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England and Canada. A summer tour between old and new Westminster with historical notes Fleming, Sandford, 1827-1915 1884

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1884. Entered according to Act of Parliament of Canada, in the year 1884, by
Saxdford Fleming,
in the Office of the Minister of Agriculture.
/STo *f-ox.
GAZETTE PRINTING COMPANY, MONTREAL. one of Canada's truest and -warmest friends,
. with sincere respect
this record of a journey from the imperial capital to the
pacific ocean, through canadian territory  CONTENTS.
Halifax—Cunard Line—Intercolonial Railway—Truro—Travelling by Pullman—New Brunswick—Miramichi—Great Fires
in New Brunswick—Salmon Fishing—Micmac Indians—
Rimouski—S. S. Parisian—The first Ocean Steamer the Royal
William—Incidents of Ocean Voyage—Arrival Page 11
Willie Gordon—Custom House Annoyances—Cable Telegram—
Post Office Annoyances — London — Spurgeon's Tabernacle
—An Ancestral Home—Englisb and United States Hotels—
English Reserve—A Railway Accident—The Land's End—
A Deaf Guest. Rage 33 VI
ENGLAND {Continued).
Marquis of Salisbury—Classical Studies—Henley Regatta—Red
Lion—London Dinner to Lord Dufferin—His Speech—Greenwich—Fisheries Exhibition—Bray—The Vicar—The Thames
—Minehead—The Polynesian Page 58
The Ocean Voyage—Its Comfort—Moville—Mail Coach Road
of Old Days—Impressive Service on Deck—Comfort on the
Vessel—Rimouski—Halifax Page 84
Early Colonization—De Monts—Champlain—Sir William Alexander—Capture of Quebec—The Treaties—The Acadian Evangeline—Louisbourg—First Capture—Peace of Aix la Chapelle
—Boundary Disputes—The Final Struggle—Deportation of
the Acadians—Nova Scotia constituted a Province.  Page 102
Home in Halifax—Start for the Pacific—The Intercolonial Rail-
-way—Major Robinson—Old Companions—The Ashburton
Blunder—Quebec—The Provincial Legislature—Champlain—
The Iroquois Page 119 CONTENTS. vrE
Montreal—Ship Channel—Hon. John Young—St. Lawrence
Canals—Indifference of Quebec—Quebec Interests Sacrificed
—Need of a Bridge at Quebec—Montreal Trade in Early
Times—Beauty of the City—Canadian Pacific Railway—
Ottawa—The Social Influence of Government House—Kingston Page 131
Toronto—CollingwoocT—Georgian Bay—The Sault St. Mary—
Navigation of the Great Lakes—Manitoulin Islands—Lake
Huron—Arrival at the Sault Page 147"
Lake Superior—Early Discoverers—Joliet and La Salle—Hennepin—Du Luth—Port Arthur—The Far West—The North-
West Company—Rat Portage—Gold Mining—Winnipeg.
Page 161
Early Explorers of the North-West—Du Luth—DelaVerendrye
—Mackenzie—Hudson's Bay Company—Treaty of Utrecht—
North-West Company—Lord Selkirk—War in the North-West
—Union of the Rival Companies—The North-West Annexed
to Canada Page 179- VIII CONTENTS.
Winnipeg—Great Storm—Portage-la-Prairie—Brandon— Moose
jaw_01d Wives' Lakes—The Indians—Maple Creeek—Medicine Hat—Rocky Mountains Page 201
Start for the Mountains—The Cochrane Ranche—Gradual Ascent
—Mount Cascade—Anthracite Coal—Sunday in the Rockies
—Mountain Scenery—The Divide Page 221
The Descent—Summit Lake—The Kicking-Horse River—Singular Mountain Storms—An Engineering Party—A Beaver
Meadow—A Dizzy Walk Page 237
The Eagle Pass—Kicking-horse River—Valley of the Columbia
—The Selkirk Range—The Columbia River—Summit of the
Selkirks—Major Rogers' Discovery Page 252
The Descent of the Selkirk Range—Glaciers—The Last of our
Horses—Devil'slQubs—The Ille-celle-waet—A Rough Journey
—A Mountain Storm—Slow Progress—A Roaring Torrent-
Skunk Cabbage—Marsh—A Long Ten Miles' Journey.
Page 271 ^
A Difficult March—Cariboo Path—Organization of Advance
—Passing Through the Canyon—Timber Jam—A Gun-shot
heard—The Columbia again—Indians—Disappointment—
The Question of Supplies becomes Urgent—No Relief Party
Found—Suspense Page 284
The Kamloops Men at Last—No Supplies—On Short Allowance
—An Indian Guide—Bog-wading—The Summit of the Pass—
Bluff Lake—Victoria Bluff—Three Valley Lake—Eagle River
—Shooting Salmon—The Cached Provisions—Pack-horses again
—Road Making—The South Thompson—Indian Ranches.
Page 295
Lake Kamloops—Savona's Ferry—Irrigation—Chinese Navvies
—Chinese Servants—Lytton—The Fraser River Canyon—Old
Engineering Friends—Sunday at Yale—Paddling Down the
Fraser—An English Fog at New Westminster. Page 311
New Westminster—Enormous Forest Trees—English Broom—
Port Moody—Down Burrard Inlet—Sea Fog—Navigation by
Echo—Straits of Georgia—The St. Juan Archipelago—Seamanship—Victoria Page 329 x CONTENTS.
Sir Francis Drake—Mears—Vancouver—Astor—Hudson's Bay
Company—Gold Discoveries—Climate—Timber—Fisheries—
Minerals—Mountain Scenery Page 340
Puget Sound—The Columbia—Portland—Oregon and San Juan
Disputes—Arid Country—Mountain Summits—The Yellowstone—The Missouri—The Red River—Chicago—Standard
Time Meeting—The British Association—Home Page 355
Indian Population—The Government Policy—Indian Instincts
—The Hudson's Bay Company—Fidelity and Truthfulness of
Indians—Aptitude for Certain Pursuits—The Future of the
Red Man Page 380
Rapid Construction—Travelling Old and New—Beginning of
Pacific Railway—Difficulties —Party Warfare—The Line North
of Lake Superior—The United States Government—Mountain
Passes—Soil and Climate—National Parks—Pacific Terminus.
Page 394 CONTENTS.
England and Canada—Old and New Colonial Systems—Political
Exigencies—The High Commissioners—Lord Lome's Views—
The Future—The French Element in Canada—Colonial Federation—The Larger Union Page 420 1... :  ENGLAND and CANADA.—A Journey between OLD and NEW WESTMINSTER,by Sandford Fleming, G.E., G.M.G., etc
Eastern Journey,
,„ Western Journey,
Gem^e Philip & SonJimdaii&Liy«rpo6L ENGLAND   AND   CANADA.
If we carry ourselves in imagination to that
part of North America nearest to Europe, we find
that we have reached the most easterly coast of
the Island of Newfoundland, an outlying portion
of the continent.   Standing on Cape Bonavista and
looking from this promontory over the waste of
waters, we discover  that between the Equator
and Greenland the Atlantic Ocean is generally of
much greater width in every other parallel than
opposite our present position:  that its breadth
rapidly increases as we proceed southward, if but
a few degrees of latitude, and that, in the parallels
of New York or Philadelphia, the ocean is more
than double the width.   Towards the continent of
Europe the first land the eye rests upon is that of
the British Islands.    Four centuries back the first
recorded discoverer of Newfoundland sailed from
those shores, and from the time of the Tudor mon-
archs this stretch of ocean has been unceasingly
traversed by European ships. It has thus been
the cradle of ocean navigation. Adventurous men,
who planted the early settlement of America, crossed
to the new world on this narrow belt. The vessels
which carried them were indeed frail craft compared with the creations of modern ship-building.
But, step by step, they were enlarged and developed
to the magnificent clipper, which again has been
supplanted by the still more magnificent ocean
In old days, even in a sailing vessel of large tonnage, a sea voyage was frequently accompanied
with much misery. It was not uncommon for
emigrants to be detained at sea as many weeks as
now days are needed for the voyage. Ships might
be retarded or driven back by adverse gales, or
they might remain in mid-ocean, becalmed in water
as unruffled as a mirror of glass. Steam has revolutionized these conditions. Instead of ships being
turned far from their course by contrary winds, or
with flapping canvas waiting for a fair breeze, we
behold on the waters of the Atlantic fleets of swift
steamers, carrying thousands of passengers to and
fro with the regularity of the daily post between
two neighbouring cities. However formidable the
voyage once was, its greater drawbacks are now
removed. A steam ferry has been practically established between the two continents, and transportation is effected with scarcely less regularity than INTRODUCTORY. 3
between opposite banks of a navigable river. The
path of the ocean steamer has in reality become,
as it were, the Queen's highway ; and were anything wanting to facilitate intercourse, we possess
it in the telegraph. If this belt of ocean has been
the nursery of the ocean steamers, it has also given
birth to ocean telegraphy. In no part of the world
are so many submarine cables laid along the ocean
bed as in this direction. We live in a period when
instantaneous communications from continent to
continent are as easily effected as from county to
county. Year by year the facilities of intercourse,
both by steamship and by telegraph, are increasing in a manner to bind closer than ever, by the
ties of mutual benefit and common interest, the
different members of the British family. On the
one hand, the Canadian is enabled to visit the old
land, where his traditions have been gathered, and
where there is a history in which he can claim an
inherited participation. On the other, it provides
the youth of the Mother Country with an outlet
by which he may gain a home with a kindred
people, who revere the same memories, and who
will cordially welcome his labour and energies to
aid in strengthening and consolidating the institutions of that portion of the Empire.
From a multiplicity of causes, there are different
shades of character and thought to distinguish the
several members of the British family. They are
called into being by geographical position, by race, ENGLAND AND CANADA:
by climate and other influences. Diversities exist,
and why should it not be so ? It is a shallow and
unwise pretension which would ignore the fact.
The inhabitants of neighbouring counties, even the
members of one family, have not the same characteristics or identical likes and dislikes. As in the
family so in the state. It is natural, and in some
respects advantageous, that varieties of character
and power should be traceable; on the other hand,
as the family likeness may be seen in a group of
individuals, however in many respects they may
differ, an essential unity of national life and sentiment may be found one and the same amid characteristics the most divergent. The people of
Canada and of England differ as the current coin
of the realm differs. While in the currency there
are dissimilarities of name, of value, of colour and of
metal, all are impressed with the stamp of the one
sovereign; so in the people there are diversities,
but all can be recognized as British subjects.
If we turn our eyes in the direction opposite to
Europe, we find Newfoundland situated as a barrier between the outer ocean and an inner sea ;
the Grulf of St. Lawrence. Whatever its destiny,
Newfoundland is the one portion of British North
America which has not allied her fortunes with
the Canadian Dominion. Geographically, the island
stands as a gigantic breakwater to shelter from the
surges of the Atlantic the continent to the west,
and to protect the entrance of the St. Lawrence. "X
The Gulf of St. Lawrence has been compared to
the Baltic, but, unlike the Baltic, having but one
narrow channel of entry, it is approachable from the
ocean by two wide navigable openings. These
passages—the Straits of Belle Isle and St. Paul—lie
to the north and south of Newfoundland. Around
this inner Baltic-like sea we behold the Maritime
Provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and
Prince Edward Island, to which may be added
the eastern portion of Quebec. These Provinces
occupy an extensive coast line, indented with bays
and capacious harbours, presenting all the facilities for shipping, commerce and fisheries. They
are bound together, and to the other Provinces of
the Dominion, by one trade, one tariff and by one
common nationality; on the other hand, they have
each distinct local institutions for their own domestic government.
Continuing' our glance westward, a thousand
miles from Bonavista, beyond the ancient fortress
of Quebec, we behold Montreal, the commercial
metropolis of the Dominion. Here are seen ocean
steamers of the largest class discharging cargoes
loaded twelve days back in Liverpool, Glasgow
and other parts of Europe. Advancing our view
another thousand miles, over cultivated fields and
flourishing cities and lakes of unrivalled magni-
tude, our vision carries us through deep forests
beyond the Province of Ontario to the confines of
Manitoba, in the middle of the continent.    Still 6
another thousand miles to the west, across prairies
abounding with a fabulous fertility of soil, we
reach the foot-hills of a snow-capped mountain
range, concealing the country which lies beyond
it. To penetrate this barrier we must advance
by the known passes, and for hundreds of miles
follow deep defiles, traversing further mountain
ranges, until we reach the wide grassy plateau
interspersed with picturesque lakes in the heart
of British Columbia. We may still pierce another
serrated wall of mountains by a deep and rugged
valley, and, by following a tortuous and foaming
river to its mouth, we meet the flow of tide of
another ocean far greater in extent than that which
lies behind us.
Carrying our vision beyond the shore of the
western mainland, across a strait similar to that
separating England from Europe, we see the Island
of Yancouver, washed by currents warmed in the
seas of Asia. Yancouver Island is not quite so
large as England, but it enjoys the same climatic
conditions, and possesses in profusion many of the
same mineral treasures.
British Columbia is the youngest colony of the
Empire, and until recently was practically the
most distant from the Imperial centre. Its chief
city bears the name of Her Majesty. The sun
does not rise on Yictoria, the capital of British
Columbia, until eight hours after it gilds the
towers of Westminster.     One-third of th« com- "TT
plete circle of the globe separates the Imperial
capital from the capital of the Pacific Province*
but no land intervenes which is not British, and
the whole distance is under the shadow of the one
national flag.
In imagination we first glanced across the ocean
at its narrowest limit. Turning our glance landward, we have looked across a continent at its
greatest width. All we have scanned, from sea to
sea, is Canada. The vast proportions of the Dominion, its varied features, its lakes and rivers,
mountains and plains, its sources of wealth and
magnificent scenery, are but little known to Englishmen. A country to be known must be seen.
It is not enough to examine a terrestrial globe or
ponder over maps and geographies in order to form
an estimate of the character of half a continent.
They suggest but a faint idea of territorial extent.
You must traverse its different sections, and bestow
time in examining its fields and forests, its natural
landscape, its cities and its civilization.
There are few, indeed, who possess anything
like an adequate conception of the immense extent
and resources of the Dominion. It is scarcely possible even for Canadians themselves to conceive
the wealth of territory and the varied magnificence
of scenery and the productive capacity of the land,
the destinies of which it is their privilege to control.
During the past summer (1883), circumstances 8
induced the writer to visit England, to recross
the Atlantic, and make a journey through the
whole extent of Canada to the Pacific coast. The
railway took him to the base of the Eocky Mountains. From thence he entered the passes, and by
pack-horse and on foot he followed the route proposed to be taken by the Canadian Pacific Eailway
through British Columbia.
As is customary in such circumstances, the writer
sent home, at convenient opportunities, a diary of
his daily progress. He is aware that the notes of
travel which have interest for a circle of intimate
friends, have often but slender claim to public
attention. These notes, however, give a sketch of
the first continuous journey ever made, indeed the
only one yet attempted, through the whole longitudinal extent of the Dominion by the route taken.
From the interest which has been attached to his
notes of travel, the writer has been prevailed upon
to prepare them for publication, and, with the view
of supplying such information as the future traveller may desire, a few historical notes have been
included in the narrative.
Canada is certainly not within the actual geographical limits of the Mother Land, yet it is no
mere rhetorical phrase to say that this half of the
North American continent has become an integral
part of the Empire. Seventeen years ago, when
the British North America^ Act of 186*7, creating
the Dominion, passed the Imperial Parliament, a
British and Canadian statesmen laid the foundation of a great future for the confederated provinces. From that date Canada has steadily, step
by step, done her part to realize all that was then
foreshadowed of her future. She undertook to
establish a highway for commerce through her
forests, prairies and mountains, to connect the
most distant Provinces. In a short time the
national highway will be opened from the Atlantic
to the Pacific, and Canada will become a recognized central commercial link between England
and Asia.
The writer ventures to think that the record of
the journey he made, will show how closely England and Canada are brought together by the modern agencies of steam and electricity. Equally it
will be obvious, how easily the British subject in
Canada may revivify old associations; and how the
denizen of the United Kingdom can, without discomfort, visit the whole extent of the Dominion,
to enjoy the varied scenery in the many forms in
which it is presented. The writer sincerely hopes
that what he ventures now to submit may be instrumental in leading others to enjoy what proved
to him a delightful summer tour by sea and land.
It is not without diffidence that he yields to the
wish expressed for the publication of his notes.
He is desirous, however, of establishing that such
a journey as he has accomplished presents many
other points of attraction independent of the beauty 10
of the scenery and novelty of the associations.
There is much to repay enquiry in the examination of our system of government and of the institutions of the several Provinces; in ethnological developments ; and in geological and kindred scientific
researches. It will be found, too, that there is a
past history which gives attraction to many a
scene, and in all that constitutes and promotes
the advance of nations there is presented much of
varied interest worthy of investigation.
The writer does not hide from himself the fact
that, in describing scenes and events, he may say
much that is well known to many. He makes no
pretension to original research. His endeavour is
simply to present the notes of his journey side by
side with some leading historical facts, in a way
which may admit of generalization and be useful
to the ordinary reader. Hence it is not impossible
that the professional litterateur may, with a certain
cynicism, consider that the following pages contain
much that is not worth the record.
The two voyages across the ocean and the journey over the continent embraced a total distance
travelled of about 14,000 miles, the eastern and
western portions of which began and ended at
Halifax. CHAPTER II.
Halifax—Cunard Line—Intercolonial Railway—Truro—Travelling by Pullman—New Brunswick—Miramichi—Great Fires
in New Brunswick — Salmon Fishing — Micmac Indians—
Rimouski—S. S. Parisian—The first Ocean Steamer the Royal
William—Incidents of Ocean Voyage—Arrival.
Halifax, selected for its excellence as a harbour
in connection with its geographical position, is
well known throughout the world as one of the
most important stations for the British Navy. For
upwards of a century it has been pre-eminently
the Admiralty port for the British fleet in North
Atlantic waters, and it was its superiority as a
harbour in all respects which determined the
demolition of Louisburg in 1*756. It was held
that no second naval arsenal was required in proximity to Halifax, and consequently not one stone
was left standing upon another at Louisburg after
its second capture. The enterprise of the city has
intimately connected its name with the history of
the navigation of the ocean. Ships of Nova Scotia
may be seen on every sea, and it is here that the
centre has been, around which the commerce of the
Province revolved.    It was in Halifax that the JU
Cunard Steamship Company took its origin, under
the distinguished family who have so long lived
there: an organization which may well be considered one of the most successful known. For
nearly half a century the record of their immense
fleet shows that not a passenger has been lost or a
letter miscarried. The irreverent Frederick the
Great was wont to say that Providence was generally on the side of large armies. His own good
fortune in the field was owing, however, mainly
to his supervision of the simplest detail and attention to discipline. In a similar manner the unprecedented success and the perfect organization of
the Cunard Company must be traced to the unwonted care and vigilance continually observed in
connection with the enterprise. The principle laid
down by Mr. Cunard was that nothing was to be
left to chance; that the best of all material and
workmanship was to be obtained in the construction of his steamers; that the crew were to be subjected to the strictest discipline; and that no possible care or precaution, even in the simplest detail,
was to be omitted. The result of these efforts from
the initiation of the company is seen in the magnificent Cunard fleet: a noble monument to the
name it bears.
My connection with Halifax sprang from my
relationship with the Intercolonial Railway, the
explorations of which I was appointed to conduct
in 1863, and of which I remained Chief Engineer r
until its completion in 18*76. My acquaintance
with this locality consequently extends back twenty
years. I have formed there many warm friendships, which I am happy to think I still retain,
and scarcely a year goes by without my passing
some portion of the summer months at that delightful suburb of Halifax known as the " Northwest Arm."
In common with all who have been connected
with Halifax, I must express my humble view of
the charm which the place possesses. Its scenery
of wood, hill and dale; its ample expanse of water
in all forms; its healthy climate and fresh air ; its.
cool evening breezes in the heat of summer; its
pleasant drives and the varied features of its daily
life ; all leave an impression not easily forgotten.
But when to these recognized advantages the social
elements of Halifax are added, it is held by common
consent that there are few cities more attractive.
And when we remember the well-bred, travelled
men, many of whom also highly educated, to be
met among the officers of the garrison and on
board the ships at the station, with their continuous efforts to return the hospitalities of the citizens, we all must acknowledge that Halifax, in its
social aspects, possesses features and a charm peculiar to itself.
A line of steamers runs from Halifax to Liverpool, but I had taken my passage by the steamer
1 Parisian," of the Allan Line.   The weekly steamer 14
of this line, as a rule, leaves her moorings in front
of Quebec at a fixed hour on the forenoon of Saturday. The traveller ordinarily goes on board the
tender an hour earlier. But a train leaves Toronto,
480 miles west of Quebec, on the evening of Friday,
connecting at Montreal on Saturday morning with
an express mail train for Bimouski, a point on the
St. Lawrence about 200 miles below Quebec. By
this means letters can be posted at Toronto, indeed
at nearly all the cities in Canada west of Quebec,
to the last moment. This express mail, which
makes rapid time, reaches Bimouski late on Saturday night. By it, passengers who have been unable
to embark at Quebec may take the steamer, as it
always remains off Bimouski to receive the mail.
Travellers to Europe from the Maritime Provinces
may al--o embark at Bimouski by taking the regular train over the Intercolonial Bailway from St.
John or Halifax. The latter is the route which I
On the afternoon of the 15th June I said goodbye to my family at the station at Halifax, and
with my youngest daughter I started for England.
The day was bright and beautiful; indeed, although
sea fogs prevail at certain seasons of the year, I
know no latitude where the air is purer than it is
in Nova Scotia, or where nature, during summer,
is more attractive. There were several of my
friends on the train, and when the sadness of parting passed away there was everything to make the
trip cheerful. "•v
After leaving Halifax we have supper at Truro,
a large, clean-looking Nova Scotian town, situated
on one of the heads of the Bay of Fundy. Truro,
however, was not always so clean and cheerful
looking as it is to-day. At one time it was conspicuous for its dark and dingy appearance, and it
has to thank the visit of the Prince of Wales,
nearly a quarter of a century back, for the change.
The Prince had landed at Halifax, and was expected to pass through Truro in a few days. Meetings were held to devise means to do honour to the
Boyal visitor. I think it was Mr. Hiram Hyde
who said that " evergreen arches would be out of
place unless the town presented a clean face."
He moved a resolution, which was unanimously
adopted, that a schooner load of lime lying in the
bay should be secured, and every one be obliged to
turn out with whitewash brushes. In forty-eight
hours Truro was so metamorphosed as not to seem
the same place, and so well satisfied were the
inhabitants that they have kept its face clean ever
To continue. We are at the Truro refreshment
room. One never criticizes railway meals too
severely, at least those who are much accustomed to travel. The golden rule on such occasions
is to open your mouth, shut your eyes, and take
what is placed before you. If things are to your
liking, then you can " give them the painted flourish of your praise." 16
Our route passes over the Cobequid Mountains,
and at Amherst, on another inlet of the Bay of
Fundy, you may have further refreshments at ten
o'clock. Then comes the night's rest in the Pullman.
To the denizens of this continent the Pullman is a
necessity. In a country of narrow geographical
limit nothing is more pleasant than a few hours
in an ordinary first class English carriage. But
we do not count our trips by hours on the western
continent. Often we do so by days. Sitting up
all night in one of the old carriages, which many
yet from circumstances are obliged to do, was one
of the small miseries of life. The want of rest, the
cramped position, the foul air, the banging of
doors, frequently the crowd of passengers, had
all to be endured; and who of that date cannot
remember the extreme discomfort to which the
traveller was compelled to submit as best he
could. With a Pullman you have comparative
quiet, and with well-mannered and competent
officials, who keep the car heated only to an endurable temperature and properly ventilated, you have
all the auxiliaries of comfort. What dream is there
in the Arabian Nights equal to the realization of
finding yourself in a comfortable bed, with all the
accessories of home, travelling at the rate of forty
miles an hour ?
Soon after leaving Amherst we crossed the Mis-
which separates Nova Scotia
some historic import
from New
the river
unswick.    It has ^r
of which I will speak hereafter. Our course is now
through New Brunswick to the Biver Bestigouche,
on the north side of which lies the Province of
Quebec. The whole distance through the three
Provinces embraces a variety of scenes of great
interest to me, as many years of my life were
passed in the construction of the Intercolonial
It was not until after the American Bevolution
that New Brunswick was looked upon as a colony
Five thousand of the United Empire Loyalists
arrived at St. John in the British fleet in 1783,
one hundred years ago.    It became a Province in
1786.    No little of its history is in connection
with its terrible fires.   That of Miramichi in 1825 ;
of St. John in 1837, when, in the heart of a rigor-
ous winter, nearly the whole business part of the
city was destroyed; and again of St. John in 1877,
when, in the short space of nine hours, 200 acres
of buildings were levelled to the ground, and fully
two-thirds of the entire city laid in ashes.    During
the night the train passes through the scene of the
first disaster, which left some 6,000 square miles
in a state of devastation.    The summer had been
unusually hot and dry.    On the first day of October, 1825, the inhabitants of the valley of the
Miramichi were disturbed by immense forest fires
in the neighbourhood of the settlements.    The
smoke with great heat continued forseven days,
when the fire extended to the settlements, defying
2 18
all efforts to extinguish it, and sweeping away all
that lay before it.   The town of Newcastle was
consumed, as also Douglastown with all the smaller
outlying settlements.    The devastation continued
'along the northern side of the river for one hundred
miles.     Hundreds  of settlers and thousands  of
cattle were lost.    The number of wild animals
which were burned was also very great.    Even
the salmon perished in the smaller streams, owing
to the intense heat.    To this date the trace of the
fire is distinctly seen in the character of the trees
which have grown upon the burnt district.    A
gale increased the violence of the fire, so that its
fury was uncontrollable.    In many cases the inha-
habitants, not looking for such a calamity, were
suddenly awakened in their beds by the alarm
of danger.    A few minutes' delay would have led
to their destruction.    Many were unable to save
themselves.    Not a few owed their preservation
to the fact that their farms were near the river, in
which they threw themselves, and escaped by
clinging to logs.    The loss of life to those at a
distance from the river, where escape was impossible, must have been serious.    Many of the survivors were dreadfully mutilated, and in the distant
settlements few escaped to tell their dreadful experience.
In the morning we reached Campbellton, on the
Bestigouche, at the head of the Bay Chaleur, and
we have a royal breakfast of salmon fresh from the MICMAC INDIANS.
nets. Some of our friends on the train are enthusiastic fishermen. Col. Chalmers, recently from
India, and the Bev. Mr. Townend, Garrison Chaplain at Halifax, are among the number. They are
bound for the fishing pools on the Bestigouche,
and are in high spirits. Thev learn here that the
run of salmon up the river is unprecedentedly
large, and their excitement is intense. My sympathies are with them, for fishing to me is a most
pleasant recreation. If I am not a skillful, I am at
least a devout, disciple of Isaac Walton.
At the station I met some of my old Micmac
Indian friends, some of whom I have known for
twenty years, and who accompanied me in my
various wanderings in the wilds of New Brunswick. I have a strong and kindly feeling for
these children of the forest. Personally I have
found their simplicity of character not the sham
which many claim it to be. There are exceptions,
but, as a rule, in their relations to me, they have
proved honest and faithful. Although perfectly
undemonstrative, they never forget a kind act or
word. Such is my experience, and I have had
much to do with Indians of nearly every tribe
between the Atlantic and the Pacific. It has been
my invariable good fortune to come in contact
with those among them to whom I could at any
time have trusted my life. We shook hands all
round. Breakfast, however, has only left time for
a few words.   The train starts, and as it leaves the
»■» 20
station I receive from my dusky friends a hearty
bd jou! bd jou!
