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Report of the Vancouver Board of Trade for the year 1897-98 Vancouver. Board of Trade 1898

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Array     REPORT 
of the 
VANCOUVER 
Board of Trade 
for the Year 
1897-98. 
Vancouver, 
British Columbia, Canada,  OFFICERS.

Past Presidents.
1887-89. .D. Oppenheimer (dec.)
1889-90. .E. V. Bodwell (dec).
1889-91. .R. H. Alexander.
1891-92. .John Hendry.
1892-93. .G. E. Berteaux (dec.)
1892-93. .W. F. Salsbury.
1893-94..J. C. Keith.
.1894-95. .G. R. Major.
1895-97. .H. Bell-Irving.
1897-98..Wm. Godfrey.
OFFICERS FOR  1898-9.
President—"W in. Godfrey.
Vice-President—C. E. Tisdall. Secretary—Wni. T. Stein.
R. H. Alexander.
W. F. Salsbury.
Win. Murray.
S. Oppenheimer.
G. I. Wilson.
COUNCIL.
F. Buscombe.
J. C. McLagan.
H. Bell-Irving.
Wm. Skene;
^;!:'H.:Ker. .
C. G. Johnson.
F. Cockburn.
W. Pellew-Harvey
Campbell; Sweeny.
F. C. Cotton. '
BOARD OF ARBITRATION
R. H. Alexander.
Wm. Murray.
G. I. Wilson.
W. H. Ker.
F. Cockburn.
Campbell Sweeny.
W. F. Salsbury,  .
S. Oppenheimer.
F. Buscombe.
C. G. Johnson.
W. Pellew-Harvey.
F. C. Cotton.
Offices :—Lefevre Block, Hastings Street, Vancouver, B. C,
Canada,        ANNUAL    REPORT
OF THE
Vancouver Board of Trade.
May, 1898. :
PRESIDENT'S   ADDRESS.
Gentlemen,—It gives me great pleasure to be able to report
briefly on a year of great progress in this community, and of considerable activity,and I think, appreciable results from work done by this
Board.
Membership.    There has been a large increase in the membership,
which from 76 at the beginning of the year has now -.
grown to 150.
While the attendance at the | meetings has not been all that it
might be, a much .greater interest is taken, in the w.ork of the Board,
and I think it is now in closer touch with the mercantile community
than it has ever been hitherto.
It is with very great regret that we have to note during the year
the death of Mr. D. Oppenheimer, who was the first President of this
Board.
Work Done. The following subjects have been discussed bytheBoard
""' ~ during the past year, and resolutions with regard to them
passed after due consideration : Customs Regulations re Ship stores;
Establishment of a Mint; Delegation to meet Count Ito on 19th
June; Beacons on Canoe Pass; Reciprocal Tariff; Report from
Representative to Congress of Chambers of Commerce of the Empire; Extension of the Northern Shipping Trade, 8th June, 1897;
Salmon Hatcheries; Kootenay Mail Service; Increase of Staff at
Vancouver Custom House; Customs exacted by the United States
on goods entering the Klondike; Steamers to the Yukon; C. P. N.
Steamers not calling at Vancouver; Stikine River Route to the
Yukon; Hon. Secretary, Wm. Skene resigned 12th Oct., 1897;
W. T. Stein, Chartered Accountant, appointed Secretary; Proposed
Music Hall; Proposed Improvements to Canadian Pacific Railway
terminus ; Address to the Hon. Clifford Sifton ; Insolvency Legislation; to re-open old telegraph trail to Omineca and Cassiar; Stikine
River Navigation; Mineral Exhibit for Board Room; Maps for
Board Room; Trail from Squamish to Pemberton; Yukon Mining 12 VANCOtTVER BOARD OE TRADE.
Licences; Report by Trade Commissioner to South America; Pacific
Cable; ■ Steamers to Central and South American Ports; Trap
Pishing for Salmon in Boundary Bay ; Victoria, Vancouver and
Eastern Railway; Duty on Canning Supplies (Tin Plate and Pig
Lead); Smelter propositions; Duty on Fresh Salmon; Halibut
Fisheries; Railway from Columbia River westward; Duty on
Lumber; Advertising the Yukon, 19th August, 1897; Klondike
Advertising Committee elected 26th Nov., 1897; Chamber of Mines;
Additional Lights and Fog Horns on Northern Coast; Rocks and
Snags in the Stikine; Duties on Lumber; Light House at the
Narrows, Burrard Inlet; Kettle River Railway; Railway from
British Columbia Port to Telegraph Creek; Inspection of Stationary
Boilers.
Klondike A committee made up of Members of the Board of
Advertising. Trade and other merchants, took up the matter of
"■~~*^—■■■ advertising Vancouver as an outfitting point, and its
other advantages in connection with the "rush" of miners and
others to the newly discovered gold fields of the Yukon. This met
with great success, the sum of $7,545 having been subscribed of
which $4,514 is paid and has been I think profitably expended.
The principal schemes engaged in were :—
in   20  Leading  British   Papers.
Eastern Canada "
United States "
Kootenay "
Australian "
Having a large photogravure of Vancouver
prepared from a photograph for distribution
in prominent places in England and elsewhere.
7th Distribution of City pamphlets and Klondike
edition of The World.
8th Writing personal letters in reply to the many
enquiries made as a result of these advertisements. Though this has entailed a great deal
of work on the Secretary of the Committee,
the results have amply justified the course
:   taken.
1st •
Advertising
2nd
it
3rd
it
4th
tt
5th
a
6th
Having
' a ANNUAL REPORT. 13
9th Opening a Bureau of Information in Seattle 1
with reference to outfitting here. This I
think has been one of the best advertising
means adopted, and on account of the attack
made on it by the Press of Seattle did even
more work than was expected of it.
The Board had also the pleasure of interviewing Sir Wm. Van
Home, Mr. J. G. Shaugnessy and the Hon. Mr. Clifford Sifton,
besides others, the result of which meetings, especially that with
Sir Wm. Van Home, have been very satisfactory and-productive of
much good in the way of restoring confidence and assisting a wave of
renewed prosperity, of which we are now receiving a tangible proof.
It is pleasing to observe that the Canadian Pacific Railway Co.
are now going on with their magnificent- terminal buildings as
promised in these interviews.
Agriculture.   Which has been very depressed for some years is
""""~—"——~" now showing marked signs of improvement.    The
Klondike rush is giving large and profitable demand for all description of produce especiallyin the shape of horses, cattle, hay and feed
of all descriptions.
Mining.      The following figures giving the production of the
"™~~""      " Lode Mines " of the Province, show the wonderful
development taking place in this industry, covering only the production of Gold, Silver, Lead and Copper:—
Value.
1892 -        -        -      $ 139,440
1893 -        -        -        -     297,400
1894 -        -        - 781,342    ,:
1895 -        - - 2,342,397,j
1896 -        - 4,257,179
Total for 5 years     - $7,817,758
1897        -        jj        -     $7,052/432   ,
The yield of placer gold, principally from the Cariboo District,
was as follows :—
1892 -  $ 399,526'
1893 -   -   -   -  356,131
.1894   ill! 405,516
1895 -        -       B     481.683
1896 -        I 544,026 -    j    ■   ..t
l89? ■■■I     513,520.,      I   v. 14 VANCOUVER BOARD OP TRADE.
Salmon This year (the 4th and largest in the usual circle of
Canning, four years), the pack has reached the record figure of
^^—■~*     1,015,477 cases made up as follows:—
Fraser River        -        -      860,459
Northern Pack        -        -   155,018
l,015,47,y
The
following figures shew the growth of the industry on the
Fraser
River :-
1890        -        -        -         244,633
Pi
n }
1891 ,.-;■      -        -        -     177,658
1892 -       -       -         167,022
1893 -       -       -       -    457,797
1894 -        -        -         363,967
1895 -                                400,368
1896 -        -        -         356,984
1897. m       -        -        -    860,459
Prices for canned salmon have ruled very low this season, but on
the other hand, the price of fish was less than it has been for several
years, so that, the result to the canneries should be satisfactory.
A combine is now. organized between the principal agents, with a
view to keeping the price at a figure,to give a fair profit, and recent
sales have been made at satisfactory rates.
Lumber. The foreign shipments of Lumber are less than usual,
mmmmmmm partly through the fact that shipping is very scarce
and freight high, but the local and Eastern Markets are improving,
and the construction of Crows Nest Pass Railway has caused large
orders to be placed here. Loggers are getting better prices, and
there is generally a better feeling in this business.
Shipping.    It is expected that the tonnage return when received
1 will show a decrease from last year's statement. ■
Toward the end of the year, freights increased very materially
from 10/ to, 11/,. and there was a great scarcity of shipping on the
coast, a large part of the local fleet being engaged in Klondike
business.
In connection with this business it is gratifying to note that a
large fleet of River Steamers and other craft are building at Vancouver and New Westminster, I I
Annual report. 15
Revenue     The Revenue Returns for the Port of Vancouver are
Returns,    as follows :—
•    Imports for 1897      -        -        $1,987,855
1896 - "     -       -    1,578,819
Increase      -        -    '   $  409,036
Exports for.1897      -        -""■   $1,302,363
.:..    1896-        -      '•-     1,093,738
Increase      -        -        $  *208,625
Revenue for 1897 " -        -        $   485,838
1896 -       -       -       394,178
Increase      -        -      $     91,660
General It is safe to assert that at no time within the past seven
Business, years did general business prospects look so bright as
~—~~"~"" at present. From its position, and the facilities that
the Canadian Pacific Railway Co. and others are preparing to give
Vancouver in the way of first class lhies of steamers to northern
ports, there is no doubt that we shall get a large share of the outfitting trade for the Klondike. These facts are well advertised and
already we are feeling the benefits of this new trade, which has the
great advantage of being entirely on a Cash Basis.
A large number of our merchants have made extensive preparations for it, and are doing a very satisfactory business.
Real Estate. Real Estate in good business localities has been in
* good demand toward the end of the year, and quite
a number ofbusiness lots have changed hands at larger figures than
have been given for some years.
There has never in the City's history been a time when so many
people were passing through, and in many cases staying here, as at
present, every available house is occupied, and a great many new
on.es are in course of erection,
w 16 VANCOUVER BOARD OP TRADE.
Banking.     Two additional Banks, the Merchants' Bank of Halifax and the Molson's Bank, have opened offices here
during the year, making six banks in all with branches in, Vancouver.
I hope that the prosperity, on which there can be no doubt we
are now entering, may last for many years, and show itself in the
steady growth and development of the City of Vancouver of which
we must all feel proud, and that this Board will always be a factor
in and an assistance to such growth; and I take this opportunity
to thank the Members of the Board and my fellow officers for the
uniform courtesy and assistance they have extended to me during
the year. 
W. GODFREY,
President. ANNUAL REPORT.
Secretary's Report for the Year 1897-8.
MEETINGS.
General Meetings of the Board 12
Special        | 1 I       4
Meetings-of the Council 29
MEMBERSHIP.
Members, on the Roll at 31st March, 1897 1 76
Resigned   2
Deaths   2
72
New Members elected 78
Members on the Roll at 31st March, 1898 150 18 VANCOUVER BOARD OP TRADE.
Secretary's Report for the Year 1897-8.
FINANCIAL   STATEMENT.
Receipts—
Balance in Bank at 31st March, 1897 $ 180 52
Dues, Entrance Fees, &c    1287 50
 '■ $1468 02
Expenditure—
Current Expenses $ 598 40
Annual   Report  275 00
Klondike Advertising  150 00
Furniture  Account  117 61
$1141 01
Balance in Bank of British North  America
at 28th February, 1898      327 01
 $1468 |l
Balance Sheet as at 28th February, 1898.
Liabilities—
Dues paid in advance $ 77 00
Surplus of Assets over Liabilities    621  86
$698 86
Assets—
Balance in Bank of British North America $327 01
Furniture »    195 85
Unpaid  Dues    176 00
$698 86
WILLIAM T STEIN, C.A.,
Secretary. ANNUAL REPORT.
19
EXTRACTS FROM MINUTES.
Canadian Mint.
At a Meeting held on 18th May, 1897, it was resolved that
the Vancouver Board of Trade endorse the proposal to establish a
Mint in Canada for the coinage of Gold, Silver and Copper.
Preferential British Tariff.
At a Meeting held on 8th June, 1897, it was resolved that
this Board desires to place on record its unqualified approval of the
reciprocal clause in the new tariff, believing that the action taken
by the Dominion Government in this matter will be productive of
far-reaching results for the benefit of all parts of the British Empire.
Duty oil Imports to the- Klondike.
At a Meeting held on 13th July, 1897, the Board passed a
resolution pointing out to the Dominion Customs authorities that
considerable quantities of goods emanating from Puget Sound Ports
are being carried into Canadian Territory without paying duty, by
way of Dyea, from which place they are transported over the mountains to the head waters of the Stewart River, and thence into the
Canadian Mining Territory of the Klondike.
Klondike Transportation.
On 2nd August, 1897, a special meeting of the Board was
held to consider the question of transportation facilities to the
Yukon, and a committee was appointed to obtain subscriptions for
advertising the advantages which Vancouver possesses as the Outfitting Port for the Klondike.
It was resolved at a Meeting held on 10th August, 1897, that;
whereas there is a considerable and rapidly increasing trade to
the Yukon, and it is desirable to afford facilities for commerce to
reach it in order to compete successfully with foreign competition;
therefore be it resolved that the desirability of opening up a route
entirely through undisputed British Territory be strongly urged upon
both the Dominion and Provincial Governments, and further, that
they be asked to assiifin the immediate construction of the same, 20 VANCOUVER BOARD OF TRADE.
Canadian Pacific Railway Terminal Buildings.
A Conference was held on the 19th October, 1897, by the
Canadian Pacific Railway Co. officials with the Members of the
City Council and of the Board of Trade, when the question of
permanent Terminal Buildings for the railway was discussed. The
taxation of Railway property used for Railway purposes was fully
considered; and also of obtaining wharf frontage for the City
where it would not interfere with the Railway Company's proposed wharfs.
The Empress Line of steamers to China and Japan; the
Australian Liners,, and the proposed Line of Mail Steamships to
the Northern Ports for the Klondike trade were also referred to.
South American Trade.
A Meeting was held on 13th January, 1898, to interview Mr..
E. E. Sheppard, Dominion Government Trade Commissioner to South
American Ports, when Mr. Sheppard reported that he considered
that a large trade with Central and South American Cities might
be built up if the Canadian Merchants'would take'active measures
to introduce their goods. The Market at the present time is being
entirely supplied by the more enterprising American Merchants,
but there is no reason why Canadian products should not hold
their own, in that Market. With regard to a subsidy.to a Steamship Line operating to South American Ports, he .was. decidedly in
favor of recommending it, provided any parties could be found who
would accept a reasonable subsidy to open such a line. He "was
doubtful if a Steamship Line would prove a paying enterprise,
even with the assistance of a subsidy.
Copy of Address presented to the Hon. Clifford Siftdn, at the Board of Trade
Rooms, on 4th. November; 1897-...
To the Hon. Cligprd Si/ton,
Minister of th& Interior,
Canada.
Sir :—The members of the Vancouver Board of Trade have
pleasure in. welcoming you to this City.
They desire to express their satisfaction .at the prompt action
you have taken in making yourself personally acquainted with the
special conditions which govern mining in the Yukon district ANNUAL REPORT/ 21
The Board anticipate that the experience gained will prove to
be of great assistance in passing legislation specially adapted to the
requirements of the district, and that great benefits will accrue to
the Dominion from the personal and local knowledge which you
have acquired of the great mining region.
The Board of Trade desire to* congratulate you, as a member
of the Dominion Government, on the great advance which Canada
has made in the public estimation during the past year. In her
lumber, fishing and mining industries, a large amount of British
and foreign capital is being steadily invested, bringing in its train
social and material prosperity to our people.-.
The Board of Trade congratulates the Government on the energetic manner in which the various departments are being administered,
upon the increase of revenue at home, and the appreciation of
Canadian securities abroad. They recognise to a large degree these
encouraging facts are due to the vast mineral wealth in this Province
and in the new gold fields of the Yukon in the North West Territories, both of/which are daily becoming more widely known. They
trust that the Government will show its appreciation of these conditions by aiding ;and assisting in every possible way in the
development of these resources.
Believing that the Government will realize thpimportance of
this opportunity, the Board of Trade begs respectfully to draw your
attention to the following matters which will materially assist in
the development so much desired :—
1st The necessity of telegraphic communication
with Dawson City.
2nd Subsidizing" a railway from Vancouver or other
favourable point to the Yukon.
3rd The forwarding and receiving the Yukon mails
at Vancouver as being the most direct and,
from its position, the most natural point for
that purpose.
~4th A liberal mail subsidy to an efficient line of
Canaflan steamers operating from Vancouver
to the other coast cities and to northern points. 22 VANCOUVER BOARD OF TRADE.
5th Arrangements for issuing mining licenses for
the Yukon District in Vancouver, and also
appointing a Provincial Mining Recorder at
Vancouver.
6 th The abolition of the regulation respecting alternate claims, and £he modifying of the royalty
to ten per cent, on all gold extracted.
7th     To provide an effective gold escort to miners
returning from the Yukon diggings.
8th That systematic advertisement shall be made
by the Government that the Yukon gold dis-
. trict is in British territory; that all goods
required can be better purchased in Canada
than elsewhere; that the goods purchased in
Canada are admitted to the northern Canadian
gold fields free of duty; that full lines of all
classes of goods required by the miners are
held by merchants in Vancouver and the other
coast cities, and that a much greater guarantee
for fair treatment and honest packing exists
here than in other countries.
9th That full details representing the Ontario,
British Columbia and Yukon mining districts
be furnished to the agents of the British Government all over the world, and also that it be
impressed by them upon the public that all
goods purchased by them outside the Dominion
have to pay duty when entering Canada.
Earnestly requesting the favor of your kind consideration and
powerful influence in these matters, and wishing you a safe and
pleasant journey home.
(Signed)        SOL. OPPENHEIMER, Vice-Pres.
WM. T. STEIN, Secretary. ANNUAL REPORT. 23
Pacific Cable.
At a Meeting held on 8th February, 1898, the following
resolution was passed :—
Whereas the laying of a Pacific Cable from British Columbia to
Australia to complete the circle of Imperial telegraphic communication and afford an alternate direct service between the Mother
Country and her greatest dependencies of Canada, India and
Australia, is of the highest strategical and commercial importance;
and-Whereas in this connection the Home Government would appear
to be now awaiting more definite "action on the part of the Colonies ;
and Whereas, further, all measures tending to facilitate more ready
intercourse with Australia are of the first importance to Canada.
Be it resolved that, in the opinion of the Vancouver Board of
Trade, the question of the earliest possible completion of a Pacific
Cable from British Columbia to Australia is one which demands
the careful and urgent attention of the Dominion Government.
Be it also resolved that as a further incentive to prompt action,
this Board would suggest that the consummation of an all-British
circumterranean telegraphic service might be a fitting event with
which to inaugurate the first year of the twentieth century.     28 VANCOUVER BOARD OP TRADE.
