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The sea of mountains : an account of Lord Dufferin's tour through British Columbia in 1876. In two volumes.… St. John, Molyneux, 1838-1904 1877

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Array     THE SEA OE MOUNTAINS.
VOL.  I. um
Go ye and look upon that land,
That far vast land that few behold,
'And none beholding understand;
That old old land which men call new,
That land as old as time is old.
The solemn silence of that plain,
"Where unmanned tempests ride and reign,
It ,awes and it possesses you
"Tis, oh, so eloquent!
A wide domain of mysteries
And signs that men misunderstand;
A land of space and dreams : a land
Of sea, salt lakes, and dried up seas;
A land of caves and caravans,
And lonely wells and pools.
Joaquin Miller.  
PHOTOGRAPHED   BY   LOCK   & WHITFIELD,   LONDON. THE SEA OE MOUNTAINS
AN ACCOUNT OF
LORD  DUFEERIFS  TOUR
THBOTTGH
BRITISH COLUMBIA
IN 1876.
BY
MOLYNEUX   ST.   JOHN.
IN TWO VOLUMES.
VOL. I.
LONDON:
HURST AND BLACKETT, PUBLISHERS,
13,   GEEAT MABLBOEOTTGH STEEET.
1877.
All rights reserved.  
TO HER EXCELLENCY
THE  COUNTESS  OF DUFFERIN,
WHO accompanied heb husband,
THE GOVERNOR-GENERAL OF CANADA,
ON HIS TOUB THROUGH
BRITISH   COLUMBIA,
AND WHOSE NAME IS THEBE  SUBBOUNDED BY A HALO OV
PLEASANT BE0OLLE0TIONS,
THIS IMPEBPEOT BECOBD OF THE JOURNEY IS,
WITH PERMISSION, INSCBIBED BY
THE AUTHOR.  CONTENTS
OP  THE
FIRST   VOLUME.
CHAPTER I.
Railway Journey to Chicago—The Governor-General
of Canada—Plague of Dust—A Gentleman in the
Ladies' Comb and Hair-pin Interest—Talk in the
Cars — The Indians in Arms —Vague Ideas — Out
West—The Sioux Indian—Respect for the British
Flag— Captain Cameron—A Remedy for Mosquitoes —
Lord Dufferin's Plans. . . . .12
CHAPTER II.
Stay in Chicago—Journey from Chicago to Omaha—
Appearance of the Country—Immense Crops of Indian Corn—Stock-raising—The Tide of Immigration
—Omaha—Presidential Campaign—The Indian Question-The Sioux—Spotted Tail and Sitting Bull—
A modest " Nobleman"—A False Position .   22 Vlll CONTENTS.
CHAPTER III.
Lord and Lady Dufferin at Omaha—Curious Statements—The Sioux War—Indian Agents—The Sioux
Interpreter—Adventure of Prussian Students—Sale
of Sioux Curiosities—Peculation of Indian Money—
Sitting Bull—Union Pacific Railway—Scene at Omaha
Depot—The Platte River—Prairies and Plains—Buffaloes and Grasshoppers—Travelling through Nebraska—The Prairie Dog, . . .35
CHAPTER IV.
Expressions of Opinion—Lady Dufferin and American
Ladies—In the Land of the Mormons—The Laramie
Plains—Fossil Remains—The Rocky Mountains —
Highest Point of the Journey—Sherman—The Echo
and Weber Canons—Chinamen and Mormons—Commencement of Mormon Land—Engineering Enterprise. . . . . . .58
CHAPTER V.
Settlement of the Mormons—Acquisition of Utah—
Territorial Organisation—Cities of the West—Agricultural Districts—Enfranchisement of Women—Gentile and Mormon Households—Salt Lake City—Elections—Power of Brigham Young—Blood Atonements
Ogden — Salt
.     74.
— Mountain
Lake
Meadow    Massacre CONTENTS. IX
CHAPTER VI.
Salt Lake City—The Lion House—The Bee-hive—
Brigham Young—Interview with the Prophet—A
Mormon Uncle—Charge against the President of Utah
■ —The Tabernacle—Brigham Young's "Wives—House
of a Favourite Wife—Flight of Ann Eliza—Salt
Lake City "Tribune"—Aspect of the Inhabitants—
The Theatre—Feeling inspired by the Place.     .     97
CHAPTER VII.
The Sierra Nevada—Central Pacific Railway—The Alkaline Plains—Construction of the Line—Difficulties
overcome — Magnificent View on the Line — Cape
Horn—Comparisons—The " Amythyst"—Pacific Mail
Company's Steamers—Projected Route of the Governor-General— Hotels in America—Arrival at San
Francisco.   . . . . . .   117
CHAPTER VIII.
Arrival in British Columbia—Esquimalt—Reception
of the Governor-General—Manning the Yards—Sir
James Douglas, First Governor of Vancouver's Island
—Victoria—Indian Songs—Municipal Address—Lord
Dufferin's Reply — Objectionable Mottoes — Chinese
Arches—Carnarvon Terms,- or Separation—The Pacific Railway—Letter to the Secretary of the Reception Committee.    .....   130 I
X CONTENTS.
CHAPTER IX.
The "Rebel Arch" —The Victorians and the Pacific
Railway—Vicissitudes of British Columbia—Sinister
Intentions attributed to Canada—Evening Reception
—Position and Aspect of Victoria—Climate of Vancouver—The Coal Interests of Vancouver—Proposed
Meeting with the Indians — Chinese Population of
Victoria—Peculiar Distinction of John Chinaman—
Chinese Servants   .....   155
CHAPTER X.
