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BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

The Canadian guide-book. 1900. Complete in one volume Roberts, Charles G. D., Sir, 1860-1943 1900

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Array   QUEEN'S*
Toronto, Canada
/^NE of the largest and most comfortable hotels in the Dominion of Canada, and,
p§f being adjacent to the Lake, commands a splendid view of Toronto Bay and
Lake Ontario. It is well known as one of the coolest houses in summer in Canada,
and is elegantly furnished throughout.
The Queen's is furnished with all modern improvements.   Rooms en suite, with
bath-rooms attached, on every floor.
SEASON    1900.
fiigMands of Ontario,
j» CANADA, j*
The Lake Region of Muskoka
possesses Unsurpassed
for Holiday Outings
to all
Classes of the Community.
For particulars as to rates and time cards, apply to
Agents, Grand Trunk Railway System.
J. S. PLAYFAIR, Pres.,
34 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ont.
A. P. COCKBURN, Mgr. and Sec'y,
Gravenhurst, Ont.
On receipt of a postal to MUSKOKA NAVIGATION CO., Toronto or Graven-
hurst, an illustrated booklet will be mailed to any addross. A.Nelson,
pro pan TOB
only two blocks from the
Union Station up York1
Street, on the corner ofi
King Street, the fashionable promenade.
In point of cuisine and equipment the Rossin is the most
complete and luxurious of modern Canadian hotels.
The rooms, single or en suite (with porcelain baths), are
airy, comfortable—and all have a cheerful outlook.
Electric cars from the Union Station to all parts of the city
pass the doors of the Rossin.
A. <* A. NELSON, Proprietors.
Niagara River Line.
NIAGARA FALLS and TORONTO, the "Queen Pity of Canada."
Leave Lewiston > at foot of Niagara rapids, five times daily (except Sunday),
on arrival of New York Central railway trains from the Falls for Toronto,
giving passengers a beautiful sail of seven miles down the river and thirty-six
across Lake Ontario.
The only route giving views of the Rapids, Brock's Monument,
Queenston Heights, Old Niagara, and all the varied scenery of the
lower Niagara River. Tourists can breakfast at the Falls* have six hours
in Toronto, and be back again to the Falls for dinner.
Tickets at all offices of the Vanderbilt System of railways, and principal
ticket offices at Niagara Falls.
Familiar Fish:   Their Habits and
A Practical Book on Fresh-Water Game Fish.
By Eugene McCarthy. With an Introduction
by Dr. David Starr Jordan, President of Leland
Stanford Junior University, and numerous Illustrations.    i2mo.    Cloth.
This informing and practical book describes in a most interesting fashion the habits and environment of our familiar freshwater game fish, including anadromous fish like the salmon and.
sea trout. The life of a fish is traced in a manner yery interesting to Nature lovers, while the simple and useful explanations of
the methods of angling for different fish will be appreciated by
fishermen old and young. As one of the most experienced of
American fishermen, Mr. McCarthy is able to speak with authority regarding salmon, trout, ouananiche, bass, pike, and pickerel, and other fish which are the object of the angler's pursuit.
His clear and practical counsel as to fly-casting, and rods and
tackle and their use, and his advice as to outfits and the various
details of camp life, render his book a most useful companion for
all sportsmen and campers. Dr. David Starr Jordan has read
the manuscript, and has lent the weight of his approval by writing an introduction. The book is profusely illustrated with pictures and serviceable diagrams.
Bird Studies with a Camera.
With Introductory Chapters on the Outfit and Methods of the
Bird Photographer. By Frank M. Chapman, Assistant Curator
of Vertebrate Zoology in the American Museum of Natural
History; Author of " Handbook of Birds of Eastern North
America'' and "Bird-Life." Illustrated with over ioo Photographs from Nature by the Author.     i2mo.     Cloth, $1.75.
Bird students and photographers will find that this book possesses for them a unique
interest and value. It contains fascinating accounts of the habits of some of our common birds and descriptions of the largest bird colonies existing in eastern North America; while its author's phenomenal success in photographing birds in Nature not only
lends to the illustrations the charm of realism, but makes the book a record of surprising achievements with the camera. Several of these illustrations have been described
by experts as " the most remarkable photographs of wild life we have ever seen.'* The
book is practical as well as descriptive, and in the opening chapters the questions of
camera, lens, plates, blinds, decoys, and other pertinent matters are fully discussed.
A Guide to the Study of our Common Birds.    With 75 full-page
uncolored plates and 25 drawings in the text, by Ernest Seton
Thompson.     Library Edition.     i2mo.    Cloth, $1.75.
The Same, with lithographic plates in colors.    8vo.    Cloth, $5.00.
-TEACHERS'  EDITION.     Same as Library Edition, but containing an Appendix  with  new matter designed for the use of
teachers, and including lists of birds for each month of the year.
i2mo.    Cloth, $2.00.
TEACHERS' MAN UAL. To accompany Portfolios of Colored
Plates of Bird-Life, Contains the same text as the Teachers'
Edition of " Bird-Life," but is without the 75 uncolored plates.
Sold only with the Portfolios, as follows :
Portfolio No. I.—Permanent Residents and Winter Visitants. 32
Portfolio No. II.—March and April Migrants.     34 plates.
Portfolio No. III.—May Migrants, Types of Birds' Eggs, Types of
Birds' Nests from Photographs from Nature.     34 plates.
Price of Portfolios,  each,  $1.25; with Manual,  $2.00.     The
three Portfolios with Manual, $4.00.
Handbook of Birds of Eastern North America.
With nearly 200 Illustrations. 12mo. Library Edition, cloth,
$3.00 ; Pocket Edition, flexible morocco, $3.50.
Eastern Canada and Newfoundland 
Western Canada to Vancouver's Island 
1900 Copyright, 1891,1892,1894,1895,1896,1897,1898,1899, 1900,
The Niagara River
Niagara Falls   .
From Niagara to Toronto
The Water Route
The Journey hy Rail
Hamilton   .
The Muskoka District
From Toronto eastward
Kingston   .
The Thousand Islands
The St. Lawrence Rapids
From Ottawa to Montreal
Province op Quebec 59
Montreal 61
From' Montreal to St. John       •      •      .73
From Montreal to Quebec 75
By the St. Lawrence River 75
"By Rail on the South Shore 80
By Rail on the North       .     81
Quehec 82
From Quebec to Lake St. John .      .      .      .      .      .      . '   •      .97
Lake St. John 99
Down the St. Lawrence and up the Saguenay 103
The Saguenay River 107
From Chicoutimi to the Mouth 108
Cape Trinity and Cape Eternity 110
From' Montreal to the Maritime Provinces :
By Rail       .      .111
By Steamship round GaspS  .      .   115
The Gaspe Peninsula 117 IV CONTENTS.
The Province of New Brunswick    .  122
The Restigouche               * 128
From the Restigouche to Moncton  127
The Miramichi  180
Moncton • 132
Routes from Moncton  132
From Moncton to St. John  134
St. John  135
Up the River St. John  142
Fredericton       ............ 148
From Fredericton to Woodstock  152
The Upper St. John  158
The Grand Falls of the St. John  156
Above the Grand Falls  158
Routes for the Sportsman  160
Up the Tobique by Canoe  166
By Rail from Woodstock  181
Campobello and Grand Manan  184
The Return to St. John  187
From Moncton to Amherst  188
Prince Edward Island  192
Charlottetown  195
From Charlottetown eastward  197
Nova Scotia  200
To Pictou and Antigonish  203
Cape Breton  207
Through the Bras d'Or Waters to Sydney  208
Baddeck  209
Sydney  211
Louisburg  212
From New Glasgow to Truro and Halifax  215
Truro .                                        215
Halifax  218
From Halifax to Bridgewater  239
From Bridgewater to Yarmouth  242
Yarmouth  245
From Halifax eastward  246
From Halifax to Yarmouth by Rail              . 247
Windsor  248
From Windsor to Parrsboro and St. John  250
From Windsor to Grand Pre  252 CONTENTS. V
From Wolfville to Annapolis  256
From Annapolis to Yarmouth  259'
The Island of Newfoundland  227"
St. John's  228
Trips from St. John's  230
Along the Coast  233
Conception Bay and the South Coast       . 234
The French Shore   ,  237
Montreal to Ottawa :
a. By the Canadian Pacific Ry  266
b. By the Canadian Atlantic Ry  267
Ottawa       .   1§§  ... 267
Ottawa to Sudbury  268
Sudbury to Sault Ste. Marie  270
Sudbury to Winnipeg  270
North Shore of Lake Superior.      .      .    ' .      .      .      .      .      . 271
Manitoba  275
Winnipeg  276
Winnipeg to Regina  278
Assiniboia  279)
Regina to Prince Albert  281
Saskatchewan  283*
Regina to Calgary  284
Alberta  286<
Calgary to Banff  288
The Rocky Mountain Park of Canada  290"
British Columbia  293:
Vancouver  306
The Crow's Nest Pass Road  307
Vancouver to Victoria '§^$   .      .      . 307
Victoria  308
The Yukon Gold Fields  30ft
General Information 313t
Close Seasons for Fishing and Hunting 316.
u-—.  -
facing page
Niagara Falls from Prospect Park        ....... 4
The American Falls  8
Luna Falls and the Rock of Ages .  13
In the Thousand Isles  .44
Parliament Buildings, Ottawa  51
Timber afloat at the Saw-mills, Ottawa  52
Long Sault Rapids  56
Running Lachine Rapids  58
Fort Chambly, on the Richelieu River  76
Citadel at Quebec. .87
Cape Gaspe  112
Gaspe Residents returning from Church     .       .      .       .      .      . 117
Perce Rock  120
The Beach at Paspebiac, and View of the Bay  123
Valley of the Metapedia  126
A Moose Family               ... 146
Curing Fish at Perce               ... 160
Caribou Migration  168
Cape Porcupine, and Cape St. George  189
The Steamer Stanley, Prince Edward Island  191
The Oldest House in Prince Edward Island       .       .                     . 193
Old Fireplace at Entry Island  197
The Mail-boat at Prince Edward Island  201
On the Road to Baddeck       .      .      . 209
Louisburg Memorial  215
St. John's, Newfoundland, before the Fire of 1892 .      .      .      . 229
The Monthly Mail Train from Hall's Bay to Codroy    .      .      . 231
Government Houses and Town Pumps at St. Pierre .... 236
Cape Blomidon  252
Cape Split  254
The Sault Ste. Marie Ship Canal (View of the Locks, looking toward
Lake Superior)  270
^1 Vlll
Bow River Valley from Upper Hot Springs
The Great Glacier	
Indians near New Westminster .
facing page
.   288
Plan of Toronto    ... .