THE   BRITISH   COLUMBIA   SALMON   FISHERY,
SEASON,   1897.
The pack of canned salmon for the Province for the 1897
season amounted to 1,015,477 cases an increase of 400,000 cases
over any previous pack. This steady increase on the Fraser
River Pack shows the beneficial effect of the hatcheries, so that, notwithstanding the increase in the number of canneries each year, the
yearly pro-rata catch of fish is not reduced, while on all the other
rivers along the coast there has been no increase in the total of the
season's pack. •
There is a general demand both by the canners and fishermen
for additional hatcheries in British Columbia, but the Government
has not taken any active steps in the matter. The increase in
the pack on the Columbia River and elsewhere on the Pacific Coast,
outside British Columbia, has taken place at the various points at
which hatcheries are in operation, thus demonstrating the benefit to
be derived from the construction of additional hatcheries.
A Canners' Association has recently been formed for the purpose of generally promoting the interests of the canning industry in
the Province, while the joint action of the canners' representatives
in England has considerably assisted in the marketing of the
product.
Great care and attention are now being paid to the packing in
British Columbia which, it is felt, will insure the product of this
Province commanding a market -at fairly remunerative prices. The
high standard maintained by the -Fraser River Canners has secured
the British Columbia pack the preference in the markets of the
United. Kingdom, but the canners are being forced to reduce the
cost of their product by the keen competition elsewhere.
A shipment of frozen salmon was sent to London, England,
during the past season but the results have not yet been made public. ANNUAL REPORT. 29
Pack of British Columbia Salmon, Season, 1897.
PACK BY CANNERIES.
Fraser River.
*iv           /-1        •        /-1 Cases.
Alliance Canning Co 12,000
Anglo-American Canning Co 17,312
Anglo-British Columbia Packing Co# .,.. 146,631
Bon Aecord Fishery Co 32,137'
Boutilier & Co., P  .llvU.O
British Columbia Canning Co 27,149
Brunswick Canning Co 52,298
Canadian Pacific Packing Co 30,733
Cleeve Canning Co 19,000
Colonial Canning Co , 15,031
Currie & Mc Williams 20,727
Dinsmore Island Canning Co  ,i;  12,966
Ewen & Co 33,820
Federation Brand Salmon Canning Co...., 23,-385
Fishermen's Canning Co 20,004
Fraser River Canning Co 14,865
Fraser River Industrial Society 11,255
Hume & Co., John A 15,074
London Canning Co 19,841
McPhexson & Hickey 20,002
Malcolm & Windsor 50,707
Ontario Packing Co  9,093
Pacific Coast Packing Co., Ltd  .25,447
Provincial Canning Co 11,055
Sinclair Canning Co 12,400
Star Packing Co  21,819
Terra Nova Canning Co • • • 21,384
Todd & Son, J. H '••••'• 38,792
Victoria Canning Co 1 54,606
Welsh Bros... 14.924
Western Fisheries Co • 11,456
Westharn Island Packing Co 14,504
Westminster Packing Co 18,932
Carried Forward 860,459 30 VANCOUVER BOARD OF TRADE.
Brought Forward 860,459
Skeena River.
Anglo-British Columbia Packing Co  16,205
Balmoral Canning Co  6,885
British Columbia Canning Co  8,441
Carlisle Packing Co  6,306
Inverness Canning Co  8,783
Royal Canadian Packing Co  5,724
Skeena Packing Co  8,021
Victoria Canning Co  5,540
Rivers Inlet.
Anglo-British Columbia Packing Co  8,044
British Columbia Canning Co  9,670
Brunswick Canning Co  5,850
' Vancouver Packing Co  3,344
Victoria Canning Co  7,138
Wadhams, E. A  6.161
Naas River.
Federation Brand Salmon Canning Co  20,847
Lowe  Inlht.
Lowe Inlet Packing Co  10,666
Namu Harbor.
R.  Draney |   4,357
Alert  Bay.
Alert  Bay  Canning  Oo  8,602
West Coast, V.I.
Olayoquot Fishing and Trading Co  4,434
Total pack for 1897 1,015,477 ANNUAL REPORT. 31
COMPARATIVE STATEMENT FOR FIVE YEARS.
Pack by Districts.
1893        1894        1895 1896 1897
Cases.       Cases.       Cases. Cases. Cases.
Fraser  River 457,797   363,967   400,368 356,984 860,459
Skeena River  59,683     61,151     67,797 100,140 65,905
Rivers   Inlet  38,659     39,351     58,579 107,468 40,207
Naas River  15,190     19,587     19,550 14,649 20,847
Lowe   Inlet     8,724       8,315       8,681 10,395 10,666
NamuHarbor            ....       3,000 3,987 4,357
Alert Bay      3,700      2,000      5,100 2,840 8,602
West Coast, V. 1        3,320 5,107 4,434
Gardiner's Inlet     6,476              	
590,229   494,371   566,395 601,570 1,015,477 ~~"~
32 VANCOUVER BOARD OP TRADE
SHIPPING.
During the past year extensive improvements have been made
in the wharfage accommodation which now extends along the
greater portion of the city fronting .on Burrard Inlet—the magnificent natural harbor of Vancouver—and arrangements have been
made for the erection of a light-house at the entrance to the harbor
known as "The Lions' Gate."
The shipping from this port has been largely increased during
the past year on account of the Klondike excitement.
In addition to the lumber and salmon fleets, the steamships of
the following lines now sail from Vancouver :—
The Empress Line of mail Steamers, for Japan and China.
The Canadian-Australian Line, for Sydney, calling at Honolulu,
the Fiji Islands, and Wellington, New Zealand.
The Canadian Pacific Navigation Company, from Victoria and
Nanaimo.
The Union Steamship Company, to all Northern ports, including Alaska.
The Canadian Pacific Railway Company Steamers, Tartar and
Athenian, are now on the Klondike route.
The Pacific Coast Steamship Company, from San Francisco
every five days, calling at Victoria.
Provisions  and  supplies  of  all  kinds  are  plentiful  and at
erate prices, in
bonded warehouse.
moderate prices, imported goods for ship's use being re-shipped ex
pense
Annexed will be found a list of the usual disbursement ex-
S i ANNUAL REPORT. 33
Ordinary Expenses of a Vessel in Vancouver.
Hospital dues per register ton  $        02
Health Inspector's Fee  4 00
Harbor dues  5 00
Bill of health, outwards  1 00
Pilotage, per foot (each way)  2 00
Pilotage, per foot (steamers)  1 50
Port Agency (according to srze). . .  .$25 00 to 100 00
Discharge of ballast (usually done by ship's crew)
or per ton  .25
Harbor towage    10 00 to   20 00
Stevedoring—
General cargo or salmon, per ton  45
Sugar, per ton  .25
Lumber and timber, per M. ft., according
to the style of cargo and facilities of the
' ship W- ■ ■ 80 to     !  00
Watering    15 00 to "20 00
Rates of Towage.
PILOTAGE   DISTRICT   OF   YALE   AND   NEW   WESTMINSTER.
The ports of the Pilotage District of Yale and New Westminster shall be as follows :
Port of Vancouver.
Port of New Westminster.
Port of Yale and several landings on the Frazer River.
(1) The limit of the Port of Vancouver shall be inside a line
drawn from Point Atkinson to the red buoy on Spanish Bank.
(2) The limit of the Port of New Westminster shall be inside
a line drawn between the outer buoys and north and south sand
heads at entrance of Fraser River.
DUES.
For vessels entering or clearing from the Port of Vancouver
the rates of pilotage shall be as follows :
Vessels under sail  $4 00 per foot
"       in tow of a steamer < • •   -• 00
"       under steam,    I 50,      '< 34 VANCOUVER BOARD OP TRADE.
The pilotage from Cape Flattery or Royal Roads to a line
diawn from Point Atkinson to the red buoy on Spanish Bank and
vice versa is not compulsory, but if the services of a pilot are required,
he shall be paid the following rates, viz.:
For vessels under sail—
From Cape Flattery $6 00 per foot
"    Callum Bay    5 00
I    Beachy Head   4 00      "
"    Race Rocks or Royal Roads    3 00       "
For vessels under steam or in tow of a steamer, the following rates shall be paid :
From Cape Flattery $3 00 per foot
"    Callum Bay    2 50      "
I    Beachy Head    2 00       "
"    Race Rocks or Royal Roads, vessels under steam 2 00      "
"             "             "             I             "      in tow of a
steamer    1 50      "
NEW   WESTMINSTER.
From the lighthouse on Fraser sand heads to New Westminster:
For vessels under sail $4 00 per foot
" "     in tow of a steamer    2 00       "
"        "     under steam    1  50      "
From the lighthouse to Cape Flattery or Royal Roads and
vice versa the pilotage is not compulsory, but if the services of a
pilot are required he shall be paid the following rates :
For vessels under sail—
From Cape Flattery $6 00 per foot
"    Callum Bay    5 00      "
I    Beachy Head    4 00      "
"    Race Rocks or Royal Roads    3 00       "
For vessels under steam or in tow of a steamer, the following
rates shall be paid :
From Cape Flattery $3 00 per foot
I    Callum Bay    |  50       "
"    Beachy Head    2 00      "
I    Race Rocks or Royal Roads, vessels under steam   I   00      "
" " " "     in tow of a
steamer    1   50      "
Any fraction of a foot not exceeding six inches shall be paid
for as half a foot, and any fraction of a foot exceeding six inches
shall be paid for as a foot, ANNUAL REPORT. 30
Customs of the Port of Vancouver.
RATES   OF   COMMISSION.
. Amended Schedule recommended by Special Committees and
adopted by the Board (1896).
XV. When no special agreement exists, the following shall be
collectable:—
1. On purchase of stocks, bonds, and all kinds of
securities, includiug the drawing of- bills, for
payment of the same '    24 per cent.
2. On sale of stocks, bonds, and all kinds of securi
ties, including remittances in bills and guarantee  '    2£ per cent.
3. On purchase and sale of specie, gold dust and
bullion    1   per cent.
4. On sale of bills of exchange, with endorsement. .   1\ per cent.
5. On sale of bills of exchange, without endorsement    \ per cent.
6. For endorsing bills of exchange when desired. . .   2^ per cent.
7. On sale of produce and merchandise, with guar
antee    1\ per cent.
8. On goods received on consignment, and after
wards withdrawn    1\ per cent.
9. On purchase and shipment of merchandise, on
cost and charges >    5   per cent.
10. For collecting and remitting delayed or litigated
account 10   per cent.
11. For  collecting  freight  money,  on  amount col
lected    H per cent.
12. For collecting general claims    5   per cent.
13. For collecting general average—on the first $20,-
000 or any smaller amount    5   per cent.,
14. For collecting general average—on  any excess
over $20,000    2| per cent.
15. On purchase or sale of vessels    5   per cent.
16. For entering and clearing vessels and attending
to the Customs business of the ship.. .'         $ 25 00 36
VANCOUVER BOARD OP TRADE.
17.
For  | Port Agency" attending to discharge of
cargo and transacting ship's business other than
entering and clearing at Customs :
On vessels not exceeding 250 tons cargo	
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
,24.
25.
"       with 251  tons and not exceeding
500 tons cargo	
"       with 501 tons and not exceeding
750 tons cargo	
"       with  751  tons and not exceeding
1,000 tons cargo  	
"       over 1,000 tons	
in ballast	
For disbursements of vessels by consignees	
For procuring freight or passengers	
For chartering vessels on amount of freight,
actual or estimated, to be considered as due
when the " Charter Parties " or memorandum
of their conditions, etc., are signed	
For landing and re-shipping goods from vessels
in distress, on invoice value, or in its absence,
on market value	
For receiving and forwarding goods—on invoice
amount	
For effecting marine insurance—on the amount
of premium	
The   foregoing   Commissions to be exclusive of
and every charge actually incurred.
Vessels to pay clerk' hire and the labor on wharf,
delivering cargo, •
$ 25 00
35 00
50 00
75 00
100 00
10 00
2i per cent.
5   per cent.
3   per cent.
5   per cent.
2£ per cent.
5   per cent.
Brokerage,
sorting and
Members of Special
Committee.
fRICHARD ALEXANDER,
E. E. EVANS,
H. DARLING,
C. G. JOHNSON,
iROBT. H. PATERSON. ANNUAL REPORT
37
VANCOUVER   CUSTOM   HOUSE.
Imports.
1894.
1895.
1896.
1897.
1
Free	
$   760,761
679,783
$   834,713
262,954
$1,204,424
374,395
$2,087,060
1,987,765
$1,440,544
$1,096,667
$1,578,819
$4,074,825
Exports.
1894 I   731,175
1895       882,481
1896     1,093,738
1897    1,302,363
Revenue.
1894.
1895.
1896.
1897.
Duties	
Other Revenue.
$245,911 37
40,529 71
1
$254,309 66
51,493 94
$332,470 82
51,708*02
$435,890 38
49,948 00
$286,441 08
$305,803 60
$384,178 84
$485,838 38 38
VANCOUVER BOARD OP TRADE.
Returns, Division of Vancouver,
For the Year- ending 31st December, 1897.
Ex-Warehoused.
Articles.
Ware
housed..   Consumpt.   Export. I Removal.
Spirits, gals       69,352-35     64,227*60      484-53 1,221-18
Malt, lbs 1,339,011      1,259,125             .... 	
Tobacco, lbs     118,104        110,672$       1,908$ 1,047
Raw Leaf Tobacco, lbs..      69,196|        56,847f    .       ... 645
Cigars       94,025          74,000               	
Petroleum inspection....   96,567 pkgs.    469,835*31 gate.
Duty collected—$184,989-77.
March 31	
June 30	
Sept. 30	
Dec. 31	
$   411,300 $   598,010 $1,009,310 $116,584 20
649,689          572,444 | 1,222; 133 '    99,891 10
617,293          516,606 1,133,890 112,424 18
309,483          400,000 I 709,483 106,990 90
$1,987,765
$2,087,060 !  $4,074,825    $435,890 38
Revenue.
Custom Duties $435,890 38
     49,948.00
Other Revenue
<Total. .• $485,838 38
Total Revenues.
1895
1896.
1897.
Customs      $305,803        $394,178        $485,838
Inland !      111,504 111,989 1S4.989
$417,307        $f36,167        $870,827  40
VANCOUVER-BOARD OP TRADE.
[Imports into the Province of British Columbia for 26 Years
Ending 30th June, 1897.
To 30th June, 1872.
From Canada. •
To 30th June, 1873.
From Canada..
To 30th June, 1874.
From Canada..
To 30th June, 1875.
From Canada..
To 30th June, 1876.
From Canada..
To 30th June, 1877.
From Canada..
To 30th June, 1878.
From Canada..
To 30th June, 1879.
From Canada..
To 30th June, 1880.
From Canada.
To 30th June, 1881.
From Canada..
To 30th June, 1882.
From Canada..
To 30th June, 1883.
From Canada..
To 30th June, 1884.
From Canada..
To 30th June, 1885.
From Canada.
To 30th June, 1886-
To 30th June, 1887.
To 30th June, 1888.
To 30th June, 1889-
To June 30th, 1890.
To June 30th, 1891.
To June 30th, 1892.
To June 30th, 1893.
To Jnne 30th, 1894.
To June 30th, 1895.
To June 30th, 1896.
To June 30th, 1897.
Value of
Total
Impoi-ts.
§1,790,362
22,215
2,191,011
75,608
2,085,560
66,104
2,543,552
117,054
2,997,597
129,735
2,220,968
163,142
2,244,503
144,754
2,440,781
184,951
1,689,394
208,072
2,489,643
387,111
2,899,223
449,768
3,937,536
624,207
4,142,486
789,287
4,089,492
927,054
3,953,299
3,547,852
3,509,951
3,763,127
4,379,272
5,478,883
6,495,589
3,934,066
5,320,615
4,403,976
5,566,238
7,130,381
Goods Entebed fob Home Consumption.
Dutiable        Free
Goods. Goode.
$1,600,361
1,569,112
1,676,492
1,924,482
2,237,072
1,820,391
1,905,201
1,997,125
1,614,165
2,214,153
2,472,174
3.331.023
3,337,642
3,458,529
2,951,379
3,065,791
2,674,941
2,002,646
I 3,357,111
4,261.207
4,423,414
3,662,673
3,582.333
3,131,490
3,933,050
5,048,755
t  166,707
22,215
507,364
75,604
371.544
68404
566,111
117,054
707,906
129,735
346,318
163,142
367,926
144,754
320,326
184,951
122,451
208,072
242,963
387,111
404,287
449,768
550,833
624,207
702,693
789,287
564,923
927,054
1,060,347
560,348
729,266
807,140
1;030,375
1,074,983
1,803,005
1,255,495
1,738,282
1,236,935
1,593,894
2,028,653
Total.
81,767.068
22,215
2,076,476
75,604
2,048,336
66,104
2,490,593
117,054
2,944,978
129,735
2,166,709
163,142
2,273;i27
144,754
2,317,454
184,951
2,457,116
208,072
1,736,616
387,111
2,875,461
449,768
3,866,856
624,207
4,040,335
789,287
4,023,452
927,054
4,011,726
3,626,139
3,401,207
3,809,786
4,287,486
5,336,190
6,226,419
4,918,168
5,336,961
4,368,425
5,496,944
2,077,408
Duty
Collected.
§ 34
302;
336.
413,
488.
403.
426.
484,
450,
589;
678,
907,
884,
966,
880.
883!
861!
974;
1,075.
1,346.
1,412
1,367.
1,308!
1,137.
1,306
l,70i;
400 48
,147 65
,494 47
,921 50
,384 52
,520 21
,125 14
,704 04
,175 43
,403 62
104 53
,655 54
,076 21
,143 64
,226 65
,421 53
,465 14
,675 69
,215 20
,059 42
,878 00
250 32
,63123
,727 49
,738 56
,512 16 ANNUAL REPORT.
41
Exports, the Produce of Canada, from the Province of British
Columbia, for 26 Years Ending June 30th, 1897.
Year.
1872.
1873.
1874.
1875.
1876.
1877.
1878.
1879.
1880.
1881.
1882.
1883.
1884.
1885.
1886.
1887.
1888..
1889.
1890.
1891.
1892.
1893.
1894.
1895.
1896.
1897.
The Mine.
1,389,585
1,224,362
1,351,145
1,929,294
2,032,139
1,708,848
1,759,171
1,530,8121
1,664,626
1,317,079
1,437,072
1,309,646
1,441,052
1,759,512
1,720,335
1,832,827
1,889,805
2,377,052
2,375,770
2,930,229
2,979,470
2,898,947
3,521,543
4,615,452
5,762,960
8,909,592
Fisheries.
$
37,707
43,361
114,118
133,986
71,338
105,603
423,840
633,493
317,410
400,984
976,903
1,333,385
899,371
727,672
643,052
910,559
1,164,019
993,623
2,374,717
2,274,686
2,351,083
1,501,831
3,541,305
3,264,500
3,288,776
3,567,815
Forest.
