Open Collections

BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

An international idiom. A manual of the Oregon trade language, or 'Chinook jargon' Hale, Horatio, 1817-1896 1890

Item Metadata

Download

Media
bcbooks-1.0222389.pdf
Metadata
JSON: bcbooks-1.0222389.json
JSON-LD: bcbooks-1.0222389-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): bcbooks-1.0222389-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: bcbooks-1.0222389-rdf.json
Turtle: bcbooks-1.0222389-turtle.txt
N-Triples: bcbooks-1.0222389-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: bcbooks-1.0222389-source.json
Full Text
bcbooks-1.0222389-fulltext.txt
Citation
bcbooks-1.0222389.ris

Full Text

     OREGON    TRADE   LANGUAGE,
"CHINOOK  JARGON."   
CHISWICK PRESS:—C.  WHITTINGHAM AND CO.,  TOOKS COURT,
CHANCERY LANE. PREFATORY  NOTE.
The following treatise was designed to form part of a
larger volume of linguistics, the work of several con-
CORRIGENDA.
P. 10, line 10, for q read g.
,,       ,,   12 from below under "Jargon," for ikeh' read tikeh'.
,,       ,,    6 ,, ,,     " Chinook," for taghka read iaghka.
& v^v
t W1JLU vrn
Jltl&Vk;—KTX.
lization, speaking more than twenty distinct languages,
and diffused over a territory nearly half as large as
Europe. Extract from the " Introduction to the Study of the Human
Races ;" by A. de Quatrefages.   Part II., p. 603.    (Paris, 1889.)
'' The formation of these new languages deserves to attract the
attention of linguists; and it will be fortunate if the example given
by Mr. Hale should arouse their interest on this point. That
eminent anthropologist has found in Oregon and north of that
country a sort of lingua franca, which, born at first of the necessities of commerce, is to-day employed almost solely by many individuals. This idiom has already its vocabulary, its rules, its
grammar. The elements composing it are borrowed from four
languages—two American (Nootka and Chinook) and two European
(French and English). A certain number of words have been
formed by onomatopoeia ; and the language admits the formation of
compound words to supply the deficiencies of its vocabulary." PAGE
The Oregon Trade Language  i
Its Origin and Composition  3
Orthography and Pronunciation      .... 9
Grammar  12
Past and Future of the Language  .... 19
Songs  24
Hymns  26
A Missionary Sermon  28
The Lord's Prayer  37
Dictionary :—
Trade Language and English 39
English and Trade Language     .... 53  THE OREGON TRADE LANGUAGE,
OR,
"CHINOOK JARGON."
The interest recently awakened in the subject of an international language has given a new importance to a
study originally made for purely scientific purposes more
than forty years ago. As a member of the United States
Exploring Expedition, which surveyed a portion of the
western coast of North America in 1841, I undertook the
charge of giving an account of the ethnology of Oregon.
This name, now restricted to a single State, was then applied to an unorganized and undefined territory, a " debatable land," as it might have been truly styled, which
stretched northward between the Rocky Mountains and
the Pacific, from what was then the Mexican province of
California to the as yet undetermined limit of the British
possessions. My opportunities, however, did not allow
me to extend my researches much to the north of the
present southern boundary of those possessions. Within
the space thus limited—a space larger than France—
there was ample work to occupy an ethnologist for a
B THE OREGON TRADE LANGUAGE:
much longer time than I was enabled to devote to the
task.
On commencing that work I encountered at once two
remarkable phenomena, the one of which added greatly to
the labour of the inquirer, while the other afforded an
equally notable and unexpected help. The great obstacle,
as it seemed, and indeed was—though it has proved ultimately the source of most valuable gains to philological
science—was the surprising number of distinct languages
which were found to exist within this limited area.
Twelve of these languages were distinct, not in the sense
in which the Spanish differs from the Italian, but in the
sense in which the Hebrew differs from the English; that
is, they belonged to separate linguistic stocks, utterly dissimilar in words and in grammar. Furthermore, several
of these stocks were split up into dialects, which sometimes differed so widely that the speakers of one of them
could not be understood by the speakers of another. To
work one's way through this maze of idioms, many of
them exceedingly harsh and obscure in pronunciation and
intricate in construction, to a correct classification of
tribes and stocks, seemed likely to be a work of no small
difficulty.
But the perplexity was lightened and almost removed.
by an aid which, as it appeared, this very difficulty had
called into being. The needs of commerce, that had
suddenly arisen with the advent, of the foreign traders,
required some common medium of communication. The
" Trade Language," which came afterwards to be known ITS ORIGIN AND  COMPOSITION.
as the " Chinook Jargon," grew into existence. As finally
developed, it has become really an " international speech,"
widely diffused among the fifty tribes of Oregon, British
Columbia, and Alaska, and of inestimable service, not
only to commerce, but to science, to missionary efforts,
and to the convenience of travellers. Nor were even
these the chief benefits which have sprung from it. A
well-informed writer, Mr. James Deans, in a recent article
relating to the tribes of British Columbia, gives some
striking evidence on this point. " Pride and ignorance of
the languages of their neighbours were," he tells us, " the
principal causes of the wars and ill-feeling between the
various nations. For example, some ill-timed joke would,
through ignorance on the part of the members of another
tribe, be construed into an insult, which their pride would
not allow to go unpunished." This root of infinite mischief
has been extirpated, he informs us, by that " trade language or jargon, the Chinook," which | the traders found
it necessary to create,"—| than which," he adds, 11 know
nothing that has done so much to civilize our native races.
It stimulated friendly intercourse between tribes, by enabling them to converse with each other,—whence sworn
foes became lasting friends."1
The origin and character of this interesting speech
cannot perhaps be better described than in the terms in
which my notes, made during the investigation, were
afterwards summarized in my published report.2   These
1 " The Journal of American Folk-Lore " for July, 1888, p. 123.
2 " United States Exploring Expedition, under Charles Wilkes, THE OREGON TRADE LANGUAGE:
will here be given with such additional information as
later inquiries have procured.
The British and American trading ships first appeared
on the north-west coast during the closing years of the
last century. The great number of languages spoken by
the native tribes proved to be a serious hindrance to their
business. Had it chanced that any one of these languages was of easy acquisition and very generally diffused,
like the Chippeway among the eastern tribes, the Malay
in the Indian Archipelago, and the Italian in the Mediterranean, it would, no doubt, have been adopted as the
medium of communication between the whites and the
natives. Unfortunately, all these languages—the Nootka,
Nisqually, Chinook, Chihailish, and others—were alike
harsh in pronunciation, complex in structure, and each
spoken over a very limited space. The foreigners, therefore, took no pains to become acquainted with any of
them. But, as the harbour of Nootka was at that time
• he headquarters or chief emporium of the trade, it was
necessarily the case that some words of the dialect there
spoken became known to the traders, and that the
Indians, on the other hand, were made familiar with a
few English words. These, with the assistance of signs,
were sufficient for the slight intercourse that was then
maintained. Afterwards the traders began to frequent
the Columbia River, and naturally attempted to communicate with the natives there by means of the words
U.S.N.," vol.  vii.,   "Ethnography and Philology," by Horatio
Hale, 1846, pp. 635-650. ITS ORIGIN AND COMPOSITION. 5
which they had found intelligible at Nootka. The
Chinooks, who are quick in catching sounds, soon acquired these words, both Nootka and English, and we
find that they were in use among them as early as the
visit of Lewis and Clark, in 1804. W
But when, at a later period, the white traders of Astor's
expeditions, and from other quarters, made permanent
establishments in Oregon, it was soon found that the
scanty list of nouns, verbs, and adjectives then in use
was not sufficient for the more constant and general intercourse which began to take place. A real language,
complete in all its parts, however limited in extent, was
required; and it was formed by drawing upon the
Chinook for such words as were requisite, in order to add
to the skeleton which they already possessed the sinews
and tendons, the connecting ligaments, as it were, of a
speech. These consisted of the numerals (the ten digits
and the word for hundred), twelve pronouns (I, thou, he,
we, ye, they, this, other, all, both, who, what), and about
twenty adverbs and prepositions (such as—now, then,
formerly, soon, across, ashore, off-shore, inland, above,
below, to, with, &c). Having appropriated these and a
few other words of the same tongue, the Trade Language
—or, as it now began to be styled, " the Jargon "—
assumed a regular shape, and became of great service as
a means of general intercourse.
But the new idiom received additions from other
sources. The Canadian voyageurs, as they are called,
who enlisted in the service of the American and British THE  OREGON TRADE LANGUAGE:
fur companies, were brought more closely in contact
with the Indians than any others of the foreigners. They
did not merely trade, they travelled, hunted, ate, and, in
short, lived with them on terms of familiarity. The
consequence was, that several words of the French language were added to the slender stock of the Jargon.
These were only such terms as did not previously belong
to it, including the names of various articles of food and
clothing in use among the Canadians (bread, flour, overcoat, hat), some implements and articles of furniture
(axe, pipe, mill, table, box), several of the parts of the
body (head, mouth, tongue, teeth, neck, hand, foot), and,
characteristically enough, the verbs to run, sing, and
dance. A single conjunction or connective particle,
puis, corrupted to pe, and used with the various meanings
of then, besides, and, or, and the like, was also derived
from this source.
Eight or ten words were made by what grammarians
term onomatopoeia,—that is, were formed by a rude
attempt to imitate sound, and are therefore the sole and
original property of the Jargon. Considering its mode
of formation, one is rather surprised that the number of
these words is not greater.    Liplip is intended to express
the sound of boiling water, and means to boil.
Ting-
ting, or, more commonly, tintin (for the nasal sound is
difficult to these Indians) is the ringing of a bell, and
thence any instrument of music. Po, or poo, is the report
of a gun; tiktik is for a watch; tumtum is the word for
heart,   and is intended to represent its beating.    The ITS  ORIGIN AND  COMPOSITION.
word turn, pronounced with great force, dwelling on the
concluding m, is the nearest approach which the natives
can make to the noise of a cataract; but they usually
join with it the English word water, making tum-wata,
the name which they give to the falls of a river. Mash
represents the sound of anything falling or thrown down
(like the English mash and smash) \ klak is the sound
of a rope suddenly loosed from its fastenings, or " let
go-
All the words thus combined in this singularly constructed language, at that stage of its existence, were
found to number, according to my computation, about two
hundred and fifty. Of these, eighteen were of Nootka
origin, forty-one were English, thirty-four French, one
hundred and eleven Chinook, ten formed by onomatopoeia,
and some thirty-eight were of doubtful derivation, though
probably for the most part either Chinook or Nootkan.
But, as might be expected, the language continued to
develop. Its grammar, such as it was, remained the
same, but its lexicon drew contributions from all the
various sources which have been named, and from some
others. In 1863, seventeen years after my list was
published, the Smithsonian Institution put forth a " Dictionary of the Chinook Jargon," prepared by the late
George Gibbs, a thoroughly competent investigator.
His collection comprised nearly five hundred words.
Those of Chinook origin had almost doubled, being
computed at two hundred and twenty-one. The French
had more than doubled, and comprised now ninety-four I HE  OREGON TRADE LANGUAGE.
words. The English terms were sixty-seven. The great
Salish or "Flathead" stock, with whose tribes, next to
the Chinook, the Oregon traders had the largest relations,
furnished thirty-nine words. The Nootka, in its various
dialects, now yielded twenty-four. The others, about
forty, were due to the imitation of natural sounds, or were
of casual or undetermined derivation.
The origin of some of the words is rather whimsical.
The Americans, British, and French are distinguished by
the terms Boston, Kinchotsh (King George), and Pasaiuks,
which is presumed to be the word Francais (as neither^
r, nor the nasal n can be pronounced by the Indians)
with the Chinook plural termination uks added. The
word for blanket, paseesee, is probably from the same
source (franfaises, French goods or clothing). "Foolish"
is expressed by pelton or pilton, derived from the name
of a deranged person, one Archibald Pelton, whom
the Indians saw at Astoria; his strange appearance
and actions made such an impression upon them, that
thenceforward anyone behaving in an absurd or irrational
manner, was said to act kahkwa Pelton, " like Pelton,"
but the word is now used without the preceding particle.
Since the publication of the vocabulary of Gibbs, no
material change seems to have been made in the language. Two later dictionaries of the Jargon have come
into my hands—small pamphlets, both printed in Victoria,
B.C., the one in 1878, and the other as late as 1887.
The former is announced as the " sixth edition," and the
latter is  described as a  " new edition"—facts which ORTHOGRAPHY AND PRONUNCIATION. 9
sufficiently prove the continued and extensive use of
this "international speech." There can be no doubt
that it will remain a living and useful language so long
as the native tribes continue to speak their own dialects.
B.ude and almost formless as it is, the spontaneous product of the commercial needs of mingled races, it has
been the source of great and varied benefits. It may
well serve, if not as a model, at least as a finger-post to
direct us to some higher invention for subserving the
larger uses of an advanced civilization. Viewed in this
light, and also as presenting one of the most curious
specimens of a " mixed language" which philologists
have had the opportunity of analyzing, the Jargon seems
to merit a somewhat careful study.
Orthography and Pronunciation.
In my original account of this language, the usual
" scientific orthography " was adopted. The vowels had
their " continental" sounds (as in German or Italian),
and the consonants their English pronunciation. But
what was then a purely oral idiom has now become a
written language. Books have been printed in it, and
dictionaries published, in which the English orthography
has been adopted. The defects of this orthography are
well known, but, under the circumstances, we have no
choice but to follow it, making up for its deficiencies by
the necessary explanations.
In the phonetics of the language one point is specially IO
THE  OREGON TRADE LANGUAGE.
interesting, both as illustrating thd usual result of the
fusion of two or more languages, and as showing one of
the laws which must govern the formation of any international speech. As the Jargon is to be spoken by Englishmen and Frenchmen, and by Indians of at least a dozen
tribes, so as to be alike easy and intelligible to all, it
must admit no sound which cannot be readily pronounced
by all. The numerous harsh Indian gutturals either disappear entirely, or are softened to h and k.1 On the
other hand, the d, f, q, r, v, z, of the English and French
become in the mouth of a Chinook /, p, k, I, w, and s.
The English j (dzh) is changed to ch (tsh); the French
nasal n is dropped, or is retained without its nasal sound.
The following examples will serve to illustrate these and
other changes. In writing the Indian words, the gutturals
are expressed by gh (or kK) and q, and the vowels have
their Italian sounds:
Chinook*
Jargon.
Meaning.
iaqegh,
ikeh>,
to wish, will, desire
thliakso,
yakso,
hair.
eleghe,
illahee,
earth, land, country
etsghot,
itshoot,
bear.
opthleke,
opitlkeh,
bow.
tkalaitanam,
kali'tan,
arrow, shot, bullet.
taghka,
yahka,
he, his.
ntshaika,
nesi'ka,
we.
mshaika,
mesi'ka,
ye.
1 Some writers, however, retain in the Jargon the "digraph"
gh, to express, in some words of Chinook origin, the sound of the
German gutteral ch in Buck. Chinook.
thlaitshka,
ight,
tkhlon,
kustoghtkin,
ORTHOGRAPHY AND PRONUNCIATION.
Meaning.
II
Jargon.
klaska,
ikt,
klone,
stotekin,
they,
one.
three,
eight.
English.
Jargon.
Meaning.
handkerchief,
hak'atshum;
handkerchief.
cry,
cly, kali',
cry, mourn.
coffee,
kaupy,
coffee.
suppose,
spose, pos,
if, supposing.
stick,
stick,
stick, wood, tree, wooden
fire,
piah,
fire, cook, ripe.
sun,
sun,
sun, day.
stone,
stone,
stone,  bone,   anything
solid.
dry,
tly, dely1,
dry.
warm,
tuaum,
wafm.
cold,
kole, cole,
cold, winter, year.
skin,
skin,
skin, bark.
French.
Jargon.
Meaning.
courir,
kooley,
run.
la louche,
taboos',
mouth.
la hache,
lahash',
axe.
la graisse,
lakles1,
grease.
le mouton,
lemooto,
sheep.
le main,
lemah',
hand.
le loup,
lelod,
wolf.
poudre,
pdlalie,
gunpowder.
sauvage,
si'wash,
Indian.
chapeau,
seahpo,
hat.
As will be seen, the orthography of the Jargon is
unsettled and capricious. Most writers spell Indian and
French words " by the ear," but use the ordinary English 12
THE  OREGON TRADE LANGUAGE.
spelling for the English words comprised in the language,
without regard to uniformity.
Grammar.
The grammatical rules are very simple. There are no
inflections. The language has no article. The demonstrative pronoun, okook, this, occasionally supplies the
place of the English the.
The genitive of nouns is determined merely by the
construction; as, kahta nem mika papa ? (lit., what name
thy father), what is the name of your father?
The plural is in general not distinguished in speaking;
sometimes hyu, many, is employed by way of emphasis.
The adjective precedes the noun, as in English and
Chinook; as, lasway hakatshum, silk handkerchief;
mesahchie tilikum, bad people.
Comparison is expressed by a periphrasis. " I am
stronger than thou," would be wake mika skookum
kahkwa nika, lit., " thou not strong as I." The superlative is indicated by adverbs; as, hyas oleman okook
canim, that canoe is the oldest, lit., " very old that
canoe;" siah ahnkottie, very ancient (lit., far ago). A
great deal is expressed by the mere stress of the voice ;
hyas" (dwelling long on the last syllable) means exceedingly great. Ahn"kottie, with the first syllable drawn out,
signifies very long ago; so hyakf, very quick ; hyu', a
great many; tenas", very small, &c.
The numerals are from the Chinook.    They are— GRAMMAR.
n
ikt, one.
moxt, two.
klone, three.
lakit, four.
kwinnum, five.
taghum, or tahkum, six.
sinamoxt, seven.
stotekin, eight.
kwaist, nine.
tahtlelum, tahtlum, ten.
takamonuk, hundred.
The combinations of the numerals are the simplest
possible. Eleven is tahtlum pe ikt, ten and one; twelve is
tahtlum pe moxt, &c. Twenty is moxt tahtlum; thirty,
klone tahtlum. Thousand is tahtlum takamonuk. "Eighteen hundred and eighty-nine" would be tahtlum pe
stotekin takamonuk stotekin tahtlum pe kwaist.
The personal pronouns are—
nika, I.
mika, thou.
yahka, he.
nesika, we.
mesika, ye.
klaska, they.
Nasaika (or ntshaikd) in Chinook means "we here,"
excluding the person 'addressed. In the Jargon, nesika
is used in a more general sense, though alhika (in
Chinook alghaikd), which means " we all" (including the
person addressed), is sometimes employed by those
who understand the native idiom.
The personal pronouns become possessive merely
by being prefixed to nouns; as, nika house, my house;
mika papa, thy father; nesika illahee, our land.
The interrogative pronouns are, klaksta, who ? kata or
ikta, what ? and kunjik, how many or how much ? The
latter is also used for when? i.e. how much time, how
many days? 14
THE  OREGON TRADE LANGUAGE.
The relative pronouns must, in general, be understood;
as, kah okoke sahmun mika wawa nika ? where is that
salmon [of which] you told me? Sometimes, however,
the interrogative pronouns supply their place, as in English ; thus, wek nika kumtuks ikta mika wawa, I do not
understand what you say.
Okoke, this or that, is the only demonstrative pronoun.
The indefinite pronouns are, kunamoxt, both; halo,
none; konaway, all; hyu, much or many; tenas, few or
little; huloima, other.
In general, the tense of the verb is left to be inferred
from the context. When it is absolutely necessary to
distinguish the time, certain adverbs are employed; as,
chee, just now, lately; alta, now, at present; winapie, presently ; alkie, soon; ahnkuttie, formerly ; okoke-sun, today; tomolla, to-morrow; tahlkie, yesterday.
The future, in the sense of "about to," "ready to," is
sometimes expressed by tikeh or tikegh, which means properly to wish or desire; as, nika papa tikegh mimaloose, my
father is near dying, or about to die.
A conditional or suppositive meaning is given to a sentence by the words klonass, perhaps, and spose (from the
English " suppose ") used rather indefinitely. Nika kwass
nika papa klonass mimaloose, I fear my father will die
(lit., I afraid my father perhaps die). Spose mika klatawa
yahwa, pe nika chaco kahkwa, if you will go yonder, I will
follow (lit., suppose you go that way, then I come the
same). Na (or nah) is a common interrogative particle;
sick na mika, are you sick? GRAMMAR.
15
The substantive verb is always to be understood from
the form of the sentence ; as, mika pelton, thou art foolish ;
hyas oluman mika house, very old (is) thy house.
The adverb usually precedes the adjective or verb
which it qualifies, though it may sometimes follow the
latter; as, hyas kloshe, very good; nika hyas tikeh kum-
tuks, I very much wish to know; pahtlatch weght, give
more, or again.
There is but one true preposition, kopa, which is used
in various senses,—to, for, at, in, among, about, towards,
&c.; but even this may generally be omitted, and the
sentence remain intelligible. Nika klatawa nika house
(I go my house) can only mean " I am going to my
house." Keekwilie, down, is used in the sense of " beneath," and saghalie, high up, in the sense of " above."
Kunamoxt, both, or together, is sometimes used in the
sense of " with."