We are still in New Brunswick, but in half an
hour we cross the Bestigouche and enter the Province of Quebec near the Metapedia station. Here
our friends of the rod leave us with our best
wishes for their success. The Bailway now follows the Biver Metapedia, and the run up the
valley is all we could wish. The day was fine;
no morning could be more bright. The curves in
the track are frequent but unavoidable, and how
few who whirl over them ever think of the labour
bestowed in order to reduce them to a minimum!
In the Metapedia many splendid salmon pools are
found. Mr. George Stephen, President of the
Canadian Pacific Bailway Company, has the most
pleasant of fishing boxes here, pleasantly situated
within sight of the passing train at Causapscal.
H. B. H. Princess Louise and Prince Leopold remained for some weeks here three years ago. Mr.
Stephen is himself a keen sportsman, and never
lets a season pass without spending a holiday at
Causapscal. He had arrived the day previous with
a party of friends.
In the middle of the afternoon we reached Bimouski, where we left the train and placed ourselves in the hands of Madame Lepage, who keeps
a comfortable pension at this place. This landlady's untiring devotion to the comforts of her
guests is on a par with the glow of her sparkling RIMOUSKI.
black eyes. She is the mother of a large family,
some of whom are grown up, yet she retains all
her youthful vivacity and naivete.
Bimouski is a large straggling French Canadian
town, the last of any importance in the Province
of Quebec to the east, if we except the thriving
village of Matane. It is chiefly remarkable for its
ecclesiastical and educational institutions. There
is another peculiarity; the largeness of the family
in many households. It is no uncommon matter
to find a family of from fifteen to twenty children. Not long ago I heard of a case of a family of
eighteen, and there was a question of an orphan
to be taken, for whose nurture nothing was to be
paid, its parents having died under circumstances
of privation and poverty. " Let it come and take
its chance with our children," said this excellent
French Canadian mother, and it was so resolved.
Travellers to Europe, like ourselves, have their
letters and telegrams directed to Bimouski in case
of more or less last words being necessary. I was
very glad to find good news in those I received.
I went to the station to meet the train for the
south. There I found more fishermen bound for
the Bestigouche, New Yorkers, who now come
yearly to our waters, a class who do not fish for
the pot, but are sportsmen. Among them were
Mr. Dean Sage and Mr. Worden, with a party of
At 10 o'clock p.m., the mail train having arrived , 22
we took the tender for the steamer, which lay off
in the stream. Sir Alex. Gait was on the train,
on his way back from Halifax, where he had taken
part in a public banquet given to his successor as
High Commissioner for Canada in London; Sir
Charles Tapper. I was in hopes that he, too, was
starting for England, but to my disappointment
he continued his journey to Montreal.
We reach the wharf on the branch railway, where
the tender is lying. The arrangements are not quite
perfect. The wharf itself is of unusual length,
but it only reaches shallow water at low tide. In
consequence the capacity of the tender is limited,
and, although strongly built, it rolls disagreeably
in rough weather, to the discomfort of passengers
who are indifferent sailors.
We embarked on the "Parisian," and at once found
our way to the cabins allotted to us. A friend had
previously consoled us by saying that they were
the worst in the ship. They were directly under
the scuppers used for pouring the ashes overboard,
the disagreeable noise of which operation we were
expecting to hear every hour in the night. We
did not, however, experience much inconvenience
on this score, as for the greater part of the voyage,
our cabin was on the windward side, which is
never used at sea for the discharge of refuse.
The passenger list placed in our hands contained several familiar names. There were Canadian Cabinet Ministers and Montreal merchants, A*
with their wives and families, and there were
friends whom we expected to meet, some of them
we found in the saloon before retiring for the night.
Trips by ocean steamers have much the same
features, and, while the changes and vicissitudes
of fog, rain and fine weather are all important in
the little floating community, they have little concern for the outer world. To sufferers from seasickness, an ocean trip is a terror. Medical men
say, in a general way, that the infliction should
be welcomed, for it brings health, but I have seen
those prostrated by it who have been so depressed
that I can not but think that if this theory be true
the improvement to health will be dearly purchased by the penalty. Such, however, are the
exceptions. With most people one or two days'
depression is generally the extent of the infliction
Personally I cannot complain. Nature has made
me an excellent sailor. With no remarkable appetite, I have never missed a meal on board ship, nor
ever found the call to dinner unwelcome.
Our first morning commenced with fog, but it
cleared away as we coasted along the somewhat
bold shore of Gaspe in smooth water. There is
always divine service on these vessels on Sunday.
The Church of England form is as a rule adhered
to, which is read by the captain or doctor if no
clergyman be present. If a clergyman be found
among the passengers he is generally invited to
conduct divine service, and any Protestant form is 24
admitted. On the present occasion the Bev. C.
Hall, Presbyterian minister of Brooklyn, N. Y.,
officiated. The service was simple and appropriate, and the sermon admirable. The day turned
out fine, and the water so smooth that in the
afternoon every passenger was on deck. Our
course being to the south of the Island of New-
foundland, we passed the Magdalen Islands and
the Bird Bocks, and we think of the vast number
of ships which have ploughed these waters on
their way to and from Quebec and Montreal. It
is now fifty years since "The Boyal William"
steamed homewards on the same course we are
now following. Much interest begins to centre
in " The Boyal William." It is claimed that she
was one of the pioneers of steamers, if not the
very first steamer which crossed the Atlantic under
steam the whole distance. She was built in Canada. She left Quebec on the 18th August, 1833,
coaled at Pictou, in Nova Scotia, and arrived at
Gravesend on the 11th September. She did not
return to Canada, as she was sold by her owners
to the Spanish Government. Her model is preserved by the Historical Society of Quebec. Some
of these particulars I had from the lips of one of
the officers of "The Boyal William," who died
a quarter of a century ago.
There is but one counter claim to the distinction.
A ship named the " Savannah " crossed the Atlantic from the port of that name in the Southern THE FIRST OCEAN STEAMER.
United States to Liverpool in 1819. She had
machinery for propulsion of a somewhat rude
description, which seemed to be attached as an
auxiliary power to be used when the wind failed.
There is nothing to show that it was continuously
employed. I have recently heard from a friend in
Savannah on the subject, and I quote from his
letter: " She was 18 days on the voyage. She
resembled very much in mould an old United
States war frigate. The hull was surmounted with
a stack and three masts—fore, main and mizzen—
and was provided with side wheels of a primitive
pattern, left wholly exposed to view, and so arranged that they could at any time be unshipped
and the vessel navigated by sails only."
On Monday before 2 a.m. we pass out of the Gulf
by the Strait of St. Paul into the open Atlantic, and
still the water continues perfectly smooth. There
is a slight fog, which passes away, and we behold
nothing but the world of waters around us. The
moon appears, and we have an evening on deck
long to be remembered. Everything stands out
clear and distinct, but the shadows are dark and
heavy. The moon casts its line of rippling light
across the waves, and the ship glides onward,
almost weird-like in its motion.
One of the pleasures, as well as penalties, of
travelling is to be asked to make one at whist. It
is a pleasure to take part in a single rubber if
played without stakes, but to one indifferent to 26
cards, who does not want to win his friend's money
or lose his own, to join such a party is often no
little of a sacrifice. Your reply when asked to play
may take the conventional form, " With pleasure,"
and in a way you feel pleasure, for you like to
oblige people you care for, and you may be in an
extra genial mood; but how often I have wished
some other victim could have been found at such
times. On this occasion I left the deck when I
would have willingly remained, and took my seat
at the card table.
The fog returned, and the ship went at half
speed for the night. When next day came there
was no fog, but there was some little rocking,
which, to me, during the previous night, was but
a pleasant incentive to sleep, for I did not once
hear the fog whistle in its periodic roar—no pleas-
sant sound—nor was I sensible of the dreaded
rattling of the ashes emptied overboard, a nightly
and unavoidable duty, and by no means a musical
I find that several ladies are absent from breakfast this morning. A breeze springs up ; a sail is
hoisted; and occasionally we have fog, and now
and then a cold blast, with alternations of damp
and moist air. Such is the general experience in
crossing the Banks. As one passenger remarked,
I It is hungry weather." The breakfast in most
cases had been sparing, an enforced necessity in
some instances, but the general feeling is one of "TC
being ravenous for lunch. The day passes pleasantly, possibly idly, and in the evening the whist
table has its votaries. We leave the fog behind
us, but the next day is cloudy. There is a light
wind, and the sea is a little disturbed. Most of
the passengers keep the deck. We fancy we see a
whale. There is too much cloud for the moon to
penetrate, so the passengers generally leave the
deck to enjoy themselves quietly in the saloon.
We have a bright midsummer day this 21st June
after a glorious morning, and we advance eastw ard
with all sail set. The spirits of all on board seem
to rise, the sky is so blue, and the sea so bright.
There is but slight motion, with which, most of
the passengers are becoming familiar.
We are now half way across. We begin to calculate when we shall arrive, and what trains we
shall take at Liverpool. I have many times crossed
the Atlantic, but I never could understand the
restlessness with which so many look for the termination of the voyage. If there were some urgent
necessity for immediate action on the part of those
who are travelling this impatience could be accounted for. The majority, however, are tourists
for pleasure or for health, and, as for business or
professional men, I never could see how a few
hours one way or the other could influence their
operations. To some the voyage is simply imprisonment ; the condition of being at sea is a
penalty they pay at the sacrifice of health and 28
comfort. These are the exceptions. There are a
large number who feel as I do, and for my part,
while it would be affectation to profess to be fond
of storm and tempest, a sea voyage in ordinary
fine weather is one of the most pleasurable experiences of my life. I have good digestion and
good spirits, and I am satisfied with the pleasant
change from a life on shore. I can generally read,
and I can always remain on deck, and I always
have a certain feeling of regret when I think that
the voyage is soon coming to an end. We are all
well cared for, we form pleasant associations, and
anyone who can study human nature finds no little
opportunity for doing so on shipboard.
Our library, it is true, is somewhat limited, but
it has a few good books. I was somewhat struck
on reading during this voyage almost the last
words of the celebrated Mary Somerville, who,
after a most distinguished career in science, died
eleven years ago at Naples. These words appear
more striking to me when read on board ship.
I The blue peter has long been flying at my foremast, and, now that I am in my 92nd year, I may
soon expect the signal for sailing."
We discuss our progress on all occasions There
is a general thankfulness as we advance. Towards
evening the motion of the ship has increased, but
we can all walk the deck. On the following day we
put on more canvas, for the breeze has increased
and is more favorable, and our progress is much m
There is now considerable motion, but
we have all got familiar with it, and, as sailors
say, we have our sea-legs.   The wind is at northwest ; the day clear and bright, with a warm-
looking sky, speckled with fleecy clouds.    The
decks are dry.    We appear to be achieving wonders in speed, and we are entering into all sorts of
calculations as to what extent we shall make up
the seven hours' detention by fog on the Banks of
Newfoundland.    Our run yesterday was 342 miles
in 23| hours.    Beckoning by observed time, we
lose half an hour daily by the advance made easterly.   During the afternoon we have a fair breeze,
with all sail set, followed by the same pleasant
and agreeable evening.    The passengers talk of
leaving with much readiness.   Well is it said that
much of the pleasure of life is retrospective.   " We
are approaching land" is now the cry, and we
commence   early  the   next   morning  calculating
when we shall reach Moville.    Saturday afternoon
is delightful.    Bright gleams of sunshine appear
in the intervals of occasional showers.     In the
evening  there  is  a concert with readings from
eight to ten.    The collection is for the " Sailors*
Orphanage " at Liverpool.    On account of the concert our lights are allowed to burn until midnight,
and many of us remain on deck nearly to that
hour.    The moon is three-quarters full;- we have
all sail set, and we can see the reflected light of
the sun in the northern sky at midnight.    To me 30
there is a strange fascination in a scene of this
character, with all its accompaniments. There is a
movement in the sea and a freshness in the air
which give a tingle to the blood, and we seem to
walk up and down the deck with an elasticity we
cannot explain to ourselves.
Next morning was Sunday. I was on deck half
an hour before breakfast. The land on the west
coast of Ireland was in sight. The morning was
most fair, and it seemed to give additional zest to
the excitement produced by the approaching termination of the voyage. We learn that we shall
be at Moville at 2 o'clock. We have again divine
worship. A Methodist minister read the Church
of England service and delivered an admirable
sermon. We reach Moville, and find we have
been seven days and ten hours making the run
from Bimouski. I took the opportunity here to
send a cablegram home ; it consisted of one word,
but that word contained a page of family meaning.
We passed the Giant's Causeway, at which the
passengers intently looked. We could also see
Islay and the Mull of Kintyre.
In the evening we have a second service. Our
eloquent friend from Brooklyn satisfied us so well
the previous Sunday that we begged of him to
give us another sermon. He. complied with our
wishes, and with equal success.
It is our last night on board; to-morrow we are
to separate.    Many of us on this voyage have met "^
for the first time, and in all human probability
few of us will again come side by side. There is
always a feeling of sadness in thinking you do
something for the last time. I can fancy even a
convict leaving his cell where he has passed some
year& pausing upon the threshold while a rush of
the old recollections, the long, sad hours cheered
by gleams of hope, crowd upon him, when he will
feel some strange sentiment of regret that it is the
last time he looks upon the place. The feeling
may last but a second, but it is an impulse of our
nature which is uncontrollable;
On board ship, with a certainty of gaining port
to-morrow, the last hours are passed in packing
up and preparing to leave, and a feeling of regret
creeps in that now so many pleasant associations
are to end, and' in spite of yourself some of the
good qualities of those who are set down as disagreeable people come to the surface in your
memory. Some few friendships are formed at sea
which are perpetuated, but generally the pleasant-
est of our relations terminate with the voyage. It
is too often the case, as in the voyage of life, that
those we have learned to esteem are seen no more.
We had to lose no time in order to pass the
troublesome bar at the mouth of Liverpool harbour. With vessels of the draught of the American steamers it can only be crossed at high water.
The officers generally calculate what can be done
from the hour they leave Moville, and regulate 32
their speed accordingly, so as to approach it at the
right moment.
No one knows better than the occupants of the
cabin corresponding with our own on the opposite
side of the vessel that a great many tons of ashes
have been thrown overboard during the voyage :
we all know that a large volume of smoke has
passed out of the funnel, a proof of the great weight
of fuel which has been expended in keeping the
screw revolving. The draught of the ship is
consequently considerably less than when we left
the St. Lawrence.
There is now no fog; the weather is fine; there
is everything to encourage the attempt to run in,
and it proves successful. On this occasion, had
we been twenty minutes later, we should have
had to remain outside until another tide. The
lights of Galloway and the Isle of Man were passed
before the most of us retired last night. We all
awoke early ; at a quarter to five we had crossed
the bar ; the " Parisian " was in the Mersey ; the
tender came alongside the ship, and very soon
afterwards I stood again on English ground. CHAPTER HI.
Willie Gordon—Custom House Annoyances—Cable Telegram—
Post Office Annoyances—London—Spurgeon's Tabernacle
—An Ancestral Home—English and United States Hotels
—English Reserve—A Railway Accident—The Land's End—
A Deaf Guest.
As I stood on the landing stage at Liverpool
awaiting" patiently and with resignation for the
Customs officers to allow the removal of our luggage, a host of recollections ran through my mind.
My thoughts went back twenty years to another
occasion when I landed from an ocean steamer at
an hour equally early. My memory has been
aided by one of those works which appear so
frequently from the New York press, so fertile
in this species of encyclopaediac literature, endeavouring to embrace in a few pages the truths
learned only by a life's experience. The small
volume tells you what not to do, and it senten-
tiously sets forth its philosophy in a series of
paragraphs. There are ninety-five pages of this
philanthropic   effort,  with  about   four   hundred 34
negative injunctions. The title of the book is
{t Don't." The injunction that struck my eye most
forcibly may be taken as no bad type of the teaching of the book. It runs, "Don't" is the first
word of every sentence. "Don't go with your
boots unpolished, but don't have the polishing
done in the public highways." These words met
my eye as I was engaged in these pages, and they
brought back the feelings which passed through
my mind on the morning I left the "Parisian."
My thoughts reverted to my visit to the Mother
Country after eighteen years' absence; the first
made by me since I left home in 1845. I was a passenger on the "United Kingdom," due at Glasgow.
She had passed up the Clyde during the night,
and arrived opposite the Broomielaw in the early
morning. The night previous the passengers were
in the best of humour, and the stewards had been
kept up late attending to us. We were all in high
spirits, and without exception delighted at returning to Scotland. I was particularly impatient to
get ashore, to touch the sacred ground of my
native land. I arose that morning one of the first
of the passengers, before the stewards were visible.
The ship was in the stream off the Broomielaw.
A boat came to the side. I jumped into her and
went ashore. I strolled along the quay. My foot
was not literally on "my native heath," but I
enjoyed intensely the pleasure we all feel in revisiting our native shores, and in being near the WILLIE GORDON.
scenes from which we have been long absent.
Everything seemed so fresh and charming. I had
no definite purpose in my wandering, but I was
at home ; it was Scotland. In my semi-reverie I
was interrupted by a young voice in the purest
Clydesdale Doric saying " hae yer butes brushed?"
I looked down mechanically at my feet, and found
that the cabin bootblack of our vessel had neglected
this duty, probably owing to the irregular hours
of the last night on board. Moreover, it was the
first word addressed to myself, and I should have
felt bound to accept the offer if it had been unnecessary in the fullest sense. I commenced conversation with the boy. He was very young. I
summoned to my aid my best Scotch for the occasion. His name was Willie Gordon, and he told
me his widowed mother was a washerwoman, that
he had a number of brothers and sisters younger
than himself, that his earnings amounted to about
half a crown a week, and that between him and
his mother they managed to earn ten shillings
in that time. "And how do you live, Willie?"
"Beel weel," replied the boy, with the cheeriest
of voices. I And now, Willie," I said, when I had
paid him his fee, " it is many years since I have
been here. I want to see the places of greatest
interest in Glasgow." "Ou, sir," he promptly
said, "ye shuld gang ta seeCorbett's eatinhoose."
1 Do you know the way there ?" I asked. " Fine,
sir.    I ken the way vary weel.   I'll gang wi ye 36
tae the door," and his face looked even happier
than before. I accepted his guidance, and, if my
recollection is correct, the place was in Jamaica
street. The boy walked by my side carrying his
brushes and box, and chatted gaily of himself and
his life. Apparently no prince could be happier.
We reached the renowned establishment he had
named It was a species of home which a bene,
volent citizen had instituted, on the same principle
on which the coffee taverns are now established :
to furnish an early hot cup of tea or coffee to men
going to work, to offer some other refreshment than
whiskey and beer, to give a meal at cost price with
all the comfort possible with cleanliness good
cheer and airy rooms, warm in winter. After
some hesitation, and persuasion on my part, Willie
shyly entered with me. The menu was on the
wall. Porridge and milk one penny, large cup
of coffee one penny, bread and butter, thick, one
penny, eggs and toast one penny, &c, &c.; everything, one penny. I cannot say that I give a precise account of what appeared, but it was essentially as I describe it. We were a little early even
for that establishment, so Willie and I sat down.
The buxom matron gave us some account of the
place and its doings. The Duke of Argyle had
dined with her a few days before. She told us the
establishment was well patronized and prosperous-
The time soon came for our order, for we were the
first to be served.    I set forth what I required for "fir
myself, and that was no light breakfast, as I had a
sea appetite, sharpened by the earlv morning walk.
I directed the attendant to bring the same order in
double proportions for the boy, so that we had a
splendid dejeuner. My little companion was in
ecstasies. Never was hospitality bestowed on a
more grateful recipient. He would not leave me,
and he seemed bound to make a morning of it, and
from time to time graciously volunteered, " I'll tak
ye ony gait, Sir" His customers were forgotten, but
I trust he did not suffer from his devotion to me,
for I did my best to remedy his neglect of professional duty. He followed me from place to place,
carrying the implements of his day's work, and
he seemed anxious to do something for the trifling
kindness I had shown him. and the few pence I
had paid for his breakfast. But I was more than
compensated by the pleasure I myself received. I
listened to all he said with fresh interest, for he
was open, earnest, honest and simple-minded. He
was deeply attached to his mother, and was evidently proud to be able to add to her slender
earnings, which were just enough to keep her and
her family from want. He certainly seemed determined to do all in his power to make her comfortable. He never lost sight of me till I left by the
eleven o'clock train, and my last remembrance, on
my departure from Glasgow on that occasion as
the train moved out, was seeing Willie waving
his brushes and boot-box enthusiastically in the 38
air. I often wonder what Willie's fate is. He
appeared to me to be of the material to succeed in
life. In Canada he certainly would have worked
his way up. I never heard of him again, but I
certainly shall not be greatly astonished to hear of
Sir William Gordon, distinguished Lord Provost of
One of the nuisances of travelling throughout
the world is the ordeal of passing the Custom House.
Frequently the traveller from Canada thinks
the infliction at Liverpool is pushed a little further
than is requisite. What can we smuggle from
Canada ? I know quite well that there is generally a very loose conscience as to the contents of a
lady's trunk, considered under the aspect of its
fiscal obligations, but surely some form of declaration might be drawn up by means of which honourable men and women would be spared this
grievous and irritating delay. Apart from the
delay, it is no agreeable matter to open out your
carefully packed portmanteau. To ladies it is
particularly offensive to have their dresses turned
over and the contents of their trunks handled by
strangers. Canadians, while crossing their own
frontier, find the Custom House officers of the
United States, as a rule, particularly courteous,
and, on giving a straightforward declaration that
they have nothing dutiable, they are generally
: allowed to pass at once. Liverpool may not be
alone in strictly exacting all that the law allows, X
but is this course at all necessary or wise ? It
cannot increase the revenue, for the additional
expense of collection must more than absorb the
trifling receipts. And one is not kindly impressed
with this reception, especially when we feel that
it is totally unnecessary. We cross the ocean from
Canada with peculiar feelings of pride and sentiment to visit our Mother Land, and it is somewhat
of a severe wrench to be treated as foreigners by
the Customs authorities on our arrival; I will not
say uncivilly or wrongfully, but as if we were
adventurers going to England on some plundering
tour. It is certainly no petty annoyance to Canadians, when they make their entry into a land
they are taught to call "home," to have their
sense of common honesty thus challenged at the
threshold. Anything which is brought from Canada can only be some trifling present, such as
Indian work, to some relative in the Old Country;
and if, possibly, a few pounds be lost to the exchequer, it is made up a thousandfold by the good
will arising from being courteously treated on the
first landing on English soil. Would it not suffice
if every ordinary passenger were required to make
a declaration in some such form as the following ? :
"I am a Canadian subject. I declare upon my
honour that my baggage contains nothing whatever for sale. I have with me my personal effects
for my own use only." Or it may be added, " I
have a few gifts for old friends, of little or no
commercial value." 40
Perhaps some British statesman might not think
these suggestions beneath his notice. Let him
send a competent agent to examine and report
upon this subject. He will probably discover that
the whole nuisance can be swept away without
inflicting the slightest injury on the national
exchequer. It would form no discreditable sentence in a statesman's epitaph to read that "he did
away with the needless and offensive restrictions
imposed on British subjects from the outer empire
visiting the Imperial centre."
Having at last passed the Custom House, I drove
to Bock Ferry, one of the most pleasant suburbs of
Liverpool, to visit a family I was acquainted with,
and with them I passed a most enjoyable day. The
greeting I received was most cordial and gratifying. In the afternoon I started for London, leaving my daughter behind me, and I found myself
once more whirling through the green meadows
anu cultivated fields of England. I was alone,
but I did not feel solitary. How charming everything looked! The air was fresh with passing
showers, and the rain played for some quarter of
an hour on the landscape only to make it look
fresher and fairer, and, when the sun came out,
more full of poetry. Why, we are at Harrow-on-
the-Hill! Has time gone so quickly? There is
so much to think about, so many fresh scenes to
gaze upon, and so many events seem to crowd into
the hours that the traveller, in his bewilderment,
loses count of time. POST-OFFICE ANNOYANCES.
I am again in London, at Batt's hotel, Dover
street, and I walk to the Empire Club to learn if
there are any letters for me. I am disappointed
to find there is no cablegram. I despatched one
from Moville, and one word in reply would have
told me if all was well. I recollect well the
depression I experienced at the time at not receiving news. It was an inexplicable feeling ; not
exactly one of impatience or disappointment, but
rather of keen anxiety. "Why should there be
silence," I murmur, when everything points to the
necessity for a reply.
Next day my business took me to the city, and
I returned as rapidly as I could. In the afternoon,
to relieve my suspense, I went to the Geological
Society's rooms, and mechanically looked over the
books and specimens. I wandered into the rooms
of the Boyal Society, and found before me the well
known features of Mary Somerville as they are
preserved in her bust. I then strolled into the
parks and down to the Club, and still no cablegram. These facts are of no interest to any but
the writer, but possibly they may suggest, not
simply to the transmitter of telegrams but to the
officials who pass them through their hands, how
much often depends upon their care and attention,
and that there is something more required than
simply receiving and recording a message., There
is the duty of seeing to its proper delivery, and it
was precisely on this ground that my trouble took
its root. 42
I was three days in London when I received a
telegram from Mr. George Stephen, President of
the Canadian Pacific Bailway Company, stating
that he was desirous that I should proceed
to British Columbia as soon as possible. It
was my acceptance of this proposition which has
led to the production of these pages, but at that
hour I felt that Mr. Stephen's communication only
increased my bewilderment. My telegraphic address was properly registered at the General Post
Office in London, and it had been used over and
over again during my annual visits to England.
The cablegram I had just received bore the registered address, and yet I had received no message
from my family in Halifax. I have often sent
cablegrams, and never more than twenty-four hours
elapsed before receiving a reply. Consequently I
again telegraphed, plainly stating my anxiety, and
then wandered out to call on some friends. Later
in the evening I at last found an answer, and, in
order that it might not again miscarry, the sender
put on my address five additional words, held as
quite unnecessary, at two shillings each, making
ten shillings extra to pay. On my return to Canada
I learned that no less than three cablegrams had
been sent to me, each one of which remains to this
day undelivered. Two of the despatches were
sent before, one subsequently to, the message last
mentioned. All were properly addressed. I felt
it a public duty to write to the Secretary of the ^w
Post Office Department in London, but no satisfactory explanation has yet been given. Life is a
mass of trifles, as a rule. The exceptions are our
griefs and our sufferings, our triumphs and joys ;
the latter, as a French writer says, " counting by
minutes, the former by epochs." I passed three
particularly unpleasant days during this period,
my own personal affair, of course, and one in which
the world may seem to have no interest. But the
public has really a deep interest in having a more
perfect system of Atlantic telegraphy than we now
possess, and the facts I have described, have their
moral. At least it is to be hoped that the authorities may remember that anyone separated by the
ocean from his correspondents is not content that
telegrams should be delayed for days, and still less
content not to have them delivered at all.
I was a month in England, chiefly in London,
remaining until the 26th of July. I must say that
when in London I often thought of, although I
can not fully endorse, the words of that enthusiastic Londoner who held that it was the " best
place in the world for nine months in the year,
and he did not know a better for the other three."