Plan of Montreal ...
Plan of Quebec	
The Gaspe Peninsula    ....
Belle Isle Strait   ....
Canadian Salmon Rivers and Gaspe Basin
Nepigon River	
Canadian National Park    ....
General Map, Province of Ontario
I "     Province of Quebec   .
I |     Maritime Provinces   .
" "     Northwestern Canada
. 21
. 64
. 83
. 115
. 233
. 262
. 272
. 290
In Pocket.
The dear home of freemen brave and true,
And loving honor more than ease or gold.
Agnes Maule Machar.
Stretching from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and from Lake Erie to
the Arctic Ocean, occupying a more spacious territory than the United
States and Alaska, lies the great dominion to which the name of Canada
now applies, a country whose people are engrossed in the work of nation-making. Perhaps nowhere else in the world, at this present day,
are such mighty forces stirring to such gigantic and uncalculated issues.
Within a decade there has come about such a change in the spirit of
the Canadian people that outside observers, judging from data of ten
or fifteen years ago, find themselves pathetically astray in their conclusions ; for the name of Canada, almost in a day, has become a name to
conjure with, from corner to corner of this confederation which we
have molded out of the once scattered and half-antagonistic provinces
of British North America. To the tourist whose interest centers chiefly
in men, in institutions, in ethnological and political problems, this country with a future and not without a significant past oners the strongest
possible attractions. To those who look for magnificence or charm of
landscape, for an invigorating climate, for the wholesome relish of rod
and gun and paddle, this region of the North makes no less active appeal. Its deficiencies, of course, are those of all new countries—its
fields have not been sown thick with blood and tears, its cities lack the
magic of inexhaustible memories, the treasures of a long-established
civilization. One city, Quebec, seems old to us, and has gathered about
its diadem of ramparts much of " the light that never was on sea or
land "; but, compared with Old World cities, it is a growth of yesterday.
The section of Canada which is here designated as Eastern Canada
is in the main coextensive with old Canada and Acadia. The rich and
populous section of Ontario which lies between Lakes Erie and Huron is
avoided, as belonging rather to the Western than the Eastern tour.
Toronto forms the most convenient center from which to start west or X INTRODUCTION.
east. The term Eastern Canada includes a large section of Ontario,
with the provinces of Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince
Edward Island. Newfoundland, and that part of Labrador belonging
to Newfoundland, though not attached to Canada, are touched upon in
the following pages, for the convenience of tourists who may wish to
visit them. The territory to be described may most conveniently be
covered in a round trip, offering abundant choice of routes, and opportunity for attractive side-trips from the most important towns along
the way. It is a small territory compared with the rest of the Dominion, but it contains the bulk of the population, much of the finest
scenery, many of the best hunting and fishing resorts, and nearly all
the history, tradition, and romance which combine to clothe the name
of Canada with something like a savor of antiquity. Here was the
center of French power in the New World, and here was fought to an
end the contest between France and England. About Quebec and
Louisburg, Annapolis and Beausejour, battled the Leopards and the
Lilies for the dominion of half a continent. Quebec is still mighty,
the gateway to Canada; but at Louisburg the sheep pasture now where
stood but yesterday a great stronghold, the u Dunkirk of America."
There broods a spell of mystery and romance about the site of this
obliterated citv. The magnitude and the heroism of the struggle for
New France have been perpetuated for us by Parkman, and the pathos
of its termination, as represented in a single episode, by Longfellow.
The climate of the St. Lawrence region and the Maritime Provinces is in general not unlike that of New England. The climate of
Nova Scotia, in particular, is neither so hot in summer nor so cold in
winter as that of the neighboring New England States. Summer
tourists will need to make such provision against cool evenings and
occasional fog as they would make if visiting the seaside resorts of
Maine. In northeastern Quebec the summers are often chilly, and
down the giant funnel of the Saguenay there blows at times, in midsummer, a wind which makes the snuggest wraps desirable. As for
the fogs that sometimes roll in on the Atlantic coast, one may escape
them by a jaunt of a mile or two into the interior, or face them and
experience the miracle which they will work on dull or faded complexions. It is to the benign ministrations of the fog that the women of
the Atlantic seaboard owe the bloom and freshness of their faces.
The traveler who is well supplied with American bank-notes will
find no difficulty with the currency.   American bills are good all over INTRODUCTION. XI
Canada. American silver, except in the border communities, is sometimes liable to a discount, and in some places may possibly be refused.
The silver coinage of Canada is uniform for the whole Dominion, and
with this the tourist should keep himself well supplied.
Concerning the opportunities for making purchases, a Canadian
writer says:
" If the tourist be desirous of economizing ingeniously, he will purchase himself a suit of clothes in Toronto, Montreal, or Halifax, getting
a strong, English-looking material of Australian wool, woven in Canada ; and he will save fifty per cent over a similar article purchased in
Boston or New York. It is, of course, not ready-made goods that we
refer to, but suits made to order. In Halifax, a suit of best Canadian
tweed, durable and stylish, may be got from a first-rate tailor for $16
to $20; and a faultless dress-suit of best material for $35. In some
of the smaller towns, such as Truro and Windsor, in Nova Slcotia, skilful tailors who have learned their trade abroad, and keep themselves
abreast of the fashion, are able, on account of low rents and small
taxes, to furnish thoroughly satisfactory suits of fine Canadian tweed,
of quiet and correct pattern, for $15. The lover of furs will of course
make his (or her) purchases in Toronto or in Quebec city, where the
great fur-shops supply these goods in variety and of best quality, at
prices quite unheard-of in American cities. Indian work—moccasins,
bark- and quill-work, etc.—are usually to be purchased at counters in
the chief hotels and on the Saguenay steamers, and at so-called * Indian
bazaars' in Montreal, Halifax, and St. John. In Quebec such things
are sold in the quaint old house wherein the body of Montgomery was
laid out."
All the baggage of travelers is subjected to an examination on
passing the borders; but the customs officials, as a rule, are courteous,
and the search is not severe if the traveler shows a disposition to
facilitate it.
On the round trip from New York or Boston and back, by way of
Niagara, Toronto, Montreal, Ottawa, Quebec, Halifax, and St. John, the
tourist will find the best of traveling facilities and accommodations.
The various railroad and steamboat fines by which he may make the
journey are equipped with all modern conveniences; and the hotels in
the cities above named, as well as at many other places along the route,
are first class in every respect. This applies equally well to some
of the side-trips which will be mentioned in the following pages; but
on others wilder regions will be traversed, where a similar degree of
comfort and luxury is not to be expected.
In the summer season round-trip tickets are issued from New York
—j ■' :
and Boston and other centers; and detailed information may be obtained at the railroad and steamboat agencies. At a rough estimate it
may be said that the round trip from Boston or New York by way of
Niagara, Toronto, Montreal, Quebec, Saguenay, Halifax, and St. John,
will cost from $40 to $55 in fares, according to choice of routes.
The plan of the book, its arrangement and classification of matter,
and the system of treatment, are based on the famous Baedeker Handbooks, which are conceded to possess in a pre-eminent degree the grand
desiderata of compactness, portability, and facility of consultation. As
much aid as possible is afforded to the eye by printing the names of
places and objects either in italics, or, where they are of sufficient
importance, in large-faced type.
The very rapid growth of Western Canada since the completion of
the Canadian Pacific Railway has led to a demand for information concerning that section of the Dominion. The traveler or tourist who
comes from abroad must now cross the continent. He desires to see
the North Shore of Lake Superior and visit the famous fishing-grounds
of Lake Nepigon and the beautiful Lake of the Woods region. The
new province of Manitoba and its handsome capital of Winnipeg claim
attention. Then, after seeing the broad buffalo plains, the great glaciers and snowy peaks of the Rockies are full of interest to those who
are seeking for the beauties of Nature. The sportsman will desire to
pause at some convenient spot, such as the Rocky Mountain Park, and
indulge his taste with gun or rod. Finally, there are British Columbia,
and Vancouver's Island, one of the beautiful inlands off the North
Pacific Coast. As a guide or handbook of these and other equally
attractive places, a description of Western Canada has been added to
this edition of Appletons' Canadian Guide-Book.
Canada's offering to tourists is that which includes the largest of
inland waters, the broadest of fertile plains, the wildest of forests primeval, and the grandest of mountain ranges. It is a vast region of
rare picturesque beauty, of incomparable interest to the sightseer, the
sportsman, and the health and rest seeker.
It would be impossible, in the limited space which these pages
afford, to take excursions into all the scenes of special attraction that
abound in Canada; but we can at least look out from the car window INTRODUCTION. Xlll
as we are whirled along, and, leaning back in comfort and undisturbed
repose, note the kaleidoscopic glimpses afforded us as the Canadian
Pacific Imperial Limited train careers across the continent.
