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My Canadian journal, 1872-8 : extracts from my letters home written while Lord Dufferin was Governor-General… Dufferin and Ava, Harriot Georgina Blackwood, Marchioness of, 1843?-1936 1891

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Array     
MY   CANADIAN   JOUENAL
1872-8
	   GOVERNOR-GENERAL   OF   CANADA,  1872-78
From a Photograph taken at the time in Canada [frontispiece] MY
CANADIAN   JOURNAL
1872-8
EXTEACTS FROM MY LETTERS HOME
WRITTEN WHILE
LOED DUFFERIN' WAS GOVERNOR-GENERAL
BY  THE
MAKCHIONESS OF DUEFERIN & AYA
AUTHOR OF OUR VICE-REGAL LIFE IN INDIA'
WITH   ILLUSTRATIONS   FROM   SKETCHES   BY   LORD   DUFFERIN
PORTRAITS   AND   MAP
LONDON
JOHN   MURRAY,   ALBEMARLE   STREET
1891  TO  MY CANADIAN FRIENDS
THIS LITTLE  BOOK
IS   AFFECTIONATELY   INSCRIBED
H.   D. & A.  PREFACE
Encouraged by the kind reception given to my Indian
Journal, I have ventured to prepare this earlier one for
publication ; though I am well aware that the subject is less
new, and that Canada, and the life a Governor-General
leads there, are much better known, and offer less novelty
to most readers, than did a similar record of the Viceroy's
social life in India.
Both Journals were sent in the same way, as weekly
letters to my mother, and the only difference between the
two is this—that whereas the one was published directly I
returned from India, the first pages of my Canadian diary
were written nearly twenty years ago, and it is more than
twelve since the book was closed.
In a prosperous and quick-growing country like Canada, [8] MY CANADIAN fOURNAL
every year makes a difference: and I know, both from
hearsay and from pictures I have seen, that places I
mention as villages have become towns; that a new
railway traverses the North West, with cities springing
up everywhere in its wake; that Ottawa itself has quite
outgrown my memories of it; that the contemplated improvements, designed to keep Quebec the most beautiful
city in the world, have been accomplished; and that in
almost every part of the Dominion the hand of progress
has been busy, building, adding to, and improving.
My little Journal, therefore, is rather a record of the
past than a description of the present I and this I sadly
feel, as I find in it the names of many who have passed
away, some leaving never-to-be-filled blanks in their own
homes, others mourned by a whole nation.
Nothing has oppressed me more in the revision of this
Journal than the sense that, from the necessity of shortening it as much as possible, I have done scant justice to the
kindness of many friends, and that some of those of whom
we saw the most, and who added so materially to the
happiness of our daily life in Canada, are scarcely mentioned in it. The Prime Ministers, for instance, who, with
their wives, were constantly associated with all we did, are
only occasionally mentioned, though the warm affection
we felt for Sir John and Lady Macdonald, and for Mr.
and Mrs. Mackenzie, are amongst the pleasantest recollections of our Canadian life.
And the same may be said of their colleagues, and of
many others, who, if they read these pages, will, I hope,
remember that they relate but a quarter of the events and
the pleasures of the years we spent in Canada, and give
but a few of the names of those with whom we  made PREFACE
M
enduring friendships, and with whom we worked and
played and enjoyed our life in the Dominion.
I have also been sorry to pass so very lightly over
the cordiality and the friendliness invariably shown us
whenever we crossed our borders into the United States;
for whether we were travelling officially through Chicago
or Detroit, or went as ordinary visitors to New York or
Boston, we were always received with a kindness and a
hospitality which we can never forget.
I must also say one word as to the silence on all political
matters maintained in this Journal. I have not attempted
to record in it any part of the business of the Governor-
General ; and it is only as they affected our movements,
or our social arrangements, that I have, even distantly,
alluded to public events, and then, I fear, in a somewhat
light and irresponsible spirit.
The Governor-General and his wife belong to no party ;
and we met with such universal kindness from all persons
with whom we came in contact in the Dominion, that I, at
least, never wanted to remember that people differed from
each other in their political views, and was only too glad to
leave politics to those whom they necessarily concerned.
Hariot Dufferin and Ava,
Clandeboye : August 18,1891.  CONTENTS
-+C+-
CHAPTER I
ARRIVAL  IN  CANADA
June-August 1872
The Voyage—Reception at Quebec—River steamers on the St. Lawrence—Arrival at Ottawa—Rideau Hall — Household arrangements—Chaudiere Fall—The Lachine Rapids—Quebec—Privileges
of the Kings of Prance—Montmorency Falls—Riviere du Loup—
The Dauntless — Cacouna—Tadousac—The Saguenay — Trout-
fishing—My first entertainment in Canada—An early church—
Canoeing and camping on the Marguerite River — Our first
Canadian salmon ..........
PAGE
CHAPTER II
QUEBEC
August-September 1872
The Citadel—Setting-up house—Our first dinner party—A picnic—
' Mr. Briggs ' —Social duties—The Ursuline Convent—Canadian
songs—The local institutions—Receptions at the Convents—Ball
given by Lady Belleau—University Laval—The Stadacona Hunt
—Ball at the Citadel—Departure from Quebec     ....
18
tt [12]
MY CANADIAN JOURNAL
CHAPTER III
ONTARIO
September-October 1872
Toronto — Hamilton—Grand reception at Toronto—Niagara—The
Falls—Buffalo—Drawing-room at Toronto—Woodstock—London
—Petrolia—Schools at Toronto— The York Pioneers — jj Not at
home ' -Ball in the Parliament Buildings—Sunday schools—The
children arrive from England       .......
PAGE
34
CHAPTER IV
OTTAWA
November 1872-January 1873
Ottawa—Rideau Hall—Thanksgiving Day—The first direct telegram
from Australia — Winter costumes—Tobogganing—His Excellency's visit to Montreal—Daily routine—Snow-shoeing—Canadian celebrities—Frost-bites—Making a rink—22° below zero—
Skating—Sleighing—New Year's Day	
44
CHAPTER V
MONTREAL
January-February 1873
Montreal -- Quebec—Citizens' ball—Drawing-room at Montreal—
Torch-light procession on snow-shoes — The Rink—The M'Gill
College—Ball—B.C. Deaf and Dumb Institutions—Fancy dress
ball at the rink—Winter games—Ladies' skating matches  .
54
CHAPTER VI
OUR FIRST  PARLIAMENTARY  SESSION
February-May 1873
Arrangements for the season at Ottawa—Cabinet dinner—Opening of
Parliament—The Drawing-room — Theatricals — Parliamentary
dinners—Ball at Rideau Hall—Prince Edward's Island joins the
Dominion   Birth of a daughter    .
65 CONTENTS
[13]
CHAPTER VII
ON  THE   ST.  LAWRENCE
June-July 1873
Sir George Cartier—Quebec—Christening of the Queen's godchild—
Viceregal functions—The Druid—Tadousac—The Godbout River
—The Mingan—Indians in chapel—One of our men drowned—
Fishing—A day at sea—Gasp6—TSte-d-te'te drives—Camping out
on the Dartmouth River—On the St. John—Not enough blankets !
— A strange coincidence — Perce1 — Curing fish — Paspediac —
Dalhousie—Chatham—Newcastle	
PAGE
76
CHAPTER VIII
THE   MARITIME  PROVINCES
July-August 1873
Prince Edward's Island—Charlotte Town—Ball in the Senate Chamber
—Pictou coal mines — Louisburg — Sydney—Fog— Landing at
Halifax, N.S.—Dinner at Government House—Party feeling—
McNab's Island—Lobster-spearing—Lord Dufferin's speech at
the Club—Ball in the Parliament Buildings—Ball on H.M.S.
Royal Alfred—Industrial homes—Bay of Fundy—St. John, N.B.
—Hotel life—Torch-light procession—Ball in the theatre—Voyage
up the St. John River—Fredericton—Woodstock—Grand Falls—
Tadousac	
92
CHAPTER  IX
THE  FALL
September-December 1873
Bathing at Tadousac—Quebec—Miss Florence Lees—Football—Convents—Paper chase—Visitors—The Stadacona Races—Ball at the
Citadel—Montreal—Ottawa—Debate on the address—Resignation
of Sir John Macdonald's cabinet—Curling—Mr. Mackenzie, the
new Premier—Christmas .       t > 113
1/ [14]
MY CANADIAN JOURNAL
CHAPTER  X
OUR  SECOND   SEASON  AT  OTTAWA
January-June 1874
The New Year's reception—Tableaux—Only 10° of frost!—The institutions of Ottawa—An ice storm—Concert—Montreal—Fancy
dress ball in the rink—Ottawa—Curling match—A winter's drive
Caves — Electrical experiments—Opening of Parliament —
Charles Kingsley-- Laurence Oliphant — Citizens' ball in the
Senate Chamber—Lumber mills—The Queen's Birthday—Excursions     ........••••
PAGE
126
CHAPTER XI
FISHING ON  THE  ST.  LAWRENCE
June-July 1874
Quebeo—Gaspe—Mr. Reynolds's camp on the York River—Our
camp on the St. John River—Dominion Day—' The Countess's
Pool—A fog—Tadousac—Up the Saguenay—Chicoutimi—An
Indian passenger—Murray Bay—The St. Anne Falls—Our cook's
family ............
143
CHAPTER XII
ONTARIO   AND   THE  LAKES
July-September 1874
Trois Rivieres—Toronto — Rival hotels—Newmarket—Barrie—Lake
Simcoe—The Narrows--Orillia—Ojibbeway Indians—Muskoka
Lake—Bracebridge— Summit House — Settlers—Parry Sound—
Collingwood Owen Sound—Manitoulin Indians—Sault Ste. Marie
- M i ch i i) i co ten - - Nipigon — A portage—Camping out — Lake
Superior—Silver Islet—Prince Arthur's Landing — Indians at
Shebandowan—Kamanistiqwa River—Lake Michigan—Chicago—
The park—The Palmer House—Reception at the Exchange—The
boulevards - • The shops - - Detroit — Sarnia - - Lake Huron —
Goderich Salt works—Stratford—Guelph—Miss Macpherson's
Home—Brantford—The Six Nations—Mr. George Brown's farm Li,.        i.i
CONTENTS
[15]
PAGE
—Woodstock—London—Fire at Simcoe—St. Catherine's—Swing
bridge over the Niagara River—The Falls—Mr. Plumb's house—
Toronto—Lord Dufferin's speech at the club—Whitby—Port
Hope—Coburg—Iron mine—Belleville—Dr. Palmer's Deaf and
Dumb Institution — Kingston — Brockville — Home again at
Ottawa  .    156
CHAPTER XIII
WINTER  AND  SPRING
September 1874-May 1875
The Dominion Rifle Match—New York—The theatres and parks—
Entertainments—Drive to \ Sleepy Hollow'—Lord Dufferin goes
to Washington—The Normal School—Night journey to Boston—
Longfellow's house—Club dinner—A Universalist Church—Return
to Ottawa—The steeple-chase—Visitors—An ideal Christmas Day
—Children's tableaux—Lord Dufferin's visit to Montreal—Curling—Debate on Riel—Birth and christening of a son—Home on
short leave—Delayed by ice and fog	
99
CHAPTER XIV
AN  UNEVENTFUL  SEASON
October 1875-July 1876
R.M.S. Prussian—Ottawa—Skating—A rainy Christmas Day—Plays
—Married v. Bachelors—Montreal—Ottawa—Opening of Parliament—Fancy dress balls—Theatricals—Ice block on the Rideau
—Expedition up the Le Lievre—Quebec—After the fire—Lord
Dufferin's speech—Procession of Jean Baptiste—Gasp6—Fishing
on the York River—Archie's birthday—His departure for school—
Ottawa—Preparations for the Grand Tour	
216
CHAPTER XV
ACROSS  THE  CONTINENT AND  ALONG THE  PACIFIC. COAST
August-September 1876
Our special train—A reporter and his request—Five o'clock tea—Chicago—Omaha—The Platte Valley—The Rocky Plains—Cheyenne [16]
MY CANADIAN JOURNAL
PAGE
—The Alkali Plains—The Rocky Mountains—Ogden—Cape Horn
—Travelling with a murderer—San Francisco—The Cliff House—
A Killyleagh friend—H.M.S. Amethyst—The Pacific—Esquimault
—Victoria—Party feeling—Busy days—Our Chinese cook and his
wife—Regatta—Nanaimo—Bute Inlet—Safety Harbour—Metla-
catlah—Successful missionary efforts—Fort Simpson—Indian
monuments—Queen Charlotte's Islands—Alert Bay—Burrard's
Inlet—A heavy mail 236
CHAPTER XVI
BRITISH  COLUMBIA,  CALIFORNIA AND  THE  SALT
LAKE  CITY
September-October 1876
forest giant—New Westminster—A speech in many tongues—The
Fraser River—Yale—Hell's Gate—An Indian escort—Lytton—
Indian grave—Mr. Cornwall's—Kamloops—A I Pow-Pow '—Down
the Thompson River—Perilous drive—Victoria—Strange servants
—Ball—Esquimault—Dry dock—A busy day—At sea—San Francisco—Good-bye to H.M.S. Amethyst — A 'Frisco merchant's
country house—A Californian ball—Giving names—The Chinese
theatre — Joss House—The return journey—Salt Lake City—
Mormon society—Cheyenne—Denver—Hotel manners—Oregon
Bill—St. Louis—Toronto	
270
CHAPTER XVII
OUR FIFTH  WINTER AND  SUMMER  IN  CANADA
October 1876-July 1877
Toronto—Lord Dufferin starts for Philadelphia—Montreal—Ottawa-
Tom Thumb—Sermon before the service—Christmas festivities-
Toronto—Speeches—Ottawa—Theatricals—Presentation by the
cabmen—Procession in honour of Pope Leo XIII. Distinguished
visitors—Quebec—In camp—Fishing—Tadousac .
299 CONTENTS
[17]
CHAPTER XVIII
THE  NORTH  WEST
August 1877
In the Cars—St. Paul—Minneapolis—Minnehaha Falls—Across the
prairie—The Red River—Greetings on the way—The Frontier—
Fort Garry—Winnipeg—' Silver Heights '—An Indian's idea of
religion—St. Boniface—The Hudson's Bay store—Lassoing—
Sioux Indians—Ball at Winnipeg—A Red River cart—The Rock-
wood Penitentiary—St. Andrew's-—Little Stone Fort—Selkirk—
The Indian reserve—Winnipeg—Camping out—Mennonite settlement—A member of the local Parliament	
PAGE
312
CHAPTER XIX
MANITOBA
August-October 1877
Insect life on the prairie—Half-breeds—St. Andrew's—Pitching camp
—On the Dawson route—A ' corduroy ' road —The North-West
Angle—Lake of the Woods—Canoeing on the Winnipeg River
—The White Dog Mission—Portages—Rapids—Fort Alexander—
An Indian grave—Lake Winnipeg—S.S. Colville—The Saskatchewan—The first railway in the North-West—Flour 51. a bag!—Stone
Fort—Gimla, the Icelandic settlement—Winnipeg—An Indian
Lodge'— Lake Manitoba—Duck-shooting—Portage La Prairie—
Productive land—Want of good drinking-water—Silver Heights—
The Canadian Pacific Railway—Farewell d4jeuner and speeches at
Winnipeg—A happy family—The Military College, Kingston—
Back to Ottawa     ..........
338
CHAPTER XX
OUR LAST  SEASON AT OTTAWA AND MONTREAL
October 1877-June 1878
Earthquake—Christmas visitors—Bad accident—Tobogganing—Visit
to Montreal—The Windsor Hotel—The McKay Institution—Villa
Maria Convent—Ball—McGill College—Military display at the
a [18] MY CANADIAN JOURNAL
theatre—Convent of the Sacred Heart—Mount Royal Park—Farewell dinner—The Art Association Conversazione—Sickness at
Ottawa—Death of Mr. Ward—«Sweethearts '—A musical afternoon with the House of Commons—Farewell address from both
Houses of Parliament—Fancy bazaar—The Phonograph—The
General Hospital, Montreal—The Queen's Birthday Review —
Good-bye at Ottawa—The children leave for England .
PAGE
369
CHAPTER XXI
THE  EASTERN  TOWNSHIPS,  AND  LAST  DAYS  IN
CANADA
June-August 1878
Gaspe—'Tinker'—Riots at Quebec—Our rooms occupied by soldiers
—Island of Orleans—Farewell address from the Quebec Parliament
—Visit to Boston—A New England home — A literary dinner
party—Lord Dufferin takes his degree at the Harvard University—
Longfellow—Mr. Adams—Quebec—A fog on the St. Lawrence—
Fishing on the Metapediac—Run to Campbell Town—Rimouski—
Bic—Fishing—Last visit to Tadousac—The 12th of July—The
Maine Press Association—Sillery—The Roman Catholic bishops
— Sir Edward Thornton's visit—Theatricals on the Island of
Orleans—The Montmorency Falls—Expedition to the Chaudiere
Falls—Danville—Sherbrooke—Lennoxville—Lake Massiwippi—
Compton — Stanstead—Lake Memphremagog — Magog — Bolton
— Waterloo — Granby — St. John's — Lake Champlain — Lake
George—Juvenile coachman at Fort Henry—Good-bye
388
Lord Dufferin's last days in Canada
416
INDEX
419 ILLUSTRATIONS
 -•<>•	
Lord Dufferin, Governor-General of Canada, 1872-78 . frontispiece
{From a photograph taken at the time in Canada)
Indian Tents  p. [7]
Our House and the Hotel, Tadousac       .... to face p. 80
Gaspe  „       144
Our Hut (on the St. John River)  p. 148
The Mouth of the Red River and Lake Winnipeg        . to face p. 316
Rat Portage  p. 347
Indian Grave at Fort Alexander  p. 351
La Roche Percee  to face p. 362
Lady Dufferin  „       392
{From a sketch by Lord Dufferin)
MAP at end  MY  CANADIAN   JOUENAL
1872—1878
-*o*-
CHAPTER  I
ARRIVAL    IN    CANADA
S.S.' Prussian U Friday, June 14th, 1872.—Ugh ! Ugh !
horrid ! Very rough ; everybody ill except the wretched
baby, Basil, who is perfectly well, but can get no one to dress
him, and is handed about, unwashed, to engineers, waiters,
to anyone who can stand.
