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Voyage of the Nyanza R.N.Y.C : being the record of a three years' cruise in a schooner yacht in the Atlantic… Dewar, James Cumming 1892

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ttfj a fftaji anfc Ellustrattons
All Rights reserved  PREFACE.
The following pages are in the main nothing more
than a plain unvarnished account of a voyage undertaken by myself in my yacht, the Nyanza; and my
chief excuse for making them public is that therein
will be found the description of an eyewitness of
several of the more remote and unfamiliar island
groups in the great Pacific Ocean. Indeed, I believe that I may safely assert that comparatively
few of the islands which I visited have ever been
approached by a yacht.
But for the unfortunate loss of the vessel, I had
hoped to have made an extensive cruise round the
coasts of New Britain, New Ireland, and New Guinea,
which would have added very materially to the interest of the voyage; " mats I'homme propose, Dieu
The majority of the  illustrations are done from VI
photographs taken on the spot; the portrait of
the yacht is from a painting by F. Mitchell, Esq.,
of Cowes, whilst the spirited drawing of the scene
of the wreck is by Algernon Yockney, Esq., Fleet
Paymaster, R.N., who, from a most indifferent
photograph, and from my description, has succeeded
in producing a mOst natural and artistic representation of the scene on the morning of July 30th.
I take this opportunity of expressing my deep
gratitude for the great kindness and hospitality that
have been everywhere extended to us. Amongst
those to whom I feel specially indebted are his
Excellency Thomas Kerr, Esq., C.M.G., late Governor
of the Falkland Islands; William Harvey, Esq. of
Monte Video; J. H. Longford, Esq., H.B.M.'s Consul
at Robe; Colonel Enrique Solano, late Governor of.the
Marianas Islands; Senhor Luis Cardarso, Governor
of the Eastern Carolines; and last but not least, the
officers of the British, United States, and Spanish
Navies, from whom I have at all times received the
greatest kindness and assistance, and to whom I now
beg to tender my most grateful thanks.
Plymouth, November 1892. ct*t- i n« Mil ,»i»iipac
■^"■^"r i r^ami    .,0im>**^
The start—Azores—Ponta Delgada—Furnas—St Michael's,
Santa Maria — Canary Islands — Palma—St Vincent — Puerto
Grande—San Antonio—Crossing the Line—Fernando Noron-
ha—An interesting convict settlement,
Trinidad — Ineffectual attempts at landing — Rio de Janeiro-
H.M.S. Ruby—Tijuca—Corcovada,
Squally weather—Monte Video—Uruguay—San Jose"—A Swiss
colony—The bull-ring and saladeros of Monte Video, .     22
Contrary winds — Slow passage — Nuevo Gulf, Patagonia — A
haul of fish—An indifferent day's sport—Port Madryn—Commencement of troubles with the sailors—Trelew—A Welsh
colony — An extravagant and badly managed railway — A
shoal of porpoises—Whales—Fine weather,   .
The Falkland Islands—Stanley—An unpleasant incident—Enforced delay—An improving colony and an. excellent Gover- U>.3*«flui: i> 33WC
nor—HM.S. Swallow—Wild-fowl and game—Seals—A day's
shooting—^Submarine mining operations,
An excursion among the Falkland Islands—Lively Island—Good-
sport—A couple of accidents—Speedwell Island—A penguin-
rookery—"Shags"—George Island—Pig-shooting—A native
menu—A sea-liom—Port Darwin—Christmas Day—Another
unpleasant incident—New-Year's Eve,
New-Year's Day—Another excursion—Fox Bay—Great Island—
Ruggles Island—Exciting sport—A nasty accident—A grand
trophy—H.M.S. Flamingo—The new skipper—Farewell to
the Falkland Islands — At sea once more — The Straits of
Magellan—Gregory Bay, . . . . .60
Sandy Point—A British naval cemetery—A severe storm—San
Nicholas Bay—A wreck—Cape Froward—Fortescue Bay-
Slow progress—Borga Bay—Playa Parda Cove—Port Angosto
—Bad weather—Port Tamar,     .....
Continued foul weather—Sholl Bay—A dangerous adventure—
The yacht aground—An unsatisfactory crew—Burgoyne Bay
—Otters—Magnificent scenery—Isthmus Bay—Piazzi Island
—Natives in canoe—Commissariat difficulties—Puerto Bueno
—Guia Narrows—Molyneux Sound,     . . . .81
Taken in tow — Chasm Reach—Beautiful scenery — Exorbitant
charges — A British steamer — Attempt at extortion — An
Italian man-of-war—Connor Cove—More delays—Waterfall
Bay — Island Harbour — Hale Cove — In the open sea once
more—The Pacific Ocean—A dead whale—Heavy seas—Experiments with oil—Cumberland Bay—Juan Fernandez,
92 x^as
tjir ,-<.»»»
Juan Fernandez—Abundant supply of fish—Wild-goat' shooting
—Alexander Selkirk — On our voyage again — Out of our
reckoning — Mollendo — Arrangements for a trip into the
interior of Peru, ......    102
The railway from Mollendo to Arequipa—Wonderful engineering
—Arequipa—Puno—Lake Titicaca—Inca remains—Bolivia—
La Paz—Obrases, . . . . . .111
A curious cemetery—Return journey to Mollendo—An English
engine-driver—Resumption of voyage—Callao—Arrangements
for repairing yacht—Lima—U.S.S. Trenton
A bull-fight—
Considerable damage to the yacht,
Excursions in Peru—Chicla—A novel mode of travelling—Hotel
quarters at Lima—Cock-fighting—Lotteries—A good bargain
—San Lorenzo — A curious religious custom — Progress of
work on repair of yacht, .....
A dance—Another bull-fight—A boat-race—The Cathedral—The
National Library—Completion of repairs to yacht—Difficulties with the ship-chandlers—Ancon—Digging for " huacos "—
An interesting discovery, .....
We leave Peru — Completion of our first year's voyage — Fine
sunsets—Variable weather at sea—Easter Island—The crater
of Otuiti—Stone images—Anakena Cove—A miserable night,
and a primitive breakfast—A village greeting—History and
condition of Easter Island—Terano Kau—Hanga-roa—Purchase of provisions—Departure from Easter Island, .
153 X
Lovely weather—Loss of fowls and log-fans—Fatou-hiva, in the
Marquesas Islands—A French settlement—Luxuriant vegetation — History of the islands — Hiva-oa—The Casco — Mr
Robert Louis Stevenson—The French Government at Hiva-
oa—An extravagant dish—Nuka-hiva—A beautiful bay-—A
remarkable Englishman—Dearth of curios—Renewed trouble
on board the yacht—Ahi atoll—Rangiroa atoll—Point Venus
—Tahiti, . . . . . .
Papeete — A disappointing town, but a splendid harbour — The
mountains of Morea—A gay and amusing spectacle—I dismiss
my servant—A modest request—A wonderful coral-reef—The
Archipelago of Tahiti, or Society Islands—I engage a French
steward — Excursion through the island — Hitiaa — A native
leve'e—Mataiea—A paradise of indolence—The plantation of
Atimavao—More trouble on board-
master and cook-
-Discharge of the sailing-
- Re-engagement of the former,
Mail communication between Tahiti and San Francisco—Vexations and delays—The Catholic Bishop of Tahiti—Death of
the king's brother—Father Collette—Farewell to Tahiti—A
good day's run—The Samoan group of islands—Pagopago—
Father Forestier—A war-canoe—The French Catholic Mission
—An interesting visit—Native fishing—Curio-hunting—Apia
—Father Reme"—The civil war in Samoa—H.M.S. Calliope—
A tropical rain—High-handed action of Germans in Samoa—
Departure from Apia,   ......
A rapid passage to Tongatabu—Eoa Island—Niukalofa—H.M.S.
Egeria—The Friendly Islands—Mua—" The Emerald Isle of
the Pacific"—Tugi—A native drink—Kaluga—An enormous
cave—A wonderful collection of curiosities—Political affairs
in Tonga—A strong gale—We leave Tonga—Bound for Fiji—
The 180° meridian—A succession of islands—Viti Levu—
' We anchor in Suva harbour,   .....
History of the Fiji Islands—Continuous rain—The labour question in Fiji—Agricultural prosperity—A narrow escape from
cannibals—Fijian curiosities—We leave for New Caledonia
—Walpole Island — Noumea — A naturalist's museum — Another disagreeable experience on board—Visit to a local industrial exhibition—The convict band—A remarkable bandmaster,     ........
History of New Caledonia — Interesting particulars concerning
the convicts and Uh&re's — Excursion into the interior of the
island — The convent of the Immaculate Conception — The
mission station of St Louis—Discharge of James Millar, A.B.
—Convict establishment on He Nou — A discourteous governor—Condemned criminals—Exorbitant pilotage—We leave
New Caledonia — Loyalty Islands — The New Hebrides —
Erromango — A quaintly interesting service on Sunday —
Mission life in the New Hebrides,      ....
Sandwich, or Efate Island — A fine harbour — New Hebrides
coffee—Protection Island—Scarcity of genuine curios—Malli-
collo Island—A- native village—A primitive mode of striking
fire.— Remains of phallic worship — The ship cook's scare—
Espiritu Santo Island—Tongoa—Curious arrows—A strange
custom—Bat-shooting—Out at sea again—A strong gale—The
Banks Islands—Port Patteson—A terrific storm—The price of
Santa Cruz—A dead calm—Canoes, costumes, and customs of the
natives—Volcano Island—A curious experience—Carlisle Bay
—Scene of murder of Commodore Goodenough—His monument—Picturesque scenery—A relic of the stone age—Flying-
foxes—Evil reputation of the natives—Departure from Santa
Cruz—Violent squalls—Apamama Island—Fears of typhoon—
We change our course for Honolulu—A miserable day—Continued bad weather—Christmas Day on the Pacific—Arrival at
Honolulu—Old friends—End of year 1888,
245 xn
The Sandwich Islands—Civilisation at Honolulu—New-Year's
Day—A sudden hurricane—Waikiki—A dramatic entertainment—Trip on board the Kinau—My fellow-passengers—An
amusing regulation—Mahukona—Kaiwaiihae—Hilo—A profitable sugar-mill—An excursion under adverse circumstances
—Volcano House—The great crater of Kilauea—Disgraceful
practices—A marvellous spectacle—Return to Honolulu,
A royal visitor—Anglican Cathedral—The Bishop of Honolulu—
U.S.S. Dolphin—An audience of the King of Hawaii—The
royal palace—The Government Museum—The prison—The
Queen's Hospital—The Lunalilo Home—A boat-race and a
paper - chase—My new cook—The Kamehameha schools—A
naval dramatic entertainment—An evening party on board
the Nyanza—The royal Mausoleum—The Pali—" Patience " at
the Royal Opera-house — Settling up — Departure from the
harbour—My drunken skipper—Enforced return to port—A
naval court — Symptons of mutiny on board — Dismissal of
sailing-master and engagement of Captain Holland — Final
departure from Honolulu,        .....
At sea—A splendid run—San Francisco—The American inters
viewer — A Californian restaurant — The New Bush Street
theatre—The Occidental Hotel—Articles on our voyage in
the newspapers—The British Consul—A troublesome customhouse officer — The Presidio — H.M.S. Icarus—A chapter of
accidents—I lose my new sailing-master and engage another
—Sparring at the California Athletic Club—I make a considerable change in my ship's crew,    ....
China Town—A "joss-house"—Opium-dens—A Chinese theatre
—Hang Fer Low Restaurant—More changes in my crew—An.
excursion ■ round the bay—Sausalito—The rival yacht-clubs—
The Nyanza takes up her position at Sausalito—Repairs on
board—San Quentin—The Government prison—A hard case
—Cruising in the  bay—Tiburon—Angel Island—| A lang CONTENTS.
grace and nae jneat"—Preparations, for a trip up the Sacramento river,       .......   291
A trip on the Sacramento—Benicia—We run aground—Short of
coal — Black Diamond village — A primitive hotel — Salmon
canneries—Rio Vista—Drawbacks and hindrances—A river
steamer—Monotonous scenery—A disagreeable expedition—
Sacramento — The Capitol and race - course — Return to
Sausalito by train — Fresh troubles on board the yacht—
Democratic institutions—Hasty departure from San Francisco
—A narrow escape for the skipper—A stormy night—Arrival
at Vancouver Island,      ......
