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BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

The Canadian guide-book. 1895. Complete in one volume Roberts, Charles G. D., Sir, 1860-1943 1895

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-q-prt « TTQ'P They are the most comfortable
JJXiOAUdXi to wear. They are fitted upon
scientific principles by competent and skilled
fitters who are familiar with the anatomy of
human stumps.
Glen Springs, S. C, August S, 189U.
A. A. MABKS, Dear Sir: I received the artificial
leg which you made for me, and commenced using
it on the 13th of the same month.   I must say that
it fits the best of any artificial leg I have ever had.
S. S. Beardon.
Tynrt » TTQ"p They obviate concussions to
jXiUAUOXi     stnmDS.  The sponge rubber foot
affords a yielding medium to walk, run, jump,
or alight upon without jarring,
Wanganui, New Zealand, June 12, 189k.
A. A. MARKS, Dear Sir: On September, 1893,
yon forwarded to me an artificial leg for my son.
It has given the greatest satisfaction.   My son has
worn it continuously; he can do all sorts of work;
he can walk all day in a rough country and never becomes
sore or lame.   He has jumped ten flight of hurdles, 3 feet
3 inches high, in 120 yards.   I have seen him jump a
standard wire fence. C. M. Taylor.
The method of fitting and construction
prevents chafing and abrading.
Ottawa, Ohio, July SO, 189k,
A. A. MABKS, Dear Sir: The leg which I purchased
from you for my daughter about a yeai ago has been worn
constantly. When she received the leg it was a perfect
fit. My daughter put it on and wore it to school the first
day.   The stump has never been chafed or sore.
Respectfully,      J. 8. Cabtwbight, C. E.
■p-np a TTQ"P They are noiseless.    The absence of
JJXjU A U Oil complicated ankle articulations removes absolutely the tell-tale thud, thump, and
flop which are the most objectionable features of all
other artificial legs,
" Mr. Marks makes absolutely the best artificial leg I
have ever seen. The core of the foot isiovered with India rubber, so that from the Instep to
the toes and back to the heel the foot is simply solid spring rubber. The elasticity of the toes
and heel compensates for the absence of ankle motion, and in walking there is none of the
jarring, 'dot and go one' walk- so characteristic of the jointed foot."
Dr. LEWIS A. SAYRE, Lecturer at Bellevue Hospital.
A treatise of 430 pages with 300 illustrations sent free.   Address
Established 42 years. 701 Broadway, New York. THE  CATARACT  HOUSE,
Established 1814.
Adjoining Statu Reservation, and direotlt opposite Goat Island.
Only first-class Hotel on the American side conducted exclusively on
the American Plan.
J. E. DEVEREUX, Manager.
——|   II -^"Select Family flofel.
17, 19, 21, and 23 McGill College Avenue, MfHMTPFAI
Unsurpassed for its central position, being
equally convenient for business or pleasure.
E. S. REYNOLDS, Proprietor.
Telephone No. 4889.
ROOMS FROM $1.50 TO $2.00 PER DAY.
Take a Hack and drive direct to the Hotel ; same price as by >bus. ^ga.^^i-,yTv-J"r'-''-7,^-f-^-'-"l-1
jj)^tttlvtwmi\c. JnKregS^PttKc
The Saratoga News, The Richfield News, The Thousand Island News,
The Adirondack News, The St. Angustine News,
The "COURT JOURNALS" of American Health and Pleasure Resorts.
$1.00   EACH,   FOR THE   SEASON.
Richfield Springs, N. "ST., Saratoga Springs, N. "ST., Alexandria Bay, N. Y.,
Saranac Lake, N. "ST., St. Augustine, Florida.
Published by FRANK Q. BARRY.
Opposite the Rapids, near and above Cataract Hotel.
A select, first-class house in every respect. -   -
American Plan, $3.00 pex Day. A-. EALTENBACH, Proprietor.
he Heart of the Berkshire Hills.
The largest Hotel in the Berkshire Hills, and the only one surrounded by beautiful grounds.
Within easy driving distance of all other resorts, as it is the center of this famous region.
Open from June 1st to November 1st.
The attention of the proprietors of Hotels and Summer Resorts, Railroad and
Steamship Companies, and all who desire to reach the very best class of Travelers
and Tourists, is called to the following publications of D. APPLETON & CO.,
as admirably adapted for that purpose.
Full particulars will be made known by addressing
^Advertising "Department, D. Appleton &■ Co.,
New York.
Illustrated.    Two Volumes.
And complete in One "Volume.
One Volume.    Paper Cover.
A clear, compact, and readable account of the great Watering-PIaces and
leading Resorts of the Summer Tourist.
Giving full descriptions of Fishing and Shooting Grounds, Resorts, etc.
A new book, with Maps and Illustrations.
Including the shores of Washington, British Columbia, Southeastern Alaska, the
Aleutian Islands, the Seal Islands, Bering Sea, and the Arctic Ocean.
With Maps and Illustrations. A most interesting and instructive booh. W GLIFTON HOUSE,
Open from May to November of each Year.
/TT4HIS quiet hotel presents to tourists every desirable
comfort.    The   cuisine  service  and attention unsurpassed.    Location directly facing the Falls.
POSITIVELY the only hotel commanding any
view whatever of the FALLS OF NIAGARA.
Check baggage to Niagara Falls,- N. Y.    Leave cars
at same place.    For apartments and information, address
G. M. COLBURN, Niagara Falls, N. Y.
With Keys to the Species; Descriptions of their Plumages, Nests, etc.;
their Distribution and Migrations. By Frank M. Chapman,
Assistant Curator of Mammalogy and Ornithology, American
Museum of Natural History. With nearly 200 Illustrations.
i2mo. Library Edition, cloth, $3.00; Pocket Edition, flexible
morocco, $3.50.
THIS book treats of all the birds, some five hundred and forty in number, which
-have been found east of the Mississippi River, and from the Arctic Ocean to the
Gulf of Mexico. The author's position has not only given him exceptional
epportunities for the preparation of a work which may be considered as authoritative,
but has brought him in direct contact with beginners in the study of birds whose wants
he thus thoroughly understands. The technicalities so confusing to the amateur are
avoided, and by the use of illustrations, concise descriptions, analytical keys, dates of
migration, and remarks on distribution, haunts, notes, and characteristic habits, the
problem of identification, either in the field or study, is reduced to its simplest terms.
For sale by all booksellers ; or will be sent by mail on receipt of price by the publishers,
D. APPLETON & CO., 72 Fifth Avenue, New York. THE*QUEEIVS
Toronto, Canada.
ONE of the largest and most comfortable hotels in the Dominion of Canada, and,
being adjacent to the Lake, commands a splendid view of Toronto Bay and
Lake Ontario. It is well known as one of the coolest houses in summer in Canada,
and is elegantly furnished throughout.
Booms en suite, with bath-rooms attached, on every floor.
THF  OITFFN'S has  ^een Uberally patronized by royalty and nobility
111 1j  VjtU J-ii-ilT U durmg their visits to Toronto, and among those who have
honored it with their patronage are:   His Imperial Highness the Grand
Duke'Alexis of Russia; their Royal Highnesses, Prince Leopold, Prince
Mfr       George; Princess Louise, and the Duke and Duchess of Connaught; the
SjjlJ!      Marquis of Lome ; the Earl and Countess of Dufferin ; the Marquis and
Marchioness of Lanjdowoe ;  Lord and Lady Stanley, of Preston ; Earl
and Countess of Aberdeen.
THE QUEEN'S is furnished with all the latest modern improvements.   Passenger elevator, electric bells, etc.
The Queen's Royal Hotel,
This hotel and summer resort is located in a beautiful grove opposite
Port Niagara, at the head of Lake Ontario and the mouth of the Niagara
River. It is capable of accommodating three hundred and fifty guests. All
modem improvements. The drives along the banks of the lake and river
are beautiful and refreshing. Application for rooms may be made to the
proprietors of the " Queen's Hotel," Toronto, Ontario, up to June 1st; after
that date, to the "Queen's Royal," Niagara, on the lake, Ontario.
McGAW & WINNETT, Proprietors. THE 
Eastern Canada and Newfoundland 
Western Canada to Vancouver's Island 
1895 Copyright, 1891, 1892, 1894, 1895,
/^3 0S"S"
Z: '^
f S'oifo
The Niagara River  5
Niagara Falls   :./....  6
From Niagara to Toronto  18
The Water Route  18
The Grand Trunk Route  16
Hamilton  18
Toronto  21
The Muskoka District  80
From Toronto eastward  35
Kingston  41
The Thousand Islands  44
The St. Lawrence Rapids  47
Ottawa  49
From Ottawa to Montreal  54
Province op Quebec	
From Montreal to St. John       ....
From Montreal to Quebec	
By the St. Lawrence River     ....
By Rail on the South Shore    ....
By Rail on the North	
From Quebec to Lake St. John ....
Lake St. John	
Down the St. Lawrence and up the Saguenay
The Saguenay River	
From Chicoutimi to the Mouth      .      .
Cape Trinity and Cape Eternity
From Quebec to the Maritime Provinces:
By Rail	
. By Steamship round Gaspe     ....
The Gaspe Peninsula	
100 .
117 IV
The Province op New Brunswick
The Restigouche      ....
From the Restigouche to Moncton .
The Miramichi	
Trips prom Moncton      ....
From Moncton to St. John .
St. John	
Up the River St. John ....
From Fredericton to Woodstock
The Upper St. John ....
The Grand Falls of the St. John    .
Above the Grand Falls
Routes for the Sportsman .
Up the Tobique by Canoe
By Rail prom Woodstock
Campobello and Grand Manan
The Return to St. John
From Moncton to Amherst .
Prince Edward Island	
From Charlottetown eastward
. 122
. 123
. 127
. 180
. 132
. 132
. 134
. 135
. 142
. 148
. 152
. 153
. 156
. 158
. 160
. 166
. 181
. 184
. 187
. 188
Nova Scotia	
To Pictou and Antigonish ....
Cape Breton     .      .      .      .
Through the Bras d'Or Waters to Sydney
From New Glasgow to Truro and Halifax
From Halifax to Bridgewater .
From Bridgewater to Yarmouth
From Halifax eastward     ....
From Halifax to Yarmouth by Rail
From Windsor to Parrsboro and St. John
From Windsor to Grand Pre
From Wolfville to Annapolis
From Annapolis to Yarmouth
. 257
.   260
The Island op Newfoundland   .
St. John's	
Trips prom St. John's   .
Along the Coast       ....
Conception Bay and the South Coast
The French Shore    ....
Montreal to Ottawa :
a. By the Canadian Pacific Ry.    .
b. By the Canadian Atlantic Ry. .
Ottawa to Sudbury
Sudbury to Sault Ste. Marie   .
Sudbury to Winnipeg   .
North Shore of Lake Superior .
Winnipeg to Reqina
Regina to Prince Albert
Regina to Calgary ....
Calgary to Donald
The Rocky Mountain Park op Cana
British Columbia    ....
Donald to Vancouver   .
Vancouver to Victoria »
General Information  811
Lessees of Fishing Rights  812
Close Seasons for Fishing and Hunting  815  LIST OF ILLUSTEATIONS.
The American Falls	
In the Thousand Isles	
Parliament Buildings, Ottawa ....
Timber afloat at the Saw-mills, Ottawa
Long Sault Rapids	
Fort Chambly, on the Richelieu River .
Gaspe Residents returning prom Church
Perce Rock	
The Beach at Paspebiac, and View op the Bay
A Moose Family	
Cape Porcupine, and Cape St. George    .
The Steamer Stanley, Prince Edward Island
The Oldest House in Prince .Edward Island
Old Fireplace at Entry Island
The Mail-boat at Prince Edward Island
St. John's, Newfoundland, before the Fire of 1892 .
The Monthly Mail Train prom Hall's Bay to Codroy
Government Houses and Town Pumps at St. Pierre .
Cape Blomidon	
The Sault Ste. Marie Ship Canal (View of the Locks, looking towarc
272 vm
Bow River Valley prom Upper Hot Sprii G5
The Great Glacier	
Indians near New Westminster .
. 290
. 301
.   306
Plan of Montreal .      .       .      .
The Gaspe Peninsula	
Belle Isle Strait	
Canadian Salmon Rivers and Gaspe Basis
Nepigon River	
Rocky Mountain Park of Canada
General Map, Province of Ontario .
" "     Province of Quebec   .
" "      Maritime Provinces   .
" "     Northwestern Canada
. 64
. 115
. 234
. 265
. 274
. 291
The dear home of freemen brave and true,
And loving honor more than ease or gold.
Agnes Maule Machar.
Stretching from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and from Lake Erie to
the Arctic Ocean, occupying a more spacious territory than the United
States and Alaska, lies the great dominion to which the name of Canada
now applies, a country whose people are engrossed in the work of nation-making. Perhaps nowhere else in the world, at this present day,
are such mighty forces stirring to such gigantic and uncalculated issues.
