heights, and all everywhere
intermingled, and their attractions embellished by intervening
stretches of cultivated fields, and rural villages and villa homes.
The mountains are confined to Canada East. The principal
mountains are the Laurentides, which stretch from Lake Superior
to Labrador and separate the valley of the St. Lawrence from the
region tributary to Hudson's Bay; the Green Mountains, which
He along the St. Lawrence; the Mealy Mountains, which in some
places attain an altitude of 1500 feet; and the Wotchish Mountains.
The grand lakes of the world wash a greater portion of the shores
of Canada. Lakes Superior, Huron, St. Clair, Erie, Ontario, and the
River St. Lawrence, with the assistance of the St. Lawrence and
Welland Canals, afford internal navigation for vessels a distance of
over 2000 miles from the ocean. According to the last Government
survey, the following is the exact measurement of these lakes:—
Lake Superior fj greatest length, 855 miles; greatest breadth, 160
miles; mean depth, 988 feet; height above the sea, 627 feet;
area, 31,000 square miles. It is united by means of the St. Mary's
River, and a system of splendid locks, with Lake Huron, into
which it pours its water's. Lake Huron: greatest length, 200
miles; greatest breadth, 160; mean depth, 300 feet; height above
the sea, 574 feet; area, 20,000 square miles. It is divided by the
great Manitonbrin Island into two parts, the northern one of which
is called Georgian Bay. French River, which is situated on its
northern portion, connects Lake Nipissing with Lake Huron. A
canal of 29 miles would open navigation with the Ottawa River,
which would save traversing Lake Erie and Lake Ontario, and
shorten the distance from Montreal to either Chicago or Fond du
Lac, on Lake Superior, 344 miles. The distance between the French
River and Montreal is 430 miles. The distance between Chicago
and Montreal, via Lake Erie, Ontario, and the St. Lawrence River,
is 1348 miles; by the Ottawa and Huron Canal route, 1005 miles.
Lake Michigan, another of the grand fresh-water seas, is connected with Lake Huron by the Straits of Maikinaw. It contains an
area of 20,000 square miles: greatest length, 360 miles; greatest
breadth, 108 miles; mean depth, 900 ; height above the sea, 587
feet. Green Bay, a portion of Lake Michigan, and situated on its
western aspect, has an area of 2000 square miles. Lake St. Clair
unites Lake Erie and Lake Huron. It is 265 miles long and 50
broad, and covers an area of 360 miles. Its mean depth is 120 feet.
Lake Erie possesses an area of 6000 square miles : greatest length,
250 miles; greatest breadth, 80 miles;  mean  depth,  200 feet;
height above°the sea, 555 feet. The whole of these waters discharge >6
twenty millions of cubic feet, or 600,000 tons per minute, over an
abrupt precipice which forms the Falls of Niagara; and then
pass along Niagara River, till they enter Lake Ontario. In
order to connect navigation, the Welland Canal was constructed
between Lake Erie and Lake Ontario. It consists of the Feeder
branch from Grand River to Junction, and is 21 miles in length.
The Broad Creek branch, from Lake Erie to the Feeder, is a mile
in length; and the Main Trunk, from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario,
28 miles, the total cost of which was 6,269,000 dollars, or little more
than £li$50,000.
Lake Ontario: length, 180 miles; mean breadth, 65 miles;
mean depth, 500 feet; height above the sea, 262 feet; area, 6000
square miles. Total length of five lakes, 1345 miles ; total area,
84,000 square miles. The scenery of the lakes excites the wonder
of all travellers. There is nothing similar to it in Europe, as far as
our observation and reading will permit us to judge.
Lake Superior is situated between latitudes 46 and 49°, with an
altitude of over 200 yards above the level of the ocean, and a depth
reaching far below that level; a coast of surpassing beauty and
grandeur, more than 1200 miles in extent, and abounding in geological phenomena, varied mineral wealth, agates, cornelian, jasper,
opal, and other precious stones; with its rivers, bays, estuaries,
islands, presque isles, peninsulas, capes, pictured rocks, transparent
lakes, leaping cascades, and bold highlands,iimned with pure veins
of quartz, spar, and amethystine crystals, full to repletion with
mineral riches; reflecting in gorgeous majesty the sun's bright rays,
and the moon's mellow blush; o'ertopped with ever-verdant groves
of fir, cedar, and the mountain ash; while the background is filled
up with mountain upon mountain, until rising in majesty to the
clouds, distance loses their inequality, resting against the clear vault
of heaven.
Lake Superior is surrounded by a cordon of flourishing cities
and villages, which is only broken by the Pictured Rocks and iron
and copper mines. The Pictured Rocks have been so minutely and
graphically described, and in construction and appearance are' so
entirely novel and beautiful, that we have transferred an extract
from Messrs. Foster and Whitney's " Report of the Geology of the
Lake Superior District.,,
" Beyond the sand-beach at Miners' Biver the cliffs attain an altitude
of 173 feet, and maintain a nearly uniform height for a considerable distance. Here one of those cascades of which we have before spoken is seen
foaming down the rock.
" The cliffs do not form straight lines, but rather arcs of circles, the
space between the projecting rockB having been worn out in symmetrical
corves, some of which are of large dimensions. To one of the grandest
and most regularly formed we gave the name of «The Amphitheatre.'
Looking to the west, another projecting point—it- hase worn into cave- 57
like forms—and a portion of the concave surface of the intervening space
are seen.
" It is in this portion of the series that the phenomena, of colours are
most beautifully and conspicuously displayed. These cannot be illustrated
by a mere crayon sketch, but would require, to reproduce the natural effect,
an elaborate drawing on a large scale, in which the various combinations
of colour should be carefully represented. These colours do not by any
means cover the whole surface of the cliff, even where they are most conspicuously displayed, but are confined to certain portions of the cliffs in
the vicinity of the Amphitheatre; the great mass of the surface presenting
the natural, light-yellow, or raw-sienna colour of the rock. The colours
are also limited in their vertical range, rarely extending more than thirty
or forty feet above the water, or a quarter or a third of the vertical height
of the cliff. The prevailing tints consist of deep brown, yellow, and grey
—burnt sienna and French grey predominating.
" There are also bright blues and greens, though less frequent. All of
the tints are fresh, brilliant, and distinct, and harmonize admirably with
one another, which, taken in connexion with the grandeur of the arched
and caverned surfaces on which they are laid, and the deep and pure green
of the water which heaves and swells at the baseband the rich foliage
which waves above, produce an effect truly wonderful.
" They are not scattered indiscriminately over the surface of the rock,
but are arranged in vertical and parallel bands, extending to the water's
edge. The mode of their production is undoubtedly as follows:—Between
the bands or strata of thick-bedded sandstone there are thin seams of shaly
materials, which are more or less charged with the metallic oxides, iron
largely predominating, with here and there a trace of copper. As the
surface-water permeates through the porous strata, it comes in contact with
these shaly bands, and, oozing out from the exposed edges, trickles down
the face of the cliffs, and leaves behind a sediment, coloured according to
the oxide which is contained in the band in which it originated. It cannot, however, be denied that there are some peculiarities which it is difficult to explain by any hypothesis.
" On first examining the Pictured Eocks we were forcibly struck with
the brilliancy and beauty of the colours, and wondered why some of our
predecessors, in their descriptions, had hardly adverted to what we regarded as their most characteristic feature. At a subsequent visit we were
surprised to find that the effect of the colours was much less striking than
before: they seemed faded out, leaving only traces of their former brilliancy, so that the traveller might regard this as an unimportant feature
in the scenery. It is difficult to account for this change, but it may be
due to the dryness or humidity of the season. If the colours are produced
by the percolation of the water through the strata, taking up and depositing the coloured sediments, as before suggested, it is evident that a long
period of drought would cut off the supply of moisture, and the colours,
being no longer renewed, would fade, and finally disappear. This
explanation seems reasonable, for, at the time of our second visit, the beds
of the streams on the summit of the table-land were dry.
" It is a curious fact that the colours are so firmly attached to the
surface that they are very little affected by rains or the dashing of the
surf, since they were, in numerous instances, observed extending in all
their freshness to the very water's edge.
lift 58
" Proceeding to the eastward of the Amphitheatre, we find the cliffs
scooped out into caverns and grotesque openings, of the most striking and
beautiful variety of forms. In some places huge blocks of sandstonS have
become dislodged, and accumulated at the base of the cliff, where they are
ground up, and the fragments borne away by the ceaseless action of the
" To a striking group of detached blocks the name of' Sail Bock ' has
been given, from its striking resemblance to the jib and mainsail of a sloop
when spread—so much so that, when viewed from a distance, with a full
glare of light upon it, while the cliff in the rear is left in the shade, the
illusion is perfect.    The height of the block is about forty feet.
" Masses of rock are frequently dislodged from the oliffj if we may
judge from the freshness of the fracture and the appearance of the trees
involved in the descent. The rapidity with which this undermining pro-1
cess is carried on, at many points, will be readily appreciated when we
consider that the cliffs do not form a single unbroken line of wall; but, on
the contrary, they present numerous salient angles to the full force of the
waves. A projecting corner is undermined until the superincumbent
weight becomes too great, the overhanging mass cracks, and aided, perhaps,
by the power of frost, gradually becomes loosened, and finally topples with
a crash into the lake."
It is impossible, by
combination of colours,
words, or by any
of  this wonderful
to convey any
We remember once entering a cave, by the side of whose grand
proportions the portal, the nave, and the dome of St. Paul's sink
into insignificance. Two hundred feet in height, 400 feet in width,
and for a distance of 600 feet, this structure projected into the lake.
The grand portal, which opens out on the lake, is of magnificent
dimensions, being about 100 feet in height, and 168 feet broad at the
water-level. The distance from the verge of the cliff over the arch
to the water is 138 feet, leaving 33 feet for the thickness of the
rock above the arch itself. The extreme height of the cliff is about
50 feet more, making in all 1 SO feet. The vast dimensions of the
cavern; the vaulted passages; the varied effects of the light, as it
streams through the great arch and falls on the different objects; the
deep emerald green of the water; the unvarying swell of the lake,
keeping up a succession of musical echoes; the reverberations of one's
own voice coming back with startling effect: all these must be seen,
and heard, and felt, to be fully appreciated. Iron mines and mountains are plentiful; and since their discovery, in 1846, and the com-
p let ion of the Saut Ste. Marie canal, in 1855, they have been rapidly
developed. The Jackson Mountains rise to a height of 600 or 700
feet, and are a solid mass of ore, yielding from 50 to 60 per cent,
and at present yield 1000 tons a week. There is also the New
England Iron Mountain, the Burt Iron Mountain, and the Cleveland Iron Mountain. The beds of ore are inexhaustible, and
analysis and practical demonstration have proved them to be the
richest and best in the world. 59
In the Report of the Hon. S. P. Chase, Secretary of Treasury of
the United States for 1864, he states as follows:—
In 1862, the number of vessels engaged in the trade of Lake
Superior was, schooners, 543; tons, 175,595. Propellers, 121 ;
tons, 65,124. Steamers, 174; tons, 124,833. Total, 365,552 tons.
These vessels carried outward 150,000 tons of iron and iron ore, and
9300 tons of pure or native copper, valued together at 12,000,000
dollars. The inward or westward shipment of merchandise, machinery for working works, is estimated at 10,000,000 dollars.
Shipments of copper from Lake Superior from 1858 to 1862:—
Tons. Value.
1858 ....   5,896    ....    1,610,000 dollars.
1859 ....   6,041    ....    1,932,000      .,
1860 ....    8,614    ....    2,520,000     „
1861 .... 10,347   ....   3,180,000     „
1862 .... 10,000    ....    4,000,000     „
Products of iron and iron ore in Lake Superior region :—
Tons, Ore. Tons, Pig. Value.
1855 . . . 1,445       14,470 dollars.
1860 . . . 116,998 .    . 5,660    .    . 736,490     „
1861 . . . 45,430 .    . 7>970   .    . 410,460     „
1862 . . . 115,721 .    . 8,590    .    . 984,976     „
The Mineral Wealth of Lake Superior.—The whole basin of
Lake Superior indicates the presence of iron and copper. The
mountains which divide the waters of Lake Michigan to the southeast, of the Mississippi River and its tributaries to the south-west and
west, of the Rainy Lake River to the north-west, and of Hudson's
Bay to the north and north-east—the outer rim of the Superior basin
—are found, wherever explored, to contain iron ore. The mines at
Marquette, Michigan, have been successfully worked, in consequence
of the construction of a railroad from the harbour of Marquette to
the Iron Mountain, 18 miles distant; but iron deposits in the same
mineral range are situated at no greater distance south of Bayfield
and Superior, in Wisconsin^ and thence have been traced around
the north shore of the lake, in Minnesota and in Canada.
Nearer the lake coast, and apparently a lower formation, are the
copper districts. The only locality on the southern shore which has
attracted attention, is a district extending from Keweenaw Point to
the Montreal River, 100 miles in length by 4 to 20 miles in width.
On the north shore of the lake, in Minnesota, near the western
extremity of the lake, and in Canada for a distance of 200 miles
northwest from the Saut Ste. Marie, are well-defined copper regions
which are now attracting the attention of capitalists, and will probably prove as productive as the Keweenaw, Portage Lake, Ontonagon, and Carp Lake districts, as the subdivisions of the Michigan
copper-bearing territory are termed.
During the year 1863, discoveries were made,'in the vicinity of
Marquette, which suggest that Michigan is destined to become, at 60
an early day, a great silver-yielding State.* The newly-discovered
district is known as the granite range, lying between the schistose or
iron range and Lake Superior, and is from 10 to 20 miles in breadth,
and about 50 miles in length. Lodes of argentiferous galena have
been found in this region, yielding from 10 to 30 pounds of silver
to the ton of metal. Assays made on some of the ores have discovered gold in them to the value of 60 to 240 dollars. If these
statements are confirmed, the silver district of Lake Superior will
exceed in value either of the ranges now yielding copper and iron.
Under the impulse of the present demand for iron and copper,
the Minnesota district, extending from Pond du Lac to the Grand
Portage at the mouth of Pigeon River, has been thoroughly explored with satisfactory results; while Canada has taken effective
measures for the encouragement, of mining enterprises on the
remainder of the northern shore. Title to mineral lands on Lake
Superior can now be acquired from Canada at one dollar per acre,
subject to a tax of one dollar per ton of ore. This order will have
the effect to transfer English capital to the Nepigon, Pic and Michi-
picoton districts of Lake Superior, as it is now admitted that the
copper-mines of Great Britain have lately failed of their former
productiveness. A correspondent of the London Mining Journal
states that " the very rich mines 'of Cornwall and Devon are limited
in the present day, and that some thirty or forty of the greatest and
richest mines in those counties are exhausted, at least for copper."
There were, in March, 1864, more than fifty bills 'before the Canadian Parliament to incorporate companies for mining gold, silver,
lead, antimony, iron, and copper.
Similar and greater activity prevails in all the American districts of Lake Superior. The total amount of capital invested in
the fee-simple and development of the copper-mines now worked in
Michigan, not including the value of the metal produced, is
estimated at 6,000,000 dollars, while their stocks are worth over
15,000,000 dollars. The aggregate amount of copper produced in
1863 was not less than 9000 tons of stamp work, barrel and mass,
or about 7500 tons of ingot, worth at its present value over
6,000,000 dollars; but as the largest portion was probably sold at
an average of 35 cents per pound, the aggregate receipt of sales
will not be much over 5,000,000 dollars. The products of the Mar •
quette iron-mines for 1863 are reported as 185,000 gross tons of ore,
and 13,732 gross tons of pig iron. In 1855 the product of the
same mines was only 1447 tons of iron ore, with no production of
pig iron; in 1858, 31,035 tons of iron ore, and 1627 tons of pig iron.
The exports, of all values, for 1863, from Lake Superior, will
amount to 10,000,000 dollars; imports, 12,000,000; consisting, in
addition to provisions and merchandise for the mining villages, of
* In the same vicinity, the Huron mountains are reported to be gold-bearing^
and at the latest date (June 13, 1864) there is a probability that the discoveries and production of gold in this district of the Lake Superior basin will fully
equal the facts in regard to silver. <mn
shipments of machinery and other materials for permanent improvements.
A review of the progress and increase of the shipping employed
upon the lakes for the last few years will give an idea of the magnitude of the trade which is carried on, and also prove that it has
been steadily progressive and remunerative.
Table showing the Number, Class, Tonnage, and Valuation of Vessels, American
and Canadian, engaged in the Commerce of the Lakes, 1858 to 1864.
No.   1
Barques and Brigs
Brigs   ...»	
30,452       456,000
47,333    2,439,840
57,210    3,250,390
17,929       584,540
21,505       484,250
172,526    5,233,085
316,503 |ll,992,105
1 360
42,683    1,489,800
50,018    2,123,000
9,155    ' 665,700
19,616       469,000
22,124       435,900
180,357    4,525,000
323,953    9,608,400
1 356
43,683    1,403,800
52,932    2,344,800
17,280       922,200
26,555       786,800
22,124       466,700
199,423    5,439,800
361.997 11,364,100
1 88,896
 — 62
Comparative Statement of the Tonnage of the Norih-Western Lakes and the
River St. Lawrence on the 1st day of January, 1862 and 1863.