$
214,377
211,026
260,116
292,468
273,430
287,042
327,360
273,366
258,804
172,647
362,875
407,624
458,365
262,071
194,488
235,913
441,957
449,026
325,881
374,996
425,278
454,994
411,623
500,048
685,740
742,173
Animals
and their
Produce.
214,700
259,292
320,625
411,810
329,027
230,893
257,314
268,671
339,218
350,474
300,429
287,394
271,796
414,364
329,248
380,120
318,839
397,685
346,159
294,646
390,854
310,621
149,269
454,618
434,647
307,845
Agric'l
Miscel
Products
laneous.
$
$
142
1,540
2,885
1,197
5,296
443
9,727
3,080
68
3,083
1,500
462
2,505
57
3,843
100
248
22
946
2,616
6,791
443
1,745
1,413
2,324
5,948
1,907
2,811
10,265
1,911
27,631
85,826
14,831
102,089
9,823
113,271
5,017
20,434
25,018
31,976
30,173
446,231
23,323
196,895
20,366
'85,190
60,763
57,022
104,744
552,539
Totals
$
1,858,050
1,742,123
2,051,743
2,777,285
2,709,082
2,346,969
2,768,147
2,708,848
2,584,001
2,231,554
3,080,841
3,345,263
3,100,404
3,172,391
2,891,811
3,371,601
3,928,077
4,334,306
5,545,621
6,257,158
6,574,989
5,642,797
7,843,958
8,949,174
10,289,908
14,184,708   44
VANCOUVER BOARD OF TRADE.
SHIPPING   RETURNS
Port of Vancouver.
Year ending 31st December, 1897.
Inwards.
Number.
Tonnage.
Cargo.
Tons
Weight
Tons
Measurem't
British	
Canadian	
50
30
«    227
115,709
5,495
210*807
29,392
9,477
19,517
j
3^,656
11,440
Foreign	
21,117
Total	
307
332,011
58,386
71,213
Outwards.
Number.
Tonnage.
Cargo.
.$&%?&<<
Tons             Tons
Weight     Measurem't
British	
56
24
226
|                      i
115,136            81,968          113,255
6,727              2,896              3,869
203,059            51,718            62,081
Canadian	
Foreign	
Total	
306
Z9A Q9.9              13fi ?C89              1 TO OOK
,    -    |
Coastwise.
Outwards
Inwards..
Number.
2,108
2,113
Tonnage.
510,599
515,659
(By the courtesy of the Collector of Customs). ANNUAL REPORT. 45
Port of Westminster (Fraser River) B. C.
Returns for the year ending 31st December, 1897.
Local Shipping.
Steam vessels on register.
SaDing    " '.' "
No.
Tonnage.
72
7,662
19
1,884
Total   J|l 9,546
Vessels built during 1897     11 472
Imports—Dutiable ; $501,475 00
Free •     240,834 00
Total $742,309 00
Exports—Total value $3,396,387 00
Revenue—Total collection, 1897. $   149,612 88
(By the courtesy of the Collector of Customs.)
Port of Nanaimo (Vancouver Island).
For the year ending 31st December, 1897.
Sea-going Vessels— No. Tonnage.
Inwards  290 242,778
No. Tonnage.
Outwards :--.. 327 289,599
Exports— Tons. Value.
Coal  630,204 $2,221,128
Produce of the forest       162,131
Miscellaneous  9,058
Total $2,392,317
Imports—Dutiable, value $137,481 00
Free       40,112 00
Total • ■ • • $177,593 00
Revenue—Duties    $ 48,255 86
(By the courtesy of the Collector of Customs.} 46 VANCOUVER BOARD OP TRADE.
Port of Victoria (Vancouver Island).
Returns for the year ending 30th June, 1897.
(From the Official Returns).
Vessels employed in the coasting trade of the Dominion of
Canada arrived at and departed from Victoria, B. C, during the
year ending 30th June, 1897 :
Vessels Arrived. Vessels Departed.
No. Vessels.     Tonnage. No. Vessels.     Tonnage.
1,367 476,379 1,413 498,233
Vessels entered outwards for sea at Victoria, during year ending
30th June, 1897:
With Cargo. In Ballast.
*No. Vessels.     Tonnage. No. Vessels.     Tonnage.
669 466,958 626 394,038
Vessels entered inward from sea during year ending 30th June,
1897:
With Cargo. In Ballast.
*No. Vessels.     Tonnage. No. Vessels.     Tonnage.
1,002 580,198 334 337,410-
Number and tonnage of vessels built and registered at Victoria
during the year ending 30th June, 1897 :
Built. Registered.
No. Tonnage. No. Tonnage.
9-631 8 3,914
* Include Puget Sound daily servic ANNUAL REPORT.
47
Statement of Cargoes handled at the Ports of Vancouver and
Victoria,   British Columbia.
For the year ending 30th June, 1897.
(From the Official Returns.)
Outwards.      >.
Port op Vancouver (Burrard Inlet).
Number.
Tons Reg.
Quantity of Freight.
Tons
Weight
Tona
Measure
British	
60
3
169
120,662
110
188,345
97,067
198
47,152
129,330
223
Canadian	
Foreign	
57,745
Total	
232
309,117
144,417
187,298
Average Cargo
622*50
807*31
Port op Victoria (Vancouver Island).
Number.
Tons Reg.
Quantity of Freight.
Tons
Weight
Tons
Measure
British	
Canadian	
'Foreign	
40
■
629
69,188
397,772
10,990
13,6i.8
1,108
4,593
Total	
669
466,958
24,008
35*88
5,701
Average Cargo
8*52
'Including daily services to and from Puget Sound ports, 48
VANCOUVER BOARD OP TRADE.
Inwards.
Port op Vancouver (Burrard Inlet).
Quantity of Freight.
Number.      Tons Reg.
Tons
Weight
Tons
Measure
British	
Oa.narl"fl,n    K>-. ■
45
10
101,356
OSfl
39,869
9,677
16,141
65,687
56,983
11,580
172             179,100
17,760
Total
            227             281,395
•    86,323
Average
Cargo
289*37
380*28
Port op Victoria (Vancouver Island).
Number.
Tons Reg.
Quantity o
Tons
Weight
15,367
266
19,727
f Freight.
Tons
Measure
British	
Canadian	
'Foreign	
77
868
103,742
6,194
470,262
10,200
639
5,255
Total	
1,002  ,
580,198
35,360
16,094
Average Cargo
35*03
16-00
'Including daily services to and from Puget Sound ports. ANNUAL REPORT.
49
Summary of Cargoes of Sea-going Vessels Entered Outwards or
Inwards at the Ports of Vancouver and Victoria for the
Year Ending 30th June, 1897.
Total.
Port op Vancouver.
-1-'.   . .1 .-'...-                                           '   '	
Tons
Weight,
Tons
Measure.
Outwards	
Inwards	
144,417
65,687
187,298
86,323
210,104
Port of Victoria.
273,621
Tons
Weight.
M
Tons
easure.
Outwards  -■
24,008
35,360
5,701
16,094
Total	
59,368
21,795 (
50 VANCOUVER BOARD OP TRADE.
VANCOUVER   CITY.
From the City Records.
June 13th,  1886,  Vancouver destroyed by fire, one building
only left.
Jan. 8th, 1890. Jan. 1st, 1898.
Streets graded     50*33 miles 79*54 miles
gravelled       8*35     " 10*95     "
Macadamized with broken rock  '21*85     "
Paved with bituminous rock  1*82     "
"       "    wooden blocks  "05     "
Planked       6-30 2-00     "
Sidewalks  79*91
Water mains, cast iron     10*14 44*00     |
Sewers       7*00 22*05     "
Box and surface drains  14*03
Basement drains  1*96     "
Number of houses     1,462 3,750
Hydrants          65 220
Public Fountains  4
Assessed value, real property  $8,077,505.00 $13,000,869.00
improvements     1,326,940.00 2,220,745.00
being 50 per cent, of actual value.
1891. 1898.
Population, Dominion Census     14,000 Estimated 22,000
Public Schools of Vancouver.
High School	
West School	
Central School	
Old High School 	
East School     1 (i
Mount Pleasant School	
Fairview School	
Total	
8 rooms.
5
occupied
16     "
14
"
8     "
8
"
2     "
2
"
16     "
14
"
16     "
10
it
4      "
3
ii
70 rooms.
56
occupied
Staff of Teachers, 56.
Number of Children, 2,644.
Value of School Property in the city, $299,000. ANNUAL REPORT.
51
Churches in the City of Vancouver.
Presbyterian.
First Presbyterian Church.
St. Andrew's Church.
Mount Pleasant Presbyterian Church.
Zion Church.
• Roman Catholic.
Church of Our Lady of the Holy Rosarj
Church op England.
St. James' Church.
Christ Church.
St. Michael's Church.
St. Paul's Church.
Congregational.
First Congregational Church.
Methodist.
Homer St. Methodist Church.
Princess St. Methodist Church.
Mount Pleasant Methodist Church.
Baptist.
First Baptist Church.
Jackson Ave. Baptist Church.
Mount Pleasant Baptist Church.
Reformed Episcopal.
Reformed Episcopal Church.
Lutheran.
German Lutheran Church.
Salvation Army, 52 VANCOUVER BOARD OF TRADE.
Synopsis of Weather and Periodic Events, Compiled from Latest
Official Reports (1896).
January.
Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands.—Frequent storms of
snow and rain; mild at end of month.
Lower Mainland.—Stormy; much rain and snow • cold; about
two inches of ice.
Upper Mainland.—Generally milder than usual, snow disappearing during first part, then cold ; precipitation everywhere above
the average.
February.
Islands.—Moderately fine, some snow and plenty of rain, ending up with bitterly cold weather and several inches of snow;
plowing; early flowers blooming; frogs croaking.
Lower Mainland.—Heaviest rain-fall during last four years
on 23rd and 24th; grass growing; plowing; very cold at the end
of the month.
Upper Mainland.—Generally mild and snow going fast until
the 28th, when it got very cold.
March.
First few days excessively cold throughout the Province.
Islands.—Disagreeable   at  first,   warm  later;   wild   flowers
blooming; plowing and seeding.
Lower Mainland.—First half very wet and snowy; peaches
and salmon berries blooming at end of month.
Upper Mainland.—Mild after the first seven days of excessively
cold weather, and plowing began on the 24th, annual report. 53
April.
Islands.—Bleak on the  whole and inclement,  though  fruit
blossoms were much advanced and wild flowers abundant.
Lower Mainland.—Weather cold and spring backward; fruit
trees not showing blossoms ; heavy rains.
Upper Mainland.—Spring about two weeks late; a good deal
of snow low down on hills; seeding in some parts.
May.
Islands.—A frost about the middle of the month cut down
some tender crops on low lands; bay crop promising well.
Lower Mainland.—About the same ; very little warmth.
Upper Mainland.—Warm days, cold nights; crops promising
well.
June.
Very hot weather for a few days throughout the Province.
Islands.—Light showers and thunderstorm on 28th; rain
wanted for crops.
Lower Mainland.—Crops looking exceptionally well; enough
rain ; Fraser River very high, flooding all delta lands.
Upper Mainland.—Light showers; light frost 12th; Columbia
River very near 1894 flood level.
July.
Want of rain general throughout the Province, and forest fires
raging everywhere.
Islands.—Dry and hot; root crops suffering from drought;
fruit promising poorly; electric storm 21st.
Lower Mainland.—Same. The electric storm on the 20th and
21st did much injury to foliage.    Fraser flood receding rapidly.
Upper Mainland.—Intensely hot and smoky : Kicking Horse
River in flood and submerging low-lying lands. —
54 vancouver board of trade.
August.
Islands.—Very hot and dry, stifling smoke and light fogs;
cereals harvested; fair crop ; other crops generally below average.
Lower Mainland.—Three days' rain; dense smoke and hot;
cereals up to average.
Upper Mainland.—JVLost welcome rain during first part of
month; cereals good; other crops average.
September.
Islands.—No rain; thick, heavy smoke, intermingled with
fog; deer on West Coast driven by fire to settlements for refuge,
and injuring fruit trees and gardens; turnip aphis very bad.
Lower Mainland.—Rain on five nights in small quantities;
slight frost 8th; more rain further north; potatoes and turnips in
some parts withered away; apples small and inferior; dense smoke
and fog.
Upper Mainland.—Rain only in very small quantities; several
frosts on high lands; root crops improving; thick smoke.
October.
Islands.—No rain to amount to anything until the 30th at
Victoiia; some rain further , north; no frost; smoky the greater
part of the time.
Lower Mainland.—Fraser Valley, rained twelve days; smoke
clearing; foggy, frosty nights.
Upper Mainland.—About four rainy days; rest fine; frosty
; nights; first snow on mountains 4th.
November.
The stormiest and coldest November ever experienced in the
Province. The rain-fall was phenomenal during the first five days,'
literally flooding the country; this was succeeded by snow-storms
of extraordinary severity, accompanied by.excessive cold, all stations
north of Victoria, both on the Island and Mainland, reporting
temperature below zero for short periods.
s ANNUAL REPORT. 55
Islands.—In Victoria and vicinity, although the temperature
was a little above zero, the wind which prevailed rendered the cold
most trying, but, happily, as far as has been ascertained, there has
been no loss of fruit trees anywhere in the islands, although many
were in full leaf.
Lower Mainland.—Rivers were stopped with ice, but no loss
of fruit trees, as far as is known.
Upper Mainland.—The unprecedentedly heavy snow caught
most of the cattle on the summer ranges, and it was feared that
heavy loss would occur, but, luckily, the cold moderated towards
the end of the month. Fruit trees were, however, not so fortunate,
it being pretty well ascertained that heavy losses will occur.
December.
About the end of November the excessive cold had begun to
moderate, and by the first of the present month a general thaw had
set in, which carried off the snow in all parts of the lower country
and in most parts of the upper Mainland.
Islands.—Very mild; excessively heavy rains, washing out
fall wheat in places.
Lower Mainland.—About the same weather, with more rain.
Upper Mainland.—Abnormally mild ; cattle being got off the
higher ranges : snow gone on lower levels. OO VANCOUVER BOARD  Ofr TRADE.
AGRICULTURE.
The history of agriculture in British Columbia is thus described by Mr. R. E. Gosnell in the Year Book of British Columbia :
Ten years ago, although agriculture was but slightly developed
here, the highest hopes for success were held out. On the face of
it the conditions were most favorable—comparatively limited area
of agricultural lands; protection by tariff and freight rates from
outside competition; generous, even extraordinary, yield of all
kinds of crops; freedom from blights, parasitic diseases and the
like; sure crops, and a demand for farm products, which brought
high prices and imports per annum amounting to between $1,500,-
000 and $2,000,000 in the aggregate. The drawbacks were those,
of course, incident to a new country—imperfect communication,
immature methods, the difficulty and expense (in our case peculiarly
so) of bringing the accessible land into cultivation, and all the rest
of it. On the whole, however, the advantages were clearly in
favor of the farmer who could reach the market. For a time he
prospered, or should have prospered, like a green bay tree. Just
about the time referred to good farm lands began to be at a premium. Knowledge of the conditions referred to above impressed
most people that farming some day would become the most prosperous of industries, and it was thought, and with good show of
reason, that when the varied resources of the Province began to
develop—mining, timber and fisheries—with the constant inflow
of population, the demand for farm products would place those
fortunate enough to have the land quite on the "velvet."
The farmer has found out that there is no royal road to fortune, except by pursuing farming as a business on a business basis.
By the work of the Fruit-Growers' Association, the influence of
. ANNUAL REPORT. 57
the Dominion Experimental Farm, the educative effect of farmers
meetings, and the dissemination of agricultural intelligence by
means of the several Departments of Agriculture and other agencies,
considerable development has taken place on right fines and knowledge greatly increased. Farming is really on a better basis than
ever it was, because the difficulties in the way of getting along are
understood and the necessities of the situation more fully appreciated. It is understood now that better and more improved
methods of sowing, reaping, and selling are required, and that
eternal vigilance and industry are the price to be paid for success.
Present tendencies, therefore, are in the direction of the systematic effort rather than the slip-shod and happy-go-lucky ways
that prevailed in the past, which have been described by one writer
as "playing at farming," and by another as "scratching the earth
in places" instead of cultivating it. Tendencies are, to be more
definite, in the direction of smaller holdings, proper clearing and
drainage of land, better care of orchards, co-operation for dairy
purposes, improved method of marketing, and generally an attempt
to supply the home market in butter, eggs, poultry, fruit, meats,
and the like, and in a way to attract the buyer.
As to the needs of agriculture in the Province, that opens a
wide field which cannot satisfactorily be traversed in one article.
Local conditions, too, vary so much that no particular remarks will
apply to the whole. On the lower Mainland, for instance, dyking
and draining is a problem for solution; while in the upper Mainland irrigation is a prominent need. All along the coast the cost
of clearing and the necessity for fertilizing wooded lands when
cleared are worthy of every attention. Everywhere roads giving
easy access to railway or steamboat communication are required.
Cheaper lands and cheaper money are desirable objects. Railways
giving communication with the mining districts are of the greatest
importance; and so on.
Co-operation in dairying, fruit-marketing, road-making, and in
other directions in which a farmer's isolation is his weakness, is required.    I do not mean to say that farmers should become Grangers 58 VANCOUVER BOARD OF TRADE.
or Patrons, for in the present state of society the fewer societies
the better; but that they should co-operate for business purposes.
This is especially a need of British Columbia at the present time.
As I have already intimated, our farmers along the coast districts especially, require a knowledge and appreciation of the
economy of fertilization. A cheap and readily available manure is
one the of greatest requisites to success. I do not now refer to the
bottom or prairie lands, which are abundantly fertile, by careful
cropping for some time, but to that characteristic and predominant
brownish, gravelly soil of which our wooded land is composed. It
is largely destitute of potash and lime—two essential elements. I
have advocated strongly the utilization of the fish offal, some 6,000
tons of which are annually dumped into the waters out of which
the salmon are taken, to the detriment of the fishing industry.
There are millions of tons of kelp and other seaweed on our coast
which can be got for the gathering. This, mixed with the offal
and composted with lime, would furnish a " dirt cheap" and invaluable fertilizer, available to all.
I have always been sanguine of the future of farming in
British Columbia, and never more than at the present time, notwithstanding the reverses of the past few years. The conditions
are not less favorable than before. The opening up of the mines
alone will afford an outlet for all kinds of farm produce at paying
prices. Our farmers will not have a monopoly of this, but will
work under healthy competition. When the lands revert from the
hands of the speculators into the hands of users; when the terms
of payment and rate of interest will enable a settler to buy and yet
live; when the farmers have easy communication to markets, and
the lands now lying idle brought into cultivation by means of clearing of land by machinery; when mixed farming becomes general
and special attention is devoted to the growing of fruits best
adapted for the market and for industrial purposes, to the growing
of hops, flax, sugar beets, tobacco, and other special products for
which the province is adapted; when the surplus of products
(especially fruits) becomes so great as to force the farmer to seek
a market in other lands; when industrial products can be manu- ANNUAL REPORT.