Only two conjunctions, properly speaking, are found
in the language—pe, from the French word puis, used to
mean and, or, then, but, &c, and spose (often contracted
to pos), from " suppose," employed in the sense of if,
when, in case that, provided that, and in general, as has
been said, as a sign of the subjunctive or conditional
mood.
It will be noticed that these two conjunctions form the
only exceptions to the rule that all the grammatical
elements of the Jargon are derived from the proper
Chinook language. The pronouns and the numerals are
pure Chinook.    The fact thus brought to view accords i6
THE  OREGON TRADE LANGUAGE.
with the well-known law of linguistic science, that in
every mixed language the grammar is mainly derived
from one of the constituent idioms, which must consequently determine the stock of the composite speech.
The Oregon Trade Language, though framed mainly by
English-speaking men, must be held to be, philologically,
a dialect Of the Chinook stock, just as the English, in
spite of its immense store of Romanic words, is properly
classed as a Teutonic idiom.
It may not at first be easy to comprehend how a language composed of so few words, thus inartificially combined, can be extensively used as the sole medium of
communication among many thousand individuals.
Various circumstances, however, are to be borne in mind
in estimating its value as such a medium. In the first
place, it is to be observed that many of the words have a
very general sense, and may receive different, though
allied significations, according to the context. Thus
mahkook is to trade, buy, sell, or barter, and, as a noun,
a dealing, bargain, or exchange; hyas mahkook (great
bargain) signifies dear or precious; tenas mahkook (small
bargain), cheap. Sahhalie (or saghalie) expresses above,
up, over, high, tall, and, as a noun, the upper region,
heaven. Stik, or stick, is stick, wood, tree, forest, club,
cane. Solleks is angry, hostile, to quarrel, fight. Mitlite
is to sit, reside, remain, stop, and may also express to
have and to be; as, mitlite hyu sahmun kopa mika ? have
you plenty of salmon ? (lit., remains much salmon to
you ?)   Muckamuck is to take anything into the mouth ; GRAMMAR.
17
hence, muckamuck sahmun, to eat salmon; muckamuck
chuck, to drink water; muckamuck kinootl, to smoke or
chew tobacco.
But it is in the faculty of combining and compounding
its simple vocables—a power which it doubtless derives,
in some degree, - from its connection with the Indian
tongues—that the Jargon has its capacity for expression
almost indefinitely extended. Three or four hundred
words may be learned without difficulty in a week or
two, and a very short time will make the learner familiar
with their ordinary use and construction. He will then
have no difficulty in understanding the numerous compounds which, if they had been simple words, would
have cost him much additional labour. Almost every
verb and adjective may receive a new signification by
prefixing mamook, to make or cause. Thus, mamook
chaco (to make to come), to bring; mamook klatawa
(make to go), to send or drive away; mamook po (make
blow), to fire a gun; mamook kloshe (make good), to repair, adorn, put in order, cure; mamook keekwilee (put
low), to put down, lower, bury; mamook klimmin (make
soft, or fine in substance), to soften, as a skin—also, to
grind, as wheat; mamook papeh (make paper), to write
or draw; mamook kumtuks (make to know), to teach.
The following instances will show the usual mode of
forming compound terms. From the English words
(adopted into the Jargon) man, ship, stick, stone, sail,
house, skin, are formed shipman, sailor; shipstick, mast or
spar; stickskin, bark; sailhouse, tent; stickstone, a piece
c
^S
v i8
THE  OREGON TRADE LANGUAGE.
of petrified wood. The latter term was used by a native
who saw a geologist collecting specimens of that description ; whether it was composed on the spot, or was
already in use, is not known. Hyu-house (many houses)
is the common term for town; cole-illahee, waum-illahee
(cold country, warm country), mean summer and winter.
Cole-sick-waum-sick (cold sickness, warm sickness), pronounced as one word, is the expressive term for the ague-
fever. Kopet kumtuks (no longer know) means to forget.
Tenas-man (little man) is the term for boy; tenas klootsh-
man (little woman), for girl. The usual expression for
God is Saghalie-Tyee, lit. above-chief, or the heavenly
chief. Turn, heavy noise, and wata, make tum-wata, a
cataract.   Cole-snass (cold rain) is snow.
Finally, in the Jargon, as in the spoken Chinese, a
good deal is expressed by the tone of voice, the look, and
the gesture of the speaker. The Indians in general—
contrary to what seems to be a common opinion—are
very sparing of their gesticulations. No languages, probably, require less assistance from this source than theirs.
Every circumstance and qualification of their thought are
expressed in their speech with a minuteness which, to
those accustomed only to the languages of Europe, appears exaggerated and idle,—as much so as the forms of
the German and Latin may seem to the Chinese. We
frequently had occasion to observe the sudden change
produced when a party of natives, who had been conversing in their own tongue, were joined by a foreigner, with
whom it was necessary to speak in the Jargon. The coun- ITS PAST AND FUTURE.
19
tenances which had before been grave, stolid, and inexpressive, were instantly lighted up with animation; the
low, monotonous tone became lively and modulated;
every feature was active; the head, the arms, and the
whole body were in motion, and every look and gesture
became instinct with meaning. One who knew merely
the subject of the discourse might often have comprehended, from this source alone, the general purport of
the conversation.
The Past and Future of the Jargon.
The notes from which the foregoing account of the
Trade Language has been chiefly drawn were made, shortly
before the middle of the century, at Fort Vancouver, on
the Columbia River, then the headquarters of the
Hudson's Bay Company in Oregon. The following description, written at the time, may be cited, as possessing now some historical interest:—
" The place at which the Jargon is most in use is at
Fort Vancouver. At this establishment five languages
are spoken by about five hundred persons, namely, the
English, the Canadian French, the Chinook, the Cree,
and the Hawaiian. The three former are already accounted for. The Cree is the language spoken in the
families of many officers and men belonging to the
Hudson's Bay Company, who have married half-breed
wives at the ports east of the Rocky Mountains. The
Hawaiian is in use among about a hundred natives of the 20
THE OREGON TRADE LANGUAGE:
Sandwich Islands, who are employed as labourers about
the Fort. Besides these five languages, there are many
others, the Chehalis, Wallawalla, Calapooya, Nisqually,
&c, which are daily heard from the natives who visit the
Fort for the purpose of trading. Among all these
persons there are very few who understand more than
two languages, and many who speak only their own.
The general communication is, therefore, maintained
chiefly by means of the Jargon, which may be said to be
the prevailing idiom. There are Canadians and half-
breeds who have married Chinook women, and can only
converse with their wives in this speech; and it is the
fact, strange as it may seem, that many young children
are growing up to whom this factitious language is really
the mother-tongue, and who speak it with more readiness
and perfection than any other. Could the state of
things which exists there be suffered to remain a century
longer, the result might be the formation of a race and
idiom whose affinities would be a puzzle to ethnographers. The tide of population, however, which is
now turning in this direction, will soon overwhelm and
absorb all these scattered fragments of peculiar lineage
and speech, leaving no trace behind but such as may
exist on the written page."
The concluding prediction, which seemed at the time
well warranted, has been but partly fulfilled. The language, in fact, seems destined to a long life and wide
usefulness, though in a region somewhat remote from its
original seat.    On the site of Fort Vancouver it is now ITS PAST AND FUTURE.
21
only heard from stray Indians who have wandered
thither from their reservations. But on the reservations
and in the interior it is still in frequent use. Its great
field of usefulness, however, is now, as has been said, in
the northern regions. In British Columbia and in parts
of Alaska it is the prevailing medium of intercourse
between the whites and the natives. There, too, the
Indian tribes are not likely to die out. Along the rugged
coast and in the mountainous interior there are friths
and defiles which the white settler disdains, but where
the hardy native fishermen, hunters, and trappers find
ample means of livelihood. These natives seem destined
to be hereafter to the whites of the valleys and towns
what the Lapps are to the Swedes, and the Samoyeds to
the Russians, an alien race of semi-barbarous but peaceful borderers, maintaining their own customs and languages, but keeping up a friendly commerce with their
civilized neighbours. This commerce will probably be
carried on for centuries by means of the Trade Language.
When we note the persistency with which such isolated
tribes preserve their own idioms—as in Wales, in the
Scottish Highlands, in the Pyrenees and the Caucasus—
we may find reason to believe that the Jargon will still
have its office of an international speech to fulfil, among
the many-languaged tribes of North-Western America,
for hundreds, and perhaps thousands, of years to come. 22              THE OREGON TRADE LANGUAGE.
The La:
MGUAGE AS  SPOKEN.
In addition to the <
sxamp]
es of construction given in
the foregoing pages, the following   colloquial  phrases,
written down as they were heard from the natives and
others versed in the
idiom,
will show the manner in
which it is employed
as a
medium  of ordinary inter-
course:—
Nah, siks !
Ho ! friend!
Klahowyah.
Good day ! (the common salutation).
Kah mika house ?
Where is your house ?
Kah mika klatawa f
Where are you going ?
Kah mika chahko ?
Whence come you ?
Pahtlatch chuck.
Give me some water.
Hyas olo chuck nika.
I am very thirsty.
Hyas olo muckamuck.
Very hungry.
Nika klatawa kopa canim.
I am going in a canoe.
Kopet wawa.
Do not talk.
Kunjik mika tillikum ?
How many are your people^
Tahtlum pe   klone house
kon-
Thirteen houses in all.
away.
Nika tikeh muckamuck mo"
ivitsh.
I want to eat some venison.
Kunjik sahmun  mika  n
akook
How many salmon do you bring
chahko?
to trade ?
Moxt tahtlum pe quinnum
Twenty-five.
Kahta okok win ?
How was the wind ? (What that
wind?)
Hyas win.    Halo win.
Strong wind.    No wind.
Okok sun hyas waum.
The   sun   (or   day)   was   very
warm.
Kahta nem mika papa ?
What   is   the   name    of your
father?
Sick mika papa t
Is your father sick ? COLLOQUIAL AND NARRATIVE PHRASES.      23
Kokshut yahka lepee.
Nawiiha hyas klahowyam yahka.
Mika na kumtuks alkie snass ?
Okook stick klatawa illahie.
Nika hyas tikeh kumtuks mamook papeh.
Ahnkottie hyas nika kumtuks
kapswalla j alta kelapi nika
tumtum.
Ik (ah mika wake klatawa kokshut eena, —alke mika mahkook
musket.
Nawitka konaway nesika tillikum
memaloose.
Hyas kloshe okook moola ; hyak
okook mamook klimminklim-
min okook sapolil.
Wake nesika kumtuks waykut;
kopa illahie klatawa ship ;
kalo chuck I hyas win; kokshut j klimmin chahko j alta
klatawa keekwilee chuck ; wake
klaksta memaloose; konaway
klatawa mahtwillie.
Nesika solleks mesahchie tillikum ; klone nesika kokshut j
moxt kahkwa hyoo nesika.
His leg is broken.
Truly he is very miserable.
Do you think it will rain ?
That tree fell to the ground.
I wish very much to  learn to
write.
Formerly I used to (lit.  knew
to) steal much; now my heart
is changed.
Why do you not go and   kill
beaver,—and then buy a gun?
Truly all our people are dead.
Very good is that mill; quickly
it grinds (makes fine) the
corn.
We did not know the channel j
the ship went aground; there
was no water (to float it) ; a
strong wind; it perished ;
went to pieces; then sank
down under water ; nobody
was drowned; all got ashore.
We fought the enemy (bad
people); we killed three ;
they were twice as many as
we.
The language has already the beginning of a literature.
It has its songs, mostly composed by women, who sing
them to plaintive native tunes. One of these simple
songs, with its music, is given by Mr. J. G. Swan in his
volume, "The North-West Coast," published in 1855.
It might be styled " Annawillee's Lament." The deserted wife thus reproves her faithless husband : 24
THE  OREGON TRADE LANGUAGE.
Kah mika klatawa ?
Kah mika klatawa ?
Konaway sun
Hyu kely
Annawillee.
Oh, nika tenas!
Hyas klahowyam !
Hyu kely,
Konaway sun,
Nika tenas.
Konaway halo
Nesika muckamuck j
Wake-siah mimaloose
Nika tenas.
Where hast thou gone ?
Where hast thou gone ?
Every day
Greatly mourns
Annawillee.
Oh, my little one !
Very wretched !
Greatly mourns,
Every day,
My little one.
All gone is
Our food;
Soon will die
My little one.
Dr. Franz Boas, during his recent visits to British
Columbia, has collected many of these artless little effusions, which he has published in the "Journal of American
Folk-lore" for December, 1888. Several of them have
at least the poetry which a touch of true pathos will
always give. Here are some that, as we are told, " refer
to the parting of friends, and greetings to those staying at
home 1:
Klonas kahta nika tumtum y
Kwanesum nika tikeh nanitsh
mika ;
Alkie nika wawa klahowya.   Ya
ay a !
Hayaleha, hayaleha, hayaleha I
Spose mika nanitsh nika tilli-
kum,
Wake-siah nika mimaloose alta,
Kopa Koonspa illahie.     Yaya !
I know not how my heart feels ;
Ever I wish to see you ;
Soon must I say farewell.    Ah
me !
Ah me ! ah me ! ah me !
When you see my people,
(Say) Almost I am dead now,
In Queensboroughland.  Ah me} SONGS.
25
Yah I konaway sun  nika sick
tumtum,
Kopa nika man kopa Kaliponia.
Ah !  every day I am sick at
heart,
For my husband in California.
Then we have some of the rude " songs of love and
jealousy " that float among the motley throngs of Indians
and sailors in the native shanties which form the suburbs
of Victoria, Vancouver, and New Westminster :
Klonas kahta nika tumtum
Kopa Johnny.
Okook tenas man mamook pelton
nika. ■
Ay a!
Yaya !
Spose mika iskum klotshman,
Yaya!
Wake mika solleks nika.
Kultus kopa nika.
Kultus kopa nika
Spose mika mahsh nika.
Hyu tenas man koolie kopa town ;
Atkie wekt nika iskum.
Wake kid kopa nika.
Aya, aya !
Ellip nika nanitsh
Sitka, mesika illahie.
Kultus spose nika mimaloose
Yakwa ellip.
I know not how my heart is
Toward Johnny.
That young man makes a fool of
me.
Ah me!
Ah me!
If you take a wife,
Ah me!
Do not quarrel with me.
It is nothing to me.
It is nothing to me
If you desert me.
Many   young   men   go   about
town j
Soon again I take one.
That is not hard for me.
Ah me ! ah me !
Soon shall I see
Sitka, your country.
No matter if I die
There speedily.
The missionaries, among whom, both in Oregon and in
British Columbia, there have been men of more than
ordinary talent and cultivation, have not failed to turn to
account this fondness of the natives for verse and song. 26
THE  OREGON TRADE LANGUAGE.
The Rev. Myron Eells, missionary on the Skokomish
Reservation, well known for his valuable contributions to
ethnological science and religious literature, has prepared and published a little collection of 1 Hymns in the
Chinook Jargon Language," in which the difficulty of
expressing moral and religious truths in this limited and
purely material speech has been overcome with much
skill. The following is sung to the tune of " John
Brown ":
Jesus chaco kopa saghalie ;
Jesus Mas kloshe.
Jesus wawa kopa tillikums ;
Jesus Mas kloshe.
Jesus wawa, wake kliminwhit;
Jesus Mas kloshe.
fesus wawa, wake kapswalla ;
Jesus Mas kloshe.
Kopa nika Jesus mimaloose |
Jesus Mas kloshe.
fesus klatawa kopa saghalie I
Jesus Mas kloshe.
Alta Jesus mitlite kopa saghalie ;
Jesus Mas kloshe.
Yahwa Jesus tikegh  nika  klatawa ;
fesus Mas kloshe.
Jesus came from heaven ;
Jesus is very good.
Jesus taught the people ;
Jesus is very good.
Jesus said, do not lie ;
Jesus is very good.
Jesus said, do not steal;
Jesus is very good.
For me Jesus died ;
Jesus is very good.
Jesus went to heaven ;
Jesus is very good.
Now Jesus lives in heaven ;
Jesus is very good.
There Jesus wishes me to go ;
Jesus is very good.
The following, entitled " Heaven," is sung to the tune
of I Greenville."    A literal version shows that the hymn,
is not devoid of poetical sentiment: HYMNS.
27
Kopa saghalie konoway tillikums
Halo olo, halo sick j
Wake kliminwhit, halo sollecks,
Halo palithtm, halo cly.
Chorus—
fesus mitlite kopa saghalie,
Kunamoxt   konoway   tillikums
kloshe.
Yahwa tillikums wake klahowya,
Wake sick tumtum, halo till,
Halo mimaloose, wake mesachie,
Wake polaklie, halo cole.
I Yahwa tillikums mitlite kwane-
sum,
Hiyu houses, hiyu sing;
Papa, mama, pe kloshe tenas,
Wakut yaka chikamin pil.
Jesus potlatch kopa siwash,
Spose mesika hias kloshe,
. Konoway iktas mesika tikegh,
Kopa saghalie kwanesum.
In high heaven all the people
Do not hunger, are not sick;
Say no falsehood, never quarrel,
Are not drunken, do not weep.
Jesus dwells in heaven above,
With all people who are good.
There    the    people    are    not
wretched,
Not sad-hearted, never tired ;
There   they  die  not,  are   not
wicked,
There no darkness is, no cold.
There the people dwell for ever,
Many a home there, many a
hymn;
Father, mother, and good children,
In the streets of yellow gold.
Jesus will bestow on Indians,
If you all are very good,
All the things that you can long
for,
In high heaven evermore.
Mr. Eells has been accustomed for many years to
preach to the Indians in the Jargon, and he mentions
the curious fact that he sometimes even thinks in this
idiom. I am indebted to his kindness for the copy of a
sermon which was preached in August, 1888, and which
he has been good enough to put in manuscript for me. 28
THE  OREGON TRADE LANGUAGE.
!:
It will serve to show how this language, limited as it is in
vocabulary, can be made a vehicle, not merely of instruction, but also of effective argument and persuasion.
Before giving the original, with its interlinear translation,
it may be well to prefix a version in ordinary English, in
which form, as will be seen, it becomes such a discourse
as might have been addressed to the white pupils of a
Sunday school in England or America. Mr. Eells writes:
" By way of explaining it, I ought to say that, in speaking to the Indians, I am accustomed to use some large
pictures, which I refer to; also that on the previous
Sabbath I had been at Walla Walla, celebrating the semicentennial of the organization of the first Presbyterian
church in this region."
Matt. xxViii. 18, 19.
"Two Sundays ago I spoke to you concerning that
picture. There you saw two women coming to the
sepulchre where Jesus lay, on Sunday, just at sunrise.
When they came to the sepulchre they did not see Jesus.
Jesus had risen; He was gone. So I told you in that
sermon.
" To-day I wish to explain to you about this picture.
After Jesus had risen, He continued on the earth forty
days. When the forty days were ended, He desired to
ascend to heaven. So He led the people out of the city
to that place where you behold them. Here you see
Jesus.    There are those people.    Jesus wished to give A SERMON.
29
good instructions to the people before He returned to
heaven.
I Now I will explain to you the teaching of Jesus to
those people. He said to them : * It is good that you
should go to every country in all the world, and carry
the Gospel to all nations.'   Thus spoke Jesus to them.
I Jesus was aware that all the nations of the world had
no knowledge of the Gospel. They knew nothing of the
happy home in, heaven. They knew nothing of the
Devil's home in the great fire. Jesus knew that the soul
of a man is truly precious ; that it is more precious than
all the money and everything else in the world. So He
wished His people, His missionaries, to go everywhere,
and to help all people to leave the Devil's way, and to find
the way of Jesus.
i They accepted the teaching of Jesus. One man went
to one country ; another man went to another country ;
and others went to other lands. Thus it was with all
these missionaries in ancient times. Jesus was gracious
to them and to their work. Jesus helped them; and
many people in many lands became Christians. Before
all those early missionaries were dead, five hundred
thousand people had become Christians.
" Now Jesus wishes us to do likewise. He wants us to
help other people to become Christians. Perhaps He
may wish us to go to a distant land, and tell the far-off
people about Jesus' word. Perhaps not. Perhaps He
may want us to speak to the people who are near at
hand.   Perhaps He wishes us to give some money to 3°
THE OREGON TRADE LANGUAGE.
help the missionaries in those far-off lands. In distant
lands—in China, in Africa—there are many heathens.
They do not want missionaries in their countries; so they
will give no money to missionaries in their countries.
Where shall the missionaries get food and other things ?
It is good for us to give some money, and to send the
money to the far-off missionaries, and help them to carry
the words of Jesus to the distant nations. If we are poor
and have not much money, we should give a little money.
Such is the teaching of Jesus.
" Perhaps we really have no money. Then we should
pray to God that He will help those far-off missionaries.
Jesus will accept our prayers. Thus we shall help to
carry the teaching of Jesus to all countries everywhere.
" You know that last Sunday I was not with you. I
was far away, at a place called Walla Walla. And why
did I go ? Fifty years ago American missionaries came
from a distant land to Walla Walla. They wished to
tell the Indians of the Gospel of Jesus. Just fifty years
ago they founded a church there. So now the Christian
people desired to have a celebration. Fifty years ago
these missionaries left their homes in their far American
land, and did just as Jesus had taught. Nearly ten
years they remained at Walla Walla. Then some bad
Indians became very hostile to one missionary, named
Dr. Whitman, and they killed him and his wife and other
persons. Other missionaries became afraid of those
Indians, and left that region. Perhaps many persons
said, 'The teaching of Jesus was not good, when He
MB A  SERMON.