Within a decade there has come about such a change in the spirit of
the Canadian people that outside observers, judging from data of ten
or fifteen years ago, find themselves pathetically astray in their conclusions ; for the name of Canada, almost in a day, has become a name to
conjure with, from corner to corner of this confederation which we
have molded out of the once scattercd»and half-antagonistic provinces
of British North America. To the tourist whose interest centers chiefly
in men, in institutions, in ethnological and political problems, this country with a future and not without a significant past offers the strongest
possible attractions. To those who look for magnificence or charm of
landscape, for an invigorating climate, for the wholesome relish of rod
and gun and paddle, this region of the North makes no less active appeal. Its deficiencies, of course, are those of all new countries—its
fields have not been sown thick with blood and tears, its cities lack the
magic of inexhaustible memories, the treasures of a long-established
civilization. One city, Quebec, seems old to us, and has gathered about
its diadem of ramparts much of " the light that never was on sea or
land "; but, compared with Old World cities, it is a growth of yesterday.
The section of Canada which is here designated as Eastern Canada
is in the main coextensive with old Canada and Acadia. The rich and
populous section of Ontario which lies between Lakes Erie and Huron is
avoided, as belonging rather to the Western than the Eastern tour.
Toronto forms the most convenient center from which to start west or 2
east. The term Eastern Canada includes a large section of Ontario,
with the provinces of Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince
Edward Island. Newfoundland, and that part of Labrador belonging
to Newfoundland, though not attached to Canada, are touched upon in
the following pages, for the convenience of tourists who may wish to
visit them. The territory to be described may most conveniently be
covered in a round trip, offering abundant choice of routes, and opportunity for attractive side-trips from the most important towns along
the way. It is a small territory compared with the rest of the Dominion, but it contains the bulk of the population, much of the finest
scenery, many of the best hunting and fishing resorts, and nearly all
the history, tradition, and romance which combine to clothe the name
of Canada with something like a savor of antiquity. Here was the
center of French power in the New World, and here was fought to an
end the contest between France and England. About Quebec and
Louisbourg, Annapolis and Beausejour, battled the Leopards and the
Lilies for the dominion of half a continent. Quebec is still mighty,
the gateway to Canada; but at Louisbourg the sheep pasture now where
stood but yesterday a great stronghold, the " Dunkirk of America."
There broods a spell of mystery and romance about the site of this
obliterated city. The magnitude and the heroism of the struggle for
New France have been perpetuated for us by Parkman, and the pathos
of its termination, as represented in a single episode, by Longfellow.
The climate of the St. Lawrence region and the Maritime Provinces is in general not unlike that of New England. The climate of
Nova Scotia, in particular, is neither so hot in summer nor so cold in
winter as that of the neighboring New England States. Summer
tourists will need to make such provision against cool evenings and
occasional fog as they would make if visiting the seaside resorts of
Maine. In northeastern Quebec the summers are often chilly, and
down the giant funnel of the Saguenay there blows at times, in midsummer, a wind which makes the snuggest wraps desirable. As for
the fogs that sometimes roll in on the Atlantic coast, one may escape
them by a jaunt of a mile or two into the interior, or face them and
experience the miracle which they will work on dull or faded complexions. It is to the benign ministrations of the fog that the women of
the Atlantic seaboard owe the bloom and freshness of their faces.
The traveler who is well supplied with American bank-notes will
find no difficulty with the currency.   American bills are good all over INTRODUCTION.
Canada. American silver, except in the border communities, is liable
to a heavy discount, and in some places will be refused altogether.
The silver coinage of Canada is uniform for the whole Dominion, and
with this the tourist should keep himself well supplied.
Concerning the opportunities for making purchases, a Canadian
writer says:
" If the tourist be desirous of economizing ingeniously, he will purchase himself a suit of clothes in Toronto, Montreal, or Halifax, getting
a strong, English-looking material of Australian wool, woven in Canada ; and he will save fifty per cent over a similar article purohased in
Boston or New York. It is, of course, not ready-made goods that we
refer to, but suits made to order. In Halifax, a suit of best Canadian
tweed, durable and stylish, may be got from a first-rate tailor for $16
to $20; and a faultless dress-suit of best material for $35. In some
of the smaller towns, such as Truro and Windsor, in Nova Scotia, skilful tailors who have learned their trade abroad, and keep themselves
abreast of the fashion, are able, on account of low rents and small
taxes, to furnish thoroughly satisfactory suits of fine Canadian tweed,
of quiet and correct pattern, for $15. The lover of furs will of course
make his (or her) purchases in Toronto or in Quebec city, where the
great fur-shops supply these goods in variety and of best quality, at
prices quite unheard-of in American cities. Indian work—moccasins,
bark- and quill-work, etc.—are usually to be purchased at counters in
the chief hotels and on the Saguenay steamers, and at so-called ' Indian
bazaars' in Montreal, Halifax, and St. John. In Quebec such things
are sold in the quaint old house wherein the body of Montgomery was
laid out."
All the baggage of travelers is subjected to an examination on
passing the borders; but the customs officials, as a rule, are courteous,
and the search is not severe if the traveler shows a disposition to
facilitate it.
On the round trip from New York or Boston and back, by way of
Niagara, Toronto, Montreal, Quebec, Halifax, and St. John, the tourist
will find-the best of traveling facilities and accommodations. The
various railroad and steamboat lines by which he may make the journey are equipped with all modern conveniences; and the hotels in the
cities above named, as well as at many other places along the route,
are first class in every respect. This applies equally well to some
of the side-trips which will be mentioned in the following pages; but
on others wilder regions will be traversed, where a similar degree of
comfort and luxury is not to be expected.
In the summer season round-trip tickets are issued from New York INTRODUCTION.
and Boston and other centers; and detailed information may be obtained at the railroad and steamboat agencies. At a rough estimate it
may be said that the round trip from Boston or New York by way of
Niagara, Toronto, Montreal, Quebec, Saguenay, Halifax, and St. John,
will cost from $40 to $85 in fares, according to choice of routes.
The plan of the book, its arrangement and classification of matter,
and the system of treatment, are based on the famous Baedeker Handbooks, which are conceded to possess in a pre-eminent degree the grand
desiderata of compactness, portability, and facility of consultation. As
much aid as possible is afforded to the eye by printing the names of
places and objects either in italics, or, where they are of sufficient
importance, in large-faced type.
The very rapid growth of Western Canada since the completion of
the Canadian Pacific Railway has led to a demand for information concerning that section of the Dominion. The traveler or tourist who
comes from abroad must now cross the continent. He desires to see
the North Shore of Lake Superior and visit the famous fishing-grounds
of Lake Nepigon. The new province of Manitoba and its handsome
capital of Winnipeg claim attention. Then, the great glaciers and
snowy peaks of the Rockies are full of interest to those who are seeking for the beauties of Nature. The sportsman will desire to pause at
some convenient spot, such as the Rocky Mountain Park, and indulge
his taste with gun or rod. Finally, there are British Columbia, and
Vancouver's Island on the beautiful inland sea of Puget Sound. As
a guide or handbook of these and other equally attractive places, a description of Western Canada has been added to this edition of Apple-
tons' Canadian Guide-Book. Niagara Falls from Prospect Park.  APPLETONS'
Niagara Falls.
Shall not Niagara's mighty voice
Inspire to action high ?
'Twere easy such a land to love,
Or for her glory die.
E. G. Nelson.
The tourist who proposes to visit the St. Lawrence region and
Maritime Provinces of Canada will do well to travel with the sun,
beginning with Ontario and ending with New Brunswick or Nova Scotia.
Traveling in this direction, the descent of the St. Lawrence by boat is
open to him, with its charm of historic landscapes, and its exciting
experiences at the rapids of Long Sault and Lachine.
A little north of west from New York or Boston, on the isthmus
between Lakes Ontario and Erie lies Niagara, whither all roads lead.
Here we reach the frontier of the Maple-Leaf Land, and here our trip
may be properly said to begin.
Countless pens have striven to depict the sublimities of Niagara,
and have only succeeded in proving the hopelessness of the effort. I
will not add another to the list of failures. Not only are words inadequate to convey any just impression of the stupendous cataract, but the
eye itself, on first beholding it, quite fails to grasp its magnificence.
No one can be said to have seen the Falls who has taken but one look
and then passed on. To rightly apprehend them one should halt for
some days at Niagara till his eye adjusts itself to the new proportions,
and, like the boy that mocked the owls on Windermere, he feels that
" the visible scene
Has entered unawares into his mind,
With all its solemn imagery."
Not many years ago the Falls were so hedged about with extortionate charges that the tourist, unless a millionaire, was constrained to 6
grasp his purse-strings and flee from the spot with the smallest possible delay. Now, however, all that is changed, and on the Canadian
and American side alike the view of the falls is' free. One pays only
for such unessential extras as crossing the ferry or visiting The Cave
of the Winds behind the cataract. The whole may be done on foot or
with the aid of the street-cars which run between the Whirlpool and the
Falls, and Niagara need be costly to none but those who desire to make
it so. Cab charges are regulated by law, and hotel rates * are much
as elsewhere, varying from $1 to $4 a day.
The Falls are situated on the Niagara River, about 22 miles from
Lake Erie and 14 miles from Ontario. This river is the channel by
which all the waters of the four great upper lakes flow toward the
Gulf of St. Lawrence, and has a total descent of 333 ft., leaving Lake
Ontario still 231 ft. above the sea. From the N. E. extremity of Lake
Erie the Niagara flows in a N. direction with a swift current for the
first 2 miles, and then more gently with a widening current, which
divides as a portion passes on each side of Grand Island. As these
unite below the island, the stream spreads out to 2 or 3 miles in width,
and appears like a quiet lake studded with small, low islands. About
16 miles from Lake Erie the current becomes narrow and begins to descend with great velocity. This is the commencement of The Rapids,
which continue for about a mile, the waters accomplishing in this distance a fall of 52 ft. The Rapids terminate below in a great cataract,
the descent of which is 164 ft. on the American side and 158 ft on the
Canadian. At this point the river, making a curve from W. to N.,
spreads out to an extreme width of 4,750 ft., embracing Goat and the
Three Sister Islands. Goat Island, which extends down to the brink
of the cataract, occupies about one fourth of this spaco, leaving the
river on the American side about 1,100 ft. wide, and on the Canadian
side about double this width. The line along the verge of the Canadian
Fall is much longer than the breadth of this portion of the river, by
reason of its horseshoe form, the curve extending up the central part
of the current.   The waters sweeping down the Rapids form a grand
* The best hotels are—on the American side, the Prospect House,
Cataract House, International Hotel, Spencer House, and KaltenbacKs;
on the Canadian side, the Clifton House. The legal tariff for carriages
is $2 per hour, but it is usually easy to arrange special terms. All tolls
are paid by the traveler. NIAGARA  FALLS. 7
curve as they fall clear of the rocky wall into the deep pool at the base.
In the profound chasm below the fall, the current, contracted in width
to less than 1,000 ft., is tossed tumultuously about, and forms great
whirlpools and eddies as it is borne along its rapidly descending bed.
Dangerous as it appears, the river is here crossed by small row-boats,
t a E r °
JB     Jt     I     JS
Niagara Falls and Vicinity.
which are reached from the banks above by an inclined railroad, and
the Maid of the Mist, a small steamer, makes frequent trips to the edge
of the Falls. For 7 miles below the Falls the narrow gorge continues,
varying in width from 200 to 400 yards.   The river then emerges at 8
Lewiston into a lower district, having descended 104 ft. from the foot
of the cataract.
Here at Lewiston, where ends the gorge, was once the site of the
cataract. Instead of plunging into a deep chasm and hiding its grandeur from all but those who would search it out, the gigantic torrent
rolled, in full view of the world, over the lofty line of Queenston Heights, the escarpment of the high plateau of the upper lakes.
The recession of the Falls to their present point is thus discussed
by the Duke of Argyll:
" A very curious question, and one of great scientific interest, arises
out of the great difference between the course of the Niagara River
above and below the Falls. It has, in my opinion, been much too
readily assumed by geologists that rivers have excavated the valleys in
which they run. The cutting power of water is very great, but it varies
in proportion to the liability of floods, and the wearing power of stones
that may be carried along; much also depends on the position of the
rocks over which a river runs. If the stratification present edges
which are easily attacked or undermined, even a gentle stream may cut
rapidly for itself a deeper bed. On the other hand, when the rocks do
not expose any surfaces which are easily assailable, a very large body
of water may run over them for ages without being able to scoop out
more than a few feet or even a few inches. Accordingly, such is actually the case with the Niagara River in the upper part of its course from
Lake Erie to the Falls. In all the ages during which it has run into
that course for 15 miles it has not been able to remove more than a
few feet of soil or rock. The country is level and the banks are-very
low, so low that in looking up the bed of the stream the more distant
trees on either bank seem to rise out of the water. But suddenly in
the middle of the comparatively level country the "river enconnters a
precipice, and thenceforward for 7 miles runs through a profound cleft
or ravine the bottom of which is not less than 300 ft. below the general
level of the country. How came that precipice to be there? This
would be no puzzle at all if the precipice were joined with a sudden
change in the general level of the country on either side of the river—
and there is such a change—but it is not at the Falls. It is 7 miles
farther on. At the Falls there is no depression in the general level
of the banks. Indeed, on the Canadian shore, the land rises very considerably just above the Falls. On the American shore it continues at
the same elevation. The whole country here, however, is a table-land,
and that table-land has a termination—an edge—over which the river
must fall before it can reach Lake Ontario. But that edce does not rim
across the country at Niagara Falls, but along a line much nearer to
Lake Ontario, where it is a conspicuous feature in the landscape, and
is called Queenston Heights.   The natural place, therefore, so to speak, m„  NIAGARA FALLS.
for the Falls would have been where the river came to that edge, and
from that point the river has all the appearance of having cut its way
backward in the course of time. Sir Charles Lyell, the eminent geologist, came to the conclusion, from comparison of the rate at which the
cutting back had been observable within the memory of man, that this
cutting back is about one foot in each year. At this rate the river
would have taken 35,000 years to effect its retreat from Queenston to
I the present position of the Falls."