Monday, ijih.—The ship rolling from side to side till
one's back aches. Such a noise of splashing and dashing and falling about, and such fears lest my infants
should follow the example of my toothbrush, and come
flying across the room ! To add to my fears, two steerage
passengers came to D. in the night, to inquire whether he
thought there was any danger, and if the captain might not
be asked to put into port until it became calmer. In the
morning these men were found sleeping with life-belts on.
Wednesday, igth.—We are much better now, and quite
enjoy our meals, which D. and I have in a cabin by ourselves.
We are also able to look about, and find that there
are 107 * street Arabs' on board, brought out by a saint
of a woman, who, although very sick and miserable her* 2
MY CANADIAN JOURNAL
CH. I
self, sings to them, reads out loud, goes down into the
steerage, sees them to bed, and performs many other trying
offices in the most unselfish manner. Miss Macpherson
pays her own passage and expenses. Each child costs
ioL to bring out, and will eventually be adopted into a
Canadian family, where it will have a happy home. This
seems to be an excellent charity.
Sunday, 23rd.—A beautiful day—a hot sun and a perfectly calm sea. Our parasols and shady hats have come out
for the first time, and Hermie and Basil[ are being made
very much of by the convalescent passengers. Preparations are making for our arrival at Quebec; and, as it has
been discovered that there is no Canadian flag on board,
my maid, Mrs. Dent, is busily engaged in trying to
manufacture one. Nobody is quite sure what it is, but all
suppose that there must be a beaver and a maple-leaf in
it. I sincerely hope that no great herald will be waiting
to receive us.
We have attended a. meeting in the steerage, where
some of the Canadian passengers talked to the emigrants
about the country they are going to. D. also spoke, and
told them that in Canada they need never complain, as he
had heard one of them do, ' that he had too many children,'
for that there the more they had the better. An enthusiastic young man on hearing this slapped D. on the back
and said, i That is just what I have been telling Emily.'
Quebec: Tuesday, 2$th.—A lovely morning. We anchored early, but did not land till ten, when the Ministers,
Lieutenant-Governor, and several other officials, came on
board, and with them we went ashore. A salute was fired
from the citadel as D. stepped on land, and we walked
through lines of troops to a carriage-and-four, in which
we drove to Spencer Wood, the Lieutenant-Governor's residence. We passed through Quebec, up a very steep hill.
The road was rough, and it was extremely hot and dusty.
1 Our youngest children.
^ june 1872   ARRIVAL AT QUEBEC AND  OTTAWA
3
I could not see the view as we were driving away from
the river, and also, I was much occupied in looking at the
people who filled the streets; but when we got to Spencer
Wood we were charmed with it, and it looks right down
upon the St. Lawrence. At three o'clock D. was sworn in
as Governor-General of Canada, and received some addresses
of welcome,—but, as I remained quiet in my country retreat,
I can tell you nothing of the ceremony. Our host is Sir
Narcisse Belleau; his wife is a nice quiet little Frenchwoman, and he is pleasant and kind. There was a dinner
in the evening,-—but I don't feel that I have seen enough
of any of the guests to tell you about them to-day, except
that the Prime Minister, Sir John Macdonald, is the image
of Dizzy.
Wednesday, 26th.—The papers give a most amusing description of D., stating his apparent weight and height. lam
very flatteringly described, though the ignorant male writer
speaks slightingly of my dress as being a ' plain blue silk,'
whereas it was in reality excessively smart, and had caused
me infinite trouble and anxiety ! However, I had the satisfaction of hearing from Lady Harriet Fletcher 2 that the
ladies knew better, and had appreciated it.
Lady Harriet and I had a drive about the old town,
and I was quite delighted with it. The views are perfectly
lovely, and it would be such a charming place to live in,—
if only we had a house here !
In the afternoon we started for Ottawa in a magnificent river-steamer with four storeys and streets of cabins,
and a grand table d'hote on board. We sat on deck and
enjoyed ourselves immensely as we went up the St. Lawrence. I cannot tell you what a lovely voyage this was !—so
lovely that I cannot believe that we did it of necessity, and
not for pleasure only.
Thursday, 27th.—We arrived at Ottawa, the first view of
; Daughter of the Earl of Romney, wife  of Lord Dufferin's. Military
Secretary.
r 2 MY CANADIAN JOURNAL
CH. I
which is magnificent; but once landed there was no time to
look at anything! There were nine addresses to be listened
to, and after them we drove off to our new home ! . . . We
have been so very enthusiastic about everything hitherto
that the first sight of Rideau Hall did lower our spirits just
a little! The road to it is rough and ugly, the house
appears to me to be at the land's end, and there is no view
whatever from it, though it is near the river—and we have
come through hundreds of miles of splendid scenery to get
to it! Then I have never lived in a Government House
before, and the inevitable bare tables and ornamentless
rooms have a depressing effect: for the first time I realise
that I have left my own home for many years,—and this
is its substitute!
Friday, 28th.—Please forget the above growl. The
morning has brought more cheerful reflections. We are not
intended to live here at midsummer, and I dare say that in
winter this place looks lovely ! Our house is, they say, very
warm and comfortable, and the Houses of Parliament—
which, after all, I do see from my windows—are very beautiful. And I can cover up the tables and supply the homey
look which at present is wanting—so why did I grumble ?
We have driven in state through the town, and have visited
the Government buildings. I was delighted with the Senate,
and with the Library—a large, circular room. When the
House is sitting I may come and listen to debates, but the
Governor-General may not!
The weather is extremely hot, and we are not. going to
remain here. D. goes to-morrow to inspect militia at
Prescott, and I meet him there two days later.
Monday, July 1st.—We went for a row on the river in the
evening, which was delicious. It was very pretty ; and we
had a breath of fresh air, and got out of a perspiration for
the first time for a week !
We have been busy making a number of household
arrangements.   I have chosen my nurseries; and it has
m\±£\ july 1872       HOUSEHOLD ARRANGEMENTS 5
been decided to add a storey to the little house in the
garden in which the Fletchers will live,—for they have a
number of children too. The non-arrival of all our heavy
luggage has been an anxiety; so far our Viceregal establishment possesses about six plates and as many cracked teacups ; and our own supply of china, plate, and linen seems
to be trying to see the country, and to travel for pleasure,
instead of coming and settling down here as it should.
Perhaps you may wonder where my children are all
this time. The three elder ones are still in Europe, trying
to learn a little French, and Hermione and Basil, who came
out with us, are now at Riviere du Loup, where we have
taken a house for the summer. There, also, are the
Fletcher children. Colonel3 and Lady Harriet Fletcher came
out to Canada the mail before we did, and made all arrangements for us and for themselves. He is the Military
Secretary. We have two very nice A.D.C.s at present.
One of them was with Lord Lisgar, and has kindly volunteered to stay and help us for a time. The other is Mr.
Coulson, whp is regularly appointed, and who will remain
even after Fred comes out. Please tell the latter that I
find that an A.D.C. is a charming institution. These two
ask me I if I will drive,' ' or walk,' ' or boat,5 or 'if I want
anything from the town '; and if I turn my head, they find
out what I am looking for, and get it for me. So Fred
need not hope to get off any of his duties through my
ignorance of them!
D. is very happy, and is much taken with the country
and the people ; and all here seem pleased with him. I think
that I am getting on pretty well too,—though I say it that
should b§ silent in the matter; and the papers, who talk
about us a good deal, lay great stress on my not being
affected—a negative virtue which I may mention without
appearing too conceited!
My attentive A.D.C.s have taken me to see the Chau-
3 The late Colonel Fletcher, C.M.G,, Scots Fusilier Guards*
M •"£»»!••
MY CANADIAN JOURNAL
CH. I
diere Fall. It is close to Ottawa, and is very beautiful.
There is a mass of water which appears to fall in three
different directions into the same pool, and a great smoke
of foam rises from the splash; it looks just like a big
cauldron. Close to it is a saw-mill. The trunks of forest-
trees are carried by the stream to the door of the mill, where
they are caught by chains and slowly dragged into the teeth
of a bundle of saws. After passing through these, the trees
fall in planks, which are quickly taken up by another machine
to have their sides neatly trimmed. As they pass a man
marks them with a pencil according to their quality.
After. this we \ ran the slide,' which was very exciting.
The * slide' is a long incline of water, divided into a series
of small waterfalls, and is the artificial road by which the
timber from the higher levels is brought down into the St.
Lawrence. The wood is made up into rafts, and you sit
upon these while they slip down the incline. It looks
rather alarming to see one of these great monsters go headlong into the water at the foot of each fall; but, although I
got on board with my heart in my mouth, I liked it extremely, and when I found myself safe*on the calm level of
the Ottawa, I would gladly have recommenced the journey
had it been possible: but when one has slid down this
steep hill of water to the river, one is miles away from the
starting-point, and has to go home another way. The
rafts and the quantities of wood lying about in all directions
are the most curious sights here, but I see no really fine
timber growing in this neighbourhood.
Wednesday, 3rd.—I left Ottawa early, and met D. at
Prescott. He had been inspecting volunteer camps at
Kingston and Prescott, and is to see another at Laprairie
to-morrow.
We shot the rapids. The rapids are places where there
is a tremendous stream rushing over a rocky descent.
When the steamer comes to them the engine is stopped,
and the current carries the vessel over the broken water JULY   1872
RUNNING   THE RAPIDS
at a great rate. If the pilot were to make a mistake, or to
lose command of the ship, she would be wrecked. The
rapids look like a stormy sea, but you do not go up and
down in them, and rather feel as though the vessel were
being buffeted about, and as if it were striking some hard
substance. The worst rapid is called the \ Lachine,' and
that does look rather alarming- The rapids are all down
hill, and going at such a great pace the pilot4 appears
to be steering straight upon some fearful rock, peeping
above water, when just as you expect the crash, the stream
takes the vessel and carries her clear of the danger.
We were met at Montreal by the Mayor and a guard
of honour.
Quebec : Friday, $th.—I saw a little of Montreal yesterday, but not enough to warrant a description. We went to
a little country place, where we had strawberries and cream
under the trees, and when I returned to the hotel I received
visitors. I find Canadian society very easy to get on with :
the people talk, and they are very simple and natural, and
willing to be pleased; so that receiving seventy or eighty
total strangers is made a pleasant instead of an arduous
task,—as it might be.
D. was occupied all day inspecting a camp, and in
receiving addresses.
We dined early, and went on board the steamer for
Quebec. There were 800 passengers, most of them lying
about on the floors; but we had comfortable cabins, and
slept well all night. The only new things we saw on this
journey were the fire-flies; they were so numerous on the
wooded banks of the river that their lights looked like those
of a distant town.
Saturday, 6th.—The Governor-General has some of the
privileges of the old kings of France, and one of them is
that he has the right to enter the cloistered convents.    In
'4 The pilot on this occasion was ' Old Baptiste,' who took us down a
channel he had himself first found in 1842. 8
MY CANADIAN JOURNAL
CH. I
his train, therefore, we have been to the Ursulines and to
the Hotel-Dieu. The Vicar-General went with us, and at
each convent, after inspecting the ordinary arrangements
of the house, we went into a room where the nuns were
arranged in rows, and where we sat on thrones on a dais.
In a clever, easy way the Vicar inaugurated a kind of general
conversation about the convent, and the nuns laughed at
his little jokes, and answered any questions put to them.
We were greatly struck by their manners, so pleasant and
cheerful, without the slightest affectation or shyness.
Monday, &th.—We made an expedition to the Montmorency
Falls. D. went in the Dauntless, a thirty-six ton yacht
which he has bought, and we rowed in a big boat. The
fall is six miles from Quebec. The day was very fine,
and as we saw them from the river the shining tin roofs
of the town looked beautiful in the sunshine.
The first view of the fall is spoilt by the quantity of
timber at its base. The bay is crammed with stacks of
boards andwood, piled up in every way, and there are sawmills hard at work; but when you get close enough to see
it, the Montmorency is really beautiful. It is 170 feet
high—higher than Niagara—and it falls perfectly straight
down into the earth, clouds of spray rising up in front of it.
The water does not appear to rush on as in most waterfalls,
and it is supposed that it dives into the ground, and comes
out elsewhere.
We had brought provisions with us, so we lighted a
fire, cooked an excellent lunch, and afterwards made tea.
In the cool of the evening we rowed back to Quebec, and
got on board the steamer for Riviere du Loup. This is
the fashionable time for going to the seaside, so the boats
are very full.
Rivibre du Loup: Tuesday, gth.—Our house here is a nice
little cottage, but it is a long way from the sea, and I don't
think that we shall care to shut ourselves up in it for long.
We are impatient to see more of the country and the MM
JULY   1872
THE 'DAUNTLESS'
9
people, and if only we can find a house at Quebec we shall
go there; for the more we see of that place, the more we
like it.
Wednesday, 10th.—After getting my letters ready for the
mail we set out for the yacht. The day was not very good,
but there was a nice breeze, and although the Fletchers and
I felt a little uncomfortable at first, we all got over it and
enjoyed ourselves very much. H.E. was delighted with
the Dauntless. His sailors are not very smart, but he is
looking forward to the arrival of Hammond,5 who will soon
give it the air of an English yacht. The Dauntless has a
well to sit in, and a large but rather low cabin. She is one
of the flat yachts with a sliding keel. D. steered back into
the harbour before an admiring crowd just arrived by
the steamer. An American on the shore called out,
'Well, Governor, you seem to be used to this kind of
work.'
Thursday, nth.—Dr. Campbell, of Montreal, came here
to offer D. some salmon-fishing. He has accepted for two
days, and goes next Wednesday, the 17th—Colonel Fletcher
with him. They will live in a camp, and be eaten by black
flies and mosquitoes. The former have a sharp lance, which
they insert under the skin. You do not feel the bite at the
time, but it bleeds freely and inflames next day. While
fishing, you keep your face and neck covered with a preparation which the flies dislike. Dr. Campbell gave an
exciting account of the fishing, and how the fisherman runs
along the banks as fast as he can, while the salmon rushes
down the rapids. I think I should like to go too—but
ladies are not invited.
Saturday, 20th.—H.E. returned in the evening. He
enjoyed his trip very much, though the salmon were
scarce, and he only caught fiye trout. Dr. Campbell, Mr.
Urquhart, Colonel Fletcher, and himself, were the party.
Mr.  Urquhart  attended   to   the  dinner, and  was * most
An English sailor, •■---••-   ■■"■'•pww*
10
MY CANADIAN JOURNAL
CH. I
anxious' about it,—it consisted of salmon and cold beef,
and was very good; still, it does not sound as if it required
immense thought and preparation.
Monday, 22nd.—Colonel Fletcher has gone off to see
houses at Quebec.
In the afternoon we drove to Cacouna, a more fashionable watering-place than this, where there is a large hotel
frequented by Americans, who amuse themselves by dressing four times a day.
Wednesday, 24th.—D. and I started in the afternoon
for Tadousac. It was quite dark when we got there, after
two hours in the steamer, and we could only see that we
drove up a most dangerous road. It was a wooden ramp,
just wide enough for the carriage, and with a little precipice
on each side. It led to the hotel, which we found extremely
clean and comfortable. I think they manage these things
very well in Canada. There is a complete absence of pretence. The furniture is very plain: just a strip of carpet
in one's bedroom, common-looking French beds, washing-
stand and chest of drawers—no curtains anywhere—the only
luxury being extreme cleanliness. There is a table d'hote
where all dine—servants at the same table as the other
guests—and the food is very good. We had private rooms
and private meals, but no one else would think of such a
thing. The same simplicity strikes me as characteristic of
the people. They do not pretend to be fine or smart, or
anything but what they are ; they believe every word you
say, and take all polite exaggerations au pied de la lettre.
They are exceedingly friendly and kind-hearted, so that their
saying what they think does not lead to any uncomfortable speeches.
Tadousac is the oldest, but I should think the smallest,
place in the Dominion. Not only as tourists, but as
sailors, we are delighted with it. The hotel is situated in
the curve of a lovely bay, with a nice sandy beach all round
it.    There are rocky walks of a most amusing description sm
JULY   l872
TADOUSAC
11
for the walker, a good anchorage for the yachtsman, and
as all the fishing is up the Saguenay, and this place is at
its mouth, there is sport for the sportsman. There are
white porpoises and seals, and occasional whales to be seen
rolling and jumping about,—and altogether we thought the
place most attractive, and have some idea of building a
house here for the summer.
