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BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

The Canadian guide-book. 1891. The tourist's and sportsman's guide to eastern Canada and Newfoundland Roberts, Charles G. D., Sir, 1860-1943 1891

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EGIER
BROTHERS'
JVIATCHLESS
PIANOS
SOLD AKD RENTED
MODERATE PRICES     EASY TERMS
33  UNION   SQUARE
NEW YORK
I
V////////////////////////////////////AM THE PLAZA HOTEL
F. A. HAMMOND, Proprietor.
LOCATED AT THE
MAIN ENTRANCE TO AND OVERLOOKING CENTRAL PARK,
AND OCCUPYING THE ENTIRE BLOCK FROM
58th to 59th Streets and Fifth Ave.,
NEW YORK CITY.
The Hotel is absolutely Fire-Proof, and is furnished
throughout with all that Modern Ingenuity and Practical
Science can devise to promote comfort and convenience to
patrons. The desirable location particularly recommends it as
a Summer Residence.
APPLETONS' DICTIONARY OFII
NEW   YORK   AND   ITS   VICINITY.
Thirteenth edition.    Thoroughly revised, containing
thirty-six pages of new material.
An alphabetically arranged Index to all Places, Societies, Institutions,
Amusements, and other features of the Metropolis and Neighborhood
upon which Information is needed by the Stranger or the Citizen. With
Maps of New York and Vicinity. Paper cover, 30 cents; flexible cloth,
60 cents.
!| Its continued popularity is not surprising when one considers the essential merit
of the work, and the extreme pains taken to keep it abreast of the times."—Boston
Beacon.
"Makes good its claim to annual revision. . . . It needs no fresh praise."—The
Nation.
I What with its maps, pictures, and lists, the wayfarer in our city can hardly ask
for a better pocket companion than this."—The Critic.
For sale by all booksellers; or will bs sent by mail on receipt of price.
D. Appleton & Co., Publishers, 1, 3, & 5 Bond St., New York. n*
"fl Strictly Fipst Class Tpanslent Hotel
Now free from spray and dampness subjected to while on Canada sidet
Same owner and management as the Original Prospect
House, Canada side, established in 1814.
Has been patronized by His Excellency the Marquis of Lome, Governor-
General of Canada; Her Royal Highness the Princess Louise and suite; His
Royal Highness Prince Leopold, K. G., and suites; His Royal Highness
Prince George of Wales and suite; His Excellency the Marquis of Lans-
downe, Governor-General of Canada, and the Marchioness of Lansdowne and
suite, and many other distinguished American and foreign tourists.
This hotel is fitted with all modern improvements, conveniently and
admirably located on high, shady ground, and is a strictly first-class
transient hotel, open all the year round. A most striking compliment to the Prospect House has been paid it by some inferior
hotels adopting a similar name to influence the traveling public.
Rates, $3.50 to $5.50 per day.
Leave cars at Niagara Falls, ~ New York stations.
Engage carriages for sight-seeing at the Hotel.
An advance notice of arrival by mail or telegraph will greatly facilitate. •S
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till ST. LOUIS HOTEL
Quebec, Canada.
This Hotel; which is Unrivaled for Size, Style, and Locality
in Quebec, has just been  completely transformed
and modernized throughout,
Being refitted with new system of drainage and ventilation, passenger elevator,
electric bells and lights, etc. In fact, all that modern ingenuity and practical
science can devise, to promote the comfort and convenience of guests, has been
supplied.
The ST. LOUIS is eligibly situated in the immediate vicinity of the most
delightful and fashionable promenades, the Governor's Garden, the Citadel,
Place d'Armes, Dufferin Terrace, and the Esplanade, and contains accommodation for 500 guests.
CHATEAU SAINT LOUIS HOTEL CO.
PROPRIETORS.
WILLIAM E. RUSSELL, President STORIES  OF  CANADIAN LIFE.
THE CANADIANS OF OLD.
By  PHILIFPE   GASPE.
Translated by CHARLES G. D. ROBERTS.
12mo.   Paper, 50 cents.   Specially bound in cloth, $1.00.
The scene of this historical romance is laid in the eighteenth century.
Among the subjects sketched in the work, which is the classic romance of
Canada, are picturesque phases of life in the old seigniories of Quebec, hunting adventures, and the strange legends of Old Canada.
" A story that reproduces the life of a past era with a picturesque accuracy
that is fairly fascinating."—Boston Saturday Evening Gazette.
" Full of dramatic episodes. Stories of adventure, by water and on land,
abound throughout the book. ... A fascinating book—a book which,
though new to the United States, has long been esteemed a classic in
Canada."—New York Tribune.
" A book not only of interest, but of value."—San Francisco Bulletin.
u It abounds in stirring scenes by flood and field, and also in humorous
colloquy."—Brooklyn Eagle.
GEOFFREY HAMPSTEAD.
By THOMAS STINSON JARVIsl
12mo.   Paper cover, 50 cents.
'jL. . . The action is rapid, the dramatic interest well sustained, dialogue
original and pointed, and there is a definite ethical purpose. . . . ' Geoffrey
Hampstead' is a novel well worth perusal. It is long since the literature of
our Northern neighbors has given us anything half as good."—Boston Beacon.
" There are so many vivid pictures in ' Geoffrey Hampstead' . . . that it
is hard to pick out a chief one among them in the matter of narrative, emphasis, or of tragic force; and after all the passages of intenser character
have been considered, it is still difficult to determine whether they are not
all made secondary by the great interest of the philosophical discussions in
which this strong ana versatile book abounds."—New York Sun.
"' Geoffrey Hampstead' ... is a novel of much ingenuity and force.
While it is a story of incident, it presents several keen, analytic studies of
character also, and the novelist makes the incident illustrate the characters
without going into long, tiresome analysis and description."—Chicago Times.
New York: D. APPLETON & CO., 1, 3, & 5 Bond Street. The Florence
Wt 3enj Trudel \j»
Quebec     &>>«*»
=^~r~ w tr jm tui». e» tu» *&
Is the most pleasant, attractive, and comfortable house for tourists
that can be found on this continent.
Its location unequaled, and the panoramic view to be had from the
Balcony is not even surpassed by the world-renowned Dufferin
Terrace, as it commands a full view of the River St. Lawrence,
the St. Charles Valley, Montmorency Falls, Laurentian Range
of Mountains, and overlooks the largest part of the city.
The rooms are large, elegantly furnished, and well ventilated, and
' the table FIRST CLASS.
Street-cars pass the door every ten minutes.
Telephone communication.—Electric light and bell in every room.
Iron balconies and iron stairs from every floor.   Perfect safety against
any accident. THE   SOVEREIGNS  AND   COURTS
OF EUROPE.
THE HOME AND COURT LIFE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF
THE REIGNING FAMILIES. By 1 Politikos." With many Portraits.    12mo.    Cloth, $1.50.
" The chief merit of this book is that it gives a new view of several sovereigns.
. . . The anonymous author seems to have sources of information that are not
open to the foreign correspondents who generally try to convey the impression that
they are on terms of intimacy with royalty. "San Francisco Chronicle.
ADELINE'S ART DICTIONARY.  M
CONTAINING A  COMPLETE  INDEX  OF ALL TERMS  USED IN
ART,   ARCHITECTURE,   HERALDRY,   AND   ARCHAEOLOGY.
Translated from the French and enlarged, with nearly 2,000 Illustrations.    8vo.    Cloth, $2.25.
• A most comprehensive work."—Springfield Republican.
"Nothing could he more comprehensive in its way."—iVtfw York Sun.
ELECTRICITY:   THE  SCIENCE OF
THE  NINETEENTH  CENTURY.
A SKETCH FOR GENERAL READERS.   By E. M. Caillard, author of
| The Invisible Powers of Nature."  Illustrated.   12mo.   Cloth, $1.25.
"An admirable treatise, giving such an outline of modern electrical science as
may be readily understood by readers who have no previous acquaintance with the
mbied."—Philadelphia Press.
GEOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS
ON THE VOLCANIC ISLANDS AND PARTS OF SOUTH AMERICA
VISITED DURING THE VOYAGE OF H. M. 1 "BEAGLE."
By Charles Darwin, M. A., F. R. S., etc., author of | The Structure
and Distribution of Coral Reefs," | The Origin of Species," etc.
Third edition.   With Maps and Illustrations.    12mo.    Cloth, $2.50.
" No one engaged in teaching physical geography should be without a knowledge of this characteristic product of Darwin's mind."—The Nation.
LA  GRIPPE  AND   ITS TREATMENT.
FOR GENERAL READERS.    By Cyrus Edson, M.D., of the Health
Department, New York City.     Small 18mo.     Parchment paper,
25 cents.
" The author believes that la grippe has come to stay, and that the masses
should know how to avoid its dangers. The volume gives a brief history of the
disease, its diagnosis and prognosis, and shows how the serious and fatal complications can be avoided by proper hygienic care. It is a good little manual for
every home.''— Chicago Inter- Ocean.
New York: D. APPLETON & CO., Publishers, 1, 3, & 5 Bond Street «gs—
A conductor on a Western Express is the marvel of those who have been let into hiS;
secret. Although having had both of his feet amputated, he is a conductor of extraordinary ability.
He passes through his train when going at the rate of fifty miles an hour; he collects
and punches tickets with the suavity of one proud of his position. The car jolts, hitches,
sways, and he retains his balance without the least awkwardness.
At stations he alights with agility, watches his passengers and gives signals, boards his
train and walks the passageway with the steadiness of one possessing his natural legs.
Day after day for three years he has performed this round of duty, and not a soul hag.
had occasion to suspect that he operates on a pair of artificial legs with rubber feet, and only,
those to whom he voluntarily reveals his condition ever know of his dependence on artificial
extremities. His movements are graceful, his appearance is natural, his step is firm and
elastic, and his power is complete.
All this is made possible by the virtues of rubber, which largely composes the feet; the
old methods of artificial limbs, with wooden feet and mechanical joints, would render this
man unsafe, tottlish, unsteady, and unfit for a position that requires sound footing. The
engraving represents Mr. Wade operating on his artificials in his chosen profession.
Subjects can remain at home and have artificials made, with fit guaranteed. One half the
legs and arms are made from measurements and profiles, without the presence of the wearer.
Indorsed by the United States Government, and over 12,000 men, women, and^ children,
who wear them, residing in all parts of the world.
Established over thirty-eight years.
A treatise of 400 pages, with 200 illustrations, sent free of charge.
Address
A. A, MARKS, 701 Broadway. New York City. BBS
THE   QUEEN'S
TORONTO,   ONTARIO.
Celebrated   for   its   Home   Comforts,   perfect
Quiet, good Attendance, and the peculiar excellence of its Cuisine.
Delightfully situated near the  Bay, on Front
Street,  convenient to  Business Center,
Railroad Depot, Steamboats, etc.
PATRONIZED BY ROYALTY A
ill
IE
ST FAMILIES.
McGAW   &
e£s*u a
AM Jd JL JL •
Proprietors. THE 
CANADIAN GUIDE-BOOK 
The Tourist's and Sportsman's Guide to 
Eastern Canada and Newfoundland 
INCLUDING FULL DESCRIPTIONS OF ROUTES, CITIES, 
POINTS OF INTEREST, SUMMER RESORTS, FISHING PLACES, ETC., 
IN EASTERN ONTARIO, THE MUSKOKA DISTRICT, 
THE ST. LAWRENCE REGION, THE LAKE ST. JOHN COUNTRY, 
THE MARITIME PROVINCES, 
PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND, AND NEWFOUNDLAND 
WITH AN APPENDIX 
GIVING FISH AND GAME LAWS, AND OFFICIAL LISTS OF 
TROUT AND SALMON RIVERS AND THEIR LESSEES 
BY 
CHARLES G. D. ROBERTS 
PROFESSOR OF ENGLISH LITERATURE IN KING'S COLLEGE, WINDSOR, N. S. 
WITH MAPS AND MANY ILLUSTRATIONS 
NEW YORK 
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY 
1891 Copyright, 1891,
By D. APPLETON AND COMPANY. CONTENTS.
Introduction
page
1
PROVINCE  OF ONTARIO.
The Niagara River.
Niagara Falls   .
From Niagara to Toronto
The Water Route
The Grand Trunk Route
Hamilton   .
Toronto
The Muskoka District
From Toronto eastward
Kingston    .
The Thousand Islands
The St. Lawrence Rapidi
Ottawa
From Ottawa to Montreal
5
6
13
13
15
18
20
30
35
40
43
46
49
53
PROVINCE OF QUEBEC.
Province of Quebec
Montreal    ....
From Montreal to St. John
From Montreal to Quebec .
By the St. Lawrence River
By Rail on the South Shore
By Rail on the North
Quebec      ....
From Quebec to Lake St. John
Lake St. John   .
Down the St. Lawrence and up the
The Saguenay River.
From Ohicoutimi to the Mouth
Cape Trinity and Cape Eternitj
From Quebec to the Maritime Prov
By Rail      ....
By Steamship round Gaspe
The Gasp6 Peninsula
Saguenay
inces:
58
60
72
73
73
79
80
81
95
99
102
106
108
109
111
114
115 IV
CONTENTS.
PROVINCE OF NEW BRUNSWICK
The Province of New Brunswick
The Restigouche
From the Restigouche to Moncton
The Miramichi ....
Moncton	
Trips from Moncton
From Moncton to St. John .
St. John	
Up the Rtver St. John .
Fredericton       ....
From Frederick to Woodstock .
The Upper St. John .
The Grand Falls of the St. John
Above the Grand Falls
Routes for the Sportsman .
Up the Tobique by Canoe
By Rail from Woodstock
Campobello and Grand Manan
The Return to St. John
From Moncton to Amherst .
PAGE
. 121
. 122
. 126
. 129
. 131
. 131
. 133
. 134
. 141
. 147
. 151
, 152
. 155
. 157
. 159
. 165
. 180
. 183
. 186
. 187
PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND.
Prince Edward Island .
Charlottetown   .      .      .      .
From Charlottetown eastward
192
195
197
Sydney
alifax
NOVA SCOTIA.
Nova Scotia     .....
To Pictou and Antigonish .
Cape Breton     ....
Through the Bras d'Or Waters to
Baddeck	
Sydney      .....
From New Glasgow to Truro and H
Truro ......
Halifax	
From Halifax to Bridge water .
From Bred gewater to Yarmouth
Yarmouth	
From Halifax eastward
From Halifax to Yarmouth by Rail
Windsor	
From Windsor to Parrsboro and St.
From Windsor to Grand Pre
John
201
203
207
209
209
211
215
215
218
239
242
245.
246
247
248
250
•252 CONTENTS. V
PAGE
From Wolfville to Annapolis  256
From Annapolis to Yarmouth  259
NEWFOUNDLAND.
The Island of Newfoundland  227
St. John's  229
Trips from St. John's  231
Along the Coast  233
Conception Bay and the South Coast  234
The French Shore  237
APPENDIX FOR SPORTSMEN.
General Information  263
Lessees of Fishing Rights  264
Close Seasons for Fishing and Hunting  267 SALMON-FLIES. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
facing page
Niagara Falls from Prospect Park  4
The American Falls  8
Luna Falls and the Rock of Ages  13
In the Thousand Isles  44
Parliament Buildings, Ottawa  51
Timber afloat at the Saw-mills, Ottawa  52
Long Sault Rapids  56
Running Lachine Rapids  58
Extemporized (Railroad on the Frozen St. Lawrence      ... 71
Fort Chambly, on the Richelieu River  76
Citadel at Quebec  86
Cape Gaspe  112
Perce Rock  116
Gaspis Residents returning from Church  118
The Beach at Paspebiac, and View of the Bay  122
Valley of the Metapedia  124
A Moose Family  146
Curing Fish at Perce   .      .  159
Caribou Migration  168
The Steamer Arctic, Prince Edward Island  188
Cape Porcupine, and Cape St. George  191
The Oldest House in Prince Edward Island  194
Old Fireplace at Entry Island  198
The Mail-boat at Prince Edward Island  201
On the Road to Baddeck  210
St. John's, Newfoundland  230
The Monthly Mail Train from Hall's Bay to Codroy    .      .      . 233
Government Houses and Town Pumps at St. Pierre .... 236
Cape Blomidon  252
Cape Split                      . 254 Vlll
LIST  OF   ILLUSTRATIONS.
MAPS.
Routes between Ottawa and Montreal.
Plan of Montreal	
Plan of Quebec      	
Lake St. John and Vicinity
The Gaspe Peninsula	
Belle Isle Strait	
Canadian Salmon Rivers and Gaspe Basin
General Map, Province of Ontario .
" "     Province of Quebec   .
" "     Maritime Provinces   .
FACING PAGE
55
64
82
99
115
234
263
In Pocket.
SALMON. INTRODUCTION.
The dear home of freemen brave and true,
And loving honor more than ease or gold.
Agnes Maule Machak.
Stretching from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and from Lake Erie to
the Arctic Ocean, occupying a more spacious territory than the United
States and Alaska, lies the great dominion to which the name of Canada
now applies, a country whose people are engrossed in the work of nation-making. Perhaps nowhere else in the world, at this present day,
are such mighty forces stirring to such gigantic and uncalculated issues.
Within a decade there has come about such a change in the spirit of
the Canadian people that outside observers, judging from data of ten
or fifteen years ago, find themselves pathetically astray in their conclusions ; for the name of Canada, almost in a day, has become a name to
conjure with, from corner to corner of this confederation which we
have molded out of the once scattered and half-antagonistic provinces
of British North America. To the tourist whose interest centers chiefly
in men, in institutions, in ethnological and political problems, this country with a future and not without a significant past offers the strongest
possible attractions. To those who look for magnificence or charm of
landscape, for an invigorating climate, for the wholesome relish of rod
and gun and paddle, this region of the North makes no less active, appeal. Its deficiencies, of course, are those of all new countries—its
fields have not been sown thick with blood and tears, its cities lack the
magic of inexhaustible memories, the treasures of a long-established
civilization. One city, Quebec, seems old to us, and has gathered about
its diadem of ramparts much of | the light that never was on sea or
land "; but, compared with Old World cities, it is a growth of yesterday.
The section of Canada which is here designated as Eastern Canada
is in the main coextensive with old Canada and Acadia. The rich and
populous section of Ontario which lies between Lakes Erie and Huron is
avoided, as belonging rather to the Western than the Eastern tour.
Toronto forms the most convenient center from which to start west or 2
INTRODUCTION.
east. The term Eastern Canada includes a large section of Ontario,
with the provinces of Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince
Edward Island. Newfoundland, and that part of Labrador belonging
to Newfoundland, though not attached to Canada, are touched upon in
the following pages, for the convenience of tourists who may wish to
visit them. The territory to be described may most conveniently be
covered in a round trip, offering abundant choice of routes, and opportunity for attractive side-trips from the most important towns along
the way. It is a small territory compared with the rest of the Dominion, but it contains the bulk of the population, much of the finest
scenery, many of the best hunting and fishing resorts, and nearly all
the history, tradition, and romance which combine to clothe the name
of Canada with something like a savor of antiquity. Here was the
center of French power in the New World, and here was fought to an
end the contest between France and England. About Quebec and
Louisbourg, Annapolis and Beausejour, battled the Leopards and the
Lilies for the dominion of half a continent. Quebec is still mighty,
the gateway to Canada; but at Louisbourg the sheep pasture now where
stood but yesterday a great stronghold, the | Dunkirk of America."
There brodtls a spell of mystery and romance about the site of this
obliterated city. The magnitude and the heroism of the struggle for
New France have been perpetuated for us by Parkman, and the pathos
of its termination, as represented in a single episode, by Longfellow.
The climate of the St. Lawrence region and the Maritime Provinces is in general not unlike that of New England. The climate of
Nova Scotia, in particular, is neither so hot in summer nor so cold in
winter as that of the neighboring New England States. Summer
tourists will need to make such provision against cool evenings and
occasional fog as they would make if visiting the seaside resorts of
Maine. In northeastern Quebec the summers are often chilly, and
down the giant funnel of the Saguenay there blows at times, in midsummer, a wind which makes the snuggest wraps desirable. As for
the fogs that sometimes roll in on the Atlantic coast, one may escape
them by a jaunt of a mile or two into the interior, or face them and
experience the miracle which they will work on dull or faded complexions. It is to the benign ministrations of the fog that the women of
the Atlantic seaboard owe the bloom and freshness of their faces.
The traveler who is well supplied with American bank-notes will
find no difficulty with the currency.   American bills are good all over INTRODUCTION. 6
Canada. American silver, except in the border communities, is liable
to a heavy discount, and in some places will be refused altogether.
The silver coinage of Canada is uniform for the whole Dominion, and
with this the tourist should keep himself well supplied.
Concerning the opportunities for making purchases, a Canadian
writer says:
I If the tourist be desirous of economizing ingeniously, he will purchase himself a suit of clothes in Toronto, Montreal, or Halifax, getting
a strong, English-looking material of Australian wool, woven in Canada ; and he will save fifty per cent over a similar article purchased in
Boston or New York. It is, of course, not ready-made goods that we
refer to, but suits made to order. In Halifax, a suit of best Canadian
tweed, durable and stylish, may be got from a first-rate tailor for $16
to $20; and a faultless dress-suit of best material for $35. In some
of the smaller towns, such as Truro and Windsor, in Nova Scotia, skillful tailors who have learned their trade abroad, and keep themselves
abreast of the fashion, are able, on account of low rents and small
taxes, to furnish thoroughly satisfactory suits of fine Canadian tweed,
of quiet and correct pattern, for $15. The lover of furs will of course
make his (or her) purchases in Toronto or in Quebec city, where the
great fur-shops supply these goods in variety and of best quality, a.t
prices quite unheard-of in American cities. Indian work—moccasins,
bark- and quill-work, etc.—are usually to be purchased at counters in
the chief hotels and on the Saguenay steamers, and at so-called ' Indian
bazaars \ in Montreal, Halifax, and St. John. In Quebec such things
are sold in the quaint old house wherein the body of Montgomery was
laid out."
All the baggage of travelers is subjected to an examination on
passing the borders; but the customs officials, as a rule, are courteous,
and the search is not severe if the traveler shows a disposition to
facilitate it.
On the round trip from New York or Boston and back, by way of
Niagara, Toronto, Montreal, Quebec, Halifax, and St. John, the tourist
will find the best of traveling facilities and accommodations. The
various railroad and steamboat lines by which he may make the journey are equipped with all modern conveniences ; and the hotels in the
cities above named, as well as at many other places along the route,
are first class in every respect. This applies equally well to some
of the side-trips which will be mentioned in the following pages; but
on others wilder regions will be traversed, where a similar degree of
comfort and luxury is not to be expected.
In the summer season round-trip tickets are issued from New York INTRODUCTION.
and Boston and other centers; and detailed information may be obtained at the railroad and steamboat agencies. At a rough estimate it
may be said that the round trip from Boston or New York by way of
Niagara, Toronto, Montreal, Quebec, Saguenay, Halifax, and St. John,
will cost from $40 to $55 in fares, according to choice of routes.
The plan of the book, its arrangement and classification of matter,
and the system of treatment, are based on the famous Baedeker Handbooks, which are conceded to possess in a pre-eminent degree the grand
desiderata of compactness, portability, and facility of consultation. As
much aid as possible is afforded to the eye by printing the names of
places and objects either in italics, or, where they are of sufficient
importance, in large-faced type. IHfli
Niagara Falls from Prospect Park.  APPLETONS'
CANADIAN  GUIDE-BOO!
^.
PROVINCE OF ONTARIO.
Niagara Falls.
Shall not Niagara's mighty voice
Inspire to action high ?
'Twere easy such a land to love,
Or for her glory die.
E. G. Nelson.
The tourist who proposes to visit the St. Lawrence region and
Maritime Provinces of Canada will do well to travel with the sun,
beginning with Ontario and ending with New Brunswick or Nova Scotia.
Traveling in this direction, the descent of the St. Lawrence by boat is
open to him, with its charm of historic landscapes, and its exciting
experiences at the rapids of Long Sault and Lachine.
A little north of \Vest from New York or Boston, on the isthmus
between Lakes Ontario and Erie lies Niagara, whither all roads lead.
Here we reach the frontier of the Maple-Leaf Land, and here our trip
may be properly said to begin.
Countless pens have striven to depict the sublimities of Niagara,
and have only succeeded in proving the hopelessness of the effort. I
will not add another to the list of failures. Not only are words inadequate to convey any just impression of the stupendous cataract, but the
eye itself, on first beholding it, quite fails to grasp its magnificence.
No one can be said to have seen the Falls who has taken but one look
and then passed on. To rightly apprehend them one should halt for
some days at Niagara till his eye adjusts itself to the new proportions,
and, like the boy that mocked the owls on Windermere, he feels that
?| the visible scene
Has entered unawares into his mind,
* "With all its solemn imagery.1'
Not many years ago the Falls were so hedged about with extortionate charges that the tourist, unless a millionaire, was constrained to 6
NIAGARA FALLS.
•
grasp his purse-strings and flee from the spot with the smallest possible delay. Now, however, all that is changed, and on the Canadian
and American side alike the view of the falls is free. One pays only
for such unessential extras as crossing the ferry or visiting The Cave
of the Winds behind the cataract. The whole may be done on foot or
with the aid of the street-cars which run between the Whirlpool and the
Falls, and Niagara need be costly to none but those who desire to make
it so. Cab charges are regulated by law, and hotel rates * are much
as elsewhere, varying from $1 to $4 a day.