For a detailed description of the various points of interest at the
Falls, the tourist may depend on one of the various local guide-books,
which go into particulars in a way that can not be done in a work of
such range as the present The following brief account, condensed
from Appletons' General Guide, will indicate the wealth of material
on which these local guide-books may exercise their powers of description and imagination:
Goat Island is the point usually visited first. It is reached by a
bridge 360 ft. long, the approach to which is just in rear of the Cataract House. The bridge itself is an object of interest, from its apparently dangerous position. It is, however, perfectly safe, and is
crossed constantly by heavily laden carriages. The view of the rapids
from the bridge is one of the most impressive features of the Niagara
scenery. Below the bridge, a short distance from the verge of the
American Falls, is Chapin's Island, so named in memory of a workman who fell into the stream while at work on the bridge. He lodged
on this islet and was rescued by a Mr. Robinson, who gallantly went to
his rescue in a skiff. About midway of the stream the road crosses
Bath Island. A short walk brings us to the foot-bridge leading to
Luna Island, a huge rock-mass of some three quarters of an acre, lying
between the Center Falls and the American Falls. The exquisite lunar
rainbows seen at this point, when the moon is full, have given it the
name it bears. Just beyond Luna Island a spiral stairway (called
" Biddle's Stairs," after Nicholas Biddle, of United States Bank fame,
by whose order they were built) leads to the foot of the cliff. From
the foot of the stairs, which are secured to the rocks by strong iron
fastenings, there are two diverging paths. That to the right leads to
the Cave of the Winds, a spacious recess back of the Center Falls.
Guides and water-proof suits for visiting the cave may be obtained at
the stairs (fee, $1.50), and the excursion is well worth making. You
can pass safely into the recess behind the water to a platform beyond.
Magical rainbow pictures are found at this spot; sometimes bows of 10
entire circles and two or three at once are seen. A plank-walk has
been carried out to a cluster of rocks hear the foot of the fall, and
from it one of the best views of the American Falls may be obtained.
The up-river way, along the base of the cliff toward the Horseshoe
Falls, is difficult and much obstructed by fallen rocks. It was from a
point near Biddle's Stairs that the renowned jumper, Sam Patch, made
two successful leqps into the water below (in 1829), saying to the
throng of spectators, as. he went off, that " one thing might be done as
well as another." Reascending the stairs, a few minutes' walk along
the summit of the cliff brings us to a bridge leading to the islet on
which stood the famous Terrapin Tower, which having become dangerous was blown up with gunpowder in 1873. The view of the Horseshoe Falls from this point is surpassingly grand. It was estimated by
Lyell that 1,500,000,000 cubic feet of water pass over the ledges every
hour. One of the condemned lake-ships (the Detroit) was sent over
this fall in 1829; and, though she drew 18 ft. of water, she did not
touch the rocks in passing over the brink of the precipice, showing
that the water is at least 20 ft. deep above the ledge.
At the other end of Goat Island (reached by a road from the Horseshoe Falls), a series of graceful bridges leads to the Three Sisters, as
three small islets lying in the Rapids are called. On Goat Island, near
the Three Sisters, is the Hermit's Bathing-place, so called after Francis
Abbott, " The Hermit of Niagara," who used to bathe here, and who
finally drowned while doing so. At the foot of Grand Island, near the
Canada shore, is Navy Island, which was the scene of some interesting
incidents in the Canadian Rebellion of 1837-38, known as the Macken-
. zie War. It was near Schlosscr Landing, about 2 miles above the Falls,
on the American side, that during the war the American steamer Caroline, which had been perverted to the use of the insurgents, was set
on fire and sent over the Falls by the order of Sir Allan McNab, a
Canadian officer.
The State of New York purchased, in 1885, the property bordering
the Falls, and laid out Niagara Park, to be controlled by a State Commission, empowered to remove all obstructions to the view, and to improve the grounds. No charge is made for admission to Niagara Park.
A & vertical railway," running on a steep incline, leads from the park
to the base of the cliff; and from its foot the river may be crossed in
the steamboat the Maid of the Mist. The passage across the river is
perfectly safe, and is worth making for the very fine view cf the Falls NIAGARA FALLS.
obtained in mid-stream. A winding road along the cliff-side leads from
the landing on the Canadian side to the top of the bluff, near the Clifton House. By climbing over the rocks at the base of the cliff on the
American side (turn to the left after descending the railway), the tourist may penetrate to a point within the spray of the American Fall, and
get what is perhaps, on the whole, the finest view of it to be had.
The usual way of crossing to the Canadian side is over the New
Suspension Bridge, which arches the river about one eighth of a
mile below the Falls, and is one of the curiosities of the locality (fee
for pedestrians, 25c). It was finished in 1869, at a cost of $175,000;
is 1,190 ft. from cliff to cliff, 1,268 ft. from tower to tower, and 190 ft.
above the river; and it was widened in 1888, all the wooden parts of
the structure being replaced by iron. It was carried away by the gale
of January 10, 1889, but has been rebuilt. The tower on the American
side is 100 ft. high, and that on the Canadian side 105 ft.   A road to
views of the American and Center Falls. A short distance above the
terrace near the Falls is the spot still called Table Rock, though the
immense overhanging platform originally known by that name has long
since fallen over the precipice. From this point the best front view of
the Falls is obtained, and that of the Horseshoe Fall is incomparably
grand. The concussion of the falling waters with those in the depths
below produces a spray that veils the cataract two thirds up its height.
Above this impenetrable foam to the heighfof 50 ft. above the Fall, a
cloud of lighter spray rises, which, when the sun shines upon it in the
proper direction, displays magnificent solar rainbows. The appropriateness of the name Niagara (" Thunder of Waters ") is very evident here. At Table Rock may be procured guides and water-proof suits
for the passage under the Horseshoe Falls (fee, 50c). This
passage (which no nervous person should attempt) is described as follows by a writer in Picturesque America: " The wooden stairways are
narrow and steep, but perfectly safe; and a couple of minutes brings
us to the bottom. Here we are in spray-land indeed; for we have
hardly begun to traverse the pathway of broken bits of shale when,
with a mischievous sweep, the wind sends a baby cataract in our direction, and fairly inundates us. The mysterious gloom, with the thundering noises of the falling waters, impresses every one; but, as the
pathway is broad, and the walking easy, new-comers are apt to think
there is nothing in it.   The tall, stalwart negro, who acts as guide, 12
listens with amusement to such comments, and confidently awaits a
change in the tone of the scoffers. More and more arched do the
rocks become as we proceed. The top part is of hard limestone, and
the lower of shale, which has been so battered away by the fury of the
waters that there is an arched, passage behind the entire Horseshoe
Fall, which could easily be traversed if the currents of air would let
us pass. But, as we proceed, we begin to notice that it blows a trifle,
and from every one of the 32 points of the compass. At first, however, we get them separately. A gust at a time inundates us with
spray; but the farther we march the more unruly is the Prince of Air.
First, like single spies, come his winds; but soon they advance like
skirmishers; and, at last, where a thin column of water falls across
the path, they oppose a solid phalanx to our efforts. It is a point of
honor to see who can go farthest through these corridors of ^Eolus. It
is on record that a man, with an herculean effort, once burst through
the column of water, but was immediately thrown to the ground, and
only rejoined his comrades by crawling face downward, and digging
his hands into the loose shale of the pathway. Prof. Tyndall has
gone as far as mortal man, and he describes the buffeting of the air as
indescribable, the effect being like actual blows with the fist."
Termination Rock is a short distance beyond Table Rock, at the
verge of the fall. The spray here is blinding, and the roar of waters
Below the Falls are several points of interest, which are best visited on the American side. The first of these is the old Suspension
Bridge, which spans the gorge 2 miles below the Falls, and supports
railway-tracks, a roadway, and footways. The bridge is 245 ft. above
the water, and supported by towers on each bank, the centers of which
are 821 ft. apart. It was built in 1855 by the late John A. Roebling,
and cost $300,000. The fee for crossing the bridge is 25c for pedestrians, which confers the right to return free on the same day. From
one side of this bridge a fine distant view of the Falls is had, and
from the other a bird's-eye view of the seething, tumultuous Whirlpool Rapids. Three hundred feet above may be seen the new Michigan Central R. R. Cantilever Bridge. By descending the elevator,
which leads from the top to the base of the cliff near the site of the
old Monteagle House, a nearer view is obtained of these wonderful
rapids, in which the waters rush along with-such velocity that the middle of the current is 30 ft. higher than the sides.   Three miles below  Luna Falls and Rock of Aget NIAGARA  TO  TORONTO.
the Falls is the Whirlpool, occasioned by a sharp bend in the river,
which is here contracted to a width of 220 ft.
From Niagara to Toronto.
From Niagara Falls one has a choice of routes to Toronto. One
may go by the Grand Trunk around the head of the lake, or by rail to
the river bank below the Rapids, and thence by steamer straight across
Lake Ontario from the mouth of Niagara River. The land route (fare,
single, $2.65; return, $4.45), which is the longer, affords an opportunity of seeing that magnificent engineering work the Welland Canal,
and of visiting the cities of St. Catharines and Hamilton. If one goes
by the river route (fare, single, $1.60; return, $2.30), one sees the
beauties of the Niagara district, the gardens of Canada, the storied
Queenston Heights, and the delightful summer resort of Niagara-on-
the-Lake, besides enjoying a cool sail of 40 miles across the waters
of Ontario.
By this river route the tourist finds yet further latitude allowed
him. The journey from the Falls may be made either by the Michigan
Central to Niagara-on-the-Lake on the Canadian side, or along the
American shore by the New York Central to the wharf at Lewiston,
7 miles from the mouth, where one meets the fine Clyde-built steamers
of the " Niagara River Line," making connections across the lake four
times each day. A very popular route is by steamer from Toronto to
Queenston on the Niagara River, where connection is made with the
" Niagara Falls Park and River " Railway. This road follows the line
of the river to the cataract and the village of Chippewa, three miles
beyond. This line is so laid out as to take in all the best views of this
interesting trip—the changing scenery along the river, the varying
phases of the river itself, the whirlpool foaming in anger and succeeded
by the stretch of quiet water beyond, the view of Queenston Heights,
surmounted by Brock's historical monument, the suspension bridge, the
approach to the Falls, showing the American Falls, Goat Island, and
the Horseshoe Falls, and then the near view of the roaring cataract itself. The cars on this read, new and comfortably finished, are so constructed that every passenger has a clear and unobstructed view of the
scenery on either side. 14
The New York Central runs through The Gorge itself, along a
ledge which has been carved out of the face of the cliff. Above towers
the beetling front of rock, and far below thunders the tremendous torrent. In the gorge of Niagara the water does not flow, or rush, or dart,
but it bounds and bursts as if belched forth from some hidden volcano.
Presently the mad flood is caught and enchained for a time in the sullen vortex of the Whirlpool. Of this unmythical Maelstrom one
catches a thrilling glimpse from the car window. Then the gorge narrows again; and plunging through short tunnels, swerving dizzily on
its airy shelf, round jutting peaks, the road threads the windings of
the abyss, gradually descending, till it comes out upon the lower level
at Lewiston. Here is the head of navigation, and at the dock, to the
side of which the railway has now been extended, the tourist steps on
board the steamers. The river rests here in a great, slow-reeling eddy.
In this eddy the steamer turns, and is grateful for the service of the
revolving current.
» Opposite Lewiston rise Queenston Heights, the most famous
battle-field of the War of 1812. Here, for an autumn day, three
quarters of a century ago, raged a bitter struggle between the American and Canadian forces, resulting at length in victory for the Canadians, who paid too dear for their triumph, however, with the death of
their heroic leader, General Sir Isaac Brock. May it prove an augury
of perpetual peace and good-will along these frontiers that when, two
days after the battle, General Brock was being buried in one of the
bastions of Fort George, minute-guns were fired from the American
Fort Niagara across the river, as a tribute of respect to their illustrious adversary!
On the summit of the Heights stands the monument which has
been erected in memory of the favorite hero of Canadians. This is
the second monument erected on the spot, the earlier and smaller one,
built by a grant from the Provincial Parliament in 1824, having been
blown up in 1840 by a scoundrel named Lett. The new monument-
was erected by the voluntary contributions of the militia and Indian
warriors of Canada. It is a massive stone structure 190 It. in height,
19 ft. higher than Nelson's Column in Trafalgar Square. At the top,
beneath a colossal statue of Brock, is a gallery reached by 235 steps.
Standing on this gallery one sees unroll before him a matchless panorama, of battle-field and vineyard, of cataract and quiet stream, of
dark wood and steepled villages and breadths of peach-orchard, and NIAGARA  TO TORONTO.
fortresses no longer hostile; and far across the blue waters of Ontario
the smoke of the great city toward which our feet are set.
From Lewiston to Niagara-on-the-Lake the river flows for 7 miles
rapidly between high, wooded banks, studded with gardens and comfortable homes. If the tourist has started on the Canadian side, the
Michigan Central R. R. takes him direct to Niagara-on-the-Lake. This
route, as it winds down the side of the Niagara escarpment, gives a
wide range over the fertile Niagara plains with all their glory of peach
gardens and vineyards, and also a distant view of Queenston Heights
and Brock's monument. But it must be acknowledged that it is as
much less picturesque as it is more convenient than that by crossing
to the American side.