Thursday, 2$th.—We got up at six to go out fishing,
and drove down to the pier, where we found Mr. Radford, a
resident here, who had promised to chaperon us to the fishing-ground. It was rather too stormy, but we started
nevertheless in the yacht, followed by two row-boats. We
had a charming sail, a beautiful coast to look at, and white
porpoises and seals appearing in the water to amuse us.
When we reached the Bergeron we anchored, and went on
shore to prepare our fishing-rods. I was just being instructed
in the art of throwing the fly, and was standing up in the row-
boat, lashing the water with my line, when H.E. called out
from the other boat, j Put up your rod, and come and save the
ship.' The yacht had dragged her anchor, and was fast
going on the rocks. We got on board as quickly as we could,
fastened tow-ropes to the two row-boats, and with great
difficulty got her out of the current; her sails filled, and off
we went, j Home,' said His Excellency—and in fact it had
come on to blow too hard for fishing, as the trout go into
deep water when the waves are too much for them. We had
a very rough sail back to Tadousac, but rather enjoyed it.
We reached the hotel in time for lunch, and settled with our
friend to get up at ^ve next day and try again.
In the afternoon we took a walk, and were quite charmed
with Tadousac. It is at the mouth of the Saguenay river,
and the hotel is built close to the water, above a beautiful
bay. Our walk was a climb, and yet it was not too
fatiguing; the rocks are smooth, with no sharp points, and
tufts and shrubs grow in the interstices, so that there is
always something to catch hold of if you slip.   When we 12
MY CANADIAN JOURNAL
CH. I
got home, Mr. Radford brought two Rice Lake canoes,
and D. tried paddling in one, while I went out in the
other.
Friday, 26th.—Called at 5 a.m., with the information
that the day was very favourable for fishing. We were at
the wharf at six—a beautiful morning. There were two
row-boats ready for us, and we set off, up the Saguenay.
The river is like a rift in a rocky mountain, and it was
very pretty in the early morning rowing along it; great cliffs
on each side, the river every now and then spreading out
into a bay, and looking like a lake, the entrance quite
hidden by projecting rocks. We had a three-hours' row,
and arrived at St. Etienne, a feeding-ground of the trout.
I again began to throw my fly, and soon became quite
expert at it. I caught sixteen, and D. nineteen, and after
my arm ached Mr. Radford took my rod and caught four;
so our bag was a pretty good one.
We lunched on the rocks, and afterwards got on board
and sailed nearly the whole way home till it began to rain,
then the wind fell, so we took to our row-boats and got back
in time for dinner. Our long day was not over yet. The
young ladies of Tadousac had got up a charity concert,
which we attended: it was in the hotel, and between the
songs there were some pretty tableaux. When all was over I
was glad to return to my dear bed which I had left so
early in the morning.
Saturday, 27th.—Another lovely day. We like Tadousac
so much that we have actually chosen a site, and are going
to build a wooden house here for next year. The air is
delicious, and we feel so well and cheerful!
After breakfast we walked to an Indian hut to see a
young bear they had found on the hills. He was very little
and very unamiable-looking. The Indian women are very
dark and ugly, and have their hair tied up in little bags on
each side of their faces. D. next took me out in a canoe,
and we had a talk with the authorities about our site.   At mm
JULY   l872
RIVIERE DU LOUP
13
two we got on board the steamer, and returned to Riviere
du Loup.
Colonel and Lady Harriet Fletcher came down to meet
us, and we hear from him that the artillery quarters at
Quebec are more likely to suit us than any other house we
can get this year.    D. will go and see them.
Monday, 2gth.—Directly after breakfast Lady H. and
her governess and children came in to help me to prepare
for my first Canadian entertainment! Unfortunately, D.
will not be at it, as he has gone off to Quebec. Of course
we have small means here of doing anything grand—no
ornaments at all; thick, white earthenware cups, lodging-
house furniture, etc., and only wild flowers to be had.
With them we determined to do a great deal. We got moss
and. ferns, wild roses and red berries; called in soup-plates,
finger-glasses, and bark canoes; and had in the drawing-
room fourteen bouquets—eight on brackets round the walls,
and one on each table. Then we put moss on the chimney-
piece and filled it with bright flowers, and covered the
board in front of the fireplace with fir-branches, etc.
Opposite the drawing-room is the best bedroom. We
carried out the bed, arranged the fireplace in the same way,
and had tables with tea, coffee, iced milk, champagne cup
and cakes there. On one side of our house we had croquet,
and on the other chairs, and I received my company at four
o'clock in the chair department.
The arrangements took us the whole morning, and
amused us very much; the only drawback was that we had
no man, not even an aide-de-camp!
Luckily, the day was splendid. We sat ourselves
upon the lawn, and soon the first people came. The
second carriage which arrived contained three priests with
French names! They had no cards, and Nowell, our
English servant, whom I had told to be very particular
about announcing the names clearly, remembering my
instructions, and unable to pronounce them, stopped my '    -      '".:   --  --■   '
14
MY CANADIAN JOURNAL
CH. I
guests outside and made them write their names on a piece
of paper. One of them, a very jolly Irishman, asked, \ Are
you His Excellency's aide-de-camp ? '
When all had arrived a good game of croquet was got
up, and the people who did not play sat on the lawn and
talked. I had over thirty, and they admired our decorations
very much.
The moment my party broke up, and in sight of many
of the visitors, my neighbours' servants came to fetch the
things they had lent me ; and it was funny to see cups and
soup-plates and chairs being carried off to their lawful
owners. I had asked people from four to six, and, like
Cinderella, they rushed off when the hour struck.
Wednesday, 31st.—We arrived at Tadousac late last
night, bringing the children with us. I took them this
morning to a sandy place, where they soon improvised
spades and began to j make a dirt,' as Hermie said.
In the afternoon Lady H. and I went a drive—the only
drive here. It begins on a very sandy road, comes to a
place where the horses have, every few minutes, to walk
down one wall and up another, continues through the
remains of a burnt forest, where the charred stumps of trees
are almost buried in the luxuriant, fresh green vegetation
springing up around them, and then brings you to a
place which is really fearful: one side of the road is a steep
precipice, the other a loose sandy hill, which is constantly
slipping down and filling up the very narrow space you
have to drive on. Here we got a pretty peep of the
Saguenay, while heretofore we had been looking upon the
St. Lawrence.    D. and the Colonel went out boating.
Sunday, August 4th.—The day was foggy and rainy, but
we walked to the little church, which D. admires, and where,
he says, we see ' the first principles of architecture.' It is
the first church ever built in Canada, and is made of
wood, just as you would make one with a child's box of
bricks; the walls are long and short bars of wood, piled one
iii; AUG.   1872
THE MARGUERITE RIVER
15
upon the other. It is very quaint and simple. The service
at Tadousac depends upon stray clergymen, and this Sunday
there was none staying in the place, so they asked an
American Scripture-reader to read prayers and he gave us
a very nice service. D. and I took a walk in the afternoon,
and were inveigled into paying a visit. We are too grand
to pay visits as a rule, but sometimes we meet a friend at
his own door, and he asks us to come in.
Monday, $th.—We were suddenly struck with the idea
of going salmon-fishing; so we ordered a hamper of provisions to be ready in twenty minutes, took a comb and
brush and a pocket-handkerchief in a bag, and set off,
D. and I in the Imogene, which is a small yawl, Hammond
following in the Dauntless. We had a lovely sail up the
Saguenay to the mouth of the Marguerite river, where
we arrived about four o'clock, and sent ashore for the
fisherman. Then we each got into a canoe, and began to
ascend the rapids ! I have already described the rapids as
they appeared from a steamer, but from a canoe one sees
the dangers more closely. A man stands at each end of
the canoe, with a long pole in his hand; the passenger sits
in the middle, on the floor. The current is something tremendous, and the water dashes about the rocks in quite a
fearful way. The men pole the boat along, first giving a
shove on one side and then on the other, shaving rocks,
and conducting her safely with wonderful skill. It is
very hard work, and when I said sympathetically to our
conductor, that it must be fatiguing work, he replied
with very great fervour, ' Joliment fatiguant.' This is
going up the rapids; coming down the rush is with you,
and then with equal skill the men use their paddles and
ward the boat off from the rocks, stopping her in her
headlong career as she appears to be rushing to destruction. We went up successfully, and landed about eight
o'clock at the edge of a wood, groped our way up a
narrow path, and found ourselves at three small wooden 16
MY CANADIAN JOURNAL
CH. I
huts. The first was a dining-room and pantry, the
second two bedrooms, the third a place for the men.
Opposite the dining-room, but fifty yards from it, was an
open shed, which I found to be the kitchen; and as I sat at
the head of the table I saw Imps dancing about the fire
cooking our dinner.
Opposite our encampment there is a curious geological—
or clayological—formation : it looks as if half a high hill had
been cut clean away with a knife—in fact, a perfect section
of a hill is exposed to view. It is quite as flat as the side
of a cheese, with nothing growing upon it, but the top is
crowned with trees. The side is grey clay, and it is six
hundred feet high.
We were very glad to retire soon to our little iron beds,
and to creep under our mosquito-curtains; but I confess
I felt a certain emotion at the idea of sleeping in such
a lonely place, with no one between us and the North
Pole! |
Tuesday, 6th.—Notwithstanding the solitary feelings
which oppressed me for a time last night, I slept, and was
ready to get up at five. We performed a hasty ' toilette,'
swallowed a cup of tea, and took to the canoes for fishing.
We were both most industrious, and flogged the water with
our flies, but had no bites ; then ' Peter,' the fisherman, took
my rod and hooked a salmon. My rod is small, and he
exclaimed, as the salmon ran off with the line, that j the
cord was too short.' Quick as possible he jumped into a
canoe, and we saw a most exciting chase; the salmon flying
off with yards of line,—being wound up again,—giving an
occasional jump into the air, and battling courageously for
life. When he was getting worn out Peter landed and insisted
upon my holding the rod. I found it almost too heavy for
me, and I had a great deal of help in finishing the poor
victim, who still made dashes to release himself. At last
we got him near the shore, when a cruel gaff was stuck into
him, and a cry of triumph from the men announced his death AUG. 1872
THE FIRST SALMON
17
to us, and to the listening woods.  The salmon weighed fifteen
pounds.
At nine we went home to our breakfast. After it we
sat at the kitchen fire and burnt holes in the only boots we
had with us! The day was very fine, and we walked and
sat about till four o'clock, when fishing recommenced. I
must tell you that we were oiled all over, face and neck and
hands, with a strong-smelling stuff, to keep off the mosquitoes.
Again D. and I began to work, and soon he hooked a
salmon, and I laid down my rod to see the fight. It lasted
a long time, and the fish led the fisherman a good dance
before he died. He weighed fourteen and a quarter pounds,
and was His Lordship's first salmon !    We caught no more.
Wednesday, 7th.—At eight o'clock we left the huts and
went down the rapids, the men singing some of their wild
and curious boat-songs as they paddled us along. We had
arranged to fish for trout at the place where we had anchored
the yachts, and then to be picked up by the steamer on its
way down the Saguenay, and to go on to Riviere du Loup.
However, to our astonishment, we saw our steamer going up
the river. She had been detained by fog, and our plans were
thus put out. There was nothing for it but to sail back to
Tadousac, and await the steamer's return there. We had
a couple of very disagreeable hours, and finally arrived at
our destination in a fog, a thunderstorm, and a heavy
shower. As we expected the steamer's immediate return, we
merely lay down upon our beds, and waited till five o'clock
in the morning, when at last she arrived, and D. and I and
our two sleepy children got on board. D. went straight on
to Quebec, so he retired to bed; but as we were to reach
Riviere du Loup in two hours, we remained up, and got
there at last very hungry and tired.
c 18
CHAPTER II
QUEBEC
The Citadel: Friday, August gth.—Lady Harriet and I
have joined D. at Quebec, and I am much pleased with my
barrack home. All books about Canada will tell you how
splendid is the situation of the Citadel; very high, and commanding a magnificent view of that great river the St. Lawrence. Our house—' quarters,' I should say—is not yet quite
ready, and workmen are still busy papering and making
alterations. The old mess-room is our dining-room, and the
drawing-room is above it. It is a long room, with windows
at either end : those facing the river open on to an immense
platform, the outer wall of which forms a balustrade. There
I sit and look down hundreds of feet upon the town lying
below me; or into the ships, on to whose decks I fancy I
could almost throw a stone; or at the St. Lawrence itself,
and at the blue hills far away—in fact, at one of the most
celebrated views of the world! There are great black cannon
also looking out from the Citadel, and the Union Jack and
the Dominion Flag are flying beside me. I assure you it is
very romantic!
I am rather afraid that with your little English ideas
you will not understand the size of my ' platform,' but it is
big enough to give a ball on, or a garden party, or a charity
bazaar, or any other sort of gathering you like !—so open
your mind for the consideration of it.
D. and Colonel Fletcher rode, and I went for a charming
drive, and was more pleased than ever with the country AUG.  l872
SETTING   UP HOUSE
19
round Quebec. Everything is growing so luxuriantly now.
The hedges are full of flowers and large wild maidenhair
fern, and quantities of berries which all seem to be eatable;
and the crops, which, before they were fully developed, looked
miserable, have suddenly swelled out and filled up all the
bare places one deplored a month ago.
Monday, 12th.—The weather is very hot, but not oppressive. People here live behind green blinds, and shut the
sun out of their houses: they cannot understand our liking
to see it shine in, and they complain of the heat much
more than we do.
Tuesday, 13th.—In the afternoon we went out to do some
shopping. The most important part of it was choosing
furniture for a little room. It was difficult to get what we
wanted. They have no plain stuffed sofas or chairs—everything is surrounded by elaborate carvings in wood* and the
men are astonished that their Excellencies' n'aiment pas la
sculpture.'
We are miserable over our heavy luggage, which will not
arrive. We have nine dessert-plates, and no other china,
no silver plate at all, no harness, and it is impossible to
\ set up ' or to give dinners until these things arrive. No
one travelling here should lose sight of his box for an
instant. Things are never lost, but they may be months
getting to their owner.
I have been looking for a scullery-maid, and find
women-servants very scarce. I have only seen one young
lady in search of the place: she spoke with a real
Irish brogue, and appeared in a smart hat and feathers.
She was extremely surprised at my wishing to have a
character. She had one, but had left it* at home, not supposing I should care to see it: of course she could fetch it
directly. Next morning she brought me three lines, on
very common paper, which, in very bad writing, certified her to be honest and ' obUdgeing.' In spite of
the brogue she was Canadian, and was ■ sure she didn't
c 2 20
MY CANADIAN JOURNAL
CH. II
know what Mama was,' when I questioned her as to her
nationality.
Friday, 16th.—Having got my eleven letters shut up all
ready for the mail, I took a complete holiday from writing,
for one is always pen in hand here, and letter-writing becomes one's normal condition. We look upon our epistles
as seed sown, and are always egging each other on to write
to new people, that our harvest of news may be plentiful.
The weather has changed, and a gale is blowing. We
hardly know our Quebec in this tempest, and long to see it
in its usual sunshine again.
Every afternoon we take a drive, and generally manage
a little walk too. Colonel Strangel has lent us some arms,
and at the top of our crimson-clothed staircase we have
a magnificent arrangement of swords and spears and flags;
opposite it a star of bayonets. Our drawing-room is not
yet finished, but we hope it will be ready by Monday, when
we have a dinner of twenty-four people; | and yet I am not
happy,' for glass, plate, and china are still on their travels.
Eleven of our twenty-four are cricketers, who are expected
to arrive to-morrow from England.
Mr. Pattisson, D.'s Private Secretary, arrived from
Ottawa.
Monday, igth.—We were busy the whole morning arranging the drawing-room; then we drove to the town to get
table-covers and some finishing touches. Our efforts were
crowned with success, and the room looked extremely
pretty.
Nearly everything had to be hired for the dining-room;
but about an hour before dinner a few cases arrived, and
two or three salvers were got out to ornament the sideboard.
We had thirty people—eleven of them cricketers. The
dinner was supposed to be at 7.30, and the Canadians
arrived punctually, but the English guests were somewhat
London-like in their hours.    In the evening the officers of
1 In command of B Battery, Canadian Artillery. AUG. 1872
A  PICNIC
21
theB Battery, quartered in the Citadel, came in. Everyone
admired our new platform very much, and as a most
splendid moon shone down upon the St. Lawrence for the
occasion, it really was very nice. The attractions of the
platform almost emptied the drawing-room.
Tuesday, 20th.—In the afternoon we drove out, Lady
Harriet, Mr. Coulson, and I. First we went over an asylum
part of which is for old men and old women. The first old
gentleman I saw said, f I was just coming up to see you. I
come from Killyleagh.'2
At each side of the building are orphan asylums. We
went over everything thoroughly, going up to the attics
and down to the kitchens, and examining both the summer
and winter clothing of the boys and girls.
Thursday, 22nd.—The morning looked damp and uncertain, but we started on a picnic. A tandem, containing
our second cook and our guide and commissariat officer,
led the way. Lady H. and I followed in a barouche. D.
and Colonel Fletcher rode. I must tell you that our
| guide ' is quite a character, and is of a most sanguine disposition : he declared the distance to the lake was only twenty
- miles, that there we should catch fish of enormous weights,
that moose and bear and cariboo would be shot by us in
the bush, and, although it poured as we drove along, that
the weather would be lovely ' in half an hour.'
