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Further correspondence respecting the Behring Sea seal fisheries. [In continuation of "United States… Great Britain. Foreign Office 1891

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Array UNITED STATES; No. 2 (1891).
 FURTHER  CORRESPONDENCE 
RESPECTING THE 
BEHEING SEA SEAL FISHERIES. 
[In continuation of "United States No. 1 (1891):" C. 6253.] 
Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of Her Majesty. 
June 1891. 
LONDON : 
PRINTED FOR HER MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE 
BY HARRISON AND SONS, ST. MARTIN'S LANE,
PRINTERS IN ORDINARY TO HER MAJESTY. 
[C.—6368.] 
And to be purchased, either directly or through any Bookseller, from 
EYRE and SPOTTISWOODE, East Harding Street, Fleet Street, E.C., and
32, Abingdon Street, Westminster, S.W.;  or
JOHN MENZIBS & Co., 12, Hanover Street, Edinburgh, and
88 & 90, West Nile Street, Glasgow; or
HODGES, FIGGIS, and Co., 104, Grafton Street, Dublin.
Price 6d. Z^=55SSSB
I
TABLE   OF   CONTENTS.
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Name.
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To Sir J. Pauncefote.
Sir J. Pauncefote     ..
» »
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To Sir J, Pauncefoto.
Sir J. Pauncefote     .
» »
Telegraphic
Telegraphic
Telegraphic
Telegraphic
Telegraphic
Telegraphic
Date.
Apr.  17, 1891
82,
23,
27,
May   5,
Apr. 27,
May 10,
Telegraphic 10,
4,
To Sir J. Pauncefote..
13    Sir J. Pauncefote     .,
18    To Sir J. Pauncefote,.
Telegraphic
Telegraphic
Telegraphic
Telegraphic
Telegraphic
Telegraphic
Telegraphic
5,
16,
20,
21,
29
27,
28,
Subject.
Mr. • Blaine's   suggestion   for   stopping  seal-
fishing by land and sea pending award of
arbitration seems worthy  of consideration.
Would he prefer that proposal should come
from Her Majesty's Government ?
Mr. Blaine absent.    On his return, will press
him to give answer with ns little delay as
possible .. .. .. .,
Mr. Blaine prefers that proposal should come
from Her Majesty's Government.   He wishes
to consult President     .. .. ,.
President  suggests   reservation   in   proposed
modus vivendi, allowing American Company
to  kill   enough  seals  to   support   natives.
Mr. Blaine will not agree to arrangement
being put in force till terms of arbitration
are settled    .. ..
Is  sending, by mail   note from   Mr.  Blaine
■ justifying reservation  made   by President,
and submitting detailed proposal for modus
vivendi.    Gives latter
Reports communications with  Mr. Blaine on
proposal for modus vivendi and President's
reservation    .. .. .. ..
Is sending by mail text of Professor Elliott's
Report on  seal-life in  Behring's   Sea,  in
which stress is laid on necessity for cessation
of seal-killing.    Importance of early reply
to Mr. Blaine's proposal ..
Gives Memorandum received from trustworthy
source on President's  reservation   in   proposed modus vivendi    .. ..
Detailed account of communications with Mr.. |
Blaine   with   regard   to   proposed   modus
vivendi .. .. .. ..
Copy  of note   from  Mr.  Blaine   containing
detailed  proposals for -modus vivendi, and
defending President s reservation .
Copy of reply to Mr. Blaine's above note
Will reply to his telegram as soon as Canadian
Government have answered further communication addressed to them ..
President anxious for reply to Mr. Blaine's
proposal of 4th May.    When may decision
of Her Majesty's Government be expected ?
No definitive reply yet received from Canada
with regard to proposed modus vivendi      ,.
Mr.   Blaine's  proposal involves some loss of
revenue to the United Slates' Government,
as  well as considerable loss to American
Company       ..             ..            .. ..
President    much   concerned   at   not  having
. received reply from Her Majesty* Government.    United States' Government cannot
detain  cruizers  or Company's vessels any
longer .. .. .. ..
Note received from Acting Secretary of State
to the same effect as communication reported
in above.    Revenue steamer   " Rush"  has
started for seal   islands.    " Corwen"   will
very shortly start, but she could still take
orders if agreement is arrived at before her
departure      ., .. .. ,
Bill to be introduced in Parliament, giving Her
Majesty's Government powers for prohibiting
seal-fishing in Behring's Sea. Her Majesty's
Government can do nothing till Bill is passed
APPENDIX.
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Sir J, Pauncefote     ..
• •
Feb. 20, 1891
Reports of United States' Treasury Agents on
affairs hi seal islands, and fur-seal fisheries
in 1890
12
2
>>            n            • •
•'.
May 11,
Introduction to Professor Elliott's Report on
condition of seal-life at the Pribyloff Islands
in summer of 1890      ..            ..            ..
52 Further Correspondence respecting the Behring Sea Seal
Fisheries.
No. 1..
The Marquis of Salisbury- to Sir J. Pauncefote.
(Telegraphic.) • Foreign Office, April 17,1891.
BEHBING'S SEA. Mr. Blaine's suggestion, which you mention in your private
letter' of the 7th April, that, pending the award of the Arbitration on the- Behring's
Sea question, all seal fishery should be stopped, both by sea and land, seems worthy
of consideration.
If we approve of it, would Mr. Blaine prefer that the proposal should come
from us ? ...:
No. 2.
Bir J. Pauncefote to the Marquis of Salisbury.—(Received April 22.)
(Telegraphic.) Washington, April 22,1891.
I HAVE the honour to inform your Lordship that Mr. Blaine left this city for
the sea-side on the 15th. As the .date of his return was uncertain,-1 addressed a letter
to him on the 20th in the sense of your Lordship's telegram of the 17th, making the
inquiry which. I was. therein instructed to make. I am now informed that his return
is expected in a few days.
I am informed that it is in the power of the United States' Government to
cancel the lease of the islands at any time.
I will lose no time in pressing Mr. Blaine to send me an answer with as little
delay as possible.
No. 3.
Sir J. Pauncefote to the Marquis of Salisbury.—-(Received April 23.)
(Telegraphic.) Washington, April 23,1891.
I HAVE the honour to report that the Secretary, of' State returned to Washington
to-day, and invited me to call on him. .'
He expressed himself as gratified at t%e favourable consideration given by Her
Majesty's Government to his alternative suggestion, and in answer to your Lord£hip*s
inquiry he said he would prefer that the proposal, which seemed to him very fair,
Should come from Her Majesty's Government.
He added that he wished, however, before going any further, to communicate the
proposal by telegraph to-day to the President, who is absent from Washington.
[295]
B 2 No. 4.
Sir J. Pauncefote to the Marquis of Salisbury.—(Received April 27.)
(Telegraphic.) Washington, April 27,1891.
MR. BLAINE informed me to-day that the President had suggested a small
reservation in the proposed modus vivendi to the effect that permission should be given
to the Company to kill a small number of seals sufficient to compensate them for the
support of the natives in their employ during the modus vivendi, but he did not appear
to insist strongly on it.
As, however, he will not agree to put the arrangement in force until the terms of
the arbitration are settled, I fear it may only be applied when it is too late to be of
any service.
A full report of the interview above mentioned will be found in my despatch
of this day's date, which I am sending, by mail to-morrow.
No. 5.
Sir J. Pauncefote to the Marquis of Salisbury.—(Received May 5.)
(Telegraphic.) Washington, May 5, 1891.
BEHRING'S SEA. With reference to my telegram of the 27th ultimo, I have the
honour to inform your Lordship that I forward by messenger to-day copy of a note from
Mr. Blaine which I received Inst night, containing a lengthy justification the reservation of
made by the President, and submitting for communication to your Lordship the following
detailed proposal for a modus vivendi for the season of 1891:—
1. The United Slates' authorities to issue orders limiting the number of seals to be
killed on the islands to 7,500, solely in order to provide for the support of the resident
natives, who number 300 souls. Pending the result of the arbitration, all seal-killing for
commercial purposes to be prohibited.
2. The United Slates' Government to guarantee to Great Britain that no seals
shall be killed in any part of the open waters of Behring's Sea by any person on board
of any vessel flying the United States' flag, or by any United States' citizen on board of
any vessel flying any other flag,
3. Mutatis mutandis, a similar guarantee to be given by Her Majesty's' Government
'as regards British subjects and vessels.
4. The .above prohibitions to continue in force up-to the 1st May, 1892, before
which date the Arbitrators are to render to both Governments their final award.
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No. 6.
_ Sir J. Pauncefote to the Marquis of Salisbury.'—-(Received May 8.)
My Lord, Washington, April 27,1891.
WITH reference to my telegram of the 22nd instant, I have the honour to
inclose a copy of the note which I addressed to Mr. Blaine, as reported in my above-
mentioned telegram, informing him that your Lordship was disposed favourably to
entertain his alternative suggestion for a modus vivendi pending the result of the
Behring's Sea arbitration, namely, to stop all sealing, both at sea and on land, and
mquiring whether, in case the proposal be finally accepted, he would prefer that it
should be made by Her Majesty's Government.
In my telegram of the 23rd instant I had the honour to report to your Lordship the verbal reply which I had received from Mr. Blaine to that communication. It was to the effect that he would prefer that the proposal should come from
Her Majesty's Government^ but that before taking any further step he desired to
communicate by telegraph with the President, who was absent from Washington. I
called to-day on Mr. Blaine to inquire whether he was now prepared to proceed, with
the proposal He informed me that the President felt some difficulty arising from the
fact that the lessees of the Pribyloff Islands are under contract to maintain a large
number of natives (Aleuts) engaged in their sealing operations, and these they would have to support at a heavy loss during the whole period of the modus vivendi. This
loss would ultimately fall on the United States' Government, and he had, therefore,
suggested whether it might not be stipulated that a moderate number of seals might
be killed on the islands, sufficient to cover the loss in question. I replied that I did
not think such a suggestion would commend itself to your Lordship. The proposal
that sealing should be stopped, both at sea and on land, was based on the recommendation of the United States' Government Agents, whose Reports had been laid before
Congress, nnd copies of which I transmitted to your Lordship in my despatch No. 41
of the 20th February last.
In acceding to the proposal, Her Majesty's Government would give a striking
proof of their solicitude for the preservation of the seal speciei, and of the spirit of
conciliation with which they were animated. There was to be an equal sacrifice on
both sides, and it would be unreasonable that the proposed modus vivendi should be
saddled with any special reservation for the benefit of either party.
I further observed that, in view of the fact that the opening of the fishery season
is already at hand, no time should be lost in putting it into force, if it is to be of any
value this season.
I suggested that it might be agreed to put it in force for this season, irrespectively
of the arbitration, and that in such case it would be a convenient time to send, a Joint
Commission of Experts to the islands to collect evidence for the purposes of arbitration. I failed to perceive how any Arbitrators would undertake to pronounce an
award on the question of a close time without proper materials on which to f ound
their judgment, and these materials could alone be supplied by a Joint Commission.
I added that I had no authority from your Lordship to make such a suggestion, but
that I ventured to throw it out for consideration. Mr. Blaine replied that," as regards
the reservation of the right to kill a limited number of seals on the islands to cover the
loss which would result to the Company for the support of the Aleuts in their employ,
that was a condition which might perhaps not be insisted on; but he was absolutely
opposed to the suggestion of sending a Joint Commission of Experts to Behring's Sea,
or to putting in force the modus vivendi until the terms of the arbitration had been
definitely agreed to.
I pointed out that if this were to be a condition of the arrangement, it would
probably be too late to put it in force this season, in view of the time which might
elapse before the preliminaries of the arbitration had been settled, and I reminded him
that his proposal was simply that it_should take effect "pending the result of the
arbitration."
He replied that his proposal, as understood by the President as well as himself,
was subject to that condition, and he seemed to. attach importance to it as being
calculated to accelerate your Lordship's acceptance of the terms of arbitration proposed,
by his*Government. I therefore explained to him that all your Lordship knew at
present respecting the proposal was that it had been made by the United States'
Government, obviously in their own interest, and that Her Majesty's Government
had certainly nothing to gain by acceding to it. I begged him to disabuse the mind
of the President of the idea that your Lordship, in giving the proposal a favourable
consideration, had been actuated by any other sentiment than that of friendliness to
the United States' Government.
I added that if owing to delay in the settlement of the terms of arbitration, the
proposed modus vivendi should not be put in force this season, and the predictions, of
the United States' Government Agents as to the consequences which must ensue from
the non-cessation of sealing should be verified, the blame would certainly not attach
to Her Majesty's Government.
I have, &q.
(Signed) JULIAN PAUNCEFOTE.
Inclosure in No. 6,
Sir J. Pauncefote to Mr. Blaine*
Bear Mr. Blaine, Washington, April 20, 189L
I INFORMED Lord Salisbury in a private letter of your alternative suggestion
for a modus vivendi, pending the result of the Behring's Sea arbitration, namely, to stop
all sealing both at sea and on land.
Ijord Salisbury seems to approve of that alternative, and he asks whether, in case saai
Iter Majesty's Government should accept it, you would prefer tha't the proposal
should come from them.
I thought you would like to know Lord Salisbury's view of your proposal as soon
as possible, and that must be my excuse for troubling you with this letter during your
repose at Virginia Beach.
May I ask you to be so good as to let me know, as soon as you conveniently can
do so, what answer you would wish me to return to Lord Salisbury's inquiry.
Hoping that you have already benefited by the change of air, I remain, &c.
(Signed) JULIAN PAUNCEFOTE.
No. 7.
Sir J. Pauncefote to the Marquis of Salisbury.—(Received May 10.)
(Telegraphic.) Washington, May 10,1891.
. A NEWSPAPER has. just published the text of Professor. Elliott's introduction
to his Report on the condition of seal life on the United States' seal islands in
Behring's Sea, which he addressed in November last to the Secretary of the Treasury.
I will transmit a copy to your Lordship by the mail of the 12tn instant.
In this Report Professor Elliott insists strongly on the necessity of the cessation
of seal killing, both on land and at sea, and on the appointment of a Joint Commission
of American, British, and Russian experts to proceed to the rookeries this summer
to verify the precise condition of affairs.
The usual date for the revenue-cruizers and the Company's steamer to sail is the
15th instant, and it is very important that I should, as early as practicable, be in a
position to reply to Mr. Blaine's proposal.
No. 8.
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Sir J. Pauncefote to the Marquis of Salisbury.—(Received May 10.)
(Telegraphic.) Washington, May 10, 1891.
I HAVE just received, from a trustworthy authority, the following Memorandum
on the subject of the reservation in the proposed modus vivendi desired by the
President, which throws a new light on the provision in question.
It is as follows :—
" Food Skins.—The slaughter for food of 5,000 small seals" annually on St. Paul
Island, and 2,000 on St. George Island, wiH be amply sufficient to keep the natives
of the seal islands in good condition physically. The profit to the United States'
Government from the sale of these food skins would be not less than 70,000 dollars
a-year, which is 20,000 dollars more than it would cost to provide them with fuel,
clothing, and Other necessaries.
" To kill more than these 7,000 young male seals would be simply a wanton and
uncalled-for destruction of life, and would imperil the restoration of the rookeries to
then? former condition."
The Memorandum quoted above shows that it is necessary for the health of the
natives to supply them with seals for. food..
No. 9.
Sir J. Pduncefote to the Marquis of Salisbury.—(Received May 14.)
My Lord, Washington, May 4, 1891.
OWING to the communications which have passed between Mr. Blaine and the
North American Commercial Company (the present lessees of the seal islands in
Behring's Sea) respecting the proposed cessation of the killing of seals both at sea and on
land during the approaching fishery season, the rumour has found its way in the press
that such a proposal has either been made by Her Majesty's Government, or that they are
willing to assent to it, and that Mr. Blaine is prevented from carrying it out by the
vehement opposition of the Company. -It may fee convenient that I should place on record what took place between
Mr* Blaine and myself on the subject of his second or alternative proposal for a modus
wvewdi, which I comiSMlhleated to your Lordship privately on the 7th April last,
Mr. Blaine made his first proposal on the 16th March, He then stated that, as
there • ri&w seemed to be a. prospect of agreeing to the terms of an arbitration, it was
desirable to arrange for a modus vivendi pending its result, and he tiarew out a suggestion
Of a radius of 25 miles within which sealing-vessels should be prohibited from approaching
the seal islands. I acquainted your Lordship with that proposal in my telegram of the.
16th March,
About a fortnight afterwards, at an interview which Mr, Blaine was good enough too-
give me at his house when he was confined by indisposition, he reverted to the subject of
the modmVivendi, and he asked me to ascertain whether your Lordship would prefer as
an alternative proposal that the killing of seals should be stopped both at sea and on
land pending the result of the arbitration.
I should here observe that for some time past I had been pressing Mr, Blaine
most urgently, bat i« vain, for a reply to your Lordship's despatch of the 21st February*
in whissh certain modifications were proposed in the questions which he had formulated
in his note of the 17th December, 1800, for the purposes of the arbitration* The delay
in returning a reply to your Lordship's despatch appeared to me disquieting, and he
spoke somewhat despondhigiy in the presence of Sir Charles Tnpper of the prospect of
an adjustment of the questions for arbitration. I therefore informed Mr. Blaine that I
hesitated to transmit to your Lordship any further proposals respecting a modus vivendi
until there was treason to believe that the arbitration proposals contained in your
Lordship's despatch above referred to would be accepted; and I suggested that the
most satisfactory course would be for him to make his proposals for a modus vivendi
concurrently with his reply to that despatch.
Mr. Blaine assented to my suggestion, and said that he would " proceed in that
order." But neither in his reply to your Lordship's despatch, which was delivered on the
14th April, nor in the substituted,aote delivered the 27th April, is there anything to be
found in relation to a modus vivendi. In the meanwhile, I had informed your Lordship
privately, by the mail of the 7th April, of Mr. Blaine's alternative proposal for the
cessation of seal-killing both at sea and on land, and on receipt of your Lordship's
telegram of the l?th April, I addressed a note to him, of which I had the honour t»
inclose a copy in my despatch of the 27th April.
in that despatch I reported the difficulties which were afterwards raised by the
President and by Mr, Blaine, and which appeared to me to render hopeless the timely
application of the proposed modus vivendi. Since then, as before stated, the subject
has been discussed in the public press.
The opposition journals criticize severely the non-publication of Professor Elliott's
Report on the Condition of the seal islands during the season of 1890, and also the
dismissal of Mr. Goff, the Treasury Agent in charge of the islands, who had last summer
exercised his official authority to stop the killing of seals by the Company, owing to the
indiscriminate slaughter practised there, and to the alarming diminution of seal life,
Mr» Blaine is violently attacked by those journals for hesitating to put in force at once
the proposed modus vivendi in the face of the Reports of the United States' Government Agents, and in view of the readiness of Her Majesty's Government to accept the
proposal.
[ have, &c.
(Signed) JULIAN PAUNCEFOTE.
No. JO.
Sir J, Pauncefote to the Marquis of Salisbury.—-(Received May 14.)
My Lord, Washington, May 8, 1891.
I HAVE the honour to inclose a copy of a note which I received last night from
Mr. Blaine containing detailed proposals for a modus vivendi during the approaching
fishery season in Behring's Sea, based oh the principle of a cessation of seal killing both
at sea and on land. The note contains a lengthy defence Of the reservation desired by
the President of the right to kill 7,500 seals for the support of the native residents of 6
the Pribyloff Islands, a reservation which seems to me seriously to detract from the
equality and simplicity of the original proposal. As regards Mr. Blaine's narrative of
what passed between us in relation to the proposed modus vivendi, your Lordship will
perceive from my despatch of yesterday's date that he appears to have forgotten that the
reason why I did not telegraph to your Lordship his alternative proposal for a modus
vivendi was that it had been arranged between us, at my suggestion, that he should
make the proposal concurrently with his reply to your Lordship's despatch of the
21st February, for which I had so urgently pressed him.
I cannot call to my mind that the President's name was ever mentioned in the
course of our two interviews, which Mr. Blaine correctly describes as " a conversational
exchange of views."
If the President was so anxious that the alternative proposal should be telegraphed
at once to your Lordship, it is to be regretted that Mr. Blaine did not apprize me of the
President's wishes, as I should have certainly complied with them.
Mr. Blaine's reply to your Lordship's despatch ojf the 21st February was not
delivered until the 14th April, and then it was not accompanied by the proposal for a
modus vivendi. But fortunately I had informed your Lordship of the proposal by letter a
few days after it was made, and I received a prompt reply by telegram which I communicated to Mr. Blaine on the 20th April.
Mr. Blaine, therefore, cannot justly complain of any delay on my part, or on the
part of Her Majesty's Government, in relation to this matter.
(Signed)     '    JULIAN PAUNCEFOTE.
Inclosure in No. 10*
Mr. Blaine to Sir J. Pauncefote,
Sir, Washington, May 4, 1891.
DURING the month of March last, a few days after the adjournment of Congress,
acting under the instructions of the President, I proposed to you that a modus vivendi he
agreed upon touching the seal fisheries pending the result of arbitration of the question
at issue between the two Governments. The President's first proposal which I submitted
to you was that no Canadian sealer should be allowed to come within a certain number
of miles of the Pribyloff Islands.
It was, however, the conclusion of the President, after reading Lord Salisbury's
despatch of the 21st February, that this modus vivendi might possibly provoke conflict in
the Behring's Sea, and to avoid that result, he instructed me to propose that sealing,
both on land and sea, should be suspended by both nations during the progress of arbitration, or during the season of 1891. On both occasions it was a conversational
exchange of views, the first at my office at the State Department, the second at my
residence. '
The President was so desirous of a prompt response from Lord Salisbury to his
second proposition, that I ventured to suggest that you request an answer by cable if
practicable. Especially was the President anxious to receive an answer, which he trusted
would be favourable, before he should set out on his tour to the Pacific States. He left
Washington on the night of the 13th April without having heard a word from your
Government. It was then a full month after he had instructed me to open negotiations
on the question, and the only probable inference was that Lord Salisbury would not agree
*o his proposal.
The silence of Lord Salisbury implied, as seemed not improbable, that he would not
restrain the Canadian sealers from entering Behring's Sea, and as all intelligence from
British Columbia showed that the sealers were getting' ready to sail in large numbers,
the President found that he could not with justice prevent the lessees from taking seals
on the Pribyloff Islands. The President therefore instructed the Secretary' of the
Treasury, who has official charge of the subject, to issue to the lessees the privilege of
killing on the Pribyloff Islands the coming season the maximum number of 60,000 seals,
subject, however, to the absolute discretion and power of an agent appointed by the
Secretary of the Treasury to limit the killing to as small a number as the condition of
the herd might, in his opinion, demand. On the 22nd April, eight days after the President had left Washington, you notified
me when I was absent from the capital that Lord Salisbury was ready to agree that all
sealing should be suspended pending the result of arbitration.
On the 23rd April 1 telegraphed Lord Salisbury's proposition to the President.
He replied on the 25th April, expressing great satisfaction at Lord Salisbury's
message, but instructing me to inform you that "some seals must be killed by the
natives for food;" that "the lessees are bound under their lease from the Government
to feed and care for the natives, making it necessary to send a ship to the Pribyloff
Islands at their expense;" and that for this service—a very expensive one—the " lessees
should find their compensation in taking a moderate number of seals under the lease."
The President expressed his belief that this allowance would be readily agreed to by
Lord Salisbury, because the necessity is absolute.
You will remember that when I communicated this proposition from the President
to you on the evening of Monday, the 27th April, you did not agree to the President's
suggestion. On the contrary, you expressed yourself as confident that Lord Salisbury
would not accept it; that, in your judgment, the killing of seals must be cut off
absolutely on the land and in the water; and that it could not be stopped on either
unless stopped on both.
The narrative of facts which I have now given, absolutely necessary for clearly
understanding the position of this Government, brings me to a further statement which
I am directed by the President to submit. The President refuses to believe that Lord
Salisbury could possibly maintain the position you have taken when his Lordship is
placed in full possession of the facts, which I shall now submit to you somewhat in
detail.
When the privilege of killing seals on the Islands of St. George and St. Paul in
Behring's Sea was leased to the North American Company for a certain sum per skin to
be paid to the Government, other duties of an onerous, costly, and responsible character
were imposed upon the Company.
Under their lease, the Company is obliged "to furnish to the inhabitants of the
Islands of St. George and St. Paul annually such quantity or number of dried salmon,
and such quantity of salt and such number of salt barrels for preserving their
necessary supply of meat, as the Secretary of the Treasury shall from time to time
determine."
The Company is further obliged to "furnish to the inhabitants of these islands
80 tons of coal annually, and a sufficient number of comfortable dwellings in which said
natives may reside, and shall keep such dwellings in proper repair."
The Company is further obliged " to provide and keep in repair such suitable school
houses as may be necessary, and shall establish and maintain during eight months of
each year proper schools for the education of the children on said islands, the same to
be taught by competent teachers, who shall be paid by the Company a fair compensation,
all to the satisfaction of the Secretary of the Treasury."
The Company is further obliged to "maintain a suitable house for religious worship,
and will also provide a competent physician, or physicians, and necessary and proper
medicines and medical supplies."
The Company is still further obliged "to provide the necessaries of life for tho
widows and orphans, aged and infirm inhabitants of said islands, who are unable to
provide for themselves."
And it is finally provided that " all the foregoing agreements shall be done and
performed by the Company free of all costs and charges to the said native inhabitants of
said islands, or to the United States."
•And it is made still further the duty of the Company "to employ the native inhabitants of said islands to perform such labour upon the islands as they are fitted to
perform, and to pay therefor a fair and just compensation, such as may be fixed by the
Secretary of the Treasury." And also the Company "agrees to contribute as far as in
its power all reasonable efforts to secure the comfort, health, education, and promote the
morals and civilization of said native inhabitants."
In. short, then, the means of living, the facilities for education, the care of health,
the religious teaching, the training of the young, and the comfort of the old, in a
community of over 300 persons, are all imposed upon the Company as its solemn duty
by specific Articles of the lease. I inclose you a copy of Census of 1890, giving every
name of the 303 persons, old and young, male and female, who constitute the whole
community of the Pribyloff Islands.*
• For Inclosure, see Inclosure in Sir J. Pnuncefote's despatch, dated February 20,1891: Appendix, No. 1.
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The duties thus imposed upon the Company must be discharged annually with
punctuality and exactness. The comfort, possibly the safety, of all these human beings,
peculiarly helpless when left to themselves, is dependent upon the Company under the
lease,- and the lessees are paid therefor by the Government in the seal-skins which the
i Company receive for the service. If. the Company shall, as you say Lord Salisbury
, requests, be deprived of all privilege of taking seals, they certainly could not be
compelled to minister to the wants of these 300 inhabitants for an entire year. If these
islanders are to be left to charity, the North American Company is under no greater
obligation to extend it to them than are other citizens of the United States. It
evidently requires a considerable sum of money to furnish all the supplies named in the
lease—supplies which must be carried 4,000 miles on a specially chartered steamer. If
the lessees are not to be allowed payment in any form for the amount necessary to
support these 3Q0 people on the islands, they will naturally decline to expend it.
!$o appropriation of money has been made by Congress for the purpose, and the
President cannot leave these worthy and innocent people to the hazard:of starvation-
- even to.secure any form of Agreement with Lord Salisbury touching seal life.    Seal life
may be valuable, but the first duty of the Government of the united States in this
matter is to protect human life.