No.     Tonnage.
No.   I Tonnage.
B arses    ..
Totals    1.602
383,309 11,862,450
14 :i
413,026 13,257,020
The following is the increase of the lake marine in 1862, distinguishing American and Canadian vessels, as reported by the same
United States Vessels Building.       Canadian Vessels Building.
....      3
Dollars.  |
654,570 j
72 750
147 000
Propeller Tuirs   	
139 600
198 000
1,1)0,155 j
Summary. Aggregate Tonnage.
5 steam-boats  g 084
11 propellers  g 775
8 steam tugs  \ 194
8 barques  3 727
48 schooners  17 646
19 '
oarges    .    .    .
vessels building.
Total tonnage
The Chicago statement shows that 1780 vessels, with an aggregate capacity oi 150*893 tons, were engaged in lake commerce
of a general character, east and west, in 1862, of which one-fifth
was Canadian.
Chicago shipped eastward, in 1862, 1,789,849 barrels of flour •
13,808,898 bushels of wheat; 29,452,610 bushels of corn; 8,112 366
bushata of oats; 871,796 bushels of rye; 532,195 bushels of barley •
»f which Canada, Collingwood, Goderich, Samia, Kingston Port
Colborne, Montreal, and Toronto received, in 1862—-flour, 420 544 63
barrels; wheat, 3,098,424 bushels; corn, 6,005,661 bushels; oats,
157,252 bushels; rye, 200,659 bushels; barley, 71,919 bushels;
being nearly one-fourth of the whole quantity.
Canada is as rich in the beauty and extent of her rivers as she
is proud of her share in the noble lakes that adorn the interior of
The St. Lawrence.—This is her grandest river, and drains the
vast inland seas of America that extend from Lake Ontario, 750
miles, to the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and thence to the sea. The
entire length, including the great lakes, by which it is fed, is 2200
miles. Its principal tributaries are the'Ottawa and the Saguenay;
and the lesser ones are the Richelieu or Sorel, the St. Francis, the
Chaudiere, and other streams.
The Ottawa is 780 miles in length, and 300 miles from its
source it passes through Lake Temiscamin; 67 miles lower, at the
head of the lake, Blanche River falls in. Thirty-four miles further
down it receives the waters of the Montreal River, coming 120
miles from the north-west; next it receives the Keepawasippi, which
has its origin in Lake Xeepawa. Then, 197 miles below Ottawa
City, it receives the Matawhan; next, the Petawawa River, 140
miles long, draining 2200 square miles; the Black River, draining
1120 square miles ; the Madawoska River, 200 miles long, draining
4100 square miles; the Gastineau River, 420 miles long, draining
12,000 square miles; the Riviere du Lievre, draining an area of
4100 square miles. One hundred and thirty miles below the city
of Ottawa (the capital of the future British North American Confederacy) the waters of the Ottawa River, after draining 80,000
square miles of rich and fertile country, mingle with the noble St.
The Saguenay is another of the great tributaries to the St. Lawrence. It is almost straight in its direction, and crowned on either
side by grand precipices. It has neither windings, nor projecting
bluffs, nor sloping banks, nor sandy shores like other rivers, nor is
its stern, strange aspect varied by either village or villa. " It is,"
says a voyager thither, " as if the mountain range had been cleft
asunder, leaving a horrid gulf, of 60 miles in length and 4000 feet
in depth, through the grey mica schist, and still looking fresh and
new. One thousand five hundred feet of this is perpendicular
cliff, often too steep and solid for the hemlock or dwarf oak to
find root; in which case, being covered with coloured lichens and
moss, their fresh-looking fractures often appear in shape and colour
like painted fans, and are called the 'Pictured Rocks.' But those
parts more slanting are thickly studded with stunted trees—spruce,
maple, and birch growing wherever they can find crevices to extract nourishment; and the bare roots of the oak, grasping the rock, 64
have a resemblance to gigantic claws. The bases of these cliffs lie
far under water, to an unknown depth. For many miles from its
mouth no soundings have been obtained with 2000 feet of line;
and, for the entire distance of 60 miles, until you reach Ha-Ha
Bay, the largest ships can sail, without obstruction from banks or
shoals, and, on reaching the extremity of the bay, can drop their
anchor in 30 fathoms. The view up this river is singular in many respects. Hour after hour, as we sail along, precipice after precipice
unfolds itself to view, as in a moving panorama; and we sometimes
forget the size or height of the objects we are contemplating, until
reminded by seeing a ship of 1000 tons lying, like a small pinnace,
under the towering cliff to which she is moored—for even in these
remote and desolate regions industry is at work, and, although we
cannot much discern it, saw-mills have been built on some of the
tributary streams which fall into the Saguenay. But what strikes
one most is the absence of beach or strand; for, except in a few
places where mountain torrents, rushing through gloomy ravines,
have washed down the detritus of the hills, and formed some alluvial
land at the mouth, no coves, nor creeks, nor projecting rocks are
seen in which a boat could find shelter, or any footing be obtained.
The characteristic is a steep wall of rock rising abruptly from the
water; a dark and desolate region where all is cold and gloomy;
the mountains hidden with driving mist; the water black as ink
and cold as ice. No ducks nor sea-gulls sitting on the water or
screaming for their prey; no hawks nor eagles soaring overhead,
although there is abundance of what might be called ' Eagle Cliffs:'
no deer coming down to drink at the streams; no squirrels nor
birds to be seen among the trees; no fly on the water nor swallows
skimming over the surface.    It reminds us of—
' That lake whose gloomy shore
Skylark never warbled o'er.'
Now we reach Cape Eternity, Cape Trinity, and many other
overhanging cliffs, remarkable for having such clean fractures,
seldom equalled for boldness and effect, which create constant
apprehension of danger, even in calm; but if we happen to be
caught in a thunder-storm, the roar and darkness and flashes of
lightning are perfectly frightful. At last we terminate our voyage
at Ha-Ha Bay, that is, smiling or laughing bay, in the Indian
tongue, for we are perfectly charmed and relieved to arrive at a
beautiful spot, where we have sloping banks, a pebbly shore, boats,
and wherries, and vessels riding at anchor, birds and animals, a
village church, French Canadians, and Scottish Highlanders." The
course of the Saguenay is 126 miles from Lake St. John to the
St. Lawrence, which it enters 140 miles below Quebec.
All the streams falling into the great lakes or the St. La-wrence
River are mostly rapid, and axe navigable only for a short distance
from theh mouths. 65
The following are the principal rivers that are navigable for any
considerable length.
St. Louis River, Min. . Superior to Fond du Lac    .    . 20
Fox, or Neenah, "Wis. . Green Bay to L. Winnehago   . 36
St. Joseph, Mich.    .    . St. Joseph to Niles    .... 26
Grand River       .    .    . Grand Haven to Grand Rapids 40
Muskegon      .... Muskegon to Newaygo   ... 40
Saginaw  Saginaw Bay to Upper Saginaw 26
Maumee, Ohio    .    .    . Maumee Bay to Perrysburgh  . 18
Genesse, N. T.   .    .    . Charlotte to Rochester   ... 6
Thames Lake St. Clair to Chatham .    .    24
Ottawa        La Chine to Carillon      ...    40
Ditto By means of locks to Ottawa City   70
-p.. ,   v c     i f Sorel   to Lake Champlain bvl k,
Richelieu or borel   .    • i        £        f\i J r 75
t     means of locks J
Saguenay Tadusac to Chicoutimi    ...    70
Thence to Lake St. John    .    .    50
It is said that the St. Lawrence River carries by Montreal
50,000,000 cubic feet of water per minute, and in the course of one
year bears 143,000,000 tons of solid materials, held in solution, to
the sea.
"The main stream of the St. Lawrence," says Buckingham,
speaking of the Thousand Islands, "is so thickly studded with
islands that it is like passing through a vast archipelago, rather than
navigating a mighty river. They are for the most part rocky islets,
sometimes rising in abrupt cliffs from the water, and so bold and
steep that you may run the boat near enough to touch the cliffs
from the vessel. A few only are low and flat, but being nearly all
wooded they form a perpetual succession of the most romantically
beautiful and picturesque groups that can be conceived. Among
the Thousand Islands are usually found immense quantities of waterfowl and other kinds of wild game, which, during the spring and
summer months, afford great pleasure to the sportsman. The
fishing is also excellent for the most part of the year. During the
months of Julv and August pleasure-parties from the sui-rounding
country, and strangers from a distance, resort here for their amusement, enjoying themselves to their hearts' content by hunting,
fishino-, and bathing, being surrounded by wild and interesting
scenery and invigorating air, not exceeded by any section of the
United States or Canada."
The St. Lawrence Kiver, in fact, for its entire length of several
hundred miles, presents a magnificent appearance, well worthy the
attention of the tourist.
F Hf
The Rapids, now successfully navigated on their downward trip
by steamboats of a large class, returning through the canals, afford
a deeply interesting excursion. The cultivated fields and settlements interchanging with bolder features impart a grandeur as well
as variety and beauty to the river and its shores, which no other
stream on the continent possesses in an equal degree. Read the
following description by a tourist describing his impressions of a
trip down the St. Lawrence :—
" The St. Lawrence is, perhaps, the only river in the world possessing
so great a variety of scenery and character in the short distance of 180
miles—from Kingston to Montreal. The voyage down this portion of the
St. Lawrence in a steamer is one of the most exciting and interesting that
our country affords to the pleasure-seeking traveller. Starting at daylight from the good old city of Kingston, we are at first enraptured by the
lovely and fairy-like scenery of the ' Lake of the Thousand Isles,' and oft
we wonder how it is that our helmsman can guide us through the intricate
path that lies before him. Surely he will make some mistake, and we
shall lose our way, and our steamer wander for ages ere the trackless path
be once more discovered. However, we are wrong, and long before the
sun has set we have shot the ' Long Saut,' and are passing through the
calm and peaceful Lake St. Francis. Gently we glide along, and are lost
in pleasing reveries, which grace the scenes of our forenoon's travel. Suddenly We are awakened from our dreams by a pitch, and then a quiGk jerk
of our vessel, and risinsc to see the cause, we find ourselves receiving
warning in the Coteau Eapids of what we may expect when we reach the
Cedars, a few miles farther on. Now the bell is rung for the engine
to slow its speed, and, glancing toward the beam, we find it merely moving
sufficient to keep headway on the Vessel; now looking toward the wheelman's house, we see four men standing by the wheel; backward we turn
our gaze, and four more stand by the tiller, to assist those at the wheel in
guiding our craft down the fearful leaps she is about to take. These preparations striking us with dread, we, who are now making our first trip,
involuntarily clutch the nearest object for support, and, checking our
breath, await the first plunge. 'Tis over. We are reeling to and fro,
and dancing hither and thither among billows of enormous size, caused
solely by the swiftness of the current. With difficulty we keep our ffcet
while rushing down the tortuous channel, through which only we can be
preserved from total wreck or certain death. Now turning to the right, to
avoid a half-sunken rock, about whose summit the waves are ever dashing, we are apparently running on an island situated immediately before
us. On! on we rush! we must ground! But no; her head is easing off, and,
as we fly past the island, a daring leap might land us on its shores; and now
again we are tossed and whirled about in a sea of foam. We look back to
scan the dangers past, and see a raft far behind, struggling in the waves.
While contemplating its dangers we forget our o\vn> and the lines of Horace
appear peculiarly applicable to the Indian who first entrusted his frail'
canoe to these terrific rapids—
' Illi robur et aes triplex
Circa pectus erat, qui fragilem trtria' ' " Commisit pelaso ratem
Primus. ' "
Tom Moore has immortalized the Ottawa River and the little
village of St. Anne's, situated at the south-west end of the island of
Montreal, in verse :—
" By Thos. Moore.
" Faintly as tolls the evening chime,
Our voices keep tune and our oars keep time:
Soon as the woods on shore look dim,
We'll sing at St. Anne's our parting hymn.
Eow, brothers, row, the stream runs fast,
The Eapids are near, and the daylight's past.
" Why should we yet our sail unfurl ?
There is not a breath the blue wave to curl
But when the wind blows off the shore,
Oh ! sweetly we'll rest our weary oar.
Blow, breezes, blow, the stream runs fast
The Eapids are near, and the daylight's past
" Ottawa's tide! this trembling moon
Shall see us float over thy surges soon.
Saint of this green isle, hear our prayers!
Oh ! grant us cool heavens and fav'ring airs.
Blow, breezes, blow, the stream runs fast,
The Eapids are near, and the daylight's past."
The Canadian Almanac for 1864 contains such a concise and
excellent chapter on the reasons for emigrating to Canada, and
describes so graphically the peculiar features of the land, its capabilities, its physical characteristics, and the character of the people,
together with such carefully-arranged statistics, showing their
educational and religious status, that we have transferred much of
it to these pages, believing that we cannot better serve the emigrant
than by publishing a portion at least:—
"Ten Seasons tor Emigrating to Canada.
" The ajm of the man who contemplates changing the land of his birth
for another being, generally speaking, the improvement of his condition,
the question where the circumstances may be looked for most favourable to
the realization of his desire, claims his best thought. Such thought he
owes to himself, to his family if he has one, and to those among whom he
may.decide on taking up his abode ; because mistake in his choice may
involve him and those he loves in disappointment and distress, and entail
weakness on those to whom he should bring strength.
" In favour of the selection of Canada as his future home, the attention 68
of the intending emigrant is respectfully invited to the considerations which
11 1. Its accessibility.
" Compared with other regions open to him, it may be reached in a
' very short time (eleven days by steam), at a trifling expense, and with a
small amount of inconvenience.
" In sailing-vessels, the rates of steerage passage vary, according to
accommodation, from £3 to £4 or £5 sterling. The charge between
Liverpool, Londonderry, or Glasgow, and Toronto, by the Montreal Steamship Line, is 34 dollars, including provisions; between Glasgow and
Quebec or Montreal, 29 dollars. By the Anchor Line, the charge between
Glasgow and Quebec is 25 dollars. The Great Eastern charges 30 dollars
between Liverpool and New York. Its cabin rates are—1st cabin, 95-135
dollars ; 2nd cabin, 70 dollars ; 3rd cabin, 50 dollars. By the Montreal
Line, the cabin passage varies, with accommodation, from 72-88 dollars.
The cabin fare between Glasgow and Quebec, by the Ocean Line, is 68
dollars ; intermediate, 44 dollars. By the Anchor Line, 60 dollars;
intermediate 30 dollars. Children are carried by them all at lower rates,
generally half-price.
| Once landed at Quebec or Montreal, the emigrant may pass on to
Toronto, or Hamilton, or any intermediate locality, by steamboat or railway ; and thence by railway to the western extremity of the province.
The Northern Eailway will take him to any place he pleases on the route
between Toronto and Collingwood, Lake Huron, whence he can pass on to
Owen Sound and intermediate places by steamer. The cost of the passage
by deck of steamer and second-class cars is, from Quebec to Toronto, a
distance of 500 miles, about 5 dollars, with corresponding rates for places
intermediate ; to Windsor, the western extremity of the province, 631 miles
from Quebec, 7 dols. 12£ cents.; to Barrie, 565 miles, 6 dols. 50 cents.; to
Collingwood, 593 miles, 7 dollars. The time between Quebec and Toronto
is, by railway, about 36 hours; by steamboat, a day or two longer.
Toronto may be reached by railway from Portland, the ocean terminus of
the Grand Trunk, in from 25 to 26 hours.
" As, moreover, he may return to his old home so much more easily,
should he for any reason wish to do so, he is less irretrievably committed
by coming here than by going elsewhere. A visjt to it is also at any time
much more practicable, other things being equal. His friends may likewise, if so disposed, follow him with much less of difficulty ; thus renewing
associations of which necessity had compelled the temporary interruption.
" 2. The scope afforded by its extent, both for the successful employment of
his capabilities, and the gratification of his tastes in the choice of a home.
" Leaving out the territory to the north-west, the opening of which
may be looked for ere long, Canada occupies a space, stretching in a southwesterly direction from the Island of Anticosti in the Gulf of St. Lawrence
to the south-western extremity of Lake Erie, of about 1400 miles in
length ; with a breadth varying from 200 to 400 miles. Including water-
surface, it is computed to contain an area of 349,821 square miles	
242,482 exclusive of water. The number of acres comprised within it is
estimated at 160,405,219—128,659,684 of which are reckoned to Canada
East; to Canada West, "31,745,533. 69
" 3. The physical characteristics of the country, its natural resources, and
its healthfillness.
" In its mines, in its forests, and in its fisheries, Canada has stores of
untold, of almost inconceivable wealth, which its numerous lakes and
rivers supply facilities for conveying to market.