Vancouver Island—Victoria—Esquimalt—Pleasant dealings with
the custom-house officials — H.M.S. Swiftsure and Icarus—
Sport on Vancouver Island—Easter at Victoria—The Royal
Jubilee Hospital—A cricket-match—We leave for Japan—A
severe storm—Loss of steam-launch— Damage to the yacht—
Our water-supply runs short—We alter our course and make
for the Sandwich Islands—Lahaina—Another refractory seaman — The Lahainaluna seminary — Our voyage to the La-
drone Islands—Port San Luis d'Apra,
The Ladrones, or Mariani Islands — Punto Piti — Agana — The
Spanish colony—Fort Santa Cruz—A cock-fight—A dance—
Apra — Dinner-party on the yacht — Wild-deer hunting—
Generous presents—Mail-day—Sail for the Bonin Islands—
Completion of our second year's voyage — A huge shark —
The Coffin Islands—The Bonin Islands—A motley colony—
Peel Island—Port Lloyd — My first experience of Japanese
life—A Swedish naturalist,       .....
A Japanese governor—A curious cave—Bound for Japan—Siwo
Point—The Kii Channel—Isumi Straits—Kobe—A ride in a
jinriksha—A curio-shop—The European quarter—Hiogo—A
Japanese temple — Extortionate prices — A fair in Hiogo —
Arrima — Hot baths — Basket-work—A kango—Kioto#—A XIV
series of interesting temples — A Japanese theatre — An
acrobatic .performance —- Otsu — Lake Biwa —r Ishiyama — A
celebrated temple—Osaka—A tempest,
Repairs of the yacht — Progress of Catholicism in Japan — A
swindling curiosity-dealer—Monsieur Bouchard—Curio-hunting—The Omaha and Monsoon—An expedition up country—
Hikone—An ancient daimio's castle—Gifu—Kano—Unuma—
Effects of a heavy gale — Ota—The Kisogawa — Mitake—A
Japanese tea-house — Wild scenery—A series of mishaps—
Nakatsugawa—An unsatisfactory inn—A wet day—Magome
— Tsumago — Refractory natives — Suwara—Silk - culture —
Agematsu, .......
Continuation of trip in the Japanese interior — Fukushima —
Miya-no-koshi—Yagohara—Fresh troubles—The Torii Pass—
Mitoyama—Lake Suwa—Shimo-no-suwa—An appeal to the
police—The Maruya Inn — Toyobashi — Another accident —
The Wada Pass—Tanaka—-Romantic scenery—To Mayebashi
by train — Ogi — Omama — An amusing scene — The river
Waterasegawa—Hanawa—An obstinate coolie—Lovely scenery
—Sori—Ashiwo—Nikko—A city of temples,   .
The Etas—A village of leather-dressers—Utsonomiya—A Shinto
temple—By train to Sendai—Yoshioka—Drunken natives—
Sambongi—Furukawa—Kannari—A remarkable curiosity—
Mayezawa—Kane-ga-saki—The volcano of Gan-jiu-san—
Moriaka—Kotsunagi—Kinda-ichi—An unnecessary detour—
Go-no-he—Wild flowers—Kominato—Awomori—Embark on
steamer for Hakodadi,   ......
Hakodadi—The public gardens—The water-works—The | Stone
of Green Blood"—The Ainus—Their religion—Nanaye—A
Government stud-farm — Lakes Junsai Numa and Onuma—
Mori—A curious temple—Mororan—The Ainu country—
Horobets—An Ainu chief and his treasures—A sacred bear—
I purchase a pup — Tomakomai — My guide's unfortunate CONTENTS.
experiences—Endo—A wet. day—Piritori—The Saru river—
Penri, an Ainu chief — A miscellaneous collection of Ainu
curiosities—The native form of salutation—A bad road—
Sapporo-r-A night-pest—Otaru—A modern Japanese steamer
- Arrive at Yokohama,
Yokohama—A disappointing town—The United Club—Tokio—
The Temple of Shiba—The Atago-yama and Asakusa temples
— A Japanese chrysanthemum show — Deakins' Fine Art
Gallery — The Kobe Maru — Return to Kobe — Progress of
repairs to yacht — Expenses of my Japanese trip — Visit
Nagasaki in H.M.S. Imperieuse — A landlocked harbour —
Return to Kobe on the Takachiho - Maru — Shimonoseki —
Departure for England of the last remaining men who had
started with me—I return to England on the Parthia—The
year's record of the yacht's log—Vancouver—The Canadian
Pacific Railway—Montreal—England—Return to Japan by
Messageries steamer Saghalien — Resumption of voyage of
The peninsula of Kamschatka—The fur-trade—An undesirable
place of residence—The Queen's birthday—A late winter—A
bear-hunting expedition — Tarenskei harbour — Kluchi — A
ride in a dog-sleigh—Bear-hunting under difficulties—A trial
o o o
of patience and temper — Strange behaviour of my guide—
Betchevinskaya Bay — A narrow escape of grounding — A
week wasted — Admiral Price's grave — Successful fishing—
Southward bound, ......
A varied run of three weeks—The Marshall Islands—Legiep—
An obliging skipper—The German colony—Native religious
belief—Jaluit —The German Commissioner — Difficulty in
obtaining supplies—My sailing-master's unreasonable request
—Another disagreeable incident—Kusaie Island—An unintelligent trader—The Caroline Islands—A Protestant missionary stronghold—The native king—A self-righteous missionary
—Interesting ruins—A fruitful island—The sailing-master's
strange errors in navigation—We sight the island of Pohapi, .
To face page 431
at end  ■*m
July 21-August 15, 1887.
The sun was shining brightly, and a light breeze was blowing, as we weighed anchor at 1 p.m. on the 21st of July
1887, and slowly sailed out of Plymouth Sound, bound for
St Michael's in the Azores.
During the run of 1260 miles, we encountered many variations of weather and temperature. The first four days were
sultry, dull, and hazy; but on the fifth day out a fresh
breeze sprang up, which gradually increased in violence,
driving us considerably out of our course. The dingy was
damaged, the jib-boom sprung, and the bobstay-shackle carried away. After forty hours the wind subsided, and beautiful weather ensued. Nothing worthy of comment occurred
during the next five days, except that we were several times
becalmed. Rain then commenced to fall, and we were unable to make any appreciable headway owing to lack of
wind.    The monotony was slightly relieved by the appear-
A 2
ance of a shark, which we vainly endeavoured to capture.
Alternate calms and gentle breezes caused us to make but
very slow progress.
At length, on the eighteenth day after leaving Plymouth,
we sighted the island of St Michael's ; and on Monday,
August 4, we anchored inside the breakwater off Ponta Del-
gada, at half-past nine o'clock in the morning, having accomplished an average of only 70 miles a-day. We lost no time
in landing, and were courteously conducted over the town by
Mr Bessone, the agent for the Royal Albert Yacht Club.
There is little to be seen in Ponta Delgada itself; and the
streets are narrow and dirty. A fine stone breakwater in
course of construction, and approaching completion, was the
principal object of attraction. This excellent work was much
needed, the port having hitherto been unprovided with shelter of any kind. An iron floating dock, and a foundry on
shore, also engaged our attention; and in the afternoon we
visited a magnificent. garden, belonging to a native gentle-
man. The grounds were of large extent, and laid out with
the greatest taste, and there were several pineries and greenhouses. We were especially struck with the glorious camellias, the size and beauty of which far excelled those to which
we had hitherto been accustomed.
The next day was hot and sultry; and we did not leave
our yacht till late in the afternoon. During the morning
we -were occupied in examining the damage sustained by our
vessel during the breeze in the Bay of Biscay, and in giving
orders for the necessary repairs. We also took several interesting photographs of the town and island as seen from our
deck. In the evening we strolled about the town, and visited
other native gardens, the latter appearing to us the chief
attraction of Ponta Delgada. Many of the native aristocracy
are very wealthy, and take great pride in the cultivation of
their grounds. Several of them have been laid out by the
best landscape-gardeners of England, and possess collections ST  MICHAELS  AS  A  HEALTH-RESORT. 3
of trees and plants which have .been imported at enormous
expense from all parts of the world. The owners of these
gardens most courteously offer every facility to strangers
to inspect them; and th.e gardeners were invariably civil and
attentive, presenting us, in most cases, with flowers upon
It seems strange that St Michael's should be so comparatively little known to English travellers. The climate is excellent, house-rent moderate, and supplies good, abundant,
and cheap.    There are capital roads throughout the island,
Private Gardens, St Michaets.
and carriage-hire is very reasonable. Donkeys are employed
for mountain - excursions, and strong and useful animals
they are. There are two great requisites which St Michael's
lacks,—a good hotel, and an English doctor. If these were
forthcoming, we believe that St Michael's would soon prove
a formidable and successful rival to Madeira, as a winter
health-resort. FURNAS.
. Wednesday, Aug. 10.—We started, at 7 a.m. in a carriage
for Furnas, driving along the southern side of the island.
The scenery in parts was very fine, and we thoroughly enjoyed our glorious drive. At Villa Franca, we halted for
three-quarters of an hour for breakfast; and arrived at Furnas shortly after noon. On nearing the latter place we
passed a lake with a beautiful chapel upon its shores.
' Furnas is famous for its hot springs, which consist of
boiling sulphurous water bubbling out of the earth. \ The
ground all around is hot and covered with sulphur deposits.
The baths are supported by the Government, and everything
is scrupulously orderly and clean. They are said to be
highly efficacious in cases of rheumatism or cutaneous complaints, and they are much frequented by the residents of
the island. Each visitor has a private bath and dressing-
room ; and each bath is provided with four taps, admitting
respectively hot and tepid sulphur and iron water. No
charge whatever is made for the use of the baths. There is
a very fair hotel attached to the establishment, which was
so full of visitors that we had great difficulty in procuring
rooms. In the afternoon we called on some friends who
reside at a charming spot overlooking the lake., which we
had passed on our way, and across which we were rowed by
our host on our return to the hotel. A dance at the club-
rooms enlivened us in the evening, and we did not retire
until after midnight.
The next morning was spent in a visit to the baths, and
afterwards to several private gardens, which, like those at
Ponta Delgada, were kept in beautiful order. Furnas is a
small place, and is only frequented during the summer. We
were agreeably surprised at the moderate charges of the
hotel—5s. a-day for board and lodging!
We returned to Ponta D.elgada in the. afternoon, by the
north road, which for the first part of the way led over a
hill so  steep that it was impossible to drive up it.     We ORANGE  INDUSTRY   OF  ST  MICHAEL S.
therefore ascended on donkeys, our empty carriage following behind. The view from the top of the hill was magnificent, Furnas lying at our feet, nestled at the base of the
mountains. We now dismissed our donkeys, and for the
rest of- the way we proceeded in our carriage, though the
road was rough and hilly throughout. The land on either
side was covered with wild flowers, hydrangeas and fuchsias
being, perhaps, the most abundant. Ponta Delgada was
reached soon after sunset. We remained four days longer
.at St Michael's, but the weather was hot and cloudy, and
at intervals there were very heavy showers of rain ; so that
there was little opportunity of seeing more of the island.
St Michael's was once famous for its extensive industry
in oranges; but a few years ago the orchards and groves were
attacked by a disastrous disease, by which many thousands
of the finest trees were destroyed; and though there has
since been no fresh outbreak of the epidemic, the island has
never recovered its trade. Another branch of industry was
affected by the same catastrophe; for the boxes in which the
oranges were exported were made from the wood of the extensive pine-forests which cover the interior of the island,
and with the falling off of the orange-trade, the forests have
also declined enormously in value. Still there is no reason
why St Michael's, with its admirable climate and excellent
resources, should not once more regain its prosperity.