31
said to the missionaries long ago, that they should go
into all lands, and carry the Gospel to every people.'
" Was what they said right ? No ! Before Dr. Whitman
died he had given good teaching to the Indians. Other
missionaries had done the same. That teaching was
like good seed. Now this has grown mightily. When I
now go to Walla Walla, I see there an Indian missionary;
he is of the Nez-perce's nation. And I know that not
far from Walla Walla there are now ten Indian missionaries and seven hundred Christians. Fifty years
ago missionaries did according to the word of Jesus, and
bore the Gospel to the Indians, like good seed; and
now it has become great. Thus we know that the
teaching of Jesus is very good teaching. Jesus wishes
you to do the same. It is good that you should help
other people to become Christians."
The following is the sermon in its original language,
with an interlinear translation. A careful enumeration
shows that to express the whole of its historic and descriptive details, its arguments and its appeals, only
ninety-seven different words of the Jargon are required,
and not a single grammatical inflection. We may learn
from this striking evidence, as Mr. Eells suggests, with
how slender a vocabulary and how little grammar a
language can " get along." Of these ninety-seven words
we find that forty-six are of Chinook origin, seventeen of
Nootka, and two of Salish; twenty-three are English,
seven are French, and two only are the special property
of the Jargon. 32
THE OREGON TRADE LANGUAGE.
Moxt Sunday ahnkuttie nika mamook kumtux mesika
Two  Sundays     ago I      made       know     you
kopa okoke        papeh. Yahwa mesika nanitch moxt
about   this paper {picture).    There     you       saw     two
klootchmen.    Klaska chaco kopa mimoloose-illahee,     kah
women.        They   came     to death-place,       where
Jesus mitlite, kopa Sunday, kopa delate      tenas      sun.
Jesus     lay,       on     Sunday    ~at     just little {early) day.
Spose klaska   klap okoke mimaloose-iliah ee, klaska    halo
When they   reached that        death-place,        they did not
nanitch Jesus.    Jesus    get-up;   yaka klatawa.   Kahkwa
see    Jesus.    Jesus   had risen j   he  was gone.        So
nika wawa kopa mesika      talkie Sunday.
/   spoke    to    you   (in) discourse of Sunday {sermon).
Okoke sun nika tikegh wawa kopa mesika kopa okoke
This  day   I      will   speak    to      you   about   this
papeh.    Kimtah Jesus yaka    get-up,    yaka   mitlite  kopa
picture.   After Jesus    he   had risen,   he  continued on
illahee lakit tahtlum sun.   Spose kopet lakit tahtlum sun,
earth four     ten   days.    When ended four      ten   days,
Jesus yaka tikegh klatawa kopa  Saghalie.   Kahkwa yaka
Jesus    he   would     go to    Heaven. So        he
lolo yaka tillikums klahanie kopa town, kopa okoke illahie
led those  people        out       of  town,    to     that  place
kah   mesika nanitch klaska.  Yahwa mesika nanitch Jesus.
where   you       see      them.     There    you      see    Jesus.
Yahwa yaka tillikums.   Jesus yaka tikegh potlatch kloshe
There those people.     Jesus   he   would    give     good
wawa  kopa   yaka   tillikums,    elip    yaka    killapi    kopa
speech    to     those     people    before    he    returned    to
Saghalie.
Heaven.
Alta nika mamook kumtux mesika kopa Jesus yaka wawa
Now   I    make     know    you   about Jesus  his speech
kopa yaka tillikums.   Yaka wawa kopa klaska: " Kloshe
to    those   people.       He    said    to     them:     " Good A  SERMON.
33
mesika klatawa kopa konoway illahee, konoway kah,    pe
you       go        to       every    country,   every where, and
lolo Bible wawa kopa konoway tillikums." Kahkwa Jesus
carry Bible words to all nations? So Jesus
yaka wawa kopa klaska.
he   spoke    to    them.
Jesus yaka kumtux konoway tillikums, konoway   kah,
Jesus    he      knew        all        nations,      every   where,
halo kumtux kopa kloshe home kopa Saghalie. Klaska
did not   know  about good   home    in    Heaven.     They
halo kumtux kopa Lejaub yaka home kopa hias piah.
did not know about the Devil his home in great Jire.
Jesus yaka kumtux ikt man yaka tumtum delate hias
Jesus he knew a man his soul truly {of) great
mahkook; yaka elip hias mahkook kopa konoway dolla pe
price j it more precious than all money and
konoway   iktas   kopa   konoway   illahee.     Kahkwa   yaka
all        things   in every     country. So he
tikegh yaka tillikums, yaka      leplet,      klatawa   konoway
wished those  people,    those missionaries,     go every
kah, pe help konoway tillikums mash Lejaub yaka
where, and help       all nations   reject    Satan     his -
owakut, pe klap Jesus yaka owakut.
way,    and take Jesus   his     way.
Klaska iskum Jesus yaka wawa.    Ikt man klatawa kopa
They received Jesus his words.    One man   went     to
ikt illahee; huloima man klatawa kopa huloima illahee ;
one country j another man went to another country j
huloima man klatawa kopa huloima illahee; kahkwa kopa
another man went to another country j so with
konoway okoke leplet ahnkuttie. Jesus chaco hias
all those missionaries formerly. Jesus became very
kloshe tumtum kopa klaska, kopa klaska mamook. Jesus
good {in) heart to them, to their work. Jesus
yaka help klaska ;   pe   hiyu tillikums kopa  hiyu illahee
he helped them;   and many people   in    many countries
D 34
THE  OREGON TRADE LANGUAGE.
12! e I
klaska   chaco    Christian.     Elip   kopa    konoway   okoke
they    became  Christians.   Before   that all those
leplet     mimaloose ahnkuttie, kwinnum tukamonuk thou-
missionaries    died      anciently,     five        hundred   thou-
sand tillikums chaco    Christian.
sand persons became Christians.
Alta Jesus tikegh nesika mamook kahkwa.   Yaka tikegh
Now Jesus wishes    us      to do     likewise.     He   wishes
nesika  help   huloima   tillikums chaco  Christian.    Klonas
us   to help   other        people become Christians. Perhaps
yaka tikegh nesika klatawa kopa siyah illahee,  pe mamook
he   wishes    us       to go     to     far countries, and make
kumtux siyah  tillikums kopa Jesus yaka wawa.      Klonas
know    far     nations   about Jesus   his   words.    Perhaps
halo.    Klonas Jesus yaka tikegh nesika wawa kopa tillikums
not.    Perhaps Jesus   he   wishes   us    speak    to   people
wake   siyah.    Klonas yaka tikegh nesika potlatch   tenas-
not far-off. Perhaps he wishes us to give a little
dolla, kahkwa nesika mamook help leplet kopa siyah
money,     so       we       make    help missionaries   in    far
illahee.    Kopa siyah   illahee, kopa  China   illahee, kopa
countries.   In     far   countries,   in   China country,     in
nigga yaka illahee, hiyu mesachie man mitlite.     Klaska
negro   his country, many     bad      men    live. They
halo   tikegh       leplet      kopa klaska    illahee;   kahkwa
do not want   missionaries    in     their   countries j      so
klaska   halo    pay   dolla   kopa      leplet      kopa   klaska
they   do not pay  money     to   missionaries     in     their
illahee. Kah okoke leplet iskum muckamuck pe
countries. Where those missionaries get- food and
huloima  iktas?    Kloshe nesika   potlatch tenas  dolla,   pe
other  things ?   Good       we give     little money, and
nesika   mash   okoke   dolla   kopa siyah       leplet,        pe
we      send     that   money   to   distant missionaries, and
mamook help klaska lolo Jesus  yaka wawa kopa siyah
make    help    them carry Jesus   his   words   to   distant A SERMON.
35
tillikums.    Spose nesika   klahowya kopa dolla,   pe   halo
nations.      If      we        are poor     in    money,   if  not
mitlite   hiyu   dolla,   kloshe   nesika   potlatch tenas   dolla.
have much money,   good      we        give      little money.
Kahkwa Jesus yaka wawa.
So    Jesus   he   said.
Klonas nesika delate mitlite halo dolla.    Spose kahkwa,
Perhaps we     really  have    no  money.     If        so,
kloshe nesika pray kopa Saghalie Tyee   kloshe yaka help
good     we    pray   to   Heavenly Chief kindly   he    help
okoke   siyah      leplet. Spose nesika mamook kahkwa,
those  distant missionaries.       If      we        do thus,
Jesus yaka iskum nesika wawa.   Kahkwa nesika help kopa
Jesus he   receives   our   words.       So we   help   in
lolo       Jesus yaka wawa kopa konoway illahee konoway
carrying Jesus   his   words   to     every    nation    every
kah.
where.
Mesika kumtux kopa talkie   Sunday nika   halo    mitlite
You      know    on    sermon Sunday  I    did not   stay
kunamoxt mesika.   Nika mitlite siyah kopa ikt illahee yaka
with        you. I    stayed far-off  in     a   place    its
nem   Walla Walla.      Pe   kahta  nika klatawa ? Alta nika
name Walla Walla.   And why {did) I      go ?     Now   I
mamook kumtux mesika.  Kwinnum tahtlum cole ahnkuttie,
make    know,   you.        Five        ten    winters   ago,
Boston      leplet       chaco kopa siyah illahee, kopa Walla
American missionaries came   to     far country,   to   Walla
Walla illahee.   Klaska tikegh mamook teach siwash kopa
Walla country.    They would   make     teach Indian about
Jesus yaka wawa. Delate kwinnum tahtlum   cole   ahnkuttie
Jesus  his   words. Just      five        ten    winters     ago
klaska  mamook church yahwa.     Kahkwa   alta  Christian
they       made     church    there. So       now Christian
tillikums   tikegh chee^ mamook   kloshe time.      Kwinnum
people      wish    just    make      good    time. Five 36
THE  OREGON TRADE LANGUAGE,
tahtlum     cole     ahnkuttie okoke      leplet      mash  klaska
ten    winters       ago        those missionaries left     their
home kopa   siyah    Boston    illahee,   pe   mamook delate
home    in    far-off American   land,   and      did       just
kahkwa Jesus yaka wawa.       Wake siyah    tahtlum   cole
as      Jesus    he    said.      Not Jar {nearly)    ten winters
klaska mitlite kopa Walla Walla illahee;   pe   mesachie
they     stayed   at      Walla Walla country j but       bad
siwash    chaco   hias solleks   kopa    ikt        leplet,        Dr-
Indians became very angry against one missionary,   Dr.
Whitman yaka   nem,   pe klaska mamook mimoloose yaka
Whitman his    name, and they      made        dead        him
pe   yaka klootchman   pe   huloima   tillikums.      Huloima
and his wife and    other      persons. Other
leplet       chaco kwass kopa siwash, pe mash siwash yaka
missionaries became afraid of Indians, and left Indians their
illahee.     Klonas hiyu tillikums wawa, "Jesus yaka wawa
country. Perhaps many persons   said,   "Jesus   his   words
hias cultus, spose yaka wawa ahnkuttie kopa        leplet,
very foolish, when he   said  formerly   to     missionaries,
kloshe klatawa kopa konoway illahee konoway kah,    pe
good      go to       every    country   every    where, and
lolo    Bible   kopa  konoway  tillikums."       Okoke     delate
carry Bible    to        every        nation?   {Was) That  true
wawa ?     Halo.      Elip okoke   man,   Dr.   Whitman,  yaka
speech?    No.    Before  that    man,   Dr.   Whitman,    he
mimaloose,   yaka   potlatch   kloshe   wawa   kopa   siwash;
died,        . he       gave      good    speech     to    Indians;
huloima       leplet       mamook kahkwa.   Okoke       wawa
other    missionaries       did     likewise.     That     speaking
kahkwa kloshe seed.   Alta yaka   chaco   hias.     Spose nika
liki
good
seed.   Now this becomes great.    When   I
chee klatawa kopa Walla Walla, nika nanitch yahwa ikt
now     go to      Walla Walla,   I       see       there   an
siwash        leplet,        Nez-Perce*   yaka  illahee.     Pe   nika
Indian   missionary,   Nez-Perc/s   his    country.   And   I THE LORD'S PRAYER.
37
kumtux wake   siyah   kopa Walla Walla mitlite alta tahtlum
know   not Jar {near) to    Walla Walla reside now   ten
siwash       leplet, pe     taghum   tukamonuk    Christian.
Indian missionaries and .    six        hundred    Christians.
Kwinnum tahtlum    cole     ahnkuttie,       leplet       mamook
Five ten     winters       ago,     missionaries      did
kahkwa Jesus yaka wawa,   pe    lolo    Bible kopa  siwash,
as     Jesus   he     said,   and carried Bible    to   Indians,
kahkwa kloshe seed, pe alta yaka chaco   hias.      Kahkwa
like     good   seed, and now this becomes great. So
nesika kumtux Jesus yaka wawa hias kloshe wawa.    Jesus
we    know   Jesus   his speech very good speech.    Jesus
yaka tikegh mesika mamook kahkwa.      Kloshe     mesika
he   wishes  you      to do    likewise.       Good    {that) you
help huloima tillikums chaco Christian.
help   other     people   become Christians.
To the foregoing may be added the version (showing at
once the strength and the defects of this idiom) which
Mr. Eells has given, in his Hymn-book, of
The Lord's Prayer.
Nesika    Papa   klaksta mitlite kopa   Saghalie,   kloshe
Our     Father    who     livest     in'    the Above,    good
mika nem kopa konoway kah.    Kloshe spose mika   chaco
thy name over   everywhere.       Good      if    thott become
delate Tyee kopa konoway tillikums.    Kloshe spose mika
true  Chief over       all        people.       Good      if     thy
tumtum mitlite kopa illahee kahkwa kopa Saghalie.  Potlatch
mind      is      on    earth     as        in   the Above.    Give
kopa nesika kopa okoke sun nesika muckamuck.  Mamook
to       us    during this  day   our food. Pi-
klahowya nesika kopa nesika mesachie mamook, kahkwa
ty us      for    our        evil        doing, as 38
THE OREGON TRADE LANGUAGE.
nesika mamook klahowya klaksta man spose yaka mamook
we     ■ do pity any    man    if      he       does
mesachie kopa nesika.   Wake mika lolo nesika kopa kah
evil       to       us.        Not    thou carry   us      to where
mesachie mitlite; pe spose mesachie klap nesika, kloshe
evil is j      but    if       evil       find    us,       good
mika help nesika   tolo   okoke mesachie.    Delate konoway
thou help    us    conquer that      evil. Truly       all
illahee mika illahee, pe mika hias skokum, pe mika delate
earth   thy    earth, and thou very strong, and thou  truly
hias kloshe ; kahkwa nesika tikegh konoway okoke. Kloshe
very goodj so        we     wish     all this.      Good
kahkwa.
so. 2l
lAAV
^T-
TRADE  LANGUAGE AND ENGLISH
DICTIONARY.
In writing the Jargon, philologists like George Gibbs and missionaries like Mr. Eells have been compelled, by the demands of the
population for whom they wrote, to adopt the English orthography,
with all its notorious imperfections. The result is, that in many
cases it is impossible for a stranger to judge from the spelling of a
word how it should be pronounced. Whether the ow in klahowyah
is pronounced as in the English " how," or as in " know ; " whether
nanitch is sounded "nah-nitsh," or "nay-nitch ; " whether ahnkuttie
is accented on the first or on the second syllable, cannot be known
from the orthography. In the dictionary, therefore, wherever any
doubt can arise, the correct pronunciation is indicated in brackets,
by employing the vowels with their Italian (or German) sounds : a
as in father; e like a in fate ; * as in machine; o (long) as in note, or
short (d) as in not; ii like oo in pool, or short {it) as in but; ai like i
in pine ; au like ou in loud. The acute accent (as in klonds) marks
the syllable on which the stress of voice is placed. In many cases
there are various spellings and different pronunciations, which are
given as far as such minute accuracy has seemed likely to be useful.
The letters C, E., F., N., and S., refer to the derivation of
words, and signify Chinook, English, French, Nootka, and Salish.
Words marked J. are considered to be the peculiar property of the
Jargon, as having been formed either in imitation of sounds or by
some casual invention.    Unmarked words are of doubtful origin.
In words derived from the Chinook language, the guttural sound
represented by ch in German, and in old English by gh, is sometimes
retained in the Jargon, and is expressed by gh, as in saghalie, tikegh,
weght, and a few others. Speakers not familiar with this sound will
be understood if they utter it as a strongly aspirated English h.
This dictionary, it should be stated, is, in the main, a copy (with 4Q
THE  OREGON TRADE LANGUAGE.
some additions and corrections) of that of George Gibbs, published
by the Smithsonian Institution in 1863,,and now regarded as the
standard authority, so far as any can be said to exist; but it may be
added that the principal part of that collection was avowedly derived
by the estimable compiler from my own vocabulary, published
seventeen years before.
Abba, well then.
Ahha, C. [aha], yes.   See Eyeh.
Ahnkuttie, ahnkottie, C. [an-
kati, ankoti], formerly, anciently, ago.. Moxt sun ahnkuttie, two days ago.
Alah, J. [ala], ah ! oh ! Exclamation of surprise.
Alip, first, before.    See Elip.
Alkie, C. [dike, alki], soon,
presently, by-and-by.
Alloima.    See Huloima.
Alta, C, now.
Amota, C. [amote], strawberry.
Anah, J. [ana], exclamation of
pain or displeasure, ah! oh !
fie!
Appola, anything roasted. See
Lapellah.
Ats, C, younger sister.
Ayahwhul, S. [ayahwiil], to
lend; to borrow.
B.
Bebee,   F.   [bibi], to  kiss,   a
kiss.
XBed, E., a bed.
^aBit,  E., a  sixpenny piece; a
dime.
Bloom,  E., broom.
bloom, to sweep.
Boat, E., boat.
Mamook, ^
1
Boston, American.    Boston illahee, the United States.
By-by, E., by-and-by.
Calipeen, calipee, F., a rifle.
(Fr. carabine.)
Canim,   C.   [kanim,   kanem],
canoe.
Capo, F. [kapo], coat. ^
Chaco,   chahko,   N.   [chako],
to come; to become.   Chako
kloshe, to get well.
Chakchak, C, the bald eagle.
Chee,   C,   lately,   just   now;
new.
Chetlo, S., oyster.
Chetwoot, S., black bear.
Chikamin, N. [chikamin], iron,
metal; metallic.   T'kope chika- ^^ *
min (white metal), silver.  Pit I
chikamin,   or    chikamin  pit
(yellow metal), gold, or copper.
Chikchik,   J.,   waggon,    cart,
wheel.
Chilchil, C, button, star.
Chitsh, S., grandfather.
>-*% DICTIONARY.
41
Chope, S., grandmother.
Chotub, S., flea.
^» Chuck, N., water, river.    Salt
chuck, the sea.  Skookum chuck
(powerful water), rapids.
Chukkin, S., to kick.
1 Cly, or kely, E. [kulai], to cry,
lament; mourning, weeping.
^Cole,   E.,  cold,  winter,  year.
Cole   illahie   (cold   country),
winter.      Tahtlum   cole,  ten
years.   Kole- sick - waum - sick,
the ague-fever,
aj Comb,   E.,   comb.    Mamook
comb, to comb. Mamook comb
illahie (to comb the ground),
to harrow.
Cooley, F. (courir), to run, go
about.
Coopcoop, C, small dentalium,
or shell money.
Cosho, F. (cochon), hog, pork.
Siwash cosho (Indian pig), a seal.
Cultus, C, worthless, purposeless ; merely, simply; nothing.
Cultus man, worthless fellow.
Cultuspotlatch,{reegi.ft. Cultus
heehee, a j oke (merely laughter).
Cultus mitlite, to sit idle
(merely sitting).
D.
Delate, delett, F. (droite)
[delet], straight, direct, -true;
truly, exactly. Delatekwinnum
cole ahnkuttie, just five years
ago.
Diaub, or yaub [diable), devil.
See Lejaub.
Dly, dely, E. [dulai], dry. •/-
Doctin, E., doctor. --f
Dolla, tahla, E. [tala], dollar;   -y,
money.    Dolla seahost (silver
eyes), spectacles.
E.
Eyeh, N. [iyeh], yes.
Ehkahnam, C. [ekanam], tale,
story.
Ehkoli, C. [ekoli], whale.
Eena, C., beaver.     Eena stik
(beaver wood), willow.
Eenapoo,  C.   [inapu],   louse.
Sopen   eenapoo  (jump-louse),
flea.
Ekkeh, brother-in-law.
Elahan,   elann,    S.    [ilahan,
ilan],   aid,   alms.     Mamook
elann, to help.
Elip, or ellip, S. [ilip, or elip],
first,   before,   sooner, more;
soon,    speedily.    Elip  yaka
mimoluse, before he died. Elip
hias mahkook, more precious.
Elita, C. [ilaite], slave.
Enati, C., across, on the other
side.    See Inati.
Esalth, yesalth [isalth], Indian
corn, maize.
Ethlon, C, fathom. See Itlan.
vjr.
Get-up, or ket-op, E., to get
up, rise; risen.