The Falls are situated on the Niagara River, about 22 miles from
Lake Erie and 14 miles from Ontario.    This river is the channel by
which all the waters of
NIAGARA RIVER the  four   great   upper
lakes flow toward the
Gulf of St. Lawrence,
and has a total descent
of 333 ft., leaving Lake
Ontario still 231 ft.
above the sea. From
the N. E. extremity of
Lake Erie the Niagara
flows in a N. direction
with a swift current for
the first 2 miles, and
then more gently with
a widening current,
which divides as a portion passes on each side
of Grand Island. As
these unite below the island, the stream spreads out to 2 or 3 miles in
width, and appears like a quiet lake studded with small, low islands.
About 16 miles from Lake Erie the current becomes narrow and begins
to descend with great velocity.   This is the commencement of The Rap-
* The best hotels are—on the American side, the Prospect House,
Cataract House, International Hotel, Spencer House, Park Place Hotel,
and KaltenbacJi's ; on the Canadian side, the Clifton House and Brunswick House. The legal tariff for carriages is $2 per hour, but it is
usually easy to arrange special terms. All tolls are paid by the
traveler. NIAGARA FALLS.
ids, which continue for about a mile, the waters accomplishing in this
distance a fall of 52 ft.   The Rapids terminate below in a great cataract,
the descent of which is 164 ft. on the American side and 158 ft. on the
Canadian.   At this point the river, making a curve from W. to N.,
spreads out to an extreme width of 4,750 ft., embracing Goat and the
Three Sister Islands.    Goat Island^ which extends down to the brink
of the cataract, occupies about one fourth of this space, leaving the
river on the American side about 1,100 ft. wide, and on the Canadian
side about double this width.   The line along the verge of the Canadian
Fall is much longer than the breadth of this portion of the river, by
reason of its horseshoe form, the curve extending up the central part
of the current.   The waters sweeping down the Rapids form a grand
curve as they fall clear of the rocky wall into the deep pool at the base.
In the profound chasm below the fall, the current, contracted in width
to less than 1,000 ft., is tossed tumultously about, and forms great
whirlpools and eddies as it is borne along its rapidly descending bed.
Dangerous as it appears, the river is here crossed by small row-boats,
which are reached from'the banks above by an inclined railroad, and
the Maid of the Mist, a small steamer, makes frequent trips to the edge
of the Falls.    For 7 miles below the Falls the narrow gorge continues,
varying in width from 200 to 400 yards.    The river then emerges at
Lewiston into a lower district, having descended 104 ft. from the foot
of the cataract.
Here at Lewiston, where ends the gorge, was once the site of the
cataract. Instead of plunging into a deep chasm and hiding its grandeur from all but those who would search it out, the gigantic torrent
rolled, in full view of the world, over the lofty line of Queenston
Heights, the escarpment of the high plateau of the upper lakes. The •
recession of the Falls to their present point is thus discussed by the
Duke of Argyll:
FORMER POSITION OF THE FALLS.
" A very curious question, and one of great scientific interest, arises
out of the great difference between the course of the Niagara River
above and below the Falls. It has, in my opinion, been much too
readily assumed by geologists that rivers have excavated the valleys in
which they run. The cutting power of water is very great, but it varies
in proportion to the liability of floods, and the wearing power of stones
that may be carried along; much also depends on the position of the
rocks over which a river runs. If the stratification present edges
which are easily attacked or undermined, even a gentle stream may cut 8
NIAGARA  FALLS.
rapidly for itself a deeper bed. On the .other hand, when the rocks do
not expose any surfaces which are easily assailable, a very large body
of water may run over them for ages without being able to scoop out
more than a few feet or even a few inches. Accordingly, such is actually the case with the Niagara River in the upper part of its course from
Lake Erie to the Falls. In all the ages during which it has run into
that course for 15 miles it has not been able to remove more than a
few feet of soil or rock. The country is level and the banks are very
low, so low that in looking up the bed of the stream the more distant
trees on either bank seem to rise out of the water. But suddenly in
the middle of the comparatively level country the river encounters a
precipice, and thenceforward for 7 miles runs through a profound cleft
or ravine the bottom of which is not less than 300 ft. below the general
level of the country. How came that precipice to be there ? . This
would be no puzzle at all if the precipice were joined with a sudden
change in the general level of the country on either side of the river—
and there is such a change—but it is not at the Falls. It is 7 miles
farther on. At the Falls there is no depression in the general level
of the banks. Indeed, on the Canadian shore, the land rises very considerably just above the Falls. On the American shore it continues at
the same elevation. The whole country here, however, is a table-land,
and that table-land has a termination—an edge—over which the river
must fall before it can reach Lake Ontario. But that edge does not run
across the country at Niagara Falls, but along a line much nearer to
Lake Ontario, where it is a conspicuous feature in the landscape, and
is called Queenston Heights. The natural place, therefore, so to speak,
for the Falls would have been where the river came to that edge, and
from that point the river has all the appearance of having cut its way
backward in the course of time. Sir Charles Lyell, the eminent geologist, came to the conclusion, from comparison of the rate at which the
cutting back had been observable within the memory of man, that this
cutting back is about one foot in each year. At this rate the river
would have taken 35,000 years to effect its retreat from Queenston to
the present position of the Falls. This is but a very short fathom-line"
to throw out into the' abysmal depths of geological time, and, making
every allowance for the possibility of any difference in rate, according
to variations of temperature or configuration, the principle of the calculation seems to be a sound one. The strata of layers of rock which
compose the geological formation can readily be seen in the gorge of
the river, and the process by which the cataract has eaten its way
back from Queenston can be readily perceived. At the level of the
brink of the Falls, where the waters make their final plunge, are thick,
regular, and flat layers of limestone rock. Above and below these is
soft soluble shale. The running water wearing away the upper deposits makes the inequalities which cause the rapids above the Falls, and
the reverberation and splash of'Jhe torrent as it falls have disintegrated
and washed out the soft red shale below, so that the limestone ledge is
left in overhanging masses until they break off with their own weight,
and piece after piece dropping into the depths beneath, the Falls con- CO
J-  NIAGARA  FALLS.
9
tinue their ceaseless march commenced so many centuries ago. This
deep groove does seem to be a clear case of a ravine produced by a
known cause which can be seen now in actual operation. As far as
I could see, there is nothing to indicate that the ravine is due to a
I fault' or a crack arising from subterranean disturbance, but the work
has been done by the process which has been described, and 35,000
years is, after all, but an insignificant fraction of what has been
occupied in the operations of geological time."
For a detailed description of the various points of interest at the
Falls, the tourist may depend on one of the various local guide-books,
which go into particulars in a way that can not be done in a work of
such* range as the present. The following brief account, condensed
from Appletons' General Guide, will indicate the wealth of material
on which these local guide-books may exercise their powers of descrip-
tton and imagination:
Goat Island is the point usually visited first. It is reached by a
bridge 360 ft. long, the approach to which is just in rear of the Cataract House. The bridge itself is an object of interest, from its apparently dangerous position. It iSj however, perfectly safe, and is
crossed constantly by heavily laden carriages. The view of the rapids
from the bridge is one of the most impressive features of the Niagara
scenery. Below the bridge, a short distance from the verge of the
American Falls, is Chapin's Island, so named in memory of a workman who fell into the stream while at work on the bridge. He lodged
on this islet and was rescued by a Mr. Robinson, who gallantly went to
his rescue in a skiff. About midway of the stream the road crosses
Bath Island. A short walk brings us to the foot-bridge leading to
Luna Island, a huge rock-mass of some three quarters of an acre, lying
between the Center Falls and the American Falls. The exquisite lunar
rainbows seen at this point, when the moon is full, have given it the
name it bears. Just beyond Luna Island a spiral stairway (called
I Biddle's Stairs," after Nicholas Biddle, of United States Bank fame,
by whose order they were built) leads to the foot of the cliff. From
the foot of the stairs, which are secured to the rocks by strong iron
fastenings, there are two diverging paths. That to the right leads to
the Cave of the Winds, a spacious recess back of the Center Falls.
Guides and water-proof suits for visiting the cave may be obtained at
the stairs (fee, $1.50), and the excursion is well worth making. You
can pass safely into the recess behind the water to a platform beyond.
Magical rainbow pictures are found at this spot; sometimes .bows of 10
NIAGARA FALLS.
entire circles and two or three at once are seen. A plank-walk has
been carried out to a cluster of rocks near the foot of the fall, and
from it one of the best views of the American Falls may be obtained.
The up-river way, along the base of the cliff toward the Horseshoe
Falls, is difficult and much obstructed by fallen rocks. It was from a
point near Biddle's Stairs that the renowned jumper, Sam Patch, made
two successful leaps into the water below (in 1829), saying to the
throng of spectators, as he went off, that " one thing might be done as
well as another." Reascending the stairs, a few minutes' walk along
the summit of the cliff brings us to a bridge leading to the islet on
which stood the famous Terrapin Tower, which having become dangerous was blown up with gunpowder in 1873. The view of the Horseshoe Falls from this point is surpassingly grand. It was estimated by
Lyell that 1,500,000,000 cubic feet of water pass over the ledges, every
hour. One of the condemned lake-ships (the Detroit) was sent over
this fall in 1829;. and, though she drew 18 ft. of water, she did not
touch the rocks in passing over the brink of the precipice, showing
that the water is at least 20 ft. deep above the ledge.
At the other end of Goat Island (reached by a road from the Horseshoe Falls), a series of graceful bridges leads to the Three Sisters, as
three small islets lying in the. Rapids are called. On Goat Island, near
the Three Sisters, is the Hermit's Bathing-place, so called after Francis
Abbott, " The Hermit of Niagara," who used to bathe here, and who
finally drowned while doing so. At the foot of Grand Island, near the
Canada shore, is Navy Island, which was the scene of some interesting
incidents in the Canadian Rebellion of 1837-'38, known as the Mackenzie War. It was near Schlosser Landing, about 2 miles above the Falls,
on the American side, that during the war the American steamer Caroline, which had been perverted to the use of the insurgents, was set
on fire and sent over the Falls by the order of Sir Allan McNab^ a
Canadian officer.
The State of New York purchased, in 1885, the property bordering
the Falls, and laid out Niagara Park, to be controlled by a State Commission, empowered to remove all obstructions to the view, and to improve the grounds. No charge is made for admission to Niagara Park.
A " vertical railway," running on a steep incline, leads from the park
to the base of the cliff; and from its foot the river may be crossed in
the steamboat the Maid of the Mist. The passage across the river is
perfectly safe, and is worth making for the very fine view of the Falls NIAGARA FALLS.
11
obtained in mid-stream. A winding road along the cliff-side leads from
the landing on the Canadian side to the top of the bluff, near the Clifton House. By climbing over the rocks at the base of the cliff on the
American side (turn to the left after descending the railway), the tourist may penetrate to a point within the spray of the American Fall, and
get what is perhaps, on the whole, the finest view of it to be had.
The usual way of crossing to the Canadian side is over the New
Suspension Bridge, which arches the river about one eighth of a
mile below the Falls, and is one of the curiosities of the locality (fee
for pedestrians, 25c).    It was finished in 1869, at a cost of $175,000;
is 1,190 ft. from cliff to cliff, 1,268 ft. from tower to tower, and 190 ft-
above the river; and it was widened in 1888, all the wooden parts of
the structure being replaced by iron.    It was carried away by the gale
of January 10, 1889, but has been rebuilt.   The tower on the American
side is 100 ft. high, and that on the Canadian side 105 ft.    A road to
the left from the bridge terminus leads along the cliff, affording good
views of the American and Center Falls.    A short distance above the
terrace near the Falls is the spot still called Table Rock, though the
immense overhanging platform originally known by that name has long
since fallen over the precipice.    From this point the best front view of
the Falls is obtained, and that of the Horseshoe Fall .is incomparably
grand.    The concussion of the falling waters with those in the depths
below produces a spray that veils the cataract two thirds up its height.
Above this impenetrable foam to the height of 50 ft. above the Fall, a
cloud of lighter spray rises, which, when the sun shines upon it in the
proper direction,  displays magnificent  solar rainbows.     The appropriateness of the name Niagara (" Thunder of Waters ") is very evident here.   At Table Rock may be procured guides and water-proof suits
for the passage under the Horseshoe Falls (fee, 50c).   This
passage (which no nervous person should attempt) is described as follows by a writer in Picturesque America: | The wooden stairways are
narrow and steep, but perfectly safe; and a couple of minutes brings
us to the bottom.    Here we are in spray-land indeed; for we have
hardly begun to traverse the pathway of broken bits of shale when,
with a mischievous sweep, the wind sends a baby cataract in our direction, and fairly inundates us.    The mysterious gloom, with the thundering noises of the falling waters, impresses every one; but, as the
pathway is broad, and the walking easy, new-comers are apt to think
there is nothing in it.    The tall, stalwart negro, who acts as guide, 12
NIAGARA  FALLS.
listens with amusement to such comments, and confidently awaits a
change in the tone of the scoffers. More and more arched do the
rocks become as we proceed. The top part is of hard limestone, and
the lower of shale, which has been so battered away by the fury of the
waters that there is an arched passage behind the entire Horseshoe
Fall, which could easily be traversed if the currents of air would let
us pass. But, as we proceed, we begin to notice that it blows a trifle,
and from every one of the 32 points of the compass. At first, however, we get them separately. A gust at a time inundates us with
spray; but the farther we march the more unruly is the Prince of Air.
First, like single spies, come his winds; but soon they advance like
skirmishers; and, at last, where a thin column of water falls across
the path, they oppose a solid phalanx to our efforts. It is a point of
nonor to see who can go farthest through these corridors of iEolus. It
is on record that a man, with an herculean effort, once burst through
the column of water, but was immediately thrown to the ground, and
only rejoined his comrades by crawling face downward, and digging
his hands into the loose shale of the pathway. Prof. Tyndall has
gone as far as mortal man, and he describes the buffeting of the air as
indescribable, the effect being like actual blows with the fist."
Termination Rock is a short distance beyond Table Rock, at the
verge of the fall. The spray here is blinding, and the roar of waters
deafening.
Below the Falls are several points of interest, which are best visited on the American side. The first of these is the old Suspension
Bridge, which spans the gorge 2 miles below the Falls, and supports
railway-tracks, a roadway, and footways. The bridge is 245 ft. above
the water, and supported by towers on each bank, the centers of which
are 821 ft. apart. It was built in 1855 by the late John A. Roebling,
and cost $300,000. The fee for crossing the bridge is 25c for pedestrians, which confers the right to return free on the same day. From
one side of this bridge a fine distant view of the Falls is had, and
from the other a bird's-eye view of the seething, tumultuous Whirlpool Rapids. Three hundred feet above may be seen the new Michigan Central R. R. Cantilever Bridge. By descending the elevator,
which leads from the top to the base of the cliff near the site of the
old Monteagle House, a nearer view is obtained of these wonderful
rapids, in which the waters rush along with such velocity that the middle of the current is 30 ft. higher than the sides.    Three miles below fc ■■■■■Hi
Luna Falls and Rock of Ages. NIAGARA TO  TORONTO.
13
the Falls is the Whirlpool, occasioned by a sharp bend in the river,
which is here contracted to a width of 220 ft.
From Niagara to Toronto.
From Niagara Falls one has a choice of routes to Toronto. One
may go by the Grand Trunk around the head of the lake, or by rail to
the river bank below the Rapids, and thence by steamer straight across
Lake Ontario from the mouth of Niagara River. The land route (fare,
single, $2.65; return, $4.45), which is the longer, affords an opportunity of seeing that magnificent engineering work the Welland Canal,
and of visiting the cities of St. Catharines and Hamilton. If one goes
by the river route (fare, single, $1.50; return, $2.30), one sees the
beauties of the Niagara district, the gardens of Canada, the storied
Queenston Heights, and the delightful summer resort of Niagara-on-
the-Lake, besides enjoying a cool sail of 40 miles across the waters
of Ontario.
THE WATER ROUTE.
By this river route the tourist finds yet further latitude allowed
him. The journey from the Falls may be made either by the Michigan
Central to Niagara-on-the-Lake on the Canadian side, or along the
American shore by the New York Central to the wharf at Lewiston,
7 miles from the mouth, where one meets the fine Clyde-built steamers
of the "Niagara River Line," making connections across the lake four
times each day.
The New York Central runs through The Gorge itself, along a
ledge which has been carved out of the face of the cliff. Above towers
the beetling front of rock, and far below thunders the tremendous tor-
rent. In the gorge of Niagara the water does not flow, or rush, or dart,
but it bounds and bursts as if belched forth from some hidden volcano.
Presently the mad flood is caught and enchained for a time in the sullen vortex of the Whirlpool. Of this unmythical Maelstrom one
catches a thrilling glimpse from the car window. Then the gorge narrows again; and plunging through short tunnels, swerving dizzily on
its airy shelf, round jutting peaks, the road threads the windings of
the abyss, gradually descending, till it comes out upon the lower level
at Lewiston. Here is the head of navigation, and at the dock, to the
side of which the railway has now been extended, the tourist steps on
board the steamers.    The river rests here in a great, slow-reeling eddy. BBS
HffiHTWiniKUl
&bssbs3S&
14
NIAGARA  TO  TORONTO.
In this eddy the steamer turns, and is grateful for the service of the
revolving current.
Opposite Lewiston rise Queenston Heights, the most famous
battle-field of the War of 1812. Here, for an autumn day, three
quarters of a century ago, raged a bitter struggle between the American and Canadian forces, resulting at length in victory for the Canadians, who paid too dear for their triumph, however, with the death of
their heroic leader, General Sir Isaac Brock. May it prove an augury
of perpetual peace and good-will along these frontiers that when, two
days after the battle, General Brock was being buried in one of the
bastions of Fort George, minute-guns were fired from the American
Fort Niagara across the river, as a tribute of respect to their illustrious adversary!
On the summit of the Heights stands the monument which has
been erected in memory of the favorite hero of Canadians. This is
the second monument erected on the spot, the earlier and smaller one,
built by a grant from the Provincial Parliament in 1824, having been
blown up in 1840 by a scoundrel named Lett. The new"monument
was erected by the voluntary contributions of the militia and Indian
warriors of Canada. It is a massive stone structure 190 ft. in height,
19 ft. higher than Nelson's Column in Trafalgar Square. At the. top,
beneath a colossal statue of Brock, is a gallery reached by 235 steps.
Standing on this gallery one sees unroll before him a matchless panorama, of battle-field and vineyard, of cataract and quiet stream, of
dark wood and steepled villages and breadths of peach-orchard, and
fortresses no longer hostile; and far across the blue waters of Ontario
the smoke of the great city toward which our feet are set.
From Lewiston to Niagara-on-the-Lake the river flows for 7 miles
rapidly between high, wooded banks, studded with gardens and comfortable homes. If the tourist has started on the Canadian side, the
Michigan Central R. R. takes him direct to Niagara-on-the-Lake. This
route, as it winds down the side of the Niagara escarpment, gives a
wide range over the fertile Niagara plains with all their glory of peach
gardens and vineyards, and also a distant view of Queenston Heights
and Brock's monument.    But it must be acknowledged that it is as
i&v
much less picturesque as it is more convenient than that by crossing
to the American side.
Niagara-on-the-Lake, where of old the fortunes of peoples were
wont to be decided by the sword, where Indians, French, and British, NIAGARA  TO  TORONTO.
15
Americans and Canadians have contended for the supremacy of the
Lake regions, where the first Parliament of the old province of Upper
Canada was held in ancestral fashion in the shade of a spreading oak,
is now but a merry watering-place. In the neighborhood is the battlefield of Lundy's Lane, the scene of a hard-fought struggle between
Canadian and American forces. The chief episodes that now stir the
surface of Niagara's summer calm are the Saturday evening hops at
the Queen's Royal Hotel, which are attended by the American officers
from Fort Niagara opposite, and by gay yachting parties from Toronto.
The country round about is a garden; there is capital bass-fishing to
be had, and the facilities for boating and bathing are not to be excelled.
In the days of its political and military importance the town bore the
more business-like name of Newark.
The run across from Niagara to Toronto occupies about two hours,
and in the tourist season the lake is usually unruffled. As Lake Ontario, however, is 180 miles long and about 70 in extreme breadth, it
possesses every facility for an occasional storm of genuine Atlantic
proportions. The Chicora and Cibola, of the "Niagara River Line,"
however, are Clyde-built ocean-going craft of steel, and maintain regular service in all weathers, leaving Lewiston every week-day at 8 a. m.,
10.30 a. m., 12 noon, and 5.40 p. m., and Niagara-on-the-Lake half an
hour later. There are officers of the American and Canadian customs
on the boat to examine baggage during the trip across; and the Niagara River Navigation Company issues through tickets and checks
through baggage in connection with the main railroad and steamboat
lines of Canada and America. Returning steamers leave Toronto 7
a. m., 11a. m., 2 p. m., and 4.45 p. m.
THE JOURNEY BY THE GRAND TRUNK R. R.
If one chooses to go by land around the head of the lake his way
lies through a fair country. The Grand Trunk Ry. runs from the
Falls to Hamilton, whence the Great Western division of the same
road carries the traveler eastward to Toronto. A few miles west of
Niagara is Merritton, where the railway plunges into a tunnel which
leads it under the Welland Canal. Merritton is otherwise known as
Thorold Station, as it is there that passengers leave the train for the
little town of Thorold on the canal. In this neighborhood is the battle-field of Beaver Dams, which Canadians regard with pardonable
pride.   During the War of 1812, when the Americans were in posses- 16
NIAGARA  TO  TORONTO.
sion of Fort George and Niagara and the British troops had fallen back
on Burlington (now Hamilton), the British general advised the Canadian
volunteers to disband and return to their homes, as he was contemplating
the possibility of abandoning all that section of the province to the foe
and retiring to Kingston. In this crisis, being thrown entirely upon
their own resources, the Canadians proved themselves equal to the
emergency. What followed has been thus described by Miss Louisa
Murray: " Merritt's militia regiment of light horse, with some other
militiamen and volunteers, established themselves at a building known
as ' De Cew's stone house,' converting it into a little fortress, whence
they harassed the Americans, driving off their foraging parties,
and intercepting their supplies, with such success and impunity as
only an intimate knowledge of the country could have given them.
Colonel Boerstler was sent from Niagara with two field-pieces and 600
men to break up this little stronghold, and one or two other outposts
of the British, who, since the decisive battle of Stony Creek, were
moving back toward Fort George, and he might have succeeded but
for the patriotic spirit and bravery of a woman. Laura Secord, the
young wife of James Secord, a militiaman lying wounded at Queenston, saw the American troops moving from Niagara, and, learning
their destination, set out at night, and walked twenty miles through
the woods to warn the little band at the stone house of Boerstler's approach. At any time it would have been a difficult journey, but in war
time, with the risk of meeting some savage Indian or other lawless
marauder in the lonely woods, only a woman of singular energy and
courage would have undertaken it. Mrs. Secord, however, accomplished it in safety, and when Colonel Boerstler arrived at Beaver
Dams at 6 o'clock in the morning, he found his march impeded by a
small number of militiamen, hastily collected, and a party of Indians
led by their chief, young Brant. This number, altogether about 200,
seemed trebled when seen through the thick foliage of the trees, from
among which they poured volley after volley from their muskets on
the surprised and bewildered Americans, every volley accompanied by
the fierce yells of the Indians. While Boerstler was still uncertain
whether to advance or retreat, Ensign Fitzgibbon, with 40 soldiers, the
only British troops in the neighborhood, arrived at the spot and took
in the situation at once. With admirable courage and coolness, he
tied a white handkerchief on a musket, and, holding it up, advanced
alone, calling on the enemy to lay down their arms and surrender; NIAGARA  TO   TORONTO.
IT
upon which Colonel Boerstler, believing that the whole British army
was in front, surrendered his force of 600 infantry, 50 cavalry, 2 field-
guns, and a stand of colors, to the young ensign and his 240 men."
The victory is commemorated by a small granite monument, with the
inscription "Beaver Dams, June 24, 1813." The heroic achievement
of Laura Secord has been made the subject of a historical drama by
Mrs. S. A. Curyon, and of a stirring ballad by Charles Mair.
The city of St. Catharines is on the Welland Canal, about 3 miles
from its Lake Ontario outlet. The trade center of this inexhaustibly,
fertile Niagara region, and supplied with unlimited water-power by
means of the canal, St. Catharines has become an important commercial city. It is purely a product of the canal, and owes its existence
as a city to the indomitable energy of William Hamilton Merritt, who
conceived the idea of the great engineering work and finally pushed it
to completion. St. Catharines has important ship-yards, mills, and
machine-works ; handsome public buildings, first-class hotels, and one
of the best collegiate institutes in the province. It is also a very
popular health resort, much visited by Southerners. The waters of its
mineral springs rank high among the medicinal waters of the world.
There is fishing in the neighborhood for black bass, perch, and
pickerel.    Chief hotel the Welland House ($2).
The Welland Canal, connecting the waters of Lakes Erie and
Ontario, is a work of tremendous importance, giving as it does an outlet to the sea for the vast trade of the Great Lakes. The canal is 27
miles in length from Port Colborne on Lake Erie to Port Dalhousie on
Lake Ontario. The difference in level between the lakes is about 327
ft., which is overcome by a system of 25 lift-locks. All the masonry
of the work is of splendid and massive proportions, and is built of an
enduring gray limestone. At Welland the canal is led over the Chippewa River by a costly aqueduct. The original feeder of the canal was
the Chippewa River, which proving at times inadequate, a branch canal
was cut to the Grand River.    Of late, however,  arrangements have
' JO
been made by which the canal is always adequately supplied from
Lake Erie itself. Along the line of the canal are strung a number of
prosperous villages. The first sod of the original canal was turned in
1834. Mr. Merritt's modest conception was a canal "4 ft. deep, 7 ft.
wide at bottom, 19 ft. wide at the water surface, and to accommodate
vessels not exceeding 40 tons burden."    The present structure has a
width at the bottom of 100 ft., and accommodates vessels of 1,500 tons.
