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BC Historical Books

A trip round the world in 1887-8 Caine, W. S. (William Sproston), 1842-1903 1888

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1887-8      A 
W. S. CAINE, M.P. 
And the AUTHOR 

This volume consists of a reprint of letters addressed to the
Barrow News, the leading newspaper of the constituency I
represent in Parliament, dating from August 1887 to March
1888. The letters were written during idle hours on board
steamers, for the amusement and information of my constituents and personal friends, but with no intention of adding
to the many volumes of travel which deal with the various
countries I have seen in my rapid tour round the world.
I have, however, found by experience, that the obiter dicta
of other travellers have been of so much greater service to
me during my own journey than the recognized guide books,
many of which have been put quite out of date by the rapid
developments of transit, and the equally rapid changes in
Eastern customs, that I venture to add my modest contribution
to the literature of travel. I hope it may prove of value to
some of that increasing number of English and Americans to
whom a tour round the world is becoming a matter of course,
and perhaps also of some interest to the general reader. I
have tried to make my letters readable by old and young alike.
In one respect this volume differs—so far as I am aware— x PREFACE.
from any other of the kind which has yet been published. It
is profusely illustrated. I trust more to my pictures than to
my inexperienced literary powers, to make this volume acceptable
to the public. I wish to acknowledge gratefully the assistance
I have had from my old friend, Mr. John Pedder, of Maidenhead, who has evolved the greater portion of the illustrations,
with accuracy and artistic skill, from a heterogeneous collection
of rough sketches and photographs made by me on my
journey; and also to Mr. H. Sheppard Dale for the excellent
architectural drawings of Japanese and Indian buildings which
bear his name.
The journey taken by my daughter and myself has entailed
no hardship or inconvenience, with the not very serious exception of our voyage across the Pacific.    Sir William Pearce's
steamers can be avoided by other travellers, without losing the
enchanting scenery of the Canadian Pacific route, or incurring
extra expense.   The Canadian Pacific Railway Company will-
book passengers from Quebec or Montreal, through to San
Francisco, at slightly higher rates than the direct American Pacific
Railroads ; the sea passage from Vancouver to San Francisco
is for the most part in smooth-water, the coast being extremely
beautiful, and the steamers comfortable.   The only really good
line of steamers crossing the Pacific are those chartered from
the White Star Line sailing from San Francisco; their names
all end with "ic," and if tourists take care to secure this last
syllable, they will be sure of fine ships and comfortable accommodation.
None of the trans-continental railways of the United States
can compare with the Canadian  Pacific either for beauty of PREFACE.
scenery or comfort in travel. It is easy, however, for those
wishing to see the Yellowstone Park, to cross over vid
Winnipeg to the Canadian Pacific route.
It is important on all American lines of railway to secure
sleeping-car berths the day before starting on the journey—they
are generally crowded. I know no bed of little ease to compare
with a night spent in the ordinary American car.
I advise travellers to resist all temptations to travel by
steamers not flying the British flag. Their ways are not our
There is absolutely no remedy for sea-sickness, but to go to
bed and stop there till it runs its horrid course. The best food
to take is beef-tea absolutely free from fat, with crisp dry toast,
and grapes. There is an excellent preparation which can be
made ready in a moment with boiling water, called Bovril, and
another equally good, Johnson's beef-tea. I have often seen
well-meaning but misguided folk, coming on board to see their
loved ones off on a voyage, loading their friends' cabins with
hot-house flowers. A basket of hot-house grapes instead, with
six pots of Bovril, would bring grateful memories the third day
at sea. Above all things to be avoided are quack remedies,
or such dangerous drugs as cocaine, nitro-glycerine, or bromide
of potassium. In ninety-nine cases out of a hundred, every
passenger is ready for a good breakfast the third morning out,
without any remedy but Nature's recuperation, and the odd
hundredth is best left to the ship's doctor.
Clothing sorely exercises the intending traveller round the
world, and, as a rule, twice too much is taken. I advise plenty
of good woollen underclothing, two new tweed suits, light and Xll
strong, a thin dress suit, a light overcoat, a good ulster, and
a mackintosh, with three or four pairs of shoes of different
strengths, buying tropical clothing on the spot as required.
It is much more costly to pay fares from place to place, than
to make up your route before starting, buying a through ticket
from Thos. Cook & Son. Wishing to be free to select my own
routes and steamers, I took the former course. Here follow
the fares I had to pay:
Liverpool to Montreal (Allan line)
Montreal   to   Vancouver   (Canadian
Pacific Railway) ....
Vancouver to   Yokohama (Sir Wm.
Pearce's steamer) ....
Yokohama   to   Colombo   (P.   &   0.
Colombo to Calcutta (ditto)
Calcutta, Benares,   Lucknow, Cawn-
pore,    Agra,   Delhi,   Jeypore    to
Bombay, by rail ....
Bombay to Brindisi (P. & O. steamer)
Brindisi to London (by rail)
.   ^222     3     5
Messrs. Thos. Cook & Son can supply through tickets covering
all these journeys for £i$$ ^s- %d-> so tna^ if I nad booked
through at starting, I should have saved £66 on each of my
fares. I have not included in the list of separate fares the extras
I paid for securing whole cabins for my daughter and myself.
I advise intending travellers round the world to fix their
route, and take a through ticket from Cook. The £66 saved
would more than suffice to secure the unspeakable comfort of a PREFACE.
whole cabin, when the steamers were at all crowded. We
indulged in this luxury crossing the Atlantic and Pacific, at an
extra cost of £30 each, and felt it to be the most profitable
expenditure made on our whole journey.
It is well to have a small medicine chest. Ships' doctors are
often very young and inexperienced, and in out-of-the-way
places native doctors are not to be trusted, and the drugs are
bad. In remote Japan, the almost universal treatment for
disease of any kind is to stick the patient's body, in all safe
places, full of needles. Any family doctor will be able to
give a list of tinctures and compressed drugs, such as those
manufactured by Wyeth, or Burroughs Welcome and Co.,
obtainable through any good chemist, with simple instructions
for treating the ailments incidental to travel. They will pack
into a small box about six inches cube. It is true I presented
my own box intact to a medical missionary just before leaving
India, but the knowledge that in cases where doctors were
available, I had the best quality of drugs likely to be required,
added greatly to my comfort of mind all through the journey.
A six months' tour round the world can be done economically,
travelling first-class throughout, for about £350; luxuriously,
with exclusive cabins, for £420 to ^"450.
I can confidently recommend to travellers in Japan my two
guides, Mr. Ito and Mr. Hakodate, both of whom are to be
found at the Grand Hotel, Yokohama.  CONTENTS.
The & Sarmatian "—The Antrim coast—Our fellow passengers—
Atlantic bills of fare—Belle Isle Strait—The aurora borealis—The
Seamen's Orphanage—Miss Macpherson and her lambs—Contumacious anti-vaccinators—Quebec
Par ici—British swagger—Old Quebec—The St. Lawrence—Mount
Royal—The | Windsor "—The Lachine rapids—The two bridges—
The president of the Canadian Pacific—Protection and the iron trade
Our first journey on the C. P. R.—Toronto | side "—Its university—
. Its churches—Niagara—American advertising horrors—The falls—
The rapids—The whirlpool—Niagara in winter—The Welland canal
and locks—Railway versus canal—A Canadian homestead—
A farmer's life — Apples — New London -*- Lake Huron — The
I Alberta "—Soult St. Marie—Lake Superior—Thunder Bay
Port Arthur—Once more on the C. P. R.—Camping out—Trout and
grasshoppers'—Night in the train—Thirteen babies—Winnipeg—
Who should emigrate—Wages and cost of living in Winnipeg—
Fanning prospects—Glenbeigh versus Manitoba     ...     ..        ••      41 xvi
The great Canadian prairie—The Assiniboine valley—Brandon—The
Bell farm—Regina—The prairie fauna—Blackfeet—Natural gas—
Calgary—Ranches—Stimson's Ranch—Cowboys and their prospects
•—The Sarcee Indians—Bull's Head—Indian swells—Eagle rib—
The Leland Hotel—The Salvation Army—" Bravo, Ted ! "—Prohibition of the liquor trade—The fire brigade—Electric light
The Gap—Canmore—Dr. Brett's sanitarium—The panorama of the
Rocky Mountains—The hot springs—An aristocratic boatman—
The Bow river—Trout—Canoeing—Vermilion lake—Sunday at
Banff—A prairie bishop—The national park and its ranger—The
Spray river—Deer, bears, beavers, catamounts, panthers, and other
fearful wild fowl—Fish—Forest fires—The Indians—The C. P. R.
Hotel ..        ..         '
An early start—Silver city—Mount Lefroy—Summit lakes—Kicking
Horse pass—Field—Mountain goats—Our bear hunt—Glacier
House—Mount Sir Donald and its great glacier—The Hermit
range—Stoney Creek—Avalanches and snow sheds—Roger's pass
—Comfort on wheels—The great bend—The gold range—Thompson river—Fraser river—A train burnt—The Cariboo road—
Agassiz—Harrison lake—Vancouver   ..        ..        ..        ..
Five years ago and to-day—The Great Sound—Salmon runs—The
candle fish—H errings—Oysters—D og-fish—Cod—Coal—Gold—
Iron—Silver—Timber—The Douglas fir—The lumberer—The
farmer—Climate—The Japan current—Victoria — Esquimault—
Work and wages—The heathen Chinee 	
Sober habits of Canadians generally—Women—The churches—History
of legislation—Prohibition -for the North-West—The Scott Act—
Has it succeeded ?—A stepping stone to prohibition..
Bad management of Sir Wm. Pearce's steamers—Delays—The | Port
Victor"—Confusion and overcrowding—Extra   Chinamen—Cock- .
roaches—A  popular  captain—Life on   the   Pacific—Chinamen's
meals—" Chin-chin    Joss "—A   typhoon—A    volcano—Japan   at
last  ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..    145
The I City of Sydney " in a typhoon—Yokohama—The bund—The
bay—Ships of all nations—The Grand Hotel—Jin-rickishas—Shops
—Flower-sellers—Bed!—England v. America—Funerals—Railways
—Agriculture—Utsunomiya—The merry Jap—Babies—A tea-house
—The bath—Food—O-hy-o—Straw-clothes—Jin-rickisha men—
Cryptomeria Avenue—Road-side incidents
A Japanese hotel—Curio dealers—Nikko the "sunny splendour"—
Nantai-san—Images of Amida Buddha—Nikko the holy—The
sacred lacquered bridge—The Torii—The pagoda—The gate of the
two kings—The holy water cistern—The library—The Korean
lantern—Yo-mei-mon—The cloister—The carved panels—The
Chinese gate—The inner sanctuary—The tomb of the mighty
Shogun—Iye-mitsu's temples—The Wind God—The Thunder God—
The Kara mon—Iye-mitsu's tomb—Enno Shokaku, the sturdy-
legged—Chiu-sen-je—Travelling in Kagos—The Mikado's birthday
—Kamakura—The great Daibutz or Bronze Buddha—A Japanese
feast—Sea-fishery—Sunday at Yokohama—Christianity in Japan—
Fuji-yama—A Japanese mail steamer—Vries island—Kioto
*73 xvm
Population—Work and wages—Cost of living—Education—The
Dragon pond school—A pretty picture—Little maids from school—
The university—The Emperor and his ministers—Local government
— Religion — Justice — Army — Navy — Exports and imports —
Foreigners — Amusements — Music — Dancing — Theatres — The
children's street—Singing and dancing girls—Holidays
The Mikado's palace—The old castle of the Shoguns—Marvellous
paintings and carvings—Decorations—A tea garden—Mr. Gladstone's portrait—"Waiting for the young Mikado"—Lacquer
working—Porcelain—Inlaying in gold and silver—Bronze—The
inland sea—Nagasaki—Japanese martyrs—Pappenburg island
The Ladrones—Piracy—The harbour—Typhoons—" Too much piecy
top-side I—Stick—English town—China town—Shops—The Hill of
Great Peace—Street scenes—The Governor and Government House
—Kowloong—Chinese fishing—Revenue and expenditure—Water—
The council—Missionaries—Shipping and commerce—Work and
., wages—Crime
Coolie swindlers—The tropics at last—The heat—Singapore—The
botanical gardens, an open-air hothouse !—The cathedral—The
sailors' rest—English town—Malay town—China town—The twenty-
five nationalities of Singapore—Dress—Locomotion—Markets—
Ducks — Fish — Fruit — Whampoa's garden — The harbour and
docks — Fortifications — Revenue and expenditure — Opium and
drink—The Government—Missionaries—Trade and commerce—
Sir Hugh Low—Penang—A curry breakfast  ..
Spicy breezes—Ceylon in sight and smell—Point de Galle—Adam's
peak—Colombo—Catamarans—The Kandy railway—Country sights
—A 6000-feet railway climb—Sensation Rock—Kandy—The sacred
tooth of Buddha — Horrible beggars — Kandy—The Peradenia
Garden—Dr. Triman—Keep off the grass—leeches and snakes—
Palms of all sorts—Jack-fruit—Ferns—Creepers—Giant bamboos
—Squirrels—Tropical birds—Tipsy flying foxes—Nuwera Eliya—An
imitation "England—The Hakgala gardens—The jungle—Elephants
A. M. and J. Ferguson—Princely hospitality—Sir John Coode's great
breakwater—The Grand Oriental—Pedlars and precious stones—
Market place—Cingalese men and women—Bullock carts—Street
scenes—Population—Religion—The devil dancer—Missionaries and
Christianity—The Salvation Army—Education—Mrs. Pigott's
school for Cingalese girls—Arabi the exile
The blessings of seventy years of British rule—Crops—Exports—
Coffee planting—Tea — Chinchona—Cacao— Cardamoms—Plumbago minings-Condition of the poor—Trade and commerce—
Government—Work and wages—Governor's monuments—Intoxicating drink—Licensing system—Consumption of liquor—Intemperance and crime—Madras—Surf boats
Thomas Cook and Son, benefactors !—Calcutta—The Hooghly— Our
Christmas dinner — Beadon Square — Young Bengal — Indian
railways—Country   scenes—Benares—Dr.   Lazarus—The Hindoo XX
gate of heaven—Buddhism—Sarnath—1454 temples—The bathing
gMts—The Rain God—The Goddess of Small Pox—The observatory
—The Maharajah's launch—The well of healing—The well of
knowledge—The golden temple—Pictures from the "Arabian
Nights "—The sacred bull—Fakeers—The goddess Durga's temple
—Her monkeys—The mosque of Aurungzebe—The Ganges
Agra—The river Jumna—The fort—The Delhi gate—The pearl
mosque—The great divan—The courtyard—The harem—The
Jasmine tower—The three pavilions—The glass palace—The view
from the terrace—The Taj-Mahal—Its beauty—The gardens—The
mausoleum—Moonlight—The jewelled tombs of Shah Jehan and
his beloved wife—The marble trellis—The great gateway—Sikandra
—Akbar's tomb—The gateway at Sikandra—Mausoleum of Prince
Etmad Dowlat—Fattehpur Sikri—The royal buildings—Akbar's
palace—The divers—The Fakeer's grave—Birbul's house—The
peacock throne—Mission work in Agra—Village life—Roadside
scenes—Work and wages
One of the ancient cities of the world—Toglakabad—Timour the Tartar
—The Kutab-Minar—The mosque of Kutab-ul Islam—The iron
pillar—The tomb of Humayoun—Indrapat—Firozabad—Asoka's
pillar—The great Jumma Musjid—The fort of Delhi—The Chandni
Rajputana—Jeypore—The stables—Man-eating tigers—The Maharajah
—His park—Palace— Museum—Art gallery — College schools —
Hospital—School of Art—Prison—Picturesque street scenes—The
deserted city of Amber—An elephant ride—Alligators—Hindoo
Ascetics—The palace—Ajmere—The Dargah—The Mayo college CONTENTS.
—The tank—The bazaars—Ahmedabad—Its trade—Sidi Said's
marble window—The mosques—Rani Sipri's tomb and mosque—
The Jain temple—Lonely Sarkhej—Bombay—The Parsees—The
towers of silence—The caves of Elephanta        ..     ..        ..        ..    359
The struggle for existence—Race differences—One of the poorest
countries in the world—Average annual income of the people—
Famine — Cholera — Taxation — Land tax — The usurer — The
zemindar—The ryot—Education : primary, intermediate, University
—Mission schools—Cultured natives and social reforms—Technical
education—Loyalty of educated natives—Their desire for a share in
the government of their country—The National Indian Congress—
The Civil Service—The Indian Council
Jin-rickisha travelling in Japan
Lahore Gate, Delhi    .
Aurora Borealis .
Quebec, from Point Levis
Horse Shoe Fall, Niagara
Whirlpool Rapids, Niagara
Emery Hall, a Canadian Homestead
Sault St. Marie Lock, Lake Superior    .
Thunder Cape, Lake Superior
A Manitoba Homestead
Threshing out Wheat-stacks on the Prairie
Railway Dep6t, Brandon
Calgary, with distant view of the Rocky Mountains
Bull's Head, the Sarcee Chief
Sar,cee Squaw and Pony Cart
Eagle Rib, a Sarcee Chief ....
" Bravo, Ted ! " a Salvation Army incident .
The Gap : Entrance to the Rocky Mountains
Canmore Rocks .....
Castle Mountain .....
View of Banff from above the Sanatorium
Bridge of Boats and Twin Peaks, Banff.
Cascade Mountain      .....
On the Bow River, Banff   ....
The Bow Falls	
Vermilion Lake, National Park, Banff .
A Forest Fire, National Park, Banff
Canadian Pacific Railway Hotel, National Park, Banff.
• View in the Selkirks  ....
Summit Lake    .....
Kicking Horse Pass
Field Station     .....
The Monarchs of the Rocky Mountains.
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The Bear Hunt .
Snow Sheds
Mount Sir Donald and the Great Glacier
The Great Bend of the Canadian Pacific Railway
Roger's Pass: the Summit of the Selkirks
An Indian Salmon Cache    .
Salmon Cannery on the Fraser River    .
Harrison Lake   .....
The " Yosemite " leaving Vancouver    .
Indians Salmon Fishing on the Fraser River
Douglas Pines, Vancouver   .
Esquimault Harbour  -        .        .        .
The " Port Victor "   .
Vries Volcano, Yokohama Bay
Tea House, Yokohama Bay.
Yokohama Harbour   ....
A Street in Yokohama
Buying Chrysanthemums, Yokohama    .
Group of Children, Utsunomiya   .
Doll and Fan    .....
Interior of Tea House, Bedroom Floor .
Jin-rickisha Man in his Straw Rain-Coat
The Road to Nikko    ....
The Hotel at Nikko    ....
Row of Buddhas at Nikko   .
The Pagoda, Nikko   .        .        .
Holy Water Cistern, Nikko.
The Kio-zo, or Library, Nikko
Korean Bronze Lantern, Nikko    .
The Yo-mei-mon Gate, Nikko
The Yo-mei-mon Cloisters, Nikko.
The Nio-mon Gate, entrance to the Temples of lye
The Kara-mon Gate, Iye-mitsu's Temples
The Chinese Gate, Iye-yasu's Temples
On the Road to Chiu-sen-je.
The Great Buddha, Kamakura
Fuji-yama, the Sacred Mountain
Shooting the Rapids, Kioto
A Shinto Priest.
Music, Japan
Dancing Girl, Japan   .
A Street Scene, Kioto
The Inland Bea. of Japan
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229 XXIV
Pappenburg Island, Nagasaki Harbour .
The Kowloong Hills, Hong Kong Harbour
Chinese Town, Hong Kong
Singapore : a Mango Breakfast in July .
Adam's Peak, Ceylon ....
The Dekanda Valley, Ceylon
On the Kandy Railway—Sensation Rock
The India-rubber Tree, Kandy     .        .
The Giant Bamboo, Peradenia Gardens, Kandy
Sir John Coode's Breakwater, Colombo.
Devil-dancer and Tom-tom, Ceylon
A Cingalese Workman
A Village Shop, Ceylon
In the Bay of Bengal  ....
The Bathing Ghats, Benares
Nothing is Sacred to a Snake !
The Jasmine Tower, Agra Fort   .
The Taj Mahal, from the Summit of the Great Gateway
View from the Terrace of the Fort, Agra
The Tomb of Akbar, Sikandra
The Palace of Fattehpur Sikri
Birbul's House, Fattehpur Sikri   .
The Mausoleum of Prince Etmad Dowlat
The Kutab Minar, Delhi     .
The Ruined City of Indrapat, Delhi
The Jumma Musjid, Delhi  .
The Pearl Mosque, Delhi Fort
Street Scene at Jeypore
The Ruined City of Amber .
The Great Well of the Dargah, Ajmere
Carved Window of the Mosque of Rani Sipri, Ahmedabad
Pierced Marble Window of Sidi's Said Mosque, Ahme
dabad ....
The Tomb of Rani Sipri, Ahmedabad
Cave Temple of Elephanta .
Aden Harbour   ....
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On Thursday afternoon, the 18th of August, I embarked with
my eldest daughter on board the Allan liner " Sarmatian,"
on my voyage round the world.
Our first care on coming on board was to find our cabins, and
get the luggage for the voyage safely stowed in them. I had
wisely left the choice of the cabins to my old friends, Messrs.
Allan Bros. & Co., and found they had provided for our
accommodation the first officer's and purser's cabins, on the spar
deck, so situated as to secure the minimum of motion with the
maximum of fresh air. Compared with the accommodation
furnished on an Atlantic liner for the ordinary passenger, which
is humorously termed a | state-room," • our cabins are little
palaces, replete with every comfort. The officers turn a nimble
ninepence during the summer months by letting their cabins for
the voyage to passengers who like the extra accommodation,
but find their luxury acceptable enough in the terrible voyages
which they have often to endure in the winter. I write this
letter in a room about 12 feet square, with four windows, a hot-
water apparatus, a fine mahogany desk, a wardrobe, a chest of
drawers, a wash-stand which disappears into a recess when not
required, a large and comfortable sofa, and a bed.    When the
cabin passengers  are  sent to bed at ten o'clock, wakeful or
sleepy, and their lights arbitrarily extinguished, I lie  on my
sofa reading by the light of a handsome duplex lamp till sleep
comes without effort; then I turn in.    I know no more fearful
punishment for an unhappy Member of Parliament, trained by
sad  experience  to  sit  up  and keep awake  till  three  in  the
morning, than to be sent to bed at ten, with his light, dim and
unsatisfactory  at   the  best,  ruthlessly  put  out  at  half past,
leaving him tumbling in bed at his very wakefullest moments.
We settled down in our comfortable cabins, put our clothes
neatly  away  in   the  drawers,  thankfully  remembering  other
voyages when we have had to get to the bottom of portmanteaux
while the ship was standing on her head, and then sallied forth
for  a  tour of inspection  round the ship  which  is to be  our
floating home for the next ten days.
The I Sarmatian" is a fine steamer of the second class.
She has a speed of 13 to 14 knots, as her five full-day Atlantic
runs on this voyage show, viz. 314, 318, 320, 322, 320 knots
each day, giving a shade over 13 knots an hour. She carries
a goodly family to provide for on the voyage. There are 631
souls on board—105 cabin, 85 intermediate, 325 steerage
passengers, and a crew of 116.
The anchor is weighed at five o'clock, and soon New Brighton
fort and lighthouse, the various lightships and the foaming
sandy bar of the Mersey, drop astern one by one, and we take
our last look of England for six months, going to bed to dream
of home and friends, mingled with intermittent visions of the
Rocky Mountains, the Flowery Land, the Mikado, " the spicy
breezes that blow o'er Ceylon's isle," and the horrors of seasickness.
August 19th.—We wake up to find ourselve
s running close in FROM LIVERPOOL  TO QUEBEC. 3
along the Antrim coast, which gives us some of the finest
scenery in the kingdom. I am glad to view from the sea points
of interest I had previously enjoyed on shore. Garron Head
and Fair Head were well in sight, then, passing through the
strait between Rathlin Island and the mainland, Carrick-a-Rede,
with its terrible rope bridge 120 feet in the air, the organ rock
of the Giant's Causeway, the rising watering-place of Portrush
follow in rapid succession, and at eleven o'clock we steam into
Lough Foyle, and drop anchor off Moville to wait for the mails
A magnificent Atlantic steamer is already there, and my
thoughts fly off to my constituency as I recognise the good
work of the Barrow Shipbuilding Company in the Anchor liner
J Devonia."
The mails come on board by four o'clock, and away we go.
By nine the light of Tory Island disappears, and we are rocked
upon the bosom of the treacherous Atlantic, with a breeze fresh
enough to send us to bed with mingled fears and hopes for the
morrow's breakfast.
August 20th.—The hopes have it! It is fairly calm, and but
few passengers are absent from table. The glass has fallen a
trifle during the night, and the bill of fare is scanned carefully
with a view to wholesome dishes. The choice is varied: you
may have tea or coffee, rolls, toast, potato scones, brown and
white bread, corn-meal bread, oat cake and porridge, beefsteak
and onions, savoury omelette, fried fish, Finnan haddie, sausages,
bacon, grilled bones, cold ham, tongue and beef, eggs and
marmalade. The morning keeps fine, and the saloon deck
presents the usual aspect. Ladies are grouped about in
pleasant corners in easy deck-chairs, reading (yellow-back novels
mostly), chatting, and working. Shuffle-board, a sort of deck
bagatelle, and rope quoits, are in full swing, and we all go about
making   acquaintance with  one   another.    The bright   keen-
B 2
looking gentleman, with white hair and a clean shaved face, is
Sir Alexander Gait, a well-known Canadian politician, who was
at one time Finance Minister. He has spent four years of a
long and useful life on board Atlantic steamers, having crossed
and recrossed from Canada to England more than IOO times.
He is in conversation with Mr, Gibbs, Q.C., one of the leaders
of the Northern Circuit, who is spending a well-earned long
vacation in Canada and the United States. That active clever-
faced lady, who seems almost ubiquitous, is Miss Macpherson,
who is taking 47 orphan lads from London slums to Canada.
The breezy fellow in a yachting cap, whom every one says is
the purser, is J. P. Sheldon, Professor of Agriculture at Downton
College, near Salisbury, and a defeated aspirant for Parliamentary honours, who is going to Canada to report on the
farming resources of the North-West Provinces on behalf of the
Dominion Government, the Canadian Pacific Railway, and the
Allan Line, all of-which august bodies are jointly interested in
the commission. The Japanese gentleman, who leans against the
smoke-room door puffing his cigarette, is the head of a firm of
engineers and shipbuilders in Tokio employing 400 hands, and
I have already made an appointment to go over his works with
him in October. The bright jolly-looking young lady watching
the gulls astern is a teacher in the Girls' Collegiate Institute at
Toronto. The eager pale face, whose earnest grey eyes look
out of gold-rimmed spectacles, belongs to a young missionary,
who, years ago, was taken from the London gutter by Miss^
Macpherson, and is going to join the China inland mission.-
The sturdy young fellow who walks the deck with him is
another of Miss Macpherson's lambs, also destined for China, 1
but who in the meantime is to have a winter's colportage work
a| Toronto. . . . But there goes the luncheon bell, and the '
deck clears like magic. FROM LIVERPOOL  TO QUEBEC.
For this meal we have excellent hot soup, cold meats of all
kinds, cold fresh salmon, salad, sardines, stewed" fruit, pastry,
and cheese. It is a light and trivial meal compared with
breakfast and dinner.
The afternoon is mostly spent in slumber, induced by the
strong, fresh Atlantic breeze, through which we are bowling
along at the rate of 14 miles an hour ; but every one wakes up
at the sound of the dinner bell, the event of the day to those
who are able for it. This is indeed a meal. Here is the bill
of fare:—
Boiled salmon.
Parsley sauce.
Grilled pigeons and mushrooms.
Fillet of beef a la Francaise.
Beef and Yorkshire pudding.
Sucking pig and currant sauce.
Fowls and lemon sauce.
Plain and mashed potatoes.
Veal and ham pie.
Vol au vent of lobster.
Lamb and mint sauce.
Gosling and apple sauce.
Mutton and caper sauce.
Broad beans.
Puddings and pastry.
Jam rolls. Rice puddings. Rhubarb pie.
Plum pie. Italian cream. Apple charlotte.
Lemon cheese cakes. Marmalade tartlets.
Apples, oranges, plums, raisins, figs, nuts, tea, and coffee.
There is a slight roll getting up, and I notice with interest
that boiled fowl and rice pudding are in great demand, and A   TRIP ROUND  THE   WORLD.
that sucking pig, gosling, vol  au vent, jam rolls, and lemon
cheese cakes are not much sought after.
The lavish profusion of the bills of fare in Atlantic liners
always seems to me very unnecessary ; but as there are 116 in the
crew, and sometimes 500 to 800 steerage passengers, I suppose
the enormous surplus gets eaten up somewhere.
The intermediate passengers fare quite as well as the saloon,
but with a simpler list of viands. The steerage passengers
have for breakfast fresh bread and butter, porridge, Irish stew,
tea and coffee ; for dinner, soup, hot joints, potatoes, and bread ;
for tea, bread and butter and tea ; for supper, oatmeal porridge.
When the weather is decent their capacity for innocent
enjoyment in the way of food is astounding. There are biscuits
ad libitum at eleven, so that I was not surprised to hear a fat
German emigrant say, | Himmel! vot a ship! Five square
meals a day, and noding extra to pay!"
To-night we run into the tail-end of a gale, and soon find out
how utterly miserable 500 people can be at sea. The ship is
largely laden with steel rails—as a member of the iron trade, I
was glad to hear this at starting, but before night was over I
was fain to wish they were at the bottom of the mine instead
of the bottom of the | Sarmatian." Their dead-weight caused
the ship to roll like a pendulum, and it was impossible to sleep.
I sat up reading all night, and at breakfast next morning it
was found that quite two-thirds of the passengers were badly
under the weather, my daughter among the rest. This roll
continued more or less during the 21st, 22nd, and 23rd, to the
vast discomfort of everybody; but on the 24th we entered the
great Labrador current, and all were happy. The temperature,
however, fell to about 42 degrees, and everybody was glad to
rummage up their warm clothes. The wind was fresh and keen,
blowing straight " from Greenland's icy mountains."    This great FROM LIVERPOOL  TO QUEBEC.
current flows continuously at the rate of about two miles an
hour direct from the Arctic sea, and every one was on the lookout for the icebergs which it brings down into the Atlantic. ]
None appeared, however, though the captain told me next
morning that he had passed three large ones during the night
in Belle Isle Strait.
We have now got away from the Atlantic and are bowling
across the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The air blows fresh and bracing
off Labrador, but the sun is bright, and all on board are
happy and joyous. We see whales blowing for the first time
on the voyage, and much excitement is caused by a hawk
settling in the rigging, completely spent by its flight, for we are
far out of sight of land. The sailors tried to catch it, but it
hopped feebly from spar to spar, and they failed. During the
'afternoon, after three or four hours' rest, it suddenly sped
landwards, and we saw it no more. Sometime afterwards a
small finch paid us a similar visit, but we were then much nearer
This evening I had sat up rather late reading, and going on
deck for a little fresh air at midnight before turning in, I found
the   whole   northern   sky  ablaze   with   Aurora   Borealis.    Of
course I have  often  seen  at  home what we  call  "Northern
lights," but now I beheld the real thing of which I had often
read in books of Arctic travel, and its weird beauty is beyond
all description.    Even here it is only seen in perfection at rare
intervals.    The light sprang in a great arch, like a low rainbow,
from horizon to horizon.    The sky beneath the arch was black
as ink, but with one star bright enough to show that it was as
clear below as it was above.    The arch was a wide band of
strong well-defined light, out of which sprang curling clouds
of vapoury-looking flames, and sharp spears of light flying up
almost  into   the   zenith.    The   light given   by this beautiful 8 A   TRIP ROUND  THE  WORLD.
phenomenon was as strong as the full moon, and I do not
think I ever saw a more beautiful sky, by day or night.
From a sketch by the Author.
The 26th finds us in bad weather again. Rain all day, with
a heavy sea rolling up into the Gulf direct from the Atlantic.
At night thick fog, half-speed, and the steam whistle murdering
sleep; but the morning of the 27th brings us into calm water
and fine weather, the ship running within three or four miles of
the coast of Gaspe, well into the mouth of the St. Lawrence.
At the request of a number of the passengers, a large proportion of whom are teetotallers, I gave an address on the
Temperance Movement on deck this afternoon. This vessel
affords fresh proof of the rapid strides with which the
Temperance Reformation has advanced of late years. In
conversation with Mr. Heaton, the pleasant and courteous
gentleman who acts as chief steward, he tells me that the FROM LIVERPOOL  TO QUEBEC. 9
change which has come over the drinking habits of the saloon
passengers during the last ten years is very remarkable. Turning
up his books for 1878, he showed me entries of over £120
paid in a single voyage for strong liquors by forty-five cabin
passengers. This voyage 105 passengers will not spend £30.
Nearly half the Canadians on board are abstainers, and of those
who are not, few drink at their meals. Only thirteen passengers
take wine or beer at dinner, and these are English. I am within
the mark in saying that fully half the intermediate and steerage
passengers are teetotallers.
This evening a concert was given on behalf of that most
valuable charity, the Liverpool Seamen's Orphanage, and a
handsome collection was taken. A large number of the 750
children cared for by this institution have lost their fathers by
the perils of the sea crossing the Atlantic, incurred while
conveying passengers and cargo to and from America. There is
no class of the community needing an orphanage to the same
extent as seamen. Since this institution was founded sixteen
years ago, more than 40,000 British seamen have been drowned
at sea, and 27,000 more have died in foreign ports. It is a
disgrace to us as a maritime nation that 2,500 of our seamen
should thus find a watery grave every year, and only such
legislation as that which Mr. Joseph Chamberlain vainly endeavoured to make law will cope with this terrible loss of life.
A large amount of money is secured for the orphanage by means
of concerts and other entertainments, and the collection on
Sundays on board all Atlantic liners is devoted to this object.
I have been much interested in the children who are being
taken out by Miss Macpherson for adoption by Canadian
farmers. Miss Macpherson does not emigrate pauper children,
but rather seeks those children who are on the edge of the
workhouse schools, and who, but  for her interference, would IO
quickly find themselves there.    Let me give the stories of two
or three of these on board as a sample of the whole.
A. B. is a lad who was found ten years ago by a city
missionary in an underground cellar; he was then about four
years old, and nothing could be discovered as to his belongings.
He was taken to the Islington Boys' Home, and has been recommended as a good willing boy suitable for emigration to
C. D. was a gutter arab, motherless, son of a drunken father
who beat and starved him. He drifted into a boys' home at
Winchester, and now, at fifteen years of age, is off " to reap and
mow, to plough and sow, and be a farmer's boy" in Canada.
He is a bright, sharp lad, full of expectation and hope, and will
do well. There are a dozen such lads among the forty-seven on
board, but sometimes the facts are reversed by the father being
dead and the mother gone to the bad, while others have lost
both parents, the loss being the lad's gain.
E. F. is a bright, sharp little girl of ten, delighted with the ship
and all on board, the pet of the steerage. When I asked her
how she liked her cabin, she said, " Jolly ! I've got a whole soapbox all to myself for a bed." This was the realisation of her
wildest notion of luxury. Hitherto, if she had had a soap-box
at all, she shared it with other children. Her father was
drowned at sea, and she has been half starved by an unsatisfactory mother all her life. She is about half the size she ought
to be.
G. H. is a lad who has been deserted by his parents, who fell
at once into kind hands. A lady in his neighbourhood pays the
cost of his emigration.
Many of the children have been rescued from horrible ill-
treatment at the hands of step-fathers and step-mothers, others
have been  adopted  by  Miss  Macpherson  out  of large poor FROM LIVERPOOL  TO  QUEBEC.
families, whose parents seem glad enough to let them go, and
others are orphans from various boys' homes.
All these children are purged as far as possible from the evil
influences of their past lives by the kind and judicious treatment they receive in Miss Macpherson's homes in England and
Canada. Their excellent behaviour on board ship, under the
relaxed discipline which is inevitable from the sea-sickness of
their superintendents, speaks volumes for their brief training,
and they live in the continual praise of all the passengers.
Miss Macpherson has taken out to Canada altogether four
thousand four hundred of these waifs and strays, every one of
whom would otherwise have gone to swell the ranks of the
dangerous or pauper classes. The results fully justify her
action. Two thousand five hundred are now comfortably settled
on Canadian farms, the adopted children rather than the servants of the farmers. Five hundred have been formally adopted
by childless people, another five hundred have been put out in
trades, over two hundred are married and doing well; some, of
course, have died, but of the whole lot only seven have turned
out hopelessly bad, and are now in reformatories with whatever poor chance those institutions afford for a fresh start
in life.
All wonder at this happy result vanishes before an hour's
chat with the gracious Christian lady who is the life and soul of
it all. This emigration of poor children is but an incident in the
noble life of Miss Macpherson, and is her solution of one aspect
of the sorrow and suffering passing under her notice in her work
among the densely-crowded districts of East London. These
poor children, taken away from their horrible surroundings in
time, grow up useful God-fearing citizens of Canada, and often
rise to good positions. More than a score are in professions,
and one of the brightest and most intelligent men I ever met, 12
now going out on this ship, destined for a missionary's life, is
one of Miss Macpherson's rescued boys.
Probably no man is better acquainted with the inner social life
of Canada than Sir Alexander Gait. He has fully confirmed
me in the deeply favourable impression I have formed of Miss
Macpherson and her work, and assures me that- in his judgment
no one person is at this time promoting to the same extent the
real interests of the Dominion of Canada.
I was not surprised to hear from Miss Macpherson that she
utterly refused to emigrate children who had once entered the
doors of a workhouse school. My own experience as a Guardian
of one of the largest unions in London confirms her wisdom. I
wish every one of these detestable and costly institutions were
abolished and the boarding-out system made universal; but this
is a domestic issue that pertains not to the story of a voyage
round the world.
I do not wonder that Dr. Barnardo, and others who have the
care of orphan children of the very poor, are following Miss
Macpherson's noble example. May God bless her and her
patriotic work! It is, indeed, | something accomplished, something done," to have turned 5,000 street arabs from probable
thieves and lost women into prosperous Canadian farmers and
happy wives and mothers.
We are now running up the St. Lawrence, and an amusing
incident has just occurred. The Dominion Government have a
law that no one shall enter Canada who has not been vaccinated
during the last seven years. Yesterday the ship's doctor went
through all the intermediate and steerage passengers, examined
their arms, and informed those who had not recently been
vaccinated that they would not be let ashore without a fortnight's
quarantine on an island unless they submitted to his lancet.
About four dozen were operated upon ; but a Wesleyan minister FROM LIVERPOOL  TO QUEBEC. 13
and another flatly refused even to show their arms. A medical
officer of health came on board at Rimouski at one o'clock this
morning, and the two recalcitrants were roused out of bed to
face him. They continued obstinate, and were in consequence
reported by telegraph to the Quarantine Station, whose officer has
just stopped the ship. The martyrs have broken down at last,
on seeing their luggage placed upon the quarantine launch, and,
with much indignation, have submitted to vaccination. They
do not seem to have had scruples about vaccination itself, but
refused on what seems to me the very just ground that the
saloon passengers have been entirely exempt from the operation
of the law. There were no exemptions in the original Act, until
it was found that saloon passengers were exempted from a
similar law in the United States, and that in consequence saloon
passenger traffic was being diverted from Quebec to New
Shortly after lunch the picturesque city of Quebec hove in
sight, and the " Sarmatian" steamed alongside the wharf at Point
Levis, the terminus of the Grand Trunk Railway, on the opposite
side of the great river.
We have had a delightful and prosperous voyage, the pleasant-
est of all the five journeys I have made across the Atlantic; but
we are all glad to see land again, and to rush off to the telegraph
office to send word to those at home that we have arrived safe
and well. 14
As soon as the medical officer had issued his fiat permitting the
passengers to go ashore, my daughter and I started off for the
ferry, determined  to see all we could of Quebec in the three
hours before the steamer once more started off up the river to
It seemed  ridiculous on  British  territory to  be  hailed   in
French   by a  car-driver,  to  read   the  shop-signs   in   French
and English, with even such simple directions as were needed
to  point  the  road  to  the  steam  ferry, being  given  in  both
languages, thus—
This way!
Par ici !
And yet I am told that if any public institution such as a steam
ferry omitted the " Par ici" it would bring about an immediate
revolution. Quebec is as French as Boulogne—yet as loyal to
the British Crown as Folkestone. The ancient province of
Lower Canada has maintained unimpaired the language and
religion of its original settlers. Three-fourths of its population
are French-speaking Roman Catholics. French customs, language, and laws remain intact, though the British flag waves
from its citadel. Champlain, the famous navigator, who discovered and settled Quebec, established a fort, a trading station,
and a chapel.    The Quebec of to-day is simply an enlargement   MONTREAL.
of all three. The town lies on a tongue of land under the
shelter of a bold cliff 350 feet above the water, with the Charles
River protecting it on the landward side. The citadel crowns
the hill, and all round are forts and bastions commanding every
point of the river. The whole forms a fortress that would be
impregnable if armed with modern guns, and which would hold
the gates of Canada against any navy that could be sent to force
them. The armaments, however, are of an ancient and obsolete
character, with the exception of three Armstrong guns of about
six.or seven tons weight, which escaped the fire of last year.
There is, however, a brass howitzer, on which is engraved, | This
gun was captured at the battle of Bunkers Hill"—a bit of British
swagger which greatly amuses Yankee visitors, who are apt
to remark, "Wal, if you have the gun, I guess we've got the
There are few more picturesque towns in the world than
Quebec. As we steamed away up the St. Lawrence, the lofty
citadel and its satellite forts, with the quaint old French town
nestling under its protection, were all one dark purple mass
against a glorious sunset sky, relieved only by the twinkling
lights of the houses and streets, just blinking into notice as the
day darkened and closed—a scene of beauty not easily to be
forgotten. Quebec is going down hill. It was a melancholy
place for a business man to visit ten years ago, when I was there
seeking custom for English iron, but it seemed to me sadder
than ever in the walk we took through the business streets. It
still maintains its supremacy as the great seat of the timber
trade ; but as that trade finds its way to the sea more and more
by the great network of railways which centre in Montreal,
lumber will follow wheat and locate itself in the up-river port,
to the neglect of poor old Quebec.