In London you can gratify nearly every taste, and
although it always takes money to secure the
necessaries and luxuries of life, especially in great
cities, still, if one can content himself with
living modestly, it does not require a wonderfully
large income to enjoy the legitimate excitements 44
and amusements of London. In this respect it is
a marked contrast to New York, where, generally
speaking, a large income must be at your command
for even a moderate degree of respectable comfort.
In London, to those who cannot afford a carriage, there is a cab, and those who have no such
aspirations as a "hansom" can take the omnibus.
It is not necessary to go to the orchestra stalls to
see a performance, nor are you obliged to pay six
guineas per week for your lodgings or one pound
for your dinner. The reading room of the British
Museum is open to every respectable, well-ordered
person. You can look at some of the best pictures
in the world for nothing, and, if you are a student
of history and literature, there are localities within
the ancient boundaries of the city which you cannot regard without emotion. You have two of
the noblest cathedrals in the world; Westminster
Abbey, with its six centuries of history, and with
its tombs and monuments, setting forth tangibly
the evidences of the past national life. Then you
have Wren's classical masterpiece St. Paul's, one
of the most perfect and commanding edifices ever
erected anywhere. Its interior has never been
completed. Will it ever be so? Yet, as Wren's
epitaph tells us, if you wish to see his monument
"look around you."
Again, in London, by way of recreation, you
have public parks, river-side resorts, and by the
river itself  and underground railway you  can "TK
easily reach many pleasant haunts about the
suburbs. Indeed, by the aid of the steamboat or
rail you can take the most charming outings any
person can desire to have. London may be said
to be inexhaustible.
As one of the directors of the Hudson Bay Company I had often to visit the city, and some very
pleasant relationships grew out of my attendance
at the various board meetings. I was constantly
meeting Canadians, and certainly we hold together
in a peculiar way when away from the Dominion-
It is a strong -link we are all bound by, and yet.
we would find it hard to explain why. Even men
who are not particularly civil to one another in
Canada will cross each other's path with pleasure
when from home, and intimacies never anticipated
are formed, and associations entered upon once
thought impossible.
One of my visits was to Spurgeon's Tabernacle.
The name is familiar to everyone, and as I had.
been many times in London without hearing this-
celebrated preacher, I was anxious not to return to-
Canada without making the attempt. I was told,
to be in good time, and, acting on the suggestion,.
I obtained a good seat, and formed, I should suppose, one of four thousand people. Just in front
of me, strange to say, I beheld a familiar form,,
which I recollected last to have seen at Queen's
College convocation, Kingston: the Premier of
Ontario!    Mr. Oliver Mowat was the gentleman 46
who was seated two pews in front of me. He
was the last person I expected to meet in such a
place, as I did not even know he was in England.
He was the only one in that vast assemblage I
recognized. Spurgeon is, undoubtedly, worthy of
his great reputation, and on this particular Sunday his sermon was forcible, marked by rare good
sense, and perfectly adapted to his auditory. I
felt fully rewarded for my effort to be present.
When the service was over I had a few words
with Mr. Mowat, but our interview was but short,
for I had an engagement, and it was necessary for.
me to hurry to the Waterloo Station to take the
train for Guildford, in order to reach  Park,
in its neighbourhood.
This was a most agreeable visit to me. I do
not think there is any country but England where
scenes and associations are known such as I there
witnessed. At the station a carriage met us, for
I found myself in company with a gentleman
going to the same hospitable mansion. He was
an Irish M. P. On our entering the grounds
we passed amidst grand old elms, along a noble
avenue, and through walks beautiful with roses,
ivy and laurel. My welcome was most courteous
and graceful. There were several guests, but it
was my privilege to sleep in the haunted room.
The walls were hung with tapestry; the floor was
of oak; the fireplace was a huge structure of sculptured stone from floor to ceiling.    No ghost dis- STATELY HOMES OF ENGLAND.
turbed my slumbers, and, in the words of Macbeth, " I slept in spite of thunder." I awoke at
dawn, and drew back the heavy curtains to admit
the light. It was about sunrise. Shall I ever
forget that magnificent view from the old windows,
with their quaint transoms and quarterings, and
circular heads ! the sight of those fine old trees,
stately beeches, tall ancient elms, venerable blue
beech, and many a noble oak of from two to three
centuries' growth! It was one of those old ancestral domains, with glades, avenues and forest,
which seem to take you out of the present world
and back in thought to one altogether different, in
many of its conditions, from the life of to-day. The
most carefully developed homestead of old Boston,
or one of the finest mansions on the Hudson, with
the outline of mountain scenery, and its associate
stream; any one of the well built halls south of
the Potomac, elaborated with all the wealth of the
planter; or even one of our own palatial Canadian residences; all appear a thing of yesterday
as compared with that stately edifice, with its
delightful lawns, walks and avenues, which bear
the ancient impress of their date and of their early
greatness. No doubt these paths were trod by
men in the troublous times of Henry Till, and
his three children, men who then may have debated mooted points of history in this very neighbourhood. There is a tradition also that the virgin
Queen has looked upon this same landscape " in
maiden meditation fancy free." 48
The morning was peculiarly fine, and as I
opened the window to admit the pure, fresh air
I really breathed again to enjoy it, and inhale the
perfume of foliage and of the garden flowers;
flowers whose ancestors may have traced three
centuries of life, at least the early known plants
indigenous to English soil; while those of foreign
origin could boast of sires, perhaps, the first of
their genus brought from the Continent. The air
was vocal with music; the trees seemed peopled
with scores of blackbirds and mavis, and there
was many a proverbial "early bird" busy with
the yet earlier worm, who had gained so little by
his rising. All nature seemed teeming with life
and gladness. I can only here acknowledge the
courtesy I received from my host and hostess. The
hours passed away unclouded by the slightest
shadow, and I know no more pleasant memory
than that of my visit to this English ancestral
I was highly pleased, on my return to Batt's
Hotel, to receive intimation that my daughter was"
shortly to join me in London. There is a certain
solitude in a London hotel, which is much the
opposite of the continental life, and entirely distinct from the table d'hote system of this continent.
In England the desire is to secure extreme quiet
and privacy, while on this side of the Atlantic
every auxilliary is provided for publicity and freedom of movement.    This is especially the case in X
the United States.    In Canada it may be said that
a middle course is taken.    In many large hotels
on this continent, in addition to the drawing and
breakfast rooms, parlours and halls and writing
and news rooms are open, where papers are furnished and  sold, seats  at the theatre obtained,
telegrams sent, books, especially cheap editions of
novels, purchased, with photographs of the professional beauties, leading politicians and other
celebrated people.    All of these places are marked
by busy, bustling life.    The  dining room, from
its opening in the morning till a late hour  at
night, is one scene of animation, be the meal what
it may.    Some of the beau sexe even visit the breakfast room with elaborate toilets, and many a pair
of earrings glitter in the sun's early rays.    A walk
up and down the wide passage or hall at any hour
is proper and regular, and it is stated that it is
often the only exercise indulged in by many living
in the great hotels of the United States, the street
car furnishing the invariable means of locomotion.
In the large cities the hotels are situated, as a
rule, on the main streets.    There are always rooms
where one may from the windows look upon the
crowds passing and repassing.    Thus a drama of
ever-changing life can be comfortably witnessed
from an armchair placed at the right point of observation.    There is no such thing as loneliness.
Almost everyone is ready, more than ready, to converse with you.    If you yourself are courteous and
4 60
civil you will probably find those around you
equally so, whether they be guests or belong to
the establishment. With a little tact and judgment you can always obtain useful information.
My experience likewise is that the information is
invariably correct: for there never seems to be any
hesitation in a negative reply when those you
address are not acquainted with the particular
point of inquiry. The gentleman who presides
over the cigars, the controller of the papers and
the photographs and the official of the bar, an
important field of action in a high class hotel,
each and all make it a point of duty impressively
to patronize your local ignorance when you ask
for information. In an English hotel the general rule is for no one person to speak to another.
If you do venture on the proceeding, Heaven only
knows what reply you may receive. In the class
divisions of the Mother Country there may be
social danger in not observing the lines defined
by etiquette. There are always men of good
address and appearance who are not unknown to
the police, and whose photographs may be destined at no distant period to figure in the Bogues'
Gallery. But such men are to be found in all
countries. Whatever necessity there may be for
prudence and circumspection, it has struck me
-that there is really no ground for that absolute
uncompromising offensiveness of manner which
often well-meaning men in England feel bound ^K
to show to any person who addresses them, as the
joke goes, "to whom they have not been introduced."
If you are quite alone very little experience in
the English hotel is enough to throw you back
on yourself, and to depress even a gay and blith-
some nature. You walk with a listless air through
the corridors, you take your meals with a sort of
mechanical impassiveness which you cannot help
feeling, and you seem to drop into the crowd of
reserved, self-contained individuals, who act as if
they thought that courtesy to a stranger was a
national crime. I do not speak of the clubs,
where, if you are a member, you can always meet
some acquaintance. But comparatively few Canadians visit England who are club men. I know
no solitude so dreary, nor any atmosphere so
wearying, as that of the London hotel in a first
class lateral street when you have nobody to
speak to, where you can see scarcely a living
soul out of the window, where the only noise
is the distant rumble of vehicles in the neighbouring thoroughfare, and where, when you are
tired with reading or writing, you have no recourse but to put on your hat and sally out into
the street.
A circumstance crosses my mind as I am writing which gives some insight into English life
and character. It happened to a friend, now no
more, with whom I had crossed the Atlantic.    He 52
was travelling from Liverpool to London, and took
his place in the railway carriage, sitting on the
back middle seat, while opposite in the corner
seats were two gentlemen, each with a newspaper.
The train had been an hour on its journey, but
the silence was unbroken.    At last my friend spoke.
"Gentlemen," he  said, "I am L  D .     I
have come from , and he named a city in
the Dominion. I have been a merchant for fifty
years, and now I am living in ease. I am eighty-
three years of age, and, like the large majority of
Canadians, I have two eyes and one tongue, and,
like a great many of my countrymen, I feel a
pleasure in using them. My eyes feel the period of
time they have done me service. I cannot read from
the motion, but I can take part in a conversation.
My business in Britain is to see my daughters.
One is married to an officer quartered at the Boyal
barracks in Dublin. I am just returning from a
visit to her, and I am on my way to see my second
daughter, whose husband is stationed at Woolwich. Having now introduced myself, I trust,
gentlemen, you will not look upon me as a pickpocket or anything of that sort." One of the
gentlemen carefully drew out his card-case and
gave his card. This example was followed by
his opposite neighbour. " What, gentlemen," my
friend said, looking at the cards through his spectacles, which he deliberately put on, " you do not
seem to know one another; let me introduce you." X
At the same moment he crossed his arms and
presented the card of the one to the other. The
curtest and least definable bow was given. One
query followed another, and my friend had a great
deal to say and much to enquire about. He had
occupied the highest position in the city he came
from, and had mixed a good deal with the men of
his world. The three or four hours which followed were most pleasing to the trio. My friend's
fellow travellers were county men, and he was
cordially invited to spend a week with each of
them. The invitations were accepted, the acquaintance renewed, he met with the most cordial English welcome, and the visits proved to be particularly agreeable to all parties.
In my experience, and in that of others who
come under the name of Canadians, whose fortunes now lie in the Dominion; whatever our
place of birth, all that the Englishman wants to
know regarding us is that we are Canadians; in
other words, that we are not dubious members of
an uncertain phase of English society. We then
at once receive the most genial courtesy and kindness ; real, true, honest, hospitable kindness. I
reason from this that we must be outside the
circle in which this frigid intercourse is observed
as a protection. We are in England for a brief
time; then we pass from the scene, and there is
no fear entertained on the part of our English
neighbours of forming an unpleasant and unpro- 54
fitable, that is scarcely the word, an embarrassing, relationship. I have heard the explanation
given for this peculiarity that its very defects
spring from the loyalty of character which marks
the high-bred Englishman. The theory is that, if
he knows you once, he is always to know you.
He wishes to run no risk of being placed in a
false position, and hence avoids any intercourse
which, although in a way agreeable to him, he
will not accept at the cost of his own self-respect.
And there are men who in no way incur blame
for want of courtesy in a railway carriage, but
they will pass their fellow traveller after a week's
interval as if they had never seen him. It may
be urged that those who live in the state of society
which obtains in England are the best able to
understand its conditions and the wisdom of its
laws. It is quite possible that this mode of treatment of a stranger may be commended by experience. There are many examples where the opposite course has led to trouble, but prudence and
good sense would surely avoid annoyance, and
they are requisite under all circumstances. But
is it not also advisable to avoid the extraordinary
discourtesy with which sometimes a remark from
a stranger is received, as if it were designed to
serve some deliberate scheme of wrong, or to lead
up to some act of swindling and imposture. Surely
we may always be able to detect any attempt of
this kind and protect ourselves; and in all condi- A RAILWAY INCIDENT.
tions of life good manners cost little and entail no
In one of my excursions from London I was
travelling by the Great Western Bailway. A lady
and gentleman were in the same compartment. I
made the third. Shortly after leaving Padding-
ton the lady suffered from a spark in her eye,
certainly a most painful annoyance. Her fellow
passenger appeared much troubled and as much
bewildered. Neither seemed to know what to
do, and the lady did not conceal how much she
suffered. I ventured to address the gentleman,
and said, as was the case, that I had frequently
experienced this unfortunate accident, and that
if the eye was kept moist the pain would be
lessened. He barely "answered me. The lady
continued in pain. The train stopped for three
minutes at Swindon. I took my flask, made a
rush to the refreshment room, carefully washed
the cup, filled it with water, and brought it to
the carriage. I offered it, I believe with ordinary
good manners, to the gentleman, and suggested
that a handkerchief moistened with cold water
should be applied to the eye. My offer was curtly
declined! There was nothing more to be done. I
threw the water out of the window, replaced my
flask in my travelling bag, and turned to my book.
I did not forget the incident during my trip, nor,
indeed, have I ever done so.
I continued on my journey, and proceeded to 56
visit some friends in the West of England, after
which I found my way to the Land's End, which
I felt a great desire to see. I went to Torquay,
and the sight of so many invalids in Bath chairs
made me melancholy; to Dartmouth, at the entrance of the Biver Dart, near the birthplace of the
great Sir Walter Baleigh; to Totness, to Davenport and to Penzance; thence to the treeless, bleak-
looking district of the Land's End, to look at a
landscape which I shall always remember.
At a little inn on the most westerly point of
England I found I could get a chop and a glass of
ale. Having ordered luncheon, I strolled out in the
meantime to have a look at the blue water and
the wide expanse of ocean. The place is certainly
solitary enough, but in its way the boldness of
the landscape and the never-ceasing roar of the
waves elevated it from dreariness. I returned to
the room of the inn and found a gentleman seated
at the table. I had a perfect recollection of my
experience in the railway carriage a few days previously. But it seemed to me to meet a stranger
at this spot, seldom visited, gave a guarantee of a
certain similarity of tastes, and that it might possibly be agreeable to both to exchange a few
words. Indeed, I thought it would be perfect
folly for us to remain together in silence for about
half an hour as if ignorant of the presence of each
other. I therefore made up my mind that, at any
rate, the fault should not be mine, and that I A DEAF GUEST.
would make bold to break the ice. We were certainly not introduced, but at all risks I would
make an effort to begin by saying some ordinary
words about the weather. The sky was cloudy
and the air cold, but I raised my voice to a cheerful tone and said, "It is rather raw to-day, sir."
The gentleman addressed took not the slightest
notice of what I had said! And how ridiculous
and embarrassing it did seem to me at the time to
think that two rational beings should be lunching
together at a little round table in the last house in
England in solemn silence ! I fear that not a few
disagreeable thoughts passed through my mind,
but I could do nothing. In due time I was ready
to return to Penzance. I entered the vehicle which
had brought me hither, and at no great distance
away from the inn we passed the individual I had
lunched with, walking by himself. I took the
opportunity, when out of hearing, of asking the
driver if he knew who he was. I received the
reply that he was a deaf and dumb gentleman who
lived in the neighbourhood! CHAPTEB IV.
ENGLAND—( Continued).
Marquis of Salisbury—Classical studies—Henley Regatta—Red
Lion—London Dinner to Lord Dufferin—His Speech—Greenwich—Fisheries Exhibition—Bray—The Vicar—The Thames
—Minehead—The Polynesian.
I was exceedingly glad to be joined by my
daughter in London, because much depended on
her arrival. We had many places to see together,
and she was to accompany me on a visit to some
friends in the country, who had extended to us a
very warm invitation. During this visit we met
all the kindness we could have even fancied, at
one of those English homes, standing among old
trees, with ivy-covered walls, and gardens full of
roses of all colours and in the greatest perfection.
We returned to London, as I had matters to
attend to at the offices of the Hudson Bay Company, the Colonial Office, and the office of the
High Commissioner for Canada.
Shortly after my arrival the Marquis of Salisbury distributed the prizes at King's College, and MARQUIS OF SALISBURY.
his remarks on the occasion struck me forcibly.
Owing to my connection with Queen's University, Kingston, it had become my duty, however
imperfectly I might have performed it, to approach
the same question: the extent to which classical
studies should form the basis of education. Lord
Salisbury pointed out, with all the polish which
marks his utterances, that intellectual capacity is
as varied as any other of God's creations; that
many minds have little inclination for study: and
that to devote the best years of life to the acquisition of an imperfect acquaintance with Greek and
Latin was most unwise and barren of good results.
Lord Salisbury proceeded to say:
"I cannot but feel, in reading this list, how singularly
privileged the present generation is in the studies they
are invited to pursue. In my time, and before my time,
for I was just at the end of the darker period, there were
only two possible lines of study—classics and mathematics. Mathematics was looked upon in many quarters
with considerable jealousy and doubt. Classics was the
one food tendered to all appetites and all stomachs. I
do not wish to say a word in depreciation of classics. It
would be as sensible to speak in depreciation of wheat
and oats because wheat will not grow in the North of
Scotland and oats will not grow at the equator. But
people are coming gradually, if they have not come
fully, to the conclusion that the intellectual capacity is
as various as any other of nature's creations, and that
there are as many different kinds of minds, open to as
many different kinds of treatment, as there are soils on 60
the surface of the earth; and that it is as reasonable to
try to force all minds to grow classics, or to grow mathematics, or to grow history, as it would be to force all
soils to grow fruit, or grass, or corn. Tbis is an enormous gain to the present generation. For what happened
in the last generation, or two generations ago, was this,
that those minds which were fitted for education in classics
received full development, while those minds not fitted
for that treatment were stunted and turned from intellectual pursuits altogether. There is no greater privilege
of the present generation than the full conception at
which we have arrived of the fact that almost every intellect is, if it be properly treated, capable of high development. But whether that development be reached or not
depends upon the judgment with which its capacities are
nurtured and its early efforts encouraged. Now, in this
list I am very glad to see that modern history and the
English language and literature occupy a very distinguished position.
"I have the greatest possible respect for the educational
establishments in which I was brought up, but I never look
back without a feeling of some bitterness to the many
hours during which I was compelled to produce the most
execrable Latin verse in the world. I believe that if a
commission of distinguished men were appointed to discover what is the most perfectly useless accomplishment
to which the human mind can be turned a large majority
would agree that versification in the dead languages was
that accomplishment. On that account, I suppose, we
were compelled in the last generation, whether we were
fitted or not, to devote a considerable time to it, and, if
it is any compensation to you for the severe examination
you have to undergo, think of the agonies of unpoetical HENLEY REGATTA.
minds set to compose poetical effusions, which you are
happily spared."
Lord Salisbury dwelt upon the number of examinations to which everybody in the military
and civil services is subjected, and instanced one
official who had passed through thirty-six examinations. In his own able way he declared his
opposition to the system of cramming, by which
the mere surface of knowledge is floated over with
facts, cunningly grouped together, soon to be forgotten and never of true value.
Hot weather is sometimes experienced in London,
hut it is a different heat from that of Canada, and
by no means to be compared with it in temperature. Few people dress to meet the summer in
England, and in winter the sole addition is the
great coat. A fur cap is unknown. The round
silk hat, so much abused, holds its own, summer
and winter, against all attempts to banish it. Although the days are hot, the nights are generally
cool. Any extraordinarily hot weather is exceedingly oppressive to the Londoner.
It was during the warm days that I went to
Henley, to join a party who had engaged to be
present at the regatta. With a Canadian friend
I took the train to Maidenhead, thence by the
branch railway to Henley, one of the most striking landscapes in the valley of the Thames, remarkable for its many beauties. The river here is
broad, and runs between undulating hills covered 62
with foliage. We cross the old stone bridge at
Henley in order to find our friends among the
many carriages. No more pleasant spectacle could
have been seen. It presented only the sunny and
holiday side of life. It was as different from the
mixed mass of human beings of all classes and
conditions you meet at the Derby or the other
horse races near the metropolis as can be imagined. All was order, quietude and irreproachable
respectability. There were no drinking booths,
no gambling, no shrieking out the " odds," none
of the professional rough element in search of a
I good thing." We were among the most elaborate
toilets. No one but looked her best. Probably nowhere do we see more thoroughly this one phase
of English life than at the Henley regatta. The
scenery is English, the people are English; we
have the theoretical English staidness and propriety. The amusement is English. What struck
me was the absence of all excitement. This indifference appeared to me remarkable. Indeed,
the only exhibition of interest was that shown by
the oarsmen, who were young men in perfect
condition, with muscles well trained and developed, and who bent enthusiastically to their work.
I did not hear a single cheer. I never before nor
since beheld such an orderly crowd, if I may
apply that word to an assemblage of so many
distinguished people. I noticed that those who
came under my observation were generally light- THE "RED LION."
haired or brown, with fair complexions. It seemed
to me, judging from appearances, as if the regatta
was looked upon as a very ordinary affair in itself,
and that it was more an occasion for the well-dressed
mass of people to meet together. There evidently was a theory that some one boat must come
in first, and, as it generally happened that there
was a foregone conclusion as to who the winner
would be, there was nothing to call for enthusiasm.    Certainly none was shown.
We did not find our friends, although we
searched diligently for them on both sides of the
river. After giving up the attempt reluctantly,
we resolved to take luncheon at the renowned old
hostelry, the "Bed Lion," celebrated as the inn
where Shenstone wrote his lines in praise of an
inn, perhaps his only lines now g-enerally remembered. The "Bed Lion" did not belie its ancient
reputation. There is always a pleasure in visiting these haunts of a former generation. There is
little of modern finery and frippery about them,
but you find the actual comfortb of life above
criticism. Nowhere can be seen a whiter cloth,
brighter glass, finer bread, sweeter butter, juicier
meat or a more royal tankard of English ale, whose
praises Chaucer might have sung.
We took the 6.10 evening train to Maidenhead,
and then walked to our friends' place. We found
that they had driven to Henley, excepting those
who  kindly received us.     The party, however, 64
came back in good time, having heard of us through
a common friend, recently an Aide-de-camp on the
General's staff in Halifax. We had met him at
the regatta, and asked intelligence of the party.
He had succeeded where we had failed, and had
found those of whom we were in search.
We returned to London. Finding we had now
about a fortnight to remain, we mapped out our
plans in order to see what we could do in that
time. We saw all the public sights which our
engagements enabled us to do. I cannot say that
I was greatly impressed with the pictures of the
Boyal Academy. Several were good, but I did
not find a large number of surpassing excellence.
I was much struck by a water-colour drawing of
mountain scenery, with a bridge and stream, Kir-
briicher Stadden in Switzerland, by Arthur Croft.
We went to the theatre, and saw Irving in " The
Bells " and " Impulse " at the St. James; to a promenade concert at the Botanical Gardens, Begent's
Park and to Wimbledon. Through the courtesy
of Col. Otter, in command of the Canadian camp,
we were invited to an at home given by him, where
we saw a great many Canadian friends. We also-
met some distinguished military people. We were
gratified to learn all about the success of our
marksmen. The rain, however, was exceptionally
heavy during the whole day, and most unfortunately there was no going beyond the shelter of
the canvas tents. DINNER TO LORD DUFFERIN.
One event of no ordinary importance which we
witnessed was the banquet to Lord Dufferin at the
Empire Club. Lord Bury presided. Sir Charles
Tupper and the Honourable Alexander Mackenzie
both spoke very effectively. It struck me that in
each case their speeches were admirable. Neither
of them occupied more than ten or fifteen minutes,
and what they said had the impress of careful
consideration and finish, for it was dignified, concise and appropriate. I have no recollection of
having heard either of those well known public
men speak to better advantage, and it was a matter
of great regret to all of us that their speeches were
not reported. The dining room of the club is not
large; it can hold no more than sixty at most, so
the number who could attend was limited, much
to the disappointment of many. We were all
of us glad to see Lord Dufferin. He was quite
unchanged. He had the same high-bred charm of
manner, and that polished courtesy which becomes
him so well and is never out of place. We did
not sit down to dinner until 8.30, so it was late
when we separated. There was something in
Lord Dufferin's speech which made it more than a
mere after-dinner address, something so striking,
so statesmanlike, that I deem it my duty to include
it in these chapters :
My Lords and Gentlemen,—If there is one thing more
embarrassing than another to a person on commencing a
public speech it is to find his oratorical ground suddenly 6Q
cut away from beneath his feet. I had fully intended to
claim your indulgence on the grounds so eloquently
referred to by my noble Mend, and I can assure yout
that that indulgence is as much needed as I have ever
experienced it, for, however easy it may be to speak
with an empty head, it is very difficult to do so with a
full heart. In rising, however, to return my warmest
thanks for the kind manner in which you have drunk
my health, I cannot help asking myself with some
anxiety what title I possess to the good-will of my
entertainers. Your chairman has been pleased to refer
in very flattering terms to my public services: but I fear
that the reason of your cordiality is further to seek than
anything which can be found in the indulgent observation, I hope, on the present occasion, of the members of
the Empire Club, and I think I am not wrong in conjecturing that I am indebted for the signal honour which you
have conferred upon me, not so much to my individual
merits, as to the fact that for the last twelve years of my
life I have been unremittingly occupied in promoting and
maintaining the Imp erial, as distinguished from the do
mestic, interests of our commqn country. In Canada, at-
St. Petersburg, at Constantinople and in Egypt, I can
conscientiously say that home politics, with all their irritating associations, have faded from my view, and that
my one thought by day and night has been to safeguard
to protect and to extend the honour, the influence and
the commerce of England with the foreign Governments
or else to draw still more closely together those ties of
affectionate regard by which she is united to one of her
most powerful, most loyal and most devoted colonies.
Well, then, gentlemen, under these circumstances, I
think I may be pardoned if I have come to look at DINNER TO LORD DUFFERIN.
England, this sceptred isle, this earth of majesty, this-
other Eden-beaming paradise, this happy breed of men,
this precious stone  set in  a  silver  sea; not   as she
displays herself in the recriminatory warfare of parliamentary strife, or in the polemical declamation of the
platform, but in an aspect softened by distance and-
regarded as the happy home of a noble and united
people, whom it is an honour to serve, and for whose
sake it would be a privilege to make the greatest sacrifices.    I do not say this in any spirit of selfish and vulgar
"Jingoism," although I must admit that by their profession
ambassadors and colonial governors are bound to be a
little " jingo."    Ihave cometo regard England in the same
light as she is regarded by those great communities who
are carrying her laws, her liberties, her constitutional
institutions and her language into every portion of the
world, many of whose most distinguished representatives
are present here to-night, and to whom it is the especial
function of this club to extend the right hand of brotherhood and affection.   Gentlemen, I am well aware that
many of our most influential thinkers are almost disposed
to stand aghast at the accumulative responsibility and increasing calls upon our resources, and the ever-widening
vulnerability entailed  by England's imperial position.