D. thought seriously of turning back, but we voted for
giving the sun another chance, and things soon looked much
better. When we had reached the ■ twenty miles' we found
we were about half way, and we stopped at a cottage to
change carriages. The rest of the road was too rough for
our barouche, so we got into the waggon with the tandem'
while the cook set out in a cart. We gave the horses an
hour to rest, while we sat in the garden and talked to the
man and his wife. She was Scotch, and he a very good
specimen of an Irishman.   He had bought eighty acres for
2 My old home in County Down. 22
MY CANADIAN JOURNAL
CH. II
iooL, but thinks a tenant in Ireland better off, in spite of
his 'rent.' They both dread the long winters, and the
heat of the summer.
They had such a nice dog with an extraordinary taste
for putting out fires. When shown a lighted paper, he
rushed at it, tried to extinguish it with his mouth, then
had recourse to his paws, and, after succeeding, cooled his
poor tongue with some clay or a stone.
When we reached our destination, we found our three
tents pitched on the borders of Lake St. Joseph, which is ten
miles long, and is surrounded by hills covered with woods.
At sunset it was lovely; the hills becoming purple and
blue, and the water looking like molten brass. Close to
our encampment was a farm-house, and a nice Irish family,
all with charming manners—the father a magistrate.
Our guide had been beaming all day, and was radiant
now that the weather looked better. He had shown us the
tea-plant growing on the way, the saffron-plant, etc., and
had told us a good deal about the country and the people.
He sent us out with our rods to fish, while our dinner was
being prepared. With us went Hammond (who had
arrived before to pitch our tents), and a Mr. White, one of
the afore-mentioned Irish family. We were just throwing
out our first line, when Mr. White said, ' There is a great
storm coming : we must get under the trees.' We jumped
out of the boats, got under some bushes, and pulled a
waterproof over us ; a terrific storm, with tropical rain,
came on, and, in spite of all precautions, we got quite wet.
When it was over, we set off for our encampment. Our
guide met us on the shore. His spirits were not damped,
and when Colonel Fletcher inquired anxiously if the tents
had let in any water, he replied, ' Not a drop, Colonel; not
a drop.' On reaching them, however, we found every bed
and blanket wet through! They had looked so nice and
comfortable when we went out, and now all our possessions
were soaking.
m AUG. 1872
1 MR. BRIGGS1
23
We lighted a fire,—for which the Whites sacrificed all
their nice palings,—and surrounded it with the wet shawls,
and beds, and bedding; then we pulled our table close to
the warm blaze, and our cook sent us soup and entrees, and
roasts and pudding, and we were quite happy. >As soon as
the things were dry we went to bed.
We had three tents. In the first we dressed; in the
second D. and I had most comfortable little beds, and we
crept through a hole to get to them. I procured a penknife to put under my pillow, to cut my way out in case of
emergency, for in a panic I never could have found the
hole. There was a faint possibility of a bear peeping in
at it, and a pretty good chance of a pig committing the
same indiscretion.
Friday, 23rd.—The fire was crackling outside my tent
when I awoke, and as soon as D. had dressed, I skipped
across to the dressing-tent, and got ready for breakfast.
The day was lovely, and we were all full of anticipation.
Our guide appeared so radiant and so exactly the image of
the celebrated ' Mr. Briggs' in ' Punch,' that he now goes
by that name amongst us. There he was, with his short
coat, and a great wide-awake hat, on each side of. which
drooped an enormous long white cock's feather ; the living
picture of Mr. Briggs when he stated that ' his heart was in
the Highlands.'
The gentlemen were to go into the busli with him,
while we ladies were to fish. We had a very pleasant day,
and caught fifty bass—a very good fresh-water fish, and
an amusing one to catch. We came home to lunch, sat
two hours in the sunshine, and went out on the lake again
in the afternoon.
The other party, though unsuccessful, had great fun.
' Briggs,' with his powder-flask round his neck, three or
four guns, and several fishing-rods in the canoe, ordered
his men to start. He recommended the gentlemen to take
ten ' rounds ' of ammunition, which they did, though they 24
MY CANADIAN JOURNAL
ch. n
feared there would be nothing to shoot, and they only
wanted to see the 'bush.' Off they went, and as they
rowed along Briggs would issue short and sharp words of
command to Mr. White: ' White, stop there and catch
a trout.' !f White, we'll take a bass here,' which they did
not do, and then went on. They landed, ,and Briggs was to
lead them to a small lake, on the shores of which he
promised cariboo. He had not gone ten yards before he
cried,' Now, Colonel, we'll take a breath,' and during the
4 breath' the poor Colonel was devoured by black flies, of
which Briggs had previously declared there was not one.
The walking was very severe, as there were great trunks of
trees lying about, so covered with moss that the walkers
did not see them until they stepped on the apparently solid
ground, when they sank down between the branches of
the fallen trees. Briggs' ' breath '-taking became frequent,
and D. soon began to fear, not only that Mr. Briggs had
no notion of his way at all, but also that he was keeping
himself up by rather too many 1 drops' of brandy; so a
consultation was held and they found that if they went on
until the sun set, they .would lose their way, and be unable
to get out of the wood, so they thought seriously of returning. Briggs began to give more decided orders than ever.
4 White, go and get me a glass of water; do you hear,
White?—go and get it directly, sir '—this when no water
was to be seen anywhere; then,' White, go and find that
lake—go on there, and you'll find it, sir '; but Mr. White
was afraid of being lost. Then Briggs lay down, called for
his mosquito-curtain) and D. and Colonel Fletcher began to
consider how they could get him home. They sent him a
bottle of ginger ale (without any brandy), and soon after
drinking that he pulled himself together, and they, steering
by the sun, got out of the wood.
They were immensely amused, but Briggs was crestfallen, and went to bed, and has never alluded to this
expedition again.    Our cook had shot us some snipe and AUG. 1872
LEVEE AND RECEPTION
25
squirrels, and gave us an excellent dinner: we tasted the
squirrels, but they were strong of turpentine and were very
nasty.
When something was said to Hammond about poor Mr.
Briggs, he said, ' And he turned out all hands this morning
after the roosters to get those two feathers for his hat.'
Saturday, 24th.—We had our breakfast down on the
edge of the lake, and sat a long time enjoying the sun;
then we rowed over to the other side to see the pitcher-plant
growing wild. We also saw a turtle found in the lake. At
noon we started on our journey home. The views the
whole way were lovely, and we stopped to lunch on the
borders of the Jacques Cartier River, lighted a fire, and had
broiled fish, etc.
During the .tandem part of the drive we talked to Mr.
Briggs, and he was very interesting, telling alLhis trade
secrets. At the half-way house we were very well received,
and the lady had baked us some fine plum-cakes, which she
begged us to take home.
Monday, 26th.—D. held a levee, and was fully occupied
till seven o'clock.
Tuesday, 27th.—In the afternoon we went to see the
lunatic asylum here. It appears to be well managed, and
is very clean.
In the evening we had a dinner of twenty-five people.
Mr. Russell Gurney and Mr. W. H. Smith, M.P.3 for Westminster, and Colonel and Mrs. Fessenden, Americans, were
our strangers: the rest were all Canadians.
Wednesday, 28th.—Mr. R. Gurney and Mr. Smith breakfasted with us, and went over the University with D. We
had another dinner; twenty people. At nine ' Her Excellency ' had a reception, to which all the people who had
called were asked. Our platform was hung with Chinese
lanterns.
Society is at present my business in life, and this is
3 The Right Honourable W. H. Smith, First Lord of the Treasury, 1891. 26
MY CANADIAN JOURNAL
CH. II
how my week is laid out: Monday, I remain at home to
receive visitors. Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, we have
large dinners. Friday we'keep for sight-seeing, and Saturday we have small dinners. On the big nights we have a
4 drum.' Hitherto we have enjoyed our dinners and parties
very much; the people are so pleasant and chatty.
There is a delightful old French lady here, Madame
Duval, who thoroughly enjoys society and ' drums.' Unfortunately she is in mourning at present, and cannot come
unless I diplomatically suggest that the invitation is a
4 command.' Mourning is kept here in the strictest manner,
and I believe there is a time fixed for keeping down a thick
veil—a time for paying mourning visits, etc., etc.
I was ' at home ' to visitors, and we had a very pleasant
afternoon—a few people at a time, instead of the rush at
an official gathering.
After dinner we had a drum, at which nearly the whole
of Quebec appeared. They were cheery, and it went off
well. I tried to have some singing but there was too much
talk. The band played, and, unluckily, finished its performance with ' God save the Queen': the instant the
familiar bars were heard, half-finished ices were thrown
down and everyone rushed away.
Thursday, September $th.—Lady Harriet and I called at
the Ursuline Convent. We took the babies, and I was more
struck with the peculiarities of convent life than when we
went through the establishment before; for, not having
D. with us, we were not admitted, but had to talk to the
nuns through iron bars. In was quite funny to hear them
all buzzing inside their cage, laughing and talking, and
handing sugar to the babies and admiring them ! Luckily,
they (the babies) behaved well, and both examined the
curious scene with the utmost gravity.
Friday, 6th.—I was writing this morning when D. called
me to see eight bishops, archbishops, and grands vicaires
who had particularly asked for me.  I went into the drawing- SEPT. l872
CANADIAN SONGS
27
room, and found all these ecclesiastics in full dress. Our
Grand Vicar as usual put everyone at his ease, and initiated
a lively conversation.
Immediately after lunch we started off in a small
steamer to the other side of the river. We were met by
Mr. and Mrs. Roberts, who came out with us in the
Prussian, and they took us to the Chaudiere Falls. We
admired them very much. There is a great body of water,
of a deep brown colour, which tumbles down from a good
height, and the waterfall is very wide; the cloud of white
spray looks so pretty against the dark water.
We also went to see a very handsome new Roman
Catholic church just built at New Liverpool. We found the
priest—Father Saxe—a most superior old man, and very
good-looking. He is proud of his church, and was pleased
with our visit. He cultivates grapes and a garden, ' which
are his wife and children.'
Saturday, 7th.—In the evening we had a small dinner,
and as soon as the gentlemen came up we had singing and
playing. Mrs. Pemberton sang Irish melodies, and Madame
Sericole French songs, and M. La Rue sang a little of everything, and then we had a number of Canadian boat-songs
with choruses. They are very pretty, the music wild and
plaintive. Our old friend, Madame Duval, was in great
force, and she and her daughter dictated a song to M. La
Rue which was rather amusing and pretty. She (Madame
Sericole) sang, ' I will be an eel in a pond to escape from
you;' then he, ' Si vous vous faites anguille, je me ferai
pecheur pour vous prendre en pechant;' then she, ' Si vous
vous faites pecheur pour me prendre en pechant, je devien-
drai alouette,' etc. This kind of conversation goes on to
any length, till finally she says she will become a nun, when
he makes himself 'precheur pour vous prendre en prechant.'
This fidelity she is unable to resist, and, ' Puisque tu m'aimes
tant pour te faire precheur pour me prendre en prechant,
I will marry you.' 28
MY CANADIAN JOURNAL
CH. II
Monday, gth.—Mr. and Mrs. T. Brassey4 and Miss Robinson dined with us. He has just come from England in his
yacht, a twenty-eight days'* voyage; Mrs. Brassey came out
in the steamer.
Wednesday, nth.—The Bishop of Quebec and Judge
Stuart came to breakfast, and at eleven we started on an
educational tour. At the first school separate addresses
were made to each of us, and I was asked for a holiday.
The boys' schools seem almost all to be under the Christian
Brothers. The Cure of Quebec went with us. He, like the
other priests here, is very 'jolly.' I think we went to six
schools; at each an address was read, and at each we gave
a holiday. We also went to see the Houses of Parliament—
that is, the local Parliament. Before the seat of Government was moved it was the imperial one. It is in good
taste; the outside quite plain. After lunch we went with
D. (who had not previously been there) to the lunatic
asylum. We saw as much as we dared to see, and D. just
escaped a cup of tea which one of the wildest of the patients
threw through the holes in the door of her cell. After
this we went to see some Egyptian curiosities, and I
hurried home to rest for twenty'minutes before my dinner.
We had twenty-two people, the Brasseys among the
number.
Thursday, 12th.—It is the experience of a very tired
person you will now hear, for to-day must be added to
yesterday to understand my feelings. We did not go out
till two, for I was very busy all the morning; but at two
we went down to the Convent of St. Roch, where our
reception was most charming. The nuns received us at the
door and led us into a very large room, the walls of which
were lined from floor to ceiling with little children: they
each wore either a blue or a red ribbon, and they were all
from three to eight years old—five hundred in number.
About twenty stood in the middle of the room and sang a
4 Lord and (the late) Lady Brassey. 8EPT. l872
VISITS TO CONVENTS
29
song of welcome, and whenever they came to the word
4 Excellence,' or ' Milor,' they all curtseyed together. Then
one came forward and made a little address, adding that
this great occasion was worthy of 4 a double holiday.' In
his reply D. said that although he had never heard of that
phenomenon in nature 4 a double holiday,' he was happy to
grant it. Then we went upstairs to see the older pupils.
I cannot tell you what a pretty ceremony it was, and
how gracefully they all made their reverences together.
We looked at the Church of St. Roch, which is a large and
rather gaudy building. Then we proceeded to the boys'
school of the district, and heard some singing, and received
an address.    We had a large dinner at night.
Friday, 13th.—To our duties again to-day, in spite of
pouring rain. We began at ten, and visited the High
School, which is a superior boys' school, and several other
Protestant schools.
Monday, 16th.—We went to the Ursuline Convent
and were received at the door by the Confessor and
some other clergy, and by some of the official people in the
parlour. We looked at pictures and at Montcalm's skull
until all was ready, and then we went to the great door of
the convent and knocked. Some nuns opened to us, and
conducted us to a large room, where we found all the pupils
dressed in white and with wreaths of flowers on their heads.
They sang a welcome as we came in; then two came forward,
and one gave a little address in English and one in French.
All the time we were there waves of curtseys kept sweeping
along the line every time our names were mentioned, and
as we passed down the room. It was very prettily decorated.
We made a tour of the convent, and heard the pupils play
a piece on five pianos and a harmonium at once. We
were admitted to the cells—cold and cheerless places—saw
the great cage in which the pupils are enclosed when they
see their parents, the dining-room with its meagre furniture, the children's playground, and, in fact, all the sights 80
MY CANADIAN JOURNAL
CH. II
it;
of the convent.    The nuns themselves we found most
cheerful and happy.
In the evening we went to a ball given in our honour
by the Lieutenant-Governor, Sir Narcisse Belleau. It was
held in the music-hall, a very fine room. D. danced
everything, and I danced the square dances.
Tuesday, 17th.—In spite of our fatigues, we had to
start early to visit another convent, ' Jesus Marie,' at
Sillery. Here our reception was too lovely. The convent
has only been built three years, and is a splendid house,
with all the new improvements, and with fine grounds
surrounding it. In one hall there are twelve glass boxes,
each containing a piano, so that the pupils can practise
simultaneously; whilst in another glass house sits the
mistress, overlooking, but, happily for her, not overhearing.
At the door we were met by priests, and by the Lady
Superior, and we first of all paid our respects to the nuns
—little black ladies with white, large-bordered caps. They
conducted us through passages ornamented with maple-
leaves, and placed us on thrones in presence of the pupils.
The children were in white, and a circle of twelve of them
began a dramatic conversation, in which they consulted
each other as to the best way of doing us honour. One
suggested that the ' Genius of Canada' should be asked
her opinion on the subject, and, like a good fairy, she immediately appeared upon the scene, and settled the question
by giving me a large bunch of artificial roses made in the
convent, singing meanwhile a song the refrain of which
was—
' Ce sont des roses sans Opines,
Que Ton vous offre au Canada.'
The Genius was a pretty, fair girl, wearing a silver
wreath and a white gown ornamented with maple-leaves
and roses. After all this the nuns gave us cake and sweet
wine, and we hurried off to another convent. It was a very
small one, only just setting itself up, but there were about
1 H SEPT. l872
THE LAVAL   UNIVERSITY
31
thirty pupils. On our way we went to look at a church,
and called on Lady Belleau, and then rushed back to be ' at
home' all the afternoon.
I had my room full of people from three to six, so, as you
may suppose, I was pretty tired when the hour for rest came.
D. and I dined alone, which is much more of an event
now than a dinner-party would be.
Wednesday, iSth.—The day of our first ball. We were
excessively busy making decorations, and attending to all the
endless ball arrangements. Nevertheless, we had to go out
to pay a state visit to the Universite Laval. - There we
were received by the Archbishop, etc., and, after seeing the
young boys, D. went through the building, museum, and
library, and finally into the great room, where we were
received by the University proper. We sat on a dais at
one end, and the hall was filled with students, priests, and
guests ; the Rector and the Professors, in robes, walked in
and read an address, and listened to D.'s reply. Then we
went up on the roof, looked at the magnificent view, and
peeped at the sun through a telescope. After this, home,
where we partly rested and partly looked after the ball.
Our room has light-coloured walls and a high arched
roof, and we ornamented it with festoons of blue and white,
fastened with great bunches of pink and white roses—the
ceiling the same. We had a military band outside, where
there was a very good floor, and a string band in the room ;
so people danced both outside and in, and they kept it up till
three with great spirit. They really did enjoy themselves,
which is encouraging, as we have another on Friday.