L.r: In this exigency, the President instructs.me to propose to Lord Salisbury that he
concede to the North American Company the right to take a sufficient number of seals,
and no more than sufficient, to recompense them for their outlay in taking care of trie
natives, and that, in the phrase of the President, all " commercial killing of seals be
prohibited pending the result of arbitration."
The Secretary of the Treasury has a right to fix the number necessary to the end
. desired.    After full consideration,- he has limited the number to 7,500 to be killed by
the Company to repay them for the outlay demanded for the support of the 300 people
on the Pribyloff Islands.
He further directs that no females be killed, and that thus the productive capacity
of the herd shall not in the slightest degree be impaired.
This point being fixed and agreed to, the proposed Arrangement between the t^fo
countries would be as follows:—
The Government of the United States limits the number of seals to be killed on
the islands for purposes just described to 7,600.
The Government of the United States guarantees that no seals shall be killed in
the open waters of Behring's Sea by any person on any vessel sailing under the American
flag, or by any American citizen sailing under any other flag.
The Government of Great Britain guarantees that no seals shall be killed in the
open waters of Behring's Sea by any person on any vessel sailing under the British flag,'
and that no British subject-shall engage in killing seals for the time agreed upon on any
vessel sailing under any other flag.
These prohibitions shall continue until the 1st day of May, 1892, within which time
the Arbitrators shall render final award or awards to both Governments.'
These several propositions are submitted for the consideration of Lord Salisbury.
The President believes that they are calculated to produce a result at once fair and
honourable to both Governments, and thus lead to the permanent adjustment of a
controversy which has already been left too long at issue.
I have, &c. .
(Signed) J. G. BLAINE.
No. 11.
Sir J. Pauncefote to the Marquis of Salisbury.— (Received-May 14.)
Jfy Lord Washington, May -5, 1891.
WITH reference to my immediately preceding despatch, I have the honour to
inclose herewith- copy of a note which I have this day addressed to Mr. Blaine in
answer to his communication of yesterday relative to a modus vivendi in Behring's Sea.
I have, &c.
(Signed) JULIAN PAUNCEFOTE. 9
Inclosure in No. 11.
Sir J. Pauncefote to Mr. Blaine.
Sir, Washington, May 5, 1891.
I HAVE the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your note of yesterday, in which
you have formulated, for the consideration of the Marquis of Salisbury, detailed proposals
for the modus vivendi during the approaching fishery season in Behring's Sea on the
principle of a cessation of seal killing both at sea and on land, an arrangement to which,
as I informed you in my note of the 20th ultimo, his Lordship was disposed to give his
favourable consideration. I have forwarded to Lord Salisbury by this day's mail a copy
of your note, and I have telegraphed to his Lordship the precise terms of the proposal
with which it concludes. ;»^?
I much regret to find that a misconception has arisen as regards your complaint of
delay on my part in acquainting Lord Salisbury with your second or alternative proposal
for a cessation of seal killing at sea and on land, which you originally made to me
verbally. On that occasion, you may remember that I expressed some reluctance at
sending any further proposals to his Lordship while his despatch of the 21st February
last (submitting amendments on the questions for arbitration) remained unanswered, and
that I suggested that it would be more satisfactory if this new proposal were made
concurrently with your reply to that despatch, which I hoped to receive with the least
possible delay.
I understood you to assent to that suggestion, and to say that you would "proceed
in that order."
If you had informed me that the President for any reaion desired that this
alternative proposal should be telegraphed to Lord Salisbury, I need hardly say that JE
should have complied at once with his wishes.
But I cannot call to mind that the President's name was ever mentioned at our
interview, which you correctly describe as " a conversational exchange of views."
Fortunately, however, no appreciable loss of time occurred. I acquainted Lord
Salisbury with your alternative proposal by the mail of the 7th April, a few days only
after it was made, and I received a prompt answer by telegraph, which enabled me to
inform you by my note of the 20th April that his Lordship was disposed to consider the
proposal favourably.
At an interview at your residence on the 23rd April you expressed your satisfaction
at Lord Salisbury's reply, and you stated that before taking any further steps you desired •
to communicate by telegraph with the President.
At a further interview at your residence on the 27th, you informed me that the
President desired that the modus vivendi should contain a reservation of the right to kill
a certain number of seals for the support of the natives of the Pribyloff Islands.
At first sight this reservation caused me some disappointment. It certainly
appeared to me open to exception as detracting from the principle of equality, which
was a feature of the original proposal. But I was more concerned at your stating that
it never was the intention of the President or of yourself that the modus vivendi should
be put in force until the terms of arbitration had been settled.
This I feared would prevent the timely application of the modus vivendi, and I so
informed Lord Salisbury by telegraph on the same day.
I notice with satisfaction that no such condition is affixed to your present proposal,
although the reservation as to the killing of a limited number of seals on the island is
maintained.
I am glad to think that there is yet time to carry out for this fishery season any
arrangement which may promptly be agreed to, and I hope that the above explanation
may remove the impression you appear to have formed, that there has been any delay
on my part in expediting the consideration of the modus vivendi which you have
proposed.
I remain, &c.
(Signed) JULIAN PAUNCEFOTE. « \
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No. 12.
The Marquis of Salisbury to Sir J. Pauncefote.
(Telegraphic.) Foreign Office, May 1G, 1S91.
AS soon as the Government of Canada have answered communication addressed
to them I will reply to your telegram.
No. 13.
Sir J. Pauncefote to the Marquis of Salisbury.—(Received May 21, 9 a.m.)
(Telegraphic.) Washington, May 20, 1891.
I HAVE just received a letter from the Acting Secretary of State informing me
that the President wishes to know the reply of Her Majesty's Government to the proposal made on 4th May by Mr. Blaine.
In order to allay the President's anxiety, I shall be obliged if your Lordship can
give me some intimation as to when the decision of Her Majesty's Government may
be expected.
No. 14.
The Marquis of Salisbury to Sir J. Pauncefote.
(Telegraphic.) Foreign Office, May 21,1891.
NO definitive reply has yet been received from Canada with regard to the
proposed modus vivendi in Behring's Sea.
No. 15.
Sir J. Pauncefote to the Marquis of Salisbury.—(Received May 22, 6 p.m.)
(Telegraphic.) Washington, May 22, 1891.
I OMITTED to inform your Lordship that Mr. Blaine's proposal involves to the
United States' Government a loss of revenue from the Seal Company at the rate of
10 dollars per skin, which amounts to about half-a-million dollars in all. In respect
of the arrangements made for this season, the Company would also be great losers.
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No. 16.
r J. Pauncefote to the Marquis of Salisbury.—(Received May 26, 10' 15 A.M.)
(Telegraphic.) Washington, May 25,1891.
I RECEIVED a visit to-day from the Acting Secretary of State, who came, by
desire of the President, to express his deep concern that no reply to Mr. Blaine's
proposal had been received from Her Majesty's Government. By each day's delay
more detriment was caused to the United States' interests. Owing to the unprotected
state of the islands, and to their being unprovided Avith rations and stores, the United
States' Government are unable any longer to detain their cruizers or the vessels of the
Company.
I begged him to assure the President, in reply, that all possible expedition was
being used by your Lordship; but the form of Mr. Blaine's proposal, as well as the
lateness of the time when it was made, had given rise to grave difficulties, some of
which I explained to him. I told him that I hoped in a day or two to receive the
reply, but that I would telegraph the substance of his communication to your
Lordship. 11
No. 17.
Sir J. Pauncefote to the Marquis of Salisbury.—(Received May 27, 8 P.M.)
(Telegraphic.) Washington, May 27,1891.
THE Acting Secretary of State has just written me a note to the same effect as
his verbal communication which I reported in my telegram of the 25th May.
He adds, however, that the United States' Government have found it necessary to
dispatch the revenue-steamer "Rush" to the islands, and that the "Corwen" is
nearly ready to sail at San Francisco, and will very shortly put to sea.
Should an agreement, as proposed, be arrived at before her departure to limit the
seal catch, she can still take appropriate orders.
No. 18.
The Marquis of Salisbury to Sir J. Pauncefote.
(Telegraphic.) Foreign Office, May 28, 1891.
I HAVE to inform you that to-night notice will be given of a Bill giving power
to Her Majesty to prohibit for a limited time the hunting of seals in Behring's Sea.
It is hoped that the House of Commons will sanction this Bill within a few days,
hut until this has been done it is impossible for Her Majesty's Government to agree
formally with that of the United States as to a modus vivendi, or to send cruizers with
instructions to prevent the sealing-vessels from entering Behring's Sea. waamaoam
(   12   )
Appendix.
No. 1.
Sir J. Pauncefote to the Marquis of Salisbury.—(Received March 2.)
My Lord, Washington, February 20, 1891.
I HAVE the honour to inclose copies of Reports of Special Treasury Agent
0. J. Goff, and Assistant Treasury Agents A. W. Lavender, S. R. Nettleton, and
J. Murray, with accompanying documents, concerning the condition of affairs in the Seal
Islands of Alaska and the fur-seal fisheries for 1890.
These Reports have been transmitted to the Senate by the Treasury Department in
response to a Resolution of that body, but your Lordship will perceive that they do not
include the Report of Professor Elliott, to which reference has frequently been made, and
which, up to the present time, has been withheld from publication.
I am, &c.
(Signed) JULIAN PAUNCEFOTE.
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Inclosure in No. 1.
5\st Congress, 2nd Session.—Ex. Doc. No. 49.
Senate.
Letter from the Acting Secretary of the Treasury, transmitting, in response to a Resolution
of the Senate, Reports concerning the Condition of the Seal Islands of Alaska.
February 10, 1891.—Referred to the Committee on Commerce and ordered to be
printed.
Treasury Department, Office of the Secretary,
Sir, Washington, D.C., February 9, 1891.
IN pursuance of the Resolutions of the Senate of the United States dated the
10th and 12th ultimo respectively, I have the honour to transmit herewith copies of the
following Reports of Special Treasury Agent Charles J. Goff, and Assistant Treasury
Agents A. W. Lavender, S. R. Nettleton, and Joseph Murray, with their accompanying
documents, concerning the condition of affairs in the Seal Islands of Alaska, and relating
to the fur-seal fisheries for the year 1890, &c, viz.:—
1. Letter of Charles J. Goff, dated July 31, 1890, submitting Annual Report, with
the following inclosures:—
(A.) Annual Report, 1890, dated July 31, 1890.
(B.) Report of Joseph Murray, dated July 31, 1890.
(C.) Report of A. W. Lavender, Assistant Treasury Agent, dated July 26, 18D0.
(D.) Statement of seals killed for year ended July 20, 1890, on St. Paul Island.
(E.) Statement of seals killed for year ended July 20, 1890, on St. George Island.
(F.) Statement of seals killed for food on St. Paul Island during the year ended
May 21, 1890.
(G.) Statement of seals killed in 1889 on St. Paul Island by the Alaska
Commercial Company, and by the North American Commercial Company in 1890; also
daily Weather Report.
(H.) Statement of skins accepted on Seal Islands from 1870 to 1890.
(I.) Statement of liabilities of North American Commercial Company to natives of
St. Paul Island to August 1,1890. 13
(J.) Account current of North American Commercial Company with United States
on Island of St. Paul, 1890.
(K.) Account current of North American Commercial Company with United States
on Island of St. George, 1890.
(L.) Census of St. Paul Island, Alaska, July 31, 1890.
(M.) Census of St. George Island, July 31, 1890.
(N.)   Statement of accounts  transferred   to  the North   American   Coramercia
Company by the Alaska Commercial Company for natives of St. George, May 24, 1890
List of accounts due natives of St. George Island by North American Commercial
Company. j jrf
(O.) Receipts of Agents Lavender and Murray, August 9 and 11, 1890, for seals
shipped from islands.
(P.) Protest of George R. Tingle, Superintendent of North American Commercial
Qsmpany, against closing season, July 20, 1890, and reply of Charles J. Goff, Treasury
Agent,
(Q.) Statement of skins taken on St. Paul Island .from 1870 to 1890 by Alaska
Commercial Company; also seals killed for food for natives, &c.
2. Report of S. R. Nettleton, Assistant Treasury Agent, July 31, 1890, of affairs on
St. Paul Island, 1890.
3. Report of A. W. Lavender, Assistant Treasury Agent, of August 25,1890, of
affairs on St. George Island, 1890.
4. Report of A. W. Lavender, Assistant Treasury Agent, October 24, 1890.
5. Report of A. W. Lavender, Assistant Treasury Agent, October 30, 1890.
6. Report of A. W. Lavender, Assistant Treasury Agent, March 19, 1890, as to
schooners seized by the Government from 1886 to 1889, their condition, &c.
". *• Respectfully yours,
(Signed) A. B. NETTLETON, Acting Secretary:
The President of the Senate,
Washington, D.C.
1. Letter of Charles J. Qtoff, submitting Annual Report.
Sir, St. Paul Island, Alaska, July 31, 1890.
I herewith respectfully submit my-Annual Report of the condition of the seal
fisheries for the year 1890. Also such tabulated statements and communications as
should be in the hands of the Department, as follows:—
(A.) My annual written Report.
(B.) Mr. Joseph Murray, First Assistant Treasury Agent's Report, St.  George-
Island.
(C.) Mr. A. W. Lavender, Assistant Treasury Agent's Report, St. George Island.
(D.) Statement of St. Paul Island daily killing.
(E.) Statement of St. George Island daily killing.
(F.) Statement of fur-seals killed for food upon St. Paul and St. George? Islands, and
disposition of the skins.
(G.) Table comparing daily killing of 1889 with that of 1890, also giving daily
Weather Report for each year.
(H.) Table showing the beginning of each sealing season on the islands from 1870
to 1890 inclusive, and number of fur-seals accepted by the lessees up to July 20 of each
year.
(I.) Showing the distribution of natives' earnings for season of 1889 and 1890; also
amount transferred by the Alaska Commercial Company to the North American
Commercial Company, and the amount to the credit of the natives in the hands of the
North American Commercial Company, August 1, 1890, and my instructions to the
representatives of the Alaska and North American Commercial Company.
(J.) Account current St. Paul Island.
(K.) Account current St. George Island.
(L.) Census St. Paul Island.
(M.) Census St. George Island.
(N.) Distribution of natives' earnings St. George Island.
(O.) Steamer "Arago," Captain H. C. Thomas, receipts for season's catch of fur-
seals, 1890.
(P.) Mr. George R. Tingle's communication protesting against the order stopping'
the killing of seals, July 20, and my reply. 14
(Q.) Table showing the number of seals killed by the Alaska Commercial Company
yearly, for the twenty years of their lease. The distribution of the natives' earnings for
same period, &c, for the Islands of St. Paul and St. George.
Respectfully yours,
(Signed) CHARLES J. GOFF,
Treasury Agent in charge of the Seal Fisheries.
Hon. William Windom,
Secretary of the Treasury, Washington, D.C.
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(A.)—Annual Report, 1890.
Sir, St. Paul Island, Alaska, July 31, 1890.
Pursuant to instructions, I sailed from San Francisco on the 6th May on the North
American Commercial Company's steamer "Arago," accompanied by Mr. A. W. Lavender,
Assistant Treasury Agent, who, after his arrival, was stationed upon St. George Island
to assist Mr. Joseph Murray in the discharge of his duties during the killing season,
and who will have charge of the island during the coming winter. We arrived at
Ounalaska on the 18th May, and on the 20th Mr. George R. Tingle, Mr. Rudolph Newman,
and myself sailed on the Alaska Commercial Company's steamer "Dora" for the Seal
Islands, to take an inventory of the property on St. George and St. Paul, belonging to
the Alaska Commercial Company, according to an Agreement signed by and between
the Alaska Commercial Company and the North American Commercial Company on the
12th March, 1890.
The Alaska Commercial Company was represented by Mr. Newman, and the North
American Commercial Company by Mr. Tingle, and I acted as Umpire, as per your
instructions, bearing date the 16th April, 1890. We arrived at St. Paul Island on the
21st May, and immediately commenced to take stock. After several days' labour the
business was well in hand, and we proceeded to St. George Island per steamer " Dora,"
and made a complete inspection and inventory of all the property there belonging to the
Alaska Commercial Company. After our return to St. Paul there was one difference
referred to me, and satisfactorily adjusted, then the entire business was settled by the
representatives of their respective Companies.
The following property was transferred to the North American Commercial
Company: sixty-three native houses on St. Paul and nineteen upon St. George, and
upon both islands all buildings and other property belonging to the Alaska Commercial
Company.
Upon St. Paul Island the sum of 9,213 dol. 58 c. belonging to the natives and
deposited with the Alaska Commercial Company was passed to the North American
Commercial Company with the consent of the natives, and credited to their "pass book "
accounts. Also several special individual deposits amounting to 12,117 dol. 2 c,
drawing interest at 4 per cent, per annum, leaving in the hands of the Alaska
Commercial Company 3,404 dol. 99 c. to the credit of Mrs. Alexander Milevedoff, who
did not wish to make a change. On St. George 5,391 dol. 17 c. was transferred to the
North. American Commercial Company, but from this amount the sum of 1,700 dollars,
belonging to the priest, must be deducted, leaving a balance of 3,691 dol. 87 c. to the
credit of the natives.    The transfer was made and dated the 24th May, 1890.
The past winter was unusually mild, the sanitary condition of the village was good,
the people were blessed with good health, and they passed the time pleasantly. They
were under the combined charge of Mr. S. R. Nettleton, Assistant Treasury Agent;
Dr. C. A. Lutz, resident physician, and Mr. J. C. Redpath, resident agent for the
Alaska Commercial Company.
With the spring came that dreaded disease to this people, pneumonia, which caused
the death of three sealers; other ailments prevalent among them carried off seven others,
women and children, making a total of ten deaths since the 1st January, 1890, the date
of the census, leaving at present a total population of 208. The population of St. Paul
Island in 1872, as far back as the official records go, was 218. Arrivals since then,.
seventy-six. Had it not been for this influx of immigration the native population would
have been about extinct. The established rule of thoroughly cleaning the village in the
spring and fall presents a marked contrast to the condition of the place a few years ago.
All along the green sward, in front of the dwellings, which was then a depository for
filth and offal, the children romp and play. Gradually, too, the people are becoming
more reconciled to cleaner methods in their dwellings, and many of them take great
pride in their personal appearance and cleanliness.   The school on this island was 15
taught by Simeon Milevedoff, a native, who was educated in San Francisco. It was
opened on the 1st September, 1889, and closed 1st May, 1890—total number of school
days, 172; number taught, 120.
Mr. Milevedoff was energetic and untiring in his efforts to advance the pupils, but
there is very little interest taken by them in English-speaking schools, so that there was
but little progress made.
The North American Commercial Company have commenced repairing the native
dwelling-houses, and so far have complied with all the requirements of their lease. The
United States' cutter the " Bear," Captain M. A. Healey, anchored off this island on the
20th June and left on the same day. Captain Healey reported "No pirates in Behring's
Sea." The " Bear " delivered to this island the boat and fixtures complete asked for by
me from the Department.
The Rev. Sheldon Jackson was passenger on board the " Bear," and came ashore
and inspected the village and school-house; he received a copy of the School Report,
and was well pleased with the condition in which he found things.
On the 31st July, in company with Mr. Tingle and Professor Elliott, I visited Otter
Island, and found, to my surprise, that there were no seals hauled out, as was usual in
the past.
The United States' cutter " Richard Rush," Captain W. C. Coulson, arrived here
on the'17th July, and reported " no pirates in Behring's Sea." Professor H. W. Elliott,
your recent appointee as Treasury Agent, has spent the season here, dividing his time
between the two islands, and giving his entire attention to the state of the rookeries and
the methods used at present in driving and killing the seals, and his Report will, no doubt,
be of the utmost importance, and of great value to the Department.
Mr. William Palmer, a representative of the Smithsonian Institution, has, by your
permission, spent the season on St. Paul collecting specimens of various birds and animals,
and his incessant labours have been abundantly rewarded.
The merchantable seal-skins in the salt houses on St. Paul and St. George Islands,
taken from the seals killed for food for the natives during the winter of 1889-90, will be
shipped as per instructions bearing date the 5th May, per United States' cutter " Richard
Rush," Captain W. C. Coulson commanding, which will leave here early in September,
consigned to the Collector of Customs at San Francisco. The matter will be reported
directly to you by Mr. Joseph Murray, who has charge of St. Paul Island for the coming
winter. The accompanying communications from the representatives of the Alaska
Commercial Company and the North American Commercial Company will fully explain
my actions in the matter.
The total number of fur-seals killed and accepted upon this island by the lessees was
16,830, and the total amount earned by the natives and distributed to them was
6,783 dol. 30 c. Your instructions to me upon the subject of dividing the earnings of the
natives, and looking after their welfare financially, I endeavoured to follow, but was
prevented from doing so by Mr. George R. Tingle, general manager for the lessees.
His reasons for so doing are inclosed.
I regret that I am compelled to report that the seals are rapidly diminishing in
numbers, and to such an'alarming extent that to check the decrease will require, in my
opinion, the most careful consideration of the Department.
To have a correct understanding of how the annual catch is taken, it will be
necessary to bear in mind the following facts: (1) By the Acts of Congress governing the
seal fisheries the season opens on the 1st June and closes on the 31st July, unless otherwise
restricted by the Secretary of the Treasury. (2) The bull seals arrive at the island
between the 1st May and the 10th June, and the cows between the 10th June and the
10th July. (3) The large young seals, whose skins are merchantable, commence coming
about the middle of May, gradually increasing in numbers as the cows appear, and with
the large young seals come a small portion of the pups born the summer before ; but the
greatest majority of the yearlings put in their appearance in the month of July. Now, in
opening the season it is customary to secure all the two-year-olds and upwards possible
before the yearlings begin to fill up the hauling-grounds and mix with the killable seals.
By so doing it is much easier to do the work, and the yearlings are not tortured by being
driven and redriven to the killing-grounds. Heretofore it was seldom that more than
15 per cent, of all the seals driven the latter part of June and the first few days in July
were too small to be killed, but this season the case was reversed, and in many instances
80 to 85 per cent, were turned away. The accompanying percentage examples will show
the disposition of this year's drive. The first killing of fur-seals by the lessees was on
the 6th June, and the scarcity of killable seals was apparent to all.
The season closed on the 20th July, and the drives in July show a decided increase in
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the percentages of small seals turned away, and a decrease in the killables over the drives
of June, demonstrating conclusively that there were but few killable seals arriving,
and that the larger part of those returning to the islands were the pups of last year.
The average daily killing for the season was 400, or a daily average of 522 including
only the days worked.
In 1889 the average daily killing from the 1st June to the 20th July inclusive was
1,516, or a daily average of 1,974 including only the days worked. With this undeniable
decrease in merchantable seals, and knowing the impoverished condition of the
rookeries and hauling-groun'ds, and believing it to be inimical to the best interests of
the Government to extend the time for killing beyond the 20th July, I adhered to the •
letter and spirit of your instructions to me, and closed the killing season on the 20th July,
against the bitter protestations of Mr. George R. Tingle, General Manager for the
lessees; his communication to me upon the subject and my reply are inclosed. Had
there been a reasonable probability of the lessees securing their quota of 60,000 seals,-
I should have deemed it my duty to extend the time for killing to the 31st July..
The killing of the 6th June, the first of the season, was from the Reef Rookery, with
drive of about 700 seals: the total killed, 116, 83^ per cent, .being turned away as too
small. On the 11th June, the drive was from the Reef Rookery, about 1,000: total
killed, 574, 42A.per cent, turned away. On the 24th'June the drive was from the Reef
Rookery and Zoltoi hauling-grounds' combined, and about 1,417 were driven: total
killed, 206, 865 per cent, turned away. This exhausted Zoltoi hauling-grounds for a
period of twenty-one days, and it was' not available until the 19th July, when again, in
connection with the Reef Rookery, the last drive was made, and about 3,956 seals were
driven, 556 were killed, and 86 per cent, turned away. The seals turned away from the
several drives invariably returned to the hauling-grounds and rookery from which they
were driven only to be redriven to the killing-field and culled of the few killables that
chanced to join them upon their return to the sea from each drive.- By referring to the
Table marked (D), showing the daily killing for this year, and also comparing the same
.with that of last year, you will see that from all of the drives the same percentages were
turned away as from those I have cited.
We opened the season by a drive from the Reef Rookery, and turned away 83^ per
cent., when we should have turned away about 15 per cent.. of the seals driven, and we
closed the season by turning away 86 per cent., a fact which proves to every impartial.
oaind that we were redriving the yearlings', and considering the'number of skins obtained
that it was impossible to secure the number allowed by the lease, that we were merely
torturing.the young seals, injuring the future life and vitality of the breedingjrookeries
to the detriment of the lessees, natives, and the Government,
On Sunday, 20th. July, all the rookeries presenting any male seals were driven from
English Bay, Middle. Hill, Tolstoi, Lukaunon, Keetavia, and Rocky Point, and about
4,620 seals were brought to the killing field; 780 were killed, and' 83 per cent, were
turned away. On the same day at North-east Point they killed 466, which, added to those
taken at the other rookeries, makes a grand total of 1,246.
This, and the killing on the 19th July, are the only instances recorded during the
season when the daily killing reached 1,000. Comparing the killings with those
of the same dates last year, we find that on the 19th July, 1889, from South-west Bay
hauling-grounds alone, 1,987 were killed, and on the 20th July, 1889, from the Reef
Rookery and Zoltoi hauling-grounds 1,913 were killed, and never were there such
percentages turned away during the entire season nor in any previous season, to
my knowledge, as in that of 1890. It is true, however, that the Alaska Commercial
Company could and did take smaller seals last season than the present lessees can take,
because of the differences jn the tax paid by them, yet there have been no two-year-olds of
an average size turned away this season, they were all immediately clubbed to swell the
season's catch,-which is far below the number allowed for this year, a condition of affairs
that will convey to the Department in language far more convincing than mine the fact
that the seals are not here.
The North American Commercial Company's agent, Mr. George R. Tingle, used
every effort to have the drives made so as to have no unnecessary loss of seal life, and he
would have made the season a most successful one for the Company if the seals
had returned to the rookeries as in the past.
It is evident that the many preying evils upon seal life—the killing of the seals in.
the Pacific Ocean along the Aleutian Islands, and as they come through the passes
to the Behring's Sea, by the pirates in these waters, and the indiscriminate slaughter
upon the islands, regardless of the future life of the breeding rookeries, have at last with
their combined destructive power reduced these rookeries to their present impoverished
Srw»wnp>!l*HO.,M»**>>*sw .• 17
condition, and to such an unequal distribution of ages and sexes, that it is but a question
of a few years, unless immediately attended to, before the seal family of the Pribylov
group of islands will be a thing of the past. Notwithstanding the fact that the seals
were looked upon as inexhaustible, and were officially reported to be increasing as late as
1888, the time has suddenly come when experiment and imagination must cease, and the
truth be told.