Their Excellencies Reception—Deputations from the
Churches—Railway Deputation—Division of Sentiment in the Province—Conservative Demands—British Columbia—Unfulfilled Obligations—Threat of
Separation—Rumours of a Railway Difficulty—Address to the Governor       ....   181
CHAPTER XI.
A Disappointed Deputation and a Furious Editor—Excitement in Victoria—The " Standard"—The Topic of
the Day—The | Colonist"—Feeling excited by the
Abandonment of the Island Railway—Demands of
the Extreme and Moderate Parties—Degraded Indeed
— Report Wanted — A Convention at Victoria-
Mr. De Cosmos — Departure of the Governor-
General       . . . . . .198 CONTENTS.
XI
CHAPTER XII.
Amusements and Social Contact with the Vice-regal
Party—Lady Dufferin's Garden Party—Cary Castle—
Women at a Garden Party—Ball-room at Government House—Representatives of the Chinese Community—The Regatta—Scene at the Races—Display
of Indian Canoes—A Pretty Pageant—The Heidah
Indians.      . . . . . .212
CHAPTER XIII.
Arrival at Nanaimo—The Great Coal-Field of the
Pacific—Lord Dufferin's Reception—The Person most
Interested in the Island Branch—Freight of Coal by
Railway—Location of the Terminus—Importance of
good Anchorages—Election of an Indian Chief—Bute
Inlet—Agreeable " Mess" on Board the Dominion
Steam-Yacht — Scenery of the Haro Straits — San
Juan's Island—Origin of the San Juan Difficulty ......   231
CHAPTER XIV.
St. John's Point—Unsuccessful Sport—Bute Inlet—
Magnificent Scenery—Waddington Harbour—The Sea
of Mountains—Running on a Sunken Rock—Fitzhugh Sound—The Dean's Canal—Dangerous Navigation—Entrance to the Juan de Fuca Straits—Burrard's Inlet—Magnitude of the Canadian Undertaking
—Prudent Conduct of Mrs. Mackenzie . .   261 CONTENTS.
CHAPTER XV.
In the Straits—Steamer in Sight—Fort Simpson—The
British and American Boundary—A Heavy Fog—Indian Village—Diving for Coppers—Indian Canoes—
Chase of the Sea-Otter—Wolves—Linguistic Abilities
of | John"—Salmon—Curious Establishment—The
Oolican, or Candle Fish—Fisheries on the Skena River—Objectionable Expressions—Enterprise of Early
Navigators ......   279
CHAPTER. XVI.
Mission to the Tsimpsean Indians—Mr. Duncan—Met-
lakahtla—Indian Trading on the Co-operative Principle—The Governor-General's Visit—Presentations—
An Indian Bride—Improvement and Education of the
Indians—Mr. Duncan's Plans—An Arithmetical Problem—Musical Acquirements—Address to the Earl of
Dufferin, and the Governor-General's Reply     .   298
-^^^^^W^KS"**"*-^ THE SEA OE MOUNTAINS.
INTEQDUCTION.
"PvURINGr the earlier years of his re-
•*-' sidence in Canada, as its Governor-
General , Lord Dufferin had visited the
various sections of the Dominion from the
seaboard of Nova Scotia to the great
watershed beyond Lake Superior—the
height of land that divides the waters
flowing eastwardly into the St. Lawrence
from those flowing through the great lakes
and rivers of the north into Hudson's Bay.
He had seen more of Canada than the vast
majority of Canadians, and had visited the
people of the several provinces in their
homes and at their labours.    There yet
VOL. I. b
_—_■»*— -M»--
THE   SEA   OE   MOUNTAINS.
remained, however, the prairies of tbe
North West, and the great auriferous province of the Pacific coast unvisited by him.
This last-mentioned province had been
for some time in a very disturbed, discontented, and unhappy frame of mind.
The little English Colony of British
Columbia, small in population, but large
in territory, and with an unknown quantity
of undeveloped resources, had entered the
Confederation of the British North American Colonies—a confederation now spoken
of as the Dominion of Canada—in the year
1871. Unfortunately this union with
Canada was made without due consideration being given to the two questions :—what ought British Columbia to
expect? and what can Canada afford to
do ? On the contrary, the matter was
rushed through with a flourish of trumpets,
and British Columbia joined the Dominion
with an undertaking in her pocket binding
Canada to do that which could not be
done, that which the public men of Canada ■BBBPHISI^HtB!
INTRODUCTION. 3
knew was out of the question, and what
British Columbia either knew or should
have known was impossible. Canada had
undertaken to build a railway across the
Continent in ten years from the date of
union. Five years have elapsed since
then, during which time diligent surveys
and explorations have been made, and it
is hardly yet possible to determine how the
railway is to be brought through the mountains of British Columbia. The folly
therefore of expecting, and promising to
build, before a single survey had been
made, a road which within ten years was
to cross three ranges of mountains besides
traversing the greater part of the Continent
will be apparent. It became so to every
one concerned, and a modification of the
terms of union was suggested.
As a portion of these substituted conditions, which came to be known as the
1 Carnarvon terms" (a misnomer, as Lord
Carnarvon was not the author of the
proposition),   a railway  was to be built
b 2 »
THE  SEA OE MOUNTAINS.