Sunday  morning, August  28th,  found  us  50 miles  above
Quebec, on the broad bosom of the St. Lawrence, the great
highway of the Dominion of Canada, and the outlet of the
greatest body of fresh water in the world. The vast inland seas
of Superior, Huron, Erie, Michigan, Ontario, Nepigon, and
Champlain, besides a thousand lakes of less degree, pour out
to the Atlantic past the citadel of Quebec. This noble river
drains an area of over 400,000 square miles of territory, and
contains more than half the fresh water of the globe. The
total length of its course is over 2,000 miles, and its principal
port, Montreal, is 150 miles distant from salt water. By the
aid of the Welland Canal three-masted vessels with 1,500 or
2,000 tons of wheat in their holds can load at Port Arthur on
Lake Superior, 1,200 miles from the sea, and after traversing
the St. Lawrence, cross the Atlantic and discharge their cargoes
at Liverpool or Barrow.
The St. Lawrence from Quebec to Montreal is from one to
three miles wide. Its banks are thickly populated by the
descendants of the early French Settlers, every village
clustering round a fine Roman Catholic Church, whose tin
roofs and spires glitter in the morning sun. The people are
very poor, and have been rendered so by a bad system of subdivision of land similar to that which prevails in many parts of
Ireland. The habitants, as these French Canadians are called,
are a hardy, thrifty race; their young men form the great
strength of the lumber trade, and a backwoodsman would move !
Mr. Gladstone to amazement and envy by the way in which he
can wield the axe.
About three o'clock in the afternoon the wooded heights of
Mount  Royal   appear above   the   low river banks,  and   the
passengers throng into the bows of the ship for the first view of I
that city of churches, Montreal.   As we round the last bend of
the river, the fine stone quays, flanked by a long mile of noble
warehouses, overtopped by a hundred  spires and domes, the
whole set in the olive-green of  Mount  Royal,  form  a fine
panorama.    In less than an hour we are fast to the Allan Wharf.
A polite customs officer declines to suspect a British M.P. of
smuggling.    Our luggage is placed in the hotel waggon, and we
jolt  through  the  disgracefully  paved  streets  to the Windsor
Hotel, a marble palace of 800 rooms, which condescends to
board and lodge its visitors handsomely for ijs. 6d. a day.    We
certainly had   no reason  to  complain  of  the  treatment we
received.    The head clerk, on seeing my name, asked me if I
was not a British Member of Parliament.    I owned the soft
impeachment, and, knowing what a mixed lot we are, waited
with trepidation the effect.    Should I be refused admission, or
be huddled away in some garret ?   To my great delight we
were ushered into a gorgeous apartment, consisting of a large
drawing-room and two spacious bedrooms, with fine bath-rooms
attached.    I protested that this splendour was quite beyond my
means, but was at once politely assured that I was, so far as
these   handsome   rooms  were   concerned,  the   guest   of  the
landlords of the " Windsor."
Monday, August 29th.—We rose betimes to catch the 7.45
train for Lachine, a pretty village which stands at the head of
the chain of locks which raises the water traffic of the St.
Lawrence over the far-famed Lachine Rapids, which it was our
intention presently to descend in a steamer. It was a glorious
morning, the hot sun tempered with a touch of autumn frost,
which threw a thin veil of mist over the river, and its beautiful
wooded banks and islands. The steamer left the moorings
under the careof an ancient half-breed Indian pilot, who steers
her into the broad expanse of river which spreads out above the
fall. The old explorer Jacques Cartier took it for a fresh
ocean, that would, if he dared venture to cross it, lead him on to
C 2 20
China; standing on its shores, exclaiming 1 La Chine .'La
Chine!" he little thought that 350 years later the Canadian
Pacific Railway would cross the point on which he stood,
carrying passengers and mails from Europe to China in the
short space of five weeks. Soon the broad river narrows into a
width of about two miles, and the increased speed of the vessel
lets us know that we are nearing the great Lachine Rapids.
The pace becomes tremendous as she leaps into the roaring
.cataract. Standing in the bows, it seems as if nothing could
save the steamer from being dashed to pieces on the mighty
rocks which split the stream; but the skilful pilot drives her
down between the two.biggest, which almost brush the vessel's
sides, and in another minute we are paddling down a gentle
ripple, and Montreal, glistening in the morning sun, comes into
The interest of this delightful little trip, which hardly lasts
two hours, has been greatly enhanced by the magnificent
cantilever bridge by which the Canadian Pacific Railway crosses
the St. Lawrence at the head of the Lachine Rapids, seeking an
outlet for its western traffic through St. John and Halifax and
the New England States. This bridge is built on the same
lines and plan as the well-known Tay Bridge in Scotland. The
steamer swept under it with such speed that all detail was lost,
leaving only on the memory the impression of the lightest and ;
most beautiful iron structure I had ever seen.
Montreal can boast the possession of two of the finest bridges
in the world, for the great rival of the Canadian Pacific, the
older Grand Trunk, owns the famous Victoria Tubular Bridge,!
which was designed by Robert Stephenson, built by Peto,
Brassey, and Betts, and formally opened by the Prince of Wales:
in i860. This bridge connects lower Canada with the United
States, and carries off all the Montreal traffic during the six MONTREAL.
months of winter when the St. Lawrence is blocked with ice.
This stupendous work cost £1,200,000. It stands upon 26 piers,
and the centre is about 60 feet above the level of the river. It
is over 3,000 yards long, and contains three million cubic feet of
masonry, and over 8,000 tons of iron. It links together the
system of the Grand Trunk Railway, which on both sides of
the St. Lawrence embraces some 2,200 miles of road.
After breakfast I called at the offices of the Canadian Pacific
Railway, and made the acquaintance of its president, Sir George
Stephen, Bart., and Mr. Van Home, its vice-president and
general-manager. They were good enough to give me nearly
three hours of their valuable time, and allowed me to see
their rate-books, and classification-books, and gave me much
information of great interest to a Member of Parliament who
had served for two years on "The Select Committee on
Railway Rates."
The rest of the afternoon I spent in calling upon the many
old friends in the iron trade who, before I became absorbed in
politics, were valued customers, and to whom I used to export
iron and other metals. Much of our conversation naturally
turned on the recent heavy increase of the import duties on iron
and steel, which has so much excited the indignation of our iron
trade at home. I found an almost universal opinion, in which
I fully share, that these protective duties will not be sufficient
to call into existence any important rolling-mills within the
Dominion, though it may do something for iron and steel manufactured goods. The duty on finished iron is raised from 17s. 6d.
per ton to £3. The first result of this will be to drive the iron
trade into the hands of great capitalist merchants, and to squeeze
out small dealers and importers. A dealer could, under the old
duty, buy a stock of 500 tons of merchant iron from England
and put it duty paid into his warehouse for about £3,200, and 22
as he could obtain four to six months' credit from English
merchants for £2,500 of that amount, he only required £700
in cash capital to pay freight and duties. By the increase in the
tariff he finds this amount suddenly raised upon him to some
£1,700, and unless he can immediately bring an extra £1,000 in
hard cash into his business he must either reduce his stock or
be otherwise crippled. In all my business experience, I have
always found these sudden changes in tariff rates the most
disturbing element I have had to cope with.
The strong protests which were made, at the time the tariff was
changed, by the English iron trade, were successful in inducing
the Canadian Government to make some important alterations in
favour of Great Britain, so far as it affects the interests of the
mother country and the rival interests of foreign countries. A
memorandum has been recently issued by the Canadian Minister
of Finance, which endeavours to show how far the tariff changes
are actually beneficial to British manufactures. An analysis of
the imports into Canada of iron and steel and manufactures
thereof exhibits the remarkable fact that while five years ago
Great Britain contributed 55 per cent, of the dutiable and 94
per cent, of the free imports of these goods, last year the proportion from that country had declined to 50 per cent, and 86
per cent. These figures are put forward with some justice, as
showing a drift of trade from British to foreign iron producers,
and the Finance Minister contends that if the old tariff had remained in operation the Canadian market must in time have
passed under the control of the manufacturers of the United
States, Belgium, and Germany. I do not believe this myself;
but if the conviction has come home to the Finance Minister,
and induced him to vary the tariff with a view to preventing it,
we need not complain.
I never could understand the  infatuation of new countries MONTREAL.
for Protection. For years past Canada has been paying 5°
per cent, more for every article of clothing than we pay in
England, with a view to creating textile industries of her own
Yesterday I went through the largest retail drapery store in
Canada, containing every kind of textile fabrics for both sexes.
The owner admitted to me that he had not in his store, from
cellar to attic, five shillings' worth of Canadian manufactures.
The one great pleasure of Canada is fishing. Yesterday I
bought a green heart trout rod ; in England it would have cost
me 2i.y.—I paid 32s.; two dozen trout flies, 8s. per dozen—the
same flies in England would cost 2s.; gut casting lines, 4s. each
instead of is. 3d.—and all imported from England. I asked
specially for a Canadian-made rod, but the dealer hadn't got
one fit for fly-fishing; all his stock had come from England or
the States in spite of 30 per cent, protective duty.
The duties on foreign iron in the United States practically
double the price of iron all over that country, yet fail to
keep out foreign competition. The total importations of manufactured iron and steel productions into the States last fiscal
year were 100,000 tons in excess of the two previous years
combined. During the fiscal year just ended the States
imported 1,524,000 tons, against a total.in the two years of
1885-1886 of 1,445,000. The same appears in iron ore,
last year showing 1,142,000 tons imported, against a total ot
1,127,000 in the two years previous. There seems to be no
signs of any diminution of this great import. I do not wonder
to read this week in a leading New York commercial paper
that I indications warrant the belief that the heavy importations
of manufactured iron and steel production to this country are
a very serious menace to the industrial prosperity of America.
The pertinent inquiry arises—" How much longer can this
country  keep  on  importing   foreign  iron   and  steel  in  such ff
enormous quantities without precipitating a first-class collapse
in the iron and steel industries ?"
I have no fear whatever of any disastrous result to the
English iron trade from Canadian Protective tariffs. Canada
will continue to buy from us in increasing quantities ; and if
any capitalist is fool enough to start extensive iron-works in
the Dominion, they will end in what the Yankees call a " first-
class collapse." (    25     )
On Tuesday morning, August 31st, we left Montreal for
Toronto by the new route of the Canadian Pacific Railway,
which passes through a thinly-settled district of some beauty
abounding in lakes and streams. In 380 miles we only passed
two towns of any size—Perth, the centre of a good farming
district, in which many Irish have located themselves, and
Peterborough, placed on the Otonabee River, which here falls
about 150 feet in nine miles, furnishing water-power for many
corn and lumber mills. At the end of 12 hours we reached
the great capital of the province of Ontorio—Toronto. Our
journey was made pleasant by the magnificent parlour-car in
which we rode, furnished with large arm-chairs, movable
tables, and that best of all luxuries when travelling in hot
weather, a sumptuous lavatory. We had an excellent lunch and
tea served to us, and I noted with satisfaction that no alcoholic
liquors appeared in the bill of fare which was presented to
us, the Canadian Pacific refreshment-rooms on this section
being apparently conducted on strictly temperance principles.
Toronto is at once the most English and the most prosperous
town in Canada. Its citizens are justly proud of it, and take
no pains to conceal their pride. I noticed on the voyage that,
if any passenger walked the deck with an air of being Somebody,
if any lady sat in her deck-chair with a cold and repellent air I
towards strangers, they were sure to hail from Toronto. It is
the Boston of Canada. All culture and refinement begins and
ends there so far as the Dominion is*|oncerned. Europe may
furnish interesting relics of the past, bu%there is no real progress
outside Toronto. I never converse with a Toronto citizen without
being reminded of the old Peebles anecdote. " I've seen London
and Paris, but for downright pleesure gie me Peebles!"
However, with all the I side " taken off, Toronto is a very
fine city of over 100,000 inhabitants, to which it has grown
from a tenth of that number in about 50 years. It has plenty
of fine buildings, broad and handsome streets, electric lights,
and the usual detestable pavement, which seems inevitable in
every American town. It has a noble frontage to Lake Ontario
of several miles in extent; viewed from the lake on a fine evening,
it has almost the appearance of Venice from the Lido, and is quite
the most picturesque town in all Canada, except Quebec.
The University is a large' Norman building, situated in the
public park, in which is a monument to the students of the
University who were killed in resisting the iniquitous Fenian
invasion of 1866, one of the unpunished villainies of the Irish
scoundrels who abuse the hospitality of the freest country in the
world. The new Parliament House—in which, when finished,
the Ontario Parliament will exercise its carefully-guarded
functions—is only just above the ground, and we could not
judge of its merits. We visited the Normal School, in which
the elementary teachers of the province are trained, and found
every possible advantage to the students, well arranged in a
stately building.
In different quarters of the city we saw various colleges,
denominational and otherwise, which are affiliated to the
University, for the Ontario system of university education has
been successful in including within its teaching influence, both NIAGARA.
Roman Catholic as well as all Protestant denominational
colleges—an example I should like to see followed by our
ancient seats of learning at Oxford and Cambridge. The
University has an endowment of £200,000 and an income of
£16,000 a year, with 1,800 graduates and about 400 students.
It contains excellent museums of natural history, mineralogy,
geology, and ethnology.
The churches of Toronto are one of its chief glories. It
boasts the tallest spire, and the handsomest church clock on the
Continent of America. We went over the leading Methodist
Church; it will seat nearly 3,000 people, and has, besides a
handsomely-fitted lecture-hall to accommodate 600, the finest
series of Sunday-school class-rooms I ever saw, and a noble
suite of drawing-rooms, in which are held that peculiarly
American institution—the | Church Sociable "—at which the
minister receives the whole of his congregation at evening
parties, on terms of absolute social equality.
From Toronto we crossed the lake to Niagara, where we spent
three delightful days. I will not add to the thousand and one
failures to describe the indescribable. I have seen pictures of
Niagara. I have read poems on Niagara. They are about as
like what they try to describe as Martin's | Plains of Heaven."
The only honest attempt to describe Niagara was made by a
poet who was specially commissioned by the New York Herald
to produce a description in verse that should for all time stand
in the forefront of every other. The poet went, stayed three
months, and then sat down to write.    He began—
I Niagara ! Niagara !
You are indeed a staggerer !"
He could get no further, and his body was found three days
after in the whirlpool. 28
But without attempting to emulate the poet, I will try to
give to those of my readers who have never seen, and may
never see this wonder of the world, some faint idea of what
it really is.
Niagara Falls are formed by the sudden descent of the
Niagara River down a ledge of perpendicular rocks half a
mile wide and more than 160 feet in height, into a huge foaming
caldron over 400 feet in depth. The river flows out of this
caldron in smooth circling eddies for a mile or so, and then
rushes through a mighty gorge only 300 feet wide at the rate of
30 miles an hour, piling its roaring and foaming waves 30 feet
higher in the centre than at the margin, sweeping at its outlet
into a vast circular basin surrounded by high precipitous cliffs,
forming a huge whirlpool in which the river circles previous
to its final rush into Lake Ontario. To state the bare fact
that, according to Sir Charles Lyell, the water passing the
Niagara falls, travels at the rate of 1,500,000,000 cubic feet
per minute, may convey to the minds of my readers a dim
notion of the terrific force and sublimity of this stupendous
When I was last at Niagara, some ten years ago, both banks
were in the hands of speculators, who charged a dollar for every
coign of vantage, and before the unhappy tourist could see his
Niagara he had to pay out £4 or £5 for admission fees. But
these fiends had other methods of making money. As you stood
on the table rock, the finest point from which to view the Horse
Shoe Falls, a huge board, which you could not possibly evade,
informed you all the time that " Jennings' liver pills were sure,
quiet, but searching." The fine trees which frame every lovely
picture on Goat Island had been let out to a wretch who had,
painted on every trunk the startling fact that " Gargling oil was
good for man and beast," and the lovely rocks of Luna Island   NIAGARA.
resounded with the cry that i Lovell's worm powder was never
known to fail" ! But two or three years ago the enlightened
Governments of the United States and Canada purchased both
sides of the river, and swept out speculators and quacks with the
besom of destruction. Every approach of the falls is now free
as air, the land being cleared of every building, and turned into
two national parks.    Niagara appears to have irresistible charms
for the fools who enjoy seeing performances in which the main
attraction is danger to human life. We saw a number of people
respectfully surrounding a big but very stupid-looking young
man. Asking who this was, we were told that he was a hero
from Buffalo who had shot the Whirlpool Rapids last week,
boxed up in the small hold of a canoe decked over for
the purpose.    There was no skill displayed in this foolhardy 32
performance, as the hero of it was simply cargo and nothing
more, yet scores of people were turning their backs on the
grandest scene in the world to gape and stare at this foolish
In the height of the season, multitudes of people come in
from Buffalo, Detroit, Toronto, and even Chicago and New York,
not to admire the wondrous beauty of Niagara, but to see a
female named Signorina Maria Spelterina dance on a tight-rope
over the Whirlpool Rapids.
We were fortunate in visiting Niagara at the full moon, which
added greatly to its charm. This was my third visit to this
scene of wonder, and each visit deepens the impression that so
far as I have seen Nature, Niagara is the sublimest and most
beautiful sight on earth. In the winter of 1872 I saw the falls
in the grasp of the severest frost ever known to living Canadians.
The caldron beneath the falls was frozen over, and it was
possible to walk into the very face of the cataract, whose dark
green waters contrasted with the pure white snow and massive
icicles which hung about the edges. The spray which rises
always like a lovely veil from the base of the falls, had frozen as it
rose and encrusted everything on the banks—trees, shrubs, railings
—with a delicate frost-work that glistened like pure silver in the
bright winter sunshine of Canada, and, falling on the frozen
surface in front, had formed enormous cones of ice, one of which,
120 feet high, I mounted, gaining an unusual familiarity with,
the inner recesses of the falls, that was deeply impressive. But
I do not venture to express any opinion on the rival charms of
Niagara in winter, spring, or autumn, in each of which seasons I
have seen and wondered at its strange beauty and terrible
We managed to snatch half a day from Niagara to visit the
locks on the Welland  Canal,  which connect  the navigation NIAGARA.
between Ontario and Erie, and make it possible for vessels to
surmount the obstacle presented by Niagara. Erie is on a
higher level than Ontario by 300 feet, and this level is reached
by a chain of locks on the Welland Canal 26 in number. Each
lock is over 300 feet long and 45 feet wide, and vessels of
2,000 tons burden, drawing 14 feet, can pass them. It takes a
ship about 14 hours to get through the complete chain of locks,
and they pay dues amounting to gd. a ton if loaded, 8d. if in
ballast.. It was a wonderful sight to stand on the upper lock
and see the vast steps of masonry sweeping round the hillside
for miles, with large three-masted ships mounting to Erie or
dropping to Ontario all along the great curve, undoubtedly one
of the finest public works in the world.
The Canadian Government, with a view to divert the great
grain trade of the lakes to Montreal, have reduced the tolls on
grain coming to that port through the Welland Canal to id.
per ton; but although the old rate of gd. is charged to American
vessels the quantity of grain passing down the Welland Canal,
from United States ports to United States ports increased from
47,000 tons in 1880 to 151,000 tons in 1886, while the carrying
of grain from lake ports of both nations to Montreal has rather
decreased than increased. This is owing to the great develop*
ment of railways in the Dominion of Canada, which seem
destined here, as at home, slowly to press water-carriage out
of existence.
The quantity of cereals arriving at Montreal via the two
great railway systems of Canada, the Grand Trunk and the
Canadian Pacific, has steadily increased during recent years as
follows :IH
D 34
The quantity passing  down the  St.  Lawrence  system   of
canals to Montreal for the same period was—
230,000 263,000 174,000 i34)Ooo 272,000
American experience also goes to prove the growing ascendancy of railways over canals. The New York canals last year
brought to that port 1,490,000 tons of cereals, while the New
York railways in the same year carried over 3,800,000. I
think a careful study of canal and railway statistics in Canada
and the United States would be profitable to the venturesome
capitalists who are taking shares in the Manchester Ship
The road from Niagara to Welland and back led us through
many fine farms, the yards and orchards of which gave evidence
of much prosperity. This is a famous fruit district, and
produces the Newtown pippin, the American apple that is such
a favourite in England.
On Saturday, September 3rd, we bid a reluctant farewell to
Niagara and its beauties, and started off to spend Sunday with
a relative who had settled on a farm near St. Thomas, in the
best agricultural district of Canada. Shortly after the train
started, which was the express from New York to Chicago, we
were amused by the conductor calling out in the car—"The
next station is Falls View—five minutes allowed to see Niagara
Falls !" And there are quite a number of Americans who are
happy and content to have seen their greatest wonder in this
hasty fashion.
It may perhaps interest some of my readers to know what is
the life of the average Canadian farmer. My relative, Mr. Emery,
has a small farm of about 70 acres of very good land. His house
is  built of wood entirely, consists of one storey, and contains NIAGARA.
a kitchen, dining-room, parlour, and five bedrooms. The farm,
with the exception of groceries, furnishes food for the family
throughout the year, the produce consisting of wheat, Indian
corn, peas, hay, vegetables, and fruit. There is abundance of
milk and cream, eggs, poultry occasionally, and the meat of
three pigs each year, in the shape of pickled pork and bacon.
During the three hot months very little meat is eaten by the
average Canadian farmer, but when the frost fairly sets in he
supplements  his  pig-meat with a sheep  and  half a bullock,
From a sketch By tlie Author,
which he hangs up in the frosty air in some place where vermin
cannot reach it, and saws off the meat as he wants it. It keeps
perfectly fresh as long as the frost lasts, which is four or five
months. He sells his surplus produce, after feeding his family
and his stock out of it, and as he has no rent to pay, his wants
are confined to clothing, groceries, and a few minor sundries.
He educates his children free. He has great opportunities for
putting out his family in the world. My relative has five sons
and two  daughters.   Two of his sons are well placed in the
D 2 36
employ of a great railway company in the Western States,
one of his daughters being a shorthand type-writer in the same
employ with a good salary. Another son went off platelaying
on the Canadian Pacific while it was being made, saved the
bulk of his wages, chose his location as he went along, and
is now farming 600 acres of his own near Calgary, in the
North-West Province. He has one daughter at home to help
her mother, and one son who manages the farm. His
youngest lad is 16, and goes to a high school at a neighbouring
town of 2,000 population, where he obtains, entirely free, an
education equal to any of our great public schools, with four
University men to teach him. He lodges in a single room, for
which he pays six shillings a month, and on Monday morning
drives over to his school, taking with him a basket of provisions
to last him till Friday evening, when he comes home for the
week end. He will probably become a school teacher for a
few years, save money, and eventually educate himself for the
medical or legal profession. The more I see of Canada, the
more convinced I am of the incalculable benefits of a system
of free education, which enables any lad of brains to work
himself up from humble circumstances to any position in the
Dominion.    I wish we had it in the old country.
I never tasted such delicious apples as were ripening in my
cousin's orchard. His farm is in the very primest part of the great
fruit-growing district that lies on both shores of Lakes Ontario
and Erie. Apples, pears, quinces, melons, chestnuts and grapes"
grow in great abundance, and as we travelled from Niagara to
London, the country-side was gilded with the rich fruit of the
farm-orchards. Splendid apples can be bought for is. 6d. per"
bushel, and many of the farmers make a special trade of apple-
packing for the English market, and have houses specially built
for the purpose.    The growth of the trade is shown by the NIAGARA.
returns of exports, which have increased from 50,000 barrels in
j.874, to nearly 300,000 last year. In England we do not know
what luscious fruit Canada can produce, as the best varieties
will not carry without decay. It is, however, proposed to
construct cold chambers on the ocean steamers by which these
short - keeping and delicate varieties may be brought to
England in perfect preservation.
On Monday, September 5th, we left our relative's hospitable
roof for London, a town of 30,000 inhabitants. An old friend
met us at the station, and drove us round before dinner.
"New" London imitates old London as closely as possible.
The streets are called Cornhill, Regent Street, Piccadilly, Bond
Street, &c, &c. Our friend lives in Westminster, on the other
side of the Thames; and there is even a Westminster Abbey,
though that, alas! in New London, is a tavern.
Westminster is under the Scott Act, and the Westminster
Abbey is, nolens volens, a temperance tavern. I was struck with
one singular result of the Scott Act. Both my friends, the
farmer and my London friend, live under the Scott Act. Neither
of them are teetotallers, yet in deference to public opinion, as
expressed by the adoption of the Act, neither of them place
intoxicating liquors before their guests, or keep them in their
houses. I hope to write at some length on the operations of
the Scott Act and the prohibitory laws of the North-West when
I have seen more of the country. .
Tuesday, September 6th, we spent at Toronto, chiefly in visiting
old friends. The town was all astir from the opening of a
provincial exhibition, to which his Excellency the Governor-
General had come. I had an interesting conversation with Lord
Lansdowne, who asked me to come and see him to discuss some
of the political questions which are coming to the front in the
Dominion.    In the evening we dined with my old acquaintance 38 A   TRIP ROUND   THE   WORLD.
Professor Goldwin Smith, who is taking the lead in the agitation
for commercial union with the States, the most burning question
of the hour in Canada.
Wednesday, September 7th.—We left Toronto at 10.30 for
Winnipeg. The train took us through a beautiful country to
Owen Sound, situated on Georgian Bay, Lake Huron. Here
we got on board the 1 Alberta," a magnificent Clyde-built steamer
of 1,800 tons burden, specially designed for the Canadian Pacific
Railway to carry the passenger-traffic between Owen Sound and
Port Arthur, their station on the north shores of Lake Superior,
She and her sister ship, the "Athabasca," steamed across the
Atlantic, were cut in two at Montreal, towed through the lakes
and the Welland Canal, and joined together again on the shores
ot Huron. It was blowing a gale of wind, and it was soon made
evident that it is quite as easy for people to be sea-sick on fresh
water as on salt. We ran up Georgian Bay under shelter of
a long peninsula, but about ten o'clock at night we felt the full
brunt of the storm blowing up Lake Huron, and were tumbled
about quite as much as if we had been on the North Atlantic,
Early in the morning the wind abated, and we breakfasted in
peace and plenty under the shelter of Manitoulin Island. Soon
we entered the St. Marie River, which flows for about 40 miles
connecting Lakes Superior and Erie. The shores are low,
and covered with forest, the changing tints of which warned
us that summer was departing. The river channel is very
crooked, but is carefully buoyed, though the passage is even
then so difficult that it is never attempted at night. By noon
we reached the Sault St. Marie, a pretty cataract rippling over a
rocky bed, falling about eighteen feet in a quarter of a mile.
This cataract is surmounted by a fine lock. We had to wait
while a big four-masted steamer, bound from Duluth on Superior
to Buffalo on Erie, and laden with 2,300 tons of wheat, was taken NIAGARA.
through. Then we entered, and in fifteen minutes were raised
to the level of Lake Superior. The lock is 515 feet long, 80
feet wide, 60 feet at the gates, 39 feet 6 inches deep, and will pass
vessels drawing 14 feet. The banks of the lock are laid out
as a pretty little park, which is the favourite resort of the
population of Sault St. Marie, many of whom "saw us
Half an hour brought us to Lake Superior, the afternoon
being bright, sunny, and calm as a mill-pond. Some wonderful
effects of mirage, distant islands and vessels being raised into
the sky just above the horizon, were watched with much interest
by all the passengers. Presently the masts of a large screw-
steamer are seen sticking up out of the water—no mirage,
unhappily, for we are told that she foundered in the gale of
last night, and that seventeen lives were lost. At ten o'clock
this evening, as we were all going to bed, a sudden storm Qf 40
thunder and heavy rain burst upon us, followed by a smart
blow and tumbling sea ; but this morning breaks fine and cold,
and  we pass  Silver Island and Thunder Cape  glistening  in
the morning sun.
From a sketch by the Author; (   41   )
On Friday, September 9th, at ten o'clock in the morning, the
good ship "Alberta" moored alongside the pier at Port Arthur,
and at two o'clock the same afternoon we joined the Pacific
express on our way westward.
Port Arthur was our first experience of the rapidity with
which quite large towns spring up like mushrooms in the
wake of the Pacific Railway. Ten years ago there was only
a landing-place and one or two shanties, the trade of the north
shore of Lake Superior being centred eight miles away at the
old trading port of Fort William, at the mouth of the Kamin'
istiquia River, which affords a good harbour, and which place
is still used by the Canadian Pacific as their chief coal depot
and distributing point for timber, rails, and other heavy supplies.
Port Arthur, however, attracts the general trade of the district,
and if a twentieth part of the hopes entertained by the sanguine
mining speculators who are exploring Thunder Bay and the
islands are realised, it will not be long before the present
agglomeration of wooden stores and houses give way to a
second Swansea and Barrow-in-Furness rolled into one. There
is undoubtedly great mineral wealth, copper, silver, manganese, and magnetic iron ore, that some day will be developed
and make Port Arthur populous and thriving. A hard-working
and enterprising population of about 4,000 souls have settled 42
here during the last four or five years, and the country round is
being rapidly taken up and farmed, Its own natural resources,
added to its position at the juncture of the railway with the head
of the St. Lawrence navigation, make the prospects of the place
unusually promising.
The scenery at the head of Lake Superior, of which we had
heard much exaggerated praise, was disappointing. Thunder
Cape is a fine range of cliffs, about 800 or.iooo feet high, but
the rest of the country is flat and dull. We did not see the1
Nepigon region, lying some distance from Port Arthur, which
is the paradise of the Canadian sportsman. We met some
fishermen returning from a month's camping out, and mistook
them for negroes recovering from a bad attack of confluent
small-pox. Their remarkable complexion, however, was due
to elaborate precautions against mosquitoes and sand-flies.
Immediately on arrival at the shores of Nepigon, each
sportsman coats himself over with a gruesome mixture of
which coal tar, raw petroleum, and peppermint are the leading
ingredients. This is renewed from time to time, and never
washed off till he departs; on getting home, he undergoes a
detergent process of many hours. This precautionary measure
is only partly successful, for if it cracks, every mosquito and
sand-fly within a mile 1 goes" for that crack,
The country between Port Arthur and Winnipeg contains
little of interest. It is poor, thin, stony soil, covered with poplar
and shabby little spruce trees, and the only point of attraction
to the traveller is the beautiful clear-flowing Kaministiquia, a
river which makes an angler's heart ache with envy as he views
from the train its almost virgin stream. At one of our lonely
stopping-places, at which the small gang of men who looked
after that section of the line were the only living souls for
twenty  miles round.  I  asked   the  station-master  if  he ever WINNIPEG.
fished the river. "Occasionally," was the reply. "What," I
asked, "would you expect to catch in an afternoon's fishing?"
The reply was, 11 could catch as many trout as J could catch
grasshoppers for bait. I suppose I could bring home 150 or
200 in a good day's fishing, weighing about 120 lbs."! The
general appearance of the stream makes this statement quite
A night in the sleeping-car of the train, made more or
less hideous by the presence of thirteen weary and unchecked
babies and small children, brought us to the capital of Manitoba,
the new and thriving City of Winnipeg. The wonderful change
in travel which the Canadian Pacific has brought about in the
North*West of the Dominion of Canada is well shown in-a
comparison between our journey from Toronto to Winnipeg
in 1887, and Lord Wolseley's journey over exactly the same
ground with his little army in 1870. He took ninety-five days
to complete a journey which we accomplished in forty-five
After settling down at the Leland House, the principal hotel
in Winnipeg, we called on our only acquaintance in the city,
Mr. R. A. Barker, a son of Mr. T. H. Barker, the well-known
secretary of the United Kingdom Alliance. Mr. Barker holds a
responsible position in the Government offices of Manitoba. He
called for us after lunch with a carriage and pair, and drove us
all round the city and its suburbs. In 1870 Winnipeg was only
a few small wooden shanties clustering round the old Hudson
Bay Company's trading port of Fort Garry, with 200 inhabitants,
rendered memorable in modern history from having been the
centre of the French half-breed rebellion under Louis Riel in
1870. In 1875 it had grown to 5,000 inhabitants, in 1879 the
railway reached it and raised its population to 8,000, in 1880 it
was 12,000, and now it is a handsome well-paved city of nearly 44
30,000 in population, which will probably reach 100,000 before
the end of the century. Winnipeg is, and must always be, the
capital and trading focus of the whole North-West, a fertile
region reaching from the Red River to the Rocky Mountains,
and from the United States frontier to the North Saskatchewan
River, a tract of over a million square miles. It is impossible to
forecast the future of the focus of such an area, but Winnipeg
land-jobbers tell me that Chicago must take a back seat in much
less than twenty years,
Winnipeg is well situated on the tongue of land formed by the
meeting of the Red River and the Assiniboine, about 90 miles
from the United States frontier, and 50 miles south of the great
Winnipeg Lake, into which the Red River runs, and whieh opens
up by water all the vast and fertile region of the Saskatchewan
River, which is 5 50 miles long and drains an area of 250,000 square
miles. The main street of Winnipeg is one of the finest in the
world. It is about two miles long, 132 feet in width, perfectly
paved with blocks of wood, with wide side-walks, and is bordered
by a long succession of fine buildings in brick, stone, and timber,
the City Hall, the Hudson Bay Company's stores, the Bank
of Montreal, the post office, and others being lofty and imposing structures of which any town in England might well be
proud. The shops are as fine as those in Regent Street in
London, and the Hudson Bay stores alone turn over about a
quarter of a million sterling every year. One of the finest
buildings in Canada is the new grocery store of Messrs. Gait,
son and nephew of Sir Alexander Gait, who trade over the whole
country of which Winnipeg is the centre. The stir, bustle,
and business activity of the people are such as one sees in an
American town like Buffalo, Cleveland, or Chicago, and the
whole place is brilliantly lighted at night by electricity.
I  took  some pains  to inquire into  the  prospects  afforded WINNIPEG.
by Manitoba and Winnipeg to intending emigrants from the
old country. We partook of the hospitality of the Lieutenant-
Governor of Manitoba, Mr. Aikens, with whom I had a long
conversation, and I also spent an evening with Mr. John Gait,
who was one of the earliest pioneers of trade in the North-
West country. Mr. Barker, to whom I have already referred,
has exceptional opportunities of knowledge, and I also got much
help from a very clever and capable young accountant, Mr. J.
W. Rigby, who has been all over Manitoba in half a dozen
different capacities, with his eyes open all the time, so that I
think my authorities are as good as I could find.
With regard to the city itself, it is at present a trading and
not a manufacturing community. There is no opening at all for
commercial men from the old country. The ground is taken up
not only in Winnipeg, but all over Manitoba, by men who have
had ripe experience in the stores of Montreal and Toronto; any
commercial man or shopkeeper coming over from England
would be doomed to certain failure. I put a hypothetical case
to a dozen of the best authorities. I asked what were the
chance's of success for a smart Englishman of five-and-thirty
who had had a 15 years' training in some good merchant's office
in Liverpool or London, and had saved £2,000 ? The replies
were all the same—Manitoba wants neither him nor his money.
All the trade of the country is plucked before it is ripe by
Canadians from Ontario and Quebec.
The ordinary clerk or book-keeper is a drug in the market;
he can only get labourers' wages. The town is full of them, sent
out by friends in England. They go by the name of 1 Remittance men," because their chief occupation is borrowing dollars
""till they get their remittance from home."
There is, however, a real demand for agricultural labourers,
who need not remain at the Emigration Depot at Winnipeg for a 46
week, and there is also a fair demand for first-class artisans. The
town is manned at present by second-rate hands from Canada and
the States, and if a good English artisan, who is really capable
and sober, comes along, he quickly displaces the inferior Canadian.
If he comes out with a few pounds in his pocket, and is a
thrifty, saving fellow, he becomes a master very quickly in Manitoba, and can go right ahead without a check. It was pleasant
to find that with every tradesman I interviewed teetotallers
are in great demand as workmen, and get an early chance of
showing what they are good for. The time to arrive in Manitoba,
for all classes of emigrants, is March or April.
I made careful inquiries among different tradespeople and
others as to the rates of wages actually being paid to-day in
Winnipeg. Carpenters in regular work get two dollars, or 8^. <\d.
a day ; cabinetmakers, 8s. /\d. a day ; upholsterers (by piecework),
I2s. to 14?.; smiths, 12s. 6d. ; foundry men (limited demand),
8s. 4d.; wood-turners, I2.y. 6d.; bakers, ioi". 6d.; tin-smiths,
loy. 6d.; labourers, 6s. in summer, 3s. to 4s. in winter§ a first-rate
printer can earn 15^. a day ; and good tailors (at piecework) can
make 15.J. to 17 s. 6d. a day.
There is also plenty of good employment for women. Hotel
servants get £4 a month with board ; domestic servants, £3
to £3 ior. a month with board, and they are rushed for the
moment they arrive in the town. Seamstresses get 3-r. to 4s.
a day with meals for plain sewing. A lady showed me a plain
stuff walking-dress for the making of which she had paid 33^.,
and an ordinary print house-dress cost her 16s. to get made;
she of course finding all materials. Telegraph and shop girls
get 4s. a day. Agricultural labourers of good quality can
get places by the year for about £50 to £60 in money and
good board. Mr. Barker told me that a Member of the
Provincial Parliament, who lives in his constituency 80 miles WINNIPEG.
from Winnipeg, is constantly writing to him to send along
agricultural labourers at these rates of pay, but that the men
are always being snapped up by farmers at intermediate
stations who waylay them on the road, and bid higher. There
is no doubt that a good steady unmarried agricultural labourer
can come out to Manitoba, save £30 or £40 a year for three
or four years, and then take up land of his own and become
a prosperous farmer on his own account.
But to all those pleasant pictures there is a reverse side.
The cost of living in Winnipeg is undoubtedly higher in almost
all respects than it is in England, largely in consequence of the
heavy protective tariff of the Dominion. The single man gets
off best in the way of food and lodging, as he can board well,
with meat three times a day if he wants it, at 16.?. a week.
The married man with a family will, however, find that he
cannot make his high wages go much further than his lower
wages in England. Free trade enables him at home to buy
everything that Manitoba produces in his own markets for
less money than he would pay in the capital of Manitoba.
Winnipeg market prices last week were: Beef and mutton,
very inferior to English, y±d. per lb. ; fresh pork, $±d. ; bacon
and ham, j-^d. ; sugar, 4±d. ; bread, 6d. for 4-lb. loaf; butter,
salt, lod.; cheese, 'jd. ; tea, 2s. 6d.; coffee, is. 8d. ; tobacco
is cheap, 4s. per lb.; a ready-made slop suit of cheap tweed
costs £4; a good cloth suit, £8 ; an overcoat, £5 ; white
calico shirts, gs. each; ready-made boots, 24s. per pair; made
to measure, 30s-.; very bad coal, 40s. per ton ; wood dear and
scarce. The fuel is a serious item in a climate with nearly
six months of winter in which the thermometer is seldom
higher than 15 or 20 degrees below zero. I went through the
fuel-bills for a four-room cottage, and they reached a total of
over £15 for the year.    House-rent  is  very exorbitant.     A 4§
a trip round the world.
four-roomed cottage cannot be got for less than £2 a month,
and a small six-roomed house fetches £3 easily. On the whole,
however, the high wage more than makes up for the extra
cost of living, and a thrifty artisan who gets steady work is,
on the whole, much better off in Winnipeg than in the old
country. He gets his children's education free, which must
also be taken into account.
The emigrant who is really wanted in Manitoba is the
clever agricultural labourer who is a single man. He can get
employment at once, and can easily save £30 or £35 a year.
In three years, having £100 of capital and a knowledge of the
country, he can take up his 160 acres of good land, and
become a yeoman farmer on his own account. I had the
curiosity to trace the success or otherwise of such men as
these when they take up land, and I will give a few specimens.
A. B. took up 160 acres in the autumn of 1881, with
£40 of capital, with which, and a little credit, he purchased
a yoke of oxen for £30, a cow for £10, a heifer £6, and
a horse. To-day he has cleared himself from debt, has 40
of 160 acres broken up for crops, and has the following
possessions :—
10 head of cattle  ......
1 horse       .        .        .        .        .
100 head of poultry .        .        .        .        .
I pair harrows, a good waggon, a plough, a
reaper, a mower, and a rake, half paid for
A. good, well-built house of hewn logs, three
stables, a barn, and a granary
And if you add to this the improved value of his land, it
is greatly understating the case to say that his £40 of capital
has grown in six years to fully £700.    I have no doubt he WINNIPEG,
could get more than that to clear out. This man never
hired any help ; he had a big family of growing lads, and
his eldest, 22 years of age, has just taken up his own 160
acres. His arable land crops 25 bushels of wheat, 50 bushels
of oats, and 45 of barley to the acre, on average years.
C. D. bought some good land in 1883 for £150, paying
half cash, and getting credit for the rest. He broke up 20
acres in 1883, and 40 more in 1884, in which year he cropped
35  bushels  of wheat to each of his 60 acres.    His position
to-day is as follows (capital to begin, £75):—
Debt paid off
11 head of cattle   .
Good log house
Mower, rake, and reaper
Set of binders
Yoke of oxen
Team of horses     .        .     m
Waggons     .
Value of land
So  that  his  capital has been increased, in four years, fully
ten-fold. 5°
E. F. took up land in 1877, the usual 160 acres. He
started with £320 of capital. His position to-day is—houses,;
implements, waggons, stock, &c, £550; value of land in open
market, £600; total, £1,150.