Absolute protection is the only safeguard for the rookeries, and the only step to be
taken with safety. The seal meat necessary for the natives' food is all that should be
killed under existing circumstances. Much can be written on this subject, many theories
may be advanced, all of which we have had for the past twenty years, to the evident
loss of seal life; but the facts presented in the accompanying.Tables demonstrate with
mathematical certainty the fearful decrease of the seals ; and here I will say I heartily
concur with my worthy predecessor, Mr. George R. Tingle, who, in his official Report of
1887, used the following language :—
"The Department cannot place too high an estimate on the value of this seal
property, and the Government, I am sure, will not yield to any demands which would
make it possible to accomplish the destruction of her seal rookeries and seal life, which
under judicious management and protection by law may be perpetuated indefinitely."   •
There is but one authority upon seal life, especially the seals of the Pribylov Islands,
and this is the work of Professor Henry W. Elliott, who surveyed these rookeries in 1872
and 1874, and his work was verified by Lieutenant Maynard, and I am satisfied was as
near Correct, when made as was possible for man to' chronicle, but to-day, there is a
marked contrast in the condition of now and then. On p. 54 of the Professor's
monograph you will find he places the number of seals upon North-east Point Rookery at
1,200,000. Standing on a prominent elevation known as " Hutchinson's Hill," in the
month of July, and fading the north, I had before me a sea margin of over 2 miles •
turning and facing the south I had a sea margin of over 1 mile. I could view entire
this once famous rookery, and it was. simply impossible to realize there was ever such a
moving mass of living animals as Professor Elliott describes; his estimate seems incredible.
Yet his writings have never been refuted.
To-day there is not to be seen over 250,000 seals of all ages and sexes.
To the extreme south-west of the island is the Reef Rookery, reported to have (by
Professor Elliott) 301,000 seals in 1874. It has not over 100,000. seals to-day.
" Garbotch," the adjoining rookery, where the Professor says he stood on Old John Rock
and saw " 10,000 fighting bulls, I can stand and count every bull in sight. This rookery
with the reef is an extending point running out into the sea, sloping east and west with
a large surface of tableland in the centre. This was once a parading or playing ground
where the seals met as they came from the east and west sides; it was the resort of over
200,000 seals, now the resting-place for a few cows and pups and now and then a worn-
out sleeping bull. The number now visiting these rookeries (the Reef and Garbotch) find
ample room on the two slopes, without pushing back on the plateau above.
Zoltoi Sands, once a favourite hauling-ground for the bachelor seals, from where
thousands have been driven and killed for their skins; is entirely deserted, only, however,
a short time in advance of all the hauling-grounds and rookeries, if immediate steps are
not taken by the Department to nurse and protect these rookeries. Tukannan, a rookery
on the east side of the island, between the Reef and Polavania, the most picturesque seal
grounds of them all, where the seals were wont to haul upon the cliffs and in the
interstices between the rugged rocks for over half-a-mile on the sea frontage, a most
inviting home for this mysterious pelagic family,- where, in connection with Keetavia
Rookery, with1 the same sea range, there were 335,000 of these animals, presents at
present to the most careful estimate not over .75,000 seals.
Polavania Rookery, with 4,000 feet of sea margin, with a seal life of 300,000 in
1874 ; Tolstoi Rookery, with 3,000 feet of sea margin, with 225,000 seals in 1874; and
Zapodine, with 5,880 feet of sea margin, with 441,000 seals in 1874, all present a most
deplorable condition, and do not show over one-eighth of the seals as reported by Professor
Elliott.
With these facts in view, I am convinced there will be a greater decrease in seal life
next year than this, for it will not be in the power of human ingenuity to check the
rapid advance towards extermination now going on in that length of time.
In conclusion, I respectfully suggest that there be no killing of fur-seals for their
skins on these islands,, nor in the waters of Behring's Sea, for an indefinite number
of years, to be named by the Secretary of the Treasury, and let Nature take her course
in replenishing the rookeries, and that the Department take the entire matter of
protecting these rookeries under its immediate.supervision, for I regard any other system
[295] D 2 18
of protection dangerous to the future of all interested. The limited number of seals
killed this season by the lessees will, undoubtedly, leave the majority of the natives in
absolute want, and their condition will appeal to the Department for aid. The amount
distributed to the natives upon the Islands of St. Paul and St. George was 6,783 dol. 30 c.
and 1,644 dol. 80 c. respectively. This will not be sufficient to provide them with the
necessaries of life until the steamers return in the spring, especially so with the natives of
the St. George Island.
With this fact in view, I made the following arrangements with the North American
Commercial Company, through their manager, Mr. George R. Tingle. The North
American Commercial Company's resident agent, together with the Treasury Agent in
charge, arc to adjudge what supplies are positively needed for the support and
maintenance of the natives; the Company receiving from the Treasury Agent a
certificate that such supplies have been furnished, but said certificate merely to be
accepted as a voucher of correctness. The matter to be adjusted in the future with the
Department by the North American Commercial Company.
The Department will have to make some provision for the support and maintenance
of these people, as their mode of making a living has been destroyed for the present,
and their future is -only what the charity of the Government will make it. There is
utterly nothing here upon which they can depend for a livelihood, until the much-wished-
for return of seals takes place, an event too far in the future to give even a promise of
better times to these unfortunate people.
Respectfully yours,
(Signed) CHARLES J. GOFF,
Treasury Agent in charge of the Seal Islands.
Hon. William Windom,
Secretary of the Treasury, Washington, D.C.
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(B.J—Report of Joseph Murray.
Office of Special Agent, Treasury Department,
Sir, Si. George Island, Alaska, July 31, 1890.
I have the honour to report that the health of the natives here has been unusually
good during the past year, and is at present far better than any other time in many
years. There is not a case of sickness on the island, excepting those of long standing,
due to scrofula and other chronic diseases.
With one single exception all the workmen are well and hearty.
We had a full term of school from September until May, and under the care of the
teacher, Dr. L. A. Noyes, it was as well conducted as any public school of its size in the
country; but, after all, I find the children made next to no progress in acquiring the
simplest rudiments of our language. It seems incredible, but it is true, that young men
and women who have been to school here for seven years do not know how to speak or
read a sentence of the English language. Looking over their shoulders as they write in
their copy-books, and observing the ease with which they follow the head-lines, one would
think they were making rapid progress, but ask any one of them to read what he or she
has been writing, and they cannot do it.
It was long suspected that the older people secretly influenced the children against
American schools, and encouraged them to learn the Russian language in preference to
any other; but I find that they are just as ignorant of Russian as they are of English, and
as backward in learning it.
There has been one day of each week, devoted to the Russian school* which, in my
opinion, has a bad effect upon the children in their attempt to master the English
tongue, and I therefore respectfully suggest that the practice of teaching Russian to the
school children be abolished. After a year's residence here, I am able to say that the
people as a whole have conducted themselves very well indeed; not a loud, vulgar, or
angry word has been spoken in my hearing or to my knowledge by a native man or
woman on the island of St. George. Not one case of drunkenness or drinking, nor
anything approaching to it, has come to my knowledge. A case of wrong-doing by two
white men, employes of the Alaska Commercial Company, compelled me and my assistant,
Mr. A. P. Lond, to complain to Mr. Sloss, the I'i csident of the Company, who immediately removed and discharged the offenders. Excepting one instance, there has not
been one word of complaint from any quarter.
The men who wintered in the service of the Alaska Commercial Company are all-
good and worthy, especially the agent, Mr. Daniel Webster, and the physician, Dr. A. L. 19
Noyes. I take pleasure in thus testifying to. their worth, for I have found them to
be upright and honourable at all times, in all their transactions with the natives, with
whom they are deservedly very popular.
I have endeavoured to promote a more perfect sanitary system in the village, and I
find it is not so hard, as was expected, to prevail on the people to adopt better methods,
if one will be patient and treat them kindly.
It will be an impossibility, however, to do much toward establishing a sanitary
system of value until we have better water and a more abundant supply than is possible
under existing conditions.
The present supply of water for domestic purposes is obtained from a well into
which the drainage of half the village finds its way, and the wonder to me is that the
people are not constantly sick while they have to use such drinking water. There is a
nice fresh-water lake within 2,000 feet of the village, and fully 50 feet higher, from
which a constant and never-failing supply of good water can be taken if you can have
2,000 feet of 2-inch pipe and the necessary hydrant and fixings sent here.
A drain is the next essential to success, and one of 700 feet in length can be dug
easily, and will suffice to carry all the dirt and offal of the village into the sea. It will
be necessary to have 700 feet of 12-inch drain-pipe.
The total absence of water-closets on this island is a disgrace, and is beyond all
question the cause of more immorality, disease, and death than all other things combined. That such a state of things has been allowed to exist for twenty years is a
disgrace to our civilization, and I do hope you will insist on the present lessees or on the
Department to have it altered at once.
The subject is so abominable I dare not write it in a public Report.
It is absolutely necessary, too, that at least six of the dwelling-houses be enlarged,
as the families now occupying them have not room to live as human beings should. It
may be true, as many assert, that under Russian rule the natives were not housed one-
half so well as they are now ; but such arguments are of no avail in a country like ours.
When a family of seven persons, of all ages and sexes, are packed in a sleeping apartment
measuring 10 by 10 feet they are not treated right, nor does our Government intend to
have such things existing where it has jurisdiction.
The dwelling-houses are badly in need of repairs, and the attention of the local
agent, Mr. Webster, has been called to their condition; but as he is to leave the island
this year, it may be necessary for you to mention it to the General Manager of the North
American Commercial Company.
Mr. A. W. Lavender arrived on the 26th, and immediately entered upon his duties.
On the 12th July the watchman reported a schooner in sight off Zapodine, and I armed
the men and sent a squad to exposed rookeries, Mr. Lavender going to Zapodine with
four men, the second chief and four men to East Rookery, and I went with four men to
Starri-Arteel. We all watched until next morning without seeing an enemy. To facilitate
the guarding of the rookeries it is necessary to have some sort of shelter for the watchmen ; a small hut on each of the three rookeries would be sufficient, and they need not
cost over 50 dollars each.
On Sunday, 11th May, the schooner "Alton" (Captain Worth), of San Francisco,
touched at the island, and the captain came ashore and informed us of the new lease and
new Company. On learning of the change the natives held several meetings, and afterwards came to the Government House to have my advice as to how they should act in
case any material changes were made in their mode of working, government, or the
amount of their pay.
The meeting was adjourned from time to time until they had thoroughly discussed
the most important questions raised, and at the last meeting, held 23rd May, they
unanimously declared that it was their firm belief and honest opinion that the seals had
diminished and would continue to diminish from year to year, because all the male seals
had been slaughtered without allowing any to grow to maturity for use on the breeding-
ground.
I made a note of the suggestion on the journal that day, and I am now fully con~
vinced by personal observation that it is only too true, and that the natives were correct
in every particular.
In 1889 the full quota of 15,000 skins was obtained here, but I know now (what I
did not understand then) that in order to fill the quota they lowered the standard towards
the close of the season and killed hundreds of yearling seals, and took a greater number
of small skins than ever before.
The first seals of this season appeared upon the hauling-ground on the 2Gth April, 20
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and the first killing for food was on the 13th May.   The killing season for skins opened
on the 2nd June, and they killed seventy-one.
I inclose a full statement of all the killings of the season, from the 2nd June to
the 20th July, inclusive, and you will observe that the greatest number killed at one
killing—excepting those of the 19th and 20th July—was only 394, although the driving
and killing were under the immediate supervision of Mr. Webster, who is admitted to be
the most experienced and most careful sealer on the islands.
Until the 19th July, an attempt was made to keep to a standard of not less than
7-lb. skins, but when it was apparent beyond question that there were no large
young seals on the hauling-ground, the standard was lowered and skins of 5-lbs. were
taken wherever found. It was thus the last two killings were swelled to their present
proportions.
For the whole season we obtained a total of 4,112 skins, against a total of 10,138
on the same date last year.
That the seals should have disappeared so rapidly since the Report of your- predecessor in 1888 is so astounding that those who cannot see the rookeries and hauling -
■ grounds for themselves may well be pardoned for doubting what is, I am sorry to say,
only painful though it be to all who are interested, the whole truth must nevertheless be
told, and that is that the seals have been steadily decreasing since 1880, and the days
are passed and gone when they could be counted on the rookeries .by the million. I
have carefully examined the rookeries and hauling-grounds at Starri-Arteel north and
east, and I find somewhat less than half the ground covered when compared with former
years. I accompanied the natives when they went to make a drive from East Rookery,
and we walked along the beach from Little East to East Rookery without finding one
seal till we came to the. breeding-grounds proper. Either Mr. Lavender or I was present
at every killing made; we saw the numbers that we turned away, and we counted the
skins of all that were killed, and we find that what is true of one rookery is true of them
all—the seals are not on them.
Now that the seals have disappeared the natives are very much alarmed, and they
anxiously inquire what will the Government do for them in their destitution. They have
earned during the present season 1,644 dol. 90c, which, I need scarcely add, will be entirely
inadequate to supply food and clothing for a year for a population of ninety people. I
neVer knew a people so attached to a church as these poor creatures, and now they are in
great tribulation because they have no means to contribute to its support, nor to the
support of the priest and his family. At one of their many meetings they requested me
to write for them to the Russian-Greek Church Consistory at San Francisco, and appeal
for aid for their priest and church until such times as the seal fisheries should recover
and make them self-supporting. In justice to the priest, I may tell you that he was the
first to say he should not have any share of the earnings of this season, and that he
would not take any money from the people until times mended, and that he could
afford to pay; otherwise he should apply to the Consistory for a position in another
locality.
I have endeavoured to impress upon them the fact that they are not to be abandoned to their fate; that the. Government will not allow them to starve or suffer,
but will take care of the people and of the rookeries' until the rookeries are built up
and fully replenished, when prosperity and happiness will return to the island once
more.
All of which is most respectfully submitted.
(Signed) JOSEPH MURRAY,
First Assistant Agent, St. George Island.
Hon. Charles J. Goff,
Agent in charge of Seal Island, Alaska.
(C.)—Report of A. W. Lavender, Assistant Treasury Agent.
Office of Special Agent, Treasury Department,
Sir, St. George Island, Behring's Sea, July 26, 1890.
I have the honour to make you the following Report of this season's sealing by the
No/th American Commercial Company, and to offer such recommendations as in my
judgment should be enforced by the Government for the protection of these rookeries
•during the next six or seven years; also to report to you'the condition of the natives and
their houses, and to ask that such repairs-to their houses as are absolutely required be 21
furnished as soon as possible; also to request of you in your Report to the Secretary of
the Treasury to ask for 350 dollars for repairs to the Goverriment House, and such other
articles as I shall mention in this Report.
In accordance with your letter of the 20th instant, asking me to ship the 630 food
skins in the United States' Revenue Marine cutter "Rush," I will state that I have
complied with the same, and inclose you a receipt signed by the Captain, a duplicate of
the same I have in this office on file. I will also state there are twenty road skins here
in the saltrhouse.
The killing of seals on this island, was stopped on the 20th; a list of each number .
killed Out of each drive I inclose also to you, and you will see that the last drive from
North and Starri-Arteel Rookeries and also from Zapodine that there was a larger number,
of seals killed than from any other drive; this I. will assure you was not owing to the
greater number of. large seals being driven at this time, but the standard weight of skins
being reduced on that day fro to 7 to 5 lbs., and even less.
The writer was surprised when he first visited the rookeries to find no young bull
seals upon thein; this looked strange to him, and he began to look up the cause, and' it
occurred to him that the constant driving'of young male seals and the killing of all the
2-, 3-, 4-, and 6-year-olds, that there were no young, bulls left to go on the rookeries, and
without young blood the fur-seal industry will be something of the past in a very
few years. .
The Government should take absolute control of these islands and permit no seal to
be killed more than are needed by the natives for food for the next six or seven years,.
and then all the male seals driven should.be killed, as it is my opinion that not over
one-half ever go back upon the rookeries again. In this' way there would be killed upon
this island • about 2,500 each year. These skins sold in the market would pay all the
expenses of the island and furnish such supplies to' the natives to keep them from want,
and the'y would be as well # satisfied as they aje now under the management of the North
American Commercial Company. Without something of this kind being done, the
natives will soon .haye to move from these islands, for there will be nothing te keep
them. here.
The North American Commercial Company has landed and turned over to this
officer 30 gross tons of coal for the use of the natives and ten barrels of salt salmon,
and also state, that there are 10 tons Of coal in the coahshed for the Government"
house.
Most all of. the native houses need repairing; some need a new floor, others a new
roof, and 1 would recommend ■ that at least four of these houses be made larger by the
addition of* one more room.
The Government or Company, whichever has charge of this island, the next season
should send at least 10,000 feet of siding and 10,000 feet of flooring on the first
steamer that comes up' in the spring; also 35,000 shingles, and nails enough to do the
work.
The natives are in better health than they have been for the past year. I am not
aware of there being a sick person on the island. Their sanitary condition is bad,, and
to each house there should be a small outbuilding, which they could use for a closet.
Such a thing seems to be unknown here.
The repairs required by the Government House are as follows : The front platform
needs rebuilding,' and part of the  roof needs shingling, and
the whole roof to be
inside, and the fence
painted;   also the house needs painting and papering on the
repainting.
The articles required for the use of this Office are as follows i—
One letter-press and book. One carpet for Government House.
One bill file. One platform scales.
§|i|',One letter file. One spring balance.
Paper and pens.
||fo Respectfully yours,
(Signed) ALBERT W. LAVENDER,
Assistant Treasury Agent
Charles J. Goff, Esq.,
Treasury Agent in charge of Seal Islands. Mi
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North American Commercial Company, St. Paul Islana,
Sir, Alaska, July 1, J 890.
As per request of I. Liebes, Esq., President North American Commercial Company,
contained in his letter to me dated at San Francisco, 9th June, 1890, I hereby ask
permission to kill and take for the use of said Company, for exhibition only, to be
stuffed and set up, five specimen seals of different ages, including one cow and one young
black pup.
I am, &c.
(Signed) GEO. R. TINGLE, Superintendent,
North American Commercial Company.
Charles J. Goff, Esq.,
Treasury Agent in charge.
(Note in red ink.)—Consent orally given, and this letter copied in journal, p. 236,
8th July, 1890.
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(D.)—Annual Statement of Fur-Seals killed on St. Paul Island, Alaska, during the
year ending July 20, 1890.
Number of Seals killed
Number of Seals killed
by
Rookery.
for Natives' Food.
Lessees for Skins.
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Skins
rejected.
Accepted.
Rejected.*
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1890.
May-
28
South-west Bay       ..           ..
119
115
3
1
115
1
5
115
A
119
Juno
6
Beef
,,
.,
115
»,
,a
1
1
115
1
116
Ji
11
13
Tolstoi
••
••
••
539
181
1
35
35
539
182
35
574
182
16
Reef
• •
,.
.,
315
1
1
2
315
2
317
17
North-cast Point     ..            ..
16
16
«„
16
17
Half-way Point
167
167
##
167
»!
18
18
Tolstoi and Middle Hill
North-cast Point     ..            ..
270
78
••
4
4
270
78
4
274
78
20
Reef and Lukannon ..             ..
339
339
, ,
339
20
North-east Point     ..            ..
438
438
, .
438
21-
South-west Bay       ..            ..
290
a a
..
2
2
290
2
292
21
North-east Point
96
96
a a
96
23
English Bay and Lukannon    ..
515
3
,,
3
3
518
3
521
23
North-east Point     ..             ..
,,
..
,,
176
2
1
jj ,
1
178
1
179
24
Reefs and Zoltoi      •.            •.
, #
,,
,.
414
, .
10
2
12
414
12
426
24
North-east Point     ..            ..
202
3
205
,#
205
25
Half-way Point        • •            ..
,,
..
263
,.
3
.,
3
263
3
266
25
North-east Point     ..           ..
164
2
166
#a
166
26
South-west Bay       ..            ..
114
2
, .
1
1
116
1
117
tt
27
27
English Bay and Middle Hill ..
North-east Point      ••              ..
374
225
2
5
19
1
20
376
230
20
396
230
28
Reef
205
1
206
,a
206
28
North-east Point     ..
79
79
a ,
79
n
30
-Tolstoi,  English  Bay,  Middle
Hill, and Keitavie
••
••
••
206
1
2
••
2
207
2
209
30
North-east Point     ..           • •
97
1
98
. #
98
July
1
Reef
246
246
• •
246
1
North-east Point     ..           ..
130
1
131
a#
131
2
Half-way Point        ..            ..
240
..
. ,
2
2
240
2
242
2
North-east Point      ..            . •
96
96
,,
96
3
South-west Bay       .,            ..
181
,.
2
2
181
2
183
3
North-east Point     ..
180
180
t %
180
»
4
Tolstoi, English Bay, and Middle
Hill
••
••
••
472
19
3
22
472
22
494
4
North-east Point      . •            • •
318
3
321
• ff
321
5
Reef
524
1
, a
1
1
525
1
526
5
North-east Point     ..
74
74
74
>>
7
English Bay, Middle Hill, Tolstoi, Lukannon, and Ketavie
400
••
11
••
11
400
11
411
7
,»              i>              tt
400
,a
11
t ,
11
400
11
411
7
North-east Point     • •           •.
336
336
# a
336
8
Half-way Point        ..            ..
257
,,
3
1
4
257
4
261
8
North-east Point      ..             ••
378
1
379
379
9
South-west Bay       ..            ..
1G0
2
1
t #
1
162
1
163
9
North-east Point     ..            . ■
271
271
271
10
Reef
..
..
373
1
2
2
4
374
4
378
>t
10
North-east Point     •.            ..
112     ..
,   112
112
t>
12
English Bay, Middle Hill, Tolstoi, Lukannon, and Ketavie
••
••
••
624      5
4
••
4
629
4
633
13
Half-way Point       ..           • •
211
211
a .
211
13
North-east Point      ..            ..
641
# ,
, #
17
17
641
17
658
14
Reef
104
104
104
:»
15
English Bay, Middle Hill, Tolstoi, Lukannon, and Ketavie
••
••
••
315
315
••
315
15
North-east Point     • •           ..
245    ..
245
, (
245
16
„          t>        <•           • •
,.
, a
.,
311
,,
1
, ,
1
311
1
312
I*
17
Polavnia, Lukaunon, and Ketavie
369
3
372
••
372
If
17
18
- North-east Point     ..           ..
485
405
485
405
••
485
405
.,
18
Zapodine  ..           ..           ..
80
156
80
156
236
it
19
19
Reef and Zoltoi       ..            ..
' North-east Point     ..            ..
547
446
2
3
4
7
549
446
7
556
446
>t
20
English Bay, Middle Hill, Tolstoi, Lukannon, Ketavie, and
Point Rocky
752
6
18
4
■ •
758
22
780
i>
20
North-east Point    ..           ..
Total
••
507
2
47
••
••
509
47
556
119
115
3
1
16,783
50
185
50
314
16,833
391
17,724
* Rejected for other reasons, 156.
[295]
E 24
fUTABLJB showing disposition of the rejected Skins of 1890, which I refuse to destroy.
M;
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17:
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■• (
18
M.
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18
"(
T>\
18
Ci
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18
M
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G
V,
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Total number of skins rejected ' .. • • .. • •
July 10, accepted by lessees at North-east Point..
„   20, ,, „ „ ,,    • • •• ••
„   20, accepted by lessees at village.. •. ..
Now in salt at North-east Point .. .. .. ..
Now in salt at village .. •• ■• >• <•
Received by North American Commercial Company to make suits for
who are to winter on St. Matthew's Islands establishing a trading
Company        .. .. •• •• • •
Professor William Palmer, of the Smithsonian Institution..
Spoiled on the field .. . • • • • • ...
Given to the natives .. . • •« • •
391
..             ..
22
..                ..
43
. .                  . .
34
..              •.
47
,a
2
three employes
station for said
• •            • •
41
,,            ,.
4
..            ■ •
156
..            ..
42
391
The North American Commercial Company asks for five specimens for exhibition as
per accompanying letter, and reported killing one cow, one pup, one bull, large, three
males of different ages; total, six.
(E.)—Annual Statement of Fur-Seals killed on St. George Island, Alaska^ during the
year ending July 20, 1890. '
Rookery.
Number of Seals killed by Lessees
for Skins.
Aggregate.
',,    Date.
Accepted.
Rejected
for other ,
■ Skins
accepted.
Skins
rejected.
'Total Seals
killed.
r—- ?;rj
Prime.
1
Second   '
Class.
reasons. .*,
Died on
the road.
Total.
1890
June     % 2
North       .,            ..            ..
71
71
71
71
16
feast          ..
214
4
218
218
..
218
„       18
North       ..            ..            ..
113
4
118
117
1
11&
f,       19
East and Little East
179
2
181
181
# #
181
„       20
Zapodine ..
394
,,
394
394
, ,
394
"       23
Starri-Arteel and North
162
2
164
164
• a
164
25
East and Little East..
182
2
184
184
.   184
»   i*
Starri-Arteel and North          ..
188
1
189
189
, ,
189
jii   3°
Zapodine  .,             ..            ..
189
* •
189
189
a »
180
July       A
East and Little East..            ..
145
, a
4
149
145
4
149
3
Starri-Arteel and North          ..
234
, .
4
238
234
4
238
5
East and Little East..
56
1
57
57
57
Zapodine  ..            ..            ..
57
, ,
58
57
1
58
8
East and Little East..             .,
23
, .
24
23
1
24
„       if
Slarri-Arteel and North
183
3
193
186
7
193
„       11
East
59
a ,
60
59
1
60
12
Starri-Arteel and North          ..
102
..
103
102
1
103
„     5|
Zapodine ,.            ..            ..
53
.,
..
53
53
..
53
„    p\
East
131
a.
132
131
1
132
16
Starri-Arteel and North          ..
119
aa
119
119
, ,
119
18
East
71
a ,
71
71
, ,
n
20
Starri-Arteel and North          ..
634
7
641
641
, .
641
20
Zapodine  ••           ..            ..
Total
527
••
527
527
••
527
4,086
••
21
4,133
4,112
21
4,133
Note.—One rejected skin was given to the Chief, and the remaining twenty were salted down in the suit-house till further orders.
(Signed) JOSEPH MURRAY,
First Assistant Agent.
Washington, D.C., May 5, 1890.
Should any doubt arise concerning pups' skins, claimed by Alaska Commercial
Company, under instructions to Agent Nettleton of the 11th March last, you will cause
all such skins, together with the merchantable skins specified in your instructions of the
26th March last, to be shipped to Collector at San Francisco, and thereupon report facts
to Department for determination.
(Signed) GEO. C. TlCHEtfOR,*
KlS&rles-j. Goff, Assistant Secretary.
Treasury Agent, Seal Islands,
(Gare Collector of Customs, San Francisco, California). 25
Alaska Commercial Company of San Francisco,
Sir, St. George Island, Alaska, May 26, 1890.
Herewith I would ask permission to ship, per steamer " Dora," 482 rar-sealsj at
present stored at our village saltlhouse, and 109 at our salt-house at Zapadine.
These 591 fur-seals were killed by the natives for food during the winter 1889 to
1890, and have been salted and cared for by the Alaska Commercial Company before
the transfer of its property to the North American Commercial Company, the present
holders of the lease for the Seal Islands.
I have, &c.
(Signed) RUDOLPH NEUMANN,
General Agent, Alaska Commercial Company,
Hon. Charles J. Gofi,
United States' Treasury Agent in charge of the
Seal Islands St. Paul and St. George.
Alaska Commercial Company of San Francisco,
Sir, St. Paul Island, Alaska, May 31, 1890.
Herewith I would ask permission to ship, per steamer " Jlora," 3,196 fur-seals, 794
stagy skins being included in this number, and stored at present at our village salt-house,
and 298 at our salt-house at North-east Point.
These 3,494 fur-skins were killed by the natives for food during the winter' of 1889
to 1890, and have .been salted and cared for by the Alaska Commercial Company before
the transfer of its property to the North American Commercial Company, the present
holders of the lease for the Seal Islands. tj\
(Signed) RUDOLPH NEUMANN,
General Agent, Alaska Commercial Company,.
Hon. Charles J. Goff,
United States' Treasury Agent in charge of the
Seal Islands St. Paul and St. George.
