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On the north-western tribes of Canada.--Tenth report of the committee, consisting of Dr. E. B. Tylor,… British Association for the Advancement of Science 1895

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Array British Association for the Advancement of
Science
IPSWICH,  1895
TENTH  REPORT
ON  THE
NORTH-WESTERN TRIBES OF CANADA THE LIBRARY
THE UNIVERSITY OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA

Dr. Harry Hawthorn Section H —Ipswich, 1895 J
British Association for the Advancement of 
Science.
Tenth Report of the Committee,
Dr. G. M. Dawson, Mr.
On the North-Western Tribes of Canada.-
 consisting of Dr. E. B. Tylor,
R. G. Haliburton, and Mr. H. Hale.
[PLATE.]
The Committee, as was expected last year, are now able to complete their
work by sending in the final report by Dr. Franz Boas on ' The Indians
of British Columbia.'
In concluding the investigations which have since the Montreal Meeting of 1884 been carried on under their direction, the Committee desire
to return thanks for the liberality with which the British Association
took up the task of preserving records of the Anthropology of the Northwestern Tribes of the Dominion of Canada. With equal generosity, the
Canadian Government recognised the necessity of the work by large con-
tribution to the funds at the disposal of the Committee. Thus has been
brought together a collection of valuable physical and philological information, coupled with accounts of native culture, much of which would
probably have changed or disappeared within a few years had not this
timely enterprise been undertaken.
For convenience of reference, the principal contributions embodied in
the Committee's series of Reports are here set down, viz. :—
Circular of Inquiry drawn up by Committee.    (Report III.)
Report on the Blackfoot Tribes, by Mr. Horatio Hale, in correspondence with Father Lacombe and Rev. John McLean.    (Report I.)
Report on the Blackfoot Tribes, by Rev. Edward F. Wilson, and Notes
by Mr. Hale.    (Report III.)
Notes on Indians of British Columbia, by Dr. Franz Boas.    (Report
IV.)
Report on the Sarcee Indians, by Rev. Edward F. Wilson, and Notes
|y Mr. Hale.    (Report IV.)
Remarks on North American Ethnology, by Mr. Hale.    (Report V.)
First Report on the Indians of British Columbia, by. Dr. Franz Boas.
Report V.)
Remarks on the Ethnology of British Columbia, by Mr. Hale.    (Report
 VI.)
Second Report on the Indians of British Columbia, by Dr. Franz
Boas.    (Report VI.)
Introduction, by Sir Daniel Wilson.    (Report VII.) 2 RETORT—1895.
Third Report on the Indians of British Columbia, by Dr. Franz Boas.
(Report VII.)
Physical Characteristics of the Tribes of the North Pacific Coast, by
Dr. Franz Boas.    (Report VII.)
Remarks on Linguistic Ethnology, by Mr. H. Hale.    (Report VIII.)
Report on the Kootenay Indians, by Dr. A. F. Chamberlain.    (Report
VIII.) |
Fourth Report on the Indians of British Columbia (Indian Tribes of
Lower Fraser River), by Dr. Franz Boas.    (Report IX.)
Fifth Report on the Indians of British Columbia, by Dr. Franz Boas.
(Report X.)
Fifth Report on the Indians of British Columbia.    By Franz Boas.
During the months from September to December 1894, I revisited
British Columbia under instructions of the Committee, the object of the
journey being to fill, so far as possible, gaps left in previous investigations.
I considered four points to be of particular importance : the anthropometry
of those portions of the province which were not covered by previous
work ; an investigation of a Tinneh tribe on the extreme northern part
of the coast of which I had heard I'eports, but which has never been described ; a study of the customs of the He'iltsuq, and further inquiries in
regard to the Tinneh tribe of Nicola Valley Which was first described by
Dr. G. M. Dawson (' Trans. Royal Soc. Canada,' vol. ix. 1891, sec. ii. p. 23).
On account of lack of time I was unable to visit the He'iltsuq, and
for the same reason I delegated the work in Nicola Valley to Mr. James
Teit, of Spence's Bridge, who is thoroughly conversant with the language
and the customs of the Ntlakya'paniuQ. His report will be found
embodied in the following pages.
The subject matter which I collected on my journey is presented in
the following manner : —
I. Physical Characteristics of the Tribes of the North Pacific Coast
(P- 3).
II. The Tinneh tribe of Nicqla Valley, by Mr. James Teit (p. 30).
Ill   The Tinneh tribe of Portland Canal (p. 34).
IV. The Nass River Indians (p. 48).
V. Linguistics (p. 62).
1. Nisk-a'.
2. TsEtsEa'ut.
I have to express my obligation for valuable help extended in the
course of my work to the Rev. Mr. Collison, of Kinkolith ; Mr. George Hunt,,
of Fort Rupert; Mr. C. O. Hastings, of Victoria, British Columbia ; Mr.
James Teit, of Spence's Bridge : and Rev. Father Le Jenne, of Kamloops.
The following alphabet has been used in this report :—
The vowels have their Continental sounds, namely ; a as in father ; e
like a in mate ; i as in machine ; o as in note ; u as in rule.
In addition the following are used : a, o as in German ; d=aw in law ;
2 as in tell; i as in hill; 6 as in German veil; E=e in flower (Lepsius's e).
Among the consonants the following additional Tetters have been
used : g; velar g; k; velar k; q, the German ch in bach; H, the German
ch in %ch; q, between q and h ; c=sh in shore; tl, an explosive I; dl, a
palatal I (dorso-apical) ; !, increaseds tress of articulation; ', the mouth
assumes the position for the articulation of u. ON  THE  NORTH-WESTERN TRIBES OF  CANADA.
I. Physical Characteristics of the Tribes of the North
Pacific Coast.
In the Seventh Report of the Committee I pointed out that the region
i around Harrison Lake is inhabited by a peculiar type of man, differing
' considerably from   the types  found in the neighbourhood.    It seemed
desirable to investigate the characteristics of the people of the surrounding
i country, in order to better define the locality inhabited by this type and
I to discover in what manner the transition between the distinct types of
I this region takes place.    For this purpose I collected anthropometric data
j in the region lying between Harrison Lake and Thompson River.    This
; country is inhabited by the Ntlakya'pamuQ, a tribe speaking a Salish
i language which has d&veloped very slight dialectic differences only.    The
people of this tribe live in a great'many villages which are scattered along
; Fraser and Thompson Rivers ; but the villages are grouped in five sub-
i divisions of the tribe, which are named as follows: the Uta'mk^t, who
jive between Spuzzum   and Keefers ;   the Ntlakyapamuo/o'e,   or real
1 Ntlakya'pamuQ, whose territory extends from a little above Keefers to a
I point above Thompson Sidii^ on Thompson River, and about twenty
i miles up Fraser River from Lytton ; the Nkamtci'nEmuQ, from Thompson
Siding to Ashcroft on Thompson River ; StlaQa'yuQ, on the upper part of
j jFraser River, between the Lillooet and the NtlakyapamuQ'o'e ; and finally,
fthe Cawa'QamuQ, of Nicola Valley. For the purpose of my "investigation
I kept these divisions separate.
Furthermore, the anthropometric material given in the Seventh Report
i of the Committee was very insufficient so far as the northern parts of the
■ coast are concerned. For the purpose of filling this gap I collected data
among the Nass River Indians and among the Kwakiutl.    The technique
< of the measurements was the same as that described in the Seventh Report
of the Committee. I have added to the material which I collected for the
Committee other data which were collected under my direction for the
|I&.nthropological Department of the World's Columbian Exposition ; but I
i have refrained from the use of the head measurements which were gathered
at that time, as these would extend the scope of the Report beyond desirable
limits.
A glance at the tables (p. 23) will show that a very material change of
I type takes place somewhere between Vancouver Island and Skeena River.
For this reason it is necessary to compare the various Kwakiutl tribes
among each other before combining them, in order to see if there is any
. appreciable difference between them.    According to their location, I have
ifisombined the material which I collected in the following manner : First,
tribes of the Nak'oart6k group, embracing the Goasila and Nak'oartdk ;
second, tribes of the Koskimo group, embracing the extreme northern
tribes of the Ncotka, the Kwakiutl tribes of the west coast of Vancouver
Island, of Cape Scott and Newettee ; third, the Kwakiutl group, embracing the Kwakiutl proper and all the tribes of this group south-east of
■Sort Rupert.
The following tables show the results of this comparison :— report—1895.
Number of
Cases
Number of
Cases ON THE NORTH-WESTERN TRIBES OF CANADA. REPORT—1895. ON THE NORTH-WESTERN TRIBES OF CANADA.
It appears that the three groups are quite uniform. Possibly the breadth
of face of the most northern group, the JNak'oart6k, is a little larger than
that of the others, but the number of cases is so small that it remains
doubtful if there is any real difference between the types. It will be
seen that the three tribes differ very considerably from the Nass River
Indians, their faces being much higher and narrower.
In order to prove properly the uniformity of the material collected
among the Kwakiutl, it is necessary to take into consideration their habit
of deforming the head by means of a pressure brought to bear upon the
^front and sides of the head. Possibly the practice might have an effect
upon the development of the face, which differs much from the form found
among all the neighbouring tribes. In order to decide if the artificial
deformation has any influence upon the form of the face, I have divided
the material into three groups:—Heads not deformed or slightly deformed
only, moderately deformed heads, and strongly deformed heads. As will
be seen from the tables showing the measurements of individuals, I made
finer distinctions when recording the original observations, namely :—Not
deformed, slightly deformed, moderately deformed, considerably deformed,
strongly deformed, and very strongly deformed. The first two classes
embrace children and young persons only, the practice of deformation
being gradually abandoned. Leaving these out of consideration, we find
the following numbers of individuals in each class :—
—
Meu
Women
Men
Women
Moderately deformed
Considerably deformed   .
Strongly deformed   .
Very strongly deformed  .
25
8
9
9
7
9
3
59%
19%
22%
.    32%
25%
32%
U%
This table shows that the heads of female children were much more
strongly deformed than those of male children, and that the deformation
represented in each group is stronger among women than among men.
—
Sliahrly
Deformed
Moderatrly
Deformed
Much
Deformed
Length of Head   {Cornea!       j
Breadth of Head {^omen!       '.
Breadth of Face {^omen!       '
Height of Face   {w^en;||j
191-6
186-3
158-7
153-4
146-3
143-2
128-4
118-6
196-7
187-4
160-3
154-0
151-6
143-4
1301
119-7
JL»& O
1912
153 6
147-0
150-7
143-1
129-2
lL'3-6
The differences exhibited in this table show clearly that a strong
deformation of the kind practised by the Kwakiutl increases the length
of head and diminishes the breadth of head ; but that moderate degrees
of deformation do not' influence materially the lower portion of the skull,
in -which the greatest breadth of the head is found. The table does not
reveal any influence upon the dimensions of the face, so that, so far as the
latter is concerned, we may consider all the measured individuals together,
■without regard to the degree of deformation of the head.
While the preceding  discussion  has shown that the tribes of the REPORT—1895.
Kwakiutl, so far as they are represented in my measurements, belong to
one type, the tables reveal considerable differences among the subdivisions
of the Ntlakya'pamuQ. Besides the groups named above, I subdivided
the Uta'mk-t into two groups, that of Spuzzum and that of the villages
higher up Fraser River. Unfortunately, in the limited time at my disposal, I was unable to obtain measurements of the StlaQa'yuQ of Fraser
Eiver and of the Cawa'QamuQ of Mcola Valley. A study of the last-
named group would be of interest on account of the admixture of Tinneh
blood in this region.
In the following pages the measurements  and a few tables which
show the principal results obtained by their means are given.
It will be seen (pp. 9 and 10) that the statures of men and women of
the different tribes are nearly arranged in the same order, differences appearing only in cases where the number of observations is very small. I
have given the averages of the various series, not because I consider the
averages as the typical values of the tribes, but because they give a convenient index for purposes of comparison. The table shows a gradual
decrease in stature as we go southward along the coast from Alaska to
Fraser River. In the series for men the stature decreases from 173 cm.
among the Tlingit to 169 cm. among the Haida and Tsimshian; while
the Nass River tribes, who live farther inland, and who are probably
mixed with Tinneh tribes of the interior, are only 167 cm. tall, the
Tinneh of the interior being in their turn only 164 cm. tall. As we
proceed southward, the stature decreases to 166 cm. among the Bilqula,
164 among ths Kwakiutl, 162 in the Delta of Fraser River, and reaches
its minimum of 158 cm. on the shores of Harrison Lake. As we go
southward, the stature increases again, but its distribution becomes very
irregular. The Salish tribes of Puget Sound and the Yakonan, Tinneh,
and other tribes of Oregon have a stature of 165 cm. It seems that the
Clallam and Nanaimo represent a taller people, but I am not quite certain
of this, as some of the taller half-breeds may have been included in these
series. On Columbia River the Chinook, who extend from Dalles to the
coast, represent a taller type of a stature of 169 cm., which may be considered as a continuation of the tall Sahaptin type, which has a stature of
170 cm. South of the Oregonian Tinneh the stature increases slightly,
reaching 168 cm. among the Klamath, and sinking again to 166 among
the Hoopa. The tribes of California, who lived north of San Francisco,
and who are gathered on the Round Valley Reservation, near Cape
Mendocino, represent a very short type of 162 cm. only, which is also
distinguished by its elongated head. When we consider the stature of
the inland tribes, we may say that the stature decreases north and south ?
from Columbia River.    The Sahaptin, a people of a stature of 170 cm.,
dy.
cotrn measure only 164 cm. Along Columbia River the tall stature
extends to the sea. In the part of Oregon east of the Cascade Range, and
m western Nevada, we find statures of 168 cm., while the Shoshone
tribes of Idaho and Utah measure 166 cm. only.
t w !?aVe added t0 these tribeS the Eskim<> oi Alaska and those of
.Labrador.    It will be seen that, while the latter are exceedingly short, North- Western Tribes of Canada.
Son of No 41.   Right leg broken.  North-Western
Tribes of Canada.

2a. Niska' Half-bloods.

I. Males.
II. Females.
Mother of No.62.
23 Daughter of No. 67.
Sister of No. 76.
Sister of Nos. 4, 9, and 44.  North-Western Tribes of Canada.
4. Heiltsuk.
II.
Female

Female  [North- Western Tribes of Canada.  North
-Western
Tribes of Canada

7a. Kwakiutl Half-bloods.
8.
Sishiatl.
I. Males
II. Female
I. Boy
II. Girls  [North- Western Tribes of Canada.  
10. Tribes of Harrison River.
10a. Half-blood,
StsEelis.  11. Nil
[North- Western Tribes of Canada,       7
her of Nos. 16 and 18  » Brother of No. 28.
Eother of No. 51.
10 Brother of No. 24.  North- Western Tribes of Canada.
sister of Nos. 75 and 78
Father of No. 83.
Daughter of No. 140
88 Brother of No. 106. L North- Western Tribes of
Canada. 

 and Upper Tribes mixed.
II. Females
sister of No. 1
29.          Grand-daughter
of No. 106; sister
fNo.8t
dmother of No
s. 126 and 129.         ea Grand
mother of No. 89; j
61 Son 1
152.
Mother of No. 119.           n 5
iothet of No. 167.  11.

[North- Western Tribes of Canada

10
h. NkamtcinEmaq mixed with Shuswap and Okanagan.  North
- Western
Tribes of Canada.
11
13a. Half-blood
67
1
Shuswap Half-bloods.
13.
Okanagan.
Okanagan.
II. Females
II
I. Male
II. Females
Males  ON THE NORTH-WESTERN TRIBES  OF CANADA.

26 Sornberger
84    
15 Hendrichson, Krause,
Brown
38 Brown
20 Boas
29 Brown
26 Boas
40 Boas
80 Boas and Greer
11 Boas
22* Boas and Greer
12 Boas
44 Boas and Greer
15 Boas
48 Boas, Greer, Watt
51 Watt
69 Greer and Lawrence
18 Watt
18 Brown andWaughop
98 Waughop and Boas
22 O'Neill and Boas
71 Moncrieff and Stro-
minger
60 Boas and Lawrence
80 Moncrieff
82 Moncrieff and Leng-
feldt
80 Chesnut
68 Biedenbach and Lawrence
121 Bolton and Shaw REPORT—1895.
16 Sornberger
26       —
5 Hendrichson -
8 Brown
18 Boas
18 Brown
6 Boas
36 Boas
22 Greer
8 Boas
15 Greer and Boas
17 Boas
74 Greer and Boas
12 Boas
80 Greer and Boas
28 Watt
85 Lawrence, Greer,
Boas
15 Watt
10 Waughop and Brown
75 Waughop
7 Moncrieff and Boas
86 Strominger, Moncrieff,
Wilgus, Boas
26 Lawrence and Boas
28 Moncrieff
17 Lengfeldt
80 Chesnut
84 Biedenbach
20 Shaw and Bolton ON THE NORTH-WESTERN TRIBES  OF CANADA.
11
the stature of those of Alaska equals that of the Bilqula, reaching 166 cm.
The measurements of the Alaskan Eskimo prove clearly that they are
mixed to a considerable extent with Tinneh blood.
I think the points of particular interest brought out by this statement
are the gradual change of stature in British Columbia and the great
irregularity of distribution in the southern regions. There are no differences of food supply or mode of life of the people which would have the
effect that the stature should be lowest on Lower Fraser River, and increase in both directions along the coast, or that the same decrease should
be found as we descend Fraser River. It seems that these phenomena
can be explained only by a slow permeation of the tall tribes of the north
and of the short tribes of Fraser River. It is curious to note that the
distribution of stature shows regular changes, while all other features are
distributed in quite a different manner, as will appear later on.
It is of some interest to compare the stature of men and women. When
we consider the tribes contained in the preceding, list we find the following
result :—
-,   .         j.                           .                            r               S'ature of women in per cent.
S'-ature of men                  Average stature of men                      * .u      . merf
mm.
1575-1627
1637-1660
1661-1681
1683-1697
mm.
1605
1650
1671
1692
94-2
94-4
93-1
92-7
The proportionate difference between the stature of men and women
is the less the smaller the people. The same result appears from a study
of the Indians of the whole of North America, as is shown in the following
table :—
Stature of men
mm,
1660 and less
1660-1699
1700 and more
Average stature of men
mm.
1637
1684
1712
Stature of women in per cent,
of that of men
93-6
92-9
92-7
While for the middle group the values are almost the same as those
found on the Pacific coast, the women of the short tribes of the Pacific
coast seem to be taller than those of the short tribes of other regions.
Before discussing the types found on the Pacific coast any further I
shall give tabulations showing the principal results of the measurements.
The proportions of the body are computed in such a manner that the
stature is taken at the nearest centimetre, and divided in the other
measurements. REPORT—1895. ON THE NORTH-WESTERN  TRIBES  OF  CANADA.
13
Number of
Cases

Tribes:
Nass River Indians
Bilqula .
Harrison Lake
Spuzzum
Uta'mk-t       .    . .
NtlakyapamuQ'o'e .
Nkamtci'nEmuQ
Shuswap
Oregonian Tinneh .  . 14
REPORT—1895. ON THE NORTH-WESTERN TRIBES OF CANADA. 16
REPORT—1895. ON  THE NORTH-WESTERN  TRIBES  OF  CANADA.
17 REPORT—1895. ON THE NORTH-WESTERN   TRIBES  OF  CANADA.
19
Per cent

Tribes :
Nass River Indians
Bilqula .
Kwakiutl
Harrison Lake
Spuzzum
Uta'mk-t
NtlakyapamuQ'6'e.
Nkamtcl'iiEmTiQ   . 20
REPORT—1895.
Tribes :
Nass River Indians
Bilqula   .
Kwakiutl
Harrison Lake
Spuzzum.       .
Uta'mk-t
NtlakyapamuQ'o'e
NkamtcI'numuQ
Shuswap .
Oregonian Tinneh  , ON THE NORTH-WESTERN  TRIBES  OF CANADA.
21
Number of
Cases 22
REPORT—1895. ON THE NORTH-WESTERN TRIBES OF CANADA.
2S
I conclude from the- preceding tables that -we must distinguish four
types on the coast of British Columbia : the northern type, represented
in our tables by the Nass River Indians; the Kwakiutl type; that of
Harrison Lake and the Salish of the interior, as- represented by the Okanagan, Flathead, and Shuswap. The Ntlakya'pamuQ appear essentially as-
a mixed people.
In order to bring out the differences between these types clearly I will
give the average values of the various measurements and indices side by
side. I repeat, however, that these averages must not be considered as-
the types of the various series, which are evidently exceedingly complex,,
but only as indices of the general distribution.
	
Na«s River
Indians
Kwakiutl
Hanison
Lake
Shuswap
I.. Men.
Stature in mm.      .       .       .       ..
1670-
1644
1580
1679
Index of length of arm
45-4
44-3
4S-2
44-3
Index of finger-reach
106-4
105-6
105-6
106-5
Index of height, sitting
63-7
54-9
53-1
529
Length of head
195-5
(196)
183-0
191-8
Breadth of head
161-5
(161)
164-5
160-7
Height of face
1205
129-1
115-5
1230
Breadth of face
156-5
150-4
151-5
149-2
Height of nose
508
55'7
52-8
55-6
Breadth of nose
40-1
39-3
37-5
40-8
Length-breadth index'
83-5
83-8
88-8
c&t
Facial index .
7.7©
86-7
76-2
836
Nasal index   .
79-5,
71-6-
72-0
74-0
-*?^<-SC of tOcJ^Tef ,\j/ls-uC/t
'•4 ■
Jl3-S~
II. Women..
Stature  .       .       -MM
1543.
1537.
1509
1554
Index of length of arm
44-3
42-5
45-0
—
Index of finger-reach
103-2
102.-9
104-8
—
Index of height, sitting
54-7
55-4
534
—
Length of head
186;2
186-5.
176-0
—
Breadth of head
153-6-
154-3
1539
154-8
Height of face
113-4
121-8
M9-3
—
Breadth of face
143-2
143-1
140-3
143-5
Height of nose
45-2
51-8
49-4
—
Breadth of nose
366
35-2
35-5
—
Facial index .
78-6.
84-8
• 78-4
—
Nasal index   .
81-8
68-6,
72-6
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Total series.
It will be noticed that the series of men and women agree very elosely..
The types expressed by these figures may be deseribed as follows. Th«*
Nass River Indians are of medium, stature. Their arms are relatively
long, their bodies are short. The head is very large, particularly its transversal diameter. The same may be said of the face, the breadth of which
may be called enormous, as it exceeds the average breadth of face of the
North American Indian by 6 mm. The height of the face is moderate ;
therefore its form appears decidedly low. The nose is very low as compared with the height of the face, and at the same time broad.  Its elevation REPORT—1895.
over the face is also very slight only. The bridge is generally concave,
and very flat between'the eyes. The Kwakiutl are somewhat shorter,
their bodies are relatively longer, their arms and legs shorter than those
of the first group. The dimensions of the head are very nearly the same,
but the face shows a remarkably different type, which distinguishes it
fundamentally from the faces of all the other groups. The breadth of the
face exceeds only slightly the average breadth of face of the Indian, but
its height is enormous. The same may be said of the nose, which is very
high and relatively narrow. Its. elevation is also very great. The nasal
bones are strongly developed, and form a steep arch, their lower end
rising high above the face. This causes a very strongly hooked hose to
be found frequently among the Kwakiutl, while that type of nose is almost
absent in all other parts of the Pacific coast. This feature is so strongly
marked that individuals of this group may be recognised with a considerable degree of certainty by the form of the face and of the nose
alone. It will be noticed that in this group the facial and the nasal
indices of the women indicate that their faces are more leptoprosopic,
their noses more leptorrhinic, than those of the men, while among almost
all races the reverse is the case. This fact led me first to suspect that
the artificial deformation which is more strongly developed among women
might be the cause of the peculiar form of the face of this tribe. I have
lown, however, in the preceding pages that the observations give no
countenance to this theory. Besides this the "Bilqula show the same
features and the same relation between the two sexes, although the heads
of the men are not deformed, and those of the women are deformed in a
different manner. The measurements of Bilqula women can, however,
claim no great weight, as they are too few in number.
The Harrison Lake type has a very short stature. The head is exceedingly short and broad, surpassing in this respect all other forms known
to exist in North America. The face is not very wide, but very low, thus
producing a chamseprosopic form the proportions of which resemble those
of the Nass River face, while its dimensions are much smaller. In this
small face we find a nose which is absolutely higher than that of the Nass
River Indian with his huge face. It is, at the same time, rather narrow.
The lower "portion of the face appears very small, as may be seen by
subtracting the height of the nose from that of the face, which gives an
approximate measure of the distance from septum to chin. The values
of this measurement for the four types are 69, 73, 62, and 67 mm.
respectively.       <*ctfttsz*
The Shuswap represent a type which is found all over the interior of
British Columbia, Idaho, "Washington, and Oregon, so far as they are inhabited by Salishan and Sahaptin tribes. Their stature is approximately
168 cm. The head is shorter than that of the tribes of Northern British
Columbia or of the Indians of the plains. The face has the average height
of the Indian face, being higher than that of the Nass River Indians, but
lower than that of the Kwakiutl. The nose is high and wide, and has the
characteristic Indian form, which is rare in most parts of the coast. The
facial and nasal indices are intermediate between those of the Kwakiutl
and of the Nass River tribes.
I marked together with the measurements of the Indians certain descriptive features. I give here a tabulation of these observations, but
only those taken during the journey of 1894, as I find that it is very difficult to compare descriptive features on account of the large personal equa- ON THE NORTH-WESTERN TRIBES OF CANADA.
25
tion of the observers, and even of the same observer at different times.
The type which is being described exerts a deep influence upon the form
of description. Thus when first visiting the Indians there is a tendency
to describe the lips as thick because they, are compared with those of the
whites, while later on they are called moderate because Indian lips are
compared among themselves. Descriptive features are, therefore, of no
great value, owing to the inaccuracy of the terms involved. Still, some
striking differences will be noticed in the following tabulations of the descriptive features of men from 20 to 59 years of age :—
Bridge of Nose
Form of Nose
Point of No
»e
a
co
r\
Sao
7
10
o
p
2
4
co
o
O
4
•a
tn
go
13
Cv
O
O
be
0
rl
o
02
n
o
Nass River Indians    .
3
12
5
8
9
Kwakiutl   .....
21
5
—
1
19
11
21
8
16
13
Uta'mk-t	
7
3
2
■r. =1'
7
3
3
8
3
8
NtlakyapamuQ'o'e
13
3
—
1
8
6
6
8
5
9
Nkamtci'nEmuQ
13
2
-
2
8
4
7
8
6
9
Ear
Lobe of Ear
—
CD
ac
H
rH
cp
H3
as
eg
1
"3
S
OS
CO
530
h
C8
rH-
"3
a
02
T3
CO
ja
CO
CO
I
'rS
CO
CO
CO
§
•r)
a
0
©
2
CO
cu>
a
- Nass River Indians
• Kwakiutl
Uta'mk-t
NtlakyapamuQ'o'e
Nkamtci'nEmuQ .
12
11
4
5
4
6
14
8
11
8
2
3
3
14
17
10
9
7
6
12
2
7
6
13
9
6
9
6
6
20
6
7
7
15
26
10
14
8
5
3
2
2
5
This tabulation makes particularly clear the difference in the form of
nose found among the various tribes.
I recorded the colour of the skin according to Radde's standard
colours, and selected the forehead for my comparisons. I recorded the
following' tints among the various tribes :—
32 33
1   m
nop
q
l
m
n
0
P
q
r
Nass River Indians
1  —
	