11
from Esquimalt—a harbour near Yictoria,
the capital of Vancouver Island—to
Nanaimo, a seaport in the vicinity of the
several coal-mines, about seventy miles up
the coast. Vancouver Island, which is
the largest island on the coast, was at one
time a colony of itself; British Columbia—
the mainland portion of the now province
being a distinct colony. Before their
union with Canada the two had become
one colony, but their interests were in
some respects diverse, and jealousy always
existed between them. The proposition
therefore to build this road on the island
was not regarded by the mainland with
any great favour, and it was otherwise
objected to on the score that there was
nothing to be carried between the two
places except coals, and that no one
would send coals by rail with a seaway
alongside of it.
Victoria, however, the capital of the
island, being also the capital of the province, possessed the usual influence of a mm
mm
INTRODUCTION.
capital in a country of small and scattered
settlements, and Victoria set its heart
upon having the island railway. Mr.
Mackenzie, who had become Premier
of Canada on the defeat of Sir John
Macdonald and the Conservative party,
having made the offer of the | Carnarvon
terms," as a substitution for the original
impossible terms, was desirous of carrying
them into effect, and brought a Bill be
fore Parliament for that purpose. It passed
the House of Commons by a large majority,
but between the time of the vote in the
Lower House and its discussion in the
Senate (the Upper House), the speeches of
two of the British Columbian Ministers in
the Provincial Legislature arrived at the
capital of the Dominion, and showed that
the Provincial Government, in accepting
the I Carnarvon terms," did not relinquish
the old or impossible agreement. The
Senate therefore threw out the Bill, and as
it was generally admitted that an isolated
island    railway    having    no    connexion 0
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
with the mainland was an absurdity, it
was not again introduced. On this the
politicans and many of the island people
became greatly exercised, and indignantly
refused a money compensation which Mr.
Mackenzie's government offered. Many of
them, who had calculated that their waste
land and other property would greatly
increase in value by the building of the
road, were much disappointed, while some
of the less scrupulous politicians, particularly those who had tasted power and
had forfeited it, were quick to seize any
opportunity of so disturbing existing
arrangements that a chance might be
offered for their own return to office.
Separation from Canada was spoken of,
and even annexation to the United States
was contemplated by a few. The people of
the island generally had reason to complain,
although they were themselves in a measure
to blame for the first agreement; but as
Mr. Mackenzie had no power to increase
the number of the Senate, and so make the INTRODUCTION.
passage of his bill certain, he was not to
be censured for its first failure, and the
general feeling of the country forbade its
being presented a second time. The
question therefore between Canada and
her Pacific Coast Province was more or
less at a dead-lock, the "Carnarvon
terms" in their integrity being contrary
to the sentiment of the Canadians—who
would have to supply the money for them—
and the money compensation, seven hun-.
dred and fifty thousand dollars, had been
refused; the | Carnarvon terms," the
whole terms, and nothing but the " Carnar-
von terms" being the cry of the people of
Victoria, and consequently of the majority
of the islanders. It must be remembered,
however, that the people of the mainland,
separated from Victoria by a narrow strait
and once a separate colony, had no interest in the | Carnarvon terms" being
strictly carried, but were equally with the,
islanders pressing for the construction of
the Main Pacific Railway,  although some- THE   SEA  OE  MOUNTAINS.
what at variance with the islanders as to the
route which should be taken. The Vancouver Island people entirely depended on
the Canada Pacific Railway crossing the
strait between the islands at its narrow
part and coming down by Nanaimo through
Victoria to the harbour at Esquimalt; the
people of the mainland on the contrary
held that the road should come down by the
valley of the Thompson and Fraser rivers,
and terminate at a place called Burrard's
Inlet opposite to Esquimalt. Thus on the
question of the main route, as well as on
the necessity of building the Island Railway, the two sections of the province were
at variance.
The Vancouver Island people, however,
affirmed, and with some justice, that the
legislature, if not a unit, was almost so in
its intention to take what may be called
hostile action towards Canada unless
satisfaction was obtained, and a unanimous vote had already been carried in
the   House   upholding   the   | Carnarvon INTRODUCTION.
terms." It was at this juncture that the
Governor-General started from Ottawa on
the last day of July, 1876, for British
Columbia, to see the province and learn
for himself the true condition of feeling
amongst both sections of the people.
This short and necessarily cursory ex-
planation will serve to introduce the subject
which those who read what is to follow
will find constantly before them. The
Governor-General's party, consisting of
His Excellency and Lady Dufferin, Colonel
Littleton of the Grenadier Guards (the
Governor-General's military secretary),
Captain Ward and Lieutenant Hamilton,
19th (his two aide-de-camps) arrived at
Toronto Station a little before midnight on
the 31st of July. Here they were joined by
three special correspondents—Mr. E.
Horton of the Toronto Mail, Mr. J. B.
Stillson of the New York World, and Mr.
Molyneux St. John of the Toronto Globe—
who had been detailed by their respective
journals   to    accompany   the   Governor- 10
THE  SEA OF  MOUNTAINS.
General. The work which follows is from
the letters of the Globe correspondent.
The letters are not given precisely as
printed in the daily Globe, because portions
of them are interesting only to Canadians,
or relevant only to the hour when they
J *f
were published. It may be remembered
that they are " newspaper letters," written
on board of steamers, railway cars, and
similar inconvenient places, and concerning
places and topics which in some instances
could not, from the nature of the travels, be
thoroughly examined or investigated.
They give, however, it is hoped, a fairly
accurate account of Lord Dufferin's Tour
through British Columbia, at a time when
but for his visit the most serious trouble
to the Dominion of Canada, as well as to
the Imperial Government, was imminent.