Sir, •
In reply to your communications- bearing date the "26th and 31st May, respectively,
asking permission to remove the. fur-seal skins now in the salt-houses on St. Paul and
St. George Islands,. I will say, in pursuance to instructions received by me from the
Secretary of the Treasury, I will have to respectfully decline to allow you to remove the
. skins in question, and herewith inform you that all Of the said skins will be shipped per
United States' cutter, care Collector of Customs, San Francisco, California, to be disposed
of by the Department as the Secretary may. deem advisable.
(Signed) CHARLES J. GOFF, Treasury Agent.
Hon. Rudolph Neumann,
General Agent, Alaska Commercial Company.
North American Commercial Company, St. Paul Island,
Dear Sir, July 8, 1890.
The North American Commercial Company will accept. as part of their quota of
60,000 seal-skins for 1890 such of the food skins of 1889 as they may find on examination
to be merchantable and acceptable to them.
The skins being now stored in our warehouses on this and St. George Island, we
hereby claim the privilege of availing- ourselves of the offer made us by the Honourable
Secretary of the Treasury at Washington, as contained in and being a part of his
instructions to you dated the 26th March, 1890, a copy of which by his request you were
kind enough to furnish the Company, which instructions in our opinion were not changed
by any subsequent order made by the Honourable Secretary, so far as our right to accept
food skins is concerned. If the food skins claimed by us should not be delivered to us
here so as to enable us to ship them with the Company's skins taken under their lease
hia reason, we could not geA them in London in time for our fall sale, were they tendered
[W5>] E 2 2e
the Company at San Francisco after the cutter's arrival from Alaska in the fall. Being
thus deprived of the skins, a heavy loss to the Company in prospective profits would
result, which loss we would feel should be made good to us by the Government of the
United States.
I respectfully request you to communicate to me in writing the result of your conclusions in the matter.
I am, &c.
(Signed) GEORGE E. TINGLE, Superintendent,
ftorth American Commercial Company.
Charles J. Goff,
Treasury Agent in charge of Seal Fisheries,
St. Paul Island, Alaska.
Mi
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17
Br
" I
18
M.
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18
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18
Ci
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18
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Office of Special Agent, Treasury Department,
Dear Sir, St. Paul Island, July 8, 1890.
Your communication of later date, in which you ask permission to assort and
examine the skins of the seals killed for food during the winter of 1889 and 1890, and to
take such as you may adjudge acceptable to your Company as part of your season's
catch for this year, has been carefully considered and your request respectfully declined,
as I have no option in the matter other than to strictly obey the orders of the Secretary
of the Treasury.
I avail myself of this opportunity to notify you that on and after the 20th July J
shall require you to conform to that clause in my instructions which prevents killing of
fur-seals lor their skins after that date.
Respectfully yours,
(Signed) CHARLES J. GOFF, Treasury Agent.
George R. Tingle, Esq.,
General Manager, North American Commercial Company. n
27
{F.)—Annual Statement of Fur-Seals killed for Food on St, Paul Island, Alaska,
during the year ending May 21, 1890,
-  mm.
Seals Villod fov Native Food.
Date,
Rookery,
Large
Young
Skins
Skins
rejected.
Pupa.
Total,
accepted
by
Lessees,
1     1         ■ ■*■       ---  -      -
'-  1
Seals,
v£ ! »»**•    Cut-
1889
July    31
Zoltoi       ..            ,,            ,.
im
160
160
150
»f
)•
4
Aug.     6
Lukannon..            ..            ,,
•   •
163
163
163
*,
it        i       • •
..     U
Balance over shipment in salt*
••
58
58
58
••
i«                • •
house
>■      14
Zoltoi       .,            ,.
•   •
131
131
123
3
M
a
„     22
,.           *.            •
■                         • •
•   •
141
141
139
• t
•
2
„     31
Tolstoi      ..            ,
a                   j,
•   »
179
179
87
1
91
Sept.     9
Zoltoi
a                   a •
, ,
141
141
a*
141
»     18
i,           ..            .
a                      ,#
a.
110
110
I
* •
110
„      25
„           ••            .
a                      , .
a.
107
107
1
10G
Oct.      5
,,   '       ••            .
a                         , a
, #
120
120
l
119
„      15
,»           ..            .
,                      , ,
, ,
103
103
4   j
99
„     26
Lukannon ..            .
,                      % t
f%
132
132
"44
2
86
Nov.     4
Zoltoi        ..            .
■                         a •
1,014
125
125
80
3     !
42    !
„     19
Tolstoi
a                         , ,
1,236
224
224
223
1
,                 ,
„     21
Reef
a                         ,,
# #
347
347
347
, ,
,                 .
„     27
„           ...       •
. ,
192
192
189
3    i
,                 ,
„     27
Zapodine  ..            .
,                         . ,
m %
10
10
10
• •
► .                 .
„     30
Reef
a                      , ,
^ ,
240
240
236
4    :
..                 .
Dec.    11
Zapodine ..            .
•                         ••
, ,
243
243
240
3    i
.
1890
•
Jan.     27
Sea Lion Rock        .
,                    , •
#
175
175
170
5
May    21
.
••
131
131
131
••
•
2,280
3,232
3,232
2,396
31
794   1
11
Skins at North-east Point,
killed for watchmen      ..
••
301
••
••
••
I
•
Grand total of food skins ..
••
.   3,533*
••
'
..
1889
Aug.   10
North       ..           .
..
55'
..
a a
a*
1 ♦                                  f
„     19
•                    ••
a.
56
..
,a
a«
» •                                   *
„     30
,,          ..           .
*                    ••
a «
48
, t
,#
,,
48
Sept,     7
East         . •           •
•                    ••
##
64
.,
• •
64
„     21
»           >.            .
•                    ••
• •
50
..
,a
■ •
50 •         .
,,     30
North       ..
•                    i»
• •
33
..
,a
• •
33       '   .
Oct.    11
„          ••           .
•                    ••
• •
37
..
• •
a ,
37
„     21
Starri-Arteel           .
a                      « •
• t
32
..
a #
• •
,                               9
»     31
North       ..            .
,                      a«
• •
4
,,
• 4
,,
, a                           .
Nov.     6
a          • •           •
•                      ••
660
6
..
• •
*•
•
,.     12
a          • •           •
•                      ••
471
6
.,
*M
• •
#                            #
»     25
. Starri-Arteel            .
a                      aa
• •
61   '
,,
, ,
a,.
#
May    IS
North        ..            .
•                      • •
a «
32
.,
a «
a*
,                               ,
„      31
a           • •            •
•                      1 ■
a«
37
.,
a t
aa
,                               ,
For the watchmen at Zapodine
for the whole season            ,.
••
109
••
••
"
•
Total   ..
1,071
C30f
••
••
••
232   1
* These skins will be- shipped on board United States' cutler " Richard Rush." and consigned to Collector of Customs, San
Francisco, as per your instructions bearing date May 5, 1890.   The steamer will leave the Seal Islands early in September.
t These skins (630) will be shipped on board United States' cutter *' Richard Rush," and consigned to Collector of Customs,
Francisco, as per your instructions bearing date May 5, 1890.   The steamer will leave the Seal Islands early in September. 28
(Gr.)—Table showing the killing of Fur-Seals on St. Paul Island up to July 20, 1889, hy
the Alaska Commercial Company, and up to July 20, 1890, hy the North American
Commercial Company; also Daily Weather Report from June 1 to July 31 of each
Year.
Villagke.
Dat<\
$?uraber
killed.
Date.
' JJuniber
killed.
1889—
1890 —
Jui
io.   5
» •
* •                        • •
201
June    6        ..            ..
116.
,    10
a a
• •                        • •
120
..    11	
574
.    12
v»
• •                       • •
347
„    13
182
i    H
a'.
• •                            •  a
162
„    16       ,. •          .i          •».
317
,    15
# .
• •                          • •
340
„   17       ..           .;
I67
*   17
a #
• •                            • ■
$95
„  is     ..        ;;
w
,    18
• •
• •                           a •
1,161
„ 20    ..       ..       :.
339
,    19
a •
• •                        arj
1,561
„   21	
292
.    20
a a
• •                 • •
253
„    23
521
22
. .
• •                        • •
' 1^53
24
4f° •
',    24
# .
• •        *         • •
2;578
„    25        ..             .:         ,.'jv
266
,    25
# .
a «                          # «
979
„   26^       ..          U
It!
,    26
. a
• •                          • •
1,314
„    27	
&w
,    27
* •
• •                          • •
311
„    28	
206
,    28
. ,
• •                          • •
1,349
„    30'      ..
209
.    29
••
• •                          • •
1,038
To^al
July    1
Total
15,162
4,40.2
July     1
1,023
246
2
•  •
• •                          • •
834
2     ..        ..        li
' 242
3
# #
• •                          • •
1,841
'„    3    ..      :!      '.'.
183
4
• •
• •                          • •
1,716
4
494
5
a .
• •                           • •
1,255
„        5        ••              ••          .   ..
526
6
• •
• •                           • •
1,302
„        7
ill
m     '        8
. a
• •                         • *
814
„        8"
m
9
• •
P •                          * *
1.8J4
„    '9'   ..; •     :.      ■'■;;
163
„    io
a •
• ♦                           • »
654
„      10        .'.          .',.
IP
»      12
• •
• •                         • •
2,004
„      12
633
„      13
• •
• •                          " •
1,006
„      13-
2i| mi
„      15
• •
• •                          • •
•'3.085
„      14
164
„      16
# a
• •
*',911
„     15       ..            ..           '.!
8u
»      1?
( . m
• •                           •
' <4$i
„   n    .;       ..      ••;.
»      18
• •
• •                          • *
2,046
„     18       ..           ..       ':"..-
4§P
»      19
• •
• •                          • .
2,017
„      19
■   556
».     20
• •
Jl
1,913
„      20
III
..    Total
. P •
• _•                          • •
v,o66
Total    ..
6,111
Ms
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17:
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18
M.
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18
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18
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18
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North-East Point;
Dafc
Number
killed.
Date.
Number
TuBed.
1889—
1890—
Juno  17
i
1,054
June 17       .
16
1    18
1,270
„    18
78
„    19
m #
494
i   20
438
„    21
am
1,205
,',   21
•            . •      >     ..
96
..    24
#
Pi
» n
179
„    25
. ,
1,407
„   24
205
n 26
*'•
441
„    25
166
„    27
•  a    •   *
844
»    27
230
»    28
• t
479
i   28
79
.,    29
• a
335
f    30        .
Joly     1
98
ju'fy     1
1,200
131
i,        2
{ ,
968
2
96
i
. #
1,559
,,3
}80
I?      5
. #
1,504.
4
321
6
• •
376
s
74
«
• •
914
>»       7
336
„     '9
• *
641
8
379
„      10
,
800
9
271
„      13
# .
793
.,      10        .
112
»     15
a .
•  •                            • •
1,838
,,      13
658
„      16
.  ,
w.
1,156
„      15
.245
a   i7
. *#
948
„      16
§12
„      18
# #
1,282
„      17       .
485
»      19
, #
834
„      18
405
„    »20
a a
.   243
„      19
446
• *
. .                       . .
„     20
Total   .
.            •.            ..
.556
Total
15,076
5,007
* 243 tin's day to make the full quota of 100,000.
Recapitulation.
Total Adinbcr of fur-seals killed by lessees on St. Paul Island from 1st June to 20tli Juty-
1F89
18'JO
.    65 JS7
.    i7,105
June
L88.9.
July
1889.
June
1890.
July
1890.
Day of
Month.
Mai.
Min.
'Weather.
1 Max.
Min.
Weather.
' Mai.
Min.
Weather.
Max.
Min.
■   Weather.
.5
1
42
33
Fpggy
45
40
Clear        .
i    37
33
Snow   • • ..
40
40
Fog.
2
40
85
Cloudy
48
40
Hazy
\   34
32
Hazy      . ..
48
40
3
44
38
,,         * •
48
42
„            •
41
33
Clear        ••
46
40
Clear.
4
48
40
,,         • *
48
41
Clear
;   42
31
Fine          ..
47
39
5
41
39
,,          • •
4
40
Hazy          •
!    42
32
Clear
50
40
>»
6
50
34
*           .,
1
40
.Mi .    ■             ' •
i    43
31
Fog
51-
40
>>
7
44
43
'       31                 • •'
■ 49
42
TMckfog .
1   44
38
Hazy
51.
41
8
47
36
„                  * •
50
40
Rain
j    48
39
Rain    .     ..
44. .
40
i,
9
No r
icord
*,                  « •
45
42
Haz-y
43
39
Thick fog ..
46
41
Hazy.
10
44   .
38
Rain
49
42
Thick fog ..
44
34
,,        ..
47
42
.„
11
43
40
,,
51
41
Fog
43
37 "
„        ..
48
43
Fog.
J2
13
43
38
„           * *
" $
*2
Clear         ..
42
3f •
Fog
51
41
3;
38
37
„           • •'
■ 8)
So ■
1    43
87
>>                        • •
48
43
14
43   '
37
,,           • •
49
40
•«
it
38
>>                         • *
44  .
43
Ruin.
15
42
37
Thick fog ..
52
42
.              ,,
48
39 .
Rain          *.
45
43
W>
16
43   .
37
Rain          ,.
50
42
»•            * •
1    43
36
Fog       '  ..
44
41
u
17
46
38
Cloudy
47
43
Hazy          .,
45
37
Rain      '
47
42
»>
18
49
38
Rain
48
42
„            • •
44
3Jr-
Clear   '     ..
47
42
»'
19
49"
36
Clear
52
42
fog
40
37
Fog
50
40
it
20
45
37
Cloudy      ..
49
41
Clear
43
39 •
Fine
49
iO
,  2T
46
38
„         . •
49
43
Thick fog ..
45
40
Rain          .,
54.
44
22
45
38
,,         •«
50
44
Rain          ,.
49
40
Clear
56
43
>*
23
46
38
Rain
48
42
Hazy
49
3!9 '
Hazy
53
45
24
42
39
Thick fog .'.
46
42
Fog
42
38
Fog
52
ffi
a
25
46
40
,,         •«
50
42
Hazy
45
40
,,                         ,,
52
*S
20
49
40
Cloudy     •.
44
44
Thick fog ..
42
3a
»                        * •
53-
43
at
27
51
41
Clear        •.
49
43
Hazy         ,.
41
39
,,           ,   .     , •
53
4C
j*
28
50
41
M            ..
43
43
Rain
44
38
Hazy
49
45
29
54  .
40
Cloudy      ,.
48
' 42
Fog
43
40
„           . •
48
44
30
56
40
„           ..
50
43
Hazy
42
39
«           * •
*8
*§
B
31
"
••
"•
49
*2   i
Fog
"
••
51
*5
Si 30
(H-)—J able showing the beginning of each Sealing Season on the Islands of St. Paul
and St. George, from 1870 to 1890 inclusive, and the number of Fur-Seals accepted
by the Lessees up to July 20 of each year.
(Taken by Alaska Commercial Company.)
St.
Paul.
St, George.
Total Skins
accepted.
Year.
Season
Skins
Season
Skins
began—
accepted.
began—
accepted.
1870*	
t.
• •
i
1871    ..            ..            ..             .
June. 1
29,788
June 4
12,604
42,392
1872    ..
»    1
65,499
,,    3
21,563
87,062
1873   ..           ..           ,.            ,
,,    3
68,035
»   4
17,362
85,397
1874   ..
»    3
88,058
„    1
8,554
96,612
1875    ..             ..             ..             ,,
..    1
83,890
»    1
10.000
93,890
1876    ..
„   3
69,367
„    1
10,000
79,367
1877    ..
»    4
58,732
»    1
15,000
73,732
1878    ..
„    8
78,570
„ 10
16,709
95,279
1879    ..
,,    2
80,572
„    3
20,569
101,141+
1880    ..
,.    1
80,000
„    3
20,000
100,000
1681    ..            ..            ..            ..
,,    6
80,000
»    9
20,600
100,000
1882   ..            ..            ..            .,
„    2
80,000
„    6
20,000
100,000
1883    ..             ..             ,,            ..
,.    4
60,101
,,   4  :
11,123
71,224
1884    ..
»    3
83,092
»   4
11,152
94,244
1885    ..            a>             ..            ..
,,    3
70,451
,.    1
15,000
85,451
1886    ..            ..            ..            ..
„    4
72,120
>.    8
13,335
85,455
1887    ..            ..            ..            ..
'   «    1
77,389
»   9
13,381
90,770
1888    ..            ..            ..            ..
»   2
73,808
»    6
13,187
86,995
1889   ..            ..            ..            ..
„    1
68,485
»   4
10,138
78,623
1890    ..
»    6
16,833$
»   2
4,112+
20,9451.
No record. + Accepted but not shipped in one year; balance carried over.
+. Taken by North American Commercial Company.
(I.)—Statement of Liabilities of the North American Commercial Company to the
Natives of St. Paul Island, after the division and distribution of 1890, showing
Ml
"m
17:
Br
" i
M.
me
18
«'(
T>
18
Ci
Ui
18
M
pe
6''
G
V>
Pi
the Amount due to each individual on the 1st August.
Name.
Artomonoff, Kerrick
Ashshoff, Arseny
Burdukofsky, Apolli
Butrin, Kerrick
Bogadanoff, Nicoli
Butrin, Korp
Bellaglazoff, Ellen
Emanoff, George
Fratis, John
Gromoff, Nicoli
Glotof, John
Galaktanoff, Alex
Haberoff, Paul
Hapoff, John, estate of
Housen, Alex
Kozerof, Stepan
Kushin, Aggie
Kootchuten, Jacob
Krukcff, Nicoli
Krukoff, Maxim
Krukoff, Peter
Kuzintzoff, John
Kusheorsslioff, Eupheme
Kootchuten, George
Kootchuten, John ..
Kootchuten, Empheine
Kozeroff, Paul, estate of
Kuznitzoff, Pemin, estate
Krukof, Natalia     ..
Kozeloff, Parascovia
Merculiff, Alex     ..
of
Amount.
Dol.   c.
# a
182 37
# a
153 85
• •
196 04
m %
207 42
p •
155 22
• •
228 19
a «
65 00
a a
220 42
a a
172 37
a .
229 04
a •
158 85
a «
163 92
a »
145 78
• •
67 05
• •
218 97
• •
186 04
« .
175 24
• •
182 04
, a
188 79
, ,
166 65
• •
259 04
• •
81 27
• •
193 19
« «
217 04
a a
148 22
105 42
. a
302 85
a ,
735 30
a #
37 00
• •
7 50
• •
79 10
Name.
Amount.
Dol.    c.
Melovidoff, An tone              . .             ..
415 59
Melovidoff, Simeon              ..           ..
714 74
Melovidoff, Mrs. A.              ..             ..
203 85
Merculiff, Dorafay               ..            ..
103 00
Mandregan, Ustenia           ..            ..
60 00
Merculiff, Auxinsa               ..             ,.
27 74
Nederazoff, Stepan              .,            ,.
188 19
Nederazoff, Martin               ..
175 04
Oustigoff, Peter   ..            ..            ..
193 24
Pushinkoff, Peter, estate of..            •.
68 05
Prokopuf, Vladimer            ..             ..
331 25
Paraushin, Daniel..            ..            ..
186 04
Pankoff, Parfiri   ..            ..            ..
185 04
Popoff, Afanasia  ..            ..             ..
66 00
Mandiigan, Nevu ..             ..             ..
' 178 49
Melovidoff, Alex ..            ..
271 40
Popoff, Nodotia   ..            ..            ..
28 74
Rookarishnakoff, Zachar     ..            ..
189 04
Rezanzoff, Anna   . >            ..            ..
122 00
Stepeteni, Terrenti, estate of              ..
257 85
Stepeteni, Dorafay              ..            ..
437 22
Sidiek, Theodore ..         •  ..            ..
196 04
Sedule, Vasila      ..            ,.            ..
190 42
Shabolin, Necon   ..            ..            ..
145 85
Stepetini, Elarey ..            ..             ..
274 04
Shutyagan, Metzofau           ..             ..
155 85
Shaishinkotf, Rev. Paul        ..
158 19
Saroken, John      ..            ..             .;
20 74
Shapashiukoff, Agafay
64 70
Shabolia, Ceaser, estate of •.            ..
116 13
Shaishinkoff, Valerian        ..           ..
165 09 81
Names.
Amount.
Names.
Amount.
Dol.   c.
Dol.   c.
Shnishinkoff, Matrona         .
.            ..
150 10
Shaishinkoff, George           .
Shane, Catherine ..
.             .."'
157 09
17 68
Bank Account drawing 4 per cent.
Tarrakanoff, Kcrrir-k
.             ..
179 04
John Fratis
1,438 30
Tetof, Peter
.*            +.
192 04   -
Bev. Paul Shaishinkoff   •»'.'.
3,341 74
Tetof, Nevu         ..
.            ..
132 85
Catherine Shutyagara         ..            ..
224 75
Tetof, Fedosia     ..            .
•             ..'
64 68
Markel Volkoff    ..
983 68
Terrustara, Anna ..
f
145 00
Ellen .Volkoff
200 00
Volkoff, Markel    ..
•             .
142 37   <
Ardotia- Sediek     ..            ..            ..
104 17
Volkoff, Ellen      ..
•             ..
158 08
Elizabeth Sediek.
93 61
Yetzamauff, John, estate of.
.             .*.■
236 23
Zashar Sediek • •..
104 18
Zaharaoff, Kereaka
66 00
Nedesda Shaishinkoff
165 09
Widows' fund      ..            .
.
179 00
Kerrick Arlamanoff            ..
Kerrick Butesin   ..            ..             ...
2,281 09
2,948 33
18,378 90
11,884 94
Note.—From the  North
American
OS                             0  ,
Commercial Company ten v
widows re-
'*.£(           ..
ceive weekly rations, and c
have to be added soon.
thers will
Total   ..            ..            ..
25,263 84
List of Accounts trarisf erred to the North American Commercial Company by the
Alaska Commercial Company for Natives of. J3t. Paul Island, May 24,1890.
Name.
'Occupation or
Condition.
Amount.
Dol.   c.
Peter Krukoff      ..
• •                          • •                          • •
Sealer
..           ..
192 85
Nicoli Krukoff
• •                          • •                          • •
>»
..            ..
80 60
Maxim Krukoff   ..
• •                          • •                           • •
>»
..            ..
111 73
Estate of Pemin Koznelzoff (for minor heirs)  ..
#.
735 30
Aggie Kushin
• *                          • •                          • •
Sealer
..           ..
67 05
John Koznelzoff ..
• •                          • •                          • •
»»
•.           •.
32 17
Natalia Krukoff   ..
a a      *                     •>«                              • •
Widow
..           ..
57 00
Parascovia Kozeroff
• •                            • •                               • •
i»
..           ..
43 50
Neon Mandregan ..
•                             • •                      * *• •
Sealer
..            ..
90 30
Vasili Sedule        ..   '
• •                              • *                              • •
99
98 05
Testeuria Mandregan '
• •                              • •                              • •
Widow
..            ..
81 90
Antone Melevidoff
• •                             • •                           "• •
Sealer
..           ..
172 85
Simeon Melevidoff
« •                             • •
,,
601 92
Alex Melevidoff   ..  '
• •                             • •                             • •
,.
..
223 73
Anexenia Merculiff
• •                              • •                             • •
Widow
103 00
Alexander Merculiff
•  •                             * •                              • •
Sealer
• •                       * •
20 17
Akoolena Nedarazoff
• •                             • •                              • •
Widow
..
23 24
Martin Nederazoff
• •                             • •                              • •
Sealer
..
66 85
Daniel Parauchiu ..
• •      *                     ••                           '• •
,.
77 85
Barbara Pohomoff..
• *                             * •                             •>•
Widow
* •                       • •
8 75
Parfaria Paukoff  ..
• •                             • •                             • •
Sealer
..
76 85
Vassilisia Peeshinkoff
■ •                             • •                              • •
Widow
• •                       • •
78 05
Afanasia Popoff   ..
• •                             • •                              • •
a
• •                       * •
76 00
Ardotia Popofl     ..
• •                             • •                               • •
»
• •                        • •
58 74
Zachar Rookoorahinkoff
• •                             • •                             • •
Sealer
• •                       • •
80 85
Anna Rezauzpff   ..
a a                           • •                          at
.Widow
..
122 00
Agafy Shaposhinkoff
• •                          • •                         • •
Minor
• •                       • •
79 70
Theodore Sedisk ..
• •                          • •                          • •
Sealer
**.*                         • •
87 85
Metrofan Shutyagin
• •                           • •                         • •
. > >»
• •                               a •
69 29
Rev. Paul Shaishinkoff
• •                          • •                           • *
Priest
128 40
Agrafina Shabolin.,
• •                          * •      .                    • •
Widow
• •                        a •
140 13
Neon. Shabolin     ..
• •                          • •                          • •
Sealer
69 29
Elarcy Stepetin    ..
• •                           • >                          • •
,,
, ,
165 85
Marina Stepetin   ..
• •                          ••                           ■ .
Widow
252 85
Dorafay Stepetin ..
• •                          • •                          • •
Sealer
376 49
Valioian Shaishinkoff
• •                           * •                          • •
Minor
..
165 09   J2|
Matrona Shaishinkoff ~
• •                           » •                         • •
..
165  10
George Shaishinkoff
• •                         • •                          • •
».
..            ..
157 09
Catherine Shane  .
• •                          t •                          • •
Widow
• •
47 68
Kerrick Tarrakanoff
• •                          • •                           • •
Sealer
..
70 85
Fedosia Tetoff
• •                          • •                           . .
Widow
' '.'.
110 68
Peter Tetoff
• •"                       ••"'                 a*
'Sealer
83 85
Neon Tetoff          ..
. a                             a •                            a •
t»
..
76 29
Anna Yarantova   ..
• •                             * •                             • •
Widow
150 00
Markel Volkoff    ..  "
* *                             • •                             •  ■
■Sealer
..            ..
50 05
[2,5]
F 32
Name.
Estate of John Yatzaamauff, held for minor heirs
Martha Saroken   .. ,. .. .,
Mrs. Alex. Melevidoff .. .. .,
Ellen Volkoff      .. .. .. ..
Alex. Merculiff    .. .. .. ..
Fedosia Kosliromikoff .. .. ,,
Kerrick Artamanoff .. . . .,
Arseney Arkashoff .. .. .,
Peter Oustegoff   .. ., .. ..
Kerrick Butesin    .. .. .. ..
Apollon Bourdeakofsky .. .. ,,
Nicoli Bogodaniff .. .. .. ..
Ellen Belaglazoff .. .. .. ..
George Emanoff  .. » . . . ..
John Fratis           .. .. ., ..
Nicoli Gromoff    .. ., .. ..
Vladimar Prokopuff .. .. ..
John Glotoff         .. ., .. ,.
Paul Haberoff ... .. ..
Amissia Hopoff    ., .. ,, ..
Alex. Hansen       .. .. ,. ..
John Katchooten .. .. ,, ..
Jacob Katchooten.. .. ., ..
Eupheme Katchooten ,. .. ..
George Katchooten .. .. ..
Stepan Kozeroff   .. . . . . ..
Kewekia Zacharoff .. .. ..
Karp Butesin       .. ., ., ..
Stepan Nedarazoff.. .. .. ..
Eupheme Koshroenkoff .. .. ..
On Special Deposit at 4 per cent, per annum.
Kerrick Artamanoff .. ..
Kerrick Butesin   .. .. .,
John Fratis         .. .. ..
Rev. Paul Shaishinkoff .. ..