2 18
NIAGARA  TO   TORONTO.
Leaving St. Catharines our train passes the villages of Jordan and
Beamsville, and 27 miles from Niagara we find ourselves at the busy'
village of Grimsby. Here is the summer resort of Grimsby Park,
with its famous Methodist camp-meeting ground in a grove of oaks and
pines beside the lake. The region about Grimsby is literally one great
peach-orchard. It is estimated that there are something like 400,000
peach-trees in the Niagara district, which ships annually over a million
baskets of this delicious fruit. The beauty of the peach-orchards,
whether in bloom or when bending under their wealth of luscious pink
and white and golden spheres, is something that beggars description.
The peach harvest begins about the end of July and continues until
the middle of October. The peaches are shipped all over Canada in
baskets covered with pink gauze. In this favored region flourish also
apples, pears, plums, cherries, all kinds of small fruits, melons, quinces,
grapes, walnuts, chestnuts, and even figs. Beyond Grimsby we have
only the stations of Winona and Stony Creek to pass before we come
to Hamilton. lip
Hamilton.
The chief hotel of Hamilton is the Royal ($2.50 to $4 per day),
which is first class in every respect; but there are many "other good
hotels, such as the St. Nicholas ($1.50 to $2) and the Dominion ($1 to
$1.50), where the tourist may be accommodated more cheaply. The
city is well supplied with restaurants, called coffee-rooms. The chief
club is the Hamilton Club. Theatres, the Grand Opera-House, Association Hall, Alexandra Arcade. The city is traversed by street-cars,
and hacks are to be obtained at the station and the cab-stands as
well as at the chief hotels.
The city of Hamilton is beautifully and fortunately situated at
the head of navigation on Lake Ontario. Across the upper end of the
lake, where the northern and southern shores stand but 5 miles apart,
the east winds of centuries have heaped together a long bar of sand
nearly a thousand feet in width. This is known as Burlington
Beach, and it cuts off from the stormy lake the quiet waters of Burlington Bay, the harbor of Hamilton. A short canal through the Beach
connects the inner and the outer waters. The Beach is a favorite summer resort for the citizens of Hamilton.
Hamilton lies at the foot of a steep hill called the " Mountain," and
occupies one of those " benches " which surround the lake, and probably mark a former level of its surface. The site of Hamilton was
chosen originally by a loyalist refugee, one Robert Land, on account NIAGARA  TO  TORONTO.
19
of its splendid landscape. The " Mountain" is a portion of the
Niagara escarpment, which here curves grandly back from the lake to
form the amphitheatre which the city occupies. Down a great sloping
strath, dividing the heights in this neighborhood like a gigantic gutter, at the foot of which now lies the town of Dundas, geologists tell
us that, in remotest ages, the waters of Lake Erie discharged themselves, instead of at Niagara.
Hamilton may be said to have had its birth in the War of 1812,
when Burlington Heights became a center of military operations, and
one George Hamilton cut up his farm into town lots. In 1824 the cutting of a canal through Burlington Beach began the prosperity of Ham- i
ilton, which, however, was sadly interfered with by the cholera plague
and great fire in 1832. Hamilton was not disheartened, and went to
work again with the pluck and spirit which have earned her the title
of " the Ambitious City." Her ambition bids fair to be gratified in all
save one particular—and in that she has by this time relinquished all
hope. Of old, she thought to outstrip Toronto; but when, in 1888,
with a population less than 45,000, she saw Toronto with 170,000, she
probably changed the tenor of her ambition to something more within
the range of possibility. Her ancient rivals, Ancaster and Dundas,
she has long ago left utterly behind, reducing them to the rank of sub-
urban villages.
Hamilton is a wealthy and tirelessly energetic city, with manufacturing interests out of all proportion to its size. It is the cathedral city
of two dioceses, the Anglican bishopric of Niagara and the Boman
Catholic bishopric of Hamilton. The city has handsome pub'ic buildings, and stately private residences on the Mountain. Cresting the
height are the spacious buildings of the Lunatic Asylum. A stately
thoroughfare, dividing the city from the Mountain to the bay, is McNab
St., named for Hamilton's hero, the politician, patriot, and soldier,
Sir Allan McNab. It was he who, during the rebellion in 1837, shattered the power of the rebels at Toronto, and organized the flotilla on
the Niagara which cut out the steamer Caroline and sent her over
the Falls. On the heights stands Dundurn Castle, where Sir Allan used
to live, looking out over the city whose prosperity he had done so much
to promote. One of the most delightful features of Hamilton is what is
known as " The Gore." This is a spacious and beautiful public garden in the heart of the city, with the busiest thoroughfares all about
it.   The open space, which is cool and musical with fountains and brill- 20
NIAGARA TO  TORONTO.
iant with flowers, is triangular in shape, and formed by the converging
of York, James, and King Sts. Overlooking " The Gore" are the
thoroughly artistic buildings of the Hamilton Provident and Loan
Society, the Canada Life Assurance Company, and the Court-House.
But 6 miles from Hamilton, and connected with it by a steam tramway,
is Dundas. In one thing Dundas can never be outrivaled by Hamilton
and that is in her magnificent landscape, which opens like a dream before the traveler's eyes as he sweeps around the mountain. At the
foot of the lovely Dundas Valley lies a wide marsh which goes by
the nickname of " Coote's Paradise," after an English officer, Captain
Coote, who was deeply enamored of the fine duck, snipe, and " coot"
shooting there to be obtained. The marsh still maintains its reputation; and in Burlington Bay are good black bass, silver bass, perch,
and pike fishing. The pike take the trollmg-spoon freely during
the latter part of August, but at other times rise better to the live
minnow.
From Hamilton to Toronto, if wearied of the rail, one may go by
the steamers of the Hamilton Steamboat Co., four times daily (fare,
75c), a trip of 33 miles along a pleasant coast. The boats are fast
and comfortable, and call each way at Burlington Beach and at the
vast strawberry-gardens of Oakville. The tourist desirous of visiting
the Northern Lakes, or what is perhaps more widely known as the
Muskoka region, may branch off by the Northern and Western R. R.
from Hamilton via Beeton and Barrie, and leave Toronto till his return, but the fastest train services center in Toronto. Beeton is of
interest as the center of the great honey industry of Ontario. The
whole surrounding country is full of bee farms, and sweet the summer
through with the scent of honey-bearing blossoms. The pedigrees of
the swarms are watched with the same care that breeders of thorough-
bred cattle give to their stock, and solitary islands in Georgian Bay,
to the north, are made use of as bee nurseries to preserve the purity
of the favorite strains. The science of apiculture at Beeton has been
brought to a high degree of perfection. At Barrie, on Lake Simcoe,
we meet the Northern road from Toronto.
Toronto,
The approach to Toronto is more effective by water than by land.
As the steamer passes Gibraltar Point, she rounds into a safe and
spacious harbor crowded with the traffic ot the lakes.    This harbor is TORONTO.
21
formed by what is known as The Island, which is the great summer
pleasure-ground for the inhabitants of the city. The Island is to
Toronto what Coney Island and Manhattan Beach are to New York.
It is really nothing more than a great sand-bank formed by the drift
and offscourings from Scarboro' Heights, and its shape is continually
changing. The lighthouse on Gibraltar Point, built within a few feet
of the water, stands now some distance inland. A few years ago the
Island was connected with the mainland by a strip of beach to the
east, but storms having breached the isthmus at Ashbridge's Bay, a
narrow channel was formed which has since been widening. The Island is fringed with lightly-built summer cottages whose thresholds are
ceaselessly invaded by the sand-drift. All summer the white beaches
swarm with merry life and the shallow pools with bathers. High over
the cottages and the willow thickets tower the gables of a great summer
hotel, which was built by Hanlon, the ex-champion oarsman of the
world. The hotel is surrounded with dancing pavilions and roller-
coasters and merry-go-rounds, and bands play in front of it through
the summer evenings. Between the island and the city pass and repass the unremitting ferries.
Toronto, the " Queen City," as we Canadians fondly call her, slopes
very gently from the lake's edge back to the wooded line of the Davenport Hills. The almost level expanse of her sea of roofs is broken
with many spires and with the green crowns of innumerable elms and
horse-chestnuts. All through her temperate summers her streets are
deliciously shadowed; all through her mild winters the sunlight
streams in freely through the naked branches.
From the Don's mouth on the E. to the Humber on the W., a distance of 8 miles, the city stretches an unbroken front along the rim of
the lake. Between these limits is gathered a population of about 200,000
—a population which is increasing at a rate with which few other cities
on the continent can compare. Already she begins to reach out beyond
her containing streams. All Ontario and much of our Northwest,
regions growing rapidly in wealth and population, are tributary to her,
and must continue to nourish her growth. No other city on the lakes,
with the exception of Chicago, has fairer prospects for the future than
Toronto.
The very name Toronto signifies " a place of meeting," a place where
men are gathered together. The first mention of the name is in some
French memoirs of 1686, where it is applied to the Portage from the 22
TORONTO.
Humber to Lake Simcoe. In the sheltered harbor at the Ontario end
of the trail the French erected a fort, the remains of which are yet to
be seen in the exhibition grounds. To this post, at first called Fort
Rouille, the name Fort Toronto was afterward given.
THE HISTORY OF TORONTO.
Ontario, as a separate province, is the creation of the United Empire
Loyalists, and Toronto was the creation of Governor Simcoe, the first
governor of the new province. These United Empire Loyalists, whose
experiences and whose work in province-building we shall again refer
to when writing of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, were inhabitants of the thirteen counties to the south who remained loyal to the
mother-country during the American Revolution. They were an energetic and fearless people, possessing fully the courage of their convictions, and not unnaturally the feeling between them and their insurgent
fellow-countrymen was implacably bitter. When the independence op
the Thirteen Colonies was acknowledged, their position was difficult in
the extreme. They could not accept the new order, and to the new
order they were hopelessly unacceptable. They had staked everything
on the triumph of England, and to England they now looked for help.
They were given lands in Canada and Nova Scotia; and their splendid
energy and courage carried them through difficulties and hardships under which a weaker people would have succumbed. A very large proportion of them belonged to the educated and cultured classes. Their
great exodus from under the shadow of the new flag took place in the
years 1783 and 1784; but when the new province of Upper Canada
was organized under the wise supervision of Governor Simcoe, additional parties flocked in, and in the four years from 1791 to 1795 their
numbers increased in that province from 12,000 to 30,000. Prominent
among the United Empire Loyalists were the Indians of the Six Nations, under their great and humane warrior-chieftain, Joseph Brant or
Thayendanagea. These faithful allies were granted a fertile territory
along the course of the Grand River.
As we have already mentioned, Niagara-on-the-Lake was the first
capital of Upper Canada. Gradually it was borne in upon the provincial authorities that a town like Niagara, within range of American
guns, was ill adapted to be the seat of government. Thereupon the
capital was shifted to the " Place of Meeting," across the lake, and
the infant executive felt more secure.    The significant and musical TORONTO.
23
name, however, was changed, and Toronto became York. What
are significance and beauty when weighed in the balance against a
compliment to the heir-apparent? This was in 1793; but though
the old name was exiled from the village it seemed to cling in the
hearts of the inhabitants. The name of York was worn like an ill-
fitting garment. "Muddy York" it was called by derisive but not
unenvious neighbors. And when, in 1834, the village took unto itself
the title and the dignity of a city, the name of York, with its contumelious epithet, was eagerly sloughed off, and the | Place of Meeting " resumed its ancient title. In 1794 there were but 12 houses at Toronto,
and when the War of 1812 broke out this provincial capital, now the
second city in the Dominion, contained but 900 inhabitants.
In the War of 1812 Toronto was twice captured by the Americans,
who destroyed the fortifications and sacked the town, after a struggle
lasting from early morning to sundown, when the English general,
considering the position untenable, abandoned it when he found himself confronted with a vastly superior force. The Canadian militia,
who bore the brunt of the war, preferred to select some more advantageous battle-ground than the exposed provincial capital. All through
this war the chief honors, in the land battles, fell generally to the
Canadian arms. On the American side the war was strongly disapproved of by the best men; its object being thus sarcastically characterized by Randolph of Virginia: " The people of Canada are first to
be seduced from their allegiance, and converted into traitors, as a
preparation for making them good American citizens." The spirit
with which the Canadians went into the contest is thus described by
Colonel G. T. Denison: "In 1812 every able-bodied man went to the
frontier to fight, leaving the old men, the boys, and the women to till
the fields. One might travel a day's journey in this province during
that war without meeting an able bodied man, as they were all on the
frontier."
In 1837 occurred the rebellion of William Lyon Mackenzie, who
called himself " Chairman pro tern, of the Provisional Government of the
State of Upper Canada." The foolish self-styled patriots established
what they called a Provisional Government on Navy Island in the Niagara River; but the rebel rendezvous was a place known as " Montgomery's Tavern," on Yonge St., a few miles north of the city limits. With a force of about 900 men the rebels threatened Toronto ;
but when the " Men of Gore " arrived, under Colonel McNab, the rebel saoaa*
24
TORONTO.
bands were scattered after a short but sharp struggle. Soon afterward
took place the destruction of the steamer Caroline, already referred to.
This exploit has been thus described by Dr. Bryce:
I The Provisional Government was now organized on Navy Island,
in the Niagara River. The patriot flag, with twin stars and the motto,
I Liberty and Equality,' was hoisted, and planted in the face of Colonel
McNab, who held the Canadian shore. A daring action was performed
on December 29 by Captain Drew, R. N., one of McNab's command.
The insurgents had made use of a vessel, the Caroline, in carrying supplies from the American shore to Navy Island. The vessel lay moored
for the night under the very guns of Fort Schlosser; indeed, the shadows
of the fort enveloped the Caroline. With 7 boats, carrying some 60
men in all, who were armed with pistols, cutlasses, and pikes, the
captain boarded the ill-fated vessel, captured her, but not being able,
on account of the current, to bring her to the Canadian side, sent her
flaming over the Niagara Falls. The vessel proved to be an American
bottom, and so Britain was compelled to disavow the seizure, but nothing could blot out the bravery of the deed."
THE TORONTO OF THE PRESENT.
Hotels, etc.—The Queen's Hotel ($3 to $4), in Front St.; the
Rossin House ($3 to $4) and the Palmer House ($2), cor. King and
York Sts.; Walker House ($2 and $2.50), Front and York Sts.; the
Arlington ($2 to $3), King and John Sts.; and the Revere House, in
King St. Horse-cars (fare, 5c) render all parts of the city easily
accessible. Cab rates are $1 an hour. From depot or Niagara steamer's dock to hotel, 25c The chief clubs are the National, Toronto,
and Albany Clubs; also the Victoria, Granite, Athenaeum, Press, and
the various political clubs. Theatres: Grand Opera-House, Shaftesbury Hall, Academy of Music, Jacobs & Sparrow's Opera-House,
^Horticultural Gardens, and Robinson's Musee.
The Toronto of the present offers many attractions to the visitor.
It is the best possible place to pause and lay one's plans. It may fairly
claim to be called the intellectual center of the Dominion. Filled with
a homogeneous and successful population, looking back upon a past of
wonderful achievement, and forward to a future bright with all possibilities, it is instinct with the sanguine and self-reliant spirit of this
young Canadian people. Its hotels are of the best; its open waterfront and quiet harbor offer every facility for boating, canoeing, and
yachting. There is charming scenery in the immediate neighborhood,
and within easy reach are the gigantic maskinonge and swarming trout
and black bass of the wild Muskoka waters.
The principal street of Toronto, as it was of the original village, is TORONTO.
25
King St., running E. and W. between the Don and the Humber.
Where now stands the old jail were erected the first Houses of Parliament of Upper Canada. These were wooden buildings and of no
great architectural distinction. During the War of 1812 they were
burned with the Library and the provincial records, by the American
invaders. This injury was avenged a few months later, when a British force destroyed the public buildings at Washington. Opposite the
spot where now towers the noble structure of St. James's Cathedral was
once the market-place. Here stood the stocks and pillory, which were
in use up to 1834; Either the men of Toronto were less gallant in
those days, or her women less deserving, for we find in the town records that one Elizabeth Ellis, convicted of being a public nuisance, was
condemned to stand in the pillory for two hours at a time on two successive market-days. The women of Toronto are still held up to the
gaze of the world, but it is for the world's admiration, as they display
some of the most attractive types of Canadian beauty. Next in importance to King St. is Yonge, which runs at right angles to it. (See
plan.) If we may accept the authority of George Augustus Sala, this
is the longest street in the world. It runs N. from the water's edge,
and was laid out in 1793, to be used as a portage to the upper lakes.
The object of this was to avoid the necessity of ascending Lake Erie
and passing under the guns of the American fort at Detroit. For the
first 46 miles of its extent Yonge St. became the main artery of the
province, and was speedily lined with homesteads. Apropos of the
I magnificent distances " of this thoroughfare the following anecdote
may be quoted from an entertaining and valuable work by Dr. Scad-
ding, entitled " Toronto of Old ": A story is told of a tourist, newly
arrived at York, wishing to utilize a stroll before breakfast by making
out as he went along the whereabouts of a gentleman to whom he had
a letter. Passing down the hall of his hotel he asked, in a casual way
of the book-keeper, " Can you tell me where Mr. So-and-so lives ?"
(leisurely producing the note from his breast pocket); " it is somewhere
along Yonge St. here in town." " Oh, yes," was the reply, when the
address had been glanced at, 1 Mr, So-and-so lives on Yonge St,, about
25 miles up!"
At the corner of King and Yonge Sts. throbs the heart of the city.*
* This is the most convenient point from which to calculate distances when arranging for drives through the suburbs.    The following 26
TORONTO.
From King St. northward to the city limits Yonge St. is lined with
fine retail establishments. From King St. S. to the water it is built
up with massive warehouses. This applies equally to Front St., which
skirts the harbor. At the water-front of Yonge stands the Custom-
House, a piece of elaborately decorated Italian architecture. Between
Front St. and the water to the W. of Yonge lies a low flat known as
the Esplanade. Here the various converging railways enter the city,
and here at the foot of York St., where in 1851 the Countess of Elgin
turned the first sod of the Ontario, Simcoe and Huron R.R., stands
the Union Station. The interest of Front St. may be said to terminate
at the old Parliament Buildings, soon to give place to the splendid
structures which are being erected in Queen's Park. Toronto is a city
of churches, there being over 120 churches and chapels within its borders. This being the case, it goes without saying that Sunday is religiously observed as a day of rest. Except when the churches are drawing in or pouring forth their demurely pacing throngs, the city seems
asleep; and from seven o'clock on Saturday evening until a seemly
hour on Monday morning no one can gain admittance to the' bar-rooms
—except by the back door! A little E. of the corner of Yonge is St.
James's Cathedral, at the junction of King and Church Sts. This
building is of simple and noble design, in what is known as perpendicular Gothic. Its spire, soaring to a height of 316 ft., is with one exception the loftiest on the continent; the newly completed spires of St.
Patrick's Cathedral in New York reach the height of 328 ft. Within
the tower of St. James's Cathedral is an exquisite chime of bells, and
all Toronto prides itself on the celebrated clock of St. James's, which
table of ways and distances I take from Mr. Barlow Cumberland's useful handbook to " The Northern Lakes of Canada." :
Distances out and back from Corner of King and Yonge Streets. £
East.—The Lake Shore Road, Woodbine, Ben Lomond, Don and
Danforth Road, and the Necropolis—8£ miles.
Northeast —Necropolis, Todmorden, Don Valley, Eglington, Mount
Pleasant—6£ miles.
North.—Queen's Park, Deer Park, Ridge Road, St. Albans St., St.
George St.—6 miles.
Northwest.—College St., Bloor St., Slattery's High Park, Queen
St., and Subway—8-J miles.
West.—King St., Lake Shore Road, Humber Bay and back—9
miles. TORONTO.
27
won the first prize at the Vienna Exhibition. The interior of the cathedral contains monuments to some of the distinguished sons of Ontario,
and to that strong old ecclesiastic, Bishop Strachan, than whom few pastors have been better able to rule their flocks. The chancel windows
are fine examples of the best stained-glass work of Munich. St. James's
Cathedral is the fourth church which has occupied the present site, fire
having removed its three predecessors. From the tower-a magnificent
view may be had of Toronto and her surroundings.
Some important buildings in the neighborhood of St. James's Cathedral are the St. Lawrence Hall and Market, the old City Hall, the admirably managed Public Library, at the corner of Adelaide and Church
Sts., and the Post-Office, on Adelaide at the head of Toronto St. This
short thoroughfare is the Wall St. of Toronto. A little to the W. of
the Post-Office is the Grand Opera-House, on whose spacious stage
have moved the most brilliant modern actors. This theatre has a seating capacity of 2,300.
Moving westward along King St., we come to a stately piece of Norman architecture, the Presbyterian Church of St. Andrew's, at the
corner of King and Simcoe. Opposite St. Andrew's is Government
House, a handsome building of modern French design. The main en
trance is on Simcoe St., under a spacious and elaborate carriage porch.
The gardens are broad and well kept, and the little valley winding
through them was once Russell's Creek, up which Governor Simcoe
used to row when the infant capital was but a lake-side clearing. The
dining-room at Government House contains a fine collection of portraits. Permission to view the interior must be obtained from the
A. D. C. Just beyond Government House, in the midst of ample
grounds, is Upper Canada College; and close by is John St., at the
head of which is the fine old colonial mansion of The Grange, the
home of Goldwin Smith. On the carriage-way of the Grange estate,
some threescore years ago, tradition hath it that the owner's horses
were attacked by bears as they were being driven up to the doorway.
Continuing along King St. to the Central Prison, one may turn S. again
to the water and visit the old and new forts, parade-ground, and well-
kept exhibition-grounds with their Crystal Palace. Still moving W.,
we pass through Parkdale, where stand the Home for Incurables and
the Mercer Reformatory; and we end our wanderings in this direction
among the picnic-grounds of High Park on the Humber.
If we return by way of Queen St., we pass the Provincial Lunatic 28
TORONTO.
Asylum and the graceful buildings' of Trinity University in their
ample and park-like grounds. Trinity is a Church of England institution, and was founded by the indomitable Bishop Strachan when old
King's College of Upper Canada was secularized and became the University of Toronto. Trinity University is a piece of sound and excellent architecture, of the period known as Pointed English, and is built
of white brick dressed with gray stone.
On Queen St., between Yonge and College Ave., is Osgoode Hall,
the seat of the Superior Courts of the Province, of the Law Society,
and the Law School. The building is named after the first Chief-
Justice of Upper Canada, and cost $300,000. The exterior has an air
of solid magnificence. The interior is of unusual beauty, and contains
a library of 30,000 volumes. Of Osgoode Hall Anthony Trollope said,
in his work on North America, that it was to Upper Canada what the
Four Courts of Dublin are to Ireland, and that the comparison would
result to the advantage of the Canadian edifice.
College Ave. is a broad boulevard running N. from Queen St.
to Queen's Park, Toronto's chief pleasure-ground. This avenue is
120 feet wide and a mile in length, and shaded by unbroken lines of
elm and horse-chestnut. It enters the park under the muzzles of a
battery of Russian cannon, spoils of Sebastopol. Turning to the left the
carriage-way skirts the edge of a ravine and passes the Volunteers'
Monument, erected to the memory of Canadians who fell in the Fenian
raid of 1866. Opposite stands the bronze statue of the Hon. George
Brown, one of the chief statesmen of Canada, and founder of the Toronto Globe. This statue is a fine piece of sculpture, and was done by
Burch, of London. Queen's Park is a portion of the estate o£ Toronto
University, and was handed over to the city on a perpetual lease.
The university grounds and buildings adjoin the park on the W. The
buildings were destroyed by fire a short time ago, and the loss was one
of the most serious that the city has ever sustained. It is not too
much to say that the main building was the finest piece of college
architecture in the New World. In design it belonged to the Norman
period, and the square central tower was of peculiarly noble aud satisfying proportions. In Convocation Hall was a fine stained-glass window of three lights, in memory of the students who fell in defending the frontier in 1866. The deep carved porch was famous for its
solidity and richness. The buildings, however, have been completely restored, and fully equal in all respects the original buildings. TORONTO.
29
Across the lawn stands the Observatory, the home of the meteorological department of the Dominion, commonly known as " Old Probabilities." Alongside of the Observatory stands a distressingly crude structure of red brick, the eyesore of the lovely neighborhood. This is the
School of Technology. At the head of the park is a fine structure of
brown Credit Valley stone, faced with red brick. This is McMaster
Hall, of McMaster University, and was presented to the Baptist
denomination by the late Senator McMaster. A little W. of McMaster
Hall stands the gray-stone pile of Knox College, belonging to the Presbyterian Church; and in the immediate neighborhood stands Victoria
University, of the Methodist Church.
Though the growth of Toronto is chiefly toward the west and north,
the handsomest residences are probably east of Yonge, on Jarvis and
Sherbournc Sts., and on various cross-streets connecting them.   On the
corner of Gerard and Sherbourne art the Horticultural Gardens,
which were opened by the Prince of Wales in 1860.    They occupy a
square of 10 acres, and were presented to the city by the Hon. George
Allan.    Entrance to the grounds is free between the hours of 8 a. m.
and 6 p. m.    On the west side of the gardens, close to Church St.,
stand the Pavilion Music Hall and the Conservatories.    The Pavilion
has seating accommodation for 3,000 people, and some of the best musical talent of the continent appears upon its stage.    The annual festivals of the Philharmonic and Choral Societies are held therein.    A
short distance down Church St. is the great Metropolitan Church
of the Methodists.    Its organ is the largest in Canada and one of the
finest in the world, containing as it does 3,315 pipes and 53 stops.
