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Chinook texts Boas, Franz 1894

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Array           SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTE 
BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY:  J. W. POWELL, DIRECTOR
 
CHINOOK  TEXTS 
BY 
FRANZ BOAS 
WASHINGTON 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
1894  |r-
ADVERTISEMENT,
The work of the Bureau of Amerloan Ethnology is conducted under aot of Congress '' for oontinuing ethnologio researches among the Amerloan Indians under the
direction of the Smithsonian Institution."
Two series of puhlioations are issued by the Bureau under authority of Congress..
viz, annual reports and bulletins.   The annual reports are authorized hy oonourrent
resolution from time to time and are published for the uso of Congress and the
Bureau; the publication of the series of bulletins was authorized by oonourrent
resolution first in 1886 and more definitely in 1888, and these also are issued for the
. use of Congress and the Bureau.   In addition, the Bureau supervisos the publioation
|of a series of quarto volumes bearing the title, "Contributions to North Amerloan
(Ethnology," begun in 1877 by the United States Qeographioal Survey of the Rooky
I Mountain Region.
These publications are distributed primarily by Congress, and the portions of the
edit ions printed for the Bureau aro used for exchange with libraries and soientlflo
and eduoational institutions and with speoial investigators in anthropology who
send their own publications regularly to the Bureau.
The exohange list of the Bureau is large, and the produot of the oxohange forms
a valuable ethnologio library Independent of the general library of the Smithsonian
.Institution.   This library is in oonstant uso by the Bureau collaborators, as well as
by other anthropologists resident in or visiting Washington.
The earlier volumes of the annual reports and the first seven volumes of the " Contributions to North Amerloan Ethnology " aro out of print
Exchanges and other contributions to the Bureau should bo addressed,
The Director,
l!iiredu of Amrrictin Ethnology,
Washington, l>. C,
U. S. A.
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BUREAU  OF  ETHNOLOGY
PORTRAITS Ol BOAS—CHINOOK TEXTS     PL.
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FILES CULTEE. il SMITHSONIAN   INSTITUTION
BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY: J. W. POWELL, DIRECTOR
CHINOOK  TEXTS
BY
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FEANZBOAS
WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT   PRINTING   OFFICE
1894 nM»UMm»na
- CONTENTS
Page.
Introduction   5
. Historical account  5
Alphabet      7
Myths ,  9
1. Cikia  9
2. Okula'm  22
3. AnektcXo'hemiX  37
4. The Salmon  60
5. Raven and Gull  88
6. Coyote  92
7. The Crane  107
8. EntsjX  113
9. The Crow  123
10. Ca'xaL  127
11. Stikua  133
12. The Skunk  14f
13. Rol>in  149
14. Blue-Jay and Io'-i  153
15. Blue-Jay and Io'-i  161
16. Blue-Jay and Io'-i  172
17. Ckulkuio'L  183
18. The Panther  191
Beliefs, Customs, and Tales  196
The Soul and the Shamans  196
How Ctiltee's Grandfather acquired a Guardian Spirit  211
The Four Cousins  216
The GiL5'nnai,X  223
The Elk Hunter  234
Pregnancy and Birth  238
Puberty  244
Marriage  248
Death  253
Whaling  259
Elk Hunting  264
ThePotlatch  266
War  270
; Historical Tales  271
War between the Quileute and Clatsop  271
The First Ship seen by the Clatsop  275
I
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ILLUSTRATION
Platb I. Portraits of Charles Cultee	
. Frontispiece.
3 mt Ik*
CHINOOK   TEXTS
Told by
Charles Oultee
Eecorded and translated by
Franz Boas
IKTEODTJOTION.
HISTORICAL  ACCOUNT.
The following texts were collected in the summers of 1890 and 1891.
While studying the Salishan languages of Washington and Oregon I
learned that the dialects of the lower Chinook were on the verge of
disappearing, and that only a few individuals survived Who remembered
the languages of the once powerful tribes of £he Clatsop and Chinook.
This fact determined me to make an effort to collect what little remained
of these languages.