Catherine Shutyagin .. ..
Markel Volkoff    .. ., ..
Ellen Volkoff
Ardotia Sediek    .. .. .. .
Elizabeth Sediek .. ., ..
Zachar Sediek     .. .. ..
Nedesda Shaishinkoff •. . •
Occupation or
Condition.
Total
Widow     ..
Unmarried..
Sealer       ..
«.
Sealer       ..
Widow
Sealer
Widow
Sealer
Widow
Sealer
Amount.
Sealer
Priest
Widow     .
Sealer
Unmarried
Minor       .
Dol. c.
276 23
20 74
223 65
25 00
45 74
10 62
77 79
68 29
65 05
121 05
81 85
89 49
85 00
128 05
135 55
135 85
302 52
82 29
75 05
75 05
114 40
87 49
73 85
73 05
113 85
77 85
93 00
113 85
83 85
86 85
8,870
73
2,281
09
2,948
33
1,525
00
3,341
74
227
05
983
68
843
08
104
17
93
61
104
18
165
09
12,117
02
20,987
75
Distribution of Proceeds from Pur-Seals taken on St. Paul Island, 1890.
Mi
"1
17
Br
" i
18
M.
me
18
"<
D
18
Ci
Ui
18
M
■pe
gr
G
•W
Pi
August 1, 1890—
16,777 seal-skins, at 40 cents .
53 seal-skins, cut, at 20 cents .
156 seal-skins, rejected .,
40 sea-lion skins, at 1 dollar .,
Less provisions at N. E. Point
Total..
First Class.
1. Rev. Paul Shaishmkoff, priest
2. Antone Melevidoff, first chief
3. Karp Buterin, second chief
4. Jacob Kooehuten ..
5. George Kooehuten..
6. Theo. Sediek
Aggie Gushing .
Martin Nedarazoff,
Stepan Kozeroff    .
Dols.
c.
.. 6,710
80
10
60
62
40
40
00
40
50
.. 6,783
30
158
19
158
19
158
19
158
19
158
19
158
19
158
19
158
19
158
19 33
10. Neon Mandregan ..
11. Peter Krukoff
12. Nicoli Krukoff      ..
13. Kerrick Tarrakanoff
14. Daniel Paranohin ..
15. Apollon Burdukoffsky
16. Zachar Rookarishmkoff
17. Eupheme Kushirmkoff
18. Stepan Nedarazoff.
19. Parfiri Ponkoff
20. Nicoli Gromofi
21. Elarey Stepetein
22. Peter Tetoff
23. Peter.Onstigoff
Total
1. Simeon Melevidoff
2. George Emenoff   ..
3. Markel Volkoff     ..
4. Kerrick Arlemonoff
5. Kerrick Buterin   r.
6. Vasili Sedule
7. Eupheme Kooehuten
8. John Fratis ..
Total    ..
1. Metrofan Shntyogau
2. Arsency Arkoshoff
3. John Glotoff
4. Necon Shobolin    ..
5. Alex. Hanson       ..
6. Neon Tetof ..
Total    ,.
1. Darofay Stepetein,.
2. John Koolchutin   ..
3. Nicoli Bogodanoff,.
4. "Vladimer Prokopeiff
5. Paul Haberoff
Total    ,'.
1. Maxim Krukoff
2. Alex. Golaktonoff
3. Alex. Melevidoff
Total    ,
1. Alex. Merculiff
2. John Kuznitzoff
Total
Antone Melovidoff, first chief
Karp Buterin, second chief
Mrs. Terrinti Stepetein
Mrs. Peter Peeshenkofl
Mrs. John Hopoff       ..
Total    ..
Dols.  c.
158 19
158 18
158 19
158 19
158 19
158 19
158 19
158 19
158 19
158 19
158 1J»
158  19
168 19
158 19
. . • .
Second Class.
3,638 37
142 37
142 37
142 37
142 37
142 37
142 37
142 37
142 37
• •
• •                     • •
Third Class,
• •
• •
• •
1,138
96
• •
126
56
• •
• •
126
56
• •
126
56
• •
126
56
126
56
• •           • •
• •           • *
Fourth Class.
• •
• •
• •
126
56
• •
759
36
• •
• •
• •
110
73
• •
• •
110
73
..
110
73
• *
aj m
• •
110
73
• •
Fifth
P •
Class.
• •
• •
• •
• *
110
78
• •
553
65
• •
• •
p p
• •
• •
• •
94
92
• •
. »
• •
• •
• •
t 1
94
92
• •
• •                       • •
Sixth Class.
• •
• •
• •
mm
• P
9 P
94
92
• •
284
76
• •
• •
• •
• •
• •
• •
79
10
• •
• •                         • •
• •                          • •
Special Class.
• •
• •
• •
• •
• •
• •
79
10
• •
158
20
#.
• •
• •
• •
50
00
• •
• •
• •
4 »
50
XM>
• •
• p
O •
• •
50
00
• ■
p p
# »
a «
50
00
••
9 •
••
••
50
00
250 00
[295]
P 2 i 'nlf Tilii SHb^HB
34
Table showing Distribution of Earnings on St. Paul Island for taking Pur-Seals
in 1889.
Mi
"M
17
Br
" V
18
M.
mc
18
"<
D
18
Ci
TJi
18
M
Pe
g>'
G
Pi
No.
Amount.
First Class.
Dols.
c.
1
1. Buterin, Karp, second chief °».            •
•                           •
627
85
2
2. Kolehooten, Jacob • %.
• •                         •
a,                       ,
627
85
3
3. Kolehooten, George .
*  a a                       " •
•                    6 •
627
85
4
4. Ledick. Theodore    ..
• *                          •
•                   c *
627
85
5
5. Steptine, Ten ends-1.
• •                           •
•                 c if
627
85
6
6. Viatpin, Terlampy >.
a ,                          •
•                 ~ •
627
85
7
7. Kushin, Aggie      * 1.
fc i p             •
•                 * ♦
627
85
8
8. Nederazoff, Martini..
• •
627
85
9
9. "Melovidoff^ Antone,"first chief
a                              *
..             627
85
10
10. Kezeroff, Paul
• •             «
,                            a
627
85
11
11. Kezeroff, Stepan
=        *     •                                                            •
•                               •
627
85
12
12. Mnndrigin, Neon
•     •                                                          •
627
85
13
13. Krukoff, Peter
a •                              •
•                             •
627
85
14
14. Krukoff, Nicoli     '..
• •                             •
t                              #
627
85
15
15. Torakanoff, Kerrick,.
• •                              •
627
85
16
16. Poranchin, Daniel   ..
• •                            •
#                              #
627
85
17
17. Bourdcrkofsky, Apollon
•  •                              •
,                            .
627
85
18
18. Rookaresliinkoff, Zachar
# #
#
627
85
19
19. Koshinkoff, Eupheme
• •                              •
w                           #
627
85
20
20. Nedarazoff, Stepan ..
• P                            9
a                            •
627
85
21
21. Fratis, John
• •                              •
.                          #
627
85
22
22. Pankoff.Porfiri     *..
• •                              •
•                          •
627
85
23
23. Stepetin, F.lary
•  •                               •
627
85
24
24. Melorsdoff, Simeon ..
" • •        v"n5|5
627
85
25
25. Tetoff, Peter
- • *                  *
•                    c 9
627
85
26
26. Gromoff, Nicoli    . ..
; • •                       •
P                                 9
627
85
Second Class.
27
1..Volkoff, Markel    ...
• •                    - »
565
05
28
2. Artomonoff, Kiriek..
o • •                        •
565
05
29
3. Buterin, Kerrick
• •                       •
565
05
30
4. .Pecsliinkoff, Peter , .
• ♦ •                       •
565
05
31
5. Hokercff, Paul
a «                         «
565
05
32
6. Ledule, Vassiley
• •                          •
565
05
33
7. Kolehooten, Eupheme
• •                           •
665
05
34
8. Hapoff, John         •:.
*• •                            •
•».
565
05
35
9. Emanoff, George   '?.
'   • ♦                          •
565
05
36
10. Oustigf ff, Peter
..
565
05
°; Third Class.
a
37
1. Thutyagin, Metrofan
• •                          •
•                          • t
502
29
38
2.*Arkashoff,*Arseny °?.
•'•                          •
•                       *•?«
502
29
39
3. Glotoff, John
• •                          •
•                          • I
502
29
40
4. Shubalin, Necon      ..
- • •                          •
•                          P *
502
29
41
5. Ilanssen, Alexander
• •                          •
•                          • <
502
29
42
6.*fetoff, Neon         e\.
••
•                          • *
502
29
"Fourth Class.
V «
43
1. Stepetin, Darofay   ,.
• •                           •
•                     « <
439
49
44
2. Kotchooten, John    ..
• •                           •
•                     • •
439
49
45
3. Bogdanoff, Nicoli   ..
• •                          •
•                        • i
439
49
46
4. Prokopieff, Vladimer
«o                   «»                   eo
:: Fifth
• •                           •
Class.
•                          m *
439
49
47
1. Krukoff, Maxim
# •            •
•                              • 4
376
73
48
2.<Galakimff? Alexander
«• •            •
•                      - • <
376
78
49
3. Melovidoff, Alexander
Sixth
• •            •
Class.
•                           •
376
73
50
1., Shaishukoff, Alexander
• •                          •
•                          •
251
17
51
2.,Merculliff, Alexander
* *                          *
•                          •
251
17
52
3. Kuznitzqff, John
> •                          •
•                          •
251
17
Special Class.
= ■
Shaishmkoff, Paul .(priest)
» * •                          •
.               o *
1,000
00
|
Two chiefs, each 100 dollars ..            .
,                  .
200
00
Estate of C. Shabolin
• •                         •
250
00
Estate of A. Galkin
• *                          •
.                  .
250
00
Widows' fund         ..
Total     ..
• •                         •
2,000
00
32,330
00 35
Recapitulation.
83,724 seal-skins, at 40 cents ..
1,276 seal-skins (cut), at 20 cents
25 sea-lion skins, at 60 cents   ..
Less, for provisions to N. E. P.       ,.
Total
Dols.   c.
129 80
1,300 00
Dols. c.
33,489 60
255 20
15 00
33,759 80
1,429 80
32,330* 00
Those in the first class should have received 234 dollars, leaving to their credit
Those in the second class should have received 208 dollars, leaving to their credit.'
Those in the third class should have received 182 dollars, leaving to their credit   .
Those in the fourth class should have received 150 dollars, leaving to their credit.
Those in the fifth class should have received 143 dollars, leaving to their credit
Those in the seventh class should have received 104 di. liars, leaving to their credit.
Dols. c.
171 CO
152 00
133 00
144 00
132 00
96 00
If the accompanying instructions of the Treasury agent in charge had been complied with, the natives
would have been -in circumstances, financially, to meet their unfortunate, but not unexpected, condition, as is
clearly shown by the amounts which should have been to their credit.
Dr.   Account Current.   Cr.
(J.)—The North American Commercial Company in account with the United States at
St. Paul Island, Alaska.
May 24, 1890— Dols. c.
To oil fund transferred by Alaska Commercial Company   .. .. ..    124 87
To natives general fund     '.. .. .. .. .. ..     182 55
Dr.   Account Ctjrbent.   Cr.
(K.)—The North American Commercial Company in account with the United States at
St. George Island, Alaska.
May 24,1890— Dols. c.
To natives general fund
193 12
(L.)—Census of St. Paul Island, Alaska, July 31,1890.
Age.
Names.
Place of Birth.
Occupation.
Males.
Females.
j .
Arlamonoff, Keruch          ..           ..            .
65
St. Paul Island
Sealer.
Arlamonoff, Alexander, wife            .
m #
39
St. Michael's           .,
Arlamonoff, Anxeima, daughter      .
, ,
24
St. Paul Island
Iranoff, Eodakia, sister
# #
18
St. Michael's
Arkashoff, Aneny.            «.
25
^ %
St. Paul Island
,   Sealer.
Arkashoff, Euphemia, wife
a ,
30
19                  91                        •
Austegoff, Peter..            ..            .
27
. .
St. George Island    ,
>.i&i
Austegoff, Parascoria, wife               .
, ,
28
St. Paul Island
Austegoff, Stepanida, mother
a ,
56
St., George Island    .,
Iranoff, Anastasia, niece   ..            .
• •
12
St. Paul Island
Sharshurkoff, George, adopted        .
• •
9
»         »»            *.
Bogdanoff, Nicoli              ..            ,
20
% 4
St. George Island    .,
*    ;
Bogdanoff, Feronia, wife   ..            .
. a
21
St. Paul Island
"
Bogdanoff, Zoehar, son      ..
i
* *.
n           99                »
Bourdukopsky, Appolyon ..            ,
38
• •
Oonalaska ..            .,
Sealer.
Bourdukopsky, Chioni, wife             .
• •
31
St. Paul Island
Bourdukopsky, Peter, son..            ,
12
# m
99                 99                        .
Bourdukopsky, Onleta, daughter     .
• •
7
99                 99                        . I
'1 odcaliaskoff, Evdokia, adopted       .
a ,
15
Oonalaska ..            .,
Butavin, Karp    ..            ..
38
# .
St. Paul Island        .,
Sealer.
Butavin, Parascovia, wife ..            .
a •
36
Oonalaska ,.           ,, WiirTyiMs1
36
Names.
Mi
"1
17
Br
" I
18
M.
mc
18
«'<
T>
18
Ci
Ui
18
M
V%
gr
G
it
Pi
Butavin, Constantine, son .. •
Butavin, Ivan, son ..
Mezukin, Mary, adopted   ..
Butarin, Kenich ..
Butarin, Catherine, daughter
Emanoff, George.. ..
Emanoff, Anna, mother     ..
Koznelzoff, John, nephew ..
Koznetzuff, Agafia, niece   ..
Fratis, John
Fratis, Akoolena, wife
Fratis, Susanna, daughter .,
Fratis, John, son..
.Glotoff, John
Glotoff, Mary, mother ..
Giomcff, Nicoli ..
Gromoff, Ouleanna, wife ..
Ledisk, Elizabeth, adopted..
HabeToff, Paul
Kotehootin, Enphemia ..
Kotehootin, Pelogia, wife ..
Bogdanoff, Mary, adopted ..
Kotehootin, George ..
Kotehootin, Maria, wife
Kotehootin, Peter, son
Kotehootin, Trepon, son    .,
Kotehootin, Matrona, daughter
Kotehootin, ——, daughter, infant
Kotehootin, Jacob ..
Kotehootin, Fevroma, wife
Kotehootin, Onleta, daughter
Kotehootin, Ellen, daughter
Kotehootin, Theodora, sou..
Kotehootin, , son, infant
Sodoshmkoff, Natalia, adopted
Koohwinkoff, Enphem
Koohwinkoff, Ardolia, wife'
Koohwinkoff, Paul, son
Kezeroff, Stepan ..
Kezeroff, Auastasia, wife ..
Kezeroff, Trepon, son
Kezeroff, Teonaby, daughter
Nozekoff, Semion, stepson..
Krukoff, Sukeria, adopted ..
Krukoff, Peter   .. ..
Kruktff, Anna, wife ..
Krukoff, Meoii   ..        '".*;-"
Krukoff, Catherine, wife   ..
Krukoff, Metrofan, son "   ..
Krukoff, Onsteana, daughter
Krukoff, Maxim .. ..
Krukoff, Feoetesta, wife   ..
Krukoff, John, son ..
Krukoff, ——, son, infant..
Kushin, Aggie    .. ..
Kushin, Mary, wife
Kushin, Sukeria, daughter..
Kushin, Michael, son
Shoposhmkoff, Yatiana, adopted
Maudreau, Aecn., ..
Mandreau, Maria, .wife
Mandreau, Mary, daughter.
Mandreau, Zova, daughter..
Sedicb, Ardolia, niece       ..
Sedich, Zachar, nephew    ..
Melvudoff, Antone ..
Melvudoff, Agrafena, wife..
Melvudoff, Alexandria, daughter:;.
Melvudoff, Olega, daughter
Melvudoff, Mary, daughter
Melvudoff, Alexandra, mother
Melvudoff, Alexander, brother
Sbarohmkoff, Matrona, adopted
■Jederozoff, Martin • •
Nederozoff, Stepan ..
Age.
Males.
61
24
45
46
5
24
• •
24
40
48
"43
12
6
40
37
8
39
15
3*9
41
8
35
11
87
ffl
34
6
36
Females.
18
18
60
1*2
20
13
6*3
23
41
17
29
17
•37
34
37
17
7
11
3*1
• •
40
*3
16
35
3*1
26
36
14
17
28
7
5
10
34
10
6
.4
56
Place of Birth.
St. Paul Island
Oonalaska..
St. Paul Island
99 9,
Sadrone Islands
Oonalaska..
St. Paul Island
Oonalaska ..
Alton ..
St. Paul Island
Kodiak      ..
St. Paul Island
Oonalaska ..
St. George Island
St. Paul Island
Oonalaska ..
St. Paul Island
Unga
St. Paul Island
Unga
St. George Island
St Paul bland
9, 9,
Oonalaska ..
St. Paul Island.
99 „
Oonalaska..
99 • *
Sitka        ..
St. Paul Island
At sea near Sitka
Sitka        ..
St. Paul Island
99 99
Sitka
St. PaulLland
99 91
99 99
Kroosle Island
St. George Island
St. Paul    ..
St. George Island
Oonalaska ..
St. George Island
Alton
St. Paul Island
Kodiak
Atka
St. Paul Island.
California ..
St. Paul Island
Occupation.
Scaler.
Sealer.
Sealer.
Sealer.
Sealer.
Sealer.
Sealer.
Sealer
Sealer
Sealer.
Sealer.
Sealer.
Sealer.
Sealer..
Sealer.
Sealer.
Sealer.
Sealer.
Sealer. ,37
Names.
Nederozoff, Alexandra, wife ..
Nederozoff, Miry, niece
Nederozoff, Prokopy, nephew ..
Nederozoff, Dormedont, nephew ..
Pankoff, Pofaria ..            .. ..
Pankoff, Olga, wife.
Pankoff, Vulsie, son          .. ..
Kezanzofl, Natalia, mother-in-law   ..
Paranchin, Daniel ..
Paranchin, Alexandra*, wife
Prokopreoff, Flademar      ..
Rookoorshmkoff, Jachar   ..■ ..
Rookoorshmkoff, Anissia, wife ..
Rookoorshmkoff, Stepan, son ..
Rookoorshmkoff, Paroscovia, daughter
Sedich, Theodore              .. ..
Sedich, Martha, wife        ..
Sedich, Anna, daughter    .. ..
Sedich, An astasia, daughter ..
Sedich, Mary, daughter    .. ..
Sedich, Innokeutu, son      ..
Sedich, Yustinia, daughter,. ..
Sedich, Phillip, nephew    ..
Shaeshrokoff, Rev. Paul     ,, ..
Shaeshmkoff, Nadesda, niece ..
Shaeshmkoff, Valerian, nephew ..
Shabolin, Trecon..            ..
Shabolin, Ontila, wife       .. ..
Shabolin, Agrefena, daughter ..
Shabolin, Agrefena, mother
Shutyagin, Catherine         .. ..
Shutyagin, Metrofan .,
Shutyagin, Onlita, wife
Shutyagin, Paroscovia, sister ..
Sedule, Vasely
Sedule, Elizabeth, wife     .. ..
Sedule, Vora, daughter     .. .,
Stepetine, Elary ..            .. ..
Stepetine, Anna, wife        .. ..
Stepetine, Ontanna, daughter
Fratis, Ellen, niece           .. ..
Stepetine, Forofay             .. ..
Stepetine, Ardotia, mother .,
Tarakanoff, Kerrich           .. ,.
Tarakanoff, Anna, wife     ,.
Tetoff, Jonas      ..             ,, ..
Tetoff, Peter
Tetoff, Mary, wife             .. .,
Tetoff, Zachar, brother      ,. ,,
Tetoff, Alexandra, sister   ., ..
Gleboff, Chronia, mother-in-law ..
Gleboff, Tassa, sister-in-law
Volkoff, Murkel
Volkoff, Alexandra, wife   .. ..
Volkoff, infant, boy            .. ..
Widotos.
Arkashoff, Martha ...
Zatzmenoff. Anxemia, niece ,.
Zatznenoff, Tassia, sister-in-law       ,.
Balakshin, Matrona • ,. ..
Balakshin, Agapia, niece   ., .,
Shopoohinkoff, Parascona, adopted ..
Belglazoff, Ellen
Tarakanoff, Mary, adopted
Krukoff, Natatia..
Krukoff, John, son ,. ,,
Hopoff, Anissia .. ., ..
Hopoff, Nekita, son
Kozeroff, Aodotia .. , „
Kezloff, Parascovia
Kezloff, Tcodotia, daughter
Kezloff, Michael, son
Age.
Males.
6
4
29
• •
3
33
20
88
io
4*4
13
56
12
25
80
49
28
2*1
38
22
27
1*2
4*7
Infant
11
3
Females.
29
Alton        ..
10
St. Paul Island
* •
91                 99
• •
99                 91
• •
29
• •
99                   99
St. George
St. Paul Island
57
St. George
St. Paul-Island
30
Oonalaska ..
• •
Alton        ..
# #
St. Paul Island
26
Oonalaska..
w +
St. Paul Island
2
J»                   «
3*7
Oonalaska • •
21
St. Paul Island
17
5
»J                   9»
14
22
3
50
24
51
11
2*1
3
7
• •
56
34
31
14
51
18
3*8
31
14
25
42
13
25
56
15
39
24
30
33
13
Place of Birth.
Oonalaska ..
St. Paul Island
Oonalaska ..
St Paul Island
99 99
St. George
St. Paul Island
Kodiak
Oonalaska..
St. Paul Island
99 99
Oonalaska ..
St. Paul Island
Sitka
St. Paul Island
99 9,
St. George Island
St. Paul Island
St. George Island
Atka
Oonalaska ..
St. Paul Island
Oonalaska ..
St. Paul Island
St. Paul Island
St. Paul Island
Oonalaska ..
St. Paul Island
St. George Island
Oonalaska ..
St Paul Island
Occupation.
'Sealer.
Sealer.
Sealer.
Sealer.
Sealer.
Sealer.
Priest, Greek
Church.
Sealer.
Sealer.
Sealer.
Sealer.
Sealer.
Sealer.
Sealer.
Sealer.
Sealer. sssssaiaama
M
pt
gr
G
\>,
Pi
38
Age.
' Names.
Place of Birth.
Occupation.
Males.
Females.
Kezloff, Nicoli, son           ..            ..             ..
3 -
St. Paul Island        .,
Serebremkoff, Olga, sister ..            ..            ..
# ,
27
99                     99                          • •
Mandregin, Yestenia .      ..            ..           •*.
# #
29
»9                      99                          • •*
Rookoorskuskoff, Anna, adopted     ..
a «
6
99                      99                          • •
'j?--                      Murenhoff, Ahxemia         ..             ..             ..
, ^
35
99                      9'                           * •
Murenhoff, Alexander, son               ..            ..
16
a»#
99                      99                            * •
Sealer.
Murenhoff, Martin, son
10
. .
99                      J9                           • •
Murenhoff, Ellen, daughter              ..            ..
m #
12
99                      99                            • •
Murenhoff, Tutoff, daughter             ..            ..
•*             • •
14
99                     }9                          • •
Murenhoff, infant, son       ..             ..             ..
Infant
.-.
99                      99                           • •
Arderazoff, Akoopena        ..
a *
45
*9                      9)                           • •
Arderazoff, Agrofena         ..            ..
# .
23
99                      99                          • •
Arderazoff (infant son of Agrofena) ..
a *
a «
99                      91                           • •
Pomohoff, Barbra               ..             ..             ..
a ,
41
99                         9)                              • •
-  Pomohoff, Salome              ..            ..            ..
# #
16
99                      99                          • •
\ Mcrculuff, John, adopted ..            ..            ..
# #
a a
99                     99                            • •
Pushrukoff, Vasselesia      ..            ..
a #
32
9»                      ■»>                          ••
Popoff, Ardotea ..            ..            ..
a ,       l
32
Alton        • •            • •
Popoff, Evrosenia, daughter             ..
# a>
1
St. Paul Island
Balakshin, Anna, daughter              .. •          ..
* •
8
99                      99                           • •
Popoff, Aranasea..             ..            ..            ,.
• a
46
99                         9*                              • •
Shityagin, Dana, adopted
a «
11
»9                         99                               • "
Rezenza, Anna  °..           ..           ..
• •
58
Koskogrunic
Galakleonoff, Claudia        ..
i #
12
Oonalaska • •            ..
Ledich, Dana     ....          ..            ..
m 9
48
99                  •"•                             • •
Katehootiii, John, son       ..             ..            ..
21
. .
St. Paul Island
Sealer.
Katehootin, Zenoria, daughter
. .
28
9%                         59                              • •
Katehootin, Ellen, daughter
> •
17
99                     »t                           • •
Loroken, Marth ..             ..            ..            ..
a *
21
Oonalaska • •            •.
Shane, Catherine..             ..             ..             ..
a ,
31
Sitka
Shane, Mary, daughter
a .
12
St. George Island    • i
Shane, Freokla, stepdaughter
» .
22
99                        99                 • •
Shane, Parascoria.Yuoklad, daughter
a *
4
»                        99                • •
Shane, Elevery Yuoklad, son
3
. «.
St. Paul Island
Tetoff, Foducia ..            ..            .. '
..
34
Kiverle Island         ..
Tetoff, Irene, daughter      ..
..
7
St. Paul Island
Tetoff, Sofa, daughter       ..            ..
..
5
99                      99                           • •
Tetoff, Anxemia, daughter (dead)
•.
2
99                      »9                           • •
Kotchergin, Ardotea, daughter
..
17
»                      99                           • •
Torentora, Anna                 ..             ..             ..
72
99                     99                                •
Torentora, Anna, daughter               ..
..
39
99                      99                           • ■
Volkoff, Ellen
..
36
99                     >9                           • •
Krobin, Meria, niece         ..            ..            ..
..
11
99                      99                           • •
Zaeharoff, Kiracha             ..             ..
,,
45
Oonalaska..
Zaeharoff, Emanuel, son    ..             ..            ..
11
..
St. Paul Island
Zaeharoff, Feodosia, daughter
• •
15
99                    9,                        • •
Recapitulation.
Mt
"I
17
Br
«' (
18
M
mt
18
«'(
r>
18
Ci
Ui
18
Total population, July 31, 1890
"  Males—
Adults .. ..
. 5 to 17 years
Under 5 years    ..
Females—
Adults.. ..
5 to 17 years      ..
Under 5 years
213
42
23
12
73
41
22
213 39
^f'\
(M.)—Census St. George Island, Alaska, July 31,1891.
Names.
Lestenkoff, Rev. Inokenty.. ..
Lestenkoff, Elsavta, wife   .. ..
Lestenkoff, Michael, son   .. ...
Lestenkoff, Helena, daughter ..
Lestenkoff, Mary, daughter ..
Lestenkoff, Sarah, daughter ,.
Shankingkoff, Julia, grand-daughter
Lestenkoff, Demetri, widower ..
Lestenkoff, Anna, daughter ..
Murenlieff, Mark, adopted.. ..
Philamonoff, Andronie      .. ..
Philamonoff, Zenvoia, wife ..
Philamonoff, infant .. ..
Galanin, Oelina, widow    .. ..
Galanin, Evan, son .. ..
Prokopief, Peter.. .. ..
Prokopief, Fedosia, wife   .. ..