Having examined the repairs which had been effected on
our yacht, and found everything in satisfactory order, we set
sail once more on our onward voyage, bidding farewell to
St Michael's on the afternoon of Monday the 15th of
August 16-September 15, 1887.
Our course was now shaped for Palma, in the Canary
Islands, from which St Michael's is about 660 miles distant.
About 9 a.m. on the day following our departure from Ponta
Delgada, we passed the island of Santa Maria, having a very
good view of the town from a distance of about four miles.
A few fir-trees were the only signs of vegetation that we
could observe upon the island, which appeared to us very
barren in comparison with St Michael's. The next three
days we were assisted by a splendid breeze, and made an
excellent run, averaging nearly eight knots an hour.
On Saturday, August 20, we arrived off Palma at 11.30
p.m., and hove-to outside the port to await daylight. ^Early
next morning we proceeded to anchor in thirty fathoms of
water off Santa Cruz. The appearance which this town
presents from the sea is exceedingly curious and picturesque.
It lies at the bottom of an extinct crater, and is surrounded
on three sides by lofty and precipitous mountains. On
landing we were fortunate enough to meet with a Spanish
gentleman, who had lately returned from London. He
courteously conducted  us round  the town, the streets of SANTA  CRUZ.
which are narrow, though there are some good stores where
most articles can be procured. The rearing of cochineal has
long been the staple industry of this island. It was once a
source of great profit, but the trade has been greatly damaged
by the introduction of aniline dyes. Cochineal is still, however, abundant here, and a fairly brisk business is carried on
in it. We had an excellent dinner in the one hotel of the
place before returning to our yacht.
The next day being- Sunday, we went ashore to Mass in
the morning, and were surprised to find a very handsome
church, with a beautiful white marble altar. The service
was well rendered, and the congregation devout. At the
conclusion of the Mass, we rode on mules to the top of a hill
overlooking the harbour, the view from which was very fine.
Whilst there, our attention was attracted by an interesting
festival which was taking place at a little chapel on the
summit of the hill.
The island of Palma is little known to English travellers,
as the difficulty of communication with it is very great. A
small schooner carries the mails to and fro between Palma
and Teneriffe, and this is the only vessel which regularly
calls at the island. Nevertheless the place is well worth
seeing, and we much enjoyed our short visit there.
We sailed from Palma at 8.30 a.m. on Monday, August 22,
and headed for St Vincent, in the Cape de Verde Islands,
810 miles away. On our first day out we sighted the Peak
of Teneriffe, the top of which was entirely free from clouds;
and in the course of the afternoon we passed the island of
Gomera.   We were abreast of Ferro throughout the night.
Next day- was dull and close with a light air, but on the morrow a fine fresh breeze sprang up, and we found ourselves in
the north-east trade-winds. Several flying-fish came on board
this day and the next, and two steamers passed close by us.
At daybreak on Saturday, August 27, we sighted St Vincent;   and having passed the island  of San Antonio,  we 8
anchored off Puerto Grande, St Vincent, at noon. After
lunch we went ashore; and having procured a bill of health
from the Brazilian vice-consul, we strolled about the place.
There is, however, absolutely, nothing to be seen, the town
consisting merely of one straggling street, with a few general
stores kept mainly by Portuguese half-castes. An exceedingly dirty hotel and three or four billiard-rooms complete
the attractions of Puerto Grande. There is an almost entire
absence of vegetation on this barren island, and a solitary
banana-tree is pointed out to strangers as one of the great
curiosities of the place ! Puerto Grande is, however, a great
coaling station, and most of the steamers which ply between
Europe and South America call at the port.
Some of the smaller islands in the Cape de Verde group
are, unlike St Vincent, exceedingly fertile; this being
especially the case with San Antonio, whence comes almost
all the fruit which is sold in the markets of St Vincent.
The price of water is very dear at Puerto Grande, and we
paid 8s. a ton for our necessary supply.
We were not sorry to get out to sea again on Sunday,
August 28, shaping a course nearly S.W. for Fernando Nor-
onha, 1320 miles distant. The weather was now excessively
hot; and the wind was so light, that for several days we
made but very little headway. On the third day out, a
terrific deluge of rain accompanied by thunder broke over
us; and for an hour and a half it almost seemed as though
a waterspout were falling on the deck. As we approached
the equator, the heat became intense, the sea appearing at
times like a sheet of glass. Several sharks were seen alongside the yacht; and, after great difficulty, we succeeded in
capturing one. Shoals of bonita were also observed frequently playing about the ship.
On Thursday, September 8, when we had been eleven days
out from St Vincent, and had run only 780 miles, the wind
freshened considerably, favouring our progress, and the fol- CROSSING-  THE  LINE.
lowing day we ran 225 miles. At noon on Friday our position was, lat. 1° 9' N, long. 30° 11' W.; and we knew that
we were in the neighbourhood of St Paul's Rocks. I was
very anxious to visit them, and we spent the greater part of
a day in searching for them. At 4 p.m. on Saturday, however, we had still failed to discover them ; and, as the main-
peak halyards carried away, we gave up the search, and
shaped our course direct for Fernando Noronha. The breeze
was then very fresh, and we did from seven to eight
knots an hour. In the evening, we received a visit from
Father Neptune, who was excellently personated by the sail-
maker. Having taken the names of those of his sons who
had never previously crossed the Line, he retired, notifying
his intention of returning on Monday to initiate the novices.
We actually crossed the Line about 5 a.m. on Sunday, but
the usual ceremonies associated therewith were, of course,
out of the question that day. At half-past ten on Monday
morning, all the necessary preparations having been completed, Father Neptune came on board, attended by his staff,
consisting of Aphrodite, the doctor, and the barber. All these
characters were admirably represented by various members
of the crew. An awning had been rigged up amidships and
filled with water, thus forming a splendid bath. The
novices were duly shaved, doctored, and tumbled headlong
into the water, where they were well rolled about in the true
orthodox fashion. Much amusement was caused by the
attempts of one or two to escape up the rigging. They were
speedily captured by Neptune's police, and compelled to
undergo the disagreeable ordeal. The rest of the day was
kept as a holiday; and after dinner, a capital concert was
held, in which every one participated, a most enjoyable evening being thus spent. We had hove to at 8.30 p.m. to wait
for daylight, as we were now close to Fernando Noronha.
The next morning, Tuesday, September 13, we anchored
about 1J mile from the shore, and soon afterwards a boat
B 10
came off to us from the island, to make inquiries concerning
us, and to give us permission to land.
Fernando Noronha is a convict settlement belonging to
Brazil, and special leave must be obtained before any one is
allowed to land. Merchant vessels are not permitted to lie
off the island. I was much struck by the appearance of the
convict settlement from our yacht, as it lies at the base of
a hill with a towering peak, many of the rocky precipices
around it being of a quaint and peculiar shape. The
messenger who had been sent on board our vessel had a
strange and interesting history. He was a negro who had
been condemned to a life-sentence for murder. About nine
months before our arrival a mutiny had broken out amongst
the convicts, and this man had undertaken alone a voyage
to Pernambuco in order to give notice of the outbreak to the
Brazilian authorities. The distance was 250 miles, on an
open sea, and he accomplished the passage in a frail catamaran. For this courageous act he had received a full
pardon from the Government, but he had grown so accustomed to the island that he preferred to remain there. The
governor, Senhor Furtado de Mendonca, received us with
the utmost courtesy and hospitality, placing at our disposal
interpreters and guides, and affording us every facility for
thoroughly inspecting the island. He was unable himself to
talk either English or French, and we conversed with him
through the medium of his clerk, an Italian. This man
was a meek-looking polished individual, dressed in excellent
taste, and gentlemanly in his manners. To our surprise we
were informed that he also was a convict undergoing a
sentence of penal servitude for life, his crime having been
an exceptionally brutal murder of a whole family of five
persons, for the sake of a comparatively trifling robbery.
This exceedingly mild murderous ruffian conducted us politely
over the settlement, explaining everything to us with great
minuteness, and responding with alacrity to all our questions. FERNANDO  NORONHA.
The island of Fernando Noronha is about 4J miles long
and If mile wide, the highest point being 1000 feet above
the level of the sea. A smaller island lies a short distance
from it, rejoicing "in the ominous name of Bat Island. An
old - fashioned stone fort is stationed on a commanding
situation overlooking the convict settlement, and a detachment of Brazilian infantry is stationed there. There are
altogether about 1600 convicts on the island, the majority of
whom are negroes. Murder and forgery appeared to be the
principal crimes which had been committed, and some of
the prisoners certainly looked capable of most dastardly and
desperate deeds. Others, on the other hand, like our worthy
guide, appeared outwardly as innocent and guileless as
lambs; and it was difficult to realise that many of these
were amongst the most bloodthirsty offenders. Apart from
their enforced' isolation from their country, I could not help
thinking that their lot was by ho means a hard one for
penal convicts. Their compulsory work extends over but
three hours a-day, and consists of ordinary field-labour.
The rest of the time they have to themselves, living in their
own houses with their wives and children; and unless they
are violent, mutinous, or incorrigible, they are not subjected
to any prison discipline. If I were a convict, I should
certainly prefer Fernando Noronha to Portland or Dartmoor.
We dined at the governor's house at 5 p.m., and there we
met three Englishmen connected with the British Museum,
who had been spending some time upon the island, engaged
in botanical and ornithological pursuits. They had gathered
together a very interesting collection of specimens, and a
most pleasant evening was spent in their society. They
were living in the house as guests of the governor, and were
unanimous' in their expressions of grateful appreciation of
the kindness which they had received at his hands. At the
conclusion of our dinner the convicts were paraded in front
of the governor's house, and sang an. evening hymn to the 12
Virgin. On our return to the yacht we found that the courteous governor had sent us nine sacks of cocoa-nuts, besides
an immense quantity of bananas and fruit of various kinds.
The next morning we returned ashore in good time, and
after breakfasting at Government House- we enjoyed a
delightful day's ride through the island. Our guide upon
this occasion was another | thorough gentleman," 'who spoke
French with perfect accuracy and fluency. Feeling assured
this time that I was dealing with one of the officials, I asked
him whether he intended to remain long upon the island.
To my confusion he replied, | Malheureusement, monsieur,
j'ai encore sept ans." He was a French convict, undergoing
ten years for counterfeiting bank-notes.
The island had looked barren and rocky from the sea, and
I was quite unprepared for the extreme beauty of the
scenery and the luxuriance of the vegetation which we
encountered during this interesting day's ride. The coastline is indented with many little bays, the sandy beaches of
which are homelike and charming. Fruit is exceedingly
abundant throughout the island, and the oranges were, to
my mind, the best I had ever tasted.
On our return from our ride we went aboard the yacht,
accompanied by the governor and other officials, including
the two officers of the detachment quartered at the fort,
who were much interested in the Nordenfelt guns with
which our vessel was provided. We worked the latter with
dummy cartridges, greatly to the enjoyment and edification
of our Brazilian visitors. In the evening we dined again
with the governor, afterwards listening to the convicts' band,
which really played remarkably well.
Next day, Thursday, September 15, after breakfasting
again with the governor, we went for another ride, accompanied by some of the officials. Amongst other places, we
visited the summer residence of the governor, where we
were regaled with  cocoa-nuts  and delicious grapes.    We RAT ISLAND.
rode to the extreme north end of the island, where we rested
for some time in a shady grove of bananas, returning to
the settlement about 2 p.m. In the afternoon I went over
to Rat Island in the launch, and there I found a Brazilian
who spoke English well, .having spent many years in the
United States. He was working the phosphate rock of
which the" island is mainly composed, and anticipated a
most successful issue from his speculation. An English
barque was lying off the island, engaged in loading the phosphate rock; and we found the captain and crew in a state of
great excitement, as two of the sailors had attempted the
night before to set fire to the vessel, escaping themselves
in one of her boats. Fortunately the dastardly attempt
had proved abortive, though the men themselves had got
clear off in one of the ship's boats.