The famous organ of Strasburg Cathedral has 46, and that of Westminster Abbey £2.    Near the Metropolitan Church stands St. Michael's
Cathedral, the seat of the Roman Catholic Archbishop.    On Church
St. also is the  Normal School, with the offices of the Department of Education.     The buildings occupy the center of an open
square, covering 7 or 8 acres.     The gardens are attractive and of
special interest to the student.    The Normal School contains a fine
gallery«f paintings and statues, where the visitor will find, many valuable originals and reproductions of most of the masterpieces of ancient
art.   Entrance to the art galleries of the Normal School is free on week-
days from 9 a. m. to 5 p. m.    Tourists who are interested in art will do
well to visit the exhibition-rooms of the Ontario Society of Artists, 14
King St., West.   Whatever tbey may be interested in, they will do 30
THE  MUSKOKA  DISTRICT.
well to visit the lovely and aristocratic suburb of Rosedale ; and they
will do well to pay this visit at a time when Canada's national game is
being played at the Rosedale Lacrosse Grounds. Lacrosse is a game
lacking most of the defects of foot-ball, but possessing all the pre-eminent merits of that most manly sport. Toronto has produced some of
the most skillful Lacrosse players of Canada—that is to say, of the
world; and Toronto boys, one might almost say, are born with a " stick "
in their hands.    The Toronto Base-ball Grounds are situated on Kings
ton Road.
The  Muskoka District.
The best side-trip to be taken from Toronto is that to the lake
country of Muskoka lying N. of Toronto, between Georgian Bay and
the Ottawa River. Fares are as follows: Toronto to Beaumaris and
return, $5.30; Pt. Cockburn and return, $6.50; Rousseau and return, $6.25; Wagnetawan and return, $7.95 ; Burk's Falls and return, $6.95. A quarter of a century ago this region was a total wilderness ; but now its tangle of lakes and streams is dotted with
villages and summer hotels. Railroads traverse it as far N. as Lake
Nipissing, and steamboats ply upon its principal waters. The innumerable lakes are of all sizes, from 40 miles in length down to as many
rods. All are clear, deep, and cool, and swarm with brook trout, lake
trout, black bass, and perch; while the covers and reed beds abound
with feathered game, and deer are fairly numerous. In some of these
northern waters may be taken that fish of many aliases, the " Tiger of
the Lakes," the gigantic maskinonge, or muscalonge. The Muskoka
district proper lies to the N. of the high divide at Gravenhurst, and
comprises a territory about the size of Belgium. Within*this area lie
something over 800 lakes. The district south of Gravenhurst is long
settled, but contains some excellent fishing and shooting grounds,
about the lovely waters of Lakes Simcoe, Sparrow, and Couchiching.
Taking the Northern and Northwestern R. R., now a portion of the
Grand Trunk system, we skirt the city to the W. and turn N. to the
water-shed, where streams diverge toward Lake Huron. Emerging
from the hills the train winds through the pleasant vale of Aurora,
with its sweet old-country landscapes. Passing the little country town
of Newmarket, we catch a glimpse of the infant stream of Holland
River, which was of old the path of Indians and voyageurs who had
just made the portage from Toronto.    By Holland River also came the THE  MUSKOEA  DISTRICT.
31
war parties of the Iroquois to slaughter the Ilurons on Lake Simcoe and
Georgian Bay. The drowsy village of Holland Landing was once
a busy mart, when, before the days of railroading, all the traffic of the
northern settlements passed in heavy wagons through its streets. In
1825 Sir John Franklin called at Holland Landing on his first expedition overland to the north pole. On the village green may be seen a
huge anchor, which was brought from the Royal Dockyards in England,
and hauled hither from the lake by 16 yoke of oxen. It was destined
for the Provincial Navy-Yard at Penetanguishene, where a fleet was
being built for warfare on the lakes. The great anchor was stopped
in the middle of its journey by the declaration of peace between England and the United States.
At Bradford, a little farther down the river, there is good trolling
for maskinonge, and there are some fine snipe covers in the neighborhood. At Lefroy we get the first glimpse of Lake Simcoe, a splendid
sheet of water, 30 miles long by 16 broad; and a little beyond is Allan-
dale Junction, whence three lines radiate northward—the Muskoka
Branch to Muskoka and Lake Nipissing, the Penetanguishene Branch,
and the Collingwood Branch. Just "N. of Allandale Junction lies the
county town of Barrie, set picturesquely on the hillside sloping down
to the lake. Barrie (population, 4,855 last census; hotel, Queen's,
$1.50) is a charming summer resort, with good fishing streams in the
neighborhood and innumerable boats and yachts. Nine miles down
Kempenfeldt Bay is a great summer hotel at Big Bay Point. Joined
to Lake Simcoe by a channel called the Narrows lies the breezy water
of Lake Couchiching, which, being interpreted, is the "Lake of
Many Winds." At the head of the lake is the pretty town of Orillia
(hotels, Orillia House and Russell House, $1.50), with its beautiful
pleasure grounds of Couchiching Park. This is the highest region
in Ontario, being 750 ft. above Toronto. The air here is very clear
and pure, and the waters of the lake are excellently stocked with
black bass, pickerel, and salmon-trout. At Rama, on this lake, is
a settlement of Ojibway Indians, the last remnants of the once powerful tribe that peopled the shores of Lakes Simcoe and Couchiching to the number of at least 25,000. At Orillia the tourist may,
if he prefers, take the steamer 14 miles down the lake, and rejoin
the train at Washago. Here begins the splendid fishing stream of
the Severn, which runs through deer, duck, and grouse grounds,
through wild rapids, and over Severn Falls, and drains the whole ■^
32
THE  MUSKOKA  DISTRICT.
Simcoe region into Georgian Bay. A short distance below Washago
the Severn widens out into Sparrow Lake, famous for its maskinonge
and black bass, and its duck and grouse shooting. A good canoe
trip, for which Indians and canoes may be hired at Rama, is that
from Couchiching to Gravenhurst, with short portages, through Beaver,
Legs, and Pine Lakes. A more exciting trip, through some sharp and
intricate rapids, is down the Severn River to its outlet. Guide and
canoe may be obtained at Rama or Orillia, at a cost of about $2 a day.
Crossing the river by a lofty bridge, the railroad forsakes the pale
limestone formations of the Simcoe region and enters a land of red
granite. Hither and thither amid the high and glistening bluffs of the
" divide" winds the train, till at last through Granite Notch it
emerges upon the highlands of Muskoka. At the southernmost extremity cf Lake Muskoka, the largest of the series, stands the busy
town of Gravenhurst, 115 miles from Toronto. Gravenhurst is
very picturesquely situated on the high shores of an inlet. It has
a population of about 2,000, and good hotels, the Albion, Windsor,
and Grand Central, at $1 to $2. From this point, which may be regarded as the gateway of the Muskoka region, the tourist may continue N. by rail via Bracebridge, the Muskoka River, Mary, Fairy,
and Vernon Lakes, to Callander and the Canadian Pacific R. R. at
Lake Nipissing; or he may take the steamers of the Muskoka Navigation Co., through Lakes Muskoka, Rosseau, and Joseph, and the
Muskosh River. A side excursion up the S. branch of the Muskoka
River to the Lake of Bays will enable the tourist to visit a lake which
rejoices in the title of Kahweambetewagamog.
From Muskoka wharf the steamers go to Bala, Bracebridge, Beaumaris, Port Carling, Windermere, Rosseau, Rosseau Falls, Port Sand-
field, Craigielea, Port Coburn, Juddhaven, and several other villages,
all of which are full of attraction for sportsman and tourist. ■ One of
the loveliest of these is Beaumaris, which has a large and excellent
hotel situated on Tondern Island. Immediately opposite is a group of
small islands called the " Kettles," where may be found the best t>ass
fishing and fine trolling for salmon-trout. In the neighborhood of Bracebridge, the chief town of the Muskoka district, are the lovely cataracts
known as High Falls and the Great South Falls. The most central town
on the lakes is Port Carling, where all the steamboat routes converge,
and where Lakes Muskoka and Rosseau are connected by locks.
Lake Rosseau has an extreme length of 14 miles, and presents a THE  MUSKOKA  DISTRICT.
33
great variety of charming landscape. In its southern portion it is set
thick with the loveliest of islands. As many of these islands are
inhabited, and the dwellers thereon may be said to spend the most of
their time in boats, that section of the lake carries the appellation of
Venetia. Into the bay near Port Rosseau flows the mystic and incomparable Shadow River, on whose flawless surface one floats as if
suspended midway between two lovely worlds of summer foliage. On a
small stream stealing into Shadow River resounds the clear tinkling of
the Bridal-Veil Falls. A conspicuous landmark on Lake Rosseau if
the headland of Eagle's Nest. The third of the series of the Muskoka
Lakes, Lake Joseph, was till very lately almost unknown. Now it is
coming into repute as possessing a bolder beauty than its fellows.
Most tourists will probably decide that the difference is less of degree
than of kind, for it would be hard to say which of the three waters is the
fairest. An advantage afforded by all alike is that the tourist here may
" rough it" charmingly in tent and canoe, or, if he so prefer, enjoy all
the conveniences of civilized life in well-kept but unostentatious inns.
The traveler who wishes to visit the Maganetawan waters and
Parry Sound will follow the railroad north to Burks Falls and there
take the steamer Wenona down the" Maganetawan through Se Seebe,
Ah Mic, and Wahwaskesh Lakes to Byng Inlet at the mouth, and
thence down the coast of Georgian Bay through Parry Sound and the
Archipelago to historic Penetanguishene, where under the waters of
the harbor lie the remains of four British gunboats. Here is one of the
finest summer resorts and hotels in Canada—"The Penetanguishene.'1''
The first settlement of the Jesuits in Ontario was established in 1634 at
Penetanguishene, then called Ihonatiria, and in commemoration of this the
Jesuits have built there one of the finest ecclesiastical structures on the
continent. Of the almost virgin waters of the Maganetawan, which one
traverses on this trip, a writer in Forest and Farm speaks as follows:
" If a man can stand outdoor life and live on venison, trout, bass,
partridges, ducks, pork, tea, and crackers, there is no better place to go
to in America that is as, accessible. A man can go there in July, August,
September, or October, with comfort, if he will go in the right way,
and shoot deer and catch trout to his heart's content. June to August
for trout; after that for deer. Remember the Maganetawan is as
large as the Schuylkill at Philadelphia or considerably wider or deeper
than the Harlem at High Bridge, and that the trout have an unlimited
range and are seldom disturbed, so that they have a chance to grow.
Deer can be bagged in great numbers if you choose to do so.   With a
3 34
THE  MUSKOKA  DISTRICT.
couple of good hounds magnificent sport could be had in the fall. I
have shot partridges with my rifle from the canoe while traveling, as
they were strutting on the shore, and their drumming was one of the
pleasantest every-day sounds. Do not try to go without some guide.
There are men who know the country, and they should be secured, for
if you get in there alone you will have little sport and much trouble."
Between Parry Sound and the mouth of Moon River lie the desert
waters of Crane and Blackstone Lakes, favorite haunts of the maski-
nonge. The capture of this splendid fish in these lakes is thus described by a writer in the Toledo Post:
| The shores of Crane and Blackstone Lakes are capital specimens
of the primitive wilderness, and long may they so continue! The few
who have visited their teeming waters have mostly been genuine fishermen who are happiest when far away from conventionalities and
habitations. But one clearing broke the majestic sweep of the grand
old forests, within the sheltered bays the loons laughed undisturbed,
and the wild birds splashed in the marshy edges or upon the sandy
shores with none to molest or make them afraid.
1 We were out for maskinonge, and took no account of either black
bass or pickerel. It seems strange to talk of shaking off black bass
and making disrespectful remarks about these gamy gentry when they
insisted in taking the hook, but they were so plenty as 'to be really
troublesome.
" When an angler goes forth to catch the maskinonge it is necessary
to be careful lest the maskinonge should catch him. The native method
of taking the maskinonge in the primeval waters of Canada is by a
small clothes-line, hauled in by main strength when the fish bites; but
we proposed to troll, as should an angler, with the rod. Ours were
split bamboo rods 9^ ft. long, quadruplex reel, and braided linen line,
2 ft. of medium-sized copper wire, a No. 4 spoon with double hooks,
and finally a good gaff.
I Our guide, as we started over to Crane Lake the first morning,
indulged in sundry smiles and remarked that we should break our rods,
so that, although placid in outward mien, I felt inwardly a little nervous ; but I didn't mean to back down until compelled.
" Swinging around a little point, with some 20 yards of line astern,
before fishing a great while I felt a sudden movement at the spoon that
was more like a crunch than a bite. It took only a second to give the
rod a turn that fixed the hooks, and another second to discover that I
had hung something. Scarcely had I tightened the line when the fish
started. I do not know that I wanted to stop him, but I felt the line
slip rapidly from the reel as though attached to a submarine torpedo.
The first run was a long one, but the line was longer, and the fish
stopped before the reel was bare. This was my opportunity, and I
had the boatman swing his craft across the course, and, reeling in the
slack line, I turned his head toward the deeper water.   Forty-five ^
THE MUSKOKA  DISTRICT.
35
minutes of as pretty a fight as one could wish to see left my new
acquaintance alongside the boat, and before he recovered his surprise
the gaff was in his gills and the boatman lifted him on board.
" He weighed 14 pounds on the steelyards, and was my heaviest
fish. There were other encounters of a similar character, but none
quite so protracted ; but I wouldn't be afraid of the largest veteran in
the lake; and all fishermen, who aim for sport, will assuredly troll with
the rod. Our time was limited, far too short; and, in a word, a day
and a half on Crane Lake gave us, without counting bass, ten maskinonge, whose weight aggregated 110 pounds (on the scales), an average
weight of 11 pounds per fish."
From Toronto eastward.
From Toronto to Ottawa and Montreal one has a liberal choice
of routes. One may take the C. P. R. R., by way of Peterboro and
Smith's Falls to Ottawa, and thence to Montreal (fare, $10). This is
the most direct route between Montreal and Ottawa, but it runs
through a somewhat less interesting and newer country than that
traversed by the Grand Trunk Ry., which skirts the lake and the
St. Lawrence all the way from Toronto to Montreal (fare, $10).
The route we would recommend, however, is that by water, by the
boats of the Ontario and Richelieu Navigation Company, which traverse almost the whole length of Lake Ontario, the fairy landscapes of
the Thousand Islands, and the famed St. Lawrence rapids (fare, $10,
meals and berths extra). Arrived at Montreal the tourist may go to
Ottawa by either of the railroads which connect the cities, the Canadian Pacific and the Canada Atlantic, and return by boat down the
Ottawa River.
The tourist who elects to go to Ottawa by the C. P. R. R. will travel
by one of the best-equipped and most reliable railroads in the world
He may take the train at the Union Station, or drive across the city to
the North Toronto Depot. The first town of importance after leaving
Toronto is Peterhoro on the Otonabce River, a thriving city of about
9,000 inhabitants. This is the birthplace of the famous " Peterboro "
or " Rice Lake " canoe; and the tourist who loves fishing and canoeing
will do well to linger at this point. The shores of Rice Lake have
been made illustrious by the residence of three of those Stricklands
whose names are so well known in the world of letters—Colonel
Strickland, and his sisters, Mrs. Moodie and Mrs. Traill. The country
about is a tangle of lakes and water-ways, a fisherman's paradise, and
it all lies at the feet of the skillful canoeist.    Railway lines center at 36
FROM  TORONTO   EASTWARD.
Peterboro from half a dozen directions, and the Otonabee affords an
immense water-power which is utilized by many mills and factories.
Among the manufactures of the city are lumber, flour, cloth, agricultural implements, machinery and engines, pottery, and leather. The
river is spanned by six bridges, and the public buildings are numerous
and handsome. The best hotels arc the Oriental, Snowdon House, and
Grand Central.
For 100 miles, between Peterboro and Perth, the road runs through
a broken country rich in iron, phosphate, asbestos, and other valuable
minerals. At the town of Tweed we cross the Moira River, whose
waters are freighted with logs from the lumber regions. At Sharbot
Lake, a famous resort for sportsmen, the Kingston and Pembroke R. R.
is crossed. Perth, with a population of 4,000, is a prosperous milling
town, with rich quarries of building-stone and. phosphates in the vicinity. Twelve miles beyond Perth is Smith's Falls on the Rideau River,
a junction town with population of between 2,000 and 3,000. Here the
main line between Toronto and Montreal M crossed by the line of the
Ottawa and Brockville division, whose cars wc take at this point. Thirteen miles farther on, at Carleton Place Junction, we first strike the
main transcontinental line of the C. P. R. R. From Carleton Place
to Ottawa is a distance of 28 miles. Before entering the city the
road follows the S. bank of the mighty Ottawa River, and the traveler may look down from the car windows upon vast stretches of logs
which, enchained in the long circuits of the "booms," almost hide
the water.
The Grand Trunk Ry. between Toronto and Montreal- is set thick
with towns and cities from start to finish, and gives one a good idea of
the general prosperity of Canada. About 23 miles from Toronto the
road skirts a lovely landlocked mere, on which of old stood a village
of the Senecas. The entrance to this unruffled water was so concealed
by a growth of flags and rushes that none knew of its existence save
the dwellers on its banks, who called their village by the name of
Gandatsetiagon. Here now stands the town of Pickering, the sheltered mere has become Pickering Harbor, and the reed-grown entrance
has been widened and deepened to admit the traffic of the lake. In
the neighborhood of Pickering-are some fair pike and black-bass waters.
Just beyond Pickering is Whitby, the seat of the Ontario Ladies' College, whence a branch line runs north, past the town of Lindsay, to its
terminus at Haliburton.    Haliburton stands in the midst of an admi- FROM TORONTO   EASTWARD.
3?
rable hunting and fishing region. The lakes and streams around the
town are well stocked with brook trout and salmon trout, which take
the fly freely from the middle of May to the end of June. Within easy
reach of Haliburton the hunter will find deer, bear, moose, and partridge fairly abundant, and guides with dogs may be hired in the neighborhood.
About 4 miles west of Whitby is the busy manufacturing town of
Oshawa, with good fall duck-shooting in the neighborhood. Here, in
old days, was the beginning of the portage from Ontario to Scugog
Lake; and the name Oshawa simply means the carrying-place.
" The map of Lake Outario has, within historic memory, been overwritten with five series of names and settlements—those of the Huron-
Algonquin era, those of the Iroquois domination, those of the French
occupation, those of the Mississaga or Ojibway conquest, and those of
the English occupation. Of the Huron-Algonquin period but slight
trace survives on* Lake Ontario beyond the name of the lake itself.
After alternate fanfares and disgrdces it had been rechristened Lake
St. Louis and Lake of the Iroquois, Frontenac's Lake and Lake Cata-
raqui; but the grand old lake went back to the simplicity—the majestic simplicity—of its ancient name. Even in Charlevoix's day—a
hundred and sixty years ago—the undisputed name was once more
Ontario, ' the Great Lake.' "
Of the Iroquois domination also but few traces remain—a few sonorous names like Niagara and Toronto. The race of athletes who lorded
it over half the continent, whose alliance was eagerly courted by France
and England, were, after all, unable to maintain their foothold against
the despised Ojibways. Of these, the Mississagas became specially
numerous and aggressive, so that their totem, the crane, was a familiar
hieroglyph on our forest trees from the beginning of the last century.
One of the oldest of Greek legends relates the war of the cranes and
pygmies. Though the foes of our northern cranes were not pygmies
but giants, they possessed not the craft of the little ancients who lived
by the ocean-shore. The Mississagas so multiplied in their northern
nests that presently, by mere numbers, they overwhelmed the Iroquois.
Most desperate fighting there was, and the battle-fields were still clearly traceable when English pioneers first broke ground.
The Mississagas, though not endowed with either the Mohawk verve
or intellect, were no more destitute of poetry than of valor. Take the
names of some of their chiefs. One chief's name signified " He who
makes footsteps in the sky "; another was Wawanosh, " He who ambles 38
FROM  TORONTO   EASTWARD.
the waters." The Rev. Peter Jones was, through his mother, descended
from a famous line of poetic warriors; his grandfather was Waubuno,
" The Morning Light." On occasion, the Mississaga could come down
to prose. Scugog describes the clay bottom and submerged banks of
-that lake, which, taking a steamer at Port Perry, we traverse on our
summer excursion to Lindsay and Sturgeon Lake. Chemong aptly
names the lake whose tide of silt sometimes even retards our canoe
when wc are fishing or fowling. Omemee, "the wild pigeon," has given
its name not only to Pigeon Lake and its chief affluent, but to the
town where Pigeon Creek lingers on its course to the lake.
" On Rice Lake, the chief Indian settlement is Hiawatha, named
after the Hercules of Ojibway mythology, whom the American poet
has immortalized in his melodious trochaics. At Hiawatha and on
Scugog Island you may still find, in the Ordinary language of the
Ojibway, fragments of fine imagery and picture-talk, often in the very
words which Longfellow has so happily woven into his poem. And
the scenery of this Trent Valley reproduces that of the Vale of Tawa-
sentha. Here are ' the wild rice of the river' and \ the Indian village'
and ' the groves of singing pine-trees—ever sighing, ever singing.' At
Fenelon Falls we have the ' Laughing Water' and not far below is
Sturgeon Lake, the realm of the ' King of Fishes.' Sturgeon of portentous size are yet met with, though falling somewrhat "short of the
comprehensive fish sung by Longfellow, which swallowed Hiawatha,
canoe and all!
" Among these forests, too, dwelt once Meggissogwon, that \ mightiest of magicians,' who, ' guarded by the black pitch-water, sends the
fever from the marshes.' Our fathers and grandfathers knew this
magician only too well; felt him, far off, and shook at his coming.
They fought him, not like Hiawatha, with jasper-headed arrows, but
with the woodman's axe. Like the Indian hero, our pioneer was often
'wounded, weary, and desponding, with his mittens torn and tattered.' "—Picturesque Canada.
Leaving Oshawa, we pass through Darlington, Bowmanville, Newcastle, Newtonville, and reach the important town of Port Hope
(chief hotels, St. Lawrence Hall, $1.50 to $2; and Queen's, $1.50), picturesquely situated in a deep ravine, and busy with a large lake traffic.
There are good hotels at this point, and within easy distance are the
waters of Rice Lake, which swarm with maskinonge, -black bass, and
green bass. On Rice Lake the best month for maskinonge is June;
for bass, from July to September. Seven miles beyond Port Hope is
the university town of Cobourg, the seat of Victoria College. Fortunately for Cobourg, it is something more than a university town; for FROM TORONTO  EASTWARD.
39
.Victoria College has decided to amalgamate with the University of
Toronto. Cobourg must rely henceforth entirely on her manufactures
and her trade, her car-works and her breweries. Rice Lake may conveniently be reached from Cobourg by the Canadian Pacific and Montreal R. R., or by stage to Gore's Landing. The next important point
after leaving Cobourg is Trenton, on the river Trent. Here the Grand
Trunk is crossed by the lines of the Ontario Central, which runs down
the beautiful peninsula of Prince Edward County to Picton. The Trent
River is the outlet of Rice Lake.
Beyond Trenton lies the city of Belleville, beautiful in its surroundings and in its handsome and shaded streets. Belleville has a
population of about 12;000, and is full of activity and enterprise. Its
chief hotels are the Kyle House, $1.50; Anglo-American, $1.50; and
Commercial, $1. It has fine public buildings, and is the seat of Alexandra College and of the Provincial Institution for Deaf-Mutes. The
city was named in honor of Arabella, wife of Governor Gore. It stands
on the shores of the exquisite Bay of Quinte, whose waters teem with
all delights for the fisherman, and whose changeful and delicious land
scapes will long delay the traveler.
The best way to visit Picton, at the extremity of Prince Edward
Peninsula is by boat from Belleville down along the Quinte shores.
This is a region of glamour and romance, away from the beaten paths
of trade. It is a land of waving barley-fields, and of merry picnic parties. In the heart of the peninsula is the lovely and romantic Lake
of the Mountain, which occupies the highest point on the peninsula,
and is kept ever full to the brim, with no visible sources of supply.
Its surface is on a level with that of far-off Lake Eric, a circumstance
which has given rise to many conjectures of a mysterious communication between them. Over the changing shores and headlands hang
memories of Huron and Jesuit, Iroquois and Sulpician, Mississaga and
loyalist pioneer. The Belleville steamer touches at the stirring port of
Deseronto, where the mainland thrusts itself forth into the bay. Dese-
ronto is a center of the flour and lumber trade, and in its saw-mills the
logs of the Trent, Moira, and Napanee Rivers are cut up into planks
and boards and laths and shingles to be consumed across the border.
The town is named after a famous Mohawk chief of the last century, a
cousin of the great Brant, and the signification of the title is " Thunder
and Lightning." Leaving Deseronto the steamer enters the magnificent expanse of placid water known as the Long Reach.   At the south- 40
FROM TORONTO  EASTWARD.
ern extremity of the Reach the high shores draw together to form Picton
Bay, at the head of which the town of Picton (chief hotel, the Royal,
$1.50 to $2) beautifully terminates the vista. On the lakeward side of
the peninsula is an interesting phenomenon known as the "Sandbanks." The strange scene is thus described in Picturesque Canada : " Lofty ridges of sand, appearing from a distance as white as
snow, were originally in some obscure way thrown up at the water's
edge; but, by a kind of glacier movement, which proceeds only in the
winter, they have now withdrawn from the shore and are encroaching
on the adjacent farms at the rate' of about 150 feet a year. The active
agent in the movement appears to be the drifting snow which entangles the sand and carries it forward. On the hottest day snow may
be found a short distance down, as we proved by repeated trials at various points of the banks. Historically, too, Big Sandy Bay is most
interesting. It was on the cove within, now called West Lake, that in
1668 the Kente Mission was established."