G. H. took up land in 1881, with a capital of £160, just
20s. for each acre. First year he broke 30 acres, and cropped
34-i- bushels per acre the year following. He has now 140
acres under plough, and gets an average of about 2,200 bushels-
a year off 100 acres of wheat, and about 1,200 bushels of
oats off 40 acres. He owns 21 head of cattle, three span
of mules, 29 hogs, poultry, a complete set of good implements,
an excellent house, a large granary and stable, and 100 tons
of hay stacked. This stock and plant is Worth £920, and
for the whole farm, land, and stock, he could get £1,500 at
I. J. began with £100 in  1879, and is now worth £900.
K. L. started in 1878 with £160, and is now worth £750,
and I should not e aggerate if I said that more than half
the farmers in Manitoba can tell similar stories.
The bulk of these prosperous men are the sons of Ontario
and Quebec farmers, but there are hundreds of them who
have come out from the old country, A man must be a
farmer to succeed. The broken-down tradesmen who are
helped out by friends, the young scapegraces who are shipped
by their relatives with a draft for £100 on a Winnipeg bank,
are doomed to certain failure, and even an English or Scottish
farmer is the better of a year or two of service with
an older settler before taking up land for himself, if only
to help him the better to choose his location.' "Glenbeigh"
and I Bodyke" tenants, if they were generously helped out
to this magnificent country, and lent £100 per family to.
stock their  160 acres of granted  land, would  thrive  and  do. WINNIPEG.
well. If the British Government, instead of embarking on
the doubtful policy of Irish Land Purchase, would spend
20 millions in settling gradually in Manitoba 200,000 families
of Irish tenant farmers from the congested districts, there
would be no difficulty in getting back the money in easy
instalments from the prosperous yeomen they would thus create,
and by easing the undue competition for farms in Ireland, they
would bring the landlords to fair rents, by the simple laws of
supply and demand. But as long as Ireland is the shuttlecock
of political party, while Irish agitators hold the battledore,
common sense, has but a poor chance,
E 2 52
THE country between Winnipeg and Calgary traverses the
great Canadian prairie for over 1,000 miles, and we did not
leave the train between the two points. The Canadian Pacific
Railway run restaurant cars with each train, and provide a
capital breakfast, lunch, and dinner, for a uniform charge of
3^. each. Of course the Pullman sleeping-car is also part
of the train, and by these two conveniences the fatigue of
the long journey is greatly reduced.
The first part of the journey follows the course of the
Assiniboine River, a pretty undulating country, covered with
fields of stubble, with great stacks of wheat in the centre
waiting for the threshing machine. The homesteads are the
usual Canadian frame-house, built of sawn planks nailed to
a strong wooden frame. They are as ugly as it is possible
to make them. The first important station is Portage la
Prairie, the market town of the richest district of Manitoba,
and the junction of the railway, a considerable portion of
which is opened for traffic, which is to bring down the
produce of the great Saskatchewan district. This is a busy
place, with paper-mills, biscuit-factory, and flour-mills, and
enjoys a considerable grain trade. Another 80 miles of rich
wheat lands brought us to Brandon, a flourishing market
town of 4,000 inhabitants, with   extensive  grain   elevators or  IfffW CALGARY AND  THE RANCHING  COUNTRY.
warehouses at the station. We ran all afternoon through a.
district very thinly settled, and it was dark before we reached
Indian Head, where the famous Bell Farm is situated, the train
running through it. If there had been any hotel accommodation within reach I would have stayed over to see this farm,
one of the most interesting agricultural experiments on the
Continent of America, but I was obliged to pass it by. The
Bell Farm is the property of a limited company, managed for
the shareholders by Major W. R. Bell. Its area is about 64,000
acres, or about 100 square miles, and is the largest arable farm
in the world. Of course it is not yet all under cultivation. The
farm was started in 1882, and was acquired by the company
under a special Act of Parliament. The land is the famous
black soil of the prairie, and is well watered by streams.
The contract with the Dominion Government was a purchase at 56
$s.   per  acre, the  company  undertaking  to   bring   the   land
under cultivation  at the rate of 5,000   acres  a  year for the
first five years.    The scheme of the company is first to bring
the land under cultivation by the use of the best machinery
and then divide it into 250 farms, each provided with house
and buildings, to be sold to the men in  their  employ at  a
valuation price, payable by instalments over a term of years.
No steam plough is used.    There are 200 horses employed
on the farm, and they would stand idle for want of work in!
ploughing time if steam were used.    The ploughman sits on
his plough, and can generally turn 20 miles of furrows in a
day's work.    The furrows  are often two miles long.    Forty-
five ploughs are on the ground each day till the work is finished.
£90,000 of capital has been sunk in the farm, and employment
is given to about 200 men.    If the ploughing had to be done
with a single  team  it would have  to  travel   140,000 miles,
nearly six times round the world.   The value of the   10,000
acres  now under  cultivation  is  about  £4 per   acre,  and   is
increasing rapidly every year.    The produce is, on an average,
about 20 bushels per acre.    The great wheat belt of Manitoba
of which this is a portion, is about 500 miles long and 250 miles
wide,  and  is  capable of  producing  sixteen  hundred  million
bushels of wheat, if it were all under good cultivation.    The
more I see of this wonderful stretch of land, with soil often
200 or 300 feet deep, the more I wonder why a wealthy country
like   England   endures   the   misery   of  the   congested   Irish
counties, when a few millions would remove and settle their
starving populations in the midst of plenty and content, with"
the certainty of the repayment of every farthing expended.
We passed Regina, the capital of the province of Assinaboia,
at midnight. This is the head-quarters of the Indian service,
and of the North-West mounted police, a magnificent body CALGARY AND  THE RANCHING COUNTRY.
of men, i,ooo strong, whose business it is to keep the Indians
in order, and to enforce the rigorous prohibitory liquor law
which exists in the North-West territories. These officers
board the trains, searching passengers and luggage at will,
to guard against the importation of strong liquors. The
morning of September 13th found us out on the boundless
prairie, travelling through a desolate and entirely unsettled
country. For over 200 miles no sign of human life was visible,
except that every 10 miles or so a cottage was placed at a railroad siding, in which lived the three or four men whose duty
it is to patrol the line daily. The prairie appeared very
fertile, covered with an abundance of grass. The only life
visible was an occasional flock of ducks or wild geese on the
small lakes, now and then a large species of hawk, and the
universal "gopher," a comical little burrowing animal, which
is found all over the North-West. At noon we reached Maple
Creek, a post of the mounted police, and a station for a large
ranching district some 15 miles to the southward. Near this
place there is a reserve of the Black Feet Indians, and the
noble savages crowded round the platform offering polished
buffalo horns for sale. The days of wampum and buffalo
robes have passed aw^y, and these braves were attired in
remarkable costumes of bright coloured blankets, cut into
home-made jackets and trousers by the squaw. One of them
had wide peg-top breeches and loose jacket of white blanket,
covered with huge circles of red, blue, and green about the
size of a cheese-plate, the whole surmounted with a veritable
clown's white jelly-bag hat; as his face was picked out with
a devious vermilion pattern on a rich ground of yellow ochre,
he felt justified in maintaining a dignified and superior
demeanour, leaving dirty trade to his squaw, who was 30
years of age, and looked about 300. 58
At Dunmore a narrow-gauge railway runs 109 miles across
the prairie to Lethbridge, where an English company, under the
management of one of the many clever sons of Sir Alexander
Gait, are working a valuable coal mine capable of producing
2,000 tons a day if a market were available. At Langevin, a
single house station, the man who was located there as line
inspector sunk an artesian well for water, but found it undrink-
able. A chance light explained the cause, for he had struck a
well of natural gas. I went into his cottage, and saw a large
stove lighted and heated by this gas, without any other fuel,
brought up from the well by a pipe. He can warm his whole
• house to 70 degrees with this gas alone when the temperature is
down to 35 or 40 below zero. Perhaps some day a valuable
deposit of mineral oil will be discovered at Langevin.
At one o'clock on Wednesday morning, the 14th September,
we alighted at Calgary, well content to be at last at the end of
our 37 hours'  confinement in  the  railway train.    Calgary is
a thriving infant of two years old.    It is  a place  of much
vigour and bustle, with a population of nearly 2,060,    Building
is going on everywhere, and, with three or four exceptions,
everything is of wood.    The  place looks exactly like a great
international   exhibition a week  or  two   before the opening
day.    It is laid out or " graded," as they say here, in the usual
ambitious fashion, in wide streets, covering an area of about two
miles each way.    The bulk of these noble streets are at present
prairie, but a brisk trade goes on in "town lots," which seems
the favourite form of gambling in these new western  towns.
Last year Calgary was incorporated, and a Mayor and Council
elected.    There was, however, some informality in the election,
and the town proceeded to elect a fresh lot.    The first Corporation, however, declined to resign, and both of them proceeded to
govern  the town.    After a good deal of ill-feeling the matter CALGARY AND  THE RANCHING COUNTRY.
was settled by litigation, and "now there is one." Calgary is
beautifully situated at the junction of the Bow and Elbow Rivers,
fine dear streams of pure water, fresh and cool from the Rocky
Mountains, whose snow-clad outlines were visible on the horizon
60 miles away.
Calgary is the capital of the magnificent grazing country
which lies along the foot hills of the Rocky Mountains, between
the South Saskatchewan River and Montana. This is probably
the finest ranching country on the Continent. For some years
the Dominion Government admitted cattle free of duty into this
From a sketch by the Author.
district from the States; but the rush of cattle from Montana
and Oregon, whose ranchers threw up their holdings to secure
this superior grazing, was so great that last year an import duty
of 20 per cent, was levied, and is still maintained. The area of
this fine grazing country is about four million acres, well
watered throughout by streams from the Rocky Mountains. I
drove over three or four of the smaller ranches lying round
Calgary, and also had the pleasure of a long interview with 6o
Mr. Stimson, the largest rancher in Canada, who has taken up
100,000 acres about 50 miles south of Calgary, on the foot hills.
This gentleman settled on his present holding in 1881. He
pays the Dominion Government one halfpenny per acre rent;
he has the option of buying 5,000 acres at 5s. per acre, and got
his usual 160 acres free for homestead purposes. At that time
he was ranching in Idaho, and he drove his head of 3,600 cattle
and 200 horses over the frontier to his new tract in Canada. In
five years he has increased his stock to 9,000 head of cattle, 1,000
calves, 500 horses, and 150 colts. This is natural increment
only, as he has not only bought nothing, but during the five
years he has sold 1,500 beasts and 100 horses, the sale of which
has enabled him to pay working expenses and invest £1,200 in
plant and building. He employs ten men, eight cowboys, a
man for the horses', and a cook. A smart cowboy can earn £10
a month and his board, so that if he doesn't care to spend his
money, he can save £100 a year, and soon become a rancher on
his own account. Two of Mr. Stimson's cowboys are worth
£800 and £1,200 respectively, well invested in cattle, which run
with Mr. Stimson's herd. Presently they will have enough to
form a small herd of their own, when they will wish him goodbye and start for themselves. Mr. Stimson told me that three
years ago he took a smart young English lad of 18 on a
month's trial. He was the son of an officer in the army, well
educated, and a strong lithe fellow, who could ride well. At
the end of the trial he engaged him permanently. The lad
saved a year's pay, took up a homestead of 160 acres, took
cattle on shares, he looking after them, his partner finding the
money, and in three years he has made £1,000 out of nothing
but a good seat in the saddle, a clear head, and a strong
constitution. Any young fellow with these three qualifications,
who can stand a rough life in a country where he cannot get a CALGARY AND   THE RANCHING COUNTRY,
drop of strong drink (except on the sly in a town 50 miles away
from his work) can easily become a rich man in 10 or 20 years.
But he must serve his apprenticeship as a cowboy first, for
ranching, like every other trade, must be learnt.
While at Calgary we drove out with Mr. Springett, one of the
Indian agents, to visit the reserves of the Sarcee Indians, a
fighting tribe which, under the lead of their chief, Bull's
Head, at one time gave a good deal of trouble to the Govern-
ment, but are now peaceable enough under the generous
treatment they receive on their reserves. Each Canadian
Indian who settles on a reserve is paid five dollars a year per
head of his family, including the papoose of a week old. For
each person in his family he gets daily one pound of beef and
half a pound of flour, with a good allowance of tobacco and
tea. For his protection against the Indian's curse—strong drink
—the sale and manufacture of drink is prohibited throughout 62
the whole North-West territory, and any person, white or
brown, found with liquor in his possession without a special
permit from the Governor, is fined heavily, and may be severely
imprisoned as well. The week before I reached Calgary a raid
had been made on some illicit dealers in whisky, and fines
amounting to £260 inflicted. The interpreter who accompanied
my daughter and myself in our visit to the "wigwams" or
I topees," as their tents are called, translated for me the high-
sounding names by which the braves of the Sarcees are called.
I will quote a few:—Big Crow, Big Bear, Big Knife, Prairie
Head, Badger, Bear's Cap, Going to War, Fire Long Ago, Eagle
Rib, Flint, Holy, Dog Skin, Hit First, Hit Twice, Lazy Boy,
Little Calf, Many Horses, Lodge.Pole, Many Swans, Old Man
Spotted, Starlight, Splashing Water, Stops Outside the Lodge,
Heavy Behind ! Walking in the Water, Weazel Head, Went to
Slaughter, Wolf Carrier, White Knife, Rolling Hills, &c.
Bull's Head, the monarch of the Sarcees, has a Civil list of
ten dollars a head per annum for himself and family, and two
pounds of beef and one of flour daily, with tobacco and tea.
In the middle of the camp was a comfortable two-storied
house, surrounded by a few good fields and a garden, the residence of Major de Bellenhard, the Government agent, whose
excellent wife teaches the Indian children the three R's in a
smart little school-house. The Indians live in tents- in the
summer, and small one-roomed log huts in the winter. They
were busy getting these huts ready for occupation. Their tents,
were about 12 feet in diameter at the base, and the whole,
family ate, slept, and cooked their rations inside it. They sleep
on the floor, rolled up in blankets. The squaws are hideous and
over-worked. They catch and harness the pony, cut the wood,
dig the potato patch, smack the children, cook the food, and do
everything but spend the Government grant, which .is all the- CALGARY AND   THE RANCHING COUNTRY.
work a brave will condescend to do, except smoke his pipe and
shoot an occasional duck. The Cree and Sarcee Indian has
no religion. He has a few superstitions, but the missionary can
make nothing of him.
The Indian's vices are drunkenness and gambling. The
mounted police make the first practically impossible. The
second still prevails, and an Indian will gamble away everything he possesses, to the shirt off his back and his next issue of
rations.   Those who know most about them  despair of ever
bringing them into harmony with Anglo-Saxon civilization, and
say the reserve system must go on indefinitely.
The great feature of Calgary society is the overwhelming
predominance of the male sex. Hardly a woman is to be seen
in the streets. The men have not yet had time to think about
matrimony ; that will follow in a year or two, when the many
adventurers, settle down to whatever they are fit for. Neither
did I see any old men. The whole population appeared to be
under thirty years of age, and almost entirely English. The
hotel at which we stayed was full to overflowing, many sleeping 64
two in a bed, and all young men; my daughter was the only
lady in the house. If the Leland Hotel had possessed a liquor
bar it would have been impossible for decent, quiet people to
stay there, and a similar town to Calgary across the frontier, in
:   "*-t     ■--^.S>'"'* "■    ■    *'..■""
Idaho, Montana, or Dakota, would have been one long avenue
of liquor saloons and low dancing and music halls. The same
class of population frequent Calgary—cowboys, farmers, idlers
waiting their chance, swarm everywhere—yet the town is as
quiet as an English country village. The popular amusement is
the Salvation Army, conducted by a captain and three comely
young women, who were treated everywhere with marked respect.
We went to their meeting in the evening. They marched
round the town in their usual fashion, passing through crowds of
cowboys and similar young fellows, without encountering a jeer
or a coarse word.    When they entered their barracks all the
men in the place swarmed in after them, to the tune of 500 or
600, took their seats quietly, joined heartily in the choruses of
the hymns, which they seemed to know by heart, and evidently
enjoyed themselves thoroughly. The Salvation Army young
ladies were cordially welcomed with clapping of hands. The
meetings seemed' to have been successful, for there were arranged
in a row on the platform a dozen young fellows of the cowboy
pattern, who had been converted at previous meetings, and who
F 66
gave their experience in simple, and sometimes very touching
sentences. One of them was received by the whole audience
with several rounds of warm applause, and cries of | Bravo,
Ted!" I was informed that Ted was the champion rowdy of
Calgary, and the population were evidently much pleased that
"he had got religion, and was going right ahead into better
ways," as my next neighbour said to me.
Ted made a rattling speech, in which he appealed very
pointedly to some old pals in the hall to come up to the penitent
form, and was launching out into somewhat minute details of his
past life, when the captain put both hands on his shoulders,
wheeled him round into his seat, and told him his was "an
experience that had better be taken in sections, and they would
have some more to-morrow night." I conversed with several of
the audience coming out, and they all spoke in the warmest-
terms of the officers of the army in Calgary, and it would
evidently fare ill with any cowboy or idler who ventured to say
a rude word to any of the hallelujah lasses. My evening at the
Calgary barracks strengthened the high opinion I hold with
regard to the Salvation Army. I think nothing has impressed
me on my journey so much as the moral tone and great respectability of this crude population, composed almost entirely of
young men whose occupation is rough, who had many of them
come in to the town after months of hard life on the prairie, and
who might naturally unbend for a little fun. If liquor were sold,
Calgary would be the rowdiest place in the Dominion. Prohibition makes it one of the quietest, most respectable, and law-
abiding places, with the Salvation Army barracks as its most
' popular place of entertainment. Of course the existence of a
small amount of secret drinking raises in some quarters a cry for
a license law ; but I am quite sure that if a license law were
passed for the North-West territory it would  become a dead CALGARY AND  THE RANCHING COUNTRY.
letter from the universal adoption of the prohibitory clauses of
the Scott Act.
Calgary has a fine volunteer fire brigade, and needs it, for a
fire to windward in a gale would lay it in ashes in about an
hour. There is no gas in the town, and the streets are pitch-
dark at night, but in a week or two the electric light will change
all that. It is a curious sign of the entire newness of the line of
country opened up by the Canadian Pacific Railway that there
are many towns in which gas never has been and never will be
known, and where the first illumlnant used in the public streets
has been electricity.
Calgary will be a big town very soon, the centre of that great
cattle, horse, and sheep trade that is rapidly taking up all the
suitable land in the district. There are now about 120,000 head
of cattle and 12,000 horses breeding upon the ranches, and there
is every reason to believe that this number will be more than
doubled during the next eight or ten years.
I left Calgary with regret, for I should have liked to stay on
and see more of the striking characteristics of a region that will
eventually become one of the wealthiest and most prosperous
provinces of the Dominion of Canada.
I would like to note that every soul in Calgary is Free Trader
to the backbone, for duty, sea and land freight, and the profits
thereon, make the cost of everything sold in the stores fully
double that of English stores.
F 2 63
At one o'clock in the morning, on the 16th of September, we
got on board the Western train at Calgary Station bound for
Banff. The train soon reaches the Gap, the gateway of the
Rocky Mountains, through which the Bow River flows on its
1,500 miles journey to Hudson's Bay. As we were to reach
Banff in less than four hours, we did not get much sleep, but
were on the look out for the dawn to see all we could of the
magnificent scenery we were entering. We had just light
enough to see the weird rocks at Canmore, before we were
turned out at Banff Station in the grey of the morning.
We drove at once some three miles to Dr. Brett's Sanitarium,
the only accommodation at present available in the great
natural park of Canada. The Canadian Pacific Railway are
building a gigantic hotel which will accommodate 300 guests,
but it will not be open till next year. We sat down to an
early breakfast, and then set to work to see as much as
possible of the beautiful, and in many respects unique scenery
by which we were surrounded.
Dr. Brett took us up to the top of the house that we might
take in the general prospect. We saw stretching out before us a
broad, flat valley, about two miles wide, filled with primeval
forest. The sombre green of pine and spruce contrasted with the
brilliant yellow of the fading poplar and the vermilion of dying m
maple leaf; while the Bow River—the loveliest on earth—winds
through the whole in a bright blue ribbon. Right in front
towers the snow-capped Cascade Mountain, so called from a
small stream which leaps 1,000 feet from its flanks. On the
left the  Castle  Mountain  range—a magnificent panorama of
eternal snow, reminding me somewhat of the Jungfrau group as
seen from Lauterbrunnen; on the right the Devil's Head
group, with the singular rock towering above the whole mass,
justifying by its remarkable outline the Indian name of which
this is the translation, while behind are the pine-clad Sulphur 72
Mountains, and a terrific row of lofty crags known as " The
Twins." The whole forms a panorama of mountains from
10,000 to 11,000. feet high, which for beauty and grandeur can
only be equalled by the Cortina dolomites in the Austrian
Dr. Brett's Sanitarium is intended mainly for the reception of
those invalids who require the treatment which the hot sulphur
spring furnishes, and we took our first walk to see the caves
from which these healing fountains issue.    The two principal
(From a sketch by the Author.')
springs, which are now being utilised, flow from the central
spur of Sulphur Mountain, 800 feet above the level of the Bow
River. The main spring issues at the rate of a million and a
half gallons daily, and has a temperature of 115 degrees. At a
short distance another spring is found, of a heat about 85
degrees, which is used for a plunge-bath. On the other flank
of the mountain is a cave, with a narrow entrance up which
a wooden ladder leads into a spacious chamber, lighted by
a hole in the stalactite roof. In this chamber is a large pool
about 30 feet wide and  from 3 to 6 feet deep, in which hot •\ ,   v'^-feZ  THE CANADIAN NATIONAL PARK.
springs bubble which fill the cave with steam, and make the
atmosphere almost unbearable with the sulphur fumes which are
thrown off. Persons suffering from rheumatism bathe in this
cave, and some wonderful cures have been performed. A
crutch hangs on the wall with this dubious label on it, | Owner
has gone home! "
I do not pretend to know anything about the curative properties of these springs, but as the leading medical men of the
United States and Canada seem all agreed about recommending
them for various diseases, it is probable that Banff will become a
place of great resort for invalids troubled with rheumatism and
affections of the skin and blood. There is a nice plunge-bath
in the open air near the bath-house, in which the water stands
at about 85 degrees, and in which I had a pleasant swim.
Without the springs, the bracing and pure air and the delightful
scenery will always be sufficient to attract thousands of visitors
every year.
Just below the sanitarium is a new iron bridge, almost completed, which is to take the place of the bridge of boats which
is now the only means of communication between the hotel and
springs and the railway station. On a bit of cleared forest at
one end of the bridge, a handsome, aristocratic Englishman
lives in a small tent, looking after half-a-dozen canoes belonging
to one of the small inns, He is reputed to be the Honourable
Somebody Something, and looks the part well enough. The Twin
Peaks, the great feature of Banff, are best seen from this bridge.
The Bow River presents a most attractive appearance to the
angler, but does not, in experience, come up to his expectations.
There are trout, and large ones too, but they are hard to catch,
and have an aggravating way of inspecting your fly, which they
follow to the bank, and then refuse with slow scorn.' I tried
every fly in my book, from a " Dusty miller " to a black gnat, 76
but could catch nothing at all. A youth who came along
informed me that "it was no use trying with them things,
guv'nor—you try a bit of beef liver !" Later on in the day I met
an angler who had come down to "beef," and he caught one
small and pallid trout. On rare occasions they take fly in the
spring and early summer, but they have a bad character for
capriciousness generally. I heard of wonderful fish being caught in
the Devil's Head Lake, a piece of water about 10 miles from Banff.
I saw a man who had been there and had caught JJ trout, weighing
220 lbs., in a single day, trolling with a couple of hand-lines and
spoon-bait, and one trout weighing 43 lbs. was caught there last
year with a piece of beef. The place was too distant for me to
reach, as it is uphill, and the only path an old Indian trail, but
an active young Englishman rode over during our visit and did
his best, but never saw a fish of any kind. The following day
we explored one of the small streams tributary to the Bow, with
a view to learning how to manage an Indian birch-bark canoe.
These canoes are so light that a boy can lift them out of the
water and carry them on his back. The paddler sits or kneels
in the stern and propels the canoe with a broad, single-bladed
paddle, steering with a sort of back stroke that takes a good deal
of learning. However, I managed to canoe my daughter up
two or three miles of a swift running brook, and across a very
beautiful lake from which it flowed called the Vermilion Lake.
Probably no white man had ever seen that lake till two or three
years ago, and it was a most perfect bit of wild and untouched
nature. The day before, we had vainly endeavoured to reach
this lake by land, but the forest was so dense with fallen trees
piled one over the other that it was quite impassable. I cannot
find words adequately to describe the unique charms of the
primitive and unspoiled scenery. The lake was as smooth as
glass, its banks were a wild tangle of brushwood, poplar and ■?  THE  CANADIAN NATIONAL PARK.
maple, a perfect blaze of autumn red and gold, out of which
sprang tall and sombre cedars and pine trees. Behind these
were the snow-clad mountains, the whole perfectly repeated on
the surface of the water.
We spent a quiet and pleasant Sunday at Banff. This rising
watering-place cannot yet boast a place of worship, though a
wooden Wesleyan chapel is nearly finished, and a site has been
selected on which to build an Episcopal church. Service is
held in the Town Hall, a humble edifice of logs and shingles.
The only regular service is on Sunday evening, conducted by
Mr. Williams, the Wesleyan minister, an energetic young Welshman, who for many years had been doing a fine pioneer work
amongst these new western villages and towns. His service is
largely attended by the workpeople engaged in building the new
hotel, by whom he is greatly esteemed. He also holds a morning
service at Anthracite, a colony of coal miners, about eight miles
from Banff. The Episcopalians hold a morning service when
they can catch a clergyman, and this Sunday they caught a real
live bishop, the Bishop of Saskatchewan, who is a good father to.
his own children, whatever he may be to his scattered diocese,
as any one could tell who saw him feeding his baby most
tenderly with spoon-meat at breakfast in the hotel. He was
accompanied by the archdeacon, a jolly young Irish-Canadian,
who occupied a front seat at the Wesleyan service in the evening,
a not unusual occurrence in Canada, where the absence of a
State Church leads the Episcopalian clergy into more cordial
intercourse with their brethren of other denominations than
seems possible in the old country.
The whole of the Banff valley and adjacent mountains, to the
extent of 100,000 acres, have been set apart by the Dominion
Government as a national park for ever. They have voted
various sums of money, in all about £16,000, for the making of 8o
roads and footpaths through the dense forests to various points
of attraction, and will continue to vote further sums until the
work is satisfactorily completed. I had two conversations with
Mr. G. A Stewart, the National Park Ranger, who explained to
me all that he intends doing, and the work could not be in better
or wiser hands; He will let nature alone as much as possible ;
he will strictly preserve all the wild beasts and birds, carefully
regulate the fisheries, and content himself with making good
roads and pathways through and through the Reserve to all
{From a sketch by the Author?)
points of interest. He will also endeavour to acclimatise forest
trees not indigenous to the soil. No land speculator can smirch
the beauty of the place, as no land will be sold, only leased under
strict terms and for specific purposes. When Mr. Stewart has
completed his labours, the Canadian National Park will be one
of the most attractive holiday resorts on the globe.
The park will be 24 miles long and 9 wide. Within its
area will be found 15 miles of the Bow River (of which 9 are
deep water, capable of navigation by a small steamer), 6 miles wi
of the Spray River, a clear. crystal
mountain stream with a fall of
100 feet within the limits of the park,
flowing through a forest which just now is
one blaze of orange, vermilion, and gold. The
Ghost River and the Cascade River, the Forty Mile Creek,
and half a dozen other brooks, combine altogether a great
wealth of the finest river scenery, in infinite variety. The
area of the park also contains the Devil's Lake, 12 miles long
and 2 wide, and the Vermilion Lakes. The water of these
fine sheets is deep and clear, and mountain ranges on each
side rising thousands of feet above their surface, present
scenery  of the   greatest beauty.     The Vermilion  Lakes are
Q 2
Mm 84
linked together by short streams navigable by light canoes,
and are the resort of a great variety of wild fowl.
The junction of the Bow and Spray River is extremely
beautiful. The Bow falls over a leap of rock about 70 feet high,
in a succession of cascades, into a fine pool about 200 feet across,
into which the Spray rushes. The Tunnel Mountain breaks just
over this pool into a frowning precipice 700 or 800 feet high,
the broken base of which is covered with a wealth of maple,
poplar, and undergrowth, the autumn colour of which beggars
all description.
Large game as well as fish are becoming very scarce in the
neighbourhood of the National Park. It has long been a
favourite hunting ground of the Indians resident in a large
surrounding area. Skin hunters, Indian fishers, who net the
streams, and lately have added other resources of civilisation in
the shape of dynamite, have made sad havoc. Mr. Stewart fully
realises the importance of preserving the animals and fish, which
add so many wild attractions to the scenic beauty of the
National Park. Among the four-footed game still to be met
with in its area is the Wapiti deer, or blue elk, admirably adapted
by form and habit to the park-like woodlands which fringe the
small prairies and cover the green slopes of the surrounding
mountains, while the gullies which extend far up the mountain
sides afford ample shelter during the winter. The lesser deer
are more numerous, and are often to be seen in the glades.
Among these are the black-tail, the white-tail or jumping deer,
the red deer, and the prong-horn antelope. In the mountain
tops are bands of big-horns, a huge wild sheep familiar by name
to all boys who love Mayne Reid and Fennimore Cooper, as well
as goats with long silky hair, much hunted by Indians for their
handsome skins.
There are three kinds of bears—grizzly, cinnamon, and black.
The grizzly is almost extinct except in remote and unexplored parts of the Rocky Mountains; and the cinnamon
and black bear are vegetarian feeders, harmless unless wantonly
attacked. There are many other beautiful animals pursued by
Indian and other hunters for their fur, such as beavers, otter,
musk, fishers, muskrats, martens, badgers, marmots, squirrels, and
such-like, as well as many varieties of plumage and song birds.
All these Mr. Stewart proposes strictly to preserve and encourage, while at the same time he will endeavour to exterminate all those animals which prey upon others, such as
wolves, coyotes, foxes, lynxes, skunks, wild cats, catamounts,
panthers, and porcupines, together with such birds of prey
as feed upon fish.
Feathered game consists chiefly of migratory or water-fowl.
Wild swans, geese, and ducks breed freely in the lakes, swamps,
and woodland streams, the Bow River being one of the great
migration waters from the valley of the Columbia River. Besides
these, herons, bitterns, gulls, grebes, pelicans, cormorants, landrails, coots, partridge, blue grouse, ptarmigan, sage-cock, and
prairie fowl all nest and hatch in spring and summer time, an
added charm to the wanderer who loves nature in all its forms.
These also will be strictly preserved.
The fish in the various streams comprise white fish, which
takes no bait or fly, having a small mouth and living on
suction—a fine fish for the pan, however; several varieties of
trout, one of which, sahno irideus, I had never seen before I
caught one with a small phantom minnow—it is so called
from its brilliant rainbow-like tints when first caught; grayling,
which take the fly well, mountain herring, a bright silvery
little fish, very like the Welsh " gwyniad j; gold eyes, a sort
of carp cat-fish, small chub, and suckers. The trout spawn
in April and May, but get into good condition in September. 88
I had  a breakfast of the salmo irideus, which was excellent
eating, with firm white flesh.
Mr. Stewart wisely intends to confine all fishing to fair rod
and line only, solely for sport and private use, and to increase
the stock, now sadly worn down by the improvident destructive-
ness of Indian fishing, by artificial hatching and rearing. He will
also' plant the lakes and marshes with wild rice, which is very
attractive to wild fowl of every kind, both for food and shelter.
Mr. Stewart also proposes, by damming up some portions of
the many streams 'which run through the park to fill up a chain
of old marshes, and turn them into lakes. I rather protested
against this interference with nature, for I found a special
beauty in these marshes such as I had never seen before.
But he explained that his chief object was not so much to
create lakes as to act as a fire-break from the many cort-
flagrations which rage through the Rocky Mountains during
the summer, and which might at any time sweep through the
National Park. There was some dread of this during the
late very dry summer, when forest fires have been frequent
and extensive. I have myself seen areas of 15 or 20 square
miles of burnt forest, with every vestige of green life burnt
up, and only the thicker trees standing up, the gaunt charred
ghosts of their former grandeur.
Mr. Stewart also talks of importing pheasants and quails
from Vancouver Island, where they were introduced some
years ago, and have thriven.
It is proposed to give the Indians who have hitherto hunted,
trapped, and fished over the area of the National Park some
compensation in the shape of increased rations or other
allowance, and then absolutely prohibit them from further
operations of the kind. It is thought that with an efficient staff
of police at Banff to maintain order, enforce regulations, and
J '-«l,?*»«,»«"r
uphold the special measures necessary, composed of forest rangers
qualified by mountain experience and familiarity with the haunts
and habits of the wild animals of the country, of which force
selected Indians would form a part, there would be no difficulty
in gaining the ^objects in view, and in securing the strictest
protection for the game and fish still inhabiting the park.
The Government have been urged to establish at Banff a
museum of Natural history and an aquarium, so that the
efforts of Mr. Stewart may be made of service to science,
and no doubt this recommendation will be carried out.
^W     A
Such then are, briefly, the particulars of one of the most
interesting experiments of modern. times, and I venture to
predict that in a few years, when it has been thus cared for
and opened out by roads and pathways, there will be few
more delightful holiday resorts in the world than the National
Park of the Dominion of Canada.
The magnificent hotel which is being built by the Canadian
Pacific Railway will furnish that foreground to the marvellous landscape which always won the special admiration of
Dr. Johnson. L-'Xiiuji^iiiiijiMiiPi.iiniiijiiii injiiwjpwiji j ' hi Hiwi ip i pwijij mil  i iii  irnniTfjjrnftTiiii n i mi.huii ii<riir'T
THE selkirks.
On Monday, September 19th, we were
roused from our beds at 4 o'clock A.M.,
as the westward bound daily train passed
through Banff at five o'clock. At the
station we met with the only instance of neglect of duty on the
perfectly-ordered Canadian Pacific Railway. The station-master
did not condescend to leave his warm bed to see the train off,
and we had to carry our luggage ourselves from the omnibus
to the luggage car, and let them go on unchecked to Field,
our next stopping place. It was a cold, sleety morning, and
the magnificent  scenery  through which we passed  was  not THE SELKIRKS.
seen  to  the  best  advantage,  as  the tops  of the  mountains
were   enveloped   in   snow clouds.     At   seven  we   passed   a
station called Silver City. Three or four years ago there
was a I boom" in silver mines in the Rocky Mountains ; a
good deal of exploration went on, and a considerable wooden 94 A   TRIP ROUND  THE   WORLD.
village was built.    But there was no " silver," and  now there
is no "city."    Its  glory has  departed,  and  only  the  empty
and deserted log-houses remain to tell of its butterfly existence.
Shortly   after,  Mount   Lefroy,   a   commanding   snowy   peak
11,658  feet above  sea-level, comes  into  view, and  presently
the birthplace of the noble Bow River is discerned in a small
p-lacier wedged in between Mount Hector and Goat Mountain,
both over 10,000 feet.    Then the highest point of the railway
is   reached,   5,300   feet above the  sea,  at the   summit lake,
marshy and  shallow, from which  trickles  a  stream at each
end,  one of which travels  2,000  miles to the Atlantic, and
the other 1,500 to the Pacific Ocean.    We now bid good-bye
to   the   beautiful   Bow   River,   which   has   been   our   genial
companion for so many pleasant days, and under the shadow
of  Mount  Stephen,  the  monarch  of  the  Rocky Mountains,
■ said  to be over 12,000 feet, and  named  after  the president
of the  Canadian  Pacific  Railway, we  enter  Kicking  Horse
Pass.   This pass received its ridiculous name from an incident
connected  with some obstreperous horse ridden   by one   of
the surveyors of the line, which will stick to it for ever.    A
magnificent view meets the gaze.    A huge valley, filled from
side to side with magnificent  pines  and  cedars,  their dark
green intensified by the red-brown of huge areas burnt up
by forest fires, in which the enormous trunks  stand  up like
black masts 200 feet high, and 10 or 12 feet thick, is flanked
by peak and  pinnacle, the Kicking Horse  River meandering
through the bottom like a silver ribbon.    The train, with two
powerful  engines  reversed,  and  every brake screwed   to  its
tightest, slides down a gradient of 1,250 feet in less than 10
miles.    The road is cut out of the sides of great cliffs, hundreds
of feet above  the  roaring torrent, and  every now and  then
we  crawl  over  a  trestle bridge  two or three hundred   feet ■M. $; J if
I  post in the heart of the Rocky Mountains, where the Canadian
Pacific Railway Company have built a comfortable little hotel,
H 98
at which we decide to stay for 24 hours. It was a great comfort to know, as we came down this terrible descent, that we
were travelling on rails made from good honest Cumberland
Haematite. I have noted, with interest, but without surprise,
that the word " Barrow " always appeared on the rails which the
Canadian Pacific Railway have laid down in dangerous places,
or where there is specially heavy wear and tear.
We found the hotel at Field one of the most comfortable
and well-ordered hotels in Canada, and the manager at once
claimed acquaintance with me as having "voted for me when
I stood for Liverpool."    Our party, consisting of four officers
from the Fleet at Esquimault, Mr. F. W. Gibbs, Q.C., a most
delightful and charming travelling companion, a young friend
of his, my daughter, and myself, very nearly filled the little
hostelry,   which   we   had   to   ourselves.     After   an   excellent
breakfast, the materials for which were brought from Calgary,
130 miles away, the  nearest town where  a  shop exists, we
sallied forth to view the magnificent scenery.     The landlord
informed  us  that he   had   the   day before   set   a   snare   for
mountain goats, and invited us to go up the mountain for a
mile or so, to see if any had been caught.    All went except
my daughter and myself, and we started off for a walk down
the   line,  the   railway  being actually the  only path  of any
kind  for 30  miles each way through the dense forest which
everywhere  clothes the  mountain  sides, and which  is  practically impassable.    About a mile from the station the valley
narrowed  to  a very small   space,  with   the   Kicking   Horse
River  running   quietly between   two   gravelly   banks.     Here
we saw a very fine bear on the other side of the river, coming
in and  out of the woods, seemingly hunting for something
on the gravel beds.   Just at that moment three or four men
from Field, line inspectors, came  up  on  a hand  trolly, and   THE\ SELKIRKS.
we called their attention to the bear. They at once turned
back to the Field Station, begging us to follow down the
line keeping Mr. Bear in sight, as he showed himself every
now and then out of the wood, while they fetched a miner
who owned a Winchester rifle, and who was a crack shot.
In about half-an-hour he arrived. We had seen the bear
frequently, and pointed out the spot where we had last noticed
him. The owner of the rifle at once plunged up to the
middle in the icy river, waded across, and entered the wood
stealthily. In a few minutes the bear trotted out on the
gravel, much perturbed in his mind. Presently he seemed
reassured, and began to grub in the ground with his nose.
Then the hunter crept out of the bushes till he was well
within range. Taking aim, he gave a shrill whistle ; the
startled bear threw up his head, and in a moment he was
shot through the heart, and all was over. The others then
rushed through the river, dragged him back through the
water, and presently he was laid on the trolly in triumph.
He was a fine " silver-tip" bear, about as big as a large calf,
with very formidable teeth and claws. I have his skin, which
I shall get dressed into a hearthrug when I reach Victoria.
On Tuesday morning, the 20th, we again took train, and
journeyed as far as "Glacier House," another comfortable
little hotel erected by the Canadian Pacific Railway at the
foot of the great glacier which comes down from the eternal
snowfields of Mount Sir Donald, the highest peak of the
Selkirk Range, about 11,000 feet above the sea, named
after one of the directors and first promoters of the railway,
Sir Donald Smith. We reached it at noon, and after lunch
started off to explore the glacier, to the foot of which a trail
has been cleared. It is a fine and imposing glacier, half-a-
mile   wide,   and   seven   or   eight   miles   long,   but   bearing fffif
no comparison whatever with such vast ice fields as the
Gorner or Aletsch glaciers in Switzerland. It was covered
with fresh snow, and looked very beautiful in the bright
sunlight. Mount Sir Donald has never yet been climbed,
and there is a legend at the hotel that the first man to
reach the summit will receive a thousand dollars and a
free pass over the line for his life, from the directors of the
Canadian Pacific Railway. In the opinion of my friend
Mr. Gibbs, Q.C., who is a member of the Alpine Club, the
thousand dollars may be pocketed by the first smart Alpine
Clubbist who comes along, and certainly to my comparatively
inexperienced eye it did not seem impossible to an active
Cumberland shepherd.   It is however a superb mountain.
The scenery of the Selkirk Range is finer in.all respects
than the Rocky Mountains, which are devoid of glaciers, and
also of any extent of snow fields. From the railway platform
at Glacier House there is a view which rivals any of the
notable Swiss cycloramas, and I counted at least a dozen
fine peaks, all of which appeared to be at least 10,000 feet
high, and whose flanks bore miles of snow fields and many
picturesque, though comparatively small glaciers. The Hermit
Range, so named from its fancied resemblance to a Monk
of St. Bernard followed by his dog, is as fine a group of
snow mountains as the world can furnish.
Next morning we walked up the line to see the great snow
sheds, and some of the trestle bridges which span the cataracts
rushing down the sides of these magnificent mountains. One
of these bridges is 176 feet high and 600 feet long, and
another crossing the Canyon of Stoney Creek is 296 feet
high and 450 feet long. These structures are truss bridges
supported upon great timber towers, built up from the bottom
of the valley far below, and Stoney Creek Bridge is the highest   with very strong roofs of two courses, one of logs and another of
planks, strongly backed with heavy stone work. These sheds
are placed along the line wherever the devastated track of a
"snow slide" or avalanche appears on the mountain side.     It Ill
is impossible to describe adequately the tremendous power of
these Selkirk avalanches. Enormous volumes of snow gather
during the winter in some hollow high up the mountain
side, and in spring rush down with a force which nothing
can resist into the valley below. Everything is swept before
them—trees of the largest size, boulders, soil, brushwood, are
torn up and tumbled into a confused mass at the bottom of
the valley. The wind caused by the avalanche is almost as
resistless as the slide itself, and the trees on each side of its
track for a wide area are broken into matchwood. These slides
have been a great difficulty and danger to the line, and have
caused stoppage of the traffic for weeks at a time, besides much
loss of life. But now the trains run through the snow sheds, and
their powerful roofs, inclined to the angle of the slide, enables
the snow and debris to shoot harmlessly over. There are still
some 3,000 men at work along the line at these various snow
sheds, some of which are over half a mile long, and their many
canvas encampments form picturesque incidents in the scenery
through which the line passes. The Canadian Pacific Railway
Company engage to feed and lodge them for four dollars a
week, and right well these fellows live, with three good meat
meals a day, and the finest air in the world for sauce.