59
factured cheaply enough to compete with those of England in the
markets of China, India and Australia; when, in short, the Province becomes fully developed and its resources are utilized to their
greatest extent, the position of agriculture among other industries
will be pre-eminent, and what now occupies a very secondary place
in the Provincial economy will be established as the basis of our
wealth and possess a permanency which cannot be shared by any
of the other natural resources of the future of which we now speak
so hopefully. Vancouver board op trade.
ii
Agricultural Associations in British Columbia.
British Columbia Agricultural and Industrial Association, Victoria
Secretay, A. J. Dallain, Victoria.
Royal   Agricultural   and   Industrial   Society,   New  Westminster.
Secretary, Arthur Malins, New Westminster.
North and South Saanich Agricultural Society, Saanich.   Secretary,
G. C. Fox, Turgoose P. 0.
Cowichan Agricultural Association, Duncan.    Secretary-Treasurer,
G. H. Hadwen, Duncan P. 0.
Nanaimo District Agricultural and Horticultural Society, Nanaimo.
Secretary, W. H. Morton, Nanaimo.
Wellington District Agricultural Society, Wellington.    Secretary,
William Russell, Wellington.
Comox Agriraltural and Industrial Association, Comox.   Secretary,
John Mundell, Sandwick P. 0.
Islands Agricultural and Fruit Growers' Association, Salt Spring
Island.    Secretary, John Purvis, Vesuvius Bay.
Mission   City  Agricultural and   Arts' Association,   Mission   City.
Secretary, J. A. Catherwood, Mission City.
Delta Agricultural Society, Delta.     Secretary,  A. De R. Taylor,
Ladner P. O.
Chilliwack Agricultural   Society,   Chilliwack.      Secretary,   C. B.
Reeves, Chilliwack.
District of Surrey Agricultural Society, Surrey.    Secretary, S. H.
Shannon, Cloverdale.
Richmond Agricultural and Industrial Society, Richmond.    Secretary-Treasurer, A. B. Dixon, Terra Nova P. 0.
Langley-Glenwood Agricultural Association, Langley.    Secretary,
Albert Deans, Langley Prairie.
Agricultural and Trades' Association of Okanagan, Mission.    Secre
tary-Treasurer, F. J. Watson, Kelowna.
Kami oops Agricultural Association, Kamloops.     Secretary, J.  J.
Carment, Kamloops.
Okanagan  and   Spallumcheen   Agricultural   Society.     Secretary
A. Postill, Vernon. ANNUAL REPORT. 61
i
Inland   Agricultural   Association.     Secretary,   Joseph   W.   Burr,
Ashcroft.
British Columbia Horticultural Society and Fruit Growers' Association.    Secretary-Treasurer, T. R. Pearson, New Westminster.
British Columbia Fruit Exchange society. Secretary, T. R. Pearson,
New Westminster.
Lower Fraser Fruit Union, New Westminster.   Secretary-Treasurer,
Arthur Malins, New Westminster.
Fraser Valley Fruit Union, Limited.    Secretary, J. A. Catherwood,
Mission City.
Chilliwack Valley Fruit Growing and Shipping Association, Ltd.
Secretary, Jos. Ogle, Chilliwack.
Maple Ridge Fruit Union.   Secretary, J. W. White, Port Haney.
Victoria District Fruit Growers' Association, Victoria.    Secretary-
Treasurer, D. D. Dove, Mount Tolmie, Victoria.
Vancouver Island Flockmasters' Association.    Secretary-Treasurer,
T. A. Wood, Quamichan P. O.
British   Columbia   Dairymen's Association.     Secretary-Treasurer,
G. H. Hadwen, Duncan P. O.
Cowichan  Creamery Association,  Duncan.     Secretary-Treasurer,
A. R. Wilson, Westholme.
Delta Creamery Company, Ltd. Secretary-Treasurer, A. E. Fawcett,
. Ladner's P. O.      ANNUAL REPORT.   . 67
MINERAL   PRODUCTION   OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
As the most authentic source of information regarding the
general characteristics and present position of our mines, the following extracts have been taken from the Annual Report of the
Minister of Mines for British Columbia for the year ending
31st December, 1897.
RETURNS.
Showing the total amount and value of the output of the
mines of British Columbia to January 1st, 1898.
METHOD   OF  COLLECTING   RETURNS.
In the following tables the method followed in assembling the
out-put of the lode mines is to take the mill and smelter returns received during the year. The smelter returns for ore shipped in
December are often not received until February or later, and it has
been thought most expedient to follow the above plan, or to take
the returns for ore paid for, or realized upon, during the year.
TABLE I.
TOTAL PRODUCTION FOR ALL YEARS UP TO 1898.
Gold, placer from 1858 to 1897 $59,317,473
Gold, lode    "    1893 to 1897.... 4,300,689
Silver     "    1887 to 1897  7,301,060
Lead    "    1887 to 1897  2,971,618
Copper    "    1887 to 1897  521,060
Coal    "    1836 to 1897  36,529,-605
Coke     "    1895 to 1897  96,980
Building stone, bricks, &c. for 1897  1,350,000
Other metals " 1897.... 25,000
Total $112,413,485
The following table shows the steady rate of increase during the
past seven years, and of the marked increase during the past year
of 1897. The influence of lode mining begins to be felt in the year
1892, since when the rate of increase has been entirely due to the
production of the metalliferous mines, as the out-put of the collieries,
has not increased, 68
VANCOUVER BOARD OP TRADE.
TABLE II.
PRODUCTION FOR EACH YEAR FROM 1890 TO 1897 (INCLUSIVE).
Yearly
Increase-.
Year. Amount.
1890  $2,608,803 	
1891  3,521,102  35?
1892  2,978,530 	
1893  3,588,413  21?
1894  4,225,717
1895  5,643,042
1896  7,507,956
1897  10,455,268
18%
33%
34%
40%
Table III. gives the statement in detail of the amount and value
of the different mine products for the years 1896 and 1897. As it
has yet been impossible to collect the statistics regarding building
stone, lime, bricks, tiles, etc., these are estimated for 1897, but not
estimated for or included in the out-put for 1896.
However, although 1896 showed a very decided increase over
1895, 1897 shows a still greater advance in the production of gold,
silver, lead and copper.
TABLE    III.
AMOUNT AND VALUE OF MATERIALS PRODUCED 1896 AND 1897.
Customary-
Measures
1896
1897
Quantity.
Value.
Quantity.
Value.
Gold  Placer
Oz.
27,201
02,259
3,135,343
3,818,556
24,199:977
894,882
615
?   544,026
1,244,180
2,100,689
19flv926.
721,384
2,688,666
3,075
15,000
25,676
106,141
5,472,971
5,325,180
38,841,135
:   882.S5C
17,832
§   513,520
2,122,820
3,272,836
266,258
1,390,517
2,648,562
89,155
151,600
Gold, Lode	
Silver
Oz	
Oz...
Lbs	
Lbs..
Goal-	
Coke	
$7,507,946
] $10,455,268
■
 r jt^ ANNUAL REPORT
TABLE    IV.
PRODUCTION OF METALS PER DISTRICT AND DIVISION.
NAME.
Divisions
Districts.
1896
1897
1896
.?   384,050
1897
§   325,000
Barkerville        Division	
$    82,900
53,000
51.100
197,050
f     65,000
25,000
35,000
200,000
Lightning Creek      "      	
Quesaellemouth       "     	
Keithley Creek        "     	
* 21.000
154,427
4,002,735
37,060
163,796
6,765,703
Kootenay, West. .	
"'345,626'
.-545,529
1,851,011
1,243.360
14,209
" 440,545'
789,215
3,280,686
[2,037,280
„ 157,977
Sloca'n              "      	
Trail Creek      "       	
Other Parts	
33,365
206,078
	
39,810
996 762
Yale '	
131,220
9,000
65,108
142,982
i i2£MQ,'.
58,680
Siniijkameen	
Yale	
Other Districts	
15,000
9 390
§4,816,955
$7,567,551  .
*For Cassiar, the production of $25,000 in 1896 from Omenica
was lately reported.
PLACER GOLD.
Table V. continues the yearly production of placer gold to date,
as determined by the returns sent in by the banks and express
companies, of gold transmitted by them to the mints, and from returns sent in by the Gold Commissioners and Mining Recorders.
To these yearly amounts one-third was added up to the year 1878,
and from then to 1895, one-fifth, which proportions were considered
to represent, approximately, the amount of gold sold of which there
was no record.
The placer gold out-put for 1897 shows no advance over 1896.
This placer gold contains from 10 to.25 per cent, silver, but the
silver value has not been separated from the totals as it would be
insignificant. 70
VANCOUVER BOARD OF TRADE.
TABLE V.
YIB
LD OF PLACER GOLD PER YEAR
TO DATE.
1858...
. . . $ 705,000
1878	
.$ 1,275,204
1859...
. . .  1,615,070
1879	
.  1,290,058
I860'. . .
... . 2,228,543
1880	
.  1,013,827
1861...
... 2,666,118
1881	
.  1,046,737
1862...
. . . 2,656,903
1882	
954,085
1863...
. . . 3,913,563
794,252
1864...
. . . 3,735,850
1884	
736,165
1865...
. . . 3,491,205
1885	
713,738
1866...
. . . 2,662,106
1886	
903,651
1867...
. . . 2,480,868
1887	
693,709
1868...
.,. . 3,372,972
1888	
616,731
1869...
. . .  1,774,978
1889	
588,923
1870...
. . .  1,336,956
1890	
490,435
1871...
. . .  1,799,440
1891	
429,811
1872...
. . .  1,610,972
189*2	
399,526
1873...
. . .  1,305,749
356,131
1874...
. . .  1,844,618
'1894	
405,516
1875...
. . .  2,474,004
1895	
481,683
1876...
. . .  1,786,648
1896	
544,026
1877
1,608,182
Total	
1897
513,520
.$59,317,473
TABLE  VI.
Since last report further information has been secured that has
modified in some details this table as it then appeared, more
especially in reference to the production of lead. This information
of production in the earlier years is obtained from the "Mineral
Statistics and Mines for 1896," Geological Survey of Canada.  72 VANCOUVER BOARD OP TRADE.
TABLE VII.
COAL AND COKE PRODUCTION PER TEAR TO DATE.
Years      Tons (2,240 lbs.) Value
1836-52   10,000 $   40,000
1852-59   25,396  101,592
1859 (2 months).   1,989  7,956
1860   14,246  56,988
1861   13,774  55,096
1862   18,118  72,472
1863-   21,345  85,380
1864   28,632  115,528
1865   32,819  131,276
1866   25,115  100,460
1867   31,239  124,956
1868   44,005...'  176,020
1869   35,802  143,208
1870   29,843  119,372
1871-2-3   148,549  493,836
1874 ■  81,547  244,641
1875   110,145  330,435
1876   139,192  417,576
1877   154,052  462,156
1878   170,846  512,538
1879...  241,301  723,903
1880  267,595  802,785
1881  228,357  685,071
1882  282,139  846,417
1883...  213,299  639,897
1884  394,070  1,182,210
1885  265,596  796,788
1886   326,636  979^908
1887  413,360  1,240,080
1888   489,301  1,467,903
1889   579,830...,  1,739,490
1890   678,140  2,034 420
1891 1,029,097  3,087,'291
1892  826,335  2,479,005
1893  978,294  2,934,882
1894 1,012,953  3,038 859
1895  939,654  2,818^962
1896  896,222  2,688^666
1897  882,854  2,648,562
Total 12,081,687 tons.    $36,626,585 ANNUAL REPORT.
73
1895-6
1897 . .
COKE.
1,565.
17,831.
Total 19,396 tons.
7,825
89,155
$96,980
The foregoing shows little change during the past year in the
coal production, but a decided increase in the out-put of coke, of
which the bulk has been shipped to the Kootenay smelters. All
this coke came from the coke ovens at Comox, Vancouver Island.
A new and important market for this coke is now opening in
Mexico, where one shipload has already been sent to one of the
large smelting works situated not far from the coast.
THE PROGRESS OF MINING.
Figures speak for themselves, and the statistical tables just
given show very clearly the steady but gratifying growth of the
mining industry in this Province.
The results so far are not startling or phenomenal, but the increase in the out-put of the lode mines from $100,000 in 1892 to
$7,050,000 in 1897, or five years, with an increase of $2,750,000
or 65%, during the past year, commands attention.
Increases.    The increase in the amount of gold (lode) was 43,882
ounces, or 70% ; of silver, 2,337,682 ounces, or 75% *
of lead 14,641,158 pounds, or 65%; of copper, 1,506,624 pounds,
or 40%.
That 1898 will see a substantial increase is now assured from
the amount of ore now in sight in the different districts, and from
the fact that the amount of customs returns from shipments of ore
for January, 1898, were $1,193,458 as compared with $675,506 in
1897 (these shipments from West Kootenay only). 74 VANCOUVER BOARD OP TRADE.
MINING  COMPANIES.
During the early part of the year, pending the enactment of
the new Company's Act with more stringent regulations, a great
many mining companies were registered with a capitalization that
savoured of the ridiculous, but the payment of $50 or $100 for the
license on July 1st was more than a great many of these companies
could stand, and they ceased to exist.
To the public at large it may be well to state in reference to
the mining resources of this Province, that they now promise to
become yearly more valuable, that British Columbia can now claim
a place among the mining countries of the world, and that with
favourable climatic and natural conditions, excellent laws and good
government, and rapidly extending means of transportation and
cheaper treatment of ores, many opportunities for the careful and
proper investment of money are here now afforded. But it is also
to be remembered that this is no longer a terra incognita, that there
are many here already closely watching for and prepared to purchase any good claims that may be discovered, and that it is quite
absurd to suppose that any one probably totally ignorant of mining
affairs-, can come here and in a few weeks, pick up properties with
phenomenally rich showings, as has been claimed by some who have
come, bought and gone back to float companies by means of most
specious prospectuses.
There are many good properties that, from surface indications
and scanty development, promise favourably, but for such capital
is needed; when, however, a company promises definitely large and
speedy returns from properties with little or no development done
upon them, the public should be extremely careful in making
investments. .
The Province has been made to unjustly suffer for the deeds of
a few such companies, which have quickly proved their inability to
fulfil their glowing promises of quick and large returns, although in
some instances, when proper work has been done, these promises
may yet be redeemed. ANNUAL REPORT. 75
MINING   DEVELOPMENT.
During the past year, much new work was done and much new
territory prospected, but no important discoveries of ore were made
in new localities or on new locations, although, in the Nelson
Division and along the coast, what may yet prove properties of
great importance were being explored. On some of the older claims,
new and large shutes of good ore were found, and some claims,
hitherto unproductive, at the close of the year promised to join the
list of shipping mines during the succeeding one.
Prospects. To the arduous work and privation of the prospector
must be due the opening up of any mining region,
but, without the aid of capital, his efforts will be discouraging and
often fruitless. At the present time, with the interest now
taken in British Columbia, capital will send its agents to the most
remote and difficult parts, while many other countries are languishing for even a little attention; but these agents naturally demand that
some work be done to enable them to form some judgment of the
value and possibilities of the "prospect." During the past two
years, many seeking mining property for strong companies or syndicates have found that their choice must be greatly confined to
" prospects" or undeveloped properties, and as ore deposits very
rarely display their charms on the surface, they have had to turn
away disappointed in that so little was done on claims they might
have been willing to buy at good prices.
In some districts, prices of property have risen to very high
figures, even for mere locations, but this phase is gradually correcting
itself, and as many owners now wish to join the great rush northward
to the new gold-fields, they will be willing to sell their claims at
more reasonable rates. This stampede to the north will take many
from the southern portion of the Province, but an increasing amount
of work will be done here, and investors waiting for a lull in the
former high prices will return, so that, while the different mining
towns may be quieter, mining will continue to advance.
Cassiar.      Into the northern portion of the Province, in Cassiar
and Cariboo, long known as an almost untracked
wilderness, will now spread a great wave of prospectors, with the 76
VANCOUVER BOARD OP TRADE.
consequence that trails and routes will be opened up throughout
this vast domain, and what discoveries may be made none can foresee. In earlier days were seen gold excitements at several points,
but quartz ledges were not looked for and ignored, but now both
placer and lode mines will be eagerly hunted for. Quite a number
of men have in the past ventured into parts of these fastnesses, to
return with favourable reports that were then not listened to, but
will now be willingly received.
Hence the activity in the north will be great, and the discoveries may be of great value.
GOLD.
Gold is obtained either from the gold-bearing gravels of the
placer mine or from veins or lodes, and after these methods:
(a) By smelting ore from the veins or lodes.
(b) By milling and amalgamation, together with cyaniding, of
quartz ores.
(c) By placer, hydraulic mining, or dredging of gravels.
Gold ores, not amenable to amalagamation or any of
Smelting     the wet processes, but profitably treatable by smelting
Ores.        to a copper-iron matte or base lead bullion and refining,
are now the source of most of the lode gold produced in
the Province, as at Rossland. By many who are only familiar
with free-milling ores, the importance of these smelting ores is not
appreciated, but their importance increases when it is learned that
by this process a return of 95 to 98 per cent of the assay value is
guaranteed; that smelting charges are decreasing, and that with
smelting plants becoming more easily accessible the owner of the
producing property of this class has not to incur the cost of a plant
or mill to treat his ores, but can sell to the smelter at once. ANNUAL REPORT.
77
Hence large bodies of sulphide, and otherwise refractory gold
ores, carrying from $15 to $20 per ton in gold, being developed in the Province, are becoming profitable, and in some
centres will become more so when the railroads building or projected are completed. In Rossland, as stated elsewhere, the average
yield value in 1897 for 68,804 tons was $30.48 per ton, with a net
value or profit of $12 to $16 per ton, which net value will, in all
probability, soon increase.
In the Boundary Creek region the low grade, gold-beariug
sulphide ores may prove, on proper development, to improve in
grade, as is already promised in the work being done on some of
the properties, and in other parts ore of this character may become
available with easier access to the smelters. Again, ore of this
class, too low grade to pay to smelt, may yet be found profitable by
some wet process of treatment, for which experiments have not been
I exhausted.
Hence, with the extensions of the railroad systems now
building, cheaper coal and coke and better smelter rates, these
smelting gold ores will become more profitable.
Until recently only placer gold was sought out, and
Free-Milling quartz veins received scanty and very desultory atten-
Ore. tion.   Now, this search for free-milling gold ores has
become more general, but so far the amount discovered
has not been large, partly because there has not been time to determine by mill tests the value in the quartz veins found, most of
which, so far, appear to be low grade, hence requiring most careful
testing, and partly because enough work has not been done to
disclose pay shutes.