Rat Island is covered with a thick undergrowth of creepers,
which renders motion most difficult as soon as one gets off
the narrow paths. I shot four small turtle-doves, but owing
to the dense brushwood I only succeeded in securing two.
On returning to the main island at five o'clock, I took
some photographs of the place, as also a group of the
officials, after which we had our final dinner with the
governor. Senhor Furtado de Mendonca, our friendly host,
accompanied us to the beach to bid us farewell, attended by
the whole body of officials. The convict band marched in
front of us, playing a bright and inspiriting tune; and the
strains of their music were wafted across the water to our
ears during the whole course of our passage from the shore
to the yacht.
Nothing could exceed the hospitable kindness which was
displayed to us by every one, from the governor downwards,
during the whole of our three days' visit; and amongst my
pleasantest recollections of the voyage of the Nyanza there
will always stand prominently forth the convict island of
We sailed from Fernando Noronha at 8.30 A.M., Friday,
September 16 ; and our course was now directed a little
E. of S. for the small island of Trinidad. The distance
between these two islands is a little over 1000 miles; and
favoured by good winds during the greater part of the
time, we accomplished the passage in seven days.
Nothing worthy of record occurred on the way; but on
reaching Trinidad we found that the Wind was blowing
straight into the S.W. bay, where is the only anchorage in
the island, and that at the best of times a very precarious
one. We therefore decided to let the yacht lie off, and to
disembark in the boats, taking with us all the necessary
appliances for camping out. After many vain endeavours
we found it impracticable to land on this side of the island, as a heavy surf was breaking in the bay, and both
wind and sea were very high. Accordingly we coasted
round the island until we reached the S.E. bay, where there
seemed to be less surf, and the beach appeared to be sandy
and convenient. Here I determined to make an effort to
land; and taking with me six hands, together with tents
and provisions, I went off in the lifeboat.   Vast numbers TRINIDAD.
of gannets and frigate-birds circled round us as we rowed
towards the shore; the latter boldly swooping down upon
our heads, and compelling us to defend ourselves with
boat-hooks. We knocked down three, and this appeared to
irritate the rest more than ever. They were probably protecting their nests on shore, which they thought that we
were coming to rob. As we approached the spot where
we had intended to land, we found the water suddenly become very shallow; sharp coral heads appeared above the
surface in all directions, and a heavy surf was breaking
some distance from the shore. We tried to find a passage
in various places, but our efforts were all in vain; and at
length we were most reluctantly compelled to relinquish
our attempt, and returned to the yacht without having
effected a landing.
The island of Trinidad — which must not, of course, be
confounded with the larger and better-known island of the
same name in the West Indies—appears from the sea to
be barren and precipitous, many of the rocks being of fantastic shape. Those called Nine - pin and Sugar-loaf are
the two most prominent and peculiar of aspect. The S.E.
cove, where we tried to land, had a pleasant expanse of
ground gently sloping up from the water's-edge and covered
with grass; but this was almost the only sign of vegetation
which we could observe; though it is said that the valleys
were at one time thickly covered with forest - trees. The
island is three miles long by 1J mile broad, the centre
peak rising to a height of 2020 feet above the sea.
Dr Halley took possession of Trinidad in the name of
His Britannic Majesty William III. on April 17, 1700; and
in 1781 an English colony attempted to settle on the island.
The experiment, however, was unsuccessful, and was abandoned in a short time. The Portuguese more recently made
a similar effort, but met with no better success. The island has now been uninhabited for many years, and is a 16
sort of No Man's Land, although it is formally claimed by
Brazil. Many stories of buried treasure are connected with
the island; and expeditions have from time to time vainly
endeavoured to discover this mysterious store. The latest
search took place in 1889, when a certain Mr Knight spent
several months on the island, digging in a great number
of different spots without any results whatever. It is most
probable that these rumours are mere legendary fictions,
and that no treasure at all lies buried there.1
A cluster of three small islands, called the Martin Vas Rocks,
lies about 26 miles from Trinidad; but we did not think it
worth our while to go out of our way to visit them. Our
next point of destination was Rio de Janeiro, 750 miles W.
by S. of us; and thither we accordingly directed our course.
The weather was now considerably cooler, and we rolled more
or less during most of the way. We ran, however, on an
average, 140 miles a-day; and at 3.30 a.m., Thursday, September 29, we sighted the light on Cape Frio. We now
coasted along an exceedingly picturesque shore, with sandy
beaches sloping to the water's-edge, and well-wooded hills in
the background. In the course of the day, several large
turtles were seen close alongside the yacht. I fired at two
with an express rifle, and wounded both, but was unable to
secure either, though we lowered the dingy after them. As
soon as the boat approached they dived, and we saw nothing
further of them.
Fort Santa Cruz, at the entrance to the bay of Rio de
Janeiro, was passed, at 5.30 p.m., and we dropped anchor near
Fort Villeganion at six o'clock, in the portion, of the harbour
set apart for men-of-war. Eight war-vessels were lying at
anchor near us, three of these being Brazilian, two English,
two French, and one American. We did not go ashore that
evening, as the health-boat failed to put off to us.    Rio de
1 "The True Story of the Treasure Hunt.'
wood's Magazine,' September 1890.
By Wilfrid Pollock.    ' Black- RIO  DE  JANEIRO.
Janeiro looked very well at night from the anchorage, the
bright rows of gas-lamps extending all along Botofogo Bay,
whilst on the opposite side of the harbour the large suburb
of Nitheroy displayed its myriad lights. Soon after anchoring, a launch came off to us from H.M.S. Ruby, with offers
of assistance and friendly greetings from the senior officer on
the station.
If the city looked well beneath the canopy of night, the
view from the deck on the following morning was beautiful
and enchanting beyond description. The grand harbour was
studded with innumerable islands, like emeralds embedded in
an azure setting. Behind the town on every side arose a
background of mountains and undulating hills, clothed from
base to summit with tropical foliage. We went ashore at ten
o'clock, and having obtained our letters, we visited the
market, which, though dirty, is very large, and contained a
splendid display of fruit. One portion of the market is set
apart for the bird-fanciers; and here we saw great numbers of
curious birds, some of which were entirely new to us. Enormous quantities of green parrots are brought hither for sale
from Para, and they can be purchased for a merely nominal
sum. The streets of Rio are for the most part narrow, and
the shops generally small. An exception, however, must be
made in favour of Rua d'Ouvidor, the principal thoroughfare,
which is adorned with good shops. The display of jewellery
was especially fine, some of the diamonds being extraordinarily
magnificent. There are no public buildings worthy of note,
and the churches generally are ugly outside and tawdry
We had an excellent luncheon at the Hotel de Londres,
and afterwards proceeded by tram to the Botanical Gardens.
These are seven miles out of the town, and the road to them
took us along Botofogo Bay. The gardens are extremely
•beautiful, the principal feature in them being a wonderful
avenue of palms, absolutely regular and symmetrical, all the
c 18
trees being very lofty, and of precisely the same height.
There is also a fine avenue of mango-trees, with which we
were much interested, on account of its novelty to us. We
visited the Hotel de Londres again for dinner, which fully
sustained the opinion which we had formed from our lunch
of the culinary excellency of the establishment. In the
evening we lounged along the Rua d'Ouvidor, which is to Rio
de Janeiro what the Corso is to Rome, or the Chiaja to
Naples. All the 6lite and fashion of the city assemble here,
and the police des mo&urs exercise a strict supervision, excluding rigidly all doubtful characters.
On Sunday, October 2, we went on board the Ruby in the
forenoon to the. service, which was short and devotional, the
hymns being sung with great spirit by the men. We remained to lunch with the captain, who gave us some valuable
hints as to the shooting on the Patagonian coast, whither we
were intending to go for sport. In the afternoon we went
ashore, and had a pleasant ride upon a tram-car for several
miles in the direction of Tijuca. The road wound up amongst
the hills at the back of Rio de Janeiro, past handsome villas
and lovely gardens. The scenery, as we ascended, became
exquisitely beautiful and widely extensive. On our return
we visited the Acclimatisation Gardens, which were tastefully
laid out, and kept in excellent order. A large crowd of
people, chiefly of the poorer classes, were enjoying themselves
in a decorous and quiet manner. The evening was spent on
board our yacht.
A cricket-match took place on the following day between
the officers and men of the Ruby and the city of Rio de
Janeiro, in which the latter defeated the sailors. The ground
was prettily situated between low hills, which were covered
to the summit with flowering trees and palms; and the
wicket was in fairly good condition. The weather was now
excessively hot, though the sea-breeze usually set in in the
afternoon. TIJTJCA.
On Tuesday, October "4, having paid a visit in the morning to the admiral and officers of the U.S. flagship Lancaster", we went ashore after lunch and drove to Whyte's
hotel at Tijuca, where we were joined by some of the officers
of the Ruby. The hotel stands in a lovely spot about 10 miles
from Rio, and at an elevation of 2000 feet above the sea.
Consequently the situation is far healthier than that of the
city, and the place is quite free from yellow fever. Nevertheless, it is a curious fact that if a patient who has been
attacked by the fever at Rio comes up to Tijuca before he
has recovered, he invariably meets his death. The hotel
stands in the midst of a lovely garden in a secluded valley,
surrounded on all sides with well-wooded hills. Having remained to dinner, we missed the coach for the return journey
which connects with the tramway, and were compelled to hire
a carriage, for which I was charged the exorbitant price of 10
milreis, or £1 sterling, for a drive of about 2\ miles.
The American admiral, accompanied by his flag captain
and lieutenant, returned our call next morning; and in the
afternoon we took a tram, or bond as it is locally called,
for Riachuelo, where we ascended a hill by an incline lift,
1683 feet long. On arriving at the top, we had a glorious
drive to the summit of Santa' Thereza, where we inspected
the new reservoir, and whence we were treated to one of
the most picturesque panoramas in the neighbourhood of
Rio, the whole city, together with the bay and its numerous
beautiful islands, being outspread at our very feet. We
also obtained a magnificent view of the famous Corcovada
On Friday the weather completely changed, a strong
breeze blowing all day. We went ashore after breakfast, and
made an expedition to the summit of the Corcovada. The
mountain is ascended by a | Riggenbach " railway, similar to
that up the Righi and other mountains in Switzerland. The
starting-point is at Cosme Velio, whither we proceeded by CORCOVADA.
tram. The gradients of the mountain-railway are very steep
in places, even .reaching to 1 in 6; and the highest point of
the line is 2198 feet above the level of the sea. There is one .
iron viaduct of three spans; and two smaller bridges. The
train consisted of only one carriage, which was pushed up
from behind by the engine, the latter being provided with
a centre cog-wheel, running on a centre cog-rail. By this
means the train can at any moment be brought to a sudden
stand - still and securely clamped, in case of accident or
necessity. At the height of 1525 feet the train halts for a
few minutes at a station called Paneiras, where there is an
hotel owned by the railway company. The terminus itself
is situated 130 feet below the summit of the mountain, on
which is a circular iron structure resembling a band-stand.
Unfortunately, at the time of our visit the weather was dull
and cloudy, and we therefore missed the view, which is said
to be indescribably magnificent. We returned by the train
to Paneiras, where we stopped for lunch, afterwards enjoying
a walk in the lovely forest, which clothes the mountain-side
in the vicinity of the hotel. The vegetation is wondrously
dense and vigorous, rich and rare orchids hanging on almost
every tree, and the ground being carpeted with ferns of
innumerable variety of species. Butterflies of brilliant and
sparkling hue, and graceful little humming - birds, flitted
about in all directions, enhancing the fairy-like character of
the scene. Our stroll was cut short by a downfall .of rain,
and we returned to our yacht about 5 p.m. .