During the morning we walked back up the line to Rogers Pass,
the highest point reached by the railway in crossing the Selkirk
Range. Here is a collection of wooden shanties, used as liquor-
saloons, music and dancing-houses, and places of worse resort
still, to which the more loose-living of these workmen resort. I
found, however, that the bulk of them were steady, sober men,
intent on saving their surplus wages, and on the look-out for
favourable chances in this new country. There was a good deal
of snow at Rogers Pass., which is a narrow gorge closely hemmed
in by lofty snow-clad mountains. Q
Leaving Glacier House on Wednesday, 21st, we found
attached to the train one of the handsome private travelling
carriages which are used by directors and officials on the long-
lines which cross the American Continent, and which are
travelling homes of both comfort and luxury. Shortly after
starting, a coloured servant brought me a card bearing the name
of Mr. Baker, the General Superintendent of the Manitoba and
North-Western Railway, a line which opens up a fine agricultural district north of the Canadian Pacific Railway. Mr. Baker
wished my daughter and me to ride through the beautiful scenery
of the Selkirk range in his carriage, which, being at the tail of
the train, commanded a clear view, and he also asked us to dine
with him afterwards. He first showed us over his car, in which
he lives all the year round for nine days out of fourteen
travelling up and down his line. It was a carriage somewhat
longer than a North-Western first-class coach. It was divided
into a dining-room, large drawing-room, kitchen, pantry, and two
comfortable bedrooms, all handsomely furnished, with a small
platform or terrace at each end, on one of which was kept the
stores in ice-lined boxes, and the other was a sort of balcony on
which to sit and view the passing scenery. An admirable dinner
was served, consisting of soup, oysters, roast beef, two vegetables,
pudding, and dessert, with a cup of excellent coffee. Mr. Baker
was taking a holiday with some English friends. The car was
shunted at any station along the line which they wished to visit,
and the party were enjoying excellent opportunities for sport on
the many lakes along the prairie, the resorts of a great variety of
wild-fowl, as well as being able to see the whole scenery of the
Rockies and the Selkirks by daylight, by hooking on to freight
and ballast trains. We left them behind about ten o'clock, p.m.
on an arm of the great Shuswap Lake, where they had good
duck shooting next day, while Mr. Baker killed six trout over no
2 lbs. each. Soon after quitting Glacier House Station, the
railway descends 600 feet in two miles of actual distance. This
is done by utilizing two ravines which meet at right angles,
and is a triumph of engineering skill. The line runs along one
side of the first gorge for about a mile, then crosses a high
bridge, and comes back along the other side close to where
it started, but on a much lower level; thence it runs into the
second ravine, crosses it high up
its course, coming back down the
opposite side 120 feet below its entrance, yet only 130 feet
further down the pass; then it doubles upon itself in the main
valley, crosses the river, and presently recrosses. From the top
of these loops one can view six almost parallel lines of railway,
each at a lower level than the others, and the whole largely
composed of trestle bridges and elaborate timber cribbing.
It is a wonderful sight to stand at the top and watch a train
twist in and out of this succession of loops like  some hissing
snake.    The whole forms a remarkable feat of engineering skill.
Morning found us in the
Gold Range, running down
the valley of the Thompson
River, a tributary of the
great Fraser River, into which
it flowed at Lytton, a colony
of gold miners. The Gold
Range is not so lofty as
either the Selkirks or the
Rockies. There are no
glaciers at all, but many of
the peaks are snow-capped,
and the sides of the mountains have a much greater
variety of timber, giving a
richness and depth of colour
which is more beautiful than
the dark greens of the loftier
ranges. As we descend the
slopes, and get into the valley
of the great Fraser River, we
reach the better settled parts
of British Columbia, and the
landscape is brightened by
farmsteads, Indian villages,
and Chinese camps, engaged
in the three leading industries
of   the   country — farming,
salmon preserving, and mining.    Every now and then a group
of Indians would be seen, ingeniously hanging dried salmon on
trees in such fashion that bears or other climbing animals cannot
reach them. This is the country of big trees and endless forest,
which must eventually become the main timber supply of the
whole American Continent, as the vast and increasing population'
of the States consumes its own limited and rapidly decreasing
lumber districts. All through British Columbia the summer
is warm and rainless, and its forests are scourged by continual
fires, mainly the result of careless Indians and other dwellers in
tents. We saw many of these forest fires, for which, when near
the line, probably sparks from Canadian Pacific Railway
engines are mainly responsible. In, ordinary pine woods they
rage through the brushwood and undergrowth, the big trees
escaping with a scorching, which does not seem greatly to
injure them, except in appearance. But wherever there are
big cedars the flames burn merrily, and everything is destroyed.
The trunks of these trees become hollow and decayed, and
when they are reached by the fire they draw like a factory
chimney, and the trunk falling, with its 200 feet long in blaze,
gives the fire a fresh start. It is surprising with what speed
this genial climate fills up the blackened spaces with fresh
vegetation, and ten or twelve years replaces the fallen giants
with thriving children which an English park might feel very
proud to raise in thirty years of growth.
Sometimes these fires are disagreeably hot to the passengers
on board the train, as they rush through them at the rate of
25 miles an hour. On one occasion a whole train, except one
carriage, was entirely destroyed. The engine driver was
running through as usual, when he ran quietly off the rails
into the middle of the track. The heat of the fire had expanded the rails and warped them. The passengers were
all got out easily enough, as it is possible to walk from one
end of an American train to the other, and -no one was seriously THE SELKIRKS.
injured except the conductor, who was badly burned in trying
to get out the mails. They managed to get away the end car,
a Pullman sleeping car, but the rest of the train added itself
to the ashes of the forest fire.
It is, however, after all but a small percentage of these
vast forests which fall under this scourge, and every station
affords proof, by the quantity of logs, dressed timber, and
firewood waiting despatch, that the new railway is laying
the foundation for one of the biggest lumber trades in the
Up the valley of the Fraser, and afterwards up the
Thompson, runs the only waggon road in British Columbia, from
New Westminster to Cariboo, the centre of the gold-mining
district, round which there are also several flourishing settlements of farmers. This road was made by the Government
of British Columbia at very great cost, and the lower portion
of it is now superseded, so far as through traffic is concerned,
by the Canadian Pacific Railway. The traffic on this road is
carried on by waggons drawn by teams of oxen, ten or twelve
yoked together, and it is also used by Indians moving their
camps from point to point after salmon and game of various
The Fraser River is the' chief watercourse of British
Columbia, rising in the far north of the .Rocky Mountains, and
is navigable for about 120 miles from the sea. The railway
follows it for 250 miles, giving an infinite variety of beautiful
scenery. Now it flows through some deep and rocky ravine,
foaming and tumbling in a series of rapids and falls, then
flowing in rippling stream and placid pool, forming sand
bars which are being washed over for gold by the industrious
heathen Chinee, and other "placer" miners, and presently
broadening into a noble river, navigable by steamboats, dotted
1 2 ii6
by Indian canoes salmon fishing, and bordered by variegated
timber ablaze with autumn gold and copper, with every now
and then a comfortable homestead farm and herds of fine
cattle. At New Westminster, 15 miles from the mouth, it
widens into a stream two miles across, from whence it distributes
its wealth in ocean ships and steamers all over the world. I saw
a vessel leave New Westminster for London with 2,200 tons- of
tinned salmon on board.
We got out on the morning of the 22nd, at the little roadside
station of Agassiz, that we might spend 24 hours on Harrison
Lake, a sheet of water 50 miles long, in the heart of the' best
district of British Columbia. We drove in a waggon some six
miles over the very worst road I ever saw in my life, to a new
hotel which has just been built on the edge of the lake, the
only house upon its beautiful shores, but which we found very
comfortable and scrupulously clean. The lake is surrounded
by two ranges of mountains, the first densely wooded to the THE SELKIRKS.
summit, the second bare and snowcapped. The scenery js
about half way between Windermere and Como, With the
exception of the rough track from the station, there is not a
footpath which does not end 100 yards from the hotel in dense
impenetrable forest. We spent the day on the lake, exploring
its beauties, and occasionally trying for a big trout, but only
catching one very small one of remarkable beauty.
The next day we went on to Vancouver, the Pacific terminus
of the  Canadian  Pacific Railway, and brought to a close a
(From a sketch by the Author?)
railway journey of over 3,000 miles, which, whether for human
interest or natural beauty, far exceeds any previous journey
of my life.
Vancouver is the youngest town in Canada. It was
commenced less than three years ago, when it was a forest
of Douglas pines, cedars, and spruce, of enormous size. I
measured one stump which had been sawn off about 6 feet
from the ground, and it was 11 feet 8 inches across. In June
last year, after it had reached a respectable infancy, Vancouver H8
was completely burnt down, not a house escaping, so that the
present " city," as the Vancouverites insist on calling it, is just
fifteen months' old. It is of course still a wooden town, but
several fine brick and stone buildings are already erected, and
many are rapidly reaching completion. The Canadian Pacific
Railway Hotel is a handsome building, almost ready for
opening, which will accommodate some 200 guests. Extensive
wharves and warehouses line the shore, and ocean-going
steamers of 3,000 or 4,000 tons can load and discharge there.
The main street is full of handsome shops, and there is a busy,
hardworking population of 4,000 souls, mostly men. Vancouver will be a town of 20,000 or 30,000 population before
it is ten years old. 4£33^|ltart
On Saturday, the 25th, we left Vancouver in the steamer
I Yosemite " for Victoria, the capital of British Columbia, where
we were to spend a fortnight previous to sailing for Japan. I have
long been anxious to see this colony, so remote and inaccessible
until it has been brought near by the Canadian Pacific Railway.
Five years ago the only direct communication between British
Columbia and the mother-country was by sea round the Horn,
a voyage of six or seven months for the smart barques which
have so long carried on the trade, and which show no signs of
being displaced by the railway. Now the two countries are
within 14 or 15 days of each other, and the ease with which
emigrants can reach this land of infinite capacity and resources
will quickly develop it into one of the most important portions
of our Colonial Empire. I propose to give a brief account of the
impressions I have formed of British Columbia, based upon
careful investigations made during the three weeks I have
travelled over it—investigations in which I have had the guidance 120
and help of the Lieut.-Governor, Mayor Fell, Senator Macdonald,
and many other old colonists.
The sail from Vancouver to Victoria gives one a very good
idea of the general characteristics of the country, which has been
compared to a sea of mountains and valleys. These valleys as
they approach the sea become long inlets often ioo miles in
length, which large ocean-going steamers can navigate to the
very top, while at the same time the long chain of islands of
which Vancouver, 300 miles long, is the chief, lying between
these inlets and the Pacific, render their smooth waters equally
navigable to the Indian's birch canoe and the unwieldy stern-
wheel trading steamer. There is no country in the world whose
area is so wonderfully opened up by water carriage as British
Columbia. These bays, inlets, and rivers swarm with fish of
excellent quality, valuable for food and oil. I priced the stock
of a fishmonger in the leading street of Victoria. He was
selling fresh salmon at 2d. per lb.; cod, 2-^d.; halibut, 4d.;
fine plaice, $\d.; fresh sardines, a delicious dish, \d.; herrings,
i\d.; smelts, 4J.; whiting, ^\d.; trout, 4d.—all per lb. Fine
crabs, $s. per dozen. I suppose the fisheries of British
Columbia must be practically inexhaustible. Although salmon
is the great staple food of the people, they exported in 1885
7,324,000 lbs. of canned salmon. This means a catch of about
two millions of salmon at 7 lbs. each, which appears almost
incredible ; yet the take this year is larger than ever, and is
virtually confined to the Fraser River and its tributaries.
; There are three separate runs of salmon every year. They
run for fresh water in the spawning season, ascending as far
inland as possible, after the manner of salmon at home. Those
entering the Fraser River work their way to a point 800 miles
from salt water. The main seat of the salmon fishing is New
Westminster, and for miles above the town the river swarms BRITISH COLUMBIA.
with boats, manned chiefly by Indians, who scoop the fish out of
the water with nets like the ordinary landing net, but much
larger. There are other canneries on Burrard's Inlet, Aleet Bay,
Skeena River, and others north of the Fraser, altogether thirty
in number, affording employment in one way and another to
5,000 or 6,000 hands. A fresh development of the salmon
fishery has sprung up in the last two years, in the shipment of
fresh salmon to the markets of Winnipeg, Toronto, Montreal and
Chicago, packed in refrigerator cars, that will become an important feature of this trade. There seems to me to be no limit to
the expansion of an industry that can send such wholesome and 122
nutritious food to be sold retail in England and the Continent
at 4d. per lb., for there is certainly no limit to the supply. In
some rivers the run is so great that the fish literally shoulder
one another out of the water, and die by thousands on the banks.
Within three miles of Victoria this sometimes happens in a
small creek leading out of the harbour, and the fish are used by
farmers for manure. It is a curious fact for anglers that the
Pacific salmon takes no bait or fly in fresh water, but may betaken readily in salt water. My daughter caught a fine, silvery
fish last week in Esquimalt Harbour with a spoon-bait, though
the run is not on at present. When it is, the officers of the
fleet tell me they turn out with rod and line, and consider a
dozen fish, from 7 to 20 lbs., a very ordinary catch for each
After salmon, the most important fishing is that of the-
oolachan, or candle fish as it is called, because it is so oily that
when dried it will burn like a candle, and is so used by the
Indians. The oolachan is about the size of a sardine. They are
a delicious fish when fresh, salted, or smoked. The oil of this
fish is considered far superior to cod-liver, or indeed any other
fish oil. The oolachans begin running in March, chiefly on the
Nass River, and great numbers of Indians assemble on its banks
to wait for them. They are caught in purse nets, and often a
canoe load is the result of a single haul. They are then boiled
in iron tanks for several hours, and the oil is squeezed out
through willow baskets in cedar boxes. When cold it is like
thin lard, and is used by the Indians, as Mr. Keiller says of his
marmalade, "as an excellent substitute for butter." Like the
salmon, the supply of this useful fish is practically inexhaustible.
Herrings are very plentiful. They are smaller than those of
our seas, but are quite equal in quality. The Indians catch
these with a primitive weapon, like a large hay rake, with nails h-
driven through as teeth. They paddle their canoe into a shoal
of herrings, and, sweeping this rake through the water, bring
up half a dozen or so each time, and soon fill the boat with
Halibut, cod, haddock, sturgeon, large flounders, crabs, prawns,
cockles, and mussels are abundant everywhere along the coast,
and in every bay and inlet. The native oysters are not larger
than cockles, but very delicious, and in such profusion as to
make it certain that cultivation would produce as many of
the finest varieties of Atlantic oysters as could be marketed.
Experiments in that direction have been commenced.
As usual, where fish of the herring and oolachan sort is plentiful, the seas swarm with every kind of dog-fish, and a large
factory, employing hundreds of Indians, is engaged in extracting
oil from dog-fish livers. Some 400,000 fish are caught yearly,
yielding 40,000 gallons of oil, the finest lubricant in the world.
The seal fishing is also an important industry, checked for the
present by the arbitrary seizure, by the American Navy in the
Behring Straits, of several sealers hailing from Victoria—a matter
which will form a considerable portion of the work of the International Court of Arbitration, of which Mr. Chamberlain has
recently been appointed a member, to the great satisfaction of
all Canadians. About 15 schooners and steamers are engaged
in this trade, employing 400 or 500 sailors and hunters. The
annual catch is about 13,000.
It is supposed by those qualified to judge that in the deeper
waters of the Pacific there are banks where cod will be taken
in quantities equal to those found on the great bank of
I have given very much thought to questions relating to
fisheries during the last few years, and nothing has impressed
me more deeply in considering the natural wealth of British II tti
Columbia than the limitless profusion of the fish supply. The
time cannot be far distant when, with the new and speedy way
to market opened up by the Canadian Pacific Railway, such a
profitable field for the use of capital will be much more largely
One of the largest markets for tinned fish and other provisions
of a like nature is our Australian and New Zealand Colonies.
At present large quantities of salmon come to London round
the Horn, and are transhipped to Australia by the Suez Canal,
going round the world to a market in the same ocean as that in
which the fish are caught. It will not be long, I expect, before
some enterprising firm from Lowestoft, Yarmouth, or Aberdeen,
will have a branch establishment at Victoria, and will send
every description of canned and dried fish to the many markets
of the Pacific, north and south.
Salmon forms at present the largest item of export from
British Columbia, being about 900,000 dollars. Next on the
list comes coal, which reaches some 800,000 dollars, mostly to
the United States and the Sandwich Islands. Coal has been
found all over British Columbia, but is only worked seriously at
Nanaimo, on Vancouver Island, where large quantities of good
quality are being raised. This is an excellent steam coal, used
by H.M. ships of war stationed at Esquimault, and by the line
of steamers plying between Vancouver and China. There are
five mines employing about 2,000 miners, whose earnings are 8s.
to 12s. per day. Close to these mines, on the neighbouring
island of Texada, are large deposits of magnetic iron ore,.
assaying 68 per cent, of metallic iron, with a very low percentage
of phosphorus. This ore is being profitably shipped to ironworks in Washington Territory, in the States, where it is mixed
with brown hematite. It cannot be long before this juxtaposition of coal and iron will result in the creation of iron and steel BRITISH COLUMBIA
works, which ought to
command a share of the
Pacific markets, especially if Chinese labour
can be made available.
The third item in the
list of exports is gold,
which amounts to
700,000 dollars, and is all
exported to the States.
This is produced by
placer mining only, the
primitive hand-washing
of the gravel and sand
of the river beds, but
capital is now being introduced, and quartz-
crushing on a large scale
will soon greatly increase
the production of gold,
as well as give regular
employment to a large
number of miners. Apart
from gold, coal, and iron,
no minerals are worked
to any extent in British
Columbia, but the geological survey now being
conducted by the Dominion Government reveals the. presence of
large  deposits of silver. 126
copper, lead, platinum, and other metals, which are fast attracting the notice of prospecters from the States and Canada.
Timber is the fourth on the list of exports, about 500,000 dollars,
and furs fifth with 250,000, closing the list of important items. I
think it will not be long before timber heads the list. Already the
markets of Australia, Chili, Peru, China, the United States, and
Great Britain have discovered that in British Columbia they can
get a class of timber which no other country can supply. Red,
yellow, and white cedars, pine, hemlock, spruce, larch, fir, and
oak, grow to a size such as no other country in the world can
rival. The Douglas fir, a wood in great favour with railroad
Constructors for bridge work, is the prevailing timber of the
country, its height is usually 150 to 200 feet, and from 10 to 20
feet in circumference. I have seen countless trees far larger
even than this, and they have been known to reach over 300
feet in height, and 35 in circumference. It will stand a breaking
strain of 630 lbs. to the square inch, and is more tough and
tenacious than oak, which breaks at 550 lbs. The trees run up
80 to 100 feet without a branch, thus giving an unusual proportion of clear lumber, and I have seen masts ready for shipment over 100 feet long and 42 inches in diameter. The great
peculiar value of this timber is that it never warps, and can be
used fresh from the saw. In building Vancouver after the fire,
trees were felled and the planks sawn up and nailed to the '
buildings the same day.
No one can estimate the enormous extent of timber in this
province. It covers the whole area of the country, which is
greater than that of France and the British Isles combined. I
have travelled, by rail and horse, over 700 miles through the
province, and, except when there have been exceptionally severe
forest fires, the timber is uniformly large and abundant. The
lumber countries of the United  States  are becoming rapidly BRITISH COLUMBIA.
exhausted, and in twenty or thirty years the trade between
British Columbia and the Western States will become very
considerable, while the Australian, Chinese, and Japanese
markets for large timber of all sorts will become the property
of this colony much sooner than that. Every saw-mill in
the country is working to its full capacity, and new mills are
being projected. It is undoubtedly the most profitable industry on the Pacific coast of America.
The soil of British Columbia is prolific, as might be expected from the constant deposit of vegetable matter from
ages of successive forests, but it seems to me that agriculture
must in the main follow the lumberer, as the cost of clearing
the ground of these enormous trees is almost prohibitory
unless they can be marketed at once. The land once cleared,
however, is of splendid quality, able to produce every fruit,
cereal, or vegetable known to the temperate zone. But there
are in many parts of the province large valleys and deltas,
the bush of which is maple, willow, or poplar of small growth,
which can "be cleared with ease. Chinamen undertake to
clear such land for about £7 or £8 per acre. The surrounding
forests furnish excellent pasture for stock, and I have seen
fine herds both of oxen and sheep feeding in the densest
forest. This week I have driven over loo miles through
Vancouver Island along arable tracts lying between sea and
mountain, from two to five miles wide, on which are settled
hundreds of prosperous farmers, and where there is room for
hundreds more. Some capital, however, is necessary for the
settler on Vancouver Island, as the free lands are almost all
taken up by speculators, and have to be purchased. But on
the mainland there are thousands upon thousands of acres of
excellent arable land still unclaimed, in districts where already
there are some of the largest and most productive farms in 128
the province ; and on the southern boundary there is a large
area covered with the nutritious bunch grass, which, left uncut,
becomes excellent hay, until it is renewed in the spring,
giving the finest grazing for cattle all the year round. I feel
sure that for the farmer with some capital British Columbia,
from its climatic resemblance to Devonshire and the south
coast of England, is a much better settlement than the severe
climate of Manitoba. Manitoba, however, gives better chances
to the agriculturist who has to make his way without capital,
or with only a very little.
The climate of British Columbia is as .nearly perfect as
possible. ' It is free from excessive heat in summer and
extreme cold in winter, and is healthful and invigorating all
the year round. Snow seldom falls, and never lies more than
a few days. For a period of three years, on Vancouver Island,
the lowest temperature has been eight degrees above zero,
and the highest 84 degrees. The mercury has never been
known to fall below zero. There is nothing on the Atlantic
in the same latitudes that furnishes so excellent a climate
as this. The climatic influence which produces it is the great
current of warm water which flows in the Pacific Ocean, known
as the Japan current, spreading its genial atmosphere from
Alaska to Mexico. From this current an almost constant
wind blows landward, current and wind combined enabling
the Japan and China steamers to make some two days' better
time coming east than going west. With all this warmth
there is plenty of moisture, the rainfall in Vancouver being
25 inches, and on the mainland 40 to 60 inches. Taken as
a whole, British Columbia is one of the most delightful countries
in the world, and were I compelled by circumstances to seek
a fresh home away from the old country, it would have
attractions that would be irresistible to me. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Victoria, the capital of British Columbia, lies on the extreme
south of Vancouver Island. It first became a place of any note
in 1858, when thousands of miners swarmed into British Columbia
after the discovery of gold on Fraser River. The whole trade
of the province till lately was entirely dependent on water
carriage, as its market centres in Victoria. There is a population
of 12,000, a large proportion of which is Chinese and Indian.
The harbour is landlocked and capacious, lined with fine wharves
presenting a busy scene. The buildings are fully equal to those
found in American and Canadian cities of equal importance, and
(From a sketch by the Author.)
at night the streets are lighted by electric lamps placed on lofty
masts, 200 feet high, giving the appearance of fifteen or twenty
moons ; the effect is very striking, and the lighting perfect.
There is great rivalry between Victoria and its mushroom
opponent Vancouver, but I am inclined to think the old capital
will retain the general domestic trade of the province, while
much of the export business will drift to Vancouver. Probably
the old and wealthy firms of Victoria will open branch offices
in Vancouver, and thus keep both home and export trade in their
own hands.    It will be entirely their own fault if they allow
r 130
upstart Vancouver to shoulder them out. Very large vessels
cannot lie alongside the wharves of Victoria, the harbour only
taking ships drawing less than eighteen feet; but two miles off is
Esquimault, one of the finest harbours in the world, being the
station for our Pacific squadron. This is a land-locked harbour
three miles long by one to two miles wide, with an average depth
of forty-five feet, and excellent anchorage, the bottom being a
tenacious blue clay. Here the Canadian Government, helped by
a subsidy from the Imperial Government, have built a fine dry
dock, which will accommodate vessels of the largest size. It is
450 feet long, 26 feet deep, and 90 feet wide at the entrance. It
s a fine piece of work, concrete faced with stone. Here also
is a naval hospital, arsenal and stores, with a small repairing
Victoria is not so cheap a place to live in as many other
Canadian towns. House rent is dear, a four-roomed working
man's house being from 40s. to $os. a month. Clothing is very
expensive, and so is furniture. The long carriage and costly
freight from England is a heavy addition to those import duties
which make imported goods so dear in a colony where food
ought to be cheaper than anywhere else in the world. The
following are the prices at which food can be purchased on the
retail market in Victoria:—Butter, fresh, $s. per lb.; salt, is. 6d.
to 2s. ; cheese, is. to is. $d.; eggs, || 6d. per dozen; flour,
2\d. per lb.; oatmeal, %d.; split peas, 6d. Vegetables, all
grown by Chinese labour: potatoes, is. for 14 lbs. ; onions, 2d.
per lb.; carrots, \d. per lb.; cauliflowers, 6d. to gd. each. Ham
and bacon, gd. per lb.; beef, 6d. to yd.; mutton, 6d.; pork, 5^.
I have already given the price of fish, which is the cheapest
food in the market. Sugar is yd. per lb.; oranges, 4s. per
dozen; dried currants, 8d. per lb. ; cooking raisins, is.; figs,
is. 8d.; tea, 3-y.; coffee, is. 8d.    Good board for single men, 24s: BRITISH COLUMBIA.
a week. Wages, however, are higher than anywhere else I know
of, though work is irregular in the winter months. Carpenters,
blacksmiths, painters, and tinsmiths get easily 12s. to 14?
per day; stonemasons and bricklayers, 16s. to 20s. per day;
plasterers, 18s. ; common labourers, 6s. to ys.; fishermen, skilled
hands, £10 to £12 per month, with food. The labour market
is unsteady—sometimes plenty of work at the highest rates,
and then general slackness. But a steady man who means to
settle soon gets permanent employ at good wages. Chinamen
can be got for $s. per day, and do nearly the whole domestic
services of the towns. Cooking, laundry, gardening, and
housemaid's work, is all done admirably and thoroughly by
the Chinese, against whom there is a great deal of unjust
prejudice, because they are the only cheap labour to be got
A decenter, quieter, or more respectable class of people it
would be difficult to find ; and I am quite sure the Canadian
Pacific Railway would never have been made at all but for
Chinese labour. Many of these Chinamen come from Hong
Kong, and are as much our fellow-subjects as the British
Columbians themselves, and ought to possess equal rights of
citizenship. Yet every one of her Majesty's subjects who
happens to have been born under the British flag at Hong
Kong, has to pay £10 import duty on his own body before he
is allowed to land in British Columbia.
K 2 132
No intelligent and unbiassed traveller can spend any time in
the Dominion of Canada without being forcibly impressed with
the sobriety of its population as a whole. I suppose it is a fair
assumption that more than half the people of Canada, without
being total abstainers, habitually drink nothing stronger than
tea or coffee, while the number of abstainers are proportionately
larger than perhaps any other Christian nation. The evidences
of this state of things are abundant. I have been six weeks in
Canada, the whole of which have been spent in hotels-—good,
bad, and indifferent—in towns like Montreal and Toronto, in
country villages, and western mushroom towns. I have never
seen a Canadian take intoxicating liquors with his meals. If
anyone is drinking wine or beer it is sure to be an Englishman.
It is the same in almost every private house. A minister of
religion who is not an abstainer hardly exists in all Canada.
The medical profession do their utmost to maintain habits of
abstinence from strong drink, and members of the Dominion
and Provincial Parliaments take the warmest interest in all
laws dealing with the liquor trade.
The active temperance movement is healthy and vigorous.
The organisations are much the same as those existing in
England.   Temperance meetings are usually held in connection THE TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT IN CANADA.
with church or chapel, and a Band of Hope is attached to
every Sunday school.
A strong movement is on foot just now to provide temperance
teaching in public schools. The Legislatures of Nova Scotia
and New Brunswick have already made provision for the use
of a temperance lesson book in public schools, and similar
instruction is also given in many districts of Ontario.
The Women's Christian Temperance Union is extending its
operations in all the provinces of the Dominion, and is one of
the most vigorous societies in Canada. The school movement
just referred to is the result of their continual and persistent
The United Methodist Church, at a recent conference, passed
a resolution in favour of introducing temperance text books
into schools, urged the Methodist people to do their utmost for
the adoption of the Scott Prohibitory Act, and recommended
Methodist electors to support only those candidates who were
in favour of prohibition. The closing words of their resolution
run: " We strongly recommend all to vote as they pray; then
"they can pray as they vote. It is a contradiction that
"should at once and for ever end, that a Christian man will
"pray in one day that God will remove the liquor traffic from
"our midst, and the next hour vote to perpetuate it."
The Church of England, especially in Ontario, is very active
in the temperance reformation, and has formed parochial and
diocesan societies almost everywhere.
The Presbyterian Synod, at its meeting last year, by formal
resolution earnestly recommended to office bearers and church
members the practice of total abstinence, and also warmly
urged the universal adoption of the Scott Act.
Indeed, similar resolutions have been passed at the annual
conferences of every religious denomination in Canada, some 134
of them even going so far as to pass resolutions excluding
fermented wine from the Communion Table; in fact, throughout the whole of Canada I find a deep and rapidly growing
conviction amongst all classes who influence society that the
use of intoxicating liquors is morally wrong, and that it is
a grave political error to permit their common sale.
The strongest of all expressions of public opinion in countries
enjoying a free representative Constitution is to be found in
the Acts of Parliament placed on the Statute Book by the
elected representatives of the people, and a study of the
temperance legislation of Canada brings out very strikingly
the rapid development of public sentiment with regard to the
liquor trade.
Long before the Confederation of Canada some of the
provinces had declared by legislation that a mere licensing
system had failed to prevent the liquor trade from becoming
a fruitful source of crime, social degradation and misery, and
had taken steps, more or less severe, to add the additional
check of a popular veto. In Nova Scotia it was enacted
that before a licence could be granted the consenting signatures
of two-thirds of the surrounding ratepayers must be secured.
In many of the counties of this province no licences have
been granted for 10, 15, or 20 years, and in the case of
Yarmouth County for 40 years. As long ago as 1855 New
Brunswick enacted a prohibitory law, but it was in advance
of solid public opinion, and was repealed, a very stringent
licence law taking its place.
In Ontario and Quebec an Act was passed in 1864 giving
power to municipalities to refuse licences by a vote of Council,
and many districts, under this Act, declared for the principle
of prohibition by large majorities.
After the union of the Provinces, in 1867, ^e temperance THE TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT IN CANADA.
party began their great crusade in favour of a general
prohibitory law for the Dominion of Canada. Meeting after
meeting was held in every Province, and in a space of three
years petitions, signed by over half a million persons, were presented to Parliament, praying for the enactment of a prohibitory
liquor law, The result of this agitation was the appointment
by Parliament, in 1874, of two commissioners to make a
thorough and complete investigation into the working and
results of prohibition in these various states of the United
States which had adopted it. I have this report before me
as I write, and it is a masterpiece of compiled evidence,
altogether in favour of the adoption of prohibitory as compared
,with license legislation. It was referred to a Select Committee
of the Senate and Commons. Their report recommended the
enactment of a prohibitory law for the Dominion of Canada,
and the report was adopted by both Houses.
Progress   was   barred   for a   time   by the question  as  to
jurisdiction.    It was  in doubt whether the  Dominion or the
Provincial Legislatures  had  authority to prohibit the sale of
intoxicating liquors.     This  did  not, of course, apply to the
North-West Provinces of Assiniboine, Saskatchewan, Alberta,
and Athabasca, and the Government at once gave effect to the
recommendations of the committee in 1875 by passing a law
covering the whole  of the North-West Territory, prohibiting
the   sale,  manufacture,  or possession  of  intoxicating liquors
in  the  North-West  Provinces,  except  with  the written permission of the Lieutenant-Governor of the Territories.    I have
already referred, in previous chapters, especially the one about
Calgary, to  the  operations  of this  Act,  and  their excellent
results   upon   the people.     I  will  only  now repeat that  in
my  opinion  this  Act has  done,  and will  do  if maintained,
as  much  to promote the prosperity and  rapid development 136
of these valuable territories, as their own natural advantages.
The law is rigorously and successfully carried out, and has
the sympathy and support of the entire resident population.
In 1878 the Mackenzie Government decided that the benefit
of the doubt referred to a few lines back, was in favour of
the Dominion, and that it would be within their jurisdiction
to pass a prohibitory liquor law for the whole country. They
introduced the Canada Temperance Act. It passed its second
reading without a division, and became law. The legality
of the Act was challenged, but the Supreme Court of Canada
confirmed it, one judge dissenting. An appeal was taken
to the Privy Council of Great Britain, who gave judgment in
June, 1882, fully confirming the constitutionality of the Act.
The Act has since its passing been attacked in Parliament
on three different occasions, but as none of these were
successful I need not trouble my readers with the details.
The Canada Temperance Act, 1878 (commonly known as
the Scott Act) is a local option law, affecting the whole
Dominion of Canada, and was enacted for the purpose of
enabling a majority of voters to suppress the retail sale of
liquor in any city or county.
The Act is divided into three parts. The first part provides
the machinery by which the second part may be adopted
or rejected. The second part is the Prohibition part, and
does not come into force until it has been adopted by a vote
of the electors. The third part provides for the enforcement
of the law after its adoption.
The following is a synopsis of the provisions of these
respective parts:—
Part I.
Petitioning.—One-fourth of the electors in any city or county
may petition the Governor-General in Council to have a vote THE TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT.IN CANADA.        137
taken upon the Act in such city or county. The Governor-
General in Council may then appoint a Returning Officer,
fix a day for voting, and make all other needful arrangements
for the polling of votes.
Voting.—The vote shall be taken by ballot, and in one day.
There shall be a polling place in each polling sub-division
of each municipality.
Very severe penalties are provided for any corrupt practices.
No treating of voters is allowed, and all places where liquor
is sold must be kept closed the whole of the day of voting.
[ All electors who are entitled to vote at the election of a
member for the House of Commons, have a right to vote
on the Scott Act.
Coming into Force.—If a majority of the votes polled are
in favour of the Act, a proclamation will be issued, bringing
it into force; but in counties where licences are in operation,
it cannot come into force before at least five months after the
voting, nor until all licences in force at the end of these five
months have expired. If no licences are in force in a county,
the Act may be brought into operation in that county after
three months from the day of the vote adopting it.
Repeal.—If the Act be adopted it cannot be repealed for
at least three years, nor until the repeal has been voted upon
and adopted by the electors. If the Act be rejected or repealed
it cannot be again voted upon for three years.
Part II.
Prohibition,—From the day of the coming into force of the
Act in any county or city, and as long as it remains in force, no
intoxicating liquor shall be sold in any manner or under any
pretext except in the cases hereinafter mentioned. 138
Wholesalers.—Persons who are specially licensed may sell
liquor by wholesale; but only in quantities of not less than ten
gallons, or in case of ale or beer, eight gallons, and only to
licensed druggists, or other wholesalers, or to persons whom
they have good reason to believe will carry it to, and have it
consumed in, some place where the Scott Act is not in force.
Producers of native wine made from grapes grown by themselves may, when licensed, sell such wine to any persons in
quantities of not less than ten gallons, unless it be for medicinal
or sacramental purposes, when they may sell as small a quantity
as one gallon.
Druggists.—Licensed druggists may sell in quantities of not
less than one pint. Not more than one druggist may be
licensed in a township, not more than two in a town, and
not more than one for every four thousand inhabitants in a
city. Druggists are only allowed to sell liquor for medicinal
or sacramental use, or for use in some bond fide art, trade, or
manufacture. Liquor can only be sold for sacrament on a
certificate signed by a clergyman; for medicine only on a
certificate signed by a medical man; and for any other purpose
only on a certificate signed by two Justices of the Peace. The
licensed druggist must file all these certificates, must keep a
full record of all the sales he makes, and report the same to
the collector of Inland Revenue.
Part III.
Penalties.—The penalties for illegal sale are:—For the first
offence a fine of not less than £10; for the second offence a fine
of not less than £20; and for the third and each subsequent
offence imprisonment for not more than two months.
The clerk or agent who sells for another person shall be held THE TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT IN CANADA.
guilty as well as his employer, and shall be liable to the same
All liquor and all vessels containing liquor in respect to
which offences have been committed shall be forfeited.
Procedure.—-Full directions are given as to modes of procedure and instructions as to the powers of all persons who
have authority or jurisdiction in regard to offences against
the Act.
Enforcement.—Any person may be a prosecutor for a violation
of the Act.    The collector of Inland Revenue is required to
,   prosecute when he has reason to believe that an offence has
been committed.
Provision is made for the appointment of License Commissioners and Inspectors in places where the Scott Act is in
force, and provides that it shall be the duty of these officers to
see to its enforcement.
Evidence.—In a prosecution it is not necessary that a witness
should be able to state the kind or price of liquor unlawfully
sold. It is enough to show that unlawful disposal of intoxicating
liquor took place. The finding in any place of liquor, and also
of appliances for its sale, is primA facie evidence of unlawful
■ keeping for sale, unless the contrary is proved. The husband or
wife of a person charged with an offence against the Scott Act
is a competent and compellable witness.
Tampering with Witnesses.—Any person attempting to tamper
with a witness in any prosecution under the Act shall be liable
to a fine of £10.
Compromise.—Any person who is a party to an attempt to
compromise or settle any offence against this Act, with a> view of
^saving the violator  from  prosecution  or conviction, shall, on
conviction, be imprisoned for not more than three months.
• Appeals.—No appeal shall be allowed against any conviction 140
made by any Judge, Stipendiary, or Police Magistrate, Sheriff
Recorder, or Parish Court Commissioner.
The first vote was taken on the Act in the town of Frederick-
ton, New Brunswick, in October, 1878. The contest was as
keen as a parliamentary election in England. The subject was
discussed to the utmost during a long and active campaign.
Both the liquor and the temperance party were well organised,
and the electors thoroughly canvassed. It was felt on both
sides that "first blood" was of great importance in the great
fight, of which this was to be the first round. The result was
that more electors polled than at the previous parliamentary
election, and the Act was adopted by two to one—403 to 203.
This victory was quickly followed by others. There are 14
counties and 3 cities in New Brunswick, and the Scott Act
is now in force in 10 counties and 2 cities. The leading city,
St. John, has not adopted the Act, but in the two elections
which have taken place since the Act became law, it was
defeated first time by a majority of two only, on a poll of
2,150, and the second time by a majority of "jy, on a poll of
3,297. In the three elections which have taken place in
Frederickton, it has been found impossible to repeal previous
decisions, though the majority in favour of the Acts has been
greatly decreased. I have had no opportunity of inquiring into
the reason for this.
Nova Scotia has 18 counties and 1 city, of which 13 counties
have adopted the Act.
Manitoba has the Act in force in 2 counties out of 5, and
the temperance party in Winnepeg, the capital, are about to
test it there for the first time.
Prince Edward Island has 3 counties and 1 city, all under
Ontario has 38 counties and 11 cities; 25 counties and
2 cities have adopted the Act.
Quebec has 56 counties and 4 cities; 5 counties only
have adopted the Act, but a considerable portion of Quebec
is under prohibition through a provincial Act. British
Columbia has 5 Parliamentary constituencies, but the temperance is so feeble, and the liquor interest so rampant, that
the Act has never yet been even tested in the province.
The sale of liquor to Indians, nearly half the population,
is forbidden by the laws of British Columbia under severe
penalties, thus giving a protection to Indians withheld from
their less fortunate white fellow-citizens.
The enemies of the Act contend that it has not diminished
but increased drunkenness in the districts where it has been
In reply to that I would point out that in all the 63 districts
in which the Act has been put into force, it remains in force
to-day.* In one instance, in Lambton-Ontario, it has had a
chequered experience, being adopted in 1879 by a majority of
215 on a poll of 4,919, rejected in 1881 bya majority of 105 on a
poll of 5,819, but once more adopted in 1885 by the tremendous
majority of 2,912 on a poll of 6,104; so that in the only
case in which a constituency, having once adopted prohibition,
has gone back to liquor selling, the experience of the election
has been such as to bring forth most emphatic repentance. It
is quite clear that those districts who adopt the Act find it to
their advantage to maintain it, and it is significant that of the
63 districts where it is in force only 6 have attempted its repeal.
The aggregate vote has been 161,000 for and 111,000 against.
But after all, the best test of the success or failure of prohibition  is to be found in the actual consumption of liquor per
* October, 1887. 142
head in various districts where prohibition is more or less in
The following table shows the number of gallons of liquor
consumed per head annually in the 7 provinces of the Dominion
of Canada.
Gallons per hea
Prince Edward's Island
Nova Scotia
New Brunswick.
Manitoba .
2 * 252
5 0/3
Ontario    .        .
British Columbia
A comparison of these figures with the extent to which the
Scott Act has been adopted in each province, clearly shows
that the consumption of liquor decreases in proportion. It
is a significant fact that British Columbia, where liquor shops
flourish to an extent I have never seen equalled in any town
in England, the consumption of liquor is about nine times
greater than in Prince Edward's Island, where the Scott Act
is in full force in every district.
This year a series of votes were taken in the Dominion
House of Commons, which prove clearly enough that the
elected representatives of the people support the Scott Act
thoroughly. A proposal to repeal the Act altogether was lost
by a vote of 145 to 38, and an amendment permitting the sale
of wine and beer in prohibited districts was lost by 136 to 47.