Niagara-on-the-Lake, where of old the fortunes of peoples were
wont to be decided by the sword, where Indians, French, and British,
Americans and Canadians have contended for the supremacy of the
Lake regions, where the first Parliament of the old province of Upper
Canada was held in ancestral fashion in the shade of a spreading oak,
is now but a merry watering-place. In the neighborhood is the battlefield of Lundy's Lane, the scene of a hard-fought struggle between
Canadian and American forces. The chief episodes that now stir the
surface of Niagara's summer calm are the Saturday evening hops at
the Queen's Royal Hotel, which are attended by the American officers
from Fort Niagara opposite, and by gay yachting parties from Toronto.
The country round about is a garden; there is capital bass-fishing to
be had, and the facilities for boating and bathing are not to be excelled.
In the days of its political and military importance the town bore the
more business-like name of Newark.
The run across from Niagara to Toronto occupies about two hours,
and in the tourist season the lake is usually unruffled. As Lake Ontario, however, is 180 miles long and about 70 in extreme breadth, it
possesses every facility for an occasional storm of genuine Atlantic
proportions. The Chicora and Cibola, of the "Niagara River Line,"
however, are Clyde-built ocean-going craft of steel, and maintain regular service in all weathers, leaving Lewiston every week-day at 8 a. m.,
10.30 a. m., 12 noon, and 5.40 p. m., and Niagara-on-the-Lake half an
hour later. There are officers of the American and Canadian customs
on the boat to examine baggage during the trip across; and the Niagara River Navigation Company issues through tickets and checks
through baggage in connection with the main railroad and steamboat 16
lines of Canada and America.    Returning steamers leave Toronto 7
a. m., 11 a. m., 2 p. m., and 4.45 p. m.
If one chooses to go by land around the head of the lake his way
lies through a fair country. The Grand Trunk Ry. runs from the
Falls to Hamilton, whence the Great Western division of the same
road carries the traveler eastward to Toronto. A few miles west of
Niagara is Merritton, where the railway plunges into a tunnel which
leads it under the Welland Canal. Merritton is otherwise known as
Thorold Station, as it is there that passengers leave the train for the
little town of Thorold on the canal. In this neighborhood is the battle-field of Beaver Hams, which Canadians regard with pardonable
pride. During the War of 1812, when the Americans were in possession of Fort George and Niagara and the British troops had fallen back
on Burlington (now Hamilton), the British general advised the Canadian
volunteers to disband and return to their homes, as he was contemplating
the possibility of abandoning all that section of the province to the foe
and retiring to Kingston. In this crisis, being thrown entirely upon
their own resources, the Canadians proved themselves equal to the
emergency. What followed has been thus described by Miss Louisa
Murray: " Merritt's militia regiment of light horse, with some other
militiamen and volunteers, established themselves at a building known
as ' De Cew's stone house,' converting it into a little fortress, whence
they harassed the Americans, driving off their foraging parties,
and intercepting their supplies, with such success and impunity as
only an intimate knowledge of the country could have given them.
Colonel Boerstler was sent from Niagara with two field-pieces and 600
men to break up this little stronghold, and one or two other outposts
of the British, who, since the decisive battle of Stony Creek, were
moving back toward Fort George, and he might have succeeded but
for the patriotic spirit and bravery of a woman. Laura Secord, the
young wife of James Secord, a militiaman lying wounded at Queenston, saw the American troops moving from Niagara, and, learning
their destination, set out at night, and walked twenty miles through
the woods to warn the little band at the stone house of Bocrstler's approach. At any time it would have been a difficult journey, but in war
time, with the risk of meeting some savage Indian or other lawless
marauder in the lonely woods, only a woman of singular energy and NIAGARA TO TORONTO.
courage would have undertaken it. Mrs. Secord, however, accomplished
it in safety, and when Colonel Boerstler arrived at Beaver Dams at 6
o'clock in the morning, he found his march impeded by a small number
of militiamen, hastily collected, and a party of Indians led by their chief,
young Brant. This number, altogether about 200, seemed trebled when
seen through the thick foliage of the trees, from among which they
poured volley after volley from their muskets on the surprised and bewildered Americans, every volley accompanied by the fierce yells of the Indians. While Boerstler was still uncertain whether to advance or retreat, Ensign Fitzgibbon, with 40 soldiers, the only British troops in the
neighborhood, arrived at the spot and took in the situation at once.
With admirable courage and coolness, be tied a white handkerchief on a
musket, and, holding it up, advanced alone, calling on the enemy to lay
down their arms and surrender; upon which Colonel Boerstler, believing
that the whole British army was in front, surrendered his force of 600 infantry, 50 cavalry, 2 field guns, and a stand of colors, to the young ensign
and his 240 men." The victory is commemorated by a small granite monument, with the inscription " Beaver Dams, June 24, 1813." The heroic
achievement of Laura Secord has been made the subject of a historical
drama by Mrs. S. A. Curyon, aDd of a stirring ballad by Charles Mair.
The city of St. Catharines is on the Welland Canal, about 3 miles
from its Lake Ontario outlet. The trade center of this inexhaustibly
fertile Niagara region, and supplied with unlimited water-power by
means of the canal, St. Catharines has become an important commercial city. It is purely a product of the canal, and owes its existence
as a city to the indomitable energy of William Hamilton Merritt, who
conceived the idea of the great engineering work and finally pushed it
to completion. St. Catharines has important ship-yards, mills, and
machine-works ; handsome public buildings, first-class hotels, and one
of the best collegiate institutes in the province. It is also a very
popular health resort, much visited by Southerners. The waters of its
mineral springs rank high among the medicinal waters of the world.
There is fishing in the neighborhood for black bass, perch, and
pickerel.    Chief hotel the Welland House ($2).
The Welland Canal, connecting the waters of Lakes Erie and
Ontario, is a work of tremendous importance, giving as it does an outlet to the sea for the vast trade of the Great Lakes. The canal is 27
miles in length from Port Colborne on Lake Erie to Port Dalhousie on
Lake Ontario. The difference in level between the lakes is about 327
3 18
ft., which is overcome by a system of 25 lift-locks. All the masonry
of the work is of splendid and massive proportions, and is built of an
enduring gray limestone. At Welland the canal is led over the Chippewa River by a costly aqueduct. The original feeder of the canal was
the Chippewa River, which proving at times inadequate, a branch canal
was cut to the Grand River. Of late, however, arrangements have
been made by which the canal is always adequately supplied from
Lake Erie itself. Along the line of the canal are strung a number of
prosperous villages. The first sod of the original canal was turned in
1824. Mr. Merritt's modest conception was a canal " 4 ft. deep, 7 ft.
wide at bottom, 19 ft. wide at the water surface, and to' accommodate
vessels not exceeding 40 tons burden." The present structure has a
width at the bottom of 100 ft., arid accommodates vessels of 1,500 tons.
Leaving St. Catharines our train passes the villages of Jordan and
Beamsville, and 27 miles from Niagara we find ourselves at the busy
village of Grimsby. Here is the summer resort of Grimsby Park,
with its famous Methodist camp-meeting ground in a grove of oaks and
pines beside the lake. The region about Grin sby is literally one great
peach-orchard. It is estimated that there are something like 400,000
peach-trees in the Niagara district, which ships annually over a million
baskets of this delicious fruit. The beauty of the peach-orchards,
whether in bloom or when bending under their wealth of luscious pink
and white and golden spheres, is something that beggars description.
The peach harvest begins about the end of July and continues until
the middle of October. The peaches are shipped all over Canada in
baskets covered with pink gauze. In this favored region flourish also
apples, pears, plums, cherries, all kinds of small fruits, melons, quinces,
grapes, walnuts, chestnuts, and even figs. Beyond Grimsby we have
only the stations of Winona and Stony Creek to pass before we come
to Hamilton.
The chief hotel of Hamilton is the Royal ($2.50 to $4 per day),
which is first class in every respect; but there are many other good
hotels, such as the St. Nicholas ($1.60 to $2) and the Dominion ($1 to
$1.50), where the tourist may be accommodated more cheaply. The
city is well supplied with restaurants, called coffee-rooms. The chief
club is the Hamilton Club. Theatres, the Grand Opera-House, Association nail, Alexandra Arcade. The city is traversed by street-cars,
and hacks are to be obtained at the station and the cab-stands as
well as at the chief hotels. NIAGARA  TO  TORONTO. 19
The city of Hamilton is beautifully and fortunately situated at
the head of navigation on Lake Ontario. Across the upper end of the
lake, where the northern and southern shores stand but 5 miles apart,
the east winds of centuries have heaped together a long bar of sand
nearly a thousand feet in width. This is known as Burlington
Beach, and it cuts off from the stormy lake the quiet waters of Burlington Bay, the harbor of Hamilton. A short canal through the Beach
connects the inner and the outer waters. The Beach is a favorite summer resort for the citizens of Hamilton.
Hamilton lies at the foot of a steep hill called the " Mountain," and
occupies one of those " benches " which surround the lake, and probably mark a former level of its surface. The site of Hamilton was
chosen originally by a loyalist refugee, one Robert Land, on account
of its splendid landscape. The " Mountain" is a portion of the
Niagara escarpment, which here curves grandly back from the lake to
form the amphitheatre which the city occupies. Down a great sloping
strath, dividing the heights in this neighborhood like a gigantic gutter, at the foot of which now lies the town of Dundas, geologists tell
us that, in remotest ages, the waters of Lake Erie discharged themselves, instead of at Niagara.
Hamilton may be said to have had its birth in the War of 1812,
when Burlington Heights became a center of military operations, and
one George Hamilton cut up his farm into town lots. In 1824 the cutting of a canal through Burlington Beach began the prosperity of Hamilton, which, however, was sadly interfered with by the cholera plague
and great fire in 1832. Hamilton was not disheartened, and went to
work again with the pluck and spirit which have earned her the title
of " the Ambitious City." Her ambition bids fair to be gratified in all
save one particular—and in that she has by this time relinquished all
hope. Of old, she thought to outstrip Toronto; but when, in 1888,
with a population less than 45,000, she saw Toronto with 170,000, she
probably changed the tenor of her ambition to something more within
the range of possibility. Her ancient rivals, Ancaster and Dundas,
she has long ago left utterly behind, reducing them to the rank of suburban villages.
Hamilton is a wealthy and tirelessly energetic city, with manufacturing interests out of all proportion to its size. It is the cathedral city
of two dioceses, the Anglican bishopric of Niagara and the Roman
Catholic bishopric of Hamilton.   The city has handsome public build- NIAGARA TO TORONTO.
ings, and stately private residences on the Mountain. Cresting the
height are the spacious buildings of the Lunatic Asylum. A stately
thoroughfare, dividing the city from the Mountain to the bay, is McNab
St. named for Hamilton's hero, the politician, patriot, and soldier,
Sir Allan McNab. It was he who, during the rebellion in 1837, shattered the power of the rebels at Toronto, and organized the flotilla on
the Niagara which cut out the steamer Caroline and sent her over
the Falls. On the heights stands Dundurn Castle, where Sir Allah used
to live, looking out over the city whose prosperity he had done so much
to promote. One of the most delightful features of Hamilton is what is
known as " The Gore." This is a spacious and beautiful public garden in the heart of the city, with the busiest thoroughfares all about
it. The open space, which is cool and musical with fountains and brilliant with flowers, is triangular in shape, and formed by the converging
of York, James, and King Sts. Overlooking " The Gore" are the
thoroughly artistic buildings of the Hamilton Provident and Loan
Society, the Canada Life Assurance Company, and the Court-House.
But 6 miles from Hamilton, and connected with it by a steam tramway,
is Dundas. In one thing Dundas can never be outrivaled by Hamilton,
and that is in her magnificent landscape, which opens like a dream before the traveler's eyes as he sweeps around the mountain. At the
foot of the lovely Dundas Valley lies a wide marsh which goes by
the nickname of " Coote's Paradise," after an English officer, Captain
Coote, who was deeply enamored of the fine duck, snipe, and " coot"
shooting there to be obtained. The marsh still maintains its reputation ; arid in Burlington Bay are good black bass, silver bass, perch,
and pike fishing. The pike take the trolling-spoon freely during
the latter part of August, but at other times rise better to the live
From Hamilton to Toronto, if wearied of the rail, one may go by
the steamers of the Hamilton Steamboat Co., four times daily (fare,
75c), a trip of 33 miles along a pleasant coast. The boats are fast
and comfortable, and call each way at Burlington Beach and at the
vast strawberry-gardens of Oakville. The tourist desirous of visiting
the Northern Lakes, or what is perhaps more widely known as the
Muskoka region, may branch off by the Northern and Western R. R.
from Hamilton via Beeton and Barrie, and leave Toronto till his return, but the fastest train services center in Toronto. Beeton is of
interest as the center of tho great honey industry of Ontario.   The TORONTO.
whole surrounding country is full of bee farms, and sweet the summer
through with the scent of honey-bearing blossoms. The pedigrees of
the swarms are watched with the same care that breeders of thoroughbred cattle give to their stock, and solitary islands in Georgian Bay,
to the north, are made use of as bee nurseries to preserve the purity
of the favorite strains. The science of apiculture at Beeton has been
brought to a high degree of perfection. At Barrie, on Lake Simcoe,
we meet the Northern road from Toronto.