Thursday, igth.—Gay people that we are! To-day we
had a paper-hunt. We started at eleven, D. riding, and I
taking two Frenchmen who are staying here—le Comte de
Montebello and le Baron Brun—in the carriage. It poured
at first, but cleared soon. We crossed the river in a ferry,
carriage and all, and were told where to place ourselves;
so we were much amused, as we saw the jumping perfectly. 32
MY CANADIAN JOURNAL
ch. n
When the paper was 4kiUed,' we met at some country
barracks, had lunch, and formed a ' club,5 ' the Stadacona
Hunt,' with D. as president.
Friday, 20th.—At twelve o'clock I went over a Protestant
home, where orphans and old women have a refuge. It
seems to be very nice and comfortable. After lunch we
inspected an indiarubber manufactory, and saw the material
from the time it comes out of the tree till it leaves the.,
place as goloshes. Then we proceeded to a wood-mill,
where all carpentering is done by machinery, and where
we saw our Tadousac house laid out. It will be made there,
and transported in barges to its site.
We had a second ball in the evening, and this time we
had an awning on the platform, which was hung with
Chinese lanterns. It looked very pretty, and it entirely
prevented any crowd in the ballroom; in fact, it was almost
the more popular place of the two.
Saturday, 21st.—H.E. had suggested some athletic sports,
so we went down to see them and to lunch with the Mayor.
There was a very good place for the games—a smooth
field, surrounded by high grass banks on two sides, and
with houses on the third. People sat on the banks and in
the houses, and, as the day was lovely, there was an immense
concourse of spectators.
The hills all round, as seen from our celebrated platform,
are of the most lovely autumn colours, and, covered as they
are with red and orange trees, they really look like flames
in the distance, or like gigantic flower-gardens; for our trees
are quite as brilliant as your best flowers, and if you can
imagine your conservatory magnified a million times, and
spread over miles and miles of hill and dale, you will begin
to understand how we do things in this Canada of ours.
Monday, 23rd.-^-We left Quebec to-day, and received
quite an ovation at our departure. The weather was lovely,
and we started from the Citadel at three, escorted by a guard
of honour.   The streets, were hung with flags, and were sept. 1872 DEPARTURE FROM QUEBEC
33
full of people. At one corner, the boys of the Universite
Laval met us, and about fifty of them each presented me
with a bouquet, so that I was half buried with flowers.
When we arrived at the wharf, we found almost the whole
of the society waiting to say good-bye to us. The Mayor
read an address, and invited us to a ball, and D. replied.
Then we shook hands with everyone, and went on board.
Every part of the town, right up to the Citadel, was crowded,
and six steamers full of people accompanied us for ten miles.
When we got to Cap Rouge, the steamers turned back, the
people on board cheering and waving their handkerchiefs.
On the coast, too, at each little wharf, people were collected,
and at the houses far up on the shore we saw waving flags
and tablecloths. As we passed the Sillery Convent, all the
children came out with flags.    No wonder we like Quebec !
D 34
CHAPTER III
ONTARIO
Tuesday, September 24th.—The train left Montreal at
8 a.m., and we were in it till 11.30 at night—a very long
journey. However, we had a most comfortable car, with
armchairs and sofas, and managed to sleep a good deal.
In spite of the lateness of the hour we were met at Toronto
by crowds of people and a torchlight procession. The
Lieutenant-Governor, Mr. Howland, took us to his house,
which was magnificently illuminated.
Wed/nesday, 2$th.—A large dinner-party and a very
pretty ball, the house and grounds being illuminated.
Thursday, 26th.—At eleven o'clock, we started by special
train for Hamilton. It is a very prettily situated town on
Lake Ontario, which looks more like the sea than a lake.
All the streets are planted with trees, and there is a high
hill behind the town, from which the view is magnificent.
We were received at the station by the Mayor and Corpora-^
tion, who presented an address, and drove to the Cattle Show
yard, where there was another, and D. and I walked round the
grounds and looked at the animals, while the people looked
at us. We examined prize horses, cows, and pigs, but found
the crowd so great that we resolved to return in the morning to see everything more quietly. We are staying with
Mr. Mclnnes, who makes us very comfortable.
Friday, 27th.—We were at the exhibition early, and went SEPT.   l872
TORONTO
round sewing-machines, pictures, refrigerators, stoves, vegetables, fruit, etc. etc.
After this we drove to the City Hall and received a
deputation from the Six Nations. The chief ' Chief' was
finely dressed, and wore feathers in a hat, and many medals
on his breast. He carried the silver pipe of peace, but also
had on a scalping-knife, a tomahawk, and a dagger; and
he was enchanted when, in allusion to these weapons, D.
told him that he would rather have him for a friend than
an enemy.
He was a fine-looking man, and had the best of manners.
He read the address in English, the other Chiefs standing
by in plain clothes, and when D. replied, the Chief translated
into Indian each sentence of his speech. As soon as the
Indians left we had a general reception, and afterwards drove
out to a lovely country place belonging to Mr. Mclnnes.
There we lunched, and then hurried off to the train.
In an hour and a half we reached Toronto, and the grand
and official reception took place. A guard of honour and
the Mayor met us at the station, and we drove to the Town
Hall. All the streets were crowded with people, the windows
full, and the houses ornamented with flags. There were some
splendid triumphal arches, and the whole way along we were
cheered. We made quite a procession, fire-engines and
carriages leading the way for us. Another guard of honour
met us at the hall, and we went in and had two more addresses. D. did not find his written replies at the station
as he expected, so he had to speak extempore, and I think
that pleased his audience more.
After this, we again got into the carriages and drove to
the hotel through crowds, where we remained as the guests
of the city. In the evening twenty of the Corporation
dined with us. I sat by the Mayor, Mr. Sheard—a very nice
man. After dinner we drove out to see the illuminations:
there were some very pretty ones, and the arches looked
beautiful. 36
MY CANADIAN JOURNAL
CH. Ill
Saturday, 28th.—The weather is quite splendid, and the
Corporation took us for a drive. This town is one of those
wonderful quick-growing places: the streets are very wide,
and trees are planted on each side of them. There are
some very handsome buildings and numbers of the most
charming villas. On our return, we had lunch. Our health
and the Mayor's health were drunk; and as the latter made
frequent mention of me as D.'s ' kind lady,' I am in hopes
I made an impression.
At three, D. had a levee, and after this we returned
to "Government House. Another dinner of twenty tonight.
We are thinking of spending a week at Niagara, and
wrote to the hotel-keeper there to ask price of rooms, etc.
He replied first to the business part, and then added, 'I
should like to know how many guests His Excellency will
bring with him, as I wish to give a little hop while he is
here, and I have to write for the music,' etc. etc.
P.S. ' The hop and the music will not be charged
extra'!
We declined the 4 hop.'
Monday, 30th.—We have arrived at Niagara, and I
write to you in sight of the Falls. The spray rises in
clouds and joins the other clouds in the sky, which has a
most curious effect, and there is a brilliant rainbow in the
spray, and I am not in the least disappointed with the
quantity of water, or with the size of the Fall; but I don't
think the first view of it is so overpoweringly grand as
I expected. The Fall is so wide that it rather takes from
the height, and I imagine it is a sight the full grandeur of
which will grow upon one day by day. Sir Hastings Doyle *
is staying with us.
Tuesday, October 1st.—We went to a convent, accompanied by the Archbishop in violet.    It has a beautiful
1 The late General Sir C. Hastings Doyle, Lieut.-Governor of Nova
Scotia, and Commanding the Troops in Canada. OCT.   1872
NIAGARA
37
view of the Falls from its windows. After lunch we crossed
the bridge and went into the States.
From that side we had fine views of the rapids and great,
rushing river, and there we prepared to visit the 4 Cave of
the Winds.' I had no idea what the Cave really was,
and was surprised to find that we were expected to array
ourselves in yellow oilcloth trousers, with jackets and
hoods of the same material. Thus accoutred we descended
a flight of stairs, and found ourselves at the foot of a waterfall. On our feet we had soft cloth shoes, which enabled us
to climb down the steepest and wettest and most slippery
rocks. The spray beat in our faces, and we could only
occasionally open our eyes to see the splendid rainbow in
the water, and the great height above us from which the
water was rushing down. We climbed in this way over
rocks and small wooden bridges until we came to the Fall,
and walked behind it, in a complete shower-bath,—but I
enjoyed it immensely. We came out at the other side,
having passed behind a portion of Niagara. We did look
a funny yellow party, dripping with water.
Thursday, 3rd.—We were joined by Sir Edward Thornton, our Minister at Washington, and walked to the
foot of the Horseshoe Fall, which spot, I think, gives a
greater idea of the magnitude of Niagara than any other
view. In the afternoon we drove to see the whirlpool and
the rapids below the Falls, which are very rapid indeed.
We went by train to see a great engineering work
undertaken by Mr. Gzowski.2 He is making a bridge over
the Niagara, close to Buffalo ; the piers have to be built in
water eighty feet deep, where the stream is rushing along
twenty miles an hour. We saw the whole plan,—but I will
not attempt to describe anything so scientific. Colonel
Fletcher put on a diver's dress and went down the eighty
feet, bringing us some stones from the bottom.
Mr. and Mrs. Gzowski took us for a drive through Buffalo.
2 Col. Sir Casimir S. Gzowski, K.C.M.G., Hon. A.D.C. to the Queen; ^I^IK^mmmW^
38
MY CANADIAN JOURNAL
CH.  Ill
There are miles of 4 street' there, arranged with the road
in the middle, and on either side three rows of trees and a
broad strip of grass, in the centre of which there is a stone
footpath. Each house is a handsome ' villa,' with a large
piece of ground round it. One gets such an impression of
wealth and comfort that one is astonished, and this is a
' third-rate ' American town.
Friday, 4th.—Sir Hastings Doyle left us to-day. We
were very sorry to part with him, he was always so cheerful
and such an amusing companion.
Toronto: Saturday, $th.—We have-hired a house at
Toronto, and are settling ourselves in it to-day. There is a
very bad epidemic among the horses here, and ours are
suffering from it too, which is inconvenient.
Tuesday, 8th.—We had our first Drawing-room. There
were about 1,500 people present, and, as I had to curtsey
all the time, I had plenty of exercise. The room looked very
handsome when thus filled with smart people. This was
quite a new experiment in Canada, drawing-rooms not
having been held before, and it seems to be approved.
Wednesday, gth.—Having recovered the fatigues of the.
Drawing-room, I drove in the afternoon to see a lacrosse
match. It is almost the national game here, and is a sort of
ideal football. The ball is caught on a racket and thrown
from one side to the other. It is very pretty and amusing to
watch. The game was whites versus Indians. The latter
showed us their war-dance before we left.
London: Thursday, 10th.—Our train left Toronto at
9 a.m., and on our way to London we stopped at Woodstock
to receive addresses. The station at London was very
prettily arranged. Immense numbers of people were present,
and gave us a very warm reception. We drove to the
Cattle Show yard, where there were more addresses, and
where the people got over the palings and came in tremendous crowds all about us, so that we saw very little.
After lunch at the Members' house, Lady Harriet and OCT.   1872
PETROLIA
39
I returned to the hotel, where the City entertained us, and
D. went on to Helmuth College and to some oil-refineries.
We dined alone, and just as we had finished a torchlight
procession passed, throwing up Roman candles and rockets.
Being dressed for the ball, I was requested to show myself
to the guests in the hotel, and the American mistress of
the place said to me, X Well, missis, I must compliment you
very highly.'
The ballroom was very fine, and His Excellency danced
every dance.
Friday, nth.—We started at eleven, with a large party
' on board the cars,' to visit the oil-wells of ' Petrolia,' where
we saw the oil as it comes up through the pump—thick,
black, and mixed with water. We also saw the process of
looking for a well, ' sinking a shaft,' and all the machinery
used. The oil leaves Petrolia free from water, but black
and thick: the refining is done at London. The oil district is, of course, ugly, the ground black and swampy.
Stumps of trees and wooden erections—some like enormous
barrels—cover the whole place, but it was very interesting
to see it. On our way back we were shown into a ' drawing-
room ' car, where we found about twenty tables laid, each
one for two people. We had an excellent hot lunch
cooked on board, and got back to London at three o'clock.
Here the party left us, and we returned to Toronto.
Saturday, 12th.—Lady Harriet and I inspected an orphan
home, examining everything from garret to basement. On
the way we passed a large house moving to some other site.
It was on rollers, and was going slowly along the street.
A dinner-party closed the day.
Tuesday, i$th.—D. and I drove to see a fine Wesleyan
church. In the same building, forming part of the architectural effect outside, but separate inside, there are Sunday-
school and Committee rooms. Then we went on to Bishop
Strachan's Church of England Ladies' School. We liked
all we saw there very much.    The girls played and sang T
p****
40
MY CANADIAN JOURNAL
.CH.  Ill
and read to us, and as they had decorated their bedrooms
we had to go into each one.
Wednesday, \6th.—At eleven our duties began again,
and we visited the Normal and Model Schools. These are
the National Schools of Canada, and members of all
denominations met us, the English clergyman introducing
the R.C. Bishop. This afternoon I have been to two
orphan asylums, this evening to a charity concert.
Thursday, 17th.—My children and my brother Fred3
sail for Canada to-day. H.E. and I went out at the usual
hour of eleven, and paid a visit to Trinity College, one of
the first-fruits of disestablishment here; it is especially a
Church of England University. An address was read and
answered, presentations were made, and we visited the
library, which is young and small. Then we drove to the
lunatic asylum and went over it. It is a very fine one, with
broad corridors, widening out into comfortable recesses, in
which the people sit. At each end of the passage is a
covered quarter-deck, barred all round, but otherwise open
to the air, where the inmates can walk, and which provides
a perfect means of airing each floor. One new feature
in this asylum is a paying department, which is of course
cheap, although it has all the comforts of a private asylum.
We had a dinner-party of twenty-four: one M.P. and
his wife, two legal gentlemen, two R.C. bishops, a Volunteer colonel, the editor of a newspaper with his pretty
little wife, who sang for us, some members of the Government, and some of the Board of Trade.
Friday, 18th.—D. and I drove to the City Hall to
receive an address from the ' York Pioneers'—Toronto used
to be called ' York,' and these are the first settlers here.
After lunch we went to the University, where D. gave
away the prizes, and made a speech. The hall was filled
with all the beauty and fashion of Toronto: they com-
3 Lieut.-Colonel F. Rowan Hamilton, late 9th Foot, who was with us as
A.D.C. in Canada and India.—H. D. & A. OCT.   1872
TORONTO
41
plimented me, and D. complimented them, and the proceedings went off very well. This is a great place for
presents—a very friendly custom. I have fruit, flowers,
butter, fancy bread, fish, and game sent me constantly.
Nearly every day brings some offering. The Show sent me
apples and pears—a few of each kind, arranged so as to
have some every day of the year.
Saturday, igth.—In the afternoon I went for a sail with
D., and in the evening we had a large party of about 150
people.
Monday, 21st.—This morning we inspected some Roman
Catholic Schools. The first place we went to was the
Convent of the ' Precious Blood.' I think I told you about
this order of praying nuns—it is very strict, and they use
corporal self-punishments. The dress of the nuns is beautiful—a white dress, with a broad piece of blood-red coloured
cashmere hanging straight down both the back and the front
of it, and a black veil on the head. Their beds are boards,
and they get up twice in the night to pray. They looked
very well, and quite merry. The second place was a college
for boys, and the third a convent school. We also went to
look at the cathedral.
There happened a great contretemps this afternoon. I
was to be at home to receive visitors; so Lady Harriet and
I sat in state, and nobody came ! At five D. returned home,
and I said to him,' Not a single soul has come to see us.' Tea
came in, and he asked, ' Has nobody called ? ' f Oh, yes,'
said the servant, ' but I said, " Not at home." ' We sent
for the book, and found 104 people had been, so we had to
sit down and write 104 notes to explain. I had a dinnerparty in the evening, and, luckily, no one seems to have been
offended, though our conduct did look rude this afternoon.
We had a great deal of music after dinner. All the young
ladies sing and play without their music, and are very
good-natured about it.
Wednesday, 23rd.—D. visited the National Schools in 42
MY CANADIAN JOURNAL
CH. II
the morning, and after lunch I went with him to finish the
Roman Catholic institutions. We drove to the Loretto
Abbey Convent, where the girls were dressed in white and
blue. They gave us a little concert, and then all passed
round, each making a curtsey to us. We were laden with
bouquets, and the rooms were ornamented with ' welcomes'
and wreaths of maple. The next place was a ' House of
Providence,' where old, incurable, orphans, and sick, are all
cared for. The third visit was to a boys' school under the
Christian Brothers.
Thursday, 24th.—I went over the Toronto Hospital this
morning—a fine building and well managed, but badly off
for funds. D. was engaged to inspect two fashionable young
ladies' schools, and is not home yet. To-night we have an
enormous ball.
Friday, 2$th.—Our ball last night was a great success.
The Parliament buildings, in which it took place, were
arranged for us by the Ontario Government. We had two
ballrooms, both ornamented with a good deal of crimson
drapery, arms, and shields, which lighted up very well. The
supper-room was upstairs. I suppose we had about 1,200
guests. "There was not a hitch in the arrangements, and,
people looked very nice and fresh. I danced all the square
dances, and D. every dance, with a selection of celebrities.
When the programme was over, ' God save the Queen ' was
played, and we stood on the dais while the people passed out
before us.
D. had krbe off to a college at eleven this morning, but
I was lazy, and reserved myself till one, when we went to
the Law Courts to lunch. The building, ' Osgoode Hall,' is
fine, and the Courts much better than any I have seen—
lofty and comfortable rooms. We had our healths drunk,
and D. told them the one blot he had discovered in Canadian
affairs was the lowness of the judges' salaries; this, of
course, the company present were very glad to hear.