I first went to Clatsop, where a small band of Indians are located
near Seaside, Clatsop county, Oregou. Although a number of them
belonged to the Clatsop tribe, they had all adopted the Nehelim language, a dialect of the Salishan Tillam >ok. This change of language
was brought about by frequent intermarriages with the Kehelim. I
found one middle-aged man and two old women who still remembered
the Clatsop language, but it was impossible to obtain more than a
vocabulary aud a few sentences. The man had forgotten a great part
of the language, while the women were not able to grasp what I
wanted; they claimed to have forgotten their myths and traditions,
and could not or would not give me any conuected texts. One old
Clatsop woman, who had been married to a Mr. Smith, was too sick to
be seen, and died soon after my visit. The few remaining Clatsop had
totally forgotten the history of their tribe, and eyen maintained that no
allied dialect was spoken north of Columbia river and on Shoal water
pbay. They assured me that the whole country was occupied by the
Chehalis, another Salishan tribe. They told me, however, that a few of
their relatives", who still continued to speak Clatsop, lived on Shoal-
water bay among the Chehalis.
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INTRODUCTION.
c
BI'REAU 0*9
TIINOLOOY
I went to search for this remnant of the Clatsop and Chinook peoples,!
and found them located at Bay Center, Pacific county, Washington.!
They proved to be the last survivors of the Chinook, who at one]
time occupied the greater part of Shoalwater bay and the northern!
bank of Columbia river as far as Greys Harbor.    The tribe has adopted!
the Chehalis language in the same way in which the Clatsop have]
adopted the Nehelim.   The only individuals who spoke Chinook werel
Charles Cultee and Catherine.    While I was unable to obtain anything!
from the latter, Cultee (or more properly Q; Elte') proved to be a veri-l
table storehouse of information.   His mother's mother, was a Ka tlamat, I
and his mother's father a Quila'pax; his father's mother was a Clatsop, ]
and his father's father a Tinneh of the interior.   His wife is a Chehalis, I
and at present he speaks Chehalis almost exclusively, this being alsoj
the language of his children.   He has lived for a long time in Katla-
mat, on the southern bank of Columbia river, his mother's town, and I
for this reason speaks the Katlamat dialect as well as the Chinook dia-:
lect.   He uses the former dialect in conversing with Samson, a Katlamat Indian, who is also located at Bay Center.    Until a few years ago
he spoke Chinook with one of his relatives, while he uses it now only
rarely when conversing with Catherine, who lives a few miles from
Bay Center.   Possibly this Chinook is to a certain extent mixed with
Katlamat expressions, but from a close study of the material I conclude
that it is on the whole pure and trustworthy.
I have obtained from Cultee a series of Katlamat texts also, which
appear to me not quite so good as the Chinook texts, but nevertheless
give a good insight into the differences of the two dialects. It may be
possible to obtain material in this dialect from other sources.
My work of translating and explaining the texts was greatly facilitated by Cultee's remarkable intelligence. After he had once grasped
what I wanted, he explained to me the grammatical structure of the
sentences by means of examples, and elucidated the sense of difficult
periods. This work was the more difficult as we conversed only by
means of the Chinook jargon.
The following pages contain nothing but the texts and translations. The grammar and dictionary of the language will contain a
comparison of all the dialects of the Chinookan stock. I have translated the first text almost verbatim, while in the later texts I endeavored only to render the sense accurately, for which reason short
sentences have been inserted, others omitted. Still, the form of the
Chinook sentences has been preserved as nearly as possible. I o, I
I. o, ii
I, O, U
PHONETIC   SYSTEM  EMPLOYED. 7
ALPHABET.
have their continental sounds (short).
long vowels.
obscure vowels.
vowels not articulated but indicated by position of the
mouth.
in German Bar.
aw in law.
o in German voll.
e in bell.
separates vowels which do not form diphthongs.
i in island.
ow in how.
as in English.
very long, slightly palatized by allowing a greater portion of the back of the tongue to touch the palate.
posterior palatal 1; the tip of the tongue touches the
alveoli of the lower jaw, the back of the tongue is
pressed against the hard palate, sonans.
the same, short and exploded (surd; Lepsius's t).
the same with very great stress of explosion.
velar k.