The following day, Saturday, October 8, brought our interesting visit to Rio de Janeiro to a close. The morning
was occupied in marketing ashore, and in settling up various
accounts. The prices which we were charged by ship-
chandlers and others appeared to us extortionate in the
extreme, in some cases nearly doubling those which are
demanded from merchant vessels. A yacht-owner seems to
be regarded as lawful prey by these maritime dealers, and SQUALLY  WKATHER.
this remark does not by any means apply to the port of
Rio de Janeiro alone. Before returning to the yacht, we
visited the Ruby and bade farewell to the friendly officers;
and at 3 p.m. we weighed anchor, and sailed round all the
men-of-war, dipping our ensign to each in turn, by way of
a parting salute.
The weather was now "setting in squally, and rain began
to fall heavily. There was a nasty sea on the bar, and we
therefore decided to anchor for the night inside the entrance
to Botofogo Bay.
ILUi 22
October 9-27, 1887.
The breeze proved pleasant and favourable next morning,
though there was a considerable swell outside the bar. We
hove up anchor at 10.30 a.m., and soon were speeding gallantly along before the wind at the rate of 11 knots an hour.
We were now bound for Monte Video, a distance of a little
over 1000 miles. The first day we ran 233 miles, but on
Tuesday, October 11, the weather set in squally, and the sea
rose, so that we were obliged to keep the yacht a little out
of her course in order to ease her. Towards evening the
wind dropped, and at sunset the air was almost a dead calm;
but black thunder-clouds were hanging about, and vivid
flashes of lightning appeared to herald the approach of one
of those violent storms which are known as pamperos on the
South American coast. We therefore double-reefed the foresail and stay-sail, housed the topmasts, and made all snug for
the coming night.
The next morning a strong gale was blowing, accompanied
by rain, and the weather was very cold. In the course of
the day the jib-boom sprang again in the same place as before, and the jib-tack carried away. We saw, for the first
time on the voyage, a large number of Cape pigeons, which SEA-GOING  QUALITIES  OP  THE  NYANZA.
are very pretty birds, with black and white plumage. We
caught two of them with a hook baited with pork; but I
could not find it in my heart to kill them, so we let them go
again. All the following day a tremendous sea was running,
and the ship laboured a great deal. She behaved, however,
splendidly in .all respects, and scarcely shipped a drop of
water. This was the first opportunity that we had had of
really testing her sea-going capabilities, and the result was
most satisfactory.
On Friday, October 14, the wind dropped, and the sea
rapidly went down. The morning was lovely, with a light,
crisp air, and we accordingly set the foresail, jib, and flying-
jib, and commenced running at good speed again. We sighted
a brigantine at 11 a.m., going in the same direction as ourselves, and rapidly overhauled her, though she was carrying
far more sail than our yacht. By the evening she was away
hull down in our wake. It was now again almost absolutely
calm, and we had an opportunity of examining the damage
sustained during the late storm. A cat-head had been broken,
one of the starboard davit-sockets carried away, and the top
strake of the launch stove in. These, however, were comparatively trifling damages, and we were more than ever
satisfied with the qualities of our little vessel.
As we drew near to Monte Video we passed several square-
rigged vessels bound for the River Plate, and we seemed to
pass them one and all almost as if they had not been moving,
although in every case they had all sail set, and a good
favourable breeze behind them. On the afternoon of Monday, October 17, we passed within four miles of Lobos Island,
and sighted the town of Maldonado, on the mainland, in the
distance. The coast appeared flat and barren, but the town
was well lighted at night. At 9 p.m. we sighted Flores light,
and an hour later that on the Cerro.
At three o'clock on the following morning we dropped
anchor about three miles off the town  of Monte Video, 24
finally anchoring in the outer' harbour about 8 A.m. We
were not much impressed with the appearance of the
city as seen from the deck of our yacht, the Cathedral
being the only conspicuous building in the place. It was
noon before we were able to go ashore, on account of a
delay in the appearance of the health-boat. There is a
great contrast between Monte Video and Rio de Janeiro,
the capital of "Uruguay being far cleaner than that of
Brazil, the streets wider and more handsome, and the shops
better in every way. The display of jewellery is particularly splendid, especially in the Caille 25 de Mayo, which
is the principal street in Monte Video. It is not so broad,
however, as the Caille 18 de Julio, which is planted with
trees on both sides, in the manner of European boulevards,
and terminates in a large open square, in the centre of which
is a lofty pillar, surmounted by a fine statue of Liberty.
We lunched and dined at the H6tel Oriental; but the food
and cooking were execrably bad. The hotel itself is a spacious
and handsome building, and is generally considered the first
in Monte Video. We spent the whole afternoon in strolling
about the town, and riding on a tram to the Paso Mollina, a
fashionable suburb about five miles distant from the heart of
the city, adorned with fine houses and beautiful gardens. We
looked in at the Cathedral on our return, but were greatly
disappointed with it. The building is decidedly poor from
an architectural point of view, and one handsome monument
inside it seemed the only object worth inspecting. We were,
however, much pleased with our visit to the market, which
is a handsome covered building with a fountain in the centre,
and containing a magnificent display of fruit and vegetables
of every sort and kind. We returned on board at 9 p.m.,
thoroughly satisfied with our first impressions of Monte
Video, our enjoyment of the place having been considerably
enhanced by the exquisitely mild and beautiful day.
The following morning I was engaged in business with the n&-
manager of the London and Brazilian Bank, whom I found
exceedingly obliging and courteous, and who, together with
his wife and family, contributed most materially to our
happiness during the whole of our visit to Monte Video.
Under their escort we visited in the afternoon the Theatro
Solis, which appeared to me finer and more admirably
arranged than any theatre in London, and second only to
the Grand Opera House at Paris. It is very' handsomely
decorated inside, and has four rows of boxes, besides stalls,
pit, and gallery. One tier of boxes is reserved solely for the
use of ladies, and is provided with a separate entrance, at
which gentlemen are not admitted. Unfortunately we were
unable to witness a performance at the theatre, as the house
is only open during the winter months. Many of the best
French and Italian companies pay periodical visits to the
On Thursday, October 20, I started upon a short expe^
dition into the interior of Uruguay. Leaving Monte Video
from the Central Railway station, I travelled by train to
San Jose, past Canelones and St Lucia. The distance is only
60 miles, but the journey occupied over three hours, though
our train was called "express." The line passed through
a level country, which appeared to be in a high state of
cultivation; and I understood from a fellow-passenger that
arable farming there returned on an average from 10 to 15
per cent per annum on invested capital. After leaving St
Lucia the line makes a fearfully sharp curve and then
crosses a long iron bridge.
San Jose" is the third city in Uruguay, and contains about
6000 inhabitants. It is, however, a very poor-looking town,
badly paved, and worse lighted. There is no gas in the
place. Soon after sunrise next morning I left San Jose in a
primitive, tumble-down, old conveyance, which was dignified
by the title of diligence. It was drawn by four horses, and was
capable of carrying nine passengers besides the driver.    Our
D 26
way lay over a remarkably fine agricultural country, the
well-cultivated fields being of vast extent and enclosed by
substantial wire fences. The crops, which were principally
wheat, looked thriving and healthy, and everything seemed
to betoken prosperity. So rich is the soil that the farmers
never manure it; though this state of things cannot last for
ever. We stopped to breakfast at a place called Colonia
Pauline, which stood in. the midst of a pasture district.
Here we changed diligences, and proceeded to Colonia Suiza,
which was reached about 1.30 p.m. The distance from San
Jose" was 36 miles, and we had taken seven hours to cover the
journey. The road was in many places shockingly bad, and
nowhere could it be described as good. I put up at the
Hotel Suiza, a most .comfortable little inn, with a Frenchman
as host.
The colony, as its name implies, is composed almost exclusively of Swiss immigrants. It had been in existence for
twenty-six years at the time of my visit to it, and was in a
highly flourishing condition. The colonists keep rigidly to
themselves, never intermarrying with the natives of Uruguay.
They have their own church and their own schools, and maintain their individual and national characteristics. Most of
them, however, have lost their rights of citizenship through
their long absence from their native country, and are now,
together with their children, naturalised Uruguayan subjects,
After lunch, mine host of the Hotel Suiza drove me some
little distance, to call on two brothers who possessed an
estancia of 25,000 acres, upon which they had a magnificent
flock of 18,000 sheep, besides a herd of 4000 cattle. They
had been in the country for seven years, and were reputed
to be doing remarkably well. We found them both busily
engaged in sheep-shearing; and I was informed that they
worked harder than any of their peons, or farm-labourers.
We afterwards visited a small German brewery, which was
also doing a thriving business in the colony. CONDITIONS  OF  FARMING  IN   URUGUAY,
During my expedition to San Jose* and Colonia Suiza, I
made numerous inquiries as to the condition of the country,
the amount of capital necessary to start farming, and other
matters of a kindred nature. I found that land was then
worth from 20s. to 30s. per acre ; and that ought to
think of starting farming in the country, on any proper scale
at all, without a capital of at least £5000. With this capital,
and with due skill and industry, he ought to be able to earn
at least 15 per cent clear interest per annum; and in favourable years he might expect as much as 25 per cent upon his
outlay. The only drawback to the country was the unstable
government, and the unsatisfactory condition of its political
affairs ;= and whilst these things are so, neither Uruguay nor
any other South American State can really expect to thrive.
I returned to Monte Video by way of San Jose\ where,
during my brief halt, I visited a curious - looking church in
the Plaza de los Treinta Tres. It was built of brick, the
plastering of which had not been finished and pointed off,
but the interior was decidedly handsome, being adorned with
some beautiful marble pillars.
I got back to my yacht on the Saturday evening, and on
Sunday morning, when I came upon deck, I found quite a
heavy sea running in the roadstead, and the wind blowing
almost a gale. I went ashore at 9 a.m., to see one of the
sights of Monte Video. This was the Sunday morning fair,
which is held in the Caille 18 de Julio. The Whole length
of the street was lined with booths on either side, and an
extraordinarily gay and busy scene was going on. Meat,
fruit, vegetables, poultry, and pet birds seemed to be the
principal articles of trade; though all sorts and conditions of
things were being offered for sale besides. In the afternoon
we went for a ride. The horses in Monte Video are fine
•animals, all entire, mares being never ridden. I was told
that they would not trot, but I had no difficulty with my
animal in that respect.   We first went to the Prado, a public THE  BULL-RING  AND  SALADEROS
park, some five1 miles out of the town, well laid out, and provided with an excellent restaurant. Thence we rode on to
another park, known as the Villa Colon, which is entirely
natural, no attempt at artificial improvement having been
made upon it. This seemed to us a most judicious arrangement, as the native beauties of the park were striking and
effective, several fine avenues of blue-green trees crossing it
in different directions.
The gale continued next day, and I spent the morning and
afternoon ashore. Mr H, the manager of the London and
Brazilian Bank, had entered my name as a visitor at the
English Club, and I found this act of courtesy a great
comfort and convenience to me during my stay. The
club is small, but exceedingly pleasant, and is accommodated
with reading, smoking, billiard, and card rooms. I spent the
greater portion of my morning there, and, after lunching
with the H.'s, we visited the great and well-known bull-ring
of Monte Video. It is an enormous building, capable of seating 10,000 people, and situated six miles out of the town.
During the winter, bull-fights take place here every Sunday,
and some of the best Spanish matadors are engaged for these
contests, the bulls themselves being, for the most part, imported
from Spain. For some days previous to a fight, the bulls are
kept in dark stalls, divided by movable partitions. These
partitions are hoisted up by men standing on a platform
above the stalls, when the bulls are to be let loose into the
jarena. We were allowed to inspect the saddlery, lances, and
other equipments used by the picadors in the bull-fights ;
and various technical details connected with these sanguinary
displays were minutely explained to us.