Saturday, 26th.—There were to have been athletic sports
m mm
OCT.   1872
SUNDA Y SCHOOLS
43
to-day, special trains, etc., but there is a steady downpour
and they have been put off till Monday. I received a good
many farewell visits, and in the evening we went to a performance at the theatre for the Protestant orphans. The
theatre is small, but very pretty, and ' London Assurance'
was very well given—especially the part of Lady Gay
Spanker, by Mrs. Morrison. She presented me with, a
splendid bouquet in which my monogram was made in
shamrocks.
Sunday, 27th.—This morning, at ten, we visited a
Sunday-school. Very great attention is paid to Sunday
schools in Canada, and the children of all classes attend
them. There was a separate room for infants, and the man
teaching them gave his instruction orally and with a blackboard, upon which he wrote: the children answered all
together, and seemed bright and intelligent. They also sang
hymns. The larger children were downstairs. D. made
them a little address, and we heard them sing too, which
they do extremely well. This was the cathedral school,
and the average attendance every Sunday is 500. There
is a class every week for the teachers, and the same lesson
is given all over the school.
Monday, 28th.—We left Toronto at nine, and a number
of people came to see us off, and cheered our departing
train. We had a twelve hours' journey, and were glad to
reach Ottawa.
Ottawa: Tuesday, 2gth.—My poor children have had a
very long journey: they arrived at Quebec on Monday,
after a rough passage from Liverpool, and did not get here
till this evening, when I devoted myself to giving them tea,
putting them to bed, and hearing them chatter.
Wednesday, 30th.—The weather is perfectly lovely, and
the children are well and enjoying the fine day.
Mr. Coulson goes on leave, so Fred at once begins his
duties as A.D.C., but he comes in for a time of rest. 44
CHAPTER IV
OTTAWA
Saturday, November 2nd.—The journal here will grow
very dull, I fear. We are 4 settling down/ and do very
little that is interesting.
Ottawa is a small town, with incongruously beautiful
buildings crowning its insignificance. A very bad road
leads to Rideau, which is a long, two-storeyed villa, with a
small garden on one side of it and a hedge which bounds
our property on the other—so that at this time of the year
there is really no place to walk. When the 4 road-maker,'
as they call the frost, comes, and when the ground is covered
with snow, we shall be independent of roads; and the knowledge of this makes the inhabitants careless of the state
they may be in at other times of the year.
The gentlemen try to ride every day, and come back
covered with mud. I walked into the town one day with
D., and the following paragraph appeared in the evening
paper:—
4 Lady Dufferin.—It would astonish some of our fine
ladies to see Lady Dufferin walking about the town. She
dresses plainly and sensibly, wears thick boots, and does
not shrink from the muddiest of our crossings.'
This comes of my Irish training!
Monday, 4th.—Directly after lunch, Fred and I began
our duties.   I   was  'at home,'   and he announced the NOV.  1872
RIDEAU HALL
45
visitors and helped me to talk to them. We had 108. I
was pleased with the society, and Ottawa itself improves
on acquaintance, especially as I have discovered a nice
common and wood behind the house, where the children
will be very happy. Mr. Archibald,1 Lieutenant-Governor
of Manitoba, and the Pattissons dined with us.
In addition to his social duties, Fred has to look after
all the stable matters, expenditure included, after the
invitations, the amusements, such as skating-rink, etc. etc.,
so he is not idle.
Tuesday, $th.—The little ones, Basil and Hermie,
arrived from Quebec, looking well and merry. It is nice to
be all together again.
Saturday, gth.—The weather is lovely, and I generally
walk in and out of town. After lunch, games of football,
stilts, hoops, etc., go on. We have five-o'clock tea, and
family gatherings, the babies first, and then the old children.
The house gets on very slowly: the hall door is still
boarded up, the schoolroom full of workmen who do not
work, the gas-pipes still innocent of gas.l I suppose we
shall be settled by January. The Fletchers' house will, I
hope, be ready for them in a few days, and when they get
into it we shall feel more settled ourselves. At present
they are staying with us.
Sunday, 10th.—We went to our very small parish church
at New Edinburgh. It is very primitive, but we like the'
service, and it is so much nearer to us than the cathedral.
Monday, nth.—We took a walk to prepare for the
labours of the afternoon. Between three and five I received
144 visitors; Fred, Lady Harriet, and Mrs. Pattisson
helping me.
Thursday, 14th.—This is Thanksgiving Day, so we went
to church at the cathedral, but (as the papers tell us) we
did it in an ' unostentatious manner.'    The first snow fell.
Friday, i$th.—A telegram arrived from Australia, the
1 Sir Adams George Archibald, K.C.M.G. 46
MY CANADIAN JOURNAL
CH. TV
first which has been sent direct: it arrived at 9.10 this
morning, having been sent at 10—to-night. Rather puzzling
to think of. D. replied, ' Canada re-echoes Australia's
toast—our Queen and a United Empire.'
Sunday, 17th.—A beautiful, ideal winter day: the
ground and trees white with snow, blue sky, and bright
sun. We went to church, and the children were unable
to resist some of the pleasure of a first day of snow, and
tumbled about in it as though it were sand.
You should see them all five in blanket coats, which are
made of thick blue cloth, with red epaulets and sashes, and
pointed hoods lined and piped with red. The coats are very
long and straight, and the little figures in them look both
funny and picturesque. They have sealskin turbans, and
pull up the hoods if necessary. We all wear moccasins on
our feet; they are of cloth, with indiarubber soles, and
generally with a flower embroidered in colours on the toes.
The only drawback to going out here is the amount of
dressing one has to do to prepare for it. There are overstockings, over-boots, over-etcs. of all descriptions to be put
on; there are fur caps with woollen clouds tied over them
as becomingly as possible, fur coats, fur gloves, muffs, etc.,
etc.    But once out it is delightful, and most exhilarating.
We have been tobogganing, though the snow is not deep
yet, and our present efforts are very amateurish. We sit,
stand, or lie on a straight board which is curled up at one
end, and slide down snow-covered hills. The children enjoy
it immensely, and have splendid exercise pulling their little
sleighs, or toboggans, up the hill again.
The ' Black Rod,' Mr. Kimber, was one of our guests
at dinner to-night. He sang us one of Figaro's songs,
acting it with great spirit, and amusing us very much. He
also sang some very pretty Canadian boat-songs. Another
guest was Miss Griffin, a lady who acted in a play with
Dickens at Montreal twenty years ago.
Wednesday, 20th.—D., Colonel Fletcher, Fred, and Mr. NOV.   1872
MY FIRST SLEIGH DRIVE
47
Campbell  (D.'s  shorthand  writer,   and  a  very favourite
member of the Staff), went to Montreal.
Saturday, 23rd.—I had a long letter from D., giving me
an account of his doings. After a long journey on Wednesday, they reached Montreal in the evening, and were conducted by the Mayor and Sir Hugh Allan to the latter's
house.
On Thursday D. unveiled the Queen's statue, and in the
evening he danced all night at a ball, never flagging till
four in the morning, and being pronounced ' a brick' by
the young ladies of Montreal. He had a dinner at a club
on Friday, and returned here to-day, fatigued but
pleased. We are both going to Montreal in January for a
' season.'
Wednesday, 27th.—We are gradually settling down in
our house, and are dragging from obscure packing-cases
the few ornaments that have emigrated with us. I have
set up a boudoir, and in it I put all my favourite things, so
as to have one home-like sanctum. The state-rooms continue, I fear, to have a hopelessly company look.
We had a dinner-party of twenty-six, a great number
of Ministers among them. There is no clock (going) in
the drawing-room, so my guests fidgeted off before ten,
and had to wait in the cloak-room for their carriages.
When one person moves, they all go, and it is useless to
say, 'Do stay.'
There was snow in the afternoon, and we are getting up
the double windows. Most people have not only the extra
windows, but stuff cotton wool into every crevice. Their
houses are very hot.
Tuesday, December 3rd.—Yesterday I went for my first
drive in a sleigh. I think I shall like it very much when
there is a little more snow: it is rather rough at present.
I will tell you how we pass an ordinary day. We breakfast at nine, then separate to our various offices and places
of business.   Fred goes to the stables, and afterwards helps
r- 48
MY CANADIAN JOURNAL
CH.  IV
irl
to write invitations, though Mr. Coulson manages the
society at present. At eleven they all go into town. We
lunch at one—the children and I generally alone, the gentlemen returning when they like. After lunch we go out: in
this weather it is a duty, but later, I think, we shall have
great fun out of doors. On our return we have tea, and
books and children; dinner at 7.30. The Fletchers come
often, and we have either one or two large dinners every
week.
Wednesday, 4th.—I put on snow-shoes for the first time.
One's foot looks like a dot in the centre of a large racket,
and I expected to trip up on my own shoes; but I found it
quite easy to walk with them; and very amusing. Without
them one has to keep in the middle of the beaten track on
the roads, but with them one can walk on the deepest snow.
Friday, 6th.—Sir John and Lady Macdonald are staying
with us for two nights. In the morning I took Lady Macdonald and Lady Harriet for a sleigh-drive, and in the
afternoon we all rested for the coming dinner-party. We
had twenty-eight guests.
One of them, a senator and mill-owner employing
500 labourers all the year round at high wages, told me
that when he came here himself he earned ten shillings
a month. Mr. Tod, the librarian here, was another
guest. He is the author of the best book on the British
Constitution. Then there was a railway celebrity, a very
nice man, who got out of a sick bed to come: he brought
with him a pleasant sister-in-law and a very pretty
daughter. Sir Hugh Allan also dined with us, and Sir
Francis Hincks.
Satwrday, 7th.—Lady Macdonald left, and I went out to
see some tobogganing. The high hill is sufficiently covered
with snow now, and the children are very brave about going
down it. They start at the top and go bumping and
jumping all the way down, sometimes tumbling over into
the snow at the bottom, and sometimes going along the DEC. 1872
FROST BITES
49
level ground for a good distance. To-day they looked so
odd, all covered with snow, while the gentlemen's beards,
eyelashes, and hair, had the snow frozen into them. The
thermometer was io° below zero, but the day was bright,
and we did not feel the cold at all. Toiling up the hill and
pulling the toboggan after one, is hard work.
Monday, gth.—One of my exhausting 'at home' days.
My labours began at 1.30, for I had the managers of a
concert I am getting up to lunch, and went on till six—
a steady flow of visitors. It was a very cold day,—luckily
for the conversation required of me,—and ninety-three
varieties of ' How cold you must have found your drive! '
did I invent. On these occasions D. comes in when all is
over and asks 'what news we have heard,' and we always
have to say that we have heard nothing. I generally keep
Monday evening sacred to repose, but to-day we were obliged
to invite travellers, and two Torontonians, the PattissOns and
Fletchers making up twelve. Our tourists came to America
for ten months, but have found travelling so very expensive
they have to hurry home at the end of four. Their bill for
ten days at a New York hotel was 150Z.
Tuesday, 10th.—D. had invited these young men to
come and toboggan, and it made me freeze to look at their
costume: knickerbockers, no gloves, thin boots, English
hats!—when flannel, and cloth trousers, boots of cloth with
indiarubber soles, fur gloves, and fur hats are necessary.
I only hope they won't be laid up with ' pains.' One foolish
footman of ours who came out in the carriage with cotton
socks and leather boots has had a fearful attack of acute inflammatory rheumatism, and two Sisters of Mercy are now
nursing him. Yesterday, Terence, having a hole in one of
his gloves, came home with his finger frost-bitten, and
Nelly had two suspicious white spots in her face : they were
rubbed with snow, and are all right.
Wednesday, nth.—I had half an hour's skating: the
first time we have been able to use the rink.    The weather
E 50
MY CANADIAN JOURNAL
ch. rv
was very cold, but bright, and the snow hard and dry. I
did not do much, as we had a dinner m the evening, for
which it is necessary to be fresh.
Saturday, 14th.—This has been one of our regular
Ottawa weeks. After the Wednesday's dinner a quiet
night; then a visit from a Minister and his wife, Dr.2 and
Mrs. Tupper, who remained the night; and a visit the next
night from two Ministers, and one wife,—Monsieur Langevin,
and Mr. and Mrs. Howe; these latter preferred returning
home to sleep, either because they liked their own stove
side, or because the next day was Mr. Howe's seventieth
birthday. He was a violent politician, but is less active
now, and is talked of as a probable Lieutenant-Governor
for Nova Scotia.
We are working at our outdoor rink, and find it rather
troublesome to manage. An Englishman exclaims, ' Flood
it!' but this is just the difficulty, for the water freezes as
it touches the ice, and will not ' flood it'; and if, by having a
circle of barrels round the space and upsetting them all at
the same time, we do succeed in covering it with water, and
go happy to bed dreaming of beautiful ice and a capital
skate, we wake in the morning to find either that it
has snowed, or that the wind has blown old snow over
the rink, which a ray of sunshine having partially melted,
has stuck hard to our lovely ice, and there we are longing
to skate and obliged to begin ' au deluge' again.
Wednesday, 18th.—We had a ball. The room was
well lighted and looked well, the supper (by the new cook)
was very good, and I hope everyone was happy. Sir Hugh
and Miss Allan arrived for it, and remain till Saturday!
Colonel Fletcher was told that ' Mr. Hamilton will be spoilt
here, people like him so much.'
Friday, 20th.—A great snowstorm. I was to have
gone to a mission service in church, but I could not face
the weather. D. did go, and afterwards inspected the
Christian Brothers' school, received addresses, etc.
2 Sir Charles Tupper, Bart., G.C.M.G. dec. 1872-      THERMOMETER 220 BELOW ZERO
Monday, 23rd.—This morning we visited the Grey
Sisters, and saw their school. Then I came home and
arranged my concert-room with stage, etc.
The Belgian Minister at Washington arrived in time
for an early dinner, and is staying with us. At eight the
singers arrived, and began to dress, and at 8*30 the listeners
came pouring in, were cordially greeted by His Ex. and
Her Ex. at the door, and were seated by obliging A.D.C.s
and secretaries.
The music began at nine—it really was very good, and
the acting admirable! The costumes were perfect, and
everyone was delighted with the two hours' amusement.
I allowed the three children to be present, and they
enjoyed it immensely. Terence was in fits over ' Figaro,'
and in great anxiety the whole time to understand everything. We had supper at eleven, and the whole entertainment was considered a great success.
Tuesday, 24th.—Oh ! this really is cold ; two ears, two
faces, two knees, and one finger frozen in our family. We
are 220 below zero, and are devoted to our clouds, in which
we wallow. In spite of this we skate, but we are very thankful to think that we are feeling the worst cold we need expect
here.
Christmas Day.—Thermometer 20° below zero. Proprieties out of the question—must go to church in sealskin turbans, and must undress when we get there, as we sit
near the stove; so that when we leave, the amount of things
to be put on is frightful. There is my cloak, and my
cloud, fur gauntlets, and woollen cuffs; there is Archie's
coat, and his cloud, and turban, and gloves. Then Fred and
D. have to be clothed; happily, everyone in the church
is equally busy muffling up. D., you will be surprised to
hear, wears absolutely less than he used to do in May at
home, and scarcely seems to feel the cold at all. Fred, too,
bears it well, with the exception of his ears, about which he
is decidedly nervous.   He is   always feeling them  and
£
L2 52
MY CANADIAN JOURNAL
CH.  IV
inquiring from passers-by whether they are frozen. The
children play in the snow as if it were hay, and enjoy
themselves immensely. Their nurse, Mrs. Hall, dislikes
the wrapping up, but has been consoled by a present of a
pair of skates. Their governess is learning too; she won't
wrap up, and I really fear some accident for her : nothing
but a frost-bite will make her careful.
We have arranged a Christmas-tree, and this evening
all the children of the family assembled for it. They came
at five, and the nine of them, with their governesses and
nurses, were ushered into the room with great ceremony.
Hermie rushed at a doll. ' There is my doll,' and kissed it
most fervently. Of coufse, they all got various presents,
and the big ones dined with us, and afterwards played blind
man's buff, snapdragon, etc., etc.
The pictures have arrived, and are a great improvement
to the house. In my room I have drawings of Killyleagh and
Clandeboye, and there are a few oil-portraits in the dining-
room, which make it look home-like. We shall be quite
sorry to go away next week, to undertake a long journey in
the snow, and to be a month in hotels.
Mr. Pattisson's Irish cook came to tell him that, having
had her hand severely burnt and blistered by lifting a cold
iron pot, she would go home by next steamer. He pretends
there is not one to go in.
Friday, 27th.—We continue every day to practise our
skating. I can get on very well with ordinary skating. D.
can go backwards and do the figure of eight. Fred is
beginning the outside edge, and is studying the art with
great care. The children are not industrious: they find
making snow houses and tobogganing much more amusing
than lamely shuffling over the ice, so I think they will be
long in learning.
Saturday, 28th.—This morning we visited the ' Congregation de Notre Dame,' an educational convent, where Nelly
was shown a Cryistmas-tree, and told to choose what she
m;-1 DEC. I872
SKATING AND SLEIGHING
53
liked best on it. In spite of my nudges, truth would out,
and she took a very pretty doll instead of the insignificant
present I was trying to suggest to her.