Certainly, the outlook counsels both prudence and, above
all, preparation.    After all, the life of nations and individuals in many respects resemble each other, and each
of us is aware that his daily burden of care, anxiety and
responsibility gathers weight and strength in proportion
to the expansion of his faculties, the accumulation of his
wealth, the energy of his endeavours and the extension of
his influence.   Why, gentlemen, even the children that
people our homes  are so many hostages given to for- 68
tune; and the wives of our bosoms—I say this beneath
my breath—are very apt each of them to open a startling
■chapter of accidents; but what man of spirit has ever
turned his back upon the opportunity, or refused to enter
upon the tender obligations of a love-lit fireside for fear
of increasing his responsibilities, entailed by a fuller}
ampler and more perfect existence ? But, my lords and
gentlemen, even did she desire it, I believe that the time
is too late for England to seek to disinherit herself of
that noble destiny with which I firmly believe she has
been endowed. The same hidden hand which planted
the tree of constitutional liberty within her borders, and
thus called upon her to become the mother of parliaments, has sent forth her children to possess and fructify
the waste places of the earth. How a desert in every
direction has been turned into a paradise of plenty those
who are present can best tell. I believe that, great as
have been the changes which have already occurred, our
children are destined to see even still more glorious accomplishments. One of the greatest statisticians of modern
times, a man of singularly sober judgment, has calculated
that ere the next century has reached its close the English
speaking population of the globe will have already exceeded one hundred millions of human beings. Of these,
in all probability, forty millions will be found in Canada
alone, and an equal proportion along the coast of Africa
and in our great Australian possessions. If these great
communities are united in a common bond of interest, if
they are co-ordinated and impelled by a common interest,
what an enormous influence, as compared with that of
any other nationality, whether for good or evil, whether
considered from a moral or material point of view, are
they destined to exercise!   But, gentlemen, that they V
will remain Englishmen who can doubt! The chops-
and changes on an accelerated momentum of human progress forbid all accurate prediction. These enormous
forces, operating over such a large space, defy all prescience and human wisdom to direct the current of
events; but one thing, at all events, is certain, and that
is that these great communities will be deeply impressed
by English ideas, by English literature, by English institutions and by English habits of thought. That this
shall long continue to be the case is, I am sure, the
earnest wish of those whom I am addressing. It is their
desire that our statesmen should so conduct the relations
of this country with their colonial dependencies as to-
cherish and maintain those affectionate ties by which
they are so remarkably and distinctly bound to the
Mother Country. One thing, at all events, is certain:
that the people of England will never again allow their
Government to repeat the error which resulted in the
separation of the United States. Whatever may be our
present relations with the great transatlantic republic, it
is certain that, had it not been for the violent disruption
that occurred, those relations would now have been even.
more mutually advantageous. The catastrophe, unhappily, was brought about by the Ministry of the day
being incapable of appreciating and understanding the-
force and direction of colonial sentiment. Now, my-
lords and gentlemen, I believe that statesmen can make
no greater mistake than not accurately to comprehend
the enormous part which sentiment plays in human
affairs. By far the greater number of the wars which
have devastated the globe have been produced and generated by outraged sentiment rather than by the pursuit
of material advantages.   Even commerce itself, the most VO
unsentimental and matter-of-fact of interests, is wont for
long periods of time to follow in the track of custom,
habit and sentiment. This was a fact which for a long
time the English people failed to comprehend. They
failed to comprehend the desire which the colonies had
to have their kinship recognised. Happily, however,
the increased facilities of communication and the necessities and exigencies of trade have changed all this, and
I believe that now there is not a man in England who
does not understand, and to whose imagination it has
not been forcibly brought home, that beyond the circuit
of the narrow seas which confine this island are vast
territories, inhabited by powerful communities who are
actuated by ideas similar to our own, who are proud to
own allegiance to Queen Victoria, whose material resources are greater than those possessed by his own
country, and whose ultimate power may, perhaps, exceed
the power of Great Britain. And yet these great communities of noble, high-spirited, industrious Englishmen,
if only they are properly dealt with, and if only their
feelings and just exigencies are duly considered, will
never have a higher ambition than to be allowed to
continue as co-heirs with England in her illustrious
career, associated with her in her gigantic empire, and
sharers in her fortunes, whether they be for good or
evil, until the end of time. Gentlemen, such are the
sentiments and opinions which I believe this club has
been founded to encourage and propagate, and I felt that
in rising to return thanks for the great and signal
honour which you have done me, and for which really
I cannot find words sufficient to thank you, I could not
do so in a more acceptable manner than by telling you
with what enthusiasm and with what sincerity of conviction I myself subscribe to these sentiments." GREENWICH.
One of my pleasantest recollections of London
dates about ten days before my departure for
Canada. When the heat was tempered by a fresh
breeze, a party of us met by appointment on one
of the wharves near London Bridge. We owed
the invitation to a Canadian who, like myself, was
from the north of the Tweed. He introduced me
to our host, one of his oldest friends, a friendship
which had lasted from boyhood. Our host had
engaged a steamer to take his guests down the
river to the large establishment of which he is
the leading mind. I believe I am safe in saying
that thousands of people are employed in these
works. We went through the various departments,
and to do so took some hours. Some of the ladies
of the party thought they had accomplished miles
of pedestrianism. They were greatly interested in
what they saw, and before they left were delighted,
for our host, who has a heart as large as the business he controls, presented from the factory to each
of our party a substantial mark of his regard.
We returned to Greenwich, the very name is
redolent of fish dinners and whitebait to the Londoner, and twenty-one of us sat down at the
great round table in the bow window of the
I Ship Hotel." We were not in a mood to criticise our entertainment. Had we been so, we
could only have found something additional to
praise. We had good appetites, were in the best
of humour, and felt prepared to do justice to the 72
profusion of dainties set before us. Our host had
visited Canada nearly half a century ago, and he
spoke of his experience in what is now a highly
cultivated district, but was then very thinly
populated. His youthful days came back to him,
and he referred to a pair of bright eyes he encountered at a picnic on the shores of Lake Simcoe
which very nearly made him a Canadian. I do
not know what prominent position amongst us
he might not now have occupied had the possessor
of the bright eyes affirmed her conquest.
We are not, in Canada, a people particularly
demonstrative in our own land, but away from
home, when those of us who are bound by friendly
associations come side by side, no meeting can be
more gay or pleasant. It was especially so on
this occasion, and our host had the satisfaction of
seeing all his good cheer thoroughly appreciated
by his guests. It was ten o'clock before we separated, and found our way back to London.
The Fisheries Exhibition was then the event of
the season. In London or Paris there is always
something going on which everybody feels bound
to. see, and not to have the privilege or opportunity of seeing places you, in an undefined way,
in such a secondary position that you appear to
be excluded. The question is not always if the
spectacle or exhibition, or other notoriety of the
moment, will repay the time and attention given
to witnessing it.   The leading consideration is that THE FISHERIES EXHIBITION.
it is something to be seen, and it is never of any
use running counter to the tide of the community
in which you live and move. Yery often a good
deal of trouble is taken, and frequently no small
amount of money expended, to pass through some
ordeal of this character, which brings no addition
to our information and but little satisfaction.
The Fisheries Exhibition, however, was not of
this character. Many must have been surprised
at the part played in it by Canada, and at the
richness and variety of her exhibits. Scarcely
anything could have been designed to set forth
better to the London world the vastness of the
resources of the Dominion than this exhibition,
and to bring before the English people an idea of
the extensive fishing grounds it possesses. Many
would then learn for the first time that our fisheries are not confined to the St. Lawrence and
the lakes. Canada has an immense extent of sea
coast in the Maritime Provinces frequented by
shoals of fish, for which these waters have been
famous since the first discovery of America. The
almost virgin waters of British Columbia swarm
with fish of the finest description, and Canada possesses the whole of Hudson Bay and the northern
coast of America in which to develop her enterprise
and industry. What country in the world can
boast of such great and prolific fish fields on three
oceans, all open to enterprise.
One of the agreeable associations connected with "74
the exhibition was the fite in aid of the English
"Church at Berlin, and in commemoration of the
silver wedding of the Crown Princess of Germany,
Her Majesty's eldest daughter. It seemed to me
that there was a constant rush of visitors till
midnight. The spectacle was a brilliant one, as
much on account of the great crowd of people
who were there as from the light and glitter of
the scene itself. The newspapers mentioned the
number present as 6,000, and they truly described
it as a fairy scene. The whole place was bright
with many-coloured lamps, Chinese lanterns and
electric lights. One of the striking features was
the tea party of the Chinese court, where a veritable Chinese grandee presided with her daughter-
The Marchioness Tseng seemed to me a type of
liberality. It could scarcely be political exigency
which led this lady and her family to intervene
in aid of an Anglican Church in the heart of a
Lutheran population. The Duke and Duchess of
Albany assisted her. Fans were sold here, the
recommendation of which was that they had been
specially painted by the Chinese Minister himself
and embroidered and worked by the Marchioness
and her daughter. It struck me that if this display be typical of the industry of the Chinese
family our western civilization is much behind
in the path of productive labour. There were to
be seen also an English refreshment room, and
an "American" bar, under the direction of Mrs. A FETE.
Lowell, attended by all the United States beauties
in London, whose personal charms, supplemented
by New York taste in dress, not a little influenced
the price of what was served. The Countess of
Dufferin was there. She seemed quite in her
element, doing her best to promote the general
gaiety and brightness of the scene. A distinguished naval officer, whose name has penetrated
wherever the English language is spoken, Lord
Charles Beresford, assisted Lady Dufferin. It was
their duty to preside over the fish pond, where
•the small charge of five shillings was paid for the
use of the rod and line. There seemed to be an
unlimited supply of fish. The successful anglers
generally brought, up something which excited
shouts of laughter. One fisherman would land a
nightcap, another a toy of some sort, and so on-
The Prince and Princess of Wales came about
eleven o'clock, which added in no little degree to
the excitement of the scene. What must strike
strangers on British soil is the admirable order
which prevails during an exhibition of this kind.
It is seldom that any unpleasantness occurs We
did not remain until the close, but it was late before
we reached home.
It was my good fortune to spend some pleasant
days with my friends at their charming and hospitable house within four miles of Windsor. A
few hours in the country is always a congenial
change even to the inveterate London-loving resi- 76
dent of the capital. It was equally so with myself.
I awoke at my friend's pleasant home one bright
Sunday morning. Some of the family started for
the old church at Bray, and invited me to accompany them. We pass along a winding road, between hedges of hawthorn, with here and there
fine old trees, some of them with trunks as much
as five and six feet in diameter, relics of Windsor
Forest. The country is somewhat flat, but it is
rendered peculiarly attractive by its fertility and
the richness of the foliage. Windsor Castle stands
out boldly in the landscape, and to-day the Imperial
Standard on the Bound Tower shows that Her
Majesty is at her ancient home.
We reached the cross roads, with a finger post
directing us to Windsor and to Bray. Following
the road to the latter, we came upon " Jesus Hospital," founded, we read on the inscription over
the gateway in quaint old English characters, by
William Goddard in 1627. His statue over the
entrance looks upon a plot of garden flowers. On
the inscription we further learn that "he hath
provided for forty poor people forever." Then we
are told that there is no admission for vagrants,
or unlicensed hawkers, or dogs.
We attended service at Bray Church, an old edifice dating, in some parts, from the beginning or
middle of the fifteenth century. The square tower
tells a story of a later date.
Who has not heard of Simon Aleyn, the Yicar ? THE VICAR OF BRAY.
His memory is still as fresh as it was three centuries back, when he died. He lived from the
time of Henry VIII. to that of Elizabeth, and was an
Anglican, a Presbyterian or a Papist as was expedient. It does no harm to repeat old Fuller's
words, although they appear in the guide book:
" He had seen some martyrs burned at Windsor,
and found this too hot for his tender temper.
This Vicar being taxed by one with being a turn-
coat and an inconsistent changling, ' Not so,' said
he, ' for I have always kept my principle, which
is to live and die Vicar of Bray." After the service
we walked through the churchyard, and, Scotchman-like, I looked among the tombstones to see if
there were any Dugalds, Donalds or Macs. There
were none. I never before felt so much being in
the heart of England. There was not a record of
one Scotchman having died here, and I thought they
had penetrated everywhere. I can well recollect
making a trip to the west coast a few years back.
It was during the period when the Honourable A.
Mackenzie was Premier of Canada. I was then
an officer of the Canadian Government on leave.
I visited Truro, the most southern city in England,
and on entering the principal business street the
first sign I saw was that of Alexander Mackenzie
& Co. I certainly thought then I was a long way
from Scotland, and still further from all Canadian
associations. I have been in many strange and
remote corners of the globe on both continents, 78
but I was never before in a place where there was
no trace of the ubiquitous, enterprising and energetic north-countryman. And yet it was a
Vicar of the church which I had just attended
who curtly refused t« pay a bill of James the First
at Maidenhead. That monarch, on a certain occasion, having outrode his hunting escort, and being
hungry, begged leave to join the Vicar and curate
at dinner. His Majesty seems to have been in
excellent humour. He told so many stories that
the two listeners, who did not know their Boyal
guest, laughed as they seldom did. The bill came,
the King had no money, and asked his companions to pay for him. The Vicar declined, it would
seem, somewhat irately. The curate was more
kindly disposed, and paid the bill. In the meantime the retinue arrived, and with it recognition
of the Boyal person. The Vicar threw himself on
his knees, and asked pardon for his harshness.
James told him he should not disturb him in his
vicarage, but that he should always remain Vicar
of Bray. The genial curate he would make a
Canon of Windsor, so that he would look down
on both him and his vicarage.
On returning from the church we strolled by the
river, which, from Oxford to London, is renowned
as boating water, and we saw many skiffs and
pleasure boats upon it. It is here that Monkey
Island is situated, so often visited from Windsor
and Eton.   The houses in the neighbourhood are COLD WEATHER.
all  suggestive of comfort; they are surrounded
with abundance of flowers, and have all a look of
cleanliness, and an aspect both cheerful and invit
We return home by another route. Our walk is-
a good mile and a half, in the course of which we
are caught in the rain and take shelter in a cottage.
Some one remembers that it is St. Swithin's Day,
the 15th of July, and according to the tradition,,
if it rains on that day, it will rain for forty days-
We revert in thought to those ancient historians,-
the most sceptical of whom, while they very summarily got rid of the portents and miracles of their
own time, hesitated to reject the traditions of their
ancestors. However there is a break in the clouds
and we reach the house.
Even with the dread of the realization of the
prophecy, we take an afternoon walk and return
at five, just in time to escape another St. Swithin
shower. In the evening we go again to church.
I experience that which is not always the case in
the Anglican service. The lessons are remarkably
well read, the words properly and distinctly pronounced, the sentences not dropped in tone at the
end and run into one another, and above all with
an entire absence of affectation. I learn that the
reader is Mr. Wallace, who has lately taken high
honours at Oxford.
The weather at this time turned exceedingly
cold, and the Londoner may recollect this excep- 80
tional wave of low temperature. The newspapers
declared that the thermometer fell to a degree
lower than it read on Christmas day. I never
heard any explanation of this abnormal depression
in July, but last year was marked by remarkable phenomena. The terrible earthquakes in the
south of Europe and in the Indian Ocean betokened
the activity of extraordinary forces. We are, indeed, fortunate in our experience throughout the
British Empire that hitherto no portion of it has
suffered by such terrible convulsions, and that the
extent of them is limited to a fall of the temperature or an excess of rainfall.
I again receive a telegram to know when I will
leave for Canada and proceed to British Columbia.
I had already arranged to leave London by the
20th, but I felt that my plans must be altered, and
that I would be obliged to give up the idea of
spending a week in Scotland.
Previous to starting for Liverpool I had arranged
to visit some friends in Somersetshire. The route
is by the Great Western Bailway and the branch
line to Taunton. As I passed from Bristol to the
latter place the appearance of the country reminded
me of the reclaimed marsh land at the head of the
Bay of Fundy; and the turbid water of the Bristol
Channel was very much the same in colour as
that of the bay. The country is admirably adapted
for grazing, and large herds of beautiful cattle;
Herefords, Devons, and Shorthorns were to be
seen along the route. M1NEHEAD.
We reached our destination at Minehead, and
here our friends, who were originally from Nova
Scotia, gave us that warm welcome which we
everywhere received in England. Not the least of
the pleasant associations connected with this visit
was the charming scenery from the hills behind
the town, which command a view of the Bristol
Channel east of Ilfracombe and the distant mountains of South Wales. The foliage of the west of
England is always particularly striking to anyone
from Canada. Trees and plants which, with usr
can only be raised under glass, are found in luxurious abundance. There is a profusion of walnut,,
myrtle, wistaria, laurestina, bay, ivy, and roses,
which give a rich variety to the flora of the parks
and gardens, leaving nothing to be desired. The
drives are unrivalled ; often through narrow lanes
with high hedgerows blooming with flowers such
as, at least, I have never seen out of England. One
of our drives took us to -Exmoor, the only district
of England, as I was informed, where stag-hunting,
is still enjoyed yearly. At Exmoor I gathered a
bunch of heather which, on the higher levels, has
an extensive growth. On Sunday there was a
christening at the church, in which we were all
interested, and through which one of the names
born by the humble writer of these pages may be
remembered a few years after his own race is run.
There was an old church in the neighbourhood
which we visited, as a north country man would
6 82
.say, "in the gloaming." There was, however,
lia-ht enough to see in the dusk a marble statue of
Queen Anne near the altar, which might easily
pass for the Virgin. There is a chained Bible on
the stand as in the first days when the people
were called to hear it read. I could not say what
the date of the Bible was ; whether one of Tyndall's
or Archbishop Cranmer's, or one more modern-
The pews were separated from each other by high
divisions, five or six feet in height, so that those
who desired to pray unseen could do so. Certainly they were not favourable to the display of
any finish in dress worn by their occupants, and
which now makes such a marked feature in what
are called, I borrow the phrase, fashionable
On Monday we had to leave, and it is often hard
to say good-bye under such circumstances. Is it
not one of the hardships of life that we have to
undergo these separations? But often our plea-
santest memories are crowded into the narrow
space of such brief visits. Our destination is
Liverpool; we leave by the morning train at eight
o'clock, and reach Bristol to take the connecting
train to Liverpool. We pass by the world-
renowned Stratford-on-Avon, by Burton, for which
place the unrivalled pale ale of Bass and Allsopp
have obtained an almost equally extended reputation. As we crossed the silvery Trent I wondered
if any calculation had ever been made as to the THE « POLYNESIAN."
quantity of its water which had found itself transferred to every clime in the shape of bitter beer.
We soon leave Birmingham behind and pass
through the hills and dales of Derbyshire ; a district celebrated for its loveliness and beauty. The
panorama which is seen even from the carriage
window is worth the trip. It is, indeed, something
to say you have looked upon it. At half-past six
we are again in Liveepool. Tuesday and Wednesday we enjoy the society of some old friends, and
on Thursday we embark on the Allan line steamer
" Polynesian," and start on our way over the
western waters to Canada. SSSSis
The Ocean Voyage—Its Comfort—Moville—Mail Coach Road
of Old Days—Impressive Service on Deck—Comfort on the
We are off this Thursday, 26th July, and underway at three p.m. As is usually the case we
have a pleasant run down the Mersey to the Irish
Sea. With few exceptions the passengers are all
strangers, one to the other, and we remain on deck,
no few of us speculating as to " who is who ?" We
dine at four the first day. There is a printed list
of passengers on the plate of each as we take our
seats at the tables which have been assigned to us,
perhaps in some cases by a little pre-arrangement
with the purser. In the evening we pass close to
the Isle of Man with its bold headlands and picturesque coast line, but few of us appear to be
inclined to stay up late. There is always an
exictement, and consequent rebound, in leaving
the land where we have passed some weeks, whatever the associations we have separated from, and THE OCEAN VOYAGE.
whatever future may lie before us. The first night
at sea is generally quiet; it is true you have
always your inveterate whist player who wants to
get up a rubber as if it was the one duty of life
not to lose an opportunity of gaining the odd trick.
And you have the perpetual smoker who looks
upon leisure as specially designed for the enjoyment of the pipe or cigar, as if the sole charm of
life lay in tobacco!
The whole conditions of an ocean voyage have,
of late years, been much changed. A voyage in
the modern steamship is more like a yacht trip.
Indeed, excepting the yachts of men of colossal
fortunes, the yacht suffers by comparison with the
steamship. In the latter you have a bed clean and
comfortable, with all the auxiliaries of the toilet.
On nearly all the best ships you have hot and cold
baths. Some vessels carry a professional barber;
and I have known a chiropodist to be in attendance. If you want more bedding, or hot water, or
any other et cetera you ask for and obtain it.
You have a cabin as large and comfortable as it is
possible to have under the circumstances, and if
you chose to pay for it you can have it to yourself,
and thus obtain all the privacy of an anchorite.
Your state-room, as it is called, is cleaned daily,
and it is open to you whenever you see fit to enter ;
you have a large saloon in which you take your
meals, sit, read, or write, or play chess or whist;
where ladies can group themselves in order to 86
carry on their embroidery, or to undertake less pretentious, if more useful work. Generally there is
a separate saloon, for ladies, in an airy part of the
ship, where, if they are not free from nausea or
depression, they can retire and be as private as
they desire. You have the best of food, thoroughly
and carefully cooked, with the most obsequious of
attendants whom you are generally expected to
reward at the end of the voyage, and you feel yourself second to no one in the world you are in-
There are no troublesome experiences on points of
etiquette or ceremony ; you never receive a lesson
of your insignificance, although if it be particularly
sought for, it can be obtained. You have fresh air,
bright skies, and the ocean that
| Glorious mirror, where the Almighty's form
Glasses itself in tempests."
is your constant monitor. All you seem to want
is a sea-stomach and firmness on your feet. As a
rule, a few days, often a few hours, will give you
both. To those who are not sea-sick what life is
more pleasant ? You have all sorts of people on
board, and the sea seems to act as a sort of leveller
of individualism. Although there are men and
women who are known to have spoken to nobody,
and who have walked up and down during almost
the whole voyage in perfect solitude, wrapped up
in themselves, as if no contact with others were
permissible.     On   seeing   these   people   I   have MOVILLE.
thought of iEsop's mountain in labour, and pitied
the poor little mouse brought into the world with
such effort.
There are storms at sea, naturally, but you have-
a crew in the highest state of discipline; you have
a ship as strong as money and iron can make it;
you have an engine of wondrous power and a
marvel of perfection in machinery. Competition,,
energy, and enterprise, have so multiplied the
means of travel that you may pass from one continent to the other with comfort, and for not much.,
more money than the sum you pay for the same
period of time at one of the high class hotels in
London or New York. You have no extras to pay
for in the steamship except wine or beer.
According to your feeling you can give a douceur
to the steward who attends to your room, and if
need be nurses you in sickness, and to the steward
who waits upon you at table. The only items you
have to pay extra for, as before stated, are beer and
wine, if you choose to order either. You are not
remarkable either in avoiding or using them, for
never was there so unrestrained a matter of taste
as in this respect at the saloon table.
It is Friday: we have passed the first night at
sea, and we take an early tepid salt water bath. We
are now steaming up Lough Foyle to Moville, where
the mails containing letters posted in London on
Thursday night, are put on board. Thus the clear
business day of Thursday is gained by English cor- ENGLAND TO CANADA.
respondents. The weather is delightful. Some of
the party go on shore as the steamer is seven hours
in advance of the train with the mails.
There is nothing specially attractive on this part
of the Irish coast it is true, still it is always pleasant to touch terra firma as a change, and it is
always a break during the hours that we are lying at
anchor. We remain at Moville until three o'clock,
when the 1 Polynesian I starts. The weather continues bright and clear, the water smooth, all
is pleasant on deck, where all the passengers are
present. The only spectacle to which I can compare
the scene is a garden party where everybody has
but one thing to do, and that is to amuse and be
amused, and look as charming as each one can.
We all know that the best way to succeed in being
genial and good-humoured is to endeavour to be
so, and where can a day be better enjoyed than at
sea? I am aware that tradition is against me.
The poor sufferer from sea-sickness may remember
this trying time, as the most dreary of his life,
and this form of sickness is to many, even in a
minor way, a most serious ordeal, but, as a rule, it
soon passes away. I believe the best cure for those
afflicted with this malady is to remain quiet, to eat
sparingly, and avoid everything greasy; if there
be nausea to take only toast and tea, and. make the
effort to get on deck Looking at the severities of
the affliction in their strongest light they are certainly by no means what they were in the old MAIL COACH ROAD OF OLD DAYS.
days of sailing vessels of small tonnage, and with
accommodation proportioned to the craft. There
were then many discomforts and privations now
happily unknown. Voyages were, at that period,
counted by Weeks instead of days, and to one
unaccustomed to the sea the Atlantic trip was no
little of a penalty. It is very much owing to the
reminiscences of this period that the dread of the
sea now prevails. The discomforts of land travelling in the past have now ceased to bs even thought
of. The bad roads, the ricketty coaches, the foul
air in the inside, and the suffering from cold and
wet on the outside of the coach, have all passed
out of mind. Even the modern novel does not
dwell upon them. All that is recorded is the
cheery appearance of the old-time coach on a fine
evening, driving through a town, with the guard
arrayed in bright uniform, with his bouquet in his
buttonhole, the cynosure of all the servant girls ;
while the coachman handled the ribbons to the
admiration and envy of all the fast young gentlemen of the place. In its way there was bitter
suffering in bad weather in the course of such a
journey, but the ease and comfort of railway travelling have destroyed all remembrance of it.
What greater contrast can there be between the
torture felt in the inside of an old stage coach
going from Liverpool to London and the luxury of
sitting in a Pullman car travelling the same distance?    What more striking difference can there 90
be between railway life as it is now in the journey
from Brighton to London, accomplished in an hour,
and the same journey performed by the old stage
coaches? Bailway travelling has so insensibly
crept into our system that the present generation
does not think of the privations of half a century
One of the causes doubtless of the continuance of
the prejudice against ocean navigation is the poor
and inefficient steamers still in use for crossing the
English Channel. There is frequently bad weather,
indeed, if all that is said be true, it seldom would
appear to be otherwise, and an immense percentage
of those now passing to the continent suffer the
tortures of sea-sickness, much as was experienced
on this route half a century back. One of the channel steamers, on a fine day when the run is made
in calm weather, is a spectacle. Everybody is
good-tempered and in the best of humour; even
the most high-minded somewhat unbend and cease
to be ungenial. They appear to feel that a great
penalty has been escaped, that they have passed
unscathed through what is generally considered a
terrible ordeal.
To such as these, whose experience has been
gained in this school of travel, the escape from seasickness may appear impossible. They will be
exceedingly surprised to learn that many make an
ordinary voyage across the Atlantic without any
sea-sickness at all.    Some may, it is true, have a THE "OREGON.'
slight qualm; but half a day's retirement and careful diet, are all that is necessary to bring back
health, good spirits, and vivacity, and possibly a
wonderful increase of appetite.