On the morrow we were taken by Mr L., agent of the
P.S.N.C, in his launch, across to the Cerro', where we visited
the saladerosy or slaughter-houses. These are of two kinds,
the one for killing mares and the other for killing cattle.
The former are slaughtered for the sake of their hides, their * ILJ* —■-"*
flesh being boiled down for grease. It is rumoured that the
so-called "Paysandu ox - tongues" are generally those of
mares; but I have had no means of verifying the truth of
this report. I therefore simply give it for what it is worth.
The arrangements for killing cattle are neat and excellent.
The animal is confined in a pen, on a level with the door of
which is a platform running upon rails. A lasso is thrown
over the animal's head, and he is drawn out on to the platform, which is made to pass under a stand. The butcher,
who is stationed upon this stand, plunges a long knife into
the victim's spine as he passes underneath, and instantaneous death invariably ensues. The carcass is immediately
drawn along the rails to the cutting-up department; and so
rapid is the process, so ingenious the machinery, that tvjo
minutes usually suffice for catching, killing, and cutting up
an ox ! We were unable to witness the process, as the sald-
deros were not working at that season of the year.
Wednesday, October 26, was spent in social visits and entertainments, and on the Thursday afternoon we set sail from
Monte Video, having enjoyed a delightful ten days' visit to
the capital of Uruguay, thanks to the kindness and hospitality which we received from every one, and most especially
from our good friends at the London and Brazilian Bank. 30
October 27-Novcmber 17, 188"/
We decided not to proceed farther up the Rio de la Plata
to Buenos Ayres, but continued our southerly course, making
for the Welsh colony on the shore of Nuevo Gulf. The
distance to this place from Monte Video Was 630 miles, and
with a fair wind we hoped to complete the passage in four
days. As it was, however, we encountered unfavourable
weather, the wind being dead against us for • forty-eight
hours; and for another twenty-five hours we were virtually
becalmed. Consequently, although we left Monte Video on
Thursday, October 27, we did not sight Delgada Point on
the peninsula of San Josef, which encloses Nuevo Gulf on
the northern and eastern sides, until November 3, exactly
one week after setting sail.
No event of special interest occurred upon the voyage,
except that one evening, whilst setting the mainsail, the. boom
took charge and knocked down the after binnacle, smashing
the bowl. The weather was considerably colder than any
which we had met with since leaving England, and for the
first time upon our voyage we had a  fire in  the saloon. NTJEVO  GULF :   A  HAUL  OF  FISH.
At various intervals we saw great flocks of Cape pigeons
and albatross, and on one occasion a sea-lion came within
a hundred yards of the yacht.
The sun was shining brightly on the morning of Thursday,
November 3, and the temperature had again become quite
warm when we entered Nuevo Gulf, and beat up to our anchorage against a head-wind from the west. We had been in
sight of the coast of Patagonia for several hours previously;
but the prospect had been very dull and uninteresting, consisting of one unbroken line of white cliffs, from 50 to 100
feet high. At 7 p.m. we anchored in Pyramid Bay, in .seven
fathoms of water, and about a mile from the shore. This
bay was visited by Mr Lambert in 1880, who in his entertaining book, ' The Voyage of the Wanderer,' mentions the
fishing here to be very good. Accordingly, after dinner I
landed in the dingy to haul the seine, and Was enabled to
corroborate to the full Mr Lambert's testimony upon this
point. We had a most successful trial, catching in three
hauls about 2 cwt. of excellent fish. The majority were
a kind of large smelt, called peccaray, and there were a
dozen or more very large-sized fish, greatly resembling cod.
The country bordering on the bay in this neighbourhood is
entirely uninhabited.
Next day I landed early, hoping to have a good day's
sport. Two of my men accompanied me, armed with rifles and
revolvers, in case of our encountering any hostile Indians.
We climbed the cliff, at the summit of which we found an
undulating plain of a sandy nature and with a wretchedly
poor soil. The vegetation consisted chiefly of coarse grass
growing in patches and small thorn-bushes. Mr Lambert
described the district as suitable for sheep and cattle; but
our experience of it was of a diametrically opposite character. After walking along for about two miles we came
across some animals, which we imagined to be a species of
small .deer.    We could not get very near them, but I was 32
fortunate enough to kill one With a shot from my express
rifle at the distance of over 120 yards. It proved to be a
Mara or Patagonian cavy, resembling somewhat a gigantic
hare. We saw several more of these animals during the
day, but they were very shy, and we were unable to get
nearer to them than from 150 to 200 yards. We also
sighted four guanacos; but the country is not adapted to
"stalking, and we could not get within 1000 yards of. them.
The only other game which we put up was a brace of partridges, apparently very much the same as our English
birds. On the whole, I was decidedly disappointed- with the
result -of our day's excursion, as I had been led from Mr
Lambert's account to expect an abundant supply of game.
We found several broken eggs of the rhea, or American
ostrich, but we could see no trace of the birds themselves.
Nor did we see anything of the two lakes mentioned by Mr
Lambert. In fact, we did not come across the slightest trace
of any water.
We reached the shore again at five o'clock, and I strolled
along the beautiful sandy beach for a couple of hours, to see
whether I could pick up any objects of curiosity. There
was a great deal of drift-wood lying about, and the lower
part of the cliffs was filled with prodigious quantities of
oyster and clam shells, the low-water rocks being also covered with mussels. The only thing which I really picked
up, however, was a sponge belonging to a 64-pounder gun,
which must have fallen overboard from some man-of-war-
and been washed ashore. At dinner we had some of the
fish which we had caught in the seine the evening before,
and we found them very excellent eating.
On Saturday, November 5, we got under way and sailed
across the gulf to Port Madryn, which is the harbour for the
Welsh colony of Chupat. A Norwegian barque was lying
in the harbour when we arrived. On going ashore in the
afternoon we were met by two Englishmen, Messrs B. & G, PORT  MADRYN.
who were superintending the construction of a railway from
the port to Chupat. They took us for a stroll, and showed
us the progress of the works. Besides the rough huts
erected by the railroad employe's, there were only four houses
in the place, including the future railway station. The construction of this line was commenced in May 1886, and it
was expected to be open for traffic in May 1888. The whole
length of the line was to be 43 miles. An English company
had undertaken its construction and management; and from
what we could see, it appeared as if everything was being
conducted on a most extravagant scale. The engines and
rolling stock had all been manufactured in England, sent out
in pieces, and put together here. The carriages, which were
already finished, were Pullman cars of the most handsome
type, fitted up according to all the latest improvements.
Considering that the railway is simply intended for the
accommodation of a few Welsh colonists, who live in a most
rough-and-ready fashion, it certainly did seem little short of
ridiculous to see the magnificent Pullman carriages. Messrs
B. & G. complained greatly of the insolence and discontent
displayed by the Welshmen who had been employed on the
line, the conduct of whom had at length become so insupportable that they had all been discharged from the work,
and Italians had been imported to take their places. These
were proving far more satisfactory in every way, and good
progress was being made with the work at the time of our
visit to the place. The great difficulty connected with the
undertaking was the absolute deficiency of fresh water, every
drop of which had to be brought from Chupat. Several
borings had been made in various parts, some of which we
witnessed in operation ourselves; but they had all been
unsuccessful up to that time. Whether water has since
been discovered or not, I am unable to say.
During our  stay at Port Madryn  the  first troubles  of
our voyage began, in the shape of a disagreement with the
E 34
sailing-master. This man evinced a spirit of independence
and insolent self-will, which occasioned me at the time no
little uneasiness as to its effect upon the rest of the crew,
and which shortly afterwards culminated in a manner
presently to be described. However, upon this occasion I
managed to make matters straight, with no worse result
than the inconvenience of being prevented from landing for
the greater part of one day.
On Monday, November 7, we were conducted by Mr G.
over the line to Trelew, the terminus for the Welsh colony.
The passenger carriages had not yet commenced to run; so
chairs were placed in a brake-van, and we had really a very
comfortable journey. The scenery was uninteresting in
the extreme, with nothing but sandy plains on either side,
s_^tudded about with stunted bushes. We could not help
recalling with commiseration and pity the difficult and
wearisome experiences of Mr Lambert and his party, which
are so graphically described in his interesting book. The
line, which was not in existence at the time of his visit,
is almost perfectly straight; and as there are neither bridges
nor tunnels, it cannot have been very difficult to construct
Mr G. informed us that there was an intention to extend
it at some future time, so as to open up inland communication with Buenos Ayres vid Patagones.
On arriving at Trelew we found a letter of invitation from
Mr Lewis Jones, the head of the colony, awaiting us; but
it was too late that night to visit him, and we stayed accordingly at a homely but very comfortable inn, which had
lately been opened near the railway terminus by a Welshman and his wife. During the night rain fell heavily, but
the morning broke clear and fine.
We rose at 6.30 A.M., and went off to a lake about half
a mile from the inn, in the hope of having some duck-
shooting. We saw a great quantity of these birds, as also
some very handsome swans with beautiful black necks and A  WELSH  COLONY.
heads. Unfortunately, however, we were unable to get a
shot at them, as they kept well away in the very centre
of the lake.
Trelew was a miserable little place, consisting merely of a
few houses erected for the railway officials and navvies, a
co - operative store, and the inn where we had passed the
night. No liquor could he obtained, tea being the universal drink at every meal. No doubt in course of time
this place will grow, and it may be destined to occupy a
position of comparative importance; but at present it was
merely in the stage of infancy, and that an infancy apparently of anything but a robust nature.
We started in a dogcart at 11 a.m. to drive to Mr
Lewis Jones's housej which was nine miles distant from
Trelew. The road passed through the valley of the Chupat,
which, though entirely cultivated, principally with wheat
crops, appeared to be composed of an exceedingly poor soil,
differing but little from the rest of the country. I was,
I must confess, grievously disappointed with what I saw,
for I had been led to anticipate that in this valley, at
least, I should meet with a rich and fertile vegetation.
One can hardly understand how any colony, Welsh or
otherwise, could have fixed upon such a locality for their
future home.
The history of this settlement, is interesting and curious.
In July 1865, 150 emigrants arrived hither from Wales,
attracted by the utter loneliness and seclusion of the spot;
their object being to found a colony where nothing but
the Welsh language should be spoken, and where they
would be compelled to associate solely with members of
their own nationality.
Their venture proved at the outset a comparative failure;
for instead of attracting other Welsh emigrants to the spot,
their own numbers became gradually diminished through
the inroads of sickness and death, so that within a couple 1
of years after their first arrival only 120 settlers were
left. These, disappointed at the Want of fertility exhibited
by the soil, and downcast at their losses and the little
encouragement which they had received from their fellow-
countrymen, abandoned the settlement in 1867, and retired
to the shores of Nuevo Gulf. Here they endured most
grievous hardships and privations, many of them being
reduced to the verge of starvation. Food and aid providentially arrived in one of H.M. ships just at the direst
extremity of their need; and from this time their prospects began to revive in a measure. In 1871 they de-r
cided to return to Chupat, having been reinforced by new
arrivals from Wales; and from the date of their second
settlement in the colony, their prosperity has gradually but
■^steadily increased. In 1876 the population had risen to
690, in 1883 it had reached 1286, and in 1887 there were as
many as 2300 Welsh inhabitants at Chupat. The valley
is divided into 390 farm's, nearly all of which were in occupation at the time of our visit. The colony is under
the management of a president and council, though they
are of course subject to the Government of the Argentine
Republic. They belong without exception to the Nonconformist religion, though they are divided into several denominations. On every side one observed evident indications
of industry and enterprise. Canals have been constructed,
and works of irrigation are in operation; and with the
opening of the railway further progress will doubtless be
made. Notwithstanding these outward signs of prosperity,
however, we were given to understand that the majority of
the colonists are indolent and apathetic; and that all the
improvements are due to the energy and skill of one or
two of their leading men, chief amongst whom, and far in
advance of all others, was the host whom we were about
to visit, Mr Lewis Jones. During our drive we passed
several of the colonists' houses, and we were struck by the AN  AGREEABLE   HOSTESS.
slovenly aspect of the houses and farms, which presented a
lamentable contrast to the neatness and order which we had
noticed in the flourishing Swiss colony near Monte Video.