About 22 miles E. of Belleville, on the Grand Trunk, is the ancient
town of Napanee. The name is derived from the Mississaga word
Nau-pau-nay, which signifies " flour." As bread-stuffs are the staple
of Napanee's trade, the name is highly appropriate. The town is situated on a strange river, whose deep and somber waters are"swayed by
a mysterious tide every two hours. This tide represents a variation
of 16 inches in mean level, and sometimes attains a fluctuation of 30
inches.
Kingston.
Population, 25,000. The chief hotels of Kingston are The Hotel
Frontenac, $2 and $3 ; British-American, $2 and $3 ; City Hotel, $1.50
and $2; and Anglo-American. Livery charges, $2.50 per day for single
horse and carriage. Hacks are to be hired at usual rates. The only
theatres are the public halls.
The next town of importance after leaving Napanee is Kingston,
which is known as the " Limestone City," standing guard at the foot
of the lake where the channel of the St. Lawrence begins to define
itself. This gray and enduring little city, with its 25,000 inhabitants,
has a beautiful and commanding situation, and its spacious harbor is
fenced by islands from the storms of Lake Ontario.
Where the olive waters of the Cataraqui flow into the blue expanse
of the bay came Frontenac, greatest of the Governors of New France,
to establish a fort and trading post on what he considered " one of the KINGSTON. 41
most beautiful and agreeable harbors in the world." Frontenac pitched
his tents where now stand the Tete du Pont Barracks, commanding the
mouth of the Cataraqui. This was in July of 1673. The command of
the fort, which speedily rose under the energetic directions of Frontenac, was assigned to the illustrious Robert Cavalier de la Salle. The
settlement grew speedily in wealth and importance, till La Salle departed to discover the route to the Gulf of Mexico, and die by the
hands of a traitor in Texas. Under the next Governor, M. de Denon-
ville, Fort Frontenac was the scene of an act of treachery on the
part of the French toward the Indians which brought down terrible
vengeance upon New France. A number of Iroquois chiefs, under
pretext of a conference, were enticed into the fort, where they were
loaded with chains and then sent to France to wear out their lives
in the galleys. The retort of the Iroquois was the harrying of the
French settlement, the capture and destruction of Fort Frontenac, and
the midnight massacre of Lachine. When the weakness and treachery
of De Denonville had brought New France to these straits, Frontenac
came back and saved the colony, and rebuilt his favorite fort; and
fifty years of peace began their brooding over the mouth of the Cataraqui. The fort was captured by Colonel Bradstreet in 1758. Thereafter the place fell into forgetfulness, from which it did not emerge
till the end of the Revolutionary War, when a party of United Empire
Loyalists chose the fair site for a settlement, and in their zeal Cataraqui became Kingstown, afterward shortened to Kingston. When the
War of 1812 broke out, Kingston came into prominence as the strongest Canadian post on the lake, the chief rival to the American stronghold of Sackett's Harbor. Fort Henry was commenced, and a formidable battle-ship, the St. Lawrence, was built in the Kingston Dockyard. So hard was it for the mother-country to realize that any good
thing could come out of a colony, that this ship was built, at a cost
of £500,000, with timbers sent out from England for the purpose.
At this period the town was surrounded by a chain of block-houses
connected by a picket stockade. These block-houses subsequently
were Supplanted by stone batteries and martello towers, which, however ineffective they might be against modern artillery, nevertheless
add greatly to the martial air of Kingston as seen from the water.
When Upper Canada was erected into a province, Governor Simcoe
was sworn into office at Kingston, and from this point were issued
writs for the convening of the first Provincial Parliament, which met, eanmm
42
KINGSTON.
however, as has been already stated, at Niagara. When Upper and
Lower Canada were united in 1840, Kingston was made the seat of
government, and the Legislature occupied the building now employed
as the City Hospital. Only for four years, however, was Kingston suffered to enjoy this proud distinction; and in 1S44 the departure of the
Government and its officials left the " Limestone City " in a slough of
commercial and social despond.
Now, however, Kingston has entered anew upon an era of prosperity. She is the outlet for the traffic of the Rideau Canal, and, which
is vastly more important, for that of the Kingston and Pembroke R. R.,
which opens up a.district of immense mineral wealth. She has become
a great educational center. Here is Queen's University, which has become, under Principal George M. Grant, one of the most successful and
well-conducted institutions of learning in Canada. Here also is the
Royal Military College, the West Point of Canada, where the cadets
get a training the efficiency of which is well recognized in sister colonies
and in the mother-country. Kingston is also the seat of the Royal
College of Physicians and Surgeons, and of the Women's Medical
College, both of which are affiliated with Queen's University. The
buildings of " Queen's " are the chief architectural ornament of Kingston. The individuality of Kingston is thus effectively described by a
distinguished Canadian writer:
I Still Kingston contains a military look, not unpleasing to the tourist's eye. There is the fort crowning the glacis. Full in front, a
round tower covers the landing. At its base, a semicircular bastion
pierced for artillery is ready to sweep the water. The embrasures of
the fort look askance at the foundries and the enginery on the*opposite
side of the harbor. The cannon confronts the locomotive; and, fit
emblem of our time, a solitary warde*r guards the decaying fort, while
in the locomotive-shops between 400 and 500 skilled workmen are
employed. The tower, with its conical red cap and circling wall of
compact ball-proof masonry, looks well. It would have scared the
Iroquois. It could have defied the raiders of 1812. Against modern
artillery it is as good as an arquebuse. Hard by is the Military College, with its 100 or 120 red-coated, white-hclmeted cadets. Where'the
olive-green of Cataraqui Creek blends with the blue of the bay, still
stand the old naval barracks, where Tom Bowling and Ned Bunting
.were wont to toast ' sweethearts and wives.' A little up the creek is
Barriefield Common, once gay with the pomp and circumstance of
glorious war, but now seldom marched over by anything more militant
than the villagers' geese. From the common a causeway, nearly half
a mile long, extends across the creek to the Tele du Pont Barracks, KINGSTON.
43
the headquarters alternately of the very efficient A and B Batteries.
Thanks to the gentlemen cadets and battery-men, the streets of Kingston still have a sprinkling of red, white, and blue."
Six miles up the placid windings of the Cataraqui stream we enter
a deep gorge, whose rocky banks, almost overhanging, are richly
clothed with vines. Here we meet the foamy rush of a little cascade;
and here is the entrance to the Rideau Canal, whose sedgy waters,
the haunt of innumerable mallard and teal, afford the canoeist an enchanting path through the Rideau Lakes to Ottawa.
The tourist who is not in an inordinate hurry to reach Montreal
will take the steamer at Kingston if he has come thus far by rail; for
the river trip between Kingston and the commercial metropolis of
Canada is one of the most attractive on the continent. As the steamer
rounds Fort Hill, and passes Cedar Island, we find ourselves fairly in
the channel of the St. Lawrence, at this point about 14 miles in width.
If one wishes to "do " the Thousand Islands thoroughly, it is best to
stop off at the village of Gananoque, around whose shores the islands
appear to swarm. The name Gananoque signifies " rocks in deep
water." The town stands on a small river of the same name, is well
supplied with hotels, and has good maskinonge and black-bass fishing
in its neighborhood.
The Thousand Islands.
The Thousand Islands are really many more than a thousand in
number, there being about 1,800 of them large and small, in a stretch
of about 40 miles. The Indians call the region Manatoana—" the Garden of the Great Spirit." The islands are all of that formation which
the geologists call gray gneiss. Through the innumerable labyrinths
that divide them the current of the great river flows with varying
rapidity. In some of the channels it is a foaming torrent, while in
others the gently-moving tide is as smooth as a summer pool. The
islands present the greatest variety of effect. Some arc high and
precipitous, others barely lift their heads above the lily-pads that encircle them. Some are as naked as if their granite frames had just come
from the primeval fires; others are topped with pine and fir, or softly
rounded with the foliage of vines and shrubbery. Some are dotted
with cottages, or the tents of camping parties. Several of the islets
are built up with fantastic structures, pagodas, and fairy bridges, till
they look as if they had just stepped off an old blue " willow-pattern " 44
THE  THOUSAND  ISLANDS.
plate. Hither and thither among them dart the trim craft of the
canoeists, for here it is they most do congregate; and in many a
sluggish eddy or sheltered bay may be seen the punt of him that lies
in wait for maskinonge. The landscape is like Egypt's incomparable
Queen, for " age can not- wither it nor custom stale its infinite variety." With every change of sky and cloud the scene changes, and
unexpected colors, lights, and shades descend upon the isles and water
reaches.
But not always were the Thousand Islands such a region of enchantment, or else the eyes of the old French explorers were blinded by weariness after their struggles with the fierce rapids farther down the stream.
In a report of an expedition against the Mohawks in 1665, M. de Cour-
celles asserts that " they have nothing agreeable beyond their multitude," and that tney " are only huge rocks rising out of the water, covered merely by moss, or a few spruce or other stunted wood, whose
roots spring from the clefts of the rocks, which can supply no other
aliment or moisture to these barren trees than what the rains furnish
them." From this it would seem that the luxuriant vegetation that
now lends the islands so much of their charm was lacking to them two
centuries ago. It is certain, however, that the tourist who passes hastily through the Thousand Islands will miss their chief beauties, and
may even find the very numbers of them monotonous.
As might be expected, the scenery of the Thousand Islands is
touched with the charm of many an old romance. They inspired the
song of Tom Moore, and one of them is the scene of Cooper's story,
The Pathfinder. Among their mazes a British ship, the Sir Robert
Peel, was burned in 1838 by a band of American outlaws under the
leadership of one " Bill Johnson," who aspired to establish a Canadian
Republic. This romantic desperado was saved from the indignant
clutches of the law by a picturesque and dauntless girl, his daughter
Kate, who rowed him from one hiding-place to another as each in succession grew too hot for him.
On one of the largest of the islands, known as Wells's Island, is the
swarming summer resort of the Thousand Island Park, with its
post-office, public buildings, and stores, and its water-side street of boat-
houses. This is the famous camp-meeting ground of the Methodists,
and here religion and relaxation are most alluringly combined. At the
lower end of the island is the somewhat quieter resort of Westminster
Park, also under religious control; and directly opposite the'island, on
"T   THE  THOUSAND   ISLANDS.
45
the American mainland, and not under religious control, is Alexandria
Bay, the " Saratoga of the St. Lawrence." Hence, it may be seen that
the Thousand Islands stand in little need of the romance of old, for
the makers of romance are among them the summer long, and turn
out their enchanting though transitory product in an abundance that
beggars reckoning. On a promontory, near the landing at Alexandria
Bay, stands the villa known as Bonnie Castle, the residence of the late
Dr. J. G. Holland.
After the steamer emerges from the clustering isles it swings up to
the wharves of Brockville, the Thousand Island City. This beautiful
little city, whose gilded towers and spires glitter fairly above the
billows of foliage that screen its comely thoroughfares, was named after
the hero of Queenston Heights. Brockville is supplied with excellent
hotels, such as the St. Laiorence Hall, Revere House, and Grand Central
Hotel. In the river, at this point, and in the neighboring lakes of
Charleston and Ridout, there is good fishing for black bass, salmon
trout, pickerel, pike, and maskinonge; and duck, plover, woodcock,
snipe, and partridge are fairly abundant in the surrounding country.
Twelve miles beyond Brockville stands the town of Prescott, whence
a branch line of the Canadian Pacific runs direct to Ottawa. On a point
of land about a mile below Prescott stands the historic 1 Windmill," a white stone tower pierced with loopholes, and now serving as
a lighthouse. In November, 1837, the " Windmill" was the scene of a
foolish but pathetic tragedy. It was seized by a little band of self-
styled " Patriots " under the leadership of a Polish exile named Von
Shultz. Being made the tool of knaves and adventurers in safe refuge
across the border, Von Shultz was deceived into the belief that Canada was groaning under an intolerable tyranny, and that he was called
to deliver her from the yoke. With his brave but lamentably misguided followers he held the mill for some days against the Canadian
forces under Colonel Dundas. During the fight the American shore
opposite was crowded with spectators, who lent the insurgents the safe
and cheap assistance of their sympathy. Compelled at length to surrender at discretion, the unhappy Von Shultz, with 9 others of the 110
prisoners, was tried by court-martial at Fort Henry and put to death
on the gallows.
Below Prescott the calm blue reaches of the river present little variety till the Galoups Rapids are reached. Here the awakening water
writhes and foams, and we feel a tremor in the timbers of our sturdy 46
THE  THOUSAND  ISLANDS.
craft; but the rapids are not violent, and merely serve as a foretaste of
those to be encountered farther on. Parallel with the " Galoups " runs
a small canal, at the lower end of which lies the thriving village of
Cardinal. Soon the spires of Morrisburg rise above its embowering
trees, and round a curve of the shore, between islands softly wooded
with white birch, our steamer sweeps through the low, green, singing
waves of the Rapid du Plat. Two miles and a half below the village,
near a little promontory, the shore is broken by an irregular ravine.
The country all about is a vision of peace, of orchards and quiet homesteads and meadows deep with grass, and bits of woodland spared discreetly by the axe. Yet the scene is one of heroic memories, and every
Canadian heart thrills to look upon it. In the ravine, and on the uplands about it, was fought the bravely contested battle of Chrysler's
Farm, on November 11, 1813. On the one side was the American invading force, on the other a little army of Canad an volunteers with a
handful of British regulars. The issue of the battle was long uncer-
tain, but the final result was a decisive victory for the Canadians.
The Rapids of the St. Lawrence.
From Chrysler's Farm onward we pass a succession of pretty villages and bits of peaceful landscape, till, just as the monotony of sweetness is beginning to pall upon the eye, the current quickens and high
rocks appear along the shores. We are entering the splendid rapid of
the Long Sault, by far the grandest, if not the most exciting rapid
of the chain. It is a novelty indeed to find a large steamer tossed to
and fro like a little cockboat, and buffeted by huge billows which make
her quiver from stem to stern. Other rapids have swifter sweeps or
sharper turns, but this bears away the palm from all in the size and
glory of its waves. The roaring channel is divided by a somber and
thickly wooded island. The northern passage is called Lost Channel,
and there is no path through its shouting rabble of high white waves
that clamber upon each other and seem to race up-stream. The steamer
dashes into the white and emerald turmoil of the South Channel, and,
drenched with spray, plunges with a galloping motion down the long
incline, till it rests in smooth water under the steep sides of the island
of St. Regis.
Boats ascending the St. Lawrence get around the Long Sault by
means of the Cornwall Canal, at the lower end of which stands the
busy manufacturing town of Cornwall.    At this point we pass into the THE  RAPIDS   OF  THE  ST.   LAWRENCE.
47
province of Quebec, and at this point also the St. Lawrence ceases to
form the boundary between Canada and the United States, for the dividing line recedes sharply to the eastward. The shores of the river
spread apart to form Lake St. Francis, with the little town of Lancaster on the left coast and the settlements of Dundee and Fort Covington on the right. In the distance rises a blue range of mountains, the
hills of Chateauguay, on which the eye rests with delight after the low
horizons of Ontario. In the vicinity of those blue heights lies the battle-field of Chateauguay, where De Salaberry and his handful of
French Canadian volunteers won a decisive victory over a much superior force of American militia. At the foot of the lake is the quaint
French Canadian village of Coteau du Lac, with its straggling brown
street, its long, brown wooden pier, its old-fashioned boats, and the
gilded spire of its great stone church shedding a glory over the scene.
Away to the south lies cotton-spinning Valleyfield, at the head of the
Beauharnois Canal. When the lake is fairly left behind, the shores
grow more abrupt, the current dips and begins to dart and twist;
and we plunge through the rapid of | The Cedars," where the rich
foliage sweeps down to the flying waters. Then more quiet reaches
are traversed, and we come to the beautiful " Cascades," where the
clamoring waves flash high and thin among the rocky islets that break
the channel. Ere the excitement of the descent has died away we
come out on the broad breast of Lake St. Louis, where the St. Lawrence widens to give fitting reception to its mighty tributary the Ottawa.
The waters of this great stream, drawn from its somber hills of pine and
fir, are of a brown color that defines itself sharply against the clearer
and bluer tide of the St. Lawrence. Away to the left is the village
of St. Anne, made forever musical by the Canadian Boat Song of Tom
Moore:
Faintly as tolls the evening chime,
Our voices keep tune, and our oars keep time.
Soon as the woods on the shore look dim,
We'll sing at St. Anne's oar parting hymn.
Row, brothers, row ! the stream runs fast,
The rapids are near, and the daylight's past!
Why should we yet our sail unfurl ?
There is not a breath the blue waves to curl.
But when the wind blows off the shore,
Oh ! sweetly we'll rest our weary oar.
Blow, breezes, blow ! the stream runs fast,
The rapids are near, and the daylight's past! 48
THE  RAPIDS   OF  THE  ST.   LAWRENCE.
Ottawa's tide ! this trembling moon
Shall see us float o'er thy surges soon.
Saint of this green isle ! hear our prayers ;
Oh, grant us cool heavens and favoring air3 !
Blow, breezes, blow ! the stream runs fast,
The rapids are near, and the daylight's past!
On the horizon ahead rises'a bold, blue mass which we recognize as
" the Mountain " of Montreal. Soon other purple masses emerge to
keep it company, the summits of Mounts Shefford, Belceil, and St. John,
and we reach the Indian village of Caughnawaga, the home of the famous Lacrosse-players. The steamer slows up to take aboard a pilot,
and our hearts beat quicker as we realize that the great rapid of
Lachine is at hand.
This famous rapid is less impressive in its surroundings than the
Long Sault; it lacks the absolute beauty of the chiming and dancing
" Cascades "; but it is far more awe-inspiring than either. It makes
one catch one's breath with a sense of imminent peril. The descent
has been thus vividly described: " Suddenly a scene of wild grandeur
bursts upon the eye. Waves are lashed into spray and into breakers
of a thousand forms by the submerged rocks, which they are dashed
against in the headlong impetuosity of the river. Whirlpools, a
storm-lashed sea, the chasm below Niagara, all mingle their sublimity
in a single rapid. Now passing with lightning speed withjn a few
yards of rocks which, did your vessel but touch them, would reduce
her to an utter wreck before the crash could sound upon the. ear;
did she ever diverge in the least from her course—if her head were
not kept straight with the course of the rapid—she would be instantly
submerged and rolled over and over. Before us is an absolute precipice of waters; on every side of it breakers, like dense avalanches,
are thrown high into the air. Ere we can take a glance at the scene,
the boat descends the wall of waves and foam like a bird, and in a
second afterward you are floating on the calm, unruffled bosom of
'below the rapids.'"
Presently we pass the wooded shores of Nun's Island, and the stately
city of Montreal lies before us. OTTAWA.
49
Ottawa.
Toward dayset, where the journeying sun grown old
Hangs lowly westward darker now than .gold,
With the soft sun-touch of the yellowing hours
Made lovelier, I see with dreaming eyes,
Even as a dream out of a dream, arise
The bell-tongued city with its glorious towers.
A. Lampman.
Hotels.—The chief hotels of Ottawa are the Russell, Windsor
House, and Grand Union; rates from $2 to $4 a day. The clubs are
the Rideau, Ottawa, and West End. Chief restaurants: The Bodega,
Chambers's, Queen's, Walker's, Burns's. Reading-rooms: The Parliamentary, Y. M. C. A., and St. Patrick's Literary and Scientific Society.
Theatre: The Grand Opera-House. Horse-cars connect the city with
towns across the river (fare, 5c).   Population (estimated), 40,000.
We will suppose that the tourist has taken the direct route from
Toronto to Ottawa—that by the Canadian Pacific, already described.
If he has gone first to Montreal, he may go thence to Ottawa by
the Canadian Pacific, the Canada Atlantic, or by boat up the Ottawa
River. We should advise the route up by rail, and the return by
boat. Ottawa, the capital of the federated provinces of Canada, is in
the province of Ontario, on the south shore of the Ottawa River, 126
miles from its mouth. For picturesque grandeur the site of Ottawa is
second only to that of Quebec. At this point the great river roars down
into the terrific caldron of ChaudQre Falls, to whose vindictive deity
the Indians of old were wont to make propitiatory offerings of tobacco.
At this point also the Ottawa is joined by its tributary, the Rideau
River, which flows in over a fall of wonderful grace and beauty. The
shifting, curtain-like folds of this cascade give the river its name of
Rideau, or the " Curtain."
Like Quebec, Ottawa consists of an Upper and a Lower Town. In
the double city flows a double life—the fife of a rich capital and the
life of a rafting and milling center—the life of that society that clusters
around the government and the life of the French-Canadian lumberman. Ottawa is not only the seat of government but a hive of industry as well. It is the city of laws and saws. Its Upper Town rings
with the eloquence of our legislators; its Lower with the shriek of our
unremitting saw-mills. It is growing as no mere bureaucratic center
can grow, and has a population of over 40,000, where, forty years ago,
there were but 7,000 or 8,000 inhabitants.   It is a city of deeps and soaai
50
OTTAWA.
f!
heights, of sharp contrasts alike in its landscapes and its life; and both
are alike dominated by the truly splendid pile of the Parliament Buildings, which imperially crown the loftiest point of the city.
In the days of the " old regime," when the Ottawa River was the
chief path of the fur-trade, on which New France subsisted, the place
of portage around the falls of the Chaudiere had not even a wigwam to
mark it as the site of a future city. It was a place of horror and of
lying-in-wait; for here the Iroquois came to intercept the Algonquins
of the north country, on their way to Quebec, with their canoe-loads of
peltries. In 1693 so closely did the Iroquois bar the stream that a
three-years' gathering of beaver-skins was held up at Michilimackinac
unable to make its market; and it took Frontenac himself, the Deus ex
machina of New France, to break the dread blockade. Most of the
romantic history of Old Canada, however, went by the other way, and
left the difficult passes of the Ottawa unhaloed. Not till 1800 did the
spot where the Rideau spills its stream attract the regard of pioneers.
In that year one Philemon Wright, of Woburn, Massachusetts, led a
little colony to the spot, and founded a prosperous settlement, which is
now the city of Hull, on the Quebec side of the river, immediately opposite Ottawa. The War of 1812 impelled the Imperial Government
to build the Rideau Canal, for strategic purposes, and on,the unpromising cliffs, across the river from Hull, arose the community of Bytoion,
named for a colonel of the Royal Engineers, who had charge of the
canal construction. The village grew and became a town; and at length
the seat of government, after having been made the shuttlecock of
politicians and bandied between Niagara and Kingston and Toronto
and Quebec and Montreal, was planted here by order of the Queen, and
found a secure abiding-place.
The Parliament Buildings are designed in a modified twelfth-
century Gothic, and are an admirable combination of simplicity, grace,
and strength. The material of which-they are constructed is a cream-
colored sandstone, whose richness of tone grows under the touch of
time. The door and window arches are of red Potsdam sandstone with
dressings of Ohio freestone. The great central block occupies a^tone
terrace with broad, sloping carriage approaches, and is surmounted by
a well-proportioned tower 220 ft. in height. This building stands at
the back of a spacious square, of which the eastern and western blocks
form the two sides. In the central block are the two Houses of Parliament, the Commons and the Senate.     The side-blocks contain the  o
to"
ft;
So
£ OTTAWA.
51
offices of the various departments. Behind the Chaihbers stands the
beautiful building of the Parliamentary Library, its lofty dome supported by flying buttresses of admirable design. From a number of
points of view the buildings " compose " in a.way that gives the keenest
pleasure to the eye. The first stone of the. buildings was laid by the
Prince of Wales in 1860, and in their present form they have cost
about $5,000,000. The beautiful grounds of Parliament Hill, seated
high above the river and commanding an unrivaled view, are laid out
in broad walks, which form the favorite promenade of the citizens.
Ottawa contains other fine buildings such as the Post-Office and
the great Roman Catholic Cathedral in the interesting French district
of Suffolk St. and its neighborhood, and some massive and magnificent commercial buildings; but they are so overshadowed by the
noble structures on Parliament Hill that one is apt to ignore them.
On one side of the ample breadth of Cartier Square is the fine stone
pile of the Normal School, and not far off the enormous red brick
block of the Drill Shed.
Rideau Hall, the" residence of the Governor-General and the center of the brilliant social life of Ottawa, stands about two miles out of
the city, on the road that leads past Rideau Falls and through the suburb
of New Edinburgh. It is a most unpretentious and hap-hazard conglomeration of plaster, brick, and stone, but withal a very comfortable
and home-like place to live in. The " season " at Ottawa is during
the winter months, when Parliament is in session ; and then the ample
grounds of Rideau Hall become the scene of such a typically Canadian
merry-making that one can hardly realize that the dispenser of viceregal hospitalities is not a Canadian, but a five-years' visitant from
over seas. The skating-pond and the long toboggan-slides are thronged
with Canada's manliest and fairest; and the visitors from the mother
country take very kindly to the exhilarating Canadian pastimes.
A species of summer-tobogganing, but vastly more thrilling and with
a more piquant flavor of novelty and peril, is the descent of the " lumber-
slides "—an experience which none but the very timorous tourist should
omit. The 1 slides " are long, flat-bottomed, sharply-sloping channels
of massive stone-work and timber. These are built for the passage of
great logs which have been hewn square in the woods, and which
would be damaged by such merciless grinding and battering as the
ordinary rough logs are subjected to in their plunge over the falls.
The squared logs are made up, for the descent, into " cribs " of about 52
OTTAWA.