The vote was in no sense a party one, a majority both of the
Liberals and Conservatives being secured for the maintenance
of the Act.
The hostile criticisms of opponents have no Weight with me
in the face of these considerations, viz. :-^
1. That districts which once adopt the Scott Act stick to it. THE TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT IN CANADA.
2. That the consumption of liquor decreases in each
province in exact proportion to the extent in which the Scott
Act is adopted.
3. That Parliament refuses by such overwhelming majorities of
both political parties to repeal the Act or weaken its provisions.
I have visited a great number of the districts in which this
Act is in force. No doubt in some of these the law is
administered with great laxity, and the Press is full of
complaints of the conduct of the inspectors and police
magistrates whose duty it is to bring offenders to justice.
But the entire law-abiding population as a rule uphold and
defend the Act, and loyally carry out its provisions. I have
been a guest at half-a-dozen houses in which my host was
not an abstainer himself, yet, in deference to the public opinion^
expressed by the adoption of the Acts, had not a drop of
liquor of any kind in his  house.
But those who speak most warmly in favour of the Acts are
tradesmen other than liquor sellers, to whose tills the money
goes which before was spent in drinking saloons.
The general opinion is that wherever the Scott Act has been
fairly and rigorously enforced it has been a great blessing to the
community, and no demand is ever made for its repeal. That
where it is badly enforced, it has at any rate destroyed the charm
and attractions of the liquor saloon, and .has put an end to the
system of " treating," which was so common all through Canada.
The sobriety of Canada, as compared with England, is
shown by the amount of liquor consumed. Canada consumes
one gallon of intoxicating liquor per head, compared with ten
in England.
I have not gone into any details concerning the working of
the Act. It is enough for the purpose of this chapter to set
forth the facts I have enumerated, and I think every temperance TRIP ROUND  THE  WORLD.
reformer in England will agree with my conclusions, which are
that it is clear that the people of Canada who have adopted
prohibition like it too well to part with it, and that the whole
of the Canadian people, speaking through their elected representatives, have no intention of repealing the Act.
The people themselves are the best judges of what is good
for them in a matter so closely affecting their interests as
The temperance party in Canada look upon the Scott Act
as only a stepping-stone to prohibition. I have come to the
deliberate opinion that it is only a question of time, and not
a very long time either, for Canada to adopt a universal
prohibitory liquor law, such as exists in Maine. Public opinion
is being educated at great speed by the experiences of the Scott
Act, and I find everywhere and in all sections of society an
inclination towards prohibition that is very encouraging to the
hopes and aspirations of Canadian temperance reformers.
 Jri (   145   )
The Canadian Pacific Railway Company can manage a great
railway line to perfection, but they have much to learn before
they can claim success as managers of an ocean line of steamers.
When I arranged last July to cross the Pacific from Vancouver
to Japan, I engaged my passage for a steamer sailing September
23rd. On arriving at Montreal I was informed that the date
had been postponed to the 29th. On reaching Winnipeg the
sailing was again postponed to October 2nd, and on arrival at
Vancouver the date was finally fixed for October 7th. That
date found us, with a number of our fellow-passengers, waiting
for the I Port Victor," at Victoria; we could see nothing of
the "Port Victor," and letters and telegrams to the Canadian
Pacific Railway agent in Vancouver elicited no information
whatever of any definite character. On the morning of the 8th,
however, We Were informed that the " Port Victor" was coaling
at Nartaimo, would reach Esquimalt about noon, and that we
were all to be at the Hudson's Bay Wharf with our luggage
at two o'clock, when a tug would take us off. We assembled
there at 1.30 to find neither tug nor anyone representing the
Canadian Pacific Railway from whom any information could
be obtained. We stood about for two or three hours, all
grumbling as only Englishmen can, when one of the Canadian
Pacific Railway clerks came to say that the tug would be there
L 146
at five o'clock. This time he was right, and by six o'clock we
were alongside the "Port Victor" in the noble harbour of
Here we found a scene of the wildest confusion. The Canadian Pacific Railway agent that morning had booked an extra
sixty Chinese steerage passengers from Victoria, in addition to
a hundred or more who had been put on board at Vancouver.
He had done this without the knowledge of the captain of the
I Port Victor," and the delay in getting us on board was due to
the steam-tug having been used to ship these sixty extra China"
men, for whom there was absolutely no accommodation what-
ever provided.
> J-
After a hurried scrambling meal the twenty-seven cabin
passengers demanded their berths, when it was found that the
ship was only designed to carry twelve cabin passengers, and
that the Canadian Pacific Railway agent had been obliged to
requisition nearly all the officers' cabins, as well as to construct
others as makeshifts. We fared better than anyone else, for
knowing that the "Port Victor" was only a second-class
steamer, I had secured by extra payment two entire cabins for my
daughter and myself; these, however, have proved anything but
satisfactory on the voyage, as the one I occupy is a bath-room
and closet converted for the occasion, and is swarming with cockroaches and such like company, which a week's treatment with
Keating's powder and carbolic acid has failed to drive away. ACROSS  THE PACIFIC.
Two ladies who were going out as missionaries were put in a
wretched little room converted from a steward's pantry, and
twice on the voyage have been drowned out of it by burst pipes,
soaking their beds, and the entire contents of their trunks. Two
gentlemen found themselves in a temporary structure next to
the funnel, with a large stove-pipe enclosed within ; the temperature in this dog-kennel has ranged from 85 to IOO degrees, and
the tenants have been obliged to sleep on the settees in the
saloon. None of the cabins appeared to have been cleaned out
after the previous voyage, and when a day or two after starting
I insisted on having my daughter's cabin and my own cleaned
out, the amount of dirt, dead cockroaches, &c., which had to be
removed was terrible.
The saloon accommodates just sixteen persons to table; with
officers we are thirty-four, so that two services of each meal are
necessary, arid the cooks and stewards are certain to be worked
beyond their powers.
By seven o'clock We all know our fate for the voyage,
and we ex^peet every moment to see the anchor weighed and
get away. But presently the steam-tug comes alongside once
more with a pile of planks on deck and twenty carpenters,
and We are informed that it will be impossible to leave that
night, as sleeping accommodation must be provided for the
sixty extra Chinamen. We go to bed, but not to sleep. The
tramp of workmen, the noise of their hammers, and their
drunken blasphemy make night hideous. However, at five
o'clock on Sunday morning, October 9th, we get under way, and
by noon the beautiful mountains of the Olympian range are
fading from view, and we are on the wide Pacific.
In fairness to the Canadian Pacific Railway I must state that
they are not directly responsible for this disgraceful management.
The line at present is an independent one, run by Sir William
L 2 148
Pearce, M.P., who has a number of old Atlantic liners that he is
employing in this service. I suppose, as he is only a stop-gap
till the Canadian Pacific Railway can build or purchase fine
steamers of their own, he thinks he can afford to treat his
passengers with reckless disregard. It is a pity the Canadian
Pacific Railway ever allowed their names to be associated with
a management not under their own control. I have no doubt
that when the line passes into their hands, as it will do in a few
months, they will be as careful of the comfort of the passengers
at sea as on land. If they are, no one will have anything to
complain of.
It is simply dishonest to take double the number of passengers a ship can carry, and when we happen upon stormy weather
the discomfort and misery of everyone on board is almost
intolerable. I feel it little short of a swindle that I should have
been charged a fare and a half for a small cabin which was only
fit to sleep in when drenched with carbolic acid, and in which I
was generally awakened in the morning by cockroaches making
their breakfast on my eyes. I warn any traveller who thinks of
coming out to China or Japan to give the Canadian Pacific Railway line of steamers a very wide berth until the management is
changed. We have, however, been singularly fortunate in our
captain, who has done everything in his power to counteract the
disgraceful management of his charterers. Captain Bird is only
twenty-six years old, and has been but nine years at sea. He
was promoted to the command of the | Port Victor " this voyage,
and has fully justified the singular confidence reposed in him by
the owners; His whole management of the ship and the comfort
of his passengers under the grossly unfair strain which has
been put upon him by Sir William Pearce's agents, has earned
.the gratitude of all on board. I have taken a good many
voyages in my day, but never met with a captain whose popu- ACROSS THE PACIFIC,
larity was so great with his officers, his crew, and his passengers,
or whose popularity was so thoroughly well deserved. His
conduct of the ship has done much to obliterate the bad impressions formed by all the passengers of the treatment they
have received.
A voyage across the Pacific leaves little to be said. We have
had good weather on the whole, though we experienced fully ten
days of strong head winds, which stretched the voyage out to
eighteen days. The Pacific is a melancholy and desolate ocean,
with continual fog and rain, and the latter part of the voyage
was muggy and intensely hot, in consequence of the warm
Japan current which flows up from the tropics at a speed varying from forty to a hundred miles a day. The atmosphere
is damp and depressing, and discourages all exertion. The
passengers spend their time chiefly in reading novels and books
by various authorities on Japan. The most popular book on
board has been one I brought with me from England, | East by
West," a story of a tour round the world two years ago by H. W.
Lucy, the well-known journalist and writer of | Toby's Diary " in
Punch. I think every passenger on board has either read it
or heard it read aloud. At night, when weather permits, we
gather under the awning, and amuse ourselves with songs and
glees, riddles, recitations, and stories. When the weather is wet
or stormy, we go to our stuffy and crowded cabins, and get to
sleep as soon as we can.
We get some amusement out of our Chinese fellow-passengers. These are all kept in the forward part of the ship,
and, when fine, take their meals on deck. They consume
prodigious quantities of rice and meat, and seem inordinately
fond of pickled eggs, which they crack and eat with great gusto,
giving cries of delight in proportion to the relative 1 highness " of
each egg.   When the weather is bad they huddle below, and j 50
gamble furiously for "cash," small copper coins, a thousand of
which are worth half-a-crown. If the sea is rough they proceed
to I Chin Chin Joss." | Joss " is their head deity, and they are
quite sure he cannot be aware that there are pious Chinese on
board, or he would never tumble " Port Victor " about in such an
unceremonious manner. They select a deputation to remonstrate
with Joss. They write on sheets of paper the information that
though the ship is manned by " Foreign devils," and that the
cabin passengers are no better, yet there are hidden from his
sight in the lower deck no less than 163 faithful people, who are
very sea-sick. They then march round the ship with little
paper flags flying, and a plate containing rice and a few
copper coins, which with their humble petitions for calm
weather they commit to the deep. Joss, however, remained
obdurate, and we had nearly a week of head winds and pitching,
One of the stewards, a Chinaman, viewed the proceedings with
great contempt, as a professing Christian; he informed me,
I Me no silly chin-chin Joss, me chin-chin Sky-God, same as
At noon on the 26th the observations informed us that we
were at last within thirty hours of Yokohama, if the weather
remained favourable, and that we might reasonably hope for
but one night more on board. But during the night we were
kept back by a strong wind and sea, which, early on the morning
of the 27th, developed into a hurricane. The captain wisely
decided not to attempt to land, as the storm had increased in
intensity the nearer we approached it. So at two o'clock the
ship was with much difficulty put about, and for twelve hours we
steamed slowly with head to wind, and our backs to Yokohama.
The seas were tremendous, and at six o'clock were breakinsr
over the ship in great volume, making it impossible to cross the
decks without being drenched or washed off one's feet, the wind ACROSS  THE PACIFIC.
blowing with full typhoon strength. Under Captain Bird's
admirable seamanship, we rode it out without the loss of a spar,
with the exception of the Chinamen's galley, a temporary
structure on deck, which went by the board as the ship was
being laid to. The " Port Victor" behaved as well as a ship
could, though we were all considerably rolled about. At two
o'clock on the morning of the 28th the storm abated, and after
three unsuccessful efforts the ship was at last brought about,
and morning found us once more heading for Yokohama.
The passengers were a pallid and limp company.   Very few
{From a sketch by the Author.)
of them had slept a wink, and some had sat up all night, too
frightened to go to bed ; indeed some who had gone to bed were
rolled out so often that they gave it up for a bad job and sat it
out on the floor. Our cabins being amidships we slept better
than others. I slept from eight at night to six next morning,
carefully wedged in between an air-pillow and the mattrass, only
awakened by efforts to get the ship about, which would have
roused Rip Van Winkle. Some of the passengers had expressed
a wish to I see a typhoon."   What they did see was near enough I§2
to the genuine article to prevent their expressing it any more.
The cargo shifted during the night, giving the ship a list to
leeward of about three feet. At ten o'clock we were running
along the coast of one of the outlying islands of Japan. We
passed a good many sampans, or native boats, engaged in fishing,
and through our glasses could see quaint villages and wooded
hills. One of the islands we passed was a volcano, not a very
big affair, but smoking vigorously. At noon Yokohama was in
sight, and an hour later we dropped anchor, and bid a glad
good-bye to the | Port Victor" from the steam launch of the
Grand Hotel. (   153   )
The passengers by the | Port Victor " were more reconciled to
their bad treatment on hearing the fate of the | City of Sydney,"
the steamer of the rival line from San Francisco, which arrived
the day after. She was caught in the same hurricane which
delayed us, but fared much worse than we did. Her saloon was
waist-deep in water for twelve hours, some of her deck cabins
were swept overboard, two of her boats were stove in, and one
of her crew drowned.
The passengers came into our hotel at Yokohama in terrible
plight. All their luggage was soaked with salt water, and they
were much exhausted and worn out. Certainly the Pacific does
not deserve its name, so far as our experience has gone.
Yokohama is a modern seaport divided into European and
Japanese quarters. The European portion of the town is very
handsome, consisting entirely of the offices and residences of
merchants, stretching for about a mile in length. There is a
fine esplanade called the Bund, on which the principal hotels, a
fine club, and handsome houses are to be found. Behind this is
Main Street, where the banks, merchants' offices, stores, and
other business premises are placed. The town terminates in a
fine bluff, on which pretty villas are dotted. The Japanese
quarter contains  many  fine  shops and stores, where   native 154
products such as rice, silks, embroideries, lacquer-ware, pottery,
and fine metal work are exposed for sale.
The trade of Yokohama is considerable. There are no wharves
or docks, vessels riding
at anchor in a fine bay.
This presents a busy and
picturesque scene with
some twenty or thirty fine
steamers of all nations,
combined with native
junks, sampans, and
bustling steam launches,
I noticed steamers
under the flags of the
Peninsular and Oriental,
the Canadian Pacific, the
White Star, and the Holt"
Lines (all English); the
Occidental and Oriental (United States), the Messageries
(French), the German Lloyds, the Japanese Mails, with British,
American, Japanese, and Russian men-of-war. It is gratifying
to know that, as usual
all over the world, three-
fourths of the carrying
trade of Japan is done
under the British flag.
There are 1,250 European residents in Yokohama, of whom 587
are British, 228 United States, 160 German, and 109 French.
Yokohama twenty-five years ago was only a small fishing
village.     It is now a flourishing town of 70,000 inhabitants, the
chief port of Japan, a first-class station on the road both from
Canada and the United States to China and the East Indies,
and is the terminus of the Peninsular and Oriental, Messageries
Maritimes, and the German Lloyds in the far East, The entire
export and import trade of Yokohama amounts to about six
and a half millions sterling.
We took up our quarters at the Grand Hotel, which has the
reputation of being the finest hostelry in the East, and I can
quite believe it, for I never stayed at a better, East or West.
After taking our rooms we started out for a Jin-rickisha ride
through the town. The Jin-rickisha is the universal conveyance
of Japan.* It is impossible to hire a carriage or a horse ; every
journey, long or short, whether from one point to another in the
towns, or for a 200 mile journey across country, except on the
two small railways, must be taken in Jin-rickishas. This conveyance is something between a single perambulator and a
hansom cab, with a hood that shuts back, and seating one
person only. It is very lightly built, with two wheels about 4 feet
in diameter, and slender brass-bound shafts, united together by
a tie-piece at  the  end.    It is drawn by a man who gets  in
* See frontispiece. 156
between the shafts, pressing against the cross-bar at the end.
For long journeys you drive tandem, and a man of weight like
myself often engages three. These men trot along at from
five to seven miles an hour, and are splendid specimens of
muscular development; their calves are a wonder to behold,
and would be the envy of a London flunky. The dress of these
men consists of a pale-blue cotton shirt with hanging sleeves,
and tight-fitting breeches of the same material coming down to
the knee. Legs and feet are brown, tanned, and bare, with
the exception of the universal straw shoe, tied on by straw
twists, with a loop through which they thrust the great toe.
We start off through the European town, admiring the
pretty Eastern-looking houses and their lovely gardens, go to
the bank for some money, telegraph our safe arrival to friends
at home, and then drive on to the Japanese town, eager to see
the quaint and interesting people of whom we have heard so
much. The shops were odd and strange; they are without
fronts, and the floors are raised about two feet from the ground
in one high step, some three or four feet back from the threshold. The floor is covered with white fine matting, scrupulously
clean, and it is customary to kick off the shoes and enter the shop
in your stocking feet. Sometimes, in the case of Europeans,
who have an unfortunate habit of ignoring the customs of
foreigners, a servant will bring out a large cloth and carefully
wipe the dirt off the shoes of customers who decline to take
them off.
The goods are displayed on stands and ranged on shelves, the
reserve stock being kept at the back or in fire-proof warehouses
adjoining, which appear to be built of planished copper sheets
fastened on the wood, thick enough to resist flames from outside
in case the light structures in the neighbourhood take fire.
It matters not at what shop we halt, the proprietor comes YOKOHAMA.
bowing out and begs us to look at anything we please, never
once asking us to buy. At one we see a platform weighing-
machine, and our whole party weigh themselves, to the ecstatic 15*
delight and amusement of the tradesman and his children, who
are summoned out to enjoy the spectacle. Much interest is
taken in my portly form, as the diminutive Japanese greatly
admire bulk. I am, however, personally gratified to find that
the "Port Victor" has taken 15 lbs. off my weight.
Every shop has a pretty china vase standing against the wall,
with a few branches of chrysanthemums arranged in it with that
singular feeling for colour which seems almost universal in Japan.
We bought a great bunch of beautiful blooms from a peripatetic
flower-merchant for a few small copper coins.
After a two hours' stroll we were glad to get back to our
hotel, enjoy a good dinner and go to bed. No one knows what
a priceless blessing is bed, who has not been tumbled about for
three stormy nights in the hard bunk of a steamer.
Japan is one of the rainiest countries in the world, and Saturday morning was one of its rainiest days. The annual rainfall
at Yokohama is about 160 inches, and, if my memory serves
me, I think the only place in the British Islands at all approaching to this is Seathwaite-in-Borrowdale.
Our party for Japan consists of my daughter and myself, with
an American gentleman and his wife, named Russell, whose
friendship we have formed during the voyage across the Pacific,
and who, like ourselves, are travelling round the world. As the
rain is so heavy, the ladies go in Jin-rickishas to do some
shopping, while Mr. Russell and I go over to Tokio to visit
our respective legations, and get passports, without which it is
not permitted to travel into the interior.
We had each of us written to our ambassadors the night
before, begging that, if possible, we might have our passports next day, as our time was very limited. On arriving at
Tokio, we repaired to our respective legations. I not only
obtained my passport, but had an excellent lunch and an hour's I»
interesting conversation with Mr. Trench, our charge d'affaires.
Mr. Russell, however, when we met, told me to his and my great
disappointment that he could not get his passport for two days.
I suggested to him that he should go back to his ambassador
and express his surprise that America should fail to get passports as quickly as England. He did so, and in consequence
got it the next morning.
While in Tokio that afternoon, I called ort a lady, an old friend
of mine, Miss Dawbarn, of Liverpool, who left England nearly
two years ago with a view to engaging in missionary work at
her own expense. I found her comfortably settled in a pretty
Japanese house, where she teaches English to classes of gentlemen and ladies on alternate days. She makes some charge, and
finds she can get as many pupils as she can manage. They are
all drawn from the wealthy classes, and she hopes to be able
to influence many of them in favour of Christianity. She
Seemed very happy in her work, and sanguine of success.
Many of her pupils are now members of the various missionary
I also saw a native funeral procession, very different from the
ugly and depressing institution which prevails in England. The
great feature of the procession was abundance of beautiful
flowers. I saw at least fifty great garlands of chrysanthemums,
five or six feet high and three feet in diameter, each of which
must have contained many hundreds of blooms, being borne in
the procession, which was headed by a number of priests in
bright-coloured picturesque robes.
On the following morning we all left Yokohama early, en route
for Nikko, a journey of about HO miles, of which 80 was by
railway. Japanese railways are narrow gauge, about three feet
wide, laid in double-headed rails on chairs and sleepers, and the
train travels about 18 miles an hour.    The stations are scrupu- g&B
lously neat and clean, and the rolling stock is very comfortable.
The carriages are seated like omnibuses, with the first-class
divided into three compartments, all communicating, and it is
possible to traverse the train from end to end as in America.
There are about 150 miles of railway now open in Japan,
and some 450 more are projected, which will be built as soon
as funds permit. English engine-drivers are employed, but the
passenger and goods traffic is all managed by Japanese.
The line from Yokohama terminates at Tokio, and we had
to ride in Jin-rickishas for three or four miles across Tokio to
reach the station for Utsunomiya, our next stage sixty miles
further on.
This journey was very full of interest, as the line passes through
the finest agricultural district in Japan. It is densely populated,
and the farms vary in size from half an acre to ten acres.
Nearly every house we passed had pretty little gardens full of
flowers, mostly chrysanthemums, now in all their glory, with
quaintly-trimmed trees four or five feet high, tiny little water*
falls and ponds, with toy bridges and boats. Some of these
gardens looked exactly like a willow-pattern plate.
The soil is of magnificent quality and depth, and the whole
country is running with clear streams of water, forming a
complete system of irrigation. On most of the farms it is quite,
possible to get three crops in the year off the land. The main
crop is rice, the staple food of the Japanese, and the whole
country was yellow with the ripe grain, now being harvested.
Every inch of the soil is cultivated. There are no hedges or
ditches, the farms being divided by a small raised ridge about
six inches high, which carries a little crop of its own on joint
account for the two farmers whose land it divides. The soil is
tilled by hand only. In a journey of eighty miles I only saw
two horses, each engaged in drawing a small plough.    Most of the YOKOHAMA.
cultivation is done by a curious hand plough, which turns up a
3 ft. furrow every blow. The land seems capable of growing
any crop that is put into it. Besides rice, I saw patches of tea,
onions, daikons (a long white turnip, that seems a great article
of diet everywhere), cauliflower, cabbage, beans, cotton, caladiums,
buckwheat, ginger, carrots, barley, sweet and common potatoes,
peas, beets, pepper, bamboos, tobacco, radishes, lettuce, maize,
dhurra, celery, lotus (the seeds of which are a favourite food),
artichokes, castor oil, and everywhere small clumps of yellow
chrysanthemums, the flowers of which are boiled and eaten with
much relish. Besides these ground crops there were orchards
of mulberry-trees for silkworm culture, pears, cherries, plums,
peaches, and persimmons, weighed down with golden fruit, a
great favourite with Japanese of all sorts and conditions. These
trees were all hung round with great bunches of rice straw,
toughening to be plaited into hats and shoes. Not even in the
best parts of Belgium is such perfect cultivation to be found as
in this beautiful garden of Japan.
Four hours after leaving Tokio we arrived at Utsunomiya,
the capital of a province, with a population of 25,000. We
walked up to our quarters for the night, escorted through the
streets by an admiring crowd of natives of all ages, who made
huge merriment of our various peculiarities of dress, but with a
good-natured politeness that took away the smallest trace of
offence. I felt quite conceited at the special attention I received personally, due entirely to my six feet of height among
a five-foot people. As we walk along, laughing groups run ahead
and bring out their biggest men, whom they range alongside
of me, driving them away with scorn as they fail to reach my
gauge. My beard also receives much attention. One girl came
up to me, bowed almost to the ground, ^and then pulled my
beard, and ran away laughing.
M l62
The children are delightful and quaint beyond all description.
The boys have their heads shaved, except odd little tufts on the
crown and sometimes behind the ears, the little girls wearing
their hair exactly as it appears on the twopenny fans so universal
all over England. All the babies are bound on the backs of
other children, and it is common to see a baby a year old tied
on the back of a brother or sister three or four years old.
Nothing is seen of the baby but its head, and the combination
presents the droll appearance of a two-headed child. The baby
is as jolly and laughter-loving as its bearer, and both grin and
laugh in happy unison.   All the children, great and small, laugh YOKOHAMA.
from crown to toe, are fat and well nourished, and are the
happiest and jolliest children on the face of the earth. I never
tire of the charming groups they make at every street corner.
They swarm in every village like rabbits in a warren. Japanese
children are the chief delight of their parents. I never saw
such happy, well-behaved children. The only time I have ever
heard one cry was when I came suddenly round a corner in
some country village, when I fear they mistook me for the Red-
whiskered Devil.    They are never scolded or punished in any
way, either at home or at school, and a parent who struck a
child would be shunned as a monster. I do not, however,
think this treatment would answer in England. I have heard
the excellent qualities of Japanese children ascribed to their
vegetarian diet, but I must leave wiser dietists than I to settle
that question. The Japanese love to turn their children out
smartly dressed, with doll and fan, and the bright harmonious
colours, the infinite variety of pattern and material, with the
quaint cut of the  garment  added  to their absurdly comical
M 2 164
heads, plump faces, and  beady-black eyes, yield never-failing
amusement to us all.
We stayed the night at a Tea-house, as the Japanese hotels
are called. We found ourselves, on arrival, in front of a large
house, of which the whole ground floor is open to the street;
six feet back from the parapet is flush with the street, and the
whole of the rest of the floor is raised about two feet. The
edge of this floor is used as a seat for Jin-rickisha men, village
gossips, &c, and a part of it carries a small counter, on which
are arranged little dishes of fish, vegetables, rice, and what not,
ready to be cooked at a charcoal fire behind it, for any passerby who may order a meal. Immediately behind this step the
whole of the vast floor is covered with spotless white matting,
every one taking off his shoes before stepping upon it. The
area is quite bare and empty, divided by black wooden lines,
which, on examination, are found to be grooves, in which at
night light frames covered with opaque translucent paper
partitions slide into position, forming separate rooms for
sleeping. At one side is a raised dais, prettily decorated
with pictures and choice little works of art, with the usual
pot of chrysanthemums in bloom. Every hotel is obliged to
have this dais, on which the Mikado, or Emperor of Japan,
would sit if he ever visited the village, and selected that
particular tea-house as his abode. Every one of the many*
thousand tea-houses in Japan has one of these dais, all of
which are daintily decorated with flowers and household
At the back of every tea-house is a pretty little garden, with
a large bath-house, containing tubs of hot and cold water. The
Japanese are as scrupulously clean in their persons as in their
houses, and often wash all over two or three times a day. The
room in which we had our dinner looked out upon the large YOKOHAMA.
open window of the bath-house, in which three men and two
women were tubbing, with that absolute disregard of decency
which characterised our common parents before the fall, when
they were naked and not ashamed. Later on in the evening,
as I was passing to my room, one of the waitresses, in the
costume of Eve, made me a most profound and grave bow,
wishing me good-night. No Japanese has yet become civilized
enough, with all their wonderful civilization, to believe it possible
under any circumstances that he or she is naked.    In summer
times this condition of things is universal. It is a little embarrassing at
first to the modest European, but one soon gets used to it, and
accepts it as the primitive innocence of a simple and guileless
Europeans cannot eat Japanese food, except eggs and rice;
everything else is more or less " high " and pungent in flavour.
So all the guides are excellent cooks, and In tea-houses on
frequented routes there are nice   little   kitchens with small i66
charcoal fires, where the guide manages to produce excellent
meals, the materials for which have to be brought along from
the large towns, as it is only possible in smaller towns and .
villages to purchase vegetables and rice. Milk is an unknown
dainty in Japan, except in large towns where Europeans live.
At Nikko, where some 1,500 Europeans go during the year,
there are two cows, but I have not seen one since I entered
the country.
We have an excellent guide in Mr. Hakodate, of Yokohama,
who produced us an admirable dinner of soup, fish, steak,
chicken, and pudding. At ten o'clock the servants make up
the bed-rooms. They rattle out the sliding paper partitions,
and our sitting-room is at once divided into three bed-rooms,
on the floor of which our " beds" are laid. These consist
of three or four thick quilts, with another rolled up for a
bolster. You may have either a thin mattrass with warm
covering, or a thick mattrass with light covering. We slept
very well on the whole, though the ladies found it a strange
and novel experience.
There was no other furniture of any kind or description, and
our clothes had to be laid on the floor. In the morning, for
our ablution, we had the choice of the bath-house or a tiny
basin of water placed on a shelf in the garden, with a tub and
dipper by its side. We had brought each a towel and soap,
and the whole party took it turn about to wash at the basin,
as we have not been long enough in Japan to face the bathhouse. After an excellent breakfast we prepared to start off
to Nikko, a drive of about twenty-five miles. Eight Jin-rickishas,
with a crowd of laughing noisy human horses, were gathered round
the door, and soon we were all stowed away in them, rattling
through the streets of Utsunomiya to the ecstatic delight of
hundreds of jolly children, who pursued us with peals of laughter YOKOHAMA.
and cries of " O-hy-o ! O-hy-o !" (good-morning).    The road to
Nikko is all up-hill, rising  800  feet.     Each Jin-rickisha had
two  men  in tandem except mine, which had three, I being
nearly double the weight of any other member of our party.    It
is simply astonishing how these vigorous little chaps spin along.
Our first stage was 11 miles, which we covered in 1 hour and
35 minutes, our second was  j\
miles in 65 minutes, and our last
6-L miles in 50 minutes, the whole
25 miles being covered in three
hours and a half, or at the rate
of nearly eight miles an hour.
They ran their empty vehicles
back the same day, delighted to
get three shillings each for the
We stopped twice at road-side
tea-houses, to give the men a
quarter hour's rest and breathing.
They did not seem to drink anything, although they were streaming with perspiration, but they
rinsed out their mouths at the
roadside stream, washing their
legs and arms as well. At one
tea-house they all  had dinner.
boiled rice, a poached egg, and a mess of stewed vegetables, all
served in pretty lacquer vessels on a tray. The dost of this
meal, which is their usual dinner daily, was just a penny farthing
of our money.
The men put on a new pair of shoes' at every stage,   They
wear a thick plaited straw sole or sandal, bound to the foot by
This consisted of a bowl of 168
thin swathes, and get three pair for a penny. The horses are
shod also with straw shoes, and a main road on which there is
much traffic is strewn all the way with old straw shoes.
When the weather is wet the Jin-rickisha men wear cloak9
and hats of straw, giving them the appearance of being
thatched, like a small walking haystack.    The farmers and YOKOHAMA.
better sort of folk put on a cloak of yellow oiled paper,
perfectly waterproof, similar to that used in a copying-press
at home, and all carry gigantic paper umbrellas of gorgeous
pattern, oiled to make them waterproof. It can rain in Japan,
but it is well worth while to endure two or three wet days for
the sake of the odd costumes one meets at every turn.
The road we are travelling on is one of the great highways of
Japan, and the whole way is a long avenue of magnificent
cryptomerias, a tree something like a fine Scotch fir in
appearance. These trees are about 100 feet in height, and this
noble avenue runs for fifty miles. These trees were originally
planted by a pious Daimio, or prince, and a more imposing
preparation for the religious glories of Nikko could not have
been conceived. The road itself is an excellent, well-made
gravel road, with a stream of crystal water about two feet wide
and one deep, running along both sides, conveying water to
the populous villages which line the route.
The scenery all along the road is very beautiful. A Shinto
shrine, with its odd torii or bird-perches, a quaint roadside teahouse, a farmyard with peasants threshing out rice or millet,
charming groups of children playing about some pretty village
street, or in its bright gardens, the perfect tillage of the fields,
the low ranges of wooded hills gorgeous in autumn tints of
vermilion and gold, with the blue mountains of Nikko, 8,000
feet high, for a background, form fresh and delightful pictures
at every turn of the road.
The traffic of the country seems all to be done by human
beings and a few pack-horses. In the fifty miles to Nikko and
back we did not see a dozen carts. There is an omnibus from
Utsunomiya to Nikko, holding six people, before which a man
runs blowing a furious horn to warn everybody to get out of the
way of this terrible and dangerous vehicle. 170
Men and women alike bear a hand in the transport of goods
about the country; the man in the shafts of the handcart, the
wife pushing merrily behind, with the inevitable baby on her
back bobbing up and down with a broad grin and a nose that
wants blowing. The only drawback to Japan is the absence of
children's pocket-handkerchiefs.
No animals are to be seen except the pack-horses, which are
nasty, vicious, badly-broken ponies; cats with short stumpy
tails, an odd dog or two, and some poultry about the size of
decent bantams. Cows, sheep, and pigs are no use in a country .
where nobody eats meat. I have not seen a single butcher's
shop, except at Yokohama, during my whole visit.
The only machine of any kind that I saw in my two hundred
miles of travel is the rice-pounder, which consists of a long beam
of wood swung on a pivot, not unlike a see-saw, at the end of
which is a stout peg at right angles; underneath this peg is a
stone hollow filled with rice, and a man jumps off and on the
other end, which of course makes the peg rise and fall into the
hollow, thus pounding the rice into flour.
In large villages this is done by an undershot water-wheel,
which revolves a series of tilts, like a tilt hammer in a forge, but
the wooden pegs and stone hollows are just the same as in the
more primitive farmyard machine.
Every house and cottage in Japan seems to have a stream of
bright sparkling water running in front of it. This is used by
the whole family or village for promiscuous ablutions, for
washing clothes and vessels, for irrigating their gardens and
little farms, and is yet always so clear and pure to look at that
one could put in a glass and drink it with pleasure, so far as
is so
gerous tc
nk un]
and I
a   pale
infusion, very pleasant and refreshing, when one has got used
to its peculiar flavour.
The village graveyard is a small patch of ground surrounded
by trees, and each grave is marked by a square, upright stone,
with an inscription. It is a puzzle at first to account for the
smallness of each grave until one learns that Japanese coffins
are square, and the body squeezed in with the knees tucked up
to the chin. We passed a funeral on our way, the coffin being
about 2i feet square, the body inside extremely unpleasant, and
it was quite time that the ceremony took place.
When a woman marries in Japan, she deliberately destroys
her good looks by staining her teeth jet black. I don't know
how it is done, but it gives one quite a shock to meet a nice
smartly-dressed young woman, with a magnificent chignon of
black hair, studded with tortoiseshell pins and combs, and a
jaunty rose stuck at the top, and then to have the whole thing
destroyed by a black smile, that gives the appearance of the
mouth being a vast dark cavern. Strolling through Utsunomiya,
I saw the show-case of a dentist filled with "guinea jaws" of
shiny black false teeth. I am glad to hear that fashionable
people are abandoning this hideous practice, and as fashion is
everything in Japan, I hope it will soon disappear. The notion
which inspires the custom is, that a girl -once married, has only
attractions for her husband, and must no longer present a pleasing appearance to the world at large.    The success is complete.
Every Japanese man has a pipe-case and tobacco-pouch stuck
in his girdle, and these are often beautiful works of art, decorated with raised metal-work or carved ivory. The pipe itself is
a straight bronze or bamboo tube with a tiny bowl at the end, in
which a pinch of fine tobacco is placed. After three whiffs the
ash is thrown out, and the bowl re-filled.
The only intoxicating liquor drunk by the Japanese is sake, a 172
drink made from rice, which has the colour and appearance of
pale sherry. This is kept in a barrel and drawn off into long
china bottles, which are dipped into hot water and served on
lacquer trays with little cups, on which the god of good luck is
painted. It does not seem to be largely consumed, and I have
only seen one man under its influence. I have, however, seldom
seen a more imbecile-looking drunkard, and I am told that its
effect makes the drinker more supremely silly than any other
known intoxicant. On the whole, I think the Japanese are an
unusually sober people.
_J (    173   )
The hotel at Nikko is a Japanese house, kept in Japanese
style, but with generous concessions to European customers. It
is true we all have to perform our ablutions in turn on one corner
of the verandah, before the gaze of admiring critics in the shape
of children, who gather early in the morning on coigns of vantage
to see the foreigners wash themselves; but our wash-basin is a
marvellously beautiful bit of Japanese workmanship. It is true
that the rooms are one vast door, and that you can enter or
leave at any point of any wall, by sliding one of the many frames ;
but we have bedsteads, chairs and tables, a cook who has had
lessons from a Frenchman, and our drinking water is placed on
the table in a Scotch whisky bottle, and a Bass's beer bottle, with
the labels still attached, giving a festive and rakish, though
thoroughly English, appearance to the meal, hardly acceptable,
however, to good teetotallers like the whole of our party.
Shortly after arrival, the Japanese "chef" served us a very
tolerable dinner. When it had been removed, and tea brought
in, suddenly every side of the room slid open, and six bowing
and smiling Japanese silently entered, each with an enormous
bundle on his back. They shut themselves in, placed their
burdens on the ground and begun to unfasten them, all the
while softly sucking in their breath in a curious faint whistle.
We demanded instant explanation, and the ringleader said, 174
"Mr. Shentlemans! We very good Japanese Number One
Curios!" and promptly placed on the table a large pot and a
lacquer box. The others followed suit, and soon pandemonium set in. Each of the six pressed his rival wares upon our
attention, and the table, chairs, walls, and floor were covered
with an assortment of pottery, new and old, lacquer, bronze, old
Daimio's robes, swords, knives, embroidery, and what not. Out
of a wilderness of modern rubbish, we managed to select some
really fine specimens of old lacquer, pottery, embroideries,
and metal work, which we eventually purchased at about one-
half the price demanded. This -experience was repeated every
night, not only at Nikko, but almost everywhere in Japan,
at tea-house or hotel.
Nikko is the great wonder of Japan. Its shrines and
temples are celebrated wherever the Buddhist religion exists.
"Nikko" means "sunny splendour," and it well deserves the   NIKKO.
name. The town is small, and is filled with tea-houses for the
accommodation of the pilgrims who resort thither at times and
seasons of religious festivals. It lies in a lovely valley, through
which a clear mountain river rushes, furnishing water for endless
streams and leats rippling through street, lane, and garden.
It is surrounded by high hills, clad to the summit with
magnificent cryptomeria trees, in their turn overtopped by
mountains, of which the highest, Nantai-san, about 10,000
feet above the sea, is gorgeous in autumn splendour from base
to summit. Here dwells the Wind-god, and pilgrims ascend the
mountain in the Spring, to a shrine on the top, where they
arrange with his godship for a proper supply of rain and fine
weather throughout the year. Nantai-san responds nobly,
sending down his generous flanks a dozen ample streams,
which irrigate thousands of square miles of fertile land.
The next morning we went up the valley to get a view of the
Nikko range, following a path by the banks of a brawling stream
full of trout, bordered by luxuriant and varied vegetation glorious
in autumn gold and copper. Two miles from Nikko we reach
the famous images of Amida Buddha, arranged in a long
row of many hundreds by the river-side, contemplating with
great serenity of countenance (unless their heads have been
knocked off by Shinto blasphemers), the noble range of which
Nantai-san is the centre and summit. It is supposed to be
impossible to count this long row of images, and while the rest
of the party engaged in the attempt to do so, I made a sketch
of the beautiful landscape, which is reproduced on the previous
Nikko has been a holy place to the Buddhists since the eighth
century, when a wise old Buddhist missionary from China visited
it, and had a confidential interview with Nantai-san, the Shinto
deity of the mountains; instead of declaring him an impostor, as
N 178
any vulgar reformer might have done, he annexed him as a "manifestation of Buddha," which position he has occupied ever since.
All the glories of Nikko centre in the tomb of the great
Shogun Iye-yasu, who drove out the Jesuits and extirpated
Christianity. His son buried him with great pomp and
splendour in the year 1617, on the top of a hill above Nikko,
and the Mikado made a god of him as " the light of the East,
the great incarnation of Buddha." Nikko, in all its former
magnificence of Buddhist ritual and paraphernalia, with its 200
priests clad in gorgeous robes, must have been a wonderful
sight. But its glory has departed with the disestablishment of
Buddhism, and now six Shinto priests sell tickets of admission
to Christian tourists whom Iye-yasu would have promptly
crucified, and the only ritual visible was at one of the large
temples, where a melancholy old lady in shining raiment,
With a fan and a bunch of small bells, goes through a brief
dance for any one who will throw a copper into a bowl. We
bought three or four performances for as many farthings.
On leaving the hotel, and walking up the main street of the
town, we come to two bridges, one of which is carefully guarded
by locked gates. This bridge is made of wood, lacquered a
deep red, and has never been repaired since 1638, the year in
which it was built. It appeared perfectly sound, and there is
no trace of decay from the wear and tear of 250 years of
Japanese rain and storm. The blue waters of the river, which
is here 40 feet wide only, rush under the bridge between two
steep banks, the warm Indian red of the lacquered wood contrasting finely with the dark cool green of the splendid crypto-
merias, the whole scene brightened by the torrent beneath.
This sacred bridge is only opened once a year, during the great
festival week.
Soon after crossing the river, we mount a flight of broad wide NIKKO.
steps, leading to the great granite Torii or Shinto archway
erected in 1618. It is 27 feet 6 inches high, and the columns
are fine monoliths, 3 feet 6 inches in diameter.
Passing under this archway we see a magnificent pagoda of
five stories in height, rising 104 feet, the eaves of the roofs being
18 feet in length. The lower story is surrounded by twelve
emblematical animals : a rat, bull, tiger, hare, dragon, serpent,
horse, goat, ape, cock, dog, and pig ; all carved and painted with
wonderful resemblance to life. This pagoda is most graceful
in form, and its harmonious decorations stand out well against
N  2 i8o
the dark background of cryptomerias, which everywhere lend
such an added charm to the Nikko temples. ,
Passing on through the Nio-mon, or gate of the two.kings, we
find ourselves in a spacious courtyard, enclosed by a timber
wall lacquered dark red. In this courtyard are three very fine
buildings, arranged in the zig-zag so dear to the Japanese, which
are used as store-houses for the various " properties " employed
at the annual festivals. Here also is a large tree, enclosed by
a railing, which is said to have been one that Iye-yasu had
planted in a pot shortly before his death, and which "was transplanted here. Close to the tree is a handsome stable, in which
is a sacred white pony, called "Jimme," kept for the use of
the god, opposite to which is the famous holy-water cistern.