Before taking the train and commencing our long journey of three
thousand miles, let us stand for a moment at the main entrance of the
Chateau Frontenac—that model of modern hotels and perfect reproduction of the old mediaeval castle that once crowned the battlements
of Stadacona—and there take a hurried glance of the last vestige of
the Old World which we are about to leave behind us. Beneath us,
two hundred feet down, rolls the St. Lawrence, separating Quebec from
the Levis Heights. Behind us rises the gray head of Cape Diamond,
crowned with the old citadel wall. Gazing to the left we see the grim
and ancient form of the Basilica and the triple-towered roof of Laval
University. The rest, to the eye, is a mass of confusion, a chaotic heap
of buildings, many old, few new, huddled together without the least
regard to proportion or position. It might be some European town
frowning down upon the Rhine, the Scheldt, or the Loire.
Quebec is "the gateway and the guard of Canada." Every stone in
the antiquated city has a story to tell. One feels while contemplating
its beauties and its quaintness as if transported to the middle ages.
The outward form of mediaevalism is there, but the spirit that animated
the former ages is gone. Quebec, hoary with the memories of departed
glories, is a vast monument to the heroes who fought and died within
its walls. It is not the largest nor the grandest, but it certainly is the
most interesting city on this continent. A few moments, and we are
hurrying away from " the Gibraltar of America."
With the majestic St. Lawrence upon our left and the blue range
of the ever-changing Laurentians upon our right, we sweep past villages
and towns, broad acres and humble cottages, till we dash past that second oldest of Canadian centers—the city of Three Rivers.
Again a few hours of almost uninterrupted progress, and the distant dome-like summit of Mount Royal rolls up its elegant proportions
from beneath the blue horizon.
It would be absolutely out of the question to attempt any description of Montreal. As the commercial metropolis of the Dominion, the
great seaport of Canada, Montreal represents Canada in her almost
every condition.
Still moving westward and still seated in the car that is destined to
traverse the whole continent, we notice the ever-present and ever-shift- XIV INTRODUCTION.
ing barrier of the Laurentians on our right and the broad and noble
current of the Ottawa—rushing down to join the St. Lawrence above
Montreal—on our left. From the commercial center to the political
eapital we follow the north shore of the Grand River, as the Ottawa
has been called, and skirt along the edge of that extensive range of
hills—we may even call them mountains—beyond whose summits spread
out miles of spruce and pine forests; chains upon chains of variegated
lakes—all sizes, all forms, and all alive with trout, or bass, or pickerel;
valleys after valleys and hills after hills, 'neath whose adamantine crust
phosphate, mica, lead, iron, and silver are hidden away by Natnre to
become the heritage of millions of future explorers and speculators;
and finally broad swamp lands, vast inland seas, and numberless crystal
streams, comprising a territory that ends only with the Arctic Circle.
Yet while we sweep past this extensive, fertile, and wonderful domain,
we may at any station halt, and in a few hours find ourselves in the
heart of the forest, amid the game that abounds and the hidden treasures that are being explored.
Before leaving the capital behind us, let us pause for a moment
on the summit of Bytown's old Barrack Hill—the Parliament Hill of
Ottawa to-day ; and from beneath the spires of that magnificent Gothic
pile—the Federal Legislative Halls of the Dominion—gaze down upon
the confluence of the Grand River and the Gatineau. It is to the great
region beyond these Laurentian Hills, and from which both those rivers
have come, that we would specially draw attention. For nearly three
hundred miles above the city of Ottawa the line of the Canadian Pacific Railway follows the south shore of the river, and at any point
from the capital to Sudbury you may start on an expedition or an
excursion into that marvelonsly attractive region. The artist, the poet,
the miner, the explorer, the hunter, the settler, the geologist, the botanist, the man of any class seeking recreation, pleasure, profit, or adventures, need proceed no farther westward.
Place your hand on a table with the palm upward and the thumb
and fingers extended ; draw a line—a semicircle—around the extremities of the fingers; that line will describe the course of the Ottawa
River from its source to its confluence with the St. Lawrence; the four
fingers will represent the courses of the Gatineau, the Coulonge, the
Black River, and the DuMoine, while the two joints of the thumb will
indicate the two magnificent lakes Temagaming and Temiskaming, the
palm of the hand being that vast extent of country watered by these
rivers and bejeweled with a thousand lakes. There lies a veritable
sportsman's paradise. Within a few hours of civilization, yet lost in a
wilderness apparently without limits, the traveler may experience almost
every imaginable species of locomotion—be it in the elegant steamers
that plow through the waters of Lake Temiskaming or the bark canoes
carried by Indian guides over the portages and launched upon any of
the countless streams or innumerable lakes that occupy almost half
that vast domain—a territory equal in area to several European principalities. Along the Kippewa, the Mattawa, the Sturgeon, down to the
shores of Lake Nipissing, and again from the Georgian Bay to the
extremity of Lake Superior and back northward toward Nepigon's blue
waters, the land is the home of the moose, the caribou, the beaver, the
brown-nosed bear, the red deer; the rivers and lakes abound in every
species of fresh-water fish, and the scenery is one continuous panorama
of beauty and grandeur.
Onward and ever westward we rush, over leagues of wild lands,
past leagues of magnificent expanses, through leagues of wealth-nursing
upheavals, on toward the great keystone in that northern arch of provinces that spans our sky from ocean to ocean, on to the city of Winnipeg. We have no time at present to pause; it was here, in 18*7*7,
that Lord Dufferin declared that " Canada, emerging from her woods
and forests, first gazed upon her rolling prairies and unexplored Northwest and learned, as by an unexpected revelation, that her historical
territories of the Canadas, her eastern seaboards of New Brunswick,
Labrador, and Nova Scotia, her Laurentian lakes and villages, corn
lands and pastures, though themselves more extensive than half a dozen
European kingdoms, were but the vestibules and antechambers of that
till then undreamed-of dominion whose illimitable dimensions alike
confound the arithmetic of the surveyor and the verification of the
We have taken no excursions to right or to left; we have scarcely
paused as long as does a regular train at any of the stations; we are
dashing forward and merely catching glimpses of the scenes that appear to rush with lightning rapidity eastward, as we fly toward the
setting sun. It is not over bleak and cheerless Siberian plains or Tartar
steppes that the engine-steed here prances. Along the fertile banks of
the Assiniboine, the Red River of the North, and the Saskatchewan, past
rising towns—cities of the near future—like Portage la Prairie, Brandon, Regina, Calgary; over vast and less undulating expanses—now XVI INTRODUCTION.
silent and deserted as the pampas of the South, now alive with the
activity and bustle of temporary villages and nomadic bands. Pasture
lands beyond calculation, with their well-stocked ranches; wheat fields
out of number, with their unmeasured waves silently rolling, like the
billows of a tideless sea, toward the horizon's ever-circling rim—the
granary of the world in capacity and in possibility. The eye never
wearies of gazing upon the shifting shadows, the alternating shades
and effulgences on the bosom of that seemingly infinite prairie land.
But there is nothing without its limits in Nature—the finite, even in
its most stupendous proportion, has always its boundaries.
Leaving Calgary, even as we have left a hundred other places of
glowing interest, behind us, we perceive at last that blue and distant
fringes skirt the confines of earth and sky; slowly but surely that darkening line along the horizon assumes proportions and shapes that indicate a change from the level monotony of the picture; like huge thunder clouds along the rim of the heavens on a bright day in midsummer,
immense fleecy, glittering masses roll heavenward along the west and
south. The conductor, passing with that matter-of-fact manner born
of familial ity with the surroundings, points toward the strange apparition and simply says, " The Rockies." There is a magic in the two
words. We are seized with a fever of expectancy, and all else is forgotten in the contemplation of the approaching phenomena. Hour succeeds hour, and it seems as if these majestic phantoms keep constantly
retreating as we advance. Yet they grow more and more distinct
despite the illusion; our impatience travels with even greater speed
than our engine. Soon we lose all consciousness of time as we sit
gazing upon those eternal mountains, resting on the ledges of the
purple and sombre "foot-hills," and towering aloft in the sunshine
like the great white thrones of the Apocalypse. Into that terrific
barrier we dash with a recklessness that amounts almost to madness.
It seems impossible that we could proceed another mile, yet own ward
we plunge through passes deep as Chamouni, 'neath peaks as near the
lightnings as St. Gothard. Banff, its magnificent hotel, its matchless
faculties for mountain enjoyment, its Swiss guides, ready and in full
Alpine panoply, as at the base of the Matterhorn they are seen—its
infinite and indescribable variety of attractions—Banff, the National
Park of Canada, awaits us. The tourist, the pleasure-seeker, the artist,
the mountaineer, the huntsman—all must stop here for a space, but we
must continue uninterrupted our ascending and ever-westward course. INTRODUCTION. XV11
No pen can attempt to do adequate justice to the sublimity of the
scenery, the majesty of the surroundings, the inexpressible terrors of
that marvelous passage through the Rockies. It is now the " Hermit"
that towers above us in the holy silence of his wondrous elevation,
lifting to heaven his glittering head and gazing down from a region
where snow and sunshine alone have dared to walk; again it is the
snorting of the iron steed awakening ten thousand echoes that boom
like salvos of artillery as he dashes through a canon as fathomless as
that into whose darkness the fires of Chimborazo vainly se^ek to penetrate ; " Donald" called to " Macdonald " across an abyss deep as the
Inferno of Dante, and the answer is carried back along a sierra of the
Selkirks, each peak as lofty and as majestic as the Unterberger, each
summit as glittering as the white-robed Ortler-spitz. The senses are
overwhelmed, the mind is overawed, the soul ceases to wonder, and
silent contemplation alone satisfies its indefinite and infinite cravings.