Such was the experience on Friday afternoon;
all were pleasant and agreeable, and many, as they
retired that night to rest, on the Atlantic Ocean,
felt that the voyage was a delightful reality and
that there was every prospect of their proving
excellent sailors.
Saturday is equally pleasant, happy, and bright.
The portholes are opened, and, as usual, many
begin the day with a salt water bath. We pass the
"Oregon," which left Liverpool at the same time
we did, but our visit to Moville enabled her to sail
onward as we entered Lough Foyle. A light breeze
springs up, and the swell of the ocean gives movement to the vessel which causes more or less seasickness and depression. Many are walking about
with comfort and ease, and a few are miserable.
There is dinner at 6.30; one of those sumptuous,
well-served dinners which no wise man will face
every day of his life, even if he can manage to
obtain it. There are one hundred and fourteen
saloon passengers and five children on board, but
only seventeen are at table, one of them a lady,
Mrs. D., of Toronto. A great contrast to yesterday's
experience. The deck is wet and uncomfortable, the
rain is falling and there is a heavy fog. The planks
are slippery, and with the unsteady motion of the ENGLAND TO CANADA.
ship, there is little to tempt one to abandon the
shelter of the warm, cheery, well-lighted saloon.
On Saturday night there was a head wind, but on
Sunday morning the ship was somewhat quieter,
the decks were dry, and motion was practicable.
There are on board two clergymen of the Anglican
Church, so service is held in the saloon. We have
also with us Bishop Bogers, the Boman Catholic
Bishop of Chatham, New Brunswick, who holds a
service in another part of the ship. We pass
through a school of whales, some six of which rise
above the water not far from the vessel. The
majority of the ladies make an effort to appear on
deck, and either sit on chairs or recline on couches
extemporised with cushions, wraps and shawls;
some few even attempt a promenade. Well does
Shakespeare tell us that " Courage mounteth with
occasion." There are those who shake their heads
at the prediction of their immediate recovery.
Some few achieve wonders and attend dinner.
The evening turns out fine, the air is warm, so
the Bev. H. Huleatt conducts a service on deck.
He is an old army chaplain, and over his white surplice wears three medals for service in the Crimea.,
China and Abyssinia. I was bred in, and adhere
to, the Presbyterian Church, in which the forms
of the Anglican Church are certainly not taught,
and by many of us not favourably regarded.
The persecution of the Covenanters in the •seventeenth century,  having in view the   establish- Ifc^
ment of Anglicanism, produced results which its
projectors did not conceive possible. It cannot
be said that persecution always fails in its purpose, for history furnishes painful examples to
the contrary. But there are few instances of its
failure more remarkable than this attempt to force
on the people of Scotland a form of worship which
they did not favour. With certain classes and
individuals the feelings which the attempt left
have long since died out, but the memory of them
remained for many a year. I am not one who
has been trained to regard the ceremonies of the
English Church with marked reverence, especially when they turn towards the " high " development. With men like myself I venture the
remark that the Church of England is never so
strong as when she adheres to her simplest teaching. Her ritual is never so impressive as when
stripped of strained formality; it is then that, in
spite of ourselves, we must feel and admire all the
strength and beauty of her liturgy. It is not easy
to comprehend how thoughtful men can advocate
the introduction of extreme ceremonies, which even
many Anglicans themselves regard as theatrical
accessories. It has been my good fortune to attend
the English Church service in some of the noblest
cathedrals in England; at Westminster, Canterbury, Chester and St. Paul's, unrivalled in its
classic excellence: and I have at such times felt
how  decorous and  impressive   it can  be made 94
when the ritual is not encumbered with the
observances which a strong party in the Church
of England regard as unseemly, and which, with
my feelings, I hold to be unnecessary. With
this limitation this form of prayer, in my
humble view, appears peculiarly adapted to the
English mind and character. For more gorgeous
ceremonial, I have witnessed the Mass at St.
Peter's, one of the grandest temples erected by
man for the worship of his Maker. Never in any
church was I ever present at a scene and service
more memorable than the evening prayer on the
deck of the " Polynesian." The military chaplain, in his white surplice, appeared with the
three medals on his breast and his Bible and
prayerbook in his hand, walking slowly once or
twice up and down the deck, by way, as he afterwards explained, " of ringing the bell." In this
manner the passengers generally were collected
into picturesque groups. He took an elevated
position ; his white dress and his long white hair
moving in the breeze, formed a striking contrast
to the dark funnel, masts and spars in the background. He repeated the simple words of the
Anglican liturgy in a clear, natural voice. He
spoke briefly and forcibly, .as possibly he had
often done on the eve of battle. He conducted
the singing of some of those touching hymns
common to all branches of the Christian Church.
The congregation, consisting of all sects and be- FINE WEATHER.
liefs, was unaffectedly serious and devout, and
many voices joined in earnest praise.
We occupied the centre of the ocean, that marked
emblem of the Everlasting. Above and around
us the blue vault of heaven was frescoed with
fleecy clouds, radiant with the rich hues of the
evening sun. On every side the rolling waters
added solemnity to the scene. There were few
who did not feel the spectacle itself to be a sermon not soon to be forgotten. It spoke to us all
against our littleness and selfishness. As we looked
beyond the bulwarks of our ship, a point in God's
■endless creation, we could feel how imperfect was
the teaching of sects and creeds, in view of the
higher and nobler views we should aspire to : the
faith which widens our sympathies as the warmth
of summer expands the buds of our northern
Monday  again   is   a   beautiful   morning,   and
J O O'
we are all on deck enjoying the fresh, healthful
breeze and the sun, whose bright beams glitter
on the face of the rolling waters, the blue sky
above us with its passing clouds, and the sea
in ceaseless motion all around us, wave chasing
wave, chequered with varying light and shade.
We are all so full of life that the afternoon is
given over to games which, on shore, many of us
might think somewhat undignified. At dinner the
table is full. And what appetites most of us have !
Some achieve perfect wonders as   trencher men 96
and women, and often in memory many of the
passengers will revert to their powers in this
respect. Wholly undisturbed by fears of dyspepsia, they ate with the best of appetites. The
evening passed pleasantly with most of us in the
saloon, which presented a scene of quiet comfort
and amusement. The next morning is also enjoyable. We find we are now half way across,
and we talk of making the Straits of Belleisle by
Thursday. Our run at noon is 332 knots. There
is a little fog, and the air is somewhat cold. The
theory is expressed that we are near Greenland;
that a cold blast may come from across its "icy
mountains," told of by Bishop Heber in the hymn
we have heard so often.
All the passengers, without exception, are now
accustomed to the motion of the ship. Every one
appears at home. The forenoon passes quickly,
and we can hardly believe that the dinner hour is
near. When we all sit down at the long and
well-provided tables one can hardly conceive that
he is not on shore at some famed hotel in Montreal or Toronto. I am aware that I run the risk
of being charged with exaggeration, but I express
the result of my convictions. I am sure that
my remarks will be borne out by all who have
made several trips across the Atlantic. There are
stormy and particularly unpleasant voyages, I
know. Such I have myself experienced, but they
are generally in winter ; in summer they are the
The evening passes in the usual pleasant way,
and we all separate reluctantly when bed-time
We have again another fine day, and the forenoon is marked by sunshine. During the night
we passed the steamer " Parisian," homeward
bound. At noon we learn the run is 332 miles,
the same as yesterday, and our chart shows us
that we are due at the Straits of Belleisle at
midnight. During the afternoon, at intervals, fog
arises and disappears to return again, and when
the fog is on the water we prudently go at half
speed. We pass some icebergs, and they seem to
have affected the temperature, for the air is cold.
The passengers are in high spirits. The prospect
of seeing land gives an impetus to the general
hilarity. We expect to enter the northern passage
to the St. Lawrence before morning. The trip so
far has been most agreeable. The time has passed
pleasantly. The group to which I was more particularly attached was always full of life and
animation. One gentleman, who had retired from
the army, and was going out to Canada on a
sporting tour, proved to be an excellent artist,
and made many amusing sketches. To another
member of our group we owe particular acknowledgments for the life he inspired around him,
and, if he cheered us by his unfailing good temper
and charm of manner, we owe also no little to his
brilliant and ready wit.
7 98
The evening was spent in asking riddles and
playing card tricks. One effort led to another.
Some of them were worth perpetuating. Indeed,
a very interesting volume of a moderate size could
be written descriptive of our trip, which would
be read with no small amount of pleasure, and I
have no doubt would lead to the removal of many
prejudices regarding sea voyages.
We are now in the straits of Belleisle, having
passed the light at five a.m. During the forenoon
the weather is a little foggy, so we go at half speed.
In the afternoon the fog clears away to be replaced
by pleasant sunshine. There is to be an amateur
concert this evening in aid of the funds of the
Sailor's Orphanage at Liverpool. Those who are
directors in this matter are particularly earnest. In
the meanwhile some of us write letters to post at
Bimouski. I take it into my head to count how
many trips I have made across the Atlantic Ocean
since I left Glasgow in April, 1845. I have crossed
in every kind of vessel, from a sailing ship up to
the I Great Eastern," and this present voyage I find
to be my nineteenth, so I think I can speak with
some confidence of what life on an ocean steamship
truly is. My shortest passage was by the " Alaska,"
in October, 1882, from Sandy Hook, New York, to
Liverpool, in seven days and five hours, but on
this occasion we were detained inside the bar in
the harbour of New York for two days, owing to
fog. My longest voyage was by the ship " Brilliant," it occupied nearly six weeks. *■«—
The concert was, as usual, a success, at least
everybody was pleased. Thirteen pounds sterling
were collected. Those who ventured on supper
partook of all the usual delicacies in vogue on
these occasions, and the disciple of the pipe and
cigar indulged himself for some time on deck. By
half-past eleven the last of us had turned in.
It was wet the following day ; we were steaming up the St. Lawrence as we took breakfast.
Those who were to leave at Bimouski, of whom I
was one, point out that it is the last time we may
take this meal together, for we may arrive at
Bimouski by night. In the afternoon we have
fog, showers, and fine weather alternately. We
overtake the " Hanoverian." She had passed us
during the five hours we had lost in the fog.
.Night comes on, and at ten o'clock we run into a
dense fog. Prudence dictates that we advance
" dead slow," so I throw myself on my bed without undressing, to catch some little sleep in the
interval before we are met by the Bimouski tender.
We are called at three o'clock on Saturday morning ; we take a cup of coffee in the saloon, and I
receive a batch of letters from my family and other
correspondents. We enter the tender and arrive at
the long Bimouski wharf just as dawn is breaking.
My daughter and myself go southward to Halifax
with three others, amongst them the venerable
Bishop Bogers, of Chatham. 100
However pleasant the trip across the ocean has
been, and although many of us found its associations most agreeable and we separate from them only
by necessity, nevertheless all of us reach the shore
with no little satisfaction. The fact is we are subjected to a new set of influences. We revive old
associations. We see well-known scenes, and meet
familiar faces. There is a change from our life of
the last nine days to a new series of events and
excitements. One of the first Canadians to give
us a welcome was the young son of Madam Lepage,
who had seen us off by the tender on 17th June.
The train carries us over the familiar Inter-
Colonial Bailway, nearly every spot along the
line having a special claim on my recollection.
The landscape is always striking in the neighbourhood of the Metapedia and Bestigouche. There
has been much rain and the vegetation is luxuriant. Bishop Bogers and myself revert to fifteen
years ago when we crossed the Atlantic together.
Then, as now, he was returning from a visit to the
Holy Father at Borne. The Bishop insisted on
acting as host at breakfast at Campbelton: he held
that we had now entered his diocese and that he
must consider us his guests. It would have pained
the good old Bishop had we declined his courtesy
We learn that the fishing on the Bestigouche
this season has been excellent. As usual, we have
the best of fresh salmon for breakfast. We say
good-bye to the Bishop, who leaves us at New- I»-
castle, and we proceed on our journey, arriving
late at night safely at our home in Halifax.
We are now in Nova Scotia, where I am delayed
a few days before starting on the long land journey
over the western continent. CHAPTEB VI.
Early Colonization—De Monts—Champlain—Sir William Alexander—Capture of Quebec—The Treaties—The Acadian Evangeline—Louisbourg—First Capture—Peace of Aix la Chapelle
—Boundary Disputes—The Final Struggle—Deportation of
the Acadians—Nova Scotia constituted a Province.
The first attempt at the colonization of Nova
Scotia which was made from France was singularly
unfortunate. In 1598, we read, the Marquis de la
Boche left Saint Malo with a crew, almost entirely
composed of convicts. He landed forty of them at
Sable Island until he could select a place fit for
settlement, when a westerly storm drove his ship
back to France. These settlers, if they can be so
called, remained unnoticed for seven years, and
when they were found twelve only remained.
Had it not been for De Lery, who placed some
live stock here in 1518, which in the interval had
greatly multiplied, they must have starved. Their
houses were built of the timbers of wrecked vessels, and it would seem no little of the fuel was DE MONTS.
derived from the same source. There is a letter
from one John Butt to Henry VIII., which states
that in 1527, seventy years previously, he met
fifteen vessels in the harbour of Newfoundland,
and there is every ground to warrant the belief
that individual enterprise led to constant communication between the maritime nations of Europe
and America from the early days of the discovery
of Newfoundland, and that very many vessels
penetrated to the shores of Nova Scotia and to
the St. Lawrence before the days of Verazzano and
Cartier. The object being alone that of trade with
the Indians, and to obtain fish, no settlement followed, and doubtless many a wreck lay on the
dreary shores of the exposed island where these
unfortunate men had been landed.
The first well-considered attempt at European
colonization occurred under the leadership of De
Monts in 1604; in which we of Canada feel the
greater interest, as the founder of Canada, the
illustrious Champlain, took part in it. He has
himself recorded the voyage, and Lescarbot, the
first chronicler of the northern portion of the continent has fully related its history. It is mentioned
that when De Monts arrived, he found a free trader
in one of the bays whose name is preserved, Bos-
signol, a marked proof which I venture to adduce
as showing the frequent intercourse between the
two hemispheres at that date. De Monts entered
the Bay of Fundy and passed up St. Mary's Bay, 104
whence he proceeded to what is now known as
Annapolis. Poutrincourt was of the party, and he
commenced his chequered career by obtaining a
grant of Port Boyal from De Monts, founding a
settlement there and giving it the name it bore for
upwards of a century. De Monts himself passed
over to Saint John whence he descended to Passa-
maquoddy Bay, where he built the Fort of Saint
Croix. His crew suffered from scurvy during the
winter. Hence he formed the opinion that the settlement was unhealthy, and accordingly he went
as far south as the Penobscot. Finding the Indians
unfriendly at this place, he returned to Port Boyal.
Here he met Pontgrave, known as the friend and
associate of Champlain, who at this date first
appears on the scene.
The leaders returned to France where strong in-
fluences were exercised against them. But they
reappeared in 1606 and commenced in earnest to
cultivate the land. A mill was constructed, and
in the height of their efforts the following year
notice was received from France that the monopoly
of the trade in peltry given to De Monts was
revoked. De Monts' future scene of labour was
the Saint Lawrence, but Poutrincourt obtained the
confirmation of De Monts' concession to him of
Port Boyal, accompanied by the condition that it
should maintain a Jesuit Mission.
The influence which sustained this addition was
all powerful, so the two Jesuits, Biard and Masse, SIR WILLIAM ALEXANDER.
arrived at Port Boyal.1* The Jesuits could not
agree with the commander of the settlement and
they departed to found a colony on the Penobscot
Biver. But in 1613, Captain Samuel Argall, from
James Biver, in Virginia, where a settlement had
been established since 1606, sailed to fish for cod in
the more northern waters, His pretensions were
higher than that of a fisherman, for he carried
fourteen guns and a crew of sixty men. Some
Indians in perfect good faith set him on the track
of the new settlements, which he at once attacked
and destroyed.
No attempt was made to form a settlement from
the Mother Country until 1621, when what in
modern language are called the Maritime Provinces
were granted to Sir William Alexander. A vessel
with emigrants sailed in 1622, but owing to storms,
was driven to Newfoundland. James I died in
1625, and his death led to the complications which
followed on this continent. Charles I. had determined to assist the French Protestants then besieged
in Bochelle, and as a portion of his operations,
Kirke's celebrated expedition against Canada, took
place in 1628.    Quebec was taken.   The French
*A stone inscription, dated 1609, was found in an old wall
in the Fort at Port Royal, now Annapolis, by the late Judge
Halliburton, author of " Sam Slick." Some fifteen years ago it
was in the possession of his son, Mr. R. G. Halliburton, then in
Halifax. That gentleman gave it as a loan to the writer to be
placed in the Museum of the Canadian Institute. Thus the
oldest stone inscription probably in America may be found in
Toronto. 106
settlements still continued with small increments
in what is known as Acadia : at Port Boyal, Annapolis, to the country round Minas Bay, or the
Basin of Minas from Chignecto to Cobequid, and
south to Windsor and Cornwallis. There were
some small settlements at Cape Sable., Cape la Have
and at Canso. Fifty years after this date the total
population was but little over 800, so settlement
could only have taken plaee slowly and at intervals.
In 1632 all that is now known as British
America, which lies beyond the valley of the St.
Lawrence, was given over to the French by treaty.
But Oliver Cromwell became Protector of England,
and seized the forts of St. John and Port Boyal,
and, what is more, in the treaty of Westminster of
1655 held Nova SGotia as a possession. In 1658 the
great Englishman died, and the discreditable days
of the restoration followed. In 1662 the French
Ambassador received instructions to demand restitution of the country. The English King, the pensioner of France, had no resource but compliance,
although the people of Massachusetts, hearing of
the proposition, sent a remonstrance against the
proceeding. Its only effect was to lead to delay,
for in 1667 a discreditable surrender was made
"by the treaty of Breda. The Governor was ordered
to hand over Nova Scotia to French rule. The
accession of William III. led to war, and in 1690
an expedition against Port Boyal ended in its cap- FRENCH INCURSIONS.
ture. But by the Peace of Byswick, 1697, Nova
Scotia was again transferred to France. Port Boyal
was occupied and placed in a condition of defence,
and it was among the grievances of the New Eng-
landers that it was the resort of pirates who preyed
on Massachusetts commerce. War again broke
out in 1702. The early attempts to capture Port
Boyal were not successful. Had the Governor,
Subercase, been sustained from France, the conquest
might have been perhaps stayed. But the support
he asked was not extended, and in 1710 the place
was again taken. The English Government had
learned some terrible lessons on the necessity of
holding the territory in this direction. The massacres at York and Oyster Biver in 1694 and the
attempt to destroy Wells must have taught her
rulers that the English colonies required some
firmly seated support against such attempts. The
effort of France was to connect Canada by a series
of outposts with the Atlantic. A fort was built
on the St. John, opposite Fredericton, Naxouat, and
at the Jemseg to the south. The thinly-peopled
northern parts of Maine and Massachusetts were
thus constantly exposed to attack, and it was
manifestly necessary to the protection of New
England that a garrison of sufficient strength
should be established in a locality where it would
be available to meet an excursion from Canada, if
French encroachments were to be resisted. It
was thus that attention was directed to Port Boyal, 108
which had -been taken in the expedition under
Nicholson in 1710, and now received the name
of Annapolis, from the reigning Queen. Halifax
was then unknown, and the whole settlement of
Nova Scotia consisted in what went under the
name of Acadia, which did not contain 1,000 souls.
It was resolved, however, to hold Nova Scotia permanently, and a garrison was left at Annapolis.
It was not until 1755, forty-five years after this
date, that the deportation of the Acadians took
place, and what follows in the history of Nova
Scotia must be remembered in connection with
the relentless policy of Governor Lawrence, which
enforced their banishment.
Many have formed their idea of that measure by
Mr. Longfellow's well known poem of " Evangeline," but it must be judged in a far wider view than
what is suggested by those polished hexameters.
Few can deny that the measure was one bringing
much suffering with it, and that many innocent
persons underwent tribulation, and that there is
a hard, unbending purpose running through the
proceeding to cause feelings of horror and pain-
This cannot be denied. But what is all war but
an unvarying scene of individual misery and
wrong ? A private execution of the most notorious
malefactor makes an appeal to one's more merciful
feelings. The real question to be considered is ;
was this step a merciless, treacherous, unnecessary
brutality like the massacre of Glencoe, inflicting THE ACADIANS.
uncalled for suffering on a defenceless people
taken unawares, who had no chance given them
to avoid such a fate; or was it an act of necessary
policy entailed by most pressing circumstances, by
-consideration for the safety of a community, which
the sufferers could have avoided, without the
slightest sacrifice of principle, feeling or of individual right. The fact must be clearly stated. The
Acadians, as a conquered people, obtained every
consideration and kindness, and for years they were
called upon earnestly to be loyal and to abstain
from injury to those who were now their masters.
No one ever received the slightest individual injury.
They were treated with justice, with forbearance,
with mercy. They were assured the practice of
their religion, the maintenance of their property
and their personal liberty. All they were asked to
do was to give a solemn assurance, to become in
fact and by their lives, subjects of their conquerors.
Not to side with their foes, but to defend the land
on which they held their property, against its
enemies, and above all to abstain from encouragement of the savage Indian, whose theory of warfare
was stealthy assassination. I return to the date
Port Boyal was conquered, and its conquerors
clearly shewed that they intended to retain it as a
possession. The inhabitants never ceased- from
hostility in all its forms. Parties sent out to cut
wood were assassinated.    Travelling beyond the 110
fort was dangerous; for the individual it was death
The enmity of the people was kept up by the missionaries with the assurance that the fort would
be attacked and retaken at the first opportunity,
and that British continued possession was an impossibility. War was closed by the Treaty of
Utrecht in 1713, when Nova Scotia remained a
British possession. The French retained the sovereignty of the Island of Cape Breton,1* which with
the Port of Louisbourg, remained an eternal threat
to Nova Scotia. The Acadians were pressed by the
French governor, to remove to Cape Breton. By
the 14th Article of the Treaty, they had one year
* The readers of Humphrey Clinker may recollect
the astonishment of the Duke of Newcastle, the
foolish Minister of George II., on hearing that Cape
Breton was an island. The story as recorded is worth
reproduction: " They [the Ministers] are so ignorant
they scarce know a crab from a cauliflower, and then
they are such dunces that there is no making them
comprehend the plainest proposition. In the beginning
of the war this poor, half-witted creature told me, in
great fright, that thirty thousand French had marched
from Acadia to Cape Breton. 'Where did they find
transports?' said I. 'Transports!' cried he; 'I tell
you they marched by land.' ' By land to the Island of
Cape Breton ? ' What! is Cape Breton an island ? '
'Certainly.' 'Ha! are you sure of tnat?' When I
pointed it out in the map he examined it earnestly with
his spectacles; then, taking me in his arms, ' My dear
then, taking me in his
cried, he, ' you always bring us good" news
Egad! I'll go directly and te"
Breton is an island.'
the King that Cape THE ACADIANS.
in which they could leave Nova Scotia. But they
would not do so. At the same time, they declared,
to the French of Cape Breton their intention of
remaining subjects of France, and that they never
would take the oath of allegiance to England
under any circumstances.
In 1714 Nicholson was appointed Governor of
Nova Scotia, then a recognized Province. No steps
appear to have been taken for some years with
regard to the Acadians. The oath had been ten
dered and refused. It "was not enforced, and they
remained in this unsatisfactory condition for thirty
years, when war broke out again in 1743. It was
well known that, in the event of war, every
Acadian would be an enemy to British rule.
Mascarene was then Governor. Descended from
Huguenot French, he was a man of rare ability
and power. A French force attacked the fort.
The attack was to have been made in connection
with a French squadron. The latter not arriving,
the force retired, having shewn little enterprise.
The Acadians did not join the attacking army.
There was a body of Indians from the main land,
friendly to the English, who were sufficient to
counterbalance the Nova Scotian Micmacs, and
the determined defence was a guarantee against
any pronounced aid from within.
If Nova Scotia was to be retained with a population ever ready to rise at the first gleam of success
of the enemies of Great Britain and its religion, 112
Louisbourg, it was evident could not be allowed
to continue, a constant omen of danger and loss-
Whoever first proposed the attack, and I think it
must have been a necessity everywhere understood,
it was Shirley, then Governor of Massachusetts,
who prepared the organization by which the first
taking of Louisbourg was effected,and whose energy
and ability led to the expedition of 1745. William
Pepperel was appointed its commander. Few such
expeditions have been marked by such signal organization and completeness, a striking contrast to the
contemptible result of Phipp's expedition against
Quebec in 1690, and Walker's miserable failure in
1711. Admiral Warren commanded the naval
forces. Louisbourg fell. The booty was immense,
and to increase it the French flag was kept flying
so that vessels from France entered the harbour to
become the spoil of the conqueror. A lesson not forgotten when Boston was evacuated by the British
in 1776, by the incompetent General Gage and his
equally inefficient lieutenants. For the British
flag, still flying on the fort, invited the English
vessels unhesitatingly to sail in, if combatants, to
"become prisoners of war and for the stores and
merchandise to be sequestrated. It is said that at
Louisbourg the share of a seaman before the mast
was eight hundred guineas. The efforts on the
part of France to revenge this reverse were futile.
The design was even to destroy Boston, but the
expedition was one of the most impotent on record. THE FINAL STRUGGLE.
Port Boyal, Annapolis seemed more easy of
attainment. The commandant knowing the weakness of his garrison applied for reinforcements. On
the arrival of 420 men, they were sent to Minas.
A French fort was then at Chignecto. An attack
was at once determined. The English troops took
no precaution, as if they were in full security. Led
by Acadian guides to the exact locality where the
men were quartered, the French arrived at 2 o'clock
in the morning on 23rd January, 1747- Snow was
falling so the advance was not seen until close on
the sentries. The troops, attacked in bed, made a
desperate resistance, but they were defeated and
capitulated. Such a result would have been impossible without the assistance of the Acadians,
who led the troops precisely to the points to be
attacked and withheld all knowledge of the expedition.
The disgraceful peace of Aix-la-Chapelle was
made in 1748. It is hard to believe that Louisbourg and Cape Breton were given back to the
French under the vague clause that no conquest
since the commencement of the war should be
held. England, therefore, retained Nova Scotia
and France Cape Breton, for the tragedy of Louisbourg to be repeated ten years later. We all
recollect the toast of Blucher that the diplomatist
may not lose by the pen what the soldier has
gained by the sword. On this continent we have
much to remind us how a few words in a treaty,
8 114
indistinct and indefinite in their purport, have
ignored many years of national effort, courage
and determination, at the same time sacrificing
remorselessly a multiplicity of private interests.
But the time had come when the quarrel between
France and England should be fought out, and
both powers felt that this chronic condition of
war could no longer continue. In ten years the
struggle had ceased. One by one the strongholds
of France passed from her hands, and in ten years
her flag had ceased to be a type of power on the
continent. Both countries accordingly put forth
their whole strength in this period: a fact of
importance when the question of the treatment of
the Acadians is judged. One of the first steps
was the foundation of Halifax in 1749 under Corn-
wallis. It was done with rare organization, with
perfect success. Without delay Cornwallis called
upon the Acadians to take the oath of allegiance.