_*- HHga|^BKgBHHHHHBBdaMHH||
j
42              THE  OREGON TRADE LANGUAGE.
Glease,   E.,   grease,  fat, oil.
Howh, J. [hau], interj., yohoe !
Gleasepiah, candle.  See Lak-
hurry !   Howh, howh, hurra !
less.
Ho ! ho ! hurry up !
Howkwutl, C. [haukwutl], how
could, cannot. Howkwutl nika
H.
klatawa ? how could I go ?
Hahlakl,    C,     wide,     open.
Hullel, C. [hullel], to shake.
Mamook hahlakl lapote, open
the door.
Huloima,  C, other, another,
different.
Hahthaht,    S.,    the    mallard
Humm, J., bad odour; stink
duck.
4. Hakatshum,     E.,     handker-
ing.    Humm oputsh (stinking
tail), skunk.
chief.
Hunlkih, C, crooked, knotted,
Halo, not, none, absent.    Halo
mitlite     (nothing     remains),
curled.
Huyhuy, J.  [huihui], bargain,
empty. Halo seahost (no eyes),
exchange, barter; to change.
blind.    Halo ikta (no goods),
Huyhuy   lasell,   change   the
poor.     Halo   dolla,    without
saddle.    Huyhuy tumtum, to
money.
change the mind.
IS
1
-v- Haul, E., to haul, pull.
Hwah, hwahwa. J. (exclama
Heehee, J., to laugh, laughter,
tion of surprise,  admiration,
amusement.   Mamook heehee,
or earnestness),   aha!    dear
to make fun, to jest.    Heehee
me !
house, place of amusement, as
Hyak, C. [haiak], swift, quick;
a  tavern  or   bowling   alley.
hurry! hasten !
Heehee limah, gambling.
Hyas, hias, N. [haias], great.;    ——
4. Help, E., to help.
very.    Hyas tyee, great chief.
Hias, great.    See Hyas.
Hias   mahcook,   great   price,
Hiyu, much.    See Hyu.
dear.    Hyas   ahnkottie, long
Hohhoh, J., to cough.
ago.
Hokumelh,    S.,    to    gather,
Hykwa,   hyakwa,  N.,   shell-
glean.
money ; the dentalium.    See
~4 Home, E., home.
Coopcoop.
Hoolhool, C, mouse.     Hyas
Hyu, hyoo, N. [haiii], much,
hoolhool (big mouse), rat.
many, plenty, enough.     Hyu
House, E., house.     Mahkook
tillikum', many people.   Tenas
11
house (trading house), shop.
hyu (little many), some. DICTIONARY.
43
Ikkik, C., fishhook.
Ikpooie, C. [ikpiii], to shut,
close; closed, shut up. Ikpooie
lapote, shut the door. Ikpooie
kwolann (closed ear), deaf.
Ikt, C, one, once ;  a, an.    Ikt
man,  a man.    Ikt-ikt man,
someone or other.    Ikt nika
klatawa kopa yaka house,   I
- went once to his house*
Iktah, ikta, C, what, why
(same as kahta). Iktah okook,
what is that ?
Iktah, iktas, C, thing, goods.
Hyu tenas iktas, many little
things.
Illahee, illahie, C. [ilahi], the
earth,, land, dirt. Saghalie
illahee, high land, mountain,
heaven.
Inati, eenati, C. [inatai], across,
opposite. Inati chuck, on the
other side of the river.
Ipsoot, C. [ipsut], to hide, keep
secret; hidden; secretly.
Isik, C. [isik], a paddle. Mamook isik, to paddle. Isik
stick (paddle-wood), the elm.
Iskum, C, to take, receive,
get, hold.
Itlan, it'hlan, C, a fathom;
the length of the extended
arms.
Itlokum, C. [itlokum], the
game of " hand," a gambling
game.
Itlwillie, ilwillie, C. [itlwili],
flesh, meat.
Itswoot, itshoot, C, the black
bear. Itshoot paseesie, thick
dark cloth or blankets.
K.
Kah,     C.,    where,    whither,
whence.    Kah mika mitlite,
where do you live ?  Konoway
kah, everywhere.
Kahdena, C., to fight.
Kahkah, J., a crow.
Kahkwa, N., like, equal with,
so,  as, thus.     Kahkwa nika
tumtum (such my heart), so I
think.    Kloshe kahkwa (good
so), that is right.
Kahnaway,      C.      [kanawe],
acorns.
Kahp'ho,   C,   elder   brother,
sister, or cousin.
Kahta, C, how,   why,  what.
Kahta mika chaco ? why have
you come ?  Kata mika nem ?
what is your name ?
Kalakalahma, C, a goose.
Kalakwahtie, C. [kalakwati],
inner  bark   of   the   cedar;
woman's petticoat   of bark.
Kalakwahtie stick, cedar tree.
Kalitan, C. [kalaitsin], arrow,
bullet,   shot.    Kalitan  lesac,
quiver, shot-pouch.
Kalakala, kullakulla, C. [ka-
lakala], bird, fowl. THE OREGON TRADE LANGUAGE.
Kamass, camass, lakamass,
N.,  camass root, Scilla escu-
lenta.
Kamooks, C. [kamuks], dog.
Kahkwa kamooks, like a dog,
beastly.
C.      [kamosiik],
kapswalla,     to
^Kamosuk,
\<r beads.
r>   Kapsualla,
jKy * '     steaL
I*   ^   W§m Katsuk,  kotsuk, C, middle,
5- j"s        centre.
iy-    '. f Kaupy, E., coffee.
Kawak, S. [kawak], to fly.
Kawkawak, C. [kakawak],
yellow, or pale green.
Keekwilee, keekwillie, C.
[kikwili], low, below, under,
down. Mamook keekwilee, to
lower.
Keepwot, or keepwah, C.,
needle, thorn, sting of an insect.    Shoes keepwot, an awl.
Kehwa, because.
Kelapi, kilapie [kilapai], to
turn, return, overturn, upset.
Elip yaka kelapi, before he returns. Kelapi canem, to upset
a canoe. Mamook kelapi, to
send back.
Kely.    See Cly.
Ketling, or kitling, E., kettle,
can, basin.
«jr Ket-op.    See Get-up.
Keuatan, C. [kfuatan], horse.
Kilitsut, C, flint, bottle, glass.
Killapie.    See Kelapi.
Kimta, C, behind, after, afterwards, last, since.
Kintshautsh,E. [King George],    -f-~-
English.    Kintshautsh man,
Englishman.    j&r**A<(4** *L-    <~v~*A
Kinootl, kinoos, C. [kainutl],        ; *> *\
tobacco.
Kishkish,   C,   to   drive,   as
cattle.
Kiwa, J. [kaiwa], crooked.
Kiyah, S., entrails.
Klah, C, free, clear; in sight.
Klahanie, C. [klahani], out,
without. Klahanie kopa town,
out of town.
"Klahowya, C. [klahauya], how
do you do ? good-bye \ The
common salutation.
*>
Klahowyam,   klahowya,   Cry
[klahauyam], poor, wretched, u-^ (A
pitiable,    pitiful.       Mamook     \
klahowyam,   to  be pitiful or
generous.   •
Klahwa, C, slow, slowly.
Klak,    C,    off,    out,     away.
Mamook klak, take off, untie,
put away.
Klaksta,  C, who ? what one ?
Halo klaksta, no one.
Klakwan, S., to wipe or lick.
Klale, C.   [klel],   black,  dark
blue,   or green;   dark, ignorant.
Klap, C, to find.
Klapite,     or     klapote,     C.
[klepait], thread, twine.
Klaseess, C, stars.
£
^>r,
r
>
M
X
y DICTIONARY.
45
Klaska, or kluska, C, they,
their, them.
Klatawa, N., to go, walk.
Klawhap, C. [klahwap], a hole.
Klemahun,     S.     [klemahun],
to stab, wound, spear.
Klementikote, C, to lie.   See
Kliminwhit.
Klitl, or klilt, C, sour, bitter.
Klikamuks, C, blackberries.
Klikwallie, C. [klikwali], brass
wire, brass armlet.
Kliminwhit, klemanawit, C.,
a lie, falsehood ; to lie.
Klimmin, klimmin-klimmin,
C, soft; fine in substance.
Klip, C, deep, sunken.
Kliskwiss, C, mat.
Klohkloh,  C,  oysters.      See
Chetlo.
Klonass, C. [klonas], perhaps;
I do not know; it is doubtful.
Kohlkohl,   C.,   mouse.      See
Hoolhool.
Klone, C. [klon], three.
Klook, E., crooked.
JKlootchman,     N.,     woman,
female.      Tenas  klootchman,
little woman, girl.
Kloshe, N., fklosh], good, well.
/^•l, Kloshe spose,  well  (is it) if.
Kloshe   spose nika   klatawa ?
shall I go?   (lit.   well,  if   I
go?)
Kluh, C, to tear.
Klukkul, C, broad or wide, as
a plank.
Ko, G, to reach, arrive at,
attain.
Koko, J., to knock. Koko stick
(knock-tree), woodpecker.
Kokshut, kokshutl, N., to
break, kill, destroy; broken,
destroy&i? killed.
Konaway, C. [kdnawe], all,
every. Konaway kah, everywhere.
Koosah, C, sky.
Kopa, formerly kwapa, C.
[k6pa, or kopa], to, in, at,
with, towards, of, about, concerning ; there.
Kopet, kwapet, C. [kopet,
kwapet], to stop, leave off;
finished ; enough. Kopet to-
malla, day after to-morrow.
Kopet kumtuks (no longer
know), to forget.
Kow, C. [kau], to tie, fasten;
a parcel, bundle.
Kull, C, hard, solid, difficult.
Kullah, S. [kulah], fence, enclosure.
Kumtuks, N., to know, understand ;" knowledge, acquaintance. Kopet kumtuks (cease to
know), to forget. Halo kumtuks
(no understanding), stupid.
Kunamoxt, C. [kun'amokst],
both, together. Kunamoxt
kahkwa, both alike.
Kunjik, kunsic, kunjuk, C,
how many, when, ever. Wake
kunjik (not ever), never. 46
THE  OREGON TRADE LANGUAGE.
\ \
Kushis, S., stockings.
Kwaddis, J., whale.
Kwahta, E., quarter of a dollar.
Kwanesum,   C.   [kwanisum],
always, for ever.
Kwaist, C. [kwaist, or kwest],
nine.
Kwalal-kwalal, C, to gallop.
Kwahl, S., aunt.
Kwan, C, glad ; tamed.
Kwass, C, fear, afraid, tamei
Kwates, kwehts, S. [kwets],
sour.
Kwehkweh, J., a mallard duck.
Kwekwiens, S., a pin.
Kweokweo, C, ring, circle.
Kwinnum, C, five.
Kwitl, C, to shoot, hunt, kill.
Kwish,  or kweesh (exclamation   of refusal),  pooh !   no
indeed !
Kwitshadie, S., hare, rabbit.
Kwolann, S. [kwolan], the ear.
Kwulh,   hwult,   C.,   to hit,
strike,   or   wound    (without
cutting).
Kwunnum,     S.,      counting.
Mamook kwunnum, to count.
Kwutl, C,  to push, squeeze;
tight, fast.
Lableed, F., a bridle.
Laboos, F. [labus], mouth.
Labooti, F. [labutai], bottle.
Lacalat, F. [lakalat], carrot.
Lacaset,   F.  [lacaset],   a box,
trunk, chest.
Lacloa, F., a cross.
Lah, v., G, to lean, to tip (as a
boat), to stoop, to bend over
(as a tree).
Lagome, F., pitch, glue, gum.
Lagween, a saw.
Lahash, F., an axe or hatchet.
Lake, E., lake.
Lakit, C. [lahkit], four.
Lakless,   F.  [lakles], fat, oil.
See Glease.
Lala, J.,   long   time.      Wake
lata, not long.
Lalah, C. [lala], to cheat, trick,
joke with.
Lalahm, F., an oar. Mamook
lalahm, to row.
Lalang, lalan, F., the tongue ;
language.
Laleem, F., a file.
Lamess, F., the ceremony of
the mass.
Lamestin,    lametchin,    F.,
medicine, physic.
Lammieh,  F. [lamie], an old
woman {la vieille).
Lamonti,    F.    [lamontai],   a
mountain.
Lapeashe, F. [lapiesh], a trap
{la piege).
Lapeep, F., tobacco-pipe.
Lapehsh, F., pole (laperche).
Lapellah, J. [lapela], roasted.
Mamook lapellah, to roast before the fire.   See Appola.
m DICTIONARY.
47
Lapell, F. [lapel], a shovel or
spade.
Lapeosh, F. [lapiosh], a mattock, a hoe.
Laplash, F., board {laplanche).
Lapoel, F. [lapoel], a stove.
Lapool,    F.,     fowl,   poultry.
Siwash lapool (Indian fowl),
grouse.
Lapooshet, F., fork {la four-
chette)v£^ f^^A.0,,   w j@.«u.
Lapote, F.,door.
Lasanjel, F., girth, sash, belt
{la sangle).
Lasee, F., a saw.
Las ell, F., saddle.
Lashalloo, F. [lashalu], plough
{la charue).
Lashandel, F., candle.
Lashase, F. [lashes], chair.
Lashen, F. [lashen], a chain.
Lassiett, F. [lasiet], a plate.
Las way, F., silk.
Latahb, F., table.
Latet, F. patet], the head.
Latlah,  F. [latla], noise.    (F.
faire du train,  to   make   a
noise.)
Lawen,     F.     [lawen],     oats
(favoine).
Lawest, F., waistcoat, vest.
Lazy, E., lazy.
Lebardo, F., shingle {le bar-
deau).
Lebal, F. [libal], ball, bullet.
Lebiskwie, F.,biscuit, crackers,
hard bread.
Lecock, F., a cock, a fowl.
Ledoo,   F.    [Kdu],   finger   {le
doigt).
Lejaub, F., devil {le diable).
Lekleh, F. [likle], key.
Lekloo, F., nail.
Lekoo, F., neck.
Lekye,  spot,   spotted; a piebald horse.
Leloba, F., ribbon {le ruban).
tIM&o, F., wolf.
Lemah [lima], or lehma [lema],
F., hand.
Lemahto, F., hammer {le mar-
teau).
Lemel,   F.   [limel],   mule {le
mulet).
Lemolo, F., wild, untamed {le
marron).
Lemooto, F., sheep.
Lenay, F., nose.
Lepan, F. [lipan], bread.
Lepee, F., foot.
Lepishemo [Upishimo], saddle-
housing.
Leplet, F. [liplet], priest, mini
ster, missionary {le prHre).
Lepome, F. [lipom], apple.
Lepwah, F. [lipwa], peas.
Lesak, F. [lisak], bag, pocket.
Lesap,  F.   [lisap],  egg,  eggs
{les osufs).
Lesook, F., sugar.
Letah, F. [lita],  the teeth {les
dents).
Lewhet,  F.   [lihwet],  a whip
{lefouet). 48
THE  OREGON TRADE LANGUAGE.
^-Lice, E., rice.
Liplip, J., to boil.
Liskwis,  C, mat.    See Klis-
kwiss.
Lolo, C, to carry, take.
Loloh, C. [I0I6], round, whole,
complete.
T Lope, E., rope.
-> Lum, E., rum, ardent spirits.
WM
-r
W-
M.
Mahkook, N. [makuk], to trade,
buy or sell; a bargain.
Mahsh, or mash, F., to leave,
put away, remove {marcher).
Mahsie, F., to thank.
-Mahtlinie, C. [matlini], off
shore ; (in boating) keep off!
(if on land) towards the
water.
Mahtwillie, C. [matwili], in
shore, shoreward; keep in !
(on land) towards the woods,
or inland.
Malah, C. [mala], tinware,
earthenware, dishes.
Malieh, F. [malie], to marry.
^. Mama, E., mother.
Mamook, N. [mamuk], to
make, do, work. Used generally as a causative verb, as,
mamook chaco (make to come),
bring; mamook liplip, make
to boil.
—tMan, E., man, male. Tenas
man, young man, boy.
Melass, F., molasses.
Memaloose.    See Mimaloose.
Mesachie, C. [mesatshi], bad,
wicked.
Mesika, C. [misaika], ye, you,
yours.
Mika,   C.   [maika], thou, thy,
thine.
C, to die
illahee
cemetery,
dead,
(death
sepul-
[maimi],    down
Mimaloose,
Mimaloose
ground),
chre.
Mimie,    C.
stream.
Mistchimas, N., slave.
Mitass, J. [mitas], leggings.
Mitlite, C. [mitlait], to sit, stay,
reside ; to be, have.
Mitwhit, C, to stand.    Mit-
whitstick (standing-tree), mast.
Moxt, C, two, twice.     Moxt
poh, double-barrelled gun.
Moola, F., mill.    Stick moola
(wood mill), saw-mill.
Moon, E., moon.
Moosmoos, G, buffalo.
Moosum, S., to sleep ; sleep.
Mowitsh,  or   mawitsh,    N.
[mauitsh], deer, wild animal.
Muckamuck, J., food; to eat,
bite, drink.
Musket, E., musket, gun.     y-
N.
Na, or nah, J., the interrogative
particle. Sick na mika ? Are
you sick.
.11 DICTIONARY.
49
Nah, or naah ! J., interj., ho !
hey! look here !   Nah sikhs I
' halloo, friend !
ip Nanitsh, N. [nanitsh], to see,
look, seek.
Nawitka,   C,   certainly,   indeed.
l~ Nem, E., name.
Nesika, C.  [nisaika], we, us,
our.
Newha, C. [niwha], here; come
here.
Nigga, E., negro, African.
Nika, C. [naika], I, me, my,
mine.
- Nose, E., nose; promontory;
prow of boat.
O.
Okoke, or okuk, C.   [okok],
this, that, it.
-J- Oleman, E. [oliman], old man;
old, worn out.
Olhiyu, C. [olhaiyu], a seal
{phoca).
Olillie, or olallie, C. [6UU],
berries. Shot olillie, huckleberries. Seahpolt olillie (cap-
berries), raspberries.
Olo, C, hungry, craving. Olo
chuck, thirsty. Olo moosum,
sleepy.
Oluk, S., make.
Ooskan, or oiskin, C, cup,
bowl.
Owakut, G, road. See Way-
hut.
Opekwan, C. [6pikwan], basket ; tin kettle.
Opitlkeh, C. [opitlkeh], bow.
Opitsah, C. [opitsah], knife.
Opoots, C. [oputs], tail; hinder
part; stern of vessel.
Ow, C. [au], younger brother.
Pahtl, C, full.  Pahtl lum, or
pahtlum (full of rum), drunk.
Pahtl chuck (full of water), wet.
Paint, or pent, E., paint.
Papa, E. and F., father. ^l
Papeh, E. [pepah], paper, let-     g|
ter, picture.
Paseesee, F., blanket, woollen
cloth {i.e., Francoises, French
goods).
Pasiooks,     F.     [pasai'ooks],
French,    Frenchmen    (from
Francais,  with the Chinook
plural termination, uks).
Pay, E., pay.
Pechuh, or pechuk, C. (pit-
shuh'), green.
Pe, or pee, F., and, then, or,
but (Fr. puis). iS^
Pehpah.    See Papeh.      3^^
Pelton,   J.,   a  fool,   foolish,
crazy.       £~y   &     f&svt-    '•
Peshak, or peshuk, N., bad.
Pewhattie,   C,   thin,   slight,
flimsy.
Piah, E.,  fire,  cooked,   ripe.    ^.
Mamook piah, to cook. Piah-
ship, steamer.
if**}'
E 5°
THE  OREGON TRADE LANGUAGE.
1
Pil, G, red.    Pit dolla, gold.
Pilpil, J., blood.
- Pish, E., fish.
Pishpish, cat.    See Pusspuss.
Pitlil, thick, as molasses.
Piupiu, F. [piiipiu], to stink.
(Fr. puer.)
Poh, J., a puff of breath. Mamook poh, to blow out, as a
candle, to fire a gun.
Polallie, F. [polali], gunpowder, dust, sand.  (Fr. poudre.)
Poolie, F., rotten.
Pos.    See Spose.
,-~Potlatsh, or pahtlatsh, N., to
give; a gift,
y. Pray, E., to pray.
Pukpuk, J., a blow with the
fist,
.f-Pusspuss,  or pishpish,   E.,
cat.    Hyas pusspuss, panther.
S.
Saghalie, or sahhalie, C. [sa-
hali], above, up, high; heaven;
heavenly. Saghalie tyee (heavenly chief), God.
•r Sail, or sell, E., sail, cotton or
linen cloth.
Sakoleks, C. [sak61eks], trousers, leggings.
Salmon, or sahmun, E. [sa-
mun], salmon,
r Salt, E., salt.
Sapolill, C, wheat, corn, flour,
or meal.
Seahhost,   or   seaghost,   C.
[siahost], face, eye, eyes.
Seahpo, or seahpolt, F. [sia-
po],  hat or cap.    (Fr.   cha-
peau.)
Shame, or shem, E., shame, -h
Shantie, F., to sing.
Shelokum,     C.     [shilokam],
glass, looking-glass.
Ship, E., ship. Shipman, sailor. ^_
Shoes,  E.,  shoes,   mocassins. ^
Stick shoes (lit. wooden shoes),
stiff leathern shoes.