Another turn around the base of a perpendicular giant, and the Great
Glacier looms in all its splendor, all its frozen glory, before the bewildered eye. There it rises in all the prismatic array of its scintillating
might. Like the last mountain of earth's pristine happiness; like some
terrific monument rising out of the chaos of ages, magnificent in its
proportions, sublime in its associations—around whose feet things may
molder, around whose summit unfading lights must play; like the
masterpiece of God's universe—cold, silent, irresistible—moving through
centuries to the accomplishment of its destiny, and crushing all obstacles with a force akin to omnipotence; a spectacle of grandeur and of
greatness that will alone repay a voyage of six thousand miles.
Before beginning the rushing descent toward the Pacific coast we
might not inopportunely halt for a moment, turn back in our course,
and mark that important branch of the road which we are traveling,
that turns westerly from Dunmore to Lethbridge, and on through the
Crow's Nest Pass of the Rocky Mountains to the great Kootenay Lake
and the rich and wonderful mines of Bast and West Kootenay. If there
be less to inspire the poet or arouse the enthusiasm of the artist, there
is certainly more in this new region than elsewhere along the whole
route to astonish the speculator, the explorer, and the seeker of earth's
treasures, be they in the form of coal or of gold, of copper or of silver.
This momentary backward glance is a parenthesis that we deem of
importance, for as we sweep down the western slopes, flying with eagle
swiftness toward the sunny shores of Vancouver, through passes inde- XVU1
scribable in their terrific grandeur, around bends and points, over ledges
and trails apparently impassable, we must pause at Revelstoke and
greet our friends who had left us at Dunmore, and who meet us again
after having sailed through the bold regions of that El Dorado. Over
the Columbia River we leap, like the phooka horse of ancient legend,
and swifter than ever we are carried down the Thompson River Valley,
until, amid scenes that might well be described as awful in grandeur,
we glide with the Fraser River into that marvelous canon whose gigantic
and wild framework resembles fragments of a frozen sea. North Bend,
with its charming chalet hotel, is left behind. Through that vast
tunnel, cut into the heart of the mountains when the first convulsions
of Nature flung up those eternal monuments to the Creative Power;
behind us Yale, Hope Peaks, and the Devil's Lake; onward we dash,
as if in mad exultation born of the mountain wonders we have beheld,
and brightened by the glorious prospects that unroll themselves before us— m
" There's a change on the scene
Far less grand, far more fair."
Fertility succeeds sterility; softness, mildness, beauty mark the outward form of that very Nature which we have just beheld clothed in
grandeur—terrible in every aspect, magnificent in every line! New
Westminster and its picturesque surroundings; Vancouver with its
splendid harbor, its new and elegant buildings, its wonderfully attractive situation; Victoria smiling in its sunny atmosphere at the distant
Olympic range, and pointing with one hand toward the gold fields of
the Klondike and with the other toward the cradle of the human race—
away beyond the wilderness of waters that, even though called Pacific,
lash the shores of Japan and China; Esquimault Harbor, the British
naval station of the North Pacific; all these—and the hundred and one
glories of the great coast that we must of necessity neglect in our hurry
—dawn upon us like a vision of peace after a mighty and life-exhausting struggle with forces infinitely above our capacity and our powers.
We need not stop here, but can cross the Pacific on the Canadian
Pacific's magnificent white Empresses, till the West becomes East again,
and visit Japan, and China, and the Philippines, and reach home by
circling the globe; or we may sail down to the Hawaiian Islands—the
mid-ocean paradise—and on to Australia, and return to America by
half a dozen different routes.  r
Niagara Falls from Prospect Park. I   APPLETONS'
Niagara Falls*
Shall not Niagara's mighty voice
Inspire to action high ?
'Twere easy such a land to love,
Or for her glory die.
E. G. Nelson.
The tourist who proposes to visit the St. Lawrence region and
Maritime Provinces of Canada will do well to travel with the sun,
beginning with Ontario and ending with New Brunswick or Nova Scotia.
Traveling in this direction, the descent of the St. Lawrence by boat is
open to him, with its charm of historic landscapes, and its exciting
experiences at the rapids of Long Sault and Lachine.
A little north of west from New York or Boston, on the isthmus
between Lakes Ontario and Erie lies Niagara, whither all roads lead.
Here we reach the frontier of the Maple-Leaf Land, and here our trip
may be properly said to begin.
Countless pens have striven to depict the sublimities of Niagara,
and have only succeeded in proving the hopelessness of the effort. I
will not add another to the list of failures. Not only are words inadequate to convey any just impression of the stupendous cataract, but the
eye itself, on first beholding it, quite fails to grasp its magnificence.
No one can be said to have seen the Falls who has taken but one look
and then passed on. To rightly apprehend them one should halt for
some days at Niagara till his eye adjusts itself to the new proportions,
and, like the boy that mocked the owls on Windermere, he feels that
" the visible scene
Has entered unawares into his mind,
With all its solemn imagery."
Not many years ago the Falls were so hedged about with extortionate charges that the tourist, unless a millionaire, was constrained to
grasp his purse-strings and flee from the spot with the smallest possible delay. Now, however, all that is changed, and on the Canadian
and American side alike the view of the falls is free. One pays only
for such unessential extras as crossing the ferry or visiting The Cave
of the Winds behind the cataract. The whole may be done on foot or
with the aid of the street-cars which run between the Whirlpool and the
Falls, and Niagara need be costly to none but those who desire to make
it so. By means of the Niagara Falls Park and River Railway (electric),
running for a distance of 13£ miles from Queenston to Chippewa on
the Canadian side, and by the Niagara Falls and Lewiston Railway
(electric) on the American side, running from Lewiston to Niagara Falls,
a distance of *7 miles, a very satisfactory view of the Falls and the river
may be obtained. Cab charges are regulated by law, and hotel rates *
are much as elsewhere, varying from $1 to $4 a day.
The Falls are situated on the Niagara River, about 22 miles from
Lake Erie and 14 miles from Ontario. This river is the channel by
which all the waters of the four great upper lakes flow toward the
Gulf of St. Lawrence, and has a total descent of 333 ft., leaving Lake
Ontario still 231 ft. above the sea. From the N. E. extremity of Lake
Erie the Niagara flows in a N. direction with a swift current for the
first 2 miles, and then more gently with a widening current, which
divides as a portion passes on each side of Grand Island. As these
unite below the island, the stream spreads out to 2 or 3 miles in width,
and appears like a quiet lake studded with small, low islands. About
16 miles from Lake Erie the current becomes narrow and begins to descend with great velocity. This is the beginning of The Rapids,
which continue for about a mile, the waters accomplishing in this distance a fall of 52 ft. The Rapids terminate below in a great cataract,
the descent of which is 164: ft. on the American side and 158 ft. on the
Canadian. At this point the river, making a curve from W. to N.,
spreads out to an extreme width of 4,750 ft., embracing Goat and the
Three Sister Islands. Goat Island, which extends down to the brink
of the cataract, occupies about one fourth of this space, leaving the
river on the American side about 1,100 ft. wide, and on the Canadian
* The best hotels are—on the American side, the Cataract House,
International Hotel, KaUenbacKs, Prospect House, Spencer House, and
Tower House; on the Canadian side, the Clifton House. The legal
tariff for carriages is $2 per hour, but it is usually easy to arrange special
terms.   All tolls are paid by the traveler. "^"Tfo
side about double this width. The line along the verge of the Canadian
Fall is much longer than the breadth of this portion of the river, by
reason of its horseshoe form, the curve extending up the central part
of the current. The waters sweeping down the Rapids form a grand
curve as they fall clear of the rocky wall into the deep pool at the base.
Niagara Falls and Vicinity.
In the profound chasm below the fall, the current, contracted in width
to less than 1,000 ft., is tossed tumultuously about, and forms great
whirlpools and eddies as it is borne along its rapidly descending bed.
Dangerous as it appears, the river is here crossed by small row-boats, 8 NIAGARA FALLS.
which are reached from the banks above by an inclined railroad, and
the Maid of the Mist, a small steamer, makes frequent trips to the edge
of the Falls. For *7 miles below the Falls the narrow gorge continues,
varying in width from 200 to 400 yards. The river then emerges at
Lewiston into a lower district, having descended 104 ft. from the foot
of the cataract.
Here at Lewiston, where ends the gorge, was once the site of the
cataract. Instead of plunging into a deep chasm and hiding its grandeur from all but those who would search it out, the gigantic torrent
rolled, in full view of the world, over the lofty line of Queenston Heights, the escarpment of the high plateau of the upper lakes.