i
2
1
—
3
1
—
1
Kwakiutl
—  —
 1
—
2
—
2
7
8
7
2
Uta'mk-t
—
1
1
1
1
2
—
NtlakyapamuQ'o'e
—
3
2
6
2
—
2
Nkamtci'nEmuQ
—
—
2
1
■—
—
—
It appears from these data that the Kwakiutl are the lightest among
the people of the North Pacific coast, while the Nass River and Thompson Indians are considerably darker.
It is necessary to consider the cephalic index of the various tribes a
little more closely, because it seems that among the tribes of Fraser River
children are much m ore brachycephalic than adults. Investigations carried
on by means of extensive material do not show any such differences, and 26
REPORT—1895.
it is likely that more extended investigations would cause the apparent
difference to disappear; but it is also possible that in this region we may
find the length of head to increase more rapidly than the breadth of head.
Among the Eastern Indians, and in different parts of Europe, we find a
slight decrease of the cephalic index with increasing age, but in no
case does the difference exceed 1 per cent. We find also that the heads
of women are somewhat shorter than those of men. The following tabulation shows that among the northern tribes the same relations prevail,
but that among the Ntlakya'pamuQ the heads of adults appear much more
elongated than those of children.
Average Cephalic IndeXr
m
a
4>
03
B
(3
Hp
r3
u
to
3
o
PH
m
w
W
fc
a
To
<y
o
2
n
§
*i
M
0
M
s
ft
Boys .
Girls .
Men .
Women.
84-0(17)
83-5(11)
82-7(24)
82-9(20)
Children
Adults .
Total
83-8(28)
82-8(44)
83-5(73)
83-6 (8)
84-7(24)
84-7(24)
84-4(32)
85-6(8)
82-5(5)
85-5(2)
82-9(7)
90-8 (3)
87-1 (5;
89-8(15)
87-fi(I2)
84-1(11)
83-5 (9)
83-8(21)
88-5 (8)
88-8(27)
88-7(35)
83-5 (1)
84-9(12)
82-5 (5)
86-3(13)
88-5(12)
84-9(17)
83-1(19)
83-5 (1)
84-2(17)
87-4(25)
84-0(36)
84-1(18)
85-3(61)
36-9(12)
H-7(14)
32-6(26)
B2-8(33)
89-5 (1)
87-8 (3)
82-0(21)
81-7(17)
85-8(26) 88-2(4)
82-7(59) 81-9(38)
83-6(85) 82-5(42) 84-0(57)
84-0(17)
84-4(lu)
84-0(20)
83-6(10)
84-2(27)
83-9(30)
It appears from this comparison that even if the greater brachy-
cephalism of the children on Fraser River should be the effect of a peculiar law of growth, the general relations of the cephalic indices of adults
would remain unchanged, so that the preceding considerations remain
unaltered when the total series or the adults alone are considered.
It is necessary to treat two groups of tribes a little more fully, namely,
the Bilqula and the Ntlakya'pamuQ. The tables show cleariy that the
Bilqula are closely related to the Kwakiutl type, with which they have. ■
the high face and nose in common. The differences between the divisions
of the Ntlakya'pamuQ have been discussed above. It remains to point out
the probable cause of these differences. It is evident that the lower divisions, particularly those of Spuzzum and the Uta'mk-t, are more alike to
the Harrison Lake type than the divisions farther up the river. It is
also evident that the Nkamtci'nEmuQ resemble the Shuswap more than
any other division of the Ntlakya'pamuQ.
A detailed comparison is given on the following table, which also includes the Oregonian Tinneh.
It will be seen that, on the whole, an approach between the forms of
Harrison Lake and that of the Shuswap is found. But the NtlakyapamuQ'o'e occupy, in many respects, an exceptional position. Their heads
are narrow, their faces are lower and narrower than those of their neighbours. They are narrower than those of any other Indians, with the exception of the Hoopa and Oregonian Tinneh', while the Shuswaps have a
face as broad as the average Indian face. These differences between the
absolute measurements of the face are also expressed in the indices.    The ON THE NORTH-WESTERN  TRIBES  OF CANADA.
27 28
REPORT—1895'.
I) k
Klv [:
cephalic index decreases rapidly as we go up Fraser River, but it is higher
among the Shuswap than among the Nkamtci'nEmuQ. The facial index
increases quite regularly from Harrison Lake- to the Shuswap; but we
must remember that the face of the NtlakyapamuQ'o'e is much smaller
than that of the Shuswap and that of the lower divisions of the Ntlakya'pamuQ. The nasal index is so variable that we cannot draw any conclusions from its average values.
It seems, therefore, that there is a- disturbing element among the
NtlakyapamuQ'o'e which hides among them the gradual approach of
forms between the Harrison Lake type and that of the Shuswap. This
fact does not seem surprising, as it is likely that mixture has taken place
along Fraser River. The low values of the breadth of face remind us
of the Tinneh tribes of Oregon and California, and I do not consider
it unlikely that we may find here the effects of an admixture of Tinneh
blood.
However the peculiarities of the NtlakyapamuQ'o'e may be explained,
the fact remains that the Ntlakya'pamuQ, who represent a people speaking
one language, are physically by no means homogeneous. The upper and
lower divisions indicate clearly the effect of mixture with the neighbouring tribes; while the central group, 'the real Ntlakya'pamuQ,' present
peculiarities of their own, which may be the old characteristics of the
Ntlakya'pamuQ, or which may be due to admixture of Tinneh blood. The
gradual change of type along Fraser River proves clearly that these tribes
must have occupied these regions for very long times, and that the
population has been very stable. The differences in type between the
divisions of this people offer an excellent example of the fact that linguistic and anatomical classifications do not follow the same lines; that people
who are the same in type, and must therefore be related in blood, may
speak different languages; and that people who differ in type may speak
the same language.
It remains to give a review of the number of children of women of
the tribes which I investigated. The data obtained by means of this
inquiry allow us to understand the causes of the diminution in numbers
among these Indians, and suggest at the same time a possible remedy for
this sad fact. I give here the number of living and deceased children
of all the women whom I measured, arranged according to ages.
When we direct our attention to the average number of children of
women of more than forty years of age, we find the following result :—
Nass River Indians
Kwakiutl
Uta'mk-t
Ntlaky apam u q'o 'e
Nkamtci'nEmuQ   .
4-8 children ( 6 case's)
3-5 „       (20    „   )
5'3 „       (11    „    )
5-8 g        (13    „    )
5'8 „       (10    „   )
Although the number of observations is small, the general result is
undoubtedly correct, and agrees with the relative number of children in
the villages of the various groups, the number being very small among the
Kwakiutl, and much larger among the other tribes. The number of children among the Ntlakya'pamuQ equals that found among the tribes of
other parts of North America, while, that of the Kwakiutl is much smaller.
The cause of the diminution of the tribes becomes clearest when we
consider that group of mothers who may just begin to have adult children, that is, between the ages of thirty-five and forty-five years.    At ON  THE NORTH-WESTERN TRIBES  OF CANADA.
29 30
REPORT—1895.
these ages they will have children who are not yet mature, but a portion
of these children will be adults. If the population were to remain stable,
the number of children would have to be considerably more than twice
that of the mothers. The actual distribution is shown by the following
figures :—
5   living 4 dead children.
Nass River Indians
Kwakiutl
Uta'mk-t
NtlakyapamuQ'o'e .
Nkamtci'nEmuQ   .
3 mothers of 35-45 years of age have £
14               „                   „                        8 „ 22
8               „                   „                       31 „ 17
8               „                   „                       14 „ 20
3               »                   ,i                         3 „ 9
This table shows how exceedingly unfavourable the conditions are
among the Kwakiutl, as fourteen mothers have produced considerably less
than eight mature children. The figures prove also that a very slight
improvement of the sanitary conditions among the Ntlakya'pamuQ would
produce an increase of the population.
The cause of the extremely unfavourable conditions among the Kwakiutl becomes particularly clear when the mothers are grouped in decades.
When this is done we find the following result: ■
Age of mother
Average number of children
20-30
30-40
40-60
2-7
2-1
L:6
50-60
60 and more.
4-9
That is to say, the maximum sterility is found among women who are
now from forty to fifty years old, that is, who became mature about
twenty-five or thirty years ago. This agrees closely with the time when
the Kwakiutl sent their women most extensively to Victoria for purposes
of prostitution. During the last decade a number of influential men
among the tribe have set their influence against this practice, and we see
at the same time a rapid increase in the number of children. The young
women who have now an average number of 2-7 children may hope to
regain the number ef children which their grandmothers had. But the
only hope of preserving the life of the tribe lies in the most rigid suppression of these visits of women to Victoria, which are still continued to a
considerable extent, and in an effort to stamp out the diseases which have
been caused by these visits.
The Tinneh Tribe op Nicola Valley.
In his Notes on the Shuswap People of British Columbia] Dr. G. M.
Dawson first called attention to a Tinneh tribe which used to inhabit the
Nicola Valley, but which has become extinct. Some notes on the history
of this tribe were given by Dr. Dawson according to information obtained
from Mr. J. W. McKay, formerly Indian Agent at Kamloops, who has an
extensive knowledge of the Indians of the interior. As parts of this
information conflicted with reports which I had received, and as it seemed
desirable to gather as much information as possible on this tribe, I
resolved to visit them in the course of my investigations. Owing to
pressure of time I had to give up the intended journey, and requested Mr.
James Teit, who is thoroughly familiar with the Ntlakya'pamuQ, to try to
collect as much information as possible on the tribe. He visited Nicola
Valley early in March 1895, and reports the results of his work as
follows :—
1 Trans. Royal Soc. Canada,
vol. IX.
1891, sect. ii. p. 23. ON THE NORTH-WESTERN TRIBES OF CANADA. 31
' I saw the three old men who are said to know the old StuwI'HamuQ
language, which was formerly spoken in Nicola Valley, and found that they
only remembered a few words of what they had heard from their fathers.
One of them could only give me five or six words, another one twelve,
and another one twenty. As many of these words were the same, I only
obtained twenty distinct words and three phrases. I also learned two
place-names used by them which I think are probably Tinneh. A few of
the words which I obtained are not on, the lists of Dr. Dawson and
Mr. McKay. One Indian, who also knows some words of the language, is
living at present in Similkameen ; therefore I was unable to see him. It
is unfortunate that the work of collecting the remains of the language
was not undertaken a few years sooner. An old woman who was half
StuwI'HamuQ died in Nicola only five years ago. She was the last person
who could talk the language properly. The three Indians whom I saw
are only one quarter StuwI'HamuQ blood ; each of them is old and white-
haired, and I should judge over seventy years of age. One of them said
he remembered that when he was a boy his grandfather (who was then a
very old man and hardly able to walk) pointed out to him the spot on the
Nicola a little below the lake where he (the old man) was born, and also
told him that his people had always inhabited that region. This old man
must have been born in Nicola at least 120 years ago, and it seems that
he had no knowledge of the origin of his tribe.
j Another old man whom I saw was taken when a lad, by his father,
all over the boundaries of the tribal territory in order to impress upon
him the different landmarks -which constituted at that time the tribal
boundaries. One of the old men named his ancestors for four generations
back, saying that at that time the whole tribe lived in three camps or
subterranean lodges, and that there were not very many people in each
(probably from forty to fifty souls), and that they all wintered along
Nicola River below the lake, and in close proximity to each other. They
also had two fortified houses in which they took refuge when threatened
by war parties of other tribes. The man mentioned war parties of
Okanagan, Ntlakya'pamuQ, and Shuswap, who attacked their fortifications
unsuccessfully. These events happened three or four generations before
his time.
' Three generations ago the tribe had some admixture of OkaDagan and
Ntlakya'pamuQ blood. Some of them had wives from among their tribes,
and the latter took wives from among them. They claim that their tribe
never went on war expeditions into the territories of other tribes, and
they say, with pride, that their country is the only one in this region where
the white men's blood has never been shed. They have a tradition that
at one time their tribe was numerous and that their southern boundary
extended to Keremeous, on the Lower Similkameen River. They have no
tradition regarding a foreign origin, and were quite indignant when I
mentioned to them Mr. McKay's theory of their being descended from a
war party of Ohilcotin. They said that when young they had heard the
old people of the tribe telling mythological stories, but these were just the
same as those current among the Okanagan and Ntlakya'pamuQ. At my
request they told me some of these stories which had been told to them by
their grandfathers, and I recognised them as identical with those which
I had heard at Spence's Bridge, and which are current in slightly different versions among the interior Salish. I questioned them extensively
regarding the customs of their ancestors, and found that these corresponded 32
REPORT—1895.
exactly to those of the Ntlakya'pamuQ. Their weapons were also exactly
the same. Their personal names, so far back as they can trace them, are also
Ntlakya'pamuQ. The oldest personal name that they could give me was
that of a man of note among them called TsuQkokwa's. This is the only
name that I do not recognise as Ntlakya'pamuQ. They said that the pure
StuwI'HamuQ whom they had seen were of about the same height as the
Ntlakya'pamuQ and Okanagan, but generally heavier in build. They
were also of the same complexion. Their features were slightly different,
but they could not explain wherein the difference consisted. They told
me the names by which the tribe was known among themselves, and also by
neighbouring tribes. These names have all the Salish suffix -mun,
meaning people. These names are SEi'lEqamuQ (said to mean people of
the high country) ; Smile'kamuQ and StuwI'HamuQ. The last is the name
by which they are principally known to the Ntlakya'pamuQ, who have
from time immemorial called the upper Nicola country Stuwi'H. The
Indians at Spence's Bridge say that this is probably one of the many
forms of their word meaning " creek," such as Cawa'uQ, Tcawa'q, Tcuwa'uQ,
StcwauQ. SEi'lEqamuQ is decidedly a Ntlakya'pamuQ word. Smil§ kamuQ
is probably connected with the place-name Smilekami'n or Smilekami'nuQ;
of which Similkameen is a corruption. They say that about sixty years
ago the winter habitations of the Ntlakya'pamuQ extended up the Nicola
River only some seventeen miles. The country above this point was
recognised as belonging to the StuwI'HamuQ. The Ntlakya'pamuQ called
their division which hived along the Lower Nicola River, Tcawa'QamuQ,
but the StuwI'HamuQ called them Nkamtci'nEmuQ, and looked upon them
as a part of the division extending from Thompson Siding to Ashcroft.
The Tcawa'QamuQ, or Cawa'QamuQ, used in former days only to go into the
Stuwi'H country in the summer and fall of the year to hunt. (The
reason that the Cawa'QamuQ at that time inhabited principally the lower
part of Nicola River was no doubt on account of the superior fishing
facilities.) "When the number of horses of the Cawa'QamuQ a,nd
Nkamtci'nEmuQ began to increase, many of these people moved, up to the
Stuwi'H country on account of its good grazing, and settled there about
fifteen years before the advent of the white miners in 1858. After the
country was partly settled by the whites more Cawa'QamuQ and
Nkamtci'nEmuQ, many TJta'mk-t, and some NtlakyapamuQ'o'e and
Okanagan settled in the Stuwi'H country, being attracted by its farming
facilities. Shortly before the arrival of the whites the Okanagan commenced to make permanent settlements in the neighbourhood of Douglas
Lake on account of the good grazing in that region. The Nicola Tinneh,
who were already mixed with these tribes, never offered any opposition to
their settlement. At the time of the advent of the whites (1858) the
recognised chief of the Nicola country was NEwisiskin, a Cawa'QamuQ,
born within seven miles of Spence's Bridge. The Ntlakya'pamuQ soon
became the prevailing language of that district. It seems that at least
for several generations back the Stuwi'HamuQ simply acted on the
defensive. The Ntlakya'pamuQ and Okanagan made what use they liked
of the Stuwi'H country, hunting in it and passing through it when
they desired. The Okanagan always went by that route when going to
trade with the Nkamtci'nEmuQ. Parties of Shuswap, Okanagan, and
Ntlakya'pamuQ on war expeditions against each other passed through the
Stuwi'H country unmolested.
' One of the old men whom I saw, named Tcuil'ska or Se'suluskin, is ON  THE NORTH-WESTERN TRIBES  OP CANADA. 33
the first person of the Ntlakya'pamuQ whom I have seen tattooed on the
body. He is one quarter Stuwi'HamuQ, one quarter Okanagan, and half
Nkamtci'nEmuQ. He said that formerly the Stuwi'HamuQ were occasionally tattooed on the body, as were also some of the Nkamtci'nEmuQ.'
So far Mr. Teit's report. It may be mentioned in connection with
these facts that the Ntlakya'pamuQ, near the mouth of Nicola Valley, are
the only people who use round lodges in summer, not square lodges, such as
I described in my report on the Shuswap. This custom may be due to
contact with the Tinneh tribe, or to that of the Okanagan, who are said
to use round lodges.
From what we know about Indian life, Mr. McKay's theory that the
Stuwi'HamuQ are descendants of a Chilcotin war party, which was hemmed
in by the Ntlakya'pamuQ, seems very unlikely, and Mr. Teit's data prove
beyond a doubt that the people have lived in the Similkameen and Nicola
regions for a long time. I do not doubt that they must be considered
the most northern of the isolated bands of Tinneh origin which are found
all along the Pacific coast.
The following is a list of all the words belonging to the language which
have been collected. The names of the collectors are indicated by initials,
M. standing for Mr. J. W. McKay, D. for Dr. George M. Dawson, and T. for
Mr. James Teit. • Mr. Teit adopted the same system of spelling that I use;
where more words than one are given under his name they were obtained
from different individuals.
1. T-haeh, M., man. 	
2. Tet'-hutz, D., man. CoU^rU^i     /<???.   —
Thate, T., man.                                                                      i&£&. /> 'j ■ *p
3. Nootl, D., man. r- e% WW^ /CanJ*^
4. Tsik-M, M.; tse-a-kai', D.; tsekse', T., woman. ^4cciu'a^tJ—"-*.       9^,
5. Sass, M.; sus, D.; sas, T., bear (D., grizzly bear). |      ^       ™*«a~tu>1
6. Si-si-aney, M., ram of mountain sheep or big horn. -t?'^^. gx <:" —   Aa* «*_6&J~
Sis-ya-ne', D., big deer of old; either wapiti or cariboo. '   ^^-j^,
Sisii'ni, T., ewe of mountain sheep. P*
SsHa'ni, T., elk.
(istahi'tz, T., elk, probably a corruption of isteha'ts, elk in Ntlakya'pamuQ,
J. Teit).
1.   T-pae or ti-pae, M.; tpi, T., ewe of mountain sheep or big horn.
Ti-pl, D., mountain sheep.
8. Tit-pin, T., ram of mountain sheep.
9. Sa-pie, M., trout; si-pai', D.; sipai'i, T., lake trout.
10. HaiMltu'tai, T., a small fish called hulu'liak by the Ntlakya'pamuQ.
11. TaM'nktcin, T., a small fish called eyi'nik by the Ntlakya'pamuQ.
12. Zulke'lte, T., ground hog.
13. Tsho, T., buck of deer.
14. Tlohst-ho, M., snake; Mos-ho', D.; stlosso', T., rattlesnake.
15. Tin-ill, M.; ti'n$n, ti'/mq, T., bear-berry (Arctostaphylos).
16. Teqo'zU, T., soap-berry.
17. Notl-ta-Jiat'-se, D.; notlaa'tzi, T.; qtlona'zi, T., wild currant.
18. Ta-ta-ney, M.; tet-ta-a-nc', D. ; ta-a'ni, T., knife.
19. Sa-te-tsa-e, M.; siititsai'i, T., spoon made of mountain-sheep horn,
Sit-e-tshi-i', D., spoon.
20. Sha-TtHrxh-Ttane, M.; rush mat.
21. K-e,, T., bow and arrow.
22. Naltsi'tse, T., arrow-head.
23. Tlutl, tlotl, T., packing line.
24. Sa-pe, M., one.
25. Tun-ih, M., two.
26. Tlohl, M., three.
27. Na-hla-li-a, M., four.
H   1 — 5 34
REPORT—1895
IS. F-na-hU, M-, five. .
29. Hite-na-ke, M., six.
30. Ne-shote, M., seven
31. K-pae, M., eight.
3?. Sas, M., nine.
33. Ti-li-tsa-in, M., give me the spoon, or bring me the spoon.
34. N-shote, M., give it to me.
Etl-tcot, T., I may give you.
35. Pin-a-U-iil-l-ltz, D., look out ! or take care.
36. A'we qe. T., come here, child !
37. Apin tleqi i eft qain, T., exact meaning- unknown, but used like tbe swearing
of the whiles.
3S. TastHezu'li, a place-name.
39. Tizzi'la, a place-name.
These words show that the dialect was much more closely related to
the Tinneh languages of British Columbia than to those farther south,
although it would seem to have differed from the former also considerably.
A comparison of vocabularies, which shows the relationships of these
dialects, will be found in the linguistic part of this report.
III. The Ts'ets'a'ut.
On my second journey to British Columbia I made pn effort to find
members of a tribe that was reported as living on Portland Inlet, and as
being slaves of j Chief Mountain,' the chief of a Nisk'a' clan. I received
reports of this tribe from Mr. Duncan, and some additional data were
learned from the Tsimshian. On my last trip I visited the village
Kinkolith, at the mouth of Nass River, whither the tribe was said to resort
at certain seasons of the year. There I found a boy named Jonathan
and one young man named Timothy ; later on, after a prolonged search,
I found an elderly man, Levi. From these three men the following information was obtained. Levi was the only one who spoke the
language well, while the two young men used almost exclusively the
Nisk-a' in their conversations. All the ethnological and historical data
were given by Levi. The language proved, as I anticipated, to be a Tinneh
dialect. The tribe is called by the Nisk-a' and by the Tsimshian,
Ts'Ets'a'ut—those of the interior. By this name are designated all the
Tinneh tribes of the interior. It does not refer to any one tribe exclusively, and corresponds to the Tlingit name Gunana'. The number of
members of the tribe is reduced at present to about twelve, and only two
of these continue to speak their own language correctly. The native
name of the tribe is forgotten, and we must therefore continue to designate them as Ts'Ets'a'ut. According to the testimony of the Nisk-a' and
of the Ts'Ets'a'ut, the latter form a tribe different from the Laq'uyi'p (= on
the prairie), who have their principal villages on the head waters of the
Stikeen River. They are called Naqkyina (on the other side) by the
Ts'Ets'a'ut. Their town is called Gunaqa'. Levi named three closely
related tribes whose languages are different though mutually intelligible :
the Tahltan (Ta'tltan), of Stikeen and Iskoot Rivers ; the Laq'uyi'p, or
Naqkyina, of the head waters of the Stikeen ; and the Ts'Ets'a'ut. The
home of the last-named tribe extended from a little north of Tcu'naq
(Chunah) River, in the extreme north-eastern corner of Behm Channel,
eastward to Observatory Inlet, northward to the watershed of Iskoot
River. About sixty years ago this tribe numbered about five hundred
souls, but they were exterminated by continued attacks of the Sa'nakran,   ON  THE  NORTH-WESTERN  TRIBES   OF  CANADA. 35
the Tlingit tribe of Boca de Quadra and of the Laq'uyi'p. The present
generation confine their wanderings to the surroundings of Portland
Inlet, north of Port Ramsden. At my request Levi drew a map of this
region, which is here reproduced. It will be seen that all the rivers of
the inlet have Tinneh names. Levi gave me also the Tinneh names of
the rivers emptying into Behm Channel and of several places in Observatory Inlet.
Geographical Names in the Ts'Ets'a'ut Territory (see map).
Ky'etso'ga ; Observatory Inlet.
Ky'etso'ga ; Hastings Arm.    Nisk'a' : Kcuwa'n.
Maatrega; Alice Arm.
K'aqan§' ; Larcom Island.
Atcona' (1); Nisk-a': Gunskye'ik.
Atcona' (2);      „ Anukcpe'tk.
NatlanaHa' (=canoe); Nisk-a' : Kca'u.
Kiayintle';   N"isk-a' : Hma'6tlk.
Tssi'gya ; Nisk-a' : Gund'en.
Tl'o'aga ; Nisk-a' : Hio'dzi.
Tsakilega'; Nisk-a' : Gunaqne't.
K''ana' ; Nisk-a' : Sk'amgo'ns.
Delaky'e' (=dog salmon); Nisk-a' : LaqHk-ala'n.
Tsakanatle'; Nisk-a' : Gyidziks'a's.
Hihik-ewutra'; Nisk-a': Angulikco'otk.
Atqia' ; Nisk-a' : Angutlqa'k'sk.
Tlutaolaga'(=salmon); Nisk'a': Gyihme'lik-st.
AbEtsega' (=Mountain Goat Creek) ;  Nisk-a': Anle'k-s.
SinEga'; Nisk-a' : Hma'enik-tl.
Tloagalega'; Nisk-a': Gyili/a'mEq.
Tladeudra'; Nisk-a' : Wia'k-s (English : Tombstone Bay).
Qugamautsiclak-e'ga ; Nisk-a' : Wilduwa'ntlgyat.
Tladeutsa'; Nisk-a': Tlgugyitlk-a'mtl.
Atlamatset'at'a'; Nisk-a : Qa'dik-c.
Gwen ; Nisk'a' : Hgont.
Cadouga'; Nisk-a' :  Cadouga'.
Names of Rivers emptying in Bay of Quadrayor Nekyehudja1.
Atqatqaga'.
Nugufega'.
Ts^tliega'.
Tcu'naq : Chunah River.
Among these names two are worth a remark : Atlamatset'at'a', on the
west side of Portland Inlet, is so called on account of a localised tradition.
It is said that in the beginning there were no mountain-goats. One day
a man named Atlama went up the mountains and found a cave full of
goats. He hid at the entrance of the cave and killed the goats when they
came out, one after the other. He caught two kids, tied their legs, and
carried them down to the camp. Therefore the place was called Atla
matset'at'a'. The second place which is worth remarking is Cadouga',
because it has the same name in Nisk-a', which shows that the Tinneh
name was adopted by the intruding Nisk-a'.
h 1—6 36
RETORT—1895.
When the members of the tribe were reduced in numbers the Nisk-a'
began to claim Portland Inlet as their territory, and ' Chief Mountain'
monopolised the right of trading with the Ts'Ets'a'ut. Since that time
they have been called his slaves.
These reports on the former location of the tribe are corroborated by the
fact that all their legends are localised either on Tcu naq River, which seems
to have been, their principal haunt, or on Portland Inlet, and on rivers
and lakes of the peninsula between Portland Inlet and Behm Channel.
I learned the following particulars in regard to their history.
According to the statements of Levi, they lived in olden times much
more frequently on Behm Channel than on Portland Inlet. At that
time they were on friendly terms with the Sa'nak-oan (SsanghakOn,
Krause) of Boca de Quadra. The chief of the latter was their friend, and
some of their number were in the habit of staying with the Sa'nak-oan.
After his death the Sa'nak-oan-intended to kill the Ts'Ets'a'ut, and to enslave the women and children. The chief's nephews, however, informed
them of this plan, and from that time they hunted more frequently around
Portland Inlet. They then fell in, for the first time, with the Nisk-a' on
Portland Inlet. The names of men whom they met there were K'aya'q,
Guna'q, and Gyitqo'n.
Three friends of the deceased chief of the Sa'nak-oan, whose names
were Walk-En, Tlaqo'ns, and Qutk-a', resolved to pursue the Ts'Ets'a'ut,
whose chief at that time was K*'acgueta', a member of the Laqskl'yek
clan. Tlaqo'ns and Qutk-a' were brothers, and the last-named had
married a K'utlk-oa'n woman. This tribe lived, at that time, on Revilla
Gigedo Island, -while nowadays they have joined the Sta'kink-oan. They
are called by the Nisk;a' Gyitqa'el. These three men followed the
Ts'Ets'a'ut. They found that they had made friends with the Nisk-a', and
that most of them were hunting south of Nass River, near the village opposite Greenville, while some had gone to Observatory Inlet. They did not
dare to follow them into the country of the Nisk-a', and turned back.
They returned to Boca de Quadra, and went to a place which was owned
by K-asa'qs, the chief of an eagle clan of the Sa'nak-oan. They call this
place K-a'itl, while the Ts'Ets'a'ut call the river which empties there
Atqatqaga.' This is the most southern of three rivers emptying in
Quadra Bay The middle one is called Nugufega', the most northern one
Tsetliega' in the Ts'Ets'a'ut language. In the following autumn the
Ts'Ets'a'ut returned to the mouth of Atqatqaga', and fell in with the
Sa'nak-oan. The latter invited them to come down to the place where
their fish was stored, which they proposed to exchange for skins. There
were three Laqskl'yek men, three Laqkyebo' women, and fourteen
children in the party. They had three guns among them. Levi's uncle
was one of the party. It was raining, and as soon as they reached the
camp the Ts'Ets'a'ut placed their guns over the fire in order to dry them.
The Sa nak'oan had loaded their guns outside. They had two long guns
and one short one. A Tongass woman, who was married to one of the
Sa'nak-oan, was friendly to the Ts'Ets'a'ut, as were all the members of her
tribe, and she cried all the time in order to warn them, but they did not
understand what she meant. In order to provoke a quarrel Tlaqo'ns, who
owned the short gun, asked one of the Ts'Ets'a'ut if he thought that the
gun would kill a bear. The Ts'Ets'a'ut thought it was too small. Then
Tlaqo'ns took the guns of the Ts'Ets'a'ut, which were small-bore, from the
drying frame, and, under pretence of examining them, placed them out ON  THE  NORTH-WESTERN  TRIBES  OF  CANADA. 37
of their reach. He said that his gun was wide-bore, and that he had only
cut off the barrel in order to make it handier. He pretended to take
offence at the deprecatory remarks of the Ts'Ets'a'ut and shot him. At
this signal his companions shot the other men. They took the bodies and
the women and children in their canoe, and threw the former into the sea.
When the Ts'Ets'a'ut heard of what had happened, they went to Nass River
in order to attack the Sa'nak-oan when they should come to buy olachen
grease. But they did not dare to come for several years. From that
time the Ts'Ets'a'ut made Portland Inlet their headquarters. These
events happened before Levi was born, i.e., about sixty years ago. But
the attacks of the Sa'nak-oan continued afterwards. Whenever one of
their chiefs died, they tried to kill some of the Ts'Ets'a'ut, and to obtain
slaves from among their number.
At one time an uncle of Levi had run away with a girl whose
parents refused to give her to him in marriage. At Halibut Bay
he met a Nisk-a', whom he requested to take him across the inlet.
The Nisk a', who wanted to buy marmot skins, proposed to go back to
.Nass River to fetch powder and lead, and was goiug to return in order
to take the couple across the inlet. In return the Ts'Ets'a'ut was
to catch for him a certain number of marmots. While he was away a
canoe carrying three Nisk-a' men (Gyitqo'n, a Laqskl'yek ; Nesqba'k-t, a
GyispawaduwE'da ; and Slnatl6'6t, a K-anha'da) landed. The Ts'Ets'a'ut
owed some marmot skins to the first of these men, who demanded immediate payment. The Ts'Ets'a'ut explained that he had no skins, because
he had run away with a girl, but Gyitqo'n did not listen. He got angry,
and killed .the Ts'Ets'a'ut with his axe. The woman ran away, but
Nesqba'k-t shot and killed her. Then they buried them at the foot of a
tree. After a while the first Nisk-a' returned, but did not find the couple.
When he saw their dog running about, he thought that the three men
whom he had met might have killed them. He went to Tombstone Bay,
where many Ts'Ets'a'ut were encamped, in order to catch salmon. He took
the dog along, and told them what had happened. Then all those who
were encamped at the Bay, about fifty in number, struck camp because
they became afraid of the Nisk-a'. They were more willing to brave the
attacks of the Sa'nak-oan than those of the more numerous Nisk'a'.
One of the Sa nak-oan had a Ts'Ets'a'ut woman for his wife. They fell in
with him, and he took them to the large island K'a'tik1 (Tlingit name; probably Revilla Gigedo Island). After some time the K'u'tlk-oan learned of
their whereabouts and searched for them. When they had found them
they wanted to remove them to the mainland. The Ts'Ets'a'ut agreed to
go, but during the night, while all were asleep, the K'u'tlk-oan produced
their guns which they had hidden, and shot all the men and women. One
of the Ts'Ets'a'ut, who had a gun, was killed while he was aiming at one
of their aggressors. They put the children into their canoe as slaves, but
as there were too many of them they threw eight of their number into
the sea.    Thirty were enslaved.
Another quarrel took place about forty-five years ago. One winter,
about the month of February, Levi's father and several other men went
from Portland Inlet to Qa'itl, which is a river near Tcu'naq. They
pitched their camp near the mouth of the river. After some time one
man and his wife saw a canoe coming. When the canoe landed they saw
that several Sa'nak-oan were in it. The latter gave them tobacco, powder,
and balls, and inquired for their camp.    After they had learned where it REPORT—1895.
was, they promised to call there on the following day. The Sa'nak-oan
camped in the entrance of a small bay. On the following morning they
went to the camp of the Ts'Ets'a'ut, and after having eaten they began to
trade, the Sa'nak-oan buying skins for tobacco, powder, lead, and shirts.
3n the following morning two Sa'nak-oan brothers, K'atse'el and Yaqte'it,
remarked that there were many crows on the beach, and took up their
guns in order to shoot them. After a short while they re-entered the hut,
one of them holding his gun under his blanket. He aimed at one of the
Ts'Ets'a'ut, hiding his gun under his blanket all the time, and shot him. ^
At this signalhis brother shot another man, and a third of the Sa'nak'oan,
whose names were K-ahote' and Nag-ats£' (Fox), shot a third man. The
others drew their daggers, and killed all the Ts'Ets'a'ut men. They enslaved the women and children, and took them to Revilla Gigedo Island,
where they stayed the rest of the winter. In the spring of the year
Levi's mother made good her escape, taking her two children along. She
made a bark canoe, crossed Behm Channel, and after two months of hardships they reached Tombstone Bay, on Portland Inlet, where they met the
Ts'Ets'a'ut who had stayed on the inlet. ' Eve,' who is old now, was sold
at that time to the Sk&tk'oa'n, from whom she escaped.
At another time, while Levi was a boy, the Ts'Ets'a'ut had a war with
the Laq'uyi'p. At that time his sister had just married a man named
NEgusts'ikatsa'. They were hunting north of the upper reaches of Nass
River. When they returned to Portland Inlet a party of Laq'uyi'p came
there accompanying a Ts'Ets'a'ut hunter. The Ts'Ets'a'ut had one gun
among them, and were about to shoot at the Laq'uyi'p when their countryman asked them to desist, as the Lag'uyi'p had come to make peace and
to pay for those who had been killed in previous wars. The Ts'Ets'a'ut
allowed them to approach and gave them to eat. When they were about
to go to bed they showed the Laq'uyi'p their gun. One of the latter kept
it, and in the ensuing quarrel he shot two of the Ts'Ets'a'ut. Levi added
here that in olden times his countrymen were ' as stupid as ghosts.'
These historical data define their territory fairly well.1
1 Mr. J. W. McKay on hearing indirectly of my researches at Portland Inlet
published in a journal which commands some authority in Canada (Tfie Province,
Victoria, B.C., December 29, 1894) a correction before any of my observations were
made public. He says that these Indians ' belong to the Kun&na, a tribe Which inhabits the lower StiMne Valley, and whose headquarters are at Tahltan, on the first
north fork of the StiMne River. About forty years ago three or four families of these
Indians were hunting in the neighbourhood of the head waters of the Skoot (Iskoot),
a large tributary of the Stikine. Game was scarce, the prospect of a hard winter
stared them in the face; they accordingly decided to make for Chunah, on the sea-
coast, at the head of Behm Inlet. They took a wrong direction and struck the coast
on the west shore of Portland Channel. They were then discovered by one of the
headmen of the Naas tribe, who arranged with them to protect them from molestation
provided that they sold all the product of their fur hunt's to him at his price. Having
no alternative bat to accept bis proposition, or be sold into slavery, they agreed to
be his vassals, and have remained as such to his heirs and assigns to this day. They
are not the remnants of a tribe; they belong to a tribe which still maintains its j
normal strength in the valley of the StiMne.'
In a letter addressed to i)r. G. M. DawBon and dated Victoria, B.C., January 19,
1895, Mr. McKay makes the following additional statement:—
* I have your letter of the 6th instant touching Dr. Boas's discovery of a remnant
of a tribe of Indians on Portland Canal. The facts of the case are substantially as
stated in The Province, and were made known to me incidentally during my sojourn
in Cassiar. J
• I was one day encamped near the Tahltan River when some Naas Indians came ON THE NORTH WESTERN TRIBES  OF  CANADA. 39
In regard to the personal appearance of the Ts'Ets'a'ut I refer to the
measurements contained in the first part of this report. The individuals
whom I saw were short, of light colour, with broad and flat faces and low
noses. Their mouths were full. Their general appearance is very much
like that of the Nisk'a'.
They have no fixed villages, but make a camp wherever they intend tc
hunt. Their staple food is porcupine, marmot, mountain-goat, and bear.
The skins of these animals supply the material for clothing. In summer
they go down the rivers of Portland Inlet to. catch salmon, which they
dry for winter use.
At present they wear white man's clothing, but according to Levi's
descriptions their old style clothing corresponded to that of other Tinneh
tribes. Both sexes wore high boots (kHe) made of marmot skins and
reaching to the thighs, and pants (§k!aye) made of curried skins. Men
wore a leather jacket (aya'n) cut like a shirt and reaching to the middle
of the thigh. In winter they wore a jacket of marmot skins with mittens
attached (agotsqa') and threw a robe of birdskins (tss'a) over their
shoulders. In travelling they tied the robe around their waists by means
of a belt (s§). Women wore a short coat, which was tied around the
waist (atla§'), and a jacket (tl'a), both being made of mountain-goatskins.
The skin of the belly of the beaver was also used for the manufacture of
clothing.   In recent times both sexes have adopted the use of the moccasin
into my camp and complained that Na-nok, the chief of the Tahltan Ku-na-nas,
would not let them proceed to Dease Lake unless they paid him something for passing through his country. I had with me at the time as servant one Jim, a Ku-na-na
Indian, who explained the cause of Na-nok's conduct by detailing the statement
published in Tlve Province. I made Na-nok understand that he must not make
reprisals; that his tribesmen at Portland Inlet had full liberty to return to their own
feountry if they wished; that his jurisdiction did not extend to levying tolls on
strangers passing through the country, in which he himself was only a sojourner, as
he had done nothing to improve it; and that he must let the Naas Indians pass,
which he accordingly did.   This happened about twenty years ago.
' As to the original inhabitants of Portland Inlet the most ancient of which we
have any account is the Tongas band of the Tlihkeet tribe. The wintering villages
of this band at one time extended as far south as Mah-lit-hah-la; they were driven
northward by two (Metlakathla) hordes of Tsimsians (men of the river) who descended from the interior by the valleys of the Skeena and Naas, took possession of
the Tsimpshian Peninsula, and settled thereon. The Tongas, being forced t< > relinquish
their rights therein, retired to the coast, and islands immediately north of the entrance
to Portland Canal. If there were any inhabitants in Portland Inlet when the Tlinkeets
first reached that locality, they would have been exterminated or otherwise absorbed
bv the latter race before the Tsimshian race made its appearance on the scene of action.
The Tongas would be the most likely Indians to give what information may be
obtainable respecting any race more ancient than themselves, which may have existed
in the locality under consideration. The Tlinkeets of Cape Fox might also be able
to throw some light on the subject.
'You are aware that the Ku-na-nas of the StiMne Valley are closely allied to the
Tlinkeets of that section, i.e. the Skat-kwan. The Skat-kwan are closely allied to
the Tongas, and these facts may account for the Naas Indians' moderate treatment
of the little band of Ku-na-nas who unfortunately tumbled, as it were, into the lanHs
of the stranger, and stranger meant enemy in the days and in the country of which
I am writing. Had tbey reached Chunah, at the head of the Behm Canal, the
point for which they were maMng, they would have been amongst their friends the
Skat-kwan Tlinkeets.'
There is no traditional evidence of the invasion of the Tsimshian tribe to which
Mr. McKay refers, although it is probable that the Tsimshian were originally an
inland people. The statements collected by me show also that Mr. McKay is mistaken in regard to his notions-of the distribution of tribes in «n*--*hern Alaska. 40
REPORT'—1895.
(kecikatsse) in place of the high boot. It is made of mountain-goat hide.
The hair was tied in a knot behind the head, while the Tatltan (Tahl-tan)
shaved their heads.
They wore ear-ornaments made of the wool of the mountain goat.
These were attached to holes made in the lobe and in the helix. The
nose was also perforated, and ornaments made of haliotis shells or of
coins were suspended from the septum. The clothing was embroidered
with porcupine quills. Before the introduction of glass beads they made
beads of bone.    Girls wore hats (see p. 45).
The houses of the Ts'Ets'a'ut are made of bark, and of a very temporary
Fig. 1.—Hut of the Ts'Ets'a'ut.
l ' )
u
character. They clear a space at the foot of a large tree and place a forked
pole, about seven feet long (atlanaa', fig. 1, (i)) on each side of the tree, from
about six to eight feet apart. These poles support two slanting'poles (6m',
fig. 1 (2)) about fourteen feet in length, which are connected by four cross
poles (tetlatsaa', fig. 1 (3)). The slanting roof and both sides are covered with
bark, while the end next to the tree remains open. Sometimes one side:
next to the tree is closed; the other serves as a doorway. The fireplace
(kh5 da tla) is at the foot of the tree ; the smoke escapes at the open top
next to the trunk of the tree.    The ground is covered with brushes, and ON  THE NORTH-WESTERN  TRIBES   OF  CANADA.
41
the bed is spread at the low end of the hut, the head end being at the
side remote from the tree.    The structure is lashed together.
When two families desire to inhabit one house, two of these structures
are joined together, so that they stand end to end, and one is built a little
higher than the other (fig. 2). Thus the roof of one side overlaps that of
the other and prevents the entrance of rain. This house has a door on
each vertical side. It is also built close to the butt of a tree as a protection against snow and rain, the trunk of the tree being close to one of the
vertical sides. When the tribe moves to another camp the houses are
taken apart and the poles are tied together and to a tree. When the
party returns to the same place they untie the bundle and use the same
poles.
In winter the poles are tied more strongly, and very stout supports
are selected. When the snowfall is very deep the doors are blocked up
and the exit is through the roof. It would seem very likely that this
winter house may be the primitive form out of which the subterranean
Fig. 2.—Double hut of the Ts'Ets'a'ut.
lodge of the interior of British Columbia may have developed. The
advantage of covering the walls with dirt instead of waiting for a snowfall, to ensure protection against winds and cold, would become easily
apparent, and then the ground plan of the two houses would become very
much alike. The advantages of the bilateral arrangement would also
disappear when the houses were built underground instead of overground.
I would remark at this place that the supports of the subterranean lodge
are slanting outward, not vertical, as indicated on page 81 of the Sixth
Report of the Committee, and that Dr. Dawson's figure (' Transactions
of the Royal Society of Canada,' 1893, ii.) renders the plan correctly.
The bed is covered with mats made of cedar-bark. Quilts or blankets
are made of the skins of goats, bear, and marmot. Baskets are used for
cooking and for carrying water, berries, and other kinds of food. They
are made of spruce roots or of bark. Spoons are made of bark or of
mountain-goat horn.    Axes and adzes were made of bone or horn.
Fire was made either by means of the firedrill or with a strike-a-light.
The stone for the latter is found in Tombstone Bay, but the description
of the kind of stone was too indefinite for the purpose of identification. REPORT—1895.
The firedrill is turned by means of a bow : the upper end is held in a piece
of bark, while the lower ends turns in a slit of a piece of wood. Dry
rotten wood is used for tinder. The sinew-backed bow was made of yew
wood. There was a stud on the inner side, which served to keep the string
from the bow. The string was made of the skin of the back of the
beaver, which was cut into strips and twisted. One end was tied to the
end of the bow, while the other had an eye which was hung over the
other end. Bows of this description are used by the Kenai and the
Tinneh of the Lower Yukon River. The arrow was made of yellow cedar
and winged with eagle feathers. Flint for arrow-heads was obtained
from a place in the mountains north of Laq'uyip'. It is said that the
people made expeditions for obtaining this material, which lasted two
years. The bow is held horizontally. The arrow is grasped by the bent first
finger and thumb of the right hand.    Sometimes the bow is held vertically.
Fig. 3.—Marmot trap.
Then the arrow is grasped by the thumb and first and second fingers of the
right hand, and rests between the first and second fingers of the left. When
hunting they carry their small game in pouches. In winter they travel on
snow-shoes, the netting of which is made of beaver skin. For mountain
climbing they use a pole about three fathoms long (tqe). Marmots are
caught by means of traps of simple construction (fig. 3). A stick, the end
of which is carved in the shape of a blue jay, crane, or some other animal,
is tied to a longer stick, which is placed upright in the ground (1). A
heavy club-shaped stick (2) is laid over the place where the two sticks are
tied together, pressing on the head of the carved stick. The lower end of
the latter is held to stick 1 by means of a loop. The lower end of
stick 2 is burdened with heavy stones. A small flat stick or board (3)
placed oyer the loop, and lies in the entrance to the marmot hole.
This board is covered with dirt and grass, and as soon as the animal steps
on it the loop slips down stick 1, the heavy stick falls down and breaks
its back.     All  these  sticks  are  painted   red, and  are  then  covered ON THE NORTH-WESTERN TRIBES OF CANADA.
43
with stones and grass. They also bear property marks. Figures are
also engraved on stick 1. Some of them are reproduced here (fig. 4).
No. 1 represents the mountain-goat browsing, No. 2 the blue grouse,
No. 3 the pigeon, No. 4 is a man holding a lance in the act of killing
a bear.    His nose is indicated by two spots ;  the black lines in the
Fig. 4.—Figures engraved on traps.
(1) Mountain Goat.
(2) Grouse.
(3) Pigeon.
(4) Bear-hunter.
body represent the backbone. The position of these lines shows that tht
body is represented as being turned towards the bear. The two lines
near the back of the bear are also the backbone ; the lines descending
from it are the ribs.    Its mouth is open.
Porcupines are hunted during the nighttime.    They are not caught
in traps, but killed with lances, clubs, or arrows.    It seems that they do 44
REPORT—1895.
not use nets for catching rabbits. Levi said that the Laq'uyi'p hunted in
this manner, but that the Ts'Ets'a'ut did not do so. They always hunt singly,
one man confining his operations to one valley at a time. They use canoes
to a slight extent only. The canoes were made of the bark of the yellow
cedar. They were about three fathoms long. The bark is.stripped all
around the tree. Then it is stretched, sewed in the proper shape, and the
seams and holes are.calked with gum. They used sails which were made
of marmot skins.
In winter they live to a great extent upon meat dried during the
summer months. The staple food is marmot meat, which is mixed with
marmot grease, boiled and preserved in marmot guts.
The tribe consisted of two clans, the Eagle and the Wolf. Only
members of the Wolf clan survive. The native names of the clans are
lost, and they are called by their Nisk-a equivalents, Laqskl'yek and
Laqkyebo'. The equivalent of the latter among the Sa'nak-oan are the
Tek'oede. The clans are exogamic. As members of one clan only survive,
all the married Ts'Ets'a'ut of this time have married members of! foreign
tribes. Each clan has«separate names. I obtained names of the Laqkyebo'
only.
Men.
DrEntsKle'.
Qatlo'.
Gwaya'.
Tsikyatsa'.
Tsatso'.
Can.
Nadze'.
Wo">en.
Atlaadze'.
Cetlgwe'uk.
The institutions are maternal, succession being in the female line.
The child inherits from his mother's brother. We find among the
TsEts'a'ut also the institution of avoidance between mother-in-law and
son-in law (matuoHa') which is found among all the northern Tinneh
tribes. Levi explained that they were ashamed to talk to each other, and
even to see each other. The mother-in-law leaves the house before the
son-in-law enters, or, if such is impossible, she hides her face or turns the
other way while he is near her. Levi stated that the adult man must
also not look at his adult sister. This custom, he explained, is- based on
a tradition according to which a man married his sister. Their brothers
were ashamed, tied them together, and deserted them ; but the man broke
the ropes. They had a child, and eventually he killed a ram, a ewe, and
a kid of the mountain-goat, put on their skins, and they assumed the
shape of goats. He had acquired the power of killing everything by a
glance of his eyes. One day his tribe came up the river for the purpose
of -hunting, and he killed them. Then he travelled all over the world,
leaving signs of his presence everywhere, such as remarkable rocks. The
woman and her child went to the head waters of the Nass River, where
they still conjbinue to live on a lake.
I also found the Tinneh custom according to which the parents of a child,
change their names and adopt that of father or mother of so-and-so. In this
case at least the custom must be interpreted somewhat differently from
the way in which it is usually done. There are a limited number of
names only in the tribe, probably names belonging to the nobility. When
a child reaches a certain age, his father, uncle, mother, or aunt may give ON  THE  NORTH-WESTERN  TRIBES  OF  CANADA. 45
it his or her name; and since by this act the former owner has relinquished
his place, he also loses the name belonging to the place, and consequently
adopts that of the father, mother, or aunt of the owner of the place, thus
indicating that he owned the place formerly.
When a woman is about to give birth to a child a separate hut is built
for her. When the child is being born two other women hold a stick
horizontally in front of the mother. She takes hold of it, standing in a
bent position. A third woman takes hold of the child, covering its mouth
until it is born. The navel-string is tied with sinews, placed on a stick,
and then cut. The mother rests for a day, then she takes up her usual
occupation. After a boy is born the father must not cut off the legs of
any kind of male game ; after a girl is born he must not cut off those of
female game, else_the private parts of the child would swell.
A girl when reaching maturity wears a neck-ring of crabapple twigs
(kMase'l), earrings of bone, and a piece of a rib around the neck, as amulets
to secure good luck and a long life. She also wears a large skin hat
which comes down over her face, and prevents the sun from striking
it. If she should expose her face to the sun or to the sky, it would
rain. The hat protects her face also against the fire, which must not
strike her skin. For this purpose she also wears skin mittens She
wears the tooth of an animal in her mouth to prevent her teeth from
getting hollow. For a whole year she must not see blood unless her face
is blackened, else she would grow blind.    For two years she wears the hat
' and lives in a hut by herself, although she' is permitted to see others.
After that period a man takes the hat off from her head and throws it
away.
. When a young man desires to "marry a girl he asks her parents to
whom he gives presents of meat at intervals during a year. Then the bride's
parents invite him and his clan to a feast at which the marriage is celebrated. When a man dies and leaves a widow his brother marries her. He
provides for her during the period of her widowhood. He must not marry
her before the lapse of a certain time, as her husband's ghost stays with
her and as the ghost would do him harm. The widow and also the
widower eat out of a stone dish. She or he carries a pebble in the mouth,
and a straight crabapple stick is placed along the back, inside the jacket.
She sits upright day and night. The meaning of this custom is that her
back shall remain as straight as the crabapple stick even in her old age.
The deceased husband's brother must take care that everything is quiet
in the widow's house. Any person who crosses the hut in front of her
dies. She fasts for two or three days' after the death of her husband.
After that she is allowed to eat what she pleases. When a woman dies
and her husband survives, he marries her sister.
Men must not cut their hair, else they would grow old quickly. Men
and women do not eat the heads of mountain goats, else their hair would
turn grey early.
In cases of sickness the shaman is called. He sings certain songs.
He does not use a rattle, but only a feather wand, generally an eagle's tail.
|>His hands and his face are painted red. He fans and blows the patient
or blows water on to him. Then he takes the disease out of him with
both hands, acting as though he dipped it out, and blows it into the air.
He uses a square drum consisting of a frame over which a skin is
stretched. The four corners "of the frame are connected by thongs. Here-
is a shaman's song :— 46
REPORT—1895.
■
m
hg;
K-a   na     k-i
—r-
-««-
r»-#-
k°a   na
k-i
m
k-a   na   a  k-i
I add a dancing song :-
P=5
I
M*
a
=i
f±
atat
1
Ya ha ya hi ya hi ya ya; ya ha ya hi ya hi ya ya; ya ha ya'hi ya hi ya ya
When a person is about to die his friends leave the house and desert
him. Everything that is in the house is left behind. They are afraid of
ghosts and avoid returning to the same place. Sometimes the body is
placed in a hollow tree and stones are piled up in front of the entrance,
or the butt of a tree is hollowed out on purpose. The knees of the body
are doubled up so that they touch the chin. The relatives of the deceased
cut their hair.
The ceremonial after the death of a chief is somewhat elaborate. The
body is burnt by the clan of which the deceased is not a member. The
chief's clan fast for three days. On the fourth day they partake of a
little water and raw food. On the fifth day they prepare a feast in honour
of their deceased chief. During the feast some food is burnt for him.
Those who buried the body receive blankets in payment. After they
have finished eating they begin to dance. The mourners sit down around
a fire wailing. They wear mittens and cover their mouths with their
hands that the fire may not strike them. The same ceremony is repeated
three times; the second time from the fifth to the tenth day, and the
third time from the eleventh to the fifteenth day after the death of the
chief ; then they are clean. During all this time they do not undress,
and keep their hats on. Every morning they wash in sour urine and put
fresh coal on their faces.
The following tradition illustrates the beliefs of the Ts'Ets'a'ut in
regard to the abode of the soul after death. 'A widow who was with
child was killed by a branch striking her abdomen. Before dying she
gave birth to two girls. Her sister adopted the children and reared them.
In the spring of the year the tribe went up Portland Inlet to catch
olachen. The woman with her two children could not travel as quickly
as the others did and lagged behind. One night she was unable to reach
the camp of the tribe, and when it grew dark she made a hut and camped
with the two girls. They had nothing to eat and the children were
crying. After some time they fell asleep. All of a sudden the woman awoke,
and on looking around found herself in a village. It was a beautiful village.
There were two rows of huts, one on each side of a river. She entered a
house and saw her sister and her sister's husband. Then she knew that she
was in the village of the ghosts. She began to cry and her sister cried with
her. She told her sister that she had not been able to follow the tribe and
that she and the children were starving. Then the ghost left the house and
re-entered carrying a bag of marmot-guts filled with marmot meat and
grease. She gave the bag and a dish to her sister to take them home. She
told her that the meat would last her a long time.  The woman took the bag ON  THE  NORTH-WESTERN  TRIBES  OF  CANADA. 47
and the dish and went home. The trail led up the river through a beautiful
valley. Finally she came to a pass leading across the mountains. As
soon as she reached this place she fainted. When she awoke she found
herself in her hut. The two girls were asleep, and the bag and the dish
which the ghost had given her stood next to them. She gave them some
meat and told them that she had been to the village of the ghosts who
had given her provisions. The next morning they proceeded on their
journey and finally reached the tribe. The meat in the bag did not grow
less although they were using it all the time. She told the people of her
adventure and showed them the dish, which differed in shape from the
dishes of the Ts'Ets'a'ut. They lived on- the meat for a whole year and it
did not grow less. The girls became stout because they were always well
nourished. The aunt and the two girls married. After some time the aunt's
husband was lost when hunting porcupine. When he did not return the
people went to look for him, but they could not find him. On returning
they told the widow to go once more to the village of the ghosts in order to
see if her husband were dead. She lay down to sleep, and when she awoke
she found herself on the pass which she had crossed before. She saw the
village down below, in a beautiful valley on both sides of a river. While
it was winter on earth it was summer here. She reached the village and
entered her sister's hut. She told her that she berself and her nieces had
married and that she had come to look for her lost husband. Then her
sister cried and told her that her husband was in the hut next door where
he stayed with his parents. The woman said : " He took a belt and a
marmot-skin blanket away which belong to my child. I wish to take
them home." Her sister replied : " He had them on when I saw him." Then
the woman went into the hut next door and found her husband lying near
the fire. She saw his parents and others of his deceased relatives. Then
she asked him for theioelt and the blanket, and he gave them to her. He
also told her the place where his body was lying. It was at the foot of a
mountain where they had camped before. There was a little boy in
the hut who ran up and down in front of the woman. She grew angry