A large amount of quartz has been found in Fairview and
Camp McKinney, in Yale, in Cariboo, in East Kootenay, in the
Nelson Division, in Lillooet, and along the coast and coast islands,
but, with a few exceptions, these veins, as tested, have proved to
have low values. Several properties in these districts are now
on the list of shippers, but this class of mining has not yet made
much headway,  although the greater attention   now  being  paid, 78
VANCOUVER BOARD OP TRADE.
the erection  of stamp mills, etc., will  greatly tend to prove up
these leads.
Mention has been made of the rush northward to search for
quartz leads. Samples of good gold-bearing rock have already been
received from there, and much quartz is known to exist.
The annual output of placer gold for many years has
Placer Gold.     not been large,  but companies are now opening up
hydraulic mining leases in different parts of the
Province, and some very extensive work is being done in Cariboo.
During the past year some parties engaged in dredging on the
Fraser have met, for the first time, with encouraging success, and
as the conditions are better understood, and more experienced men
with means and the plant experience recommends attack this
problem, the more hopeful it becomes that the gold lying in these
rivers will be at last secured.
SILVER-LEAD.
The silver mines of the Province produced by far the greater j
part of the output of the mines for 1897, and although silver is not
now held in such high favor, its friends are getting handsome
returns from the high grade ores, as produced in West Kootenay.
With the notable exception of the silver-copper ore of the Hall
mines, and some of the smaller properties, all of the silver ore
carries a very high percentage of lead or occurs in galena, and, in
two or three cases, galena and blende.
During the past summer the rapid decline in the value of
silver, that proved so disastrous to other silver countries, had little
effect on our silver mines other than to check investment, as the
ores were usually of such high grade as to leave, even at the lowest
price, a good margin of profit. The price of lead rose considerably,
but this increase was offset by the increase of export duty on lead
into the United States, our best market, of 1£ cents per pound on
the gross lead contents in the ore, ANNUAL REPORT. 79
So far all this silver-lead ore has had to be exported to the
United States for treatment, but at both the Trail and Nelson
smelters lead stacks are being erected, and the smelting of this high
grade ore will be attempted, provided "dry ore," or that containing
less than 5 per cent, of lead, can be got to intermix. So far, the
amount of this "dry" silver ore has been very small in this Province,
and its discovery would greatly serve to simplify the smelting of
these silver-lead ores within our own borders.
West Kootenay produced nearly all of this ore during 1897,
the North Star mine in East Kootenay suspending shipments until
the completion of the Crow's Nest Pass Railway.' As stated elsewhere, the average net or yield values of 33,576 tons of the Slocan
ore were 108.5 ounces silver per ton and 45.7 per cent, lead, with
a total gross value of $97.70 per ton, or $50 to $55 net.
COPPER.
No large copper mines have yet developed. The production
of 5,325,000 pounds during 1897, came almost entirely from Ross-
land and the Hall mines at Nelson, the average yield value of the
former being 1*32 per cent., at the latter 3.63 per cent.
Work is now in progress on the, at present, low grade copper-
bearing deposits in Boundary Creek district, and considerable
prospecting was done at Kamloops, .on the St. Mary's in East
Kootenay, and on the Island of Vancouver and adjacent islands,
especially at the Van Anda, on Texada Island, whence several
hundred tons of good grade bornite ore were shipped.
In these districts last named, the ore is usually chalco-pyrite,
in eruptive diabasic rock, associated with pyrrhotite and sometimes
manetite. Small bodies of massive "yellow copper" ore have been
uncovered, but for such ore to be profitable, there will need to be
large bodies carrying a fair percentage in copper, and enough silver
or gold, or both values, for in mining large quantities, as would be
imperative, the copper averages would almost certainly become low,
hence requiring certain values in precious metals to make a total
value sufficient to leave a margin of profit. In these districts some
very promising discoveries have been made, and work is being begun
upon them, VANCOUVER BOARD OP TRADE.
COAL AND COKE.
The production of the collieries on Vancouver Island was about
the same as that of the previous year, but in 1898 the demand for
coal should greatly increase in consequence of the very great increase in the number of steamers engaged in the northern trade.
The coke ovens at Comox produced over 17,000 tons of coke,
mostly for the Kootenay smelters, and large barges are being built,
so that the coke can be sent to the mainland in cars to avoid
re-shipment there.
The great fields of coal in East Kootenay will soon be available, as the railroad through the Crow's Nest Pass, west to the
Columbia river, will be completed in another year, when coal and
coke will be delivered in East and West Kootenay at easy rates,
and thus effect great improvement in the conditions affecting the
smelting industry of the interior.
OTHER MINERALS.
About   2,000 tons  of  magnetic iron  were shipped
Iron. from   the  Glen   Iron   mines,   near   Kamloops,   to
American smelters for a flux.
Some platinum was secured from the hydraulic and
Platinum,     placer mines, in Cariboo and Yale, and the Minister of
Mines has asked for samples of black sand to be sent
into the laboratory of the Department, where such will be tested
free for platinum and iridium, for both of which are ever a good
market and good prices.
The cinnabar mines in the Kamloops district have
Mercury.      temporarily shut down, without proving anything yet
of value.
CARIBOO   DISTRICT.
Since the year 1858 to the present time it is estimated that
over $35,000,000 in gold has been taken from the Cariboo gravel
deposits, of which two and a-half miles of Williams Creeks yielded
up over $20,000,000.
E ANNUAL REPORT. 81
The intense interest now aroused by the great Yukon discoveries will lead many to explore. a great extent of territory in
this Northern country, yet untouched, to test many of the creeks
by sinking to bedrock where only the bars have been tried.
Lack* of water at suitable elevations has long deterred undertakings that otherwise 'would be very profitable, as in the creeks
above Barkerville, where there is a large amount of good pay dirt that
with water could be easily moved and made to yield handsome returns,
while the old channel deposits in the Quesnelle District are just
now being exploited. Whether this needed water can be supplied
or stored is doubtful in many instances, but such will be quite
possible in others, if the means are available to build waterways
on a bold plan to bring water from long distances, as was done in
California.
LOCATION.
Access is gained by the excellent Government road running
north from Ashcroft, on the Canadian Pacific Railway, 210 miles
to Quesnelle Forks, or 280 miles to Barkerville.
From May to November a bi-weekly stage, carrying passengers,
mail and express, runs each way, stopping over at hostelries along
the road, where good meals and accommodation can be secured,
while a weekly stage runs during the other months. During the
period of navigation the stage is left for the steamboat running
between Soda Creek and Quesnellemouth, making an agreeable
change of fifty miles on the long ride to Barkerville. At Quesnellemouth the trails start for Omenica and Cassiar, and other points in
the great wilderness to the North, while the stage road turning
sharply to the east runs about forty miles to Barkerville.
During the coming season this highway promises to become of
greater importance, as a large number of men with their supplies
may enter the northern country via this route, bound, not as far
as Dawson City, but for the great stretches of untried country that
are about to be more carefully explored.
OPPORTUNITIES FOR INVESTMENT.
In  the  Cariboo  mining  district are   opportunities  for  the, 82 VANCOUVER BOARD OP TRADE.
probably, very remunerative investment of capital, provided that
careful investigation is first and always made of any property proposed to be mined, and of all the requirements and difficulties likely
to be met with prior to the commencement of regular mining
operations. In most cases this preliminary work to determine the
possible gold yielding values of the deposits, whether gravel deposits
suitable for hydraulicing, drift mining or quartz ledges, will
require considerable capital to thoroughly test such, as up to the
present time all known enterprises amenable to more limited
financial means have been worked out, leaving only suefi undertakings as abundant capital alone can afford to attempt.
Some strong companies are now engaged in large mining ventures
that will greatly demonstrate in tha near future what and where
successful issues may be expected. If some of these prove successful,
other and similar opportunities are abundant, and much property
is now held speeulatively awaiting the results of those being tested.
It is needless to specify that to embrace any such opportunities
there are demanded-—First, abundant capital; and secondly, men
of undoubted experience, • able to make the proper preliminary
explorations, and then to work such property after the best possible
manner that experience can dictate. Several enterprises here are
now in the hands of thoroughly experienced men, past-masters in
the kind of mining in which they are engaged, but unfortunately
others have met failure, or will do so, by reason of the fatal inability
of the men in charge to correctly prospect the properties, to foresee
and forestall difficulties, to estimate the needed amount of capital,
or to expend it to the best advantage. ANNUAL REPORT.
83
CASSIAR DISTRICT.
Since the issue of the Report of 1896, a year ago, the discoveries of placer gold on the Klondike and its tributaries, in
Canadian Yukon, have become known throughout the world, and
now is being seen a large rush of prospectors, investors, speculators,
and adventurers into this northern region, led on by the desire for
gold. In all probability this stampede will surpass any other of
the century, as from all quarters of the globe come accounts of men
leaving for the Arctic Eldorado.
The great northern reaches of British Columbia comprise the
districts of Cassiar and Cariboo, of which we know very little,
excepting of certain isolated portions, and great areas have never
been explored for the precious metals; but the Omenica and Cassiar
have in the past produced considerable placer gold, and, it is
claimed, quartz untested and unworked is to  be found in these
districts.
■
This year will see the beginning of the great influx of prospectors, as many, instead of going further north into the Yukon,
are preparing to enter and prospect Cassiar and Northern Cariboo,
and parties will be entering by all known means of ingress and by
every route. The interest and excitement now aroused, the building
of two lines of railroads, and the opening up of new roads and
trails, are now about to effect the exploration of a great amount of
territory hitherto almost totally nnknown.
Routes.
(a) Via Edmonton, in the N. W. T., up the Peace,
Finlay and Parsnip rivers.    Thi3 route will have to
be opened up to a very great extent by those now entering.
(6) From Ashcroft to Quesnellemouth, thence by trail into
the Omenica district, and on to the Stickine river, or by water and
portage to the waters of the Finlay and Parsnip rivers.
(c) By the Skeena river to Hazelton, and thence by trail into
the Omenica, 84 VANCOUVER BOARD OP TRADE.
(d) By the Stickine River with steamers to Telegraph Creek or
Glenora, whence the northern part of Cassiar can now be reached
by trails and waterways.
r, .,      ,       The Provincial Government has granted a charter,
Railroads.      . § ,     i . -s    „,     .     „   ;   . „ . '
with land concessions, to the Cassiar Uentral Railway Company, and this company is preparing to build a railroad
from Glenora to Dease Lake, and is also preparing to offer very
favorable inducements to prospectors entering [this part of Cassiar
to search for gold, more especially gold-bearing quartz ledges.
EAST KOOTENAY DISTRICT.
During the past year the construction was begun by
„      ,   ■ ,.      the C. P. R. of the Crow's Nest Pass Railway from
Construction. • •    . •
Fort McLeod, in the Northwest lemtories, through
the Crow's Nest Pass, in the Rocky Mountains,  thence across the
valley of the Kootenay River and along the valleys of the Moyie
and Goat rivers   to   Kootenay Lake and Nelson.      The company
promises  that by this autumn trains will be running as far as
Kootenay Lake.
The commencement of this railroad precipitated a great influx
of prospectors, speculators, etc., last spring, a large number of
whom started into the mountains to prospect, but only to encounter
an unusually wet season that deterred a large majority from moving
off the trails. Hence, after grubstakes were gone, many of these
at once left the country. But very little advance was made in
East Kootenay during the past year, as very few discoveries were
reported, and not much work was done on the old claims, pending
the coming of the railroad and new conditions and facilities.
The great coal-fields of the Crow's Nest Pass are now
„ S being opened up in two places,  where the seams of
high grade coking coal are each from six to seven
feet thick. The work is in charge of Mr. Blackmore, M. E., who
is opening up the. properties so as to admit of a large production of
coal on the completion of the railway,  and is also erecting coke ANNUAL REPORT.
85
ovens, so that when the railway reaches the heart of West Kootenay
coal and coke can be at once delivered, at greatly reduced prices, at
the smelting centres there, the price of coke delivered to be about
$6 per ton, tha present price varying from $12 to $14.
These fields were examined by Geo. S. Ramsay, M. E., Denver,
Colo., who says: "It is my opinion that the Kootenay coal field is
the greatest in the Rocky Mountain series. I must say that I
know of no coal field in the west where the evidence indicating
large tonnage per acre is so prominent as I find it in the Kootenay
fields."    He also gives the following comparative table:
STEAM   AND   COKING   COAL.
Mine* cS. Matter. W^ ^sh.
Crow's Nest No. 1 (entire vein)  73.04 21.13 2.75 3.D8
Crow's Nest No. 2 (lower part of vein) 68.04 19.46 4.04 7.66
Crested Butte, Colorado  56.93 37.23 4.12 5.50
Sunshine, Colorado  56.16 34.22 4.12 5.50
Mr. Ramsay also gives the next table :
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OP COKE.
Carbon. Ash.
Crow's Nest, B. C  91.97- 8.03
Crested Butte, Colorado  89.00 11.00
Cardiff and Sunshine, Colorado  87.13 12.82
Belt, Montana (washed coal)  91.00 9.00
Trinidad Colorado (washed coal)  85.00 15.00
Connelsville Pennsylvania ,  86.88 11.54
In East Kootenay the construction of this railway and the
opening up of these coal mines will yet be a great influence, as
more persistent prospecting will be done on both sides of the valley,
up which a railroad may be run to Golden. The country lying
between the head waters'of McMurdy Creek, south to Toby Creek,
will be yet more thoroughly prospected, and bodies of low grade
ore repoited to be there will receive greater attention, when better
means of egress to smelters that may be erected closer home will
encourage a much greater amount of work.
As no reports of 1897 were received at this office
rlyarau ic     ^^ ^g ^^ Commissioner, no information is at
Mining. ; .,,....
hand concerning the progress of hydraulic mining on
Wild Horse and other creeks. VANCOUVER BOARD OP TRADE.
WEST KOOTENAY DISTRICT.
AINSWORTH DIVISION.
There has been increased activity here during the past year,
but still many properties are lying idle. Again the fall in silver
proved disastrous, as money becoming interested here was to a great
extent withdrawn.
DUNCAN RIVER.
Much prospecting was done during the past season in this
region, resulting in the discovery of, silver-lead ores up in the same
formations as found in the Trout Lake district, the great up-tilted
belt of lime extending down thus far.
The Dominion Government has instructed their engineer for
the Province, Mr. Roy, to examine the Duncan River as to the
possibility of opening it up for navigation by small steamers.
THE TOWN OF KASLO.
This town had a return to prosperity during this season, and
many new buildings were put up, but at the present time trade is
very quiet, as the tide of transient strangers has greatly decreased,
and men are saving up for the Edondike.
NELSON DIVISION.
The town of Nelson has grown very rapidly during the past
year, many new buildings have been erected, as, from its location
on the lake and on the different lines of railroad, it must always be
an important and central point.
SLOCAN DIVISION.
During the past year this division was sub-divided- into three
recording divisions, but in this Report the term "Slocan" will refer
to the territory within the old boundaries. 1
ANNUAL REPORT
Production
The following tables give the net smelter returns of
of Mines ore ^rom *ne Slocan District sold during the years
1895, 18*96-97. The tonnage is the dry weight of the
crude ore and concentrates shipped, i.e., with the moisture deducted.
The silver and gold values represent 95 per cent, of the assay
values, and the lead 90 per cent, as the smelters do not pay for the
balance.
The average market values at New York have been taken, or,
for silver for 1896, 67 cents, and for 1897, 59.8 cents per ounce.
For lead for 1896, $2.98 per 100 lbs.; for 1897, $3.58.
NET PRODUCTION, PER SMELTER RETURNS.
Years.
Tons.
Silver.
Lead.
2,000 lbs.    0
unces.     Pounds.
Gold.
Values.
Ounces.
1895	
1896	
1897	
Totals.
9,514' 1,122,770 9,666,324
16,560 1,954,2581 18,175,074
33,576   3,641,2871 30,707,705
59,650|   6,728,315| 58,579,103
6 $1,045,600
152; 1,854,011
193i   3,280,686
35l|$ 6,180,297
ACTUAL YIELD VALUES PER TON.
Years.
Silver. |
Lead.
Value.
Ounces.
Per cent.
1895	
118.0j
118.0
108.5
50.8
54.9
45.7
$
109.90
1896	
1897	
111.95
97.71
111.12
49.1
$
103.60
In the autumn of 1896 and the spring of 1897,- the
.«.  • silver mines of the Slocan attracted unusual atten-
Mining. .......
tion as the great money-making possibilities of very
high grade silver-lead veins became apparent.    A real boom was
inaugurated, the different towns built up rapidly as many people
crowded in, but in July the sudden drop in the price  of  silver
checked all speculation, and the boom was over.
The increased output for the Slocan for 1897 speaks for itself,
while the record of some of its mines during the past year attracts 88 Vancouver Board of trade.
much attention. One significant feature during the year has been
that, despite the fact that gold is the favorite and silver has fewer
friends, several of the larger and developed properties have passed,
under the control of British capital,. and others are being examined
with a view to purchase, the fact being realized that this high
grade Slocan silver-lead ore is. exceedingly profitable and yielding
handsome dividends.
dm     4       Since last Report the Canadian Pacific Railway has
Railroads. ^ \ i
built and opened its branch line from Slocan City to
Slocan Crossing on the Nelson and Robson line, and a large new
steamer runs twice daily from Slocan City to Roseberry, where it
connects with the Nakusp and Sandon branch. The Kaslo & Slocan
Railway is considering the extension of this line' northward from
Kaslo and up the Duncan River, to open up that large section of
country.
Smpltinff Little or no reduction in freight and treatment
charges has been obtained, the charges running from
$20.50 to $22 per ton. The American smelters are eager to get
this ore, and those in the South; as in Colorado, charge $1.50 to
$3.00 per ton smelting charges on the net weight (i.e., less moisture)
and $19.00 a gross ton for freight. This is a flat rate, that is, no
account is taken of silica' or iron contents, only excess of zinc (or
over 10 per cent.), and in some contracts 12J- per cent., being paid
for at 50 cents per unit. Of course the smelters of shorter haul, as
on Puget Sound, charge higher smelting rates to make up the
difference in lower freights.
Silver is paid for at New York price at time of settlement for
95 per cent, of assay value, and lead also Up to 90 per cent, of
assay value.
The duty is 1J cents on every pound of lead in the ore as
exported to the United States, although the smelter only pays the
miner for 90 per cent. The ore is shipped in bond to the smelter,
where the smelter men pay the duty, after sampling, to the United
States Government out of the value of the ore, or else they retain
this duty charge and ship refined lead to Europe when the prices
there, always lower than in the United States, are such as to admit ANNUAL REPORT. 89
of a margin of profit by adding the amount of their duty to their
selling price. Hence the mine-owner always pays his duty charge
on lead.
The Province levies a tax of 1 per cent, on the value of the
ore after deducting freight and treatment charges. Hence the
average ore for 1897, yielding 108.5 ounces silver and 45.7 per cent,
lead, at the average price for 1897, would be worth $97.70 per ton.
from which have to be deducted:'
Freight and Treatment S *22 00
Duty on Lead (100 per cent)    15 25
Government Tax         75
$38 00
besides the cost of mining, sacking and transport to point of shipment, so that the net value or profit on average Slocan ore will
be about $50.00 to $55.00 per ton.