This volume contains the excellent speech
made by Lord Dufferin before leaving
Victoria, a speech which in more than one
way rendered good and powerful service to
the country—and the letters are at least a mm
INTRODUCTION.
11
i
record of a journey which will have its indirect effect throughout the British Empire.
One merit only is claimed for them. By
first reading the letters some knowledge will
have been acquired of the persons and
places of which Lord Dufferin makes
mention in his speech.
The volume has been called " The Sea
of Mountains," for that most applicable
name was once given to the Province
of British Columbia by an eminent Ca-
nadian statesman during a debate in the
House of Commons. It is true that a few
of the least reasonable persons in British
Columbia took exception to the epithet,
but the sensible and thinking portion
of the community admit the correctness of
the description and base upon it their
argument, that, in consequence of its pe-
peculiar physical character, special consideration will be necessary to discover
the best means of utilizing its enormous
undeveloped wealth for the benefit of the
Dominion. mgmm
12
*****§
I
1
CHAPTER I.
Railway Journey to Chicago—The Governor-General
of Canada—Plague of Dust—A Gentleman in the
Ladies' Comb and Hair-pin Interest—Talk in the
Cars — The Indians in Arms —Vague Ideas — Out
West—The Sioux Indian—Respect for the British
Flag—Captain Cameron—A Remedy for Mosquitoes—
Lord Dufferin's Plans.
A PTER a reasonably propitious journey
-^*- His Excellency the Governor-General
arrived at Chicago this evening at eight
o'clock, or thereby, and drove straightway
to that palace of public palaces, the Palmer
House. He had before visited Chicago
en grande tenue, so that his visit to-day was
strictly private, and with a view of obtaining rest after last night and to-day. For
one reason and another the majority of
Pullmanites complained that they had not
M
^
^^^_^ BY RAILWAY TO  CHICAGO.
13
slept much last night, and most intended
to snooze through the journey from Detroit
to Chicago. But man proposes in the
affairs of life just as he does at ecarte*,
without any certainty that his plans will
be permitted to ripen to execution.
As the train stopped at the various
stations and junctions, individuals in long
brown Holland wrappers were conspicuous,
and a suspicion arose in the general mind
that perhaps the journey to-day was to be
through a dusty part of the country.
Perhaps it was, indeed. The dust began
as soon as it conveniently could, and,
gradually thickening as the breeze increased, kept us all well covered until we
were within a few miles of the Chicago
terminus. I never saw such efforts made
to dodge dust as were exhibited in the
cars, and never saw efforts so futile.
Ladies covered themselves up in long overcoats of Holland, and wrapped veils round
their respective heads ; then they concluded that the veils caught the dust, and WBBBBtm
14
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
[I
took them off and flapped them about.
Then they opened the inner window and
shut the outer one ; then reversed this
arrangement; and then tried both shut,
and the ventilators open, and still there
was a thick fog of dust all day long in the
carriage.
There were some ample washing arrangements in the car in which your correspondent travelled, and we all sought
relief in constant bathing. Before it was
possible to use a towel a coating of mud
would form on the skin, but as it was wet
mud it was pleasant, refreshing, and preferable to the dry dust. It was a warm day,
too, and every one was glad, at every available point, to get out and walk about. His
Excellency and Lady Dufferin were frequently out on the platforms, and they
were enabled to be so without annoyance
to themselves, as very few people knew that
the hindmost car was the temporary dwelling of tlje Governor-General of Canada.
It was not very easy to distinguish their
*_M*MS?*^**^*M A  SUBJECT  OF .CURIOSITY.
15
Excellencies, for they had wisely gone
into brown Holland, or its equivalent, and
I am inclined to believe that another
passenger drew a little of the fire of public
curiosity which otherwise would have
fallen on them. He was a gentleman who
evidently never looked at himself through
the small end of a field-glass. He had a
small hand-bag with him in the carriage,
which he insisted upon the car-conductor
carrying whenever the exigencies of the
journey necessitated this small object being
moved from car to car. He opened an
umbrella when compelled to stand for a
few minutes in the sun on the platform,
and altogether showed himself to be such
an amazing personage that while some
strangers, knowing that the Earl of
Dufferin was on board, and erroneously
believing that what they,   in pleasantry,
call  a   "b d Hinglish  Hearl" would
be likely to make himself conspicuous, were
eyeing him in doubt, some others came to
the  conclusion  that  such  a  magnificent THE  SEA OF MOUNTAINS.
person must be a first gentleman's gentleman attached to the suite of the Governor-
General. He was not, however, but in
the evening we found he had still further
developed in magnificence, and it was
darkly hinted that recently in Canada he
was a lord. Subsequent inquiries, however, have closed the peerage to him, and
I am induced to believe that he is a gentleman travelling in the ladies' comb and
hair-pin interest. I mention him because
he was the only relief in a tedious day, and
because I think the world will hear further
of him yet.
There was some talk on the cars, of
course, about the Indians in arms against
the United States troops. I have noticed
that the vaguest ideas are entertained
about the locality of the recent battles.
Even the Americans speak of it in a general
way as " Out West," very much in the
same manner as The Mulligan, when
asked where he lived, said " there," pointing generally in the direction of Uxbridge. THE   SIOUX.
17
They are practically as far off the Union
Pacifie Railway as if they were a thousand miles farther, but the question was
gravely asked whether there wasn't any
danger of their interfering with the train.