The approach to Toronto is more effective by water than by land.
As the steamer passes Gibraltar Point, she rounds into a safe and
spacious harbor crowded with the traffic of the lakes. This harbor is
formed by what is known as The Island, which is the great summer
pleasure-ground for the inhabitants of the city. The Island is to
Toronto what Coney Island and Manhattan Beach are to New York.
It is really nothing more than a great sand-bank formed by- the drift
and offscourings from Scarboro' Heights, and its shape is continually
changing. The lighthouse on Gibraltar Point, built within a few feet
of the water, stands now some distance inland. A few years ago the
Island was connected with the mainland by a strip of beach to the
east, but storms having breached the isthmus at Ashbridge's Bay, a
narrow channel was formed which has since been widening. The Island is fringed with lightly-built summer cottages whose thresholds are
ceaselessly invaded by the sand-drift. All summer the white beaches
swarm with merry life and the shallow pools with bathers. High over
the cottages and the willow thickets tower the gables of a groat summer
hotel, which was built by Hanlon, the ex-champion oarsman of the
world. The hotel is surrounded with dancing pavilions and roller-
coasters and merry-go-rounds, and bands play in front of it through
the summer evenings. Between the island and the city pass and repass the unremitting ferries.
Toronto, the " Queen City," as we Canadians fondly call her, slopes
very gently from the lake's edge back to the wooded line of the Davenport Hills. The almost level expanse of her sea of roofs is broken
with many spires and with the green crowns of innumerable elms and
horse-chestnuts. All through her temperate summers her streets are
deliriously shadowed; all through her mild winters the sunlight
streams in freely through the naked branches. 22
From the Don's mouth on the E. to the Humber on the W., a distance of 8 miles, the city stretches an unbroken front along the rim of
the lake. Between these limits is gathered a population of about 200,000
—a population which is increasing at a rate with which few other cities
on the continent can compare. Already she begins to reach out beyond
her containing streams. All Ontario and much of our Northwest,
regions growing rapidly in wealth and population, are tributary to her,
and must continue to nourish her growth. No other city on the lakes,
with the exception of Chicago, has fairer prospects for the future than
The very name Toronto signifies " a place of meeting," a place where
men are gathered together. The first mention of the name is in some
French memoirs of 1686, where it is applied to the Portage from the
Humber to Lake Simcoe. In the sheltered harbor at the Ontario end
of the trail the French erected a fort, the remains of which are yet to
be seen in the exhibition grounds. To this post, at first called Fort
Rouill6, the name Fort Toronto was afterward given.
Ontario, as a separate province, is the creation of the United Empire
Loyalists, and Toronto was the creation of Governor Simcoe, the first
governor of the new province. These United Empire Loyalists, whose
experiences and whose work in province-building we shall again refer
to when writing of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, were-inhabitants of the thirteen colonies to the south who remained loyal to the
mother-country during the American Revolution. They were an energetic and fearless people, possessing fully the courage of their convictions, and not unnaturally the feeling between them and their insurgent
fellow-countrymen was implacably bitter. When the independence of
the Thirteen Colonies was acknowledged, their position was difficult in
the extreme. They could not accept the new order, and to the new
order they were hopelessly unacceptable. They had staked everything
on the triumph of England, and to England they now looked fo.' help.
They were given lands in Canada and Nova Scotia; and their splendid
energy and courage carried them through difficulties and hardships under which a weaker people would have succumbed. A very large proportion of them belonged to the educated and cultured classes. Their
great exodus from under the shadow of the new flag took place in the
years 1783 and 1784; but when the new province of Upper Canada TORONTO. 23
was organized under the wise supervision of Governor Simcoe, additional parties flocked in, and in the four years from 1791 to 1795 their
numbers increased in that province from 12,000 to 30,000. Prominent
among the United Empire Loyalists were the Indians of the Six Nations, under their great and humane warrior-chieftain, Joseph Brant or
Thayendanagea. These faithful allies were granted a fertile territory
along the course of the Grand River.
As we have already mentioned, Niagara-on-the-Lake was the first
capital of Upper Canada. Gradually it was borne in upon the provincial authorities that a town like Niagara, within range of American
guns, was ill adapted to be the seat of government. Thereupon the
capital was shifted to the " Place of Meeting," across the lake, and
the infant executive felt more secure. The significant and musical
name, however, was changed, and Toronto became York. What
are significance and beauty when weighed in the balance against a
compliment to the heir-apparent ? This was in 1793 ; but though
the old name was exiled from the village it seemed to cling in the
hearts of the inhabitants. The name of York was worn like an ill-
fitting garment. " Muddy York" it was called by derisive but not
unenvious neighbors. And when, in 1834, the village took unto itself
the title and the dignity of a city, the name of York, with its contumelious epithet, was eagerly sloughed off, and the " Place of Meeting " resumed its ancient title. In 1794 there were but 12 houses at Toronto,
and when the War of 1812 broke out this provincial capital, now the
second city in the Dominion, contained but 900 inhabitants.
In the War of 1812 Toronto was twice captured by the Americans,
who destroyed the fortifications and sacked the town, after a struggle
lasting from early morning to sundown, when the English general,
considering the position untenable, abandoned it when he found himself confronted with a vastly superior force. The Canadian militia,
who bore the brunt of the war, preferred to select some more advantageous battle-ground than the exposed provincial capital. All through
this war the chief honors, in the land battles, fell generally to the •
Canadian arms. On the American side the war was strongly disapproved of by the best men; its object being thus sarcastically characterized by Randolph of Virginia: " The people of Canada are first to
be seduced from their allegiance, and converted into traitors, as a
preparation for making them good American citizens." The spirit
with which the Canadians went into the contest is thus described by 24
Colonel G. T. Denison: "In 1812 every able-bodied man went to the
frontier to fight, leaving the old men, the boys, and the women to till
the fields. One might travel a day's journey in this province during
that war without meeting an able bodied man, as they were all on the
In 1837 occurred the rebellion of William Lyon Mackenzie, who
called himself " Chairman pro tern, of the Provisional Government of the
State of Upper Canada." The foolish self-styled patriots established
what they called a Provisional Government on Navy Island in the Niagara River; but the rebel rendezvous was a place known as " Montgomery's Tavern," on Yonge St., a few miles north of the city limits. With a force of about 900 men the rebels threatened Toronto;
but when the " Men of Gore " arrived, under Colonel McNab, the rebel
bands were scattered after a short but sharp struggle. Soon afterward
took place the destruction of the steamer Caroline, already referred to.
This exploit has been thus described by Dr. Bryce:
" The Provisional Government was now organized on Navy Island,
in the Niagara River. The patriot flag, with twin stars and the motto,
' Liberty and Equality,' was hoisted, and planted in the face of Colonel
McNab, who held the Canadian shore. A daring action was performed
on December 23 by Captain Drew, R. N., one of McNab's command.
The insurgents had made use of a vessel, the Caroline, in carrying supplies from the American shore to Navy Island. The vessel lay moored
for the night under the very guns of Fort Schlosser; indeed, the shadows
of the fort enveloped the Caroline. With 7 boats, carrying some 60
men in all, who were armed with pistols, cutlasses, and pikes, the
captain boarded the ill-fated v.essel, captured her, but not being able,
on account of the current, to bring her to the Canadian side, sent her
flaming over the Niagara Falls. The vessel proved to be an American
bottom, and so Britain was compelled to disavow the seizure, but nothing could blot out the bravery of the deed."
Hotels, etc.—The Queen's Hotel ($3 to $4), in Front St.; the
Rossin House ($2.50 to $3), cor. King and York Sts.; the Walker House
($2 and $2.50), Front and York Sts.; and the Arlington, cor. King and
John Sts. Horse-cars (fare, 5c.) render all parts of the city easily accessible. Cab rates are $1 an hour. From depot or Niagara steamer's
dock to hotel, 25c The chief clubs are the National, Toronto, and Al-
-bany Clubs; also the Victoria, Granite, Athenaeum, Press, and the various political clubs. Theatres: Grand Opera-House, Shaftesbury Hall,
Academy of Music, Jacobs & Sparrow's Opera-House, Horticultural Gar.
dens, and Robinson's Musee. TORONTO. 25
The Toronto of the present offers many attractions to the visitor.
It is the best possible place to pause and lay one's plans. It may fairly
claim to be called the intellectual center of the Dominion. Filled with.
a homogeneous and successful population, looking back upon a past of
wonderful achievement, and forward to a future bright with all possibilities, it is instinct with the sanguine and self-reliant spirit of this
young Canadian people. Its hotels are of the best; its open waterfront and quiet' harbor offer every facility for boating, canoeing, and
yachting. There is charming scenery in the immediate neighborhood,
and within easy reach are the gigantic maskinonge and swarming trout
and black bass of the wild Muskoka waters.
The principal street of Toronto, as it was of the original village, is
King St., running E. and W. between the Don and the Humber.
Where now stands the old jail were erected the first Houses of Parliament of Upper Canada. These were wooden buildings and of no
great architectural distinction. During the War of 1812 they were
burned with the Library and the provincial records, by the American
invaders. This injury was avenged a few months later, when a British force destroyed the public buildings at Washington. Opposite the
spot where now towers the noble structure of St. James's Cathedral was
once the market-place. Here stood the stocks and pillory, which were
in use up to 1834. Either the men of Toronto were less gallant in
those days, or her women less deserving, for we find in the town records that one Elizabeth Ellis, convicted of being a public nuisance, was
condemned to stand in the pillory for two hours at a time on two successive market-days. The women of Toronto are still held up to the
gaze of the world, but it is for the world's admiration, as they display
some of the most attractive types of Canadian beauty. Next in importance to King St. is Yonge, which runs at right angles to it.
If we may accept the authority of George Augustus Sala, this is the
longest street in the world. It runs N. from the water's edge, and
was laid out in 1793, to be used as a portage to the upper lakes.
The object of this was to avoid the necessity of ascending Lake Erie
and passing under the guns of the American fort at Detroit. For the
first 46 miles of its extent Yonge St. became the main artery of the
province, and was speedily lined with homesteads. Apropos of the
" magnificent distances " of this thoroughfare the following anecdote
may be quoted from an entertaining and valuable work by Dr. Scad-
ding, entitled " Toronto of Old ": A story is told of a tourist, newly 26
arrived at York, wishing to utilize a stroll before breakfast by making
out as he went along the whereabouts of a gentleman to whom he had
a letter. Passing down the hall of his hotel he asked, in a casual way
of the book-keeper, " Can you tell me where Mr. So-and-so lives ?"
(leisurely producing the note from his breast pocket); " it is somewhere
along Yonge St. here in town." " Oh, yes," was the reply, when the
address had been glanced at, " Mr. So-and-so lives on Yonge St., about
25 miles up!"
At the corner of King and Yonge Sts. throbs the heart of the city.*
From King St. northward to the city limits Yonge St. is lined with
fine retail establishments. From King St. S. to the water it is built
up with massive warehouses. This applies equally to Front St., which
skirts the harbor. At the water-front of Yonge stands the Custom-
House, a piece of elaborately decorated Italian architecture. Between
Front St. and the water to the W. of Yonge lies a low flat known as
the Esplanade. Here the various converging railways enter the city,
and here at the foot of York St., where in 1851 the Countess of Elgin
turned the first sod of the Ontario, Simcoe and Huron R.R., stands
the Union Station. The interest of Front St. may be said to terminate
at the old Parliament Buildings, soon to give place to the splendid
structures which are being erected in Queen's Park. Toronto is a city
of churches, there being over 120 churches and chapels within its borders. This being the case, it goes without saying that Sunday is religiously observed as a day of rest. Except when the churches are drawing in or pouring forth their demurely pacing throngs, the city seems
* This is the most convenient point from which to calculate distances when arranging for drives through the suburbs. The following
table of ways and distances I take from Mr. Barlow Cumberland's useful handbook to " The Northern Lakes of Canada." :
Distances out and back from Corner of King and Yonge Streets.
East.—The Lake Shore Road, Woodbine, Ben Lomond, Don and
Danforth Road, and the Necropolis—8-J miles.
Northeast.—Necropolis, Todmorden, Don Valley, Eglington, Mount
Pleasant—6^ miles.
North.—Queen's Park, Deer Park, Ridge Road, St. Albans St., St.
George St.—6 miles.
Northwest.—College St., Bloor St., Slattery's High Park, Queen
St., and Subway—8-J miles.
West.—King St., Lake Shore Road, Humber Bay and back—9
miles. TORONTO. 2T
asleep; and from seven o'clock on Saturday evening until a seemly
hour on Monday morning no one can gain admittance to the bar-rooms
—except by the back door! A little E. of the corner of Yonge is St.
James's Cathedral, at the junction of King and Church Sts. This
building is of simple and noble design, in what is known as perpendicular Gothic. Its spire, soaring to a height of 316 ft., is with one exception the loftiest on the continent; the newly completed spires of St.
Patrick's Cathedral in New York reach the height of 328 ft. Within
the tower of St. James's Cathedral is an exquisite chime of bells, and
aH Toronto prides itself on the celebrated clock of St. James's, which
won the first prize at the Vienna Exhibition. The interior of the cathedral contains monuments to some of the distinguished sons of Ontario,
and to that strong old ecclesiastic, Bishop Strachan, than whom few pastors have been better able to rule their flocks. The chancel windows
are fine examples of the best stained-glass work of Munich. St. James's
Cathedral is the fourth church which has occupied the present site, fire
having removed its three predecessors. From the tower a magnificent
view may be had of Toronto and her surroundings.