20 sticks, exactly fitting the slides. As these are but slightly fastened
together, there is always the fascinating possibility of a break-up; and
the pace of the descent is eminently exciting. The experience of the
slides—an experience through which all illustrious visitors, such as the
Prince of Wales, Prince Arthur, the Grand Duke Alexis, and the
Princess Louise have passed with dutiful heroism—is thus effectively
described by Mr. F. A. Dixon:
" Just at the head the adventurous voyageurs hurriedly embark, the
crib being courteously held back for a moment for their convenience.
Under direction they perch themselves upon the highest timber in the
rear, out of the way as far as possible of uprushing waters, and the
huge mass is cleverly steered, by the immense oars which are used for
the purpose, toward the entrance of the chute. Ahead for a quarter
of a mile appears a narrow channel, down which a shallow stream of
water is constantly rushing, with here and there a drop of some 5 or 8
feet; the ladies gather up their garments, as the crib, now beginning to
feel the current, takes matters into its own hands; with rapidly-quickening speed the unwieldy craft passes under a bridge, and with a groan
and a mighty cracking and splashing plunges, nose foremost, and tail
high in the air, over the first drop. Now she is in the slide proper,
and the pace is exhilarating; on over the smooth timbers she glides
swiftly; at a bridge ahead passers-by stop, and waving of friendly
handkerchiefs is interchanged. Now comes a bigger drop than the
last, and the water, as we go over, surges up through ourjtimbers, and
a shower of spray falls about us. A delicate ■ Oh !' from the ladies
compliments this effort. Never mind ; a little wetting was all in this
day's march. Another interval of smooth rush, and again a drop, and
yet another. Ahead, there is a gleam of tossed and tumbled water,
which shows the end of the descent; down still we rush, and with one
last wild dip, which sends the water spurting up about our feet, we
have reached the bottom, cleverly caught on a floating platform of
wood, called the ' apron,' which prevents our plunging into ' full fathoms five.'    We have ' run the slides.'"
The most interesting part of Lower Town is crowded about Chau-
dihre Falls. This is the lumber region—a city of deals, but not such
deals as are to be had in Wall St. The air is full of the smell of
fresh-cut pine and fir, and the shop-windows are stocked with saws and
axes, chains and pike-poles, " cant-dogs" and gigantic leg-boots, and
indestructible raiment. Sawdust is the pervading element. As we
approach the water our ears tingle under the shrieking crescendo and
diminuendo of the innumerable saws. The mills crowd half-way across
the river. Every point of rock is packed with structures, and put from
every point of vantage are thrust great embankments of stone and tim- s<.
|  OTTAWA.
53
ber, on which more mills are heaped. Besides the saw-mills, there are
flour-mills and cement-mills, and wool-mills ; and, on the other side of
the cataract, reaching out from the Hull shore, a gigantic structure
where matches are made, and wooden-ware. There, also, are yet more
mills. The great river has been caught and put in harness. A portion
of its water is permitted to thunder over the falls, which form a great
semicircular chasm in mid-channel, and are crossed by a suspension
bridge. The rest of the current is forced to labor in the mills, ere it
may continue its journey to the sea ; for a thousand sluices have begun
I To hem his watery march, and dam his streams,
And split his currents."
In the saw-mills the chaos of strange and strident noises is indescribable, and the scene is beyond measure novel and impressive. By
day in the yellow gloom, by night in the white glare of the countless
electric lights, go on the rending and the biting of the saws. In the
dark, sawdust flecked water about the foot of the dripping slides wallow the rough brown logs. Great chains and hooks descend, and the
logs are grabbed and dragged up the slide into the dens where the
myriad teeth await them. What are known as the upright saws are
set together to the number of two or three dozen, in a combination
called a | gate " which keeps darting up and down in a terrible and
gigantic dance. Against their teeth the logs are driven ; steadily and
irresistibly the steel bites its loud way from end to end; and the logs
pass forth on the other side in the shape of yellow planks and boards.
On every side, and of all sizes, hum the circulars, revolving so fast that
they appear stationary and can not show their teeth. A log or plank
approaches the innocent-looking, humming disk; it touches, and there
rises a soaring shriek which may quaver through the whole gamut. The
timber divides swiftly, as if it were some impalpable fabric of a dream,
and behind the saw shoots up a curving yellow spray of sawdust.
From Ottawa to Montreal.
Every week-day morning, at 7.25, a steamer of the Ottawa River
Navigation Company leaves Ottawa for Montreal, and makes the run
in about 10 hours. The scenery on this trip is strong and picturesque.
The river rolls its brown tide between the stern hills of the Lauren-
tians, over mad rapids, and through wide, many-islanded reaches. There
is no monotony on this trip.    The chief traffic of the river is in lumber, 54
OTTAWA  TO  MONTREAL.
and we overtake and pass fleets of roomy barges piled high with the
yellow deals and towed by gasping and laboring steam-tugs.
A mile below Ottawa we run past the mouth of a great river, the
Gatineau. This stream, draining a vast extent of country, discharges
an immense volume of water into the Ottawa; but the last 7 miles of
its course are rendered unnavigable by a succession of fierce rapids.
A few miles below the Gatineau is the mouth of the Lievre, a much
smaller stream, yet boasting a course of nearly 400 miles. This is the
land where the canoeist, besides all the sport with rod and gun that
his heart can wish, may conveniently taste the rapture of running rapids in his frail craft. This is a very different experience from the
descent in a great steamer, which lifts you so far above the waves that
you fail to realize all their fury. Yet another experience is to make
the descent of the rapids on a raft of logs, amid the oaths or pious
ejaculations of the French lumbermen. The men surge desperately on
their long sweeps, but the unwieldy craft appears to wallow in utter
helplessness amid the terrific surges; and when the descent has been
accomplished the traveler wonders how he came through alive. The
life of the river, in its combination of the homely and the picturesque,
its mixture of adventure and pathos, has been crystallized into an exquisite lyric by Mr. Lampman :
BETWEEN THE RAPIDS.
The point is turned ; the twilight shadow fills
The wheeling stream, the soft receding shore,
And on our ears from deep among the hills
Breaks now the rapid's sudden quickening roar.
Ah ! yet the same, or have they changed their face,
The fair green fields, and can it still be seen,
The white log cottage near the mountain's base,
So bright and quiet, so home-like and serene ?
Ah, well I question ; for, as five years go,
How many blessings fall, and how much woe !
The shore, the fields,.the cottage just the same,
But how with them whose memory makes them sweet ?
Oh, if I called them, hailing name by name,
Would the same lips the same old shouts repeat ?
Have the rough years, so big with death^nd ill,
Gone lightly by and left them smiling yet ?
Wild, black-eyed Jeanne whose tongue was never still,
Old wrinkled Picaud, Pierre, and pale Lisette,  8
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A OTTAWA  TO  MONTREAL.
The homely hearts that never cared to range
While life's wide fields were filled with rush and change.
And where is Jacques and where is Verginie ?
I can not tell; the fields are all a blur.
The lowing cows, whose shapes I scarcely see,
Oh, do they wait and do they call for her ?
And is she changed, or is her heart still clear
As wind or morning, light as river-foam ?
Or have life's changes borne her far from here,
And far from rest, and far from help and home ?
Ah, comrades, soft, and let us rest awhile,
For arms grow tired with paddling many a mile.
55
Blacker and loftier grow the woods, and hark 1
The freshening roar !  The chute is near us now,
And dim the canon grows, and inky dark
The water whispering from the birchen prow.
One long last look, and many a sad adieu,
While eyes can see and heart can feel you yet,
I leave sweet home and sweeter hearts to you,
A prayer for Picaud, one for pale Lisette,
A kiss for Pierre, my little Jacques, and thee,
A sigh for Jeanne, a sob for Verginie.
Oh, does she still remember ? Is the dream
Now dead, or has she found another mate ?
So near, so dear ; and ah, so swift the stream !
Even now perhaps it were not yet too late.
But oh, what matter ? for before the night
Has reached its middle we have far to go :
Bend to your paddles, comrades ; see, the light
Ebbs off apace ; we must not linger so.
Aye thus it is ! Heaven gleams and then is gone.
Once, twice it smiles, and still we wander on.
The next point of interest below the mouth of the Lihire is the
Chateau of Montebello, the home of the great French-Canadian Pa-
pineau. This man, whom the stress of a patriotic struggle misled
into rebellion, was one of the ablest and most eloquent of Canada's
sons. The principles he fought for have triumphed by constitutional
means, and his name is held now in all reverence. The chateau, in
which he spent his days after his recall from exile, is a picturesque
and beautiful structure, embowered in elms and savoring of Old
France.
• Below Montebello we pass the town of L' Orignal, and not far off is 
66
OTTAWA   TO   MONTREAL.
the mouth of the Kinonge, the outlet of the enchanting mountain-girt
lake of Comandeau. This water, which teems with trout, is best
reached by a portage from Grenville (the next place at which the
steamer arrives) to the river Rouge, which must be ascended in canoes
some miles to the Comandeau portage. The beauty of the scenery
will well repay the tourist who turns aside for this trip.
At Grenville we leave the steamer and take the train for Carillon,
to avoid the great rapids known as the Carillon, Long Sault, and Chute
au Blondeau. These three rapids are further circumvented by three
canals, used chiefly for the freight traffic. They were built by the
Imperial Government for military purposes, for which it is to be hoped
they may never be required. That which passes the Long Sault is
known as the Grenviile Canal, and was excavated for six miles out of
what is mainly solid rock.
The Pass of the Long Sault, on the western shore, is to Canadians
holy ground, for there was enacted a deed of heroism than which the
pages of history can show none more magnificent. In 1660 the whole
force of the Iroquois confederacy bent itself to the destruction of the
French colonies of Villemarie and Quebec. The doom appeared inevitable. But there were heroes of the ancient type in New France.
A young nobleman, the Sieur Daulac des Ormeaux, familiarly known
as Dollard, gathered a band of sixteen comrades, who devoted their
lives, with the most solemn ceremonial of the Church, to the task of
breaking the attack of the invaders. They intrenched themselves at
the Pass of the Long Sault. With them went some twoscore Huron
allies, all of whom but two chiefs deserted them when the enemy appeared. Five hundred yelling savages, the best of all Indian warriors,
swarmed upon the frail barricade; and again and again they were
beaten off with tremendous slaughter, till they drew back to await re-
enforcements. For three days the handful of heroes held the post,
sleepless, and parched with terrible thirst; and when the last man of
them had struck his last blow, the Iroquois had no more stomach for
the fight. Their losses had been so heavy that they had to give up all
thought of attacking Villemarie, as Montreal wa3 called; and Daulac had
saved New France. The story has been woven into a glowing romance
by Mrs. Catherwood, under the title of The Romance of Dollard.
At Carillon, where we resume the steamer, the Ottawa ceases to be
the boundary-line between the two provinces, and from this point on
we are in Quebec.    Soon we enter the Lake of Two Mountains, an ir-   OTTAWA  TO  MONTREAL.
57
regular sheet of water from 3 to 4 miles in width and about 24 miles
long. Into this lake flows the Riviere d la Graisse, past the pretty village of Rigaud. This neighborhood was the scene of many conflicts
between the so-called " Patriots" and the Loyalists in the difficulties
of 1837. Near Rigaud rises a hill called the Montagne Ste. Magda-
laine. On the summit is a square field several acres in extent, whose
surface is covered with bowlders. These stones, by some strange
freak of Nature, have been set in long, orderly lines, so as to resemble
a newly plowed field, and the name of the place is called Pluie de Gue-
rcts. In this mysterious spot one can hear distinctly underground murmurs as of flowing water; but the digging of curious investigators has
failed to reveal the cause of this phenomenon. Far down the lake is
a charming summer resort, the Indian village of Oka. The Indians
have been removed and settled in a new domain in the Muskoka country. Of the two mountains which give the lake its name, the larger
was called Calvary by the pioneers of New France. On the summit
of the steep were seven chapels, memorials of the mystic seven of St.
John's vision; and hither, on many a pious pilgrimage, came the people
of Villemarie, taking their lives in their hands when they quitted the
shelter of their palisades. Below the Lake of Two Mountains is the
village of Ste. Anne, which we saw in our descent of the St. Lawrence,
and in the quaintly dressed crowd that gathers on the wharf we see an
epitome of the picturesqueness of the habitants, as the French Canadian country folks are called. At this point the Ottawa splits his
mighty current into three streams, the largest of which helps furnish
the expanse of Lake St. Louis, while the two smaller flow north of
Laval and Montreal Islands. At St. Anne the steamer enters a short
canal of one lock to avoid a dangerous rapid. Here the Grand Trunk
crosses on to Montreal Island, by a splendid and massive viaduct under
which the steamer passes with lowered funnel. On a point of the
island, a little beyond, we note the ruins of a castle built after a
mediaeval pattern as a defense against the Iroquois. There are two
such castles standing close together, with a circular tower on the hill-
tops watching over their approaches. Within the high walls of the
castles was space enough to shelter all the women and children of the
ancient settlement.
At the drowsy and picturesque old town of Lachine, 8-J miles from
Montreal, is the head of the canal by which the Lachine Rapids are
avoided on the upward trip.    Before the canal was built, Lachine was ;8
OTTAWA  TO  MONTREAL.
a place of great commercial importance; now it is chiefly a place of
summer residence for citizens of Montreal. Its steep gables and old-
fashioned dormer-windows nestle amid the green of ancient trees. All
its neighborhood is historic ground, but the memories that cluster most
thickly about it are those of the great La Salle. Its site was granted
by the Sulpician Fathers to La Salle that he might establish there a
fortified outpost for the more effective defense of the city. La Salle
named his settlement La Chine, thus embalming his dominant idea of
7 o
a passage across the continent to the Indies and Cathay. La Salle
soon left it to follow his adventures, but the settlement continued to
flourish till the dreadful massacre of 1689, which we referred to in our
account of Kingston. The cause which led to this catastrophe has been
already related; the catastrophe itself has thus been described by a
Canadian writer, Mr. C. V. Rogers:
"Nearly two centuries ago, on the night of August 5, 1689, as the
inhabitants of Lachine lay sleeping, amid a storm of hail upon the
lake, which effectually disguised the noise of their landing, a force of
many hundred warriors, armed and besmeared with war-paint, made a
descent upon Lachine. Through the night they noiselessly surrounded
every building in the village. With dawn the fearful war-whoop
awoke men, women, and children to their doom of torture and death.
The village was fired ; by its light, in the early morn, the horror-stricken
inhabitants of Montreal could see from their fortifications the nameless-
cruelties which preceded the massacre. It is said the Iroquois indulged
so freely in the fire-water of the Lachine merchants that, had the defenders of Villemarie been prompt to seize the favorable moment, the
drunken wretches might have been slaughtered like swine. Paralyzed
by the horrors they had witnessed, the French let the occasion slip.
At nightfall the savages withdrew to the mainland, not, however, without signifying by yells—repeated to the number of ninety—how many
prisoners they carried away. From the ramparts of Villemarie and
amid the blackened ruins of Lachine the garrison watched the fires on
the opposite shore, kindled for what purposes of nameless cruelty they
knew too well. The fate of Lachine marks the lowest point in the
fortunes of New France; by what deeds of heroism they were retrieved
is not the least glorious page in Canadian history."
PROVINCE OF QUEBEC.
Quebec, the senior province of the Canadian confederation, occupies the greater portion of the St. Lawrence Valley. It has' an extreme length, E. and W., of 1,000 miles, and a great diversity of Hi
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05  PROVINCE  OF   QUEBEC.
59
scenery and resources. For a long time it monopolized the name of
Canada; and for a far longer period its history was practically the
whole of Canadian history, save for what was being enacted in the
narrower sphere of the Acadian Peninsula. The following extremely
condensed abstract of the history of the province is taken from Dr.
Stewart's article on Quebec in the Encyclopaedia Britannica:
I Quebec was first visited by the French, under Jacques Cartier, in
1535, and a second time in 1536, though it is said that Sebastian
Cabot discovered the country in 1497. The regular settlement of the
province, however, was not made until 1608, when Samuel de Champ-
lain landed at the site now occupied by Quebec City. Here he established military and trading posts, and it was not long before the new
possession became the seat of the Jesuit and Recollet missions, which
were zealously carried on under the most trying circumstances for
nearly a century and a half. The early settlers endured countless
hardships from the incursions of the Indians, and the frequent wars
in which they were forced to engage with the English and Dutch. In
1759 the Marquis of Montcalm was defeated at Quebec by an English
army under General Wolfe. A year later the French surrendered all
their important posts, and the colony passed under English rule. In
1763 the Treaty of Paris was signed, by the terms of which, and the
conditions laid down a few years later in the memorable Quebec Act
of 1774, the French were guaranteed by England their laws, language,
and religion. In 1791 the colony was divided into Upper and Lower
Canada; but in 1841, after a series of internal dissensions, including
the rebellion of 1837, and several political quarrels, the country was
again united. In 1867 the provinces of Old Canada, under the names .
of Ontario and Quebec, were erected, with New Brunswick and Nova
Scotia, into the Dominion of Canada."
Under the indulgent protection of England, Quebec has grown and
prospered, and developed a civilization unique in the modern world.
The province is in many respects a piece of Old France. In its religious homogeneity it is almost mediaeval; and along with this goes a
conservatism, as far as custom and tradition are concerned, which gives
the life of the habitant a marked individuality and local color. At the
same time the French Canadian has grown up under the responsibility
of self-government and British institutions, to which he very readily
adapted himself, and which have given him a certain political alertness.
Vividly conscious of his power in the confederation, he is not at all diffi- 60
PROVINCE  OF   QUEBEC.
dent in the exercise of it; but, underlying a good deal of self-assertive
glorification of the illustrious race from which he is sprung, there is a
sound loyalty not only to the flag under whose shelter he has so prospered, but also to the young federation in which he plays so important
a part.
To the romancer and the student of character, the province of
Quebec offers a field of almost unparalleled richness, which has as yet
been but little worked. To the lover of outdoor sports it offers almost
virgin woods and waters of unlimited possibilities. To the idle tourist,
who is so unfortunate as not to be preoccupied by any hobby, it offers
the attraction of novel scenes, unfamiliar customs, fresh experiences,
and an invigorating climate.
JACQUES CARTIER.
No flame of war was he, no flower of grace,
No star of wisdom ; but a plain, bold man,
More careful of the end than of the plan.
No mystery was he afraid to face ;
No savage strategy, no furious storm,
No stings of climate, no unthought disease,
His master purpose would not bend to these,
But saw, through all, achievement's towering form.
He first beheld the gloomy Saguenay,
And Stadacona's high, forbidding brow ;
His venturous vision, too, did first survey
Fair Hochelaga, but not fair as now.
St. Malo holds his dust, the world his fame,
But his strong, dauntless soul 'tis ours to claim.
Matthew Richey Knight.
Montreal.
Hotels, etc.—The leading hotels are the Windsor, on Dominion
Square; St. Lawrence Hall, on St. James St.; the Balmoral, on Notre
Dame St., West; and the Richelieu Hotel, on Jacques Cartier Square,
the favorite French hostelry.
Modes of Conveyance.—Horse-cars traverse the city in every direction, and afford easy access to principal points. Carriages wait at the
depots and steamboat-landings, and at various stands in the city.
Their charges are:
One-horse Vehicles.—One or two persons, 15 minutes, 25 cents; 30
minutes, 40 cents; the first hour, 75 cents, and 60 cents for every subsequent hour. Three or four persons, 40 cents for 15 minutes, 60
cents for 30 minutes; $1 for the first hour, and 75 cents for every
subsequent hour. MONTREAL.
61
Two-horse Vehicles.—One or two persons, 50 cents for 15 minutes:
65 cents for 30 minutes, and $1 per hour. For three or four persons,
65 cents for 15 minutes, 75 cents for 30 minutes, and $1.25 per hour.
Clubs.—Metropolitan, on Beaver Hall Hill; and St. James, on
Dorchester St.
The Windsor Station is that from which the C. P. R. R. express trains
leave for Toronto, Sherbrooke, St. John, Quebec, etc.; and from the
Dalhousie St. Station run most of the suburban trains of the same line,
together with the Ottawa express and the transcontinental train for
Winnipeg and Vancouver. The trains of the G. T. Ry. all leave from
the Bonaventure Depot; as do also the trains for Ottawa boat at Lachine. Steamers running down the St. Lawrence to Quebec and intermediate points, as well as for Toronto and the Lakes, leave from
wharves of the Richelieu and Ontario Navigation Co.
Trains leave Montreal at 7.45 a. m. and 5 p. m. to connect at Lachine
with boats about to run the rapids.
Population, with suburbs, 250,000.
Montreal is a microcosm of Canada.    Here is the Old Canada side
by side with the New ; here French Canada and English Canada come
into close and perpetual contact, and yet maintain their individuality.
She stands between French Quebec, 172 miles east, and English Toronto, 338 miles west.    With a quarter of a million inhabitants, an unrivaled site at the head of ocean navigation, yet in the heart of the
continent, with enormous wealth, and with all the resources of the
Northwest seeking an outlet through her port, Montreal is the commercial metropolis of Canada, and a city with the securest possible
future.   She has a past also, heroic, romantic, and brilliant beyond that
of most cities of this New World, and a present in which all Canada
takes just pride.    To Montreal the trade of the Northwest has been
tributary from its beginning.    First, it was the fur-trade, whose merchant-princes, building their homes on Beaver Hall Hill, gave Canada
its fit emblem, the wise and capable beaver.    Then came the lumber,
grain, and cattle trades, all pouring their wealth into the city's lap;
and now the great transcontinental railway, the Canadian Pacific, with
its headquarters at Montreal, reaches out for the trade of "the gor-
geous East," and realizes the dream of La Salle and those old explorers
who shattered their forces in the effort to find a route to Cathay.
The city takes her name from the mountain which stands guard
over her. The peculiar form of the name, " Mont Real," seems to point
to Portuguese influences somewhere in the dawn of her history. In
a succession of terraces the streets climb the mountain, all the summit
of which is reserved to the citizens as a matchless park.   Business has 62
MONTREAL.
gradually worked itself back, street by street, from the water-front, till
now the once aristocratic exclusion of St. Catherine St. is a main artery.
of trade.
MONTREAL IN HISTORY.
In spite of the strongly differentiated elements of which Montreal's
population is composed—English Protestant and French Roman Catholic—race and religious antagonisms are kept subdued by much mutual
good-will and forbearance. For some time after the conquest, Protestants were allowed the use of a Roman church after the morning mass.
Every Sunday afternoon, from 1766 to 1786, a Church of England congregation occupied the Church of the Recollets. The same privilege
was afterward extended to the Presbyterians, up to 1792, when that
denomination moved to a church of its own. At this time this exceedingly Protestant congregation, to show its good-will and sense of gratitude, made a parting gift to the Recollet priests, in the shape of candles
for the high altar and wine for the mass. A few years ago the picturesque and historic Bonsecours Church was about to be torn down to
make room for a railway station; but a few Protestants, holding in
honor the associations of the building and the memory of the devoted Sister who founded it, made a strong protest, and roused the
bishop to forbid the sale.
It was in the autumn of 1535 that Jacques Cartier, with a forty-
ton galleon and two open boats, ascended the St. Lawrence to seek
the city Hochelaga, of which the Indians had told him at Quebec. On
the 2d of October they reached the landing-place of Hochelaga, where
hundreds of Indians crowded about them in eager delight, and welcomed them with gifts of fish and maize. The Indian city lay some
way back from the water, at the foot of the mountain. Around it
rustled fruitful corn-fields, and around the corn-fields rose the black
masses of the ancient woods. The town was fenced with a triple row
of heavy palisades formed of the trunks of trees. In the center of
the town was an open square, wherein Cartier was received as a demigod, and besought to heal the sick with his touch. This he could not
do, but he could bestow gifts, which is a semi-divine function; &nd
after this ceremony he ascended the mountain, followed by a troop of
adoring natives. When the full magnificence of this unrivaled landscape unfolded itself before him, he very fittingly gave the Mount the
name of Royal. Not till seventy years after Cartier's visit did Euro •
pean eyes again behold the site of Montreal.    Then Champlain under- MONTREAL.
63
took the work that Cartier had begun. But he found no town of
Hochelaga. There had been war among the tribes, the maize-fields
had been laid waste, and the city wiped out by fire. The story of its
destruction was detailed to Champlain by two old Indians who guided
him up the mountain. The tale is a romantic one, and tells how
I Hurons and Senecas lived in peace and friendship together at Hochelaga for many generations. They intermarried and had no cause for
quarrel, till, for some reason, a Seneca chief refused his son permission
to marry a Seneca maiden. Enraged at the action of the stern parent,
the lady refused all offers of marriage, and declared she would only
wed the warrior who should slay the chief who had interfered with
her happiness. A young Wyandot, smitten by her charms, attacked
and killed the old chief and received the coveted reward. The Senecas,
however, adopted the cause of their chief, and a terrible fratricidal war
spread desolation throughout the Huron country, nor did it cease till the
Iroquois had completely broken up and almost exterminated the Hurons."
In 1611, having founded Quebec, Champlain selected the site for a
trading-post at Montreal. It was on a small stream which enters the
St. Lawrence where the Custom-House now stands. He called the spot
Place Royale. Though coming after Cartier, Champlain is rightly
called the father of Canada. Parkman says of him: " Of the pioneers
of the North American forests, his name stands foremost on the list.
It was he who struck the deepest and foremost stroke into the heart
of their pristine barbarism. At Chantilly, at Fontainebleau, at Paris,
in the cabinets of princes and of royalty itself, mingling with the
proud vanities of the court; then lost from sight in the depths of
Canada, the companion of savages, sharer of their toils, privations, and
battles, more hardy, patient, and bold than they; such, for successive
years, were the alternations of this man's life."