and pushed him so that he fell into the fire. He vanished, for if a ghost
is killed, he is destroyed entirely and he ceases to exist. The woman ran
out of the house and at once she awoke in her own hut. It was early in
the morning. The blanket lay next to her. The belt was on the ground,
but one half of it was still in the ground and the people were unable to
pull it out. She reported what her husband had told her, and when the
people went to look for the body of her husband they found it at the place
indicated by the ghost. The head was frozen to the ice, while the lower
part of the body was moving. They tried to free it from the ice, but they
were unable to do so. Then they cut wood and burnt the body right
where it lay.'
I did not obtain much information in regard to their games and
pastimes. Levi insisted that he had never seen a Ts'Ets'a'ut gambling
and knew only a game at ball played with a ball of cedar-bark, and the
game of cat's-cradle. Hunters, who desire to secure good luck, fast and
wash their bodies with gingerroot for three or four days and do not touch
a woman for two or three months. They drink decoctions of 'devil's
club' for purposes of purification and for securing good luck.,
Their traditions are remarkable on account of the slight influence of
the coast tribes upon them. The Rev. F. Maurice has pointed out that the
customs and traditions of the Tinneh of the interior of British Columbia, REPORT—1895.
namely, of the Chilcotin, Carrier, and Siccanie, have been influenced to a
considerable extent by the coast tribes.1
The mythology of the Ts'Ets'a'ut agrees closely with that of the
northern and eastern Tinneh tribes, which were studied by E. Petitot.
Without entering into details I will mention a few of the fundamental
traits of their traditions. The earth was originally level: it was hot,
there was neither water nor rain, snow, fog, or wind. The animals were
starving and tore the sky, went up and liberated rain, snow, and wind,
which were kept in bags in the house of the goose woman. Rivers originated
when a man, in order to obtain water, shot an arrow into the ground,
whereupon a spring welled up. Mountains originated when two brothers
flew from their giant wives, who pursued them. In order to obstruct
their progress they threw the contents of the stomach of a cariboo upon
the'ground. These were transformed into mountains and valleys. . Later
on a flood destroyed all the people : only children of two clans survived,
who were placed by their parents inside two trees. The fire was
originally in possession of the grizzly bear, who wore a strike-a-light as an
ear-ornament. A bird stole it and brought the stones to men. Glaciers
and snow on the mountains are the remains of an immense snowfall which
covered the whole world. There are a great many traditions telling of
the marriage of men to women who were animals or other beings. A
people of cannibals of human form, but with faces of dogs, called Quda'l§,
and giants called Tsufa', are the subjects of many tales.
TV. The NIsk-a'.
The customs of the Nisk'a' and those of the Tsimshian, which were
described in the Fifth Report of the Committee, are practically identical.
Therefore I will not enter into a detailed description of this tribe, but
give such data only as supplement my previous notes. The Nisk'a' speak
one of the three main dialects of the Tsimshian language; the other dialects
are the Tsimshian and the Gyitkshan. They inhabit Nass River, except
its upper course. Nowadays they live in a great many permanent
villages, but formerly only four subdivisions were recognised by them.
Laqk-'altsa'p (=at the town), Andeguale', Gyitwunkse'tlk, and Gyit'-
laqda'miks. I mentioned in my former report that the Tsimshian are
divided into four clans : The K'anha' da, or Raven ; the Laqkyebo', or
Wolf; the Laqskl'yek, or Eagle ; and the GyispawaduwE'da,2 or Bear.
I discovered that these clans are subdivided or specialised, there being
families of the clan at large, and subdivisions of the clan. Among the
Nisk'a'and Gyitkca'n I found the following subdivisions :—
1 The Rev. F. Maurice misunderstands me when he assumes that I think the coast
people have not influenced the tribes of the interior. This influence is apparent in
all the descriptions of former travellers, and has been admirably demonstrated by
Mr. Maurice.* But the reverse influence exists also, and has affected to the greatest
extent the Tlingit tribes who trade with the interior, the Tsimshian, the Bilqula, and
the Salish of tne interior. The flood legends which refer to the finding of the earth
by the musk rat, some of the burial customs and inventions, must have percolated
through these channels, even if the Tinneh tribes have lost some of those customs
owing to secondary changes.
* This spelling is more correct than GyispotuwE'da, as given formerly.
^VjjUi ON  THE  NORTH-WESTERN  TRIBES  OF  CANADA, 49
1. K'anha'da : Raven.
1. GyitHk'adS'k-
2. Laqse'el =on the ocean,
II. Laqkyebo : Wolf.
1. Laqt'ia'k'tl.
2. Gyitgyigye'niH.
3. Gyitwulnaky'e'l.
III. Laqskl'yek : Eagle.
1. Gyisk'ab'Ena'q.
2. Laqlo'ukst.
3. Gyits'a'Ek-.
4. Laqts'Eme'liH=on the beaver,
GyispawaduwE'da : Bear.
1. Gyisg-'aha'st=grass people.
These totemic subdivisions are not represented in all the villao-es of
the tribe, but are found as follows :—
I. Laqk-'altsa'p.
Raven : K-anha'da, GyitHk-'ad6'k\
Wolf : Laqkyebo'.
Eagle: ^Laqskl'yek, Gyisk'ab'Ena'q.
II. Andeguale'.
Raven ; Laqse'el.
Wolf: Gyitgyigye'niH.
III. Gyitwurikse'tlk.
Wolf : Laqt'ia'k-tl.
Eagle : Laqlo'ukst, Gyits'a'Ek-.
Bear : GyisG-'aha'st.
IV. Gyit'laqda'mikc,
Raven : Laqse'el.
Wolf : Gyitwulnaky'e'l.
Eagle : Laqskl'yek, Laqts'Eme'liH.
These are the old recognised subdivisions of the Nisk'a' which were
given to me by ' Chief Mountain,' and corroborated in part by other
members of the tribe. It is remarkable that in olden times the
GyispawaduwE'da, who are nowadays the most numerous clan, appear
confined to a single village. It is possible that the clan became more
numerous owing to intermarriage with the Tsimshian.
Turnins towards Skeena River we find the Gyitwuntlko'l, who are
h 1-7 REPORT—1895.
considered a separate tribe, and whose dialect is intermediate between the
Niska' and the Gyitkshan. They have two clans : the K-anha'da and
Laqkyebo'.
' Chief Mountain \ gave me the following subdivisions of the Gyikshan ;
the list is, however, incomplete :—
I. Gyitwung-a'.
Raven : K'anha'da.
Eagle : Laqskl'yek.
II. Gyitsigyu'ktla. -
Raven : K-anha'da.
Bear : Gyisg-'a'hast.
III. Gyispayd'kc.
Raven : K'anha'da.
Wolf : Laqkyebo/
IV. Gyit'anma'kys.
The subdivibions of a clan cannot intermarry with the main clan or
with any other of its subdivisions. The people form four exogamic
groups only : Raven, Wolf, Eagle, and Bear. Of these the Bear is considered the noblest clan, because it derives its origin from Heaven.
In all festivals the totems of the clan play an important part. Carvings representing the totem are worn as masks or head-dresses ;' they are
painted or carved on houses and utensils, and on memorial columns and
totem poles. In all initiations an artificial totem animal brings back the
novice. I made particular inquiries regarding the meaning of masks and
carvings, and the modes of their use. I shall next give what new information I obtained on these points.
When the GyitHk''ad6'k* branch of the K'anha'da have a potlach,
three masks make their appearance, one of which has a moustache and
represents a young man named Gyitgod'ylm, while the other two are
called Ca'ca. They represent the following tradition. While the people
were staying at the fishing village Gulgye'utl, the boys under the leadership of a young man named Gyitgod'yim made a small house in the
woods behind the town. They took a spring salmon along and played
with it until it was rotten. They caught small fish in the creek and
split and dried them. They made small drums and began to sing and
to dance. For four days they stayed there, dancing all the time. Then
they became supernatural beings. Gyitgo6'yim's hair had turned into
crystal and copper. The people were about to move to another camp,
and went to the place where they heard the boys singing.
-£-	
I
m
=£2-
122=
£2=~*   <V _^L
^2=
*j
Drum J J
Hiii
J J J J *c
yia wu
la     yi laqtl   k-e - ciomo
k-a ON  THE NORTH-WESTERN TRIBES OF CANADA.
51
I
¥
7*3     -
=^
?=zrrza:
-f->       ■
W, '      ': \
yi-la, a aqtl   Me   -    sEl dautl nEq-n6'k-.
bein
I.e. Where the copper hair, when the ice hair, is spread out, is the supernatural
As soon as the people approached them they disappeared and were
seen at once dancing and singing at a distant place. They were unable
to reach them. Then they returned, and since that time they have used
the song and dance of these boys.
The GyispawaduwE'da have one head-dress representing an owl
(Maskutgunu'ks) surrounded by many small human heads called gyadsm
tlak's (claw-men). This is worn in potlaches and commemorates the
following tradition. A chief at T'Emlaq'a'mt had a son who was crying
all the time. His father became impatient and sent him out of the
house saying, 'The white owl shall fetch you.' The boy went out,
accompanied by his sister. Then the owl came and carried the girl to
the top of a tree. The people heard her crying and-.tried to take her
down, but they were unable to climb the tree. After a while she ceased
to cry and married the owl. They had a son. When he grew up she
told her husband that she desired to send her son home. Then his
father made a song for him. His mother told him to carve a head-dress
in the shape of an owl for use in his dance and to sing the song which
his father had made for him. She bade him good-bye and said that her
husband was about to carry her to a far-off country. The owl carried
both of them to the old chiefs house. When his wife saw the unknown
boy she was afraid, but her daughter addressed her, saying that the boy
was her grandson. Then the old woman took him into her house "wfiilj
the boy's mother and the owl disappeared. When the boy was grown
up his mother's brother gave a potlach, and before the blankets were distributed the boy danced, wearing the owl head-dress and singing the song
which his father had made for him.
m^J^
7)
Drum
I J*
LEp ha   ne
-fV
da     yu       wa    ha        e
V  -J-
I
ya
V3VPV
gEES3
i)
t^z
&m
^t
?vN:
\m
lsp ha ne   da    yu   wa  ha     e
he
he   ha
k j 11 j i i j i i j m 11 i j*
a   ha
-rb-
m^s
w-
yi
VI I
I    ya
H0-*-*-
i
1^=^^=
zacata
Lfip ha le   dat k-as wa gyitl mas k'uts kugu
H 1—8 REPORT—1895.
m
-IN
S^
■naks
ha
=1=
a
=E
-PI    A
ha     ji
^5t
ya.
I.e. My 1 brother this tree is my seat.
Some of the dances are actual mimical representations of myths.
In one ceremony two men dressed like Ts'Ets'a'ut hunters appear. Suddenly the noise of thunder is heard, and down through the roof comes a
person dressed in eagle skins and wearing the mask of the thunder
bird. The Ts'Ets'a'ut shoot at the bird. At once there is a flash of
lightning and a clap of thunder : one of the men falls dead and the other
one escapes. The fire is extinguished by means of water, which wells up
through a pipe of kelp which is laid underground and empties into the
fire. At the same time water is thrown upon the spectators through
the roof. This performance is accompanied by the song of the women,
who sit on three platforms in the rear of the house. The song relates to
the myth which is represented in the performance.
Burial.—The burial is attended to by members of the clan of the
father of the deceased, who are paid for their services. Four or five
men bend the head of the body down and his knees up. Thus he is
placed in a box. Chiefs lie in state for some days, while others are
buried without delay. They burn food and clothing for the deceased,
■saying that it is intended for him- Else the ghost would trouble them.
Then they cut wood for a pyre; the box is put on top of it and it is
burnt. The body is poked with long poles in order to facilitate com-
bmstion. When it bursts and gas escapes they believe they hear the
voice of the ghost. Men and women sit around the pyre and sing all
the cradle songs of the clan which are contained in their legends. The
remains are put into a small box and placed on trees. Cotton-wood trees
are often selected for this purpose. The body of the shaman is also
burnt.
Some time after the burial the son or nephew of the deceased
erects a column in his memory (ptsan). As the meaning of such
columns is not yet clear by any means, I asked ' Chief Mountain' to
describe to me the festivals which he gave after the death of his father,
who was a GyispawaduwE'da. His father had a squid for his protector
{riEqn&k-). After the death of his father he invited all the people to
his house. During the festival the ground opened and a huge rock
which was covered with kelp came out. This was made of wood and
bark. A cave was under the rock and a large squid came out of it.
It was made of cedar bark and its arms were set with hooks which
caught the blankets of the audience and tore them. The song of the
squid which was sung by-the women sitting on three platforms in the rear
of the house is as follows :—
| : K-ag-aba'qsltK      laqha'     hdyd'i : |
| :    It shakes    the heaven haya'i: j
Ml kahysil     kd'd'tkystl   w* naqnS'fc ■        Id gyigya'dxtl   tia'g-atl  aks
For the first time   comes     great supernatural being in     living      inside of watei
dmn in lis&'yiltlam gyigya't.
to       look at   the people. ON THE NORTH-WESTERN TRIBES OF CANADA,. 53
After the squid and the rock had disappeared a man wearing the-
sun mask appeared in the door, and when the people began to sing his-
song a movable sun which was attached to the mask began to turn- The
sun belongs to the GyispawaduwE'da ; the squid reminds the people that.
one of his father's ancestors when hunting squids at ebb tide was captured by a huge animal. His friends tried to liberate him, but were
unable to do so. When the water began to rise they pulled a bag of
sea-lion guts over his head, hoping that the air in it might enable him to
survive, but when they looked for him at the next tide they found him.
dead.
After the festival ' Chief Mountain' erected the • memorial column-
It represented, from below upwards, first four men called Loayo'k-s, or-
the commanders. These are a crest of the GyispawaduwE'da. Tradition
says that one night some men for some purpose dug a hole behind a
house near a grave-tree. They saw an open plaee in the woods, a fire in
the middle, and ghosts were dancing around it wearing head-dresses.
They were sitting there as though they were in a house, but the men
saw only a pole where the door of this house would have been.. Four men
called LoayS'k-s were standing at the door, and called to them* nagwi't !
(To this side ! ) Since that time the GyispawaduwE'da have used these
figures.
On top of the four men was the sea-bear (mEdl'ek Em- akys) with
three fins on his back. Each fin had a human faee at its base. His
father had requested him to put the killer whale on the column, bufr
he preferred to place the sea-bear on it because it is the highest crest
of the GyispawaduwE'da. The tradition of the sea-bear tells how four
brothers went down Skeena River and were taken to the bottom of the
sea by Hagula'k-, a sea monster, over whose house they had anchored.
His house had a number of platforms. Inside were the killer whales,
Hagula'k-'s men. He had four kettles,, called Lukewarm, Warm, Hot,
Boiling, and a hat in shape of a sea monster, with a number of rings
on top. The name of his house was Helahai'dEk- (near the Haida
country). He gave the brothers the right to use all these objects, and
with them their songs, which are sung at all great ceremonies of the
clan.    The song of the house is as follows :—
—-4-
«
i
Ko   mi la    ye   e k'desku na
:fca=£3
k-a a  mi la   ye       des-ku na
±
gS
-Z±=3tM.
Z2I
@
:£=r«:
e>4
de   helahai   deg-i   ye   deya go   e    nu el     wi hagu-lok-   aya   go.
l.e. My friend, -walk close to the country of the Haida, the great Hagula'k-.
Hagula'k-   also  gave
them  two  cradle  songs, which are  sung  for
children of the clan and also at funerals.
A tlqn-a'sBm gwitih't,     atlqma'sism gvnd't,      atlgw&'SEm guna't.
0 real strong friend,   0 real strong friend, 0 real strong friend. 54 report—1895.
Maa'QtkinMree'tk'tl tlgBkycamqk'       tlgtcts'aM    tlguyd'hak-'ald'a
Where he came from with his little black little face with his little club
yag'abslt.
running down.
And the second one :—
Chma'det, gund'det, gund'det, gund'det.
0 friend, 0 friend, 0 friend, 0 friend.
WuMnnS'Stle,       ssmtlid'n, luvnqsa'nS, havgyd'SisgS.
They are very white, the real elks, which he won gambling,    which he found when
they drifted down to him.
Marriage.—When a young man desires a girl for his wife he sends a
certain amount of property (hana'k's) to her parents for the purchase of
the girl. If the suitor and the amount of property are acceptable, they
send word to him stating that they accept his suit. Then the young man
takes a number of slaves, who accompany him. They are called lodd'niEk's-
gut (= always close to him). They arm themselves, and the young man
embarks with them in a canoe and sails to the bride's house. As soon as
her relatives see them coming, they arm themselves with clubs and stone
hammers and rush down to the landing-place. They break the canoe and
try to drive off the companions of the young man. They fight seriously,
and sometimes one of the lodd'mEk'sgut is killed. This foretells that the
couple will never part. After the fight is over the bridegroom and his
companions are carried into the bride's house. Then her friends strew
eagle down, which is kept in -a bag made of sea-lion's intestines, on the
companions of the bridegroom, and the fighting ceases. Her father puts
on his head-dress and dances while her friends sing. Then a feast is given,
during which the young man pays the remainder of the purchase money.
' In the evening the girl's clan gives a considerable amount of property to
the bridegroom (logyind'm), which he distributes among his clan according
to the amount which they have contributed to the purchase money. Her
father and brothers give the groom a new canoe in place of the one which
was broken in the morning. Then the bride is carried down to the canoe,
and she departs with her husband to his village, where they live.
If the groom belongs to the same village, the couple often stay with the
girl's parents.
The winter ceremonial.—I did not see any part of the winter ceremonial
of the Nisk-a', but I received descriptions which, in the light of our
knowledge of these ceremonies among the Kwakiutl, bring out sufficiently
clearly their similarities. There are six secret societies among the Nisk-a',
which rank in the following order : the SEmhalait, Meitla', LotlE'm,
Olala', Nanesta't, Honana'tl, the last being the highest. The SEmhalai t
is really not confined to the winter ceremonial, but is obtained when
a person obtains the first guardian spirit of his clan and performs the
ceremony belonging to this event. The tradition of the origin of these
ceremonies is the same as that found among the Tsimshian, to which I
alluded in the Fifth Report of the Committee, p. 57 (see the full
legend in ' Zeitschrift fur Ethnologic,11888). The version of the legend
which I obtained from the Nisk-a' localises the events at Bellabella, and
it is added that the ceremonies were obtained first by the Gyitqa'tla
(a Tsimshian tribe located on the islands south-west of Skeena River) ON  THE NORTH-WESTERN TRIBES  OF CANADA. 55
from the Bellabella, and later on by the Nisk-a' from the Gyitqa'tla. This
is corroborated by linguistic evidence. • All the names of these societies,
with the exception of the first, are of Kwakiutl origin. [Meitla'=teasing •,
LotlE m, Kwakiutl No'ntlEm=foolish ; Olala', name of a Kwakiutl ceremony ; Nanesta't, Kwakiutl, Nontsista'latl, dance of No'ntsista ; Hona-
na'tl, dance of (1?). The call of the Olala', hap, is also a Kwakiutl
word designating eating.} The original tradition mentions three societies
only—the second, third, fourth. This shows that the first is not a secret
society, properly speaking, and that the fifth and sixth are later introductions. The Nisk-a' state that with the ceremonies- came the use of large
whistles. The Kwakiutl of Fort Rupert state also that the use of large
whistles and the custom of eating slaves and corpses and of biting pieces
of flesh out of the arms of people came to them from the He'iltsuk. We
must assume, therefore, that these ceremonies originated in the region of
Mil bank Sound. As the legends of these societies throw a clear light
upon their practices, I will give the Nisk-a' tradition of the origin of the
secret societies in full.
A Wntsda' (Bellabella) named Sag-aitla'bEn (a Nisk'a' name) went
hunting. He saw a bear, which he pursued. He shot it several times, but was
unable to kill it. Finally the bear reached a steep cliff which opened and
let him in. As soon as he entered he heard the voices of the Olala'
calling ' hapj and he fainted. Then his soul was taken into the house-
In the rear of the house he saw a large room partitioned off. The partition was hung with red cedar-bark. It was the secret room of the Olala-''
(ptd'dtl). To the right of the door, on entering, was a secret room for the
Meitla', and to the left of the door one for the LotlE'm. The chief, who
was sitting in the rear of the house, ordered a fire to be made, and spoke |
' Those here are the Meitla'; they did not bring you here. Those are the
LotlE'm ; they eat dogs ; they did not bring you here. But these are the
Olala'; they eat men ; they brought you here. You shall imitate what
they are doing.' He had a heavy ring of red cedar-bark around his neck,
a ring of the same material on his head, and wore a bearskin. He said :
i You must use the same ornaments when you return to your people.' He
took a whistle out of his own mouth and gaveit to Sag-aitla'bEn. He gave
him his small neck-ring of cedar-bark, which instilled into him the desire
of devouring men (therefore it is called k-'dtsq Em Ioh, cedar-bark throat),,
and he gave him large cedar-bark rings and a small bearskin, which
enabled him to fly. He told him: ' You shall kill men„you shall eat them,
and carry them to my house.' Then he opened the door. The singers
sang and beat time, and Sag-aitla'bEn flew away from town to town
over the whole world, crying ' hap' all the time. He went from the
country of the Wutsda to Skeena River and to Nass River. Sometimes-
he was seen sitting on high cliffs. He killed and devoured people whom,
he found in the woods.
After three years he was seen near the village, of the Gyit'ama't.
They attempted to catch him. They killed dogs and threw them into a
hole and a number of shamans hid under a canoe near by. Soon he was:
heard to approach. He alighted on the top of a dry cedar. He lay there
on his stomach, and the point of the tree was seen to penetrate his body
and to pierce it. But it did not kill him. When he saw the dogs he flew
down and after having eaten, the shamans rushed Up to him, caught him,
and took him up to the house.    They tried to cure him, and the people w
56 report—1895.
sang Olala' songs, all of which have a five-part rhythm (J J   Jj.    He
tried to fly again, but was unable to get out of the house. Finally he was
tamed and became a man. Then the Gyit'ama't took him back to his
home and received in return many slaves, coppers, and canoes.
The ceremonies take place in the month Ldkys Em guna'k (cold month,
or December).
The LotlE'm dance in a two-part rhythm : their call is a sharp h, h ;
their movements sudden jerks of the forearms, first the left moving up to
the shoulder, while the right moves down, then vice versd.
The Meitla' dance in a three-part rhythm. The last two dances
correspond to the Nontsista'latl of the Kwakiutl. When the members of
these societies are in a state of ecstasy, they throw fire around and knock
to pieces canoes, houses, and anything they can lay their hands on.
The insignia of the societies are made of cedar-bark dyed red in a
decoction of alder-bark. For each repetition of the ceremony a new ring is
added to the head ornament of the dancer. Those of the LotlE'm and
Olala' consist therefore of rings placed one on top of the other, while the
Meitla' receives first a red ring, the second time a white ring, and so on
alternating.    His rings are twisted together.
There are only a limited number of places in the societies, and a new
member can be admitted only when he inherits the place of a deceased
member, or if a member transfers his place to him. If such a transfer is
to take place, the consent of the chiefs of the clans must first be obtained.
Then one evening the chiefs during a feast surround the youth and act as
though they had caught the spirit of the society in their hands and throw
it upon the novice. If he is to be a LotlE'm, a noise : hdn, h6n, is heard
on the roof of the house, and the youth faints. The LotlE'm (or the
members of the society in which he is to be initiated) are called to
investigate why the youth fainted. They enter singing, their heads
covered with down. They place him on an elk-skin, carry him around the
fire, then they throw the youth upward and show the people that he is
lost. After some time, when the novice is expected back, the people
assemble in the house, and all the members of the nobility try to bring him
back by the help of their spirits. In order to do this they dance with the
head ornaments of their clans, their rattles, dancing blankets, aprons and
leggings, or they use the head ornament representing two bears' ears,
which is made of bearskin set with woman's hair, which is dyed red : this
ornament is used by all clans ; or they wear masks representing then-
guardian spirits (neqnd'k-). As an example of these I will describe the
spirit of sleep (rr6q) which belongs to the GyispawaduwE'da. The owner
of this spirit appears sleeping, his face covered with a mask, the eyes of
which are shut. Then a chief steps up and tries to awake him by hauling,
the drowsiness out of him with both his hands. Then the eyes of the
mask are opened, and roll while the man who wears the mask rises. The
chief who took the drowsiness out of him asks if he shall try to put the
people to sleep, and on being asked to do so he throws his hands open.
The nEqnd'k- is supposed to enter the people, and all close their eyes.
After some time he gathers the drowsiness again, and they awake and
| :Ain)otbv6qkruV, aiirStlmSgkb'': \
Oh ! how sleepy we are.   Oh I how sleepy we are. ON THE NORTH-WESTERN TRIBES OF CANADA. 57
Ade gngo'St     netl gyamk' atl ts'smlaqha' ya tla gyia tqaldd''utl dEtn   woq
Whenever strikes me the heat of      heaven    ya I       again   comes   (fut.) sleep
/fa's     nekc s-tn     n>Sq,   In/a!
to the husband of  sleep, kua I
| : Airedthedqkua', aiwothioqko': \
Oh 1 how sleepy we are.     Oh 1 how sleepy we are.
In this manner the spirit of sleep proves his presence and is asked to
try to bring back the novice.
One nsqn&k- after the other tries to bring him back. If the novice
does not return by midnight of the first night, the ceremony is interrupted
and continued the following night. On one occasion a member of the
LotlE'm was the last to try. He took his nvqnd'fc, a small carved human
image, held it up, and asked it to bring back the novice. Then he poured
a spoon of grease into the fire and threw the carving after it. At once
the whistles of the novice were heard on the roof. All the LotlE'm
rushed out of the house, but soon they returned, saying that they had
seen him, but lost him again. They cried, ' eh 1' (drawn out very long).
Then all the people left the house. After the novice is lost in this manner
he is expected back on the following day. Early in the morning a killer-
whale or some other animal is seen on the river carrying the novice on
his back. He is crying md, md, md, m-d ! all the time, and the people go
to see him. The LotlE'm take a canoe and paddle, singing, towards the
novice. When they have almost reached him one of their number, who
stays ashore and wears a bearskin, drives all the people into the houses.
The Lotls'm take the novice into their canoe and destroy the whale float
which carries him, and which is manipulated by meansof ropes. Then
he runs up and down the street like one wild, and the Olala' follow him
and bite any of the profane who dare to leave the house. The novice
catches a dog, tears it to pieces, and eats it going from house to house.
When returning he is naked. Then they enter his house, which becomes
tabooed. A rope hung with red cedar-bark is stretched from the door of
the house to a pole erected on the beach, preventing the people from passing in front of the house and compelling them to go behind. A large ring
of cedar-bark is fastened to the pole in front of the house. These remain
on the house for a day after the return of the novice. On the following
day four men put on bearskins and place rings of red cedar-bark on
their heads. Thus attired they go from house to house inviting the
people to see the dance of the novice and to learn his songs. When the
people have assembled, the uncle of the novice throws blankets on the ground,
on which the novice dances. Then his uncle pays the chiefs who tried to
bring him back, and distributes blankets among the other people also. He
gives a feast consisting of two kinds of berries, each mixed with grease.
Chiefs are given large spoons filled with grease. Their people help them
to empty the contents, as they must not leave any of the food that they
receive. After the ceremony ■ the novice is called tlaamgya't (a perfect
man).
The man who wants to become a member of the Olala' must have been
a halai't (shaman) first.
The following description of the initiation of an Olala' was given by a
man who had gone through the ceremony himself, but who is a Christian
now. It is a question to my mind if the ceremonies at the grave about
which he told me were actually performed, or if he reflected only the
dread in which the Olala'. were held. 58
report—1895.
During a festival when he was to be initiated his friends pretended to
begin a quarrel. They drew knives and pretended to kill him. They let
him disappear and cut off the head of a dummy, which was skilfully introduced. Then they laid the body down, covered it, and the women began
to mourn and to wail. His .relatives gave a feast, distributed blankets,
slaves, canoes, and coppers, and burnt the body. In short, they held a
regular funeral.
After his disappearance he resorted to a grave. He took the body out
of the grave and wrapped a blanket about himself and the body. Thus
he lay with the corpse for a whole night. The other Olala' watched him
from a distance. In the morning he put the body back into the grave.
He continued to do so for some time in order to acquire courage. All
this time, and for a whole'year, he was not seen by any member of the
tribe except by the Olala'.
A year after his disappearance his nephew invited all the tribes to
bring him back. This was done in the same manner as described above
in the case of initiation of the LotlE'm. Finally his whistles were heard,
and he appeared on the roof of the house crying a lalalaiala 1 He disappeared again, and in the following night after prolonged dances he was
seen on the hills dancing in a fire, which he had built in such a manner
that when he danced behind it it looked from the village as though he
was standing right in it. The following day he appeared carried by his
totem animal.
The GyispawaduwE'da are brought back by a killer-whale, as described
above ; the Laqkyebo' by a bear; the Laqskl'yek appear on the back of
an eagle which rises from underground ; the K-anha'da on the back of a
frog. Sometimes the novice appears on a point of land some distance from
the village carrying a corpse in his arms. Then he is said to walk over
the surface of the water and to come ashore in front of the village. This
is accomplished by means of a raft which is covered with planks, and
burdened so that it floats a short distance under the surface of the water.
It is pulled by means of a rope by some of the other Olala' while the novice
is dancing on it, so that the impression is conveyed that he has approached
on the surface of the water. When he reaches the village he eats of the
body which he is carrying, and one or other of the chiefs kills a slave
and throws the body to the Olala', who devour it It is said that before
eating human flesh the Olala' always use emetics, and that afterwards
they tickle their throats with feathers to ensure vomiting.
In festivals which take place during the dancing season the Olala'
receives his share first, and nobody is allowed to eat until he has begun to
eat. He has a dish and a spoon of his own. These are wound with bark.
Those who have been Olala' formerly are his servants and bring him food.
When he hears the word WIeJc (ghost) he gets excited and begins to bite
again. After he ceases to bite and to devour men a heavy ring of red
cedar-bark is placed around his neck, and he is led slowly around the fire.
The ceremony is called 'making him heavy' (sEp'arlytq), and serves to
prevent his flying away and getting excited again. He must stay in his
room for a whole year after his initiation. After biting he must chew the
bark of ' devil's club' (wdo'mst), which-acts as a purgative.1
In olden times the appearance of the artificial totem animal, or of the
guardian spirit, which was described above, was considered a matter of
1 See also Fifth Report, p. 67. ON THE NORTH-WESTERN  TRIBES  OF CANADA. 59
great importance, and any failure which would disclose the deception to
the uninitiated was considered a great misfortune, which was atoned only
by the death of those involved in the disclosure. One striking instance
of an event of this kind which took place among the Heiltsuk- was
reported to me. Three brothers invited all the tribes, among them the
Tsimshian, to a festival. The eldest was to return from a visit to the
bottom of the sea. When the visitors landed they had to wait on the
beach for his return. A rock was seen to emerge at some distance from
the shore. It opened and the young man stepped out and danced,
adorned with his headdress. Then he stepped back into the rock, which
disappeared again in the waters. The rock was made of wood and
covered with kelp. Its movements were regulated by means of ropes
running to the woods where a number of men were hidden, who operated
them. After the rock had emerged twice the ropes became entangled, and
they were unable to make it emerge for the third time. The man who
was hidden in the rock was drowned. The family of the man who was
lost in this manner concealed their grief, and his brothers pretended that
he had stayed with the spirit residing at the bottom of the sea. They
went through the whole festival. After the guests had departed all the
surviving members of the family tied themselves to a long rope, sang the
cradle song of their family, and precipitated themselves from a cliff into
the sea.
Shamanisin.—In reply to my questions regarding the acquisition of
supernatural helpers and the powers of the shaman (halai't), 'Chief
Mountain,' who is nowadays a regular attendant at church, gave me the
following account of his own experience. Only a man whose father was a
shaman can become a shaman. When he himself was a youth the supernatural beings (nBqnd'k-) were pursuing him all the time; One day a
beautiful girl appeared to him and he fainted. She taught him her song
which enabled him to make the olachen come in spring, and which is as
follows :—
Lame'tl   Kill   haqhd''gvmqtl      akys      atl higye'wutl.
Behold where       meet       the waters on the beach.
Qyitroulgyigya'mk1     mulod'dtl hat    caky.
(People of warm place) where is heart olachen.
I.e. Behold where the tides meet at Gyltwulgyigya'mk* are many olachen.
She wanted to have intercourse with him. One night she took him
through a fire, and since that time he was able to handle fire with impunity. When she left him he saw that she had an otter tail. Her name
was KcEmwa'tsq (land- otter woman).
She is a neqnd'k- of the Laqskl'yek clan. When he gave a festival
he danced with the mask of this nEqnd'k: He was covered with otter
skins and wore claws of copper. He moved around the fire like an otter
crying ' uhuid'. This ceremony is called the SEmhalait. Later on he saw
four other supernatural beings, who had the shape of wild-looking men,
who wore bearskins and crowns made of the claws of bears. They taught
him to foresee sickness. At one time the Gyitqade'q disbelieved his power
over fire. He asked them to build a large fire. He threw an iron hoop
into it, moistened his hands, and covered his face, hair, and hands with
eagle-down. Then he stepped barefooted over the glowing embers, took
the redhot hoop, and carried it through the fire without burning his
hands or his feet.     He added that a few years ago he repeated this 60
report—1895.
experiment, but as he failed and burnt his hands and feet he gave up his
supernatural helper and became a Christian. He also added that many
who pretend to be shamans have no supernatural helpers at all. They
cannot cure or foresee disease. When he was called to cure disease the
four supernatural men appeared to him and helped him. They told him
to draw the breath of the supernatural beings out of the body of the *
patient. Other shamans suck the disease out of the body. They pointed
out witches to him, and enabled him to see ghosts. A few years ago a
number of shamans were dancing in a house. When he entered he saw a
ghost dancing among them, and foretold at once the death of one of the
shamans. Indeed, after a few hours one of them died. The shaman
wears stone and bone amulets, and does not cut his hair. His appearance
is the same as that of the Tlingit shaman.
Witchcraft is practised by people called Haldalwit. They steal a
portion of a corpse, which they place in a small, long, watertight box. A
stick is placed across the middle of the box, and thin threads are tied to
this stick. The piece of corpse is placed at the bottom of the box,
and part of the clothing or hair of the person whom the Haldalwit desire
to bewitch is tied to thin strings. If it is in immediate contact with the
body the person will die soon ; if it is hung a little higher he will be sick
for a long time. If hair is put into the box he will die of headache ; if
part of a moccasin, his foot will rot ; if saliva is used he will die of
consumption. If the person is to die at once the Haldalwit cuts the
string from which the object is suspended, so that it drops right on to the
corpse. This box has a cover, and is kept closely tied up. It is kept
buried under the house or in the woods. After the Haldalwit has killed
his enemy he must go around the house in which the dead one is lying,
following the course of the sun. After his enemy is buried he must lie
down on the grave and crawl around it, again following the course of the
sun, and attired in the skin of some animal. If they do not do this they
must die. Therefore the Nisk'a' watch if they see anyone performing this
ceremony. Then they know that he is a Haldalwit, and he is killed. He
is not tied and exposed on the beach at the time of low water, as is done
by the Tlingit. When a corpse is burnt the Haldalwit tries to secure
some of the charred remains and uses them for painting his face. This is
supposed to secure good luck. The Haldalwit sometimes assemble in the
woods, particularly when dividing a body. Then they cover their faces
with masks, so that a person who should happep to come near may not
know them. If anyone should happen to see them they try to catch him
and make him a Haldalwit also. If he refuses to join them he is killed.
Once a man by the name of K-'amwa'skye was caught in this manner.
He pretended to accept, and was given a mask. They made a song and
sang while he danced
Yag-alid'de oa'lslce,
Wilmiild'ns X-'amwd'skyB,
i.e. the ghosts run to the beach on account of the winds of K 'amwa'skye.
He emitted winds while he was dancing. He danced, hidden behind the
trees. Then he turned his mask round so that it was on his occiput, and
made good his escape. He reached his house, told what he had seen, and
the Haldol wit were killed.
The similarity between this method of witchcraft and the e'ka of the
Kwakiutl (Sixth Report, p. 60) is striking.
As in olden times cremation was prevalent, they tried to secure ON   THE  NORTH-WESTERN   TRIBES  OF  CANADA. 61
bodies of persons who had died by accident before they were found by
the friends of the deceased. They sold them among the other Halda'wit.
There are, however, many tales which mention the use of bodies for
supernatural purposes as well as tree burial, such as is practised by the
southern tribes. For this reason I suppose that the custom of cremating
the body was borrowed recently from the Tlingit.
The following tale explains the ideas of the Nisk'a' regarding the
future life.
Once upon a time the GyispawaduwE'da killed Adina'ky, the chief of
the Laqkyebo.' There was a young man in the same town who happened
to walk towards the graveyard chewing gum. There he saw a man
approaching him, who wore a robe of martin skins. When he came
nearer he saw that he was no other than the dead chief. The youth wished
to run away, but the ghost overtook him and asked him for some of the
gum he was chewing. The youth did not dare to hand it to him, and just
pushed it out of his mouth. The ghost took it and turned back. The
youth went home, and after he had told what had happened, he fell down and
lay there like one dfead. He had a perforated stone for an amulet, which
he wore suspended from his neck. It was to insure him long life. His
friends washed the body and put clean clothing upon him. Meanwhile
the ghost carried his soul away. They followed a broad trail, and came
to a river. He got tired of waiting, and yawned. Then he heard a noise
in the town. A canoe came across to fetch him. He went aboard, and
was taken to the chief's house. He was sick, and the chief ordered him
to be laid down next to the fire. He called four shamans, who were to
heal him. They tried to take his heart out of his body, but they were
unsuccessful. They said, ' His breast is as hard as stone.' This was
because he wore the amulet. Finally the chief said to the shamans, ' Let
us give up our efforts. He is too powerful; we must send him back.'
Then he was taken back to the canoe, and sent across the river. He
returned the same way which he had come, and when he entered his house
life was restored to the body.
The conception of the world is as follows :—
The earth is carried by a man named Am'ala' (smoke-hole). He lies
on his back, and holds on his chest a spoon made of the horn of the
mountain goat. It is filled with grease, and in it stands a pole on which
the earth is resting. When he gets tired he lifts the pole, and the earth
shakes. The pole, with, the earth on it, is turning in the bowl of the
spoon. The grease in it serves to make it turn easily. The earth is
round.    Sun, moon, and stars belong to the sky, and do not turn with the
earth.
An eclipse of the sun indicates that a chief is to die. Then the whole
tribe go out of the house and sing .—
i     i   j* i   >.   i    r»
—*    j*-—*——^z~?—*—
Daq     —     d'a daq     -     d'a daq —
The following games were described to me :—
1. Leha'l: the guessing game, in which a bone wrapped in cedar-bark
is hidden in one hand.    The player must guess in which hand the bone is
hidden. . .
2 Qsan : guessing came played with a number of maple sticks marked
with red or-black rings, or totemic designs.    Two of these sticks are
-m— 1
REPORT—1895.
trumps. It is the object of the game to guess in which of the two bundles
of sticks, which are wrapped in cedar-bark, the trump is hidden. Each
player uses one trump only.
3. Matsqa'n.—About thirty small maple sticks are divided into four or
five lots of unequal numbers. After a first glance one of the players is
blindfolded, the other changes the order of the lots, and the first player
must guess how many sticks are now in each lot. When he guesses right
in three, four, or five guesses out of ten—according to the agreement of
the players—he has won.
4. Gontl: a ball game. There are two goals, about 1Q0 to 150 yards
apart. Each is formed by two sticks, about ten feet apart. In the
middle, between the goals, is a hole in which the ball is placed. The
players carry hooked sticks. Two of them stand at the hole, the other
players of each party, six or seven in number, a few steps behind them
towards each goal. At a given signal both players try to strike the ball
out of the hole. Then each party tries to drive it through the goal of the
opposing party.
5. Tlet! : a ball game. Four men stand in a square : each pair, standing in opposite corners, throw the ball one to the other, striking it with
their hands.    Those who continue longest have won.
6. Sm6nts.—A hoop is placed upright. The players throw at it with
sticks or blunt lances, and must hit inside the hoop.
7. Matlda.'—A hoop, wound with cedar-bark and set with fringes, is
hurled by one man. The players stand in a row, about five feet apart,
each carrying a lance or stick. When the ring is flying past the row they
try to hit it.
8. Halha'l: spinning top, made of the top of a hemlock tree. A
cylinder, 3^" in diameter and 3" high, is cut; a slit is made in one side and
it is hollowed out. A pin, 2^" long and -\" thick, is inserted in the centre of
the top. A small board with a wide hole, through which a string of skin
or of bear-guts passes, is used for winding up the top. It is spun on the
ice of the river. The board is held in the left, and stemmed against the
foot. Then the string is pulled through the hole with the right. Several
men begin spinning at a signal. The one whose top spins the longest
wins.
V. LINGUISTICS.
I. NISK'A'.
The Nlska' does not differ very much from the Tsimshian. There are certain
regular changes of sounds—which, however, are not yet sufficiently clear to me, but
some of which wiU become apparent by a glance at the comparative vocabulary—
slight differences in grammar and in vocabulary. For this reason I confine myself to
a very few remarks, leaving a full discussion of the collected material for a future
opportunity.
The plural' of noun and verb is formed in the same manner as in Tsimshian.
Although the same words do not always follow the same rules, the classes are almost
the same. The remarks regarding adjective and verb (Fifth Report, pp. 83, 84)
hold good in Nisk-a' also.
The system of numerals differs in so far as there is no separate class for long ■
objects. ON  THE  NORTH-WESTERN  TRIBES  OF  CANADA.
63
00
5
1
2
3
4
Counting
Flit Objects
Round and Long
Objects, gr mps of
forty
Men
l
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
20
30
ky'ak'
t'Epqa't
gola'nt
tqalpq
k'stenc
ky'ak'
t'Epqa't
gola'nt
tqalpq
k'stenc
ky'e'sl
ky'e'lbEl
gul'a'l
tqalpq
k'stenc
ky'al
oag-ad§'l
gula'n
tqalpqda'l
k'stsnsa'l
k-'a'Elt
t'Epqa'Elt
k'anda'Elt
k'stsma'c
ky'ap
k-'a'Elt
t'Epqa'Elt
yuQda'Elt
k'stEma'c
ky'ap
k-'a'Elt
t'Epqa'Elt
yuQda'Elt
k'stsma'c
Hpe'El
k-'adslda'l
t'BpqadBda'l
yuQdaBlda'l
k'ctEmssa'l
Hpal
ky'ap di ky'ak'
ky'ap dE t'Epqa't
kye'lbEl wul gya'p
go'la wul gyap
ky'ap di ky'ak'
ky'ap dE t'Epqa't
k/iye'tk'
gOla wul gyap
Hpe'El di ky'e'sl
ky'e'lbEl di ky'e'sl
kye'lbBl wul gya'p
go'la wul gyap
Hpal di ky'al
Hpal di bag-ade'l
} Class I.
CO
OS
3
5
6
7
Canoes
Fathoms
Bundles of 10
Skins '
1
2
3
4
5
k-ama'Et
g-alba'Eltk's
, gula'altk's
tqalpqk's
k'stensk's
ky'ilga'H
ky'elbElga'H
gulala6'n
tqalpq al6'n
k'stenssl6'n
gusky'ewa'
gyllpwa'
6
7
8
9
10
k-'asltk's
t'Epqa'Eltk's
yuQda'Eltk's
k'stsma'sk's
ky'apk's
k-'aEldBl6'n
t'EpqaEldBl6'n
yuQda'aldslfi'n
k'stEmassl6'n
Hpao'nde
—
11
12
20
30
ky'apk's di k-ama'st
ky'apk's dig-alba'Eltk's ■
ky'iye'tk's
ky'iye'tk's di gyapk's
Hpao'nde di ky'a'k'
—
ORDINAL NUMBERS.
The first
The second
The third
The fourth
The fifth
The sixth
The seventh
The eighth
&c.
Animate
Kyskd'og'&b
tsogye'l/p'slt
tsogulslalt
tsotqoHp'q
tsok'stens
tsok-'d'slt
tsofjBpqd'Elt
tsoyudda'sit
Inanimate
tsdgye'slt
tsogye'lp'jslt
The numeral adverbs agree with the words used for counting round objects. REPORT-
-189
o.
PRONOUN.
Personal Pronoun.
I, nes.
thou, ne'sn.
he, she, it (present), net.
(absent), ne'tgye.
we, nam.
ye, nns'cEm.
they (present), ne'det.
„     (absent), ne'detgye.
me, Id's.
thee, la'e%.
him, her (present), Id'ot.
„     „    (absent), Ssne'tgye
us, Id'Em.
ye, Id'ssm.
them (present), Id'odst.
„     (absent), Id'odxtgye.
Possessive Pronoun.
There is only one form for presence and absence, except that the latter has the
general suffix designating absence -gya. The past is formed by the perfect prefix U-,
the future by dEm-: The house that I had, tlhwi'lbe; my future wife, dsmna'kyse.
my father, nEgud'sdes.
thy father, nsgud'Eden.
his father, nsgud'Ett.
our father, nsgud' Edsm.
your father, nsgud'Etsstn.
their father, nsgud' Edet.
THE VERB.
Intransitive Verb.
The forms of the verb are also simpler than they are in Tsimshian.
I am sick, sl'Spk^nes. we are sick, sipsl'ipk'nosm.
thou art sick, si'epk'nen. ye are sick, sipsi'epk'nessm.
he is sick, sl'epk. they are sick, sipsl'eph.
The perfect is formed by the temporal prefix He-, the future by dEm-.
Interrogative.
ajm I sick ? si'epgv/neia. are we sick ? sipsl'epgunosma.
art thou sick? stepgsnena. are ye sick ? sipsi'ipgunena(1).
is he sick ? si'epgua. are they sick I sipsl'epgua.
Negative:
I am not sick, niyi(dv) si'epgue. we are not sick, niyi(di) sipsl'epguEm.
thou art not sick, niyi(di) si'epguen. ye are not sick, niyi(di) sipsi'SpJt'SKm.'
he is not sick, ntyiidV) si'epguei. they are not sick, niyi(di) sipsi'epk'tet.
Transitive Verb.
The transitive verb shows also small differences from the Tsimshian verb. I give
the forms of the verb to Mil—singular dzak', plural yadzi—for the imperfect, which
was not given in the description of the Tsimshian. The present tense is analogous
to that of the Tsimshian.
—
I
thou
he
we
'  ye
they
w
dzak'dEneE
dzak-dEtncE
_
dzak'dEsEmneE
dzak'detneE
thee
dzak'dene'n
—
dzak'dEtue'u
dzak'dEmne'n
—
dzak'detne'n
him
dzak'de'B
dza'k'&En
dzaTc'dBt
dza'k'dEEm
dza'k'dtEsEm
dzak'de't
us
—
ya'dzinnom
yadzitnora
—
yadzESEmnoEm
yadzdetno'Em
y«
varlzine'sEm
—
yadzitne'sErn
yadzEmne'sEni
—
yadzdStni'sEm
them
ya'dzi
yadzEn(ne'Bcbst)
ya'dzfit
ya'dzEm
ya'dzEsEm-
(ne'Edst)
ya'dzdet
The interrogative is formed by the suffix -a.
The imperative of the transitive verb is expressed by the second person of the
indicative, that of the transitive verb by the suffix -tl.
eat, yd'uQgun.  ■ eat it, gyiptl. ON THE NORTH-WESTERN TRIBES OF CANADA.
65
I have obtained.a considerable number
of prefixes and suffixes, a list of which is
given here.
Prefixes.
an-
.  abstract nouns.
qpi'lyim-
forward.
aq-
without.
qtlsm-
around an obstacle.
agrol-
outside.
qtlna-
bent forward.
atlda-
in darkness.
2'-
to eat.
ase-
from  middle to side
of
qtss-
across middle.
house.
lHq-
to and fro.
baj-
uphill.
Ugy'e'q-
part of.
■da-
with.
libxli-
against.
ds-
to cause.
• lsg-sm-
into, from top.
dRj>-
down.
Isg-'ul-
for good.
gwin-
nomen actoris.
le-
on.
guWkys-
backward, one's self.
lo-
in.
guh-
to cause an action.
hiktl-
under.
g'utgo-
around.
losa-
in front of.
g'utl-
about.
Isks-
strange.
gvs-
blanket.
leg-an-
over.
gyici-
down river.
man-
upward.
gymi-
left behind.
mssEm-
separate.
g-an-
state of.
me-
like.
g-ani-
for good.
na-
to break, come to.
g-'ap-
entirely,    certainly,
by
n,Bom-
to desire.
m'
necessity.
pslsm-
to attempt.
g-ali-
up river.
spl-
out of water towards land
g-al-
too much.
SB-
to make something.
hadiH-
along, lengthwise.
sil-
to accompany.
ha-
instrument.
sk-a-
obstructive, sideways.
hagun-
near by, toward speak
3r.
staa-
along.
haspa-
inverted.
ca-
off.
hagul-
slowly.
t'am-
from   side   of   house   tc
his-
to appear to be.
middle.
M-
beginning of.
tk-al-
against. .
i-
with reduplication, ad
ion
ts'd-
suddenly.
done during motion.
tk'o-
around.
&CB-
fluid.
tqa-
altogether.
kceni-
woman.
tqas-
long thing.
kci-
out of.
ts'tm-
in.
ktle-
all over.
ts's'lsm-
into (from the side).
hy'edS-
ky'aq-
sideways.
for a little while.
tskc-\
ultc- J
out of water.
hys-
extreme (plural da-').
ts'sn-
left behind.
fc'a-
more, comparative.
tsxg-Em-
landward.
k-'aldtH-
in woods.
nUtl-
away.
k'alasi-
through.
roud'sn-
away.
k'oni-
without interruption.
yag-a-
down   to   beach,, out   oi
kcsq-
only, without instrument.
woods.
qpi-
partly.
ysg-ss-
down.
?-
accident happening.
tlsm-
stopping a motion.
qs-
resembling,    sound
called.
of,
Suff
'xes.
•ma       dubitative.
-kat       quotative.
-an
t
o make.
A comparatively full grammar of the' Tsimshian has recently been published by
Count Dr. A. von der Schulenburg.
H 1—9 T
66
REPORT—1895.
2. THE TS'ETS'A'UT.
Unfortunately my informant Levi, the only one from whom I was able to obtain
grammatical information, was exceedingly difficult to manage, and I did not succeed
in making him understand that I desired to have Ts'Bts'a ut sentences and accurate
translations. For this reason my material is very unsatisfactory, and does not
permit an accurate description of the structure of the language. Besides this the
Tinneh phonetics are difficult, and Levi could not be induced to speak slowly, which
circumstance made the work still more difficult. I give on .the following pages a
few remarks on the grammar, which will show what position the dialect takes among
other Tinneh dialects.
THE NOUN.
The noun has no gender. I did not find any indication of the existence of
separate forms for dual and plural, although these occur in Loucheux, Hare, and
Chippewayan.   Cases do not exist.
Compound nouns are of frequent occurrence. They are formed by means of
juxtaposition.   Possession is often expressed by this means.
dirt, krvutl'&fa' (=sand-mud),
bear meat,       fit tsqa.
female salmon, tlsbe' ek!o'.
NUMERALS.
1. Stlie'e\
2. tle'id'e. 9 ItlitTa'HOdunSe'e, 8tliad'unSe'6.
3. tqaded'S. 10. tloky'ada'.
4. at'onie'. 11. tloky'ada' $tlie'S.
5. gtl'ada'. 20. tleid'g tlOky'adS'.
6. gtltats'3. 30. tqade tloky'adfi'.
7. tleid'ethatle'S.
THE  PRONOUN.
hoof of goat, abva' aba'.
top of tree,   ts'u tin.
8. tqatqatlie'6.
Personal Pronoun.
I,       sqs'ni.
thou, nine'.
he,       1
we, dao.6'8.
ye,    daao'ne.
they,    ?
Possessive Pronoun.
my, St. our, d&.
thy, »J. your, dH.
his, ma. their, ma.
Before words beginning with k, is becomes Iq.   For instance:
my house, ia liho.
THE VERB.
The verb is exceedingly difScult to understand, and the meagre material which I
obtained from Levi is insufficient for a clear understanding of the subject. There
are a number of classes of verbs, as will be seen by the following examples :—
to sing (Petitot, 2nd class).
I sing, isdji'. we sing, daO'dji.
thou singest, indji'. ye sing, daadji'.
he sings, mdji'. they sing,   1
to be ashamed (Petitot, 5th class).
T am ashamed, Doa'
thou art ashamed, Dnsa'
he is ashamed, una'(hi).
I am afraid, nesdje'.
thon art afraid, nendje'.
he is afraid, nidjB'.
to be afraid.
we are ashamed, da'rma.
ye are ashamed, da'ana.
they are ashamed,    ?
we are afraid, d&'nidjl.
ye are afraid, danadji.
they are afraid, danedje'. ON THE NORTH-WESTERN TRIBES  OF CANADA.
67
lam cold, seistlv'.
thou art cold, sintlu'.
he is cold, sdtlo'.
to be cold.
to speak.
we two are cold, nee'itld.
we are cold, da'sitlo.
ye are cold, Qaatlo1.
they are cold, maitlo'.
we speak, daQo'idd.
ye speak, doQoadd'.
they speak, daooadd'.
I shall skin it, dustcce'.
I am going to eat, uistsqi
I shall tear it, nd'stse.
I speak, Qussdd'.
thou speakest, Qvndd'.
he speaks, auaddl.
The future is formed by the vowel *.
I skin it, distcce'.
I eat, istsqe'.
I tear it, nS'stse.
The interrogative is formed by the suffix -ya:
art thou cold ? sindlo'ya.
has he got a wife 1 ntsayd'ya.
The negative is formed by the suffix -dsbe':
I am not sick, esaai^sbe.
I have no dog, istle'dsbe.
There are numerous irregular verbs, particularly verbs of motion, but my notes on
this subject are very fragmentary: .
I am running, de'istl'a.
thou art running, diintl'a'.
he is running, datVa'.
I am swimming, gyina'sbe'.
thou art swimming, gyina'mbe.
to run.
to swim.
we are running, tldsne'idt.
ye are running, tldind'ode.
they are running, tldi'nade.
we are swimming, k'd'eo.
ye are swimming, gyinao.
they are swimming, <     " '
he is swimming-, ayinabe'.
&' "J " °'  I gyvna'o.
I found only a fewdual forms, but there is no doubt that many more exist.
I am sitting, sesda. run up, sing. seitUa.
we two are sitting, sikye'.  • run up, dual, sd'a.
man sitting, deide'a'. run up, plural, sede.
The prefixed pronouns of the various tenses differ in the same manner as in other
dialects, but I have not been able, so far, to systematise the fragmentary material
at my disposal.
The preceding remarks show, however, that the dialect of the Ts'Ets'a'ut is more
closely affiliated to the Chippewayan and Sarcee than to tbe Chilcotin and Carrier
dialects. 	
The following pages contain a comparative vocabulary of two dialects of the
Tsimshian, the Tsimshian proper and the Nisk-a', and of three Tinneh dialects : the
Tatltan (Tahltan), Ts'Ets'a'ut, and tbe TkulHiyogoa'ikc. The last of these is extinct.
The tribe inhabited the Upper Willopah River, in the State of Washington, and
is, therefore, the most northern of the great number of Tinneh tribes which are
scattered along the Pacific coast. The dialect is, for this reason, particuliirly interesting. I am indebted to Major J. W. Powell, Director of the U S. Bureau of
Ethnology, for permission to publish the vocabulary of this tribe which was collected
by George Gibbs in February 1S56, and which is in the Library of the Bureau of
Ethnology in Washington, D.C. Gibbs calls the tribe erroneously O'whil-lapsh
(Quila'pc), this being the name of the Chinook tribe of the Lower Willopah River.
Their name in the Chinook language is TkulHiyogoa'ikc, which agrees with Anderson's
name Kwal-whee-o-qua : their dialect seems to be almost identical with that of the
Klatskanai. I obtained a few words on my last journey from an old Chinook
woman, which I add to Gibbs's list. He introduces his vocabulary with the following
remarks:— 68
REPORT—1895.
G. Gibbs, Willopah, February 1866.
From an Indian at S. G. Fords.
' Of the Willopah tribe formerly inhabiting that river and the head waters of the
' Chihalis, there are, I believe, but two families left; from a man belonging to them
' I obtained the following:—
' He called his people O'whil-lapsh, the termination of which I should, however,
'judge to be of Chihalis origin.   Their territory he called Whilap-a-hai- you.    The
* vocabulary was taken down in some haste, and, besides being incomplete, is not
' always altogether correct. Enough, however, is given to afford evidence of its character.'
' Mr. Anderson says : " The Kwal-whee-o-qua seem, from what I can learn, to have
' " occupied the Willopah River and its tributaries towards the head of the Chihalis,
' " and to have interlocked with the ■"ribe who inhabited the country bordering on the
' " Elokamin River. Their habits of life seem to haye been very similar to those of the
'" Klatskanai—the chase and an interior life for part of the year—resorting to the main
* " rivers at certain periods to secure a supply of salmon.'"
The Tatltan vocabulary is reprinted from Dr. G. M. Dawson's report on that
tribe (' Annual Report of the Geological Survey of Canada,' 1887, p. 191, B.fL). The
words in parenthesis in the Ts'Ets'a'ut vocabulary were obtained from Timothy, and
differed from those obtained from Levi. The latter said in explanation that
Timothy's father had come from Laq'uyi'p (Naqkyina), and that for this reason
Timothy spoke slightly differently. The two vocabularies show clearly that Tatltan
and Ts'Ets'a'ut are closely affiliated, but that certain regular changes of sounds occur,
particularly ts in Tatltan becomes/ in Ts'Ets-'a'ut, and t is often replaced by tq or tr.
Other changes are not so certain, and may be based on differences in perception and
method of recording. It would seem that the TkulHiyogoa'ikc resembles the
northern dialects more than those of the interior of British Columbia, but I am not
sufficiently familiar with the latter to satisfactorily judge on this point. In both the
Tatltan and TkulHiyogoa'ikc vocabularies I have retained the original spelling. ON THE NORTH-WESTERN TRIBES OF CANADA.
69
English
Tsimshian
Nisk-a'
Tatltan (Dawson)
Ts'Ets'a'ut
TkulHiyogoa'ikc
(Gibbs)
Nailt
tlBqg
tlak-s
(my-) is-la-guu'-a
a'tla k'ane', atlgo'-
„       B'chu'1-le
Body
—
ptlnaQ
(my-)es-hla'
na
S'HifJ
Chest
k-a'yek*
k-'etlk-
„      es-tshan
ldjutrii'8 (atrfi'ya)
	