Some important buildings in the neighborhood of St. James's Cathedral are the St. Lawrence Hall and Market, the old City Hall, the admirably managed Public Library, at the corner of Adelaide and Church
Sts., and the Post-Office, on Adelaide at the head of Toronto St. This
short thoroughfare is the Wall St. of Toronto. A little to the W. of
the Post-Office is the Grand Opera-House, on whose spacious stage
have moved the most brilliant modern actors. This theatre has a seating capacity of 2,300.
Moving westward along King St., we come to a stately piece of Norman architecture, the Presbyterian Church of St. Andrew's, at the
corner of King and Simcoe. Opposite St. Andrew's is Government
House, a handsome building of modern French design. The main en
trance is on Simcoe St., under a spacious and elaborate carriage porch.
The gardens are broad and well kept, and the little valley winding
through them was once Russell's' Creek, up which Governor Simcoe
used to row when the infant capital was but a lake-side clearing. The
dining-room at Government House contains a fine collection of portraits. Permission to view the interior must be obtained from the
A. D. C. Just beyond Government House, in the midst of ample
grounds, are the old Upper Canada College buildings, which, having
outgrown their usefulness, are now deserted, and this famed seat of 28
learnin" is now located in a magnifieent structure in Deer Park, another
part of the'city. Close by is John St., at the head of which is the fine
old colonial mansion of The Grange, the home of Goldwin Smith. On
the carriage-way of the Grange estate, some threescore years ago. tradition hath it that the owner's horses were attacked by bears as they
were being driven up to the doorway. Continuing along King St. to the
Central Prison, one may turn S. again to the water and visit the old and
new forts, parade-ground, and well-kept exhibition-grounds with their
Crystal Palace. Still moving W., we pass through Parkdale, where
stand the Home for Incurables and the Mercer Reformatory; and we
end our wanderings in this direction among the picnic-grounds of High
Park on the Humber.
If we return by way of Queen St., we pass the Provincial Lunatic
Asylum and the graceful buildings of Trinity University in their
ample and park-like grounds. 'Trinity is a Church of England institution, and was founded by the indomitable-Bishop Strachan when old
King's College of Upper Canada was secularized and became the University of Toronto. Trinity University is a piece of sound and excellent architecture, of the period known as Pointed English, and is built
of white brick dressed with gray stone.
On Queen St., between Yonge and College Ave., is Osgoode Hall,
t'le seat of the Superior Courts of the Province, of the Law Society,
and the Law School. The building is named after the first Chief-
Justice of Upper Canada, and cost $300,000. The exterior has an air
of solid magnificence. The interior is of unusual beauty, and contains
a library of 80,000 volumes. Of Osgoode Hall Anthony Trollope said,
in his work on North America, that it was to Upper Canada what the
Four Courts of Dublin are to Ireland, and that the comparison would
result to the advantage of the Canadian edifice;
College Ave. is a broad boulevard running N. from Queen St.
to Queen's Park, Toronto's chief pleasure-ground. This avenue is
120 feet wide and a mile in length, and shaded by unbroken lines of
elm and horse-chestnut. It enters the park under the muzzles of a
battery of Russian cannon, spoils of Sebastopol. Turning to the left the
carriage-way skirts the edge of a ravine and passes the Volunteers*
Monument, erected to the memory of Canadians who fell in the Fenian
raid of 1866. Opposite stands the bronze statue of the Hon. George
Brown, one of the chief statesmen of Canada, and founder of the Toronto Globe.   This statue is a fine piece of sculpture, and was done by TORONTO.
Burch, of London. Queen's Park is a portion of the estate of Toronto
University, and was handed over to the city on a perpetual lease.
The university grounds and buildings adjoin the park on the W. The
buildings were destroyed by fire a short time ago, and the loss was one
of the most serious that the city has ever sustained. It is not too
much to say that the main building was the finest piece of college
architecture in the New World. In design it belonged to the Norman
period, and the square central tower was of peculiarly noble and satisfying proportions. In Convocation Hall was a fine stained-glass window of three lights, in memory of the students who fell in defending the frontier in 1866. The deep carved porch was famous for its
solidity and richness. The buildings, however, have been completely restored, and fully equal in all respects the original buildings.
Across the lawn stands the Observatory, the home of the meteorological department of the Dominion, commonly known as " Old Probabilities." Not far from the University are the new Government buildings,
a very massive and handsome block, of stone, containing the Legislative chamber and the Departmental offices. Alongside of the Observatory stands a distressingly crude structure of red brick, the eyesore of
the lovely neighborhood. This is the School of Technology. At the
head of the park is a fine structure of brown Credit Valley stone,
faced with red brick. This is McMastei Hall, of McMaster University, and was presented to the Baptist denomination by the late
Senator McMaster. A little W. of McMaster Hall stands the gray-
stone pile of Knox College, belonging to the Presbyterian Church; and
in the immediate neighborhood stands Victoria University, of the Methodist Church.
Though the growth of Toronto is chiefly toward the west and north,
the handsomest residences are probably east of Yonge, on Jarvis and
Sherbournc Sts., and on various cross-streets connecting them. On the
corner of Gerard and Sherbourne are the Horticultural Gardens,
which were opened by the Prince of Wales in 1860. They occupy a
square of 10 acres, and were presented to the city by the Hon. George
Allan. Entrance to the grounds is free between the hours of 8 a. m.
and 6 p. m. On the west side of the gardens, close to Church St.,
stand the Pavilion Music Hall and the Conservatories. The Pavilion
has seating accommodation for 3,000 people, and some of the best musical talent of the continent appears upon its stage. The annual festivals of the Philharmonic and Choral Societies are held therein.   A 30
short distance down Church St. is the great Metropolitan Church
of the Methodists. Its organ is the largest in Canada and one of the
finest in the world, containing as it does 3,315 pipes and 58 stops.
The famous organ of Strasburg Cathedral has 46, and that of Westminster Abbey 32. Near the Metropolitan Church stands St. Michael's
Cathedral, the seat of the Roman Catholic Archbishop. On Church
St. also is the Normal School, with the offices of the Depart-
mcnt of Education. The buildings occupy the center of an open
square, covering 7 or 8 acres. The gardens are attractive and of
special interest to the student. The Normal School contains a fine
gallery of paintings and statues, where the visitor will find many valuable originals and reproductions of most of the masterpieces of ancient
art. Entrance to the art galleries of the Normal School is free on weekdays from 9 a. m. to 5 p. m. Tourists who are interested in art will do
well to visit the exhibition-rooms of the Ontario Society of Artists, 14
King St., West. Whatever they may be interested in, they will do
well to visit the lovely and aristocratic suburb of Rosedale ; and they
will do well to pay this visit at a time when Canada's national game is
being played at the Rosedale Lacrosse Grounds. Lacrosse is a game
lacking most of the defects of foot-ball, but possessing all the pre-eminent merits of that most manly sport. Toronto has produced some of
the most skillful Lacrosse players of Canada—that is to say, of the
world; and Toronto boys, one might almost say, are born with a " stick "
in their hands. The Toronto Base-ball Grounds are situated on Kingston Road.
The Muskoka District.
The best side-trip to be taken from Torontp^is that to the lake
country of Muskoka lying N. of Toronto, between Georgian Bay and
the Ottawa River. Fares are as follows: Toronto to Beaumaris and
return, $5.30; Pt. Cockburn and return, $6.50; Rousseau and return, $6.25; Wagnetawan and return, $7.95 ; Burk's Falls and return, $6.95. A quarter of a century ago this region was a total wilderness ; but now its tangle of lakes and streams is dotted with
villages and summer hotels. Railroads traverse it as far N. as Lake
Nipissing, and steamboats ply upon its principal waters. The innumerable lakes are of all sizes, from 40 miles in length down to as many
rods. All are clear, deep, and_cool, and swarm with brook trout, lake
trout, black bass, and perch-, while the covers and reed beds abound
with feathered game, and deer are fairly numerous.   In some of these THE MUSKOKA DISTRICT.
northern waters may be taken that fish of many aliases, the " Tiger of
the Lakes," the gigantic maskinonge, or muscalonge. The Muskoka
district proper lies to. the N. of the high divide at Gravenhurst, and
comprises a territory about the size of Belgium. Within this area lie
something over 800 lakes. The district south of Gravenhurst is long
settled, but contains some excellent fishing and shooting grounds,
about the lovely waters of Lakes Simcoe, Sparrow, and Couchiching.
Taking the Northern and Northwestern-R. R., now a portion of the
Grand Trunk system, we skirt the city to the W. and turn N. to the
water-shed, where streams diverge toward Lake Huron. Emerging
from the hills the train winds through the pleasant vale of Aurora,
with its sweet old-country landscapes. Passing the little country town
of Newmarket, we catch a glimpse of the infant stream of Holland
River, which was of old the path of Indians and voyageurs who had
just made the portage from Toronto. By Holland River also came the
war parties of the Iroquois to slaughter the Hurons on Lake Simcoe and
Georgian Bay. The drowsy village of Holland Landing was once
a busy mart, when, before the days of railroading, all the traffic of the
northern settlements passed in heavy wagons through its streets. In
1825 Sir John Franklin called at Holland Landing on his first expedition overland to the north pole. On the village green may be seen a
huge anchor, which was brought from the Royal Dockyards in England,-
and hauled hither from the lake by 16 yoke of oxen. It was destined
for the Provincial Navy-Yard at Penetanguishene, where a fleet was
being built for warfare on the lakes. The great anchor was stopped
in the middle of its journey by the declaration of peace between England and the United States.
At Bradford, a little farther down the river, there is good trolling
for maskinonge, and there are some fine snipe covers in the neighborhood. At Lefroy we get the first glimpse of Lake Simcoe, a splendid
sheet of water, 30 miles long by 16 broad; and a little beyond is Allan-
dale Junction, whence three lines radiate northward—the Muskoka
Branch to Muskoka and Lake Nipissing, the Penetanguishene Branch,
and the Collingwood Branch. Just N. of Allandale Junction lies the
county town of Barrie, set picturesquely on the hillside sloping down
to the lake. Barrie (population, 4,S55 last census; hotel, Queen's,
$1.50) is a charming summer resort, with good fishing streams in the
neighborhood and innumerable boats and yachts. Nine miles down
Kempenfeldt Bay is a great summer hotel at Big Bay Point.   Joined 32
to Lake Simcoe by a channel called the Narrows lies the breezy water
of Lake Couchiching, which, being interpreted, is the "Lake of
Many Winds." At the head of the lake is the pretty town of Orillia
(hotels, Orillia House and Russell House, $1.50), with its beautiful
pleasure-grounds of Couchiching Park. This is the highest region
in Ontario, being 760 ft. above Toronto. The air here is very clear
and pure, and the waters of the lake are excellently stocked with
black bass, pickerel, and salmon-trout. At Rama, on this lake, is
a settlement of Ojibway Indians, the last remnants of the once powerful tribe that peopled the shores of Lakes Simcoe and Couchiching to the number of at least 25,000. At Orillia the tourist may,
if he prefers, take the steamer 14 miles down the lake, and rejoin
the train at Washago. Here begins the splendid fishing stream of
the Severn, which runs through deer, duck, and grouse grounds,
through wild rapids, and over Severn Falls, and drains the whole
Simcoe region into Georgian Bay. A short distance below Washago
the Severn widens out into Sparrow Lake, famous for its maskinonge
and black bass, and its duck and grouse shooting. A good canoe
trip, for which Indians and canoes may be hired at Rama, is that
from Couchiching to Gravenhurst, with short portages, through Beaver,
Legs, and Pine Lakes. A more exciting trip, through some sharp and
intricate rapids, is down the Severn River to its outlet. Guide and
canoe may be obtained at Rama or Orillia, at a cost of about $2 a day.
Crossing the river by a lofty bridge, the railroad forsakes the pale
limestone formations of the Simcoe region and enters a land of red
granite. Hither and thither amid the high and glistening bluffs of the
" divide" winds the train, till at last through Granite Notch it
emerges upon the highlands of Muskoka. At the southernmost extremity cf Lake Muskoka, the largest of the series, stands the busy
town of Gravenhurst, 115 miles from Toronto. Gravenhurst is
very picturesquely situated on the high shores of an inlet. It has
a population of about 2,000, and good hotels, the Albion, Windsor,
and Grand Central, at $1 to $2. From this point, which may be regarded as the gateway of the Muskoka region, the tourist may continue N. by rail via Bracebridge, the Muskoka River, Mary, Fairy,
and Vernon Lakes, to Callander and the Canadian Pacific R. R. at
Lake Nipissing; or he may take the steamers of the Muskoka Navigation Co., through Lakes Muskoka, Rosseau, and Joseph, and the
Muskosh River,   A side excursion up the S, branch of the Muskoka THE MUSKOKA  DISTRICT.
River to the Lake of Bays will enable the tourist to visit a lake which
rejoices in the title of Kahweambetewagamog.