Shot, E., shot, lead.
Shugah, E., sugar.
Shut, E., shirt.
Shwahkuk, E., frog.
Seed, E., seed.
Siah,  N.   [saia],  far,  far off.
Wake siah, not far, near.
Siam, C.  [saiam], the grizzly
bear.
Sick, E., sick, sickness.   Sick
tumtum, grieved, sorry, sick
at heart.
Sikhs, C, friend.
Sinamoxt,     C.    [sinamokst],
seven.
Sing, E., to sing ; song.
Sitkum, G, half, part.  Sitkum
dolla,  half-a-dollar.    Sitkum
sun, noon.   Tenas sitkum, a
quarter, or small part.
Sitshum,    S.    [sit-shum],   to
swim.
Siwash, F. [saiwash], Indian.
(Fr. sauvage.)
-J- DICTIONARY.
5i
Skin, E., skin.   Stickskin (lit.
tree-skin), bark.
Skookum, or skookoom, S.,
strong; a demon, ghost.
Skwiskwis, C, squirrel.
Smoksmok, C, grouse.
- Smoke, E., smoke, clouds, fog,
steam.
Snass, J., rain.  Colesnass {cold
rain), snow.
- Soap, E., soap.
Solleks, orsahleks, J., angry;
^/"^anger.     Mamook  solleks,   to
i^*yL» >     fight.
J&-   Sopena, C. [s6pina], to jump,
leap.
'•^   f- Spoon, E., spoon.
if Spose, E., suppose, if, when.
(Often pronounced pos.)
I Stick,   E., stick,  tree, wood;
wooden.    Ikt stick, one yard.
L Stocken, E., stocking, sock.
Stoh,C, loose; to untie, set free.
-«-. Stone,  E., stone, rock, bone,
horn.
Stotekin, C. [stotkin], eight.
Stutshin, E., sturgeon.
I Sun, E., sun, day.   Tenas sun
(little sun), early morning,
Sunday, E., Sunday.   Ikt Sunday, one week.   Hias Sunday
(great   Sunday),   a  holiday,
Christmas.
Taghum, or tohum, C, six.
Tahlkie, C, yesterday.
Tahtlum, tahtelum, G, ten.
Takamonuk, C, hundred.
Talapus,  C,   coyote,   prairie
wolf.
Talkie, E., speech,  discourse.
Sunday talkie, sermon.
TamahnowuSjC. [tamanowus],
luck, fortune, magic; sorcerer.
Tamolitsh, C. [tamolitsh], tub,,
barrel, bucket.
Tanse, E. or F., dance..
Tahnkie,   G, yesterday.    See
Tahlkie.
Tea, E., tea.
Teahwit,    C.    [tiawit],    leg,"
foot.
Tenas, or tanas, N.   [tenas],
small, few, little, young; child.
Tepeh, C. [tepeh], quill, wing.
Tikegh, or takeh, C. [tikeh],
to want, wish, love, like.
Tiktik, J., a watch.
Tilikum,     or    tillikum,    C,
people.
Till, or tull, E., tired, heavy;
weight.    (English, tire.)
Tintin, J., bell; to ring.
Tipso, G, grass, leaves, fringe,
feathers, fur.    Dly tipso, hay.
T'kope,   G,   white,   light-coloured.
Tl'kope, G, to cut, hew, chop.
Toh,   or   tooh,   J.,   spitting.
Mamook toh, to spit.
Tolo, J., to earn, gain, win,
conquer.
Tomolla, E., to-morrow.
-V
or"
^rf^-
j-="
V
<y#% o^
c^
^.'
Ml 52
THE  OREGON TRADE LANGUAGE.
r
Tot, S., uncle.
Toto, J., to shake, sift, winnow.
Totoosh, J. [totush], breast,
udder, milk.
Towagh, C, bright, shining,
light.
Tsee, G, sweet.
Tseepie [tsipi], to mistake.
Tseepie way hut, to take the
wrong path.
Tsikstik, J.,waggon,cart,wheel.
Tsiltsil, or chilchil, C, buttons ; stars.
Tsolo, J., to wander, to lose
the way.
Tsugh, G, a crack or split.
Mamook tsugh, to split.
Tukamonuk, C. [tukamonuk],
hundred.
Tukwilla [tuk'wUla], nuts.
Tumchuck, waterfall. See
Tumwata.
Tumtum, J., the heart; will,
mind, feeling, thought, soul;
to think, feel.
Tumwata, J. and E., waterfall.
Tupshin, or tipsin, S., needle.
Tupso.   See Tipso.
Tyee, N. [taii], chief.
Tzum, G, spots, stripes, marks,
figures, writing, painting. Mamook tzum, to write.
W.
Wagh,G, to pour out; to vomit.
Wake, N., no, not.
Wakut.    See Wayhut.
Wash, E., to wash.
Watah, E., water.   See Chuck
and Tumwata.
Waum, or wahm, E., warm.
Wawa, or wauwau,   N., to •
talk, speak; speech, talking,
word.
Wayhut,   wehkut,   owakut,
G, road, track, path.
Weght,  or weht, G, again,
also, more.
Winapie,  N.  [winapi], soon,
presently.
Wind,    or   win,   E.,    wind,
breath, life.
Y.
Yahka, or yaka, G, he, she, it;
his, hers, &c.
Yahwa,    G,    there,    thither,
thence, beyond.
Yakso, G, hair.
Yakwahtin, G, entrails.
Yiem, S. [yaiem], a story, tale;
to relate.
Yootl, S., pleased, proud.
Yootlkut, C, long, length.
Yootskut, G, short.
Yukwa, or yakwa,  G, here,
hither, this way. DICTIONARY.
53
ENGLISH AND TRADE LANGUAGE.
A.
Above, saghalie, sahhalie.
Across, inati.
Afraid, kwass.
After, kimta.
Again, weght.
All, konaway.
Always, kwanesum.
American, Boston.
Amusement, heehee.
AxAype.
Anger, angry, solleks.
Apple, lepome.
Arrive, ko.
Arrow, kalitan.
As, kahkwa.
At, kopa.
Aunt, kwalh.
Axe, lahash.
B.
Bad, mesachie, peshttk.
Bag, lesak.
Ball, lebal.
Bargain, to, mahkook, huyhuy.
Bark (of tree), stickskin.
Barrel, tamolitsh.
Basket, opekwan.
Beads, kamosuk.
Bear (black), chetwoot, itswoot ;
(grizzly), siam.
Beat, to, kokshut.
Beaver, eena.
Because, kehwa.
Bed, bed.
Before, elip.
Behind, kimta.
Bell, lintin.
Belly, yakwahtin.
Below, keekwUlie.
Belt, lasanjel.
Berries, olillie.
Best, elip kloshe.
Bird, kallakala.
Biscuit, lebiskwee.
Bitter, klihl.
Black, Male.
Blackberries, klikamuks.
Blanket, paseesie.
Blind, halo seahhost.
Blood, pilpil.
Blow out, mamook poh.
Blue, klale.
Blunder, to, tseepie.
Board, plank, lap lash.
Boat, boat.
Boil, to, liplip.
Bone, stone.  •
Borrow, to, ayahwhul.
Both, kunamoxt.
Bottle, labooti.
Bow, opitlkegh.
Bowl, ooskan.
Box, lacaset. 54
THE  OREGON TRADE LANGUAGE.
r
Bracelet, klickwallie.
Brave, skookum tumtum.
Bread, lepan.
Break, to, kokshut.
Breasts, totoosh.
Bridle, lableed.
Bright, towagh.
Broad, klukulh.
Broom, bloom.
Brother, elder, kahpo.
Brother, younger, ow.
Brother-in-law, ekkeh.
Bucket, tamolitsh.
Buffalo, moosmoos.
Bullet, lebal, kalitan.
Bundle, kow.
But, pe.
Butter, totoosh lakless.
Buttons, tsiltsil.
Buy, to, mahkook.
By-and-by, winapie, alkie.
C.
Candle, lashandel, glease piah.
Carrot, lacalat.
Carry, to, lolo.
Cart, tsiktsik.
Cat, pusspuss, pishpish.
Cataract, tumwata.
Cattle, moosmoos.
Certainly, nawitka.
Chain, lashen, chikamin lope.
Chair, lashase.
Cheat, to, lalah.
Chicken, tenas lapool.
Chief, tyee.
Child, tenas.
Clams, ona.
Clear up, chahko Mali.
Cloth (cotton), sail.
Cloud, smoke.
Coat, capo.
Coffee, caupy.
Cold, cole.
Comb, comb.
Come, to, chahco.
Confess, to, yiem.
Conjuring, tamahnous.
Cook, to, mamook piah.
Copper, pit chikamin. O^wjaw
Cord, tenas lope.
Corn, esalth. *>~v»,x
Cotton cloth, sail.
Cough, hohhoh.
Count, to, mamook kwunnum.
Cousin.  See Sister and Brother.
Coyote, talapus.
Crazy, pelton.
Cream-coloured, leclem.
Crooked, kiwa.
Cross, lacloa.
Crow, kahkah.
Cry, to, cly.
Cup, ooskan.
Curly, hunlkih.
Cut, to, tlkope.
D.
Dance, to, tanse.
Dark, polaklie.
Day, sun.
Dead, mimaloose, memaloost.
Deaf, ikpooie kwillan.
m DICTIONARY.
55
Different, huloima.
Difficult, kull.
Dig, to, mamook illahie.
Die, mimaloose.
Dime, bit, or mit.
Do, to, mamook.
Doctor, doctin.
Dog, kamooks.
Dollar, dolla, or tahla.
Door, lapote.
Down stream, mimie.
Drink, to, muckamuck.
Drive, to, kishkish.
Drunk, pahtlum.
Dry, dely.
Duck, kwehkweh.
Dust, polallie.
E.
Eagle, chakchak.
Ear, kwolann.
Early, tenas sun.
Eam, to, lolo.
Earth, illahie.
Eat, to, muckamuck.
Egg, lesap, lezep.
Eight, stotekin.
Elk, moolock.
Enclosure, kullagh.
English, Kinchautsh.
Enough, hiyu, kopet.
Entrails, Myagh.
Evening, tenas polaklie.
Every, konaway.
Exchange, huyhuy.
Eyes, seahhost.
Face, seahhost.
Falsehood, kliminwhit.
Far, siah.
Fast (quick), hyak.
Fast (tight), kwutl.
Fasten, to, kow.
Fat, glease.
Father, papa.
Fathom, Man.
Fear, kwass.
Fence, kullagh.
Fetch, to, mamook chahko.
Fever, waum-sick.
Few, tenas.
Fight,   to,    kahdena,   mamook
solleks.
Fight with fists,  mamook puk-
puk.
Figured (as calico), tzum.
File, laleem.
Fill, to, mamook pahtl.
Find, to, klap.
Fingers, ledoo.
Fire, piah.
First, elip.
Fish, pish.
Fishhook, ikkik.
Five, kwinnum.
Flea, sopen enapoo.
Flesh, itlwillie.
Flint, kilitsut.
Flour, sapolill.
Fly, to, kawak.
Fog, smoke.
Food, muckamuck.
Fool, foolish, pelton.
^tr&tvMto
t'H. 56
THE OREGON TRADE LANGUAGE.
Foot, tepee.
. For ever, kivanesum.
Forget, to, mahlie, kopet kumtuks.
Fork, lapoushet.
Formerly, ahnkuttie.
Four, lakit.
Fowl, lapool.
French, pasiooks.  ■
Friend, sikhs.
Frog, schwakuk.
Fry, to, mamook lapoel.
Frying-pan, lapoel.
Full, pahtl.
Fun, heehee.
G.
Gallop, to, kwalalkwalal.
Gamble, to, heehee limah.
Gather, to, hokumelh.
Get, to, iskum.
Get out, mahsh.
Get up, get-up, or kct-op.
Ghost, skookum.
Gift, cultus potlatsh.
Give, to, potlatsh.
Glad, kiuann.
Go, to, klatawa,
God, saghalie tyee.
Gold, pi I chikamin.
Good, kloshe, or klose.
Good-bye, klahowya.
Goods, iktah.
Goose,   whuywhuy,   kalakalah-
ma.
Grandfather, chope.
Grandmother, chitsh.
Grass, tipso.
Grease, glease, lakless.
Green, pec Hugh.
Grey, grey horse, legley.
Grizzly bear, siam.
Ground, illahie.
Grouse, smoksmok.
Gun, musket, sukwalal.
H.
Hair, yak so.
Half, sitkum.
Hammer, lemahto.
Hand, lemah.
Handkerchief, hakatshum.
Hard, hull.
Hare, kwiishadie.
Harrow, to, mamook comb illahie.
Hat, seahpo, seahpolt.
Haul, haul.
Hay, dly tipso.
He, his, yahka, yaka.
Head, latet.
Heart, tumtum.
Heaven, saghalie illahie.
Heavy, till.
Help, to, mamook elann, •
Here, yukiva.
Hide, to, ipsoot.
High, saghalie, sahhalie.
Hit, to, kwuPh.
Hoe, lapeosh.
Flog, cosho.
Hole, klawhap.
Holiday, hias Sunday,
Hom, stone. -DICTIONARY.
57
Horse, kiutan.
House, house.
How, kahta.
How are you? klahowya?
How many? kunjik? kunsik f
Hundred, tukamonuk.
Hungry, olo.
Hunt, kwitl.
Hurry, howh, hyak.
I, nika.
If, spose.
La, kopa.
Indian, siwash.
In shore, mahtwillie.
Iron, chikamin.
It, yahka.
J-
Jealous, sick tumtum.
Jump, to, sopena.
K.
Kamass-root, lakamass.
Kettle, ketling.
Kick, to, chukkin.
Kill,   to,   mamook  mimaloose,
kwitl, kokshut.
Kiss, to, bebee.
Knife, opitsah.
Knock, to, koko.
Knotty, hunlkih.
Know, to, kumtuks.
Lake, lake.
Lame, klook teahwit.
Language, lalang.
Large, hyas.
Lately, chee.
Laugh, heehee.
Lazy, lazy.
Leap, to, sopena.
Leaf, tipso, tupso.
Lean, to, lagh.
Leave, to, mahsh.
Leave off, to, kopet.
Leg, teahwit.
Leggings, mitass.
Lend, to, ayahwhul.
Lick, to, klakwun.
Lie, to, kliminwhit.
Like, kahkwa.
Like, to, tikegh.
Little, tenas.
Long, youtlkut.
Long ago, ahnkuttie.
Look, to, nanitsh.
Look here! nah.
Looking-glass, shelokum.
Loose, stoh.
Lose the way, tsolo, tseepie wayhut.
Love, to, tikegh.  .
M.
Magic, tamahnowus.
Maize, esalth.
Make, to, mamook.
Man, man.
Many, hyu.
Marry, to, malieh.
Mass (ceremony), lamtsse.
Mast, shipstick. 58
THE  OREGON TRADE LANGUAGE.
r
Mat, kliskwiss.
Mattock, lapeosh.
Measure, to, tahnim.
Meat, itlwillie.
Medicine, lamestin.
Mend, to, mamook tipolim.
Metal, chikamin.
Middle, katsuk.
Midnight, sitkum polaklie.
Milk, totoosh.
Mill, moola.
Mind, the, tumtum.
Minister, leplet.
Miss, to, tseepie.
Missionary, leplet.
Mistake, to, tseepie, tsolo.
Mocassins, skmshoes.
Molasses, melass.
Money, chikamin.
Month, moon.
Moon, moon.
More, weght.
Mosquito, melakwa.
Mother, mama.
Mountain, lamonti.
Mouse, hoolhool.
Mouth, taboos.
Much, hyu.
Mule, lemel.
Musket, musket.
Mussels, toluks.
My, mine, nika.
N.
Nails, lecloo.
Name, nem.
Near, wake siah.
Neck, lecoo.
Needle, keepwot.
Negro, nigga.
New, chee.
Night, polaklie.
Nine, kwaist, or kweest.
No, not, wake.
Noise, latlah.
None, halo.
Nonsense, cultus wawa.
Noon, sitkum sun.
Nose, nose, lenay.
Notwithstanding, keghtchie.
Now, alta.
Nuts, tukwilla.
O.
Oak, kull stick.
Oar, lalahm, latum.
Oats, lawen.
Off, klak.
Off-shore, mahtlinnie.
Oil, glease.
Old, oleman.
/Old woman, lammieh.
One, ikt.
Open, hahlakl.
Opposite to, inati.
Or, pe.
Order, to, mahsh tumtum.
Other, huloima.
Our, nesika.
Out of doors, klaghanie.
Ox, moosmoos.
Oyster, chetlo, kloghklogh. DICTIONARY.
59
P.
Paddle, isick.
Paddle, to, mamook isick.
Paint, pent.
Paper, papeh, pehpah.
Pay, pay.
Peas, lepwah.
People, tillikums.
Perhaps, klonas.
Petticoat, kalakwahtie.
Piebald, lekye.
Pin, kwekwiens.
Pipe, lapeep.
Pitch, lagome.
Plate, lasiet.
Pleased, yootl.
Plough, leshalloo.
Plough, to, klugh illahie.
Pole, lapehsh.
Poor, klahowyum, halo ikta.
Pork, cosho.
Potato, wappatoo.
Pour, to, wagh.
Powder, polallie.
Prairie wolf, talapus.
Presently, alkie, winapie.
Pretty, toketie.
Priest, leplet.
Proud, yootl, kwetlh.
Provided that, spose.
Pull, haul.
Quarter, tenas sitkum.
Quarter-dollar, kwahta.
Quick, hyak.
Quills, tepeh.
R.
Rabbit, kwitshadie.
Rain, snass.
Rattle, shugh.
Rattle-snake, shugh-opoots.
Reach, to, ko.
Red, pil.
Relate, to, yiem.
Return, to, kelapi.
Ribbon, leloba.
Rice, lice.
Rifle, calipeen.
Ring, a, kweokweo.
Ripe, piah.
River, chuck.
Road, wayhut, wakot.
Roan, sandelie.
Roast, mamook lapellah.
Roasted, lapellah, appola.
Rock, stone.
Rope, lope.
Rotten, poolie.
Round, lolo.
Rudder, boat opoots.
Rum, turn.
Run, cooley, koolie.
Sack, lesak.
Saddle, lasell.
Saddle-housings, lepishemo.
Sail, sail, set.
Sailor, shipman.
Salmon, salmon, sahmun.
Salt, salt.
Sand, polallie.
Sash, lasanjel. 6o
THE  OREGON TRADE LANGUAGE.
A
Saw, lagwin, lasee.
Say, to, wawa.
Scissors, leseezo.
Sea, salt chuck.
Seal, olhiyu, siwash cosho.
See, to, nanitsh.
Sell, to, mahkook.
Seven, sinamoxt.
Sew, to, mamook tipshin.
Shake, to, toto, hullel.
Shame, shem.
Sharp, yahkisilth.
Sharpen, to, mamook tsish.
She, her, yahka.
Sheep, lemooto.
Shell-money,   small,   coopcoop;
large, hykwa.
Shingle, lebahdo.
Shining, towagh.
Ship, skip.
Shirt, shut.
Shoes, shftes.
Shoot, to, mamook poo, kwitl.
Short, yuteskut.
Shot, shot, tenas lebal.
Shout, to, hyas wawa.
Shovel, lapell.
Shut, to, ikpooie.
Sick, sick.
Sift, toto.
Silk^ lasway.
Silver, t'kope chikamin.
Similar, kahkwa.
Since, kimta.
Sing, to, shantie.
Sister, elder, kahp'ho ; younger, •
ats.
Sit, to, mitlite.
Six, toghum.
Skin, skin.
Skunk, hum opoots.
Sky, koosagh.
Slave, eliteh, mistshimus.
Sleep, moosum.
Slowly, klahwa.
Small, tenas.
Smell; a, humm.
Smoke, smoke.
Snake, oluk.
Snow, snow, cole snass.
Soap, soap.
Soft, klimmin.
Sorry, sick tumtum.
Soul, tumtum.
Sour, kwates.
Spade, lapell.
Speak, to, wawa.
Spill, to, wagh.
Spirits, turn.
Split, tsugh.
Split, to, mamook tsugh.
Spectacles, dolla siahhost.
Spit, to, mamook to.
Spoon, spoon.
Spotted, lekye, tzum.
Squirrel, skwiskwis.
Stab, to, klemahun.
Stand, to, mitwhit.
Stars, tsiltsil, klaseess.
Stay, to, mitlite.
Steal, to, kapsualla.
Steam, smoke.
Steamer, piah ship.
Stick, stick. DICTIONARY.
61
Stink, piupiu, humm.
Stirrup, sitlay.
Stockings, stocken, kushis.
Stone, stone.
Stop, kopet.
Store, mahkook house.
Story, ekahnam.
Straight, delate, sipah.
Strawberries, amoteh.
Strong, skookum.
Sturgeon, stutchun.
Sugar, lesook, shugah, shukwa.
Summer, waum illahee.
Sun, sun.
Sunday, Sunday.
Sunset, klip sun.
Suppose, spose.
Swan, kahloke.
Sweep, to, mamook bloom.
Sweet, tsee.
Swim, sitshum.
Table, latahb.
Tail, opoots.
Take, to, iskum.
Take care ! kiosk nanitsh I
Take off, or away, mahsh, mamook klak.