Belly
bun
ban
„       es-bc-t
ebS'
(my-)   s-'ohahn
Female
—
ma'dz'ik-s
ma-to'-ja
t'a
„      se'h-te
breast
Leg
—
t'Emtla'm
(my-) es-tsen-a
asrii'e
_
Foot
si
sa'-i
„      es-kuh'
ekya'E
„      skeh
Toes
—
k-atsuwe'Euk's
„       es-kus-tsko'
ekyaE ts'a
„       skeh
Bone
sa'yup
—■
„       es-tse"'
atsrE'na
„      tsu'nn
Heart
k-a'8t
g-a'8t
„      es-tshea'
Sbva'E
„      steh-ye
too'tl
Blood
itle'
itla'e
e-ted-luh
adi'la
. Village
k-alts'a'p
k-alts'a'p
ke-ye'
nidaa'
t QMef
sEm'a'gyit
SBm'a'gyit
tin-ti'-na
anBqa'
ks-keTi
Warrior
wnldi'gyitk'
e-ted'-etsha
—
(enemy t)   wuts-
e'h-ten
'.Friend
liEse'bansk'
nBseTj'Rnsk'
es-tsin-6
	
	
' Souse
hwalp
hwilp
kl-mah'
kh5
kbte
Kettle
—
ndzam
'kotl
k-'u'lS
cheh-he-hats-kus-
Bow
haukta'k-
haQdaV
des-an .
itFe*
see
kl-toh-wa
Arrow
hawal
hawlT
'kah
k'a
	