" Of metallic minerals, the following are enumerated in a catalogue
contained in ' Canada at the Universal Exhibition, in 1855,' to wit, Magnetic Iron Ore, Specular Iron Ore, Limonite (Bog Ore), Titaniferous Iron,
Sulphate of Zinc (Blende), Sulphate of Lead (Galena), Copper, Nickel,
Silver, Gold. Non-metallic:—Teranium, Chromium, Cobalt, Manganese,
Iron Pyrites, Graphite, Dolomite, Carbonate of Magnesia, Sulphate of
Baryta, Iron Ochres, Steatite, Lithographic Stone, Agates, Jasper, Labra-
dore, Felspar, Aventurine, Hyacinth, Corumdum, Amethyst, Jet, Quart-
zose Sandstone, Eetinite and Basalt, Gypsum, Shell Marl, Phosphate of
Lime, Millstones, Grindstones, Whetstones, and Tripoli. Under the head
of ' Building Materials,' are specified Granites, Sandstone, Calcareous Sand-
Stone, Limestones, Hydraulic Limestones, Eoofing Slates, Flagging Stones ;
clays suitable for the formation of red and white bricks, tiles, and coarse
pottery; Moulding Sand, Fuller's Earth ; and Marbles, white, black, red,
brown, yellow and black, grey and variegated, and green. Of combustibles—Peat, Petroleum, and Asphaltum are named. Some of these are
confined to a single locality, others to a few places ; but the more useful of
them are widely distributed, and their quantities very great.
" Though our fisheries are as yet in their infancy, they employ from
1200 to 1500 boats, with nearly 100 vessels. The annual value of their
products is, for Lower Canada, 942,528 dollars; for Upper Canada,
380,000 dollars ; total, 1,322,528 dollars.
" Exclusive of furs, the products of the forest amounted, in 1860, to
11,012,253 dollars.
" Our climate, notwithstanding the extremes of cold and heat to which
it is liable, which, however, are often greatly exaggerated, is eminently
favourable, as the tables of longevity and the habits of the people prove,
both to life and enjoyment.
" According to Professor Guy, the proportion of deaths to the population is, in
Austria  1 in 40
Denmark  1 in 45
France  1 in 42
Portugal  1 in 40
Eussia in Europe.... 1 in 44
Switzerland  1 in 40
United States  1 in 74
Lower Canada  1 in 92
Norway and Sweden
Prussia    1
Upper Canada ...
All Canada    1 in    98
1 I The salubrity of the province,' remarks Mr. Hogan, from whom we
have taken the above table,' is sufficiently proved by its cloudless skies, its
elastic air, and almost entire absence of fogs. The lightness of the atmosphere has a most invigorating effect upon the spirits. The winter frosts
are severe and steady, and the summer suns are hot, and bring on vegetation with wonderful rapidity. It is true that the spring of Canada differs
much from the spring of many parts of Europe ; but after her long winter, 70
the crops start up as if by magic, and reconcile her inhabitants to the loss
of that which, elsewhere, is often the sweetest season of theyear. If, however, Canada has but a short spring, she can boast of an autumn deliciously
mildj and often lingering on, with its Indian summer and golden sunsets,
until the month of December.
"' A Canadian winter, the mention of which some years ago, in
Europe, conveyed-almost a sensation of misery, is hailed rather as a season
of increased enjoyment than of privation and discomfort by the people.
.Instead of alternate rain, snow, sleet, and fog, with broken-up and impassable roads, the Canadian has clear skies, a fine bracing atmosphere, with
the rivers and many of the smaller lakes frozen, and the inequalities in the
rough tracks through the woods made smooth by snow, the whole face of
the country being literally macadamized by nature for a people as yet unable to macadamize for themselves.'
" 4. The constituents and character of its population.
11 As a matter of course, its inhabitants share in the common characteristics of the races whence they have sprung—which include the leading
peoples of Europe, those especially of the British Islands, and France and
Germany—and natives of the United States. The circumstances in which
they are placed—the constant demand on them for exertion during the
earlier period of their residence in the country, the self-dependence they
are called on to exercise, connected with the measure in which they are
thrown on one another's sympathy, and the hope amidst which they work
—have a direct tendency to develop not a few of their better qualities.
Even the variety of their previous modes of thought and action, though
occasioning perhaps for a time some inconvenience, is a gain to them in
the end by the contributions which it enables them to make severally to
the common stock of ideas, and the habit which it produces of tolerance
for unessential differences, consideration for one another's feelings, and
appreciation of each other's virtues.
" An incidental advantage of no small value, resulting from the variety
of origin to which allusion has been made, is the sympathy whicfe the new
comer may look for from his countrymen, with the meafeure in which the
privilege of association with them helps to make him feel himself at home.
This is a source of comfort specially open to emigrants from Britain
France, and the neighbouring States. ,
" Among the larger portion of our people there exists, alongside of the
variety of origin alluded to, a homogeneousness which greatly facilitates
their welding into one community, imparting to them, while the process is
going on, a coincidence of feeling which makes living among them easy and
pleasant, and secures their acting together in all matters of special moment.
" The beneficial influence mutually exerted by the new comer and the
older resident on one another, is well brought out in the following nassae-e
of Mr. Hogan:— &i^      B
" ' It is a remarkable fact that the farmers of Upper Canada have
opportunities of improvement, and of enlarging and correcting their views
beyond what are enjoyed by many of their class even in England. And
this arises from the circumstance of the population being made up of so
many varieties. The same neighbourhood has frequently a representative
•of >flre beat farming skill of Yorkshire, of the judicious management and 71
agricultural experiences of the Lothians, and of the patient industry and
perseverance of Flanders. In a country so peopled, the benefits of travel
are gained without the necessity of going away from home. Other
countries, in fact, send their people to teach Canadians, instead of Canadian? having to go to other countries to learn; a thoxisand experiences
are brought to their doors, instead of their having to visit a thousand
doors to acquire them. Nor is the advantage of this happy admixture of
population altogether on the side of the Canadian; for whilst he gleans
from the old countryman his skill and his science, he teaches him, in
return, how to rely upon himself in emergencies and difficulties inseparable
from a new country, how to be a carpenter when a storm blows down a
door and there is no carpenter to be had, and how to be an undismayed
wheelwright when a waggon breaks down in the midst of a forest and
there is no one either to instruct or assist him. The one, in short, imparts
to a comparatively rude people the knowledge and skill of an old and
:&ivilized country; the other teaches skilled labour how to live in a new
land. The consequence is, the old countryman of tact becomes, in all
that relates tq self-reliance and enterprise, a capital Canadian in a few
years; whilst the Canadian, in all that pertains to skilful industry, becomes
an Englishman.'
y The operation of the same fact—the mixed character of our population-—on the culture of taste is shown in continuance of -the above, but
our space compels us to leave it unquoted. The principle may be applied
more widely than it is by Mr. Hogan. Its power is, in fact, coextensive
with our whole thinking and working.
"5. Its institutions.
" Nowhere is a more perfect freedom enjoyed than here. Of a state of
liberty more complete it would indeed be difficult to form even a conception.
We live under laws of our own making or voluntary adoption, administered
in courts established by ourselves, and by judges of our own appointing.
The men by whom our general affairs are managed are chosen by
ourselves and responsible to us for their conduct. Our municipal system
gives the people a power in local matters which is supreme, and affords to
the more ambitious and intelligent among them an opportunity of preparing themselves for the performance of higher duties, as well as of
attracting the notice and securing the respect of the community. Of
influence or station, there is nothing among us to which the poorest may
not aspire.
8 The general features of the municipal law of Upper Canada, and
which, with some modifications suited to the different state of society in
Lower Canada, may be stated as the system in force throughout the
province, are—
"The inhabitants of each county, city, town, and township, are
constituted corporations, their organization proceeding wholly upon the
elective principle; and provision is made for the erection of new municipalities, as the circumstances of the country require, by their separation
from those already existing. A complete system is created for regulating
the elections, and for defining the duties of the municipalities and their
officers. Their powers may be generally stated to embrace everything of
a local nature, including the opening
i lil jijggll
d maintenance
of highway;
'the 72
erection of school-houses, and the support of common and grammar schools;
the provision of accommodation for the administration of justice, gaols,
&c, and the collection of rates for their support, as well as for the payment
of petty jurymen; granting shop and tavern licences; regulating and
prohibiting the sale of spirituous liquors; providing for the support of the
poor; preventing the obstruction of streams; effecting drainage, both in
the cities and county; inspection of weights and measures; enforcing the
due observance of the Sabbath, and protection of public morals; establishing and regulating ferries, harbours, markets, &c; abating nttifeataces;
making regulations for and taking precautions against fires; establishing
gas and water works; making police regulations; levying rates upon all
real and personal property, including incomes, for all purposes; and, for
certain objects, borrowing money; together with a great number of
minor matters, essential for the good government of a community.
"In educational advantages we know of no country so young that
exceeds us. By few of that class are we even equalled. Our common
schools, established on the best principles, and taught by well-qualified
and honourably-conducted teachers, offer to our youth at large the means
of qualifying themselves for the intelligent and efficient performance of the
duties awaiting them in their present social positions, or aiding them, if
such be their wish, to raise themselves to such as are higher, either without cost or at a charge little more than nominal. For the obtaining of a still
better culture our grammar-schools, which are rapidly improving in
character, offer all reasonable facilities; while our colleges and universities place professional training and instruction in the higher departments
of learning and science within the reach of the possessors of moderate
means, or such as, in the absence of these, may be disposed to maintain
for a time a manly struggle for their own advancement.
" From a valuable table (T) given in Dr. Eyerson's Eeport for 1861
we extract the following particulars, illustrative of the educational progress of Upper Canada, between 1842 and 1861.
"The number of common schools was, in 1842, 1271; 1847,^2727;
1852, 2992; 1857, 3631; 1861, 3910. The pupils attending these
numbered in 1842, 65,978; 1847, 124,829; 1852, 179,587; 1857,
262,673; 1861,316,287. Of Eoman Catholic separate schools there are
reported, for 1851, in which year they first appear in the returns, 16;
1857, 100; 1861, 109. There were, in 1845, 2860 common school
teachers employed; in 1850, 3476; in 1855, 3565; and in 1861, 4336.
There was paid for salaries of teachers of common and separate schools,
erection and repair of school-houses, libraries, and apparatus, in 1850,
410,472 dollars; in 1855, 899,272 dollars; in 1861, 1,191,413. Of the
schools thus reported there were 252 free in 1850; 1211 in 1855- and in
1861, 2903. '
' In 1842, there are supposed to have been in existence 25 county
grammar-schools. They numbered 32, in 1847; in 1852, 60; in 1857,
72; in 1861,86. On these schools there were in attendance, in 1847
1000 pupils; in 1852, 2643; in 1857, 4073; in 1861, 4766. The
salaries paid the masters were, in 1855, the first year in which they are
given separately, 46,255 dollars; in 1861, 71,034 dollars.
" In 1842, we have reported, in addition to the above, 44 separate
schools and academies (a supposed approximation); in 1847, 96; in 1852 73
181; in 1857,276; in 1861, 337.    The number of pupils in these institutions was, in 1847, 1831; in 1852, 5684; in 1857, 4073; in 1861, 4766.
" We had in operation, in 1847, 6 colleges, with an attendance of 700
students; in 1852, 8, with 751 students; in 1857, 12, with, 1335
(approx.); 1861, 13, with 1373 (approx.).
" The amounts reported as paid for educational purposes, in Upper
Canada were, in 1851, 599,980 dollars; in 1856, 1,326,992 dollars; in
1861, 1,476,107 dollars.
" The following table, by J. G. Hodgins, LL.B., F.E.G.S., taken from
' Eighty Years' Progress,' &c. (p. 524), will give an idea of the educational advance of Lower Canada between 1852 and 1861:—
of all kinds.
and Fees.
1853    .
.     2,352    .
.     108,284    .
.     165,848 dollars
1854    .
.    2,795    .
.     119,733    .
,     238,032
1855    .
.    2,868    .
.     127,058    .
.     249,136
1856    .
.     2,919    .
.     143,141    .
.     406,764
1857    .
.     2,986    .
.     148,798    .
.     424,208
1858    .
.     2,985    .
.     156,872    .
.     459,366
1859    .
.     3,199    .
.     168,148    .
.    498,436
1860    .
.     3,264    .
172,155    .
.     503,859
1861    .
•          O,O-±0         •
180,845    .
.     526,219
" As to religious privileges, we are also on the whole favourably situated. The right of judging for ourselves in these matters is universally
recognized; and in the eye of the law we stand on an equality. The
common denominations have all a place among us, so that we may each,
if such be our desire, have the opportunity of connexion, in the older
portions of the country, at any rate, with those among whom we may have
been brought up, or who may be preferred by us. Fair allowance being
made for difference in circumstances, the means of instruction will compare favourably, as to character, in the greater part of these bodies, with
those enjoyed by them elsewhere. Speaking generally, the usual forms of
Christian exertion—the Sabbath school, Bible class, Bible, Tract, and
Missionary Societies, and kindred organizations—are found in healthful
and vigorous operation among them. Notwithstanding their differing
views, these denominations, moreover, dwell side by side in peace, treat
each other with the courtesies common in other parts of the Christian
world, and co-operate with one another for common objects, as much at
least as is common in the lands whence they have come. The institutions
for the relief of want and distress in its various forms, which usually follow
in the wake of Christianity, have place, and are carrying on their good
work in our midst.
"6. The union which it offers of the advantages characteristic loth of the
older and the newer states of society.
" By selecting as their home the older parts of the country, those
whose tastes would lead them to give the preference to the former may
secure them in fair measure, provided they bring with them the necessary
requisites in character, habits, and means; while such as are willing to
share the usual fortunes of the latter, may calculate on the chances open
to them in ordinary circumstances.    Growth, with its attendant advan- 74
tages, is in these chiefly a question of time and patience.; At a m#ph
earlier age, and with much less of struggle thap is requisite in older countries, the dihgent and economical may hope to place themselves in a position of independence. As a general thing, the means of cpmfbrtable support is within the reach of the industrious, on conditions much less onerous
than in these.
" 7. Its relations and status.
" The emigrant to Canada has, in the fact of its forming part of the
British Empire, the guarantee of one of the most powerful nations of the
earth for his protection against injury from without. In this respect, as
in every other, the mother country has of course a right to expect that we
shall make every reasonable effort to help ourselves. Should the necessity
arise, this will be done; and being done, there need be feared on her part
no failure.
" Against the risk of any movement from within, which would
interfere injuriously with him, he has equal assurance in the hearty loyalty
and affectionate attachment of our people to the parent state, which would
make them contemplate the prospect of separation with dislike, rather than
" The connexion of Canada with Britain gives her also a standing which,
in addition to its agreeableness, is fitted to render important aid in her
development. It tends to operate thus by the feeling of self-respect which
it inspires and fosters, by the honours which it holds out to the ambitious
the hope of sharing, and by the examples that are felt to be constantly
inviting imitation.
" Eetaining, as he does, his connexion with the land of his birth, the
native of the British Islands who chooses Canada as his home, is saved from
much of the feeling of expatriation whieh he would experience elsewhere.
He finds himself but half a stranger, if even that. He looks with a pride
of which he was perhaps never previously conscious, on the old flag, as it
floats over him; exults in his country's glories as his own; and finds a
hymn in the National Anthem.
"8. The steadiness and satisfactoriness of its growth.
" A few particulars are all our space will admit in illustration of this.
" The population of United Canada numbered in the year 1800,
240,000. ' It was in 1825, 581,920; by 1851 it had reached 1,842,265.
In 1861 it amounted to 2,506,755. The advance in Upper Canada
between 1825 and 1861 has been from 581,027 to 1,396,091—not much
less than 800 per cent, in 36 years.
-*riIn 1831, the number of cultivated acres in the whole of Canada,
Upper and Lower, was 2,884,345. It came up, in 1844, to 4,968,408 ;'
and in 1851, to 7,300,837. The returns for Lower Canada for 1861
have not yet been published. In Upper Canada alone, 6,051,619 are
reported for that year.
" Upper Canada had in 1851, 99,906 occupiers of land. They numbered in 1861, 131,983. It produced in 1851, 12,682,550 bushels of
wheat; 11,391,867 of oats; 9,982,186 of potatoes; 3,110,118 of turnips-
59,680 lbs. of flax or hemp; 3,669,874 lbs. of maple sugar. Its produce of these articles was, in 1861—wheat, 24,260,425 bushels; oats 75
21,220,874; potatoes, 15,325,920; turnips, 18,206,959; flax or hemp,
1*885,934 lbs.; maple sugar, 6,370,605 lbs. The value of the live stock
in Upper Canada was, in 1861, as much as 53,227,486 dollars; its agricultural implements, 11,280,347 dollars; its farms, 295,162,315 dollars.
A similar progress will, we doubt not, be shown in Lower Canada, when
its agricultural statistics for the year in question appear.
" In 1808, tne value of the entire trade of Canada was about
8,400,000 dollars. The value reached in 1852—exports, 14,055,973
dollars ; imports, 20,286,493 dollars ; total, 34,342,466 dollars. In 1861,
its imports amounted to 36,614,195 dollars ; exports, 43,046,823 dollars ;
total, 79,661,013 dollars. The value of the trade with.'the United States
alone was, in the last of these years, 35,455,815 dollars; the imports
from that country reaching 21,069,388, and the imports to it 14,386,427
" In 1851, the net revenue yielded by the customs was 2,808,831
dollars ; in 1861, 4,411,160 dollars. The value of books imported was, in
1850, 243,580 dollars ; in 1861, 5,056,943 dollars.