Prokopief, Apanasia, brother ..
Kezanzaff, Fedosia, widow ..
Kezanzaff, Inokenty, son   .. ..
Kezanzaff, Terafmia, grand-daughter
Onstegoff, Alexa, widower ..
Galaktianoff, Alexander    .. ..   '
Galaktianoff, Oxenia, wife.. ..
Smetzoff, Eustin.. .. ..
Smetzoff, Krestina, wife   .. ..
Smetzoff, Gregorie, son     .. ..
Philamonoff, Eoff, widower ..
Philamonoff, Gregorie, son ..
Philamonoff, Demetria, son ..
Philamonoff, Eogime, daughter ..
Gorokoff, Corinal .. ..
Gorokoff, Katerina, wife   .. ..
Gorokoff, Anna, daughter ..
Galaime, Perfor, brother-in-law
Galaime, Alexander, adopted
Kuliknlieff, Evan .,
Kuliknlieff, Varvara, wife .. ..
Arkoloff, Erdokia, adopted ..
Shane, Raisha, widow       .. ..
Shane, Ouletta, daughter .. ..
Shane, Michael, son .. .,
Morenlieff, Natalia, sister ..
Morenlieff, Nedesda, adopted ..
Oustegoff, Olleta, widow  .. ..
Oustegoff, Simeon, step-son ..
Oustegoff, Agrafena, daughter ..
Oustegoff, Eproxia, daughter ,,
Oustegoff, Michael, son    .. ..
Oustegoff, Sosania, daughter ..
Oustegoff, Peligia, daughter ..
Reganzoff, Peter., . . ..
Reganzoff, Matrona, wife
Reganzoff, Fatiana, daughter ..
Philamonoff, Simeon .. ..
Philamonoff, Eodokia, wife ..
Philamonoff, Efriam, son .. ..
Philamonoff, Imokenty, son ..
Philamonoff, Fedosia, daughter ..
Philamonoff, Audrian        .. ,,
Philamonoff, Parascovia, wife ..
Philamonoff, Peligia .. ..
Malavansky, Mary, widow ..
Malavansky, Meole, son   .. ..
Malavansky, "Wassa, daughter ..
Malavansky, Repseima, daughter
Malavansky, Stepmeda, grand-daughter
Malavansky, Kleopatra, grand-daugher
Malavansky, Peter, son     ,. ..
Nederazoff, Arkenty .. ..
Nederazoff, Eogenia, wife .. ..
Nederazoff, Malima, daughter ..
• »
Age.
Males.
59
17
Females.
55
24
• •
20
• •
13
• •
13
26
• •
9  ,
2
4
• •
23
• •
• •
25
, ,
..
• •
27
8
..
25
« .
%
19
12
. #
# m
46
12
• •
a a
• •
40
• •
39
• •
# m
18
39
# «
• •
38
4
• •
45
• •
17
• •
3
• •
# #
16
34
.»
• •
35
• •
10
16
• •
4
a ,
44
a «
t m
46
m m
4
38
m p
21
2
a a
• •
29
• •
10
• •
28
26
„ #
• •
16
# #
10
5
a#
• •
3
a •
1
44
• •
# #
48
• •
6
40
# #
17
19
• •
15
• •
• •
8
23
a ,
26
# m
2
9 #
54
25
• •
9 9
15
- -
30
• »
10
• •
7
1
• •
38
•>•
..
36
..
16
[295J m
40
Age.
Names.
tjaR^I
Males.
Females.
Nederazoff, Meoli, son      ..
..             ..              . •
12
Muenlieff, Frevonia, widow .
..              ..              .,
m ,
3*6
' Muenlieff,'Joseph, son      ..
..             ..              .
18
• •
Muenlieff, George, son     .. -
..              ..              .
16
a a  "
Muenlieff, Stepenida, daughter
..             ..              . i
a *
13
. Muenlieff, John, son (infant)
. .              ..             .,
a s
a •
Muenlieff, Helena, daughter
..             ..              .
• •
5
Smetzoff, Poloxenia, sister
• •             ..              •,
- .
30
Smetzoff, Frevonia, daughter
..                               .
# #
12
Seeanoff, Stepan..            ..
..              ..              . i
21
fc ,
Seeanoff, Peligia. wife      ..
•.              ..             .,
a v
21
' Seeanoff, son (infant)        ..
..              ..              . i
• •
a a
Merenlioff, Waselesia, widow
•.              ..              .,
# #
38
Merenlioff, Evan, son       ..
..              ..             •,
13
# .
Merenlioff, Alexandra, daughter
..              ...         •,
# #
11
Merenlioff, Eodokia, daughter
..             ..              ..
• •
6
Merenlioff, Helena, daughter
..             ..              .,
• •
3
Merenlioff, Anna (infant) ,.
• •              ..             . •
• •
Recapitulation.
Total population  ..
Males—'■
Adults   ..
5 to 17 years
Under 5 years
.   Females—
' Adults   ..
5 to 17 years
Under 5 years
90
19
10
8
24
19
10
(N.)—List of Accounts transferred to the North American Commercial Company by
the Alaska Commercial Company for the Natives of St. George, May 24,1890.
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. Names.
Amount
Names.
Amount.
Dol.   c.
Dol.   c-
Ivan Kulikuliff      ..            ..            .'.'
58 71
Meoli Maluoansky               ..            ..
187 00
Joseph Merenliff    ,.            ..            ..
70 00
Demetri Testrukoff
265 69
Peter Prokopeef    ..   ■         ..            ..
20 51'
Gregorie Philamanoff         .
7*25
Okelena Galamu, widow       ..
40 00
George Merenliff ..
10 25
Stepan Tekanoff     ..            ..            ..
125 00
Andronie'Philamanoff         .
123 50
Russa Shaen, widow             ..             . -
•61 50
Serafinea Rezanzoff, orphan.
6} 20
Andrean Philamanoff            ..            ..
125 00
Nedesda Muenliff, orphan   .
201 49
Eoff Philamanoff   ..
149 65 ■
Ardokia Kikoliff, orphan   ..
232 69
Mrs. Sebastin Merenliff        ..            ..
146 00
Mark Merenliff, orphan
211 39
Peter Rezanzoff     ..            ..            ..
81 00
Ardokia Popoff    ..            .
74 46
Arkenty Nedarazoff               . •            ..
164 00
Ogefinia Onstigoff, orphan .
18 05
Alex. Galaktonoff ..            ..          '..
128 53
Fedoria Rezanzoff, widow   .
50 00
Simeon Philamanoff              ..
Eustin Swetszoff     ..             ..             ..
166 00
164 00
3,691 87
Mike Testinkoff     ..            ..
10 50'
Natalie Merenliff   ..            ..            ..
60 00
Rey. Irmokenty Testinkoff, priest     ..
1,700 00
Irmokenty Rezanzoff             ..             •.
Mrs. Zachor Onstigoff, widow             ..
95 50
127 50
St George Church             ..            ..
1,394 55
Connil Gorokoff     ..             ..             •>•
Alexia Onstigoff    ..           ..            ..
167 00
163 50
3,094 55
Simeon Onstigoff   ..            ..           ..
125 00
Total
6,786 42 41
North American Commercial Company, San Prancisco, Cal.   Division of proceeds of
Sealing at St. George Island for the Season of 1890.
[4,112 seal-skins at 40 cents, 1,644 dol. 80 c]
First Class.
Lestankoff, Dimetra .,
Nederozoff, Arkenty..
Austekoff, Alexage ..
Philamonoff, Eoff .,
Philamonoff, Simeon.,
Gorokoff, Corneal ..
Swetzoff, Ensten      . j
Malaranski. Meoli    ..
Philamonoff, Andronie
Philamonoff, Andrean
Sekarnoff, Stepan     ..
Kulikoloff, Evan
Rezanzoff, Peter
Onstekoff, Simeon
Merculiff. Joseph
Prpkoploff, Peter
Lestankoff, Mike -
Lestankoff, Rev. Innakentz
Philamonoff, Gregorie
Philamonoff, Ephraim
Merculiff, George     ..
Galanin, Hafara       ..
Rezanzoff, Innakenty
Nederazoff, Meoli    ..
Merculiff, John       ..
•Philamonoff, Innakenty
Total
Second Class.
Third Class.
i. ..
Special Class.
Dol.
c.
85
56
85
56
85
56
85
56
85
56
85
56
85
56
72 72
72
72
72
71
72
71
64
17
64
17
64
17
64
17
64
17
64
17
200
00
25
00
25
00
25
00
25
00
25
00
15
00
15
00'
15
00
Dol. c.
598 92
290 86
385 02
370 00
1,644. 80
List of Natives' Accounts due them by North American Commercial Company.
Names.
Balance Cr.
Names.
Balance Cr.
Dol.   c.
Dol.   c.
Simeon Philamonof.;'         ..
216 56
Ephraim Philamonof          .,           ••
25-00
Alex. Onstegof       ..             ..             .
216 06
Pafara Galanin
25 00
Andrean Philamonof              ..
170 21
Meoli Nedarazof ..            ..
15 00
Andronie Philamonof            ..            .
170 22
John Merculef     ..           ..           .,
15 00
Eof Philamonof     ..           . •
202 21
Innakenty Philamonof        ..             .
15 00
Jos. Merculif          ..           ...
112 17
Rev. Innakenty Lestankof   ..            .,
i;80o oo
Peter Rezanzof      ..           ..        .   .,
123 17
St. George Church               ..            .,
1,294 55
Stepan Sekhanof   ..
170 21
Sebastian Merculif             ,.           ,.
115 00
Peter Prbkopie      ..            ..            .,
64 17
Nadesda Merculif ..             ..
198 49
Simeon Onstegof   ..            .,
166 92
Zahar Onstekof    ..             ,fs
100 00
Uston Swetzof         . .              ..             .,
209 56
Sorapheme Rezanzof          ,.
55 70    .
Arkenta Nedarazof..            ..
..       208 56
Ruse Shane          ..            ..            .
45 00
Corneal Gorokhof   ..         • ..
213 56
Fedosia Rezanzof..             ..
39 00
•Meoli Malaranski   ..
233 72
Okalina Galanin   ..
27 25
Demetra Lcstenkof.. "          ..             .
286 25
Andotia Papoff    ..             ..             ,,
64 46
Mike, Lestenkof      ..             ..             .,
66 67 ■
Eflokie Vickloff   ..
228 19
Gregory Philamonof     .        ..'            .
25 00
Agzafina Onstekof
9 80
George Merculef    ..            ..            . ■
"27 00
Natalia Merculeff..            ..             ..
60 00
Innakenty Rezanzof              ..            .,
98 50
Mark Merculif     ...        ..             .
205 89 •
Evan Kulikoloff     ..            ,.            .,
'102 88
[205]
G 2 35SSS33S333H
42
(0.)—Receipts of Agents Lavender and Murray.
Island of St. Paul, Behring's Sea, Alaska,
August 9, 1890.
This is to certify that 16,874 fur-seal skins, have this day been shipped on board the
steam-ship "Arago," Captain Thomas commanding, and consigned to the North American
Commercial Company of San Francisco.   This being the total catch on St. Paul Island
for the season of 1890.
(Signed) JOSEPH MURRAY,
Assistant Treasury Agent.
Island of St. Paul, Alaska, August 9, 1890.
Received this day on board the steam-ship " Arago," for the North American
Commercial Company of San Francisco, 16,874 fur-seal skins.
(Signed) H. C. THOMAS,
Captain commanding " Arago."
Island of St.
-, Behring's Sea, Alaska,
August 11, 1890.
This is to certify that 4,121 fur-seal skins have this day been shipped on board the
steam-ship "Arago," Captain Thomas commanding, and consigned to the North
American Commercial Companies of San Francisco. This being the total catch on
St. George Island for the season of 1890.
(Signed) ALBERT W. LAVENDER,
Assistant Treasury Agent.
Island of St. George, Alaska, August     , 1890.
Received this day on board the steam-ship "Arago," for the North American
Commercial Company of San Francisco, 4,121 fur-seal skins.
(Signed) H. C. THOMAS,
Captain commanding " Arago."
Washington, D.C., April 29,1890.
In case of absolute necessity, caused by scarcity of natives or otherwise, use best
judgment and discretion in allowing killing seals for skins after the 20th July.
(Signed) W. "WTNDOM, Secretary.
Charles J. Goff,
Treasury Agent, Seal Islands,
(Care Collector of Customs, San Francisco, California).
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(P.)—Protest of George JR. Tingle.
North American Commercial Company, St. Paul Island,
Sir, Alaska, July 18, 18y0.
Tour communication of the 8th instant was received, in which you notify me,
as Superintendent of the Korth American Commercial Company, that said Company
must cease killing seals on the 20th instant. The delay in replying thereto was
with the hope that, as a result of our several verbal discussions of the propriety or
necessity of your order, you would be convinced of the untenable position you have
assumed and revoke the order, thus allowing the lessees to go on with their business
as the law provides. Tour announcement to me this evening that you will not
revoke your order, and that your decision is final, leaves me but one thing more
to do, viz., file this protest against the wisdom, justice, or necessity of enforcing on
the lessees what we consider an arbitrary abridgment of our rights under and by virtue
of the law.
The lease was executed by the Government of the United States in pursuance
of Chapter III, Title 23, Revised Statutes. This Law authorized the Secretary of
the Treasury to prescribe from time to time the Rules and Regulations by i\hich 43
the Treasury Agents in charge of the seal fisheries shall be governed. There is
nowhere in the Law any provision authorizing the Secretary of the Treasury, after
he has fixed upon the number of seals the lessees shall kill in any one year, to cut down
the time to such a date as to make it impossible for them to secure the number allowed
to be taken.
The date you fix, the 20th instant, it is true, was named by the Secretary
of the Treasury on your recommendation, but you received subsequently an order
to extend the time or " use your best judgment." On the receipt of said telegraphic
order the day before our ship sailed, you told the President of the Company, I. Liebes,
and myself, that " it would be all right; it was as good as we wanted," &c, satisfying
the President of the Company and myself that you would extend the time, otherwise
we would not have sailed until we received from the Secretary a postive revocation
of that part of his instructions which cut us off on the 20th from killing seals.
Tou said to-day that seeing that seals were so scarce determined you to stop the
killing on the 20th, and yet you admit of having ordered Colonel Murray, on
St. George Island, the Treasury Agent in charge, to stop our agent there from killing.
This order was issued to Colonel Murray at an early date, before the killing of seals had
hardly commenced, and it was not known whether they would be few or many.
The law says the lessees shall give the natives a maintenance out of the taking
of the sealskins. How can that provision of the law be carried out when the Government
steps in and stops the lessees from killing when they are taking 1,000 seals a-day ? By
the enforcement of your order as the Representatives and Agents of the United
States^ you deprive the natives of a maintenance. Tou deprive the Government of
large revenue. Tou cause the North American Commercial Company great loss. You
turn over to the marauders and other natural enemies of the seals in the water many
thousands of fine killable merchantable seals, which we could take without any detriment
whatever to the rookeries.
We have every reason to believe, from the marked increase of new arrivals
of fine seals, that if we were allowed by you to continue our killing under the law,
we could fill our quota of 60,000 seals. Believing this, we will claim damages from
the Government of the United States equal to the loss we sustained by your act
limiting the time to the 20th instant when we shall cease killing. This limitation
of time has no precedent in the past twenty years, while the quota for St. George and
St. Paul Islands was several times changed. The law fixed the time when the killing
shall cease, but the Secretary can fix the number to be killed each year—not exceeding
100,000.
In view of the foregoing facts, the North American Commercial Company respect*
fully claim the right to be allowed to proceed with the execution of their business under
and by virtue of their lease.
I am, &c.
(Signed) GEO. R. TINGLE, Superintendent,
C. J. Goff, Esq., North American Commercial Company.
Treasury Agent in charge of Seal Fisheries.
Office of Special Agent, Treasury Department,
My dear Sir, St. Paul Island, Alaska, July 19, 1890.
Tour communication hearing date the 18th instant received, and, in reply, will say,
as a subordinate of the Treasury Department, I do not desire to discuss the subject-
matter contained in your letter. I respectfully refer you to the Honourable William
Windom, Secretary of the Treasury, to whom your letter has lteen referred.
Respectfully yours,
(Signed) CHARLES J. GOFF,
Treasury Agent in charge of the Seal Fisheries,.
Hon. George R. Tingle,
General Manager, North American Commercial Company. 4A
(2.)—Table showing Number of Fur-Seals killed for skins on the Island of St. George
by the Alaska Commercial Company, and also for natives' food, from 1870 to 1889,
inclusive; the Amount of Earnings received by the natives of this Island for taking
and curing these skins; also Amount earned by St. George men on St. Paul Island
and the distribution of said earnings; the Total Number of Fur-Seal Skins shipped
from St. George Island by the Alaska Commercial Company from 1870 to 1889,
inclusive.
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G
Total
Paid to Natives
Total
Total
Y
ear.
Fur-seal Skins
for taking and
Fur-seals
shipped
curing Skins.
killed.
rejected stagy.
Dol.      c.
1870*     ..
..
• •          ' leif^S
. .
# #
1871t     ..
19,077
7,630 80
19,077
,#
1872
25,000
10,000 00
25,000
,.
1873
25,000
10,000 00
25,067
67
1874t      ..
10,000
4,000 00.
10,000
, ,
1875§      ..
10,000
4,000 00
10,034
34
1876
10,000
4,000 00
10,279
279
1877
15,000
6,000 00
15,143
143
1878
18,000
7,200 00
18,360
360
1879
20,000
8,000 00
20,316
316
1880
20,000
8,000 00
20,358
275
1881
20,000
8,000 00
20,233
126
1882      ...
20,000
8,000 00
20,316
291
1883
15,000
6,000 00
15,076
• •
1884
15,000
.  6,000 00
15,000
«,
1885
15,000
.   6,000 00
•15,145
120
1886
15,000
6,000 00
15,083
29
1887
15,000
6,000 00
15,166
76
1888
15,000
6,000 00
15,179
113
1889
...
15,000
6,000 00
15,082
40
Total   ..
.
317,077
126,830 80.
319,914'
2,269
Distribution of Nati
es' Earnings for taking and curing Fur-seal Skins.
Years.
St.- George
Earnings
transferred
from
St. Paul.
Received
St. George
Received
by
St. George
Received
by
St. George
Received
by    .
St. George
Aged
and Sick.
Received
by
St. George
Chief     ■
as Salary.
Received
by
Oonalaska
Received
hy
St. Paul
Church.
Priest.
' Widows.
Priest. '
Priest.
Dol.     c.
Dol.     c.
Dol.    -c.
Dol.    c.
Dol.. c.
Dol. >c.
Dol.  p.
Dol.  c
1870*..
•                       • •
■ .'•   '
..
..
.,
• *     ■
1871f
.
•                       ••
..
.    130 00
..
..
..
1872
.        .
•                       • •
• •'
20 00
..
..                     ..
1873 .
.
•                       ••
..
..
'   ..
..
. ..
1874J
,        .
6,000 00
.
..
..
1875f
,        ,
5,600 00
340 00
..
300 00
340 00
1876
_        .
•           • •
160 00
.
,.    •
160 00
160 00
1877
250 00
,
..
250 00
250 00
1878
,
•           ••
300 00
.
..
.,
300 50
1879
•           • •
380 00
.
..
375 00
1880
•           ••
1,000 00
..
...
,.
1881
•           ••
172 00
.
..
..
..
1882
,
•           • •
100 00
700 00
.
..
..
..
1883
•           • •
..
375 00
.    .
..
- 90 00
..
..
1884
,
2.844 85
• •
600 00
.
100 00
..
..
1885
,        ,
3,036 05
..
800 00
.
100 00
..
• ■
1886
► .        <
3,000 00
• •
800 00
100 00
80 00
..
..
1887
,
2,500 00
..
800 00
50 00
.100 00
..
.f
1888
•
1,500 00
..
800 00
..
100 00
..
..
1889
•
1,300 00
••
800 00
250 00
100 00
it
••
T
otal    .
.      25,780 40
2,702 00
5,675 00
450 00
100 00
670 00
710 00
1,425 50
* No* record of seals killed on St. George Island in 1870.
t 19 dol. 25 c. unaccounted for. .
% 15,000 fur-seal skins shipped from St. Paul to St. George and credited to" St. George.
§ 14,000 fur-seal skins shipped from St. Paul to St. George and credited to St. George.
Pi 45
Recapitulation.
.Fur-seals killed for skins on St. George Island by the Alaska Commercial Company, and
for natives' food, from 1870 to 1889, inclusive            ..           ,. ..           ..
Fur-seal skins shipped by the Alaska Commercial Company from St. George Island from
1870 to 1889     ..
Fur-seal skins rejected and stagy           ••            ..            ..            •• ..            ..
Destruction to seal life in securing catch on St. George from 1870 to 1889 ..            «•
Earnings received by natives for labour on-
St. George Island from 1870 to 1889
St. Paul Island „ „
Donations  •• •• •• •• .. •• .. •• •
Unaccounted for        .. .. .. .. .. ,, .. .
Expended by natives from 1870 to 1889 .. .. .. .. .. .,
Balance to natives' account on May 24,1890, and turned over by Alaska Commercial Com.
pany to North American Commercial Company ,, ., ,, .,
319,914.
817,077
2,269
568
319,914
Dol.  c.
126,830 80
25,780 40
152,611 20
11,732 50
19 25
134,073 03
6,786 42
152,611 20
Note.—Total number of fur-seal pups killed for natives' food on St. George Island from 1870 to 1889, inclusive, 29,060,
Consolidated Beport showing the Total Number of Fur-Seals killed for skins on the
Islands of St. Paul and St. George by the Alaska Commercial Company from 1870
to 1889, inclusive; also the Number of large young Seals and Pups killed for
natives' food on the Islands of St. Paul and St. George from 1870 to 1889, inclusive;
the Total Number of Fur-Seal Skins shipped from St. Paul and St. George Islands
by the Alaska Commercial Company from 1870 to 1889, inclusive; the Amount of
Earnings received by the natives of St. Paul and St. George for taking and curing
skins, and the distribution of said earnings.
Fur-seals killed for skins on the Islands of St. Paul and St. George by the Alaska Com.
mercial Company, and also for natives' food, from 1870 to 1889, inclusive .. . •
Fur-seal skins shipped from St. Paul and St. George by the Alaska Commercial Company
'   from 1870 to 1889, inclusive .. .. .. ,. .. ..
Fur-seal skins rejected as stagy at St, Paul and St. George from 1870 to 1889 inclusive ..
Fur-seals destroyed on St. Paul and St. George in securing the catch from 1870 to 1889,
inclusive .. •• .. .. .. . • .. ..
1,877,030
1,840,364
20,398
16,273
1,877,030
Earnings received by natives of St. Paul and St. George from 1870 to 1889, inclusive      ..
Donations by natives of St. Paul and St. George from 1870 to 1839, inclusive	
Paid to Chiefs on St. Paul Island (St. George's is included in donations) ..' ..
Paid to St. George men for work done on St. Paul Island    .. .. .. ..
Paid to Kodaik men for work done on St. Paul Island .. .. .. ..
Unaccounted for        .. .. ... .. .. .. .. ..
Paid to school teacher .. .. .. ..        '.. •• ••
Expended by the natives of St. Paul and St. George from 1870 to 1889, inclusive ..
Balance due to natives May 24, 1890, now held by the North American Commercial Company    •• .. .. •• , • •• .. ., ...
'Balance held by Alaska Commercial Company for Mrs. Melevidoff     .. .. ..
Fur-seal pups (five months old) killed for natives' food on—
St. Paul and St. George Islands from 1870 to 1889, inclusive
St. Paul Island from 1870 to 1689, inclusive
St. George Island from 1870 to 1889, inclusive
Dol. c
755,672 87
50,608 11
3,050 00
25,780 40
680 00
19 25
50 00
643,963 10
28,117 02
3,404 99
755,672 87
92,864
63,804
29,060
92,864
w 46
Table showing the Number of Fur-Seals killed for skins on the Island of St. Paul by
the Alaska Commercial Company, and also for natives' food, from 1870 to 1889,
inclusive; the Amount of Earnings received by the natives of this Island for taking
and curing these skins, and the distribution of said earnings; the Total Number of
Fur-Seal Skins shipped from St. Paul Island by the Alaska Commercial Company
from 1870 to 1889, inclusive.
Total
Paid to Natives
Paid to Natives
Total
Rejected
stagy Skins.
Years.
Fur-seal Skins
for taking and
for
Fur-seals
shipped.
curing Skins.
general Labour.
killed.
Dol.   c.
Dol.  c.
1870   ..
..           .
•            «•
6,017
2,406 "80
, ,
6,017
aa
1871   ..
• •            •
,.
76,134
30,853 60
580 40
77,925
431
1872   ..
99                        •
i.
74,941
30,416 00
221 97
76,698
1,586
1873   ..
• •                         •
•
74,485
29,597 80
76 80
76,488
736
1874    ..
«•                         •
.
89,924
29,849 60
217 53
97,932
596
1875    ..
• «                         •
•
89,687
30,098 00
276 03
91,215
451
1876    ..
• •                         •
,
80,000
31,848 20
113 40
79,199
1,979
1877    ..
• *                         •
.
60,199
23,981 60
146 40
62,813
1,088
1878    ..
• •  '                     •
.
82,000
32,654 00
2,218 38*
83,034
981
1879   ..
• •                         •
.
80,000
31,908 60
1,910 86f
86,592
1,977
1880    ..
• «                         •
.
80,000
31,889 00
215 40
80,276
275
1881J ..
• •                         •
•
79,905
31,825 60
54 00
81,501
1,341
1882    ..
• •                         •
.
80,000
31,750 80
250 50
81,420
1,414
1883    ..
• •                         •
•
60,000
23,896 80
97 00
61,987
1,775
1884    ..
• •                         •
..
85,000
33,785 60
240 00
86,013
941
1885    ..
• •                         •
•
84,995
33,933 00
12 00
86,364
1,182
1886    ..
• «                         •
•
85,000
33,941 80
134 00
85,689
635
1887    ..
• •                         •
,
85,000
33,839 80
203 40
85,629
590
1888   ..
• •                         •
m
85,000
33,834 60
15 60
85,271
196
1889   ..
»•                         •
•
85,000
33,744 80
15 00
85,053
••
Total  ••           ..           •
i            ..
1,523,287
596,056 00
7,005 67
1,557,116
18,124
Distribution of Natives' Earnings for taking and curing Fur-seal Skins.
Received
by
St. Paid
Aged and
Sick*
Received
Received by
Years.
Received
Received
Received
by St. Paul
Received
Received
Received .
St. George
by
by
by
Church for
by
by
by
Men for
St. Paul
St. Paul
St. Paul
translation,
Chiefs
Oonalaska
Oonalaska
Work done
Church.
Priest.
Widows.
of Church
as Salary.
Church.
Priest.
on
Service.
St. Paul.
Dol. c.
Dol. c.
Dol. c.
Dol. c
Dol. c.
Dol. c.
Dol. c.
Dol. c.
Dol. c.
18J0
150 00
..
77 20
,#
..
..
109 30
..
1871
910 16
..
614 82
a .
..
..
455 08§
a«
1872
902 45
451 22
,,
..
..
..
.,
1873
870 62
435 11
. .
..
..
,.
a.
1874
859 06
429 53
, B
'..
..
..
6,000 00||
1875
432 07
432 07
00
..
432 07
..
5,600 00tf
1876
757 12
, a
%#
..
378 40
756 80
1877
621 50
621 48
..
,,
310 74
..