Axe    '
dahx'rEs .
dawi's
tsi-tl
dze'ra
trke-raits'tl-tse'h-
Knife
hattebl'esk
hatlEbl'sk
pesh
be
re
tche-ro'h (iron)
■Canoe
qsa
mal
ma-la'-te
natla
tse'h (generic)
.Moccasins
ts'a'Sqs
ts'a'wik-s
e-tshil-e-keh'
.tsek'a's
tl-na'ts-ee-ai
Pipe
aqpeya'n
haqmiyii'n
—
k-atHe7
stah-wootl
Tobacco
wunda'
miyii'n
tse-a-KH
k'a
suts-u'1-tus-see
Sky
laqha'
laqha'
ya-za
yad'a'
liook-kwai-le'h-ue
Sun
gyamuk
tl6k-s
tsha
fa
lirah-tleh
Moon
gya-muk
tlok-s
—
fa
lirah-tleh
Star
p'ia/ls
psli'st
SUEM
sr6
kah-lesaie
Day
sa
mEsa'H
zeu-es
—
—
Daylight
—
—
ye-ka'
yakqa'
—
Night
ho'opEl
aqk'
ih-kle-guh
etl'a'E
tca-a'hQte
Morning
k-antla'k-
he'tluk
tshut-tshaw-tlune'
tsetsa'6tlq,u'na
kaTi-hum-ta
■Evening-
ski'yetlak's
se'l
hih-guh'
quda'Hia
tclia-ahu-ta
* Spring
—
gua'yim
ta-ne'
—
—
Summer
sont
sint
kll-we-guh'
tra'ne
sch-nie
Autumn
kso'ot
k'slt
ta-tla'
—
—
Winter
k'atl
wul maVlEm
ih-ha-yeh
Qu tse'
kwutsVh
Wind
pask
ba'ask'
it-tsl'
ebve'
tlt-se'h
Thunder
kalaple'em
laqha'
tia'etk
it-ti-i-tshi'
fine^i
nai-ulfc-se-reTi
Lightning
ts'a'mti
ts'amtH
kun-ta-tsel
une da'
—
Rain
hwas
haiwi's
tsha
tsaE
nar-reli-a'ih
Snow
ma'dEtu
ma'dEm
zus
<J6
yiichs
Fire
lak'
lak'
k5n
kw6
kwunn
Water
aks
akys
tsoo
tQ6
toh, tsuali-neh
Ice
da'u
da'u
ten"
tqa
kwul-lo'h
Earth
dsa'atsEks
ts'a'ts'ik-s
ncn
nes
ne-e'h
Sea
laq man
laqse'lde
e-etla
tQ8 tsq8
to-alir-ra
River
g-'ala aks
g-'aliakys
too-desa
tQo' ga
toh
.Lake
	
t'aq
men
maE
chus-ka'h-ne
Valley
tlkut'e'en
ts'Emt'e
ta-gos'-ke
magaQaqS'
tseli
Prairie
	
laq'ama'k's
'klo'-ga
dtlditrame'
tseh
Mountain
sqan<5'ist
sk-ani'st
his-tsho
tsE'neK
sus-kut
Island
lEksd'a'
llkysd'a
ta-e-too-e
—
—
Stone, rock
lap
la'op
tse
tsha
stalx-witl
Salt
man
m6'8n
e-etla .
—
—
Iron
to'otsk
t'otsk'
pes-te-zin'
—
tche-ro'h
Forest
	
spatk-ang-a'n
got-S
—
—
• Tree
k*an
g-an
tli-ge-gut'
ts'6
s'chinu.
Wood
	
lak'
tset-tsh-tsSlsh
pfo
t'kinn
Leaf
ia'nEs
ia'us
e-tane7
a'traE
kutt
Bark
gyimst
(shredded)
ma'Es; gyi'm'-
Esfc (shredded)
ed-la
atlat'o'u
s'kaih
Grass
kiya'qt
hap^'sk'
kloah
a'traE
kluhw
Pine
	
amsgyini'st
ga-za
tsEwaHa'
s'chunn
\ Flesh, meat
ca'mi*
smaH
e-tset'
atsqa'
clie-cliunn
'Dog
has
OS
Mi
tie
klehl
Bear
61
61
shush
fo
til-e-zun
Wolf
kyebo'
kyib6'
tshi-yo-ne
eqa'
ne-nali-ta-lie
Fox
	
nag-atse'
nus-tse'he
—
—
Deer
wan
wan
kiw-igana
qa'ra
yun-a'bl-yil
Beaver
sts'al
ts'EmeliH
tsha
tsaE
(■white • tailed
deer)
no'-ne-yeeh 70
REPORT—1895.
TkulHiyogoa'ikc   '
English
Tsimshian
Nisk-a'
Tatltan (Dawson)
Ts*Bts*a'ut
(Gibbs)
Rabbit
guh
k'aq
—
Fly
	
t si-men
tlatlra'
_
Mosquito
Snake
Bird
gyl'ek
matqalaltq
ts'5'wots
bia'sk
laKlt
ts'ots
tsi
tsl-meh
dzlisdza'
ke-ru'BS
mi'ht-ke (a winged
thing !)
Egg
Feathers
15
tlgyima't
lap.
e-ga-zuh'
tshdsh
a'qa
chu-rfh-zie
..cn'ohts-kwu
ch-na'ht-keh
haat-hat ( = Nsk--
waii)
: Wings
•■ Goose
; Duck (Mallard) .
k-'ak-'a'i
ha'aq
me'Ek
k-ak-'a'H
hak-
liKqna'q
ml-i-tsene
gan-jeh
too'-deh
mfi't'a
dawa'k*
n Esna'q '
! Fish
luwElEm
luwF.'lEm ts'Em-
klew'-eh
—*
Salmon
ts'Em aks
nan
akyo
han
klew'-eh
tlEma'
(spring   salmon)
see-loh-kwa
': Name
While
wa
maks
wa
ma'uks1
on-yeh
ta-'kad'-le
dak*'ala'
telio-se'h
kl-kwe'e-yeh
Black
t'6'otsk
t'Stsk"
ten-es-kla'-je
dK'nKstl'Ena
kliiz-zun-ne
Red
mEsk
itla'etk"
te-tsi-je
dfisdEla
kl-che'h-ke
Blue
kuskua'sk
qsgusgua'6k's *
te-tlesn'-te
—
kluz-zun-ue
Yellow
mEtle'itk   ■
qsl&tEg-'al-
ma'sk's
tslm-tlet
dEstsqa'we
Green
mEtle'itk
mEtla'tk*
tsim-tlet
dEstsqa'we
tch-zu'in-me
Great, large
wl
Wl
e-tsho
ritsqa'
S-eOa
Small, little
tlgua
tlgua
ta-a-tsed'-le
utsa'E
hwe'hl-e
Strong
	
daqgyat
na-to-yi
adK'ntsqa
nu-me'h
Old
wud'a'gyat
wudaqgyat
es-tshan
sa'na8
tsunti     (bad    or
worn)
Young
copao
qa'ema's
e s- k i- uli
di-:guanana'
ahr-re-yie (new)
Good
am
am
e-ti'-uh
a'tawa
ne-zo'-a-nie
Bad
hada'q
ts'ak
had'a'q
tsha'-ta
tsa'at'e
n'tsnn-ne
Dead
n6
a-juta.'
tEza'ts'a
re'h-to-eh
Alive
do'Els
dsdSls
te-tshl'
*—
tah-ke-re'h-to-ch
(not dead)
Cold
kua'tko
guna'qk'
hpsMilS.'
Qusg*Vs
kose-kwut-sie
Warm
gya'muk
gyamky
hos-sltl
Quskd'n
kl-ko'-ne
I
nE'rio
ne'E
sltl-ni
tSqKlie'
shik
Thou
iiK'ricn
ne'EU
nin-e
nenc'
nuk
He
ne'EdEt
net
a-yi-ge
—
—
We
nn'i-Km
nom
ta-hun'-e
taqo'n
nai'-yook
Ye
ni:'ri:cKm
nK'crcm
kla'-tse
taqona'
hon-ne'k
They
ne'EdEt
n^dEt
—
—
—
This
—
tgon
ti-te
—
elie-ka'nu
That
	
tgost
a-yi-ge
—
chc-ru'k
All
tqani
tqane'tk'st
se-tse
daq6'6(?)
a- wa' 111-1 do
Many
ha'klE
held
oo-tlan
its'&'ada
klah-ne'
Who
g8
ua
ma-da i-e
maE
tsai-in
Far
d'a
nak'
iri-sa-te
itiya
ne-/.a'lit-so-nch
Near
	
delpk'
1 hah'-ne
wuHi'ya
che-kehn-tis-tie
Here
ya'gua
tgon
tis-tsik
aHi'ya(?)
To-day
seigya'wun
sag5n
too'-ga
ado'
tchut-seh-nie
Yesterday
g.vets'e'ip
kjna'Sts
kit-so'- kuh
idzagia
kim-tahn
To-morron
tsegyets'e7-
t'atlak1
tsha-tsha/
tsatsa'
kl-ka'hn-te
Yes
6
net
eh
aE
kli-neTi-ko(?ccr-
tainly)
No
atlgE
ne
1 11 - w a h
dEbe' (dffwe)
lak-ke
One
See gran
imalicitl notes
tll-geh'
etlioe'
kle-e'h
Two
tla-kek
tlB'id'fi
na'lit-koh
Three
ta-te'
tqadecTe'
rah-keh
Four
n
Jden-teh'
at'onee'
tun-cheh
Five
klo-dlae'
etrii-ia'
la-alit-la
Six
na-slike'
etltats'S'
ks-la'h-ni'h
Seven
na-sla-keh'
tleuTethatle'e
clie-te'li-lieli
Eight
n
na-stae'
tqatqatle'e
che'h-na-wah
Nine
na-sten-teh'
("'tliad'unee'e
kws^ta'h-heh
Ten •
ii
tso-sna'-ne
tloky'ada'
kwin-eh-she-a;
klutoh-ehl-tcho.
Twenty
»
ten-tla-dih-tch'
tleid'e tl6ky*ade'
nalitklitch-e'hl-
tcbo
tsah-nc
To eat
y&'wlq
yyoqk'
ctz-et-etz'
tsqa'
To drink
aks
akys
etz-oo-tan-eii-e
tQ5 H ine'saS
(thou-)
ts'nah-ne
To run
baq
baq
kls-too-tshe-ane
tl'a
tehl-chul
Snow colour.
* Iron colour.
Gall colour.
Blood colour.      * Blue jay colour.       * Colour of inside of crab.
Loaned from Nisk'a'. ' Loaned from Tlingit. ON THE NORTH-WESTERN TRIBES  OF CANADA.
71
English
Tsimshian
j
Nisk-a'
Tatltan (Dawson)
Ts'Ets'5'ut
' TkulHiyogoa'ikc
(Gibbs)
To dance
halil'it
hala'it
en-dl§'
neTi-tci's-to
To sing
ll'emi
li'mtH
en-tshln
dje
stah-wheh-lum
To sleep
qst6q
w8k-
nes-tetl'
s—tee
To speak
algyaq
algyiq
hun-teh
Qnnde'
vah'tl-st-keh
To see
ne
gye
nat-si
ede'n'e
niih-ta-res-to
To love
sEba'n
—.
na-cs-tlook'
dinHe7
	
To kill
ds'ak
dzak*
tsin-hia'
denmie'ya
noo-ne'k-la-rah
To sit
d'a
d'a
sin-tuh'
sinda'
ue'ht-sa-to
To stand
ha'yitk
hgtk'
nun-zit'
nensqe'
netluk-sto
To leave
da'wult
k'stak's   .
un-tlh' (to go)
niqEndo'sa     (in
canoe)
teh-a's-to (to go)
To come
ka'EdEks
a'dEkysk'
a-neh'
aqune'
neh-as-to
To walk
—
yes-sha'-dle
—
nah-ya
To work
—
—
ho-ya-estiuh'
	