" On roads, navigation, and railroads, the province has expended as
much as 60,000,000 dollars, over and above the interest in the latter
of parties out of the country. There are in use at this moment between
1800 and 1900 miles of railway; besides 3422 of electric telegraph, belonging to the Montreal Telegraph Company, which had, in 1861, a
capital stock of 400,000 dollars (to which it had advanced from 60,000
dollars in 1847), employed 400 persons (35 in 1847), and conveyed
300,000 messages; the number conveyed in 1847 having been 33,000.
" Our post-offices have multiplied from 3, in 1766, to 69 in 1824;
601 in 1850, and 1698 in 1860. The number of miles of established post
roads was, in the first of these years, 170 ; in the second, 1992; in the
third, 7595; and in the last, 14,202. The miles travelled were, in 1824,
369; in 1766, 616; in 1851, 2,287,000 ; in 1860, 5,712,000. In 1852,
3,700,000 letters were transmitted; in 1860, 9,000,000. The expenditure of the Post-Office was, in the former of these years, 276,191 dollars,
and its revenue 230,629 dollars; in the latter, its expenditure was
534,681 dollars, and its revenue 658,451 dollars. One hundred and ten
thousand dollars additional is paid per annum, by way of subsidy, to railroads, and 416,000 to steamships.
" From the above it will be seen that our growth has been rapid,
steady, and general—not coming by fits and starts, or confined in its
" 9. Its prospects.
" It cannot fail, without fault on the part of its people, to continue
growing, and to become strong, and prosperous, and influential; for it has in
itself, in its geographical position and in its relations, all the elements of
greatness. But such failure is not to be anticipated, as self-respect, interest, and duty unite in urging us to make the best of our position. The
worst part of the struggle is over. To carry us to the height of any reasonable ambition, all that is necessary is perseverance for a moderate time
in the self-denial and exertion of the past, with the careful avoidance of its
srrors, as far as they may be discovered.
" The motive to throw in their lot with us, held out by such a state of 76
things to those who may be contemplating change, is manifest. To witness
progress is pleasant; how much more to share in it, and to be made partakers of the advantages it yields.
" 10. The common feeling of such as have made trial of the country.
" Few who have lived in it for any length of time, possessing the characteristics and pursuing the course necessary to success, would willingly
exchange it for the lands whence they came. Nothing is more common
than for those who visit their old homes, after a few years' residence in it,
to feel impatient till they get back. Numbers who have left it with the
intention of remaining at home, have returned to it, unable to enjoy themselves there. The freedom realized here from the burthensome restraints
of older societies, and the social consideration which the deserving seldom
fail to receive, help to explain the above state of feeling. In the fact of
its existence the new comer, or the man contemplating coming, has fair
promise and assurance that he will, in due time, feel himself one of us and
at home among us.
" The classes to which Canada will be found specially adapted are—
"1. Farmers, and parties accustomed to agricultural pursuits.
" These may, if they bring moderate means with them, find cleared or
uncleared farms, according to their taste, in most parts of the country, at
prices moderate, though of course varying with quality of land, value of
improvements, and location. Such as may be without the advantage of
means may generally, if prepared to accept of reasonable wages, find employment and comfortable homes among our farmers. By satisfying themselves for a time with these, they gain an acquaintance with the country,
the modes of working best suited to it, the most desirable locations, prices
of land, &c, which will save them much to which they would be in danger
otherwise of being subjected, and help them to work at advantage to
" Though not in an equal degree, parties previously unaccustomed to
agriculture, if disposed to devote themselves to it, may secure these advantages by the pursuance of the same course. Numbers are found all through
the country, with good farms and in comfortable circumstances, who had
their knowledge to acquire after their arrival. If possessed of the physical
requisites and the power of adapting themselves to new circumstances, none
who make up their minds to persevere need despair, though, compared
with the others, they must labour for a time under disadvantage.
" 2. Mechanics, those especially of the more common descriptions.
" These may generally find employment in one part or another, indeed
in almost any part of the province, at fair wages and within a reasonable
time. If well-behaved, industrious, and economical, they may hope to
attain ultimately a good position both as to comfort and standing. Many-
of this class are to be met with in our cities, and even smaller towns and
villages, living on their savings while yet comparatively young. Those of
trades less common run, of course, more risk, though numbers even of
these succeed in making themselves positions in the cities.
" 3. The possessors of spare means.
" What they may be able and disposed to invest will afford this class
much better returns here, without the adoption of any course involving
wrong, than at home.    They may also, if desirous of making themselves 77
useful, obtain (provided they possess the necessary requisites) abundant
means of doing so in harmony with their habits and tastes.
" The things needful to success in Canada, without which none can
hope for it, and with which none need despair of it, are—
" 1. Fair health, intelligence, and capacity for useful action.
" 2. Good principles and correct honourable habits.
" 3. Steady and patient perseverance.
" 4. A cheerful and hopeful spirit.
" 5. The blessing of God."
The principal cities of Canada are Montreal, Quebec, Toronto,
Kingston, Hamilton, and Ottawa.
Montreal is situated at the foot of Royal Mountain, and contains
the largest population of any city in British North America,
amounting at the last census to over 75,000 inhabitants. She
possesses numerous admirable hotels—such as the " St. Lawrence
Hall" in Great St. James's Street, the "Donegana" in Notre
Dame Street, the " Ottawa," Great St. James's Street; and the
"Montreal House," Custom House Square. The churches are
generally beautiful specimens of architecture, and are numerous.
The Trench cathedral is the grandest cathedral in America; it is
2554; feet in length, and 134^ feet in breadth; it has two towers,
each of which has a noble elevation of 225 feet; it is capable of
accommodating between 8000 and 9000 people. There is also a university, several seminaries, schools, and convents. The quays and
the market are the finest on the continent, being built of solid
The trade of Montreal shows the following results:—The total
exports for 1862 were 8,765,594 dollars. The imports for the
same period, 20,183,836 dollars.
The amount of duties collected in 1862 was 2,490,557 dollars.
Exports of Flour, Grain, and Produce from Montreal.
Elver St.
Flour barrels 605,492
Wheat bushels 5,584,727
Peas do... 1,529,136
Barley do... 2,472
Oats do... 276,375
Oatmeal barrels .25,158
Corn bushels 1,477,114
10,341 j
2,029 I
105 j
Pork ..
-.tcs. andbbls.
River St.
. 963
35 |
189 78'
Flour and Grain Trade of Montreal compared for the Three Tears,
1861 to 1863.
Wheat.... bushels
Oats  do...
Peas do...
Barley   do...
Meal,   Oat   and   )
Com ... barrels /
8,529,622 6,945,815
1,661,611  1,774,347
96,792         8,072
634,679     727,277
236,930            373
82.665            200
Toronto is situated on Lake Ontario. It is 333 miles from Montreal; from Quebec, 501 miles; from Hamilton, 38 miles; and from
Niagara Falls, 81 miles. The population is 50,000. It possesses a
Parliament House, market, two or three colleges, some splendid
churches, an exchange, a lovely park, and is a large, thriving, and
beautiful city, which is advancing in wealth, extent, and in the
number of fine rows of shops and dwellings. Its lake and railway
commerce is large, as the following table of exports for 1862-61-60
will show:—
Detailed Statement for 1862.
f Q^ushalir. ''
■ t_i       <j ■ ■
1 090
Total, 1861	
280,806   -
Total, 1860	
|   1,192,417
Quebec is one of the most famous fortified cities in the world, and
has been called the Gibraltar of America. It is situated upon the left
bank of the St. Lawrence, and contains a population of over 50,000.
The city is divided into two sections, called the Upper and Lower
Towns; the Upper Town occupying the highest part of the
promontory, which is surrounded by strong walls and other fortifi- 79
cations; and the Lower Town (being built around the base of Cape
Diamond.    The latter is the business quarter.
Quebec is 317 miles from Boston via the Grand Trunk Railway,
650 miles from New York, 168 miles from Montreal, and 340
miles from the ocean.
Quebec has numerous- excellent hotels (the principal of which
are ".Russell's" and the "Clarendon"), a Roman Catholic cathedral, an English Protestant cathedral, artillery barracks, exchange,
post-office, several banks, Sec.
It possesses many attractions for the tourist, besides the citadel
and the plains of Abraham, where Wolfe and Montcalm fought
their great battle for the possession of Quebec, which resulted m a
victory for the arms, of England, though Wolfe fell in the moment
of triumph.
Some of the most romantic falls in America are near Quebec.
The Palls of St. Orme, only 24 miles below the city, are of great
picturesque beauty.    The Falls of the Chaudiere are 130 feet high.
r> The Palls of Montmorenci, eight miles below Quebec, are 60 feet
wide and 250 feet high.
The effect of the view of these falls upon the beholder is most
delightful. The river at some distance seems suspended in the air,
in a sheet of billowy foam, and, contrasted as it is with the black,
frowning abyss into which it falls, it is an object of the highest
interest. The sheet of foam which first breaks over the ridge, is
more and more divided as it plunges, and is dashed against the
successive layers of rock, which it almost completely veils from view;
the spray becomes very delicate and abundant, from top to bottom,
liangnms: over and revolvinar around the torrent, till it becomes
lighter and more evanescent than the whitest fleecy clouds
of summer; than the finest attenuated web; than the lightest
gossamer; constituting the most airy and sumptuous drapery that
can be imagined. Yet, like the drapery of some of the Grecian
statues, which, while it veils, exhibits more forcibly the form
beneath, this does not hide, but exalts the effect produced by this
noble cataract. ,
Those who witness the falls in the winter, see one fine feature
added to the scene, although they may lose some others. The spray
freezes, and forms a regular cone of 100 feet and upwards in height,
standing immediately at the bottom of the cataract, like some huge
giant of fabulous notoriety.
Quebec is noted as the great lumber-port of Canada, and also as
possessing fine ship-building yards. In 1861 there were built 53
ghips, with; a tot?! tonnage of £6,737 tons, and two steamers. In
1861, 1277 skips, of 703,908 tons burthen! In 1861 there arrived
at Quebeeifrom sea,vessels : 1277; tonnage, 703,908; meM, 19,339.
Steamers : 67 ; tpns, 71,894; men, 4335. The amount of timber
shipped from Canada in 1861, was 30,000,000 cubic feet in
the rough state; and about 400,000,000 feet, board measure, oi
sawed lamber, the value of which was 9,572;645 dollars.
|!k 80
The shipments of timber from Quebec, for the year ending
December 1, 1862, as compared with those of 1860 and 1861, were
as follows:—
Oak     ....    1,485,400 ft.
Elm . . .
Ash . . .
Birch . . .
Tamarac . .
White Pine, sq.
and wavy   .
Red Pine
88,440 „
462,160 „
58,240 „
} 18,252,600 „
.  2,502,880 „
1,725,160 ft.
1,269,329 „
96,560 „
255,320 „
50,240 „
19,447,920 „
2,855,240 „
1,463,680 ft.
1,099.200 „
99,840 „
165,480 „
57,120 „
15,493,080 „
2,491,120 „
The stock on hand in 1862 exceeded by 9,000,000 that of the
four previous years, being 19,000,000 instead of 10,000,000 feet.
Kingston is a thriving city on the St. Lawrence River, and on
the line of the Grand Trunk Railway. It is 341 milesvfrom Quebec,
173 miles from Montreal, and 180 miles from Toronto. It was
founded in 1783, and possesses at the present time several very
strong fortifications. The population is about 18,000; the principal
hotels are Kent's British American and Irons' Hotel.
Hamilton is situated at the head of Lake Ontario. It is 539
miles from Quebec; from Montreal, 371 miles; from Toronto, 38
miles ; from Niagara, 43 miles.    The population is 20,000.
Cobourg has a population of 5000. It is 70 miles from Toronto,
and 90 miles from Kingston.
Prescott, St. Catherine, and Peterboro', are all thriving towns.
The official census taken in January, 1861, furnishes reliable
data for arriving at the agricultural condition of the country, and
an official report from the Bureau of Agriculture, issued in 1863,
provides estimates of two years later date. From these returns it
appears that the number of persons in actual occupation of land in
Upper Canada, in the year 1860, was not less than 131,983, and in
Lower Canada 105,671. The quantity of land held was as follows:	
Persons holding in
10 acres and under
10 acres to 20 . .
20 acres to 50. .
50 acres to 100 .
100 acres to 200 .
Above 200 acres
TJ. Canada.
L. Canada.
.     4,424
.     2,675
.    26,630
.   20,074
.    64,891
.   44,041
.    28,336
,   24,739
.     5,027
.     6,809
131,983    . 105,671 81
It thus appears that there were, three years ago, not fewer than
237,654 persons in Canada who cultivate their own land; and if
the army of farm-servants, choppers, carpenters, blacksmiths,
waggon-makers, harness-makers, &c, directly employed on farm-
work, be added, it will be seen at once how vast a proportion of
the half million of male adults in Canada axe directly employed in
the cultivation of the soil.
Then as to the capital employed. The estimated cash value of
the farms and farming implements was, in January, 1861, as
In Upper Canada    ....    306,442,662 dollars.
In Lower Canada     ....    178,870,271      „
Total value 485,312,933 dollars.
And this enormous sum does not include the live stock and
crops on hand. The last census showed the live stock to have been
then as follows: —
U. Canada L. Canada.
Milch cows, No. of head   .    .    . 451,640 328,370
Oxen and steers  99,605 200,991
Young cattle  464,083 287,611
Horses, ofall kinds  377,681 248,515
Sheep  1,170,225 682,829
Pigs  776,001 286,400
At present prices, these cannot be valued at much under
100,000,000 dollars; and the amazing rapidity with which the live
stock of the country is increasing in number and value can readily
be seen by a comparison of the census returns of 1851 and 1861.
But perhaps a more satisfactory idea of the agricultural industry
of the province can be gained from a statement of the annual product of our farms.    In the year 1860 the crop was as follows :—
U. Canada. L. Canada. Total.
Wheat    .    .    bushels, 24,620,425 2,654,354 27,274,779
Barley     .    . „ 2,821,962 2,281,674 5,103,636
Rye   .    .    . „ 973,181 844,192 1,817,373
Peas   ... „ 9,601,396 2,648,777 12,250,173
Oats   ,   .    . „ -21,220,874 17,551,296 38,772,170
Buckwheat . „ 1,248,637 1,250,025 2,498,662
Indian corn. „ .2,256,290 334,861 2,591,151
Potatoes .    . „ 15,325,920 12,770,471 28,096,391
Turnips .    . „ 18,206,959 892,434 19,099,393
Man. wurzel „ 546,971 207,256 .754,227
Carrots   .   . „ 1,905,598 293,067 2,198,665
Beans.    .    . „ 49,143 21,384 70,527
G 82
Clover and Timothy U. Canada. L. Canada. Total.
seeds     .   bushels, 61,818 33,954 95,772
Hav       .   .      tons, 861,844 689,977 1,551,821
Hops     . „ 247,052 53,387 300,439
Maple sugar       lbs.,       6,970,605 9,325,147       16,295,752
Cider.    .    .    gallons,    1,567,831 21,011 1,588,842
Wool     .    .       lbs.,       3,659,766 1,967,388 5,627,154
Butter   .   . „       26,828,264       15,906,949       42,735,213
Cheese   .   . „ 2,687,172 686,297 3,373,469
FlaxandHemp     „ 1,225,934 975,827 2,201,761
Tobacco .    . „ 777,426
The total value of these products of the farm in 1860 was close -
upon 100,000,000 dollars! And if we add the increase of that
same year on the live stock, the improvements made on old farms,
and the new lands brought into cultivation, a pretty good estimate
may be formed of the highly satisfactory condition of the farming
interest in Canada.
And then the work is but begun.    The total number of acres
that have passed from the Government into private hands is—
In Upper Canada 13,354,907
In Lower Canada 10,375,418
Total acres sold 23,730,325
Of this there are in cultivation, acres:—
In Upper Canada    .    .    .    .6,051,619
In Lower Canada     .... 4,804,235
Leaving yet wild 12,874,471
Imports.—The total value of all the imports into Canada for
1862 was 48,600,633 dollars .-—From Great Britain, 81jl-79jSl£
dollars; British Colonies, North America, 535,469 dollars; West
Indies, 38,851 dollars; United States, 25,173,157 dollars; other
countries, 1,673,844 dols. Amount of duty, 4,652,748 dols. 73 cents.
Exports.—Produce of the mine, 702,906 dollars; fisheries,
703,896 dollars; forest, 9,482,897 dollars; animals and their products, 3,923,590 dollars; agricultural products, 15,041,002 dollars;
manufactures, 415,327 dollars; coin and bullion, 178,997 dollars ;
other articles, 242,002 dollars; ships built at Quebec, 988,428
dollars. Total value, 31,679,045 dollars; of which 15,224,417
dollars went to Great Britain, and 826,871 dollars to British North
America; to the West Indies, 13,775 dollars; United States,
15,063,730 dollars; to foreign countries, 550,252 dollars.