Tale, story, yiem, ehkahnem.
Talk, wawa, wauwau.
Tame, kwass.
Tea, tea.
Teach, to, mamook kumtuks.
Tear, to, klugh.
Teeth, Utah.
Tell, to, wawa.
Ten, tahtlum, tahtlelum.
Thank, mahsie.
That, okoke.
That way, yahwa.
There, yahwa, kopah.
They, klaska.
Thick (as molasses), pitlilh.
Thin (as a board), pewhattie.
Thing, iktah.
Think, tumtum.
This, okoke.
This way, yukwa.
Thou, they, mika.
Thread, klapite.
Three, klone.
Throw away, mahsh.
Tide, high, saghalie chuck.
Tide, low, keekwillie chuck.
Tie, to, kow.
Tight, kwutl.
Tinware, malah.
Tip, to, lagh.
Tired, till, lull.
To, towards, kopa.
Tobacco, kinootl, kinoos.
To-morrow, tomolla.
Tongue, lalang, lalan.
Trail, track, waykut.
Trap, lapeashe.
Tree, stick,-
Tree, fallen, whim stick.
Trot, to, tehtsh.
Trousers, sakoleks.
True, delate.
Tub, tamolitsh.
Twine, tenas lope, klapite.
Two, twice, mokst. m
62
THE  OREGON TRADE LANGUAGE.
r
U.
Uncle, tot.
Under, keekwillie.
Understand, kumtuks.
Untamed, lemolo.
Untie, mamook stoh, mahsh kow,
mamook klak.
Up, saghalie.
Upset, to, kelapi.
Us, nesika.
V.
Venison, mowitsh.
Very, hyas.
Vessel, ship.
Vest, lawest.
Vomit, to, wagh.
W.
Waggon, tsiktsik, chikchik.
Wander, to, tsolo.
Want, to, tikegh.
Warm, waum.
Wash, to, mamook wash.
Watch, a, tiktik.
Water, chuck, wata.
Waterfall, tumwata, tumchuck.
We, nesika.
Weigh, to, mamook till.
Wet, pahtl chuck.
Whale, ehkolie, kwaddis.
What, iktah, kahta.
Wheat, sapolill.
Wheel, tsiktsik, chikchik.
When, kansik, kunjuk.
Where, kah.
Whip, lewhet.
White, fkope.
Who, klaksta.
Whole, lolo.
Why, kahta.
Wicked, mesahchie, peshuk.
White, klukulh.
Wild, lemolo.
Will, purpose, tumtum.
Willow, eena-stick.
Win, to, tolo.
Wind, win, wind.
Winter, cole illahie.
Wipe, to, klakwun.
Wire, chikamin lope.
Wish, to, tikegh, tikeh.
With, kopa.
Without (not having), halo.
Wolf, leloo.
Woman, klootshman.
Woman, old, lamieh.
Wood, stick.
Wooden, stick.
Work, to, mamook.
Worn out, oleman.
Worthless, cultus.
Wound, to, klemahun.
Write, to, mamook papeh, mamook tzum.
Year, ikt cole.
Yellow, kawkawak.  r 2, White Hart Street,
Paternoster Square, E.C.
WHITTAKER & CO.'S §
'list of |j
Classical, educational, and
Cechnical aaioriis.  fH
CONTENTS.
Atlases  12
Arithmetic  17
Bibliotheca Classica   ..... 4
Cambridge Greek and Latin Texts 8
Cambridge Texts with Notes .   . 7
English Language  12
Euclid  18
French  18
  French Series  21
  French Classics  21
 Mercantile Correspondence . 28
  Modern French Authors .   . 22
German  22
 German Classics    .... 24
  Mercantile Correspondence . 28
——— Modem German Authors    . 24
Grammar School Classics   ... 5
Greek  10
Greek Classics  4-9
Italian  26
Latin  11
  Classics  4-9
Lower Form Series    ..... 6
Mercantile Correspondence     .   . 28
Miniature Reference Library .    . 34
Minor Arts and Industries ... 3
Miscellaneous Educational Books 14
Pinnock's Catechisms     .... 15
Russian  27
Science  30
Shakespeare  13
Spanish  27
Specialist's Series  28
Students' Editions of the Gospels
and the Acts  11
Technical   School   and   College
Building         -32
Technological Dictionaries .   .   .31
Whittaker's Library of Arts. etc. . 30
Dec, 1889. Whittaker and Co.'s List of
90t. Lelanu^ OEUucattonal puMtcationg
Third Edition, Crown Svo, Cloth, 6s.
PRACTICAL EDUCATION.
A WORK ON
PREPARING THE  MEMORY, DEVELOPING
QUICKNESS  OF  PERCEPTION,  AND
TRAINING THE  CONSTRUCTIVE  FACULTIES.
By CHARLES G. LELAND.
Author of'" The Minor Arts?
of Repouss£ Work
No. 4, 18!
;," " Twelve Manuals of Art Work," "
Industrial Art in Education, or Circu
Hints on Self-Education "
The A Ibum
lar
etc.
Mr. Leland was the first person to introduce Industrial Art as a branch of
education in the public schools of America. The Bureau of Education at Washington, observing the success of his work, employed him in 1862 to write a pamphlet showing how hand-work could be taken or taught in schools and families.
It is usual to issue, only 15,000 of these pamphlets, but so great was the demand
for this that in two years after its issue more than 60,000 were given to applicants.
This work will be found greatly enlarged in " Practical Education." Owing to it
thousands of schools, classes, or clubs of industrial art were established in England, America and Austria. As at present a great demand exists for information
as to organizing Technical Education, this forms the first part of the work. In it
the author indicates that all the confusion and difference of opinion which at present prevails as to this subject, may very easily be obviated by simply beginning
by teaching the youngest the easiest arts of which they are capable, and by
thence gradually leading them on to more advanced work.
"The basis of Mr. Leland's theory," says a reviewer, "is that before learning,
children should acquire the art of learning. It is.not enough to fill the memory,
memory must first be created. By training chijdren to merely memorize, extraordinary power in this respect is to be attained in a few months. With this .
is associated exercises in quickness of perception, which are at first purely
mechanical, and range from merely training the eye to mental arithmetic, and
problems in all branches of education. Memory and quickness of perception
blend in the development of the constructive faculties or hand-work Attention
or interest is the final factor in this system."
'' Mr. Lelands book will have a wide circulation. It deals with the whole subject in such a downright practical fashion, and is so much the result of long
personal experience and observation, as to render it a veritable mine of valuable
suggestions."—British Architect.
It has little of the dryness usually associated with such books; and no
teacher can read its thoughtful pages "without imbibing many valuable ideas."—
Scottish Educational News.
" Strongly to be recommended.''—Chemical News.
" This valuable little work"—Liverpool Daily Post.
" Many of Mr. Lelands suggestions might be carried out advantageously
among the young folks in our large-towns and villages."—Northern Whig. Classical and Educational Works.
fl^inor arts anD industries.
A SERIES OF ILLUSTRATED AND PRACTICAL MANUALS FOR
SCHOOL USE AND SELF-INSTRUCTION.
Edited  by  CHARLES  G.  LELAND.
This series of manuals on " The Minor Arts and Industries" is
designed on the lines laid down in Mr. Leland's treatise on education. Each handbook will present the subject with which it deals in
a thoroughly popular and practical manner; the lessons carry the
student on his road step by step from the veriest elements to the
point where the most advanced works fitly find their place in his
course of study; in short, the greatest pains are taken to ensure a
thorough mastery of the rudiments of each subject, and to so clearly
state each lesson, illustrating it where necessary by plans and drawings, that even very young children may be interested in and trained
to practical work. On similar grounds the self-taught student will
find these manuals an invaluable aid to his studies.
Part I now ready, Paper cover, is. or in cloth, is. 6d.
DRAWING AND   DESIGNING:
IN A SERIES OF LESSONS, WITH NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS,
By CHARLES G. LELAND, M.A., F.R.L.S.
Wood Carving : with numerous illustrations, chiefly from original
designs.    By Charles G. Leland. [In the Press.
Other volumes will follow at intervals, amongst the subjects of which
may be named—
Modelling.
Leather Work.
Metal Work.
Carpentering. ■■
Whittakev and Co.'s List of
•;     GREEK AND  LATIN.
IBitiliotfieca Classtca.
A Series of Greek and Latin Authors, with English Notes,
edited by eminent Scholars.    Svo.
AESCHYLUS.    By F. A. Paley, M.A.    8s.
CICERO'S   ORATIONS.     By   G.   Long,
M.A.
2 VOls.
4 vols. Ss. each.
DEMOSTHENES.    By R. Whiston, M.A
Ss. each.
EURIPIDES.  By F. A. Paley, M.A.  3 vols. 8s. each.
HERODOTUS. By Rev.J.W.Blakesley,B.D.2vols.i2j-.
HESIOD.    By F. A. Paley, M.A.    5*.
HOMER.   By F.A. Paley, M.A.  Vol. 1.8*.  Vol. II. 6s.
HORACE.    By Rev. A. J. Macleane, M.A.    Ss.
JUVENAL   AND    PERSIUS.     By Rev. A. J.
Macleane, M.A.    6s.
LUCAN.    The Pharsalia.    By C. E. Haskins, M.A.,
and W. E. Heitland, M.A.    14s.
PLATO.    By W. H. Thompson, D.D.   2 vols. jpr. each.
SOPHOCLES. Vol. I. By Rev. F. H. Blaydes, M.A. Ss.
——— Vol. II.    Philoctetes—Electra—Ajax and Tra-
chinise.    By F. A. Paley, M.A.    6s.
TACITUS: The Annals.    By the Rev. P. Frost.    8j.
TERENCE.    By E. St. J. Parry, M.A.    9J.
VIRGIL.   By J. Conington, M.A.   3 vols. 10^. 6d. each.
%* In some cases the volumes cannot be sold separately. The
few copies that remain are reserved for complete sets, which may be
obtained, at present, for 9/. Classical and Educational Works.
Grammar Reboot Classics*
A Series of Greek and Latin Authors, with English Notes.
Fcap. Svo.
CiESAR:    DE   BELLO   GALLICO.     By  George
Long, M.A.    4s.
  Books I.-III.    For Junior Classes.    By George
Long, M.A.    is. 6d.
  Books IV. and V. in 1 vol.    is. 6d.
  Books VI. and VII. in 1 vol.    is. 6d.
CATULLUS, TIBULLUS, AND  PROPER-
TIUS.     Selected  Poems.     With Life.     By  Rev.   A.  H.
Wratislaw.    2s. 6d.
CICERO :    DE   SENECTUTE,   DE   AMICITIA,
and SELECT EPISTLES.    By George Long, M.A.    3*.
CORNELIUS   NEPOS.     By Rev.   J.  F.  Mac-
michael.    2s.-
HOMER:  ILIAD.    Books I.-XII.    By F. A. Paley,
M.A.    45-. 6d.
Books I.-VI., 2s. 6d.; Books VII.-XII., 2s. 6d.
HORACE.    With Life.     By A. J. Macleane, M.A.
3j. 6d.    In 2 Parts : Odes, 2s. ; Satires and Epistles, 2s.
JUVENAL: SIXTEEN SATIRES.    By H.  Prior,
M.A.    y. 6d.
MARTIAL:   SELECT   EPIGRAMS.     With  Life.
By F. A. Paley, M.A.    45-. 6d.
OVID :   The FASTI.    By F. A. Paley, M.A.    3*. 6d.
  Books I. and II. in 1 vol.    is. 6d.
  Books III. and IV. in 1 vol.    is. 6d.
  Books V. and VI. in 1 vol.    is. 6d.
SAL LUST: CATILINA and JUGURTHA.   With
Life.    By G. Long, M. A., and J. G. Frazer.   3s. 6d.   Catilina,
2s.    Jugurtha, 2s.
TACITUS:   GERMANIA and AGRICOLA.
Rev. P. Frost.    2s. 6d:
By SHHH3
6
Whittaker and Co.'s List of
r
VIRGIL : BUCOLICS, GEORGICS, and ^ENEID,
Books I.-IV. Abridged from Professor Conington's edition.
4f. 6d.
  ^ENEID, Books V.-XII.    4-r. 6d.
Also in 9 separate volumes, is. 6d. each.
XENOPHON: The ANABASIS. With Life. By
Rev. J. F. Macmichael.    3s. 6d.
Also in 4 separate volumes, is. 6d. each.
  The CYROP^DIA.    By G. M. Gorham, M.A.
3s. 6d.
  Books I. and II. in 1 vol.    is. 6d.
  Books V. and VI. in 1 vol.    is. 6d.
  MEMORABILIA.     By Percival Frost,  M.A.
g
A GRAMMAR-SCHOOL ATLAS OF CLASSICAL   GEOGRAPHY,  containing Ten selected Maps.
Imperial 8vo. 3J.
Uniform with the Series.
THE NEW TESTAMENT, in Greek. With
English Notes, &c. By Rev. J. F. Macmichael. 4s. 6d.
Separate parts, St. Matthew, St. Mark, St. Luke, St. John,
Acts, 6d. each, sewed.
Hotoer jTotm Series.
With Notes and Vocabularies.
ECLOGUE     LATINS ;    OR,   FIRST    LATIN
READING-BOOK, WITH ENGLISH NOTES AND A
DICTIONARY. By the late Rev. P. Frost, M.A. New
Edition.    Fcap. 8vo.    is. 6d.
LATIN VOCABULARIES FOR REPETITION. By A. M. M. Stedman, M.A. 2nd Edition,revised.
Fcap. 8vo.    is. 6d.
EASY LATIN  PASSAGES   FOR  UNSEEN
TRANSLATION. By A. M. M. Stedman, M.A. Fcap.
8vo. is. 6d. Classical and Educational Works.
VIRGIL'S ^ENEID.     Book I.   Abridged from Con-
ington's Edition by Rev. J. G. Sheppard, D.C.L.
bulary by W. F. R. Shilleto.    is. 6d.
With Voca-
[Now ready.
CffiSAR : DE BELLO GALLICO. Book I. With
Notes by George Long, M.A., and Vocabulary by W. F. R.
Shilleto.    is. 6d. [Book II. in the press.
TALES FOR LATIN PROSE COMPOSITION. With Notes and Vocabulary. By G. H. Wells,
M.A.    2s.
MATERIALS FOR LATIN PROSE COMPOSITION. By the late Rev. P. Frost, M.A. New Edition.
Fcap. 8vo.    2s.   Key (for Tutors only}, 4s.
A LATIN VERSE-BOOK. AN INTRODUCTORY WORK ON HEXAMETERS AND PENTAMETERS. By the late Rev. P. Frost, M.A. New Edition.
Fcap. 8vo.    2s.    Key (for Tutors only), Ss.
ANALECTA GR/ECA MINORA, with INTRODUCTORY SENTENCES, ENGLISH NOTES,
AND A DICTIONARY. By the late Rev. P. Frost, M.A.
New Edition.    Fcap. 8vo.    2s.
GREEK TESTAMENT SELECTIONS. By
A. M. M. Stedman, M.A.    2nd Edition, enlarged, with Notes
and Vocabulary.    Fcap. 8vo.    2s. 6d.
Cambridge Certs trritj) U3otes.
A Selection of the most usually read of the Greek and Latin
Authors, Annotated for Schools. Fcap. Svo, is. 6d.
each, with exceptions.'
EURIPIDES.     ALCESTIS —MEDEA—HIPPO-
LYTUS—HECUBA—BACCH^E—ION (2s.)—ORESTES—
PHOENISS^E—TROADES- HERCULES FURENS—
ANDROMACHE—IPHIGENIA IN TAURIS—SUP-
PLICES.    By F. A. Paley, M.A., LL.D.
^SCHYLUS. PROMETHEUS VINCTUS—
SEPTEM CONTRA THEBAS—AGAMEMNON—PERS^E
—EUMENIDES—CHCEPHOROE. By F. A. Paley, M.A.,
LL.D. ^mm
8
Whittaker and Co.'s List of
SOPHOCLES. CEDIPUSTYRANNUS—CEDIPUS
COLONEUS—ANTIGONE—ELECTRA—AJAX. By F.
A. Paley, M.A., LL.D.
THUCYDIDES.    BOOK  IV.
M.A, LL.D.
XENOPHON.     HELLENICA.
Rev. L. D. Dowdall, M.A.
By.  F.  A.   Paley,
BOOK  II.     By
 ANABASIS.    Edited by Rev. J. F. Macmichael.
New edition, revised by J. E. Melhuish, M.A. In 6 vols.
Book I. (with Life, Introduction, Itinerary, &c.); Books II.
and III. 2s. ; Book IV., Book V., Book VI., Book VII.
BOOK I.     By  F.  A.   Paley,
HOMER.     ILIAD.
M.A., LL.D.    is.
VIRGIL (abridgedfrom Conington's edition). BUCOLICS : GEORGICS, 2 parts : ^ENEID, 9 parts.
TERENCE. ANDRIA—HAUTON TIMORU-
MENOS—PHORMTO—ADELPHOE. By Professor Wagner, Ph.D.
CICERO. DE SENECTUTE—DE AMICITIA—
EPISTOLyE SELECTEE.    By G. Long, M.A.
OVID.    SELECTIONS.    By A. J. Macleane, M.A.
Others in preparation.
CamfcriDge <£teck anD Hatin Certs.
These Texts, which are clearly printed at the Cambridge University Press, on good paper, and bound in a handy form, have been
reduced in price, and will now meet the requirements of masters
who wish to use Text and Notes separately.
^SCHYLUS.    By F. A. Paley, M.A.    If
C^SAR:   DE  BELLO  GALLICO.    By G. Long,
M.A.    is. 6d.
CICERO : DE SENECTUTE et DE AMICITIA, et
EPISTOLiE SELECTEE.    By G. Long, M.A.    is. 6d. Classical and Educational Works.
CICERONIS ORATIONES.   Vol. 1 (in Verrem.)
By G. Long, M.A.    2s. 6d.
EURIPIDES.   By F. A. Paley, M.A.   3 vols., each 2s.
Vol. I. Rhesus—Medea—Hippolytus—Alcestis—
Heraclidae—Supplices—Troades—Index.
 Vol. II.   Ion—Helena—Andromache—Electra—
Bacchae—Hecuba—Index.
 Vol. III. Hercules Furens—Phcenissse—Orestes—
Iphigenia in Tauris—Iphigenia in Aulide—Cyclops—Index.
HERODOTUS.    By J. G. Blakesley, B.D.    2 vols.,
each 2J. 6d.
HOMERI   ILIAS.    I.-XII.    By F. A. Paley, M.A.
is. 6d.
HORATIUS.    By A. J. Macleane, M.A.    is. 6d.
JUVENAL ET PERSIUS.    By A. J. Macleane,
M.A.    is. 6d.
LUCRETIUS.    By H. A. J. Munro, M.A.    2s.
SALLUSTI   CRISPI   CATILINA    ET   JU-
GURTHA.    By G. Long, M.A.    is. 6d.
SOPHOCLES.    By F. A. Paley, M.A.    2s. 6d.
TERENTI  COMCEDIiE.    By W. Wagner, Ph.D.
2S,
THUCYDIDES.   By J. G. Donaldson, D.D.   2 vols.,
each 2s.
VERGILIUS.    By J. Conington, M.A.    2s.
By
XENOPHONTIS   EXPEDITIO   CYRI.
J. F. Macmichael, B.A.    is. 6d.
NOVUM    TESTAMENTUM    GR^CE.    By
F. H. Scrivener, M.A.    4s. 6d.    An edition with wide margin
for notes, half bound, 12s.
A 2 ■■	
IO
Whittaker and Co.'s List of
annotated CDitions.
CICERO'S MINOR WORKS.    De Officiis, &c. &c.
With English Notes, by W.  C. Tylor, LL.D.    i2mo. cloth,
3s. 6d.
VIRGIL'S ^ENEID. With English Notes, by
C. Anthon, LL. D. Adapted for use in English Schools by the
Rev. F. Metcalfe, M.A.    New Edition.    i2mo. 7s. 6d.
<$tnk Class 15oofcs
BEATSON'S PROGRESSIVE EXERCISES ON
THE COMPOSITION OF GREEK IAMBIC VERSE.
i2mo. cloth, 3j.
DAWSON'S   GREEK-ENGLISH   LEXICON   TO
THE NEW TESTAMENT. New Edition, by Dr. Tylor.
8vo. cloth, gs.
NOVUM TESTAMENTUM GR^CE.    Textus
Stephanici, I55°- Accedunt varise Lectiones editionum Bezse,
Elzeviri, Lachmanni, Tischendorfii, Tregellesii, curante
F. H. Scrivener, M.A. 4s-. 6d. An Edition with wide margin
for MS. Notes, 4to. half-bound morocco, 12s.
—  Textus Stephanici, a.d. 1550, Cum variis Lec-
tionibus Editionum Bezse, Elzeviri, Lachmanni, Tischendorfii,
Tregellesii, Westcott-Hortii, Versionis Anglicanae Emendato-
rum, Curante F. H. A. Scrivener, A.M., D.C.L., LL.D.,
Accedunt Parallela S. Scripturse Loca. Small post 8vo. cloth,
pp. xvL-598, Js. 6d-
Editio Major containing, in addition to the matter in the
other Edition, the Capitula {majora et minora) and the Eusebian
Canons, the various Readings of Westcott and Hort, and those
adopted by the Revisers ; also a revised and much-enlarged series
of References.