There was a gentleman in the car wherein the conversation re Indians took place,
who had evidently been impressed with
those romantic stories about Indians never
touching British subjects, and who suggested that, even if we came across
Sitting Bull and Co., we could hoist the
British ensign, and forthwith metamorphose the sedentary shorthorn from a
scalping enemy into a casual and pleasant
acquaintance. It is quite true that the
Sioux usually confine their attacks to
parties with whom they are at war, but
the meeting on American territory with
a party of young and irresponsible Sioux
Indians on the war path would afford
sufficient room for anxiety about little
matters that had been forgotten before
starting, even though each of the party
vol. I. o 18
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
\>
might be dressed in a suit of Union Jack.
Indians are   so   stupid   sometimes,   they
will make mistakes.    In our own territory,
or its immediate neighbourhood, there may
be a difference.    Some officials have unbounded belief in the efficacy of the flag
for this   purpose.    When the   boundary
surveyors were running the line westward
through Manitoba, and a resident of Pembina cautioned Captain Cameron—the head
of the Canadian or British survey—about
the Sioux who were then mustering in the
Wood Mountain district, and recommended
his taking a larger escort—" Oh, I am not
afraid of them," replied the gallant little
hero of the | blawsted fence," who, to do
him justice, is not usually afraid of anything,   " I  shall  just   hoist  the British
Ensign, and that will be sufficient."    The
Pembina gentleman made no reply, knowing that there was considerable reason in
the remark.
They continued their conversation, Captain  Cameron seeking information about MOSQUITOES.
19
the country, and the inquiry was made by
him as to the best means of saving his men
and animals from the annoyance of mosquitoes, that year very troublesome.
" There is no remedy for them," replied
the American, "except when there is a
slight breeze, before which they disappear."
I Yes, but," said the gallant officer,
I we must do something. Men can't
work and take careful observations with
these infernal mosquitoes buzzing around
them ; can't you do anything to get rid of
them, Mr. Lennon?"
" Wal, Sir, we can't do anything here ;
we have to put up with them. Perhaps if
you were to hoist the British Ensign you
spoke of a while ago that might scare
'em; I don't know nothing else they'd
give a cent for."
The talk about the Indians, short as it
was, attracted the attention of several of
our fellow-travellers. There was one lady
who yawned steadily once in three minutes
c 2 20
THE  SEA OF MOUNTAINS.
all the way from Detroit to Chicago, and
whose sleepiness had really been more
irritating than words can describe, but
who was temporarily roused by the question of Indians. She listenened attentively
while the possibility of their appearing on
the plains was hinted, but when the safety
of the journey was demonstrated she relapsed into the corner of her section and
yawned as if she would have eaten us.
Their Excellencies leave here to-morrow
morning at ten o'clock, by the Burlington
and Quincy route, and will arrive at
Omaha on the following morning (Thursday) at the same hour. There are three
trains daily from Chicago to Omaha, by as
many different routes, and all arrive at
Council Bluffs about the same time—
twenty-four hours after they start. Prom
Omaha west there is only one train a day,
but the Governor-General's party will not
connect at Omaha, but will remain over
for next day's train. It is not very
probable,  I think,  that His   Excellency PLANS FOR LORD DUFFERIN'S JOURNEY.     21
will diverge at Ogden to visit Salt Lake
City, at least on tbe journey west, though he
may perhaps do so on the homeward trip,
because it is necessary now to push on to
catch the mail-steamer at San Francisco.
Possibly, however, when San Francisco is
reached, the plans, as they effect the
I doing" of British Columbia and California, may be changed. On the return
journey Lord Dufferin will take a different
route through the States, and will probably
strike Philadephia on his way. Stay in Chicago—Journey from Chicago to Omaha-
Appearance of the Country—Immense Crops of Indian Corn—Stock-raising—The Tide of Immigration
-Omaha—Presidential Campaign—The Indian Question-The Sioux—Spotted Tail and Sitting Bull—
A modest " Nobleman"—A False Position.
THE Governor-General's stay in Chicago
was a very short one. He arrived
on Tuesday evening and left on Wednesday morning, and as hardly anyone knew
of his coming he was enabled to keep as
quiet as he desired. Some few personal
friends came down to the station to see
him off, and the motley gathering that
is always to be found at a railway station
at the departure of a trans-continental
train | took stock" of the party and made CHICAGO TO  OMAHA.
23
their critical but by no means uncomplimentary remarks upon their Excellencies
and their general entourage.
On his last trip, Lord Dufferin travelled
more or less in his official character, but
his present journey, so far as it is through
the States, is of a less formal nature, and
he is enabled to observe at his ease the
people amongst whom his course may
lie. He takes advantage of this, and talks
to anyone that the fancy of the moment
may prompt. I saw him closely examining a little fruit-stand at Council Bluffs,
where pennyworths of blue plums were
piled in inviting pyramids, and I think
that if he had not been called away to get
into the train he would have bought a
pyramid, which he would at once have
shared with the first acquaintance he met.
The journey from Chicago to Omaha
was as pleasant as that from Detroit to
Chicago had been the reverse, and we
were able to examine and appreciate the
agricultural beauties of Illinois and Iowa. 24
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
The Burlington and Quincy Road—by
which Lord Dufferin travelled — passes
through that part of Illinois which is more .
especially devoted to stock, particularly
hog-raising, and in consequence the greater
part of the crop is Indian corn. The
country thereabouts is in some parts very
flat, and in others a rolling prairie—if
cultivated land may still be spoken of as
prairie — and the fields are very large.
Looking out from the cars you can see
large tracts without seeing a fence at all,
and though, doubtless, some fencing is
hidden by the waving corn, the size of the
fields is beyond what we are accustomed
to in Canada.