Canals.—The canals of Canada have been built at an expense
of 20,000,000 dollars. They consist of the Welland Canal, a little
over 50 miles in length, running around the Falls of Niagara, and
connecting Lake Erie with Lake Ontario. On the river St. Lawrence there are the Williamsburg, the Cornwall, the Beauharnais, 83
and the Lachine Canals, 40—50 miles in length, and costing, with
lock-gates and improvements, 8,550,518 dollars 35 cents. On
the Richelieu River are the Chambly Canal, and St. Ours Lock and
Dam, 11—50 miles in length, and costing 543,212 dollars 69 cents.
On the Ottawa River, the St. Ann's Lock and Dam, and Chats
Canal, cost 484,988 dollars 55 cents. The Carillon, Chute a
Blondeau, and Granville Canal, passing the
Ottawa River, 8—84 miles; 1,011,904 dollars,
connecting   Ottawa  with  Kingston,   126—25
Long Saut of the
The Rideau Canal,
miles;   4,380,000
dollars.   These canals enable vessels to enter to and from the lakes
No. 1.—Smhmary Statement of the Business of the WeUaitd, St. Lawretlce, Chambly, Burlington,
Ottawa and Rideau Canals, St. Ours and St. Ann's Locks, showing the  Total Quantity of
each description of Property passed through and on the same, and the Amount of Tolls
collected, during the year 1862.
Welland Canal.
St. Lawrence
Chambly Canal
& St. Ours Lock
Bay Canal.
St. Ann's Lock.
Ottawa and
Rideau Canals.
. -Tons, j Tolls.
Tons. 1 Tolls.
Tons. 1 Tolls.
Vessels, all kinds.
•  32,823
1049,230 13,427
241,729   3,021
373,325   5,815
Passengers (No).
28,214|   1,468
17.365      173
1,018        28
Produceof Forest.
'■■ 1238,213
. 26,385
. 831,305 13,172
316,506   9,593
1,268      174
' 232
Animal Produce..
7,526   1,470
903        93
Vegetable Pood..
421,265 82,957
4,803      499
Agricult. Prodts..
17,452   2,937
297        32
75,022 12,052
8,665      842
60,556 10,528
6,204      918
2.—Statement showing the Number, National Character, and Tonnage {computed from
aggregate number of Trips made during the Season of Navigation) of Vessels which passed on
and through the Welland, St. Lawrence, Chambly, Burlington Bay, Rideau and Ottawa
Canals, St. Ours and St. Ann's Lochs, during the year 1862, and amount of Tolls collected
From Canadian
to Canad. Ports
From Canad.
to Am. Ports.
From Amer
to Can, Ports
From Amer.
to Am. Ports.
of ToUs
on Vessels
No. 1 Tons.
Canadian Vessels and
3,355   511,355
10,704 1028,663
1,861   115,039
1,835   274,153
S    ct.
7,363 25
10.364   994.077
13,271 87
Chambly and St. Ours Lock
1,277 52
1,677 50
2,954 30
5,781 68
Total Canadian Vessels....
$32,326 12
American Vessels and
^  Steamers.
'' 358
25,459 78
155 96
Chambly and St. Ours Lock
Burlington Bay	
486 74
74 00
86       5,386
35      2,262
67 33
33 93
Total American Vessels ...
116,649 1,169
5,085 1045,8101
426,277 74
Grand Tot.: Canad. & Amer.
891,663 3,149
32,842 3582,396
1              II
$58,603 86
9. 84
No. 3.—An Account of the Gross and Net Revenue from all sources of the
Provincial Canals of Canada, for the year 1862.
Gross Amount of— Dols.
Tolls, as per Tariff  497,302 96
Welland Canal, Damages and lines,  598  dollars;   Rents,
7,363 dollars, 90 cents  7,956 90
St. Lawrence Canal, Damages and Fines, 1,895 dollars, 17
cents; Rents, 12,493 dollars, 55 cents  14,388 72
Storage and Winterage, 4,836 dollars, 91 cents; Wharfage,
3,075 dollars, 49 cents  7,912 40
Chambly Canal Rents  20 00
Ottawa and Rideau Canal, Winterage  /-§5 90
Gross Revenue from all sources 527,606 88
Less—Charges for—
Collectors' Salaries, Lock Tenders, &c.   .    .    .    125,017 35
Repairs and other Incidental Expenses   .    .    .      73,980 63
Tolls refunded and not collected as per Order
in Council, May, 1860 288,815 55
482,813 53
Net Revenue, all Incidental Expenses deducted     .    .    44,793 35 85
The Hudson's Bay Company: its Charter, its Profits, its Furs—The Fur Trade :
its Extent and Value—The Territory: its Government, its Physical Features,
its Plains, Lakes, and Rivers—The Saskatchewan Valley—Testimony of Captain Blakiston, Captain Palisser, Sir George Simpson, Monsieur Bourgeau,
Father De Smet, Professor Hind, and others in reference to its Agricultural
Resources—The Railway Route—Its Minerals, Grass, Fish, Animals, Birds,
Roots, Berries, &c.—The Red River Settlement—American Trade—Homes for
the Emigrant—The Company's Lands in the Market—Crossing the Rocky
Mountains—Progress of the West—The Future Policy of the Hudson's Bay
The Hudson's Bay Company was originally established in the year
1670, by a royal charter in the reign of Charles II., and was defined
to include all territories within the limits watered by rivers falling
into Hudson's Bay; " together with all the lands and territories
upon the countries, coasts, and confines of the seas, bays, lakes,
rivers, creeks, and sounds aforesaid, that are not already actually
possessed by the subjects of any other Christian prince or state, with
the fishing of all sorts of fish, whales, sturgeons, and all other royal
fishes in the seas, bays, inlets, and rivers within the premises, and
the fish therein taken, together with the royalty of the sea upon the
coasts within the limits aforesaid, and all mines royal, as well discovered as not discovered, of gold, silver, gems, and precious stones,
to be found or discovered, within the territories, limits, and places
aforesaid; and that the same land be from henceforth reckoned and
reputed as one of our plantations or colonies in America called
Rupert's Land."
The great object in view was not, however, the fisheries, but the
fur-bearing animals which swarmed through all the plains to the
Rocky Mountains.
The grant, however, of King Charles gave the Company a
complete and arbitrary control over a country described in the 3rd
clause, as follows:—" And furthermore, we do grant unto the said
Governor and Company, and their successors, that they and their
successors, and their factors, servants, and agents, for them and on
their behalf, and not otherwise, shall for ever hereafter have, use,
and enjoy, not only the whole, entire, and only trade and traffic, and
the whole entire, and only liberty, use, and privilege of trading and
trafficking to and from the territory, limits, and places aforesaid,
but also the whole and entire trade and traffic to and from all havens,
bays, creeks, rivers, lakes, and seas, into which they shall find en- II4
trance or passage by water or land out of the territories, limits, or
places aforesaid; and to and with all the nations and people inhabiting, or which shall inhabit, within the territories, limits, and
places aforesaid; and to and with all other nations inhabiting any
of the coasts adjacent to the said territories, limits, and places aforesaid ; and to and with all other nations inhabiting any of the coasts
adjacent to the? said territories, limits,-and places which are not
already possessed as aforesaid, or whereof the sole liberty, or
privilege, or traffic is not yet granted to any other of our
Armed with such complete power, it is not to be supposed that
any body of men who had obtained fairly the right to govern such
a territory would easily forego that right. For nearly two centuries
their agents have continued to extend their influence: and, though
it is claimed they have misrepresented its natural advantages as a
basis for future colonies, that they have governed arbitrarily and
selfishly, and that they have assumed a despotic sway from the coast
of Labrador to the Pacific, we must certainly do them the credit to
say that, were it not for the judicious manner in which they have
conducted their affairs, we should not now hold such a claim on
this extensive territory. During all that period of ttme between
1670 to the present, we perceive that, while the United States has
been at continual war with the Indians as their pioneers advanced
westward, the few inhabitants which have occupied the trading
posts, scattered hundreds of miles apart, have conducted their fiaj:
operations with the Indians with hardly a cessation of peacefuinrela-
tionship. Year after year the products have increased in value,
and though, during the time of long-continued warfare between the
French and the English, they lost in the attacks upon their establishments over £100,000, yet they were enabled to pay a dividend
in 1684 of 50 per cent.; in 1688, another dividend of 50 per cent.;
in 1689, 25 per cent.; between 1690 and 1800, a period of 110
years, they paid between 60 and 70 per cent, per annum.
For some years after this they had a serious difficulty, and
found a dangerous opponent and formidable rival in the North-
West Company; but after several years' warfare they absorbed
that company by consolidation. In 1837 they paid a dividend of
5 per cent., with a bonus of 6 per cent. In 1849, 10 per cent. In
1850, 20 per cent. In 1856 the dividend was 10 per cent.; but
268 proprietors had paid 220 to 240 per cent, for their stock.
The value of the furs alone which are purchased, and their
number, can only be properly conveyed by a statfcs$&alffeMe.
From September, 1856, to September, 18§7 (considered a bad
year), the total number of furs, excluding buffalo robes, was as
follows:— 87
Hudson's Bay Company. United States,."
Muskrat  302,131 .   . . 862^30
Beaver  90,6,04 .   . . 8,594
Otter  11,573 .    . . 4,368
v.^iaher     ...... ,5,561 .   , . 4,025
Silver fox    ..... 7,071 .    . . 477
Cross fox  3,143 .    . . 1,608
Red fox  10,498 ,   . . 44,558
Whife fox  4,940 .   . . 1,657
Kitt fox  5,776 .   . . 5,366
Marten    ...... 170,956 .   , . 15,399
Mink  45,091 .   . . 78,510
Sea otter  188 ,    . . 167
Lynx .    ,  23,341 ... 824
Black bear  7,483 .    . . 3,313
Brown bear  942 .. . 116 .
Grey white bear    .    .    . 769 .    . . 476,022
Racppn  1,894 ... 41
Wolf  9,831 ... 25
Wolverin  916 .. . 209
Skunk  7,740 .    . . 6,973
Wildcat  184 .. . 6,673
It will be perceived that the majority of all the valuable furs
came from-Hudson's Bay Territory, by the following table of valuation :—Price of beaver, 9s. 3d. each; badger, Is. 8d.; bear, 84s. g
fisher, 28s. 8d.; silver fox, 153s. 5d.; cross fox, 46s. 2d.; red fox,
lis.; lynx and cat, 10s. 8d.; paarten, 13s, lid.; mink, 4s, 3d.;
musquash, ll|d.; otter, 7s. 9d.; sea otter, 373s. 7d.; racoon,
2s. 7d.; seal hair, 3s. lid.; wolf, 5s. 8d.; wolverin, 12s. 6d. *
Furs have increased greatly in their value since that time, the
silver fox being worth £50 per skin at the present period.
Captain Blakiston, R.E., who accompanied the Palisser Expedition, says, in respect to buffalo, f Having taken some trouble to
obtain the most reliable data in respect of the numbers annually
killed, in which I have been aided by gentlemen in the fur trade,
I consider, since, 1842, when the Hudson's Bay Company first commenced to trade to any great extent in robes, there have been no
less than 145,000 buffalo annually killed in British Territory; while
on the great prairies on the American side, where die trade has
been carried on to a far greater extent, the amMnt annually slaughtered at the early part of the period mentioned, was upwards of
1,000,000. In 1855, on the British side alone, there were 20,000
robes and skins received at York Factory on Hudson's Bay,
which, making all allowances, would give about 230,000 slaughtered the previous year. This, in a civilized country, allowing 2lbs.
'per head per diem—a very liberal allowance—would have served
to sustain a population of 250,000, while probably 30,000 only profited by the slaughter."
II 88
The Commissioner of Statistics for the United States for 1860,
says, " The entire imports of the Company for the supply of the
trading posts east of the Rocky Mountains, and mainly tributary to
Minnesota, was stated by Sir George Simpson, in 1857, at 200,000
dollars, 100,000 dollars going to the supply of the Indians west of
the Rocky Mountains." According to an English authority, the
gross value of the furs and skins exported to England, in return for -
the annual outfit, varies from 1,000,000 to 2,500,000 dollars. At
the half-yearly sale in April, 1857, held in London, the proceeds
of the trade were stated to be 1,150,000 dollars. In March, 1853,
the trade sales amounted to nearly 2,500,000 dollars. They sold
then 80,000 buffalo robes at 12 dollars each. The average annual
export may be fairly stated, then, at 1,500,000 dollars, showing a
return of 500 per cent, on the imports. One million dollars of this
is the product of Rupert's Land having its outlet through Minnesota.
In 1864, the sales of Hudson Bay furs amounted to over
£200,000, and for 1865 it was computed thev would reach
Since the new change of government, the Hudson's Bay Company's power is restricted to Rupert's Land, or east of the Rocky
Mountains; but previous to the new organization, the extent of
territory controlled by them exceeded 4,500,000 square miles, and
extended into the United States and Russian America. The whole
territory was divided into five departments, in each of which were
established certain trading posts:—
Departments. Dep6ts. No. of Posts.
1. Northern. . York Factory, Hudson's Bay.    .    69
2. Southern . . Moose Factory 42
3. Montreal . . Lachine 22
4. Oregon    . . Fort Vancouver, W.T.       ...    16
5. Western  . . Victoria, V.1 15
The northern department is under the command of a chief
pastor, andhe is responsible for the districts into which his department is divided. The trading posts are separated hundreds of miles
apart, and the furs collected here are transported for thousands of
miles in barges and canoes, through the lakes and rivers of the
Arctic water system, and down the Saskatchewan to Lake Winnipeg, whence, till recently, they have been carried through the precipitous rivers which debouch into Hudson's Bay at Fort York.
At Norway House, at the north end of Lake Winnipeg, early
in the summer, a meeting takes place between the chief commissioners and the governor of the territories ; the number and value
of the furs are considered ; the several proportions of earnings are
allotted ; various promotions are made; the various supplies are 89
given out, such as blankets, materials for and articles of wearing
apparel of woollen and cotton manufacture; hardware and earthenware, beads, ribbons, pipes, fire-steels, and other miscellaneous
articles; also tea, coffee, sugar, rice, raisins, wine, tobacco, salt,
flour, gunpowder, shot, ball, fire-arms, &c.
Having perfected their business, and spent a few days in the
mutual enjoyment of relating their experiences, they set out upon
•their return vogages to their homes. Of course, their arrival is
looked for with much anxiety; for they bring a whole year's news
from the Old World. Then the various presents are carefully
examined and mutually prized; and in the evening, the valley or
the plain echoes with merriment, as the men and maidens dance,
sing, and regale on the festive occasion.
Then come the preparations for winter. Fisheries are established, the vatrfous parties scatter to their posts, the Indians receive
advances of supplies for the coming furs, boats are mended, tools
and guns put in order, pemmican from buffalo meat is made, and
fish are dried and salted. In the spring the hunting commences—•
furs are pressed and packed; and when the " up river" boat
arrives, they are prepared to start for the annual meeting again.
The total number in the employ of the Hudson's Bay Company
is 3000, including agents, voyageurs, traders, and servants, and
about 100,000 Indian hunters.
Captain Blakiston, R.E., in speaking of the physical features
of the interior of British North America, divides them as follows:—
" 1, The northern or Arctic basin. 2, Hudson's Bay. 3, The
Central Plains. 4, The Rocky Mountains. 5, The Pacific slope
and (if Canada were included it would be a sixth) the St. Lawrence
The northern or Arctic basin " extends from the northern part
of Canada East, skirting the upper great lakes, curving round to
Lake Winnipeg, and thence taking a north-easterly direction,
reaching the Arctic Sea in the region between the Coppermine and
Back's Great Fish River. This great belt extends for 150 to 200
miles in width, and is extremely rocky—in fact, the whole region is
most inhospitable except for the hunter and the fur trapper."
Hudson's Bay.—The region around Hudson's Bay is generally
of much the same character as the wooded portion of the Arctic
regions, and the extent to which the country is annually submerged
is described as almost incredible. The Arctic regions and central
plains are alike cheerless, unfit for pasturage, and worthless for
Between the Rocky Mountains, Lake Winnipeg, the Lake of
the Woods, and the 49th parallel, we have a country entirely
distinct from the rest of Rupert's Land.  It is variously denominated 90
the "Valley of the Saskatchewan," the "Basin of Winnipeg," and
the " High Central Plains." This district contains about 380,000
square miles, widi a width of 750 miles. j"
A prominent feature in the commercial physics of this norm-
western country is the extent of its navigable water-line; which
may be taken as the natural exponent of the commercial value of
its resources.
In the following table we give what is known of the oOafarraoute
distances capable of steamboat navigation on the rivets which, interlock in Lake Winnipeg.
Navigable Water-Line and Shore-Line of the Basin
of the Winnipeg.
Water-Line.  Shore-Line.