The recession of the Falls to their present point is thus discussed
by the Duke of Argyll:
" A very curious question, and one of great scientific interest, arises
out of the great difference between the course of the Niagara River
above and below the Falls. It has, in my opinion, been much too
readily assumed by geologists that rivers have excavated the valleys in
which they run. The cutting power of water is very great, but it varies
in proportion to the liability of floods, and the wearing power of stones
that may be carried along; much also depends on the position of the
rocks over which a river runs. If the stratification present edges
which are easily attacked or undermined, even a gentle stream may cut
rapidly for itself a deeper bed. On the other hand, when the rocks do
not expose any surfaces which are easily assailable, a very large body
of water may run over them for ages without being able to scoop out
more than a few feet or even a few inches. Accordingly, such is actually the case with the Niagara River in the upper part of its course from
Lake Erie to the Falls. In all the ages during which it has run into
that course for 15 miles it has not been able to remove more than a
few feet of soil or rock. The country is level and the banks are very
low, so low that in looking up the bed of the stream the more distant
trees on either bank seem to rise out of the water. But suddenly in
the middle of the comparatively level country the river encounters a
precipice, and thenceforward for tl miles,runs through a profound cleft
or ravine the bottom of which is not less than 300 ft. below the general
level of the country. How came that precipice to be there? This
would be no puzzle at all if the precipice were joined with a sudden
change in the general level of the country on either side of the river—
and there is sueh a change—but it is not at the Falls. It is 7 miles
farther on. At the Falls there is no depression in the general level
of the banks. Indeed, on the Canadian shore, the land rises very considerably just above the Falls. On the American shore it continues at
the same elevation.   The whole country here, however, is a table-land, si
and that table-land has a termination—an edge—over which the river
must fall before it can reach Lake Ontario. But that edere does not run
across the country at Niagara Falls, but along a line much nearer to
Lake Ontario, where it is a conspicuous feature in the landscape, and
is called Queenston Heights. The natural place, theref ore, so to speak,
for the Falls would have been where the river came to that edge, and
from that point the river has all the appearance of having cut its way
backward in the course of time. Sir Charles Lyell, the eminent geologist, came to the conclusion, from comparison of the rate at which the
cutting back had been observable within the memory of man, that this
cutting back is about one foot in each year. At this rate the river
would have taken 35,000 years to effect its retreat from Queenston to
the present position of the Falls."
The following brief account, condensed from Appletons' General
Guide, of the various points of interest at the Falls, will indicate the
wealth of material on which local guide-books exercise their powers of
description and imagination:
Goat Island is the point usually visited first. It is reached by a
bridge 360 ft. long, the approach to which is just in rear of the Cataract House. The bridge itself is an object of interest, from its apparently dangerous position. It is, however, perfectly safe, and is
crossed constantly by heavily laden carriages. The view of the rapids
from the bridge is one of the most impressive features of the Niagara
scenery. Below the bridge, a short distance from the verge of the
American Falls, is Chapin's Island, so named in memory of a work
man who fell into the stream while at work on the bridge. He lodged
on this islet and was rescued by a Mr. Robinson, who gallantly went to
his rescue in a skiff. About midway of the stream the road crosses
Bath Island. A short walk brings us to the foot-bridge leading to
Luna Island, a huge rock-mass of some three quarters of an acre, lying
between theTCenter Falls and the American Falls. The exquisite lunar
rainbows seen at this point, when the moon is full, have given it the
name it bears. Just beyond Luna Island a spiral stairway (called
" Biddle's Stairs," after Nicholas Biddle, of United States Bank fame,
by whose order they were built) leads to the foot of the cliff. From
the foot of the stairs, which are secured to the rocks by strong iron
fastenings, there are two diverging paths. That to the right leads to
the Cave of the "Winds, a spacious recess back of the Center Falls.
Guides and water-proof suits for visiting the cave may be obtained at
the stairs (fee, $1.00), and the excursion is well worth making. Yo.u
can pass safely into the recess behind the water to a platform beyond.
J (
Magical rainbow pictures are found at this spot; sometimes bows of
entire circles and two or three at once are seen. A plank-walk has
been carried out to a cluster of rocks near the foot of the fall, and
from it one of the best views of the American Falls may be obtained.
The up-river way, along the base of the cliff toward the Horseshoe
Falls, is difficult and much obstructed by fallen rocks. It was from a
point near Biddle's Stairs that the renowned jumper, Sam Patch, made
two successful leaps into the water below, in 1829, saying to the
throng of spectators, as he went off, that " one thing might be done as
well as another." Reascending the stairs, a few minutes' walk along
the summit of the cliff brings us to a bridge leading to the islet on
which stood the famous Terrapin Tower, which having become dangerous was blown up with gunpowder in 18*73. The view of the Horseshoe Falls from this point is surpassingly grand. It was estimated by
Lyell that 1,500,000,000 cubic feet of water pass over the ledges every
hour. One of the condemned lake-ships (the Detroit) was sent over
this fall in 1829; and, though she drew 18 ft. of water, she did not
touch the rocks in passing over the brink of the precipice, showing
that the water is at least 20 ft. deep above the ledge.
At the other end of Goat Island (reached by a road from the Horseshoe Falls), a series of graceful bridges leads to the Three Sisters, as
three small islets lying in the Rapids are called. On Goat Island, near
the Three Sisters, is the Hermit's Bathing-place, so called after Francis
Abbott, " The Hermit of Niagara," who used to bathe here, and who
finally drowned while doing so. At the foot of Grand Island, near the
Canada shore, is Navy Island, which was the scene of some interesting
incidents in the Canadian Rebellion of lS^-SS, known as the Mackenzie War. It was near Schlosser Landing, about 2 miles above the Falls,
on the American side, that during the war the American steamer Caroline, which had been perverted to the use of the insurgents, was set
on fire and sent over the Falls by the order of Sir Allan McNab, a
Canadian officer.
The State of New York purchased, in 1885, the property bordering
the Falls, and laid out Niagara Park, to be controlled by a State Commission, empowered to remove all obstructions to the view, and to improve the grounds. No charge is made for admission to Niagara Park.
A " vertical railway," running on a steep incline, leads from the park
to the base of the cliff; and from its foot the river may be crossed in
the steamboat the Maid of the Mist.    The passage across the river is NIAGARA FALLS. 11
perfectly safe, and is worth making for the very fine view of the Falls
obtained in mid-stream. A winding road along the cliff-side leads from
the landing on the Canadian side to the top of the bluff, near the Clifton House. By climbing over the rocks at the base of the cliff on the
American side (turn to the left after descending the railway), the tourist may penetrate to a point within the spray of the American Fall, and
get what is perhaps, on the whole, the finest view of it to be had.
The Canadian side of the river may be reached by the steamer
Maid of the Mist, or by the new bridge, which crosses the river at
the place formerly spanned by the structure originally known as the
" New Suspension Bridge." This bridge, like its elder prototype (the
Grand Trunk Suspension Bridge), is now giving place to a new one in
a similar style of construction, a steel arch, and the views of the
Falls afforded in crossing it are among the best. A road to the
left from the bridge terminus leads along the cliff, affording good
views of the American and Center Falls. A short distance above the
terrace near the Falls is the spot still called Table Rock, though the
immense overhanging platform originally known by that name has long
since fallen over the precipice. From this point the best front view of
the Falls is obtained, and that of the Horseshoe Fall is incomparably
grand. The concussion of the falling waters with those in the depths
below produces a spray that veils the cataract two thirds up its height.
Above this impenetrable foam to the height of 50 ft. above the Fall, a
cloud of lighter spray rises, which, when the sun shines upon it in the
proper direction, displays magnificent solar rainbows. The appropriateness of the name Niagara (" Thunder of Waters") is very evident here. At Table Rock may be procured guides and water-proof suits
for the passage nnder the Horseshoe Falls (fee, 50c.). This
passage (which no nervous person should attempt) is described as follows by a writer in Picturesque America: " The wooden stairways are
narrow and steep, but perfectly safe; and a couple of minutes brings
us to the bottom. Here we are in spray-land indeed; for we have
hardly begun to traverse the pathway of broken bits of shale when,
with a mischievous sweep, the wind sends a baby cataract in our direction, and fairly inundates us. The mysterious gloom, with the thundering noises of the falling waters, impresses every one; but, as the
pathway is broad, and the walking easy, new-comers are apt to think
there is nothing in it. The tall, stalwart negro, who acts as guide,
listens with amusement to such comments, and confidently awaits « 12 NIAGARA  FALLS.
change in the tone of the scoffers. More and more arched do the
rocks become as we proceed. The top part is of hard limestone, and
the lower of shale, which has been so battered away by the fury of the
waters that there is an arched passage behind the entire Horseshoe
Fall, which could easily be traversed if the currents of air would let
us pass. But, as we proceed, we begin to notice that it blows a trifle,
and from every one of the 32 points of the compass. At first, however, we get them separately. A gust at a time inundates us with
spray; but the farther we march the more unruly is the Prince of Air.
First, like single spies, come his winds; but soon they advance like
skirmishers; and, at last, where a thin column of water falls across
the path, they oppose a solid phalanx to our efforts. It is a point of
honor to see who can so farthest through these corridors of JEolus. It
is on record that a man, with an herculean effort, once burst through
the column of water, but was immediately thrown to the ground, and
only rejoined his comrades by crawling face downward, and digging
his hands into the loose shale of the pathway. Prof. Tyndall has
gone as far as mortal man, and he describes the buffeting of the air as
indescribable, the effect being like actual blows with the fist."
Termination Rock is a short distance beyond Table Rock, at the verge
of the fall.   The spray here is blinding, and the roar of waters deafening.
Below the Falls are several points of interest, which are best visited
on the American side. The first of these is the steel arch bridge finished in 1897. The span between the piers of this bridge is 550 ft.,
and a trussed span at each end 115 ft. long connects the arch with the
bluff. The total length of the bridge with the approaches is 1,100 ft.
It has two decks or floors, the upper one 30 ft. wide, occupied by the
double track of the Grand Trunk Railway, the lower comprising a broad
carriageway in the center, with trolley tracks each side and footwalks
outside of all, making a total width of 5*7 ft. The fee for crossing the
bridge is 25c. for pedestrians, which confers the right to return free on
the same day. From one side of this bridge a fine distant view of the
Falls is had, and from the other a bird's-eye view of the seething, tumultuous Whirlpool Rapids. Three hundred feet above may be seen the
new Michigan Central R. R. Cantilever Bridge. By descending the elevator, which leads from the top to the base of the cliff near the site of
the old Monteagle House, a nearer view is obtained of these wonderful
rapids, in which the waters rush along with such velocity that the middle of the current is 30 ft. higher than the sides.    Three miles below rT^\ JLuna Falls and Rock of Ages. NIAGARA TO TORONTO. 13
the Falls is the "Whirlpool, occasioned by a sharp bend in the river,
which is here contracted to a width of 220 ft.