This is cut from a solid block of granite, and is so carefully set,
that the water flows in one even stream from every inch of its
four sides. The cistern is covered by a wooden roof, clamped
on to twelve square granite pillars, with finely chased bronze
plates. The roof is richly carved and painted, and being open,
affords a good opportunity of studying the marvellous joinery
of these old Japanese carpenters.   Just beyond the holy-water
i ti^
MM* ™ §
basin is a beautiful decorated building, known as the Kio-zo,
or library. Inside this building is a complete collection of
Buddhist scriptures, mounted in a revolving eight-sided cupboard, with red-lacquered panels, and gold pillars. Round the
interior walls are paintings of various subjects on a gold ground.
In front of the building are some of the great stone and bronze
lanterns, 6 feet in height, which are lighted up on the feast days. 182
A fresh flight of steps leads us to another courtyard, along
the front of which is a stone balustrade, on which is placed a
bell tower, a huge bronze candelabrum, presented by the King
11     i^^pj^^piii ^|
of Loochoo, a bronze lantern, the gift of a Korean king, and a
drum tower. Behind these is a temple decorated with fifteen
or sixteen groups of carved birds that well repaid an. hour's
study,  mmm
4 il
Yet another flight of stone steps brings us to the platform
on which stands the gem of Nikko, the wondrously beautiful
gate called Yo-mei-mon. This is supported by White-lacquered
columns, carved with a small regular pattern. On one of the
pillars the pattern is carved upside down, lest the perfection of
the structure should excite the envy of the gods, and bring
misfortune on the architect. This is called the "evil-averting
pillar." The gateway has two stories, the lower one being
surrounded by a gallery. The side niches to the front contain
two ferocious-looking images, armed with bow and arrows; to
the back, they contain the sacred dogs of Japan. The entire
building is covered with marvellous sculpture. Here we see a
tiger and cub, the grain of the wood cleverly used to produce
the fur ; here a group of flowers or fruit; there, birds, beasts,
and fishes disporting themselves like nature itself The capitals
of the columns are the heads of strange, quaint, fabulous beasts.
Where the cross-beams of the second story intersect are white-
lacquered dragons' heads. The railing of the balcony consists
of groups of children at play, and other figure subjects, alternating with birds, and the ends of the supporting beams are
carved into the portraits of famous Chinese and Corean sages.
The illustrationon the previous page is the back view of this
marvellous gateway.
Right and left of Yo-mei-mon extends a long cloister, the
outer walls of which contain a double row of carved panels,
consisting of groups 'of trees, birds, beasts, flowers and fruit,
coloured after nature, all of marvellous beauty and great intricacy of workmanship. The base of the wall consists of great
blocks of stone, from which rise uprights about 12 feet apart.
These pass through thicker horizontal members. This produces
a double row of elongated spaces, one 16 inches high, and the
other 5 feet, in which the carved panels are inserted. A   TRIP ROUND  THE  WORLD.
The lower range, which is the narrowest, consists altogether of
representations of storks, ducks, geese, and other water-fowl, in
flight, standing on the banks of streams and lakes, or swimming
and diving in the water. The upper range consists of pierced
work of floral composition chiefly, treated with great tenderness
and beauty, with a masterly decision about the carving such as
I have never seen anywhere before—the whole being one rich
and harmonious mass of colour, such as only Japan can produce.
On the following page is an illustration that gives some faint
idea of what I have described so feebly. The cloisters within
this wall are decorated with great simplicity.
Passing through Yo-mei-mon, we enter a court enclosed on
three sides by the cloister I have just described ; on the fourth
side rises a great stone wall, built against the face of the hill.
In this courtyard are several buildings. One contains a stage
for the performance of sacred dances.
In another building is an altar before which worshippers burn
sweet-smelling bits of cedar, while the priest recites prayers.    A'
third contains some cars which are used in the annual festivals,
in which the spirits of Iye-yasu and other heroes ride invisibly.
Emerging from this court, we enter a quadrangle fifty yards
long, which leads to the holy of holies of Nikko, entered by a
gateway as beautiful in execution and design as Yo-mei-mon
itself. This is called Kara-mon, or Chinese Gate, and is built of
precious woods from China, inlaid and carved with marvellous
detail and skill. At this door we were met by a bald fat priest,
who directed us to take off our shoes. The double doors of this
entrance are richly decorated with arabesque work of flowers in
gold relief. Dragons which seem almost alive twine themselves
round the columns which support the roof. On the door is a
mass of varied decoration perfectly distributed, in such beautiful
detail and such harmonious completion, as to furnish a perfect w
example of the thorough mastery of decorative art possessed by
.the architects and builders of this marvellous series of sacred
. A few more.steps lead into the oratory, a large .room 42 feet
long by 27, feet, wide, covered with, matting, in the middle of
which is a black table, with a small circular mirror placed upon
'^t^iiftS?* --&%^s^ss!bs^^5
it, the sole emblem of the Shinto religion. The walls of this
inner sanctuary are decorated with carved oak panels, and the
ceiling is also carved and painted.
Returning to the courtyard and passing through a small
doorway, over which is a famous carving of a sleeping cat, we
mount 200 steep moss-grown steps, which lead to the summit ot
the hill.    Here is the tomb of the mighty Shogun, Iye-yasu, a
L 190
simple bronze casting, in front of which stands a low stone table
on which are placed a huge bronze stork with a candlestick in
its mouth, a bronze incense-burner, and a vase with brass lotus-
flowers and leaves. Weary with six hours of wandering through
these superb temples, we return to our hotel, leaving the minor
temples of Iye-mitsu for the next day.
Passing through the Torii, which forms the entrance to the
group of Buddhist temples leading up to the tomb of the second
Shogun, Iye-mitsu, we come to two red-lacquered buildings
standing together, joined by a covered gallery. One of these is
sacred to the Indian goddess Ariti; a demon who had sworn to
devour five hundred children in the metropolis of Buddhism,
but who, being converted before she could carry out her fell w
purpose, forthwith entered a monastery and became a burning
and shining Buddhist light. The other is dedicated to Amida,
and in it are preserved the bones of the Shogun Yoritomo.
Beyond these buildings is the Nio-mon, the gate of the two
Kings, at the top of a flight of wide steps. The two Kings are
a gigantic pair of muscular figures, painted red, with every
conceivable expression of warlike ferocity. Another flight of
steps leads on to the gate called Ni-ten Mon, with similar
statues painted green and red. Inside this gate is an image of
the Wind-god, painted green, who carries the winds tied up in
a long sack, slung over his shoulder. His companion is the
Thunder-god, and both of these are as furious and turbulent-
looking as Japanese ingenuity can carve them. The only
other gate worth mentioning, in the succession which lead
through the many courtyards to the tomb of Iye-mitsu, is
the Kara-mon, of which I give an illustration on p. 190. All
these courts contain many temples and other buildings fully
equal in detail and interest to those of Iye-yasu, surrounded
by the same cool green background of cryptomeria trees.
Returning from Iye-mitsu's tomb, we pass a building containing a curious life-like figure of an old man with a long
beard, and preternaturally sturdy legs. This is an image of
Enno Shokaku, a famous Buddhist saint, who possessed an
extraordinary power of working miracles and charming spirits.
He had special influence with Hill spirits, and many of the
most arduous mountain paths are the result of their joint efforts.
There is an unhappy Hill demon, named Hitokotonushi, who
dared to disobey him, fast imprisoned in the centre of one of
the Nikko mountains, who will not be let out till the Buddhist
Messiah appears, 5,670,000,000 years hence. After conferring
great benefits on the Japanese people, Enno flew away to China
in the year 701, and was never heard of again.
O 194
His image is supported by two of his most obedient demons,
painted red and green, by name Zenki and Goki. He is still
supposed to be able to confer great physical strength, especially
in the legs, and is the favourite saint of Jin-rickisha men, who
hang up exaggerated straw sandals in all parts of the building
as votive offerings.
We spent three days at Nikko, but they were only enough to
show us the utter hopelessness of getting even an idea of the
wondrously beautiful details of the whole. Nikko remains with
me as a beautiful dream ; I do not possess much more than
a vivid remembrance of its massive temples looming warmly red
against the cool green of the dense foliage, and I can only depend
on photographs to bring back to my memory the infinite and
beautiful details of their superb decoration.
Nikko has a right to stand in equal rank with the finest
religious edifices in the world, Pagan or Christian; as a triumph
of carpenter's work and of glyptic art, nothing in the world can
bear comparison for a moment. It has been an education to
have seen them, even in the hasty manner in which it has been
possible to me.
During our stay at Nikko we took a day's excursion into the
neighbouring mountains, our destination being the lake of Chiu-
sen-je, 4,000 feet above the sea, through magnificent mountain and
river scenery. The road was quite impassable for Jin-rickishas,
so we took the other popular conveyance of Japan, the Kago,
which consists of a stout basket-chair slung upon two strong
bamboo poles, carried by four stout coolies. We were a strange
procession to an English spectator. Seven Kagos, containing
three Englishmen, three Englishwomen, and Mr. Hakodate, our
Japanese guide, borne along by twenty-nine natives (I had an
extra man as usual), all stepping in time, and singing weird
chants in a minor key.    We had eight miles to travel to Chiu- NIKKO.
sen-je lake, with a rise of 3,000 feet. They covered the eight
miles in just four hours. It was very easy and comfortable
travelling, except downhill, which seemed to take it out of our
bearers more than going uphill. At the end of the day,
however, they did not show the smallest trace of fatigue, and
would have been quite willing to run us 20 miles in Jin-rickishas
before going to bed.
From a sketch by the Author.
Chiu-sen-je is a pretty village, with many fine tea-houses; a
place of great resort in summer-time for wealthy Japanese.
The lake is a fine expanse of water, about 10 miles in circumference, with lovely surroundings. Nantai-san rises sheer
out of the east bank, and both it and the lower hills on the
opposite side are clad with variegated forest. The tea-houses
all front the lake, and on the other side of the road, under the
cliffs of the sacred mountain, are rows of houses inhabited by
O 2 196
priests. From one of these houses runs the pathway to the
summit of Nantai-san, to ascend which it is necessary to obtain
permission from the High-priest at Nikko. The stream which
leaves the lake, forms a magnificent waterfall, in two leaps
falling some 350 feet.
Count Ito, the Japanese prime minister, had invited us to a
great ball in honour of the Mikado's birthday, at which the
Emperor and Empress were to be present; but the charms of
Nikko were too great a counter-attraction, and we did not go.
We left Nikko that morning, and the town, being the Mikado's
property, was en fete. A bamboo, with the Mikado's flag at the
top, was posted in front of every house, and the swarms of
children were all running about, making merry with paper flags
on little sticks, or flying kites. We returned by the same road
by which we came, our Jin-rickisha men running the 25 miles to
Utsunomiya in just 2\ hours, or 10 miles an hour. We reached
Tokio, the capital, about nine o'clock, and drove 5 or 6 miles
through the streets. Although the capital has a population of
nearly a million, there is not a single gas-lamp in the streets.
This night, however, in honour of the Emperor's birthday, every,
house had a large brightly-coloured paper lantern hung out, and
the thousands of people who thronged the streets carried smaller
ones in their hands. It was a veritable feast of lanterns, and the
effect was far more beautiful than any illumination I had ever
seen before.    We went on to Yokohama by a  later train.
The next few days were spent at Yokohama, with an
occasional excursion to Tokio and the neighbourhood.
One very pleasant day was devoted to a Jin-rickisha ride to
Kamakura and its great image of Buddha, called the Daibutz.
This colossal figure, of great antiquity, is in a sitting posture,
and is forty-seven feet in height. It was cast on the spot in
sections of about six feet in height, forming one huge mass of NIKKO.
metal, in which the divisions of the several castings are distinctly
visible. The figure represents Buddha in meditation, and is full
of dignified repose. A large jewel is placed in the middle of the
forehead, from which light is supposed to beam, and is significant
of Buddha being "the light of the world." The interior is
hollow, and is fitted up as a temple with shrines. The curious
head-dress   is  composed  of   clusters   of   snails,  who,  out   of
W   ■-"   &Mki<1-ltw<i,—Til' .   .--.it.   ■.. '■   rrrrfc i-j. •„ ■  ,.  *< -      1 ^,. ...   —   J^_     _—'. ___lMS£' ~' W*
gratitude to Buddha for his love of animals, shielded thus from
the sun the exposed head of their holy friend.
We went to a neighbouring tea-house, of some note with
Japanese epicures, where we had previously ordered a real
Japanese meal. This nation shines in every fine art except
that of cooking. The whole meal was served to us at once in
five or six lacquered wooden bowls on a pretty tray, with a huge
basin of boiled rice on the floor, in a corner.    Three charming 198
young ladies in full native costume served us, and then waited
to see us eat, in eager expectation of fun. We first tried the
soup. It was hot water, with uncooked giblets of some unknown fowl. No one got beyond the first mouthful. Then we
tackled a small fried fish, about the size of a sardine, seasoned
with pickled grapes and chestnuts. That we ate. Then we
attempted a third dish, which we discovered to be a large piece
of absolutely raw fish in pickled daikon, a sort of horse-radish,
which is dear to the Japanese stomach, but which has the most
horrible smell imaginable. Many times during our stay in
Japan we have wondered at the typhoid-suggesting smells we
experienced in the dainty and cleanly tea-houses, but on complaint our guide always produced a bowl of daikon, which set
our minds at rest. There was also a mess of dubious vegetables
and some boiled chrysanthemums, but nothing on the whole
tray, except plain boiled rice, which an English palate could
stand. We were all hungry, and looked at each other in dismay.
The waitresses giggled and wriggled with delight. To our joy,
however, one of them left the room, and returned with a huge
bowl of fresh bantam's eggs, which, with the rice, furnished a
wholesome and abundant meal. As usual, the ladies of our
party were subjected to a rigorous investigation by the landlady
and her pretty waitresses. Every article of jewellery was passed
round and examined; their hats, cloaks, and dresses were
scrutinized and discussed, and every sort of curious question put
about their families and belonging's. We men were treated
with indifference and contempt, until the bill was made out,
when they all came in smiling, to get their "pocket-money."
We took a boat in the afternoon, intending to visit a small
island on which some old Shinto shrines were to be seen, but a
fleet of fishing boats attracted our attention, and growing dark
as we rowed from boat to boat, examining their tackle and nets, NIKKO.
the island was  abandoned.    Fishing is,  after agriculture, the
chief industry of Japan.    There are about 200,000 fishing boats,
giving employment  to some  two millions of the population.
Fish, fresh and salted, is the chief animal food of the people.
We spent a quiet Sunday in Yokohama.    In the morning we
went to a Union Church, at which all the religious denominations
in the European town, except the Episcopalians and Baptists
Worship together.   Nine different missions, American and English,.
meet together in Christian fellowship, and it is hoped that by-
and-by this movement will result in a complete union of all the
native churches under the charge of Protestant Nonconformists in
one denomination, thus going far to remove what must always be
a hindrance to mission work, the appearance of division in the
Christian Church.    I also saw a native congregation, that of the
Dutch Presbyterians.    It was crowded to overflowing, as indeed
are most of the mission churches.    There are now over 20,000
native members of Protestant churches in Japan, and Christianity
seems  likely before long to  crowd out the threadbare superstitions of Shinto and the idol-encrusted religion of Buddha.
The strong desire of leading men in Japan for assimilation to
European civilization is very likely to take the form of the State
adoption  of some  phase of Christianity.    The  dread  of the
missionary is that it will be Romanism.    I know of no heathen
country where the responsibility of the missionary is so great
as in Japan—or where the prospects of success are brighter.
The Japanese  Christian  reaches  as  high a standard   as   the
English, and the native preachers are quite as intelligent and
well taught in the Scriptures as any of our missionaries themselves.    Besides this, influential and  wealthy Japanese gladly
avail themselves of the excellent schools which have been established by American  Missionary Societies, where high-school
teaching is given, combined with instruction in the Christian A   TRIP ROUND  THE  WORLD.
religion. Miss Crosbie, an American lady, has 120 Japanese
young ladies in her fine boarding-school at Yokohama, many of
whom are the daughters of men of high position in the State.
Christianity is now more than tolerated in Japan, it is encouraged
by some of the most influential people of the country.
Every morning we go out upon the roof of our hotel to get
a view of the wonderful mountain which appears so constantly
upon the various products of Japanese art and manufacture;
painted on paper, woven into textile fabrics, worked upon
lacquer and pottery, carved in relief on wooden panels of
cabinets, or chased on bronze vases. Fuji-yama, the most
sacred mountain in Japan, is a magnificent volcanic snow-clad
cone, rising in sublime isolation over 12,000 feet from the
plain; its last eruption took place in 1707, and did great
mischief. Fuji-yama has rarely been out of our sight during
our excursions in the neighbourhood of Yokohama.
On the 9th of November we bid farewell to Yokohama, having
taken passage in the Japanese steamer " Yamashiro Maru " for
Kobe, 350 miles distant, file treaty port of Kioto, the old
capital. This is one of a line of fine boats which carry the
Japanese mails from port to port, and sail under the Japanese
flag. I have never travelled on a more comfortable steamer.
The scrupulous cleanliness of the people was visible everywhere.
The state-rooms and saloon were airy and beautifully fitted up,
and the cooking admirable. The officers of all the vessels on
this line are English, the crews being Japanese. The " Yamashiro
Maru" is a ship of about 1,800tons register, of 14 knots speed,
built by Sir William Armstrong and Co. She is fitted for a
powerful armament, and could be converted into a first-class
cruiser in three days. I inspected every inch of her under the
guidance of the captain and chief engineer, and was delighted
with everything I saw.    During the afternoon we passed Vries NIKKO.
Island, on which is an active volcano, which made a much better
show of flame and smoke than I have ever seen from Etna or
Vesuvius. We'reached Kobe about five o'clock on the afternoon of the 10th, and went up to Kioto by the first train next
•morning. We put up at the most comfortable Japanese hotel
v/e have yet met with, the YarAmi, situated on the slope of a
wooded hill, with Kioto spread out before its terrace like a map.
From a sketch by the Author.
Kioto covers an area of about 25 square miles, with a population
of some 350,000. As every Japanese house is the same height,
and all the temples are on the hills behind the hotel, the view is
a monotonous stretch of brown roofs, with an expanse beyond
of well-cultivated fields, closed in by a fine range of timbered
mountains about 10 miles distant. The scenery in these mountains is exceedingly beautiful, fully equal to that at Nikko, but
m 202
as our main object in coming to Kioto was to see something of
the social life and domestic institutions of the Japanese people,
we only devoted one day to its enjoyment. We rode in Jinrickishas some 16 or 17 miles across the range, returning by a
magnificent mountain gorge, 7 or 8 miles in extent, with'
lofty cliffs and wooded hills closing in a fine rapid river,
down which we drifted, Jin-rickishas and all, in a large flat-
bottomed boat, shooting 24 rapids on the way.
At the foot of the gorge was a charming village, the favourite
pic-nic resort of the wealthy inhabitants of Kioto. Here are
several very fine tea-houses, and their balconies and open
chambers were filled with picturesque groups in all the
splendour of Japanese holiday attire. Here and there, alas! were
aristocratic parties who have learned to despise the beautiful
dresses of their own artistic country, and think it proper to rig
themselves out in dreadful flounced imitations of obsolete Paris
fashions, of which the predominant colours are mauve, magenta,
■or solferino. The gentlemen attire themselves in ready-made
" reach-me-downs " of black cloth, shiny patent-leather shoes,
and round pot-hats. The incongruity with the pretty and
charming groups in native dress was complete, and presented a
sad and sorrowful spectacle. \p  i. The Royal Family
2. The Nobility
3. Priests : Buddhist and Shinto
4. Common people .
We had carefully reserved a full week for Kioto, the ancient
capital, and the most intensely Japanese town in all Japan, with
a view of seeing all we could of the social condition and habits
of the people.
They make a great mistake who think that because Japan is a
heathen country it is therefore of necessity low down in the scale
of civilization. In everything that makes a country happy,
prosperous, and contented, Japan will compare favourably with
any nation in Christendom.
The population is composed of four distinct classes, whose
difference is sharply defined in Japanese society. It consists of
There are very few foreigners resident in Japan, and these are
confined to the treaty ports. There are about 2,500 Europeans
and 3,000 Chinese. There are also in the treaty ports a considerable number of Eurasians, the illegitimate offspring of
European fathers, whose existence goes far to justify the complaints of missionaries  that  it  is  the Christian and  not the 2o6
Buddhist heathen who keep back the spread of Christianity
in the East; and also perhaps explains the almost universal
contempt with which the merchant class in the East speak about
missionaries. The irreligion and open immorality of Europeans
in Japan and China, with some honourable exceptions, is very
bad indeed.
The working classes in Japan are poor. Wages, from our
standard, are exceedingly low. But all the necessaries of life
are correspondingly low, and if "he is richest whose wants are
fewest," the Japanese are rich enough. The day's work in Japan
is ten hours. Labourers get from 8d. to 14^. a day; carpenters,
2s. 6d. to 3-y.; mechanics, 2s. to 2s. 6d. ; machinists and blacksmiths, 2s. to $s.; farm labourers, lod. to is., with board ; tea
firing and packing, lod. to is. 6d. ; potters, ordinary hands, 2s.,
skilled hands, $s. to 8s., piece work. Painters and decorators of
pottery, art metal workers, lacquerers, and the host of artistic
workmen, who produce the beautiful works which decorate
European houses so plentifully, often earn from 10s. to 15^. a
day, and become rich.
The cost of living is very small. It may be judged by the
fact that single men in large towns can get good bed and board
for $d. a day. Japanese live almost entirely on rice, fish, and
vegetables, with eggs as a luxury. I have seen dozens of
Japanese meals prepared for the families of working people, and
it is invariably the same—three bowls, one of rice, one of mixed
vegetables, and one of fish, fresh or salted, and often raw! These
meals are sold ready cooked for about three-halfpence, and
probably do not cost families half that sum per head. The working people are as well housed as ours at home, and their houses
are all scrupulously clean. Taxation, both Imperial and local, is
extremely light, and hardly touches the working class. Every
town and village  has an abundant water supply, the sewage SOCIAL LIFE IN JAPAN.
and refuse of every house being collected nightly, and carefully
used in agriculture.
Education is cheap to the well to do, and free to the poor.
There is a system of Government primary schools professing to
be within reach of every child, and this seems probable, as there
are over three million of children receiving instruction in 29,000
elementary schools, besides 180 high schools, and 71 normal
schools or training colleges, in which are 5,300 persons being
trained as teachers. The total annual expenditure on education
is ;£i,500,000.
I visited one of the ordinary elementary schools of Kioto, the
Dragon Pond School, at which 500 children are educated. The
fees are 8d. per month for the lower forms, and i^d. for the
higher; the poor, as I have already mentioned, being educated
free. How the distinction is arrived at I could not find out.
The course includes reading, writing, dictation, arithmetic,
algebra, and mathematics, the use of the counting machine,
a little English, music, and gymnastics. The head-master
received us in a large room, on the walls of which were frames,
containing the rules of the school, the duties of each teacher,,
and a fine frame containing a testimonial from the Mikado, who
once visited the school, and sent this afterwards to the headmaster. The inevitable tea was served, and we were then
conducted round the buildings, which were a series of one-
story class-rooms, grouped round a playground. The first contained a class of girls about ten years old, who went through
a series of gymnastic exercises with clubs, dumb-bells, and barbells. The second held a class of sixty boys and girls, who
were being taught elementary Japanese music, a female teacher
marking time with two wooden clappers. The children sang
several pieces in a monotonous minor" key, which was, .to our
untutored ears, very dull  and disagreeable.     The third room 2o8
contained a reading class of sixty boys. The master had a
large blackboard, on which he wrote a sentence containing some
moral sentiment. He spelt it over for the class with great
distinctness, and then explained its meaning and application.
Having done so, he asked every boy who thoroughly understood
it to hold up his hand ; about half the class did so. The master
then went carefully over the ground again, and asked all who did
not understand to hold up a hand. Three boys responded,
whereupon the master left his desk, visited each of them one
after the other, cleared away the boys' difficulty, and thus got
the whole class instructed. This once secured, each boy, with
Indian ink and paint-brush (the universal Japanese pen), carefully copied the sentence from the blackboard. I went round
the class to see the copies, and at last understood how it is that
the Japanese are the finest draughtsmen in the world. We next
visited the elementary reading class, where the same system of
patiently insisting on every member of the class understanding
his lesson before going on to the next was pursued. The headmaster told me that no boy or girl in the school would dream of
holding up the hand unless they really did understand what the
master was explaining.
The lower forms consist of boys and girls mixed, but in the
upper forms the instruction divides itself, -and the sexes with it.
We then went to the classes of the higher standards. Each boy
and girl here has a seat, and a desk arranged to hold writing-
box, books, and slate. There are eight class-rooms in all. In
one I saw the prettiest picture imaginable. It was a large light
room, the walls covered with a cream-coloured paper decorated
with a raised pattern of flying storks, and the floor carpeted with
pale green matting. In the middle of the floor fifteen or twenty
pretty Japanese girls from twelve to fifteen were sitting on their
heels, in the bright-coloured clothes they love so well, each with SOCIAL LIFE IN JAPAN.
a jaunty flower stuck in her chignon, cutting out or stitching
men's and women's dresses. Each girl had a nice lacquered
work-box full of coloured silks. This charming group of girls,
clad in gay but, perfectly harmonious colours, surrounded by
pale cream-colour and sea-green decorations, formed a tableau
not easy to forget. Every girl is turned out of a Japanese
•school, not only able to make her own clothes, but her husband's
also. In another room was a large class of girls singing from
European notation. They sang for us some Japanese poetry
to the tunes of "Rousseau's Dream" and "Auld lang syne"
very sweetly and accurately. In a month or two they will
have an organ, and will learn part music.
On the whole, and taking the different social circumstances of
the two countries into account, I think the Japanese elementary
education is quite equal to our own.    I was much impressed
both by the excellent discipline of the school and the earnestness
of the pupils.    No warning was given of our visit; we simply
went to the  school,  and  begged  admittance.    It was to th&
children the same thing as if six Japanese ladies and gentlemen,,
in full national costume, suddenly appeared in the class-rooms of
a London Board School.    Yet not a child whispered to another,
and the work went on with the same precision while we were
present as when we were absent.    The children and  teachers
seemed at perfect touch with each other, the earnest attention of
the one being equalled by the kindness and patience of the other.
The higher schools of Japan are as good in their way as the
elementary, and above them all is the University of Tokio, with its
five colleges of law and political economy, medicine, engineering,
literature, and science.    In these colleges are upwards of 1,200
students, taught by 100 professors.    Six hundred of the students
are   taught   foreign   languages.    Among   the   professors   are
Japanese who have graduated at Oxford, Cambridge, London,
W^ 210
and Victoria Universities in England, Cornell and Michigan
in America, Strasburg and Leipsic in Germany. The classics
taught are old Chinese and Japanese literature. This University
of Tokio is based upon the German standard, and will compare
favourably with any of the smaller German universities. German influence is becoming increasingly powerful in Japan.
The Government of Japan appears to be popular and firm.
At present it is an absolute monarchy, but a constitution and
Parliament is in the air, and will not long be withheld.    There
is not much political sentiment in the country.    Ito, our guide,
is a bit of a radical, and took us to a public meeting where
some orators were airing a grievance.    There was a very small
attendance of listless politicians, listening to a fiery speech from
a tiny little lawyer, who was as fierce as a dragon.    The chair
appeared to be taken by two policemen in uniform, who sat at a
table making notes of the speech, stopping the speaker with a
sounding smack of their staves upon the table when he ran too
near the edge of sedition.    It was a ludicrous performance, as
the little orator was chucked up every two or three minutes..
The  Emperor is highly  spoken  of  by  every one   as   an
intelligent and progressive monarch.    He is thirty-five years old,
the direct descendant of the gods, and inherits by primogeniture.
The crown has been on the head of his direct line of ancestors
for 2,200 years.    His advisers are ten cabinet ministers, who are
the heads of the great departments of state ; viz.: Foreign and
home affairs, finance, law, army, navy, education, agriculture and
commerce, public works, and the Imperial  household.    Below
them is a senate of about forty members, chosen by the Emperor
for distinguished service to the state.    This senate discusses all
legislative questions, and their decision becomes law, subject to
the approval of cabinet and Emperor.    There is also a council
of state, appointed by the Emperor, which has administrative SOCIAL LIFE IN JAPAN.
and executive functions. Local government is in the hands of
forty-four governors of as many provinces. Local taxation is
settled by provincial assemblies elected by men twenty-five
years old, who pay not less than 30J. of land tax. There are
about 1,800,000 of these electors in the forty-four provinces.
The state religion is the religion of the minority, but it only
receives about £20,000 of public money. There are two religions
in Japan, Shintoism and Buddhism. Their relative strength is
18,000 Shinto priests and 76,000 Buddhist priests. So many
of the population belong to both religions, and so many others
ridicule both, that one can only estimate their relative strength
by the number of priests. I have failed to make head or tail of
either religion, having neither time nor inclination for their study.
P 2 212
They seem to me, however, to be fast decaying and ready to
perish. They are huge masses of superstition encrusted on a
sublime foundation, none of which is now visible,
The national expenditure of the Japanese is the modest sum
of £io,ooo,o0o. More than half the revenue is obtained from
the land tax, which averages about 15-y. an acre on rice-fields
and about 4s. an acre on other cultivable land. The rest comes
from charges on mines, roads, alcohol, tobacco, post-office, stamps,
carriages, ships, railways, telegraphs, and import duties.
Justice  costs £300,000, police  and prisons  £400,000, army
£1,400,000, navy £450,000, pensions £60,000, and £3,500,000'
goes  towards the redemption  of a   national   debt  of  about
There are about six million landowners with very small
holdings, whose tillage I have referred to in previous chapters.
Every man from seventeen to fifty years is liable to military
service in case of invasion. The standing army, with reserves,
is 110,000 strong.
They have an excellent little navy, well-manned and quite up
to modern warfare. It is, I suppose, the most powerful possessed
by any nation on the Pacific Ocean.
The area of Japan is 148,000 square miles, with a population
of thirty-seven millions.
There is a simple poor law, by which infirm and aged poor
receive enough rice to live upon. There are only 10,000 paupera
in all Japan. But that is not strange in a nation of tea-
The forests mainly belong to the Government, and cover
thirteen million acres. I believe there is a law that every tree
in Japan over a certain girth belongs to the state. This, how'-
ever, is not rigorously claimed.
The exports are about six millions sterling, consisting chiefly SOCIAL LIFE IN JAPAN.
of tea, silks, porcelain and lacquered ware, bronzes, camphor,
ginger, &c.
The imports are about four, millions. England has the lion's
share of the trade of Japan. At Kobe, when I was there, there
were twenty-four large steamers on the berth, of which five
were Japanese; of the remaining nineteen, twelve were English,
four German, two American, and one Belgian. The tonnage
of the English steamers was three times that of all the
others combined.
Japan publishes about two hundred newspapers, which have
an average circulation of each issue of about four thousand
The country possesses 250 miles of railway, 4,800 miles
of telegraph, and 6,000 post offices.
No foreigner is allowed to leave the boundaries of the Treaty
Ports without special  permission  from  the Foreign Minister,
which must be applied for through his ambassador.   The reason .
or this is that European countries will not consent to submit
their citizens to Japanese law, but insist on trying them in the
Consular Courts of the Treaty Ports.   Whenever European
powers are willing  to admit Japan to equality as a civilized
nation, the Japanese Government will gladly throw the whole
country open, and permit Europeans to settle and trade where
they please.    There is a good deal of soreness on this subject
among educated Japanese, and the short experience I have had
of their country inclines me to sympathize fully with them in
their demand that Europeans shall submit themselves to Japanese law.    Their Government  is  now engaged  on a code of
criminal and civil law based on the Code Napoleon, and when
this is completed it will be impossible to refuse them full and
equal entry  upon the rights  of civilized  nations.   Japan  is
probably now the safest country in the world for the traveller,
W~ 214
either as regards person or property, though twenty years ago it
was just the reverse.
The Japanese are a gay and light-hearted people, fond of
pleasure and amusement I spent several evenings in going to
their theatres and other places of entertainment, accompanied
by Mr. Ito, the clever and intelligent guide who went with Miss
Bird in her travels through "unbeaten tracks in Japan," and
who had also acted as guide to my friend Mr. H. W. Lucy.   He
is well acquainted with the social customs of the people, and
speaks English with great fluency. Women never take part in
Japanese theatres; when they come into a play their parts are
taken by boys. The Japanese play is a lengthy business,
beginning at jo o'clock in the morning and going on to n at
night They are mostly historical romances with tremendous
dialogues, reminding me of my schooldays and the dreary pages
of " Racine." The company come early and bring their dinners
with them, making a day of it SOCIAL LIFE IN JAPAN.
Other theatres are given up to conjurers, athletes and acrobats,
dancing girls, and music, but all are conducted with a decency
and propriety very different from similar places at home.
. There is nothing whatever in Japanese amusements that need
call a blush to the cheek of an English school-girl. Intoxicating
liquors are never sold at any place of amusement, and very little
anywhere else. Tea is the national beverage, and is brought
out on every occasion. It is
served on a tray with a small pot
surrounded by delicate little porcelain cups, and drunk hot without
sugar or milk. Sak6, or rice beer,
is the only intoxicant used in Japan,
but the majority of the population
are absolute teetotallers, and a
drunken man is a rare spectacle.
Japanese children have much
amusement provided for them, and
the most popular of all the theatres,
for old or young, were those where
some fairy tale or story was recited,
to a running illustration of magic-
lantern   views.    It   is  seldom  one
sees children without a toy of some dancing girl.
sort,  and   in  every town  there is
a "children's street," generally one of the avenues to a great
temple, where little theatres abound, little archery grounds, Aunt
Sallies, small zoological gardens, performing monkeys, and what
not, with endless toy shops where porcelain toys, dolls, kites,
flags, battledore and shuttlecocks, balls, and tops, may be bought
by fond parents for their jolly, laughing, happy children.
One of the favourite amusements of the Japanese are the 2l6
performances of the singing and dancing girls. The ladies of
our party had heard so much of these performances that Mr. Ito
undertook to arrange a private display for their benefit at one
of the principal tea-houses in Kioto. These girls are quite a
class by themselves. They begin their profession at twelve
years of age, and are apprenticed to their employer, who is
bound to teach them not only their art, but to give them a very
high general education. Half their pay goes to their parents,
and the rest accumulates for their own benefit until they marry.
They are jealously looked after and taken care of. Their
performances consist of an acted story, some of them in pantomime acting the part, while others sing the tale. In our sense
of the word they do not dance at all, they simply place themselves in tableaux illustrative of the sung story.
We were shown, on arrival at the-tea house, into a large upper
room, where chairs had been placed for us, all the rest of the
space being covered with the usual matting, and lighted with tall
candlesticks  and candles.    Presently the performers came in.
There were eight in all.    Two were dressed in pretty silk robes
of brown and dove-colour combined, and took their seats against
the wall, each with a samisen, or Japanese guitar, which they
played with a broad strip of ivory.    The other six were dressed
in long robes of bright red and dark blue, and were the actors
of the tableaux.    They all sat on their heels in a row in front of
us, and appeared to be young girls of fourteen or fifteen.    They
were very modest and well-behaved, but at once began a merry
conversation with us through Ito, displaying all the amusing
curiosity of the Japanese.   They were greatly interested in the
ladies' dresses and jewellery, asked all sorts of questions about
England, and evidently despised a maiden lady of our party of
some fifty summers, because she had lived to such an age
without a husband. ^ We asked a few questions in our turn, and iff
found that they had all entered the profession to help their
parents, speaking of them with much love and affection. I
asked the names of each, and had them translated by Ito. The
literal translation of the two singing girls' names was " Singing
Pine Tree," and " Noble Soft Lady." The tableaux girls were
J Singing Leaf," " Thousand Years Old Pretty," " First Happy,"
I Small Sour Plum Blossom," " Pleasure," " Deer," | Chrysanthemum."    I won't attempt the Japanese equivalents.
Conversation over, one of them brought in tea, and the usual
sugar-plums accompanying it. In return I handed round a
box of compressed chlorate of potash tablets, which I always
carry in my pocket, which the young ladies munched up
and swallowed with many faces, quite under the impression
that they were very choice English sweatmeats. They are as
palatable as Japanese sugar-plums, anyhow.
The performance then commenced.    Mr. Ito was in raptures
with it, and assured us it was the highest art Japan possessed.
The  music  was  horrible   and   ear-splitting.   . The   song was
extremely lengthy, and droned in a monotonous minor.    We
had two—one was  thirty-five  minutes  long,  the other forty.
The first was descriptive of the pairing of birds in spring and
the love passages of the lion and peony.    It was illustrated
by  a series  of tableaux, in  which bright fans  and coloured
handkerchiefs were brought into much requisition.    The second
was a dreary ditty in which a young daimio or prince is telling
his  nurse of all the cruel treatment he has received from his
lady-love, and of the acts of heroism he has performed with a
view to its abatement.    We were glad when the time arrived to
make the young ladies a present of pocket-money, and wish
them   good-night.     I   heartily wish   that   the   decency   and
decorum of Japanese amusements could be imported into our
theatres and music-halls.    From the Qostly performance I have 2l8
just described down to the poor theatres where the admission is
less than a halfpenny, an English girls' boarding school might
witness everything.
The only places where ribaldry and indecency is to be seen in
Japanese performances is at the Treaty Ports, for the sole benefit
of Europeans, and chiefly for Englishmen.
The Japanese have nothing approaching to our Sunday, either
for religious worship or a day of rest. They have, however,
about twenty public holidays in the year, and judging from the
way in which all classes throng the theatres and tea gardens
during the daytime, they are not slack in taking as much rest
in one way and another as will make up for our fifty-two
Sundays and four bank holidays. They resort to the temples in
great crowds on religious holidays, but as a rule they leave
religion till they are old, like other nations of the world. C  219  )
Among the sights which most attracted me at Kioto, were the
palace of the Mikado and the ancient castle of the Shoguns.
These are both difficult of access, as permission must be
obtained from the minister of the Royal Household. This was
secured for our party by the kindness of Mr. Trench, the British
Charge d? Affaires, and we lost no time in availing ourselves of
the privilege.
We first visited the palace, which is a modern building,
re-constructed after a great fire about thirty years ago. It is
built entirely of cedar, and is a huge wandering one-story
building, without any pretensions to architectural beauty. Its
great attraction, like that of all other Japanese buildings, is
found in its internal decorations, for which this palace enjoys
great repute, the best artists in the country having been
employed upon it. We felt somewhat of a shock, therefore,
when on arrival we were shown into a reception room covered
with a detestably bad tapestry carpet of the loudest pattern,
surrounded with cheap European chairs covered with "Sol-
ferino," the worst of aniline dyes; I fear but a foreshadowing
of what will happen to all the rest of the palace as " Western
civilization" continues to prevail at the Mikado's court, especially if its influence be German, as at present.
In this room we were speedily joined by two Court officials, A   TRIP ROUND  THE  WORLD.
who had been instructed to show us round.    Each room led out
of  the   other by a  series  of sliding  walls.    The first  suite
consisted of three handsome reception rooms, covered with fine
matting,  bound with red, the  Mikado's  colour, forbidden to
subjects.    These rooms, like all the rest, were entirely devoid of
furniture, which is never used in Japan, everyone sitting on the
floor, tables and other necessary articles being only brought into
the room when required for use.    From these rooms we were
shown into a charming suite of family apartments, consisting of
seven or eight small chambers, surrounding one large parlour, in
the centre of which was a raised dais, covered with a beautiful
white silk canopy, within which the Mikado was secluded from the
rest of his family, until the reforms of twenty years ago.   Passing
on through a courtyard, we enter the large hall in which the
Mikado holds his court reception.    This room is about ioo feet
long by 80 feet wide, with a dais and canopy in the centre.   The
walls are decorated with a series of portraits of distinguished
literati of China, Korea, and Japan.    The large ante-room, in
which the nobles assemble, is divided into three sections, each
a step higher, on which the three distinct grades  of nobility
are separated.    Behind  these  rooms  is  the Mikado's  study,
with recesses and cupboards in the wall, of decorated lacquer
work, for books and writing  materials.    All these rooms are
ornamented with paintings   in   distemper   on   a   dead   gold
paper, the most beautiful decorative art I have ever seen.    The
scenes   are  nearly  all drawn  from  Nature,  and  are   mostly
arrangements of animal and forest life.    The Japanese have an
intense affection for birds, insects, and flowers.    The Buddhist
religion encourages this sentiment, for it forbids the destruction
of the smallest created thing.    No Japanese child would try to
catch a butterfly, tie a string to a mouse's tail, pull the wings off
a fly, or perform any of the barbarities on dumb animals that 1m*ma
our English children so often delight in. This harmony
between human beings and the lower creatures enters largely
into Japanese art, and they specially delight in decorations in
which animals are represented in the full enjoyment of life.
Thus, one of the walls in these beautiful rooms represents storks
On reedy sandhills, with seashore and waves ; another a mass of
blossoming briers with song birds fluttering about them ; a third
a pleasant river, overhung with wisteria in blossom, with
swallows skimming over the surface ; a fourth represents mountain deer drinking at a rush-grown lake, over which curlews are
disporting themselves ; a fifth, of singular beauty, One of the few
which escaped the fire, had one panel decorated with a vine
in full fruit, in which squirrels were chasing one another about,
while the three other panels of the same room displayed a
woodland scene of marvellously painted foliage, under which
the various animals of the forest were moving about in perfect
grouping, the whole forming a picture of which Landseer himself
might have been proud.
We had spent three hours in admiration of this charming
series of decoration, and had arrived at the end of what Mr.