They declined. For six years was this request
avoided with ill-concealed hostility. "In fact,"
said Governor Hopson in July, 1753, "what we
call an Indian war is no other than a pretence
for the French to commit hostilities upon His
Majesty's subjects." The French, moreover, while
recognizing the provisions of the Treaty of Aix-la-
Chapelle, drew an arbitrary boundary of Nova
Scotia: that of Missiquash Biver, now the boundary of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia ; and La
Jonquiere, then Governor of Canada, sent a force FALL OF LOUISBOURG.
under La Corne to erect a chain of forts from the
Bay of Fundy to Bay Verte.    They constructed
Fort Beausejour.    The Governor of Nova Scotia
established Fort Lawrence, near the settlement of
Beausejour.    In 1755 it was resolved to drive the
French from their position.    As was looked forr
the Acadians were there on the French side, but
the fort was taken and called Fort Cumberland.
It was these very encroachments of the French
against Nova Scotia which led to the declaration,
of war in May of 1756.    What followed I need:
but cursorily mention.    Louisbourg again fell in
1758; Quebec in 1759.    In 1760 Louisbourg was
demolished, for no other port than Halifax was
needed.    In six months this monument of French
power, which it had taken twenty-five years to
raise, was levelled to the ground.   All of value
was  transported to Halifax,  many of the bou-
charded stones, even, having been taken there.    In
this year Montreal capitulated, and De Vaudreuil
signed the capitulation which gave the continent
to British rule.
All these facts require to be stated when the
deportation of the Acadians has to be considered.
What else could be done with them in this crisis ?
From the period when Cornwallis first arrived,
in 1749, it was the one question: how to act
with a body of men disloyal to the country as
it was governed. Too weak to obtain a national
standing, but constantly intriguing to injure the
s 116
authority they lived under but would not recognize ; refusing all efforts of conciliation; and, with
the guarantee of possessing personal liberty, the
free practice of their religion, the enjoyment of
their property, they still declined to give the
slightest assurance of good behaviour or fidelity.
They refused even to furnish supplies to the British
garrison, and they ranged themselves actually on
the side of the French expeditions. They encouraged the savage to rob, and to plunder, and to
murder. They complacently looked on while a
vessel was looted under their eyes, and at the
same time they were subject to no direct tax and
had every privilege a loyal subject could ask.
European writers who have alluded to this proceeding have dwelt much on the peaceful lives and
the quiet, primitive habits of most of those who
suffered. That fact has never been disputed. But
poetry has endeavoured to sublimate their virtues
to a height they never reached. The Acadians
lived in rude plenty, unmarked by the least culture. Their prejudices were only developed among
themselves. They were litigious and grasping,
and French writers of that date complain that
the specie which they received never left their
possession, for they held it back for the hour of
difficulty, which would have been in no way
unwelcome if it ended in driving from their midst
those who, with all the exaggeration on the subject, could not be called their oppressors.   In Sep- EXPULSION OF THE ACADIANS.
tember, 1755, a considerable number of the most
troublesome were seized, arbitrarily, undoubtedly,
and banished from the country. What the number was which were thus scattered and shipped
in transports it is hard to state. Many were left
behind, as the despatches of subsequent Governors
clearly establish. In Grand Pre 1,925 were collected. At Annapolis and Cumberland many took
to the woods. I cannot form any other opinion
than that the number 5,000 is an exaggeration..
Among the papers at the Colonial Office or at
Halifax the true state of the case may be found.
I am quite unable, from what I can learn, to give
any estimate, but the evidence leads me to think
that probably less than 3,000 were so deported. A
melancholy fate of suffering, sorrow and privation;
for these poor creatures were sent, homeless and
destitute, to other States ; but there was no unnecessary hardship and cruelty shown, and their condition was not worse than that of the immigrant
who in old days sought our shores.
Undoubtedly it is a chapter of human misery,
this enforced exodus, but those who suffered by it
could have avoided it by a line of conduct marked
by no one act in any way unworthy or humiliating. All that was called for was the acceptance of
an unavoidable condition of events; beyond their
control, irremediable. They refused to become
friends of those who made the offer of peace and
conciliation in the hour of danger and difficulty. 1.18
They showed themselves to be avowed enemies.
*For upwards of forty years they destroyed the
peace of the colony, and had at length to pay the
;penalty their conduct exacted, which was only
with reluctance adopted as a necessity which self-
preservation demanded.
It is not until 1714 that Nova Scotia ranks as a
British Province. There were many mutations
before it took this definite form, and in connection
with its history there is the record common to
most of the communities of this continent: that
of misapprehension and a failure to understand its
importance as an American possession.
For the hundred and seventy years which Nova
Scotia has continued under British rule its population has steadily increased from various sources,
and as a maritime people they have placed themselves in the highest rank. Nova Scotia thus
possesses the distinction of being the oldest British
Province of the Dominion. CHAPTEB VII.
Home in Halifax—Start for the Pacific—The Intercolonial Railway—Major Robinson—Old Companions—The Ashburton
Blunder—Quebec—The Provincial Legislature—Champlain—
The Iroquois.
Arrived at my Halifax home, I made the few
preparations necessary for the journey before me.
In the interval, I rambled through the Dingle with
my children and paddled over the north-western
arm, a sheet of water of much beauty. There is
always unusual pleasure in such quiet occupations,
exacting neither labour, nor thought, nor any great
strain upon the attention. We float along or stroll
idly, as it were following the bent of our inclinations, now and then considering what lies before
us, or reverting in memory to that which once has
happened. Then I visited my old friends, who
gave me the proverbial Halifax welcome. Two
vessels of the fleet were in port, the " Northampton "
and the " Canada," the latter attracting some attention from the fact that Prince George, the second
son of the Prince of Wales, was on board, performing 120
the duties of a midshipman, as any other youngster
in that position and as efficiently. A new Commander of the Forces had arrived, Lord Alexander
Bussell, formerly known in Canada as commanding
one of the battalions of the Bifle Brigade, and the
conversation of the garrison was the changes in
discipline and general economy introduced, as is
frequently the case by new administrators. All
my friends were well and in good spirits. I had
the additional pleasure of finding that the kindness
of former days was unimpaired, and my whole visit
was one of pleasantness.
I was four days in Halifax, and on the ninth of
August, I started alone. Dr. Grant who accompanied me on my first trip to the Pacific eleven
years ago, had accepted the invitation to accompany
me across the Bocky Mountains, and it was arranged
that he should join me in Winnipeg. My second
son was also to be of the party. He was to meet
me in Toronto.
My family went with me to the station. There
was an unusual effort to say good-bye in starting
JO J "     o
on this long journey, but that matter has no interest
It is only on alternate nights that the Pullman
car runs through from Halifax to Montreal. On
this occasion I had to leave Halifax by the Pullman
which went no further than Moncton Junction,
and with the other western passengers I had to
wait there for the train to arrive from St. John. FIRST CANADIAN RAILWAYS.
We reached Moncton at two o'clock in the morning
O *
an hour not the most convenient for effecting the
change. It is among the minor miseries of travelling
w, t ;w O
to be obliged to turn out at such an hour for a
coming train. But the fault was my own. Had I
curtailed my brief sojourn in Halifax a few hours, or
had my arrangements admitted of delay for another
day, I would have had the advantage of a through
Pullman without the inconvenience of a break at
thisplace. Monctonis in New Brunswick, at the junction of the lines from Halifax and St. John, whence
acommon course is followed to the St. Lawrence.
As I was sitting on the platform in the cool
summer air before dawn, I could not but recollect
that the 10th of August was one of the red letter
days of my life. Thirty-one years back, on that day
my railway career in Canada commenced. I was appointed as an Assistant-engineer on what was then
known as the Ontario, Simcoe and Huron Bailway,
afterwards developed into the Northern Bailway
of Canada, and of which I remained chief engineer
for a number of years. The Montreal and Portland
Bailway was under construction. The Grand Trunk
Bailway had just been commenced, and with the
exception of some small lengths of line, such as the
Lachine, the La Prairie, and the Carillon Bailways,
it may be said that, at that date, railways had no
working existence in Canada.
The station ground at Moncton was illuminated
by an electric light; to escape its piercing rays, I 122
turned away to a seat which they did not reach.
As I was thus sitting apart, my recollection went
back over the last thirty-one years and to the many
events which the spot suggested. The night was
dark, and, excepting in the immediate neighbourhood, it seemed to be rendered darker by the light
which flickered and glared directly above me. I
cannot say that the dazzling " Brush" light is
agreeable to me at any time, or on that occasion
that my tone of thought was affected by it; but
in spite of myself my mind ran over much of the
past, and brought vividly before me many events
long forgotten. I remembered the frequent mention of Moncton by Major Bobinson in his well
known report, and I felt how much I owed to his
labours and to those of his efficient assistant Captain,
now Sir Edmund Henderson. I thought of poor
Major Pipon, who was drowned in one of the
streams while.gallantly striving to save the life of
an Indian boy. Prominent among the actors I
reverted to my friend Mr. Light, who constructed
the line from Moncton to St. John, whose labours
were continued on the Intercolonial Bailway until
its completion, and who is still actively engaged
in his profession. Naturally, in connection with
these memories, the whole staff of engineers who
worked with me on the Intercolonial Bailway
passed before me, from the first long snow-shoe
tramps through the forest and across the mountains in 1864 to the completion of the line in 1876. THE INTERCOLONIAL RAILWAY.
Some are no more; those who remain are scattered
over this continent doing their work as manfully
as they did it here, wherever their field of duty.
So far as the Intercolonial Bailway appears before
the public to-day, those engineers who were for
years engaged in its construction are as if they
never existed. I was struck with the similitude
between the life of the engineer and of the soldier.
There is much which is identical in the two professions. In both, privations and hardships are
endured. In both, self-sacrifice is called for. In
both, special qualities are demanded to gain desired
results ; and the possessors of them for a time
obtain prominence, to pass out of mind with the
necessity for their service, and to be forgotten
and uncared for. It is peculiarly during an hour
of patient waiting in the advanced hours of night
that much of the past comes vividly before us. My
mind reverted to all the incidents connected with
the history of this national railway. I recalled
many recollections of the Bailway Commissioners
whom the Government appointed at that date, and I
did my best to forget many an unpleasantness. Differences of view were not unfrequent. They seemed
important enough at the time, but on looking back
to them now, how insignificant many of them
appear. Those mistakes which permanently affect
the public interests are only to be deplored. The
train had just passed over the scene of one of the
most glaring of these departures from a wise policy.
i— 9S*SP
In order to serve purely local interests, the railway
was diverted many miles out of its true direction. The proper location would have cost less;
the line, when completed, would have been better
in an engineering point of view ; the distance
would have been ten miles shorter. But the local
interests, in themselves insignificant, were sustained by political influence. Whatever administration was in power, there was some one prominent
politician to advocate the location by the circuitous
route. In this one point men on opposite sides
of the House could meet on common ground, and
in spite of all remonstrances * and regardless of
the facts, their individual interests prevailed.
Thus the country was saddled with an unnecessary expense of construction of a needless increased
length of line with its perpetual maintainance, and
every person, and every ton of goods, entering or
leaving Nova Scotia, has to pay a mileage charge
of conveyance over ten extra unnecessary miles : a
tax on the travelling public and the commerce of
the country for ever ! As I looked along the track
into the darkness, I remembered that some fifteen
years had passed since the troubles and unpleasantness of those days, and it came to my mind that
the prominent actors in the events are dead. I
was struck with the truth of our experience in the
vanity of human wishes and the worse than folly
* This matter is entered into at length in the writer's published
history of the Intercolonial Railway, 1876, page 102. ASHBORTON TREATY.
of sacrificing permanent public interests for matters
of passing moment.
The circumstances suggested another recollection
of higher historical importance and infinitely more
consequence. Moncton itself, geographically, is
nearly due east of Montreal, but in order to reach
this point, the Intercolonial railway has to diverge
northerly nearly three degrees of latitude, through
the narrow limit of territory along the St. Lawrence. The extraordinary series of negotiations
which led to the establishment of the Maine
boundary, is a chapter in our history which the
British nation equally with Canadians would willingly forget. It is with pain and humiliation that
we reflect on the ignorance of the simplest facts of
the case and of the deplorable inattention to every
national interest which marked the conduct of the
Imperial representative, Lord Ashburton, in the
settlement of that question. I had occasion, some
years ago, carefully to examine the whole subject,
and I could never discover that the blame of the
discreditable settlement of the matter at issue is in
any way chargeable to the Washington Government, as many suppose, and as I myself at one time
had been taught to believe. The diplomacy of
the United States was perfectly straightforward
throughout. Strange as it may seem, the objectionable settlement, which leaves this painful blot on
the map of the Dominion, is due to the rejection of
a proposition which came from the Executive at 126
Washington. Had the wise and just proposal made
and repeated by President Jackson been accepted,
there cannot be a doubt that the boundary would
have been satisfactorily established, in accordance
with the true spirit of the treaty of 1783. We
would have been spared the bitter humiliation of
the Ashburton treaty ; we would have saved ten
millions of dollars in the first cost of the Intercolonial railway, and Nova Scotia would have been,
for all practical purposes of trade and intercourse,
two hundred miles nearer the western provinces
of the Dominion.
The yearly cost of maintaining and working this
unnecessary length of railway represents a large
'sum. The direct advantages of the shorter line
would have been incalculable. The transport of
coal alone, at half a cent per ton per mile, reckoned
on 200 miles, would effect a saving to the consumers
in the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario of one
dollar per ton. Such a reduction in itself would
have created great activity in the mining industries
of Nova Scotia, the coal fields of which are inexhaustible, but which from their distance from
market are subjected to much unfavorable competition.
The train arrives in due time; a sleeping berth
had been secured by telegraph, and I proceed onwards. The following evening, the train reaches
the Chaudiere Junction, opposite Quebec, having
passed Bimouski and Biviere du Loup in the after QUEBEC.
noon. At the latter place, generally so quiet and
free from bustle, we saw an unusual number of
people assembled. It was the annual excursion of
the Press Association, and the members had been
listening to an address from the Premier of the
There are three ways of reaching Montreal from
Quebec. The traveller may take the steamboat up
the St. Lawrence, 180 miles. He may cross the
river and avail himself of the North Shore Bailway,
or he may remain on the south side and proceed
by the Grand Trunk Bailway. It is now seven in
the evening and the train is about starting, so I
continue on the Grand Trunk route and have a
second night to pass in the Pullman car. In the
morning at half past six the train enters Montreal
by the famed Victoria Bridge.
To those who desire to pass a day at Quebec,
the steamboat is a very pleasurable mode of travelling. The steamers on the route are well built.
The accommodation is excellent, and they present
a varied and animated sight during the season from
the number of passengers.
I have frequently visited Quebec, and I have
passed many days among its many pleasant associations. On this occasion, it was a mere point in
my travels. Those who visit Canada for the first
time, will certainly not hurry past this famous
city as I was then doing.
Quebec will always be remarkable for its his- 128
torical associations and for the exquisite beauty of
its scenery. The traveller, however far he may
have rambled, can not fail to recognize that the
view from Durham Terrace is one of the finest he
has ever seen. Some contend that it is unsurpassed. On one side is the citadel in all its strength
and grandeur. On the opposite bank of the river,
Point Levis stands forth with its coves and buildings and scenes of stirring life. Immediately below us the majestic river itself flows in a great,
placid stream on its way to the ocean. To the
north, rise the bold heights of the Laurentian range,
bearing evidences of life from their base far up on
the hill side. The whole scene furnishes a panorama rarely to be met. In Quebec one feels that
he is on a spot where every foot of space was once
of value, from the necessity of protecting the whole
by works of defence. We are taken back to the
European life of insecurity of two centuries ago,
when every town was so protected, and yet was
often ravaged and despoiled. Quebec is the one
memorial of that condition of things on this continent. The city itself is built on an eminence
which admits of much variety of landscape. It is
a spot of great attraction which everybody visits
with pleasure. The society has long been known
iby the genial and kindly character of its hospitality.
Although its commerce is not relatively what it
was in former years, it is still a centre of much
activity and possesses great wealth. The commencement of a railway to the settlement at Lake CHAMPLAIN.
St. John, to the north, entirely by Quebec capital,
is a proof that the spirit of enterprise yet remains.
The city is the seat of Provincial Government.
During the sitting of its Legislature it is much
frequented by men busy in political life. In
summer the hotels are invariably full of tourists,,
chiefly from the United States, hundreds often
arriving daily to go over the ground of its historic
associations, to enjoy the beauty of the landscape,
and to observe what remains of the life of a past,
of which in their own country they are without a
parallel. Much of the history of Canada centres
around Quebec. Many illustrious names are associated with the ancient city. The most distinguished is its founder, Samuel Champlain.
Champlain's career in Canada dates from 1608
to 1635. He founded Quebec. He ascended the
Bichelieu and discovered Lake Champlain, which
bears his name. He ascended from Ticonderoga
to Lake George, and penetrated the valleys of the
Hudson and the Mohawk. He ascended the Ottawa, passed over the height of land, and by Lake
Nipissing reached Georgian Bay. He travelled
the country overland from Lake Simcoe to the
Trent, and by the Bay of Quinte crossed the
waters of Lake Ontario to what is now the State
of New York, and penetrated to one of the lakes,
believed to be Lake Canandaigua. He was the
first to make a map of Canada, and he published
his memoirs and his travels. He, and he only, is
the founder of Canada.     What he effected wa
9 130
wonderful. Few men have been marked by such
singular honesty of character. Few men have
possessed so well directed a spirit of adventure,
controlled by an unusually active and penetrating
mind. His fortitude, his endurance, his courage,
his perseverance, his personal honour make him
one of the great characters of history.
Midway between Quebec and Montreal the City
of Three Bivers is situated. This place was early
settled, a fort having been constructed here in
1634. Its geographical position called for this
protection. It is at the foot of the St. Maurice,
whose sources lie far to the north, and west of
Lake St. Peter, which in those days might be
called an Iroquois lake, from the frequent incursions of the Indians, who were merciless in their
warfare. For forty years the early French Canadian settler never knew if he would be able to
reap the harvest of the seed he had sown. Indeed,
it is not an exaggeration to say that it was doubtful, when he left his home for his day's labour, if
he would not be before night a scalped corpse. It
was not until 1686 that Tracy passed by the Biche-
lieu and read the Iroquois a lesson by which peace
was obtained. Three Bivers was at an early day a
settlement of some importance. It even obtained
a preference over Quebec, but the better situation
of Montreal eventually diverted the trade to that
city. It has long been a pleasant enough place,
but, as the saying goes, one through which everybody passes and where nobody stops. ■"■¥■«
Montreal—Ship Channel—Hon. John Young—St. Lawrence
Canals—Indifference of Quebec—Quebec Interests Sacrificed
—Need of a Bridge at Quebec—Montreal Trade in Early
Times—Beauty of the City—Canadian Pacific Railway—
Ottawa—The Social Influence of Government House—Kingston.
It is only within the last half century that the
commercial advantages, geographically, possessed
by Montreal have been understood and developed.
It is not possible to enter into the history of
the remarkable works, extending east and west,
which have secured to this city its commercial
success. They may, however, be briefly mentioned. To the east a ship channel has been
dredged through Lake St. Peter to a depth of
twenty-five feet, to admit of the passage of ocean
steamers. The original depth over the St. Peter
flats was eleven feet. This gigantic work, commenced in 1840, has been continued until the
present day. The excavation extends for a distance of seventeen miles, over shoals irregular in 132
depth. At this date the sum of $3,500,000 has
been expended in the work. The further deepening of this channel to admit the depth of twenty-
seven feet six inches is now in progress, and to
obtain this depth throughout above Quebec the
shoals of the Biver St. Lawrence itself above and
below Lake St. Peter must likewise be dredged.
There is but one parallel to this work in the
world : the improvement of the Clyde, which has
been continued for one hundred years. Originally only vessels drawing three feet six inches
could reach Glasgow. From time to time this
depth has been increased, until it may be said
that at this date ocean steamers of the largest
draught are found at the Broomielaw. Hence
Glasgow, by artificial means, has become one of
the most important ports in the United Kingdom;
and similarly Montreal, although a thousand miles
from the ocean, is now one of the chief seaports
of the Dominion, and, judged by the standard of
Customs receipts, must be held to be the first.
In connection with the improvement of the St.
Lawrence, between Montreal and Quebec, indeed
with regard to much which has increased the
prosperity of Montreal, one name rises into marked
prominence, that of the Hon. John Young, so long
and so honourably known in that city, and still so
well remembered, It was owing in a great degree
to his energy and capacity that the deepening
of Lake St. Peter was completed according to the ST. LAWRENCE CANALS.
original design. It may also be said that he was
one of the first to recognize the necessity of an
increased sufficiency of depth of channel above
Quebec, if Montreal was to remain the unquestioned port of the ocean steamer. A project which
he advocated to his death, and which until a great
extent he was instrumental in placing in its present satisfactory condition, so that in no great
number of years the depth will be attained
To the west of Montreal several canals have
been completed to overcome the rapids of the St.
Lawrence, the last of which is the renowned Falls
of Niagara, and which our grandsires held to be.
so insuperable as to bar settlement on the upper
lakes. These works are a marked feature of Canadian enterprise, and in themselves an important
chapter in the history of canal construction. Nowhere in the world, on a line of navigation, are
such locks to be seen. Those of the Lachine
Canal are two hundred and seventy-five feet in
length, forty-five feet wide, with twelve feet of
water in the sills, so constructed that, without
interruption to traffic, they may be increased to
fourteen feet. The enlargement of the whole
navigation of the St. Lawrence, now in progress,
is on a similar scale. It is by the central and
commanding position which these works have
created for Montreal that the city has attained its
present supremacy.
For a time Quebec enjoyed to the full extent 134
the control of the ocean shipping trade, but the
day the channel was formed through the flats of
Lake St. Peter for the passage of seagoing vessels
the monopoly was broken and the trade diverted-
The City of Quebec has long complained that its
commerce was languishing, among other causes,
from the persistent efforts of Montreal to control
it. The deepening of the channel between the
two cities has accomplished more than was even
hoped for by its far-seeing projectors, for most of
the seagoing steamships steam past Quebec, to
find at Montreal the point of transfer for their
western freight, and the point where it is most
convenient to receive a cargo. There is a recorded
saying of the Hon. John Neilson, a well known
public man of forty years back, that there are
two advantages Montreal could not take away
from Quebec: the Citadel and the tide. Evidently
meaning by the former that tourists would always
visit the city to see what only could there be found,
and that Quebec, by constructing tidal docks, had
the means of bringing to her harbour vessels which,
from their draught, could not ascend the river to
Montreal. The persistent, well-directed efforts of
Montreal, however, have been to concede no such
What, in the meantime, has been the course of
Quebec ? It is well known that at this hour
great efforts are being put forth by Halifax public
men to establish Halifax as the winter shipping NORTH SHORE RAILWAY.
port of the Dominion. It is contended that the
Intercolonial Bailway is a national work, constructed with public money, and that it is precisely to meet an emergency of this character, to
prevent the diversion of the winter freight to the
United States ports, that one of the main causes
of its construction can be found. The City of
Quebec, labouring under a depression of its trade,
gave its strongest support to the project of the-
North Shore Bailway, with its prolongation to-
Ottawa, and even contributed $1,000,000 towards
its establishment. In the eye of the Quebec merchant it is a national work, the object of which is
to extend to Quebec, by railway, the same facilities for transhipment of freight which is now
possessed by Montreal. The Province had a plain
policy to follow. It was of paramount importance
that she should retain full control of the line to
Montreal and Ottawa, and that it should offer,
at both points, perfect facilities for the transfer
of traffic to and from the competing railway
lines : the Canadian Pacific and Grand Trunk.
The effect would have been to restore a share-
of the trade in shipping freight which Quebec had.
previously enjoyed. Moreover, as the navigation
is confined to the summer months, it would appear
to be clearly the policy of Quebec to develop and
complete her railway connections to the east, so
that the traffic in winter would flow in a continuous stream over the North Shore line, and be 136
carried onward to the winter shipping port at
Halifax. To carry out this theory successfully
the St. Lawrence would have to be bridged as
near Quebec as practicable. In the vicinity of
the city, some few miles south, there is a site
adapted for such a bridge. The shores of the
river are high, and the deep-water channel can
be crossed by a single span, lofty enough for the
tallest masts of a vessel to pass beneath. Modern
engineering has rendered the project not only
possible but comparatively easy, for it has reduced
greatly the time and the cost which some years
back would have been held necessary to consummate the project. The railway connections,
equally of the City and Province of Quebec, I may
add of the Dominion, will always remain incomplete and unsatisfactory without such a bridge.
With this structure the whole conditions of the
problem would be changed. At all seasons of the
year it would facilitate the arrival and increase
the number of tourists. It would have the effect
of augmenting traffic on both the North Shore
and Intercolonial Bail ways. It would extend provincial as well as local advantages to commerce
generally, and it would go far to establish Halifax
as the winter port of the Dominion. Moreover, it
would affect all this result without the sacrifice of
one single Canadian interest.
There is much in the late policy of the Government of Quebec to astonish and bewilder all who n» *—.„„',   HB
study the laws of trade. It has been remarked
that the City of Quebec felt its interests to be so
deeply concerned in the completion of the North
Shore Bailway that it voted $1,000,000 to secure
its establishment. Throughout the Province the
railway was advocated for many years; it was
fostered and cherished, and held to be the key to
its future prosperity. Nevertheless the Provincial
Government has deliberately sold all its interest
in the work, and has passed over its control to
a railway company whose interests lie in an entirely different direction. They have thus sacrificed the one chance of extending a fostering hand
to local trade and regaining the prestige of the
Ancient City. Indeed, the Provincial Government
stands in relationship to this railway as if it had
never been constructed as a public work. As I
am writing I read in the newspapers that the
present tariff of charges between Montreal and
Quebec, a distance of one hundred and eighty
miles, on certain articles of freight, is thirty-three
per cent, higher than between Quebec and Halifax, a distance of six hundred and eighty miles!
Possibly an extreme case; but can any fact bear
stronger testimony to the sacrifice which has been
made of the interests of the City of Quebec? It is
long since there has been such an abandonment of
a position from which so much might have been
hoped, and, strange to add, the sacrifice has been
made without a. protest, without a remonstrance QUEBEC, MONTREAL, OTTAWA.
from those most interested. It would seem that
there is a failure to understand the extent of the
advantages which have been thrown away. If
there be any truth in the adage that misery likes
company, it may be some consolation to the people
of Quebec to know that the shadow of this unfortunate transaction has been equally cast over the
fortunes of the Intercolonial Bailway and on the
prosperity of the City of Halifax.
It seems to me that the error committed cannot
too soon be rectified. Indeed, it is a case in
which the intervention of the general government is both justifiable and necessary. The Intercolonial Bailway, owned and operated by the
Dominion Government, extends from Halifax to a
opposite Quebec. It connects only with
the Grand Trunk Bailway. The interests of the
Grand Trunk Company call for the transport of
freight to Portland, in the United States, rather
than its transfer to Halifax. The Intercolonial was
established for national purposes. Strong reasons
present themselves why it should not terminate
at Chaudiere Junction, but that its outlet should
be Ottawa. This policy of extension to the capital would* involve bridging the St. Lawrence at
Quebec and of obtaining control of the railway
to Ottawa. Such a connection would admit of
the exchange of traffic with the competing lines
on equal terms at Montreal and Ottawa, and would
remove from Quebec, from the Intercolonial Bail- EARLY CANALS.
way and from Halifax the serious disabilities under
which they now labour.