On our arrival at Mr Jones's house soon after noon, we
were greatly disappointed to find that he was absent from
home, having been called away upon unavoidable business.
We were, however, warmly welcomed by his kind and
hospitable wife, who made us most comfortable in the new
house, which was barely finished, their former house having
been washed away by a flood, as described by Mr Lambert.
The present house has been erected on the site of the old
one, and on the very margin of the river, which is here
100 yards wide. After the first experience, it seemed to us
strangely imprudent to have ventured upon a second house
on the same spot. After lunch, we drove to Tre Rawson,
the principal village in the colony; but, as it appeared to us,
an untidy, straggling place. Here the governor and officials
of the Argentine Republic have their residences, and there is
also a post-office, besides two or three stores. The village
extends on both sides of the river, and is situated about five
miles from the sea.
Nov. 9.—A very high wind was blowing this morning, but
the weather was otherwise .fine. We were obliged to leave
Mr Jones's house at a quarter to ten, in order to be in time
to catch the train which was to carry us back to Port Madryn.
Mrs Jones accompanied us part of the way, until we met her
husband returning home from the visit which he had been
compelled to make. We had only time to exchange a few
words with him, before bidding farewell to him and our
agreeable hostess; and it was a source of great disappointment to us that we had been so unfortunate as to miss
him. We had been hoping to have gleaned from him
much interesting information, not only concerning the colony, but also concerning the district in which the colony
is  situated;  and,  moreover, it  would  have  been a great 38
pleasure to have spent an evening in the society of one to
whose individual exertions and enterprise the prosperity of
the whole colony was almost entirely due.
As it was, we might have spent a little more time in his
company; for on our arrival at Trelew, we found that the
train had not yet returned from Port Madryn, whither it had
gone back after depositing us, and that we could not possibly
leave until late in the afternoon. We therefore went off to
the lake again with our guns, and succeeded in bagging one
teal and two spur-winged plover. We saw an even greater
quantity of game than before; but they were so shy that we
could not get near them.
At 5 p.m. the train arrived, but the engine had run short
of coal! It would be impossible to start until more had
been fetched from Port Madryn, forty-three miles away!
There was no help for it, and grumbling was useless; so,
swallowing our disgust and indignation, we made ourselves
as comfortable as we could for another night at the inn,
where, I am bound to say,.we received every care and attention from our Welsh host and his wife. On the whole, I was
much disappointed with my visit to Chupat; and if I had
known that the condition of agriculture was so poor, and that
there was such a total absence of neatness and order through-
out the settlement, I certainly should not have thought it
worth my while to spend so much time in the neighbourhood,
nor indeed to have visited Nuevo Gulf at all. At the same
time, I believe that the colony has made distinct progress
since Mr Lambert's visit in 1882, though the expensive railway, with its Pullman cars, seems, to say the least of it, premature, and a rough waggon line would have answered all the
requirements of the colony.
We left Trelew at 9.30 a.m. next morning, reaching Port
Madryn at two o'clock, thus taking four and a half hours to
accomplish the journey of forty-three miles. After lunching
with Mr G., we went off to the yacht, a gale blowing at the time. A SHOAL  OF  PORPOISES.
Friday, Nov. 11th.—The morning was one of the most
lovely imaginable, the gale had quite subsided, and the
weather was much warmer than that which we had experienced for many days. We went ashore in the morning
to bid farewell to Messrs B. and G, who had shown us every
attention during our visit to Port Madryn; and soon after
noon we weighed anchor," setting sail with a light, fair breeze.
A large shoal of porpoises came round the ship as we were
leaving the harbour; and after the carpenter had unsuccessfully endeavoured to harpoon one, the boatswain managed to
secure his prey, driving the harpoon through his thick hide,
and deep down into his flesh. We played it for about five
minutes, and then hoisted it on board, when the butcher's
services were brought into requisition. Upon being
slaughtered, it bled profusely, like a pig; and when cooked,
it tasted not unlike coarse beef. The men ate heartily of it,
and pronounced it very good.
We intended making for Port St Elena, at the north end
of Camerones Bay, and about 150 miles south of Nuevo Gulf;
but a strong gale came on during the following night, and lasted for thirty-six hours. We shipped a great deal of water,
which drowned all our fowls, and stove the bulwarks in forwards. Moreover, a strong current sets to the eastward, and
we found it. almost impossible to beat up against the wind
and sea. We therefore decided on the second day to give
up our intention of touching at Port St Elena, and directed
our course for Stanley, in the Falkland Islands. Whilst the
gale was at its height we passed the dead body of a man,
dressed in blue clothes, floating by close to the yacht. It
was evidently the corpse of some poor sailor who had fallen
overboard from his ship and been drowned.
When we altered our course we had 489 miles to run
before reaching Stanley, and this we accomplished in four
days. The wind gradually dropped, and the sea went down
soon after we had set our faces towards the Falkland Islands,  41
November 17-December 5, 1887.
Coasting along the northern shore of the East Falkland
Island, we passed the Volunteer Rocks and soon found
ourselves off Stanley. The wind, however, was dead ahead
of us, and we had great difficulty in beating up against it,
so that we did not anchor off Mr Dean's pier until the afternoon. We greatly admired the appearance of the little
settlement as we viewed it from our anchorage. The houses
were chiefly built of wood; and though small, they all
looked neat and clean, and the majority of them had little
greenhouses- attached to them. We landed and called on
the governor, Mr Kerr, who together with his family gave
us a cordial and hospitable reception. Government House
was an old-fashioned rambling building, the exterior of
which was by no means attractive. It was, however,
.exceedingly comfortable inside, and great improvements
had been made on it by Mr Kerr. A battery of three guns
behind a small earthwork was supposed to protect the
house; but it did not appear likely to have been of much
service, as all the guns were old and worn out.    One of them
F 42
was dismounted, and the carriages of the two others were
falling to pieces.
On strolling through the town we found that its closer
acquaintance did not belie the opinion which we had formed
of it from a distance. The streets and houses were kept in
excellent order, and the large general stores, of which there
were three, were clean-looking and well arranged. There
were several minor shops, two inns, and, as it seemed to
us, an inordinate proportion of public-houses. We noticed a
pretty little Catholic chapel, though owing to the want of a
priest there was no service; but the English church had been
destroyed two years before by a landslip, and had not yet
been rebuilt. The cemetery, which we visited, was evidently
carefully attended to ; we observed a large number of sailors'
The present history of the group of Falkland Isles does
not reach back much more than two hundred years. It is
true that they were sighted by Davis in 1592; but Captain
Strong was the first to visit them in 1689, and they were
named by him after his patron, Lord Falkland. They were
occupied in 1710 by the French, who established a colony
at Port Louis, Berkeley Sound, in 1763. Five years later
they were, however, expelled by the Spanish, who in their
turn were forced to yield them up to the English in 1771.
The latter neglected to colonise the islands, which were in
consequence claimed by the Argentine Republic, who established a settlement at Port Louis in 1820. During a dispute
between that republic and the United States in 1831, the
latter destroyed the colony. Once again the British flag
was hoisted on the Isles in 1833, and since that time they
have been effectively occupied by the English. The seat of
government was removed from Port Louis to Stanley in
The group consists of two main islands, called respectively
East  and West  Falkland, and  about  one  hundred other AN  UNPLEASANT  INCIDENT.
smaller islets. The total area of the whole group does not
exceed 6500 square miles. The climate is bleak and boisterous, and owing to the prevalence of strong winds no trees or
crops can be raised. The thermometer varies from 30° to
50° Fahr. in the winter, and from 40° to 60° in the summer.
An enormous quantity of rain falls, and an average of 240
days in the year are registered as "wet." The islands are
mountainous, the highest point—viz., the summit of Mount
Adam—being 2315 feet above the level of the sea. The soil
is chiefly peat, which is used for fuel. The population numbered 811 in 1871, and 1843 in 1887, 850 of the latter
residing in Stanley. A mail arrives and leaves for Europe
once a-month by the Hamburg Kosmos S.N.C. Altogether,
we should scarcely be inclined to recommend the Falkland
Islands as a desirable place of residence for those who are at
liberty to choose for themselves.
On Friday, November 18, the day after our arrival at
Stanley, a highly unpleasant incident occurred. My sailing-
master, with whom, as I have mentioned above, I had
already had some little trouble, accosted me bluntly when I
came on deck in the morning, and informed me that he
had determined not to leave the harbour until I had-dismissed one of the servants to whom he had taken a dislike.
Apart from my unwillingness to be browbeaten by my own
employe^ in this manner, I felt no inclination to accede to his
demand, for I had found nothing worthy of blame in the
conduct of the servant referred to. I therefore told the
fellow that I should certainly do nothing of the kind; and
I warned him that he was not at liberty to leave me thus at
a moment's notice, and that if he persisted in his determination I should prosecute him for breach of contract and
insubordination of conduct. Upon this the man completely
lost his temper, and passionately made use of the most
violent and abusive language towards me in the presence
and hearing of several of the sailors upon deck.    To put an 44
end to this scene I went ashore and reported the matter to
the shipping-master, who sent a message forthwith to the
yacht summoning the offender before him. The man took
no notice of this summons, and not until another messenger
had been despatched for him, some three hours later, did he
condescend to put in an appearance. He was then considerably the worse for drink, and was most argumentative and
irrepressible. The shipping-master informed him that he
had, by his refusal to take my vessel out of harbour, ipso
facto dismissed himself. He was accordingly ordered to
return on board to pack up his things, and to be ready
to quit at 5 p.m. During all the time that he remained
on board he was very noisy and troublesome, using
foul language, and annoying everybody; and it was with
4he greatest difficulty, and only after threatening to send for
the police, that we finally succeeded in getting rid of him.
Three days after, I settled up with him and paid him off, he
being so drunk meanwhile that it was impossible to attempt
to reckon up with him. He left the island on the following
day by the Kosmos Company's s.s. Setos.
This unpleasant contretemps necessitated my despatching a
cablegram to England for a new sailing-master, and delayed
us at Stanley for three months. It was not until the 10th
of the following February that we were able once again to
put out to sea. The prospect of this long delay was not
very inviting, but, with one trifling exception, all hands on
board acquiesced in the inevitable with excellent grace;
and after all, we found so many friends, and received such
kindness on every side, that the time passed away far more
pleasantly and rapidly than any of us at first anticipated.
H.M.S. Swallow was lying at anchor in the harbour during
the greater part of our sojourn at Stanley, and Captain F.
and her other officers contributed in no small degree to
relieve the tedium of our waiting-time. We also had the
opportunity of gaining a further insight into the condition,
capabilities, and prospects of the islands, and made the very
agreeable acquaintanceship of the Messrs Dean, who possess
the chief ship-repairing yard, as also of the'Rev. Lowther
Brandon, the colonial chaplain at Stanley.
The latter preached us excellent sermons on the Sundays,
though since the unfortunate destruction of his church his
congregations have been very small. He was making
strenuous efforts' to' raise a fund for the rebuilding of the
church, in which he was being ardently supported by the
bishop of the diocese. The latter, however, appeared to us
to be far too ambitious and extravagant in. his aims, for he
had insisted upon the raising of £7000, a sum of money
which seemed a great deal in excess of the requirements of
that small settlement. Already £3000 had been subscribed
or promised, and I could not help thinking that this was
amply sufficient.
After lunch, on our first Sunday in Stanley, we walked
out to see the new reservoir which was in course of construction, in order to enable the water for the use of the
colony to be obtained from a fresh source, that hitherto in
use having been condemned as unwholesome and dangerous.