Ito, our interpreter, informed us was all that was ever shown.
The two officials, after a little consultation, then informed Ito
that it was so seldom that any of their foreign visitors cared
for the beautiful work on the walls as we had, that they would
relax the rule in our favour, and show us the Mikado's private
apartments as well. These were the most exquisite of all.
They consisted of nineteen or twenty small rooms, even more
perfectly decorated than the public reception rooms. The
Mikado's bedroom contained a wardrobe in sixteen panels,
representing flowers, birds, fruits, insects, and fishes, that constituted, to my mind, as perfect a specimen of decorative art
as the world could produce. 222
The next day we visited the Shogun's Castle. This building
is about 250 years old, and is entered by a magnificent gateway
20 feet wide and 50 feet high, richly decorated on every inch of
available surface with gilt bronze and carved wood panels of
birds and flowers. The " Castle" is a large, one-storey house,
similar in character to the Mikado's palace, and decorated in
the same fashion. The interest, however, is greater, as the
decorations of the castle are of the same date as the building,
and painted by the great artists of the finest period of Japanese
art, while those of the palace are modern reproductions of
similar work destroyed by the fire. The various rooms of the
castle are divided, for ventilation I think, by wide friezes of
pierced woodwork of finely-carved subjects of birds and flowers,
which, in combination with the distemper panels below, had
a very striking and beautiful effect. It is very curious, in
studying these two palaces, to notice how much that is best
and loveliest in modern European decorative art has borrowed
its inspiration from the great artists of Japan. It would be
wise for the authorities at South Kensington to try to
obtain a series of the finest of these decorative panels, copied
by competent Japanese artists. I can conceive of nothing
that would be of greater service to those clever students who
are doing so much to raise the standard of decorative art in
England. They would show how perfectly the Japanese, in
their marvellous work, discard all unnecessary detail, and seize
simple and symmetrical forms only.
As we came away from the castle, my daughter and I could
not resist the temptation of entering one of the charming tea
gardens to which Japanese families resort when they give
festivities. The garden was at the back of a tea-house,
and consisted of about twenty raised wooden platforms,
some   10 or   12  feet square,  each of which was  completely JAPANESE ARTS AND MANUFACTURES.
surrounded and rendered private by flowering bushes of chrysanthemums in pots. On entering, the garden looked like
a fine flower show. These compartments were filled with
merry parties at dinner, and as we passed in front of each
entrance the host would politely invite us to enter and
partake of his hospitality. Mr. Ito informed us that it would
be considered polite if we accepted one of these invitations
after we had walked round the gardens, and we did so,
joining for a short time a family party of seven or eight,
who were celebrating a birthday of one of the children. We
declined the food, but took tea and sweets, chatting with
them through our interpreter. They were very anxious to
know if my daughter was married, and at first rather despised
her, in that she was not. But on my explaining jocularly
that she was waiting for the young Mikado (a lad of eight),
they accepted the • statement with perfect gravity, and saluted
her with profound respect. Ito afterwards told us that
they would consider it ill-bred to show doubts of any
statement, however preposterous, made to them by a stranger
and a guest. No intoxicating liquor was being consumed on
the premises ; all were drinking tea with their little banquets.
The only sign of strong beverage visible was in a picture of
Mr. Gladstone, with Hawarden Castle in the background, laying
aside his axe while he imbibed a pot of stout with keen enjoyment depicted on his countenance. This was the highly-
coloured advertisement of the beverage, and was evidently a
treasured specimen of the finest English art, dear to the
soul of the tea-house proprietor, who called our attention to it
with justifiable pride.
During our stay in Kioto, I visited several manufactories of
some of the staple industries of the country, with which we are
familiar in England, such as pottery and porcelain, cloisonnee A TRIP ROUND  THE   WORLD.
enamels, lacquered wares, bronze and metal work, and textile
Perhaps  the  finest of  all  the  arts   of   Japan   is   that   of
lacquering upon wood.    This ware is in universal use in Japan,
and is largely exported as well.    Boxes, trays, bowls, dishes,
cabinets, cups, vases, bottles,   and,  indeed,  almost  everything
which we make of glass, in Japan is made of lacquered wood.
The manufacture is not carried on at large factories, but in the
homes of the workpeople, in rooms scrupulously clean and free
from dust.    The cup, bowl, or other article is cut out of a piece
of perfectly dry wood, and finished in a curious lathe, whose
spindle revolves first one way and then another, with the same
action as a bow drill.    When a perfectly smooth surface has
been secured, coat after coat of lacquer is laid on, and the whole
ground down to a fine hard surface by means of charcoal, ands
polished with the ash of deers' horns.    The finest specimens are
decorated with gold ; thick lacquer is laid on by a fine hair
pencil in floral and other designs, powdered gold being shaken
over the sticky surface, and burnished when dry.    The designs
are  often  in  high  relief, and  sometimes  are  quite  elaborate
pictures.    I have a little medicine box in gold lacquer, about
three inches by two inches, on which the artist has drawn about
one hundred wild horses in every possible attitude, the whole
forming a most delicate and beautiful work of art.    Often the
lacquer is inlaid with pearl  and  ivory carved  in  relief, and,
indeed, there is no end to  the variety of treatment possible
in this interesting manufacture.
The lacquer tree is one of the commonest in Japan, and the
clear varnish is taken from it when the tree is from five to eight
years old. The bark is sliced from the trunk and the stem
nicked here and there with a knife. The exuding juice is
scraped off, and when no more will come the tree is cut down, JAPANESE ARTS AND MANUFACTURES.
chopped into small pieces, and soaked in water for some days,
after which a quantity of the varnish is skimmed off the surface.
The Japanese export large quantities of pottery to all the
countries in Europe, producing artistic porcelain at a price and
of a quality that defies competition. There are upwards of a
hundred potteries in Japan, employing many thousands of the
population, but I could get no statistics. The pottery produced
in Japan during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries is the
most beautiful in the world, and has been Copied in every great
centre of porcelain manufacture in Europe. The well-known
I Crown Derby " is directly copied from the products of Imari,
in Japan, while the ware known as | Satsuma " has furnished the
motive for the best work of the Royal Worcester potteries.
We visited a great many of the shops where various kinds of
pottery was produced. Those working on a large scale had
little to show that was really fine, and it seemed to me that
the enormous demand for their wares which has set in lately,
and which gives no sign of abatement, is slowly deteriorating
the high quality of both decoration and workmanship. But in
some of the smaller factories, where the work was carried on by
a single family, aided by one or two specially-trained assistants,
we saw specimens that were as fine as anything Japan has
produced at her best period. There is, unhappily, everywhere a
tendency to overload with decoration, and to depart from that
charming simplicity which characterised the old art of Japan,
and this is visible not only in pottery, but in their enamel,
bronze-work, and textile fabrics. I bought from a curio dealer
at Nikko an old kettle of forged iron, round which twined a
single spray of blossom inlaid in gold and silver, with two or
three figures seated under it. It is an exquisite piece of work,
its special charm lying in its simplicity of treatment I was
told at Kioto that a silversmith was reproducing this old inlaid
Q 226
work, and I went to his shop to see what it was like. He was
producing excellent results, but his kettles were so overloaded
with decoration as to lose all suggestion of being intended to
boil water in. An old Satsuma cup is decorated with a
single chrysanthemum only, or perhaps a golden pheasant in
flight, or a tender spray of plum or cherry blossom just straying
round it. A modern Satsuma cup will have a flower garden
spread over its entire surface, and the'vendor will urge you to
buy it because it has fifteen different specimens of butterflies
and insects perched on the blooms.
If the Japanese maintain the old traditions of their decorative
art, their trade in pottery, bronzes, enamels, embroideries, silk
fabrics, lacquer, and art work generally, already of great proportions, will increase indefinitely. In America alone, where
there are no art manufacturers worth naming, they ought to find
a market that will employ every pair of hands they can train.
But if they push their mania for Western influences too far I
think they will find that Western ideas are best carried out by
Western brains, and that it is Japanese art in its integrity, and
not Japanese imitations of English and French art, that
will succeed in bringing prosperity to their workshops.
On the 14th of November we left Kioto, with many regrets,
and took the train to Kobe, embarking the same evening on
board the P. and O. steamer "Thibet" for Nagasaki and Hong
Kong. Next morning found us in the famous Inland Sea of
Japan, a long strait between the two principal islands, from 10
to 30 miles wide, stretching 240 miles east to west, and expanding into six great lagoons, dotted over with rocky and
well-wooded islands. There is about 700 miles of seaboard to
the Inland Sea, densely populated, every inch of available soil
on the islands and the mountain flanks being under fine cultivation.    I counted on the chart 407 islands between Kobe and A STREET  SCENE,   KIOTO.
Simonoseki; on each side ranges of lofty mountains rise 6,000
or 8,000 feet above the sea, and the combinations of mountain,
island, and village, with stretches of blue water dotted with
junks and fishing boats, formed one long succession of charming
pictures from dawn to sunset. We passed the narrow straits
of Simonoseki, about half-a-mile wide, at dusk, and were soon
out in the open sea, heading for Nagasaki, which we reached
about nine o'clock next morning. The Inland Sea, though full
of swift currents and whirlpools, is perfectly safe navigation, and
as it is well lighted throughout, it is navigable night and day.
.''. <-j&&Ge&r*~^.
From a sketch by the Author.
Entering Nagasaki harbour, the terrible island of Pappenburg
is pointed out to us, the scene of the martyrdom of the last of
the Japanese Christians, in the seventeenth century. Early in
that century there were over two millions of Christians in Japan
the disciples of Jesuit missionaries. The Ruler of Japan, dreading
the increase of the new religion, and alarmed at the number of
Franciscans, Jesuit priests, and Spanish mendicant friars who
were pouring into the country, determined to suppress Christianity altogether, and decreed the expulsion from his dominions
of all  the  foreign  priests.     The  Christians, headed  by their 230
priests, rose in rebellion, and were defeated. No quarter was
given, and the new religion was stamped out with fire, sword,
and torture, prisoners being offered the choice of recantation
or crucifixion. But few of these Romanist converts abandoned
their faith, and hundreds of thousands were horribly slaughtered.
The history of Christendom furnishes no greater instance of
sacrifice  and heroic constancy.    The Christians made a final
From a sketch by the Author.
stand against the Shogun in an old castle near Nagasaki, which
they fortified strongly. Two months' siege reduced it, and the
garrison, amounting to many thousands, were hurled from a
steep rock on the island of Pappenburg, now a favourite pic-nic
resort for the people of Nagasaki. The great Shogun thus
obliterated the last trace of a hundred years of Papal Christianity. It remains to be seen whether the determined efforts
which   are   being   concentrated   on   Japan   by  English   and JAPANESE ARTS AND MANUFACTURES.
American evangelical Christianity will succeed with a people
who once accepted in such numbers, and with such devotion,
the ritual of Rome.    I think it will.    Japan has moved on since
Nagasaki is one of the famous harbours of the world. It is
about six miles long and a mile wide, land-locked by high hills,
with good anchorage and deep water throughout. It is an
important coaling station, some thousands of tons of good coal
being raised every week from an island about ten miles off.
We remained there about seven or eight hours, and then proceeded to Hong Kong, where we arrived on Sunday morning at
10 o'clock. A  TRIP ROUND  THE  WORLD.
Forty years ago Hong Kong was only a barren island in the
midst of am, archipelago at the entrance of the Canton river,
inhabited by a male population, who combined the innocent
pursuits of fishing and stone-quarrying with the more exciting
pastime ©f piracy, an amusement of long standing, the name of
I Ladrones " (thieves) being given to the islands by the Portuguese of Macao, two hundred years ago. From all I hear the
name is still well deserved, for Hong Kong is the Alsatia of
Canton, and whenever a citizen of that blackguard city goes a
step too far he bolts for Hong Kong. Piracy, too, still exists.
Every Chinese sea-going junk carries a couple of cannon and a
stand of small 'arms, ostensibly for protection from pirates, but
in reality to enable them to do a little piracy on their own
account when opportunity offers, in the shape of a weaker junk
than their own., when they destroy all evidence of their crime by
slaughtering all on board.
The island of Hong Kong presents a very picturesque
appearance from the sea. It is a single rugged mountain ridge,
broken into several striking peaks from 1,500 to 1,800 feet high,
with wooded ravines running down between them to the sea
shore. It is about 11 miles long and from two to four miles
wide, enclosing an area of 29 square miles. The main entrance
to the magnificent land-locked harbour is by the Lymoon Pass,
only half a mile wide. HONG KONG.
The harbour is one of the finest roadsteads in the world. It
is surrounded by mountains from 1,000 to 3,000 feet high, with a
depth of water varying from 20 to 60 feet, covering an area of
over 10 square miles, every inch of which affords good safe
anchorage. There are three good entrances from the sea, well
lighted at night.
It is impossible to imagine a more beautiful spectacle than
From a sketch by the Author.
that presented from the deck of our
steamer as we dropped anchor in Hong
Kong Harbour. Steamers and sailing
ships of every nationality were riding in the roadstead, the surface
of the water swarming with junks and boats of every description,
lending life and animation to the scene. On one side the island
of Hong Kong, with its lofty peaks steeped in the morning
sunshine, the white villas and gardens of the Europeans on the
slopes above the town glistening like pearls and emeralds; the
brown native town, the blue sea flecked with a thousand little
sails, and "the British fleet a-riding at anchor" in the foreground. On the other side the busy wharves and graving docks
of Kowloong, the frowning forts of Stonecutter Island, and the
lofty mountains of China beyond." It is not always thus. . In
summer terrific hurricanes, called typhoons, brew in the mis-
II 234
named Pacific Ocean beyond the Philippine Islands, and visit
Hong Kong in the full strength of their devastating circle. One
of the finest of the noble buildings on the Kowloong side of the
harbour is the Observatory, on the roof of which is a pole and
red ball, the dreaded typhoon's warning. When the glass
begins to fall anxious watch is kept on the red ball, and when it
is run up to the top of the pole a sight worth seeing begins.
The 2,000 junks, sampans, hakans and other boats bolt hot foot
from the quays of Hong Kong, every sail set and every oar out,
and pack themselves out of harm's way under the sheltering
wing of Stonecutter Island. Every steamer gets up steam
promptly, and all who can get in huddle into a sheltered corner
with Her Majesty's fleet. The population get indoors with all
speed, securely closing every window, shutter, and door, and all
wait the arrival of the dreaded enemy. The barometer falls an
inch an hour, till it gets round almost to "set fair" the wrong
way, and then a blast like a shot from a hundred-ton gun falls
upon the town and bay. Junks and boats which have not gone
to Stonecutter's are blown ashore and piled in matchwood on
the beach, verandahs fly down the streets like kites, even the
great granite blocks of the sea wall are torn from their position,
and ocean steamers have to drive their engines at full speed to
keep their anchorage. The loss of life and property is sometimes very great in spite of all precautions. Steamers have been
driven together and broken like pipkins, and large ships have
been stranded far above high-water mark. Two days after a
great typhoon in 1874 ninety-six corpses were picked up on the
smallest island in the harbour.
The P. and O. launch took us ashore about eleven o'clock on
Sunday morning, the other passengers waiting for the hotel
launch. On reaching the jetty fifty Chinese 'long-shore coolies
leaped on board, seized our portmanteaus, and began tugging HONG KONG.
and fighting over them like vultures over a carcase. Our luggage
and they, in " one wild burial blent," tumbled on shore, and we
gave it up as lost. To our great relief, however, a small man
who had come ashore with us, a P. and O. luggage clerk, rushed
into the melee, belaboured the coolies with fist and boot, and
in about three minutes an orderly procession of twenty, four to
each portmanteau and two to each Gladstone bag, started for the
hotel, the energetic P. and O. at the head, my daughter and
I bringing up the rear. The procession briefly halted at the
hotel office for the number of our rooms, then solemnly ascended
to the third floor, and the luggage was deposited in our two
respective chambers. I asked P. and O. how much I was to pay,
and he instructed me to give a halfpenny each! I gave them a
penny, P. and O. rebuking me gravely for " spoiling the market,"
and they appeared abundantly content. Presently, however, P.
and O.'s back being turned, they all came clamouring, for
more on the plea of "too much piecy top side," by which
they meant to signify three pairs of stairs, but P. and O.
suddenly returning, swept them out of the hotel with many
thumps and kicks.
Stick and fist seem to be the only treatment meted out to the
coolie population of Hong Kong. It may be quite true, as some
Europeans urge, that no other argument prevails, but I am not
surprised that " China boy" in return steals whatever he can,
and sticks a sly knife into a European skin every now and
Immediately after lunch we started out to see what we could
of the only real Chinese town we shall visit in our travels,
as we cannot spare time to visit any portion of the Chinese
Empire. Hong Kong is virtually two towns. In one the
European merchants and their clerks, with the military and
naval forces, live; in the other the Chinese. A  TRIP ROUND  THE   WORLD.
There are 8,000 population in the one, 160,000 in the other,
and the smaller population covers the most ground. Two
leading thoroughfares, Queen's road, and the Praya or Quay,
run through both quarters. The Queen's road contains the
shops, clubs, banks, and hotels, the Praya the merchants' offices
and warehouses, with wharves and jetties innumerable. It is in
contemplation to extend the Praya sixty feet further out into
the harbour, as the traffic of the port is becoming congested for
want of space.
China town consists of three or four good wide thoroughfares,
parallel with the Praya, out of which wander narrow filthy lanes,
swarming with people of all ages and both sexes, and suggesting
a very maggoty, mouldy cheese more than anything else. The
people are rough, brutal, uncivil, villainous-looking, in marked
contrast to the charming .and delightful population we have left
behind us in Japan. The open shops and pleasant tradesmen
we saw there give way to grimy, dark little dens, the windows of
which are covered with glass, it being unsafe to leave goods exposed to view in Hong Kong, thieves being not only abundant but
universal, while escape in the crowded streets is certain and easy.
The wide distance which is usually maintained between
precept and practice is amusingly illustrated by the scrolls one
sees hanging up in every shop, on which are printed exhortations
from Confucius in praise of honest traders, and commending
civility to strangers.
The Hong Kong shops are famous emporiums for Chinese
curiosities, and here one may purchase silk and satin embroideries,
filagree work, pipes, gold bangles, and earrings, sandal wood
boxes and fans, carved ivory, carved walking-sticks, carved horns,
tortoise-shell work, and dead birds of wonderful plumage; the
workmen who are manipulating these various articles sitting in
the window to be stared at by the passers by. o
The signboards are often in Chinese and English, the latter
being generally of the kind known as " pidgin." Many of the
shops hang out wooden emblems, a practice common enough
in our own country.
As one wanders further and further from the English town,
Hong Kong gets frowsier and more ruffianly every yard, till
Tai-ping-shan is reached (the Hill of Great Peace, as it is facetiously called), where a seething mass of blackguardism exists.
Here are the sailors' and soldiers' grog shops and their inevitable
associations and surroundings, resorted to by seamen of all
nationalities, and women of the most degraded character. Low
music halls, liquor bars, old clothes shops, pawnbrokers, filthy
cook shops, and filthier opium dens abound everywhere, with
dirt, squalor, and population to match. I have never seen a city
so lovely as Hong Kong, when viewed from a respectful distance, nor one in which beauty of situation and magnificence
of buildings was laid so completely cheek by jowl with ugliness
and horror of every kind.
In the better part of China town the streets are very quaint
and picturesque, running up the side of the hill in a series of
long steps, with shops on each side. The whole population is on
foot, everyone being either carried in a sedan chair or walking.
There are a few jin-rickishas plying for hire on the level ground,
but there are only two carriages in Hong Kong, the governor's
and Mrs. Jardine's, the wife of the leading merchant of the place.
The streets are full of perambulating tradesmen ; water-carriers,
with buckets at each end of a bamboo pole; fruit sellers with
baskets of pears, grapes, oranges, brilliant persimmons, and
shaddocks; while others vend pieces of sugar-cane, pea-nuts,
and sweetmeats. Coolies go round the houses carrying huge
cages of live chickens, ducks, turkeys, quails, and other birds.
At street corners are  open-air restaurants with fearful viands 240
displayed for sale, and at which Chinamen stand devouring
the dainties with great gusto, a dish of grey greasy cabbage
with fids of fat pork being the favourite. In some shady corner
is a letter-writer, who varies his occupation with a little fortune-
telling and quackery. The only open shops are the barbers', who
are kept busy all day long shaving their customers' heads and
faces, and trimming and anointing their long pigtails. The
Chinese are so particular about their shaving that they have the
inside of their ears and nostrils shaved with delicate dainty little
razors. All these, with many similar incidents, make a Chinese
street a perfect kaleidoscope of movement and colour.
After spending two or three hours in China town we called on
Sir William des Voeux, the Governor of Hong Kong, to whom
we had introductions. Government House is about 150 feet
above the town, surrounded by private grounds, and a public
garden beautifully situated and charmingly laid out, in which
palms, cactuses, poinsettas, bougainvilleas, aloes, hibiscus, ferns,
orchids, passion-flowers, and a score of other plants which only
flower with us in hothouses, were blooming in the November
sunshine. The Governor asked me to dine with him that
evening, to meet some of the leading officials of the colony, from
whom I got a large amount of interesting information, some of
which I will record presently.
The following day the Governor proposed we should spend
with him on board his steam launch, visiting the various points
of interest in the harbour and round the island ; and on the day
after Colonel Storer placed the Royal Engineers' launch at our
disposal, Major Camperdown, R.E., kindly accompanying us, to
show us the fortifications and explain the defences of the port.
We thus were enabled to see more in the three days we were
in Hong Kong than, unaided, we could have seen in a
week. HONG KONG.
At Kowloong, when finished, there will be the largest dry-
dock in the world, capable of holding the new ironclad, the
I Trafalgar," or the longest merchant steamer afloat. It will be
completed next March. When busy, the Hong Kong and
Whampoa Dock Co., who are building this dry-dock, employ in
their engine sheds and shipbuilding yard over 4,000 hands, all of
whom, except the foremen, are Chinese.
The harbour and its inlets swarm with fish of many kinds,
and the Hong Kong fish market is one of the best in the
I thought I knew most ot the methods pursued in different
parts of the world to catch fish, but I find a new one at Hong
Kong. All round the island and on the mainland opposite are
small clusters of huts where the fishermen live. In front of this
a stage runs out into the sea, on which is a rough wooden
windlass, attached to a huge drop net. This net is lowered to
the bottom, and all the boats put out from the shore, form into
a circle, and slowly close in upon the net; the fishermen, by
means of long poles with which they beat the water, by striking
gongs, and uttering fearsome yells, frighten the fish over the
drop net, which is then wound up from the platform full of the
spoil of the sea. It sounds very primitive, but they catch fish,
and that's the great thing after all.
Hong Kong is a Crown colony, with a Governor and Council,
Its revenue is about £230,000, and its expenditure about
£200,000, with an extraordinary expenditure last year, mainly on
fortifications and other public works, of £135,000. Its revenue
is derived as follows :—From Crown lands and quarries, £30,000;
markets and piers, £12,000; licences—spirit £7,000, opium
£32,000, miscellaneous £4,000; stamps, £30,000; municipal
rates, £52,000 ; postage, £22,000 ; fines and fees of courts, light
. dues, junk licences,  and  other miscellaneous items, £40,000.
R 242
The expenditure is roughly—Military, £22,000; police, £32,000;
post office, £21,000; judicial, £13,000; prisons, £9,000; fire
brigade, £2,500; harbour, £8,000; gardens and plantations,
£3,000; Surveyor-General's department, £9,000 ; various police
offices, £15,000; education, £7,500; roads and bridges, £6,000;
works and buildings, £12,000; the Governor's pay, £6,000.
There is a magnificent water supply brought to the town from
the hills by a fine aqueduct, which is a marked feature in the
landscape. £35,000 of the extraordinary expenditure of last
year was in connection with this; about £16,000 was also spent
in sanitary improvements.
The Council, which constitutes the Government, consists of
the Governor, the Colonial Secretary, the Commander-in-chief,
the Registrar-General, Treasurer, and Surveyor-General, and the
Registrar of the Supreme Court. These eight form the Executive Council. The Legislative Council, which makes the
laws for the colony, consists of the eight above named, the
Chief Justice, and five unofficial members, all of whom are
justices of the peace, and one of whom is a Chinese.
The pension list of the colony reaches £4,500 annually,
about half of which goes to the police.
The following nations are represented by resident consuls :—
Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Chili, Denmark, France, Germany,
Hawaii, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Peru, Portugal, Russia, Siam,
Spain, Sweden, and United States. This gives a good idea of
the various nationalities which throng the wharves of Hong
The places of worship are the cathedral, with about 40O
worshippers; a seamen's mission, 70; a union nonconformist
church, 300 ; a small German chapel, 100 ; four Roman Catholic
churches, with 2,800 worshippers, mostly Portuguese. All these
are European churches. HONG KONG.
The London Missionary Society (Congregationalist) has four
services in chapels or rooms in China town, with an aggregate
congregation of about 500. The Church Missionary Society
has got a little room which holds about 50, seldom full, and
German missionaries have three congregations, numbering
altogether about 200. The Roman Catholics have five Chinese
chapels, with a total attendance of 500.
It does not speak great volumes for Hong Kong Christianity
that forty years of English government and influence shows but
1,200 Christian worshippers in a population of 160,000 Chinese
subjects. Missionaries do best the further they get away from
I Christian | colonists.
The educational statistics of Hong Kong do not make one
too proud of the department. There must be at least 16,000
children of school age in Hong Kong, yet there are not 6,000 in
school attendance. There are any number of schools. Sixteen
are Government schools, one of which costs £3,000 to administer,
and is a school for the better class of Europeans, with an M.A.
at the head of it. Fifteen are Government-aided schools, the
masters of which are granted £10 a year, and 50 are missionary
schools, which receive small grants in aid, and which educate
4,000 out of the 6,000.
The currency of Hong Kong is the Mexican silver dollar, and
about four millions of paper money issued by three banks.
There is also a Colonial silver currency of 20, 10, and 5 cent
The shipping returns for Hong Kong ought to silence those
who are so fond of quavering about the decadence of British
trade and commerce. Hong Kong is the greatest trade
emporium in the East, the heart from which pulsates the commerce of a third of the human race, China, Japan, and nearly all
Oceana.    It will be interesting to analyse, from the shipping
R 2 244
returns of Hong Kong, what is the share of all this trade which
falls to England as compared with her many competitors for the
trade of the East
27,222 vessels of all nations, with a gross tonnage of 6,324,000
tons, and crews amounting to 470,000 men, entered and left the
port of Hong Kong last year. Of these vessels 23,100, with a
tonnage of 1,753,000, were Chinese coasting vessels, bringing
their country's produce to this great distributing centre; thus
leaving for all other countries 4,100 ocean-going vessels, with a
total capacity of 4,570,000, or an average of about 1,100 tons
each. Of these three-fourths of the whole, both in number and
tonnage, were English, leaving just one-fourth for all the other
nations of Europe and the world.
I will give, in order of precedence, the exact returns for each
United States
Dutch .
38       .
Norwegian   .
Italian.        .        .
This most satisfactory return is not due to the fact that Hong
Kong is a British port, for pretty nearly the same results would
be shown by an analysis of the foreign carrying trade of New
York, Odessa, Genoa, Alexandria, Antwerp, Havre, or Hamburg. HONG KONG.
The number of fishing boats frequenting the harbour and
bays of Hong Kong is estimated at 3,000; the families all live
on board their boats, and, it is said, reach a total of 30,000
The average rate of wages for labour in Hong Kong is very
low. Domestic servants (all male), 4s. 6d. a week without food ;
is. 3d. per week with food. Chinese workmen at trades, 3s. 6d.
with food. Day labourers, 8d. per day; blacksmiths, 2s.;
carpenters, ml 4d.; masons and bricklayers, is. 3d.
The Chinese are terrible thieves. Nearly 17,000 persons were
brought before the police magistrates last year for various
offences, larceny and unlawful possession being the majority;
about 400 for drunkenness, piracy, and kidnapping. Burglary,
highway robbery, and assaults make up most of the balance.
The daily average number of prisoners in prison is about
700. It must, however, be borne in mind that many of these
criminals ought to be in Canton prison instead of Hong Kong
if they got their deserts. 246
On the afternoon of November 22nd we were dropping slowly
down Hong Kong Roads on board the Pacific and Oriental
steamer "Ancona." We had about a score of cabin passengers
and some 200 Chinese coolies, who were being taken out to
Singapore by a labour company. These coolies engage for a
term of years. The company pay them so much a month, and
contract to bring them back at the end of their term of service.
About a mile from Hong Kong I heard a sudden splash.
Running to the side and looking over I saw a Chinese coolie
calmly striking out for a small boat a quarter of a mile off,
which pulled to meet him, and into which he climbed. A small
steam launch, which had been following the | Ancona," swooped
down upon the boat, and we could see the coolie through our
field glasses dragged into the launch, and thrust into its hold.
It was explained to us that these rascally coolies get a month's
pay, about 30s. in advance, and that if any of them can slip
overboard undetected they make for shore, and engage in the
next gang, pocketing the month's pay. In consequence the
steamer conveying them is followed out to sea by the agents of
the Labour Company, who pick up their man as he jumps
overboard, and then send him to prison as a warning to his
fellows. During the passage of the "Ancona " from her anchorage to the open sea no less than six jumped overboard, of whom SINGAPORE.
only two were retrieved by the launch, four escaping in boats,
every fisherman apparently being in the swindle.
We had a pleasant and uneventful passage to Singapore,
which we reached in less than five days, arriving on Sunday
morning about noon. We moored alongside the coal wharves
of the Pacific and Oriental Company, which are about three
miles from the town. The heat was very great. Singapore
being almost on the equator, the same temperature prevails
almost all the year round, and although the sun had been
clouded over all the morning the thermometer stood over 900 in
the shade. After lunch we started off in a carriage to see what
we could. The carriages are covered with a thick- roof, and the
sides and ends are open all round, with windows of open woodwork, which can be drawn up as a shield from the burning sun.
It has long been one of my dreams to see the tropics, and I
looked eagerly out of the carriage for plants and trees
familiar to me as a horticulturist and cherished in hot-houses at
home, which I longed to see growing in their native heat The
first hedge we came to contained a shrub and two creepers in
bloom, which were familiar greenhouse friends, and every
garden we passed was a mass of bananas, palms, pineapples,
cactuses, and flowering plants. I have never seen such greenery.
Talk about Ireland as the Emerald Isle! Singapore is an
emerald all the year round, for here it rains eighty inches in the
year, with a vertical sun blazing on everything between the
We drove through the town to the botanical gardens, a park
of some 300 acres, beautifully situated on the sunny slope of an
evergreen hill, the most delightful garden imaginable, nearer to
Eden than I could have believed anything on earth to be. Here
were great forest trees a mass of crimson bloom, delicate-leaved
acacias forty or fifty feet high, with vermilion blossoms at the 248
end of every twig, shathodeas covered with their great orange
flowers, bushes  of yellow  allamanda,   brilliant crotons, with
ixoras, begonias, hoyas, eucharis lilies, stephanotis, callistemons
and every variety of orchids, blooming in the open air.    In the
ponds were the wonderful Victoria Regia lily and the scarlet
lotus.    In spite of the burning sun we wandered through the
garden  for nearly two hours, at the end  of which we were
thankful to adjourn to a friend's house in the neighbourhood
for a cup of refreshing tea.   Thence we repaired to the cathedral
for evening service.    We found it a very fine church, with a
choral and processional ritual.    It was  strange to  see three
rows of huge- punkahs or fans running down the whole length of
the cathedral, waving back and forward all through the servicie
over the heads of the congregation.    I was glad to escape from
the pompous cathedral service to a hearty little meeting of
soldiers and blue jackets at the Sailors' Rest, a coffee house and
recreation room established for their benefit by an excellent lady
who lives • in Singapore, Miss Cook, to whom I was introduced
after the service, which was conducted by Col. Cardew, who
commands the regiment of infantry stationed at Singapore.
On Monday morning we again drove into the town, as the
steamer was not to sail before four o'clock. Singapore appears
to consist of three towns. The business or English town, Malay
town, and China town. They are all connected by a wide
esplanade facing the harbour, between two and three miles
long. There are many fine buildings. The Post-office, the City
Hall, the Police Barracks, the imposing Public Library, the
Cathedral, and the Government Buildings are all handsome
stone edifices of considerable pretensions. The town is full of
open spaces, beautifully laid out, especially the Chinese park, a
charming little garden of four acres in the middle of the most
densely populated district.   There is another pretty garden of SINGAPORE.
ten acres, in the middle of the esplanade, facing the cathedral,
covered with a green sward like velvet, and surrounded by
magnificent trees. The esplanade itself for more than a mile
is shaded by a double avenue.
The great business centre is Commercial Square, surrounded
by banks, shops, and warehouses. Seven leading streets radiate
from this centre, presenting the usual gay and lively scenes
peculiar to an Eastern commercial city, in which the 140,000
inhabitants of Singapore swarm, clad in the brilliant and
picturesque dresses of their twenty-five nationalities, relieved
by the rich brown skins of those who wore no dresses at all.
I suppose there is no place in the world where such a conglomeration of peoples is gathered together as appear in the
busy streets of Singapore. The Blue Book of the Colony
distributes the population among the following nationalities:—
Achinese, Africans, Anamese, Arabs, Armenians, Bengalis,
Boyanese, Bugis, Burmese, Chinese, Dyaks, Eurasians, Europeans, Japanese, Javanese, Jawi, Pekan, Jews, Malays, Manilamen,
Parsees, Persians, Siamese, Singhalese, and Tamils. About half
the population are Chinese, next come Malays, and third in
strength Tamils from Southern India.
One is much impressed by the scarcity of women in the streets.
Chinese women, however, do not leave their country readily, and
although there are 72,000 Chinese males in Singapore, there are
only 14,000 Chinese women ; there is also but one Tamil woman
to four Tamil men. The Malays, being the natives of the place,
have their population pretty equally divided between the
The smart dresses of the Malays form the most striking
feature in the scene. It consists of a single piece of silk, woven
in as many and various colours as Joseph's coat, twisted round
the waist, and hanging down petticoat fashion to below the 250
knees; a piece of white muslin or cotton cloth thrown picturesquely about the shoulders, with a noble turban of crimson
This finery is for the streets only, for a glimpse into house
or shop reveals these same dandies squatting about on floor or
counter with nothing on but a loin-cloth, the children contenting
themselves with a tin fig-leaf about the size of a penny tied
round their waists with a string.
The chair of Hong Kong and the jin-rickisha of Japan find no
place in Singapore, though there are a few of the latter. The
conveyances here are the Indian " gharry," drawn by active wiry
little ponies about eleven hands high, which bowl you along
at the rate of eight or nine miles an hour with wonderful
endurance. Their drivers are all Malays dressed in full native
I always like to visit the markets in every strange town.
Singapore, like every other Eastern town, is well off in this
respect, and the supply of food of all sorts is as usual in the
hands of the industrious Chinese, who catch the fish, grow the
vegetables and fruit, raise the ducks and poultry, and import
the beef and mutton. The food dearest to the Chinaman's soul
is duck and pig. All round Singapore are small farms in which
pigs are reared for the market, and ducks are hatched by artificial incubation. One of these hatching establishments rears
from 25,000 to 30,000 ducks every month. The hatching house
is just a small hut, roofed with tiles, with arrangements for so
modifying and retaining the sun's heat within the building that
it is maintained at one even temperature day and night. Ducks
alive, ducks dead, and ducks roasted and baked, are the leading
feature of the Singapore markets. After ducks come fish, which
are caught in great quantities in the bays and straits of the
archipelago of islands, of which Singapore is the centre, and SINGAPORE.
Which are brought to market fresh, or rather alive, twice a day,
at daybreak and at two in the afternoon. Cuttle-fish are in
great demand; crabs shaped like long-tailed fans, whose tails
are full of green eggs about the size of a pea, are also a great
delicacy. Prawns, six inches long, are prized for curry, and the
variety of fish of all sizes ranged from a 12-foot shark to the
tiniest transparent whitebait.
The shark appeared the staple food of the poor in fish diet;
but the bonita, a fish that looked like a two-foot herring, small
sword fishes, gar-fish, a creature that seemed all fins and head,
another with a head so big that its eyes look out from the
middle of its sides, and a fish about the size and character of
the chad of the English channel, were all plentiful and cheap.
One whole side of the market is given up to dried and salt fish,
which made one thirsty even to look at. Another avenue is
devoted to " chow chow," or cooked food of all sorts, where
groups of Chinese and Malays were squatted about enjoying
fearsome-looking dainties of various kinds and flavours. The
meat supply comes from Siam and India, and the fowls mainly
from Cochin China and the Malay Peninsula. In the market
we brought some fruit for lunch. The far-famed mangosteen
was in season, and is a delicate pulpy fruit about the size of a
large strawberry, with a fine subtle sub-acid flavour, embedded
in a husk about •§- inch thick. Nothing could form a prettier
study of colour for a school of art student than the freshly-
broken mangosteen, with its kernel of shining pulp, milk
white streaked with a little yellow, embedded in the bright
chestnut brown of its husk. Large pineapples at \d. each,
great clusters of golden bananas and mangoes, green-skinned
oranges, persimmons from China, lychees, custard apples, cocoa-
nuts, and other tropical fruits were displayed in tempting
profusion, but a punnet of Kent strawberries or a pound of 252
Mayduke cherries are, in my opinion, worth the whole fruit
market of Singapore.
From the market we drove some three miles into the country
to see the garden of a wealthy Chinese millionaire merchant,
who has made a hobby of it for years. I don't know how much
money the wonderful tropical houses at Chatsworth have cost
the Duke of Devonshire, nor how many thousands a year it
takes to maintain them, but Mr. Whampoa knocks them into a
cocked hat with a dozen coolies at wages of less than is", per
day. He wants no costly conservatories designed by a Chinese
Sir Joseph Paxton. His two lakes covered with Victoria Regia
leaves as big as open umbrellas, with their gorgeous flowers as
big as a wide-awake hat, thrive better under the blazing canopy
of the equator than they can ever hope to do at Chatsworth or
at Kew under glass and over coals. All the shelter he wants
for his vast collection of orchids is a little open matting
stretched across a bamboo frame, or the natural foliage of some
tree on whose trunk the orchid clings. Even Mr. Chamberlain
must take a back seat behind Whampoa as an orchid grower.
Here and there in the garden are summer-houses on tiny
islands, reached by miniature bridges, exactly like the pictures
on willow plate china. Trees and shrubs are cut into the
shapes of dogs, birds, horses, cows, mandarins, and what-not, the
effect being heightened by the introduction of fierce glass eyes,
artificial hands, heads, and feet, which give a very ludicrous
grotesqueness to the garden generally.
Singapore harbour is wide, deep, and well sheltered. The
great demand of every steamer which enters it is coal; lying, as
it does, just half-way between Colombo and China, it is one of
the most important coaling stations in the world. It is well
fortified with three excellent, newly-constructed forts, which
look formidable enough, but which are dumb dogs for want SINGAPORE.
of guns, long promised by the Home Government, but not yet
forthcoming—the Ordnance Department of the British Government being the worst-managed and most exasperating branch of
the public service.
There are four fine graving docks in the port, the largest of
which is 475 feet long, 60 feet wide, with a depth of water
21 feet There are about one and a half miles of wharves,
alongside of which ocean steamers can lie, with a stock of
300,000 tons of coal, a tempting bonfire to an enemy's cruiser
in times of war.
The Straits Settlements consist of the Islands of Singapore
and Penang, and the town of Malacca on the mainland;
subsidiary to the Government of the Straits Settlements are the
dominions of the Sultans of Johore and Perah, whose territories
lie along the Straits coasts of the Malay Peninsula, and who
are virtually under the care of a Resident; and some smaller
native states, who look to the Straits Government for counsel
and help.
The annual revenue is about £600,000, of which two-thirds
is derived from opium and spirit licences (some £380,000).
The revenue from land is £65,000; from pawnbrokers'
licences, £25,000; stamps, £50,000; port and harbour dues
£12,000; postage, £18,000; profit on coinage, £10,000; miscellaneous receipts making up the balance. The increase of
1886 over 1885 was nearly £40,000, denoting very satisfactory
material progress.
The expenditure consists of the following items : for salaries
in all the civil departments, £26,000; for administration of
justice, £80,000; for police and gaols, £20,000; for medical
service, education, £20,000; ports and harbours, £12,000;
postal services, £10,000 ; works and buildings, £160,000; roads,
bridges, and canals, £22,000; military expenditure, £40,000; 254
pensions, £15,000; which, with a series of miscellaneous items,
makes up a total expenditure of £580,000, leaving a good
surplus, and a decrease on the previous year of about £15,000.
The exclusive privilege of retailing opium and spirits is
farmed out for a term of three years, and the Chinese are the
principal competitors for both. A licence to keep an opium shop
costs 40s. Spirit licences vary from £16 to £8 for hotels and
saloons; small spirit shops, 40s.; toddy and bhang shops, 40s.
The income from opium and spirit licences is greatly on the
increase, showing that in Singapore, as everywhere else where
English influence sways the habits of natives, intemperance is
increasing instead of diminishing. The revenue from these
farmed licences has grown in twelve months, 1885-1886, from
£340,000 to £380,000. No check of any kind seems to be
placed on the issue of any number of these licences, which
appear to be issued at the discretion entirely of the man who,
for a lump sum, farms the right to grant them. I drove a circle
of 15 or 16 miles round Penang Island, and every little village
and hamlet had its spirit or toddy shop. Surely a Government
whose revenue shows a steady increase and regular surplus,
might devote some of its energies to reducing the appalling
number of opium and spirit shops. I was not surprised to hear
that missionary efforts in the Straits Settlements met with but
scanty success.
The local revenues of the municipality of Singapore are
£80,000, and the expenditure about the same. This is raised
by assessment on houses, taxes on carriages, rent of markets,
water rates, &c. The administration is all that can be desired.