On the 14th of October, 1641, Montreal was founded by Maison-
neuve, for the Company of Montreal, who had obtained a cession of
the whole island. In the following spring the city was consecrated,
under the name of Ville-Marie. With the expedition of city builders,
numbering 57, went one Mile. Jeanne Mance, of unfading memory,
carrying with her, to assist in the founding of the city, a sum that
would be equivalent now to a round quarter of a million. This was the
donation of a wealthy widow in France, Madame de Bouillon. Not till
1643 did the Iroquois learn of this new settlement; but then, and for
half a century thereafter, the city found itself engaged in an almost in- i it
64
MONTREAL.
cessant struggle for its existence. On what is now known as the Place
d'Armes, Maisonneuve had a hand-to-hand contest with the savages. All
through this terrible half-century of trial the garrison of Ville-Marie
consisted of never more than 50 men. In 1663 the rights of the Company of Montreal were purchased by the Seminary of St. Sulpice, which
still holds certain seignorial rights over the island. In 1665 the Marquis de Tracy arrived on the scene with a portion of the famous
Carignan Regiment, and broke the power of the Mohawks. By 1672
the population of the city had increased to 1,520, and suburbs began
to appear outside the walls. But, though the Mohawks had been
crushed, war was still the heritage of this city, whose foundation had
been under the auspices of a religion of peace. In 1690 a little army
of 200 French and Indians made an expedition from Montreal on snow-
shoes southward through the wilderness, and laid waste with fire and
sword the Dutch settlement at Schenectady. The retort of the English
colonies was an expedition in force under Governor Winthrop and Major
Schuyler, which advanced on Montreal by way of Lake Champlain,
while a fleet under Sir William Phipps was sent against Quebec. But
in those days the star of New France was in the ascendant, and both
forces were triumphantly repulsed.
After the victory of Wolfe on the Plains of Abraham, Montreal
was the spot in which the power of France in America made its last
stand. About its walls the armies of England closed in swiftly and
surely. When they met, there was nothing for Montreal to do but
capitulate.
During the American War of Independence Colonel Ethan Allen,
with 200 of his "Green Mountain Boys," advanced to the attack of
Montreal, but was defeated and taken prisoner by Governor Carleton.
Later came Montgomery, and forced the city to capitulate. Montreal
was taken possession of in the name of the Continental Congress, and
Benjamin Franklin came north and endeavored to persuade the Canadians to join in the rebellion. In this attempt he failed signally; but
he left behind him a memorial of his presence by establishing a newspaper. This journal, the Gazette, which enjoys to this day a prosperous existence, is now marked by a sturdy loyalty which belies the
circumstances of its foundation. In the spring of 1777, after the defeat and death of Montgomery at Quebec, the American forces evacuated Montreal; and never since have her streets known the tread of
hostile feet. B
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65
A quaint episode in the early history of Montreal is connected with
the Carignan Regiment already mentioned. These veterans, when their
time had expired, were disbanded and settled in Canada. In embracing a farmer's life they found, themselves in need of many things not
formerly deemed essential. Above all, they needed wives —for what is
a farmer without the farmer's wife ? A lot of girls were thereupon
selected in France and shipped to Canada to supply this long-felt
want. Baron La Hontan has left us an amusing account of the consignment of prospective brides which were sent out in 1684: " After
the reduction of these troops many vessels loaded with girls were sent
out under the direction of some old beginners, who divided them into
three classes. These damsels were, so to speak, piled up, the one on
the other, in three different chambers, where the husbands chose their
wives, in the same manner as the butcher goes to choose his sheep in
the midst of the flock. There was material to content the fantastical
in the diversity of girls in these three seraglios—for there were to be
seen there tall and short, fair and brown, lean and fat; in short, every
one found a shoe to fit his foot. At the end of fifteen days not one
remained. I am told that the fattest were the soonest carried off, because it was imagined that, being less active, they would have more
trouble to leave their housekeeping, and would better resist the cold of
the winter; but many people who went on this principle were taken in
by it. . . . Those who desired to marry addressed themselves to the
directresses, to whom they were bound to declare their property and
faculties before choosing from these three classes her whom they found
to their taste. The marriage was concluded on the spot by the aid of
the priest and the notary, and the next day the Governor caused to be
distributed to the married a bull, a cow, a hog, a sow, a cock, a hen,
two barrels of salt meat, eleven crowns, and certain acres."
POINTS OF INTEREST.
The tourist visiting Montreal will probably go first to that famous
palace hotel, the Windsor, which is one of the finest hotels on the continent. The Windsor is, moreover, one of the centers of Montreal life,
and its rotunda is the great trysting-place for Montreal's inhabitants.
Before undertaking to " do " the city one should view it as a whole
from the top of the mountain, and so possess one's self of the " lay "
of the streets and chief points of interest, and equip one's self with
a proper realization of the magnificence of the city's island throne,
5 I-
66
MONTREAL.
Gaining the summit by beautifully winding drives, or more directly by
what seems an endless stairway, we stand on what was once an active
volcano. Far below, between the mountain and the river, lies spread
out the broad confusion of the city roofs and streets and towers, fringed
along the shining water-limits with the masts and funnels of its shipping. Beyond the water lie great breadths of flat country, bounded
on the far horizon by the twin mountains of St. Hilaire. In another direction we see a silent city clinging to the steep—the cemeteries of Cote-des-Neiges and Mount Royal. Away to the westward
over Nun's Island the surges of Lachine are glittering in the sun.
Straight across the river, almost in the center of the panorama, runs
the famous Victoria Bridge, regarded at the time of its construction as the eighth wonder of the world. Some distance to the
left St. Helen's Island divides the giant stream; and in the middle
distance, dominating the roofs of the city, rise the majestic twin
towers of Notre Dame. On the other side of the mountain, fenced
by the reaches of Back River, lie the opulent villages, farms, and
orchards which have earned for Montreal Island the title of the Garden of Canada.
Descending the mountain and re-entering the mazes of the streets,
we make our way first to the historic Place d'Amies. This was
the first burying-ground of the pioneers. Now it is a railed space of
trees, cool with the spray of its fountain and with the shade of the
stately buildings surrounding it. On the south side stands the parish
church of Notre Dame, one of the largest ecclesiastical structures on
the continent. It accommodates 10,000 people easily, and has been
known to contain 15,000 within its walls. Its towers are 227 ft. high.
It has a magnificent chime of 11 bells, of which one, called the Gros
Bourdon, is the largest in America, and weighs 29,400 pounds. From
the summit of the tower which contains the bells a splendid view is
obtained. The entire cost of the Church of Notre Dame was in the
neighborhood of $6,000,000.
Alongside of Notre Dame stands the ancient Seminary of St. Sul-
pice, built more than two centuries ago, its massive wall, pierced, with
loopholes, looking grimly down on the thronged and peaceful street.
The seminary shares with the Bank of Montreal, whose pillared abode
rises on the opposite side of the square, the distinction of being the
wealthiest institution in America. Li the immediate vicinity of the
Place d'Armes throng the splendid structures of the Post-Office, the MONTREAL.
67
Jacques-Cartier Bank, the Banque Nationale, and the buildings of the
New York Life and other insurance companies.
As far as situation goes, and perhaps in other respects as well, the
finest square in the city is Dominion Squared It is high and spacious,
and about it gather several fine churches ; the vast pile of the Windsor Hotel; and, overshadowing them all, the great Roman Catholic
Cathedral, which is known as St. Peter's in spite of the fact that St.
James is its patron saint. This noble structure is a facsimile of St.
Peter's at Rome, with its dimensions reduced about one half. The extreme measurements of this cathedral are: length 333 ft., breadth 222
ft., height 258 ft., circumference of dome 240 ft.
Of the other Roman Catholic churches of the city the most interesting to tourists are the beautiful Church of Notre Dame de Lourdes,
on the corner of St. Catherine and St. Denis Sts.; the Jesuits' Church
on Bleury St., with its unrivaled frescoes and exquisite music; the
Chapel of Notre Dame de Nazareth, with its fine paintings; and the
famous old Bonsecours Church, which was built in 1771.
Of the Anglican churches the finest, from an architectural point of
view, are St. George's, the Church of St. James the Apostle, and the stately
Christ Church Cathedral at the corner of University and St. Catherine Sts. This latter structure is, perhaps, with the exception of Christ
Church Cathedral at Fredericton, the most perfect specimen of pure
Gothic architecture on the continent. A noble and massive structure
is the new Methodist church on St. Catherine St. The Presbyterians
have a number of fine churches, of which the most noteworthy, architecturally, are St. Paul's, the Crescent Street, and the American Presbyterian. The old St. Gabriel's Church, which was erected in 1792 at
the west end of the Champ-de-Mars, is still standing, and now shelters
the School of Art. Montreal has three Jewish synagogues, one of
which, lately erected on Stanley St., is an impressive structure somewhat after the lines of an old Egyptian temple.
Besides the Place d'Armes and Dominion Square, already referred to,
Montreal has other parks and squares. She is well supplied with breathing-places. There is the historic Champ de Mars, on Craig St., still used
as a parade-ground. Near the City Hall is Jacques-Cartier Square,
adorned by two Russian guns from the spoils of Sebastopol, and by a column and statue erected in 1808 in memory of Nelson. At the junction of McGill and St. James Sts. is Victoria Square, formerly the hay-
market, presided over by a colossal bronze statue of the Queen.    On 68
MONTREAL.
St. Denis St., the aristocratic French residence quarter, are the Viger
Gardens. St. Helen's Island, moreover, is now used as a public park,
though belonging to the English Government.    It is the favorite resort
t
of the city picnickers, and forgets its martial experiences o'f old times.
Champlain's wife, in whose honor the island is named, was the first
European woman of gentle birth to cast in her lot with Canada. A
place of resort which the tourist should not fail to visit is the Bonsecours Market. The great market-days are Tuesday and Friday
when the broad space is thronged with habitants* and one comes into
close contact with the quaint material of which French Canada is really
made up.
Montreal is not only a city of churches, but of hospitals and benevolent institutions as well. The largest and wealthiest of these is the
Hotel-Dieu, under the management of the Black Nuns. This institution was founded in 1644. The famous Grey Nunnery, founded in
1738, is not a convent, but a hospital, under the management of the
Grey Nuns. According to Murray's Guide to Montreal, " The name
j; Grey Nuns' was first given them in derision. The malicious reports
circulated against the ladies, especially that of furnishing the Indians
with alcohol, and making too free a use of it themselves, gave rise to
the epithet ' Soeurs Grises,' the word grise bearing a double meaning in
French, viz., a gray color, or tipsy." The Sisters who were thus cruelly
assailed have made the once opprobrious epithet a title of the highest
honor. The best time for visitors to call at the Grey Nunnery is at
the noon hour, when callers are always made welcome. The Royal Victoria Hospital is the gift of two of Montreal's chief citizens, Sir George
Stephens and Sir Donald Smith. Just below Hochelaga, beyond the
eastern limits of the city, stood the vast structure of the Longue Pointe
Asylum, which was burned to the ground in the summer of 1890. This
institution was in charge of a Roman Catholic religious order. Sixty
of the inmates, including several of the nuns in charge, perished in the
conflagration.
Among the educational institutions are McGill University, the
Presbyterian College, the Montreal College or Seminary of St. Sulpice,
the Veterinary College, St. Mary's or the Jesuits' College, the Montreal
branch of Laval University, whose parent institution is at Quebec, the
Villa-Maria Convent School for Girls, and the Girls' School of the Nuns
* French Canadian country-folk. MONTREAL.
69
of the Sacred Heart. Of these the most important is of course McGill
University, which, under the presidency of the renowned Sir William
Dawson, has grown to a world-wide fame and influence. The pride of
the city, it receives munificent gifts from wealthy citizens, and is ever
reaching out to wider spheres of usefulness. Its buildings, which are
on Sherbrooke St., the " Fifth Avenue " of Montreal, stand in the midst
of fine grounds, and contain a good library and the famous Redpath
Museum. Affiliated with McGill are the Presbyterian, Congregational,
Wesleyan, and Anglican Colleges of Montreal, together with Moriin
College at Quebec and St. Frances College, Richmond. The tourist
will do well to visit the Art Gallery on Phillips Square, and the rooms
of the Natural History Society on University St. The museum of this
society is the best in Canada. Among its treasures are the " Ferrier
Collection" of Egyptian antiquities, the most perfect of its kind on the
continent. Here also may be seen the first breech-loading gun ever
made. We read in Murray's Guide that " it was sent out to this country by the French Government. It was used by the French in one of
their expeditions against the Indians of Lake Oka. The Indians attacked the canoe in which the cannon was placed and upset it. The
cannon lay for a while in the bottom of the lake, and one part of it was
lost there and never found." The museum also contains the best existing collection of Canadian birds.
One of the chief " lions" of Montreal is the famous Victoria
Bridge, already mentioned as the 1 eighth wonder of the world." The
engineering genius that spanned the Menai Strait — the genius of
Robert Stephenson and Alexander M. Ross—designed this mighty
structure by which the Grand Trunk Ry. crosses the St. Lawrence
from Montreal to the south shore. With a length of a few yards less
than 2 miles, this is the longest bridge in the world. It is a vast tube,
supported on 24 piers, exclusive of the terminal abutments. The tube
has inside diameters of 22 ft. vertical and 16 ft. horizontal. From the
bed of the river to the top of the center tube is a distance of 108 ft.
The current of the St. Lawrence at this point has a speed of about 7
miles an hour. The cost of the bridge was $6,300,000, and its construction occupied five years and a half. It was formally opened by
the Prince of Wales in 1860. Close by the bridge, at Point St. Charles,
is the burying-ground of 6,000 immigrants who died in 1847-48 of a
frightful epidemic of ship-fever. In the center of the burying-ground
is a huge bowlder known as the Immigrants' Memorial Stone, which i-r
70
MONTREAL.
was taken from the bed of the river and raised on a column of masonry
by the workmen engaged in the construction of the bridge.
In sharp contrast with the gigantic tube of the Victoria Bridge is
the aerial structure by which the Canadian Pacific Railway crosses the
St. Lawrence at Lachine. This bridge is built on the most modern
design, and is a brilliant application of the cantilever principle. Its
spans appear like clusters of great steel cobwebs. They offer little
resistance to the winds, and combine the greatest strength with the
least possible weight.
Prominent among the buildings of Montreal are the capacious
Bonaventure Depot, belonging to the Grand Trunk Ry., and the splendid new station of the Canadian Pacific on Windsor St. This latter
edifice may honestly be called palatial, resembling as it does a palace
far more than a railway station.
In connection with the water-supply of Montreal there is a point of
interest for the tourist. This is the great reservoir, which is hewn out
of the solid rock far up the side of the mountain. The reservoir has
a capacity of 36,500,000 gallons. It is supplied by an aqueduct
which leads the water of the St. Lawrence from above the Lachine
Rapids to a point on the western limit of the city, whence it is
pumped up the mountain to the reservoir.
The tomist who is interested in athletics and outdoor sports will
see some splendidly contested Lacrosse matches at the grounds of the
Shamrock and Montreal Clubs, and he will do well to visit the admirably equipped gymnasium of the Montreal Amateur Athletic Association. At the Lacrosse Grounds matches are usually being played on
Saturday afternoons, or other days as advertised, and admission is by
ticket. If he is at all touched with Anglomania he will be enraptured
with the Montreal Hunt Club, the best-conducted establishment of the
kind on the continent. In respect of sports, Montreal is as well off in
winter as in summer. Men and women alike are enthusiastic devotees
of the hardy pastime of tobogganing. Perhaps the best skaters and
snow-shoers in the world are the sons and daughters of Montreal. Her
Winter Carnivals, with their ice castles stormed by torchlight, their
gay skating tournaments and masquerades, their unrivaled snow-shoe
parades, have become world-famous. The climax of the Carnival is
the assault upon the ice-castle, which, illuminated within by.electric
light, flames with a white and ghostly radiance recalling the dream-
palaces of Kublai Khan.    Down the mountain wind the assailing lines
III  ■pi ■.;:"■. WMSMfiSiM'
>»
'a MONTREAL. 71
of torch-bearers, their strange costumes more strange in the lurid light;
and the spectral citadel is carried with tumult, amid a many-colored
storm of rockets, Roman candles, and all the most gorgeous of pyrotechnic devices.
The following eminently practical bit from Murray's Illustrated
Guide may be found useful by some travelers:
How to visit the Principal Places of Interest in the Shortest Time for
the Least Money.
In whatever quarter of the city you are lodging, the first place to
visit is the Notre Dame Church.
From the Windsor, if you do not wish to hire a cab, walk down
Windsor St. to the corner of St. Antoine St. From there take the
street-cars going E., and tell the conductor to let you off at the Post-
Office, and then a few paces from you is Notre Dame Church and several other places of interest. A few blocks E. from there is the New
City Hall, the Court-House, Nelson's Monument, St. Gabriel St. old
Presbyterian Church, and not far away is the Bonsecours Market and
Bonsecours Church. While there you may visit the harbor and the
New Custom-House, about a half-mile farther W. Then walk up McGill St. to Victoria Square, whence you may get the street-cars to take
you to the principal places of interest up town. First visit the Notre
Dame de Lourdes, near the corner of St. Catherine and St. Denis Sts.
Thence retrace your steps westward till you come to Bleury St., and
there is the old Jesuits' Church and College. Then turn up to St.
Catherine St., W., till you come to the Art Gallery, corner of Phillips
Square. Then visit the English Cathedral and the Museum- of the
Natural History Society. Then take the street-cars till you come W.
as far as Guy St., and visit the Grey Nunnery at noon. After dinner,
hire a cab to take you to the McGill College (there is a very interesting
museum in connection with the college, which visitors may enter on
payment of a small entrance fee), and close by are the two city reservoirs ; and if you don't wish to hire a cab to take you to the top of the
mountain, you can go up by the elevator for 5 c. Then, after you have
taken a good view of the surrounding country from the top of the
mountain, and visited the two cemeteries, you can come back to the
city by the omnibuses for 15c, and you have a day well spent, and not
over $1 of necessary expense, besides your hotel bill. 72
MONTREAL  TO  ST.   JOHN.
From Montreal to St. John.
From Montreal the tourist, who has already visited Quebec, may go
direct to the Maritime Provinces by the Canadian Pacific Short Line
(fare, $13.50; return, $19) which traverses the so-called Eastern Townships, the great hunting and fishing districts about Lake Megantic in
N. E. Maine, and thence, almost as the crow flies, to St. John, New
Brunswick. By this route we cross the St. Lawrence by the new Canadian Pacific R. R. bridge at Lachine, and run through the Indian village
of Cauahnawaaa, where dwell the remnants of the Iroquois. These
Indians are magnificent boatmen, and in the late Egyptian war a band
of ~fifty of them did splendid service for England in the rapids of the
Nile. At Brigham Junction the Montreal and Boston Air-Line diverges for the White Mountains. Soon we come in sight of Memphre-
magog's shining waters, watched over by the famous peaks of Ele-
phantis and Owl's Head. From Magog Station a steamer departs daily
on a circuit of the lake's winding shores, stopping at the many summer
resorts for which the region is famous. After passing Magog, the next
important station is Shei'brooke, the metropolis of the Eastern Townships, a pretty city at the junction of the Magog and St. Francis Rivers.
Sherbrooke has a population of between 9,000 and 10,000, and is
building up a large manufacturing interest. The falls of the Magog
are well worth a visit. The chief hotels are the Sherbrooke House,
Magog House, and Grand Central, charging from $1.50 to $2 per day.
From Sherbrooke the Quebec Central R. R. runs through a rapidly
developing country to Quebec. On the Quebec Central are the interesting and valuable asbestos mines of Thetford. Three miles beyond Sherbrooke is the pretty little university town of Lennoxville,
the seat of the Church of England institutions of Bishop's College
and Bishop's College School. These institutions have of late been
making very great progress under the principalship of Dr. Adams;
but the corporation has lately suffered a severe blow in the destruction
by fire of the fine university building. Beyond Lennoxville the next
point of interest is Spider Lake, sometimes called the Geneva of Canada, where the club-house of the Megantic Fish and Game Club is
located. Then we come to Lake Megantic, a body of water 12 miles
long, from 1 to 4 in width, and a veritable Mecca of sportsmen. The
name Megantic signifies " the resort of fish.-" There is fair accommodation at Megantic Station, and competent guides may be procured on the MONTREAL  TO   ST.   JOHN.
73
spot. A few miles beyond Megantic we cross the boundary-line, and
find ourselves in the State of Maine. Just 20 miles from Megantic
Station we run into the village of Loioelltoion, on the shore of the
grandest of all Maine waters, the famous Moosehead Lake. This water
is 40 miles long and from 1 to 15 wide. Its scenery is magnificent and
varied. Its waters are splendidly stocked with trout of great size, and
around its shores are admirable shooting-grounds, where one may bag
such game as moose, bear, deer, and caribou, to say nothing of grouse
innumerable. At Lowelltown are guides and canoes, and several comfortable hotels. From Greenville, another lake-side town, steamers
run to all the points of interest on the lake, including the well-known
Kineo House at the foot of Mount Kineo. Moosehead Lake is the
source of the Kennebec River, which flows out of the lake at Askivith
Station. In the 100 miles of comparative wilderness between Moosehead Lake and Mattawamkeag the chief points of interest are Boar-
stone Mountain and the lovely Lake Onawa. At Brownville Junction
we cross the line of the Katahdin Iron Works Railway. At Mattawamkeag the C. P. R. R. unites with the line connecting Bangor and St. John.
At the same point the track crosses the Penobscot River. From this
point to Vanceboro, on the New Brunswick boundary, we pass through
a rugged country, full of lakes and streams, and dotted here and there
with crude little lumbering villages. Vanceboro is on the St. Croix
River, the outlet of the boundary, or Chiputneticook Lakes. The region of these lakes is a good one for the sportsman, and Vanceboro is a
convenient point from wrhich to reach them. Six miles beyond Vanceboro is McAdam Junction, a village whose houses are perched in such
vacant spaces as can be found between the huge bowlders which cover
the face of the land. At McAdam connections are made for Woodstock
and Presque Isle to the N., and for Calais, St. Stephen, and the lovely
summer resort of St. Andrew's to the S. Forty miles beyond McAdam
is the little village of Fredericton Junction, 20 miles from Fredericton;
and a run of 44 miles beyond Fredericton Junction, through scenes to
be described in later pages, brings us to the city of St. John.
Montreal to Quebec by the St. Lawrence.
If the tourist has not seen Quebec, then assuredly he will not take
the short line to the Maritime Provinces. By one of three routes he will
certainly betake himself to a city that is perhaps, in many respects, the
best worth seeing on the continent N, of Mexico; and from Quebec 74
MONTREAL   TO   QUEBEC.
he will seek the Maritime Provinces probably by the Intercolonial
R. R., or, if very much addicted to the water, by steamer around
the Gulf coast. From Montreal, one may go to Quebec either by the
Grand Trunk down the S. shore of the St. Lawrence, or by.the Canadian
Pacific down the N, shore, or by steamer down the mighty stream itself.
As it is to be presumed that the traveler has plenty of time, and desires
plenty of scenery, we would recommend the last-named route. The
splendid palace steamers that ply between Montreal and Quebec belong
to the Richelieu and Ontario Navigation Company. The distance is
180 miles; and the first-class fare, not including supper or berth, is $3.
As the steamer leaves Montreal we pass the village of Longueuil.,
on the S. shore, where many of Montreal's citizens have their summer
abodes. At Longueuil, in 1775, Governor Carleton was defeated by
the American forces. On the N. shore, a little beyond, is Longue
Pointe, with the ruins of the great asylum already mentioned. Nine
miles from Montreal we pass Point-aux-Trembles, with its old French
church, which was built in 1704. A little farther on, and we are
among the flat and reedy Isles of Boucherville, where admirable are
the pike-fishing and duck-shooting in their seasons. Among these
shoals and islands and reaches of slow water, the ice, in the spring
breaking-up, is apt to run aground and jam, causing floods which
Montreal finds very troublesome. Fifteen miles from Montreal is the
charmingly situated health-resort of Varennes, made important by. its
mineral springs. The fields of Varennes are washed in front by the
St. Lawrence, and in the rear by the arrowy tide of the lovely and historic Richelieu. Thirty miles beyond Varennes the Richelieu flows into
the St. Lawrence. At this point stands Sorel, which has lately been promoted to the dignity of a city. Here in 1665 a fort was established by
De Tracv. Sorel was for a long time the summer residence of the Gov-
ernors of Canada. There is good fishing among the islands which cluster at the Richelieu's mouth, and in October the neighborhood affords
capital snipe-shooting.    The population of Sorel in 1881 was 5791.
In the towns and counties along the Richelieu are perpetuated the
names of the officers of the old Carignan-Salieres Regiment, who were
stationed on seignories throughout this region to guard the approaches
to Villemarie. As Mr. Hunter picturesquely puts it, they are " picketed
around the ancient rendezvous at the confluence of the Richelieu and
St. Lawrence, ... as though still guarding the Iroquois River-Gate."
Here, besides Varennes, we have Berthier, Lavaltrie, Boucher, Contre- MONTREAL  TO   QUEBEC.
75
cceur, and Vercheres. One of the most illustrious of Canada's heroines
is Madeleine, daughter of Lieutenant Vercheres. Vercheres's fort was
called " Castle Dangerous," being so exposed to the assaults of the Iroquois. On one occasion Madeleine, with a force of three men and two
little boys, sustained the attacks of the Iroquois for a whole week, till
help came from Quebec. The girl was at this time but fourteen years
of age. Her followers, on the first attack, were for killing themselves,
to escape the torture of the Iroquois, but her dauntless courage and
energy gave them new heart, and her wisdom taught them to conduct
the defense successfully.