From Muskoka wharf the steamers go to Bala, Bracebridge, Beaumaris," Port Carling, Windermere, Rosseau, Rosseau Falls, Port Sand-
field, Craigielea, Port Coburn, Juddhaven, and several other villages,'
all of which are full of attraction for sportsman and tourist. One of
the loveliest of these is Beaumaris, which has a large and excellent
hotel situated on Tondern Island. Immediately opposite is a group of
small islands called the " Kettles," where may be f ound the best bass
fishing and fine trolling for salmon-trout. In the neighborhood of Brace-
bridge, the chief town of the Muskoka district, are the lovely cataracts
known as High Falls and the Great South Falls. The most central town
on the lakes is Port Carling, where all the steamboat routes converge,
and where Lakes Muskoka and Rosseau are connected by locks.
Lake Rosseau has an extreme length of 14 miles, and presents a
great variety of charming landscape. In its southern portion it is set
thick with the loveliest of islands. As many of these islands are
inhabited, and the dwellers thereon may be said to spend the most of
their time in boats, that section of the lake carries the appellation of
Venetia. Into the bay near Port Rosseau flows the mystic and incomparable Shadow River, on whose flawless surface one floats as if
suspended midway between two lovely worlds of summer foliage. On a
small stream stealing into Shadow River resounds the clear tinkling of
the Bridal-Veil Falls. A conspicuous landmark on Lake Rosseau is
the headland of Eagle's Nest. The third of the series of the Muskoka
Lakes, Lake Joseph, was till very lately almost unknown. Now it is
coming into repute as possessing a bolder beauty than its fellows.
Most tourists will probably decide that the difference is less of degree
than of kind, for it would be hard to say which of the three waters is the
fairest. An advantage afforded by all alike is that the tourist here may
" rough it" charmingly in tent and canoe, or, if he so prefer, enjoy all
the conveniences of civilized life in well-kept but unostentatious inns.
The traveler who wishes to visit the Maganetawan waters and
Parry Sound will follow the railroad north to Burks Falls and there
take the steamer Wenona down the Maganetawan through Se Seebe,
Ah Mic, and Wahwaskesh Lakes to Byng Inlet at the mouth, and
thence down the coast of Georgian Bay through Parry Sound and the
Archipelago to historic Penetanguishene, where under the waters of
the harbor lie the remains of four British gunboats. Here is one of the
3 34
finest summer resorts and hotels in Canada—" The Penetanguishene."
The first settlement of the Jesuits in Ontario was established in 1684
at Penetanguishene, then called Ihonatiria, and in commemoration of
this the Jesuits have built there one of the finest ecclesiastical structures on the continent. Of the almost virgin waters of the Maganetawan, which one traverses on this trip, a writer in Forest and Farm
speaks as follows:
| If a man can stand outdoor life and live on venison, trout, bass,
partridges, ducks, pork, tea, and crackers, there is no better place to go
to in America that is as accessible. A man can go there in July, August,
September, or October, with comfort, if he will go in the right way,
and shoot deer and catch trout to his heart's content. June to August
for trout; after that for deer. Remember the Maganetawan is as
large as the Schuylkill at Philadelphia or considerably wider or deeper .
than the Harlem at High Bridge, and that the trout have an unlimited
range and are seldom disturbed, so that they have a chance to grow.
Deer can be bagged in great numbers if you choose to do so. With a
couple of good hounds magnificent sport could be had in the fall. I
have shot partridges with my rifle from the canoe while traveling, as
they were strutting on the shore, and their drumming was one of the
pleasantest every-day sounds. Do not try to go without some guide.
There are men who know the country, and they should be secured, for
if you get in there alone you will have little sport and much trouble."
Between Parry Sound and the mouth of Moon River lie the desert
waters of Crane and Blackstone Lakes, favorite haunts of the maskinonge. The capture of this splendid fish in these lakes is thus described by a writer in the Toledo Post:
" The shores of Crane and Blackstone Lakes are capital specimens
of the primitive wilderness, and long may they so continue! The few
who have visited their teemingJwaters have mostly been genuine fishermen who are happiest when far away from conventionalities and
habitations. But one clearing broke the majestic sweep of the grand
old forests, within the sheltered bays the loons laughed undisturbed,
and the wild birds splashed in the marshy edges or upon the sandy
shores with none to molest or make them afraid.
I We were out for maskinonge, and took no account of either black
bass or pickerel. It seems strange to talk of shaking off black bass
and making disrespectful remarks about these gamy gentry when they
insisted in taking the hook, but they were so plenty as to be really
I When an angler goes forth to catch the maskinonge it is necessary
to be careful lest the maskinonge should catch him. The native method
of taking the maskinonge in the primeval waters of Canada is by a
small clothes-line, hauled in by main strength when the fish bites; but
we proposed to troll, as should an angler, with the rod.    Ours were THE MUSKOKA  DISTRICT.
split bamboo rods 9£ ft. long, quadruplex reel, and braided linen line,
2 ft. of medium-sized copper wire, a No. 4 spoon with double hooks,
and finally a good gaff.
" Our guide, as we started over to Crane Lake the first morning,
indulged in sundry smiles and remarked that weshould break our rods,
so that, although placid in outward mien, I felt inwardly a little nervous ; but I didn't mean to back down until compelled.
" Swinging around a little point, with some 20 yards of line astern,
before fishing a great while I felt a sudden movement at the spoon that
was more like a crunch than a bite. It took only a second to give the
rod a turn that fixed the hooks, and another second to discover that I
had hung something. Scarcely had I tightened the line when the fish,
started. I do not know that I wanted to stop him, but I felt the line
slip rapidly from the reel as though attached to a submarine torpedo.
The first run was a long one, but the line was longer, and the fish
stopped before the reel was bare. This was my opportunity, and I
had the boatman swing his craft across the course, and, reeling in the
slack line, I turned his head toward the deeper water. Forty-five
minutes of as pretty a fight as one could wish to see left my new
acquaintance alongside the boat, and before he recovered his surprise
the gaff was in his gills and the boatman lifted him on board.
" He weighed 14 pounds on the steelyards, and was my heaviest
fish. There were other encounters of a similar character, but none
q lite so protracted."
Tourists for the upper lakes take the train at 10.35 a. m. Mondays,
Wednesdays, and Saturdays, for Owen Sound, where one of the C. P. R.'s
Clyde-built steamers awaits the train before starting for points on the
Georgian Bay, the Sault Ste. Marie, and Fort William, at the head of
L ike Superior. Here connection is made with the transcontinental train
going to or coming from the Pacific, and here sportsmen bound for the
Nepigon and the other famous trout-streams north of Lake Superior
disembark. All these routes are fully described in The Canadian
Guide-Book, Part II, Western Canada.
From Toronto eastward.
From Toronto to Ottawa and Montreal one has a liberal choice of
routes. One may take the C. P. R., by way of Peterboro and Smith's
Falls to Ottawa, and thence to Montreal (fare, $10). This is the most
direct route between Montreal and Ottawa. It runs through a newer
country than that traversed by the Grand Trunk R., which skirts the
lake and the St. Lawrence all the way from Toronto to Montreal (fare,
$10). Or a tourist may travel by the C. P. R. to Tweed, and there take
the Bay of Quint6 road to Kingston, where connection is made with the
Richelieu Steamship Company's boats.   The route we would recom- 36
mend, however, is that by water, by the boats of the Ontario and
Richelieu Navigation Company, which traverse almost the whole length
of Lake Ontario, the fairy landscapes of the Thousand Islands, and the
famed St. Lawrence rapids (fare, $10, meals and berths extra). At
Sharbot Lake, on the C. P. R., passengers for Kingston take the Kingston and Pembroke Railway, running direct to Kingston (see page 41).
Arrived at Montreal the tourist may go to Ottawa by either of the
railroads which connect the cities, the Canadian Pacific and the Canada
Atlantic, and return by boat down the Ottawa River.
The tourist who elects to go to Ottawa by the C. P. R. will travel
by one of the best-equipped and most reliable railroads in the world.
He may take the train at the Union Station, or drive across the city to
the North Toronto Depot. The first town of importance after leaving
Toronto is Peterboro on the Otonabce River, a thriving city of about
9,000 inhabitants. This is the birthplace of the famous Peterboro "
or " Rice Lake " canoe; and the tourist who loves fishing and canoeing
will do well to linger at this point. The shores of Rice Lake have been
made illustrious by the residence of three of those Stricklands whose
names are so well known in the world of letters—Colonel Strickland, and
his sisters, Mrs. M<iodic and Mrs. Traill. The country about is a tangle
of lakes and water-ways, a fisherman's paradise, and it all lies at the
feet of the skillful canoeist. Railway lines center at Peterboro from
half a dozen directions, and the Otonabee affords an immense water-
power which is utilized by many mills and factories. Among the manufactures of the city are lumber, flour, cloth, agricultural implements,
machinery and engines, pottery, and leather. The river is spanned
by six bridges, and the public buildings are numerous and handsome.
The best hotels are the Oriental, Snowdon House, and Grand Central.
For 100 miles, between Peterboro and Perth, the road runs through
a broken country rich in iron, phosphate, asbestos, and other valuable
minerals. At the town of Tweed we cross the Moira River, whose
waters are freighted with logs from the lumber regions. At Sharbot
Lake, a famous resort for sportsmen, the Kingston and Pembroke R. R.
is crossed. Perth, with a population of 4,000, is a prosperous milling
town, with rich quarries of building-stone and phosphates in the vicinity. Twelve miles beyond Perth is Smith's Falls on the Rideau River,
a junction town with population of between 2,000 and 8,000. Here the
main line between Toronto and Montreal is crossed by the line of the
Ottawa and Brockville division, whose cars we take at this point, Thir- FROM TORONTO   EASTWARD.
.teen miles farther on, at Carleton Place Junction, we first strike the
main transcontinental line of the C. P. R. From Carleton Place to Ottawa is a distance of 28 miles. Before entering the city the road follows the S. bank of the mighty Ottawa River, and the traveler may
look down from the car windows upon vast stretches of logs which,
enchained in the long circuits of the " booms," almost hide the water.
The Grand Trunk Ry. between Toronto and Montreal is set thick
with towns and cities from start to finish, and gives one a good idea of
the general prosperity of Canada. About 23 miles from Toronto the
road skirts a lovely landlocked mere, on which of old stood a village
of the Senecas. The entrance to this unruffled water was so concealed
by a growth of flags and rushes that none knew of its existence save
the dwellers on its banks, who called their village by the name of
Gandatsetiagon. Here now stands the town of Pickering, the sheltered mere has become Pickering Harbor, and the reed-grown entrance
has been widened and deepened to admit the traffic of the lake. In'
the neighborhood of Pickering are some fair pike and black-bass waters.
Just beyond Pickering is Whitby, the seat of the Ontario Ladies' College, whence a branch line runs north, past the town of Lindsay, to its
terminus at Haliburton. Haliburton stands in the midst of an admirable
hunting and fishing region. The lakes and streams around the town
are well stocked with brook trout and salmon trout, which take the fly
freely from the middle of May to the end of June. Within easy reach
of Haliburton the hunter will find deer, bear, moose, and partridge
fairly abundant, and guides with dogs may be hired in the neighborhood.
About 4 miles east of Whitby is the busy manufacturing town of
Oshawa, with good fall duck-shooting in the neighborhood. Here, in
old days, was the beginning of the portage from Ontario to Scugog'
Lake; and the name Oshawa simply means the carrying-place.
" The map of Lake Ontario has, within historic memory, been overwritten with five series of names and settlements—those of the Huron-
Algonquin era, those of the Iroquois domination, those.of the French
occupation, those of the Mississaga or Ojibway conquest, and those of
the English occupation. Of the nuron-Algonquin period but slight
trace survives on Lake Ontario beyond the name of the lake itself.
-After alternate fanfares and disgrdces it had been rechristened Lake
St. Louis and Lake of the Iroquois, Frontenac's Lake and Lake Cataraqui ; but the grand old lake went back to the simplicity—the majestic simplicity—of its ancient name. Even in Charlevoix's day—a
hundred and sixty years ago—the undisputed name was once more
Ontario, ' the Great Lake.' " 38
Of the Iroquois domination also but few traces remain—a few sonorous names like Niagara and Toronto. The race of athletes who lorded
it over half the continent, whose alliance was eagerly courted by France
and England, were, after all, unable to maintain their foothold against
the despised Ojibways. Of these, the Mississagas became specially
numerous and aggressive, so that their totem, the crane, was a familiar hieroglyph on our forest trees from the beginning of the last century. One of the oldest of Greek legends relates the war of the
cranes and pygmies. Though the foes of our northern cranes were
not pygmies but giants, they possessed not the craft of the little ancients who lived by the ocean-shore. The Mississagas so multiplied
in their northern nests that presently, by mere numbers, they overwhelmed the Iroquois. Most desperate fighting there was, and the
battle-fields were still clearly traceable when English pioneers first
broke ground.