1878
855 78
855 78
50*0 00
, ,
.,
30*0 00
855 78
1879
822 24
821 50
200 00
,a
..
450 00
450 00
..
1880
813 10
813 10
150 05
200 00
1,219 65
450 00
..
..
1881}:
857 66
857 66
, ,
aa
428 83
225 00
.w
.,
1882
..
1,000 00
2,650 00
. ,
..
..
..
..
1883
750 00
50 00
a#
.
225 00
.,
..
1884
1,000 00
300 00
, .
.
300 00
..
..
2,844 35
1885
1,000 00
. .
1,000 00
.
300 00
..
»«
3,036 05
1886
1,000 00
200 00
600 00
,
200 00
..
. .
3,000 00
1887
1,000 00
1,500 00
#a
.
200 00
..
..
2,500 00
1888
1,000 00
150 00
.a
.
200 00
..
..
1,500 00
1889
1,000 00
2,500 00
••
•
200 00
••
••
1,300 00
Total
8,851 76§
13,467 45«
8,892 07
j   1,800 00§
1,648 48§
3,050 00
1,571 21§
2,176 96§
25,780 40
* 1,022 dol. 92 c. received by natives for making oil, under head of general labour.
+ 1,666 dol. 06 c. „ „   . „ „
J 50 dollars received by school teacher.
§ 455 dol. 08 c. received by Dr. Kramer: first-class share.
|| 15,000 skins credited to St. George men for labour; 680 dollars received by men from Kodiak for labour.
1[ 14,000 skins credited to St. George men for labour; 12 dol. 60 c. donated to Antone Melevidoff. 47
Recapitulation.
Fur-seals killed for skins on the Island of St. Paul by the Alaska Commercial Company,
and also for natives'food, from 1870 to 1889, inclusive.. .. •• ..        1,557,116
Fur-seuls killed for skins shipped from St. Paul by the Alaska Commercial Company from
1870tol889
Fur-seal skins from St. Paul rejected, stagy .. .. .. ,. ..
Destruction to seal life on St. Paul Island in securing catch from 1870 to 1889, inclusive..
Fur-seals, of all classes, killed for natives' food on St. Paul Island from 1870 to 1889,
inclusive •• •• .. .. .. .. .. ..
Fur-seals (large young seals) kille.l for natives' food, of which the Alaska Commercial
Company accepted and shipped 62,873 skins .. .. .. .. ••
Fur-seal pups (five months old) kille.l for natives' food from 1870 to 1889       .. «.
Earnings received by natives of St. Paul Island fiom 1870 to 1889, inclusive    ..
Donations received by natives of St. Paul Island    .. .. .. ..
Paid to Chiefs .. •. .. .. .. •■ ..
Paid to St. George men for labour on St. Paul        .. .. .. ■.
Paid to Kodiak men   .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Paid to school teacher .. .. .. .. .. ...
With Alaska Commercial Company for Mrs. Melevidoff        .. ..
Expended by natives from 1870 to 1889..
Balance due to natives May 24, 1890, with North American Commercial Company
Total
1,523,287
18,124
15,705
1,557,116
144,801
80,997
63,804
144,801
Dol.  r.
603,061 67
38,875 61
3,050 00
25,780 40
680 00
50 00
3,404 99
509,890 07
21,330 60
603,061 67
2. Report of S. R. Nettleton.
Dear Sir, St. Paul Island, Alaska, July 31, 1890.
Tbave the honour herewith to submit my annual Report of the condition of affairs
on this island during the time in which I had charge, to wit, from the 23rd September,
1889, the date of your departure, until June of this year, and also to comment briefly
upon the condition of the seal rookeries and hauling-grounds of this island during the
season which closed on the 20th instant.
I have found the natives of this island an exceedingly easy people to govern and
eontrol. The Government Agent in charge, being the sole representative and executive
of the law, is, as you are aware, necessarily brought into very close and intimate relations
with these people, having to do with the minutest details of their everyday life.
My comparatively brief experience in governing them convinces me that a policy of
kindness with firmness, and an appeal to their manhood and womanhood, hold the best
promise of good results, having in view their happiness and their advancement to a higher
and a better civilization.
I believe that it \\ ould be difficult to find anywhere within the jurisdiction of our
Government any people so easy to control, considering that they are kept in enforced
idleness ten months of each year.
I regard their readiness to comply with any and all Rules and Regulations of this
Office for their government as testifying to their manhpod and good citizenship.
In this connection, it affords me great pleasure to report that during the time that
I have had immediate charge there have been but three instances of violation of any
Rule or Regulation. These were mild cases of partial intoxication during their holiday
festivities.
There has been no drunkenness or brawling in the village streets or in the homes of."
the people, not a single breach of the peace.
It is a source of gratification to be able to state that the journals of this Office show
that in this regard the winter just closed presents an exception to those of any of the
preceding twenty years.
The fact is patent that but little advancement has been made by the natives of this-
island towards an intelligent American citizenship during the twenty years that they have
been nominally citizens of the Republic ; that not to exceed 10 per cent, of them, who
during the time mentioned, have attended English schools, speak the English language.
This may be explained by the well-known objection of the parents to their children
learning to speak English, and to the further fact that the services of their Church, the
Greek Catholic, are conducted whollv in the Russian and Aleutian language.
[295] H ssssjaSSa^aa
48
The small advancement made by the pupils in the schools is attributable also in
large measure to the fact, that the schools have been conducted by persons not trained
to the profession of teaching.
It is, in my opinion, to be regretted that the Department, in granting the new lease
of the Seal Islands, did not reserve to itself the employment of the school teachers, who
should hold certificates showing their qualification to teach, at least, the primary branches
in our common schools.
In relation to the condition of the seal rookeries and hauling-grounds of this island,
I do not feel called upon to go into details in view of the full and exhaustive manner in
which the subject is treated in your Report of this year, and also in view of the
forthcoming Report of Professor H. "W. Elliott, who was sent by the Department
especially to examine and report upon the condition of seal life on this and the Island of
St. George.
But I desire to add my testimony to that of my associate as to the deplorable condition of the seal grounds upon this island. The large grass-grown areas of these grounds,
until a comparatively recent period occupied en masse by seals, to be numbered by the
millions, and now wholly deserted, the driving and redriving from all of the hauling-
grounds on this island by the lessees during the present season in their efforts to obtain
their quota, and the meagre results attained, tell, in stronger language than I can
command, the sad story of the very near approach to the entire destruction of seal life
upon this island.
It is hardly worth while for me to attempt to theorize as to the probable cause of
the condition of affairs. I deem it sufficient for me, at this time, to corroborate and, if
possible, to emphasize what you say in your own Report, as to the past, present, and the
threatened future condition of seal life upon these islands.
The present depleted condition of the seal rookeries on this island urgently calls
for prompt action by the Government to save this important industry from immediate
and complete destruction.
I heartily concur with your views expressed in your Annual Report of 1889 in regard
to the killing of pup seals for natives' food. The skins of these pup seals belong to the
natives, to be disposed of by them as they choose, the only restriction imposed being
that they shall not be exchanged for contraband goods. I desire, through you, to call
the attention of the Department to the fact that these pup sealskins, being largely
held by the natives for the purpose of barter for spirituous liquors with the seamen
of any craft that may anchor in these waters, are a source of evil, and only evil, to
the natives. In view of this fact, and also in view of the further fact that the seal
life on this island is rapidly approaching extinction, I respectfully suggest that the
best interests of the natives-and the best interests of the Government will be the
most effectually served by prohibiting the killing in the future of any pup seals for
native food.
Some more economical substitute can, in my judgment, be readily supplied.
I am, &c.
(Signed) S. R. NETTLETON,
Charles J. Goff, Esq., Assistant Treasury Agent.
United Slates' Treasury Agent in charge of Seal Island.
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3. Report of A. W. Lavender.
Office of Special Agent, Treasury Department,
Sir St. George Island, August 25, 1890.
I have the honour to report to you that on the 14th August, and while the United
States' revenue-steamer " Rush " was lying at anchor off our village, a schooner came in
sight close in to the east end of the island. This was at 5-30 p.m. The " Rush " at once
o-ot under way and steamed towards him, and followed him in to the anchorage in front
of the village, where she lay all night between the cutter and the shore. She proved to
be the American schooner " Nettie Martin," Captain Ohlmitz, belonging to Kodiak. She
is about 16 tons measurement, and has a crew of four white men and four Kodiak natives.
She had on board ten sacks of salt and four shot-guns, also two sea-otter boats. The
captain said that he was from Kusoquim, bound to Oonalaska. His papers show that
he had cleared from Kodiak on the 20th June, bound on a trading and coasting
voyage along the coast of Alaska, and for a further excuse he said that he was short 49
of provisions, and the wind had been blowing so long from the south that he must be
supplied.
I did not take any stock in what he said, and would not allow him to come on shore,
and told him that the cutter could supply him with all the provisions he required.
I believed him to be a seal poacher, but there was nothing on board that we could attach.
We were obliged to let him go, for which I have been mad at myself ever since, and as I
had men watching the East Rookery, the only place where he could land upon the island,
I had no fear of his ever going on shore; but early on the morning of the 15th I sent
extra men around the island from Garden Cove to the eastward, and under the high
bluffs at the east end of the island, about 2 miles from East Rookery, they found four
dead cows and four dead pups, also three clubs, one of which was broken. These were
made of drift wood, and two of them had a little flesh upon them. At this time of the
year the cows and pups are scattered along the rocks on most all parts of the sea-shore
of the island, and by chance the boat's crew that landed came upon a few of these, which
they killed, and the schooners, while beating to windward to get into an anchorage
under the high cliffs, came in sight from the cutter, and it is my opinion that
the men on shore got into their boat as soon as they could and went on board the
schooner.
They did not take any seal with them, and had to get out of the scrape the best
they could, which they did to perfection. Had the schooner not been away at the time
the natives brought the clubs into the village, I would have had them caught, but the
schooner and cutter both being gone, I could do nothing but kick. If I again come
across Captain Ohlmitz this far, I will endeavour to make it uncomfortably warm for him.
If he had landed upon East Rookery he would have done some damage. It was blowing
very hard at the time, and I have no doubt but he intended to anchor close under the
cliffs, and go upon the rookery at night and get all the seals he could.
Since that time I have established a watch-house at Garden Cove, and keep two
men there all the time. No vessels can come near the island on either side without
being seen.    There never was a watchman at Garden Cove before.
The seal are very scarce on this island, and in order to get enough for food for the
natives I am obliged to kill seal whose skins will not weigh over 4 "J- to 5£ lbs., and these
the Company will not accept, and I am salting them for Government account, and shall
probably have some 600 or 700. They are all good skins. Please obtain an order from
the Secretary to ship them on one of the first Government vessels going to San Erancisco
the next season. I also request that you obtain permission to purchase a new carpet for
the Government House on this island, as the carpet we now have on the floor is nearly worn
out. Also please obtain from the Department for this island the following seeds: 4 lbs.
good turnip seed, 4 lbs. good lettuce seed, and 4 lbs. good radish seed. I have never
seen vegetables grow better in my life than they do here, and it would surprise you to see
now what a fine bed of lettuce and radishes we have here now. In obtaining the seed,
please get seed that has been grown as far north as possible. The natives of the island
are a much superior race of people to what I expected to find, and I do not anticipate
any trouble here this winter.
I am, &c.
(Signed) A. W. LAVENDER,
Charles J. Goff, Esq., Assistant Treasury Agent.
Treasury Agent, Clarksburgh, Washington, Virginia.
[295]
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4. Report of A. W. Lavender.
Office of Special Agent, Treasury Department,
Sir, St. George Island, October 24, 1890.
I have the honour to report to you that United States' revenue-steamer " Bear "
returned to this island on the 22nd instant from Oonalaska unexpected to us here.
Captain Healy told me that orders had been sent from the Department to watch the
rookeries very close, as there had been two schooners cleared from Victoria for Behring's
Sea, and that they were going to raid these islands. I have not seen a schooner around
here since I last wrote you, nor do 1 think that there is a single schooner taking seals in
Behring's Sea at this writing, and unless they come within the next two weeks there will
not be any seal upon the rookeries for them to kill. I have again to request you to do
your best to obtain arms and ammunition for these islands, and hope that you will be
able to secure them, for without them the rookeries cannot be protected in a proper
manner. The old rifles that answered for the protection of the rookeries belong to the
uatives, and are of but little use. In addition to the five rifles owned by the natives, the
Company has found small Colt's rifles and one large Sharp's, with very little ammunition
for any of them.
We have had three deaths here this last week, all three females. At this writing
every adult native on this island is either sick in bed or convalescent. Both church and
school have been closed for the last two weeks, and I have been obliged to have boys
only on guard at the rookeries. I think that the worst is now over, and do not apprehend
that we shall have more deaths. There has not been any sickness among the white men
up to this date, and everything upon the island is going along smoothly. On account of
so much sickness, I have been obliged to issue coal to the natives sooner than I should
have done under more favourable conditions, for these people must be provided with
more fuel now that the catch of seal is so small they cannot secure near blubber enough,
with what little drift wood they can collect, to last them through the winter, and to
purchase coal from the Company at 30 dollars per ton of 2,000 lbs. is more than they can
-stand out of their earnings for killing seal. Their houses are small, with only two rooms
each, and with a large family to be all sick at one time is almost certain death with
■nothing more to keep them warm than the few pounds of coal furnished them by Government, and the little water-soaked drift wood that they have been able to pick up around the
island and bring home on their backs, for they have no other means of transportation;
the fact is that the only places that drift wood can land upon this island is at the breeding
rookeries, where they are not allowed to go during the season when the seals are there,
and it is my opinion that these islands will soon be depopulated unless the Government
comes to their rescue, for the few seal they will be able to kill here the next few years
will not keep them from suffering.
Of Captain Healy, of the " Bear,'' and Captain CalsOn, of the " Rush," I cannot
-speak but in the highest terms.     These gentlemen have been very courteous and
obliging to the Government officers in charge of these islands, and have also extended
all possible favours to the Company agents when it was not  interfering with their
instructions.
The weather here the past month has been very bad, and we have had three very
\heavy gales of wind, so that I cannot think it possible that a schooner should stop in
Behring's Sea at this season of the year.
But I do think that they will follow the seal into this sea very early in the spring.
As the seal begins to come upon the rookeries the last of April, I think the schooner will
follow them very close. I would suggest that you place this letter before the Secretary,
as well as my letters to you under the following dates, 14th August, 10th September, and
1st October, that he may know the true state of affairs upon this island. -
Very respectfully, &c.
(Signed) ALBERT W. LAVENDER,
■Charles J. Goff, Assistant Treasury Agent*-
Treasury Agent, Clarksburgh, Washington, Virginia.
Pi ;u
5. Report of A. W. Lavender.
Office of Special Agent, Treasury Department,
Sir. St*. George Island, October 30, 1890.
I have the honour to report to you that the United States' revenue-cutter " Bear "
is still in these waters, and at this writing is lying at anchor at Zapadine.
We have not seen but one schooner since the 18th ultimo, and that was the whaling-
schooner "Alton," which anchored at Garden Cove to secure brine boats previous to
leaving these waters for San Francisco. The only enemy the seal and seal-pups have
around these islands now is the kitten whales, which are in large schools destroying pups
in large numbers.
We have had very severe weather here most all the year, and I cannot think it •
possible that there is a sealing-schooner on Behring's Sea at this time.
The natives are most all on the improve, and we have only had one death since I
lastr wrote you, and that was a young girl of 11 years old, and she died with scrofula and
general debility.
The natives on these islands must have more fur3, or they will suffer' next season
much more than" they will this, as most of them have a little money to purchase wood,
three sticks for 60 cents. They should have at least 70 tons of coal for this island
alone; drift, wood is very scarce, and they have no blubber this season.
The Secretary, in his instructions, should say how many rations are to be furnished
to the widows and orphans on this island for every week in the year, and this also should
be left in the bands of the officers in charge.
The ssal are nearly all gone from the rookeries now, and it is almost impossible to
get enough for native food.
I shall have about 600 rejected skins here in the spring, for which please get orders
to ship on one of the first ships that goes down.
The Company will not take skins less than 6^ lbs., which is the cause of my having
so many rejected. In order to get enough for food, I have been obliged to kill small
seal.
I hope that you will be able to secure arms and ammunition for these islands, as
they are needed here very badly, I will assure you.
If-it is possible to change the school system here, it should be done, as the schools
here now are only a farce, and I think if they were put under the charge of the
Rev. Sheldon Jackson that it would be a big improvement; in fact, there could be no
change that would.not be for the better.
It looks strange to me that after twenty years' teaching that there is not a single
one of the scholars on this island that can speak English, and most of them have no
knowledge of the world outside of these islands.   Hoping to see you up here early the
coming season.
(Signed)
Charles J. Goff, Esq.,
Treasury Agent, Clarksburgh, Washington.
ALBERT W. LAVENDER,
Assistant Treasury Agent.
6. Report of A. W. Lavender.
My dear Sir, Oonalaska, March 19, 1890 .
I am in receipt of yours of this date, asking me to visit the condemned schooner
now lying near the head of this harbour, and to make you a Report as to the valiiatio11
of each one when new, also the present condition and valuation of each one as they now
remain ; and, in reply to same, I will say that upon receipt of yours of even date I went
at orice on board the steam-schooner " Thornton," of Victoria, British Columbia, and
found her to be a small steam-schooner of about 45 tons measurement, built of soft wood,
mostly Oregon pine, her engines about eight-horse power, her bottom yellow metalled;
all her running gear was down in her hold among iron rust and dirty water, and of no
value whatever. I did not find any sails on board, her anchors and chains are both
attached to her, but are very light and rusty, most of her small spars are gone. I should
think, when new, that 7,000 dollars would be a fair price for her, including her engines
and all other accoutrements, ready for sea. Her present value is nothing more than her
old rigging and metal would sell for, less freight and expenses, and 200 dollars would be
a good price for her.
From the "Thornton " I went on board the schooner " Carolina," of Victoria, British 52
Columbia, and found her to be a small keel vessel of about 32 tons. The running gear
was all down in the hold among iron rust and sea water, and is of no earthly use;
her main boom and gaff and boom to the jib were all the small spars I could find
belonging to her, only one small anchor and chain was on board, which is covered with
rust, and is very small and of little value; her standing rigging is of wire, and, 1 should
say, that when new and ready for sea that her cost would not exceed 2,500 dollaVs at the
outside. I did not see any of her sails on board. The present valuation is nothing more
than she would sell for as firewood, and 25 dollars is more than I would be willing to
pay, and more, in my opinion, than the Government will ever receive-for her. She is.
built of soft wood, mostly Oregon pine.
From the " Carolina" I went on board the "Angel Dolly," of San Francesco, and
found her to be a small centre-board schooner of about 40 tons measurement. The main
masthead was broken off, the standing rigging is of wire. The running gear was down
in the hold, and in the same condition as that on the " Carolina " and " Thornton; " all
her small spars are on board, both anchors and chains are attached. There were none'of
her sails on board. She probably cost when new 3,000 dollars all ready for sea; her
present value is very little, and 100 dollars would be a good price for her .as she now lies.
She is also built of soft wood. The water rises and falls in her and in all the others as
the tide ebbs and flows. I understand that her sails are in the Government warehouse
here, also three of her boats.
From the "Angel Dolly'' I visited the schooner "'Onward," of Victoria, British
Columbia, and found her to be a small two-masted schooner of about 85 tpns, with hemp
rope standing rigging ; her small spars are on board, both anchors attached and in fair
condition ; her running gear was«down in the hold, and worthless as the rigging of the
other three schooners; there were none of her sails to be found on board. I should say
that this schooner, was built in Nova Scotia; she is made mostly of soft wood, principally
pine, and when new was a fine little vessel, and probably cost ready for *sea about
4,500 to 5,000 dollars. At the present time she is almost worthless, and I do not think
that she would sell for more than 200 dollars, although she could be made, w,ith about
1,000 dollars paid out in repairs, a vessel that would sell for about 2,500 dollars, provided
her sails are in good condition. I also found nine canoes on the shore near the schooner
which belongs to some of them, but, like the vessels, have gone to ruin through want of*
care. Should you require a more detailed Report than this please let me know, and on
my return to Oonalaska I will be pleased to make it for you; and in the meantime I
remain, &c.
(Signed) ALBERT W. LAVENDER,
Charles J. Goff, Esq., Assistant Treasury Agent.
Chief Treasury Agent, Seal Islands.
No. 2.
Sir J. Pauncefote to the Marquis of Salisbury.-—(Received May 21.)
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My Lord, Washington, May 11,. 1891.
WITH reference to my telegram of yesterday, I have the honour to inclose an
extract from the Cleveland "News and Herald" of the 4 th instant, purporting to give
the full text of Professor Elliott's Report to the Secretary of the Treasury, Sated the
17th November last, on the condition of seal life at the Pribyloff Islands during the
summer of 1890.
Your Lordship will remember that Professor Elliott was appointed Special Commissioner for the purposes of the above inquiry by Act of Congress, and that, as stated in
my despatch of the 20th February last, his Report was not included among those of the-
other Government Agents which were transmitted to the Senate by the Secretary of
the Treasury on the 9th February.    It has not been yet officially published.
I am informed that the document published in the inclosed extract from the
Cleveland " News and Herald " is incorrectly styled Professor Elliott's Report, and that it
is only the introduction to his Report in the form of a letter to the 'Secretary of the
Treasury.
The Report itself is a much more voluminous document, but the introduction gives
its substance and its recommendations..
I have, &c. '■*-%
-..•■■ i&t .    (Signed) JULIAN PAUNCEFOTE. 53
Inclosure in No. &.. •■
Extract from the'"1 Cleveland Leader and Morning Herald" of May 4, 1891.
Special Despatch to the " Leader."
Washington, May 8,1891.
THE negotiations between Secretary Blaine and the British Minister for the settlement of the Behring's Sea troubles are likely to be resumed as soon as the " Sayward"
ease, taken into the United States' Supreme Court from the District Court of Alaska, is
disposed of. Mr. Blaine is now in possession of exact and reliable information as to the
condition of the sealing industry not at his disposal before, and which cannot fail
to impress the British Minister, Lord Salisbury, and everybody else, with the necessity
of an immediate enforcement of the policy adopted by our Government in seeking to
prevent the killing of seal in the open waters of Behring's Sea. The information
referred to shows a good deal more than that. It shows, what was perhaps unexpected,
that the threatened extermination of the seal is due in large part to the legalized
driving and killing on land by the lessees of the sealing grounds, which must also
be suspended if seal life is to be preserved. With these facts established by evidence
that no one can dispute, there ought to be no great difficulty in effecting an agreement
between the United States and Great Britain for the immediate prohibition of any seal-
killing by anybody the coming season, and a subsequent arrangement that will avoid any
further conflict over this question.
When the "Sayward" case was appealed to the United States' Supreme Court,
the negotiations were in what appeared to he a confused and unsatisfactory state.
Sir Julian Pauncefote had embarrassed Mr. Blaine by quoting President Cleveland's
Special.Agent at the sealing grounds, Mr. George R. Tingle, who affirmed before
a Committee of Congress that the seal was increasing in number, and that the rookeries
the
were never in better condition; and Mr. Blaine was dilating at lengtn upon
historical .rights of the United States in Behring's Sea. But he was quietly doing
a good deal more than that. He was having the actual condition of affairs at
the sealing grounds thoroughly investigated by Professor Henry W. Elliott, of the
Smithsonian Institution, a Special Commissioner appointed in pursuance of the Act
of Congress approved on the 5th Aprih 1890, who is the best living authority on
seal life; so that he might be able to demonstrate the falsity, or gross inaccuracy,
of. Mr. Tingle's testimony, which could not be refuted in any other way.
Following is Professor Elliott's Report, submitted to the late Secretary Windom, in
November last, and which is now made public:—
Hon* William Windom, Secretary of the Treasury.
Sir,        . Cleveland, Ohio, November 17, 1890.
On the 7 th April last I received from your hands my appointment as the Special
Agent created in Act of Congress, approved the 5th April, 1890 : this Act orders and
provides for a thorough examination into the present status of the fur-seal industry of
our Government as embodied on the seal islands of Alaska, so as to make known its
relative condition now as compared with its prior form and well-being in 1872, and for
other kindred lines of inquiry.
I may as well frankly confess at the outset that I was wholly unaware of the extraordinary state of affairs which stared me in the face at the moment of my first landing
•last May, on the seal islands of Alaska.    I embarked upon this mission with only a faint
apprehension of viewing anything more than a decided diminution  of the Pribyloff
' rookeries, paused by pelagic sealing during the last five or six years.
But from the moment of my landing at St. Paul's Island on the 21st May last until
the close of the breeding season those famous " rookeries " and " hauling grounds " of
the fur-seal thereon, and of St. George's Island, too, began to declare and have declared
to. my astonished senses the fact, that their utter ruin and extermination is only a
question of a few short years from date unless prompt and thorough measures of relief
and protection are at once ordered on sea and on land by the Treasury Department and
enforced by it.
Quickly realizing, after my arrival upon these islands, that a remarkable change
for the worse had taken place since my finished work of 1874 was given to the public in
that same year and the year also of my last survey of these rookeries, I took the field at 54
°nce, carrying hourly and daily with me a series of note books opened under following
heads:—
1. The "/ookeries," their area, position, and condition, in 1872, 1874-90.
2. The "Wiling grounds," their appearance in 1872, 1874-90.
3. The method of " driving " and taking fur-seals in 1872,1874-90.
4. The selection of skins, grade, and supply, in 1872, 1874-90.
5. Character, condition, and number of natives in 1872,1874-90.
6. Conduct of native labour and pay in 1872, 1874-90.
To these heads I add the following sections in their order as mentioned, thus
constituting the full body of my Report, which is preceded by this letter of traus-
missal:—
7. The protection and preservation of these fur-bearing interests of our Government
on the Pribyloff Islands, the immediate action necessary, viewed in the full light of
existing danger.
8. Appendix,, in which the author's daily field notes appear, verbatim et literatim, in.
order of day and date.
9. Revised general Maps of St. Paul and St. George, showing the area and position
of the hauling grounds of the fur-seal thereon in 1872-74, and again in 1890.
10. A series of special Maps showing the exact topography, area, and position of
the breeding rookeries of St. Paul and St. George Islands in 1872-74, and again in 1890,
together with an illustration of each rookery drawn from life by the author.
Although I was unable to detect any sign of existing danger or injury to these
interests of owe Government on these Islands of Pribyloff in 1872-74, yet the need of
caution on the part of the Agents of the Government and their close annual scrutiny was
and
urged
in my published work of 1874* in the following language
pointed out
(pp. 76-77)
" Until my arrival on the seal islands, April 1872, no steps had been taken towards
ascertaining the extent or the importance of these interests of the Government by either
the Treasury Agent in charge or the agent of the Company leasing the islands. This
was a matter of no especial concern to the latter, but was of the first importance to the
Government. It had, however, failed to obtain definite knowledge upon the subject on
account of the inaccurate mode ot ascertaining the number of seals which had been
adopted by its agent, who relied upon an assumption of the area of the breeding
' rookeries,' but who never took the trouble to ascertain the area and position of these
great seal grounds intrusted to his care.
" After a careful study of the subject during two whole seasons, and a thorough
review of it during this season of 1874, in company with my associate, Lieutenant
Maynard, I propose to show plainly and in sequence the steps which have led me to a
solution of the question as to the number of fur-seals on the Pribyloff Islands, together
with the determination of means by which the Agent of the Government will be able to
correctly report upon the condition of the seal-life from year to year.