I was much reminded of portions of
Lancashire by the country west of Chicago,
and a gentleman from Lancashire who was
travelling in the train said he noticed
the same thing. The farmers here are
not so bountifully supplied with wood as
those in Canada, but it is open to question whether there is not a superabundance CROPS   OF  INDIAN   CORN.
25
of those hideous snake fences in six out
of every ten farms in Ontario. The
Illinois farmers do not indulge in the sport
of fox-hunting. If they did they have a
country which, of all I have ever seen, is
second only to the shires in England.
But passing out of Illinois into Iowa,
which is done by crossing the Mississippi
at Burlington—a prettily situated and
growing city on the west bank of the
river, which is spanned by a handsome
iron suspension bridge—one finds that
the crops are still more exclusively of
Indian corn, and still more luxuriant than
those of Illinois. In some parts of this
State, and particularly in the valley of
the Missouri south of the Bluffs, which,
pierced by the river, sweep round Burlington and vanish off in the distance of
Nebraska, one saw such fields of Indian
corn as it would probably be difficult to
match elsewhere.
Even from the platform of the car one
could see   only  the  upper parts  of the 26
THE  SEA OF MOUNTAINS.
cottages,  schoolhouses, and other  buildings that here and there stood out white
and glittering  in this immense vista of
green.    An Iowa man told me, in answer
to my question, that the farmers in this
part did not ship much grain east, as they
found it more profitable to  turn it into
stock.    I  was  told of a farmer in the
western   part of Illinois—a  Canadian,  I
believe—who   grew  one   field  of twenty
thousand acres of Indian  corn,  and did
not gather a single head or stock of it,
but turned his cattle and pigs in as the
most profitable way  of using  the crop.
No one can fail to be pleased with this
region of country, and the reason why I
speak of it is because I believe we have,
in its own way, as good a country of our
own.    The word " prairie" is stamped on
Western Illinois and Iowa.    In every little
gulch, in every roll of the prairie, in every
distant copse of poplar, you see our own
North-west dressed in the varied garb of
civilization and cultivation.    It is as easy, COURSE   OF  IMMIGRATION.
27
in imagination, to unrobe Iowa and restore
its pristine covering as it is to clothe
Manitoba and its surroundings with the
crops and homesteads that follow one another in unbroken succession on these not
long reclaimed southern prairies. But
the circumstances are not, of course, the
same. The tide of immigration flows here
along three lines of railroad; it dribbles
into Manitoba along one tortuous river.
But the North-west will not long be with-
out its railway—and he is a wondrously
short-sighted patriot who throws difficulties in the way of its construction—and
as we know that its crops are excelled by
those of no other country, those who
have waited hopefully and patiently for
its proper development will be able to
say to the thousands of Englishmen and
Canadians who are spreading along the
line of the Union Pacific Railway :—
"We, too, have a country which was
once beautiful, even in its solitude and desolation, and which now blossoms like the THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
rose; we too have a home to offer the
West-seeking wanderer, where plenty and
comfort reward the man who will work
to secure it; our ridges are speckled
with herds, and our valleys yellow with
grain; we have secured comfort and independence for our families, education for
our children, the services of our religion,
and we enjoy it all protected by the flag
under which ourselves and our fathers
before us have lived in safety, and in the
exercise of self-government. Come ye also
who westward would take your way, and
who are still proud of your name and nationality, for that which you have envied
in other lands is offered to you in your
own.'
Omaha, which once possessed the unenviable distinction of being the most
rowdy town in the United States, and
which was the chief of those places that
acquired the startling sobriquet of " Hell
upon Wheels," is now a pleasant little
city of some twenty thousand inhabitants,
-*9°****!J
KNSSSSSMKJK OMAHA.
29
more or less, and with an evident determination to grow. The Americans, as
they go westward, have a way of carrying their civilization with them, so that a
traveller—lodged in a sumptuous hotel
with street-cars running before the door,
and handsome brick stores opposite his
window—finds it difficult for the moment
to realize the fact that he is out half-way
across the continent. There are three
newspapers in Omaha—which, of course,
accounts for its general excellence; and
—another necessarily potent cause—some
of its principal business men are Canadians.
But the Omaha of to-day is a very different
place from that which made its name a
synonym for an itinerant Inferno. It is
a quiet place, where men do their business
in a steady unobtrusive manner, and in
which the general lounging public have
long ceased to shoot one another to give
tone and brightness to the various social
gatherings in the city.
They are commencing here to inaugurate 30
THE   SEA  OF   MOUNTAINS.
/!   !
their Presidential campaign, and the first
meeting of the Democrats is now being
held. We were told that any or all of
the Canadian travelling party would be
welcome, and some of us went, but were
driven out by the heat and general atmosphere of the corner into which we had
squeezed. We learnt, however, while
there that the United States had been
brought to the brink of ruin by the Republican party, and that unless the people
immediately put the other side into power
there was no telling what might happen,
It appears that in Omaha each party confines the attendance at these meetings to
their own friends, and when I asked the
editor of one of the newspapers whether it
would not be more lively and interesting
if they invited some of their opponents to
attend and reply, he said that " he guessed
they would soon get so lively that they'd
lose track of themselves altogether."
But the topic of most interest here at
present is the Indian question.    They do THE  INDIAN  QUESTION.