Under French rule Montreal had simply a monopoly of trade with the Indians, and no attempt
was made until a later period to overcome the
natural impediments which lay in the way of
its advancement. It was not until some years
after the conquest, when Western Canada, now
Ontario, became a field for settlement, that any improvement of the navigation of the St. Lawrence
was attempted. Some rude canals, with narrow
locks, were early formed to enable the Durham
boats, then the only means of transit, to pass up
the Cascade, Cedar and Coteau Bapids. The present canals were the impulse of a later date. In
the early days of Canada commerce was not of the
importance it has now attained. There was a
chronic state of war, first with the red man for the
possession of the country itself; secondly with the
English and the southern colonies for the traffic
with the Indians. The scene of the struggle was
generally on the borders of the great lakes, and
then, as now, the main effort was put forth to
determine whether the products of the west would
pass by the Mohawk to the Hudson, or whether
it would follow the course of the St. Lawrence to
the sea.
Montreal, at this period, was virtually the end
of French settlement, and the population was
small.     At the  present  day Montreal is a city, 140
with its suburbs, of nearly 200,000 inhabitants.
Most of the old French landmarks are disappearing, one by one, and there remains little
of material form to recall French rule. It may
almost be said that the language, and that portion of our laws which owes its origin to France,
are all that remain to remind us of her power.
Her criminal and commercial law is English;
the other divisions of her jurisprudence retain
their early impress. There remains, however,
the Boman Catholic form of worship, the most
marked heirloom of those days which the French
■Canadian has most jealously retained. Montreal,
socially, is now characterized by those features
which wealth, proceeding from a long and prosperous commerce, stamps upon a community on
this side of the Atlantic. On all sides you see
palatial residences and highly cultivated grounds.
The main business streets are marked by unusual
architectural embellishments, for which the limestone quarries in the neighbourhood furnish the
best of facilities. The wharves in front of the
city, with the stone revetment wall, have not
their equal on the continent. The canals have
-already been referred to, and I know nowhere
•else where such works are to be seen. The Cana-
•dian canal is a river, and not a small one, and the
vessels which pass through it are of no ordinary
size. There is much material success; and this
oommercial element has gathered together a busy,
anxious, enterprising, pushing population, with
all the accessories in connection with it which
wealth gives. But I must turn to the matters
which have brought me to Montreal.
I had a long and important interview with the
Directors of the Canadian Pacific Bailway. They
desired me to proceed to British Columbia on a
special professional service, and, if practicable, they
wished me to pass over the line west of Winnipeg
to examine the passes of the Bocky Mountains.
It was agreed that I should start without delay.
Some preparations are always necessary for such
a journey, and to cross the mountains over an
almost untrodden path I required strong, rough
clothing and unexceptional protection for the feet.
I took the afternoon train for Ottawa. In Montreal the terminus of the Canadian Pacific Bailway
is at Dalhousie Square. It extends from Notre
Dame street, at a lower level, to the quay, and it
would be difficult to find a more striking site for
a railway station. For upwards of a mile the line
runs along the side of the harbour, and you have
in view the bold landscape produced by the river
and St. Helen's Island. To the west Victoria
Bridge stands out in bold relief, and, in spite of
its massiveness, it spans the river with the most
graceful of lines. The harbour of Montreal during
the season of navigation is always more or less
full of shipping, among which the ocean steamer
predominates.     In  winter it   presents a totally 142
different appearance. The river is a field of
ice, often cumbered with Cyclopean masses, distorted by " shoves" into most picturesque forms,
often a scene in all respects striking and rarely
met. The railway, on leaving Montreal, passes
through a really charming landscape. Crossing
two branches of the St. Lawrence, at Sault-au-
Becollet and Biviere-des-Prairies, it touches the
Biver Ottawa, and continues generally in sight
of the river till it reaches the capital. Twenty
miles east the line passes directly over the falls of
Le Lievre, at Buckingham, which form an object
of special attraction. On approaching Ottawa we
cross the long iron bridge over the river, and see
the city lying before us, and the outline of the
Government buildings, with their peculiar architecture, almost suggesting that you are entering
some mediaeval city.
At no period of the year, except during the three
months when the House is in session, is there any
particular animation in the Capital. Parliament
meets in February, occasionally in January, and
continues its sittings until April or May. From
Christmas to the opening of the House the Government offices are unusually active in the preparation of documents to be laid before Parliament.
Strangers arrive a week before the day of the opening. There is a constant succession of new faces
in the streets. The Ministers commence their
series of dinners,  the intention  of which is to OTTAWA.
affirm their political influence, but clothed with
all the graces of social attraction. Those in the
city proper who can entertain do so at this season.
The Club, which for the remaining nine months
can number in its rooms its visitors by tens, is then
crowded, and the hotels are full of busy, bustling
individuals engaged in the many schemes which
await the countenance of Parliament, and the
dining-room in the evening has the fullest attendance.
Few cities of the size are more lively under this
aspect than Ottawa during the session. A few
days after its close another story is told. Government House, which for the last ten years has been
the scene of so much polished and plenteous hospitality, becomes tenantless. The two previous
Governors-General, Lord Dufferin and Lord Lome,
endeavoured to bring side by side all that was
estimable and prominent in the capital. There was
something so cordial, so unaffectedly hearty in the
welcome given to all, that no one went there
without pleasure or left without regret. The
invitations were not confined to a comparatively
narrow clique. No hospitality could be more
genial, more liberal or more unaffected. Twice a
week, or so, there were skating and tobogganing
parties. Once a week there were state dinners,
frequently on other evenings guests were gathered
around the private table. Lord Dufferin inaugurated a series of private theatricals.    He was 144
also followed by Lord Lome in his desire to
add to the common happiness, as indeed in all
that was excellent which Lord Dufferin commenced. No balls ever were more pleasant than
those given at Ottawa under their regime. There
is a delicacy in writing all this, as both these
distinguished men are in active -political life, and
it is not easy to speak of the actors in our Canadian drama who yet play a part in the wider
Imperial life. Equally difficult to venture to
allude to the Countess of Dufferin, who exercised
such a healthy influence on the society in which
she mixed. The more exalted position of H. B. H.
the Princess Louise makes it more embarrassing to
refer to her presence; but who that has, in any
way, been brought within her influence can forget
all the associations which it suggests, not those of
rank, but the more durable impress of genius, of
excellence, with the most simple and unaffected
manner, blended with a consideration for others
which delighted everyone.
I remained a few hours in Ottawa, and took the
night train for Toronto. We start from the Canadian Pacific station, at which I had arrived, and
follow the line to Brockville. Brockville is a town
of importance on the St. Lawrence, at the lower
end of that interesting reach of forty miles which
embraces the Thousand Islands. During the night
the Pullman is connected with the Grand Trunk
train, and we proceed on our journey as if we KINGSTON.
were travelling on the system of lines we started
on. There is no tax imposed on travellers, as at
Moncton on alternate nights turning you out of"
your berth at three in the morning. When you
awake you are still proceeding onward on the-
western journey. We pass Kingston at night, a
town which has grown around Frontenac's fort,
erected in 1672. Its site is still a barrack used for
the Military College. Kingston has the advantage
of a finely settled country in its rear; it has an
ancient look, and is substantially built of limestone. Its position at the junction of Lake Ontario with the St. Lawrence, and the presence of
many owners of craft, cause some activity during
the season of navigation. Kingston is also known
as the seat of Queen's College and University, in
which, personally and officially, the writer has the
greatest interest.
There is a restaurant car attached to the train,
and one can obtain any breakfast he may require.
After breakfast one generally becomes critical, for
thought is turned outward. As we are
onward it struck me that the
Trenton and Cobourg was not of a high character.
At no season should thistles and weeds be seen in
the fields, certainly not at the period when they
are going to seed, and even a few slovenly farms
will disfigure a whole district. The grain crop is
later than usual, but is fast ripening, and in this
section of the country not without promise.   West
farming between of Cobourg the land is among the best in the
world. Nowhere is agriculture more careful.
There is scarcely any land remaining uncultivated, and no one but can be struck with the
fertility of the district through which we are
passing. CHAPTEE IX.
Toronto—Collingwood—Georgian Bay—The Sault St. Mary—
Navigation of the Great Lakes—Manitoulin Islands—Lake
Huron—Arrival at the Sault.
Arriving safely at Toronto I was welcomed by
my son Sandford, who accompanies me on my
journey. For the first time I am presented to a
still younger descendant, who confers upon me a
new claim to family respect, and whom I meet
with much pleasure.
It was the civic holiday in Toronto. It has been
a custom on this Continent, in.the large cities and
more important towns, for one day in the year to
be set apart, when, by common consent, business
ceases. All sorts of excursions are organized by
railway and steamboat companies, and to crown
the whole with additional dignity, the purport of
the day is officially declared by proclamation by
His Worship the Mayor. Every possible auxiliary
is called in aid to give effect to the occasion. In
the city there are various performances at the 148
theatres, morning and evening. The neighbouring
small towns contribute their sympathizing crowds.
There are cricket matches, lacrosse matches, with
other meetings of every character of pleasurable
association. There is the best of good eating and
drinking for all who require it and are willing to
pay for it. This Toronto holiday was in no way
wanting in the general characteristics which such
a day brings with it. Crowds of good-looking,
good-humoured, holiday-dressed personages filled
the streets, and there was a gaiety of manner
and an atmosphere of amusement in the main
thoroughfares which even the indifferent spectators could with difficulty resist.
If Montreal may be said to be the admitted
commercial capital of Canada, Toronto is battling
hard to dispute its supremacy. The capital of
Ontario, it is what Montreal is not. It is a political
centre of great activity, where much is originated
to influence both Dominion and local politics. It
justly claims, too, a higher tone of intellectual life.
On the whole, it may be said that there is a more
assured type of culture and urban refinement by
the shores of Lake Ontario than on the Island of
Montreal. The city contains two Universities :
one, Toronto University, without religious test,
supported by the Province; the second, Trinity,
supported by the Church of England. Besides
which there are a Presbyterian College and Theological Halls of other denominations.    The Cana- NIAGARA.
dian Institute also has a reputation. It numbers
among its members some of the leading minds of
the country, and for many years it has been distinguished as a centre for the exchange of thought
on scientific and literary topics; it has greatly
aided the collection of information respecting the
economic resources of the Dominion and in the
determination of problems which have a direct
influence upon its future. There has been always
a marked polish of manner, blended with a sympathy with intellectual power, which has distinguished Toronto society. The leading members
of the professions have, as a rule, obtained greater
social recognition, and generally the horizon of
education is much more extended than in the
larger eastern city.
The surrounding country is of little interest
beyond what is artificially obtained, but the large
sheltered sheet of water in front of the city, locally
designated " the Bay," and protected from the lake
by a long sandy island about a mile from the shore,
will always give it value as a harbour, and afford
excellent boating water for the members of the
Yacht Club. The more distant environs are
particularly striking. In four hours, steamboats
take you to Niagara. On excursion days they
are crowded with passengers. Niagara is one of
those sights which the more you behold the more
you are astonished. I have met those who have
expressed disappointment at their first view of the 150
Falls. It is difficult to explain how this feeling is
entertained, except by some previous extravagant
misconception of their extent and appearance.
Their character and beauty have deservedly included them in the wonders of the world. Necessarily they have become a show place, and to some
extent one experiences the unpleasant influences
which the tourist has to contend with at such
resorts. The locality is the scene of many a small
extortion into which the unwary occasionally
stumble. There cannot be a doubt that the Falls
of Niagara, with the scenery above and below
them, and the masses of rushing water in all its
various aspects and circumstances, present a sight
to dwarf into insignificance everything of the kind
generally beheld. At all seasons of the year they
attract crowds of visitors to the neighbourhood,
and scarcely any one visiting the Continent fails
to look upon them.
I spent a pleasant day at Collingwood with my
dear old mother, 83 years of age, looking fresh and
hearty, without one physical ache or pain ; at the
same time her mind retains its marked natural
At four in the afternoon on Tuesday, the 14th
August, with my son, I went on board the steamer
I Campana " in the best of spirits. She is a staunch
iron vessel, built in England and registered in
London. There was an unusual crowd of passengers, but I had telegraphed and secured state- COLLINGWOOD.
rooms, as the cabins are called, so I had not to content myself with a mattrass on the floor, the fate
of many.   The water was perfectly smooth.    As-
the steamer left the dock the outline of the town,
of Collingwood, with the blue mountains in the-
background, appeared to me more picturesque than
ever.    What a change has taken place at this spot
in the last thirty years, since the day when my
men cut the first trees on the first examination of
the ground on which this important town now
stands.    It was then in a state of nature with the
primeval forest to the water's edge.    It is to-day a
scene of busy active life, with wharves, streets,
churches, schools and many a pleasant residence.
The ground on which the dry dock is constructed
I recollect as the spot where I have watched for
deer when I had seen their foot tracks fresh on the
sand beach.    Where are the men who were busy
at their work in those days ?    Who remain of the
directors,   engineers,   contractors,  and   what   the
newspapers called " influential personages," who,
on a bright winter morning in 1851 gathered near
the shore and on the ice, breaking a bottle of wine,,
named   the future  City of   Collingwood.     The-
familiar features of Sheriff Smith, Judge Orton,.
Captain Hancock, Messrs. Isaac Gilmour, Geo. H.
Cheney, Angus Morrison, John McWatt, De Gras-
sey and Stephens are yet kindly remembered by
many,   and especially  by myself.     There were
others present whom I do not so well recollect. 152
How many of these voices are mute, which then
joined in the cheers given as the heralds of our
good wishes! Few of the actors in that scene
remain but myself.
The direct course of the " Campana " was along
the coast of Georgian Bay, skirting Oraigleith and
Thornbury. We touch at the bustling town of
Meaford, where our well-filled passenger list receives additions, certainly by no means desirable.
But the new-comers crowd on board, and the
steamer moves off to round Cape Bich, to enter
the bay of Owen Sound. It was one of those
pleasant, moonlight, calm evenings so enjoyable
in Canada. There was not a ripple on the water.
The air was cool and pleasant, the moon three-
quarters full, and its reflection seemed to dance
over the whole surface of the bay. The steamer
is of iron, and we move onward with little noise
and without vibration. We enter the narrow
harbour at Owen Sound, a town surrounded by
low hills, through the gorges of which the Biver
Sydenham penetrates, passing over some falls of
great beauty a mile from the town. As we are
moving up to the wharf we hear the arrival of
the train from Toronto, with more passengers for
the boat. The latter have come on board, the
vessel has started, when all at once the cry is
heard, " A man overboard!" He is soon rescued,
but he has lost his hat, and the air of suffering
with which he regards this misfortune would lead AN IMPORTANT LETTER.
us almost to think that he held life of little
account that it had been preserved at this serious
cost. Such an event is by no means uncommon
on these lakes. Generally it happens that some
one is late for the steamer. Passengers have often
to drive long distances; nevertheless they loiter to
chat over an evening dram, and lose their time in
gossip, or they fail to recollect the length of the
distance they have to pass over. Be that as it
may, punctuality seems to have been imperfectly
learned in these latitudes. It is remembered that
the steamer itself is often late, and there is ever
present the good natured friend to suggest that
"there is no hurry." At last the moment comes.
The dawdler is made aware that there is no time
to spare. The steamer's last whistle has sounded.
There is a rush to get on board, under unfavourable circumstances, and sometimes the experiment
is dearly paid for. It is not always the hat that
is lost. Sometimes it is the fate of the unhappy
wearer never again to require one.
We have recovered from this adventure. We
are starting, and have actually left the wharf, but
suddenly the signal is given to stop the engine,
and the voice of the captain is heard shrieking
out, "Sam! there is a letter left at the office by
two young ladies." Sam takes no short time to
find the letter, but at last we get under way, and
our captain is benignity itself. Our next landing
place is Sault St. Mary, which we will not reach
for thirty hours. 154
The arrangements for the steamer leaving Collingwood to touch at Owen Sound cannot be
accounted for by any doctrine of necessity. It
would appear as if the owners were anxious to
act with perfect impartiality to the two railway
companies, which, if they cannot be called opposition lines, have few interests in common. The
Northern line runs to Collingwood; the Toronto,
Grey & Bruce to Owen Sound; both from Toronto.
As a rule, passengers by the steamer are for the
North-West. Generally Port Arthur, on Lake
Superior, is their destination. But we lost some
twelve hours coasting around from Collingwood,
and I could not see with one single advantage.
This profitless waste of time will in all probability
cease when the boats of the Canadian Pacific run
between Port Arthur and Algoma, on the north
shore of Lake Huron, connecting at that point
with the railways now under construction. The
new route will give to eastern passengers what
they never yet possessed: a direct connection with
Lake Superior without loss of time. From Toronto,
passengers will probably continue to be carried
for some time as at present.
Having passed three succeeding nights on the
railway train on my journey from Halifax, I willingly sought my berth. The breakfast hour is
seven, but I had had some experience of the preceding evening's supper. Appetite must possess
to many a somewhat tyrannical mastery, if we are SURLY WAITERS.
to judge by the demonstrative determination to
obtain seats at a steamboat table. With us there
were four relays of supper, and it was an effort to
find a seat at any one of them. Who has not
noticed, under such circumstances, the rows of
men and women who place themselves, with
suppressed impatience, behind the seats, standing
in the most prosaic of attitudes, in expectation for
the word that the meal is ready. I was myself
content to take my place at the fourth table, so
that I could eat what I required with deliberation.
With this experience, I was in no hurry to rise,
so it was about nine o'clock when I entered the
long saloon. There were a few stragglers like
myself present, probably influenced by the same
philosophy, who were seated here and there at
a table on which lay the scattered remains of
the fourth breakfast. On these lake boats the
attendants are called " waiters," not " stewards,"
as on ocean steamers, and if there be a difference
of nomenclature, there is certainly no identity of
manner. The steward of the ocean steamer is the
most benignant, courtly, kindly, considerate person
in the world, and, as a rule, his virtues in this
respect are sufficiently appreciated. On this boat
I addressed one of the waiters, I thought politely
enough, and gave my orders. I was met by the
rugged reply, in the hardest of tones, " Ye cannot
have hot breakfasts if ye lie in bed." The man's
axiom was certainly borne out by fact.     There 156
was no breakfast, in the sense of the word, and
what there remained was not hot. But the coffee
was exceptionally good, and with a crust of bread
I thought that I might have fared worse. Possibly the owners of the new steamers to be placed
on the lakes next summer will introduce some
improvement in the stewards' department, which
the ordinary traveller, they may be assured, will
duly appreciate.
We were passing through the chain of islands
extending from Tobermory to the Great Manitou-
lin. The water is perfectly smooth. The passengers are lounging, smoking, or basking on deck.
Others, proud of their prowess, are relating their
adventures and experiences, enlivened with many
an anecdote, to the amusement of knots of hearers.
As we were running through these waters they
were so beautifully smooth and the air so fresh
and pleasant that my mind went back to the
Adriatic as you see it near Venice, or to the
western coast of Italy from Civita Vecchia to
Genoa. What you miss is the deep, ultra-marine
blue of the Mediterranean. Although above you
to-day there is a sky not less cloudless, bright and
blue than we see in Southern Europe, the hue of
the water is a deep slate colour, but in no way
wanting in transparency. We have a horizon
only broken by the islands behind us and the
Great Manitoulin, dimly lying to our right. Like
the Mediterranean,  this  great   inland   sea   does AN INLAND OCEAN.
not always exhibit the glassy surface it presents
to-day. As in the Bay of Naples, the waters of
which all pictures depict in the brightest blue,
the gale can sometimes produce an angry, turbid
sea, so on Lake Huron, especially in the late
autumn, we have many a storm, often to create
the roughest of weather. Some thirty years ago,
while crossing in a Mackinaw boat, those were
not the days of steamers with four relays of meals,
I was caught in a nor'-wester, and driven to take
refuge to the windward of one of the smallest
of the islands we are leaving behind us. We
reached the shore before sundown by the most
strenuous exertions. All of us in the boat were
exhausted, and we slept soundly on the gravel
beach until the following day. The island was
but a few acres in extent, but we could not
venture to leave it. To have done so would have
been certain death, for the water rolled in on the
exposed beach in giant, swelling breakers. All
the subsistence the whole crew had for three days
was a solitary rabbit, which we managed to snare,
and a few biscuits we had in our pockets.
It seems as if the whole study of the hour on
board the steamer is to provide food for the passengers. It brings to recollection the prosperous
hotel manager, who related with great zest how
many hundreds he had been feeding in the last
few days. It certainly required some genius to
feed the numerous passengers of the " Campana," 158
with such limited accommodations. At noon dinner
is provided. There are eighty seats, and four times
that number of people to fill them. But dinner,
like everything else, has its end. The passengers
again form in knots upon the deck: the lounger,
the smoker and the man who delights in euchre,
the latter more within the scope of lake travel
than the more classic whist, are all seen at their
occupation, and the raconteur, with a fresh audience, is more than usually loquacious.
The moon is a day nearer the full; and when
the sun sets, it does so gloriously and more brightly
than last night. We arrive at a landing place and
are moored to a wharf where we have to wait till
morning. The Neebish Bapids lie before us. They
have been improved for the purpose of navigation,
but they are not yet lighted, and it is extremely
hazardous to attempt to run them in the dark.
Until a few years ago, when they were deepened
and widened, they were positively dangerous.
Eleven propeller blades were picked up by the
divers during their operations. By daylight the
Bapids can now be safely enough ascended, but it
is not simply the Neebish Bapids which are
unnavigable without daylight. An artificial channel through Lake George, made some years ago by
the United States authorities, follows a circular
course, and it is not possible to pass through it
after dark without extraordinary precaution. It is
true that it can be effected by sending two boats SAULT STE. MARIE.
with lights following the course of the buoys on
each side one by one, but all this was a labour our
captain had no instructions to undertake, so we
remained at the wharf. Had we not experienced
the incident of the man overboard, and the forgotten letter of the two damsels at Owen Sound,
we might have arrived in time to have ascended
by daylight.
The next morning the boat left her moorings
at dawn. It is a pleasant sail through Lake
George and the St. Mary's Biver, with its Indian
settlements and the quiet locality known as Garden Biver. We had passed all these places when
I awoke. We were then moving through the canal
constructed on the Michigan side to overcome the
Sault St. Mary. At the " Sault" there are, on either
side, the Canadian and United States town bearim
its name. Neither of them has much pretension,
and neither of them is deficient in picturesqueness.
The United States town, on the south side, is not
without a certain commercial activity, and contains
some barracks, in which generally there are two
or three companies of the United States regular
The Sault is celebrated for its white-fish, and
the passer-by will frequently observe a number of
Indian canoes at the foot of the rapids, paddling
about, with a man in the stern to seize the fish by
a hand net. The white fish is held to be a great
delicacy.   They appear on the table first about 160
Kingston, and are caught in all the lakes, but the
opinion seems to be that the further north you go
the better they are, those on Lake Superior being
considered the best. We run out of the canal,
and continue through the stretch of the Biver St.
Mary above the Sault. There is little to attract
the eye until we reach the lofty heights standing
as portals to Lake Superior, the last and largest of
the great sheets of water tributary to the St.
Lawrence. CHAPTEB X.
Lake Superior—Early Discoverers—Joliet and La Salle—Hennepin—Du Luth—Port Arthur—The Far West—The North-
West Company—Rat Portage—Gold Mining—Winnipeg.
The morning is dull, the sky leaden, and the
temperature is not very enlivening for the most of
us. But the boat moves pleasantly up the slight
current until we reach Whitefish Point, then we
enter the lake which lies before us in all its magnificent extent. Some idea of the size of Lake
Superior may be formed when it is pointed out
that from its two extremities the distance is equal
to that from London to the centre of Scotland. In
width it is capacious enough to take in the whole
of Ireland. Its surface is 600 feet above, its bed is
300 feet below, the ocean level, the lake being 900
feet in depth. Its water is remarkably pure, with
the colour of the finest crystal.
We pass a number of steamers and deeply laden
vessels. We are now fairly in the lake, with its
rugged, rocky hills on the north shore ascending
11 162
to the height of a thousand feet. We are in the
midst of a light fog. The air becomes chilly and
raw, but the water continues smooth, and we sail
calmly over it. Towards evening the fog has
cleared away, and we find ourselves in ihe midst
of this immense fresh water sea. The nearly full
moon appears and is high up in view. Our horizon
is the circumference of an unbroken circle, for
thero is not a trace of land in sight. Our position
is near the meridian of Chicago, although six
degrees of latitude further north; and we approach
the longitude of that great western territory which
on both sides of the International boundary is
being developed with such marvellous progress.
Champlain appears to have known the existence
of a northern fresh water lake of great size, but he
never visited it. He showed on his map a large
body of water under the title, Mer de Nor Glaciale.
This was in 1632. Galinee's map of 1670 gives
the Biver Ottawa and Lake Ontario sufficiently
correctly for those days, everything considered, but
Lake Michigan was unknown to him. He considered Lakes Michigan and Huron to be one body
of water, and so represented them. Lake Superior
he did not appear to know, although he had
reached Sault St. Mary. One of the earliest works
of the Jesuit Fathers in Canada is their map of
Lake Superior, published in 1671, with the title
of Lac Tracy-ou-Superior. It showed that the
many bays and inlets had been explored, and the DISCOVERY OF THE GREAT WEST.
map is marked by great correctness, allowing for
the date of its production. They also knew of the
Peninsula of Michigan. Indeed by this date the
general geography and coast line of the great lakes
was fairly understood. In 1669 La Salle made the
first of the series of discoveries which have preserved his name. He had heard of the great river
to the west, and he was desirous of proceeding
thither. He descended the Ohio, probably as far
as Louisville, but it was not until eleven years
later that he discovered the outlet of the Mississippi. Marquette and Joliet had in the meantime
ascended from Green Bay, Lake Michigan, and followed the Fox Biver to the Mississippi. They may
be held to be its discoverers, although claims
antagonistic to their priority have been advanced,
I believe, without sufficient proof. Hennepin, the
Becollet Friar, was the first to ascend the upper
waters of the Mississippi and describe the Falls of
St. Anthony, where the great milling City of
Minneapolis now flourishes. On his return with his
captors, for he was a prisoner of the Indians, he met
Du Luth some distance below the falls. Du Luth
was one of those many enterprising spirits whom
France sent to this Continent, a man of untiring
energy and undaunted nature. He penetrated to
the then utmost limit known. He was a martyr
to rheumatism, but no suffering interfered with
his discoveries and his devotion to the supremacy
of France.   At Lake Superior he had heard that 164
there were white men on the Mississippi. The
news caused him anxiety. His first thought was
that English traders had penetrated from New
York, and in the interest of France he felt such
intrusion had summarily to be stopped. He
started with four well armed Frenchmen, followed
one of the streams leading southerly and passed
by the St. Croix, which falls into the Mississippi
below St. Paul. It was here that he met Hennepin,
who proved to be the white man he had heard of.
Du Luth returned by way of Lake Michigan.
Previous to this date Du Luth had established
himself on the Kaministiquia, Lake Superior. In
1680 he built a fort on the site of the present Fort
William on that river, for half a century the
extreme point beyond which the French did not
penetrate, and in itself the first settlement on the
north shore. The Jesuits had established themselves on the south shore of the lake at an early
date in Canadian history at La Pointe, the modern
It was a brilliant summer morning, Friday, 17th
August, when I awoke; we were near land. Silver
Islet was in sight, and Thunder Cape, a bold headland lit up by the sun, stood forth to bid us
welcome. During breakfast we enter Thunder
Bay, a noble expanse of water surrounded on three
sides by lofty hills. The entrance is some six
miles wide, protected to some extent from the
storms of Lake Superior by Isle Boyale, some dis- PORT ARTHUR.
tance to the south. We have fourteen miles to
steam before we reach what was formerly called
Prince Arthur's Landing, now known as Port
Arthur. It has grown up of late years. It possesses an air of liveliness, and I do not think that
those whose interests are centered in the town
underrate the advantages of its situation or have
any doubts with, regard to its future. There are
copper and silver mines in the neighbourhood,
some of which are represented to be of value.