Directly after lunch I went down to the rink to receive
my skating-party. It went off extremely well. Some of the
young people skated most beautifully, Miss Patrick and
Miss Kingsford, two very pretty girls, being the best
performers. Skating is so very graceful when well done,
and the scene on the rink is so gay; everyone moving
about so fast on the ice, and knots of people tobogganing
down the hill behind. I had on my skates, but did not
feel equal to skating before such experts.
When it became cold, we came into the house, drank tea
and mulled claret, and danced for an hour. We intend to
repeat these parties once a week. The dancing was quite a
surprise this time, but of course it will be expected now, and
parcels of shoes and various decorations will be brought
next Saturday, which were dispensed with on this occasion.
Monday, 30th.—I think the pleasures of sleighing are
exaggerated : it appears to me much the same as driving in
a cart. You have no springs, and the snow gets into hard,
rough ruts. This is treason ! one ought to be enthusiastic
over its delights. The bells and the red plumes on the
horses' backs are the best of it, I think.
Wednesday, January 1st, 1873.—New Year's Day is kept
here as a visiting-day. All the ladies stay at home, and all
the gentlemen visit. D. and I were ' at home ' from three
to five and received 293 men.
It was a most lovely day, warm and bright, with only
ten degrees of frost, which seems to us quite, like a thaw !
With the exception of a few days at Christmas, we have
been perfectly comfortable : the house is so warm, and we
are so well wrapped up when we go out, that we cannot feel
cold. 54
CHAPTER V
MONTREAL
St. Lawrence Hall 1 Sunday, January $th.—We left
Rideau yesterday, had dinner at Prescott, and reached
Montreal at night. A very successful winter journey, for
had the snow been troublesome we might have been days
en route. The Mayor met us, and we drove to this hotel,
where we have taken rooms for a month. Our own cooks
and servants arrive early in the week and arrange everything, while we go down to Quebec for a ball. The rooms
we have here are very clean, but very hotel-like, stiff and
starch, and I shall not feel much at home when I receive
my guests in them.
Monday, 6th.—We went early to the Rink, which we
were curious to see. It is a great place, 250 feet long,
of smooth, dull-looking ice, which reminds one of wax, and
which is covered with scrapings cut off by the skates ; there
is a raised walk round the ice for non-skaters, and a gallery
at one end. The roof is arched. Most of the skaters were
children of four years old and upwards, going" backwards
and forwards, Dutch rolling, making eights—looking as if
they had been born on skates. There was only one young
lady there, very pretty and a splendid performer. Her
skating is the most beautiful, graceful thing one can see.
Skating is particularly pretty for ladies, as the dress hides
the machinery which is visible when men skate.   An in- JAN. I873
QUEBEC
55
door rink is dull, however, I think, compared to skating out
of doors.
We went down to the station at 11 t.m. D. and I had two
good bedrooms, and the others had beds in a Pullman car.
Mrs. Dent had a sofa in the sitting-room, and His Ex.'s
shorthand writer, finding he was expected to occupy a
couch opposite to my fair maid, shyly jumped into it with
his hat on, which I suppose he considered gave an air of
respectability to the proceeding. Dent was giggling at him
under her rug, and was still more amused when, later, the
hat of propriety rolled off, and the little man pulled his
clothes right over his head.
Tuesday, 7th.—We awoke in time to have a cup of tea
at a passing station, and arrived at Quebec at twelve.
The morning was lovely, and the Citadel, the river,
and Quebec looked so picturesque, with the sun shining on
the snow. We crossed in the steamer, cutting through ice,
and were accompanied by the Mayor. We drove up to the
hotel over the most bumpy roads—the snow is in great
mounds, and the jump from one hill to another is quite
amusing : it is like hunting on wheels. The warm reception we met with was very pleasant.
We went to the Rink after breakfast. The band was
playing, and there was some very good skating, but too
many children, who get in the way and make beginners
nervous.
Wednesday, 8th.—This morning we again went to the
Rink, where D. is practising hard, aided by all the young
ladies of Quebec, who give him lessons in turn. In the
afternoon-we opened a poultry show, and I examined each
scrubby fowl, and made the most of my home experience.
This place in winter is not suited to poultry, and their
plumage shows that they are shut up in stables.
The Citizens' Ball took place to-night. It is one given
for us by the city, and for which we were invited to return
when we left in the autumn.   It was a splendid entertain- 56
MY CANADIAN JOURNAL
CH.  V
ment. The room was decorated with our colours, and with
wreaths of roses, and there was a large reception committee, who took great care of me all the evening.
Thursday, gth.—An excursion to Montmorency was
arranged for to-day, but I did not go. At noon, forty-two
sleighs, each driving a tandem, came to the door, and D.
got into the first in a snowstorm. The weather cleared
later, and they drove twelve miles, had lunch, visited the
Fall, and were back by dusk. They enjoyed it very much,
though they came in very cold.
D. and I dined alone, and then went off to a skating
ball. The Rink was lighted up, and hung with flags and
lanterns, and there were regular dancing programmes. It
was a very pretty sight. I can't conceive anything more
graceful than the lancers skated; waltzing also is pretty,
but few people, even here, can do it. I had a very comfortable seat, and sat there with a never-ceasing stream of
figures passing before me.
D. skated a good deal at the ball, and Fred tOok
some turns with the young ladies hand-in-hand round
the place, but they did not dance. I went round twice, but
am not a good enough skater for these public demonstrations.
Friday, 10th.—After some skating, I proceeded to the
grating at the Ursuline Convent to thank the nuns for
some lovely specimens of their work, which they sent me1
as a New Year's gift. Then I came home and 'received'
farewell visits. All at Quebec, both in ' society ' and in the
streets, are so nice to us—they are very home-like. We left
the hotel in the evening, crossed the river, and had our
special car, in which we first had tea and whist, and then
we went to bed, while Fred and Mr. Coulson attended ' a
party' in the next carriage.
Saturday, nth.—We arrived at Montreal in time for
breakfast, skated, and had interviews with the Mayor and
various officials, but our work only begins on Monday. jan. 1873       SNOW-SHOEING AT MONTREAL
57
Monday, 13th.—D. visited a hospital, the Law Courts,
and some churches after lunch. In the evening we had a
Drawing-room.    There were about 1,000 people at it.
Tuesday, 14th.—We skated and visited a school in the
morning, and at night had our first dinner here—twenty-
eight people: Bishop Oxenden and his wife, the Mayor and
his wife, and others. Our drawing-room is small for so
many, but they left early, as we were going to a ball at a
Mons. Papineau's—the first private entertainment I have
been to in Canada. His wife must have been handsome,
with brown eyes, and white hair powdered. They have a
pretty house, and the ball was pleasant.
Wednesday, i$th.—This evening we attended a snow-
shoe torchlight procession given in our honour. At eight
o'clock the president of the society came for us, and we
drove out until we met the ' snow-shoes.' They wore white
blanket coats, tight leggings, and red caps, and the sight
really was very picturesque and very Canadian: the
bright night, the snow-covered ground, hundreds of sleighs
and thousands of tinkling bells, the torches, and the gaiety of
the whole scene, were delightful. The procession walked
up the mountain, and we drove round it, watching the fiery
serpent winding among the trees. The roads were excellent,
and it was the first sleigh-drive I have really enjoyed.
In about an hour we arrived at a house where supper was
prepared, and where we had a very amusing evening.
There was a long list of toasts, and a song with a chorus
was sung after each. There was the usual amount of
compliments to the country, to us, to the Mayor, to everybody. Canada was the finest country, the Canadians the
finest people, His Excellency worthy to be a Canadian,
Her Excellency most excellent, the Mayor admirable, the
Mayoress most hospitable, our hosts . . . words failed!
When the Mayor got up to return thanks, he said that
* As Canadians, we have one fault—we are too fond of
praising ourselves; but in this case it is sincere.'   When all MY CANADIAN JOURNAL
CH. V
was over, we got into our sleigh again, and the fresh air
was delightful! The snow-shoers were by this time 'jolly
good fellows,' and I foiled them rather alarming to our
horses and to me *, so we begged them not to accompany us
home, and I think they were not sorry to return to the
supper-room.
Thursday, \6th.—I may tell you, once for all, that we
spend the morning in the Rink.
This afternoon we visited a Catholic commercial school—
really a well-arranged building. The boys have a very
good string band, and betwixt addresses we had some
music.
We had a large dinner in the evening : Sir Francis and
Miss Hincks were of the party. I fear it was not lively,
but what can one do in a small room with thirty strangers ?
Saturday, 18th.—After our morning skate we came
home in a snowstorm, and then out again to a benevolent institution where old women and orphan children
are lodged, and the latter educated. We had tea with the
Bishop and Mrs. Oxenden. They have a very nice house,
and they had collected a little party to meet us; but we had
rather to hurry away, as it was snowing hard, and we had
to dress for a dinner-party. It was to have been a small
one, but stretched out to twenty-four, and was, I thought,
the pleasantest we have had here.
Monday, 20th.—This was rather a hard day. Sir Hugh
Allan and M. Delfosse came to breakfast at nine, and D.
went off to be photographed for a paper dollar immediately
after.. At eleven we proceeded to the Rink, and only
returned for His Ex. to receive an address from the Board
of Trade.
When that deputation was dismissed, we drove to a Protestant deaf-and-dumb institution, which was a very good
one; but it was the wrong one as far as I was concerned,
as that I wished to see was the Catholic establishment,*
where the deaf-mutes are taught to speak. JAN. 1873
MONTREAL
A refuge for old people was the next institution on our
list, and we only got home for a short rest before a big
dinner. I enjoyed the evening, and some nice people
dined with us.
Tuesday, 21 si.—Miss Allan came to lunch with me,
and D. and I drove in state to M'Gill College* Here
our horses were taken out by the students, and we were
dragged up to the door. Speeches were made, and we were
shown everything of interest; but while D. was taken to
the dissecting-room, I went to have tea with the ladies.
D. afterwards visited the Normal School by himself. We
dined with the Mayor, and as we stepped out in the snow
to get into a great, lumbering, covered sleigh, we greatly
rejoiced that the most of our Canadian gaieties are in
our own home.
The Mayor has a nice house, and there was a splendid
display of flowers on his table; in fact, I believe he had
bought every flower in Montreal for the occasion.
Wednesday, 22nd.—I stayed at home the whole day,
and disappointed the Jesuits, whom His Ex. went to
see, and who sent me magnificent bouquets. They have a
fine church and college here, and are celebrated for their
music.
We had (of course) a dinner-party. D. took in a bride,
and I had a senator and a judge on either side of me.
Thursday, 23rd.—At ten D. went to a military school,
and had the rest of the day for amusing himself with
skating and curling. We had another large dinner: 130
people will have dined with us this week, most of whom are
quite new acquaintances.
Friday, 24th.—There was a tremendous snowstorm today, but we had an appointment to visit ' Monklands,' a
large educational convent some distance from the town, so
we had to make the best of our way there, and really experienced something of a snowdrift: in places it was quite
difficult for the horses to drag the sleigh along, and they
o» 60
MY CANADIAN JOURNAL
CH. V
were c floundering' about, while the coachman was shading
his eyes from the snow, and we all had to cover our faces
and take as much care of ourselves as was possible.
4 Monklands ' used to be the Governor-General's house
when the Government was at Montreal. I believe the
situation is fine, but it must have been too far from the
town for a Government House. It has been enlarged, and
now contains 22 nuns and 150 pupils.
After seeing the nuns and the household arrangements,
we were ushered into the ' theatre,' or schoolroom, where a
stage presented itself to our view, upon which the 150 young
ladies, dressed in white, were curtseying, and whence proceeded sounds of harps, pianos and harmoniums. The usual
pretty little entertainment followed, and D. and I both
answered addresses.
When this was over, poor ' His Ex.' had to visit a
college; but, in mercy to myself, the horses, and the men-
servants, I came straight home.
We had a small dinner, and were tolerably merry. One
of our young ladies turned out to be a ' blue-stocking,' and
amused us much by laying down the law to the company.
Saturday, 2$th.—I took a drive along the river to prepare for the labours of the afternoon, being ' at home.' We
began to receive at three, and had a stream of visitors till
5.30. I had not much time except for shaking hands, and
all my conversation was ' How do you do ?' ' How cold you
must be!' ' Good-bye!' A funny little American woman,
travelling alone with her maid, came and looked in at the
door to see me; then she thought she would come in, so
she went home and changed her hat for her bonnet and
returned. She asked for ' my husband,' and invited us both
to Philadelphia. She looked small and thin enough to blow
away, and Fred found her afterwards almost fainting from
the exertion of her visit.
Monday, 27th.—After skating, I brought Miss Allan
back to lunch, and we went to a chemical lecture.   It was JAN.  1873
THE CITIZENS'  BALL
given to ladies, and I am patroness of the association. I
then went on to the Protestant Infants' Home. D. visited
the Montreal Waterworks.
We had a dinner of thirty-six—our last here. The
children arrived at midnight, looking extremely well.
Tuesday, 28th.—We all went to visit a large convent
called Hochelaga. It is a fine building, and contains a
very beautiful chapel copied from one in Rome. We heard
the organ played and the novices sing.
In the evening there was the ' citizens'' ball given in our
honour. There was an excellent ballroom, with an enormous supper-room off it. An arrangement was made at one
end of it, like the canons' stalls in a cathedral: these were
lined with green, and decorated with the antelope and
heart, our motto, etc., etc.; in each a chair, but only one
stall was used all the night, and that by me. The whole
room was ornamented with flags and 'V.R.s ' and ' D.s,' and
was very pretty. There was a state quadrille first, of
enormous length, reaching the whole way down the room,
and with us and the Mayor alone at the ends. I enjoyed
my share of the evening very much, and danced all the
squares before supper, leaving very soon after. An official
list of partners was made out for D., and he remained
dancing with dowagers until four o'clock in the morning.
Wednesday, 2gth.—D. had relaxation to-day, skating
and curling, and I did some business, and went over the
R.C. Deaf-and-dumb Institutions.
■ These were very interesting, as the poor creatures are
being taught to speak, and very successfully too. There
are separate establishments for the boys and girls, and
the master showed us the whole system of teaching.
This is a cold, bright day, 200 below zero.
I spent the evening with the children, D. and staff
having gone to a night-tobogganing party and dance. The
former returned at twelve, and the young ones not till
nearly three.    They enjoyed it, but thought it a dangerous IN ,
62
MY CANADIAN JOURNAL
CH. V
amusement in the dark, and Mr. Coulson had the sleeves
completely cut out of his coat by a toboggan coming down
on the top of him.
Thursday, 30th.—The fancy-dress skating ball took
place in the evening, and was a most beautiful sight,
besides being great fun.
We drove to the Rink wearing morning dress, and went
out on a balcony to look down upon the scene. It was like
a fairy pantomime of gigantic size, and was most striking.
The building was hung with flags and Chinese lanterns, and
from one end to the other there were gaily-dressed figures
of every sort and variety moving about with that easy,
graceful swing which belongs to skating. Wlien we went
downstairs we were conducted to the further end of the
rink, where a platform and chairs at the edge of the ice
•were prepared for us.
Here we stood, while the two sets of ' state' lancers were
danced in front of us.    One was a poudre set: each couple
skated in, bowed to us  as they passed, and took their
places.   I think I have already told you how beautiful the
lancers are whei skated, and you can imagine how the addition of costume increases their beauty : I never saw anything
half so pretty.   When they were over D. and Fred put on
dominoes, and skated off too.    I collected a few friends
under my canopy, the children sat on the edge of it, and
we were amused the whole evening watching the different
characters as they came before us.    There was one delightful
old gentleman who passed us every round in some different
way, acting capitally the whole time.   There was an excellent
and large monkey, who performed for the children.    There
were Indians and Chinamen, cavaliers, etc., etc.   The ladies'
costumes had of necessity short petticoats, so there was
every variety of peasant—Dolly Vardens, Watteaus, etc., etc.
—and very pretty they were!   In fact, to an ordinary fancy
ball you have to add perpetual motion,—for no one ever
stands still on the ice.   The spectators lined the walls.   We JAN. 1873
THE RINK
were torn away to have some supper, and after it I sat on
the upper balcony to see the general effect. They danced
another set of lancers, and ' Sir Roger de Coverley.' I am
sure that if they had not turned the Governor-General out,
by playing ' God save the Queen,' I never should have been
able to get him away, he enjoyed it so much.
Friday, 31st.—D. visited the blind-schools, and, from
his account of them, I was quite sorry not to have gone
with him. He was so touched by a little blind child
feeling his face all over with her tiny fingers to feel what
he was like.
Saturday, February 1st.—We went this afternoon to see
some snow-shoe races, and, for the first time since we have
been in Canada, we were all thoroughly cold, and were glad
when it was over.
In the evening some games in the Rink were very
amusing. One sport looked dangerous : it was a hurdle-
race, and the skaters had to jump over stiff barriers placed
in their way. Numbers of them caught their feet on the
top bar, and came down; it was wonderful that they
escaped being seriously hurt. The funniest race to watch
was the barrel-race : a number of flour-barrels without ends
were placed at intervals along the course. The first row
had the same number of barrels as boys; the second, and
the third sets had fewer, for the competitors got separated
and did not all reach the barrels at the same time. Each
boy dived down when he reached the barrel, crept through
it, and skated on, as fast as possible, to the next. Of
course the barrels rolled and tumbled about on the ice, and
some boys were much quicker at getting through them than
others. There were also backward races, and girls' races,
and boys' races, etc., all on skates. I gave the prizes at
the end.