  VALPY'S.     For the use of Schools.
i2mo.
cloth, $s.
  Edited
School Classics.
by Rev.   Macmichael.     See Grammar Classical and Educational Works.
II
^tutients' Coitions of tbe Gospels ana
tfre acts, **'
Crown Svo. cloth.
THE   GOSPEL   OF    S.   MATTHEW.     The
Greek Text, with Critical, Grammatical, and Explanatory
Notes, &c, by the late Rev. W. Trollope, M.A., re-edited by
the Rev. W. H. Rowlandson, M.A.    $s.
GOSPEL OF  S. MARK.    The Greek Text, with
Critical, Grammatical, and Explanatory Notes, Prolegomena,
&c, by Rev. W. H. Rowlandson, M.A.    4s. 6d.
GOSPEL OF S. LUKE. The Greek Text, with
Critical, Grammatical, and Explanatory Notes, &c., by the late
Rev. W. Trollope, M.A., revised and re-edited by the Rev.
W. H. Rowlandson, M.A.    $s.
ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. The Greek Text,
with Critical, Grammatical, and Explanatory Notes, and Examination Questions, by Rev. W. Trollope, M.A., re-edited and
revised by the Rev. G. F. Browne, M.A.    5J-
Latin Class IBooks.
BEDFORD'S   PROPRIA QU^E  MARIBUS;    or,
Short Rules for the Genders of Latin Nouns, and a Latin
Prosody.     l2mo. is.
BOSSUT'S LATIN WORD BOOK; or, First Step
to the Latin Language.    i8mo. is.
  LATIN  PHRASE  BOOK.    i8mo. 1*.
FLORILEGIUM  POETICUM.    A Selection of
Elegiac Extracts from Ovid and Tibullus.    New edition, greatly
- enlarged with English Notes.    By the late Rev. P. Frost, M.A.
Fcap. 8vo. 2s.
GRADUS AD PARNASSUM ; sivenovus sinony-
morum, epithetorum, versuum, ac phrasium poeticarum,
thesaurus.    Neiv edition.    By G. Pyper.    i2mo. cloth, 7.?.
  BY VALPY.    Whittaker's  Improved edition.
Latin and English.    New edition.    Royal i2mo. Js. 6d. 12
Whittaker and Co.'s List of
STODDART'S NEW DELECTUS; or, Easy Steps
to Latin Construing. For the use of Pupils commencing the
Language. Adapted to the best Latin Grammars, with a
Dictionary attached.    New edition.    i2mo. 4s.
PENROSE'S (REV. JOHN) Easy Exercises in
Latin Elegiac Verse.    New edition.    i2mo. cloth, 2s.
 Key to ditto, for Tutors only, 3^. 6d.
Atlases.
LONG'S ATLAS OF CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY.
Containing Twenty-four Maps. Constructed by William
Hughes, F.R.G.S., and Edited by George Long, M.A. New
edition, with Coloured Outlines, and an Index of Places.
Royal 8vo. 6s.
LONG'S GRAMMAR SCHOOL ATLAS OF CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY. Containing Ten Maps, selected from
the larger Atlas. Constructed by W. Hughes, F. R.G.S., and
edited by George Long, M.A. New edition, with Coloured
Outlines.    Royal 8vo. 3s.
<£nglis& Language anD miscellaneous.
ALLEN     AND      CORNWELL'S     SCHOOL
GRAMMAR.    Cloth, is gd.
  GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.    Cloth, is.
BELL'S MODERN READER AND SPEAKER. A
Selection of Poetry and Prose, from the Writings of Eminent
Authors.    i2mo. 3s. 6d.
DUNCAN'S ENGLISH EXPOSITOR; or, Explanatory Spelling-book. Containing an Alphabetical Collection of
all the most useful, proper, and elegant words in the English
language, divided into Syllables, and properly accented. New
edition.    l2mo. is. 6d.
LATHAM'S (R.   G.)   DICTIONARY   OF   THE
ENGLISH LANGUAGE.   Abridged and condensed into one
volume     8vo. cloth, 14 c. Classical and Educational Works.
13
MACKAY (C.) A DICTIONARY OF LOWLAND
SCOTCH. By Charles Mackay, LL.D. With an Introductory Chapter on the Poetry, Humour, and Literary History of
the Scottish Language, and an Appendix of Scottish Proverbs.
Large post Svo. cloth, Js. 6d. half bound, 8s. 6d.
  SELECTED POEMS AND SONGS OF
CHARLES MACKAY, LL.D. With a Commendatory and
Critical Introduction by Eminent Writers. Wide foolscap 8vo.
half cloth boards, is. 6d.    Sewed, ill
WEBSTER'S DICTIONARY OF THE ENGLISH
LANGUAGE. Including Scientific, Technical, and Biblical
Words and Terms. New edition, with Supplement of over
4,600 New Words and Meanings. 4to. cloth, il. is.; half-calf,
1/ 10s.   With Appendices, £1 us. 6d. ; half-calf, 2/.
SHAKESPEARE'S PLAYS, with Text and Intro-
duct ion in English and German. Edited by C. Sachs, Prof.
Ph  D.    8vo. cloth, each Play or Number, lod.
Now Ready:
I.
Julius Caesar.
10. King Richard II.
2
Romeo and Juliet.
11. King Henry IV.    I.
1
King Henry VIII
12.         „        „          II.
4-
King Lear.
13. King Henry V.
5
Othello
14. King Richard III.
6.
Hamlet.
15. Cymbeline.
7
A Midsummer Ni
ght's
16. Coriolanus.
Dream.
17. Antony and Cleopatra.
8.
Macbeth.
18. Merchant of Venice.
9-
King John.
19. Much Ado about Nothing
Others t
0 follow.
" This edition will be quite a godsend to grown-up students of either
language, for the ordinary class_ reading books are too childish to arrest
their attention. The parallel paging saves the labour of using a dictionary,
and the series is so low in price as to place it within the reach of all."
Saturday Review.
SHAKESPEARE REPRINTS. 1. King Lear.
Parallel Texts of Quarto 1 and Folio 1. Edited by Dr. W.
Vietor, of Marburg.    Square i6mo. cloth, 3s. 6d.
The texts of the first quarto and folio, with collations from the_
later quartos and folios, are here printed in a compact and convenient volume, intended as a class-book in the University. 14
Whittaker and Co.'s List of
Miscellaneous CDucational TBoofes.
SEIDEL (ROBT.) INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION j
A Pedagogic and Social Necessity.    Crown 8vo. 4s.
WOODWARD (CM.) THE MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOL, ITS AIMS, METHODS, AND RESULTS.
With Figured Drawings of Shop Exercises in Woods and Metals.
8vo. ioj.
BIBLIOGRAPHY  OF  EDUCATION.    Hints
toward a Select and Descriptive Bibliography of Education.
Arranged by Topics, and Indexed by Authors.    By G. Stanley
-Hall,   Professor,  John   Hopkins   University,  and   John   M.
Mansfield.    Post 8vo. cloth, pp. xvi.-309, Js. 6d.
CHEPMELL'S (REV. DR.) SHORT COURSE
OF GRECIAN, ROMAN, AND ENGLISH HISTORY.
New edition.    i2mo. $s.    Questions on, i2mo. is.
COLTON (B. P.)    ELEMENTARY COURSE OF
PRACTICAL ZOOLOGY. By B. P. Colton, A.M., Instructor
in Biology, Ottawa High School. Crown 8vo. cloth, pp. xiv.-
182, 45-. 6d.
CORNWELL'S SCHOOL GEOGRAPHY,    ss. 6d.
With Thirty Maps on Steel, $s. 6d.
   GEOGRAPHY    FOR    BEGINNERS.       Is,
With Questions, is. 4^.
DURHAM UNIVERSITY CALENDAR, with
Almanack.    Cloth, is, 6d.
[Published annually.
JOYCE (P. W.)   A HANDBOOK  OF  SCHOOL
MANAGEMENT   AND   METHODS   OF  TEACHING.
By P. W. Joyce, LL.D., &c.  nth edition, revised. Cloth, 3s. 6d.
A  NATURE   READER.    Seaside and Wayside.
By Julia McNair Wright. Cloth, is. 6d.
An elementary Reader for young children, designed to instil
a love of Natural History. It treats of crabs, wasps, spiders,
bees, and some univalve molluscs. Classical and Educational Works.
15
PINNOCK'S   HISTORY OF  ENGLAND.     From
the Invasion of Julius Caesar. With a Biographical and Historical Dictionary. Questions for Examination, Genealogical
Tables, Progress of Literature and the Constitution, &c. Illus-
ted. Continued by the Rev W. H. Pinnock, LL.D. New
edition.    121110 6s.
  HISTORY OF GREECE.    With an Introduc
tion on the Natural and Political Geography of Greece, Dictionary of Difficult Terms, Questions for Examination, Genealogical Tables, &c.    Illustrated.    By Dr. W. C. Taylor.    New
edition.
121110.   5-S
6d.
tion,
HISTORY OF ROME. With an Introduc-
the Geography of the Roman Empire, Notices of the
Roman Manners, and Illustrations, Questions for Examination,
Chronological Index, &c Illustrated. By Dr. W. C. Taylor.
New edition.    i2mo. $s. 6d.
PINNOCK'S CATECHISMS OF THE ARTS,
SCIENCES, AND LITERATURE Whittaker's Improved
Editions. Illustrated with Maps, Plates, and Woodcuts, carefully re-edited     18mo. price gd. each.
HISTORY.—Modern—Ancient—Universal—Bible and Gospel—Scripture— Chronology— England—Scotland— France—
America—Rome—Greece—Jews.
GEOGRAPHY.—Ancient—Modern, Improved Edition—
Modern, Original Edition—Sacred—England and Wales—Use
of the Globes.
GRAMMAR —English—French—German— Italian— Latin
—Spanish—Greek : Part I. Accidence. Part II. Syntax and
Prosody—Hebrew.
MATHEMATICS, &c—Algebra (two Parts)—Arithmetic
—Geometry—Navigation—Land Surveying
RELIGION.—Religion—Natural Theology—Scripture History—Bible and Gospel History.
FINE ARTS, &c.—Architecture—Drawing—Perspective—
Music—Singing.
LITERATURE.— Mythology— Rhetoric— Logic— British
Biography—Classical Biography.
MISCELLANEOUS.—First Catechism—General Knowledge—Intellectual Philosophy—Agriculture—English Law—
Heraldry—Medicine—Moral and Social Duties—Trade and
Commerce. 16
Whittaker and Co.'s List of
SCHLEYER'S GRAMMAR, with Vocabularies of
Volapuk (the Language of the World), for all Speakers of the
English Language. Second (greatly Revised) Edition. By
W. A. Seret, Certificated Teacher of the Universal Language.
Crown 8vo. pp. 420, sewed, 5.5-. 6d. ; cloth, 6s. 6d.
SHUMWAY(E.S.) A DAY IN ANCIENT ROME.
With numerous Illustrations.    By Edgar S.  Shumway,  Professor, Rutger's College, New Brunswick.   Small 4to. cloth, $s.
WATTON'S ORIGINAL AIDS TO EDUCATION.
Hand-series of Tablets, in Stiff Covers, 3d. each.
Leading Events of General History.
Chief Events of Old Testament
History.
Chief Events of New Testament
History.
Prophecies and other Scripture
Subjects.
Chief Events of Grecian History.
■Ghief Events of Roman History.
Chief Events of Eastern Empire.
Chief Events of German History.
Chief Events of English History.
Chief English Battles and Results.
Chief Events of Scottish History.
Chief Events of French History.
Chief Events of Prussian History.
Chief Events of Russian History.
Eminent Men of Modem Times.
Chief Events of Church History.
Natural System of Botany.
The Linnsean System of Botany.
Natural History—Zoology.
Natural Philosophy.
Principles of Grammatical Analysis, with Examples.
Guide to English Parsing, with
Examples.
Abstract of Heathen Mythology.
Word Formation—Saxon, Latin, and Greek Prefixes, with
Examples.
Chief Grecian and Roman Battles
and Results.
LARGE TYPE SERIES OF TABLETS
(20 by 23 inches), embracing Historical, Geographical, and other
Subjects, 4d. each, for suspension.
WATTON'S  SKELETON EXERCISE BOOKS.
For History, Geography, Biography, Analysis, Parsing, and
Chronology, with Script Headings and Specimen Page.    Price
regulated by the thickness of the books, is. and 2s. each.
Also now ready, a filled Biographical Exercise Book, 2 Series, each is.
Charts systematically arranged with date word?, 60 pages,
cloth, is.    Selected Descriptive Poetry,  is.
Object Lessons, Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4, 32 pp., in stiff covers, 2d. each. Classical and Educational Works.
17
§>ci)ool ant) (Hntoersitp analyses*
By the Rev. Dr. Pinnock.
AN ANALYSIS OF SCRIPTURE HIS-
TORY; Intended for Readers of Old Testament History, and
the University Examinations; with Maps, Copious Index, and
Examination Questions.    i8mo. cloth, 3s. 6d.
AN   ANALYSIS   OF   NEW TESTAMENT
HISTORY; Embracing the Criticism and Interpretation of
the original Text; with Questions for Examination. 18mo.
cloth, 4s.
AN    ANALYSIS    OF    ECCLESIASTICAL
HISTORY; From the Birth of Christ, to the Council of
Nice, A.D. 325. With Examination Questions. i8mo. cloth,
3s. 6d.
ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH  CHURCH HIS-
TORY ; comprising the Reformation period, and subsequent
events; with Questions of Examination, especially intended for
the Universities and Divinity Students in general. i8mo. cloth,
4s. 6d.
A SHORT ANALYSIS OF OLD TESTAMENT HISTORY. With Questions for Schools. i8mo.
cloth, is. 6d.
A SHORT ANALYSIS OF NEW TESTAMENT HISTORY. With Questions for Schools. i8mo.
cloth, is. 6d.
arithmetic ann CucliD.
PINNOCK'S ARITHMETICAL TABLES OF
MONEY, WEIGHTS, AND MEASURES. With Questions
for Examination, and Explanatory Notes, &c.    i8mo. 3d.
    FIRST   CIPHERING   BOOK.     Containing
Easy Exercises in the First Rules of Arithmetic.   4to. sewed, is.
RYAN'S    CIVIL    SERVICE    ARITHMETICAL
EXAMINATION PAPERS.    By L. J. Ryan.    Cloth, 2s.
  Key to Ditto,    is. 6d. i8
Whittaker and Co.'s List of
SONNENSCHEIN AND        NESBITT'S
ARITHMETIC. ThcScience and Art of Arithmetic for the
use of Schools. Post 8vo. $s. 6d. Or separately, Part I.—
Integral. 2s. 6d. Parts II. and III.—Fractional and Approximate Calculations. 3s. 6d. Answers to the Exercises, is. 6d.
Exercises separately.    Part I.    is.   Parts II. and III.    is. 3d.
  A B C OF ARITHMETIC.    Teacher's Book,
Nos. 1 and 2, each is.    Exercise Book, Nos. I and 2, each 4d.
WALKINGAME'S TUTOR        ASSISTANT
(FRASER'S). Being a Compendium of Arithmetic and a
Complete Question Book.    i2mo. 2s.    Key, 3J.
EUCLID, THE FIRST BOOK OF. With an In-
traduction and Collection of Problems for the use of Schools.
By J. M. Wilson, M.A.    2nd edition. 4to. 2s.
EUCLID, THE FIRST SIX BOOKS, together with
the ELEVENTH and TWELFTH. From the Text of Dr.
Simson. New edition, revised and corrected by S. Maynard.
i8mo. 4s.
MODERN  LANGUAGES.
jfrenci).
BARRERE (A.) PROFESSOR, R.M.A. Woolwich.
    RECITS    MILITAIRES.      Selections   from
modern French authors, with short biographical introductions
in French, and English notes for the use of army students and
others.    Crown 8vo.    3-r.
  PRECIS   OF    COMPARATIVE   FRENCH
GRAMMAR AND IDIOMS, and Guide to Examinations.
Cloth.    Second edition, revised, 3s. 6d.
 JUNIOR GRADUATED FRENCH COURSE
affording materials for Translation, Grammar, and Conversation. Being an introduction to the Graduated French Course.
Cloth, is. 6d.
  ELEMENTS    OF    FRENCH    GRAMMAR
AND FIRST STEPS IN IDIOMS. With numerous
Exercises and a Vocabulary, being an Introduction to the
Precis of Comparative French Grammar. Crown 8vo. cloth, 2s. Classical and Educational Works.
19
BELLENGER'S MODERN FRENCH CONVER-
SATION. Containing Elementary Phrases and New Easy
Dialogues, in French and English, on the most familiar subjects.    i2mo. 2J. 6d.
BOSSUT'S   FRENCH  WORD  BOOK.   i8mo. is.
FRENCH  PHRASE  BOOK.    i8mo. is.
BOWER. PUBLIC EXAMINATION FRENCH
READER. With a Vocabulary to every extract, suitable for
all Students who are preparing for a French Examination. By
A. M. Bower, F.R.G.S., late Master in University College
School, &c.    Cloth, 3s. 6d.
"The book is a very practical and useful one, and it must prove very handy
for students who are preparing for a French examination, the persons for whose
special aid it has been specially provided. It would also serve admirably for use
in schools as a class book."— Schoolmaster.
DE LILLE'S FRENCH GRAMMAR. In Two
Parts. I.—Accidence. II.—Syntax, written in French, with
Exercises conducive to the speaking of the French Language,
&c.    l2mo. 5j. 6d.    Key, 3s.
  EASY   FRENCH   POETRY   FOR   BEGIN
NERS ; or, Short Selections in Verse on a Graduated Plan for
the Memory.    With English Notes.    i2mo. 2s.
DELILLE'S MODELES DE POESIE FRANCAIS.
With Treatise on French Versification. New edition. i2mo.
6s.
  REPERTOIRE DES PROSATEURS FRAN-
CAIS.     With   Biographical   Sketches,   &c.     New   edition,
i2mo. dr. 6d.
MANUEL ETYMOLOGIQUE;  or, an Inter-
pretative Index of the most recurrent Words in the French
Language.    i2mo. 2s. 6d.
  BEGINNER'S OWN FRENCH  BOOK.
Being a Practical and Easy Method of Learning the Elements
of the French Language.    121110. cloth, 2s.    Key, 2s.
DES   CARRIERES'   FRENCH   IDIOMATICAL
PHRASES   AND   FAMILIAR   DIALOGUES.     Square,
V. 6d. 20
Whittaker and Co.'s List of
' u
DES   CARRIERES'  HISTOIRE DE FRANCE,
DEPUIS L'ETABLISSEMENT DE LA MONARCHIE.
Continuee jusqu'au retablissement de l'Empire sous Napoleon
III., par C. J. Delille.    i2mo. Is.
DUVERGERS COMPARISON BETWEEN THE
IDIOMS, GENIUS, AND PHRASEOLOGY OF THE
FRENCH AND ENGLISH LANGUAGES. New edition.
i2mo. 4s. 6d.
GASC (F. E. A.) AN IMPROVED MODERN
POCKET DICTIONARY OF THE FRENCH AND
ENGLISH LANGUAGES. New edition. i6mo. cloth,
2s. 6d.    Also in 2 vols, in neat leatherette, %s.
  MODERN FRENCH-ENGLISH AND ENGLISH-FRENCH DICTIONARY. New edition, revised.
In 1 vol. 8vo. icy. 6d.
HAMEL'S NEW UNIVERSAL FRENCH GRAMMAR.    New Edition.    i2mo. 4s.
  GRAMMATICAL EXERCISES UPON THE
FRENCH LANGUAGE.   New edition.   i2mo. 4s.   Key, 3*.
  FRENCH GRAMMAR  AND EXERCISES.
New edition.    i2mo. $s. 6d.    Key, 4s.
LEVIZAC'S  DICTIONARY OF THE FRENCH
AND ENGLISH LANGUAGES.   New edition, by N. Lambert.    i2mo. 6s. 6d.
NUGENT'S  POCKET  DICTIONARY  OF THE
FRENCH AND ENGLISH LANGUAGES.   New edition,
revised by J. C. J. Tarver.    Pearl edition, 4s. 6d.
OLLENDORFS (Dr. H. G.) NEW METHOD
OF LEARNING TO READ, WRITE, AND SPEAK
A LANGUAGE IN SIX MONTHS. Adapted to the
French.    New edition.    i2mo. 6s. 6d.    Key, 8vo. Js.
PRACTICAL COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE.   See Miscellaneous. Classical and Educational Works.
21
(KHfnttafcer's jFrencfc Series.
For the use of Schools and Private Students. Edited by
A. Barrere, Prof. R.M.A. Woolwich, &c, and others. Each
number with a literary Introduction and Arguments in English,
foot-notes explaining the more difficult passages, and translations
of the idiomatic expressions into the corresponding English idioms.
Fcap. 8vo, each number, sewed, 6d. ; cloth, gd.
Now Ready:—
1. SCRIBE.    LE VERRE D'EAU.    Barrere.
2. MOLIERE.    LE BOURGEOIS GENTILHOMME.
MOLIERE.    L'AVARE.    Gasc.