Red River from Breckinridge-— >;dffiiies.        Maes.
Mouth of Sioux Wood to Lake Winnipeg    531     .   1062
Tributaries -of Red River—
Red Lake River, Minnesota 100     .     200
Assiniboine, British Territory—
: Navigation uncertain 200     .     400
Lake Winnipeg 264     .     782
Lakes Manitoba and Winnipegoos   .    .    .    220     .     660
.Saskatchewan River—
From Lake Winnipeg to junction.    .    .    .    422     .     844
North Branch to Edmonton 540     .   1080
South Branch to Chesterfield House      .    .   480     .     960
Total 2757     .   5988
Gaptain Blakiston says—" Taking either branch of the Saskatchewan River, it is navigable for boats from Lake Winnipeg to
near the base of the Rocky Mountains, a distance of 1200 miles. I
am glad to say I was fortunate enough to travel on it from its mouth
to Fort Edmonton, 1000 pules up, at a time of year when I saw the
water at its lowest."
The valley of the Saskatchewan contains an extended belt of
lknd, called the "Fertile Belt," which is unsurpassed for the
richness of its soil and its adaptability for agricultural purposes.
The explorations of Simpson, Hind, Parser, Hector, SuTpvan,
and Blakiston, all serve to prove that within British Territory the
most fertile soil west of the Mississippi exists—and th'&t so vast, so
rich is this great valley that it is capable of subsislang 20,000,000
Cap tain Palisser describes the region drained by the Saskatchewan in the following words:—« The extent of surface drained
by the Saskatchewan, and other tribataries  to Lake Winnipeg, 91
which we had an opportunity of examining, amounts in round
numbers to 150,000 square miles. This region is bounded,
to the north by what is known as the (strong woods,' or
the southern limit of the great circum-Arctic -zone of forest
which occupies these latitudes in the northern hemisphere.
This line, which is indicated in the map, sweeps to the northwest from the shore of Lake Winnipeg, and reaches its most
ifctotherly limit about 54° 30' N. and longitude 119° W., from
whence it again passes to south-west, meeting the Rocky Mountains
in latitude 51° N., longitude 115° W. Between this line of ike
f. strong woods' and the northern limit of the true prairie country,
there is a belt of land varying in width, which at one period must
have been covered by an extension of the northern forests, but
which has been gradually cleared by successive fires.
U It Ss now a partially wooded country, abounding in lakes and
rich natural pasturage, in some parts rivalling the finest park
scenery of our own country. Throughout this region of country
the climate seems to preserve the same character, although it passes
through very different latitudes,its form being doubtless determined
by the curves of die isothermal line. Its superficial extent embraces
about 65,000 square miles, or 40,000,000 acres, of which more
than one-third may be considered as at once available for the
purposes of the agriculturist. Its elevation increases from 700 to
4000 feet as we approach the Rocky Mountains ; consequently, it
is not equally adapted throughout to the cultivation of any one
crop; nevertheless, at Fort Edmonton, which has an altitude of
3000 feet, even wheat is sometimes cultivated with success."
Mons. E. Bourgeau, who accompanied Palisser in his explorar
tions, addressed the following remarks to Sir William Hooker, an
reference to Hudson's Bay Territory:—" But it remains for me to
call the attention of the English Government to the advantage
there would be in establishing agricultural districts in the vast
plains of Rupert's Land, and particularly in the Saskatchewan, in
the neighbourhood of Fort Carlton. This district is much more
adapted to the culture of staple crops of temperate climates, wheat,
rye, barley, oats, &c, than one would have been inclined to believe
from this high latitude. In effect, the few attempts at cereal
culture already made in the vicinity of the Hudson's Bay Company's posts demonstrate by their success how easy it would be to
obtain products sufficiently abundant largely to remunerate the
efforts of the agriculturist. There, in order to put the land under
cuMvation, it would be necessary only to till the better portions of
the soil. The prairies offer natural pasturage as favourable for the
maintenance of numerous herds as if they had been artificially
'created.     The  construction   of  houses   for   habitation   and  for s
pioneer development would involve but little expense, because
in many parts of the country, independent of wood, one would
find fitting stones for building purposes, and in others clay
to make bricks. In the latter district extend rich and vast prairies,
interspersed with wood and forests, where thickwood plants furnish
excellent pasturage for domestic animals. The vetches found here
are as fitting for the nourishment of cattle as the clover of European
pasturage. The abundance of buffaloes, and the facility with
which the herds of horses and oxen increase, demonstrate that it
would be enough to shelter animals in winter, and to feed them in
the shelters with hay collected in advance. The harvest could in
general be commenced by the end of August or the first week in
September, which is a season in which the temperature is sufficiently high and rain is rare.
" In the gardens of the Hudson's Bay Company's posts—but more
particularly in those of the different missions, succulent vegetables
of the leguminous family, such as beans, peans, and French beans,
have been successfully cultivated ; also cabbages, turnips, carrots,
rhubarb, and currants. Different species of gooseberries, with
edible fruits, as well as raspberries, grow wild here."
It was supposed that the valleys of the Mississippi and the St.
Lawrence Rivers exhausted the northern and central areas which
are available for agriculture. A report to the New York Chamber
of Commerce very soon corrected the erroneous impression. " There
is in the heart of North America," said the report, I a distinct subdivision, of which Lake Winnipeg may be regarded as the centre.
This subdivision, like the valley of the Mississippi, is distinguished
for the fertility of its soil, and for the extent and gentle slope of its
great plains, watered by rivers of great length, and admirably
adapted for steam navigation. It has a climate not exceeding in
severity that of many portions of Canada and the Eastern-States. It
will, in all respects, compare favourably with some of the most
densely peopled portions of the continent of Europe. In other
words, it is admirably adapted to become the seat of a numerous,
hardy, and prosperous community. It has an area equal to eight
or ten first-class American States. Its great river, the Saskatchewan, carries a navigable water-line to the very base of the Rocky
Mountains. It is not at all improbable that the valley of this river
may yet offer the best route for a railroad to the Pacific. The
navigable waters of this great subdivision interlock with those of the
The Red River of the North, in connexion with Lake Winnipeg
into which it falls, forms a navigable water-line, extending directly
north and south 800 miles. The Red River is one of the best
adapted to the use of steam in the world, and waters one of the finest 93
regions on the continent. Between the highest point at which it
is navigable, and St. Paul, on the Mississippi, a railroad is in process of construction; and when this road is completed, another
grand division of the continent, comprising 500,000 square miles,
will be open to settlement.
Sir George Simpson, speaking of the land Avhich is drained by
the Red Deer and Swan Rivers, which drain a country of rare
beauty and fertility, and which lies west of Lake Winnipeg, draws
the following glowing picture :—
" In this part of the country we saw many sorts of birds, geese,
loons, pelicans, ducks, cranes, two kinds of snipe, hawks, owls, and
gulls; but they were all so remarkably shy, that we were constrained
to admire them from a distance. In the afternoon we traversed a
beautiful country with lofty hills and long valleys, full of sylvan
lakes; while the bright green of the surface, as far as the eye could
reach, assumed a foreign tinge, under an uninterrupted profusion of
roses and blue-bells. On the summit of one of these hills we commanded one of the few extensive prospects We had of late enjoyed.
One range of heights rose behind another, each becoming fainter
as it receded from the eye, till the farthest was blended in almost
undistinguishable confusion with the clouds; while the softest vales
spread a panorama of hanging copses and glittering lakes at our
A writer in the New York Knickerbocker Magazine for October,
1858, thus expresses himself:—
" Here is the great fact of the north-western area of this continent—an area not inferior in size to the whole United States east of
the Mississippi—which is perfectly adapted to the fullest occupation
by cultivated nations, yet is almost wholly unoccupied, lies west of
the 98th meridian, and above the 43rd parallel—that is, north of
the latitude of Milwaukee, and west of the longitude of Red River,
Fort Kearney, and Corpus Christi; or, to state the fact in another
way, east of the Rocky Mountains, and west of the 98th meridian,
and between the 43rd and 60th parallels, there is a productive
cultivable area of 500,000 square miles. West of the Rocky
Mountains, and between the same parallels, there is an area of
300,000 square miles."
Father De Smet, a devoted Jesuit missionary to the Indians of
Oregon (mentioned by Governor Stevens, in an address before the
New York Geographical Society, as "a man whose name is a tower
of strength and faith"), thus describes what he calls "the vast plain
—the ocean of prairies ":— 94
| The entire region in the vicinity of the eastern chain of the
Rocky Mountains, serving as their base for thirty or sixty miles,! fe
extremely fertile, abounding in forests, plains, prairies, lakes,
streams, and mineral springs. The rivers^ and streams are innumerable, and on every side offer situations favourable for the
construction of mills. The northern and southern branches of the
Saskatchewan water the district I have traversed for a distance of
about 300 miles. Forests of pine, cypress, thorn, poplar, and
aspen trees, as well as others of different kinds, occupy a large
portion of it, covering the declivities of the mountains and banks of
the rivers.
I These originally take their rise in the highest chains, whence
they issue in every direction, like so many veins. The beds and
sides of these rivers are pebbly, and their course rapid, but as they
recede from the mountains they widen, and the currents lose
something of their impetuosity. Their waters are usually very*
clear. The country would be capable of supporting a large population, and the soil is favourable for the production of barley, corn,
potatoes, and beans, which grow here as well as in the more
southern countries.
" Are these vast and innumerable fields of hay for ever destined
to be consumed by fire or perish in the autumnal snows ? How
long shall these superb forests be the haunts of wild beasts ? And
these inexhaustible quarries—these abundant mines of coal, lead,
sulphur, iron, copper, and saltpetre—can it be that they are doomed
to remain for ever inactive ? Not so. The day will come when
some labouring hand will give them value; a strong, active, and
enterprising people are destined to fill this spacious void. The
wild beasts will, ere long, give place to our domestic animals;
flocks and herds will graze in the beautiful meadows that border
the numberless mountains, hills, valleys, and plains of this extensive
Life at Edmonton during the winter season is thus sketched:—
" The number of servants, including children, is about eighty.
Besides a large garden, a field of potatoes and wheat belonging to
the establishment, the lakes, forests, and plains of the neighbourhood furnish provisions in abundance. On my arrival at the Fort,
the ice-house contained 30,000 white fish, each weighing four
pounds, and 500 buffaloes, the ordinary amount of the winter
provisions. Such is the quantity of aquatic birds in the season,
that sportsmen often send to the Fort carts full of fowls. Eggs are
picked up by thousands in the straw and weeds of the marsBesl I
visited Lake St. Anne (a missionary station fifty miles north-west
from Edmonton). The surface of this region is flat for the most
part, undulating in some places—diversified with forests and meadows, and lakes teeming with fish.    In Lake St. Anne akne were 95
caught, last autumn, more than 70,000 white fish, the most delictus of the kind. They are taken with a line at every season of
the year.
" Notwithstanding the rigour and duration of the winter in this
northern region, the earth in general appears fertile. Vegetation
is so forward in the spring and summer that potatoes, wheat, and
barley, together with other vegetables of Canada, come to maturity."
On the 12th of March, Father Dc Smet started on his return
tgip^ proceeding with sledges drawn by dogs over the snow, to Fort
Jasper, situated north-west from Edmonton on the Athabasca
River, half a degree north of latitude 54°. Here occurred the
following hunting adventure:—
" Provisions becoming scarce at the Fort, at the moment when
we had with us a considerable number of Iroquois from the
surrounding country, who were resolved to remain until my
t^parture in order to assist at the instructions, we should have
found ourselves in an embarrassing situation had not Mr. Frazer
come to our relief, by proposing that we should leave the Fort and
accompany himself and family to the Lake of Islands, where we
could subsist partly on fish. As the distance was not great we
accepted the invitation, and set out to the number of fifty-four
persons and twenty dogs. I count the latter because we were as
much obliged to provide for them as for ourselves. A little note of
the game killed by our hunters during the twenty-six days of our
abode at this place will afford you some interest—at least it will
make you acquainted with the animals of the country, and prove
that the mountaineers of the Athabasca are blessed with good
appetites. Animals killed—12 moose deer, 2 reindeer, 30 large
mountain sheep or big-horn, 2 porcupines, 210 hares, 1 beaver, 10
muskrats, 24 bustards, 115 ducks, 21 pheasants, 1 snipe, 1 eagle,
1 owl; add to this from 30 to 55 white fish and 20 trout every day."
Professor Henry Youle Hind, in speaking of the natural
advantages of the basin of Lake Winnipeg for a route across the
continent, says : " It is impossible to examine a correct map of the
North American Continent without being impressed with the
remarkable influence which the Great American Desert must exercise upon the future of the United States and British North
America. The general character of this desert south of the 49th
parallel is described elsewhere, and the important fact has been
noticed that any railroad constructed within the linnts of the
United States must pass for a distance of twelve hundred miles
xoest of the Mississippi through uncultivable land, or, in oihgr..
words, a comparative desert. Along the 32nd parallel the breadth
of this desert is least, and the detached areas of fertile soil greatest
in quantity; but the aggregate number of square miles of cultivable •J0OI
land amounts only to 2300 in a distance of 1210 miles. The
northern limit of the Great American Desert is an imaginary line
drawn from the Touchwood Hills to the Moose Woods on the
south branch, then South of Battle River as far as longitude 112°,
when, turning south, it sweeps along the flanks of the Rocky Mountains in longitude 115°. North of this limit of the Great American
Desert there is a broad strip of fertile country, rich in water, woods,
and pasturage, drained by the North Saskatchewan and some of its
affluents, and being a continuation of the fertile prairies of Red
River, the eastern watershed of the Assiniboine and Red Deer
River, with the outlying patches called the Touchwood Hills,
File Hill, &c.
" It is a physical reality of the highest importance to the
interests of British North America, that this continuous belt can be
settled and cultivated from afeio miles west of the Lake of the
Woods to the passes of the Rocky Mountains, and any line of
communication, ichether by waggon road or railroad, passing
through it will eventually enjoy the great advantage of being fed
by an agricultural population from one extremity to the other."
We have been particular to quote the descriptions of this
" Fertile Belt," because when we come to the consideration of a
railroad from the Atlantic to the Pacific Oceans, the importance of
this testimony in relation to this magnificent country will then be
Minerals.—Gold has of late been discovered in the banks
of the river Saskatchewan, near the foot of the Rocky Mountains. News received as late as December, 1864, states men
are gathering as much as £4 per day. Copper and malachite
exist in the region of Coppermine River; plumbago, iron, and
mineral pitch, have been found on Lake Athabasca; salt has
been found in a very pure state near Great Slave Lake, as well
as salt springs, on the borders of Lake Manitoba and Winnipegosis ;
Limestone occurs at Red River and Lake Winnipeg; granite is
found in inexhaustible quantities between Lake Winnipeg, Lake
Superior, and Hudson's Bay; coal has been discovered on the
Assouri River, near Fort Edmonton, and also on Red Deer River.
Vegetable Productions.—The principal trees which abound are
the balsam, the poplar, and the aspen, and are the common trees of
the plain country; there is also, in limited quantities, the white
spruce, the American larch, the fir, bank pine, white or bass wood,
the sugar maple, spruce tree, the ash, the oak, as far as Red River
and Lake Manitobas. But the Rocky Mountains are covered with
a luxury and splendour of timber growth sufficient to supply the
wants of the valleys at her feet for centuries. If the vast tracts of
prairie land teem with verdant grasses which preclude the forest's smagwgro*
growth, the watercourses can carryinto all its river ramifications
timber of every variety.
Grass.—Grass is everywhere, spreading in fields of natural
verdure that would gladden the eye of any agriculturist. When
we think of the millions of buffaloes that year after year find pasture
sufficient for their wants, we may imagine what herds of cattle and
'horses could subsist upon the nutritious grasses and vetches that
abound on the plains and the numerous swamps.
Berries and Roots.—These are abundant and various, and include! the cranberry, sasketoom, pembina, currant (black and red),
gooseberry, raspberry, and strawberry. Wild rice is plentiful, the
prairie turnip peculiar to Hudson's Bay, besides numerous roots
used for medicinal and dyeing purposes.
Animals.—The various fur-bearing animals we have previously
specified, and will therefore add those which are used for purposes
of food and usefulness.
The bear, reindeer, moose, muskrat, porcupine, beaver, hare,
musk ox, buffalo, antelope, big-horn, and mountain goat, and the
Fish.—The principal fish are the white fish (a delicious fish,
and found in all the lakes), the sturgeon, pike, gold-eyes, trout, catfish, suckers, &c.
Aquatic Animals.—The seal, the waburs, the white bear, and
the white tortoise, called the " white whale," frequent Hudson's
Bay and Straits.
was originally projected by Lord Selkirk, a Scottish nobleman largely
interested in the Hudson's Bay Company, who held a vast extent
of land by charter from the British Crown. Of the Company, he
made an extensive purchase, and brought over his first colonists in
1813, and remained with them twelve months. Another accession
was made in 1817, and another in 1826; and they now number, in
Europeans, French Canadians, and half-breeds, about 10,000 souls.
One half the population are hunters, and the other half farmers.