Sampling works are running at Kaslo, and it is proposed to
put such a plant at Roseberry for ores going out on the Canadian
Pacific Railway. Nearly all the larger mines ship direct to the
smelter, some sending alternative lots to different smelters. The
price of sampling is $1.50 per ton, and the sampler is prepared to
buy the ore outright after sampling.
The ore is shipped in sacks to the cars, and at Five
i. Mile Point, when loading from the steamer to the
Nelson & Fort Sheppard Railroad, the sacks are
emptied and returned, the ore going in bulk. Facilities for the
shipment of ore are constantly improving, but the railroads and
boat lines prevent reduction in charges.
SLOCAN CITY MINING DIVISION.
A good many claims were bonded and explored during the
past year, but not much advance was made, as the veins seemed
to be broken and irregular and 'the high grade ore scattered in
"segrations along minor lines of weakness. 90 VANCOUVER BOARD OP TRADE.
TRAIL CREEK DIVISION, OR ROSSLAND.
Since the writing of the last report (August, 1896) on this
district, some important events have occurred, and while no other
paying mines have yet been developed, "persistent, plucky development work, sustained by ample capital," is now being done on
several properties with very encouraging results, and extensive operations will soon be begun on other claims, work that should
definitely determine .the existence, or not, of other ore bodies in this
camp.
A great many people have' been attracted to Rossland, where
a large, well-built town has sprung up as in a night. Prices for all
kinds of mining claims in this vicinity became for a time abnormally
high if such had rusty-stained rock with a little pyrites (and such
can be found almost anywhere here), erroneously called "iron-
capping," that promised "high values in depth." Many companies
were formed and a few thousand dollars of treasury stock sold, but
this proving entirely inadequate to do other than a few hundred
feet of work, without discovering ore or proving up a "mine," a
great number of these companies have collapsed entirely. Nothing
more will be heard of them, and their claims, such as seem to
possess merit, will pass into other hands.
As in every other mining centre of prominence, Rossland had
to suffer for a time from the selfish machinations of the "wildcatter"
and unprincipled boomster, the public at large swallowing nearly
everything that was offered them, the phenomenal rise in
value of the Le Roi stock from a few cents a share to dollars
proving an irresistible bait. The re-action speedily came, and most
of this bubble speculation disappeared. The result was a sudden
rebound from feverish activity and speculation to quietness; but
this camp has at last settled down to a more business-like basis,
and as work increases, and likewiss the pay-roll, so, proportionately,
will be its prosperity from now on. ANNUAL REPORT.
91
iw4   ^        ^h*3 following  table will be interesting  in that  it
Production &
of Mines. Slves> within a narrow margin of exactness, as determined by actual smelter returns, the output of the
Rossland mines for each year from the beginning to date, It must
be remembered that this table is according to the smelter returns
received during each year, so that nearly all the ore shipped in
December has to be credited to the following year, or the issue of
this Report would be delayed until much later.
The table gives the actual yield values of the ores as paid for
by the smelters, or 95 per cent, of the assay values in gold and
silver, and the amount of the wet assay of copper, less 1.3 per
cent, and also the weight of ore, less the moisture.
NET PRODUCTION, PER SMELTER RETURNS.
Tons.
2,000 lbs.
Gold.
Silver.
Copper. |
Value
Ounces.
Ounces.
Pounds.
1894	
1895	
1896	
1897 :....
1,856
19,693
38,075
68,804
3,723
31,497
55,275
97,024
5; 357
46,702
89,285
110,068
106,2291$     75,510
840,420      702-.459
1,580,635:   1,243,360
l,819,586j   2,097,280
Total	
128,428
187,519
251,412
4,346,870!$ 4,118,607
AVERAGE NET SMELTER RETURNS, OR ACTUAL YIELD
VALUES PER TON.
Year.
Gold.
Silver, i Copper.
Value
Ounces.
Ounces.
Per cent.
1894
2.00
1.60
1.45
1.42
2.89
2.41
2.34
1.60
2.85
2.10
2.08
1.32
$
40.69
1895
35.67
1896	
1897	
32.65
30.48
Average, 128,428 Tons...
1.46
1.96
1.73
$
32.05
From the above values, the cost of mining, transportation,
treatment and the Provincial tax has to be deducted, or, calculating
from scanty information, from $15.00 to $18.00, leaving a net value
or profit for the production of 1897 of from $12.00 to $16.00
per ton. 92 Vancouver board os1 tradS.
R '1r« rt Since last Report the Columbia and Kootenay Rail-
■ way has been extended as a broad guage to Robson,
where daily connection is made with the steamers to and from
Arrowhead and the trains to Nelson and Slocan City. The Red
Mountain Railroad has been completed from Northport to Rossland,
crossing the Columbia river by a steel bridge.
From Robson a line has been surveyed by the Columbia & Kootenay Railway west into Grand Forks and Boundary country, and
the Canadian Pacific Railway corps are surveying a line to Rossland,
the construction of which they have promised to. complete at an
early date.
TROUT LAKE niNING DIVISION.
The Trout Lake mining division, lying north of the Slocan,
and between the Ainsworth and Lardeau divisions on the east and
west respectively, embraces all that territory drained by the rivers
and streams flowing into Trout Lake, into the Lardo river above
Cascade Creek and into the Duncan River above the summits south
of Hall and East creeks, all the drainage of this area being by the
Lardo and Duncan rivers into the northern end of Kootenay Lake.
ROADS AND TRAILS.
The best means of approach now open is by the Government
wagon road from Thompson's Landing at the upper end of the
northeast arm of Upper Arrow Lake, running northeasterly eleven
miles, where one branch in one mile enters Trout Lake City on the
upper end of Trout Lake at the mouth *of Lardo Creek, while the
other, in four miles, reaches the new town of Ferguson, now
springing up on a large bench below the Forks or the confluence of
the north and south branches of Lardo Creek. This would be a
very good road but for three or four miles, where it passes through
very wet ground in the heavy timber, where a great improvement'
would be effected by slashing or cutting down the timber and corduroying the worst places, the large cedar here being especially
suited to this purpose.
This road is being continued four -miles by the Lillooet,
Fraser River and Cariboo Gold Fields Company, up the creek from
Ferguson to Eight Mile, whence the trail will run up to the Silver ANNUAL REPORT. 93
Cup and Sunshine mines. A trail, seven miles long, runs from
Trout Lake City £0 the Great Northern or Alpha group, while a
new trail is being built from the Lillooet, Fraser River and Cariboo
Gold Fields Company's camp near Ferguson, to tap this trail three
miles from this group for the easier transport of supplies and ore.
TRANSPORTATION.
The transport charges to Arrow Lake are prohibitive, except
for very high grade.ores, but if sufficient amount of shipping ore is
demonstrated to exist it will not be difficult to supply much better
and cheaper facilities.
LARDEAU DIVISION.
No attempt was made to examine this district to the northwest
of the Trout Lake region, as very little work has been done, and
no account could be obtained of any important discoveries made as
yet. This region is said to be very mountainous and trails are
scarce, although one leads up Fish Creek for several miles. Some
prospectors were entering this district by way of Ferguson.
RETURNS FROM MINING RECORDERS.
Details.
Ains-
worth.
Arrows
Lako. J
Goat |
Siver. |
kelson
Slocan
City.
Slocan.f
Trail.
Creek
Claims Recorded	
1,982
. 2528
••■•1
372
2,097
312
1,489
1,864
Certificates of Work	
968
105i
1,502         311
1,078)
1,627
Certificates of Improvements
...J
9
22
104
160
Bills of Sale, Transfers, Etc.
1,312
169?
1381
1,3581        224
1,5371
1,507
2;
20
12
99
Free Miners' Certificates	
1,798
300!
143
2.288         136
2,366
4,699
Money paid in lieu of work..
....f
2|
14
201
28
LILLOOET DISTRICT.
A short visit was made to the town of Lillooet in order to visit
a few of the properties on Cayoosh Creek that had attracted much
attention by the discovery of fine samples of quartz and free
gold. The town of Lillooet, one of the oldest in the interior, was
an important point in the early days of Cariboo, as it was on the
main line of travel thither until the road was built in from Yale
and Ashcroft. It is beautifully situated on the west bank of the
Fraser above the confluence  of the Cayoosh Creek and the river 94 VANCOUVER BOARD OP TRADE.
flowing out of Seaton Lake, and below that of Bridge River, and is
noted for its very equable climate, many kinds of fruit being grown
on irrigated land.
An excellent road runs from Ashcroft through the Marble
Canyon and then along the Fraser River, a distance of sixty-
four miles, and another road is being built from Lytton along
the east bank of the Fraser. A road leads to Seaton Lake, and
then up Cayoosh River to the Golden Cache and other properties,
and a trail has been opened up along Bridge River.
During the past season many prospectors have been busy in the
country about 60 or 70 miles up Bridge River, where is a very large
extent of country hitherto little known even to the prospector, with
perhaps even greater areas not yet explored. Gold-bearing quartz
ledges have been located, on which some work has been, and
much more is about to be done, and during the coming season the
field for exploration will be very much more extended, as trails and
other means of ingress are provided. Geologically, practically
nothing is known of this region, but on Bridge River, where most
work has recently been done, the formations are said to consist of
eruptive rocks of different kinds.
For many years the bars and benches on the Fraser, Bridge
River, Cayoosh and other creeks have yielded gold, but very scanty
attention was ever paid to the sources of this gold or the quartz
leads until the discovery of the Golden Cache lead proved an
. incentive to much greater and more extensive prospecting for quartz
veins, although work had been done several years before on the
quartz veins on Cayoosh Creek, as on the Bonanza claim. This
awakened interest will lead to the opening up by trails and to the
exploration of a large region on the eastern slope of the Coast Range.
I am very glad to be able to report that the ques-
Dredging. ^{on dealing with the debris under the waters of the
Fraser has at last been partly solved by the New Fraser River Gold
Mining Company. This end has been attained by determined
perseverance and the expenditure of a very large amount of capital.
Mr. W. F. Gore, the general superintendent for the company, in
response to my request for a .general report, writes to me on the
24th inst.: "We have made dredging a known quantity and an
absolute success,  not through the medium of any new invention, or ANNUAL REPORT. 95
combination of patents, but through the operation of a harbour
dredge of the kind known as the Dipper Dredge, which was built
to our order by the Marion Steam Shovel Company, of Marion,
Ohio. The dredge lifts one and one-half yards of material at a
time, thus enabling us to wash from a thousand yards to twelve
hundred yards of material per day. For sluicing purposes we have
two direct-connection centrifugal pumps, which raise about 7,500
gallons of water each per minute. These discharge into hoppers
above the grizzlies, and the sluices and usual riffles do the rest. To
my mind it is one of the neatest and prettiest mining operations
ever conducted. The scow or vessel on which the machinery is
placed is 82 feet by 38 feet. The boilers are 80 to 100-horse
power, with engines powerful enough to lift fifty-five tons." In a
personal interview with Mr. Gore since receiving his report, he
informed me that the vessel and machinery were finished about
October last, and they hauled out into the stream for a test and to
smooth bearings. Everything worked to perfection. The dipper
went under the water and came up full, bringing to light a number
of curios, as corroded nails, files, pick points, which go to show that
they were then on the site of ground that had been wing-dammed
over twenty years ago, and the summer floods of all that time had
been unable to move these relics but a very short distance at most.
Mr. Gore also handed me specimens of micaceous iron and small
nuggets of water-worn copper found in the general debris. He
also informed me that water-worn boulders of lignite coal are found
there. The gold result here was a few ounces. Everthing being a
success they hauled up stream and commenced work in earnest in
the early part of November last, when cold weather set in, with
the result that the river fell suddenly and they found themselves
high and dry, with the exception of a trough which the dredger had
dug up for itself.' The cold had become so intense that they coidd .
do nothing with the sluice boxes, and the whole of the washed .
material is still in the boxes and likely to remain there for the next
two months. Mr. Gore said that it is the intention of the company
to add an electric light to their plant and run day and night, and
in future haul into winter quarters at the beginning of November,
as they have had sufficient experience now of the very uncertain
weather in winter that may prevail at Big Bar. 96 VANCOUVER BOARD OP TRADE.
Both Mr. Gore and Mr. Davidson, the mechanical engineer,
assure me that they are perfectly satisfied that they can handle the
gravels in the Fraser River. All they ask is that there shall be
a little gold in the gravel. The gravels last worked are from three
to four feet thick, resting on a stratum of hard pan. By way of
. testing the dipper, they passed it through the hard pan until they
reached another stratum of gravel consisting of small water-worn
stones; In addition to gold in the gravel, I have no doubt that
platinum, and the other members of the platinum group, will be
found. • (I know that platinum is found in the river gravels at Big
Bar, and also on some of the bars below Lillooet.) This company is
eminently deserving of success; they have had to deal with innumerable obstacles, as usual in commencing an enterprise of this nature.
The lumber for the construction of the vessel and buildings had to
be cut from the nearest forest and hauled over a rough road to the
place where the building was done. All the machinery, some of it
very heavy, such as boilers, had to be hauled from Ashcroft, for the
greater part, over a narrow mountain road, and again down to the
Fraser. Fortunately all has been done without loss or accident of
any kind. The vessel is in anything but a safe place, but is moored
by steel cables as securely as possible under the circumstances, and
will be hauled into safe quarters as soon as the river rises sufficiently. With the success attained by this description of dredger,
I have no doubt others will follow next year. There is ample room
for a fleet of them in the district of Lillooet. Tho dredger at work
below Lillooet Bridge, referred to in my Report of last year, was
found to be a failure, and I understand the company propose using
a different style of machine.
The following abstract shows the mining  transactions in the
district of Lillooet for the year:
Mineral Claims Recorded  1,135
"            Conveyances of  348
"            Abandonments   4
"            Certificates of Work  139
"            Water Grants for  3
Placer Claims Recorded .•  6
Re-recorded  4
"            Water Grants for  7
"            Conveyances  9 '
Dredging Leases in Force (Placer)    15
"                Applied for    4
Hydraulic Mining Leases in Force  41
Free Miner's Certificates (Receipts for)    $2,755 00
Mining Receipts (General)    $9,997 20 ANNUAL REPORT. 97
NANAIMO DISTRICT.
TEXADA ISLAND.
For many years exploratory, and even mining work, has been
carried on at irregular intervals on this island, but during the past
two years interest has been greatly revived and several properties
are now being actively prospected. Prospecting has been, as far as
the interior of the island is concerned, confined to the northern
portion, probably because to the south no discovery has yet been
reported and the underbrush is much denser, but the upper ten
miles of the island has been pretty well located.
Location.
The island, lying in the Straits of Georgia, between Vancouver
Island and the mainland, about ninety miles north from Victoria
and 40 miles from Vancouver, has a length of about 27 miles and
an extreme width of 5.5 miles. Topographically it is very rocky
and mountainous, and the bold and rocky shores ai-e such that no
good harbors are afforded but some shallow bays exposed to certain
winds that make landing from the steamer difficult. In the
northern part the timber is good but not thick, and the underbrush
is comparatively light, the ground being very rocky from the very
large angular boulders and the jagged, cliffy character of the rock
formations.
Transportation.
The schedule of steamboat dates is often changed, but during
the past autumn one steamer a week was running to Victoria via
Nanaimo, and from Vancouver two steamers twice a week to all
points along the east coast of the island and points on mainland,
so that supplies could be landed cheaply at any point if weather
was not bad. In shipping ore scows were loaded, then towed to
port at a .cost of $1.50 to $2.00 per ton. 98 VANCOUVER BOARD OP TRADE.
Report by Marshall Bray, Gold Commissioner, Nanaimo, B.C.
"For the-second year this mineral division has made a fair
showing, as follows:
Free Miner's Certificates Issued  710
Mineral Claims Recorded  1,157
Certificates of Work Recorded  287
Paid $100 each in Lieu of Work Recorded. . ... . . 19
Certificates of Improvement Recorded  14
Bdls of Sale of Mineral Claims Recorded  272
Grants of Water-Rights Recorded....-,  3
which gave a total revenue collected from the above for the year
ending 31st December, 1897, of $10,025.25.
"Three hundred and sixty-seven records of mineral claims lapsed
during the year 1897, the work not having been recorded, and
I still have 2,088 records in good standing on 31st December,
1897. All these claims are along the coast line, or within easy
reach of the Coast, with the exception of those in Dunsmuir District, into which a wagon-road was built last fall.
"The facility with which these mines can be operated and
worked along the coast, owing to the cheapness of freight and supplies, the nearness of same to coal, coke, wood, flux, and, in many
cases, good water power, will make them, when developed, good
paying investments, and capitalists are just beginning to awaken
to the possibilities of our coast mines, and quite a number of mineral
claims have be^n purchased or bonded by them, and no doubt they
will push development work on their holdings this coming season."
VANCOUVER  ISLAND.
"During the past year a large amount of prospecting has been
in progress at different points on the island, more especially on the
west coast. Here the mountains contiguous to Barclay and Clay-
oquot Sounds and Sidney Inlet have been attracting; much attention by the discovery of copper-bearing ore, upon some of which
deposits considerable work is now in progress. A number of
properties were sold in the proximity of Uchucklesit Harbor and
Anderson Lake, where a company is beginning extensive explorations, ANNUAL REPORT. 99
"The copper properties on the west coast will now be, in many
cases, carefully explored. Near Goldstream, locations have recently
been made on deposits of copper ore, from which is got massive
chalcopyrite, carrying low values in gold and silver. In November
a short visit was made to Mount Sicker."
VICTORIA DISTRICT.
Report of W. S. Gore, Gold Commissioner.
VICTORIA DIVISION.
"Notwithstanding the transfer, in the early part of the year,
of one of the principal mining localities, viz.: Phillips Arm and
vicinity, from this to the Nanaimo Division, the records issued at
this office still show an increase of over double the number of the
previous year.
"The revenue derived from this source shows an increase of
nearly $10,000.
1896. 1897.
Free Miner's Certificates Issued -.  690 1,204
Mineral Claims Recorded  342 772
Placer Claims Recorded  25 15
Certificates of Work  60 67
Certificates of Improvement  1 6
Grants of Water Right  13 11
Lay Overs  11 6
Placer Leases  22 34
Conveyances  83 130
Mill Site Leases '.  — 1
REVENUE   DERIVED.
1896. 1897.
Free Miner's Licenses   $3,460 00      $11,402 00
Mining Receipts (General)      3,117  10 4,359 60
$6,577  10     $15,761 60   102
Vancouver Board oP -trade.
NEW WESTMINSTER DIVISION.
D. Robson, Mining Recorder.
Comparative statement of  the mining business of the division
during the past three years:
Free Miner's Certificates Issued.
Mineral Claims Recorded	
Certificates of Work Issued ...
Conveyances Recorded	
Revenue from Free Miner's Certificates.
Revenue from other Sources	
Total Mining Revenue.
1895.
1896.
468
1,150
182
518
12
37
3
81
1897.