SOUVESTRE.    SOUS LA TONNELLE.    Desages.
MOLIERE.    LE MISANTHROPE.    Gasc.
GALLAND.    ALI   BABA.    Clare.
7. CORNEILLE.    LE CID.    Gasc.
8, 9. LAMARTINE.    JEANNE  D'ARC.    Barrere.
10, 11. PIRON.    LA  METROMANIE.    Delbos.
Others to follow.
Gasc.
ftatnttaker's jfrencfc Classics, tott&
(Snglisi) jRotes.
Fcap. Svo. cloth.
AVENTURES DE TELEMAQUE.    Par Fene-
lon.   New edition.   Edited and revised by C J. Delille.  2s. 6d.
HISTOIRE DE CHARLES XII.    Par Voltaire.
New edition.    Edited and revised by L. Direy.    u. 6d.
PICCIOLA.   ParX. B. Saintine.   New edition. Edited
and revised by Dr. Dubuc.    is. 6d.
SELECT FABLES OF LA FONTAINE. New
edition.    Edited by F. Gasc, M.A.    is. 6d. 22
Whittaker and Co.'s List of
UMbimkzfs Scries of egoDern jFtencJ
3Utf)Ot0.
WITH INTRODUCTION AND NOTES.
For Beginners.
LA BELLE NIVERNAISE.   Histoire d'un vieux
bateau et de son equipage. By Alphonse Daudet. With 6
illustrations. Edited by James Boielle, Senior French Master
at Dulwich College.    2s. 6d. [Ready.
For Advanced Students.
BUG   JARGAL.      By  Victor  Hugo.      Edited by
James Boielle, Senior French Master at Dulwich College.    3s.
Others to follow
[Ready.
German.
FLU GEL'S COMPLETE DICTIONARY OF THE
GERMAN AND ENGLISH LANGUAGES. Comprising
the German and English, and English and German. Adapted
to the English Student, with great Additions and Improvements.
By C. A. Feiling, A. Hermann, and J. Oxenford. New edition.
2 vols. 8vo. 1/. is.
  ABRIDGED    GERMAN   AND   ENGLISH,
AND ENGLISH AND GERMAN DICTIONARY.
Carefully compiled from the larger Dictionary. By C. A. Feiling and J. Oxenford.    New edition.    Royal i8mo. 6s.
GRENFELL'S ELEMENTARY GERMAN EXERCISES. Part I. Adapted to the Rugby School German
Accidence.    121110. is. 6d.
OLLENDORFF'S (Dr. H. S). NEW METHOD
OF LEARNING TO READ, WRITE, AND SPEAK A
LANGUAGE IN SIX MONTHS. Adapted to the German.
New edition.    Crown 8vo. fs.    Key, 8vo. js. Classical and Educational Works. 23
SHELDON (E.S.) A SHORT GERMAN GRAMMAR FOR HIGH SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES. Crown
8vo. 3^.
WHITTAKER'S   COURSE   OF    MODERN
GERMAN. By F. Lange, Ph.D., Professor, R.M.A. Woolwich, Examiner in German to the College of Preceptors, London;
Examiner in German at the Victoria University, Manchester,
and J. F. Davis, M!A., D.Lit.    Extra fcap. 8vo. cloth.
A CONCISE GERMAN GRAMMAR. With especial reference to Phonology, Comparative Philology, English and German Correspondences, and Idioms. By Frz. Lange, Ph.D.,
Professor at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich. In three
Parts. Part I., Elementary, 2s. Part II., Intermediate, 2s.
Part III. complete.
ELEMENTARY GERMAN READER. A Graduated Collection of Readings in Prose and Poetry. With English Notes
and a Vocabulary.    By F. Lange, Ph.D.    is. 6d.
ADVANCED GERMAN READER. A Graduated Collection
of Readings in Prose and Poetry. With English Notes and a
Vocabulary. By F. Lange, Ph.D. and J. F. Davis, M.A.,
D.Lit. [Nearly ready.
PROGRESSIVE GERMAN EXAMINATION
COURSE. In Three Parts. By F. Lange, Ph.D., Prof.
R.M.A., Woolwich, Examiner in German to the College of
Preceptors.
Comprising the Elements of German Grammar, an Historical
Sketch of the Teutonic Languages, English and German Correspondences, Materials for Translation, Dictation, Extempore,
Conversation and complete Vocabularies.
1. ELEMENTARY COURSE.    Cloth, 2 c
2. INTERMEDIATE COURSE.    Cloth, 2s.
3. ADVANCED COURSE.  Second revised edition. Cloth,
is. 6d.
"We cordially commend it as a useful help to examiners, who will find it well
adapted to theirjieeds."—Practical Teacher. 24
Whittaker and Co.'s List of
IE
I
German Classics, toitb Cnrjltsb Botes.
./fo^. 8w. cloth,
GERMAN BALLADS. From Uhland, Goethe,
and Schiller. With Introductions to each Poem, copious
Explanatory Notes, and Biographical Notices. By C. Bielefeld.
I j. 6d.
GOETHE'S HERMANN AND DOROTHEA.
With Short Introduction, Argument, and Notes Critical and
Explanatory.   By Ernest Bell and E. Wolfel.    is. 6d.
SCHILLER'S MAID OF ORLEANS,
duction and Notes.    By Dr. Wagner,    is. 6d.
With Intro-
  MARIA STUART.     With
Notes.    By V. Kastner, M.A.    is, 6d.
Introduction and
  WALLENSTEIN.      Complete   Text.      New
edition. With Notes, Arguments^ and an Historical and
Critical Introduction. By C. A. Buchheim, Professor, Ph. D.,
Ss. Or separately—Part I.—THE LAGER AND DIE PIC-
COLOMINI. 2s. 6d. Part II.— WALLENSTEIN'S TOD.
2s. 6d.
OH&ittaker'is %txm of s^otiern German
authors.
With Introduction and Notes.  Edited by F. Lange, Ph.D.,
Professor, Royal Military Academy, Woolwich.
The attention of the heads of Colleges and Schools is respectfully
directed to this new Series of "Modern German Authors
which is intended to supply the much-felt want* of suitable Reading
Books for English Students of German who have passed through
the preliminary stages of fables and anecdotes.
To those who wish to extend their linguistic and grammatical Classical and Educational Works. 25
knowledge, these volumes will afford, in one respect, a great
advantage over those of an earlier period, presenting, as they do,
the compositions of the best living, or only recently deceased
authors. The Notes, besides etymological and other explanations,
will contain many useful idiomatic expressions suggested by the text,
and worth committing to memory.
FIRST SERIES.
For Beginners. Edited, with a Grammatical Introduction,
Notes, and a Vocabulary, by F. Lange, Ph. D., Professor, R. M.A.
Woolwich, Examiner in German to the College of Preceptors,
and H.  Hager, Ph.D., Examiner in German to the London
University.
HEY'S  FABELN FUR KINDER.    Illustrated by O. Speckter.
Edited, with an Introduction, Grammatical Summary, Words,
and a complete Vocabulary.    By F. Lange, Ph.D., Professor.
is. 6d.
The Same, with a Phonetic Introduction, Phonetic Transcription of
the Text.    By F. Lange, Professor, Ph.D.    2s.
SECOND SERIES.
For Intermediate Students. Edited, with a Biographical Introduction, Notes, and a complete vocabulary, by F.
Lange, Ph.D., Professor, and H. Hager, Ph.D.
DOKTOR WESPE. Lustspiel in funf Aufzugen von JULIUS
RODERICH BENEDIX. Edited by F. Lange, Ph.D.,
Professor.    2s. 6d.
SCHILLER'S JUGENDJAHRE. Erzahlung von FRZ. HOFFMANN.   Edited by H. Hager, Ph.D., Professor.   [Inthepress.
THIRD SERIES.
For Advanced Students. Edited, with a Literary Introduction and Notes, by F. Lange, Ph.D., Professor, R.M.A.
Woolwich, in co-operation with F. Storr, B.A. ; A. A. Mac-
donell, M.A. ; H. Hager, Ph.D. ; C. Neuhaus, Ph.D. and
others.
MEISTER MARTIN, der Kufner. Erzahlung von E. T. A. Hoffman. Edited by F. Lange, Ph.D., Professor, Royal Military
Academy, Woolwich,    is. 6d. 26
Whittaker and Co.'s List of
HANS LANGE. Schauspiel von Paul Heyse. Edited by A. A.
Macdonell, M.A., Ph.D., Taylorian Teacher, University,
Oxford.    2s.
AUF WACHE. NovellevonBertholdAuerbach. DER GEFRO-
RENE KUSS. Novelle von Otto Roquette. Edited by
A. A. Macdonell, M.A.    2s.
DER BIBLIOTHEKAR. Lustspiel von G. von Moser. Edited
by F. Lange, Ph.D.    Second revised Edition.    2s.
EINE FRAGE. Idyll von George Ebers. Edited by F. Storr,
B.A., Chief Master of Modern Subjects in Merchant Taylor's
School.    2s.
DIE JOURNALISTEN. Lustspiel von Gustav Freytag. Edited
by Professor F. Lange, Ph.D.   Second revised Edition.   2s. 6d,
ZOPF UND SCHWERT. Lustspiel von Karl Gutzkow. Edited
by Professor F. Lange, Ph. D.    2s. 6d.
GERMAN EPIC TALES IN PROSE. I. Die Nibelungen,
von A. F. C. Vilmar.—II. Walther und Hildegund, von Albert
Richter. Edited by Karl Neuhaus, Ph.D., the International
College, Isleworth.    2s. 6d.
Jtaiian,
BARETTFS DICTIONARY OF THE ENGLISH
AND ITALIAN LANGUAGES. To which is prefixed an
Italian and English Grammar. New Edition, entirely rewritten. By G. Comelati and J. Davenport. 2 vols. 8vo.
1/. is.
GRAGLIA'S NEW POCKET DICTIONARY OF
THE ITALIAN AND ENGLISH LANGUAGES. With
considerable Additions, and a Compendious Elementary Italian
Grammar.    181110. 4^. 6d.
OLLENDORFF'S (DR. H. G.) NEW METHOD
OF LEARNING TO READ, WRITE, AND SPEAK A
LANGUAGE IN SIX MONTHS. Adapted to the Italian.
New Edition.    Crown 8vo: "js.    Key, 8vo. 7^.
SOAVE'S   NOVELLE   MORALE     New   Edition.
121110.  AS. Classical and Educational Works.
27
VENERONI'S   COMPLETE   ITALIAN   GRAMMAR.    By P. Rosteri.    i2mo. 6s.
VERGANI AND PIRANESI'S ITALIAN AND
ENGLISH GRAMMAR. With Exercises, &c. By J.
Guichet. New edition, by Signor A. Tommasi. i2mo. $s-
Key, 3j.
iRu0Bian4
DOLBESHOFF (E.) A DICTIONARY OF THE
RUSSIAN AND ENGLISH LANGUAGES. In two
volumes. Vol. I. Russian-English. Vol. II. English-Russian.
Compiled by E. Dolbeshoff in co-operation with C. E. Turner,
Professor of English Language and Literature at the University,
St. Petersburg. [Preparing.
§>pam$J).
NEUMAN AND BARETTI'S SPANISH AND
ENGLISH, AND ENGLISH AND SPANISH DICTIONARY. Revised and enlarged by M. Seoane, M.D.
2 vols. 8vo. 1/. Ss.
  POCKET DICTIONARY.    Spanish and Eng-
lish,  and  English and Spanish.     Compiled from the larger
work.    i8mo. Ss-
OLLENDORFF'S (DR. H. G.) NEW METHOD
OF LEARNING TO READ, WRITE, AND SPEAK A
LANGUAGE IN SIX MONTHS. Adapted to the Spanish.
New edition.    8vo. 12s.    Key, 8vo. Js.
PONCE   DE    LEON'S    ENGLISH - SPANISH
TECHNOLOGICAL DICTIONARY.     8vo.   il.   16s.     See
page 31. 28
Whittaker and Co.'s List of
Ipractical mercantile CorresponDence,
A Collection of Commercial Letters and Forms, with Notes,
Explanatory and Grammatical, and a Vocabulary of Commercial
Terms, edited by L. Simon, Chr. Vogel, Ph.D., H. P. Skelton,
W. C. Wrankmore, Leland Mason, and others. Intended as Class
Books for Schools and for Self-Instruction.
Now Ready, crown Svo, cloth:
ENGLISH, with German Notes, 3-y.
GERMAN, with English Notes, 3s.
ENGLISH, with French Notes, 4s. 6d.
FRENCH, with English Notes, 4*. 6d.
This new Collection of Model Letters and Epistolary Forms
embraces the whole sphere of Commercial Transactions. Each
example is provided with such remarks and explanations, that any
one with a fair grammatical knowledge of the particular language
will find it an easy matter to prepare, a well-expressed letter.
Cfje Specialist's Series*
A  New Series of Handbooks for Students and Practical
Engineers.    Crown Svo.     With many Illustrations.
GAS ENGINES. Their Theory and Management.
By William Macgregor. With 7 Plates. Crown 8vo. pp. 245,
Ss. 6d.
BALLOONING: A Concise Sketch of its History and
Principles. From the best sources, Continental and English.
By  G.   May.    With  Illustrations.     Crown 8vo.   pp. vi.-97,
G.
2s. 6d.
ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION OF ENERGY,
and its Transformation, Subdivision, and Distribution. A
Practical Handbook by Gisbert Kapp, C.E., Associate Member
of the Institution of Civil Engineers, &c. With 119 Illustrations.    Crown 8vo. pp. xL-331.    Second Edition.    7s. 6d.
ARC AND GLOW LAMPS. A Practical Handbook on Electric Lighting. By Julius Maier, Ph.D., Assoc.
Soc. Tel. Eng., &c. With ^S Illustrations. Crown 8vo. pp.
viii. -376.    7.5-. 6d. Classical and Educational Works.
29
ON THE CONVERSION   OF HEAT INTO
WORK. A Practical Handbook on Heat-Engines. By
William Anderson, M. Inst. C.E. With 64 Illustrations.
Pp. viii. -254.    Second Edition.    Cr. 8vo. 6s.
SEWAGE TREATMENT, PURIFICATION
AND UTILIZATION; A Practical Manual for the Use of
Corporations, Local Boards, Officers of Health, Inspectors of
Nuisances, Chemists, Manufacturers, Riparian Owners, Engineers and Ratepayers. By J. W. Slater, F.E.S., Editor of
"Journal of Science."    Crown 8vo. cloth, price 6s.
THE TELEPHONE. By W. H. Preece, F.R.S.,
and J. Maier, Ph.D. With numerous illustrations. Cr. 8vo.
12j. 6d.
MANURES,  OR   THE   PHILOSOPHY   OF
MANURING. By Dr. A. B. Griffiths, F.R.S.Ed., F.C.S.,
Principal and Lecturer on Chemistry in the School of Science,
Lincoln, &c, &c.    Cr. 8vo. ys. 6d.
HYDRAULIC MOTORS: TURBINES AND
PRESSURE MOTORS. By George R. Bodmer, Assoc.
M.Inst.C.E.   14s.
ALTERNATING CURRENTS OF ELECTRICITY. By Thomas H. Blakesley, M.A., M.Inst.C.E.
4s. 6d.
In preparation.
GALVANIC   BATTERIES.    By Professor George Forbes,
M.A.
INDUCTION COILS. By Professor A. J. Fleming, M.A.,
D.Sc.
THE  DYNAMO.    By Guy C. Fricker.
Others to follow.
NIPHER (F. E.) THEORY OF MAGNETIC
MEASUREMENTS, WITH AN APPENDIX ON THE
METHOD OF LEAST SQUARES. One volume. Crown
8vo. cloth, 5j.
PLANTE (G.) THE STORAGE OF ELECTRI-
CAL ENERGY, and Researches in the Effects created by Currents combining Quantity with High Tension. Translated from
the French by Paul Bedford Elwell. With Portrait, and 89
Illustrations.    8vo. pp. vii.-268, cloth, 12s. 30
Whittaker and Co.'s List of
Small crown Svo. cloth.     With many Illustrations.
(RHtjittaker's llibrarp of arts, Sciences,
manufactures anti UnDustries.
ELECTRIC      LIGHT      INSTALLATIONS
AND THE MANAGEMENT OF ACCUMULATORS. A Practical Handbook by Sir David Salomons,
Bart., M.A. 5th Edition, Revised and Enlarged, with 100 Illustrations.   Cloth, Ss.
" To say that this book is the best of its kind would be a poor compliment,
as it is practically the only work on accumulators that has been written."—
Electrical Review.
ELECTRICAL     INSTRUMENT - MAKING
FOR AMATEURS. A Practical Handbook. By S. R.
Bottone, Author of "The Dynamo,"&c. With 60 Illustrations.
Third edition.    Cloth, 3$.
ELECTRIC BELLS AND ALL ABOUT
THEM. A Practical Book for Practical Men. Bf S. R.
Bottone. With more than 100 illustrations. Second edition,-
revised.   Cloth, 3s.
PRACTICAL   IRON   FOUNDING.      By   the
Author of " Pattern Making," &c, &c. Illustrated with over
one hundred engravings.    Cloth, 4s.
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING IN OUR
HOMES AND WORKSHOPS. A Practical Handbook.
By Sydney F. Walker, M.Inst.C.E., M.I.E.E.    5.5-.
THE PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS FROM
LIGHTNING. A Treatise on the Theory of Lightning
Conductors from a Modern Point of View. Being the substance of
two lectures delivered before the Society of Arts in March, 1888.
By Oliver J. Lodge, LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.S., Professor of Physics in University College, Liverpool.
Published with various amplifications and additions, with the
approval of the Society of Arts. [Inpreparation.
ELECTRICAL INFLUENCE MACHINES:
Containing a full account of their historical development, their
modern Forms, and their Practical Construction. By J. Gray.
B.Sc. [Tnthepre*s. j^EMBB^MBI^B^^^^BHMHMHI^MBiM
v^&t
Classical and Educational Works.
31
METAL    TURNING.      By   J.    A.,
" Practical Iron founding," &c.
Others in preparation.
author    of
[In the press.
Cecfmological Dictionaries.
ENGLISH AND   GERMAN.
WERSHOVEN (F. J.) TECHNOLOGICAL
DICTIONARY OF THE PHYSICAL, MECHANICAL,
AND CHEMICAL SCIENCES. English and German.
2 vols, cloth, 5-T.
ENGLISH—SPANISH.
PONCE DE LEON. TECHNOLOGICAL DICTIONARY. English-Spanish and Spanish-English. Containing Terms employed in the Applied Sciences, Industrial
Arts, Mechanics, Fine Arts, Metallurgy, Machinery, Commerce,
Ship-building and Navigation, Civil and Military Engineering,
Agriculture, Railway Construction, Electro-technics, &c.
Vol. I.—English-Spanish.    8vo. bound, £1 16s.
Vol. II.—Spanish-English. [In preparation.
Post Svo. 814pp. los- 6d. ■
HOBLYN'S DICTIONARY OF TERMS USED
IN MEDICINE AND COLLATERAL SCIENCES, nth
edition. Revised throughout, with numerous Additions. By
John A P. Price, B.A., M.D. Oxon., Assistant-Surgeon to the
Royal Berkshire Hospital.
This new edition has undergone complete revision and emendation. Many terms, fallen more or less into disuse, have been
omitted; and a considerable amount of fresh matter has been
introduced, in order to meet the requirements of the present day. 32
Whittaker and Co.'s List.
I
\k
I vol. demy 4to. with 25 Double and 40 Single Plates, £2 10s.
TECHNICAL SCHOOL AND COLLEGE BUILDING.
Being a Treatise on the Design and Construction of
Applied Science and Art Buildings, and
their suitable Fittings and
Sanitation.
WITH A CHAPTER ON TECHNICAL EDUCATION.
By  EDWARD  COOKWORTHY ROBINS,   F.S.A.
Outline of Contents.—Introduction—English and Foreign
Technical Education—Analysis of the Second Report of the Royal
Commissioners on Technical Education—Buildings for Applied
Science and Art Instruction, with examples of Foreign and English
Buildings— Analysis of the Fittings necessary for these Buildings—
British and Foreign Examples of the Details of the Fittings—Heating and Ventilation generally—Heating and Ventilation necessary
for Applied Science and Instruction Buildings—The Planning of
Buildings for Middle Class Education—Sanitary Science—Appendix.
Full prospectus post free on application.
"It will prove an indispensable work of reference to architects, builders, and
managers of technical schools."—Spectator.
" A most valuable contribution to architectural literature."—British Architect.
THE CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF IRON.
A Complete Account of all the Best Known Methods for the Analysis
of Iron, Steel, Ores, &c.
By A. A. BLAIR, Chief Chemist, U.S. Geological Survey, &c.
Royal 8vo.    14?.
Second Edition, Revised.
THE
WORKING AND MANAGEMENT OF AN ENGLISH RAILWAY.
By   GEORGE   FINDLAY,
General Manager of the London and North- Western Railway.
WITH  NUMEROUS  ILLUSTRATIONS.
Crown 8vo.    7-r. 6d.
CHISWICK  FRESS :—C.  WHITTINGHAM  AND CO., TOOKS COURT,
CHANCERY LANE.    

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/cdm.bcbooks.1-0222389/manifest

Comment

Related Items