The Mississagas, though not endowed with either the Mohawk verve
or intellect, were no more destitute of poetry than of valor. Take the
names of some of their chiefs. One chief's name signified " He who
makes footsteps in the sky " ; another was Wawanosh, " He who ambles
the waters." The Rev. Peter Jones was, through his mother, descended
from a famous line of poetic warriors; his grandfather was Waubuno,
" The Morning Light." On occasion, the Mississaga could come down
to prose. Scugog describes the clay bottom and submerged banks of
that lake, which, taking a steamer at Port Perry, we traverse on our
summer excursion to Lindsay and Sturgeon Lake. Chemong aptly
names the lake whose tide of silt sometimes even retards our canoe
when we are fishing or fowling. Omemee, " the wild pigeon," has given
its name not only .to Pigeon Lake and its chief affluent, but to the
town where Pigeon Creek lingers on its course to the lake.
| On Rice Lake, the chief Indian settlement is Hiawatha, named
after the Hercules of Ojibway mythology, whom the American poet
has immortalized in his melodious trochaics. At Hiawatha and on
Scugog Island you may still find, in the ordinary language of the
Ojibway, fragments of fine imagery and picture-talk, often in the very
words which Longfellow has so happily woven into his poem. And-
the scenery of this Trent Valley reproduces that of the Vale of Tawa-
sentha. Here are ' the wild -rice of the river' and ' the Indian village'
and ' the groves of singing pine-trees—ever sighing, ever singing.' At
Penelon Falls we have the 'Laughing Water,' and not far below is
Sturgeon Lake, the realm of the ' King of Fishes.' Sturgeon of portentous size are yet met with, though falling somewhat short of the FROM TORONTO  EASTWARD.
comprehensive fish sung by Longfellow, which swallowed Hiawatha,
canoe and all!
" Among these forests,- too, dwelt once Meggissogwon, that' mightiest of magicians,' who, 'guarded by the black pitch-water, sends the
fever from the marshes.' Our fathers and grandfathers knew this
magician only too well; felt him, far off, and shook at his coming.
They fought him, not like Hiawatha with jasper-headed arrows, but
with the woodman's axe. Like the Indian hero, our pioneer was often
' wounded, weary, and desponding, with his mittens torn and tattered.' "—Picturesque Canada.
Leaving Oshawa, we pass through Bowmanville, Newcastle, New-
tonville, and reach the important town of Port Hope (chief hotels,
St. Lawrence Hall, $1.50 to $2; and Queen's, $1.50), picturesquely situated in a deep ravine, and busy with a large lake .traffic. There are
good hotels at this point, and within easy distance are the waters of
Rice Lake, which swarm with maskinonge, black bass, and green bass.
On Riee Lake the best month for maskinonge is June; for bass, from
July to September. Seven miles beyond Port Hope is the university
town of Cobourg, formerly the seat of Victoria College, which is
now amalgamated with Toronto University. Fortunately for Cobourg,
it is something more than a university town. Cobourg must rely henceforth entirely on her manufactures and her trade, her car-works and
her breweries. Rice Lake may conveniently be reached from Cobourg
by the Canadian Pacific and Montreal R. R., or by stage to Gore's
Landing. The next important point after leaving Cobourg is Trenton,
on the river Trent. Here the Grand Trunk is crossed by the lines of
the Ontario Central, which runs down the beautiful peninsula of Prince
Edward County to Picton. The Trent River is the outlet of Rice Lake,
and empties into the Bay of Quinte at its head.
Beyond Ti-enton lies the city of Belleville, beautiful in its surroundings and in its handsome and shaded streets. Belleville has a
population of about 12,000, and is full of activity and enterprise. Its
chief hotels are the Kyle House, $1.50; Anglo-American, $1.50; and
Commercial, $1. It has fine public buildings, and is the seat of Alexandra College and of the Provincial Institution for Deaf-Mutes. The
city was named in honor of Arabella, wife of Governor Gore. It stands
on the shores of the exquisite Bay of Quinte, whose waters teem with
all delights for the fisherman, and whose changeful and delicious landscapes will long delay the traveler.
The best way to visit Picton, at the extremity of Prince Edward 40
Peninsula is by boat from Belleville down along the Quinte shores.
This. is a region of glamour and romance, away from the beaten paths
of trade. It is a land of waving barley-fields, and of merry picnic parties. In the heart of the peninsula is the lovely and romantic Lake
of the Mountain, which occupies the highest point on the peninsula,
and is kept ever full to the brim, with no visible sources of supply.
Its surface is on a level with that of far-off Lake Eric, a circumstance
which has given rise to many conjectures of a mysterious communication between them. Over the changing shores and headlands hang
•memories of Huron and Jesuit, Iroquois and Sulpician, Mississaga and
loyalist pioneer. The Belleville steamer touches at the stirring port of
Deseronto, where the mainland thrusts itself forth into the bay. Deseronto is a center of the flour and lumber trade, and in its saw-mills the
logs of the Trent, Moira, and Napanee Rivers are cut up into planks
and boards and laths and shingles to be consumed across the border.
The town is named after a famous Mohawk chief of the last century, a
cousin of the great Brant, and the signification of the title is " Thunder
and Lightning." Leaving Deseronto the steamer enters the magnificent expanse of placid water known as the Long Reach. At the southern extremity of the Reach the high shores draw together to form Picton
Bay, at the head of which the town of Picton (chief hotel, the Royal,
$1.50 to $2) beautifully terminates the vista. On the lakeward side of
the peninsula is an interesting phenomenon known as the "Sand-
hanks." The strange scene is thus described in Picturesque Canada: "Lofty ridges of sand, appearing from a distance as white as
snow, were originally in some obscure way thrown up at the water's
edge; but, by a kind of glacier movement, which proceeds only in the
winter, they have now withdrawn from the shore and are encroaching
on the adjacent farms at the rate of about 150 feet a year. The active
agent in the movement appeal's to be the drifting snow which entangles the sand and carries it forward. On the hottest day snow may
be found a short distance down, as we proved by repeated trials at various points of the banks. Historically, too, Big Sandy Bay is most
interesting. It was on the cove within, now called West Lake, that in
1668 the Kente Mission was established."
About 22 miles E. of Belleville, on the Grand Trunk, is the ancient
town of Napanee. The name is derived from the Mississaga word
Nau-pau-nay, which signifies " flour." As bread-stuffs are the staple
of Napanee's trade, the name is highly appropriate.   The town is situ- KINGSTON. 41
ated on a strange river, whose deep and somber waters are swayed by
a mysterious tide every two hours. This tide represents a variation
of 16 inches in mean level, and sometimes attains a fluctuation of 30
Population, 25,000. The chief hotels of Kingston are The Hotel
Frontenac, $2 and $3; Sritisli^American, $2 and $3 ; City Hotel, $1.50
and $2; and Anglo-American. Livery charges, $2.50 per day for single
horse and carriage. Hacks are to be hired at usual rates. The only
theatres are the public halls.
The next town of importance after leaving Napanee is Kingston,
which is known as the " Limestone City," standing guard at the foot
of the lake where the channel of the St. Lawrence begins to define
-itself. This gray and enduring little city, with its 26,000 inhabitants,
has a beautiful and commanding situation, and its spacious harbor is
fenced by islands from the storms of Lake Ontario.
Where the olive waters of the Cataraqui flow into the blue expanse
of the bay came Frontenac, greatest of the Governors of New France,
to establish a fort and trading post on what he considered " one of the
most beautiful and agreeable harbors in the world." Frontenac pitched
his tents .where now stand the Tele du Pont Barracks, commanding the
mouth of the Cataraqui. This was in July of 1673. The command of
the fort, which speedily rose under the energetic directions of Frontenac, was assigned to the illustrious Robert Cavalier de la Salle. The
settlement grew speedily in wealth and importance, till La Salle departed to discover the route to the Gulf of Mexico, and die by the
hands of a traitor in Texas. Under the next Governor, M. de Denon-
ville, Fort Frontenac was the scene of an act of treachery on the
part of the French toward the Indians which brought down terrible
vengeance upon New France. A number of Iroquois chiefs, under
pretext of a conference, were enticed into the fort, where they were
loaded with chains and then sent to France to wear out their lives
in the galleys. The retort of the Iroquois was the harrying of the
French settlement, the capture and destruction of Fort Frontenac, and-
the midnight massacre of Lachine. When the weakness and treachery
of De Denonville had brought New France to these straits, Frontenac
came back and saved the colony, and rebuilt his favorite fort; and
fifty years of peace began their brooding over the mouth of the Cataraqui.   The fort was captured by Colonel Bradstreet in 1758.   There- 42
after the place fell into forgetfulness, from which it did not emerge
till the end of the Revolutionary War, when a party of United Empire
Loyalists chose the fair site for a settlement, and in their zeal Cataraqui became Kingstown, afterward shortened to Kingston. When the
War of 1812 broke out, Kingston came into prominence as the strongest Canadian post on the lake, the chief rival to the American stronghold of Sackett's Harbor. Fort Henry was commenced, and a formidable battle-ship, the St. Lawrence, was built in the Kingston Dockyard. So hard was it for the mother-country to realize that; any good
thing could come out of a colony, that this ship was built, at a cost
of £600,000, with timbers sent out from England for the purpose.
At this period the town was surrounded by a chain of block-houses
connected by a picket stockade. These block-houses subsequently
were, supplanted by stone batteries and martello towers, which, however ineffective they might be against modern artillery, nevertheless
add greatly to the martial air of Kingston as seen from the water.
When Upper Canada was erected into a province, Governor Simcoe
was sworn into office at Kingston, and from this point were issued
writs for the convening of the first Provincial Parliament, which met,
however, as has been already stated, at Niagara. When Upper and
Lower Canada were united in 1840, Kingston was made the seat of
government, and the Legislature occupied the building now employed
as the City Hospital. Only for four years, however, was Kingston suffered to enjoy this proud distinction; and in 1844 the departure of the
Government and its officials left the " Limestone City " in a slough of
commercial and social despond.
Now, however, Kingston has entered anew upon an era of prosperity. She is the outlet for the traffic of the Rideau Canal, and, which
is vastly more important, for that of the Kingston and Pembroke R. R.,
which opens up a district of immense mineral wealth. She has become
a great educational center. Here is Queen's University, which has become, under Principal George M. Grant, one of the most successful and
•well-conducted institutions of learning in Canada. Here also is the
Royal Military College, the West Point of Canada, where the cadets
get a training the efficiency of which is well recognized in sister colonies
and in the mother-country. Kingston is also the seat of the Royal
College of Physicians and Surgeons, and of the Women's Medical
College, both of which are affiliated with Queen's University. The
buildings of "Queen's" are the chief architectural ornament of Kings- KINGSTON. 43
ton.    The individuality of Kingston is thus effectively described by a
distinguished Canadian writer:
" Still Kingston contains a military look, not unpleasing to the tourist's eye. There is the fort crowning the glacis. Full in front, a
round tower covers the landing. At its .base, a semicircular bastion
pierced for artillery is ready to sweep the water. The embrasures of
the fort look askance at the foundries and the enginery on the opposite
side of the harbor. The cannon confronts the locomotive; and, fit
emblem of our time, a solitary warder guards the decaying fort, while
in the locomotive-shops between 400 and 500 skilled workmen are
employed. The tower, with its conical red cap and circling wall of
compact ball-proof masonry, looks well. It would have scared the
Iroquois. It could have defied the raiders of 1812. Against modern
artillery it is as good as an arquebuse. Hard by is the Military College, with its 100 or 120 red-coated, white-helmeted cadets. Where the
olive-green of Cataraqui Creek blends with the blue of the bay, still
stand the old naval barracks, where Tom Bowling ard Ned Bunting
were wont to toast' sweethearts and wives.' A little up the creek is
Barriefield Common, once gay with the pomp and circumstance of
glorious war, but now seldom marched over by anything more militant
than the villagers' geese. From, the common a causeway, nearly half
a mile long, extends across the creek to the TSle du Pont Barracks,
the headquarters alternately of the very efficient A and B Batteries.
Thanks to the gentlemen cadets and battery-men, the streets of Kingston still have a sprinkling of red, white, and blue."
Six miles up the placid windings of the Cataraqui stream we enter
a deep gorge, whose rocky banks, almost overhanging, are richly
clothed with vines. Here we meet the foamy rush of a h'ttle cascade;
and here is the entrance to the Rideau Canal, whose sedgy waters,
the haunt of innumerable mallard and teal, afford the canoeist an enchanting path through the Rideau Lakes to Ottawa. On Long Island,
in one of these lakes, is erected a fine hotel called the Lake Rideau Pish
Club House.
The tourist who is not in an inordinate hurry to reach Montreal
will take the steamer at Kingston if he has come thus far by rail; for
the river trip between Kingston and the commercial metropolis of
Canada is one of the most attractive on the continent. As the steamer
rounds Fort Hill, and passes Cedar Island, we find ourselves fairly in
the channel of the St. Lawrence, at this point about 14 miles in width.
If one wishes to "do " the Thousand Islands thoroughly, it is best to
stop .off at the village of Gananoque, around whose shores the islands
appear to swarm. The name Gananoque signifies " rocks in deep
water."   The town stands on a small river of the same name, is well 44
supplied with hotels, and has good maskinonge and black-bass fishing
in its neighborhood.
The Thousand Islands.
The Thousand Islands are really many more than a thousand in
number, there being about 1,800 of them large and small, in a stretch
of about 40 miles. The Indians call the region Manatoana—" the Garden of the Great Spirit." The islands are all of that formation which
the geologists call gray gneiss. Through the innumerable labyrinths
that divide them the current of the great river flows with varying
rapidity. In some of the channels it is a foaming torrent, while in
others the gently-moving tide is as smooth as a summer pool. The
islands present the greatest variety of effect. Some arc high and
precipitous, others barely lift their heads above the lily-pads that encircle them. Some are as naked as if their granite frames had just come
from the primeval fires; others are topped with pine and fir, or softly
rounded with the foliage of vines and shrubbery. Some are dotted
with cottages, or the tents of camping parties. Several of the islets
are built up with fantastic structures, pagodas, and fairy bridges, till
they look as if they had just stepped off an old blue " willow-pattern"
plate. Hither and thither among them dart the trim