2,760
1,883
199
295
$   2,340$   5,900$ 22,724
655       1,762      6,139
$   2,995$   7,662$ 28,863
Of the free miners certificates mentioned above, 125 were
issued at the "Vancouver agency and twenty-four at Douglas. About
the middle of the year a considerable area of mining territory (lying
between Jervis Inlet and Lewis Channel) was taken, from this division and added to the Nanaimo district.
Although a great deal of prospecting has been done, and a
large number of claims have been located, it is to be regretted that
there has been comparatively little work done in the development
.of mining properties. With the exception, perhaps, of a score of
claims the work done has not much exceeded that which was required to obtain a certificate of work. It should be remembered,
however, that many of the claims were taken up late in the season,
and are so situated that they could not be developed without large
expenditure. ANNUAL REPORT. 103
YALE DIVISION.
GRAND   FORKS—KETTLE    RIVER   DIVISION.
THE BOUNDARY CREEK DIVISION.
This is the name now generally given to the large
Boundary ,. . j-      »       -m     . i    * T 7
r     ,   J    and important region extending from Fourth of July
Lreek.       ^
• Creek to main Kettle River,  as it flows from the
north, embracing all the territory drained by Boundary Creek and
its tributaries. Within this area veins and deposits of great promise
and diversity in kind have been discovered, on which a fair amount
of work is being done • but this district is in a peculiar condition
in that the claim owners, seeing that the best and cheapest facilities for transport and treatment of ores are demanded, are waiting
for these facilities to be supplied or definitely promised before
undertaking very serious development work.
Two companies have charters to build a railroad through this
district, but the holders have carefully studied the situation, and if
the mining men will prove up the. existence, under these extensive surface showings, of ore bodies that will promise a good tonnage for transport to the smelting centres, or warrant the establishment of smelters here, the building of a railroad will be much
expedited. Mining men should not hesitate in doing extensive and
all-important prospecting—should not wait for the next man, as
they may rest assured that they must lead the way, i.e., prove up
mines and deposits of pay ore and the railroads will quickly come.
Realizing this fact to a certain extent more determined work is now
being done; steam mine plants are, or are about to be installed on
several properties by men, strong financially j and some of these
large, but as yet too low grade gold-copper deposits, will be
thoroughly prospected and the true significance of the surface
indications wrought out. 104 VANCOUVER BOARD OP TRADE.
Roads and Trails.
Stages run two or three times a week from Penticton to Marcus
or Bqssberg via the towns mentioned, with the following scale of
distances:
Miles.
Penticton to Camp McKhmey  56
Camp McKinney to Midway  32
Midway to Greenwood  8
Greenwood to Grand Forks  23
Grand Forks to Marcus  45
Much of this road is good, but very dusty in dry weather, and
much yet requires great improvement. It takes three days to
travel from Penticton to Marcus, stopping over night at Camp
McKinney and Grand Forks, after spending one night at Penticton.
Roads branch off at Rock Creek, Midway and Carson, and
cross into the United States, while roads are built from Greenwood
and Grand Forks to the camps. Good pack trails run in many
directions, and the prospector has easy access to much of this
country.
Railroad charters are held by two companies; («), by the
Columbia and Western from Robson, on the Columbia, to Penticton;
(6), the second charter recently bought by McKenzie & Mann, of
Toronto, who are buying mining properties near Greenwood, is for a
line from the Coast to Penticton, thence via Midway, Greenwood
and Grand Forks to the Columbia River. During the comiag year
(1898) it is very probable that railroad construction through this
district will see its commencement, following which a very great
impulse will be given to mining work.
Ores and Ore Deposits. -
Some have written of this region as being rich in copper ores,
but as yet this is not proved; but there are certainly large zones
carrying from one to three and four per cent, of copper and some
gold values. About all one can #say at the present stage of very
scanty development is that throughout this region are (apart from
the quartz veins and veins of high grade ore) large ledges or
mineralized portions of the greenish, feldspathic  rock,  already de- ANNUAL  REPORT. 105
scribed, from which good gold assays are obtained and which offer
every inducement to extensive exploration. If more concentrated
parts or regular ore chutes are found, there is every reason to
believe that such ore should prove to be very profitable, as much
good (but not pay) values have already been got from a large amount
of mineralized rock matter, and even some good pay ore has
been found in the very limited work done.
It is impossible at the present time to give a definite or
really satisfactory account of the ores or ore deposits of the
Kettle River-Grand Forks District, as no producing mine has
yet developed. No smelter or mill returns can be referred to,
and much of the workings could not be seen, as work had not
been resumed and water had accumulated; but the prospects of
this becoming an important mining district are excellent, if we
can judge from surface indications and the little work done.
The "surface showings" throughout this region are certainly
very flattering, although it must be admitted that very little pay
ore (i.e., under the best of considerations) has yet been found. The
future of these camps rests greatly upon results of the development
work, and at the time of going to press with this Report, a much
larger amount of underground work is being done or begun, with
the assurance that if good bodies of pay ore are proved up,
railroad and other facilities will soon follow and that more abundant
capital will flow in. Many mining districts in other countries
languish because interest has never been aroused to their mining
possibilities: but in British Columbia any part or region will now
command instant attention if the miner by his work can show
thai; he has discovered what may be made a mine.
OSOYOOS DIVISON.
Fairview Camp is located about two and a-half miles
Fairview     wggt and 500 fgefc ^ye the Okanagan River, on the
' east flank   of  the  rather low  range of  mountains
separating the Okanagan and Similkameen valleys,   and by stage
road is twenty-eight miles south  of  Penticton, twenty-nine  miles 106
Vancouver Board op trade.
west of Camp McKinney, and twelve miles north from Osoyoos
where were the the offices of the Gold Commissioner of the southern
portion of Yale.
The mineral claims so far at all developed lie on a series of
foothills or benches, a few hundred feet above the Okanagan Valley,
on a flat in which, below the narrow gulch in which the settlement
now is, the townsite of Fairview is laid out, where one of the mining
companies has since erected a large hotel.
VERNON DIVISION.
The town of Vernon is situated in the broad valley in which
most of the Yale grain, fruit, cattle and horse ranches are, but
during the past two years much prospecting has been done on the
surrounding low-lying hills, that consist of altered sedimentaries, as
limestones, quartzites and slates, contorted and compressed by
eruptive rocks, such as porphyrites, diorites, etc.
Work has been confined mostly to veins of quartz, generally
milk-white in color and very free from sulphides, and while some
very nice samples have been found, as yet no chutes of pay ore can
be reported. All this country is very easy of access, as a saddle-
horse may be ridden almost anywhere. The town is beautifully
situated on a branch of the Canadian Pacific Railway from Sicamous>
on the main line,' to Okanagan Lake, on which runs the steamer
Aberdeen to Penticton, whence runs the stage roads to Fairview,
Camp McKinney, Greenwood, etc. ANNUAL REPORT.
107
RETURNS   FROM    MINING   RECORDERS.
Osoyoos Division—James R. Brown.
1896.
Free Miner's Certificates	
Location Records	
Conveyances and Agreements	
Certificates of Work	
Certificates of Improvement	
Permission to Re-locate	
Mining Receipts $1,572 55
Free Miner's Certificates. ff|      845 00
Total $2,417 55
1897
167
350
303
692
112
228
111
1
290
24
3
12
c
54,42
5 67
2,11
2 00
$6,537 67
Kettle River Division—Wm. G. McMynn.
1893.   1891.   1895.  1896. 1897.
Free Miner's Certificates.  ...194       202      457       957 1,050
Location Records 102        93       771    1,297 1,056
Certificates of Work  66         85       140       566 749
Conveyances 59        55      244       713 749
Certificates of Improvement..    0          3         11         15 16
Millsite Leases     0          0          3          1 4
Abandonments     6          0         12        35 59
Water Grants     13          3          3 1
Permits     0          0          3          9 1
REVENUE.
1893.              1891.               1895.               1896. 1897.
Mining Receipts $ 801,55      S  947.35      §3,153.25      ? 7,240.45 ? 7.376.90
Free Miner's Certificates....     870.00        1,065.00        2,256.00         4,778.00 6,974 00
|1,671.55      $2,012.35      $5,409.25      $12,018.45 $14,350.90 108
VAN60UVER BOAR© OF TRADE.
Grand Forks Division—S. R. Almond.
1897.-
Location Records  430
Certificates of Work  366
Transfers, Agreements, Etc  307
Abandonments '. 22
General Records  3
Certificates of Improvement  2
Free Miner's Certificates!  149
REVENUE.
Mining Receipts. ' $3,081.40
Free Miner's Certificates       831.00
Total $3,912.40
Vernon Division—J. C. Tunstall.
Location Records     395
Certificates of Improvement        1
Certificates of Work ,     105
Transfers 106
Free Miner's Certificates     382
Similkameen Division—Hugh Hunter.
Free Miners' Certificates Issued  158
Mineral Claims Recorded  137
Transfers  33
Certificates of Work issued  46 ANNUAL REPORT. 109
KAMLOOPS DIVISION.
Near Kamloops, one of the most important towns of the interior and a divisional point of the Canadian Pacific Railway,
considerable interest has been aroused during the past two years by
the discovery of copper on Coal Hill. Coal Hill lies about three
miles south of the town, and consists for the. most part of treeless,
gently sloping hills with some rock exposures, in which have been
found the copper-stained, 'decomposed material capping the copper-
impregnated rock beneath. A short visit was made here in
September.
YALE DIVISION.
Less industrial mining was carried on in this division than in
1896, but other branches of mining are assuming more importance.
The history of river dredging on the Fraser and other
T)reA„\nff rivers in the Province has been associated with
failure since the first introduction of machinery
designed for that purpose. The promoters were persons without
any mining experience, entirely ignorant of the obstacles to be
overcome and of the means to avoid them. These devices, which
excited the amazement of the old miners, most of whose lives "had
been spent in mining on the Fraser, but whose advice was deemed
unworthy of notice, consisted principally of powerful centrifugal
pumps supposed to be able to suck up the auriferous gravel from
the bottom without the slightest difficulty, but in practice they
unfortunately brought up stones with greater facility, which
constantly choked the pipes and caused many delays.
There are also other devices constructed of a more impracticable
nature which only betrayed the little knowledge possessed by the
inventors of the work they had to accomplish. It is therefore
pleasing to note the comparative success attending the operations of
the Beatty Gold Mining and Dredging Company, which are still in
progress below North Bend, on Boston Bar. The dredge referred
to is provided with a shovel or dipper under perfect control of the
machinery, capable, of being swung round and submerged anywhere
within a certain radius and with a capacity at each hoist of one-
d one-half tons of  gravel in less than one minute.    The amount 110 VANCOUVER BOARD OP TRADE.
of material raised per diem is estimated at 800 cubic yards, and
this is deposited on an incline iron grating, or "grizzly," lying on
the scow moored alongside, by which the rocks are deposited in the
river, while the smaller stones and gravel are carried into a dump
box placed underneath and run thence into sluice boxes furnished
with different kinds of plates, riffles, and undercurrents, supplied
with quicksilver to save the gold.
The shovel raises a certain amount of water, but not sufficient
to run off the gravel, and a further supply for washing is provided
by means of a dump. The gold is found beneath a layer of boulders,
lying at or near the surface of. the river bottom. Difficulty is
frequently encountered in moving the scow by reason of the large
rocks precipitated from the "grizzly," forming a .bar in a comparatively short time, but measures will be taken to avoid this obstacle
in future. The machinery, is capable of working to a depth of
twenty-six feet.
As no coarse gold has been obtained, I would infer that operations did not extend as far as the bedrock, where it should be found
in large crevices and seams, under conditions which may probably
render its recovery a difficult matter. The mining season is confined
to the period of low water. Work began on the 30th August last
and has continued with some interruptions to the present date, and
will be carried on through the winter, provided no severe frost
intervenes. The shareholders are so well satisfied with the returns
obtained ($7,000), that it is the intention to construct several more
dredges of the same description to work on the various stretches of
the river they now hold under lease.
The following is the yield of gold for the past year:
Hope  $    800
Yale..  :  11,600
" Spuzzum  3,172
North Rend  3,234
Keefers  1,500
Lytton   16,369  ;
Spence's Bridge  700
Ashcroft  6,000
Ottawa Hydraulic Mining Co  3,000
Agnes Hydraulic Mining Co  300
Beatty Gold Mining & Dredging Co  7,000
Taken away in private hands  5,000
Grand Total     $58,675
XL ANNUAL REPORT. HI
COAL   MINES.
By A. Dick, Inspector of Coal Mines.
The collieries in operation during the past year, 1897, were:
The Nanaimo Colliery, of the New Vancouver". Coal Mining
and Land Company, Limited.
Wellington Colliery, owned by Messrs.  R. Dunsmuir <fe Sons.
Union Colliery, of the Union Colliery Company.
The Wellington Colliery Company's mines, Alexandra mines,
and West Wellington Colliery, owned by the West Wellington
Coal Company, Limited.
The output of coal for 189-7 amounted to 892,2952* tons,
produced by the collieries as follows:
Nanaimo Colliery  319.343J*.
Wellington Colliery  297,611^
Union Colliery  265,642
Wellington Colliery Company's mines...'  6,000
Alexandra Mine  3,375
West Wellington Colliery  323><|
Total Output for the year 1897      892,295"
Add Coal on hand at 1st January, 1897        48,111^
Total Coal for disposal      940,407%   .
The export of coal by the collieries for 1897 was as follows:
Nanaimo Colliery" '   231,986$
Wellington Colliery      211,662|0
Union Colliery 1     176,212
Total Coal export in 1897      619,860J
Home Consumption      290,30920
Coal on hand 1st January, 1898        30,237L 112 VANCOUVER BOARD OP TRADE.
The returns for the year show a home consumption of coal
amounting to 290,309$ tons as against 261,983% tons last year
(1896). It must, however, be noted, that the coal used in and
about the collieries is, in most instances, under this heading.
■■„ , In addition to the stated home consumption of   coal
Coke. ... .        KOO K
for 1897, we consumed in British Columbia 14,528.5
tons of coke, and exported 2,573 tons to California,  U. S., leaving
730 tons on hand on 1st January, 1898, being a total of 17,831.5
tons, all of which was manufactured at Union Colliery, Comox. In
connection with this colliery there are 100 ovens  of the beehive
pattern, which are all at work turning out  a first-class coke,   for
which there is  a good market both in British Columbia  and in
San Francisco, and also  wherever  it has  been  tried.    Now  the
Union Colliery Company is building  a second hundred ovens for
the coke-making business; these are  the  same pattern as the first,
and all are expected to be in operation early in the summer.    The
company will be in a position to fill orders that they have now to
refuse.    The time has arrived when it is not necessary to send out
of the country for a first-class coke,   this  being ndw manufactured
in British Columbia, and equal to any that can be imported.
There is yet another first-class art.cle that is the
-1' product of our mines that I may mention here—that
is, fire-clay, of which the output for the past year was 1,628.7 tons,
all of which was sold and the greater part of it made into brick,
which are being built into the ovens now under construction by the
Union Colliery Company.
„    . The  coal  exported was  shipped   at  the   ports   of
Nanaimo, Departure Bay and Union (near Comox),
Vancouver Island, in British Columbia. The • exports were principally made to San Francisco, San Pedro and San Diego, in
California, U. S. A. Shipments were also made to the states of
Oregon and Washington, to Alaska and Petropauloski, the Hawaiian
Islands, and there was one shipment to Central America.
In order to show the standing of the British Columbia coal
0 ANNUAL REPORT. 113
the  California  market,   I   append  the  following  return  for the
year 1897:
COAL   IMPORTED   INTO   CALIFORNIA,    1897.
Tons.
British Columbia Coal      558,372
Australian Coal      281,666
English Coal      107,969
Scotch Coal  4,081
Eastern Coal        21,335
Seattle Coal      220,175
Diabolo, Coos Bay Coal      115,150
Carbon Hill Coal      286,205
Japan, Alaska, etc., Coal ■        6,587
Total 1,601,540
The total deliveries of coke in San Francisco this year
amounted to 30,320 tons, of which the Union Colliery Company,
British Columbia, gave 2,573 tons, and 1,889 tons came from
Australia. Now that we have made our first year's shipments of
coke—a first-class article—doubtless the Union Colliery Company
will be making regular shipments to the Californian market
henceforth. 114 VANCOUVER BOARD  OF TRADE.
THE  YUKON   DISTRICT.
The Yukon District comprises an area of, approximately,
192,000 miles, within Canadian territory, over 150,000 square
miles of which is included in the watershed of the Yukon River-
In other, words, its area is almost equal to that of France and
greater than that of the Umtecl Kingdom by over 70,000 square
miles. The northern portion of British Columbia is included strictly
within the Yukon basin, which, with the southern part of the
Yukon, is drained by three great river systems. Its waters reach the
Pacific by the Stickine River, the Arctic Ocean by the Mackenzie River,
and Behring Sea by the Yukon River. The Stickine makes its way
through the Coast range in a south-westerly direction. The
whole northern country may be said to be, in a general way, a
continuation of the more pronounced physical features of British
Columbia. The mountain ranges, however, which are mqre sharply
defined in the northern part of British Columbia, gradually con.
verge towards the north until they merge into eacK other and broaden
out into one more or less composite area. The region as a whole is
naturally mountainous in general character, but comprises as well
important areas of merely hilly or gently rolling country, besides
many wide, flat river valleys. It is more mountainous, higher in
the south-eastern part, and subsides gradually and apparently
uniformly, to the north-westward, the mountains becoming more
isolated and more separated by broader tracts of level land. The
general base level or height of the main valley within the Coast
ranges declines from a height of about 2,500 feet to 1,500 feet at
the confluence of the Lewis and Pelly rivers, and the average base
level of the entire region may be stated as being a little over  2,000 1
ANNUAL REPORT. 115
feet. Disregarding minor irregularities, the trend of the main
mountain ridges and ranges throughout the entire region has a
general parallelism to the outline of the coast. The coast ranges,
having an average width of about 80 miles, and closely set with
high, rounded or rugged mountains, reproduce geographically and
geologically the features characteristic of it in the southern portion'
of British Columbia.
EXTRACTS FROM MR. OGILVIE'S DESCRIPTION.
Probable Yield.
Bonanza and El Dorado creeks afford between them 278 claims,
the several affluences will yield as many more, and all of these
claims are good. I have no hesitation in saying that about a
hundred of those on Bonanza will yield upwards of $30,000,000-
Claim 30 below, on El Dorado, will yield a million in iifself, and ten
others will yield from $100,000 up. These two creeks will, I am
quite confident, turn out from $60,000,000 to $75,000,000, and I
can safely say that there is no other region in the world of the same
extent that has afforded in the same length of time so meny home.
stakes—fortunes enabling the owners to go home and enjoy the
remainder of their days—considering the work that has to be done
with very limited facilities, the scarcity of _ provisions and of labor,
and that the crudest appliances only are as yet available.