English k.
palatized k (Lepsius's k'), almost ky.
might be better defined as a posterior palatal k, between
k and k\
ch in German Bach.
x pronounced at posterior border of hard palate.
palatal x as in German ich.
are evidently the same sound and might be written s- or
c, both being palatized; c (English sh) is pronounced
with open teeth, the tongue almost touching the palate
immediately behind the alveoli; s is modified in the
same manner.
as in English, but surd and sonant are difficult to distinguish.
as in English.
as in year.
as in English.
is pronounced with semiclausure of the nose and with very
slight compression of the lips; it partakes, therefore,
of the character of b and w.
is pronounced with semiclausure of the nose; it partakes,
therefore, of the character of d.
iff
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INTRODUCTION.
("bureau of
Lethnology
2,4
designates increased stress of articulation.
designates increased stress of articulation due to the
elision of q.
is a very deep laryngeal intonation, due to the elision of q.
designate excessive length of vowels, representing approximately the double and fourfold mora.
Words ending with a short vowel must be contracted with the firsij
vowel of the next word.   When a word ends with a long vowel and the]
next begins with a vowel, a euphonic -y- is inserted.   The last conso-l
nant of a word is united with the first vowel of the next word to one
syllable. TKiANA'MUKC.
Myths.
1. CIKqA ICTA'KXANAM.
Cikia their Myth.
Lqui'numiks  Lxela'-itx   La'wuX   aeXa't   LO-£o'kuil  neqj'ela'wilX.
Five there were,    their younger        one a woman menstruating the
sister first time.
Atcunko'mit ica'yhn.      EXt iqe'tak nikct Lap aLE'kxax.      A'yo
He carried her     the grizzly bear.     One year not       rind he did it. He went
away
iLa'xk'un.    Atco'xtkinEba   Lia'wuX.       A'yo    mank    kula'i.      Lap
its elder He went to search.       his younger He went       a little far. Find
brother. for her sister.
a'tcax   oni'ctXuic.   Itca/ma6   atcia'lax;    atcupo'nit.    A'yo 4;   kula'2i
he did her     a pheasant. Hitting her        he did her he hung her        He went; far
with it; up.
a'yo.   Lap   atci'tax t!'oi.   Atcixa'laqi.   A'lta Loc Lq;'eyo'qxut kja
he        Find he did       a house.      He opened the Now      there   '     an old man and
went. them door. was
LeXa't  Lg'a'cgc.  Ayu'p.'om.  ALxa'latck  Lg'a'cgc.   TakE   aLso'pEna
ono child. He entered. It rose the child.       Then        it jumped up
Lg'a'cgc.    "O'quaqct, ta'ta," takE LE'k-iiii.   TakE atcLo'skam, takE
the child. "Louse me,      uncle,"      then       it said. Then he took it, then
atcLge'qsta.    TakE    Lap    a'tcaq    o'Laqst.   TakE   L;k-!op    a'tcax.
he loused it. Then find       he did her        its louse.       Then squeeze      he did her.
TakE   atca'yaqc   go    ia'tuk.    TakE   L;q;op   a'tcax   ia'tuk.    TakE
Then he bit him at     his neck.       Then cut hedidhim   his neck. Then
acgio'Lata k;a   Lia'mama.   TakE   acgio'pcut   ma'Lxdle.   A'lta   k-t'e
they two hauled   and        his father. Then        they two hid inland. Now      nothing
him him
cmokct c6a'kil ckula'pamam ta'lalX.
two        women        they two went gamass.
digging them
A'lta LEla'ktikcka txe'la-it.   TakE ne'ktcukte.    A'lta wext e'Xat
, Now four only remained.        Then        it got day. ISTow        more one
a'yo.    A'yo 4.    TakE weXt Lap  li'tcax oni'ctXuic.    TakE itca/ma*-'
he went.   He "went.        Then        again       find   he did her     a pheasant. Then       hitting her
a'yo
atcia'lax.    TakE   atcupo'nit   weXt ia'xkate.   TakE a'yo, kula'i
ho did her. Then      he hung her up
weXt.     TakE  Lap   atci'tax
there.
Then    he went,
Then
find     he did them
Lq; 'eyo'qxut   kj a   Lg'a'cgc.
it
an old man and a child.
TakE   Lap   a'tcax   o'yuqct.