31
not appear to regard the defeat of Crook
and Custer as mere accidents that cannot
be repeated. In discussing the subject
with one of the leading men here, he
spoke of the Sioux as an intelligent and
daring enemy whom it was folly to underrate. He said that Spotted Tail, a chief
who not long ago gave much trouble, but
who is now a peaceful resident on a reservation, and a friend of the whites, is
one of the most able men, red or white, in
the United States, and he seemed to think
that Sitting Bill ranked high in the same
category. Spotted Tail's conversion was
worked by his observation of the white
men during his visit to the Eastern States.
On his return from Washington he said
that it was now clear to him that if he
wished to live the Indian must work, and
he at once set an example himself. Sitting
Bull has not been to Washington, and the
stories of the white man's power told by
those Indians who have visited the East
are always discredited on the plains, and -**»
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
the narrators are accused of having been
bought to mislead their brethren.
News of the next engagement is very
anxiously  expected  here, because in the
event of a defeat of the American troops,
it is thought possible that the Sioux may
strike  down  to  the  south of the Black
Hills.    The out-lying districts would then
be in  considerable   danger.    If the  expressions  used really indicate the sentiments  of  the  several speakers, there is
much less revengeful animosity felt towards
the Sioux than one might have expected
to find.    There is unwavering hostility and
a determination to bring them into subjection, but the offence which causes this
is quite as much the breaking away from
reservations as the fact of achieving victory in a battle.    " Stay on your reservation, or we will kill you," sums up  the
message which would interpret the various
denunciations and explanations I have as
yet heard.    Probably as one goes further
west,   and   strikes    the   cities,    Sidney, mmn
A  MODEST  LORD.
33
Cheyenne, Laramie, and others, from which
Black Hills expeditions have been fitted
out, the feelings of the people may be of
a more angry sort.
A Canadian of Omaha called to-day to
say that the Canadian residents of the
city, to the number of forty, desired to
present an address to the Governor-
General. Lord Dufferin was out at the
time, but the address is to be presented
to-morrow morning before the departure
for Ogden. It will take place, however,
after the closing of the mail, so that I
must defer sending a copy of the document until my next letter is written. We
heard that the gentleman of whom I spoke
in my last as having been mistaken by
your correspondent for the chief of Lord
Dufferin's servants, had been calling himself Lord Lovat in Canada, and that when
he found himself in the same train with
the Governor-General he informed the
conductor that he did not wish it to be
known that he was on the cars, and at
VOL.   I. d
' *uT"X"it_£S-SS*---S*32-S*S3
1
34 THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
Chicago his modesty induced him to
register himself under some less distinguished name. Speaking of this Lord
puts me in mind of the fact that an evening paper here says that the Governor-
General of Canada and a party of English
noblemen are here on their road to British
Columbia. In this world we are not what
we are, but what we seem to be. Driving
from a railway station once in company
with two gentlemen of the American press,
at the time of Prince Arthur's visit to
Buffalo, the carriage turned into the
principal street, in which a number of
persons were waiting to see the Prince
alight. One of the American gentlemen
suddenly perceived the position he was in,
and called out, | Put up your note-books,
or they'll take us for newspaper reporters,"
whereupon we all shut up our books, and
tried to look as much like intimate friends
of the Prince as we could. Had it been
in Omaha we should have been all right,
but I don't think we duly impressed the
Buffalo people. 35
CHAPTER III.
Lord and Lady Dufferin at Omaha—Curious Statements—The Sioux War—Indian Agents—The Sioux
Interpreter—Adventure of Prussian Students—Sale
of Sioux Curiosities—Peculation of Indian Money—j
Sitting Bull—Union Pacific Railway—Scene at Omaha
Depot—The Platte River—Prairies and Plains—Buffaloes and Grasshoppers—Travelling through "* Nebraska—The Prairie Dog,
BEFORE leaving Omaha this morning,
we were able to purchase the daily
newspapers, in which we learnt the favourable opinion the Omaha journalists had
formed of His Excellency and Lady
Dufferin. The Governor-General is described as 1 a very dignified elegantly appearing gentleman, very intelligent and
well cultured. The Countess is a handsome
little thing, of a type of womanhood very
different from the American idea of feminine
d 2 3d
THE   SEA   OF  MOUNTAINS.
",
royalty. While riding through the streets
yesterday she was the centre of all
attraction, her costume being of plain
brown silk, corded, and something in the
manner of the pull-back style." This
observation, so eminently correct, hardly
prepared us for the information that the
Governor-General's salary is two hundred
and fifty thousand dollars a year, with
allowances for secretaries and servants,
" several of whom make more than the
President of the United States."
But the most startling statement is that
which explains the object of his visit to
British Columbia as being in a great
measure to ascertain | the real state of the
Sioux warfare, and whether his borders
are in danger of hostile invasion," as well
as to I hurry up the Pacific Railway."
The Sioux war, as I mentioned in my last,
is the most interesting topic on the line of
the Union Pacific Railway. The subjugation of the Sioux is all in all to them.
Presidents may come and Presidents may THE   SIOUX  WAR.
37
go, but Sioux raiding, like Tennyson's
I Brook," will go on for ever unless the
matter is dealt with in a systematic, satisfactory, and business-like manner. I do
not mean that by this that the Sioux are to
be massacred, but it is clear that if the
vast fields to the north of the road are.
ever to be settled upon, a very different
relationship with the Indians from that
now existing must be established. Almost
everyone with whom I spoke asked me—
because it is a mystery to all—how we get
on so well with our Indians, and when I
explained that Canada had inherited the
goodwill which had been established among
the Indians of the North-west by the
just dealings and friendly communion of
the Hudson Bay Company, and had taken
pains to care for the interests of the Indians
and to observe their treaty obligations, as
well as to establish the fact that the arm of
the law could be made to reach to the
extent of the Queen's Dominions, and
would deal with Indian and white man 38
THE  SEA  OF MOUNTAINS.
alike, I asked, in my turn, why the United
States have so signally failed in establishing
a satisfactory understanding with the same
class of people within their borders. From
most sources I could get no more enlightening reply than, " Those rascally
Indian agents."