From Niagara to Toronto.
From Niagara Falls one has a choice of routes to Toronto. One
may go by the Grand Trunk or Canadian Pacific around the head of "
the lake, or by rail to the river bank below the Rapids, and thence by
steamer straight across Lake Ontario from the mouth of Niagara River
The land route (fare, single, $2.65; return, $4.45), which is the longer,
affords an opportunity of seeing that magnificent engineering work the
Welland Canal, and of visiting the cities of St. Catharines and HamiL
ton. If one goes by the river route (fare, single, $1.50; return, $2.30),
one sees the beauties of the Niagara district, the gardens of Canada,
the storied Queenston Heights, and the delightful summer resort of
Niagara-on-the-Lake, besides enjoying a cool sail of 40 miles across the
waters of Lake Ontario.
By this river route the tourist finds yet further latitude allowed him.
The journey from the Falls may be made on the Canadian side either
by the Grand Trunk Railway to Port Dalhousie and thence across Lake
Ontario, or by the Michigan Central to Niagara-on-the-Lake or along the
American shore by the New York Central to the wharf at Lewiston,
*7 miles from the mouth, where one meets the fine Clyde-built steamers
of the " Niagara River Line," making connections across the lake four
times each day. A very popular route is by steamer from Toronto to
Queenston on the Niagara River, wrh ere connection is made with the
Niagara Falls Park and River Electric Railway. This road follows the
line of the river to the cataract and the village of Chippewa, three miles
beyond. This line is so laid out as to take in all the best views of this
interesting trip—the changing scenery along the river, the varying
phases of the river itself, the whirlpool foaming in anger and succeeded
by the stretch of quiet water beyond, the view of Queenston Heights,
surmounted by Brock's historical monument, the steel arch bridge, the
approach to the Falls, showing the American Falls, Goat Island, and
the Horseshoe Falls, and then the near view of the roaring cataract itself. The cars on this read are so constructed that every passenger has
a clear and unobstructed view of the scenery on either side.
The New York Central runs through The Gorge itself, along a
ledge which has been carved out of the face of the cliff, beneath whieh
is the Great Gorge Route of the Niagara Falls and Lewiston R. R.,
which runs close to the water's edge. Above towers the beetling front
of rock, and far below thunders the tremendous torrent. In the gorge
of Niagara the water does not flow, or rush, or dart, but it bounds and
bursts as if belched forth from some hidden volcano. Presently the
mad flood is caught and enchained for a time in the sullen vortex of the
Whirlpool. Of this unmythical Maelstrom one catches a thrilling glimpse
from the car window. Then the gorge narrows again; and plunging
through short tunnels, swerving dizzily on its airy shelf, round jutting
peaks, the road threads the windings of the abyss, gradually descending, till it comes out upon the lower level at Lewiston. Here is the
head of navigation, and at the dock, to the side of which the railway
has now been extended, the tourist steps on board the steamers. The
river rests here in a great, slow-reeling eddy. In this eddy the steamer
turns, and is grateful for the service of the revolving current.
Opposite Lewiston rise Queenston Heights, the most famous
battle-field of the War of 1812. Here, for an autumn day, three quarters of a century ago, raged a bitter struggle between the American and
Canadian forces, resulting at length in victory for the Canadians, who
paid too dear for their triumph, however, with the death of their heroic
leader, General Sir Isaac Brock. May it prove an augury of perpetual
peace and good-will along these frontiers that when, two days after the
battle, General Brock was being buried in one of the bastions of Fort
George, minute-guns were fired from the American Fort Niagara across
the river, as a tribute of respect to their illustrious adversary!
On the summit of the Heights stands the monument which has
been erected in memory of the favorite hero of Canadians. This is
the second monument erected on the spot, the earlier and smaller one,
built by a grant from the Provincial Parliament in 1824, having been
blown up in 1840 by a scoundrel named Lett. The new monument
was erected by the voluntary contributions of the militia and Indian
warriors of Canada. It is a massive stone structure 190 ft. in height,
19 ft. higher than Nelson's Column in Trafalgar Square. At the top,
beneath a colossal statue of Brock, is a gallery reached by 235 steps.
Standing on this gallery one sees unroll before him a matchless panorama, of battle-field and vineyard, of cataract and quiet stream, of
dark wood and steepled villages and breadths of peach-orchard, and NIAGARA TO TORONTO. 15
fortresses no longer hostile; and far across the blue waters of Ontario
the smoke of the great city toward which our feet are set.
From Lewiston to Niagara-on-the-Lake the river flows for 7 miles
rapidly between high, wooded banks, studded with gardens and comfortable homes. If the tourist has started on the Canadian side, the Michigan
Central R. R. takes him direct to Niagara-on-the-Lake. This route, as it
winds down the side of the Niagara escarpment, gives a wide range over
the fertile Niagara plains with all their glory of peach gardens and vineyards, and also a distant view of Queenston Heights and Brock's monument. But it must be acknowledged that it is as much less picturesque
as it is more convenient than that by crossing to the American side.
Niagara-on-the-Lake, where of old the fortunes of peoples were
wont to be decided by the sword, where Indians, French, and British,
Americans and Canadians have contended for the supremacy of the Lake
regions, where the first Parliament of the old province of Upper Canada
was held in 1792 in ancestral fashion in the shade of a spreading oak,
is now but a merry watering-place. In the neighborhood is the battlefield of Lundy's Lane, the scene of a hard-fought struggle between
Canadian and American forces. The chief episodes that now stir the
surface of Niagara's summer calm are the Saturday evening hops at
the Queen's Royal Hotel, which are attended by the American officers
from Fort Niagara opposite, and by gay yachting parties from Toronto.
The country round about is a garden; there is capital bass-fishing to
be bad, and the facilities for boating and bathing are not to be excelled.
In the days of its political and military importance the town bore the
more business-like name of Newark. Chief hotels: Hotel Chautauqua,
Queens Royal Hotel, and The Oban.
The run across from Niagara to Toronto occupies about two hours,
and in the tourist season the lake is usually unruffled. As Lake Ontario,
however, is 180 miles long and about 70 in extreme breadth, it possesses every facility for an occasional storm of genuine Atlantic proportions. The Chippewa, Corona, and Chicora, of the " Niagara River Line,"
however, are Clyde-built ocean-going craft of steel, and maintain regular service in all weathers, leaving Lewiston every week-day at 8 a. m.,
10.30 a. m., 12 noon, and 5.40 p. m., and Niagara-on-the-Lake half an
hour later. There are officers of the American and Canadian customs
on the boat to examine baggage during the trip across; and the Niagara River Navigation Company issues through tickets and checks
through baggage in connection with the main railroad and steamboat 16 NIAGARA TO TORONTO.
lines of Canada and America.    Returning steamers leave Toronto 7
a. m., 11a. m., 2 p. m., and 4.45 p. m.
If one chooses to go by land around the head of the lake his way lies
through a fine country. The Grand Trunk and Canadian Pacific Rys.
run from the Falls to Hamilton, whence the traveler is carried eastward
to Toronto over the same tracks. A few miles west of Niagara by the
former route is Merritton, where the railway plunges into a tunnel which
leads it under the Welland Canal. Merritton is otherwise known as
Thorold Station, as it is there that passengers leave the train for the
little town of Thorold on the canal. In this neighborhood is the battle-field of Beaver Dams, which Canadians regard with pardonable
pride. During the War of 1812, when the Americans were in possession of Fort George and Niagara and the British troops had fallen back
on Burlington (now Hamilton), the British general advised the Canadian
volunteers to disband and return to their homes, as he was contemplating
the possibility of abandoning all that section of the province to the foe
and retiring to Kingston. In this crisis, being thrown entirely upon
their own resources, the Canadians proved themselves equal to the
emergency. What followed has been thus described by Miss Louisa
Murray: " Merritt's militia regiment of light horse, with some other
militiamen and volunteers, established themselves at a building known
as ' De Cew's stone house,' converting it into a little fortress, whence
they harassed the Americans, driving off their foraging parties,
and intercepting their supplies, with such success and impunity as
only an intimate knowledge of the country could have given them.
Colonel Boerstler was sent from Niagara with two field-pieces and 600
men to break up this little stronghold, and one or two other outposts
of the British, who, ^ince the decisive battle of Stony Creek, were
moving back toward Fort George, and he might have succeeded but
for the patriotic spirit and bravery of a woman. Laura Secord, the
young wife of James Secord, a militiaman lying wounded at Queenston, saw the American troops moving from Niagara, and, learning
their destination, set out at night, and walked twenty miles through
the woods to warn the little band at the stone house of Boerstler's approach. At any time it would have been a difficult journey, but in war
time, with the risk of meeting some savage Indian or other lawless
marauder in the lonely woods, only a woman of singular energy and
courage would have undertaken it. Mrs. Secord, however, accomplished
it in safety, and when Colonel Boerstler arrived at Beaver Dams at 6
o'clock in the morning, he found his march impeded by a small number
of militiamen, hastily collected, and a party of Indians led by their chief,
young Brant. This number, altogether about 200, seemed trebled when
seen through the thick foliage of the trees, from among which they
poured volley after volley from their muskets on the surprised and bewildered Americans, every volley accompanied by the fierce yells of the Indians. While Boerstler was still uncertain whether to advance or retreat, Ensign Fitzgibbon, with 40 soldiers, the only British troops in the
neighborhood, arrived at the spot and took in the situation at once.