The main settlement, known as " Red River," is about 60 miles
north of Pembina, or down the river, and is on an extensive plain,
which extends, somewhat broken and interspersed with timber,
ealst to Lake Winnipeg. The hunters, mostly half-breeds, do
nothing but hunt buffalo. They make two grand excursions each
year; one commencing on the 20th of June, and lasting two months,
and tberother on the 10th of September, and lasting till the 10th of
November. The hunters lead a free, happy, wild, romantic life,
and are, when in the settlement, temperate and well-behaved.
The farmers raise wheat, oats, barley, potatoes, cattle and sheep.
Turnips, onions, peas, cabbage, rhubarb, radishes, mangel, hops,
pumpkins, and melons grow in abundance. In 1856, there were
922 houses, 1232 stables, 399 barns, 1503 horses, 1296 mares, 2796
JH 98
oxen, 290 bulls, 3593 cows, 2644 calves, 4674 pigs, 2429 sheep,
585 ploughs, 730 harrows, 2045 carts, 522 canoes, 55 boats, 8347
acres of cultivated land ; number of acres in 1864, 22,000.
Oxen are worth from 60 to 100 dollars a yoke; cows from 15
to 20 dollars; a good cart-horse, 80 dollars; and a horse trained
to hunt buffalo will bring 150 to 200 dollars.
Their wheat is equal to any in the world, weighing from 65 lbs. to
70 lbs. to the bushel; barley and oats are also heavy, ande potatoes
and all kinds of garden vegetables grow luxuriantly .^ The land ts
never manured. From 3% to 4 feet of snow falls in winter, and
rain is unknown from November to April.
They originally received their supplies of merchandise from
York Factory, a store of the Hudson's Bay Company, 700 miles
from Red River. It required two months to make the journey,
and there were thirty-six portages (carryiaiigs-pJaces) to be made in
going that distance. The title of the settlement is " The Red Rivbr
Colony," and it is ruled by a governor appointed by the Queen.
The magistrates, councillors, and officers, receive their commissions
from the committee of the Hudson's Bay Company. The jtirisdie<-
tion of the governor extends 100 miles in all directions from Fort
Garry, except over the American line.
American Trade.—The census of 1856 shows therfouit of its
recent intercourse with the new American settlements in'Minnesota,
in the introduction of new agricultural machinery:—8 thrashing
machines, 3 steam saw-mills, 2 reaping machines, 1 carding
machine, 800 harrows, 2000 carts, 500 ploughs, 2 steam-ploughs,
and 56 merchant shops. Its rapidly increasing intercourse with
an American market has developed a spirit of enterprise among the
people, new forms of industry, and a growing demand for American
Trade must find its natural outlet, and agriculture demands
its most advantageous markets. We cannot well force coamf
merce through unnatural currents, and we cannot for ever shut
out the solid cohorts of advancing emigrants when they are
thundering at our gates for a passage to lands inviting them
by their extent, their accessibility, and their richness* It is
better to open the gates willingly—better to guide than to be
jostled by the throng. The splendid landscapes of the Assiniboine
that adorn the great picture gallery of nature, cannot be closed
for ever. The measureless prairies that stretch in vast waves of
beauty from the Lake of the Woods to the base of the Rocky
Mountains, redolent and gorgeous with the richest profusion of
rose-bushes, blue-bells, woodbine, convolvulus, helianthii, and
thousands of nameless and delicate flowers, tell the beholder the
wealth of soil that supports them in their entangled and untrained
luxuriance of variety and numbers.     The thousands of small lakes 99
—sweet eyes of earth—that dot the valleys, invite him with then:
clear waters*land fisheries; the rivers that-spread, interlace, and
ramify for thousands of miles, tell of a well-watered soil. The
yellow sand of the Saskatchewan, made brilliant by the noonday
'Stm, flashes and sparkles with auriferous wealth; the dark blaok
seams that crumble beneath his ttfead, are signs of coal, that tell him
-ttiis hearth shall glow witjh a genial warmth that shall bid defiance
to the external frost. The stately elms, the graceful ash and
bending willow, the g*and spreading oak and the ever-verdant pine,
that fringe the prairies, gather in assemblies, and crowd so close
upon the mountains that their leaves, limbs, and trunks shoulder
and jostle each other in progressive development, tell him there is
labour for the forester, the lumberer, and the builder. Gn&rfltfe, as
compact and strong as that on wMoh the Pyramids of Egypt relt, is
scattered in Samerous quarries throughout this great province.
Game, such as the buffalo, swarm over the plains, white the stately
cariboo, the prowling bear, the wily fox, the pretty mink, the busy
®tter, the nimble squirrel, and the scented rai? are sWarsring through,
the forest, and by lake and river. Of birds, there is the majestic
eagle and tfee blue-winged jay, the Murderous hawk and the little
jewelled hufmming-bird ; together with duck and pigeon, sandpiper
and cherry-bird, loom and partridge, magpie and blackcap, nightingale and swallow, grouse and snipe, kingfisher and plover. Here
experiments have been carried on for fifty years, and here we find
corn, and wheat, and fruit, and vegetable thrive in a remarkable
manner, and where wheat can be grown " for twenty years in succession." But all this land has been shut out from the knowledge
of die world. A new era is at hand. The people of the Atlantic
are wooing the people of the Pacific; they would be united by an
iron band. The great North-East invites British Columbia to share
her future with her, and to march forward hand in hand with her ;
to send her the tributes of the Pacific—the gold of Vancouver,
Australia, California, and Columbia—and the spices, silks, and teas
of India, China, and Japan; while from across the Atlantic will
come an endless variety of exchanges.
Gentlemen of the Hudson's Bay Company, you have possessed for
two centuries a splendid monopoly. We are not of those who wholly
condemn the manner in which you have administered the power
delegated to you ; on the contrary, a careful knowledge of the history and results of your rule, prove that your affairs have been administered with much ability, discretion, and judgment. Your
labours have been prosperous to an unparalleled degree, and the
amicable manner in which you, and those under your authority,
have conducted your relations with the Indians, and to which they
bear testimony, for so lengthened a period, certainly is in the
highest degree creditable to you. when eemtFasted with the exter-
h 2
III 100
minating warfare which has characterized the relations of the United
States' Government with them. It cannot be expected that a
monopoly so entire should be carried on without producing many
animosities, and that acts have not been committed which appear
unwise, impolitic, and arbitrary. It would be unreasonable to
suppose that you are so devoid of self-interest as to be willing to
give up a power so long possessed, and providing such a splendid
interest on the capital employed, or that you are willing to forego
any right you may possess for the general good. When merchants
place their surplus profits in a joint-stock company, they do so
for the purpose of securing continued and safe interest. Now, the
Cry against the Hudson's Bay Company is, that locked in the valleys
of the Assiniboine and Saskatchewan, there is 65,000 square miles
of cultivable land, of which 27,000 square miles, or 17,000,000
acres, is at once available for the agriculturist; and this land is
black with richness. The whole of your land is 150,000 square
miles. The principal means from which you derive your income at
present is the fur trade. In the year 1864, the sales of furs in
London amounted to £'262,869 ; but the public believe that there
are many other sources of supply to swell the dividends. As the
operations of the Company have not been published as widely as
those of many joint-stock companies of London, we have taken
the latest statement which we have received previous to the abridgment of the Company's power over Vancouver's Island and British
Columbia. On June 1,1856, the capital of the Hudson's Bay Company was as follows :—
Amount of assets        £1,468,301  16    3
Amount of liabilities      .......       203,233 16 11
Capital £1,265,067 19    4
Consisting of—
Stock standing in the names of the proprietors     £500,000    0    0
Valuation of the Company's lands and buildings, exclusive of Vancouver's Island and
j Oregon        318,884 12    8
Amount expended up to 16th September,
1856, in sending miners and labourers to
Vancouver's Island, in the coal-mines,
and other objects of colonization, exclusive of the trading establishments of the
Company, and which amount will be repayable by Government, if possession
of the island is resumed         87 071    8    3
Amount invested in Fort Victoria, and
other establishments and posts in Vancouver's Island, estimated at     ....        75,000    0    0
Carryforward £980,956    0 "IT
I 101
Brought forward    .    .    .    .
Amount paid to the Earl of Selkirk for Red
River Settlement ,
Property and investments? in the Territory
of Oregon, ceded to the United States by
the treaty of 1846, and which are secured
to the Company as possessory
under that treaty, 1,000,000 dollars
200,000    0    0
Total £1,265,067 19   4
Now we must deduct all interests in Vancouver's Island which
are in direct possession of the Brititeh Government.
Let us take away the whole of the 17,000,000 acres of available land; the fur trade would suffer but very little. Suppose
that, instead of allowing the whole of the Indians to subsist by trapping and hunting, one-half were taught the first elements of agriculture and located at various points on a given line, which leads
from Pembina to the Rocky Mountains. It is all nonsense to say
we cannot civilize the savage. Give him the implements and the
seeds, set over him or them an overseer to guide, direct, and teach
them, and keep away the curse of rum, and there wfil be no difficulty
in civilizing them. They farm well enough at Red River, and, be
assured, when they are convinced that by proper attention and a
certain amount of labour they may provide comforts for the long
winter, the revolution will be complete. For the other half there is
employment beyond the prairies. The fur-bearing animals are not
found in great numbers or variety here ; therefore we maintain that
the cultivation of this district would not materially affect the fur trade.
There are regions'adapted for fur-bearing animals and not adaptable
for purposes of agriculture; the land of the Ojibways east and north
of Lake Winnipeg, Winnipeg River, and Rainy River, and away to
Labrador and Hudson's Bay ; all the land north of 55° ; the land
of the Black Foot Indians, a portion of the Assiniboine Indians'
land, and the Rocky Mountains. " Give us a market for our cattle
and we can raise incalculable numbers,"—so say the people of the
Red River Settlement.
The Nor- Wester, a newspaper published for the first time at
the Red River Settlement on the 28th December, 1859, mentions
Mr. Gowler's success as an agriculturist in the following terms:—
" He-sowed 63 bushels of wheat, 36 of barley, 24 of oats, and 101
of potatoes, and from these he realized 700 of wheat, 350 of barley,
480 of oats, and 2100 of potatoes. The cost of the seed was £50 ;
in preparing and tilling the soil about £25 more were expended ;
and the cost of gathering in and threshing thejcrops is set down at
£100—making a total expenditure of £175
Place against that the
5»t*I H 102
sums representing the sale of wheat at 6s., and the barley at 3s. 9d.,
the oats at 2s. 6d., and - the potatoes at Is. 3d. per bushel (average
price which the produce will easily command), and an argument
more strong and convincing than could be wrought out by anyotaer
process of reasoning, stands stubbornly forth in favour of the claims
of the settlement as being one of the best agricultural countries on
the face of the globe. It should be added that Mr. Gowler's profits
have already enabled him to enlarge the bounds of his estate to 600
acres, to stock it with a noble herd of cattle and horses, and to make
the necessary preparations for. erecting, thereon, next summer, a
snug and comfortable mansion."
Imagine the value of 20,000,000 acres of rich land ready,
for cultivation thrown into the market. When the lands in Connecticut and New York reached £10 in value, the people moved westward to Michigan and Ohio; when, in a few years, lands which had
cost 10s. an acre increased to £10, they moved to Wisconsin and
Illinois, and bought lands as low as 5s. sterling an acre. Then lands
increased here to 2000 per cent, over their original price. Then
Iowa and Minnesota soon came into the market, and these lands are
being rapidly taken up, and their value has increased in a marvellous ratio.
Westward is the movement towards the Pacific beyond the Mississippi; the arid districts of the Upper Missouri are barren tracts^
wholly uncultivatable; the coming exodus of people will soon overrun
Minnesota, and seek the rich lands of the " Fertile Belt." Who
shall stop them? The splendid and complicated system of the
Hudson's Bay Company is admirably adapted to map out this vast
tract; the army of servants who obey their behests could soon
survey every part. Before long, the rumbling of wheels, and the
whistle of the advancing locomotive, will be heard at Pembina;
the great bodies of emigrants who seek the gold-fields of the Pacific
and the Saskatchewan are coming with their long trains. Surely
it is time for the Company to awake; the great modern revolu-
tionizer is near them—the iron bands are waiting to span the
prairies. But it is said the Rocky Mountains are an insuperable
obstacle to a railroad.
Can it be supposed that a people who have tunnelled the Alps and
the Thames ; who have arched the Loire and the Seine a hundrjefl
times; who have united the shores of the St. Lawrence, and crossed
its mighty current with two miles of iron tubing; who have leaped
yawning chasms at a bound; who have, amidst discouragement,
difficulty, doubt, and fatigue, but with iron will, constructed in
this age one hundred thousand miles of railroads across prairies—
by the side of yawning precipices—overlooking miles upon miles of
cities and towns—ascending peak after peak—and descending awful 103
slopes—now sweeping in graceful curves by the side of rushing
rivers—then rumbling over the tops of houses whose dwellers lived
in security—off again into the daisied and cowslipped fields—
speeding- throsigh umbrageous forests that formed an avenue o'er-
topped and arched with foliage—-leaping rivers innumerable, on
its iron supports—pushed beneath the hills, which towered above
hundreds of feetn—till once again the shrill whistle announced
j&Mboppage to its progress s the people who have erected palaces of
glass and iron ; who have built ships as large as the ark; who can
build ships impervious to cannon balls, and lay a cable beneath the
ocean three thousand miles wide : are not going to stop or halt at
the foot of the Rocky Mountains because those mountains are tall.
They are going over them, up them, or down them—around their
sides, across their passes, or through them or under them; but
iron rails must be wedded to iron rails from one side of the slope
to the other—and once wedded, there will be no divorce. Every
nerve should be strained, every influence used, and every desire of
the Company should be, to open a track for the emigrant. The
ultimate value of their possessions, once under the sway of agriculture, no figures could calculate.
Say that the capital was £2,000,000; why, this land will yet
sell for £3,500,000 at only 4s. an acre. Think of the marvellous
increase which all the West shows. Only a few years since, Texas,
Iowa, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Missouri, were an untracked
wilderness, and land hardly worth a song. In Texas, in 1850,
there was under cultivation 643,976 acres; in 1860, 2,649,207.
Iowa, in 1850, 824,682 acres; in 1860, 3,780,253. Wisconsin, in
1850, 1,045,499 acres ; in 1860, 3,746,036. Minnesota, in 1850,
5035 acres; in 1860, 551,397. Missouri, in 1850, 2,938,425
acres; in 1860, 6,246,871. Minnesota, 1st January, 1865, had
1,000,000 acres of land under cultivation, and the value of her
farms was estimated at 34,000,000 dollars. Thus, in 1850, this
new-born state possessed a less number of acres under cultivation
than the Red River Settlement, which was 6392 acres in 1849; in
1860, 10,000 acres; and only 20,000 in 1864.
When Professor Hind was about to bid adieu to Mr. Gowler,
one of the best farmers at Red River Settlement, the latter said, as
he closed the wicket-gate, " Look at that prairie ; 10,000 head of
cattle might feed and fatten for nothing. If I found it worth my
while, I could enclose 50, 100, or 500 acres, and from every acre
get 30 to 40 bushels of wheat, year after year. I could grow
Indian corn, barley, oats, flax, hemp, hops, turnips, tobacco—anything you wish, and to any amount; but what would be the use?
There are no markets—it's a chance if my wheat is taken, and my
potatoes I may have to give to the pigs.    If we had only a market, 104
you'd have to travel long before you would see the like of these
prairies about the Assiniboine."
Professor Hind says that he saw wheat that had grown 56
bushels to the acre. Swedish turnips were magnificent; four of
them weighed 70 lbs.—two weighing 39 lbs., and two others 31 lbs.
I counted thirteen, fourteen, and sixteen potatoes averaging 3|
inches in diameter at each root respectively. They were a round,
white-skinned variety, like those known in Canada as the " English
We believe the directors of the Company are far-seeing enough
to know what is the best policy for themselves and those they
represent, and that we shall see them ready and willing to assist in
advancing the interests of the stockholders, promoting the good of
the settler, developing the resources of the country, opening up the
highways of travel, and extending the influence and power of a
Government, strong, protective, and beneficent.  CO
33 ***
The Rocky Mountains: their Extent, their Altitude, their Passes—British Columbia : Early Disco-very, Boundary-line, Lakes, Rivers, &c.; Gold and the Goldmines ; Discovery of the Gold; Testimony of Governor Douglas, G. Forbes
Macdonald, Esq.,,and the Times Correspondent—Gold on Eraser River—
Richness of the Mines—Mines on Thompson River—Lillooett Gold-mines-
Cariboo Gold River-—Steele's Company—Labour in British Columbia—Export
of Gold in 1863 — Fertility of Soil in the Gold Neighbourhood — Progress
of the Colony—Vancouver's Island: its Agricultural Resources, Coal-beds,
Importance as a Naval Station, Imports and Exports; Prospecting, Panning,
and Washing Gold.