	
To steal
—
le'luks
en-a-i
ana'e
_
To lie down
nag .
gysti
—
noste'
	
To give
gyEna'm
gyina'm
me-ga-nt-ah'
na
	
To laugh
sis'a'qs
his'a'qs
na-is-tlook'
gyeintqo'
_
To cry
wihaut
wuyl'tk'
eh-tshih
efa'
—
Additional Words in Gibbs's Vocabulary of the TkulHiyogoa'ikc.
my son, au-kwa.
lad, sk-e'h; as when an Indian chief
| talks of his young men, i.e. his unmarried followers, he  terms  them
See-sk-e'h, my boys or lads.
Indians, people, kwun--a-runt.
my eyebrow, sne'hts-eh-le.
my thigh, so-ru'rs.
calf of my leg, sku't-ta.
cedar, kl-sklo-ne-ye.
oak, tsoo-we'h.
fat, che-kuch.
buffalo, moos-e-moos-he (Chinook),
prairie wolf, stil-i-k.vLl.(siii-e-k\il ChehaMs).
black-tailed deer, woon-ins-kunnie.
male elk, t'chest-hu.
female elk, tseh-a-ka-you.
tortoise, wit-la-hoh (it-lah-wa, Chinook),
pigeon, hum-ehm (hum-o'h, Nisqualli)
roi/nter salmon, see-ahie.
sturgeon, wuz-e-te'h-nie.
land otter, che-leh-zie.
cougar, wutche-nai-kul.
wild cat, wun-el-kaits-le.
raccoon, kwa'hlas.
fawn, till-kah.
calf of elk, chaht-la-zoo-lie.
tamanous of medicine, tee-e'nn.
tamanous of feasts, tseh-kwa'ss.
small haiqua, ret-eh-sie.
large haiqua, te-ko-et-sie.
plank, klush-ts.
basket, hah-tsa.
gun, shwool-wool-tch-re.
Chinook canoe, kl'whee'-at.
year, tl-nelt-ta
handsome (good), n'zo'-arl.
ugly (bad), nt-sunn.
eleven, kwin-eh-she-a choot-tle-e'h.
twelve, kwin-eh-she-a choot-na'ht-keh.
thirty, tah klitch-e'hl-tcho.
one    hundred,    kwan-ne-san-ne-tchehl-
choot.
hungry, tche'h-a.
thirsty, za-re'hl-tcha.
G— d— n you, cheh-sl-ka'hne.
thank you, che-nal-yah.
thank you very much, see-na-chal-yah
Words of the TkulHiyogoa'ikc obtained from
toh).
'•Catherine,' 1894.
water, to (Gibbs:
sky, ya.
salmon, ka'mO's.
bear, tB'lsEne (Gibbs: til-e-zun).
dog, na'ttaii (Gibbs: klehl).
old woman, stsia'ne.
pole for poling canoe, tck-ulk-ule.
come! ne'asto (Gibbs: neh-as-to).
gimemel sqa'do.
give me water to drink I qatc'e'tltco to.
rBINTED   BT
sfottiswoode axd co., jew-stribt squabe
LONDON   /?-3
/kf
7.
JfN Q5th Report, Brit. Assoc, 1895.]
-   1. Ts'Ets'a'ut.
Number .
Name.
Tribe
Age
Height, standing
Height of shoulder
Length of arm
Finger-reach .
Height, sitting
Width of shoulder
Length of head
Breadth of head
Height of face
Breadth of face
Height of nose
Breadth of nose
Length-breadth index
Facial' index .
Nasal index   .
Index of arm.
Index of finger-reach
Index of height, sitting
Index of width of shoulders
2. Nisk-a'
[North- Western Tribes of Canada.
Males
14
mm.
1,600
1,322
678
1,591
868
351
190
158
110
146
47
41
83-2
75-3
87-2
42-4
99-4
54-2
21-9
a
CQ
Eh
21
mm.
1,650
191
153
128
146
50
41
801
877
820
in
H
55
mm.
1,570
1,303
718
1,662
861
352
183
157
122
151
56
43
85-1
80-i
76-i
45-7
105-9
54-8
22-4
I. Males
ii
mm.
1,127
880
495
1,168
640
238
172
140
92
120
34
30
81-4
76-7
43-9
103-6
56-8
21-1
cd
-a
o
co
6
mm.
1,073
812
466
r,102
596
238
179
144
93
123-5
37
30-6
80-4
75-3
82-4
43-4
102-6
55-5
221
cd •£
I a
CO
E-i
9
mm.
1,208'
947
527
1,208
670
254
173
151
95
128
37
31
a
10
mm.
1,2732
1,023
559
1,303
720
275
184
151
103
133
39
33
87-3
74-2
83-8
82-1
77-5
84-6
43-6 ! 44-1
100-0 102-6
55-4  56-7
21-0  21-7
is
S
10
mm.
1,349
1,107
664
1,334
708
272 (?)
178
155
102
135
42
34
41
52
20-2 (?)
10
mm.
1,286
1,021
584
1,334
692
261
184
147
105
135
46
34
fc
fe
11
mm.
1,320
1,040
549
1,300
714
289
174
155
99
135
39
35
79 9
77-8
73-9
453
103-4
53-6
20-3
89-1
73-4
89-7
416
98-5
54-1
21-9
<S
cd
M
13
mm.
1,421
1,141
636
1,468
757
306
178
144
100
134
38
34
80-9
74-7
89-5
25
14
mm.
1,488
1,206
649
1,535
790
328
188
152-5
110
138
43
38
81-2
79-7
88-4
44-8
103-4
53-3
21-5
43-6
103-0
53-0
220
10
<3
!s
si
14
mm.
1,578
1,285
715
1,650
856
348
186
159
112
143
46
40
85-5
78-3
87-0
45-3
104-4
54-2
22-0
11
cd
eg
14
mm.
1,545
1,250
683
1,640
807
342
180
161
112
145
47
37
89-4
77-3
78-7
44-4
106-5
52-4
22-2
12   13
cd
15
mm.
1,630
1,305
700
1,647
882
363
181
157-5
121
146-5
48
41
87-1
82-6
85-4
42-9
101-1
54-1
22-3
W
16
1,629
1,346
739
1,724
869
396
188
154
119
151
45
37
81-9
78-8
82-2
45-3
105-8
53-3
24-3
14   15
cci
a
16
nm.
lj.567
1,274
697
1,593
850
378
188
159
122
146
50
39
84-6
83-6
780
44-4
101-5
164-1
124-1
cd
M
16
mm.
1,634
1,308
716
1,694
900
379
189
158
123
148
60
37
83-6
831
74-0
439
103-9
55-2
23-3
16
cd
M
17
mm.
1,668
1,364
761
1,766
914
390
192
154-5
119
149
50
41
80-5
79-9
82-0
17
03
"A
17
mm.
1,643
1,350
739
1,734
895
384
186
157
119
149
64
40
84-4
79-9
74-1
45-6
105-7
64:7
23-4
451
105-7
54-6
23-4
18
cd
I*
rH
cd
M
CO
cd
o
M
20
mm.
1,605
1,310
694
1,680
890
375
187
157
123
142
48
43
84-0
86-6
89-6
43-1
104-3
55-3
23-3
19
cd
M
20
mm.
1,620
1,332
725
1,691
908
395
191
160
112
150
48
38
83-8
74-7
79-2
44-8
104-4
56-0
24-4
20   21   22
20.
mm.
1,617
1,293
719
1,734
828
402
189
158
124
143
47
35
83-6
86-7
74-5
44-4
107-1
51-1
24-8
k
cd
25
mm.
1,671
1,373
780
593
1,815
878
190
166
120
155
52
37
87-4
77-4
71-2
46-7
108-7
62-6
23-1
a
fe
27
mm.
1,723
1,434
810
1,850
928
387
203
164
120
160
48
42
80-8
75-0
87-5
47-1
107-6
64-0
22-5
23
■S
a
o
1-5
cd
28
mm.
1,629
1,327
729
1,712
877
378
186
151
119
148
49
41
81-2
80-4
83-7
44-7
105-0
53-8
23-2
24   25
Ph
CO
a
"to
H
28
mm.
1,771
1.460
800
1,830
942
385
204
160
133
157-5
63
43
78-4
84-4
811
45-2
103-4
63-2
21-8
a
03
M
30
mm.
1,700
1,423
663
1,808
878
381
194
157
124
157
49
39
80-9
79-0
79-6
45-3
106-4
51-6
22-4
26
a
27
cd
M
a
32
mm.
1,680
880
393
192-5
164
126
160
49
37
85-2
78-8
75-5
52-4
23-4
a
cd
"cd
W
rt
28 29
3*
CB
a
30
I
cd
M
33
mm.
1,712
1,397
784
1,841
954
396
189
165
110
163
49
39
87-3
67-5
79-6
45-8
107-7
55-8
232
35
mm.
1,632
1,335
751
1,723
902
425
198
167
111
164
60
42
84-3
67-7
84-0
46-1
105-7
55-3
261
<d
35
mm.
1,726
1,440
784
1,830
931
385
192
157
123
150
52
43
81-8
82-0
82-7
45-3
105-8
53-8
22-3
31
cd
M
35
mm.
1,698
1,340
729
1,827
881
385
196-5
166
127
156-5
54
41
84-5
81-2
75-9
42-9
107-5
51-8
22-6
32
33   34
cd
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cd
M
36
mm.
1,668
1,381
780
1,803
878
399
194
163
116
161
53
42
84-1
72-1
792
46-7
108-0
52-6
23-9
r5
37
mm.
1,640
1,350
742
1,741
893
408
200
167
127
165-5
52
38
83-5
76-8
731
45-2
106-2
54-5
24-9
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38
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1,717
1,435
808
1,860
888
415
197
161
109
165
52
40
81-7
661
76-9
470
108-1
51-6
24-1
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M
35   36   37   38   39
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40
mm.
1,677
1,373
774
1,798
911
385
195
159-5
119
158
57
41
81-8
75-3
71-9
46-1
107-0
54-2
22-9
45
mm.
1,625
1,328
745
1,730
904
378
205
158
119
152-5
50
39
77-1
780
780
45-7
1061
65-5
23-2
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M
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65
mm.
1,644
1,333
756
1,761
890
402
204
164
124
169
53
46
80-4
780
86-8
46-1
107-4
54-3
24-5
68
mm.
1,645
1,332
728
1,740
915
373
206
162
i23
149
52
42
78-6
82-6
80-8
44-1
105-5
55-5
22-6
2
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3
40   41
cd
60
mm.
1,627
1,371
779
1,810
840
400
194
158
128
161
51
47
81-4
79-5
92-2
47-8
111-1
51-5
24-5
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62
mm.
1,623
1,342
762
1,735
865
418
197
163
125
167
52
49
82-7
74-9
94-2
47-0
107-1
53-4
25-8
S
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65
mm.
1,633,0
1,331
718
1,685
900
400
199
160
120
155
64
43
80-4
77-4
79-6
44-0
103-4
55-2
24-5
cd
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67
mm
1,573"
1,282
720
1,647
846
191
161
124
156
49
41
84-3
79-5
83-7
45-9
104-9
53-9
24-7
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65-70
795
357
194
169
113
168
63
41
871
71-5
77-4
Son of Nos. 42 and 70.    Brother of No. 49.        2 Son of No. 67.    Brother of
Nos. 9, 44, 55.
3 Father of
* Brother of No. 13.       * Son of No. G7,    Brother of Nos. 4, 44, 55.       5 Son of No. 28.
No 10.       10 Father of No. 18.    Occiput rather flat.    Large exostosis on vertex.       " Father
6 Brother of No. 5.       ' Son of Nos. 40
of No. 26.       " Father of Nos. 3 and- 49.
and 74.    Blind in consequence of an explosion of gunpowder.
Much bent by age.
8 Son of No 41.    Bight leg broken. -o5th Report, Brit. Assoc
., 1895.]
[North- Western Tribes of Canada.
2
2. Nisk-a' (continued).
2a. Nisk-a' Half-bloods.
	
[I. Females
I. Males.
II. Females.
Number	
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
Name    .       .       .       .      ■h
CD
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Elizabeth Nelson
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Age	
2
5
6
7
8
9
11
12
mm.
12
16
16
17
18
20
20
20
22
25
26
26
28
30
30
32
35
35
40
45
54
55
60
60
3
5
16
29
6
25
32
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
Height, standing  .
92618
1,000"
1,06515
    16
1,137"
1,22518
1,41819
1,387
1,46520
1,560
1,25021
1,23922
1,58723
1,559
1,594
1,571
1,549
1,536
1,566
1,636"
1,55625
1,488
1,55226
1,540
1,61-2*
1,523
1,503
1.53828
1,516
1,542
1,571
1,672 s9
888
  30
1,579
1,652
1,14631
1,632
1,603
Height of shoulder
—
775
818
—
922
965
1,152
1,105
1,178
1,285
—
1,132
1,292
1,310
1,304
1,283
1,271
1,268
1,281
1,225
1,277
1,225
1,276
1,276
1,230
1,259
1,210
1,245
1,245
1,280
1,283
1,304
—
—
1,301
1,352
888
1,360
1,312
Length of arm
—
419
456
	
485
538
596
553
626
689
—
732
716
702
726
679
688
661
687
678
713
642
708
665
679
673
662
683
685
657
701
689
—
—
726
754
465
732
723
Finger-reach ....
917
1,003
1,050
	
1,124
1,255
1,430
1,340
1,510
1,582
—
1,452
1,655
1,680
1,643
1,605
1,613
1,570
1,612
1,628
1,656
1,498
1,653
1,580
1,575
1,567
1,535
1,567
1,618
1,570
1,620
1,608
898
—
1,630
1,712
1,118
1,686
1,653
Height, sitting
537
556
606
	
648
693
772
757
738
828
—
583
824
853
842
862
858
863
850
843
858
836
850
878
815
844
828
840
805
—
822
827
504
—
834
'   872
635
822
874
Width of shoulders
—
235
241
274
241
263
300
294
313
319
—
295
352
374
349
318
343
353
348
358
334
354
370
342
323
352
349
335
186
354
—
360
331
201
—
326
374
243
326
328
Length of head
168
170
177
173
167
170
176
178-5
176
183
184
181
193
197
184
193-5
185
179
181
185-5
188
183-5
188
186
186   ■
183
182
191
192
186
181
168
176
179
188
175
176
181
Breadth of head    .
144
137
148
142
144
145
151
145
146-5
151
149
145
153
156-5
157
150
158-5
156
154-5
157
154-5
156
156
147-5
151
158
149
144
155
163-5
151
155
141
140
151-5
150
145
160
165
Height of face
85
89
94
92
97
97
101
98
109
112
—
105
111
117
118
115
113
114
110
108
119
109
117
111
105
121
106
114
117
125
117
117
90
,—
111
130
95
117
110
Breadth of face
123
118
120
123
123
125
134
130
129
138
130
133-5
143
149
144
142-5
144-5
147
144-5
148-5
142
143
149
142
143
146
142
137
149
152
147
141
112
117
140-5
144
119
139
146
Height of nose
32
36
38
37
37
40
39
40
44
44
—
42
47
43
45
47
45
45
37
48
48
40
46
45
42
49
42
43
45
59
53
44
34
39
49
55
37
52
48
Breadth of nose
28
29
29
30
33
31
31
34
36
34
—
37
35
38
33
38
35
33
38
37
35
35
39
41
39
38
39
33
37
35
38
39
26
28
38
35
32
^       31
33
Length-breadth index .
85-7
80-6
83-6
82-1
•86-2
85-3
85-8
81-2
83-2
82-5
810
80-1
79-3
79-4
85-3
77-5
85-7
87-2
85-4
84-7
82-2
85-0
830
79-3
81-2
86-3
81-9
77-4
81-2
85-2
81-2
85-6
83-9
79-6
84-7
79-8
82-9
90-9
85-6
Facial index ....
69-1
75-5
78-3
74-8
78-9
77-6
75-4
76-2
84-5
81-2
—
78-6
77-6
78-5
81-9
80-9
78-2
77-6
76-2
72-8
83-8
76-2
78-5
78-2
73-4
82-9
74-7
83-2
78-5
82-2
79-6
83-0
80-4
—
78-9
90-3
79-8
84-2
75-4
Nasal index   ....
87-5
80-5
76-3
81-1
89-2
77-5
79.5
85-0
81-8
77-3
—
88-1
74-5
88-4
73-3
80-9
77-8
73-3
102-7
77-1
72 9
87-5
84-8
91-1
92-9
77-6
92-9
76-7
82-2
59-4
71-7
88-6
76-5
71-8
77-6
63-6
86-5
59-6
68-8
Index of arm....
—
41-9
42-6
	
42-5
44-1
42-0
39-8
42-6
44-2
—
—
45-0
450
45-7
43-2
44-4
42-9
43-8
44-0
45-7
43-1
45-7
43-2
45-0
44-3
44-1
44-4
45-1
42-7
44-6
43-9
—
—
45-9
45-7
40-4
44-9
45-2
Index of finger-reach
991
100-3
981
—
98-6
102-7
100-8
96-4
102-8
101-4
—
—
104-0
107-7
103-3
102-2
104-1
102-0
102-7
105-7
106-2
100-5
106-6
102-6
104-3
1031
102-3
101-8
106-4
101-9
103-2
102-4
101-1
—
103-2
103-8
97-2
103-4
103 3
Index of height, sitting
58-0
55-6
56-6
—
66-8
56-8
54-4
54-5
50-2
531
—
—
61-8
54-7
53-0
54-9
55-4
560
54-1
54-7
55 0
56-1
54-8
57-0
54-0
55-5
55-2
54-5
53-0
—
52-4
.52-7
56-8
—
52-8
52-8
55-3
60-4
54-6
Index of width of shoulders .
—
23-5
22-5
—.
21-1
21-6
21-1
21-1
21-3
20-4
—
—
22-1
24-0
• 22-0
20-3
22-1
22-9
22-2
23-2
21-4
23-8
23-9
22-2
21-4
23-2
23-3
21-8
23 3
—
22-9
21-1
22-6
—
20-6
22-7
•    21-1
20-0
20-5
13 Daughter of No. 65.
Daughter of No. 67.    Sister of Nos. 4, 9, 55.
24 Mother of halfbreeds Nos. 76 and 79.
Daughter of No. 63.    Sister of No. 48.
25 Mother of Nos. 45 and 48.
16 Hunchback.
28 Mother of No. 43.
17 Sister of No. 51. Is Daughter of No, 63.    Sister of No. 48.
2' Mother of Nos. 4, 9, 44, and 55. 2S Mother of Nos. 3 and 49.
! Daughter of Nos. 42 and 70. 20 Sister of No. 47.
29 Mother of No. 18.    30 Son of No. 62.    Brother of No. 79.
21 Idiotic.
Consumptive.
22 Hunchback. 23 Daughter of No. 67.
Daughter of No. 62.    Sister of No. 76.
Bister of Nos. 4, 9, and 44. Q5th Report, Brit. Assoc, 1895.]
[A
'orth- Western Tribes of Canada.
3
3. Goasila and Nak'oartoh.
4
Heiltsuk.
 ■
]
. Males
1
II.
Females
Female
Number	
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
1
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.3
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Age	
8
16
16
16
18
18
25
30
31
39
40
49
mm.
50
60
70
18
; 25
28
30
50
50
60
60
65
58
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
Height, standing  ...
1,120'
1,640s
1,624 s
1,564
1,694 ■»
1,682
1,725
1,730"
1,700
1.645,12
1,585
1.C0813
1,672
1,566
1,670"
1,528
1,508 >5
1,486
1,565 "
1,597
1,522"
1,532
1,542'8
1,530s"
1,52221
Height of shoulder
874
1,337
1,319
1,273
1,373
1,382
1,421
1,442
1,408
1,337
1,306
L313
1,363
1,285
1,368
1,251
1,228
1,197
1,273
1,322
1,243
1,236
1,250
1,272
1,255
Length of arm
491
704
725
702
760
754
778
799
767
744
680
726
722
720
765
628
666
626
650
676
694
680
658
668
675
Finger-reach .
1,122
1,718
1,745
1,737
1,780
1,765
1,800
—
1,835
1,758
1,650
1,727
1,783
1,690
1,728
1,593
1,583
1,525
1,615
1,645
1,650
1,660
1,635
1,570
1,618
Height, sitting
612
922
880
823
911
910
940
950
893
880
881
870
952
835
,913
870
; 884
853
841
842
840
863
810
835
826
Width of shoulders
251
374
378
396
383
375
.378
405
406
384
375
381
381
366
404
323
333
345
342
370
357
358
338
342
335
Length of head
1791
203*
1912
183*
1952
2003
2013
1983
1944
189 s
2083
1993
1883
1893
2044
1743
1815
1921
1944
1904
1864"
200 s
18119
1904
18219
Breadth of head    .
147'
1694
1572
1544
1622
1713
1613
160'
151"
1633
168-53
168-53
1563
1563
1654
1523
151s
160'
1634
1564
155"
159 s
17119
1524
162"
Height of face
104
144
120
121
127
121
136
140
126
127
123
134
135
124
139
110
126
117
123
123
128
134
129
125
115
Breadth of face
124
156
146
146-5
150
158
151
152
148
153
156
159
157
151
162
144
140
141-5
150
146
147-5
148
156
148
150
Height of nose
38
58
51
56
52
50
55
57
54
57
52
57
57
57
61
44
.    51
47
66
52
54
58
59
57
52
Breadth of nose    .
31
42
40
42
40
41
41
40
42
38
44
42
39
41
45
31
i    39
35
35
37
38
37
37
36
38
Length-breadth index
82-1 >
83-3*
8222
84-24
83-12
85-53
80-13
80-83
77-8«
86-23
81-03
84-73
83-03
82-53
80-94
87-43
83-45
83-3'
8404
82-14
83-34
79-53
94.419
80-04
89-110
Facial index .
83-9
92-3
82-2
82-9
84-7
76-6
901
92-1
85-1
830
78-9
84-3
86-0
82-1
85-8
76-4
90-0
83-0
82-0
84-3
87-1
90-5
82-7
84-5
76-7
Nasal index   .
81-6
72-4
78-4
75-0
76-9
82-0
74-5
70-2
77-8
66-7
84-6
73-7
68-4
71-9
73-8
70-5
1 76-5
74-5
62-5
71-2
70-4
. 63-8
62-7
63-1
731
Index of arm
43-8
43 0
44-8
45-0
45-0
44-9
45-0
46-2
44-7
45-4
43-0
45-1
43-2
45-9
45-8
41-1
44-1
42-0
41-4
42-3
45-7
44-4
42-7
43-7
44-4
Index of finger-reach
1000
104-8
107-7
111-3
105-2
105-1
104-1
—
1080
107-2
104-4
107-2
106-8
107-6
103-5
104-2
104-9
102-4
102-9
102-8
108-6
108-5
106-2
102 0
106-5
Index of height, sitting
54-6
56-2
54-3
52-8
63-9
54-2
64-3
54-9
52-5
53-7
55-8
54-0
57-0
53-2
54-7
56-9
58-5
57-2
53-6
52-6
55-3
56-4
52-6
54-6
54-3
Index of width of shoulders .
■   22-4
22-8
23-3
25-4
22-7
22-3
21-8
23-4
23-9
23-4
23 7
23-7
22-8
23-3
24-2
21-1
22-1
23-2
21-8
23-1
23-5
23-4
22-0
22-4
22-0
1 Not deformed.           2 Slightly deformei
1.
3 Mod
jrately
deform
3d.
1 Considerably deformed.
5
Much c
eforme
d.
6 Verj
much deformed.
7 Son of No
12, brother of No. 2.
8 Son
of No. 12, brother of No. 1.            9 Brother
of No.
5.
10 Br
other o:
No. 3.
11 Brother of No. 21.
1
* Grant
Ison of
No. 24.
M Fath
er of Nos. 1 and 2 ; son of Nos. 15 and 23;
brother
of No. 19.
" Grandfather of Nos. 1 and 2, father of No
. 12.
15   i
>aughte
r of He
iltsuk
^No. 1).             ,s Daughter 0
f Nos. 1
5 and
23, sister of Nc
. 12.           " Sister of No. 8.
18 Grandmothe
- of Nos. 1 and 2, mother
of No. 12.            '9 Occiput flattened.           2
Granc
mothei
of No.
10.
21 G
randmother of No. 17. 65<A Report, Brit. Assoc, 1895.]
5. Koskimo, Tlask'enoq, Newettee.
[North- Western Tribes of Canada.        4
1 Not deformed.
—
I. Males
IT. Females
Number.....
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
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Age	
9
10
11
15
20
20
22
26
28
30
32
35
35
35
44
45
45
45
45
48
50
50
55
58
60
60
70
70
8
18
18
22
22
35
35
35
35
35
36
mm.
40
40
40
40
40
42
45
50
60
60
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
Height, standing  .
1,171
1,256
1,295
1,600
1,749"
 23
1,61322
1,701
1,640
1,595
1,70124
1,6042S
1,683
1,62222
1,589"
1,650
1,693"
1,628
1,663
1,646
1,593"
1,634
1,620
1,59028
1,692
1,56029
1,580
1,600
1,265"
1.48830
1,576
1.4943'
1,56432
1,51233
1,630
1,600
1,546
1,5203-
1,560 s2
1,554
1,594
1,502
1,542
1,54335
1,565
1,5852S
1,530
1,542
1,50436
Height of shoulder
918
983
1,029
1,331
1,442
—
1,296
1,395
1,320
1,280
1,375
1,272
1,340
1,295
1,299
1,363
1,322
1,292
1,352
1,311
1,324
1,303
1,316
1,293
1,392
1,291
1,298
1,280
1,010
1,171
1,273
1,193
1,247
1,186
1,328
1,302
1,272
1,222
1,262
1,249
1,317
670
1,184
1,250
1,261
1,276
1,266
1,243
1,240
1,193
Length of arm
488
518
546
708
789
—
727
751
677
733
752
720
735
721
702
709
682
670
741
661
702
727
724
700
752
746
705
722
—
578
658
622
659
627
684
689
644
659
685
647
576
637
657
661
682
657
663
656
Finger-reach .
1,166
.1,235
1,290
1,668
1,827
—
1,720
1,780
1,683
1,722
1,798
1,690
1,740
1,722
1,703
1,626
1,580
1,644
1,742
1,625
1,755
1,708
1,745
1,690
1,777
1,728
1,660
1,675
1,265
1,470
1,615
1,522
1,598
1,523
1,676
1,649
1,523
1,587
1,600
1,576
1,610
1,432
1,540
1,645
1,635
1,644
1,568
1,560
1,535
Height, sitting
664
678
722
858
969
992
927
931
924
946
867
871
930
888
865
886
885
912
951
928
843
865
882
819
926
810
845
883
694
830
863
865
846
851
843
866
852
846
853
820
852
879
855
850
861
866
835
813
830
Width of shoulders
261
258
279
386
—
403
—
384
338
378
343
375
412
—
—  ■
355
358
379
384
395
359
376
372
347
403
363
358
380
—
334
335
363
356
346
371
—
339
322
—
333
346
336
341
330
352
—
324
328
324
Length of head
183 >
173 >
171'
1913
1863
189 s
1924
190 s
2083
1922
1993
1973
202 2
193 *
183 *
1922
189 s
199 s
2065
1975
1964
216 s
1983
198 5
2083
201s
2083
200 s
186'
188'
187'
188 s
188'
199 s
1944
197 3
1743
1884
1913
19.s
! 206 s
203 s
186 s
lb5s
195 s
179"
196 s
190 s
199 6
Breadth of head    .
160'
148-5 >
148'
1563
1533
162-53
1594
150s
1583
151s
1553
1523
159 2
1624
1504
1612
149s
1563
150 s
146 s
1564
143 s
1513
144 s
1593
1543
1603
153 s
153'
160'
152'
1505
150'
145 s
1484
1513
1443
1464
1463
141s
1406
148s
139 s
134 s
146s
142 s
139"
144 s
140 6
Height of face
103
100
101
122
133
128
126
130
130
130
125
129
136
133
128
126
127
131
125
119
121
135
127
129
132
121
136
143
112
113
118
124
130
119
129
116
121
130
117
114
138
129
106
120
128
130
123
125
128
Breadth of face
129
124
126
146
144
151
152
148
144
144
153
144
148
153
147
153
147
152
147
149
158-5
150
147
144
161
153
158
154
134
146
146
143
145
142
147
141
140
140
135
138
143
144
137
138
146
144
135
133
144
Height of nose
38
43
43
52
54
58
52
53
51
59
48
52
60
59
57
57
56
58
55
55
57
58
58
57
61
53
60
69
51
50
50
48
54
54
53
53
53
52
50
49
66
56
47
57
58
60
54
55
55
Breadth of nose
31
30
35
39
38
40
42
39
40
38
39
37
40
38
38
39
36
38
39
46
42
42
40
39
41
42
38
41
36
31
33
35
38
33
39
35
35
32
37
35
34
36
39
39
37
37
35
40
38
Length-breadth index
87-4 >
85-8 >
86-6l
81-73
82-3s
86-13
82-8 <
79-0s
76-03
78-6s
77-93
77-23
78-7 2
84-04
82-04
83-92
78-85
78-45
72-8s
74-1s
79-64
66-25
76-3s
72-7 6
76-43
76-63
76-93
76.5 s
82-3 >
85-1'
81-3'
79-8 s
79-8'
72-9s
76-3 4
76-63
82-63
77-74
76-4s
73-4 s
68-06
72-96
74-7:
72-4s
74-9!
79-8«
70 96
75-8!
70-4 8
Facial index .
79-9
80-7
801
83-6
92-4
84-8
79-3
87-8
90-3
90-3
81-7
89-6
91-9
86-9
87-1
82-4
86-4
86-2
850
79-9
76-6
90-0
86-4
89-6
82-0
79-1
86-1
92-9
83-6
77-4
80-8
86-7
89-6
83-8
87-8
82-3
86-4
92-9
86-7
82-6
^■e
89-6
77-4
87-0
87-7
90-3
91-1
940
88-9
Nasal index   .
81-6
69-8
81-4
75-0
70-4
68-9
80-9
73-6
78-4
64-4
81-3
71-2
66-7
64-4
66-7
68-4
64-3
65-5
70-9
83-6
73-7
72-4
69-0
68-4
67-2
79-3
633
59-4
70-6
620
66-0
72-9
70-4
611
73-6
66-0
66-0
61-5
74-0
71-4
51-5
64-3
830
68-4
63-8
61-7
64-8
72-7
69-1
Index of arm.
41-7
41-1
42-4
44-2
45-1
—
45-2
44-2
41-3
46-1
44-2
45-0
43-8
44-5
44-2
43-0
42-9
41-1
44-4
40-1
44-2
44-6
44-7
44-0
44-5
47-8
44-6
45-1
—
38-8
41-6
41-7
42-2
41-5
42-0
43-1
41-4
43-4
43-9
41-7
42-1
38-4
41-3
42-3
42-4
43-2
42-9
43-1
43-7
Index of finger-reach
99-4
98-0
100-0
104-2
104-4
—
106-8
104 7
102-6
108-3
105-8
105-6
103-6
106-3
107-1
98-5
99-3
101-0
104-3
98-5
110-3
104-8
107-7
106-3
105-2
110-7
105-0
104-7
100-0
98-7
102-2
102-2
102-5
100-9
102-8
103-2
98-3
104-4
102-5
101-7
101-0
95-5
1000
106-9
98-4
104-0
102-5
101-3
102-4
Index of height, sitting
56-8
53-8
66-0
53-6
55-4:.
—
57-6
54-8
56-3
59-5
51-0
54-4
55-4
54-8
54-4
53-7
55-7
66-0
56-9
56-2
53-0
53-1
54-4
51-5
54-8
51-9
63-5
55-2
55-1
55-7
54-6
58-1
64-2
56-4
51-7
54-1
55-0
55-7
54-7
52-9
53-6
58-6
55-5
55-2
55-2
54-8
54-6
52-8
55-4
Index of width of shoulders .
'22-3
20-5
21-6
24-1
—
—
—
22-6
20-6
23-8
20-2
23-4
24-5
—
—
21-5
22-5
23-3
230
23-9
22-6
23-1
23-0
21-8
23-9
23-3
22-7
23-8
—
22-4
21-2
24-4
22-8
22-9
22-8
—
21-9
21-2
—
21-5
21-8
22-4
22-1
21-4
22-6
—
21-2
21-3
21-6
2 Slightly deformed.
Moderately deformed.
Considerably deformed s Much deformed. 6 Very much deformed. 2S Measured by Dr. G. M. West. " One leg deformed. 24 Son of No. 24. 2S Son of No. 26. 2S Father of No. 30.
30 Daughter of Nos. 17 and 34. 31 Daughter of No. 49. « Sister of No. 38. M Mother of No. 30. S4 Sister of No. 33. ss Sister of No. 21. 36 Mother of No. 32.
27 Brother of No. 44.
28 Father of No. 11.
29 Father of No. 12. r
I.....     .
65th Report, Brit. Assoc, 1895.]
6. Nootka.
7. Kwakiutl, Ma'malelek-ala, NE'mk-ic.
=
[North- Western Tribes of Canada.       5
7a. Kwakiutl Half-bloods. 8. Sishiatl.
—
Women
I. Mai
es
II. Females
I. Males
II. Female
I. Boy
II. Girls
Number.       ....
4--l$,
2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
%
12
13
14
15
16
17
. 18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26  '
27
28
29
30
31
1
2
3
1
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Age	
23
40
13
18
25
26
30
35
35
36
38
38
42
42
50
60
65
4
6
8
ii
13
18
18
22
28
30
36
38
40
45
60
70
20
26
23
11
5
11
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm
mm.
mm.
mml
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm. £
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
Height, standing  .
1,601"
1,59238
1,28639
1,520
1,632"
1,691
1,662"
1,746
1684
-1,595
1,638
1,666
1,566"
—
1,640
1,550
1,695"
99041
1,07742
1,261«
1,353
1.46044
1,486
1,513"
1,562"
1,493
1,505
1,552
1,634
1,503
1,463
1,483
1,477
1716
1,662
1,510
1,307
1,066
1,350    |
Height of shoulder
1,317
1,313
1,060
1,236
1,340
1,383
1,394
1,430
1,284
1,303
1,328
1,362
1,281
.   —
1,333
1,265
1,323
768
867
995
1,100
1,183
1,234
1,358
1,292
1,234
1,220
1,250
1,353
1,223
1,195.
1,236
1,219
1,410
1,390
1,201
1,035
820
1,102
Length of arm
659
705
573
642
741
759
—
787
702
731
735
750
694
—
733
692
744
406
449
524
—
658
686
—
694
667
640
657
683
649
655
696
714
790
760
627
673
432
580
Finger-reach....
1,682
1,650
!   1,350
1,515
1,757
1,788
1,826
1,848
1,638
1,693
1,795
1,782
1,699
1,715
1,722
1,638
1,750
975
1,057
1,262
1,398
1613
1,563
1,594
1,674
1,580
1,592
1,585
1,658
1,540
1,563
1,608
1,604
1,968
1,824
1,560
1,338
1,050
1,340
Height, sitting
840
896
694
800
911
968
899
952
880
891
892
885
846
916
876
850
838
570
565
686
726
750
823
831
837
838
833
852
923
785
803
862
764
895
874
858
704
576
'   728-
Width of shoulders
383
355
275
321
— ■
392
—
375
337
377
364
392
—
363
392
1   353
—
218
226
257
309
315
325
—
—
335
362
351
342
327
345
348
3D8
400
404
358
282
239
307
Length of head
188'
1924
182'
179'
192'
189 2
2054
200 s
187 s
184 s
190 s
184 >
180 s
193 s
191s
—
1864
166'
171'
172 >
177 2
184'
177'
187 s
190 s
180 s
187 s
185 >
188 s
181s
179 s
1823
' 135 s
183'
184'
187'
180
159
171
.   Breadth of head   .
151j
1464
150'
158'
160 l
163 s
1584
170 s
168 s
159 s
156 s
160'
161s
156 s
163 s
158
157*
139 >
140'
143 >
147 s
150 !
154'
159 s
152 s
155 s
1542
153"
165 s
148 2
162 s
153 s
145 s
164l
151 >
154'
147
146
156
Height of face      .       .       .
118
120
107
114
133
131
141
136
129
132
126
117
134
131
124
130
138
87
94
101
114
103
111
127
128
114
116
115
123
120
119
119
115
125
124
125
104
90
100
Breadth of face
146-5
145
126
140
147
147
148
151
152
148
141
144
156
151
150
153
147
117
112
123
135
132
140
148 .
139
135
146
144
151
139
145
149
113
147
145
147
127
121
135
Height of nose
47
52
42
45
57
55
58
51
60
56
48
52
58
56
52
57
62
33
38
40
43
40
43
60
57
44
47
45
46
45
52
49
53
53
50
52
41
35
38
Breadth of nose
34
.35
32
35
35
38
43
43
38
37
37
35
40
43
36
41
43
28
29
30
33
33
32
33
35
31
35
35
38
30
36
42
37
40
39
33
30
29
35
91-5
Length-breadth index  .
80-3l
7604
82-4'
88-3'
83-3'
86-22
.   77-14
85-0 s
89-8 s
86-4s
82-12
87-0'
89-4 3
80-8 s
86-8s
—
84-04
83-7'
81-9l
83-1'
83-12
81-5'
87-0'
75-03
80-0 2
86-13
82-32
82-7 >
87-83
81-8 2
84-9s
84-13
78-43
84-2 >
82-1*
82-4'
81-6
91-2
Facial index .       .       .       .
80-8
82-8
S4-9
81-4
90-5
89-1
95-3
91-0
84-9
89-2
89-4
81-2
85-9
86-8
82-7
850
939
74-4
83-9
82-1
84-5
78-1
79-3
85-8
92-1
84-5
79-5
79-9
81-5
86-3
82-1
79-9
80-4
85-0
85-5
85-0
81-9
74-4
74:1
Nasal index  ....
72-3
67-3
76-2
77-8
61-4
691
74-2
84-3
63-3
66-1
77-1
67-3
69-0
76-8
69-2
71-9
69-3
84-8
76-3
75-0
76-7
82-5
74-4
55-0
61-4
70-5
74-5
77-8
82-6
66-7
69-2
85-7
69-8
75-5
78-0
63-5
73-2
82-9
921
Index of arm.        .        .       .
41-2
44-3
44-8
42-2
45-6
44-9
—
45-0
44-4
46-0
44-8
44-9
44-2
—
44-7
-   44-6
46-5
41-0
41-6
41-6
	