With admirable courage and coolness, he tied a white handkerchief on a
musket, and, holding it up, advanced alone, calling on the enemy to lay
down their arms and surrender; upon which Colonel Boerstler, believing
that the whole British army was in front, surrendered his force of 600 infantry, 50 cavalry, 2 field guns, and a stand of colors, to the young ensign
and his 240 men." The victory is commemorated by a small granite monument, with the inscription " Beaver Dams, June 24, 1813." The heroic
achievement of Laura Secord has been made the subject of a historical
drama by Mrs. S. A. Curyon, and of a stirring ballad by Charles Mair.
The city of St. Catharines is on the Welland Canal, about 3 miles
from its Lake Ontario outlet. The trade center of this inexhaustibly
fertile Niagara region, and supplied with unlimited water-power by
means of the canal, St. Catharines has become an important commercial city. It is purely a product of the canal, and owes its existence
as a city to the indomitable energy of William Hamilton Merritt, who
conceived the idea of the great engineering work and finally pushed it
to completion. St. Catharines has important ship-yards, mills, and
machine-works; handsome public buildings, first-class hotels, and one
of the best collegiate institutes in the province. It is also a very
popular health resort, much visited by Southerners. The waters of its
mineral springs rank high among the medicinal waters of the world.
There is fishing in the neighborhood for black bass, perch, and
pickerel.    Chief hotel the Welland House ($2).
The Welland Canal, connecting the waters of Lakes Erie and
Ontario, is a work of tremendous importance, giving as it does an outlet to the sea for the vast trade of the Great Lakes. The canal is 2*7
miles in length from Port Colborne on Lake Erie to Port Dalhousie on
Lake Ontario.   The difference in level between the lakes is about 32'?
ft., which is overcome by a system of 25 lift-locks. All the masonry
of the work is of splendid and massive proportions, and is built of an
enduring gray limestone. At Welland the canal is led over the Chippewa River by a costly aqueduct. The original feeder of the canal was
the Chippewa River, which proving at times inadequate, a branch canal
was cut to the Grand River. Of late, however, arrangements have
been made by which the canal is always adequately supplied from
Lake Erie itself. Along the line of the canal are strung a number of
prosperous villages. The first sod of the original canal was turned in
1824. Mr. Merritt's modest conception was a canal " 4 ft. deep, 7 ft.
wide at bottom, 19 ft. wide at the water surface, and to accommodate
vessels not exceeding 40 tons burden." The present structure has a
width at the bottom of 100 ft., and accommodates vessels of 1,500 tons.
Leaving St. Catharines our train passes the villages of Jordan and
Beamsville, and 27 miles from Niagara we find ourselves at the busy
village of Grimsby. Here is the summer resort of Grimsby Park,
with its famous Methodist camp-meeting ground in a grove of oaks and
pines beside the lake. The region about Grimsby is literally one great
peach-orchard. It is estimated that there are something like 400,000
peach-trees in the Niagara district, which ships annually over a million
baskets of this delicious fruit. The beauty of the peach-orchards,
whether in bloom or when bending under their wealth of luscious pink
and white and golden spheres, is something that beggars description.
The peach harvest begins about the end of July and continues until
the middle of October. The peaches are shipped all over Canada in
baskets covered with pink gauze. In this favored region flourish also
apples, pears, plums, cherries, all kinds of small fruits, melons, quinces,
grapes, walnuts, chestnuts, and even figs. Beyond Grimsby we have
only the stations of Winona and Stoney Creek to pass before we come
to Hamilton.
The chief hotel of Hamilton is the Royal ($2.50 to $4 a day),
which is first class in every respect; but there are many other good
hotels, such as the St. Nicholas ($1.50 to $2) and the Dominion ($> 1 to
$1.50), where the tourist may be accommodated more cheaply. The
city is well supplied with restaurants, called coffee-rooms. The chief
club is the Hamilton Club. Theatres, the Grand Opera-House, Association Hall, Alexandra Arcade. The city is traversed by street-cars,
and hacks are to be obtained at the station and the cab-stands as
well as at the chief hotels. NIAGARA TO TORONTO. 19
The city of Hamilton is beautifully and fortunately situated at
the head of navigation on Lake Ontario. Across the upper end of the
lake, where the northern and southern shores stand but 5 miles apart,
the east winds of centuries have heaped together a long bar of sand
nearly a thousand feet in width. This is known as Burlington
Beach, and it cuts off from the stormy lake the quiet waters of Burlington Bay, the harbor of Hamilton. A short canal through the Beach
connects the inner and the outer waters. The Beach is a favorite summer resort for the citizens of Hamilton.
Hamilton lies at the foot of a steep hill called the " Mountain," and
occupies one of those " benches " which surround the lake, and probably mark a former level of its surface. The site of Hamilton was
chosen originally by a loyalist refugee, one Robert Land, on account
of its splendid landscape. The "Mountain" is a portion of the
Niagara escarpment, which here curves grandly back from the lake to
form the amphitheatre which the city occupies. Down a great sloping
strath, dividing the heights in this neighborhood like a gigantic gutter, at the foot of which now lies the town of Dundas, geologists tell
us that, in remotest ages, the waters of Lake Erie discharged themselves, instead of at Niagara.
Hamilton may be said to have had its birth in the War of 1812,
when Burlington Heights became a center of military operations, and
one George Hamilton cut up his farm into town lots. In 1824 the cutting of a canal through Burlington Beach began the prosperity of Hamilton, which, however, was sadly interfered with by the cholera plague
and great fire in 1832. Hamilton was not disheartened, and went to
work again with the pluck and spirit which have earned her the title
of " the Ambitious City." Her ambition bids fair to be gratified in all
save one particular—and in that she has by this time relinquished all
hope. Of old, she thought to outstrip Toronto; but when, in 1888,
with a population less than 45,000, she saw Toronto with 170,000, she
probably changed the tenor of her ambition to something more within
the range of possibility. Her ancient rivals, Ancaster and Dundas,
she has long ago left utterly behind, reducing them to the rank of suburban villages.    Her own population is now 50,000.
Hamilton is a wealthy and tirelessly energetic city, with manufacturing interests out of all proportion to its size. It is the cathedral city
of two dioceses, the Anglican bishopric of Niagara and the Roman
Catholic bishopric of Hamilton.   The city has handsome public build- and stately private residences on the Mountain. Cresting the
height are the spacious buildings of the Lunatic Asylum. A stately
thoroughfare, dividing the city from the Mountain to the bay, is McNab
St., named for Hamilton's hero, the politician, patriot, and soldier,
Sir Allan McNab. It was he who, during the rebellion in 1837, shattered the power of the rebels at Toronto, and organized the flotilla on
the Niagara which cut out the steamer Caroline and sent her over
the Falls. On the heights stands Dundurn Castle, where Sir Allan used
to live, looking out over the city whose prosperity he had done so much
to promote. One of the most delightful features of Hamilton is what is
known as " The Gore." This is a spacious and beautiful public garden in the heart of the city, with the busiest thoroughfares all about
it. The open space, which is cool and musical with fountains and brilliant with flowers, is triangular in shape, and formed by the converging
of York, James, and King Sts. Overlooking " The Gore" are the
thoroughly artistic buildings of the Hamilton Provident and Loan
Society, the Canada Life Assurance Company, and the Court-House.
But 6 miles from Hamilton, and connected with it by a steam tramway,
is Dundas. In one thing Dundas can never be outrivaled by Hamilton,
and that is in her magnificent landscape, which opens like a dream before the traveler's eyes as he sweeps around the mountain. At the
foot of the lovely Dundas Valley lies a wide marsh which goes by
the nickname of " Coote's Paradise," after an English officer, Captain
Coote, who was deeply enamored of the fine duck, snipe, and " coot"
shooting there to be obtained. The marsh still maintains its reputation ; and in Burlington Bay are good black bass, silver bass, perch,
and pike fishing. The pike take the trolling-spoon freely during
the latter part of August, but at other times rise better to the live
From Hamilton to Toronto, if wearied of the rail, one may go by
the-steamers of the Hamilton Steamboat Co., four times daily (fare,
75c), a trip of 33 miles along a pleasant coast. The boats are fast
and comfortable, and call each way at Burlington Beach and at the
vast strawberry-gardens of Oakville. The tourist desirous of visiting
the Northern Lakes, or what is perhaps more widely known as the
Muskoka region, may branch off by the Hamilton and Allandale Line
from Hamilton via Beeton and Barrie, and leave Toronto till his return, but the fastest train services center in Toronto. Beeton is of
interest as the center of the great honey industry of Ontario.    The   TORONTO. 21
whole surrounding country is full of bee farms, and sweet the summer
through with the scent of honey-bearing blossoms. The pedigrees of
the swarms are watched with the same care that breeders of thorough-
bred cattle give to their stock, and solitary islands in Georgian Bay,
to the north, are made use of as bee nurseries to preserve the purity
of the favorite strains. The science of apiculture at Beeton has been
brought to a high degree of perfection. At Barrie, on Lake Simcoe,
we meet the line from Toronto via Bradford.
The approach to Toronto is more effective by water than by land.
As the steamer passes Gibraltar Point, she rounds into a safe and
spacious harbor crowded with the traffic of the lakes. This harbor is
formed by what is known as The Island, which is the great summer
pleasure-ground for the inhabitants of the city. The Island is to
Toronto what Coney Island and Manhattan Beach are to New York.