During this walk we learned that the whole of the land in
the colony had been already taken up, with the exception of
600,000 acres belonging to the Falkland Islands Company,
which was freehold. The land is held on a nineteen years'
lease from the Crown, the present rental being £10 per 6000
acres. No leases will be renewed at the expiration of their
term for a smaller sum than £20 per 6000 acres, and in
many cases the rentals will be raised to £25 and upwards.
This improvement in the value of property was in a great
measure due to the governor, Mr Kerr, who, during the
seven years that he had held his office, had enormously
improved the financial position of the colony. Exports had
risen from £20,000 per annum in 1870 to £108,000 per
annum in 1887, and imports from £21,000 to £67,000.    The 46
colony was entirely self-supporting, and there was no public
debt whatever. The only tax was that on dogs, but licences
had to be taken out by publicans. Import duties were
charged on wine and spirits and tobacco at much the same
rates as those in England. The exports consisted almost
entirely of wool, sheep-farming being .the principal occupation of the colony. The islands were almost free from crime,
though drunkenness seemed to prevail to a more than
average extent. This, no doubt, was mainly due to the
unnecessarily large number of public-houses, which I have
already noticed above. Minor charges were settled by the
police magistrate, the more serious cases and those of appeal
being adjudicated upon by a supreme court, presided over
by the governor, and provided with a jury. Capital punishment was allowed for the crime of murder, but only one
execution had ever taken place in the colony. Coroners'
inquests were held in 'cases of necessity, similar in all
respects to those in England, except that the number of
jurymen was restricted to six.
A detachment of marines was formerly stationed at
Stanley, but in 1879 they were withdrawn; and the welfare
of the colony is intrusted to the care of a few policemen,
who are for the most part old army or navy pensioners. A
very strong feeling of loyalty to the old country prevails
throughout the Falkland Islands, a strong evidence whereof
has been afforded by the liberal sum of £280 which has
been subscribed for the Imperial Institute, and which
signifies more than 3s. per head of the population. We
doubt whether this proportion will be equalled throughout
the wide extent of the British empire.
There are no roads throughout the islands, with the
exception of a short one through the settlement at Stanley.
On Thursday, November 24,1 visited the Bidston Hill, a
fine four-masted ship that had been lying at Stanley for the
last seven months undergoing repairs.    She had met with H.M.S.   SWALLOW.
terrific weather whilst doubling Cape Horn, and her topmasts and top-gallant-masts with all gear attached had been
completely carried away. The repairs had been executed by
the Messrs Dean, and the master of the ship pronounced the
work to have been excellently done. The work-people, however, had been outrageously slow and leisurely in their
operations; and the cost of everything had been most
exorbitant. The ship-carpenters received 16s. 9d. and the
blacksmiths 20s. per day; whilst every man was paid 3s. per
hour for overtime. Altogether the repairs to the ship had
cost £9500, a sum which seemed ridiculously high.
The weather at this period was exceedingly disagreeable,
heavy rain falling day after day, accompanied not un-
frequently by strong, cold gales. I went ashore most days;
but there was little chance of seeing anything, and pool at
Government House occupied the greater part of our time.
During the finer intervals we frequently strolled in the
governor's gardens, which were well stocked with European
vegetables and with strawberries, melons and cucumbers
being grown under glass. We were amused by being shown
a small apple preserved in spirits, and regarded as a great
curiosity, as being the only one ever produced in the colony.
H.M.S. Swallow arrived on Friday, November 25, and next
day we were introduced to Captain F. at Government House.
That same afternoon H. went out shooting, and brought back
three fine geese and about a dozen dotterel. Wild-fowl
abound in certain parts of the islands, and good sport can
often be obtained. Three species of geese are met with here
—the upland, the brent, and the kelp. The last-named is a
very handsome bird, but is quite unfit for food. The duck tribe
is represented by widgeon, teal, pampas-teal, grey ducks, and
steamer-ducks, the last two sorts being inedible. Black-
necked swans are also occasionally to be met with, but they are
somewhat rare.   Snipe, on the other hand, are very abundant.
The islands are famous for their sea-birds, included in 48
which are to be found mollymauks, shags, divers, red and
white-breasted grebes, Cape-hens, gulls, and penguins. There
are several varieties of gulls, one in particular with a bright
pink breast being especially beautiful. The penguins are of
three sorts—the king, the gentoo, and the rocky penguin.
Wild horses, cattle, and pigs exist in some parts, as also
guanaco, goats, and rabbits. These, however, are not indigenous, but are the descendants of those animals which were
brought to the islands at the times of the French and Spanish
occupations, and which were left free to roam at will when
those colonies were destroyed. The cattle are now reduced
to a few herds, which are exceedingly wild and difficult to
approach. Neither are the wild horses or pigs very numerous,
and it is probable that they will all become extinct before
the'-expiration of many years. Foxes were formerly existent here in great abundance, but they have been entirely
killed off, on account of the ravages which they wrought
amongst the young lambs; and not a single fox is now to be
found. Hares and rabbits, however, are constantly increasing, though it is a curious fact that notwithstanding the
perfectly healthy condition in which they are, the former
breed is visibly diminishing in size.
The hair-seal frequents the coasts, and large | rookeries "
of these marine animals are to be found on some of the
minor islands. The fur-seal was also very abundant at one
time, but owing to the reckless and indiscriminate slaughter
that ensued for many years, the breed was nearly exterminated. Now the seals are rigidly protected between the
months of October and April, and a heavy penalty is exacted
for killing them during the close season;
On Wednesday, November 30, we went across to a place
called Sparrow Cove, in Mr Dean's steam-launch, for the
purpose of having a day's shooting. We were accompanied
by Captain F. and three other officers of the Swallow; but
the result of the day's sport was rather disappointing, our SUBMARINE  MINING  OPERATIONS.
total bag consisting only of six geese, three hares, and one
snipe. We visited a rookery of gentoo penguins, and there
we saw a curious and interesting spectacle. The nests, if
so they may be called, consisted of slight depressions in the
ground, close together, and in regular lines about a foot
apart. Each nest, as a rule, contained two eggs, and the
mother-birds refused to leave them until they were actually
driven off. They then waddled away with an absurd gait a
short distance up the hill, keeping up all the while an unearthly and discordant screeching, and snapping at us with
their long bills. The newly-hatched chicken penguins were
curious ugly little things covered with a greyish doWn.
The day after our shooting excursion, a dance was given
by the petty officers and men of H.M.S. Swallow in a sail-
loft. The room was very prettily decorated with flags, and
dancing was kept up with great vigour and spirit till the
early hours of the morning.
Saturday, December 3.—Lunched with Captain F. on board
the Swallow, and afterwards witnessed some interesting submarine mining operations. A cask was moored at a certain
distance from the ship, and this was the imaginary obstruction which had to be blown up. The charge consisted of
20 lb. of gun-cotton, and it ,was fired by electricity. A
column of water ascended some 80 to 100 feet into the air
with a very fine effect, and nothing more was seen of the
On the following morning we attended divine service on
board the Swallow, the hymns being extremely well sung by
the officers and men; and in the afternoon we decided to
start the following morning in company with the Swallow,
to visit some of the minor islands belonging to the Falkland
group, and to endeavour to get some shooting on them.
Accordingly, at 10 a.m. on Monday, December 5, we once
again weighed anchor for a while, and headed out of the
harbour towards the open sea.
December 5-81,1887.
On rounding Cape Pembroke we saw the Swallow waiting
for us; and immediately upon our appearance she signalled to
us, offering to take us in tow. To this we readily agreed, as
the wind was against us, and we should have been obliged to
beat the whole way. As it was, we were comfortably towed
along at about six knots an hour, and at 7 p.m. we anchored
in Kelp Bay, Lively Island, where there is a settlement,
which was not, however, visible from our anchorage. Previous to our arrival in the bay we had passed some rather
pretty and striking scenery, which was enlivened by extensive clumps of the handsome tussac-grass which grew in
many places to a hieght of seven or eight feet.
A short but heavy hailstorm broke over us just before we
came to anchor, the hailstones being of enormous size. In
the evening Captain F. came on board our yacht, accompanied by the Messrs C, who had leased the whole of
Lively Island from the Falkland Islands Company, and had
over 10,000 sheep grazing upon it.   These gentlemen invited A  COUPLE  OF  ACCIDENTS.
us to their house for the following day, and accordingly we
went ashore at 9 a.m. in the Swallow's steam-cutter, with
several of the officers of the ship. The house belonging to
Messrs C. was close to the landing-place, and was the only
one upon the island. Though small and built of wood, it
was very comfortable inside. After a good breakfast, we
started forth for a day's" shooting, which turned out most
enjoyable and successful. There were an enormous number
of snipe on the island, and they were so tame that we had
almost to kick them up. Geese were also exceedingly
abundant, and we could have shot any quantity of them, as
they allowed us to get quite close to them; but they were
unfit to eat at that season of the year, and we therefore let
them alone. In the afternoon we had some excellent sport
at a pond with teal and widgeon; and on our return to the
settlement at 6 p.m. we found that we had bagged, with eight
guns, fifty couple of snipe, twenty-one teal, and six widgeon.
The next day we resumed our shooting, and our bag, with
the same number of guns, consisted of thirty-five teal, three
widgeon, and ten couple of snipe. It proved, however, rather
an unfortunate day so far as I was personally concerned, for
a couple of accidents happened to me. The ponds where we
shot were at some, distance from the landing-place, and Mr
C. had therefore kindly provided horses for us to ride. The
animal allotted to me was a young one, only partially broken
in, and never ridden but once before in its life. As I was
mounting, and before I could settle myself in the saddle,
the creature commenced to buck violently, and threw me
heavily to the ground. Though considerably shaken, I was
uninjured, and on the second, attempt I succeeded in getting
safely astride of her, and soon she became docile and quiet.
The other unfortunate contretemps occurred in the afternoon.
I peppered Captain F. in mistake for a teal! " All's well
that ends well," is a saying of much comfort, and, happily,
from neither of these accidents did any serious results follow. 52
On the following morning, Thursday, December 8, we
were under way at 5 a.m., in tow of the Swallow, bound
for Speedwell Island, another of the group. On our way
we passed the Star of Scotia, a barque which had been
wrecked about three months previously. All her masts and
spars were standing, and she looked as if she had really
sustained no damage. The rocks were, however, I was told,
sticking up through her keel. The crew deserted her when
she struck, and went off in two boats. That commanded by
the captain reached the shore in safety, but the one in charge
of the mate was capsized, every man in her being drowned.
She was laden with wheat, and after the wreck, was bought
by Williams, of Stanley, for £25.
We reached Speedwell Island at 2.30 p.m., and I went
ashore with Captain F., where we were met on landing by
Mr W., the manager of the Messrs C. These gentlemen
rented the greater part of this island, in addition to Lively
Island, which we had just visited, and here they had as many
as 12,000 sheep on their farm. Some of our party went for
a couple of hours' shooting that same afternoon, and succeeded in bagging six and a half couple of snipe, fourteen
rabbits, and three teal—not a bad result for so short a time.
Leaving our yacht at anchor next day, we went on board
the Swallow to a bay about six miles away, on the northwest side of the island, where we were informed that we
should have an excellent day's sport with rabbits. As soon
as-we landed, we perceived that the prospects which had
been held out to us were likely to be realised, for at once we
found ourselves in the presence of a vast quantity of rabbits,
which were uncommonly tame. There was no cover of any
kind, but the sport was redeemed from simple slaughter by
the tufts of old tussac-grass, round which the rabbits continually dodged, thus rendering the shooting somewhat
difficult. Notwithstanding this, with nine guns we had
bagged 376 rabbits, six and a half couple of snipe, and four A  PENGUIN-ROOKERY.
teal, when we left off shooting at four o'clock in the after-
noon. We returned to our anchorage off the settlement,
arriving there about 6.30 p.m. The weather had been rough
and boisterous all day, but it had