45-1
46-0
	
44-5
44-8
42-4
42-4
41-9
43-3
44-9
47-0
4^-3
45-9
45-8
41-5
43-7
40-4
43-0
Index of finger-reach   .
1051
103-7
105-5
99-7
107-8
105-8
1100
105-6
103-6
106-5
109-4
106-7
108-2
—
105-0
105-7
109-4
98-5
97-6
100-0
103-6
103-7
104-9
104-9
107-4
106-1
105-5
102-3
101-7
102-7
107-1
108-7
108-4
114-4
1099
103-3
102-1
98-2
99-3
Index of height, sitting
52-5
56-4
54-2
52-6
65-9
57-3
54-2
64-4
55-7
66-0
54-4
53-1
53-9
—
53-4
64-8
52-4
57-6
62-3
54-5
63-8
, 51-4
63-2
54-7
53-7-
56-2
55-2
55-0
56-6
52-3
55-0
58-2
51-6
52-0
52-7
66-8
53-7
538
53-9
Index of width of shoulders .
23-9
22-3
21-5
21-1
—
23-2
—
21-4
21-3
23-7
22-2
23-5
—
—
23-9
22-8
—
220
20-9
20-4
22-9
21-6
21-8
—
ill*f
22-6
24-0
22-6
21-1
21-8
23-6
23-5
20-8
23-3
24-3
23-7
21-5
22 3.
22-7
1 Not deformed.       2 Slightly deformed.       s Moderately deformed.       4 Considerably deformed.       s Much deformed.       • Very much deformed.     : " Measured by Dr. G. M. West.       *» Daughter of No. 2.       ss Mother of No. 1.       39 Son of No. 16.       40 Father of No. 1.       * Sister of No. 17.       a Sister of No.j 16.       a Sister of No. 20.       «* Sister of No. 18.
ifi
^—B
==
	
"^ —^"
	 65th Report, Brit. Assoc
, 1895
]
.,
[N
orth-Western Tribes of Canada.        6
L0a. Half-blood,
9.  Tribes of the Delta of Fraser River.
9a. Half-bloods, Delta of Fraser River.
10. Tribes of Harrison River.
StsEehs.
	
I. Boys
II. Girls
I. Boy
II. Girls
1
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II. Girls
Boy
Number	
1
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9
10
11
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13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
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23
24
25
26
27
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41    j
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Age	
7
9
9
9
10
10
11
11
13
13
13
7
8
9
10
11
11
11
12
12
12
12
12
13
14
15
15
16
17
17
18
9
6
8
9
9
10
11
11
12
12
9
10
11
12
13
13
14
8
11
14
16
9
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm
mm.
Height, standing   .
1,156
1,180
1,236
1,204
1,304
1,240
1,370
1,322'
1,418
1,426
1,418
1,125
1,241
1,246
1,3932
1,373
1,447
1,405
1,414
1,402
1,359
1,450
1,504s
1,465
1,408
1,482
1,494
1,500'
1,471
1,536
1,523
1,280
1,061
1,193
1,295
1,250
1,410
1,356
1,398
1,452
1,414
1,259
1,302
1,259
1,273
1,427
1,450
1,512
1,200
l,36tf
1,197
1,468-
1,198
Height of shoulder
889
942
980
944
1,053
976
1,123
1,075
1,173
1,154
1,152
881
990
1,005
1,122
1,107
1,152
1,138
1,147
1,131
1,103
1,162
1,227
1,193
1,136
1,176
1,197
1,220
1,190
1,227
1,245
1,019
835
925
1,040
974
1,122
1,103
1,120
1,183
1,140
1,004
1,022
985
1,030
1,156
1,170
1,211
958
1,094
1,213
1,198
984
Length of arm
483
505
508
510
551
561
618
610
631
622
631
469
548
561
630
587
628
598
617
584
596
641
675
636
628
623
668
644
648
641
643
569
436
473
540
539
609
587
559
627
623
538
572
560
547
590
651
658
517
609
654
646
534
Finger-reach ....
1,153
1,190
1,235
1,227
1,323
1,296
1,427
1,426
1,470
1,470
1,468
1,150
1,252
1,292
1,446
1,368
1,473
1,390
1,487
1,403
1,385
1,518
1,540
1,542
1,449
1,488
1,587
1,540
1,550
1,552
1,540
1,304
1,053
1,215
1,293
1,308
1,430
1,430
1,360
1,516
1,421
1,293
1,350
1,302
1,290
1,433
1,513
1,580
1,197
1,424
1,523
1,520
1,217
Height, sitting
635
646
674
662
707
653
724
696
747
756
771
587
680
653
733
740
776
778
760
766
732
770
816
781
740
800
813
800
812
862
824
693
587
664
693
683
776
712
781
765
727
694
696
677
677
778
768
787
653
720
796
785
646
Width of shoulders
252
276
282
274
289
285
318
283
309
308
324
245
289
282
312
288
312
292
310
324
300
332
323
335
320
344
347
335
364
350
318
285
237
282
279
286
307
301
311
340
287
275
282
288
291
287
325
357
253
304
318
32*
263
Length of head
170-5
177
169
172
169
174
181
167
177
176
187
175
170
176
170
176
183
174
179
171
178
182
174
171
168
180
180
178
181
181
171
170
173
172
170
176
175
173
182
177
171
168
169
183
175
177
190
181
166
167
182
162
171
Breadth of head    .
155
143
152
157
156
160
153
155
155
148
150
148
154
148
148
156
151
157
144
149
152
154
151
152
145
151
151
158
156
156
147
149
140
150
150
156
157
147
143
150
139
156
150
152
148
156
158
■   157
143
146
165
153
153
Height of face
94
95
100
99
102
105
96
96
112
105
101
92
102
101
105
105
111
114
109
103
110
101
112
104
101
113
103
112
115
110
105
96
97
94
102
102
110
103
109
102
98
101
97
103
102
100
112
111
91
105
111
102
95
Breadth of face
127
123
131
134
133
138
136
135
131
127
134
120
131
129
129
135
133
134
126
137
132
135
130
137
131
134
137
136
141
144
134
133
118
129
129
134
135
128
126
132
123
126
130
132
126
132
136
141
122
126
141
137
124
Height of nose
35
37
38
39
40
41
36
37
40
42
42
36
42
37
41
44
41
48
43
42
47
41
48
42
41
43
46
49
48
42
41
40
37
37
43
43
47
46
43
35
41
43
40
43
39
38
49
44
39
46
48
39
38
Breadth of nose
33
33
34
32
36
32
34
33
35
33
33
28
31
34
30
32
34
33
33
35
34
35
36
32
34
36
35
33
35
34
36
32
28
32
31
32
34
29
32
32
26
30
32
36
34
35
33
39
30
34
35
34
33
Length-breadth index   .
91-2
80-8
90-0
91-3
92-3
92-0
84-5
93-1
87-6
841
80-2
84-6
90-5
8-4-1
87-1
88-6
82-5
90-2
80-4
87-1
85-4
81-6
86-8
88-9
86-3
83-9
83-9
89-1
86-2
86-2
860
87-7
809
87-2
88-2
88-6
89-7
85-0
78'6
84-7
81-3
92-9
88-8
83-1
84-6
88-1
83-2
86-7
86-1
87-4
90-7
94-4
89-5
Facial index ....
74-0
7   2
76-3
73-9
76-7
76-1
70-6
711
85-5
82-7
75-4
76-7
77-9
78-3
81-4
77-8
83-5
85-1
86-5
75-2
83-4
74-8
86-2
75-9
77-1
84-3
75-2
82-4
81-6
76-4
78-3
72-2
822
72-9
79-1
76-1
815
80-5
86-5
77-2
79-7
80-2
74-6
78-1
81-0
75-8
82-4
78-7
77-0
83-3
78-7
74-5
76-6
Nasal index   ....
94-3
8   2
89-5
820
90-0
78-0
94-4
89-2
87-5
78-6
78-6
77-8
73-8
91-9
73-2
72-7
82-9
68-8
76-7
83-3
72-4
85-4
75-0
76-2
82-9
83-7
76-1
67'3
72-9
80-9
87-8
80-0
75-7
865
72-1
84-4
72-4
630
84-4
91-4
63-4
69-8
800
83-7
87-2
92-1
67-3
88-6
76-9
73-9
72-9
87-2
86-6
Index of arm....
41-6
42-8
41-0
42-5
42-4
45-2
45-1
46-2
44-4
43-5
44-4
41-2
44-2
44-9
45-3
42-8
43-3
42-7
43-8
41-7
43-8
44-2
45-0
43-3
44-5
42-1
44-8
42-9
44-1
41-6
42-3
44-5
141
39-7
41-9
43-1
43-2
43-2
40-0
43-2
44-2
42-7
44-0
44-4
43-1
41-3
44-9
43-6
43 1
44-5
43-6
43-9-
44-5
Index of finger-reach    .
1000
1001
100-0
102-2
101-8
104-5
104-2
1080
103-5
102-8
103-4
102-7
1010
103-4
104-0
99-8
101-6
99-3
105-5
100-0
101-8
104-7
102-7
104-9
102-8
100-1
106-5
102-7
105-4
100-8
101-3
101-9
99-4
102-1
100-0
104-6
101-4
105-2
97'1
104-6
100-8
102-6
103-8
103-3
101-7
100-2
104-3
104 6
99-8
103-9
101-5
103-4
101-4
Index of height, sitting
54-7
54-7
54-4
55-2
54-4
52-7
52-8
52-7
52-6
52-9
54-3
52-4
54-8
52-2
52-8
540
53-5
55-6
53-2
54-7
53-8
53-1
54-4
53-1
52-5
54-1
54-6
53-3
55-3
560
54-2
54-1
55-4
55-8
63-7
54-6
55-1
52-4
55-8
52-8
51-6
55-1
53-5
53-7
53-3
54-4
53-0
52-1
54-4
52-6
531
53-4
53-9
Index of width of shoulders .
21-7
23-4
22-7
22-9
22-2
23-0
23-2
21-4
21-8
21-5
22-8
21-9
23-3
22-6
22-4
21-0
21-5
20-9
22-0
23-1
22-1
22-9
21-5
22-8
22-7
23-2
23-3
22-3
24-8
22-7
20-9
22-3
22-4
23-7
21-6
22-9
21-8
22-1
22-2
23-5
20-4
21-8
21-7
22-9
22-9
20-1
22-4
23-6
21-1
22-2
21-2
22-3
23-6
1 Brother of No. 28.
2 Sister of No. 23.
Sister of No. 15.
Sister of No. 8. Go/// Report, Brit. Assoc, 1895.
11. Ntlakya'pamuQ.
a.   Utamk-t of Spuzzum.
b. Utamk-t of Spuzzum
and Upper Divisions mixed.
c.  Upper Utamk-t of Boston Bar and North Bend.
[North- Western Tribes of Canada.
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20
21
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Age	
15
23
40
45
45
53
55
55
58
58
35
37
58
58
60
25
32
38
46
2
3
5
6
9
9
9
9
12
12
13
15
18
21
25
31
35
36
38
45
48
50
55
55
58
60
60
65
65
70-75
75
Height, standing   .
mm.
1,582
mm.
1,692
mm.
1,619
mm.
1,630
mm.
1,601
mm.
1,611
mm.
1,493
mm.
1,653
mm.
1,570
mm
1,524'
mm.
1,537
mm.
1,5662
mm.
1,510
mm.
1,507
mm.
1,435
mm.
1,6343
mm.
1,4924
mm.
1,600s
mm.
1,664
mm.
803 s
mm.
892'
mm.
1,023 s
mm.
1,224
mm.
1,258 s
mm.
1,280
mm.
1,370
mm.
1,303
mm.
1,453'"
mm.
1,288
mm.
mm.
1,526"
mm.
1,642
mm.
1,582
mm.
1,713
mm.
1,708
mm.
1,645
mm.
1,670
mm.
1,692
mm.
1,611'2
mm.
1,635
mm.
1,550
mm.
1,4|713
mm.
1,492
mm.
1,555
mm.
1,622
mm.
1,566
mm.
1,538
mm.
1,620
mm.
1,572
mm.
Height of shoulder
1,292
1,375
1,314
1300
1,320
1,310
1,245
1,360
1,274
1,243
1,266
1,284
1,250
—
1,187
1,310
1,205
1,310
—
593
—
783
971
1,023
1,138
1,116
1,053
1,180
1,022
—
1,243
1,320
1,260
1,407
1,372
1,340
1,383
1,351
1,328
1,332
1,285
1,2.4
1,218
1,258
1,350
1,292
1,280
1,308
1,313
—
Length of arm
709
742
705
740
728
727
685
760
702
678
701
692
678
—
624
691
641
713
—
327
—
441
516
523
636?
573
551
598
669
—
689
728
720
746
633
724
725
745
748
744
691
664
663
682
713
760
672
741
716
—
Finger-reach ....
1,631
1,755
1,685
1,725
1,720
1,707*
1,620
1,775
1,667
1,590
1,645
1,624
1,538
1,422
1,522
1,667
1,575
1,690
1,700
722
—
1,033
1,198
1,220
1,285
1,392
1,292
1,432
1,324
—
1,553
1,728
1,683
1,796
1,773
1,710
—
1,761
1,708
1,760
—
1,524
1,510
1,610
1,745
1,707
1,552
—
1,672
1,558
Height, sitting
818
868
884
887
877
1,242
784
851
829
788
760
834
777
783
746
858
831
823
858
480
512
593
644
693
698
723
707
775
714
714
823
897
862
905
933
874
873
903
847
863
843
7(55
790
830
816
808
797
843
815
793
Width of shoulders
350
178
400
388
375
388
382
348
358
358
374
352
356
—
—
332
363
350
356
340
1—
210
225
246
251
274
308
290
319
293
312
324
377
386
408
407
384
363
377
362
375
381
311
327
365
364
334
354
348
361
348
Length of head
198
185
183
194
181
191
192
181
183
189
181
182
186
185
186
181
203
166
179
173
168
171-5
176
177
180
177
175
170
182
181
183
186
194
190
185
188
184
189
191
l|89
177
195
188
191
182
185
176
188
Breadth of head    .
148
158
172
	
156
168
168
159
155
157
153
154
153
152
147
155
164
151
154
148
147
151
151
147
151
148-5
150
152
153
156
148
158
159
156
165
165
157
156
164
161
160
158
151
155
162
160
151
154
156
160
Height of face
110
126
115
119
111
131
120
132
106
118
113
114
119
104
112
120
114
121
117
82
85
96
101
101
96
106
103
111
101
112
116
117
122
120
121
140
116
120
121
120
117
117
110
130
118
124
121
130
130
117
Breadth of face
138
147
147
145
154
154
155
157
147
148
143
148
146
144
142
144
148
141
146
115
120
125
128
127
128
130
130
131
135
133
136
142
149
148
148
151
150
151-5
148
154
154
143
139
149
153
150
148
143
146
153
Height of nose
45
56
52
50
44
56
50
57
52
55
50
45
50
43
52
43
45
51
50
32
32
37
42
40
40
42
43
45
45
47
52
53
53
48
51
62
50
55
52
54
47
53
53
55
47
55
51
56
62
57
Breadth of nose
37
39
39
40
39
43
40
44
38
40
40
36
42
35
38
42
38
36
40
27
29
29
35
31
35
35
35
34
35
33
38
39
37
38
41
34
36
40
39
40
40
40
41
40
41
43
38
40
38
43
Length-breadth index   .
83-1
79-8
93-0
	
85-2
86-6
92-8
83-2
80-7
86-7
83-6
81-5
84-6
83-5
79-0
83-8
88-2
83-4
75-9
89-2
82-1
87-3
89-9
86-0
85-8
83-9
83-3
85-9
87-4
91-8
81-3
87-3
86'9
83-9
85-1
86-8
. 84-9
83-0
89-1
85-2
83-8
8:1-6
85-3
79-5
86-2
83-8
83-0
83-2
88-6
85-1
Facial index ....
79-7
85-7
782
82-1
72-1
851
77-4
84-1
72-0
797
79-0
770
81-5
72-2
78-9
83-4
77-0
85-8
80-1
71-3
70-8
76-8
78-9
79-5
75-0
81-5
79-3
84-7
74-8
84-2
85-3
82-4
81-9
81-1
81-8
92-7
77-3
79-5
81-8
77-9
76-0
8.-8
79-1
87-3
77-1
82-7
81-8
90-9
790
76-5
Nasal index   ....
82-2
69-6
75-0
80-0
88-6
76-8
800
77-2
73-1
72-7
800
800
84-0
81-4
73-1
97-7
844
70-6
80-0
84-4
90-6
78-4
83-3
77-5
87-5
83-3
81-4
75-6
77-8
70-2
731
73-6
69-8
79-2
80-4
54-8
72-0
72-7
75-0
74-1
85-1
73-5
77-4
72-7
87-2
78-2
74-5
71-4
61-3
75-4
Index of arm....
44-9
43-9
43-5
45-4
45-5
45-2
460
46-1
44-7
44-5
45-5
44-1
44-9
—
43-6
42-4
43-1
44-5
—
40-7
—
43-2
42-3
41-5
49-7?
41-8
42-4
41-2
44-1
—
46-0
44-4
45-6
53-6
43-2
44-1
43-4
44-1
46-5
45-4
44-6
41-9
44-5
44-0
44-0
48-4
43-7
45-7
45-6
—
Index of finger-reach
103-2
103-8
104-0
105-8
107-5
106-0
108-7
107-6
105-5
104-6
106-8
103-4
101-9
94-2
106-4
102-3
105-7
105-6
102-4
k-i
—
101-3
98-2
96-8
100-4
101-6
99-4
98-8
102-6
—
101-5
105-4
106-5
1050
103-7
104-3
—
104-2
106-1
107-3
—
10 JO
103-0
103-9
107-7
108-7
100-8
—
106-5
	
Index of height, sitting
51-8
61-4
546
54-4
64-8
51-5
52-6
51-6
52-8
51-8
49-4
53-1
51-5
51-9
52-2
52-6
55-8
51-4
51-7
59-8
67-4
58-1
62-8
55-0
54-5
52-8
54-4
53-4
55-4
—
53-8
54-7
54-6
52-9
54-6
53-3
52-3
53-4
52-6
52-6
54-4
61-7
53-0
53-5
50-4
51-5
51-8
52-0
51-9
	
Index of width of shoulders .
22-2
23-7
24 0
23-0
24-3
23-7
23-4
21-7
22-8
24-6
22-9
22-7
—
—
23-2
22-3
23-5
22-2
.20-6
:—
23-5
22-1
21-6
19-9
21-4
22-5
22-3
22-0
22-7
—
21-2
230
24-4
23-9
23-8
23-4
21-7
22-3
22-5
22-9
24-6
2:-0
22-0
23-5
22-5
21-3
23-0
21-5
230
—
1 Father of Nos. 1
3, 17, ar
d 18.
3 I
ilother
of half-
bloods
Nos. 2,
4, and
18.
3 S<
>n of N
). 10; t
rother
of Nos.
17 and
18.
* Son of No. 10 ; brother of Nos. 16 and 18.           5 Son of No. 10; brother of Nos. 16 and 17.
" Son of No. 69; brother of No. 51.           '* Father of No. 20.           " Father of No. 21.
" Son of Nos. 39 and 60.
' Son of No. 42.
8
Grandson of IS
0. 42.
8
Brother of No.
28.
10 Brother of No. 24. 65th Report, Brit. Assoc, 1895. J
11. Ntlakya'pamuQ (continued).
[North-
Western Tribes of Canada.        8
c.  Upper Utamk't of Boston
Bar and North Bend (continued).
d.  Utaink-tand NtlakyapamuQ'o'e mixed.
•
(
. Ntlakyapamuti'd'e.
	