On Bear Creek, about seven or eight miles above that, good claims
have been found, and also on Gold Bottom, Hunker, Last Chance
and Cripple creeks. On Gold Bottom as high as $15.00 to the pan
has been taken, and on Hunker Creek the same, and although we
.cannot say that they are as rich as Eldorado or Bonanza, they are
richer than any other creeks known in that country. Then, thirty-
five miles higher up the Klondike, Too-Much-Gold Creek was found. 116 VANCOUVER BOARD OP TRADE.
A fact that I am now going to state to you, and one that is
easily demonstrated, is that from Telegraph Creek northward to
the boundary, line, we have, in the Dominion of Canada, an
area of from 550 to 600 miles in length, and from 10 to 150
miles in width, over the whole of which rich prospects have
•been found. We must have from 90,000 to 100,000 square
miles, which, with proper care, judicious handling and better facilities for the transportation of food and utensils, will be the richest,
as it is the largest, gold field the world has ever known.
Quartz Ledges.
In regard to quartz claims, seven have already been located in
the vicinity of Forty Mile and Dawson, and there is also a mountain
of gold in the neighborhood bearing ore. yielding from $5.00 to $700
a ton. The queston to be considered is, whether with that
return it will pay to work it under the peculiar conditions which
exist and the enormous freight rates charged for transportation.
About forty miles up the river two claims have been located
by an expert miner from the United States, one who has had
considerable experience in Montana and other, mineral states-
and he assured me that the extent of the lode is such that these
two claims are greater than any proposition in the world, going from
$300 to $1,100 a ton. On Bear Creek a quartz claim was located
last winter.
On Gold Bottom another claim has been located, and I havo
made a test of the ore. I had no sieve and had to employ a hand
mortar, which, you who know auything about the work, will under,
derstand would not give the best results. The poorest result
obtained, however, was $100 to the ton, while the richest was
$1,000. Of course I do not know what the extent of the claim is,
but the man who found it said that from the rock exposed the
deposit must be of considerable extent.
About thirty miles up the Klondike another claim was located,
and the man swore it was rich.
On El Dorado and Bonanza the gold obtained on the different
benches has about the same value, that is, has about the same decree ANNUAL REPORT. 117
of fineness, and is worth about $16.00 per ounce, and as you go
down the creek this value decreases to about $15>.25. From that
point, however, it increases again, and from this the inference
appears to be plain that the same lode runs right across the region
that these creeks cut through, which is proved still more surely by
the fact that the value increases as you strike Hunker, and in the
other direction Miller and Glacier. The nuggets found in El Dorado
show no evidence of having traveled any great distance, and some I
have are as rough as though they had been hammered out of the
the mother lode.
The mother lode is yet to be found in the ridges between the
creeks, and when it is discovered it may prove to consist of several
large lodes or a succession of small ones that may not pay to work.
On Stewart and Pelly rivers some prospecting has been done
and gold found, and on the Hootalinqua, in 1895, good pay ore was
discovered, and the richness of the gold increases as work is continued farther down. Some men, working fifteen feet down, found
coarse gold, when the water drove them out, and they had to
abandon the work and came out determined to return; but they did
not go back, as in the meantime the Klondike excitement knocked
that place out.
Gold has been found at- the head of Lake Lebarge, on the
stream flowing into the lake at this point. In fact there is gold
everywhere in this zone, which is 500 miles long by 150 miles wide.
Prospectors, too, are to be found on the Dal^on trail on the other
side of the river. It may be assumed that in all this country there
is gold, while in this particular zone it is especially abundant. This
zone bes outside of the Rocky Mountains and distant from them
about 150 miles.
The Klondike gold fields are in Canada, and therefore, naturally,
one ought to outfit in Canada to save paying Canadian customs
duty. But one has learnt by experience that to reach these fields
from the south it is necessary to cross a strip of territory whose
boundaries and actual ownership are in dispute, but which is
occupied and administered by the United States Government. 118 Vancouver board op trade.
ROUTES.
I. Vancouver to Dawson City via St. Michael and the Yukon River.
Miles.
Ocean Steamer to St. Michael    2,660
St. Michael to Mouth of Yukon         80
Yukon Mouth to Dawson City ■      1,610
4,350
The Behring Sea does not open for navigation till June, and the
earliest date of arrival of a through steamer at Dawson is usually in
July.
II. Dyea Pass (Chilkoot Pass).
Miles.
Vancouver to Dyea  »   895
Dyea to Sheep Camp    13
Sheep Camp to Summit      3
Summit to Lake Lindemann      8
  24
Lake Lindemann to Dawson  558
1,477
III. Skagway Pass (White Pass, Moore's Trail).
Miles.
Vancouver to Skagway  891
Skagway to Summit    17
Summit to Lake Bennett     20 37
Lake Bennett to Dawson..  552
1.480
IV. Dalton's Trail.
'    • Miles.
Vancouver to Pyramid Harbor ,  875
Pyramid Harbor to Summit    45
Summit to Fort Selkirk  305      350
Fort Selkirk to Dawson  173
1,398
V. Taku Route.
Miles
Vancouver to Juneau    790
Juneau to Lake Teslin    i20
Lake Teslin to Dawson    650
1.560
VI. Stickine=Teslin Route.
Miles.
Vancouver to Wrangel  700
Wrangel to Stickine Island  8
Stickine Island to Glenora  130
Glenora to Telegraph Creek  12
150
Telegraph Creek to Teslin Lake  140
Lake Teslin to Hootalinqua River    70
Hootalinqua River to Lewis River  130
200
Lewis River to Fort Selkirk .'  277
Fort Selkirk to Dawson City  173
650
1,640 ANNUAL REPORT. 119
VI!. Overland Routes.
By Edmonton and Ashcrof t—can be only indirectly described as
routes to the Klondike.    The Edmonton trails take in rich country
along the Peace,  Liard,   Pelly  and   Mackenzie rivers,   while the
Ashcroft track runs through the  Cariboo,   Omineca and  Cassiar
countries.    The Cassiar and Omineca districts, however,  can be
reached from Vancouver via the Stickine and Skeena rivers.
The following is a list of duties chargeable on imported goods by
the Canadian Customs:
Axes  25 per cent.
Anvils  30
Bacon  2 cents per lb.
Baking Powder  6 "
Beans  15 cents per bushel.
Belts (Cartridge)  30 per cent.
Blankets  35
Boats  25
Boilers (Steam)  25
Boots (Leather or Rubber)  25      "
Butter -.  4 cents per lb.
Candles (Paraffin Wax)  30 per cent.
Cattle  20
Cigars $3.00 per lb. and 25
Cigarettes $3.00 per lb. and 25
Clothing (Wool)  35
Clothing (Fur)  30
: -Clothing (Rubber)  35
Coffee 2 cents per lb. and 10
Condensed milk  3J cents per lb.
Dogs  20 per cent.
Flour  60 cents per barrel.
Fruit (Dried)  25 per cent.
Fruit (Canned)  2i cents per lb.
Guns  30 per cent.
Goats  20
Hay  $2.00 per ton.
Horses i  20 per cent.
Harness  30
Lard ,  2 cents per lb.
Lumber  25 per cent.
Machinery  25      "
' Matches  25
.   Meat (Canned)  25      "
''Meat (Dried)  25
Oats  10 cents per bushel.
Oars  25 per cent.
Oatmeal  20
Picks  30
Rice  11 cents per lb.
Rope (all kinds)  25 per cent.
Saddles  30
Saw Mills  25
Saws  30
• Sheep  20
Shovels  35      "
Sleighs  25
Soap  1 cent, per lb.
Soda  20 per cent.
Soups  25
Stoves  25
Sugar  1 per cent, per lb.
Tea  10 per cent.
Tents  35
Tobacco  50 cents per lb.
z  Tobacco (Cut)  55
Yeast  6 120 VANCOUVER BOARD OP TRADE.
UNITED STATES CUSTOMS REGULATIONS.
Official copy of the United States Customs Directions for Juneau,
Dyea and Skagway.
The following is the official text of the Regulations governing
the entry and transportation of merchandise destined for the Klon,
" dike region and North West Territories of British Columbia via the
United States- subports of Junea, Dyea and Skagway, and other
Customs ports in Alaska:
Treasury Department,
Office op the Secretary,
Washington, D. C, Feb. 2, 1898.
To Collectors of Customs and Others Interested:
The following regulations are published for the information and
guidance of all concerned:
1. Imported merchandise arriving at Junea, Dyea, Skagway,
or any other Customs port in Alaska, for transportation to the
Klondike region, unless immediately entered under warehouse,
transportation, and exportation entry, will be taken possession of
by the chief Customs Officer at the port and stored at the expense
of the owners.
2. Such merchandise may, after proper entry has been made,
proceed under warehouse, transportation and exportation entry,
without payment of duty, in charge of a Customs Officer, the cost
of whose transportation and maintenance must be paid by the
importer, or upon the- filing of a bond by the importer with satisfactory securities for its due exportation; said bond to be in amount
equal to the,duties and charges on the goods, a-nd to be cancelled
upon proper evidence of exportation. Whenever the owner shall
prefer.to deposit with the Deputy Collector an amount of money
equal to the duties and Customs charges on the goods, the filing of
the bond may be waived, and such deposit will be refunded by the
Deputy Collector receiving it, as hereinafter provided; but in view
of the prohibition of the landing of intoxicating liquors within the annual Report. 121
territory of Alaska, any package containing such spirits intended
for immediate exportation shall be transported in custody and
under the supervision of a Customs Officer as above provided.
3. A manifest and duplicate copy of the entry, containing a
description of the merchandise, with the numbers and marks of the
packages, shall be presented to the Collector at the subport at
which the entry is made, and said manifest and entry, after being
duly certified, shall accompany the merchandise on its route through
United States territory, and shall be delivered with the duplicate
copy of the entry to the Deputy Collector at the frontier for
verification by comparison with the merchandise covered thereby.
4. A Deputy Collector shall be stationed at the frontier line on
the route used for such transportation, and it shall be his duty to
identify the merchandise by comparison with the description thereof
contained in the entry and certified manifest.
If the merchandise corresponds with the description and shall
pass into British territory, the Deputy Collector at the frontier
shall so certify in the manifest, which shall then be transmitted by
him to the Collector at the port of entry, and he shall also give the
owner a certificate stating that the conditions of the bond have been
fulfilled, or, if the duty shall have been deposited with the Collector
at the port of entry, the Deputy Collector shall furnish the owner
with a certificate of exportation, which certificate, duly endorsed
by the owner, shall, whenever presented to the Deputy Collector,
by whom the deposit was received, be accepted by him as full
authority for the refund of the amount of such deposit, and such
refund shall be paid by him to the original owner, or to the person
designated by the owner's indorsement on the certificate.
6. If any of the merchandise included in the manifest shall
have been consumed or abandoned on the route, or shall otherwise
fail to appear at the frontier, duty shall be collected on the same by
the Deputy Collector at the frontier before he shall furnish a voucher
for the cancellation of the bond; if the duty shall have been deposited
at the port of entry, the Deputy Collector shall deduct the duty on
the missing goods from the amount so deposited, and shall give his
voucher for the balance remaining due to the owner of the goods.
7. All imported animals or merchandise abandoned or sold on the
route through United,States territory shall be seized by the Customs
Officers and forfeited to the Government unless duty shall be paid
thereon.
8. Whenever the Collector at the port of entry shall receive
from the Deputy at the frontier a report that the conditions of any
bond have been fulfilled, he shall cancel such bond, and whenever f
122 VANCOUVER BOA»D OP TRADE.
he shall receive the certified statement of exportation above
provided for and a voucher for the duty remaining due the owner,
he shall pay over such duties, or so much of the same as shall have
been found due, to the owner of the goods or the person duly
designated by the endorsement of the owner.
9. The Customs Officers at the ports affected by these regula-
lations are hereby authorized to require, whenever they shall deem
it expedient to do so, the landing under Customs supervision of all
imported goods at such wharf or warehouse as shall be duly designated by them, there to be held in Customs custody until the
issuance of permit for their removal.
10. All articles carried by passengers on the above routes, which
are in use, and which consist of wearing apparel and personal
effects necessary for the present comfort and convenience of such
passengers, are exempt from duty.
11. Any person engaged in an attempt to evade the United
States revenue laws under these regulations will be arrested, and on
conviction will be subject to the extreme penalty of the law in such
cases provided, and any merchandise introduced into the United
States in violation of the revenue laws will be confiscated by the
Government. ANNUAL REPORT. 123
MINERS' LICENSES.
Miners' licenses for the Yukon, of Canada, including the TCI on -
dike, can be obtained, on personal application, at the following
places of issue:
Ottawa, Winnipeg, Calgary, Prince Albert, Edmonton, Ash-
croft, Kamloops, New Westminster, Nanaimo, Victoria, Vancouver,
Dawson City.
Cost of Free Miners' License for Yukon, $10; cost of Free Miners'
License for British Columbia, $5.00.
PLACER MINING REGULATIONS FOR THE YUKON
DISTRICT OF CANADA.
The following is a brief summary of the more important provisions as proclaimed at Ottawa, January 20th, 1898:
Every owner of a mine, or miner working in a mine, must obtain
a "free miners' certificate."   This certificate costs $10.
No miner can locate or hold a claim who has not obtained a
"free miners' certificate."
These certificates must be applied for personally to the Canadian
Government Agent.
The only places on the Pacific Coast where these certificates can
be obtained are at Vancouver, B. C, Victoria, B. C, New West
minster, B. C, and Nanaimo, B. C.
A royalty of 10 per. cent, is to be paid to the Canadian Government on any amount over $2,500 which may be taken out of any
claim by any miner.
An ordinary placer claim is 250 feet.
Every alternate ten claims are reserved for the Government of
Canada.
Many of ahe young men who are talking of going into the
Yukon in' the spring would be well advised to pay heed to the
remarks of a man who spent many years in the region. He reports
on the climate, mode of living, and diseases commonly met with, as
follows: Miners are a very mixed class of people. Very often they
become indolent and careless, only eating those things which are
j^ 124 VANCOUVER BOARD OP TRADE. .
most easily cooked or prepared. During the busy time in summer,
■when -they are shovelling in, they work hard and for long hours,
sparing little time for eating, and much less for cooking. This
manner of living is quite common among beginners, and soon leads
to debility and sometimes to scurvy. The diseases met with in this
country are dyspepsia, anaemia, scurvy caused by improperly
cooked food,.sameness of diet, overwork, want of fresh vegetables,
over-heated and badly ventilated houses; rheumatism, pneumonia,
bronchitis, enteritis, cystitis, and other acute diseases from exposure
to wet and cold; debility and chronic diseases due to excesses.
In six weeks the Customs officers collected $22,000 in duties on
outfits bought in the United States and Europe. On his arrival at
Lake Bennett the Hon. Clifford Sifton took charge of these funds
and handed them over to Major Walsh to defray the expenses of
the Canadian mounted police going into the Yukon.
As all these goods could be bought in Vancouver, in most instances cheaper than in the United States, this $22,000 might have
been saved to the prospectors had they outfitted here. Some of
them had used all their surplus cash getting thus far on their
journey and were without funds to pay their Customs dues. Such
persons were allowed to work the amount by whipsawing lumber.
It was a favor granted by the Canadian Customs officers, but a
serious and vexatious delay of some days to the prospectors and
miners.
Foreigners enjoy the same privileges in the Yukon as Canadians
in all respects.
COASTING   LAWS.
Tbe Canadian coasting laws provide that Canadian goods
shipped to Alaska, in United States bottoms, are treated on arrival
at the Yukon frontier as if they were foreign importations, and
must pay the Canadian duty. Foreign outfits, howsoever imported,
must pay the Canadian duty at the Canadian frontier.
The port of St. Michael, Alaska, is specially exempted from
these Coasting laws for the year 1898.
To save all trouble, therefore, Klondikers should'outfit in Canada
and proceed to Alaskan ports in a British bottom, or in a vessel
flying the flag of countries entitled to participate in the British
coasting trade. These are Italy, Germany, Netherlands, Sweden
and Norway, Austro-Hungary, Denmark, Belgium and the Argentine Republic. ANNUAL REPORT. 125
INDEX.
„.; ',    : i,. .     .,4  jrW'i ■'-'■''- ^ -.A ja.rih.iA--/Lh-fK
Officials—
Past Presidents  3
Council  3
Board of Arbitration  3
Membership Roll  1
President's Address  11
Secretary's Report  17
Extracts from Minutes  19
Lumber Industry—
Shipments of  24
British Columbia Timber Tests  25
British Columbia Fleet, 1897  26
Fishing Industry—
Review of 1897  28
Salmon Pack by Canneries  29
Comparative Statement of Pack for Five Years  31
Salmon Pack by Districts  31
Shipping Industry—
Review of    32
Average Port Expenses  33
Rates of Towage  33
Pilotage Duos  33
Rates of Commission  35
Customs Returns  37
Trade and Navigation Returns  39
Imports into British Columbia for Twenty-six Years  40
Exports from British Columbia for Twenty-six Years  11
Vessels Entered Inwards  , i 42
Vessels Entered Outwards  43
Returns Port of Vancouver  44
"      Port of Westminster 45
"      Port of Nanaimo (Vancouver Island)   45
Port of Victoria   ( " )  46
Cargoes for the Year Ending 30th June, 1897, Outwards  47
Inwards  48
Summary of Cargoes for the Year Ending 30th June, 1897  49
Vancouver City, 1st January, 1898—
City Statistical Report  50
Public Schools of Vancouver  50
Churches in the City of Vancouver  51
Synopsis of Weather of the Province of British Columbia  52 126
VANCOUVER BOARD OP TRADE.
Agriculture—
History of Agriculture in British Columbia  56
Agricultural Associations in British Columbia  60
Exports  62
" Imports  64
Mi
ning Industry—
Extracts from Annual Report of Minister of Mines for British Colnmbia,
for Year Ending 31st December, 1897 	
Total Production from 1858 to 1897	
Production per Annum from 1890 to 1897 inclusive	
Amount and Value for 1896 and 1897	
Production per District for 1896 and 1897	
Production of Placer Mining from 1858 to 1897 	
Production of Lode Mines from 1887 to 1897	
Production of Coal and Coke from 1836 to 1897 	
The Progress of Mining	
Mining Companies	
Mining Development	
Gold	
Silv6r-Lead	
Copper	
Coal and Coke '.	
Other Minerals	
67
67
68
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
78
79
80
80
Extracts from Reports of Government Officials—
Caribooo  80
Cassiar  83
East Kootenay  84
West Kootenay  86
Alnsworth    86
Duncan River  86
Kaslo  86
Nelson  86
Slocan  86
Trail Creek  90
Trout Lake  92
Lardeau  93
Lillooet  93
Nanaimo •  97
Victoria  99
New Westminster 102
Yale  103
Gold Commissioners and Mining Recorders 100
Coal Mining Industry  Ill
The Yukon District. 114
Routes      118
Canadian Duties   119
United States Customs Regulatio.ns  120
Miners' Licenses  123
Canadian Placer Mining Regulations  123
Canadian Coasting Laws '. 124     

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