Lap
Then        find   he did her
his louse.
far      he wen^
A'lta   loc
Now       the] e
was
TakE   ayu'plom.     "Ta'ta,   o'quaqct!"
Then he entered. "Uncle, louseme!''
TakE   L;k;'op   a'tcax   o'yuqct.    TakE
Then squeeze
t;'oL.    TakE   atcixa'laqie
a house.       Then he opened the
door.
ayu'p !om.
he entered.
he did her    his louse.
Then
he bit him
bis neck;
then
cut
his neck.
Then
k; a   Lia'mama.
and        his father.
"Tea  txgo'ya!
•" Come,   let us two go!
TakE    acgio'pcut
Then      they two hid him
LguLe'lXEmk    go
A person at ■
they two
hauled him
jo   ma'Lxole.    TakE    na'k'em:
at inland. Then she said:
tE'lxaoqL    aLte'mam."     TakE
our house has arrived." Then
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atca'yaqc go ia'tuk;   takE   L;qj5p   ne'xax   ia'tuk.    TakE acgio'Lata 1
2
3
4
5
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26
27
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ago'lXam
she spoke to
ner
Lga'naa.
her mother.
C1KTA   THEIR  MYTH.
Lga'naa:
her mother:
"ALqe
"Later on
tcax."
come."
Le'le
A long time
["bureau op
Lbthnology
ka    aci'xko    k; a
then      they two        and
went home
A'lta
Now
akLiLa'kux
she smelled it
LEa'owilkt
blood
go
in
we'wuLe.
interior of
house.
A'lta
Then
naXE'LXa.   A'lta o8o'lEptckiX agacgE'ltcim.
she became angry.    Now      [with] firebrand     she hit them two.
A'lta    Lo'nikcka   Lxe'la-it.    TakE   ne'ktcukte.
Now three only remained. Then it got day.
weXt no'ya!"   TakE a'yo4, kula'i  a'yo.   TakE
also    I shall go!"      Then      he went,       far      he went.     Then
"NiXua nai'ka
'Well!
Lap
find
oni'ctXuic.
a uheasant.
TakE
Then
itca'ma8
hitting her
a'yo,
he went,
TakE weXt
Then       also
atcixa'laqi;    Loc
he opened the    there was
door;
••• [as above]•••
■ • • [as above] ■ • ■
kula'2i   a'yo.
far        he went
Lq; 'eyo'qxut
an old man
atcia'lax.
he did her with
it.
TakE
Then
weXt
again
Atcupo'nit   weXt
He hung her up        also
a'tcax
he did her
ia'xka.
he.
Lap
find
kja
and
Lg'a'cgc
a child.
atci'tax   t !'6l.   TakE
he did them   a house.       Then
TakE    ayu'p! om.
Then he entered.
TakE
Then
na'k'im
she said
kftX
• that
txgo'ya!
let us two go!
ALte'mam LgoLe'lXEmk go tE'lxadqL."
It arrived
a person
at
our hous'd.''
ok'o'sks:    "Tea
girl: "Come
TakE ago'lXam Lga'naa:
Then      she spoke to      her mother;
her
.Lateron,   come!   Later on,
"A'Lqe, tcax! a'Lqe, tcax!" TakE ago'lXam: "Nekct na LEma'icXf
come!"      Then       she spoke to    " Not [interrog-     thy relative 1"
her: ative particle]
"Lqui'numiks    LEme'tata-iks."    TakE   aci'xko
"Five thy uncles." Then they two
.   i3j went home
TakE
Then
ago'lXam:
she spoke, to hex:
k;a
and
k;a
and
Lga'naa.
1 her mother.
Lga'wuX.
TakE
Then
naXE'LXa;
she became angry;
takE    akco'tEna    Lga'mama
then    she struck them two      her father
her younger brother.
A'lta weXt ne'ktcukte.   A'lta weXt e'Xat niXE'ltXuitck.      Atc-
Now • • again it got day. Now      again one    he made himself ready.        He
to'ckam tia'xalaitanEma. TakE a'yo weXt. Kula'i a'y64, a'yo.  TakE
took them his arrows. Then  he went    also. Far      h« went, he went.     Then
Lap a'tcax' oni'ctXuic.   TakE itca'mac atcia'lax.   TakE   atcupo'nit
find   he did her       a pheas