II. Females
Females
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Number	
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72    |
73
74
75
-4	
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
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Age	
4
mm.
1,003"
5
6
6
9
10
11
11
11
19
24
24
25
mm.
1,505
26
30
30
32
38
40
40
42
55
60
60
8
9
25
32
40
mm.
1,5352!
42
5
6
6
7-8
9
9
9
10
16
If
20
22
22
mm.
1,654
24
28
28
38
45
45
47
48
55
55
58
58
68
60
60
65
65
65
65
65
Height, standing   .
mm.
1,062
mm.
1,080
mm.
1,0! 3,s
mm.
1,263'"
mm.
1,335
mm.
1,310
mm.
1,386
mm.
1,447
mm.
1,527"
mm.
1,5381S
mm.
1,591"
mm.
1,6022»
mm.
1,504
mm.
1,593
mm.
1,5272'
mm.
1,508
mm.
1,485 22
mm.
1,430
mm.
1,566
mm.
1,456
mm.
1,523 a
mm.
mm.
1,23125
mm.
1,1502"
mm.
1,5922'
mm.
1,5302S
mm.
1,546
mm.
1,033 3»
mm.
1,103 s'
mm.
1,153
mm.
1,21032
mm.
1,12833
mm.
1,305
mm.
1,267
mm.
1,27034
mm.
1,583
mn.
1,616
mm.
1,707 M
mm.
1,726
mm.
1,688
mm.
1,67336
mm.
1,700
mm.
1,685
mm.
1,630
mm.
1,652
mm.
1,618s'
mm.
1,547 3»
mm.
1,62039
mm.
1,512
mm.
1,601
mm.
1,623 4°
mm.
1,603
mm.
1,635
mm.
1,547
mm.
1,544
mm.
1,643"
mm.
1,543
mm.
1,684
mm.
1,641«
Height of shoulder
790
825
834
853
1,013
1,060
1,063
1,130
1,185
1,247
1,253
1,313
1,280
1,290
1,205
1,326
1,237
1,230
1,200
1,170
1,320
1,202
1,245
—
777
968
916
1,310
1,257
1,272
1,253
812
840
914
955
902
1,047
1,012
1,017
1,293
1,390
1,398
1,400
1,370
1,402
1,382
1,406
1,397
1,318
1,376
1,313
1,298
1,353
1,220
1,317
1,370
1,312
1,341
1,273
1,290
—
1,287
1,413
1,328
Length of arm
412
434
457
441
526
673
554
599
642
651
651
683
710
669
672
712
669
645
623
619
698
629
658
—
413
501
465
688
657
656
681
444
472
499
476
502
555
478
462
685
760
738
775
733
772
747
784
772
725
757
710
677
711
694
705
710
691
711
701
707
—
693
766
704
Finger-reach .
1,006
1,078
1,063
1,05S
1,248
1,345
1,323
1,403
1,451
1,512
1,580
1,609
1,537
1,621
1,583
1,652
1,570
1,518
1,511
1,469
1,683
—
1,560
—
1,020
1,200
1,134
1,610
1,580
1,525
1,580
1,003
1,103
1,153
1,204
1,150
1,313
1,266
—
1,606
1,7k)
1,751
1,822
1,746
1,783
1,760
1,883
1,770
1,690
1,755
—
1,623
1,648
1,623
1,690
1,672
1,656
1,742
1,648
1,610
1,693
1,605
1,745
1,713
Height, sitting
550
563
580
627
683
708
715
732
760
816       834
861
827
895
830
870
828
799
804
787
785
756
797
750
561
672
633
844
812
826
786
612
610
617
692
600
705
687
613
803
904
898
892
895
878
841
861
882
865
817
849
803
867
803
803
828
818
842
813
793
878
783
880
870
Width of shoulders
233
256
246
240
268
283
285
320
315
353       337
335
333
358
338
316
341
332
337
315
344
300
332
301
236
257
266
335
348
332
313
225
249
258
260
268
285
273
273
339
3^3
402
376
396
384
381
398
370
333
378
370
359
371
363
344
386
358
348
329
365
383
341
365
372
L( ngth of head
168
162
165
164
168
169
151
172
171
184
182
180
179
185
176
169
173
178
181
176
188
183
176
184
161
160
171
174
187
189
178
164
168
172
172
170
177
182
173
177
184
187
186
192
192
186
189
184
181
184
192
180
187
179
185
186
187
191
196
197
189
180
183
190
Breadth of head    .
135
146
161
146
1C0
153
142
144
155
166
151
156
154
150
146
146
158
153
146
151
153
145
149
153
143
145
141
152
156
147
151
150
161
153
158
141
154
143
151
150
159
148
161
158
156
157
157
151
162
155
155
155
149
150
153
148
150
148
151
153
158
146
150
146
Height of face
92
91
92
91
Si 7
93
93
98
106
112
107
119
119
116
110
116
110
109
119
107
110
104
108
110
90
97
102
121
120
108
108
93
97
95
97
94
102
102
102
115
122
119
118
121
125
127
120
118
115
118
125
117
123
119
119
110
116
117
125
128
115
120
120
125
Breadth of face
115-6
127
123
119
126
128
124
128-5
131
141
140
146
141
143
134
137
137
144
134
135
146
136
136
144
120
131
118
138
147
141
139
120
128
127
131
126
134
127
129
137
143
137
153
143
148
144
146
147
147
147
144
145
148
139
—
149
146
144
148
147
154
139
148
145
Height of nose
37
37
35
39
40
37
40
41
43
44
45
51
47
48
44
48
48
44
44
48
52
45
46
53
33
39
40
47
45
50
50
37
37
37
34
40
37
46
43
50
48
50
50
51
50
50
51
54
53
55
58
55
54
52
53
50
52
53
56
61
48
59
52
52
Breadth of nose
27
27
32
30
29
32
28
32
35
34
35
37
34
37
32
33
34
37
34
33
36
40
42
42
31
34
31
32
34
40
34
28
30
31
32
32
39
33
31
37
37
32
38
33
36
38
41
37
42
38
40
36
39
39
—
42
35
40
39
39
42
38
41
45
Length-brfadth index
80 4
90-1
91-5
890
89-3
<,0-5
94-1
83-7
90-6
85-1
83-0
86-7
860
81-1
82-9
86-4
91-3
86 0
80 7
85-8
81-4
79-2
84-7
8&-2
88-8
90-6
82-5
87-3
83-4
77-8
84-8
91-5
95-8
89-3
91-9
83-0
87-0
78-6
87-3
84-7
88-4
85-3
79-1
86-6
82-3
81-3
84-4
83-1
82-1
89-5
84-2
80-7
86-1
79-7
83-8
82-7
79-6
80-2
77-5
77-0
77-7
83-6
81-1
82-0
76-8
Facial index .
800
71-7
748
76-5
77-0
72-7
750
76-6
80-9
79-5
82-3
81-5
84-4
81-1
82-1
84-7
80-3
75-7
88-8
79-3
75-3
76-5
79-4
76-4
75-0
74-0
86-4
87-7
81-6
76-6
77-7
77-5
75-8
74-8
74-0
74-6
76-1
80-3
79-1
83-9
869
77-1
84-6
84-5
88-2
82-2
80-3
78-2
80-3
86-8
80-7
83-1
85-6
—
73-8
79-5
81-2
84-5
87-1
74-7
86-3
81-1
86-2
Nasal index   .
73 0
41-2
73-0
91-4
76-9
72-5
41-7
86-5
700
78-0
81-4
77-3
77-8
72-5
72-4
77-1
72-7
68-8
70-8
84-1
77-3
68-8
69-2
88-9
91-3
79-2
939
87-2
77-5
68-1
75-6
80-0
68-0
75-7
81-1
83-8
94-1
80-0
105-0
71-7
721
74-0
7fl
44-7
64-0
76-0
64-7
72-0
76-0
80-4
68-5
79-2
69-1
69-0
65-5
72-2
75-0
—
84-0
67-3
75-5
69-6
63-9
87-5
64-4
78-8
86-5
Index of arm.
40-9
42-3
40-5
43-1
42 3
43-1
44-3
42-5
42 3
430
47-3
41-8
44-8
44-8
43-7
42-7
42-1
433
44-5
43-1
43-3
.—
40-5
40-7
404
43-3
43-0
42-6
43-9
43-2
42-9
434
39-4
44-4
42-7
42-1
36-4
43-4
43-2
44-8
44-4
46-7
44-7
46-1
460
44-5
45-9
43-8
43-7
43-9
460
44-4
43-8
43-2
43-6
45-2
45-9
—
45-0
45-6
42-9
Index of finger-reach
100-1
101-7
98-4
97-1
£9-0
101-1
1010
101-0
1C0-0
988
102-6
101-2
102-5
101-3.
105-5
103-9
102-6
100-7
102-1
102-7
107-2
—
102-6
.—
100-0
97-6
98-6
101-3
103-3
99-0
1019
100-0
100-0
100-0
99-5
101-8
101-0
100-0
_
101-6
105-3
102-4
105-3
105-8
105-5
105-4
110-8
105-4
103-7
106-4
_—
104-7
101-7
108-1
105-6
103-2
103-5
106-9
106-3
104-6
103-2
104-2
103-9
104-4
index or neight, sitting.
Index of width of shoulders .
550
23-3
53-1
24 2
53-7
22-8
57-5
220
54-2
21-3
53-2
21-3
54-6
21-8
52-7
230
52-4
21-7
53-3
231
54-2
21-9
54-2
21-1
55-1
22-2
55-9
224
55-3
22-5
54-7
19-9
54-1
22-3
52-9
22-0
54-3
22-8
55-1
j   22-0
50-0
21-9
.51-8
20-5
52-4
21-8
—
55-0
23-1
54-6
20-9
55-0
231
53-1
21:1
53-1
22-7
53-6
21-6
50-7
20-2
49-4
21-9
55-5
22 6
53-7
22-4
57-2
21-5
53-1
23-7
54-2
21-9
541
21-5
48-3
21-5
50-8
21-5
5^-2
2<)-8
52-5
23-5
51-6
21-7
54-3
23-9
520
22-7
50-4
22-8
50-6
23-4
52-5
22-0
53-1
20-4
49-5
22-9
52-4
22-8
51-8
23-2
53-5
22-9
53-2
24-0
50-2
21-5
51-1
23-8
51-1
22-4
51-7
21-3
52-5
21-2
51-5
23-7
53-5
23-4
50-8
22-2
52-4
217
53-1
22-7
" JJaughter ot No. 69; sister of No. 31.            's Da
27 Daughter of Nos. 80 and 111; sister oi
•
ughter
Nos. 7
of No. 61 ; sister of No. 55.            Ie
5 and 76.           28 Mother of No. 83.
Daughter of No. 61; sister of No. 54.
29 Mother of Nos. 75, 76, and 78.
Motherof.No. 20.           '8 Mother of Nos. 54, 55.           '» Sister of No. 64.           20 Sister of No. 62.           21 Daughter of No. 73.           22 Mother of Nos. 31 and 35.            23 Mother of No. 67.           24 Daughter of Nos. 80 and 111; sister of Nos. 76 and 78.
Son of Nos. 103 and 136 ; brother of No. 130.           31 Son of Nos. 75 and 101 (placed by mistake in this group).           S2 Son of No. 133.           33 Son of No. 106 ; brother of No. 92.           3< Grandson of No. 146.           35 Son of No. 106; brother of No. 86.
39 Father of Nos. 82 and 130.           " Father of Nos. 86 and 92 ; brother of No. 102.           " Father of Nos. 75, 76, and' 78.           ,2 Father of No. 153.
. M Daughter of Nos. 80 and 111
36 Father of No. 120.           S7 1
; sister of Nos. 75 and 78.           26 Daughter of No. 140
ather of No. 83.           ss Brother of No. 106. 65th Report, Brit. Assoc, 1895.]
Number.
Name
Tribe
Age
Height, standing  .
Height of shoulder
Length of arm
Finger-reach.
Height, sitting
Width of shoulders
Length of head
Breadth of head
Height of face
Breadth of face
Height of nose
Breadth of nose
Length-breadth index
Facial index .
Nasal index  .
11. Ntlakya'pamuQ (continued),
e. Ntlakyapamua'o'e (continued).
North- Western Tribes of Canada.       9
f. Ntlakyaparkuu'o'e and Upper Tribes mixed.
Index of arm.
Index of finger-reach
Index of height, sitting
Index of width of shoulders
115
cS
13
cS
rH
3
o
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3
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cd
Ph
cd
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ed
mm.
870
865
505
166
140
85
110
31
25
84-3
76-4
806
99 4
58-0
II. Feriales
116
44
OS
a
cd
co
117
44
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3
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cd
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44
cd
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119
cd
O
120
121
o
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cd
IP
cd
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cd
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3
cd
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ii
122
44
123
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Ed
a
cd
!P
cd
S>»
44
cd
10
10
mm. I mm.
1.086 43ll ,065 "
875
448
1,092
603
259
831
436
1,060
582
236
168
140
92
122
38
29
83-3
75-4
76-3
411
1000
553
— I 23 8
179
150
94
123
38
29
83-8
76-4
76-3
mm. ! mm. I mm.
l,290H1'2934ol1'392*r
1,046
634
1,277
665
271
176
149
97
125
37
34
411
1000
64-9
22-3
84-7
77-6
91-9
1,042
549
1,285
688
298
166
148
97
123
40
34
41-4
990
61-6
210
89-2
78-9
85-0
1,046
560
1,300
694
261
173
145
104
124
41
31
11
mm.
1,397'
1,150
563
1,377
763
293
83-8
83-9
75-6
42-6
99-6
63-3
231
43-4
100-8
53-8
20-2
169
144
102
128
42
33
85-2
79-7
78-6
40-2
98-4
54-5
20 9
o
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44
cd
HP
12
mm.
1,436'
1,222
639
1,472
765
318
175
143
107
134
45
33
81-7
79-9
73 3
44-4
102-2
631
221
44
cd
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13
mm.
1,450
1,183
649
1,500
777
282
173
152
105
134
46
36
87-9
78-3
78-3
44'8
103-4
536
19-5
124
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13
mm.
1,460
1,224
662
1,544
703
314
177
150
100
128
42
36
84-7
78-1
85-7
45-3
105-8
48-2
21-5
125
126
127
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16
16
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1,47750
1,215
650
1,507
758
308
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1,580s'
1,285
715
1,670
806
364
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1,270
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1,518
803
330
178
170
144
151
107
107
131
135
40
39
32
37
80-9
88-8
81-7
79-3
800
94-9
43-9
45-2
101-8
105-7
51-2
510
20-8
230
173
144
105
134
42
35
83'2
78-3
83-3
43-0
100-5
53-2
21-9
1,266
683
1,601
793
348
1,105
552
1,300
722
284
168
148
106
133
46
35
88-1
79-7
76-1
44-4
104-2
51-5
22-6
166
150
98
132
35
33
90-4
74-2
94-3
41-2
970
53-9
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13t   |   135   |   136
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60
137
SI
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1,521
1,218
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793
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1,548 s8 1,505
1,258
1,227
674
682
1,563
1,605
812
777
340
329
182
174
145
141
117
lOi
137
137
46
42
36
31
79;7
82-8
75-4
78-8
78-3
73-8
44-3
43-5
—
101-0
52-2
' 52-4
21-8
21-9
179
140
119
130
53
31
78-2
91-5
58-5
45-2
106-3
51-3
21-8
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75
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141
142
143   I   144
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36
mm.
1,623s
1,332
718
1,655
868
345
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44
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40
40
mm.
1,4906
1,238
650
1,477
803
301
178
148
113
139
45
35
83-1
81-3
77-8
44-3
102-2
53-6
21-3
181
141
113
127
51
35
77-9
89 0
68-6
43-6
99 1
53-9
20-2
mm.
1,561"
1,292
661
1,586
802
336
45
mm.
1,537
1,273
653
1,565
833
338
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60
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52
53
mm. j mm.
1,487 .1,552'
1,197
639
1,286
. 679
1,512 |l,600
825
330
182
170
174
116
144
152
112
105
120
142
135
141
50
43
50
35
33
.   36
80-2
84-7
87-3
78-9
77-8
85-1
70-0
76-7
72-0
42-6
42-3
42-9
1016
101-6
103-5
514
53-9
55-4
21-4
21-9
22-2
55
145
o
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55
mm.
1,498
146
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111*1
1,160
620
1,490
761
333
181
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110
140
49
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80-4
81-6
81-6
42/8
102-8
52-5
230
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58
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1,470
1,220
633
1,486
753
338
181
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108
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79-4
62-7
431
101-1
51-2
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1,4288
1,163
632
1,469
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186
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85-9
67-3
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1,537
1,307
692
793
327
179
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108
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80 6
80-9
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51-5
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150
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1,562
1,283
680
1,590
825
337
186
149
115
136
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151
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75
mm.
1,423"
1,170
646
1,457
717
313
80-1
84-6
69-8
43-6
101-9
529
21-6
189
148
113
143
54
41
78-3
79-0
75-9
45-5
102-6
60-5
22-1
I. Males.
152
CD
bO
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153  I   154  I  155
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1,380^1,440"
1,085
585
1,360
701
291
1,177
634
1,483
783
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40
mm..
1,594
1,294
703
1,695
846
391
183
153
105
131
42
33
83-6
80-2
78-6
44-0
102-3
52-7
21-9
179
149
102
136
36
38
83 2
75-0
106-0
44 0
103-0
54-4
22-8
183
i.2
108
153
48
38
42
mm.
1,540"
1,270
668
1,623
847
369
181
158
122
145
49
39
70-6
79-2
44-2
106-6
53-2
24-8
87-3
84-1
79-6
43-4
105-4
55-0
24 0
156
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191
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128
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158  I   159   I   160  I   161   I   162  |   163  |   164  |   165   |   166
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1,155
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85-9
690
mm. I mm.
f°l,53:-S--ll,550-
1,186
253
172
147
93
121
39
31
85-
76-
79-
19
1,224
650
1,517
792
338
102-ii
121-cl
 Z      71      Zl      7^    i7^   =-o+^ r,t nt-.-- 191. and 127        ** Sister of No. 118.       4S Sister of No. 117.
« Grand-daughter of No  106 ; sister of Nos. 125 and 127 ox S5 D      hter
«erof NT^r1     ^Mo'fher of No.^f "s Mo'ther of No. 146; great-grandmother of No.
» Sister of No. 158. " Mother of Nos.. 152 and 159.
46 Daughter of No. 161. « Daughter of No. |5>. 48 Daughter of No. 134. « Sister of No. 128. so Grand-daughter of No. 106 ; sister of No,
of Nos. 103 and 136 ; sisfer of No 82. " Sister o|jNo. 85. S7 Mother of 121. S8 Mother of Nos. 82 and 130. M Mother of half-blood No. 17.
89. » Son of No. 166 ; brother of No. 159. f- Son of No. 114. "8 Son of No. 156. «• Father of No. 156. '• Daughter of No. 162-
116 ; twin sister of No. 127
60 Daughter&f No. 148
71 Sister of No. 165.
« Daughter ol No. 166; sister of Noj. 152.
M
179
146
112
134
49
36
1,295
580
1.603
817
336
178
150
111
138
39
33
81-6
83-6
73 5
42-5
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51-8
. 221
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461
103-6
52-7
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1,422
1,190
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1,558
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321
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116
108
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1,53473,1,510
1,280
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1,570  (1,540
794
322  |   336
174
148
119
141
47
34
173
148
111
134
41
32
85-8
82-9
72-7
42-5
102-6
51-9
21.1
85-1
84-4
72-4
102-7
22-2
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3 .3
II
37
mm.
1,556
1,292
665
1,620
820
336
172
146
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71-4
42-6
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52-6
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1,558
1,270
658
1,578
837
350
mm.
1,5407S
1,270
683
1,588
837
343
180
149
122
138
50
37
82-8
88-4
74-0
42-3
101-2
53-7
22-4
181
152
114
143
46
36
40
mm.
1,573'
1,281
689
1,638
839
371
84-0
79-1
78-3
178
152
110
144
45
33
85-4
76-4
73-3
44-3
43-9
os-i
104-3
64-4
53-4
22 3
23-6
61 Grand-daughter of No. 143-; sister of No. 129. S2 Grand-daughter of No. 106; sister
61 Daughter of |fo. 77. 6i Grajnamother of Nos. 126 and 129.        M Grandmother of No. 89;
Mother of No. 119.
74 Mothtl of No. 157. 65th Report, Brit. Assoc, 1895.]
Numbt-r.
Name
Tribe  .
Age
Height, standing   .
Height of shoulder
Length of arm
Finger-reach .
Height, sitting
Width of shoulders
Length of head
Breadth of head
Height of face
Breadth of face
Height of nose
Breadth of nose
Length-breadth index
Facial index ,
Nasal index  .
g. Nkamtci'nEmuQ.
11. Ntlakya'pamuQ, (continued).
SL
Pt-.IT
SJL
• I. Males
jtP
*n  I hi ui   *m$ *>* £
167
168
Index of arm.
Index of finger-reach
Index of height, sitting
Index of width of shoulders
9
a
a
cd
M
r-i
44
r-i
21
mm.
1,127 77,1,8507
884
471
1,145
600
265
1,669
836
1,855
926
408
173
154
90
124
38
33
89-0
72-6
86-8
41-7
101*3
531
23-5
202
162
135
151
55
41
80-2
89-4
74-6
.^5-2
1003
50-1
22-1
169
A
9
3
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M
r-i
170
171       172
25
mm.
L6747
1,369
756
1,768
887
385
■ 187
153
118
151
51
38
81-8
78-1
74-5
45-3
105-9
53-1
231
8
cd
44
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44
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173
174
25
29
mm.
mm
l,7168l>
1,655
1,413
1,338
779
738
1,828
1,720
898
878
392
410
30
ed
44
'A
33
mm.     mm.
1,600al 1,563 s
1,296
711
823
363
195
191
160
161
131
124
149
148
53
60
36
35
82-1
84-3
87-9
83-8
67-9
70-0
45-3
44-7
106-3
104-2
52-2
53-2
22-8
24-8
186
155
110
143
48
40
83-3
76-9
83-3
44-5
51-4
22-7
1,300
707
1,660
833
374
190
151
116
144
52
38
79-5
80-6
73-1
45-3
106-4
63-4
24-0
a
m
a
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1
M
A
175
176
177
178
179
180
3
H
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38
40
50
mm.  mm.  mm.
1,645831,66084 1,513
1,372
749
1,708
842
382
179
153
129
143
56
35
85-5
90-2
62-5
45-4
103-5
51-0
23-2
1,348
716
1,685
864
371
1,228
689
1,601
810
369
187
153
120
147
52
37
81-8
81-6
71-2
43-1
101-5
52-0
22-3
197
158
125
155
53
41
80-2
80-6
77-4
45-6
101-0
53-6
24-4
9
9
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3
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cd
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44
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cd
44
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50   51
mm.
1,610
1,350
707
1,662
842
343
mm.
1,7038S
1,400
777
A
54
mm
1,657!
1,384
71.9
181
148
111
140
52
41
1,830 1,685
876
393
862
333
190
150
128
148
55
36
181
152
115
145
49
40
81-8
8'5-4
78-8
43-9
103-2
52-3
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78-9
86-5
84-0
79-3
655 81-6
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1076 101-5
51-6 51-9
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55
mm.
1,655
1,362
770
1,810
834
371
187
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122
148
54
38
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82-4
70-4
46-4
1091
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181
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1,660
1,353
751
1,774
874
380
198
151
118
145
48
36
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81-4
75-0
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1,602
1,341
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1,724
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184
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70
186
161
123
150
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9
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1,540'
1,246
686
1,614
773
341
188
156
115
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40
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185
m
9
3
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189
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101
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41
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II. Females
186
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1,0468
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188
189
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1,108s
887
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1,075
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258
16
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1,565!
1,274
683
1,565
819
354
161
138
90
116
37
31
86-0
77-6
83-8
41-8
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56-5
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162
151
113
126
42
30
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89-7
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184
154
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136
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35
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1,642
1,363
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1,693
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373
185
149
118
140
47
34
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90-8
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1,612
1,303
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1,647
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174
148
119
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47
36
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88-1
76-6
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102-3
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44
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1,576
1,307
685
1,630
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332
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110
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39
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1,555 91. 1,590
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114
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40
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1,314
687
1,680
846
371
180
153
110
145
49
39
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75-9
79-6
43-2
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3
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A
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1,605
1,300
720
1,688
832
355
178
144
117
138
55
30
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84-8
54-5
45-0
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195
196
197      198
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44
cd
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9
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1,543
1,265
679
1,573
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183
145
109
133
50
40
79-2
82-0
80-0
44-1
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51-3
21-0
44
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9
3
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52
mm.
1,520
1,272
642
1,550
780
313
179
148
116
135
50
40
82-7
85-9
80-0
42-2
102-0
51-3
22-6
9
3
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44
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mm.
1,470 m
1,204
669
1,671
754
312
o
bo
9
3
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ed.
44
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68
mm.
1,4779S
1,225
655
1,510
716
327
186
148
108
140
46
36
179
142
115
135
54
40
79-6
83-1
78-3
45-5
106-9
51-3
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79-3
85-2
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102-0
48-4
22-1
199
o
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cd
44
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70
mm.
1,516
1,238
702
1,593
788
323
180
143
98
138
48
45
79-7
71-0
93-8
46-2
104-8
518
21-3
[ North- Western Tribes of Canada.        10
h. Nkamtci'nEmuQ mixed with Shuswap and Okanagi
an.
V   I-
200
44
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201
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1.718
1.383
758
1,798
900
388
" Son of Nos. 179 and 207.
78 Brother of No. 170.
79 Son of
Daughter of
No 197; brother of No. 175.       "•8° Brother of No. 168. 81 Brother of No. 173.
No. 192. 89 Daughter of No. 178. " Daughter of No. 184. 91 Mother
mm
■■i
;	
——
82 Brother of No. 172.
of Xo. 186, and of half-blood
No. 5.
Son of No. 198. 84 Son of No. 197; brother of No. 169.
92 Mother of Nos. 169 and 175. 9S Mother of No. 174.
187
150
114
146
48
38
80 2
78-1
79-2
44-1
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52-3
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1,604
1,323
725
1,683
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350
194
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40
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77-6
75-5
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1,600
1,327
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1,648
832
337
187
156
107
151
56
42
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70-9
76-0
45-0
103-0
520
21-1
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203
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206
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1,533
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183
144
121
136
47
37
78-7
89-0
78-7
43-3
102-7
52-4
21-4
191
147
112
139
49
36
77-0
80-6
73-5
mm.
1,611
1,324
687
1,635
837
325
172
147
113
136
61
34
85-5
83-7
66-7
44-2
'42 7
105-0
101-6
53-3
52-0
22-2
20-2
mm.
1,562 s
1,297
678
1,575
840
333
177
152
110
140
43
35
85-9
84-6
81-4
43-5
1010
53-8
21-3
mm
1,424
1,178
636
1,490
726
321
178
150
102
143
48
37
84-3
71-3
77-1
44-8
104-9
511
22-6
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85 Father of Jo. 187.
94 Mother (if No. 167.
 ' ,
86 Father of No. 167.
87 Father of No. 188.
■.iff
a
iilS;   W T
65th Report, British Assoc, 1895.]
Number.
Name
Tribe
Age
Height, standing  .
Height of shoulder
Length of arm
Finger-reach .
Height, sitting
Width of shoulders
Lerigth of head
Breadth of head
Height of face
Breadth of face
Height of nose
Breadth of nose
Length-breadth index
Facial index .
Nasal index   .
Index of arm.
Index of finger-reach
Index of height, sitting.
Index of width of shoulders
11. Ntlakya'pamuQ (continued).
i. Half-blood Ntlakya'pamuQ.
12. Shuswap.
I. Males
PC
Ph
o
rt|C4-+N
mm.
956
539
215
£ a
A*~
rtlcaHls
>rt 9
167
141
81
113
32
27
rom.
1,018
792
429
1,014
530
234
84-4
71-7
84-4
178
144
87
119
40
24
80-9
731
60-0
42-1
100-0
56 4 J 52-0
22-5     22-9
mm.
1,280
1,020
528
1,255
673
287
174
152
91
130
35
33
87-3
70-0
94-3
41-2
980
52-6
22.4
mm.
1,204
983
517
1,184
672
257
178
146
101
118
40
28
82-0
85-6
70-0
431
98-7
560
21-4
tii 44
A
a
a
is
ii
mm.
1,324
1,089
594
1,370
690
263
185
151
100
127
41
33
a
S a
Ph M
A
11
mm.
1,343
1,102
615
1,440
690
291
81-6
78-7
80-5
45-0
105-3
52-3
20-6
173
150
100
124
43
30
12
mm.
1,387
1,045
574
1,333
688
266
86-7
80-6
69-8
45-9
107-2
51-5
21-7
176
145
100
120
40
30
si
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12
mm.
1,316
1,058
. 556
1,34B
698
2<f
82-4
83-3
75-0
41-3
95-9
49-5
19-1
178
16B
102
136
48
32
12
mm.
1,362
1,100
601
1,393
728
311
91.H
750
84-t
42-|
102-0
52-9
22-i
184
154
107
131
46
35
83-7
81-7
761
44-2
102-4
53-5
22-9
10
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11
15
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1,645
1,366
723
1,712
871
337
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44
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%
12
a
43 H
feg
28
mm.
1,694
1,384
757
1,783
875
395
178
160
106
143
42
35
89-9
74-1
83-3
190
155
115
142
45
39
32
81-6
81-0
86-7
44-1
104 4
53-1
20-5
44-8
105-5
51-8
23-4
195
156
115
145
48
38
800
79-3
79-2
44-0
103-6
53-1
23-3
mm.
1,694
1,404
744
1,750
898
394
II. Females
13
3
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538
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1
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1,210
944
476
1,200
653
268
15
wa
mm.
1,301
1,039
544
1,300
710
281
16
ffi ed
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12
165
138
84
114
32
28
83-6
73-7
87-5
169
142
92
124
36
33
84-0
74-2
91-7
39-4
99-2
540
22-1
173
148
97
131
41
31
85-5
74-0
75-6
41-9
100-0
54-6
21-6
mm.
1,188
970
500
1,176
631
267
17
18
Ph.
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®  PT
r.     CCS
rHq3
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16
168
139
94
122
34
32
82-7
770
94-1
42-0
98-8
53-0
mm.
1,643
1,367
743
1,704
847
348
173
146
112
131
44
34
19
20
PC
O
a p.
CDm
C5 E
20
mm.
1,584
1,284
714
1,648
842
326
84-4
85-5
77-3
4*5-3
103-9
51-6
22-4     21-2
175
149
110
137
48
33
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A
29
mm.
1,572
1,308
658
1,544
887
317
85-1
80 3
68-8
180
148
113
139
47
35
82-2
81-3
74-5
45-2
104-3
63-3
20-6
41-9
98-3
66-5
20-2
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i
32
mm.
1,601
1,3,00
666
1,596
861
332
181
148
109
135
47
31
81-8
80-7
65-9
41-7
99-8
53-8
20-8
•0
0
a
3
a
cei
Ph
Tea
9
H
02
6
mm.
1,143
884
469
1,172
638
253
172
148
99
125
42
33
<*       L Males*
J?
a
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Iri
ff
3
In
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1J257
003
539
293
702
284
860
79-2
78-6
41-1
102-8
56-0
22 2 I
Son of Nos. 11 and,25.
« Father of No. 1.
<^B
10
a
3
ft
11
mm.
1,301
1,045
557
1,296
716
283
173
151
105
127
45
31
t-2
1(2
£5
8
6
7
176
147
104
124
48
28
W
c?
12
mm.
1,350
1,077
593
1,368
750
286
83-5
83-9
58-3
42-9
99-7
65-1
21-8
183
153
109
128
48
34
Pi
Tea
3
o>
CQ
12
mm.
1,396
1,121
638
1,476
765
312
tf
a
m
16
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a
Eh
C
3
a
cd
Pi
Tea
3
9
CO
22
83-6
85-2
70-8
43-9
101-3
55-6
21-2
180
151
105
138
48
35
83-9
76-1
72-9
mm.
1,498
1,207
687
1,614
800
340
184
151
108
134
48
36
mm.
1,763
1,438
766
1,844
920
404
192
164
121
148
54
41
M
9
3
a
cd
Pi
Ted
3
o>
m
CQ
0
23
mm.
1,678
1,382
755
1,766
898
395
82-1
80-6
75-0
45-6
105-4
54-7
22-3
45-8
107-6
53-3
22-7
85-4
81-8
75-9
44-1
106-0
52-9
23-2
192
156
121
144
63
38
1
&
9
3
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cd
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3
9
H
CQ
24
10
cd
Ph
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cd
M
PC
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3
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pel
02
25
mm.
1,633
1,330
718
1,754
861
402
193
160
123
149
64
40
81-3
84-0
71-7
45-0
105-1
53-5
23-5
83-1
82-6
74-1
44-0
107-6
52-8
24-7
mm.
1,744
1,427
756
1,837
932
401
201
160
131
152
60
42
11
13
3
Ph
a
cd
PC
9
H
CQ
30
12
Ph
cS
M
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9
3
a
cd
Pt
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3
Cf
CQ
30
mm.
1,682
1,383
754
1,827
901
415
79-6
86-2
70-0
43-4
105-6
53-6
230
187
168
133
158
60
39
89-8
84-2
65-0
44-9
108-7
53-6
24-7
13
ca
W
PC
Ted
14
36
mm.
1,642
1,336
720
1,721
865
372
181
162
122
145
67
40
89-5
84-1
70-2
43-9
104-9
52-7
22-7
mm.
1,657
1,373
737
1,764
841
365
183
156
119
140
56
41
85-2
91-5
73-2
44-4
106-3
50-7
22-0
a
ed
M
9
3
a
ca
cc
Tea
3
9
P<1
CQ
15
36
mm.
1,716
1,403
769
1,818
902
391
200
154
120
150
53
43
77-0
80-0
81-1
44-7
105-7
52-4
22-7
M
9
3
a
cd
PC
Tea
3
9
m
CQ
37
mm.
1,677
1,367
752
1,791
892
410
191'
161
125
152
56
43
84-3
82-2
76-8
44-8
106-6
63-1
24-4
16
0
m
M
a
M
9
0
a
3
9
40
mm.
1,609 s
1,311
705
1,713
865
387
198
166
120
154
48
41
83-8
77-9
85-4
43-8
106-4
53-7
24-0
17
3
a
cd
W
9
3
I
.PC
Tea
3
9
Ph
CQ
mm.
1,172
933
509
1,166
650
255
177
143
99
121
41
31
80-8
81-8
75-6
43-5
99-7
55-6
21-8
12a. \Shuswap Half-bloods.
[North-Western Tribes of Canada.        11
. 13a. Half-blood
13. Okanagan. Okanagan.
II. Females
18
ca
O
ed
g,
9
0
a
3
9
Ph
10
mm.
1,308
1,136
684
1,362
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