Monday, 3rd.—In the morning we went to the Rink, and,
a small band of music having been obtained, there were
lancers danced, and waltzes, and everyone worked hard, 64
MY CANADIAN JOURNAL
CH. V
some because they skate for the prizes to-morrow, and some
because it was to be our last day there.
We went to an Irish concert after dinner. All the songs
were Irish, and there was a little speechifying between
times.
Tuesday, 4th.—It thaws to-day, and is consequently
horrid, but we are all full of excitement about the skating-
matches this afternoon. Quebec has sent a champion lady,
and has told her she need not return to her ancient city if
she does not win the locket which D. has offered as a prize.
Later.—The ladies' match was very interesting, but the
day was spoilt by two contretemps. The judges said there
were ties, and awarded the prize to two, which ended in
D.'s having to duplicate the locket he had chosen. Then,
at the very last moment, the gentlemen found fault with
some arrangement, and refused to skate, so one walked
over the course by himself!
The little girls' skating was beautiful.
When the matches were over, there was dancing till
eleven o'clock. i^-^p^
65
CHAPTER VI
OUR  FIRST   PARLIAMENTARY   SESSION
Ottawa: Friday, February 14th.—The curling-rink,outside our windows, was ready to-day, and the gentlemen had
a game in the morning and skated in the afternoon. We
played ' puss in the corner' and ' friar's ground' on skates
with the children, who were delighted with this idea—mine,
I beg to say.
Saturday, i$th.—Curling and skating are our exercises
every day. We have had a great consultation over our
arrangements for the ' season.' During Lent there can be
no balls, but we shall have some plays. Two pieces, ' The
First Night' and ' To Oblige Benson,' are already in hand,
and we are to have one play each week, and each play twice.
This will give us four entertainments. After Easter we
shall give a big ball in the new room.
For the opening of Parliament we have invited Mr. and
Mrs. Howland, with whom we stayed in Toronto, to come
to us. The meeting is on the 5th, and we have a Cabinet
dinner the night before, a dinner the day after, an ice-
party on Friday, and a small dinner on Saturday.
I suppose the House will ' sit' all through April, so
that we can ask the 280 members to dinner before they
leave Ottawa.
The children's dreadful colds are all better, but the
doctor tells me he has had over 200 cases of the same.
F 66
MY CANADIAN JOURNAL
CH.  VI
1
At one o'clock in the night the thermometer was 200 below
zero, and at one in the day 500 above—a difference of seventy
degrees—so it is not extraordinary that people catch colds !
D. continues to feel quite warm and comfortable, and
not to wear a fur coat: his turn will come in the summer,
when he will begin to wrap up.
Monday, 17th.—Fred, Nelly and I took a drive this
morning, as the day was so splendid, and as I had to remain
at home in the afternoon. I received 133 visitors, and if
the weather has ears they must have been extremely hot
when we had finished discussing it on every side.
The curling, which we have set up in a covered rink
close to our skating place, seems to be very successful, and
D. and Fred play a great deal.
The ' Witness' publishes an account of ' Hamilton
Rowan,' mentioning me as his grand-daughter, which, they
are pleased to say, ' accounts for the good drop in me.' This
is the paper which came to ask Fred for details of our
engagements at Montreal, and said, ' Oh ! we will miss the
ball, if you please; we are a religious paper.'
Wednesday, igth.—Such a thaw to-day ; our ice was all
under water, and we are quite afraid the winter is going.
We shall have a very mauvais quart d'heure between this
and summer—a time when skating is impossible, and
walking and driving nearly so, everything dripping around
us.
Some of Lady Harriet's \ imported' servants are beginning to marry; happily, mine are still fancy free.
Saturday, 22nd.—The actors in 4 To Oblige Benson'
arrived at twelve this morning to rehearse the piece. They
none of them knew it in the least. ' They' are Fred and
Mr. Coulson, Colonel and Mrs. Stuart, and a-nice-looking
Miss Himsworth. After lunch the rest of the world arrived
to skate. It was a lovely afternoon, and they practised the
lancers, while I looked on at the tobogganing, and just
missed seeing a disagreeable sight.   Little Edward Fletcher FEB.   I873
OPENING  OF PARLIAMENT
67
was standing dreaming in the middle of the hill, and as a
toboggan was coming fast down upon him the people on the
top shouted to him to get out of the way; but he did not
hear, and the toboggan, with a young lady in it, lifted him
right up in the air. She got her eye cut, and had a bump
on her forehead.   It might have been a bad accident.
After the outdoor party we had a dance to warm ourselves, and all went home at 6.30.
Sir John and Lady Macdonald, and M. Langevin, arrived,
to stay till Monday. Sir John is the Prime Minister, and
M. Langevin the Public Works, who has built our ballroom and does all our improvements.
Monday, March 3rd.—To-morrow the Session, with its
duties, commences.
Tuesday, 4th.—As the dancing is over for the present, I
have been busy all morning refurnishing my big drawing-
room, which has hitherto been kept as a ball-room. The
new room is nearly ready, and is very handsome. It is to
be opened as a theatre, and we are having such a pretty
stage put up. Lady Harriet Fletcher has come over to
spend a few days, for a change, and to help me to entertain
Mrs. Howland.
We had our Cabinet dinner; all men, except Lady
Harriet and me, the two ladies of the house. I sat between
the Prime Minister, Sir John, and the Postmaster-General,
Mr. Campbell. They were both very pleasant neighbours.
All were in uniform, and all full of animation and ready for '
the fray.
Wednesday, $th.—In the afternoon, D. dressed in uniform, and drove in a sleigh-and-four, escorted by troops,
A.D.C.s, and secretaries, to direct his faithful Lords and
Commons to choose a Speaker. This did not take very
long, and on his return we went and sat at the rink in
delicious sunshine for a couple of hours.
Thursday, 6th.—The opening of Parliament. Having
to dress in the middle of the day, I was lazy, and did not
F 2 68
MY CANADIAN JOURNAL
CH. VI
appear at all till I was arrayed in my finery. His Ex. wore
the Governor's uniform, like that of the Queen's Household : collar of St. Patrick, and cocked hat kept on all the
time. Mrs. Howland and I, Mr. Pattisson and Mr. Curtis,
went in the first carriage, Miss Blake and three children in
the next. We arrived some time before the Governor-
General, and I was conducted to my seat by the Gentleman-
Usher of the Black Rod. The Chamber looked very well.
I sat to the left of the throne, and down each side of the
Senate were rows of ladies in full dress; the Senators were
on the floor of the House, and the galleries were full to the
ceiling. D. drove in an open sleigh with four horses,
accompanied by Mr. Howland and Colonel Fletcher. Mr.
Holbeach followed with Fred. As they came up to the
building twenty-one guns were fired. The Black Rod met
the procession and walked backwards, bowing all the way,
His Excellency getting more stern-looking every minute.
When the procession arrived at the Senate-Chamber, we
all stood up, and waited until the Governor-General, having
taken his seat on the throne, requested us to be seated.
The Commons were sent for, and we sat in solemn
silence till they came. D. then read his speech, first in
English, and then all over again in French; and everything
that was said was repeated in the two languages. Then
Colonel Fletcher carried the speeches to the Speakers of
both Houses, and so the ceremony ended, and we went
away as we came. The children were much interested,
but remarked upon Papa's gravity: they thought it a
proper occasion to be wreathed in smiles.
Saturday, 8th.—We had rather a pleasant dinner-party
of Ministers. Mr. and Mrs. Howland seemed very happy,
and she looked very smart in blue velvet. The Speaker
of the Senate came to stay with us.
Monday, 10th.—The frost seemed to have returned,
so we sent out our invitations for a skating-party for this
afternoon.    The day was, however, too lovely, and the ice,
Ii
3M! MARCH   1873
ENTERTAINMENTS
69
which had been in splendid order got quite soft. It is
possible to be happy on doubtful ice here, as we know there
is no water under it, and that it is only snow sprinkled.
The skaters kept in one shady corner, and I and my guests
sat on the brink, and were quite warm and comfortable.
We had another dinner-party—our farewell entertainment to the Howlands.
Tuesday, 1 \th.—Mr. and Mrs. Howland left this morning
in a snowstorm, and we remained in the house all day.
Great arrangements and discussions go on about the coming
Drawing Room: Who is to have the entree ? Who is to have
seats ? Which way are these people to come in, and which
way those ? Where is Her Excellency's cloak to be taken
off ? etc., etc. Then I,—not being very well, and having
meekly asked to have a tall office-stool behind me, against
which I might occasionally lean,—an architect and several
carpenters have been'busily engaged in making a design-
ground-plan and elevation—of a complicated and splendid
erection, crowned by a vase of flowers, and covered with
crimson, which is to appear as a part of the throne, but
which is to be scooped out for me to sit on; and a request
for my exact height has been forwarded to me, that all may
be correct. This ceremony will be in the Senate Chamber,
and both Houses of Parliament have adjourned for the
occasion.
We also had a discussion as to whether we could put
off our theatricals on Thursday, for Mario and Carlotta
Patti, who were to have given a concert to-day, have
been snowbound, and cannot get here till that day; and
as 200 of the principal people here are coming to us,
both the singers and the public lose a good deal. Pepper's
Ghost is also tearing its hair at the number of gaieties
in Ottawa, and wrote an entreating appeal to D. to come himself on Friday, so we could not take the Ghost's day; after
much consideration we keep Thursday, but try to get Mario
and C. Patti to sing a song here after our play; it will be 70
MY CANADIAN JOURNAL
CH. VI
very nice if they can do so. The arrangement of our
political dinners also requires some thought. We have to
study which party the proposed guests belong to : which
province, whether French or English—Upper or Lower
Canada, their social position, etc., etc., so that the dinners
may be made as pleasant as possible to the guests.
Wednesday, \2th.—Still too fine and warm, and ice bad.
We are sorry, as this evening two very good skaters come to
stay with us, one from Quebec and one from Montreal.
We dressed in our best for the Drawing Room, and got
to the Parliament Buildings at nine. In spite of all the
grand arrangements we got out at the wrong door, but
everything else went off very well. The Ministers went in
with us, and we stood by the throne—I with my support
behind me—their wives followed, then Senators, and then
the World.
Thursday, 13th.—We had a great party to-night, and
opened our new room. The guests assembled at nine, and
after having some tea were conducted through unknown
passages to their future ball-room, where they found 300
chairs arranged in rows, in front of a very pretty little
stage, and a band dressed in the gorgeous uniform of the
Governor-General's Guards. The entertainment began
with music, and was followed by 4 To Oblige Benson,' which
went off admirably. People were particularly delighted with
Fred's performance—he did the part of Trotter Southdown;
and Mrs. Southdown was excellent, too.
Just as they finished, Mario and M. Saury, a violin-
player, arrived. They came as guests, and would hear of
no terms. After a little, D. asked Mario to sing, and the
audience were greatly delighted at his doing so twice. The
violin-player was also a great treat. It was wonderfully
kind of both gentlemen to perform for us, as they only
arrived at Ottawa at iive in the afternoon, and came direct
from a concert. This delightful music made our party
a great success.     We went straight into  supper  after- MARCH   187
O
PARLIAMENTARY DINNERS
wards, and it took some time to feed and ' speed' the
parting 300.
Friday, 14th.—I kept this as a day of rest, and in the
evening despatched my young party, under Lady Harriet's
chaperonage, to see ' Pepper's Ghost.' She does not seem
to have been a good duenna, for she said ' good night' to
the young men and maidens directly they were seated,
and slept composedly through the whole lecture.
Saturday, i$th.—It began to pour with rain this afternoon, and the roads were very bad for our dinner-party.
We had one of thirty people—the first of a long series of
similar dinners to be given every Saturday for three months.
The guests were culled from all parts of Canada; we had
representatives from the shores of the Atlantic, the Pacific,
the St. Lawrence, Lake Huron; Upper and Lower Canadians, French, English and Scotch, 'Grits' (the Opposition)
and Conservatives (the Government).
The night turned out very bad; it blew fearfully, and
has blown in a very large window in our new room.
Monday, 17th.—Another young lady, a Miss Macpherson
from Toronto, came to stay with us, so now we have representatives of the three great towns in our house.
Wednesday, igth.—We were out all the morning; but
the ice is soft and the snow wet.
Two tourists came to skate, in wonderful costumes :
striped red-and-yellow stockings, moccasins, bright blue
blanket-coats, with embroidered shoulder-pieces, and Albanian scarfs round their waists. We asked them to dine
with us before the play.
People were quite surprised and delighted with ' The
First Night.' The old actor was most splendidly done by
M. Kimber, and the singing introduced before and during
the piece was excellent.
Friday, 28th.—I took a drive in the afternoon, and at
four went to the Houses of Parliament to pay my first visit
there.   I have a seat on the floor of the House, next to the
[■    ***iai' 72
MY CANADIAN JOURNAL
CH. VI
Speaker's. The business was not very interesting, but I
was rather amused, as a number of people made very short
speeches, and one saw their ' tricks and their manners.'
Saturday, 2gth.—In the evening we had a large Parliamentary dinner. One of my near neighbours was very
interesting. He is a ' working-man' member; we had met
him soon after his election, when he dined in a rough coat,
but now he wears evening clothes ; he talked so pleasantly,
and was full of information. One of our guests, a French-
Canadian, made great efforts to reach the nursery when
he heard the children romping upstairs, and told me he
was most curious to see ' le lord.' I think he imagined
Archie - must be very peculiar.
Wednesday, April 2nd.—We drove into Ottawa on
wheels. D. goes in every week to have tete-a-tete interviews
with different Members of Parliament. This evening there
was a vote of want of confidence in the Government, but
the Ministers won by thirty-three.
We had ' Benson' for the last time ; very well done, and
much appreciated. The children helped to warm up the
audience by their shrieks of delight.
Friday, 4th.—Two men dined with us : one, the Speaker
of the Legislature in Manitoba, who has lately been tarred-
and-feathered by the people, and who came to relate his
experiences of that operation. The other, a Mr. Otley—a
nephew of Sir Hastings Doyle's, who has been engineering
near the Rocky Mountains—has walked hundreds of miles
on snow-shoes, lived for months on salt pork, been eaten by
mosquitoes in summer, and slept and lived, unprepared for
winter, in an atmosphere 400 below zero. He came out
with us in the Prussian.
Tuesday, 8th.—I went to the House, as a' scrimmage
was expected. First, there was great excitement over the
Easter holidays—what length they should be—and then a
party motion about which there was a great deal of interest.
1 Viscount Clandeboye. APRIL   1873
BALL AT RIDEAU HALL
The Opposition had asked for a Committee to inquire into
the conduct of members of the Government, accusing them
of bribery. They lost, and then the Government itself
asked for the same Committee, saying they courted inquiry.
There was a good deal of irritation about the whole affair.
Tuesday, 1 $th.—The two Miss Bethunes arrived yesterday to stay a week with us, and we opened our new ballroom this evening. It is a fine room, very lofty and well-
proportioned. It has not yet been painted, so we decorated
it with white-and-blue twists of tarlatan and bunches of pink
roses. These encircled all the windows and doors, and
appeared to be twisted round the flat pillars against the
wall and across the corners. The crimson throne was at
one end of the room, and there was a place for the band at
the other. The ante-room, hall, billiard- and tea-rooms,
the passage leading up to my boudoir, and the conservatory,
looked very pretty, the latter being lighted with Chinese
lanterns. The large drawing-room and dining-room were
both arranged for supper, and seated 140 at a time. Some
650 people were present, and, they say, all were pleased.
Thursday, May 1st.—This week we have had lovely
weather. The sun is quite hot, and I am out all day. We
have put up a tent on the lawn, and every afternoon the
family play football, marbles, prisoner's base, and other
games, to the great delight of all.
We find Parliament is likely to sit another ten days, so
We have given up all idea of moving to Quebec at present.
We are rather afraid of the heat and the mosquitoes here,
but it cannot be helped.
Friday, 2nd.—Encouraged by the lovely weather, I put
a notice in the paper that I should be 'at home' to-day,
intending to receive people in the garden, have tea and a
band there, and at five to let those who liked dance in the
ball-room. The morning was, however, cold and miserable,
and the afternoon poured with rain ; so I had to sit in the
drawing-room.    About fifty people came, and they danced
p^
mmm^ 74
MY CANADIAN JOURNAL
CH. VI
indoors all the time, and were apparently quite happy. Nine
children took part in the amusements, the little ones liking
the band, and getting quite at home with the strangers.
Saturday, 3rd.—The provoking weather was fine again
to-day, and I am under my tent once more. Mr. and Mrs.
Ryan and her daughter arrived from Montreal to stay Sunday with us. Mr. Ryan is a very pleasant Irish Senator,
his wife a very nice Swiss-French lady, for whom he waited
forty years, she marrying someone else in the meantime.
Thursday, 8th.—I saw Lady Macdonald on Tuesday,
the day that Sir John made his splendid speech in the
House, with which Fred was so greatly delighted.
Friday, gth.—I advertised that I should be ' at home
between three and six' this afternoon. Part of the entertainment was to be out of doors, and part in. The weather
was very doubtful all the morning; but we took courage,
had the tea laid on the lawn, put up a tent and down a
carpet, turned the drawing-room chairs out into the garden,
and at three were rewarded by the commencement of a
really fine afternoon.
I received in the tent, and the company sat and walked
about listening to the Guards' band till after four, when they
went into the ballroom and danced very vigorously for the
rest of the t