The water supply is excellent, the roads level and well made,
the streets clean and well swept, the town well lisrhted. and the
same may be said of Penang, whose local revenues are £40,000.
The public debt of the colony is the modest sum of £40,000. SINGAPORE.
There is a volunteer corps in Singapore, which claims to be the
first ever started in the East Indies, and indeed it is older than
any of our existing corps at home, except the 1st Lancashire,
having been established in 1854. It consists of one officer, and
fifty-one non-commissioned officers and men. It drills between
thirty and forty times in the year, and costs £160.
The composition of the Executive and Legislative Councils is
much the same as that of Hong Kong, described in the last
chapter.   There is one Chinese on the Legislative Council.
The Governor draws a salary of £4,000 a year, with free
quarters at Government House, and various allowances and
perquisites; the Colonial Secretary is paid £1,600, with free
quarters; the Treasurer £1,000, the Surveyor-General gets
£1,200 a year besides his pay as Colonel of Royal Engineers,
the Commissioner of Lands £1,000, the Harbour Master £700,
the Postmaster-General £700, the Chief Justice £2,000, the
Puisne Judge £1,400, the Registrar £700, the Attorney-General
£1,300, the Police Magistrates from £600 to £800, the Bishop
£100! the Colonial Chaplain £600, the Inspector of Schools
£700, the principal Medical Officer £800, the Inspector-General
of Police £800, European policemen £80 and free quarters with
rations, the Superintendent of Prisons £800, with free quarters ;
and the superintendent of the Botanic Gardens £400, with free
quarters and £70 travelling expenses. I don't think the salaries
paid to these leading officials can be considered excessive, taking
into account the responsible work they have to do and the
blazing climate in which they have to do it. At Penang and
Malacca the Resident Councillor gets £1,000 a year and free
quarters, and the Resident at Perah, who is to all intents and
purposes the actual governor of the country, receives £3,000 a
The total population of the three towns of Singapore, Penang 256
and Malacca is 424,000, of which 174,000 are Chinese, 174,000
Malays, and 3,400, including military, are Europeans.
The heathen of the Straits Settlements are not much troubled
by missionary zeal. How is it, I wonder, that we so persistently
neglect the conversion of the heathen at our own doors in our
various Crown colonies? Can it be that the specimens of
Christianity who form our governing and merchant classes are
of such quality that missionaries find it impossible to get the
heathen to believe in the religion whose products they are?
The fact that a " Christian " Government draws the bulk of its
revenue from the encouraged vice and degradation of the population, may go far to account for the obstinate preference of a
Mohammedan native for a religion which enjoins total abstinence, and forbids the social habits which produce Eurasians?
The merchants say the missionaries are idle and worthless, the
missionaries retort in kind, and for myself, I fear that in
Singapore, at any rate, there is truth on both sides. There is a
magnificent cathedral at Singapore, with a Right Reverend
Bishop, a Venerable Archdeacon, and an Assistant Colonial
Chaplain. There is a surpliced choir to boot. The S.P.G. has
also a missionary, who gets £300 or £400 a year. The only
natives visible at the cathedral services are the fifteen or twenty
Malays who, standing outside the building, pull the punkah
strings to cool the fashionable worshippers inside. The only
attempt to reach the heathen by the Church of England
is a small school chapel, at which there is an attendance of fifty
or sixty at most.
The Presbyterians have a fine handsome chapel for
themselves. I surveyed it from the outside, and it had a
fashionable congregation of 150 or 200. Fifty or sixty carriages
were waiting outside, with as many native servants as there
were good Presbyterians inside.    The minister gets £500 a SINGAPORE.
year and a free house. The English Presbyterian Mission have
one clerical and one lay missionary.. They have four small
rooms in Singapore in which they hold services, and in none of
which do they muster a congregation of fifty souls. I do not
venture to judge these gentlemen. I am quite sure from all I
heard that they were excellent and pious men, but the results of
their labours are miserable and unsatisfactory, and I cannot but
think that their methods and plans of working must be wrong.
In Penang the Nonconformists have no missionary whatever,
but the Church of England (S.P.G.) maintain an excellent native
missionary to the Tamils, who seems to be meeting with
some measure of success. He has an average congregation
in Penang of eighty-five out of a total Tamil population of
In Province Wellesley there is an undenominational Protestant
mission, with an English minister and four native assistants.
They have services in five places, and possess three small
chapels, none of which will hold a hundred persons. They have
sixty or seventy Chinese worshippers among the lot The
Church of England people keep a clergyman for themselves
at a salary of £350, and have three " Catechists," who work
among the Tamils..
At Malacca, the Colonial Chaplain ministers to English
residents at a salary of £550, and they pay Mr. Chong Sin Tai,
to convert the Chinese, a salary of £30! Nonconformists do
not put in an appearance at Malacca.
So much for Protestant zeal for the conversion of our heathen
fellow-subjects in the Straits Settlements. But what are the
Roman Catholics doing? may be asked. They have twenty-five
chapels in the colony. They have forty-one priests, missionary
priests and Catechists, with aggregate congregations of 6,500. I
think it would be well if the secretaries of our various missionary
'   ! 258
societies spent twelve months in the East trying to find out
how it is that Jesuits succeed so well when they fail so com?
What -I fail to understand is the comparative zeal and success
of Roman Catholicism and the comparative failure of Protestantism in the conversion of the Eastern heathen to the Christian
faith. The fact is there, and is stubborn. I draw the figures just
quoted from returns furnished to the Government of Singapore
by the various denominations themselves, and published in the
Blue Book for 1886.
The imports from all countries into the Straits Settlements are
£12,800,000, and the exports to all countries a shade over
£10,000,000, the bulk of this enormous trade being the collection
at this great | corner shop " of the world of the produce of the
surrounding islands of the Malay Archipelago, and its distribution
to England, Europe, and America.
The Straits Settlements are free ports, open on equal terms to
the commerce of the world. The total imports and exports
from and to the British Empire reach a total of £8,400,000.
The total imports from and exports to every other nation in
Europe and their colonies, including French India, French
Cochin China, Java, Sumatra, Celebes, and all the other Dutch
islands, Portuguese India, and the Philippine Islands reaches
£6,500,000. This is a remarkable instance of the supremacy of
British commerce, drawn from a free port in the very centre of
all the most important colonies of our European competitors,
containing populations of over fifty millions, on an area of
470,000 square miles; in the midst of which we are squatted on
two small islands and a tiny province.
This is brought out more forcibly by a comparison of
shipping statistics, which demonstrate how completely Englishmen and English trade dominate in every part of the earth, SINGAPORE.
and how British traders manage to get the best of it, even in
colonies settled by other European nations.
The following shows the number of ships and tonnage entered
and cleared from the port of Singapore alone during 1886 with
their flags :—
United Kingdom
Italy .
British Possessions.
French „
Dutch „
Spanish        „
. - 108,000
These figures show conclusively how impossible it is for
Colonies not British to get their imports and get away their
exports except with the help of British bottoms and through
British emporiums. All this we owe to John Bright, Richard
Cobden, and Free Trade.
We left Singapore, after a stay of nearly two days, for
Penang, where we remained six hours, from 7 A.M. to 1.30 p.m.
We went ashore with Sir Hugh Low, the British Resident at
Perah, who, with Lady Low, were our fellow-passengers. He
and I had foregathered on the voyage, in sympathy as orchid
growers. He is a very distinguished colonial official, but I
confess his name was more familiar to me as the discoverer of
some of the most beautiful orchids in Borneo, which bear his
name. We drove together to the Botanical Gardens, about five
miles out of Penang, and spent two pleasant hours with Mr.
Curtis, the superintendent, who showed us many rare and
beautiful plants which he had brought into the gardens from
Malayan jungles.
We then breakfasted with Mr. Brown, the leading merchant
of Penang, who had been our fellow-passenger also from
Singapore, at his beautiful country house, and the wonderful
curries he gave us will linger in our memories. (   a6i   )
On Sunday morning, December 4th, the Island of Ceylon was
eagerly watched for from the deck of the 1 Ancona" by all its
passengers. Perhaps it would be more correct to say it was
eagerly smelt for, as both captain and first officer at breakfast
assured their somewhat sceptical passengers that
I The spicy breezes
Which blow from Ceylon's isle,"
was no poetical fiction, but a pleasant reality when the wind was
blowing off the land, which it was kindly and very softly doing
that morning. Certainly about eleven o'clock I perceived a
distinct odour of aromatic wood, not unlike the smell of a larch
plantation in spring, which I was informed came from the
numerous cinnamon gardens along the coast.
We had had a delightful five days' run from Penang. The
sea was calm enough all the way for a Rob Roy canoe, while
the gentle zephyr of wind, dead ahead, increased by the speed
of the ship, kept the deck and cabins cool and breezy ; an
important addition to our comfort, as the thermometer seldom
stood below 85°  even at night.
At noon Point de Galle, which was the old coaling station
before Sir John Coode's famous breakwater was made at
Colombo, hove in sight, the "Ancona" steaming near enough to 262
shore for signals to be telegraphed on to Colombo, and to
enable us to see vast cocoanut plantations on shore, with
Adam's Peak, the sacred mountain of Ceylon, rising high in the
dim distance. The Peninsular and Oriental mail steamer from
Calcutta, and also the one from Australia met the "Ancona"
twenty or thirty miles from Colombo, and the three fine vessels
kept  each  other company to port, where mails  were to be
adam's peak, ceylon.
From a sketch by the Author.
exchanged, a not unusual instance of the admirable punctuality
of the great Peninsular and Oriental Company.
It was nine o'clock, and quite dark, when we dropped anchor
in Colombo harbour, too late to go ashore, so we decided to
sleep on board and disembark in the early morning. Six
o'clock found us on deck to take a first look at the harbour.
It is enclosed by a magnificent breakwater nearly a mile long, KANDY.
of which I shall have something to say later on ; right opposite
to the ship is the busy wharf and Custom House, with the
useless old fort; northwards the crowded and picturesque
native town ; and southward the bright suburb of Kolpetty, the
whole standing " dressed in living green" of cocoa palm,
plantain, bread-fruit, and mango trees.
The ship was surrounded with native boats, clamouring for
jobs to take passengers ashore, and I saw for the first time in its
native waters the " Catamaran," which had excited my interest two
or three years ago at the Fisheries Exhibition in London. This
singular boat consists of a tree-trunk, about 20 to 25 feet long,
hollowed out like a canoe. The two sides have a sort of bulwark 3 feet high, made of upright boards lashed on, the width
between being 18 or 20 inches. If this were all, the " Catamaran "
would be the crankiest boat ever made ; but some feet away
from the canoe and parallel to it is a stout log of bamboo or
other light wood, the same length as the boat, both being fastened
together by two curved bars of bamboo. This outrigger lies on
the surface of the water, and by its weight on one side and its
resistance to the water on the other renders the " Catamaran " one
of the best sea boats in the world, and they are often met with
far out of sight of land and in very rough weather. We were,
however, glad to find that Captain Webber had kindly placed
his gig at our disposal, in which, with our luggage, we went
ashore, to find that a polite Custom House officer not only
declined to search our trunks, but volunteered to take care of
them for us till two o'clock, when we had decided to go on to
Kandy, the ancient capital, leaving Colombo till the end of our
We spent the morning in driving about Colombo, but as we
shall be there three or four days before going to Madras and
Calcutta, I will leave any remarks on the capital of Ceylon to the 264
next chapter.    At two o'clock we drove to the station and took
our seats in the train for Kandy, with a 75-mile journey before
us.    The  Ceylon  railways are  a  Government monopoly, and
there are 185 miles open for traffic.    The carriages are horribly
uncomfortable, the first-class being no better than the third-
class on an English trunk line.    I had to pay heavy excess on
our luggage.   The journey lasted five hours, an average speed
of 15 miles an hour.    For some miles out of Colombo the train
runs through a flat country chiefly under rice cultivation, or in
,grass for cattle.   The whole area is one vast swamp, every crop
being profusely irrigated, the cattle, all black buffaloes, feeding
knee deep in water.   Wherever there is a knoll, or a bit of rising
ground, a beautiful tropical picture forms itself;  a clump of
quaint cottages and barns, surrounded by palms, jack-fruit trees,
bananas, and vegetable gardens, the dark red tiles of the buildings, the bright yellow and crimson dresses of the peasants, and
the brown skins of the naked children relieving the. intense and
somewhat monotonous  tropical green.    Presently the  Kelani-
Ganga River, the greatest  stream  of water in the island, is
crossed by a very fine iron bridge, and  on the other side a
branch line turns off to the quarries from which were got the
stones for building the breakwater at Colombo.    Fifty miles
from Colombo the railway begins the great climb of 6,000 feet
to  Nuwera  Eliya.    It creeps  up the flank of a magnificent
mountain, Allagalla, whose high peak, crowning a sheer precipice, dominates the whole valley.    From the summit of Allagalla,
the old Kandyan kings used to hurl those whom they suspected
of treason.    On the opposite side of the great green valley of
Dekanda are the Camel Mountain, so called from its resemblance
to that animal, and the Bible Mountain, with a chain of connecting peaks 4000 to 5,000 feet above the sea.    In the valley
are seen terraced fields of pale green rice, the flower-like branches KANDY.
of the Kekuna trees, magnificent forest trees covered with purple
and pink blossoms, palms of all kinds, with here and there noble
specimens of the great talipot palm, and patches of luxuriant
tropical jungle, bright with a score of different brilliant flowers
or creepers which throw themselves from one tree-top to the
other, as they -tower above the tangled undergrowth. • Beautiful 266
waterfalls are seen up the glens, as the train climbs slowly by,
while others rush under us as we cross them on bridges, to leap
into mid-air, and lose themselves in clouds of mist and spray,
in which the sun dances in all the colours of the rainbow. Every
now and then we get a glimpse beneath us of the fine road constructed long since by the English Government, to enable them KANDY.
to take and keep possession of the ancient capital, which had
been wrested from the Portuguese and Dutch by the valiant old
Kandyan kings ; this road is now superseded by the railway.
A few miles from Kandy the train, after passing through several
tunnels, runs over what is called | Sensation Rock," skirting the
edge of the cliff so closely that the sight drops a thousand feet
before it rests on anything on which a blade of grass or a
tropical creeper can lay hold. Just beyond this exciting scene
we cross the dividing ridge of two water-sheds, and in a very
■short time reach the lovely valley of Kandy, run into the station,
and by seven o'clock find ourselves comfortably settled at the
Queen's Hotel.
Ceylon is an island of villages, and Kandy, though the ancient
capital, is not much more than a group of two or three villages,
containing in all a population of 22,000. It has little of general
interest, the only buildings of any importance being the gaol,
the barracks, three or four churches and chapels, the Government office, and the world-renowned Temple of the Sacred
Tooth of Buddha; this latter being an insignificant little shrine
of no great antiquity or architectural beauty, its only interest
lying in its peculiarly sacred character, rendering it the heart
from which all Buddhist sentiment ebbs and flows.
The temple is a small building with a good-sized courtyard
surrounding it, the outer walls of which are decorated with
hideous ill-executed frescoes of the various punishments inflicted
in the Buddhist Hell, differing very little in character from those
one so often sees depicted in Roman Catholic churches in Italy.
..The deepest and hottest hell, with the most gruesome fiends to
poke the fire, is reserved for those who rob a Buddhist priest,
or plunder a Buddhist temple. The great relic, which is two
inches long and one inch thick (what a tooth to ache!) is preserved in a gold and jewelled shrine, covered by a large silver 268 A   TRIP ROUND  THE WORLD.
bell, in the centre of an octagonal tower with pointed roof. It
is only exposed to view once a year, but I was privately
informed that five rupees would open the door for me. I
preferred my five rupees.
In the porch of the temple were groups of horrible beggars,
who display their various wounds and defects of nature with
much liberality. The most popular appeared to be a monster
with a huge tooth growing through his under lip. I suppose
his popularity was due to the fact that this horror was nearer to
the genuine article in the shrine than could be found outside
the mouth of a hippopotamus.
The kings and priests of Burmah, Siam, and Cambodia send
regular yearly tribute to the Temple of the Sacred Tooth, and
more or less reverence is paid to it in India, China, and
The real charm of Kandy lies in its beautiful situation. The
town itself is lost to view in green tropical foliage. It is built on
the banks of a large artificial tank or lake, about three miles in
circumference, surrounded by beautiful hills five or six hundred
feet above its surface, on which are dotted here and there the
pretty bungalows of missionaries and other well-to-do inhabitants..
We spent a morning wandering about the lovely lanes of these
hills, in any of which you may gather from the hedgerows
bunches of "hot-house" flowers, which would fetch a guinea
at Covent Garden market. From their heights magnificent
views of the high mountain ranges of Ceylon are obtained, all
richly timbered to the summits.
I found growing wild on these charming hills sunflowers, roses,
draccenas, poinsettas, mimosas, lantanas, balsams, iconias, petreas,
passion-flowers, and a dozen other varieties of beautiful blooms
familiar to me in English hot-houses, but whose names I cannot
now call to mind. KANDY.
In the afternoon we drove out to the Government Botanical
Gardens at Peradenia, whose distinguished director, Dr. Triman,
I had become acquainted with in the train, and who showed
us much kindness and hospitality. The entrance to the garden
is through a fine avenue of tall india-rubber trees, towering into
the air a hundred feet, spreading out into enormous leafy crowns
fifty or sixty feet in diameter, their huge roots, longer than the
tree is high, creeping over the surface of the ground like great
snakes, sometimes growing straight up in the air till they attach
themselves to the lower branches, thus forming stout props to
support the weight of heavy foliage, and enable it to resist storm
and tempest.
There is no need in this garden for the familiar notice, | Keep
off the grass." If you venture on the lawns, especially in damp
weather such as we are having, nasty little leeches the thickness 270
of a hair wriggle through your trousers and stockings, and suck
your blood till they swell out to the thickness of a lead-pencil.
Instances are known in which men have gone to sleep on the
grass in Ceylon, and have been found dead, sucked to death by
hundreds of these horrible creatures. It is also necessary to
beware of " snakes in the grass." The day before our visit one of
the gardeners was bitten by a snake, and was lying dangerously
ill in the hands of a native doctor, who possesses secret remedies
handed down to him from his forefathers by word of mouth only.
While we were enjoying a cup of tea at Dr. Triman's bungalow,
another gardener brought a fine lively cobra which he had just
caught, tied by a string to a stick, striking its fangs vigorously
into every object that was thrust towards its head. On the whole,
therefore, we kept to the paths and beaten tracks as much as
possible to avoid these gentry, as well as centipedes and black
scorpions, which are equally plentiful. Immediately inside the
garden gate is a wondrously beautiful group of all the palms
indigenous to the island. Here is the cocoa-nut, with its
cylindrical trunk two feet thick, soaring up into the air 150 feet,
crowned with a huge tuft of feathery leaves eighteen or twenty
feet long, with great bunches of fruit clustering in their shade.
The Palmyra palm, which, according to a famous Tamil poem,
can be put to 801 different uses. Its leaves are circular, with
seventy or eighty ribs, opening like a great fan. These leaves
are used by the natives to thatch their cottages, to make matting
for floor and ceiling, bags and baskets, hats and caps, fans,
umbrellas, and paper. The fruits, as well as the young seedlings,
are cooked and eaten as a nutritious vegetable, and from the
flower-spikes, alas! the native obtains palm wine or toddy,
which can be distilled into stronger arrack. The Sago palm and
its relative, the Kitul palm, yield not only the nutritious pith
which makes the familiar pudding of our childhood, but also KANDY.
produce excellent sugar and splendid fibre for rope-making and
other purposes. The Areca-nut palm produces the well-known
Betel nut, which, rolled up in leaves of the Betel pepper, with a
little lime and tobacco, makes the favourite " chaw " of the natives
of Ceylon and India, a harmless, though nasty practice, for which
they will sacrifice meat, drink, washing and lodging. More
beautiful than these is the queen of all palms, the Talipot, which
for thirty years from its birth pushes up its straight white shining
trunk, with its crown of dark green leaves, till it reaches a height
of a hundred feet or more. Then it blooms—and such a bloom !
a tall pyramidal spike of white blossoms forty feet above its
crown of huge green fans, perhaps the noblest flower the world
produces. Each bloom forms a nut, and the tree, having
scattered its seeds to become palms in their turn, dies of the
supreme effort We were fortunate enough to see a magnificent
Talipot in full bloom, and to obtain a good photograph of its
marvellous beauty. The travellers' palm is one that contains
quantities of perfectly pure water in the thick ends of its leaves.
The Cabbage palm has a capital edible imitation of that homely
vegetable as its fruit, and the Oil palm, with a dozen other
varieties, were all to be found in flourishing growth in the
remarkable clump of palms I am trying to describe so feebly.
The next point of interest was a plantation of nutmeg and
clove trees, further on were Jack-fruit trees, with their huge fruit
growing from the trunk and weighing fifty or sixty pounds each;
bread-fruit, pomeloes, the candle tree, the magnificent A nthurium
Regale, with its vari-coloured leaves, three feet long by two feet
wide, were all passed and examined with interest and curiosity.
We then were taken into a dense piece of jungle, in which giant
creepers, with stems six or eight inches thick, climbed to the
tops of the highest! trees with profuse blossoms of all sizes and
colours, while the ground was covered with all kinds of tropical 272
ferns, including the lovely Adiantum Farleyense, the gold and
silver ferns, great tree ferns, Adiantum Peruvianum, and a hundred other varieties of Terns, lycopodiums, and ground plants.
But the great sight is the. giant bamboo, which grows in
mighty clumps by the bank of the fine river that flows round
the gardens.   These.form enormous green thickets more than KANDY.
100 feet high, and the same in thickness, consisting of 80 or 100
tall cylindrical stems, each from one to two feet thick. They
grow so closely crowded together that a cat would find it
difficult to find her way through. They shoot 70 or 80 feet
into the air without a break, and then spread out into immense
branches of slender little leaves, that give the appearance of
gigantic green ostrich feathers. As every one knows, the
bamboo is one of the most useful plants that grow in the
tropics, and I might fill my book with a description of all the
uses to which it may be put.
The garden swarms with pretty striped squirrels and with
bright-plumaged tropical birds, while hanging from the branches
of the trees are swarms of great flying foxes, which live upon
the different kinds of fruit, and very often get drunk on the
sweet palm sap, being found lying helplessly incapable in the
vessels which the natives leave out all night to catch the juice.
But there is no end to the botanical wonders of this unrivalled
and fascinating garden of Peradenia.
The next day we left Kandy in company with Dr. Triman to
visit the great health resort of the English residents in Ceylon
Nuwera Eliya, 6,200 feet above the sea level.    In the advertisements of one of the hotels here the attraction is held out that it
is I so cold as to make it possible to burn open English fires all
the year round."   The great desire of a European who has been
baked for eight or ten months in the oven of Colombo is to feel
cold, to wear a great coat  and  comforter,  to sleep without
mosquito nets, and with hall a dozen blankets over him.    So
he goes to the most detestable place on the whole island, where
the rain-clouds of a radius of 1,000 miles love to dwell; where
the climate is cold and damp; where the thermometer is at
freezing point at six in the morning and eighty in the shade at
noon; where the rainfall is 150 inches and the sun shines only
T 274
sixty days in the year. Here the Anglo-Cingalese love to play
at "being in England." They build themselves feeble imitations of English cottages ; despising the fine flora of the country,
they fill their gardens with pallid pinks, roses, and other English
flowers, which look as miserable as a Hindoo beggar in a
November London fog. They grow wilted specimens of
English vegetables, and on rare occasions really clever gardeners
have been known to ripen a strawberry ; then a solemn dinner
party is given to intimate and valued friends, and that strawberry is reverently divided and eaten in solemn silence. It is
the dream of their lives to grow a cherry, and the man who
succeeds will have a monument. They have cherry trees, but
they all turn into weeping willows, and blossom feebly all the
year round. These cottage gardens gave me a nightmare, and
I dreamt that Nuwera Eliya was a bit of England, dying of a
bad cold in the head. The only English plant that has acclimatised itself with any vigour is gorse, which was all about the
' hedges in odorous profusion.
Dr. Triman took us to see his hill garden at Hakgala, six
miles from Nuwera Eliya, where his clever deputy, Mr. Nock,
grows with some little success Various English plants and
flowers, and with distinguished success a wonderful variety of
semi-tropical flora ; he also experiments on possibilities for the
advantage of Ceylon planters. Here we saw the magnificent
New Zealand tree ferns, the huge shield fern, splendid rhododendron trees as big as oaks, with trunks 2 feet thick, beautiful
ground orchids, lobelias, large gentians, balsams, an endless
variety of ferns and lycopods, and a brace of magnificent jungle
cocks, which flew out of a tree as we passed by, resplendent in
their gold and crimson  plumage.
Nuwera Eliya is a great plateau, on which is a fine lake about
two miles long, which has recently been stocked with English
trout. One was caught with the artificial fly the other day, and
the intelligence was immediately cabled to the English press.
They are said to be thriving, but Dr. Triman fears that as soon
as the natives find out they are there they will manage to clear
the lake out somehow or other. Fish have a poor chance in
this Buddhist country. A Cingalese won't take life, so he never
tastes butcher's meat; he has, however, no scruple to help a fish
on to dry land and let him die if he can't get back to his native
element, and by this amiable quibble he is able to add fish to
his mess of rice without any breach of conscience. Your
Buddhist is a true Pharisee. The highest peak in the island,
Peduru Galla, rises just behind our hotel, and is a favourite
excursion, but as we were not fortunate enough to get one of
the rare sunny days, we did not ascend it. Peduru, and all
the peaks round Nuwera Eliya, are forest-clad to the summit,
and are the chosen home of the wild elephant, which still exists
in considerable numbers in Ceylon. There were five or six of
these huge beasts in the jungle, within half a mile of Hakgala
gardens, and every now and then they had a tramp through
them, to the sore dismay of poor Mr. Nock. There are also
leopards, cheetahs, tiger-cats, jackals, elk, wild boar, monkeys,
and a fine crested eagle, all plentiful in the ancient and sombre
forests which clothe these lofty mountains.
Instead of returning to Kandy by the railway we determined
to drive from Nuwera Eliya through a fine mountain pass to
Gampola, a distance of forty miles, taking the train thence back
to Kandy. It was very curious, in our descent of nearly five thousand feet, to watch the gradual change from temperate vegetation
to all the luxuriance of the tropics. Half-way down we stopped
at the Government Rest House at Ramboda to bait our wretched
pair of ponies, and get some refreshment for ourselves.
These Government rest houses are placed at intervals  of
T 2
fifteen miles along all the roads in Ceylon. They contain a
good guest room and five or six bedrooms, rudely furnished, but
tolerably clean and comfortable. The charges are moderate.
For the use of the house, gd.; for a bed, is.; for sheets and
blankets, is.; a lamp, 4d. ; breakfast of tea or coffee, toast, eggs,
and meat, 2s. 3d.; dinner of three courses, 2s. 6d. There is also
accommodation for poor people at reduced rates, and for horses
and cattle.
Ramboda is situated in a wide amphitheatre of mountains,
and has a dozen fine waterfalls within a few hundred yards of
each other, the amphitheatre indeed being one great spring of
water. From Ramboda to Gampola we passed through a
succession of coffee, tea, cocoa, and chinchona plantations, of
which I shall have something to say in my next chapter, when I
shall refer to the natural resources of this rich and fertile colony,
and we finally arrived at the station in a deluge of tropical
We spent a quiet Sunday at Kandy, visiting some of the
missionary stations and native churches. Next day we came
down to Colombo to spend two or three days previous to sailing
for Calcutta and Madras. C   277  )
WE spent four days pleasantly and profitably at Colombo, the
capital of Ceylon. While at Kandy I had written to Mr. A. M.
Ferguson, the proprietor of the Ceylon Observer, who had long
been known to me by repute as the man of all others best
acquainted with the social condition of the Cingalese people,
asking him if he would give me the opportunity of making his
acquaintance. I got a reply from his nephew and partner,
Mr. John Ferguson, saying that his uncle was up country, but
that he himself would call on me on my arrival, and be glad to
help me all he could to some knowledge of the country and its
people. He kept his promise, and treated us with a princely
hospitality. His time, his carriage, his library, his bungalow,
and himself he placed unreservedly at my disposal, and the
more I drew upon him the better he was pleased. A. M. and
J. Ferguson are sound authorities on all Cingalese questions;
the one has been forty-seven years, and the other twenty-five
years editor and proprietor of the leading newspaper on the
island, and both have written many books and pamphlets on
the resources of Ceylon, marked by great shrewdness and
research. Mr. John Ferguson at once constituted himself our
I guide, philosopher, and friend," and by his help we saw and
learnt more in four days than we could have acquired in four
weeks without him.    I was also favoured with long interviews 278
with Sir Arthur Gordon, the Governor of the Colony; Mr.
O'Brien, the Colonial Secretary ; Mr. Campbell, the Inspector-
General of Police and Prisons ; Mr. Pigott, the senior Baptist,
and Mr. Scott, the senior Wesleyan missionary, both of whom
have had twenty years' experience of Ceylon ; Mr. Grinlington,
the leading merchant of Colombo, and many others ; and in this
and my next chapter I desire to tell my readers some little of
what I have gleaned from these authorities with regard to
this valuable possession of the British Crown.
Colombo owes its existence as a seaport to the genius of Sir
John Coode, the great engineer. Before the existence of the
breakwater, Galle was the chief port of Ceylon, the coaling
station of the Peninsular and Oriental Co. and other lines of
steamers trading with Calcutta and the East. Poor Galle is now
quite extinguished by its powerful rival, whose harbour, easily
accessible by day or night, provides safe and easy anchorage for
the entire passing trade of the East, as well as for the bulk of
the export and import trade of Ceylon. The harbour is over
500 acres in extent, more than half of which has a depth of from
26 to 40 feet at low water spring tides. In this deep water
twenty-four sets of double screw'moorings, suited for vessels of
the largest class, drawing. 25 feet and over, have been laid down,
furnishing accommodation far in excess of the present requirements of the trade, which, however, will in good time require it.
all and more.
The first block of the magnificent breakwater was laid by the
Prince of Wales on December 8th, 1875, and the lamps of the
lighthouse shone out over the Indian Ocean on the night of
January 27th, 1885. The breakwater thus took nearly ten years
to complete. The shore portion, or " root work," extends over
4\ acres, reclaimed from the sea, having a solid wall of concrete
blocks to the sea front, and a_fine wharf about 1,000 feet long on COLOMBO.
the harbour side with a depth at low water of 14 feet, accommodating a considerable number of good-sized vessels engaged
in the coasting trade.    From this wharf the breakwater starts, in
16 feet of water at low tide, extending northwards for over 3,000
feet, then curving inwards for another 1,000 feet or more, which,
with the shore portion, makes a total length of 4,877 feet, or close
upon a mile in length.    The breakwater ends in about 40 feet of
water at lowest tides with a circular head 62 feet in diameter,
on which there is a fine lighthouse visible for 10 miles.    This
circular head is formed of concrete in mass, in a wrought-iron
caisson under low-water, and of concrete blocks above the level.
The breakwater itself is composed of a mound of granite rubble
stone, raised by convict labour from quarries about   12  miles
distant.    The rubble mound, after being allowed twelve months
to consolidate, was levelled off by means of divers to depths
varying from  13 feet below water at the land end to 24 feet
below water at the breakwater head.    Upon the mound, thus
levelled, huge concrete blocks from 16 to 32 tons in weight are
founded, extending up to eight feet above low water, the whole
being finished off with a capping of concrete in mass, four feet
thick, throughout the whole length of the breakwater.
■ During the south-west monsoon the sea breaks over the whole
length in columns of spray 50 feet high, a marvellous sight which
I was not privileged to see, the north-east monsoon blowing while
we were at Colombo.   But I remember having seen a fine photograph of it in Sir John Coode's office at Westminster, which was
more like Niagara Falls turned upside down than anything else.
The total cost of this wonderful feat of engineering skill was a
little over £700,000, but its value to the colony is far beyond
price.    Before its construction vessels were often delayed days,
and even weeks during the south-west monsoon, owing to the
impossibility  of   loading  and  unloading   shore   boats  in  the 28o
tremendous swell which rolled across the open roadstead, while
even during the lulls of the monsoon the damage to cargo and
the loss overboard, as well as the extra cost of operation, was
very great indeed. The value of the breakwater to the port of
Colombo is best shown by the fact that since 1882, when the
breakwater first began to afford material protection to shipping,
the tonnage of the port has increased from 1,700,000 to very
nearly 3,000,000 tons.
It is proposed some day to meet the breakwater with a
northern arm from the opposite shore, which would make the
harbour smooth water in every wind that blows. The mercantile interests press this further development of the harbour
upon the Government with some vigour, but the present
Government prefer, and as I think rightly, to push on other
public works, viz., railway extension, irrigation tanks, and the
further fortification of Colombo. But if the trade of the port
continues to increase in anything like the proportion of the last
few years, some extension of the harbour and the building of a
good dry-dock will become imperative.
The breakwater makes a very fine promenade when the wind
is off shore, but is very little resorted to by the inhabitants.
We walked to the end and back one fine evening, but it was
deserted except by three or four natives lazily fishing, and by
small processions of crabs making short cuts over the breakwater from the open sea to the more succulent feeding grounds
of the harbour.
The Grand Oriental Hotel at Colombo is one of the sights of
the East. It is a caravanserai with 100 bedrooms, and when
two or three Peninsular and Oriental steamers are in port these
rooms are all filled, and couches are laid out in the verandahs
and passages for the surplus. Its dining-room will seat 300
people, and its huge verandah, facing the sea, is crowded with COLOMBO.
pedlars and vendors of the precious stones for which Ceylon is
famous, a trade largely supplemented by Birmingham enterprise.
These brigands are mostly Moormen, descendants of a colony of
Arabians who have waxed mighty in the retail.trade of Ceylon.
They address their customer with bland confidence, introducing
themselves in various guises. One informed me that he was
■ Streeter's confidential buyer " ; another introduced himself as
I the personal friend of Lord Rothschild "; and a third as the
I favourite jewel broker of the Prince of Wales." They vary
their list of distinguished patrons for Americans, substituting
Tiffany, General Grant, and Vanderbilt, while they dazzle
Australians by enormous prices. I was told over and over
again, " If you was Australian my price would be a thousand
rupees, but for Englishman I take 200," finally coming down to
20.   No one escapes in the long run.    Scornful sceptics begin 282
by treating every stone as " Brummagem glass," and threatening
the pedlars with a stick, but they always end by being taken
into a dark corner to see a sapphire gleam in the light of a wax
match, and come on board with a dozen bits of coloured glass
wrapped up in cotton wool, for which they have given £2 or
£3  each.    If glass, these so-called  precious  stones are only
worth a few pence ;   if genuine,  they  are worth £$0 each.
You may, however, go to respectable shops, known to bankers
and merchants, and buy very pretty things made of third-class
sapphires and cat's-eyes cheaply enough, after two or three days'
patient chaffering ; there is one jeweller who has a small stock
of really good things, but every fine stone that is found finds a
ready market at its full value in Calcutta, London, or Paris, and
the splendid stones purchased by transient passengers are either
flawed or otherwise inferior in colour or quality, or are other
stones than represented.    The finding and cutting of gems is an
important trade in Ceylon.   At Kandy the cutters are seen in
their little shops working a cast-iron cylinder with a bow, like a
drill, on which they grind the uncut sapphire or ruby, which are
the gems most frequently discovered.    The zircon, a smoky-
coloured diamond, the amethyst, the chrysoberyl, or cat's eye, a
gem  which has lately come into fashion, and for which great
prices are demanded, garnets, spinel rubies, tourmalines, and the
pretty  moonstone which was so popular a purchase at the
Colonial Exhibition in London a year or two back, are all found
in various parts of Ceylon, mostly about Ratnapura (the city
of gems).
Ceylon is also celebrated for fine pearls, gathered from oyster
or mussel banks on the north-west coast.
The pettah, or native market-place, is, as is always the case in
the East, a scene of busy life, full of varieties of costume, race,
and colour.   The traders in Ceylon are Moormen and Cingalese; COLOMBO.
the labourers are mostly Tamils from Southern India. The
Moormen wear cotton trousers and jacket, with a curious
beehive-shaped hat of plaited grass, dyed in various colours.
The Cingalese wear a sheet of brightly-coloured calico twisted
round the hips, and reaching to the feet like a petticoat, with a
white jacket. They delight in long hair, which they twist up
into a chignon, combing it back all round the forehead. Their
only ft hat" is a round tortoise-shell comb, which every Cingalese
wears as a sacred duty. The Tamils wear as little as possible,
and the children of all sorts nothing at all except a bit of string
round the waist or neck, from which is suspended a charm to
ward off the attacks of their favourite devil. The Cingalese
women and men dress very much alike, and it is often difficult
to tell which is which until you realise that the men wear a
comb, and the women hair-pins. Besides the pettah, or central
market, there are others clustered round the suburbs, to which
the villagers on their own side of the town resort. One of
these is on each side of a curious bridge of boats, about 500 feet
long, two miles out of the town on the Kandy road, composed
of twenty-one boats anchored at each end, from which two are
slipped every day for two hours to let the traffic through.
The Cingalese are a rice-eating people; rice and some curried
vegetable, such as cocoa-nut, jack-fruit, or plantain, with a little
dried fish, forming their diet all the year round. Fish, fruit, and
vegetables, therefore, are the chief stocks of all the markets.
The vehicular traffic of the country, except a few carriages in
Colombo and Kandy, is drawn by bullocks. These animals are
often very beautiful, being all of the Zebu breed of India, which
are generally to be seen attached to Wombwell's Menageries
under the name of " Brahmin Bull." There is a pretty little
variety, about the size of a small pony, that are used in gigs and
other carriages, and travel 30 miles a day at a trot of about 5 284
miles an hour. The bit is a piece of rope passed through a
hole in the nostrils. The Buddhist religion, though forbidding
the killing of any animal, does not seem to forbid their torture,
and these poor brutes are most cruelly treated by their drivers.
The Government has been obliged to enact severe penalties for
this offence.
The streets of Colombo are broad and well made, with a
gravel of rich, dark red colour, which contrasts pleasantly with
the profuse foliage of the endless gardens and trees which line
the footpath, the poorest hut having a bit of garden about it.
The town is placed on a neck of land between a magnificent
sheet of fresh water and the sea, so that every street has its
vista ending in bright and sparkling water, giving a special
charm to the town that I have never seen anywhere else. There
are no fine buildings in Colombo. The Governor's residence,
called Queen's House, the Government Buildings, the Cathedral,
Clock Tower, and other public institutions call for no comment
on the score of architectural merit. The Museum is the finest
building in the town, well situated in the midst of the Cinnamon
Gardens, now a public park.
The Barracks are a series of buildings capable of accommodating- 5,000 soldiers. We are able, however, to "hold down"
our Cingalese subjects with a single regiment. I was glad to
find that in this hot tropical station over 200 soldiers out of
1,000 found- no difficulty in being staunch total abstainers.
The total population of Ceylon is 2,800,000, of whom 1,850,000
are native Cingalese, 700,000 are Tamils from Southern India,
200,000 Moormen and Malays, and 22,000 Europeans and
Eurasians. The religious .census shows that 1,700,000 of the
population are Buddhist, 600,000 Hindu, 200,000 Mohammedan,
and 270,000 Christians.
The Roman Catholics are in overwhelming majority among COLOMBO.
Christian denominations (220,000 of the'whole), being as successful in Ceylon as everywhere else throughout the East.
The Buddhist priests are very ignorant, and exercise little or
no moral restraint over their people, who are more attached to
their ancient superstition of devil worship than they appear to
be to Buddhism, which they only respect so far as the outside of
the cup and platter is concerned. The devil-dancer and his
curate, the tom-tom beater, have a good time in Ceylon, and
there are 2,735 oi these scoundrels distributed throughout the
island. They are simply professional exorcists, and as everything untoward—bad weather, sickness, and what not—is the
direct result of devils, they are in continual request. It speaks
ill for Buddhism that 2,000 years of influence over the Cingalese A   TRIP ROUND  THE  WORLD.
has not destroyed this base and grovelling superstition, which
has rooted itself so deeply that even native Christians will resort
to it secretly in great emergencies.
During the brief fortnight I have been in Ceylon I have
endeavoured as far as possible to find out what is being done by
Christian missionaries to conquer this headquarters of Buddhism.
The Roman Catholic Church has been at work longer than the
Protestants, having entered the mission field with the Portuguese
conquerors 350 years ago, who brought with them the usual
army of ecclesiastics. Their methods of conversion were bound
to succeed more or less. The Inquisition played its part, " conversion 1 was the only gate to employment open to the natives,
and the priests didn't object to these converts "bowing in the
house " of Buddha, if they were reasonably often at mass. But
whatever the methods pursued by the Roman Catholic missionary,
they get and keep disciples.
The Dutch cleared out the Portuguese in 1656, and, although
they had no inquisition, they refused employment to any native
who refused to make profession of the Protestant religion. In
1796 the English cleared out the Dutch, and in 1815 were in
possession of the whole island. There was not much missionary
spirit in English churches during the dawn of this century, but
as early as 1812 the Baptist Missionary Society commenced
operations in Ceylon, followed in 1818 by the Church Missionary
Society, and a little later by the Wesleyans, who are now the
most active of all in the island.
Seventy years of Protestant missionary enterprise has produced 22,000 Episcopalians, 20,000 Wesleyans, 13,000 Presbyterians (a large proportion of whom, however, are descendants of
the Dutch), and 5,000 Baptists, in all 60,000 Protestants, old and
young, of all sorts, as contrasted with 220,000 Romanists.
Does this reflect credit on English Christianity ?   The result is COLOMBO.
hardly pentecostal! I can find no fault with the men who are
at work; I had ample opportunity of judging of their quality,
and I did not find any missionary who was hot full of zeal and
devotion; shrewd, practical, and sensible. But these results
appear to me so poor and inadequate to the expenditure of men
and money that it is impossible to feel satisfied with them. For
instance, the Baptist Church in Kandy was commenced in 1841,