The Rocky Mountains stretch from north to south of the North
American Continent for a distance of 3000 miles.     They are a
succession of centres of disturbance, rather than a continuous range
of backbone dividing the  continent.     Their greatest  altitude is
attained at Mount Brown, which is 15,000 feet above the sea.    At
their arctic termination they are about 1000 or 2000 feet in height;
they then increase in altitude as they go southward, averaging
7000 to 8000 feet; while Mount Brown, Mount Hooker, Fremont's
Peak, and Long's Peak attain a much greater height.
The general widthof the Rocky Mountains is from 40 to 100 miles.
South of 42° there is no route across the mountains capable of being
traversed ; but north of this there are two passes, called the North
and South Passes, within the boundaries of the United States, and
averaging  7000 feet in height.    In British America the passes
are numerous.    Those at present discovered are—
1. Cow-Dung Lake Portage, or Leather Pass .    .    .    54°    0'
2. Boat Encampment, or Original Athabasca Portage    53° 45'
3. Howe's Pass 51° 45'
4. Kicking Horse Pass 51° |g
5. Vermilion Pass 51   10'
6. Kananaski, or Emigrant Pass 50° 40'
7. Crow-Nest Pass 49° 407
8. Kootanay Pass 49° 25'
These passes will be more particularly referred to when we consider the subject of a railway across the continent.
British Columbia occupies an area of 225,250  square miles.
It is about 420 miles long, and 300 miles broad.    It comprises " all lIMffii''-1
such territories within the dominions of Her Majesty as are bounded
to the south by the frontier of the United States of America, to the
east by the main chain of the Rocky Mountains, to the north by
Simpson's River and the Finlay branch of the Peace River, and to
the west by the Pacific Ocean," and all the islands adjacent to these
Early in the sixteenth century, the Spaniards, who had explored
a great deal of the shores of the Pacific, and planted several small
colonies, extended their adventures gradually northward, and discovered the coasts of British Columbia. The Straits of Juan de
Fuca were discovered by a Spanish pilot, who had visited its shores.
In 1578, Drake touched at Vancouver on his voyage round the
world. In 1792, Captain Vancouver, an officer in the English
Navy, who had been sent to settle some difficulties with the
Spaniards in reference to the seizure of some English ships, arrived
at Nootka; but not finding the Spanish admiral there, he sailed
through the Straits of Fuca, entered the Gulf of Georgia, and,
forcing his way through, passed at length into the Pacific by
Queen Charlotte Sound, giving his name to the island he had thus
Sir A. Mackenzie, in 1792, explored the shores of the Peace
River for a distance of 200 miles.
In the year 1806, Mr. Fraser, a gentleman in the employ of the
North-West Company, crossed the Rocky Mountains at Leather
Pass, from Canada; descended the river which bears his name, until
he arrived at a lake, which he also christened after himself; and
here he erected a fort, and established a trading post, at the 54th
parallel of latitude. In 1810, an American company, called the
Pacific Fur Company, under the superintendence of John Jacob
Astor (who afterwards became the wealthiest merchant in America),
a German merchant of New York, formed other trading communities.
At a later period, difficulties arose as to the right of possession
between various governments. Russia claimed certain territory
westof the Rocky Mountains and north of 54° 40', including Sitka
and its neighbourhood. In 1823, President Monroe announced his
celebrated Monroe doctrine, that further colonization by European
Powers would be opposed. From this time forward, up to 1844,
matters between England and the United States wore a threatening
aspect. " Fifty-four, forty, or fight," was the rallying cry of the
American Democratic party. Fortunately, negotiations and diplomatic arrangements were not controlled by the rabble. The line of
the 49 th parallel, from the Rocky Mountains to the sea, was
the basis of settlement for this vexed question ; but, alas! no human 107
foresight can prevent contingencies. The line was to continue
through the centre of the Gulf of Georgia, and thence southward,
through the channel which separates the continent from Vancouver
Island, to the Straits of Juan de Fuca. Now, subsequent exploration proved there were three channels instead of one. Of course
the Americans claimed the furthest north as the boundary-line, the
British the furthest south. Thanks to nature, there is a centre one;
and it is to be hoped both parties will amicably arrange this matter,
at the earliest possible moment.
The surface of the whole country is intersected with mountains,
hills, lakes, rivers, and plains. There is a range of mountains
called the Cascade Mountains, between the coast and the Rocky
Mountains: further south they are called the Sierra Nevada.
The principal lakes are Stuart's Lake, in lat. 54° 50', long. 124° W.
This lake is fifty miles in length, and from three to four miles in
breadth. Fraser's Lake is fifty miles west of this, and about eighty-
five miles in circumference. M'Leod's Lake, in latitude 55°, is in
circumference about fifty-five miles. Further south we have Lakes
Quesnelle, Chilcotin, and Axe, all connected with Fraser's River,
Green Lake, Shoushwap Lake, Kamloop's Lake, and Harrison's
Lake are all connected with Thompson River.
The Okanagan Lake, Upper and Lower Arrow Lake, and Flat
Bow Lake are all connected with the waters of Columbia River,
which crosses the boundary-line at 49° lat., and extends its branches
northward and westward as far as 52° 40', and along the western
base of the Rocky Mountains.
Mr. Hazlitt, in a useful little volume, entitled " The Great Gold-
Fields of Cariboo," speaking of the rivers, says:—" The principal
rivers of British Columbia are Fraser's River, Salmon River,
Thompson's River, Quesnelle's River, Chilcotin River. The head
waters of the chief of these, Fraser's River—called by the natives
Tatoutche Tesse—rise near those of Canoe River, the most northern
branch of the Columbia. After a western course of about 150 miles,
it receives the Salmon River from the north, and somewhat lower
the waters of Stuart's River are added from the north-west. The
stream is then swollen by the Quesnelle River, rising from a ridge of
the Rocky Mountains, and running west into the main river of the
district. Nex£ comes the Chilcotin River, so called from a cog-
nominal lake, in which it has its source. This stream, which is
shallow and full of rapids, runs in a S.S.E. direction from Fort
Alexandria; its course is serpentine, and its whole length 180 miles,
the breadth varying from forty to sixty yards.
" Further on, this main stream is joined, on the left shore, by
Thompson's River, which, rising near the source of Quesnelle's River,
flows at the base of the mountains which bound the Columbia to the •t
West: this receives the waters of several lakes in a course of above
300 miles. The principal of these is Thompson's, above which it is
joined by the Shoushwap, which has its rise between the Okanagan
lakes and main streams of the Columbia.
" The place at which Thompson's River joins Fraser's River
is called 'The Forks.' In parallel 49° this now important river
breaks through the Cascade range of mountains, in a succession of
falls and rapids, and then running westward about ninety milefcj;
falls into the Gulf of Georgia, six miles north of 49° N., that parallel
being the boundary-line between the British territories and those of
the United States. The whole length is stated at about 400 miles.
The country along its lower section is hilly and thickly wooded, and
the soil is for the most part suitable both for arable and pasture land.
Further north the country is equally well wooded, but it is less genial
and fertile, and is intersected by mountains, torrents, gullies, and
" At its mouth, Fraser's River is about a mile wide, with a serpentine channel leading through a mud flat. Fort Langley is situated
on the left bank, thirty-five miles from the mouth. Thus far the
stream is navigable for vessels of considerable burden. The next
post is Fort Hope, at the mouth of Que-Queallon River, sixfcy^ftiW&
miles above Fort Langley. Between Fort Hope and Fort Yale,
sixteen miles, the river presents no difficulties whatever to a canoe
ascending, excepting in one place, where there is a rapid, which,
however, is no great obstacle, as close to the shore, in the eddy, a
canoe is easily towed past it. But, about one half mile above Fort
Yale, the river finds its passage between huge rocks—the sides
almost perpendicular—and a canoe cannot be taken any farther.
From thence, all goods have to be packed. Now and then a stretch
of a mile or so is found, where the canoe can be of service.
" From Fort Yale to the forks of Thompson and Fraser Rivers
is ninety miles; and from these to the Grand Falls, thirty."
Before we proceed to  a   consideration   of   the   agricultural
resources of British Columbia, or attempt a description of its forests
or any other of its elements of wealth, we know that the emigrant
has linked the name of gold with all connected with this territory
and that that subject is the one he feels most interest in.
" Why
Will buy your priests and servants from your sides;
Pluck stout men's pillows from below their heads.
This yellow slave
Will,knit and break religions; bless the accursed"
.  Make the hoar leprosy adored; place thieves
'1*918 gfive them title, knee, and approbation,
With senators on the bench!" 109
It is indeed a wondrous talisman, and an all-powerful agent for
good or evil. It tempted a Judas to betray his master, and an
Arnold his country; it gave Caesar the means of purchasing the
allegiance of his enemies, and it made James, King of England, the
tool of Louis of France.    It melted the heart of Diana with its glit-
and has gifted old age with the fascinations of Mars.
tering hue,
Princes and merchants, youth, beauty, and innocence, are alike its
willing worshipper.
"Gold is the strength, the sinews of the world;
The health, the soul, the beauty most divine.
A mask of gold hides all deformities;
Gold is Heaven's physic, life's restorative."
The luxuries, comforts, and quietude of a happy home, with the
dear family links that should bind us there—the warm appeals from
those who have a right to counsel and advise ; the warnings given
with prophetic utterance of privations and hardships in store ; the
love of country, her institutions and her protective influence ; the
long and weary voyage across the stormy ocean, with its attendant
discomforts and dangers; the slow and laborious travel over cheerless
plains, up and down rugged mountains, and over numberless streams;
the solitude of night on the vast and wide-spread prairies; the disappointments that continually cross our path—are alike incapable of
stopping our onward progress. Gold has burnt its name into our
brain—every marvellous story of sudden accumulated or discovered
wealth is treasured up in our memory. In visions and in dreams
we gild and silver the rafters and walls of our quiet and comfortable
cottage with the products of the mines of Mexico and Peru, Australia
and California. The solid pyramid at Sydenham Palace, that
raises its gilded column as a svmbol of the wealth of one of Eng-
land's colonies, is but another incentive to our already disquieted
brain, and tempts us to seek the source from whence it came. All
that produces gold, or is a symbol of wealth, alike fascinates us.
Has the sight of the Koh-i-noor—that " mountain of light," that
" monarch of diamonds," that a Queen alone is thought worthy to
wear—ever ceased to be forgotten? Rather has the beholder
travelled in imagination to Golconda, and pondered over its wealth
of diamonds, rubies, chrysolites, .garnets, amethysts, cornelians,
jaspers, agates, and opals. We never reflect upon the labour or the
means by which they are obtained. The proud duchess only thinks
of the effect of the diamonds that flash from her coronet—the
thousands of wedded brides, when the golden symbol is slipping
surely on the finger that links them heart and altar bound, in the
moment of their royal joy, have no thought of the miner who
washed it from the sands, or picked it from the crushed quartz
thousands of miles across the ever-moving sea, and who is, perhaps,
now laid quietly in
" Death's northern sea*of frozen waves." 110
Neither does the coy maiden, who, with downcast gaze, is idly
toying with a string of pearls, yet is listening with eager attefctittii
to her lover's words, think of the agony which swelled the veins to
bursting of the poor diver who groped the sands beneath'the waves
to gather gems for her adornment. No; we never ask&ow many
fingers grew weary over the embroidered dress that is now' a
wonder of taste; we never think, when gazing on some statue ttiat
seems to us a miracle of beauty, of the study, thought, and patient
labour by which it was brought from its unshapen state to its perfect form. We never ask what labour was bestowed on this or
that. The Pyramids are towering in their height on Egypt's sands ;
the Vatican proudly lifts her classic columns above the capitoline
.hills of imperious Rome; the gloomy architectural pile of St. jPaul's
rises in stately grandeur in the midst of a city wfio is to-day Queen
of the commercial world. We look, we see, and are satisfied. The
pttsy hand, the combined herculean strength, the architectural
conceivers, and the mechanical employers have all gone : marble,
stone, and brick remain.
Gold is embedded in the quartz and sand of the Pacific to an
.Unlimited extent, and in sufficient quantities to supply the demands
of the world for centuries to come.
Australia, California, and British Columbia, between the years
.1849-63, have produced £350,000,000, or equal to 58 per cent,
upon the total computed stock of £600,000,000 sterling of gold
existing in various forms in Europe and America.
With such evidence as this in existence, is it to be wondered at
that the brain becomes dazzled with figures, and that there is a
longing in the mind of the dissatisfied to try the chances sol this
great lottery of gold?
All the glittering stories of Pizarro have been realized; the
IBa^nbow bubble of the South Sea has burst into showers of auriferous wealth. The gifts of the Queen of Sheba, the wealth of
Indian raias, and the hidden stores of the misers of Egypt, are
atoms in the scale where the splendours of the Pacific weigh, in tine
balance. ,, ^ ,      ,        . . ,
r vxoa made mankind;.
See what mankind have made their god."   ,
So says Alfred Evelyn, in Bulwer's play of " Money.**
The colonies of Victoria, New South Wales, and New Zealand	
the slopes of the Sierra Nevada in California; the vast interior
district of Cariboo, which parts the waters of the Columbia' Fraser
Saskatchewan, Athabasca, and Peace Rivers, to every point of the
compass; the slopes of Gold Hill and Snowy Mountain in Colorado—possess rivers like that of Pison, " encompassing the whole
land of Havilah, where there is gold, and the gold of the land
is crood."
As early as June, 1856, G
overnor Douglas reported to tl
le Ill
Secretary of State the discoverv of gold in British Columbia. D.
G. Forbes Macdonald, C.E., F.R.G.S., in his work on British
Columbia, thus expatiates on the effects which the discovery of
gold produced:—" The announcement was received, however,
with comparative disbelief until June 1858, when the reported
wealth of the Fraser River mines produced an excitement which
resulted in an unparalleled exodus. The fever all over the State
of California was intense, and few, if any, escaped its contagion.
Multitudes pressed on to the new Eldorado by steamers, sailing-
vessels, barques, brigs, and schooners, until upwards of 40,000 souls
had landed on Vancouver's Island. The poor, the rich, the old,
the young, and even the decrepit, had gone ; merchants, doctors,
lawyers, loafers, all had gone. Brethren of the creeds of Calvin,
Luther, and Penn, the admirers of Voltaire, and the fellow-thinkers
of Tom Paine, had gone also to add their quota to the motley
crowd. The price of revolvers and bowie-knives advanced; and
everything indicated that the State of California would lose nearly
sJl-her male population. Business men of all classes abandoned
their occupations. Many went without money, many with; some
to inv?e%t in real estate, others to swindle, many to gamble; some
out of curiosity, some to steal, and many to die. In tMs remarkable
throng were blended all ranks, all professions, and all parties.    An
of tongues prevailed in this second Babel; and even
the voice of women rose loud and incessant in the throng. People
of all nations went; and many borrowed sums at ruinous interest,
advanced on goods and property, which soon passed away into the
ruthless hands of the usurer."
The comprehensive and carefully written letter of the special
correspondent of the London Times conveys so correct an idea of
the country, and treats in detail the whole subject so minutely, and
its facts have been since so clearly established, that we have
transferred much of the letter to these pages.
" Victoria, Vancouver's Island, fan. 20, 1862.
" Beginning with Fraser River, the main artery of the auriferous region, I may state that gold is known to exist and has been
worked at a great many places in the river and on its banks from a
point about 45 miles from the mouth of the river up to near ate
source in the Roeky Mountains; in other words, from the 49th up
to the 53rd parallel of north latitude, a distance (taking in the
windings) of some 800 miles. The south branch of the Fraser has
its sources near Mount Brown in the Rocky Mountains, in about
53° north latitude, 118° 40' west longitude. Thence this branch
flows for 290 miles to Fort George, a post of the Hudson's Bay
Company. The north branch rises in an opposite direction. It
receives its supply from a series of lakes lying between 54° and 55
©f north latitude, longitude about 124° 50' west, and runs a course*
of 260 miles to its junction with the south branch, some miles Hi
below tha^th parallel of north latitude. Here the union of the
two branches forms the Fraser River proper. Adding the north
branch, which is also a gold-bearing stream, and which was
' worked' last season, to the other arm, the two will give us a
continuous stretch of auriferous riverain territory upwards of
1000 miles in length, extending for many miles back into the
country on both sides, but not including the tributary rivers
which fall into the Fraser. In short, the river itself is now known
to be auriferous, and to pass through a gold-bearing country
throughout its whole course. Gold is also found in most of the
tributaries of the Fraser, of which no less than fifty-nine are known.
The great length of the main river and the number of its tributaries
will give some idea of the auriferous resources of the country.
" Besides the gold found in the beds and on the shores of these
streams, the Fraser itself and many of its tributaries are skirted or
bordered by terraces, all of which yield gold also. These terraces,
or ' benches,' as the miners call them, run at intervals, along both
sides of the rivers for miles in length; and they recede where the
mountains retire, for distances back into the valleys, varying from a
few acres to a few miles in breadth. They are objects of curiosjyty
and speculation, and add much to the beauty of the rude scenes in
which they occur, from the regularity and evenness of their structural
They generally occur on both sides of the river (opposite to each
other), at the same place, sometimes at the same elevations on