The valley of the Richelieu was for two centuries a pathway of war,
along which fire and sword, Iroquois and Abenakis, French and Dutch
and English, Canadian and American, streamed alternately on errands of
vengeful hate. The tourist who wishes to travel this blood-stained track
will ascend through landscapes of blended sublimity and peace, and find
himself at length on the bosom of that magnificent lake, no longer
Canadian, which yet perpetuates the name of the Father of Canada,
Samuel de Champlain. Like the war parties of old, he will find himself in the very heart of the State of New York. Unlike those ancient
visitors, however, his visit will be not unwelcome. He will have found
his ascent of the rushing Richelieu made easy by the Chambly Canal.
He will have traversed the rich and lovely Eastern Townships and
caught their distinctive flavor. He will probably delay his trip, and
linger long and wander hither and thither in this delightful land of
lake and mountain. Besides Lakes Memphremagog and Megantic he
will visit the lovely waters of Brome and Massawippi. Through the wild,
maple-wooded hills he will trace the path by which, in 1759, the avenging band of Rogers's Rangers swept to the slaughter of the Abenakis
—after which the homes of New England had peace for a little.
But the strife of man will presently be forgotten as we mark how
the struggles of warring Nature, in forgotten ages, have scored the face
of all this region with their gigantic and indelible records. The effects
of these ancient cataclysms, together with the sphere of their operation, have been thus well described by Mr. J. Howard Hunter, in Picturesque Canada:
'Throughout this land the strata have been much shaken and
changed by some Titanic force—seemingly steam heated beyond the
scale of any pyrometer, and tortured under pressure which would be
inadequately gauged by thousands of tons to the square inch.   Sir Will- 76
MONTREAL  TO   QUEBEC.
iam Logan traced a line of dislocation from Missisquoi Bay on Lake
Champlain to Point Levis, along which the wrenching asunder of strata
is equivalent to a vertical displacement of many thousands of feet.
Westward of this line of rupture—which we shall call Logan's line—
the sedimentary rocks that were directly exposed to incandescent steam,
softened, rearranged their elements, and ran to a glassy or stony paste.
Under the enormous pressure below, the surface-strata presently cracked
and sometimes opened wide. Instantly into the cracks and fissures
rushed the pasty rock, forming dikes of trachyte or diorite. In places
the very granite foundations of the world seem to have softened and
followed the sedimentary rocks to the surface. Where the ground
yielded most, stately pyramids of mountain-protoplasm were born. It
is to such throes of Mother Earth that we owe the beautiful sisterhood
of Behx.il Mountain and Yamaska. Rougemont and Mount Mannoir, the
Boucherville Mountains and Mount Royal itself. Eastward of Logan's
line more intense still must have been the energy that girdled Lake
Memphremagog with such soaring peaks as Mount Orford, Oiol's Head,
and Elephantis. Within historic times some severe earthquakes have
shaken this area, but even the most violent were gentle pastime compared with the elemental wars of geological antiquity. To be sure,
every one was frightened by these earthquakes, but then no one was
killed. From the records of the old Jesuit mission on the St. Francis
we learn that on the 5th of September, 1732, the Indian village was so
rudely shaken as to destroy its identity; of this bouleversement traces
are still discernible on both sides of the river. More general, and far
more violent, was the famous earthquake of 1663. On the 5th of February began a series of convulsions which did not quite disappear till
midsummer. Land-slides occurred all along the river-banks, and the
blue St. Lawrence ran white as far down as Tadousac. Every one explained the phenomenon in his own way. At Montreal, not a few consciences were smitten for having sold fire-water to the Indians. The
Indians, however, declared that the shades of their forefathers were
struggling to return to the earthly hunting-grounds, and, most unduti-
fully, they kept firing off their muskets to scare their unquiet sires;
f for,' quoth the musketeers, ■ it's plain to see there's not game enough
on earth for both of us!'"
The earliest recorded name of the Richelieu River, as found in
Champlain's narratives, is Riviere des Yrocois ; so called because it led
to the land of the Mohawks. The chief town on the Richelieu is the
pretty little garrison city of St. John, with a population of about 5.000.
Chief hotel the Canada Hotel.
A few miles below the mouth of the Richelieu the St. Lawrence
opens out into the great expanse called Lake St. Peter. Cartier named
this water, when first he ascended the St. Lawrence, Lac d'Angpuleme;
but sixty-eight years later it was visited by Champlain on St. Peter's
Day, and named in pious commemoration of the festival.    The lake is 8
to
1)  MONTREAL  TO   QUEBEC.
77
25 miles in length by 9 miles in breadth, and is shallow except in the
channel, which has been dredged to afford safe passage to the largest
ocean steamers. The shallow waters are subject to sudden and violent
storms, by which the great rafts on their leisurely way to Quebec are
frequently wrecked. The wide waters of Lake St. Peter were once
famous for the songs of the raftsmen delayed on the sluggish current.
At the foot of Lake St. Peter is a sharp bend called Pointe Platon,
with a little island over against it whereon of old stood a fort. It was
called Fort Richelieu, and was established by Champlain in 1633. All
vestiges of the fort have vanished, but its memory lingers in the name
of the swift and broken water below Pointe Platon, which is known
as the Richelieu Rapid.
A little below Lake St. Peter flows in from the north the great St.
Maurice River, which will be referred to later on. At its mouth stands
the city of Three Rivers, ranking third in importance and population
among the cities of the province. This city stands midway between
Montreal and Quebec, at the head of tide-water on the St. Lawrence.
It has a population of about 10,000, and is the center of a heavy trade
in lumber and iron. Around the city lie vast deposits of bog-iron ore,
and the great lumbering interests of the upper St. Maurice find an outlet
through its port. Three Rivers is the see of a Roman Catholic bishop,
whose cathedral is an imposing structure. The city derives its name
from the fact that the river on which it stands enters the St. Lawrence
by three mouths. It was founded in 1618, and played an important
part in the early history of Canada. The smelting of iron was begun
at Three Rivers as early as 1737. The city is rendered the more interesting by the masses of legend and romantic tradition that cluster
about it, offering a field which has hardly been touched save by the pen
of the French-Canadian author, Benjamin Suite. It will well repay an
extended visit. Steamers ply from the city wharves to the adjacent
river villages. Within easy reach are many large mountain brooks,
swarming with trout; and from the city one may conveniently visit the
splendid fishing waters of the upper St. Maurice. A stage-ride of 26
miles from Three Rivers takes one to the famous mineral springs of
St. Leon. On the south shore of the St. Lawrence, opposite Three
Rivers, is the village of Doucet's Landing, the terminus of the Artha-
baska and Three Rivers branch of the G. T. Ry., which connects the city
with the Eastern Townships.
A short distance below Three Rivers we pass the village of Baiiscan, 78
MONTREAL   TO   QUEBEC.
at the mouth of the Batiscan River. River and village are named after
an Indian chief famous in the early history of Canada. The next
village commemorates the apparently omnipresent Ste. Anne—in this
case called Ste. Anne de la Perade. Beyond St. Anne's lies the ancient
settlement of Pointe-aux- Trembles, where, during the final siege of
Quebec in 1759, took place several encounters between French and
English. The following incident is taken from the entertaining pages
of Mr. J. M. Le Moine:
" A party of 1,200 of Fraser's Highlanders and Grenadiers," says
Panet, " were dispatched to Pointe-aux-Trembles, commanded by General Wolfe in person, under the guidance of Major Robert Stobo, on
July 21, 1759, and captured three men and a bevy of Quebec French
ladies, who had sought a refuge there during the bombardment. The
English were fired on by about 40 Indians, but succeeded, about half-
past three in the morning, having surrounded the houses round the
church, in capturing about thirteen ladies. Among the fair captives
were Mesdames Duchesnay, De Charny, with her mother and her sister,
and Mdlle. Couillard. The Joly, Malhiot, and Magnan families formed
part of them. They were treated with every kind of respect. Young
General Wolfe headed the detachment under the guidance of Major
Robert Stobo, who, it seems, made several pretty speeches to the ladies
—' qui a fait Men des compliments.'
| What was worse," remarks Panet, " was that while the British
soldiery did them no harm, the Indians (allies of the French) pillaged
the houses and property of nearly all these unfortunate refugees.
(Panet's Journal du Siege, p. 13.) Each captive for the day bore the
name of her captor.
I It sounds odd that it should have seemed necessary to detail 1,200
Highlanders and British Grenadiers, etc., to capture thirteen French
ladies ! One likes to recall this romantic incident in the career of Miss
Lowther's admirer, James Wolfe—the chivalrous gallantry of the
young soldier toward beauty in distress. Next day the fair Quebecers
were brought home in boats and landed at Ance des Meres, at 3 p. m.,
orders having been sent by the General to the English fleet to stop firing on the city until 9 p. m., so as to afford the captives time, after
their release, to retire to a place of safety. Who were on that July 21,
1759, Madame Wolfe, Madame Stobo, Madame Frazer ? What a lark
for the sons of Mars to write about in their next home letters! At
Pointe-aux-Trembles occurred, during the spring of 1760, the engagement between the French frigates and an overwhelming force^of the
British fleet, brave Captain de Vauclain, of the Atalante, winning, by
his spirited though unsuccessful defense, the respect of worthy foes."
Next we pass Jacques-Cartier River, famous for its salmon-fishing
and well stocked with trout. Here the shores of the St! Lawrence
begin to grow more bold and picturesque.    Lower down we pass, in MONTREAL  TO  QUEBEC. 79
the clear morning light, the old village of St. Augustin, whose first
church, built in 1690, enjoyed, according to tradition, a very peculiar
distinction. It is told that the devil, in the guise of a gigantic black
horse of monstrous strength, hauled the huge stones of the foundation walls. About 12 miles from Quebec is the mouth of the Chau-
dilre River, flowing in from the south. This river runs a wild course
of about 100 miles, and as it nears the St. Lawrence plunges down a
magnificent fall of nearly 100 ft. The cataract is famous for its
picturesque grandeur. It was by way of the valley of the Chaudiere
that Benedict Arnold led his troops on that heroic but disastrous expedition of his from New England to Quebec. The storied heights
which loom on either hand as we approach Quebec will be described
in subsequent paragraphs. Steaming between the cliffs of Point Levis
and the guns of that aerial citadel which guards the gate of Canada, we
round up to the wharves of Quebec.
To Quebec by the South Shore.
In going from Montreal to Quebec by the Grand Trunk, the traveler is carried far south of the St. Lawrence, and through the romantic
and richly storied landscapes already described in connection with the
Richelieu River. It is a lovely journey, and should be taken on the
day express. The crossing of the Victoria Bridge is like the passage
of a long tunnel, and occupies between four and five minutes. From
Montreal to Richmond, where the Quebec Branch diverges from the
main line running through to Portland, Me., the way is thick with
thriving towns, and fruitful in historic memories. The busy little
French city of St. Hyacinthe, on the Yamaska River, has some points
of interest for the tourist, and a population of about 6,000. It has a
college, two cathedrals, and a large manufacturing interest in leather,
woolens, and machinery. St. Hilaire, about 12 miles west of St.
Hyacinthe, has excellent black-bass and pike fishing in June, July,
and August. At Richmond, important as a junction town, and for the
copper-mines in its vicinity, there is a village population of between
1,000 and 2,000. A few miles beyond Richmond is the growing village
of Danville, with several factories. Arthabaska village is of importance chiefly as the starting-point of - the branch line to Doucet's Landing, already referred to. Near Arthabaska we cross the river Nicolet,
named for Champlain's brave interpreter, Jean Niclot the peacemaker 1
80
MONTREAL  TO   QUEBEC.
who dwelt for nine years among the wizard Nipissings. A little beyond
Arthabaska lies the village of Stanfold. At Lyster, where we cross the
Becancour River, there is a considerable lumbering business. Twenty
miles from Levis is a station with the musical name of St. Agapit de
Beaurivage. At Chaudibre we cross the wild river of the same name,
already referred to. Nine miles farther on we stop at the station of
Point Levis, whence a ferry carries us over to Quebec.
To Quebec by the North Shore.
The trains of the C. P. R. R. run between Quebec and Montreal
along the north shore of the St. Lawrence, in a little over six hours.
This is a rapid and luxurious trip, for the line is unrivaled in management and equipment; but in the way of landscape it offers little
variety. Leaving Dalhousie Square Station we pass the stations of
Hochelaga, Mile End, and Sault aux Recollets, and reach St. Martin's
Junction, whence the main line of the C. P. R. R. swerves off for its
long journey across the continent. Passing the junction, we cross the
north branch of the Ottawa River at Terrebonne, whose limestone
quarries have built Montreal. From Joliette Junction there are branch
lines to a number of small towns—such as Joliette, St. Felix de Valois,
and St. Gabriel de Brandon. From Lanoraie and Berthier Junctions
run short branch lines to villages of the same names on the river-shore.
Berthier has a population of 2,500. In the neighborhood of Louisville
are the St. Leon Springs, already referred to. All these stations are in
a level, highly cultivated plain, cut up into the long, narrow fields that
characterize the older parts of Quebec. This curious arrangement
arises from the French custom of dividing estates equally among the
owner's heirs, and giving each portion of the subdivided farms a like
river-frontage. Leaving Louisville the train runs through Yamachiche
and Point du Lac, and reaches the city of Three Rivers.
The St. Maurice River, third in rank of the tributaries of the St.
Lawrence, rises in a maze of lakes and streams 220 miles to the north.
In the same wild region rise the Ottawa and the Saguenay. It^is a
region visited «unly by a few Indians and trappers, Hudson Bay traders,
and the lumbermen whose axes ring on the banks of every stream.
Civilization has as yet but touched the skirts of this wilderness. From
the banks of the St. Lawrence it has climbed the river about 100
miles, and ends at the roaring falls of the Tuque.   Between this point MONTREAL  TO   QUEBEC.
81
and the " Piles," 60 miles farther down, the St. Maurice runs quietly,
and is traversed by a small steamer. The lower St. Maurice is a succession of falls and rapids, which are avoided by a railway running
from the "Piles" to Piles' Junction on the C. P. R. R. Below the
"Piles "the land lies in terraces or "benches." Twenty-four miles
above Three Rivers are the famous Shawenegan Falls, remarkable for
their beauty and grandeur even in this country of cataracts. The Indian name, Shawenegan, signifies " needlework," and was doubtless
suggested by the beautiful play of colors on the foaming surface. Just
above the falls the river is split by a rocky island. The right branch
descends with a direct plunge. The left, roaring around the obstacle,
meets the other almost at right angles. Here the reunited torrent finds
its way blocked by a rugged point. Hurled back upon itself, the river
falls away to one side, and sweeps down a rocky trough into the swirling bosom of a spacious basin. Into this same basin winds peacefully,
between quiet glades of elms and river meadows, the Shawenegan
River. If one ascends this stream a little way, which may be done very
delightfully in a canoe, he will be rewarded by a sight of one of the
loveliest and most romantic of cascades, the Little Shatvenegan Falls.
Guides to the fishing and shooting of the St. Maurice may be obtained
at Three Rivers and other places. For information as to leased waters,
for permits, etc., one should write in advance to Joseph Reynar, Esq.,
Government Superintendent of the St. Maurice District.
Two miles beyond Three Rivers our train passes Piles Junction,
already referred to. Then come Champlain, Batiscan, Lachevroiihre,
and other villages whose names savor of old France. Portneuf is a
busy little town, devoted to the manufacture of shoes and wood-pulp.
Seven miles from Quebec is Lorette, a settlement of Christianized Huron
Indians, founded about two centuries and a half ago. Beyond Lorette
we pass the junction of the Lake St. John R. R., the gateway to that
sportsman's paradise which lies about the head-waters of the Saguenay. Four miles farther, and our train stops under the citadel of
Quebec.
City of Quebec.
Hotels, etc.—The Florence ($2.50 to $4 per day), in St. John
St.; the St. Louis Hotel ($2.50 to $5 per day), in St. Louis St., near
Dufferin Terrace ; the Russell House, cor. Ann and Garden Sts.; Henchey's
Hotel, in St. Ann St.; Mountain Hill House ($1.50 per day), on Mountain St.; and Blanchard's, in the Lower Town.
6 82
QUEBEC.
Modes of Conveyance.—Horse-cars (fare 5c.) traverse the streets
along the river in the Lower Town and extend to the suburbs. A
second line runs along St. John St. in the Upper Town. Carriages or
caleches may be hired at the livery-stables, and on the cab-stands near
the hotels and markets. The caUche, a two-wheeled one-horse apparatus, is the usual vehicle, and costs about 75c. an hour. Ferries connect the city with South Quebec, New Liverpool, and Point Levi, on
the opposite side of the St. Lawrence, and run three times a day to the
Isle of Orleans. An elevator runs from Champlain St. to Dufferin
Terrace in the summer only.
Clubs.—Garrison, Union, Castanet, Club de Marchands, Club Montmorency, Le Carillon, Quebec Assemblies, Quebec High-School Museum
Restaurants.—Chien d'Or, Mercantile, Quebec Club, Royal Mail,
St. Peter.
Theatre.—Academy of Music.
Population of Quebec, 85,000.
QUEBEC, 1757.
(From the French of Philippe de Gaspe, author of The Canadians
of Old. Translated by Charles G. D. Roberts, and published by D.
Appleton & Co.)
An eagle city on her heights austere,
Taker of tribute from the chainless flood,
She watches wave above her in the clear
The whiteness of her banner purged with blood.
Near her grim citadel the blinding sheen
Of her cathedral spire triumphant soars,
Rocked by the Angelus, whose peal serene
Beats over BeauprS and the Levis shores.
Tossed in his light craft on the dancing wave,
A stranger where he once victorious trod,
The passing Iroquois, fierce-eyed and grave,
Frowns on the flag of France, the cross of God.
Among the cities of the New World the grandest for situation, the
most romantic in associations, the most distinctive and picturesque in
details, is the sentinel city that keeps the gates of the St. Lawrence.
Nothing could be more impressive than the view of Quebec from a
little distance down the river, unless it be the matchless panorama to
be seen from the parapets of Dufferin Terrace, within the city. Looking
up toward Quebec, or looking clown from Quebec, it is hard to say
which is the more impressive view. When one is ascending the St.
Lawrence he sees on his right the milk-white cataract of Montmorency,
descending as it were out of heaven over the dark face of the mount- 13
B
^
M  QUEBEC.
ains that skirt the north shore of the St. Lawrence.    On the left the
white villages of Isle d' Orleans, with their far-glittering gilded spires,
nestle in the deep green of luxuriant groves.    In front rises the enchanting city, tier upon tier of steep-roofed houses and quaint, precipitous streets, breadths of gray cliff-front, and again the roofs and towers,
and far up, on the summit of the height, the grim eyrie of the ancient
citadel.   Across the face of the peopled steep run irregularly the massive lines of the city walls, and on a natural terrace midway between the
water-front and the citadel frown the guns of the Grand Battery.   The
flourishing suburb of St. Roch sweeps off to the right from the lower
slopes of the cape, and dwindles into the villages of Charlesbourg and
Lorette.   A little lower down the quiet current of the St. Charles winds
in silver curves through the meadows of Beauport.   On the high shores
beyond the city are the dark fir-groves of Sillery, " with its memories of
missions and massacres."   The water-front of the city is thronged with
ships whose masts and funnels obscure the warehouses.    Ships are
anchored thickly in mid-channel, and between them dodge the puffing
tugs and the high two-decker ferries making their hasty way to the lofty
and huddling town of Point Levis, whose heights resound all day to
the shrieks of locomotives.    The picture is one whose sublime lines
and masses are brought out to the full by the fresh coloring that plays
over it.    Under the vivid and flawless blue come out sharply the pale
gray of the citadel, the duller gray of the cliff-face streaked with rust-
color and splashed with light green, the black guns bristling on the ramparts and batteries, the brown streets, roofs of shining tin, and gilded
steeples, with here and there a billow of thick foliage, the blue-green
flood of the St. Lawrence, the white and emerald of the tributary
farms and villages, and the somber purple setting of the remote surrounding hills.    A famous American bishop declares, I Only Heidelberg in Germany, Stirling and Edinburgh in Scotland; and Ehrenbreit-
stein on the Rhine, can contend with Quebec for grandeur of situation
and the noblest beauty."   The vast promontory which the city occupies
is called Cape Diamond, from the innumerable quartz crystals which
once glittered over its surface.
THE HISTORY OF QUEBEC.
The site of Quebec, when visited in 1535 by Jacques Cartier, was
occupied by the Indian town of Stadacona, which signifies " The narrowing of the river."   Cartier was received by the Indians with generous 84
QUEBEC.
hospitality, and by their aid continued his explorations up the river to
Hochelaga. Before starting on his return voyage to France he repaid
their kindness by kidnapping their head chief Donnacona, with several
others of the tribe, to take home as trophies and proofs of his adventure. In 1541 Cartier came again with five ships, but found no friendly
welcome. His treachery was not to be forgotten in five years. He
attempted to fdund a settlement at Cap Rouge, but the hostility of
the Indians lay heavy upon him and the effort was abandoned. A little
later the attempt was repeated by the Sieur de Robcrval, nicknamed
by Francis I " The little King of Vimieu." This was in 1549. The
enterprise of De Roberval, which came to a disastrous end after a winter of terrible sufferings and strange disease, has been made the subject of a picturesque and brilliant historical drama by the Canadian
poet John Hunter Duvar. With the remnants of his little colony De
Roberval set sail for France, and nothing more was heard of him thereafter. It is supposed that the ships went down in a storm off the
coast of Newfoundland.
The real founding of Quebec was in 1608, when Champlain established a post at the foot of the steep. Stadacona had passed away.
Soon a tiny village stood upon its site. Champlain was a practical
colonizer, and he succeeded where Cartier and Roberval had failed.
In the winter came the scourge of that strange and dreadful disease, the
scurvy, and of his little band of 28 but 8 survived to greet the spring.
In the following year Champlain made an alliance with the tribes of
the Algonquins and Hurons, and committed New France to a hundred
years of war with the Five Nations. For some years Quebec was but
a military and fur-trading post, but Champlain's purpose was to found
an empire, and the foundation of that, he well knew, must be laid in
farming. lie brought out one Louis Hebert, with his son-in-law Couil-
lard, to till the soil of New France. The families of these men struck
deep root into the virgin soil, and now their descendants are to be
found all over the province. Two of the quaintest and most mediaeval-
looking of the streets of Quebec are Hebert and Couillard Sts., which
are said to run where ran the first furrows plowed in Canada. They
are straighter than those old streets in Boston which follow the devious paths worn by the cows of the Pilgrim Fathers. Had the farmers
come to Quebec in as great numbers as did the Recollets and Jesuits, and with half the zeal and energy of these latter, New France
would have grown as rapidly as New England.    As it was, however, QUEBEC.
85
its growth was comparatively slow, and the policy of the great fur-
trading company which controlled it for a long while checked its development. In 1629 the infant stronghold was captured by Sir David
Kirke; but it was restored to France by the Treaty of St. Germain-en-
Laye, and Champlain again became its Governor. In 1635 the "Father
of Canada " died, and, strange to say, we know not his exact resting-
place, for the records of Quebec were burned in the great fire of 1640-
It is enough to know that he lies somewhere within the city, and
Quebec is his all-sufficient monument. Quebec may be said to have
been born under the auspices of two strangely incongruous powers
—religion and the fur-trade—and the former, fortunately, got the
best of it in the long run. It moved rich and devoted women to
found such institutions in the new colony as the Hotel Dieu and the
Ursuline Convent. The former was established by the Duchess d'Ai-
guillon, with the help of the Hospital Nuns of Dieppe; the latter by a
rich and beautiful young widow, Madame de la Peltrie, who devoted
her fortune and her life to the welfare of New France. To this day
Quebec is full of churches, ecclesiastical establishments, and institutions of charity. In 1663 the whole population of New France was not
above 2,000, scattered thinly along the river from the Saguenay to
Montreal. Of these Quebec contained 800. Then came better days;
and Louis XIV, destroying the monopoly of the fur company, took the
colony under his own control. Immigration was energetically promoted, and under the management of the wise Intendant, Talon, Quebec
rose into a commercial importance which it took his incompetent and
unscrupulous successors a long while to destroy. After Talon's time
New France was ruled by several excellent governors, chief of whom
was the great Frontenac; but the business management of the colony
was in the hands of the intendants and abominably conducted. In
October, 1690, came Sir William Phips with an English fleet, and,
anchoring off Isle d'Orleans, demanded the capitulation of the city.
Very short was the answer of the fiery old Governor, Frontenac, and
emphatic was his repulse of the hostile squadron; but New France was
ever a thorn in the side of the English-speaking colonies along the
Atlantic seaboard, and the citadel on Cape Diamond was a wasp's nest,
by whose stings they were goaded all too frequently. Not unnatural
was their demand for its destruction, and in 1711 the task was again
undertaken, this time by Admiral Sir Hoveden Walker. His fleet,
however, was shattered by a storm in the Gulf of St. Lawrence; and for 86
QUEBEC.
these two deliverances the parish church in the Lower Town was dedicated to Notre Dame des Victoires. During the Seven Years' War between France and England, Quebec was finally captured, and the
leopards of England supplanted the lilies of France. This took place
in 1759. The splendid victory of General Wolfe against heavy odds
has been brilliantly narrated by Parkman. On the 26th of June came
a fleet under Admiral Saunders, with transports carrying Wolfe and
the English army. The fleet anchored off Isle d' Orleans, which at that
time retained the name given it by Cartier, Isle de Bacchus. The
French army, of about 13,000 men, under command of the illustrious Montcalm, was occupying the Beaupo