" At the close of my investigation for the season of 1872, the fact became evident
that the breeding seals obeyed implicitly a fine instinctive law of distribution, so that
the breeding ground occupied by them was always covered by seals in an exact ratio,
greater or less to the area to be held; that they always covered the ground evenly,
never crowding in at one place and scattering out at another; that the seals lay just as
thickly together where the rookery was a small one of only a few thousand.as at-'Nah
Speel,' near the village, as they did where a million of them came together, as at Northeast Point.
" This fact being determined, it is at once plain that, just as the breeding grounds of
the fur-seal on these islands expand or contract in area from their present dimensions, so
the seals will have increased or diminished.
" Impressed, therefore, with the necessity and the importance of obtaining the exact
area and position of these breeding grounds, 1 surveyed them in 1872-73 for that purpose,'
and resurveyed them this season of 1874. The result has been carefully drawn and plotted
out, as presented in the accompanying Maps.
" The time for taking these boundaries of the rookeries is during the week of their
greatest expansion, or when they are as full as they are to be for the season, and before
the regular system of compact even organization breaks up, the seals then scattering out
in pods or' clusters, straying far back, the same number covering then twice as much
ground in places as they did before, when marshalled on the rookery ground proper ; the
breeding seals remain on the rookery perfectly quiet, and en masse, for a week or ten
* A Report upon the Condition of Affairs in the Territory of Alaska, by Henry W. Elliott, Special Agent,
Treasury Department.    Government Printing Office, 1875.    (Pp 277-80^ 85
days' during the period of greatest expansion, which is between the 10th and 20th July,
giving ample time for the agent to correctly note the exact boundaries of the area
covered by them; This step on the part of the Government officer puts him in possession
every year of exact data upon which to base a Report as to the condition of the seal-life
as compared with the year or years previous. In this way my record of the precise
area and position of the fur-seal breeding grounds on St. Paul's Island in the season
of 1872, and that of St. George in the season of 1873, correctly serves as a definite
basis for all time to come upon which to found authoritative Reports from year to year
as to any change, increase, or diminution of the seal life. It is, therefore, very
important that the Government should have an Agent in charge of these novel and
valuable interests, who is capable, by virtue of education and energy, to correctly observe
and report the area and position of the rookeries year by year."
Therefore, in the light of the foregoing you will observe that, although I was unable
to detect myself any danger to or diminution of the seal life on the Pribyloff Islands after
three seasons of close study in the field, ending with the season of 1874, yet I was deeply
impressed with the need of an intelligent careful search every year for the signs of or
real existence of such danger, that I urged the Department to select men who were fit
to make such a search, and who could be trusted to do it honestly and thoroughly. I
made this request on the 16th November, 1874, as I gave in my detailed Report above
cited to the Secretary of the Treasury, who ordered it to be published at once, and caused
it to be widely circulated by the Department,
In 1872-74,1 observed that all the young male seals needed for the annual quota of
75,000, or 90,000 as it was ordered in the latter year, were easily obtained every season,
between the 1st June and the 20th July following, from the " hauling grounds" of
Tolstoi, Sukannon, and Zoltoi Sands, from these' hauling grounds adjacent to the
rookeries or breeding grounds of Tolstoi, Sukannon, Reef, and Garbotch, all of these
points to supply being not more than 1£ miles distant from the St. Paul village killing
grounds, the Zoltoi drive being less than 600 feet away. <
At North-east Point on; this island Webster got all the seals desired towards filling
the above-cited quota of 90,000 from that sand-reach between the foot of Cross Hill and
the Big Lake sand drives on the north-shore beach.
Then, that immense spread of hauling grounds covered by swarms of young male
seals, at Zapodnie, at South-west Point, at English_ Bay beyond Middle Hill west, at
Polavina, and over all that 8 long miles of beach and upland hauling 'grounds between
Sukannon Bay and Webster's House at Novostoshnoh—all of this extensive sealing area
was not visited by sealing gangs, or spoken of by them as necessary to be driven
from.
. Therefore, when attentively studying in 1872-74 the subject of what ,was the
effect of killing annually 100,000 young male seals on these islands.(90,000 on St. Paul
and. 10,000 on St. George), in view of the' foregoing statement of fact, I was unable to
see how any harm was being done to the regular supply of fresh blood for the breeding
rookeries, since those large reservoirs of surplus male life, above named, held at least
just half of the young male seal-life then belonging to the islands: these large sources
of supply wei» never driven from—never even visited by the sealers*, and 0ut of their
overwhelming abundance, I thought that surely enough fresh male seal-life did annually
mature for service on the breeding rookeries.
Therefore, when summing up in my published work of 1872-74, I was positive
in declaring that although I was firmly convinced that no increase to the then existing
number of seals on these islands would follow any effort that we might make (giving my
reasons in detail for so believing), yet I was as firmly satisfied that as matters were then
conducted, nothing was being done which would injure the regular annual supply of male
life necessary for the full demand of the rookeries. I then declared " that provided
matters are conducted on the seal island in the future as they are to-day, 100,000 male
seals under the age of 5 years and over 1 may be safely taken every year from
the Pribyloff Islands without the slightest injury to the regular birth rates, or natural
increase thereon, provided also that the fur-seals are not visited by any plague, or pests,
or any abnormal cause for their, destruction, which might be beyond the control of
men."    (" Monograph of the Seal Islands of Alaska," p. 62.)
I repeatedly called attention to this fact in my published Report, that all of the
killable seals required were easily taken in thirty working days, between the 14th June
and the 20th July in every year, from those points above specified, and that those
reservoirs of surplus male life at South-west Point, Zapodnie, English Bay, Polavina,
Tonkie Mees, &c, were full and overflowing, that more than enough was untouched which
sufficed to meet the demands of nature on the breeding grounds. But to make certain
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that my thllflywttl a good iHnlj 8nd Would be confirmed by time, for I qualified my
statement at tftilt time" as a theory only; I made a careful and elaborate triangulation of
the area find position1 of tfife breeding grounds in 1872-178 on St. Paul and St; George
tslandS; aided and elaborated by My associate in 1874, Lieutenant. Washburn Maynard,
United StateS' ha/H> I tHis I did in order that any increase or diminutitin following our
wbrfc could be authoritatively stated—that a foundation of fact and not assumption
should texiSTfb'tfeuch a comparison of the past order with that of the present or the future.
Sixteen years have elapsed sititee that work was finished; its accuracy as to the statements of fact then pdblished was at that time unquestioned on these islands, and it is
to-da^r freely acknowledged there J but, what Has been the logic of events ? Why is it
that w8 flnH' how only a scant tenth of the numbers of young male seals which I saw
there in 1872? When did this work of decrease and destruction, so marked on the
breeo'ibg grounds there, begin, and how ?   This answer follows:—
" I. From overdrivfeig without heeding its Warning first begun in 1879, dropped then
jmtil 1882, then suddenly renewed again with increased energy from year to year} until
tHe tend is abruptly reached, this Season of 1890. m}
" 2. From the Shooting of fur-seals (chiefly females) in the open waters of the North
Pacifife Ocean anft Behring's Sea begun as a business in 1886, and continued to date."
Thus" the seal-life candle has been literally " Burning at both ends " during the last
five years.
That day in 1879 when it became necessary to send a sealing gang from St. Paul
village' bVer to Zapodnie to regularly drive from that hitherto untouched reserve
was t^e1 flay that danger first appeared in tangible form since 1870—since 1857) for that
matter.
The fact then that that abundant source of supply, which had served so well and
steadily sihcc 1870-81'. should fail to yield its accustomed return to the drivers— hat
fact ought to have aroused Some comment—ought then to have been recorded by the
officer in charge in behalf of the Government at the close of the season's work in 1882,
but it did not; possibly, the gravity of the change was not then fully appreciated by the
sealers themselves', eitHw through ignorance or inattention.
But, when in 1882 it became absolutely necessary to draw from that time* on until
the end of the present season, heavier and repeatedly, upon these hitherto untouched sources
of supply for the rookeries, in order to get the customary annual quota—at that time
that fact, that Stating change from the prosperous and healthy precedent and record of
1870-81, should, have been—it was ample warning of danger ahead^ it seems, however,
IB have been entirely ignored—to have fallen upon inattentive or incapable minds; ftj*
not until the Report for 1889 from the Agent of the Government in charge, who went up
fif the spring Of that y*ear; for hi& firSl Season of service and experience—not until his
Report came flrjwn td the Treasury Department has there been the slightest intimation
in the annual declarations of the Officers of the Government of the least diminution or
decrease of Sefti-life on these islands since my work of 1874 was finished and given to
th6 world.
On tile bdntrairy} Strange 8s it may seem, all the Treasury Agents since 1879 havej
whenever they have" Spoken at all, each vied with the other in their laudation of the
rtBplen'did conditidh bf the rookeries;" "fully up to their beBt standard," &c, and one
Report in 1886 and 1887 declares a vast increase over the large figures which I published
Id' 187*5-7*, which is again reifaSrated by the same officer in 1888.
But how cd"Ald theSd gentlemen reconcile their statements with that remarkable
evidence of tn& tlecteaSe ih Biipply of young males from the records made and before
them—staring them in the face—of 1872—74P When they saw and daily recorded the
fact that stealing gangs were being daily steht out from the village, miles and miles away
to hitherto undisturbed neKfe, for killable seals—the regular customary hauling grounds,
then at the point bf exhaustion, from which an abundant supply had been easily secured
during the last thirty years, and grass growing all over the hauling grounds of 1871,
hbw-, indeed, did that fact escape their attention ? It did, however; it was utterly
ignored.
I can Bee now1, tti the light Of the record of the work of sixteen consecutive years of
sealing, very clearly one or two points which were wholly invisible to my sight in 1872-74.
I can now s'ee What that effect of driving overland is opon the physical well-being of a
normal fur-seal, and; upon that sight, feel warranted ih taking the following ground.
The least reflection will declare to an observer that, while a fur-seal moves easier on
land, and freer than any or all other seals, yet, at the same time, it is an unusual and
laborious effort, even when it is voluntary; therefore, when thousands of young male
seals are suddenly aroused to their utmost power of land locomotion, over rough, sharp
[XEMOSB 57
rocks, rolling clinker-stones, deep loose sand, mossy tussocks, and other equally severe
impedimenta, they in their fright exert themselves most violently, crowd in confused
sweltering heaps one upon the other, so that many are often " smothered " to death; and,
in this manner of most extraordinary effort, to be urged along over stretches of unbroken
miles, they are obliged to use muscles and nerves that nature never intended them to
use, and which are not fitted for the action.
This prolonged, sudden, and unusual effort, unnatural and violent strain, must leave
a lasting mark upon the physical condition of every seal thus driven, and then suffered to
escape from the clubbed pods on the killing grounds; raey are alternately heated to the
point of suffocation, gasping, panting, allowed to cool down at intervals, then abruptly
started up on the road for a fresh renewal of this heating as they lunge, shamble, an*d.
creep along. When they arrive on the killing grounds, after four or five hours of this
distressing effort on their part, they are then suddenly cooled off for the last time prior
to the final ordeal of clubbing; then when driven up into the last surround or " pod," if
the seals are spared from cause of being unfit to take, too big or too little, bitten, &c,
they are permitted to go off from the killing ground-back to file sea, outwardly unhurt,
most of them; but I am now satisfied that they sustain in a vast majority of cases
internal injuries of greater or less degree, that remain to work physical disability or
death thereafter to nearly every seal thus released, and certain destruction of its virijMly
and courage necessary for a station on the rookery even if it ean possibly run the
gauntlet of driving throughout every sealing season for five or six consecutive years;
driven over and over again as it is during each one of these sealing seasons.
Therefore, it now appears plain to me that those young male fuf-seals which may
happen to survive this terrible strain of seven years Of driving overland are rendered by
this act of driving wholly worthless for breeding purposes—they never go to the breeding
grounds and take up stations there, being utterly demoralized in spirit and in body.
With this knowledge, then, the full effect of " driving " becomes apparent, and that
result of slowly but surely robbing the rookeries of a full and sustained supply of fresh
young male blood, demanded by Nature imperatively, for their support up to the
standard of full expansion (such as I recorded in 1872-74),—that result began, it now
seems clear, to set in from the beginning, twenty years ago, under the present system.
Had, however, a check been as slowly and steadily applied: to that " driving " as it
progressed in 1879-82 upon those great reserves of Zapodnie, South-west Point, and
Polavina, then the present condition of exhaustion, complete exhaustion of the surplus
supply of young male seals, would not be observed—it would not have happened.
But, however, no attention was given whatever to the fact that in 1882 the reserves
were suddenly, very suddenly, drawn upon, steadily and heavily for the first time, in
order that a prompt filling of the usual annual quota should be made before or by the
usual time of closing the sealing season for the year, viz., 20th July; and until the Report
for 1889, above cited, of the Treasury Agent in charge, came into the Treasury Department, not a suggestion ever had been made in official writing, from 1872-74 to that
hour, of the slightest prospect even of the amazing diminution of seal-life which is now
so painfully apparent.
Naturally enough, being so long away from the field, on reading Mr. Charles J.
Goff's Report for the season's work of 1889,1 at once jumped to the conclusion that the
pelagic sealing, the poaching of 1886-88, was the sole cause for that shrinkage which he
declared manifest on those rookeries and hauling grounds of the Pribyloff Islands—such
a great shrinkage as to warrant him in the declaration which he makes in that Report,
that he believes that not over 60,000 young male seals can be secured here in 1890, and
if more can be, that they should not be taken.
Still, even then, charging it in this manner all to the poachers was not quite satisfactory to my mind. I could figure out from the known number of skins which these
hunters had placed on the market a statement of the loss and damage to the rookerieB
 to the females and young, born and unborn, for that is the class from which the
poacher secures 85 per cent, of his catch; and I was prepared to find hy these figures
that the breeding grounds had lost heavily, but that did not even then satisfy me as to
his statement, which came so suddenly in 1889, that little more than half of the
established annual quota of 100,000 hollenschickie suitable forkilling could or would be
secured here in 1890; for, great as my estimated shrinkage on the breeding grounds
was due to the work of the poachers, yet that would not, could not, explain to my mind
the nine-fold greater shrinkage of that supply from the hauling grounds which must
exist, or else 60,000 young males might be easily taken, judging from my notes of such
work in 1872. Therefore, I landed here much confused in thought as to what I should
observe.
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I began at once, and finished by the 9th June, an entire new topographical, survey
and triangulation of the landed area of the seven rookeries of the St. Paul's Island
and those of the St. George Island on the 19th and 20th July, so as to have these
charts ready for instant use when the time came in which to observe the full form and
number of the breeding seals as they laid upon this ground, viz., 10th to 20th July
inclusive; thereafter until the closing of the season on St. Paul, 19th July, and on
St. George up to 4th August, 1 have daily recorded the full details of the hauling, the
driving, and the killing of seals there, the condition of the breeding animals, their
arrival and behaviour, &c. A thousand varied incidents have been faithfully observed,
as my field notes will testify, and which appear in all their detail in the following
Appendix to this Report.
The present condition of these fur-seal preservers is nothing new to the history of
their case while in the hands of the Russians. Twice before, in the comparatively short
period of a century since they were first opened to the cupidity of man, have they been
threatened with the same ruin that threatened them to-day; in 1806 and 1807 all
killing was stopped to save them, but resumed again in 1808—too soon; for, after
seventeen years of continual adoption of half-way measures, the full and necessary term
of rest was given to them in 1834; the story of this "Zapooska" of the Russians in
1834, and the causes which led them to the threatened extermination of those fur-
seal interests on the Pribyloff Islands, is one that is now timely in its repetition, and
should be heeded.
When these islands were first discovered, in 1786-87, an indiscriminate rush was
made to them by the representatives of every Russian trading organization then in
Alaska—by every one then able to fit out a vessel and hire a number of men. These
eager, greedy parties located on and near all of the large rookeries and hauling grounds,
and killed as many as they could handle ; in those days all the skins were air-dried and
not salted, and that made the work of sealing then far slower and much more difficult than
itis now, since the present system of salting skins practically' offers no delay whatever
to the work of killing and skinning. In my mind, there is no doubt but that this inability
to cure rapidly the skins for shipment in 1786-1805, as fast as they could then be killed
and skinned—not one-tenth as fast as they can be to-day,—that this delay alone saved
the Pribyloff rookeries from utter extermination in those early days. Certainly it was
and must have been the cause, for at least thirteen different trading organizations had
theiriivessels and their men around, and on these two islands of St. Paul and St. George
engaged to their utmost ability throughout full seventeen years in unbroken snccession
in taking fur seal-skins. -
Had these early Russian fur hunters then possessed the knowledge and means of
curing skins in salt that we now have, together with those appliances in use to-day on
the seal islands of Alaska, I am well satisfied in my own mind that they would have
killed every fur-seal that remained to show itself in less than three years after they began
operations—that they would have swept every animal from these grounds, long, long
before the old Russian America Company assumed autocratic control of these interests
in 1799, and all Alaska as well.
But fortunately for us,, and the world as well, they did not know anything about
curing skins in. saltr—they had but one method, and that was to stretch out the green
skins and air-dry them upon frames in long low-drying houses, or in bright weather
during August, September, and October to peg them out upon the ground.
Thus, this tedious process in a climate as damp, foggy, and stormy as is that
peculiar to the seal islands of Alaska made these Slavonian sealers spend ten times as
much time in the act of curing their fur-seal pelts as it took them to drive and kill;
then, too, in those early days they were remote from a market, had no prompt,
economical means of transportation to London, and depended wholly upon the idiosyncrasies of the Chinese trade via Kiachta; but even with this extraordinary hindrance, it
seems that they took in that laborious and risky manner at least 100,000 fur seal-skins
every year.*
They took so many that by 1803 several hundred thousand of these air-dried pelts
had accumulated over the ability of the old Russian Company to dispose of them in time
to prevent their decay—moulding and damp, then abruptly decaying—rotting in huge
piles as they were stacked up in the warehouses at Kodiak, so "it became necessary to
" In the first years on St. Paul's Island from 50,000 to 60,000 were taken annually, and on St. George
from 40,000 to 50,000 every year. Such horrible killing was neither necessary nor demanded. The skins were
frequently taken without any list or count. In 1803, 800,000 seal-skins had accumulated, and it was impossible to
make advantageous sale of so many skins, for in this great number so many were spoiled that it became necessary
to cut or throw into the sea 700,000 pelts I"—(Bishop Veniaminor, "Zapieskie," &c, 1848, vol., chap, xih)   - 59
cut or throw into the sea 700,000 pelts " during that year. Naturally this loss of labour,
time, and money cooled the ardour of the sealing gangs which were working the Pribyloff
Islands—they worked slower when they did work, and most likely never worked at all in wet
weather; obliged to bow to the caprices of the climate or lose their labour, they were
thus obliged to spare the seals, and this enforced delay in 1788-1806 has saved the
Pribyloff rookeries from that swift destruction which the keen, quick-witted American and
English sealers visited in 1806-26 upon the great breeding grounds of the fur-seal in the
Antarctic; they, our countrymen, then used the kench and salt; they never were
bothered with the question of how to dispose of their skins after killing and skinning so
as to save them, and they brought their methods of 1806-26—the same methods of
to-day—up to these seal islands of Alaska for the first time in 1868.*
No one can state,, with more than mere estimation on his part, the full number of
fur-seals slaughtered by the Russians on the Pribyloff Islands from 1786 to 1817; no
lists, no checks whatever on it appear to have been made, and the record certainly never
was made, since Bishop Veniaminov, who, from 1825 up to 1838 was at the head of all
matters connected with the Church in this Oonalashka district, where the seal islands
belonged, and who had the respect and confidence of the old Russian-American Company,
made a zealoup search for such a record in 1834-35 among the archives of the Company
at Sitka, where ne had full access; but the result of his painstaking search he sums up
in the following terse statement: " Of the number of skins taken up to 1817 I have no
knowledge to rely upon ; but from that time up to the present writing I have true and
reliable accounts," which he puts into the Apppendix of his published work.f
The Bishop (who is the only Russian who has given us the faintest idea of how
matters were conducted in his time upon these islands) seems to have witnessed them in
a steady condition of decline as to yield, for in the time of his writing and up to its
closing in 1837 the record was one of steady diminution until 1834; the killing seems
to have been permitted with all sorts of half measures since 1817, adopted one after the
other, to no good result whatever; finally, however, the supply abruptly fell from an
expected 20,000 to 12,000 only from both islands in 1834—"all that could be got with
all possible exertion."
Then the Russians awoke to the fact that if they wished to preserve these fur-,
bearing interests of the Pribyloff Islands from ruin, that they must stop killing, wholly
stop for a number of years—stop until the renewal of the exhausted rookeries was
manifest, and easily recognized; this Zapooska of 1885, which they then ordered, is the
date of the renewed lease of life which these rookeries took, and which by 1857 had
restored them to the splendid condition in which they were when they passed into the
hands of the United States; and which now, after twenty-two years of killing since 1868
and under the recent Regulations of 1870, together with the pelagic sealing since 1886.
we find again threatened with speedy extinction unless full measures are at once adopted
for their preservation and restoration on land, and in the sea—half measures will not do
—they failed in the Russian period signally^ and they will as signally fail with us if we
yield in the slightest degree to any argument for their adoption.
It is interesting, therefore, to study the figures which "V
emaminov gives
us of the
yield from these islands during that period extending down from 1817 to 1837—study it
in connection with his statement of what those attempts were, and which were being
made, futile efforts by the old Company to build up the business, and yet continue
sealing; until, finally, after seventeen years of continual diminution and repeated
introduction of half-way methods of restoration, the end came abruptly, and what ought
to have been done at first was finally forced in 1834—the absolute rest of the rookeries
in 1835 came, and practically continued until 1846-50; then a 'gradual rise above 10,000
" holluschickie " or young male fur-seals per annum began to be safely taken; and, by
1854, the exhausted and nearly ruined rookeries of St. Paul and St. George were able to
yield 85,000 prime fur-seal pelts without the slightest injury to them, and by 1857-60 they
were so numerous that the Russians ceased to regard them as objects of care, and
thereafter governed their annual catch by the demand outside alone—taking as the-
market called for them anywhere from 40,000 to 80,000 annually.
As matters stand to-day on the seal islands the situation is very much the same as
it was in 1834. Then it was expected that 20,000 seals would be taken, but only 12,000
were secured " with all possible exertion."   This year it was expected that 60,000 fine
* They began at once that system of disciplined exhaustive slaughter which has proved bo effective in their
hands throughout the Antarctic—took nearly 300,000 seal-skins on these islands in the short space of four months,
ceased then only for want of salt; but, happily, the Government intervened before they could resume their work of
swift destruction.
| " Zapieskie ob Oonalashkenskaho Otdayla:" St. Petersburgh, 1842; 3 vols, 80. A full translation of that
chapter which treats of this question will follow this introduction. sssm
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skins would be taken, but only 21,fc00 have been secured with all possible exertion,
nearly half of this catch being small, or 5^J6| lb. skins—raking and scraping the
rookery margins without a day's intermission from the opening to the closing Of the
season; of this work of 1890 I give you in this Report the fullest detail of its
progression, day to day, the merciful ending of it, ordered so happily by you.
It will be promptly observed from a study of this record of the Russians which has
been so plainly and so honestly given to us by Veniaminov and Shaiesnickov, that the
Russians, during their control, were faced at two periods with the prospect of a speedy
extermination of these fur-seal rookeries of Alaska; in 1806 and in 1807 they stopped all
killing on these Islands of St. Paul and St. George, but began to kill again in 1810—
too soon. Yeniaminov's record and account shows that from 1817, in spite of everything that they could do, save stopping short of all killing, "only made matters
worse."
Finally, in 1834, with the second and positive "ttireat of swift extermination again
facing them, the Russians reluctantly surrendered, and ordered a rest which lasted seven
years, ere any beginning was fairly made to kill more than a few thousand young male
seals annually. In the first year only 100 of such animals were taken, the number
being very slowly raised year after year until 1847-50.
A careful review of my investigation, therefore, warrants me in respectfully
urging—
1. That no driving and killing of fur-seals for tax and shipment on the seal islands
of Alaska be permitted by the Government for a period of at least seven years from
date; and
2. That the co-operation of Great Britain and Russia be secured in perfecting our
international close time, by which all kiffing of fur-seals in the open waters of Behring's
Sea will be prohibited during the breeding season of these animals, and in order that the
Representatives of Great Britain and Russia may see the truth of my statement as to
what threatens to exterminate these animals if pelagic sealing as well as terrestrial
sealing is not at once stopped; that a Commission of British) Russian, and American
experts be invited to visit the seal islands next summer and report fairly upon the
subject.
In concluding this introduction to my work of the past season, and its result, I
desire to say that I have been exceedingly careful in gathering my data upon which I
base all statement of fact and opinion, and to secure these data I have literally lived
out upon the field itself, where those facts alone can be gathered honestly, or else they
had better not be gathered at all.
I now submit,' most respectfully, my detailed Report covering the above-mentioned
heads, together with those field-sketches and maps which I deem necessary to give a
more distinct,' clear, and full idea of my meaning and understanding of the subjects
treated.
Trusting that it will meet with your approval, I am, &c.
Henry W. Elliott.
To the above may be added, furnished by Professor Elliott, the following Table
showing numbers of fur-seals on the breeding grounds of the Pribyloff Islands, Alaska,
during 1872-74, and again in 1890 :—
Seals,
Seals,
Island
Rookeries.
Male, Female,
Male, Female,
and Young,
and Young,
1872-74.
1890.
St. Paul
Beef    ..           ,.            ..
301,000
140,500
Garbotch            ..            ..
183,000
84,000
Lagoon               ..            ..
37,000
9,000
Tolstoi . a                          a .                          . .
225,000
62,400
Zapadnie
441,000
r}SM05 :
Ketavie               ..
166,000
28,000
Lukannon           ..             ..
170,000
72,500
Polavina             ..            ..
300,000
142,000
North-East Point              ..
1,200,000
217,875
Nahspeel
8,000
Disappeared
St. George          • •
Zapadnie            ..            . ■
18,000
12,500
Starry Arteel     ..            ..
30,420
16,000
North  ..             ..             . a
77,000
.88,500
Little Eastern    ..             ..
13,000
4,800
,)        ..     ..
Great Eastern    ,,            •.
Grand total          ..
25,000
9,000
8,193,420
969,898 61
The grand total of 3,193,420 breeding seals and their young for 1872-74 represents
a division of its sexes and ages of about 1,600,000 breeding females or "cows,"
1,450,000 newly-born seals or "pups," and some 145,000 to 160,000 able-bodied virile
males or "bulls" over 6 years of age (the proportion of farrow or "barren" cows too
small for notice then).
The grand total of 959,393 breeding seals, male and female, for 1890 is divided
into different proportions as to aex and age, owing to deadly causes at work on land and
sea since 1874. The proportion of the above total for 1890 is 350,000 bearing females,
and some 250,000 not bearing, or not served last year and this; 350,000 pups, and
between 8,000 and 9,000 old males, many of them absolutely impotent at the beginning
of the season of 1890, most of them becoming wholly so as the season advanced.
In 1872-74 Elliott and Maynard estimated the number of surplus young males or
"killable" seals at 1,500,000; this year of 1890 Elliot makes a rigid calculation which
shows a scant 100,000 males left above 1 year old. — .
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OUTLINE OF MAP N<? 2 AGCOMPANYJNC MP SLA/VSS  Nt>7£ &F0<£CJZ1896.

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