They have been worked from time to time and discontinued, and their occasional operations have
told on the progress of the town.
But Port Arthur does not possess unchallenged
all the advantages claimed for it. Fort William on
the Kaministiquia proffers an equal claim to become
the Lake Superior terminus of the Canadian Pacific
Bailway to the west, and to the point of connection with the eastern bound steamers in summer.
A propeller with freight, loaded in the canal basin
at Montreal, can reach Thunder Bay without breaking bulk. A large movement in freight and passengers for transfer to the railway for Winnipeg
may be looked for, even when the railway line on
the north shore of Lake Superior shall have been
completed. A trip by the lake steamers is pleasant
and agreeable in the fine weather of summer, and
doubtless these ports on Thunder Bay will retain
their importance.
There is but one train in the twenty-four hours 166
from Port Arthur to Winnipeg. We were twelve
hours too late for the train which had left and
twelve hours too early for the one to leave. All
that could be done was to accept the situation.
Human nature, however, asserts its prerogative
under a sense of injustice. My mind, in spite of
myself, reverted to our useless journey to Meaford
and Owen Sound, and to the waste of time at
these places by which we lost so many hours at
the Neebish. It was the old story of the nail in
the horseshoe of the Cavalier. I think the experience of all travellers is that when a journey is
marked by delay, little is done in the way of
remedying it. Indifference succeeds the sense of
misadventure or carelessness, and the chance of
making up lost time becomes every hour less and
I had twelve hours before me, so I determined
to make good use of them. I communicated by
telegraph with the railway superintendent at
Winnipeg and the engineer in charge of construction at Calgarry, to enlist their co-operation in our
advance over the mountains. I drove with my son
from Port Arthur to the Biver Kaministiquia, a river
which assumed some importance in the early days
of the construction of the railway six years back.
The terminus was established three miles from its
mouth. The river is upwards of three hundred feet
in width, deep enough to float the largest lake craft.
A bar, easily removable, extends across the entrance.
When this obstruction is removed the river will
be in all respects accessible, and will extend greater
capacity for shipping than the river at Chicago,
which accommodates the enormous business of that
As it was my duty, I visited the Hudson Bay-
Company's post near the mouth of the river. After
an existence of two centuries as a fur-trading station under varied fortunes, it is soon to disappear,
the fate of all such establishments on this continent
as civilization overtakes them. As Bishop Berkeley
wrote a century ago, "westward the star of empire
takes its way."
In my own recollection the " Far West" was on
the eastern shores of Lakes Huron and Michigan,
now far within the limits of civilization. Those
whose fortunes were cast there looked on themselves as pioneers of an unexplored wilderness.
Twenty years ago the upper waters of Lake Huron
and Lake Superior were but just coming into
notice, and Fort William was regarded as the chief
eastern outpost of the Hudson's Bay Company,
beyond which few thought of passing. This celebrated company, which has played such a part in
the history of the North-West of this continent,
was formed under a charter of Charles II. in 1670.
It was the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 which fully
recognized the English title to the territory granted
under the charter, and abandoned forever such
French claims as had been preferred, for the Treaty
L 168
of Byswick with France in  1696  had left the
question of sovereignty undecided.
As early as 1641 two Jesuits, Jogues and Baym-
bault, extended their missionary labours to the
shores of Lake Superior. The main mission, La
Pointe, now Bayfield, on the south shore, was established in 1670, and the Indians remained during
French rule entirely under their influence. At the
period of the conquest the trade of the French
disappeared, for they had no longer the power to
visit the country, and by degrees it fell into British
hands. On the one side, the Hudson's Bay Company, from the north, pushed onwards to control
it, for a period with success; on the other, parties
were started from Montreal to obtain a share of
the great profits which were made, the value of
which was fully known.
The French trade had been carried on under
admirable regulations. Liquor, so ruinous to the.
Indian, was withheld from him. The enterprising
Montreal trader introduced it, regardless of consequences : hence the orgies, the drunkenness and the
quarrels which were a scandal even to the wilderness. To intensify this condition of affairs, some
Montreal merchants entered into a partnership in
1787, and formed the celebrated North-West Trading Company. It then consisted of twenty-three
partners, with a staff of agents, factors, clerks,
guides, interpreters, voyageurs, amounting in all
to two thousand persons.    If the individual trader HUDSON'S BAY COMPANY.
disappeared from the field, there were two powerful companies remaining, who had to operate in
the same field side by side, and there sprang up
the fiercest and most embittered rivalry. I shall
hereafter refer more definitely to this contention.
This state of things was leading to the common
ruin of the two companies, when, in 1821, after
forty-three years of competition, discord and disaster, the two formed one corporation under the
title of the Hudson's Bay Company.
As I looked upon the old fort on the site of its
departed greatness, I thought of the many stirring
scenes which it witnessed before and after the
beginning of this century. The stone store houses,
once so well filled with every requirement, erected
around the sides of a square, are now empty, containing a few boxes of rusty flint muskets and
bayonets, with chests of old papers, dating back,
some of them, more than a hundred years.
The buildings will all soon be unroofed, to
make way for a railway station. A year ago I
saw two old cannon in the front of the courtyard.
On that occasion I believe they fired their last
salute. They are now removed. The old rickety
flagstaff still remains, and so soon as it is known
that a member of the Company of Adventurers is
within the precincts the flag is run up as a salute,
a service probably for the last time performed at
Fort William. In a few months the whole scene
will be changed.    There is still an agent of the 170
Hudson's Bay Company in charge, Mr.-Bichardson,
whose complexion of bronze tells of many years of
exposure; and his attendant, an Indian, who has
been attached to the fort for forty years.
On leaving Mr. Bichardson we called on a retired Hudson's Bay officer, Mr. John Mclntyre,
who lives in a comfortable house a little further
up the river. He is an Argyleshire Highlander,
who has the stalwartness of his race, and is as
active as ever. At his suggestion we go to Point
de Meuron, named after the soldiers of that regiment in Lord Selkirk's service, camped here in the
memorable days of 1817. There was nothing to
be seen but the farm, so we returned to the town
plot, and, as the hour suggested, took dinner at the
Ontario House, a place of some local reputation.
There were several vessels from Ohio discharging
coal at the railway wharves adjoining, showing
that even the narrow cut dredged some years ago
across the bar at the mouth of the river was still
sufficient to admit their passage; establishing,
moreover, how easily a properly excavated channel can be maintained, and plainly showing that
the completion of navigation at the entrance of
the Kaministiquia will eventually have an important bearing on the commerce of the North-
I returned to Port Arthur to prepare for the
train, when some of my friends kindly gave me
an invitation to a ball to take place in the evening. A ROUGH COUNTRY.
I should have liked to have accepted it for several
reasons, not the least of which was to see that
phase of social life in this region; but it was
impossible to lose the twenty-four hours, the price
of my attendance.
It was dark when the train left, so all that could
be done was to turn to the comfortable Pullman,
and in due time retire for the night. The railway
to Winnipeg is far from being completed; indeed,
it has but lately been put in operation. Many of
the station buildings have yet to be erected. As a
consequence, the following morning the breakfast
was served under a large canvas awning. There
was no pretension about this breakfast, but what
there was of it was good; certainly the ventilation
was perfect.
The distance from Port Arthur to Winnipeg is
some 430 miles, and, as the unfinished condition
of a considerable portion of the line necessitated
travelling at reduced speed, the journey to most
of the passengers seemed very tedious. To me
every mile was full of interest. We pass over that
portion of the line known as " Section A," which
extends to a point 230 miles from Port Arthur.
Civilization and settlement have not penetrated
to this district, lying, as it does, intermediate
between Lake Superior and the prairie region.
We have traversed a long stretch of black, boggy
swamp, to which the Indian name of Muskeg has
been given.    One is reminded of Chatmoss, where 172
similar difficulties in the infancy of railway construction were so triumphantly met by the elder
Stephenson. Itluskeg is much of the character of
peat. It is here inexhaustible, and hereafter may
be valuable from its capacity to be formed into
As the train moves on, nothing is to be seen but
rock and forest in their most rugged forms. The
falls of Waubigon and those of Eagle Biver, as we
pass them, are the more striking by the contrast
they present. We reach the far-famed " Section B,"
of which we have heard so much, and which is
still a theme of such varied comment by politicians
and newspaper writers. This section of railway
passes through a country rugged in the extreme.
The surface is a succession of rocky ridges, with
tortuous lakes and deep muskegs intervening.
The line has been carried across these depressions
on temporary staging, and steam shovels and construction trains are busy converting the miles of
frail looking trestlework into solid embankment.
Our train moves slowly over this portion of the
line; indeed, until this work is further advanced
it would be hazardous to adopt a high rate of
speed. Eagle Lake, with the numerous lakelets
which we see from the railway, are sheets of
water with beauty enough to command attention. A few rude graves on the hillside mark
the violent death of the poor workmen who suffered from the careless handling of that dangerous
explosive, nitro-glycerine. Although the most effective of instruments in the removal of rock, the
least want of caution and care often exacts the
most terrible penalty. In the fifty miles we have
passed over, upwards of thirty poor fellows have
lost their lives by its use. This explosive may be
used with perfect safety, but in its handling it
exacts prudence and attention to details; otherwise there will be no immunity from want of care.
With the reckless and negligent it is a constant
source of danger.
There is no great area of land suitable for profitable farming in this district. A few good townships may be laid out, but the country generally
through which the railway runs is not adapted for
agricultural purposes. Every acre of soil, however, is covered with timber of more or less value.
Care should be taken to prevent the destruction
of these forests. Stringent regulations should be
made with regard to them, and no reckless waste
permitted. In a few years these forests will prove
sources of considerable wealth, and the ground
over which we are now passing should be jealously
guarded as a preserve for the supply of timber in
coming years.
The passengers begin to be clamorous for the
next refreshment station. We learn that it is at
Bat Portage. We trust that the name does not
suggest the cheer we are to receive. There is
an old tradition that the Chinaman delighted in 174
that rodent, and we all have read that during the
siege of Paris it was an established article of
food. Bat Portage is beginning to be an important place. It is situated where the waters of the
Lake of the Woods fall into the Biver Winnipeg;
Four large saw mills have been constructed here,
and immense quantities of lumber have been despatched to Winnipeg and the country beyond.
At present Bat Portage is the watering place for
the City of Winnipeg. Gold mining has been
commenced, but it is a pursuit on which but little
calculation can be made.
For the moment there is excitement in the district, and many explorers are engaged in examining the rocky ledges which crop out on the
shore and are exposed on the innumerable islands
of the Lake of the Woods. It is to be seen if this
is a passing spasm or an assured success. When
some instance of individual good fortune in gold
mining becomes known, crowds for a time push
forward eagerly, many desperately, on the path
which they impulsively trust is to lead them at
once to fortune. Such hopes are often built on
imperfect foundations. The slightest reverse depresses the sanguine gold-hunter, and the pursuit
is most often abandoned with the recklessness
with which it was undertaken. How many may
with bitterness repeat the well known words of
my countryman, John Leyden, in his ode to an
" Slave of the mine, thy yellow light
Gleams baleful on the tomb fire drear."
When the train came to a stand the proverbial
rush for dinner was made. No regular refreshment room could be found. In fact, none had yet
been erected. But there were several temporary
shanties built around, whose merits were loudly
proclaimed by the several touts in a great many
words and the ringing of bells. We had made
the acquaintance of some New Zealand travellers
on their way to see two sons settled in Manitoba,
and we agreed to take our dinner together. We
selected one of these establishments. Our recollections of Bat Portage are not impressed by any
excellence in its commissairiat. That which was
set before us was execrable. I am not difficult to
please, but there is a lower depth in these matters.
Such a meal would scarcely have been palatable
during the hunger of the siege of Paris, and a
man could only have swallowed what was given
at Bat Portage when suffering the pangs of starvation. There is evidently a call for improvement
at this place before the line is fully opened to
Leaving Bat Portage, we pass to what is known
as " Section Fifteen." It is nearly forty miles in
length, and, like "Section B," runs through a
district remarkable for its rugged aspect. For a
long distance west of Bat Portage the country is
much the same in character as the Lake of the 176
Woods: full of rocky, tree-covered ridges and
islets, the former a labyrinth of deep, narrow,
winding sheets of water, separated by tortuous
granite bluffs. If the lake has within its limits
hundreds of islands, the land embraces innumerable lakelets. It was this rugged and broken
country, so repelling in its condition in the wilderness, which dictated the opinion of a quarter
of a century back of high authorities that the
country between Lake Superior and Bed Biver
was not practicable for railway construction. The
difficulties have, however, been grappled with and
overcome, necessarily with great labour and great
cost; and, as I was passing over it, it struck my
mind as no bad example of the danger of positively
asserting a negative. The necessary work of placing the trestlework in good condition on " Section
Fifteen" is more advanced than on " Section B."
The train, therefore, runs at a higher rate of speed.
As we proceed we can observe that the roadbed is
fairly well ballasted, and we run at about thirty
miles an hour on the finished portion of the line,
over the gigantic earthworks of Cross Lake, Lake
Deception and the succeeding lakes.
The distance from Lake Superior to the Bed
Biver at Selkirk is 410 miles, and notwithstanding
the extreme roughness of the country through
which it passes, the railway, when completed, will
bear comparison with any other line on this Continent.     The utmost care has been  exercised to A STORM.
establish gradients favourable to cheap transportation.    In this respect I know of no other four
hundred miles of railway in the Dominion or in
the United States that can be compared with the^
section west of Port Arthur.
We leave " Section 15 " and the rugged country"
behind us, and enter on the prairie land of the;
West. We pass Selkirk, which once promised to
be a centre of importance, but the City of Winnipeg, twenty miles to the south of it, has grown up,
is rapidly increasing, and asserting its claim to be
the first city in the • North-West. As we proceed
the sky becomes darkened and we are overtaken by
a thunderstorm, during which the rain falls in as
heavy masses of water as it has ever been my fate
to see. The wind increases to a hurricane, but art
triumphs over the elements. As the train continues its course on the well ballasted road, at the
rate of twenty-five miles an hour, the passengers
generally seemed scarcely aware of the tempest
raging outside. An unusual phenomenon is presented : we pass through an electrical snowstorm,
which, in a few minutes, whitens the ground over
a stretch of a mile. Hail storms are in no way
uncommon when the conditions of the air are disturbed, but I have never before witnessed a snowstorm under similar circumstances.
We reach the station at Winnipeg, having been
twenty-four hours on our journey. A few years
ago the distance from Lake Superior to this point,
12 178
by the old canoe route, exacted twelve or fourteen
days. When the railway is in complete working
order the journey may be performed in fourteen
hours. On my arrival at the station the night was
black and forbidding, for the rain continued to fall
in torrents. Nevertheless several old friends were
there to extend me a welcome and the offer of a
temporary home. Among others I grasped the
hand of Dr. Grant, of Queen's College, who again
is to be my companion to the Pacific Coast. Before
leaving the station I made definite arrangements
with the railway officials to leave in thirty-six
hours for Calgary. We groped our way through
the wind and rain to profit by the hospitality so
kindly offered, and I was not sorry to find myself
again under a roof with the best of good cheer
before me. 1*-
Early Explorers of the North-West—Du Luth—De la Verendrye
—Mackenzie—Hudson's Bay Company—Treaty of Utrecht—
North-West Company—Lord Selkirk—War in the North-West
—Union of the Rival Companies—The North-West Annexed
to Canada.
Winnipeg, with a population of 30,000 inhabitants, is the creation of the last decade. Thirteen
years back there was little to distinguish its site
from any other spot on the river's bank. The Bed
Biver was skirted by a single tier of holdings on
the shore line, directly along its banks for a distance of fifty miles, known as the Selkirk Settlement. At the confluence of the Eiver Assiniboine
with the main stream there stood old Fort Garry,
an establishment of the Hudson's Bay Company.
We have in this old fort the precursor of the city.
In 1859 a few buildings, including a hotel, were
clustered hear it as the commencement of the
future Winnipeg. At an early date in the history
of French Canada a great extent of the country 180
around the western lakes was explored. Prominent among the many men eminent in these discoveries was Du Luth, who appears in connection
with the North-West as having been the first
to establish a fort on the Biver Kaministiquia,
Lake Superior, about 1680, on the site of Fort
William. It is not to be supposed that at this
date no further explorations were undertaken
westward by the French. Many of the waterways were certainly known, and to some extent
they were followed. But no attempt was made to
extend trade operations beyond Lake Superior; and
it was only to a limited extent that discovery was
pushed westward. For some years exploration
was turned towards the south of the territory held
by the French, to guard against the encroachment
of the English from New York, which now commenced to attract more attention.
There is no proof that any change in this respect
took place until the days of De la Verendrye. This
remarkable man in 1731 was in charge of Fort
Nepigon, Lake Superior. In that year he started
westward across the height of land, passed through
the chain of lakes to the Lake of the Woods and
followed the Biver Winnipeg to Lake Winnipeg.
Proceeding to the south of the Lake he ascended
the Bed Biver and reached the Assiniboine. I
cannot learn that any white man, before him, ever
stood on the site of the present City of Winnipeg.
A series of forts were constructed by him ; one
where Bainy Biver flows into the Lake of the
Woods, Fort St. Pierre; one on what is known as
the Northwest Angle, Fort Charles ; one where the
Biver Winnipeg flows into Lake Winnipeg, Fort
Maurepas, which name he also gave to the lake
itself; one where the Bed Biver flows into Lake
Winnipeg, Fort Bouge; and one at the junction of
the Assiniboine with the Bed Eiver, proximately
on the site of the City of Winnipeg, Fort de la
De la Verendrye, himself, never saw the Eocky
Mountains, but the discovery was made by his two
sons in an expedition organized by him and carried
out in accordance with his instructions. They
started from the Fort de la Beine, followed the
Assiniboine to the Biver Souris, which they traced
to one of its sources, thence passing to the Missouri
they followed that stream till they came within
sight of the first range  of mountains.    It  was
therefore to the south of Canadian territory that
the peaks were first seen. De la Verendrye had
made a series of northern explorations, reaching
the Saskatchewan by Lake Winnipeg, into which
it discharges. He established Fort Bourbon at
this point. He advanced along the river as far
as Lake Cumberland, at the entrance to which he
established Fort Poscoyac, which seems to have
been the limit of his travels. He was acquainted
with Lake Winnipegoosis and Lake Manitoba, and
established Fort Dauphin at the northern end of 182
the latter lake. While engaged in organizing a
more extended expedition he died in 1749 at
The succeeding ten years of French Canada were
passed in the struggle for national life. The
North-West obtained but little attention except for
the purpose of commerce with the Indians. In
spite of the difficulties of carrying it on, it had
increased in extent and was now of considerable
importance. With the conquest the trade almost
disappeared, and it was not for some years afterwards that it was recommenced on the part of the
The celebrated Sir Alexander Mackenzie, the
first white man who by land reached the Pacific
Ocean in Northern latitudes, has left some valuable information concerning the trade of this
period. We learn from him that the military posts
established by the French at the confluence of the
lakes had strongly in view the control of the traffic
in furs. During French rule, trade had been conducted under admirable regulations. He himself
tells us that a number of able and respectable men,
retired from the army, had carried on their operations under license with great order and regu-
larity. At the same time, the trade itself was
fettered by many unwise restrictions Nevertheless it was taken to immense distances, and "it
was a matter of surprise," he adds, " that no exertions were made from Hudson's Bay to  obtain EARLY FORTS.
even a share of the trade," which, according to the
charter of that company, belonged to it.
The Hudson's Bay Company at this date had
been nearly a century in existence. Hudson's
last voyage to Hudson's Bay was in 1610. In 1612-
Button sailed and discovered Port Nelson, York
Factory. It was not, however, until 1669 that any
settlement was made, when Captain Zachariah
Gillam, a New England captain, established himself at the discharge of the Nemisco and constructed a stone fort, calling it Fort Charles, the
present Fort Bupert. It was after this step, on
the 2nd of May, 1670, that the charter was given
to the Hudson's Bay Company, a result no little
owing to the influence of Prince Bupert.
The first operations of the company were marked
by great energy, and their trade rapidly increased..
In the first fifteen years five factories were in
operation : Bupert, to the east of James' Bay, at.
the discharge of the Eiver Nemisco; Hayes, at the-
south-western corner and at the mouth of the
Moose Eiver; Albany, on the west, some twenty
miles north of Moose Biver ; York Factory, on the
Nelson Biver; and Churchill, north of York, the
most northerly settlement on the west coast.
From   1686   to   the Treaty of   Utrecht there
were a series of attempts on the part of French
Canada to dispossess the company.    No doubt the-
French authorities held that their supremacy was
dangerously threatened by the establishment of 184
flourishing settlements to the north, identical in
nationality with the Bostonnais of Massachusetts
and the English of New York. The Treaty of
'Byswick itself, in 1695, even became the cause of
difficulty, from the vagueness of its provisions,
and it was not until the Treaty of Utrecht, in
1713, that the French claims were entirely abandoned. The English Government had determined
to retain Nova Scotia, the fisheries of Newfoundland and what was called the Hudson's Bay
Territory, and on that basis peace was made.
For the next half century there was no clashing
of interests between the Hudson's Bay Company
and the French of Canada, owing to the operations
of the latter being extended in a limited degree
north of Lake Superior. After the conquest, for
some years, the trade was thrown entirely into
the Company's hands. Indians even went to York
Factory to barter their furs. During this period
the profits must have been immense. It was only
by degrees that the English traders from Canada
penetrated into the country. They found the
Indian unfriendly. The French had instilled into
his mind a jealousy of the English speaking race,
having represented it as the ally of the Iroquois,
the long-standing enemy of the Lake Superior
Indians. A rooted distrust had thus grown up
which long remained. About 1766 trade somewhat recommenced, assisted by Montreal enterprise.    Michillimackinac was for a long time the FIRST TRADERS.
base of such operations, and few traders penetrated further than the Kaministiquia. Thomas
Curry was the first to pass beyond this limit.
He reached Fort Bourbon, where Cedar Lake discharges into Lake Winnipeg, whence he brought
away so fine a cargo of furs that he was satisfied
never again to return to the Indian country.
By this time the Hudson's Bay Company had
pushed on their posts to Sturgeon Lake, and now
commenced that antagonism between those representing the interests centered at Montreal and the
members of the company, which for half a century
caused difficulty, embarrassment, loss and finally
One of the charges made against the Montreal
traders of those days was that they were the first
to introduce rum into the North-West, to the ruin
of the Indians.
A name of that period, preserved in the records
of the law, still survives: Peter Pond, who was
tried for the murder of one of his partners. He
escaped by the Court determining that they had
no jurisdiction in the territory. Pond was a man
of much energy. Following in the steps of Frob-
isher, he traded north of Lake Winnipeg to the
tributaries of the Churchill, and to the Westward
as far as the Arthabaska and Elk Bivers. His
purpose was to intercept the furs en route to Fort
Churchill, on Hudson's Bay. The trade, in the
meantime, received a severe blow from the con- 186
duct of some traders at Eagle Hills. A dose of
laudanum was given to an Indian, and caused
his death. In the turmoil which ensued several
lives were lost, and the commerce with the Indians
became much impeded.
To remedy the depressed condition of the trade
and to avoid further complications, the North-
West Company was formed in 1783. A rival
company was started, of which the celebrated
Mackenzie was a member. The two were, however, united in 1787.
At this date the North-West Company arrogated
to itself full control over the countiy. No operations of any kind except under their authority
were permitted. The company was supreme.
The private trader was driven from the field, and
it would seem that these extreme measures could
be carried out with impunity. They were the
days of the North-West Company's affluence and
power. Influences even without its ranks came
within their control, to make the organization
irresistible. Peculiarly it was a Canadian enter-
prise, and as such commanded sympathy against
competition from without. We can scarcely, at
this day, understand the extent of its power. In
our commercial world, as we find it, there are
many wealthy corporations possessing social and
political control. The avenues to wealth and distinction are numerous, branching out from many
centres.    It may be  asserted that formerly the LORD SELKIRK.
North-West was looked upon as the one field
which promised prizes in life's lottery to the
youth of the country. The leading magnates,
who had large incomes, indulged in princely hospitality, the memory of which has not wholly
died away, and it may be conceived how, at that
date, with a small population, with a limited
field for enterprise, with little general wealth, the
power of the company was everywhere recognized.
I have now arrived at the period when I have
to record the settlement of Bed Biver, the forerunner of the City of Winnipeg : indeed, the first
step taken towards making the prairies the abode
of civilized life. The task is not easy. The ashes
of the fires of that day are yet warm under our
feet. The sons and grandsons of the men whose
names are identified with the leading events are
among those who we meet daily. The story has
often been told; nevertheless it is only imperfectly
known. The principal actor in these events was-
Lord Selkirk. As his character is studied it must
be conceded that few men have been marked by a
higher sense of life and duty. A man of remarkable ability, his character was one of rare disinterestedness and chivalry, and I cannot but think
his name will so live in our history.
As early as 1802 Lord Selkirk entered into-
correspondence with the English Government on
the advisability of promoting emigration from the- 188
Highlands and Ireland to Bupert's Land. The
following year he arranged to carry a body of
Highlanders to Prince Edward Island. We next
hear of him in Canada and the United States,
where he passed two years examining into the
means available to carry out his purpose. During
1804 he entered into correspondence with General
Hunter, then Governor of Upper Canada, now
-Ontario, with regard to making settlements in
that Province. Those were not the days when
•questions such as these received much attention,
nor were they even understood. The value of
population to develop the resources of a country
nad generally to be better known before correct
wiews could prevail as to the value of unsettled
land, and the negotiations failed owing to the
excessive price demanded for it.
As Canada did not offer the field sought, Lord
i Selkirk turned to the Hudson's Bay Company as
the means by which his theories of colonization
could be carried out. He and his friends took
their measures accordingly. He purchased stock
in the company, and thus obtained a commanding
influence and the recognition necessary for the
prosecution of the undertaking. This event took
place in 1811.
From the commencement the North-West Company vigorously opposed his project. They looked
upon Lord Selkirk as a visionary, and his scheme
.alike impracticable and undesirable.    They might FIRST SETTLEMENT.
not be unwilling to divide the hunting ground of
a continent with their rivals, but they did not
recognise that the prairies of the west were available for support of human life. They regarded
the country as a wilderness, to be reserved for the
fur-bearing animals alone. Hitherto their profits
had been excessive and secure, and any change
threatening the discontinuance or reduction of the
advantages which they possessed had to be avoided.
Evidently such a scheme as that of Lord Selkirk's was the first step towards the destruction
of their trade and the diminution of their profits.
- The same year some ninety persons, mostly Highland cotters from Sutherlandshire, with a few
additions from the West of Ireland, reached Hudson's Bay. They wintered there, and in 1812
travelled to Bed Biver, a proceeding in itself
memorable, as from it dates the settlement of the
North-West. A further number was added in
1813. The two winters 1812-1813, till the spring
of 1814, were passed at Pembina, at Fort Daer.
The Governor was Captain Miles Macdonnell,
formerly of the Queen's Bangers. In 1814 further