It is really nothing more than a great sand-bank formed by the drift
and offscourings from Scarboro' Heights, and its shape is continually"
changing. The lighthouse on Gibraltar Point, built within a few feet
of the water, stands now some distance inland. A few years ago the
Island was connected with the mainland by a strip of beach to the
east, but storms having breached the isthmus at Ashbridge's Bay, a
narrow channel was formed which has since been widening. The Island is fringed with lightly-built summer cottages whose thresholds are
ceaselessly invaded by the sand-drift. All summer the white beaches
swarm with merry life and the shallow pools with bathers. High over
the cottages and the willow thickets tower the gables of a great summer
hotel, originally built by Hanlan, the ex-champion oarsman of the
world. It has since been much improved. Adjoining it is a fine
bicycle track, with a grand stand. There are various entertainments
on summer evenings. Between the island and the city pass and repass
the unremitting ferries.
Toronto, the " Queen City," as we Canadians fondly call her, slopes
very gently from the lake's edge back to the wooded line of the Davenport Hills. The almost level expanse of her sea of roofs is broken
with many spires and with the green crowns of innumerable elms and
horse-chestnuts. All through her temperate summers her streets are
deliciously shadowed; all through her mild winters the sunlight
streams in freely through the naked branches.
From the Don's mouth on the E. to the Humber on the W., a distance of 8 miles, the city stretches an unbroken front along the rim of
the lake. Between these limits is gathered a population of about 200,000
—a population which is increasing at a rate with which few other cities
on the continent can compare. Already she begins to reach out beyond
her containing streams. All Ontario and much of our Northwest,
regions growing rapidly in wealth and population, are tributary to her,
and must continue to nourish her growth. No other city on the lakes,
with the exception of Chicago, has fairer prospects for the future than
The very name Toronto signifies " a place of meeting," a place where
men are gathered together. The first mention of the name is in some
French memoirs of 1686, where it is applied to the Portage from the
Humber to Lake Simcoe. In the sheltered harbor at the Ontario end
of the trail the French erected a fort, the remains of which are yet to
be seen in the exhibition grounds. To this post, at first called Fort
Rouille, the name Fort Toronto was afterward given.
Ontario, as a separate province, is the creation of the United Empire
Loyalists, and Toronto was the creation of Governor Simcoe, the first
governor of the new province. These United Empire Loyalists, whose
experiences and whose work in province-building we shall again refer
to when writing of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, were inhabitants of the thirteen colonies to the south who remained loyal to the
mother-country during the American Revolution. They were an energetic and fearless people, possessing fully the courage of their convictions, and not unnaturally the feeling between them and their insurgent
fellow-countrymen was implacably bitter. When the independence of
the Thirteen Colonies was acknowledged, their position was difficult in
the extreme. They could not accept the new order, and to the new
order they were hopelessly unacceptable. They had staked everything
on the triumph of England, and to England they now looked for help.
They were given lands in Canada and Nova Scotia; and their splendid
energy and courage carried them through difficulties and hardships under which a weaker people would have succumbed. A very large proportion of them belonged to the educated and cultured classes. Their
great exodus from under the shadow of the new flag took place in the
years 1783 and 1784; but when the new province of Upper Canada TORONTO. 23
Was organized under the wise supervision of Governor Simcoe, additional parties flocked in, and in the four years from 1791 to 1795 their
numbers increased in that province from 12,000 to 30,000. Prominent
among the United Empire Loyalists were the Indians of the Six Nations, under their great and humane warrior-chieftain, Joseph Brant or
Thayendanagea. These faithful allies were granted a fertile territory
along the course of the Grand River.
As we have already mentioned, Niagara-on-the-Lake was the first
capital of Upper Canada. Gradually it was borne in upon the provincial authorities that a town like Niagara, within range of American
guns, was ill adapted to be the seat of government. Thereupon the
capital was shifted to the " Place of Meeting," across the lake, and
the infant executive felt more secure. The significant and musical
name, however, was changed, and Toronto became York. What
are significance and beauty when weighed in the balance against a
compliment to the heir-apparent ? This was in 1793 ; but though
the old name was exiled from the village it seemed to cling in the
hearts of the inhabitants. The name of York was worn like an ill-
fitting garment. "Muddy York" it was called by derisive but not
unenvious neighbors. And when, in 1834, the village took unto itself
the title and the dignity of a city, the name of York, with its contumelious epithet, was eagerly sloughed off, and the " Place of Meeting " resumed its ancient title. In 1794 there were but 12 houses at Toronto,
and when the War of 1812 broke out this provincial capital, now the
second city in the Dominion, contained but 900 inhabitants.
In the War of 1812 Toronto was twice captured by the Americans,
who destroyed the fortifications and sacked the town, after a struggle
lasting from early morning to sundown, when the English general,
considering the position untenable, abandoned it when he found himself confronted with a vastly superior force. The Canadian militia,
who bore the brunt of the war, preferred to select some more advantageous battle-ground than the exposed provincial capital. All through
this war the chief honors, in the land battles, fell generally to the
Canadian arms. On the American side the war was strongly disapproved of by the best men; its object being thus sarcastically characterized by Randolph of Virginia: " The people of Canada are first to
be seduced from their allegiance, and converted into traitors, as a
preparation for making them good American citizens." The spirit
with which the Canadians went into the contest is thus described by 24 TORONTO.
Colonel G. T. Denison: "In 1812 every able-bodied man went to the
frontier to fight, leaving the old men, the boys, and the women to till
the fields. One might travel a day's journey in this province during
that war without meeting an able bodied man, as they were all on the
In 1837 occurred the rebellion of William Lyon Mackenzie, who
called himself " Chairman pro tern, of the Provisional Government of the
State of Upper Canada." The foolish self-styled patriots established
what they called a Provisional Government on Navy Island in the Niagara River; but the rebel rendezvous was a place known as " Montgomery's Tavern," on Yonge St., a few miles north of the city limits. With a force of about 900 men the rebels threatened Toronto;
but when the " Men of Gore " arrived, under Colonel McNab, the rebel
bands were scattered after a short but sharp struggle. Soon afterward
took place the destruction of the steamer Caroline, already referred to.
This exploit has been thus described by Dr. Bryce:
" The Provisional Government was now organized on Navy Island,
in the Niagara River. The patriot flag, with twin stars and the motto,
* Liberty and Equality,' was hoisted, and planted in the face of Colonel
McNab, who held the Canadian shore. A daring action was performed
on December 29 by Captain Drew, R. N., one of McNab's command.
The iasurgents had made use of a vessel, the Caroline, in carrying supplies from the American shore to Navy Island. The vessel lay moored
for the night under the very guns of Fort Schlosser; indeed, the shadows
of the fort enveloped the Caroline. With 7 boats*, carrying some 60
men in all, who were armed with pistols, cutlasses, and pikes, the
captain boarded the ill-fated vessel, captured her, but not being able,
on account of the current, to bring her to the Canadian side, sent her
flaming over the Niagara Falls. The vessel proved to be an American
bottom, and so Britain was compelled to disavow the seizure, but nothing could blot out the bravery of the deed."
Hotels, etc.—The Queeris Hotel ($3 to $4), in Front St.; the
Rossin House ($2.50 to $3), cor. King and York Sts.; the Walker House
($2 and $2.50), Front and York Sts.; and the Arlington, cor. King and
John Sts. Street cars (fare, 5c) render all parts of the city easily accessible. Cab rates are $1 an hour. From station or Niagara steamer's
dock to hotel, 25c The chief clubs are the National, Toronto, and Albany Clubs; also the Victoria, Granite, Athenaeum, Golf, and the various political clubs. Theatres: Grand Opera-House, Shaftesbury Hall,
Princess, Toronto Opera-House, Horticultural Gardens, and Robinson's
Musee. TORONTO. 25
The Toronto of the present offers many attractions to the visitor.
It is the best possible place to pause and lay one's plans. It may fairly
claim to be called the intellectual center of the Dominion. Filled with
a homogeneous and successful population, looking back upon a past of
wonderful achievement, and forward to a future bright with all possibilities, it is instinct with the sanguine and self-reliant spirit of this
young Canadian people. Its hotels are of the best; its open waterfront and quiet harbor offer every facility for boating, canoeing, and
yachting. There is charming scenery in the immediate neighborhood,
and within easy reach are the gigantic maskinonge and swarming trout
and black bass of the wild Muskoka waters.
The principal street of Toronto, as it was of the original village, is
King St., running E. and W. between the Don and the Humber.
Where now stands the old jail were erected the first Houses of Parliament of Upper Canada. These were wooden buildings and of no
great architectural distinction. During the War of 1812 they were
burned with the Library and the provincial records, by the American
invaders. This injury was avenged a few months later, when a British force destroyed the public buildings at Washington. Opposite the
spot where now towers the noble structure of St. James's Cathedral was
once the market-place. Here stood the stocks and pillory, which were
in use up to 1834. Either the men of Toronto were less gallant in
those days, or her women less deserving, for we find in the town records that one Elizabeth Ellis, convicted of being a public nuisance, was
condemned to stand in the pillory for two hours at a time on two successive market-days. The women of Toronto are still held up to the
gaze of the world, but it is for the world's admiration, as they display
some of the most attractive types of Canadian beauty. Next in importance to King St. is Yonge, which runs at right angles to it.
If we may accept the authority of George Augustus Sala, this is the
longest street in the world. It runs N. from the water's edge, and
was laid out in 1793, to be used as a portage to the upper lakes.
The object of this was to avoid the necessity of ascending Lake Erie
and passing under the guns of the American fort at Detroit. For the
first 46 miles of its extent Yonge St. became the main artery of the
province, and was speedily lined with homesteads. Apropos of the
" magnificent distances" of this thoroughfare the following anecdote
may be quoted from an entertaining and valuable work by Dr. Scad-
ding, entitled " Toronto of Old ": A story is told of a tourist, newly 26
arrived at York, wishing to utilize a stroll before brea