I knew that mere agents could not continue to work an iniquity about which the
press, and indeed the whole country, had
been thundering for years, and I found
out the Sioux interpreter at Omaha and
discussed the matter with him. He was a
good authority on the subject. Some nine
years ago a party of Prussian students had
come over to America to see the country.
In the course of their rambles they joined
a hunting party of Pawnees who were out
on the Nebraska prairies, and while camped
at a short distance north of what is now
the Union Pacific road, they were attacked
by a band of Sioux. During the fight
which ensued, and in which all but one of
the Pawnee party were killed,  one of the STORY  OF   A  PRUSSIAN   STUDENT.
mmm\
young students was knocked senseless off
his horse by a Sioux tomahawk. When
all the rest of the party had been scalped, a
Sioux warrior approached the young German to perform the same operation upon
him, but finding that the prostrate paleface was still alive and was but a mere lad,
he spared the life of the youth and took
him home to hew wood and draw water.
The lad was then sixteen years of age, and
in the course of a year the Chief of the
band arrived at the conclusion that the
pale-faced stranger should now declare his
intentions touching naturalization amongst
the Sioux nation. He was given his
option whether or not he would become a
naturalized Sioux citizen, it having been
privately arranged amongst his friends
that if he declined he should be knocked
on the head forthwith. Fortunately for
himself he had obtained some inkling of
this contingency, and cheerfully accepted'
the proffered honour, whereupon he was
presented with the daughter of a  Sioux 40
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
gentleman of distinction called | Tame
Bear," and in the course of a short time
was made a happy father and the chief of
a small band.
When peace was made two years ago
between Spotted Tail and Mr. President
Grant, the young German returned to
civilization, bringing with him the half-
breed boy, which—to use an expression of
the neighbourhood—he had realized out of
the transaction, and from his knowledge
of the Sioux and their language was made
a Government interpreter. He showed
me a photograph of the lady who had
comforted him in captivity, but in answer
to my question which I asked as delicately
as possible, he said, in anything but an
uxorious tone, that he had left her with
her relations. He gave as his reason that
the white girls wouldn't like it; but whether
he meant that the presence of the Sioux
chieftainess would interfere with his prospects of further matrimonial happiness,
or that, however fitted to adorn a buffalo —■
GOVERNMENT  INTERTRETER.
41
hunter's lodge, the daughter of Tame
Bear was not calculated to mingle amicably
with Prussian or American ladies, I don't
know. He said that she had several times
expressed her desire and intention to join
him at Omaha, but that he would not
allow her. He very kindly volunteered to
show me the tomahawk wound on his
head—a scar which certainly suggested a
very unpleasant rap—and as a young acquaintance had a short time previously
offered to show me his sore finger if I
would give him a candy, I took the proffered view on the part of the interpreter as
an evidence of satisfaction with my visit.
Since his return from savage life, he has
very successfully carried on a business for
the sale of articles of Indian workmanship,
&c, and so great has been the demand
on the part of travellers for | Sioux
curiosities," that he was obliged to import
a number of Iroquois from Lachine to
manufacture them.
His statements  and  information being 42
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
11
reduced to their essence amount to about
this :    That the Sioux have no confidence
in the ability of the United States' employes to be honest, and that he himself
disbelieved in their ever conquering this
failing.    The agents stole wholesale; the
agents' superior officers were interested in
the peculation, and the obliquity of moral
vision ascended to the highest realms of
official life.     They were  all in the ring
from  the highest  down,   the interpreter
being the only person who | got no chance
to steal."    I  thought of asking whether
the interpreter's honesty was the result of
this untoward inability to join the ring,
but refrained,   lest he   should  think  the
question a personal one.    On one occasion
a sum of six hundred thousand dollars, he
said, was  accruing to   certain bands   of
Indians, one-half to be paid in cash, the
other in goods; but the amount that finally
filtered itself into the hands of the Indians
was one hundred thousand dollars.    Sitting Bull, who  is  now giving  so  much
W^VTOWJt'&VJM^TOwWg; UNION  PACIFIC  RAILWAY.
43
trouble, and who is likely to cost, before
his people are subjugated, much blood
and more money, offered to come to terms
with the United States Government provided he were allowed to go to Washing-
ton during the session of Congress to
receive the money without the interposition of Government employes. He said
that when so many of them were gathered
together, there would be less chance of any
one of them stealing the Indian money.
The Union Pacific Railway commences
its westward course at Omaha. You
feel there that you really are a passenger
for California. You have felt before, on
being told to " Change here for Yankton,
Sioux City," that you were in a western
atmosphere; but it is not until you see
the Omaha depot and the California train
that the sentiment of being an across-the-
continenter is thoroughly experienced. I
never saw such a busy station of its size,
or one better managed.    Along the plat- jssee^ssssI'ES
44
THE   SEA OF  MOUNTAINS.
'I i;
form stretches like an enormous serpent
the San Francisco train. It appears, at
first sight, to be composed exclusively of
Pullman cars, though there is found on
closer inspection a few which are not.
The platform, and the large rooms off it,
are filled with people; some checking
their baggage, which they will not again
touch until they see the blue waters of the
Pacific, others buying their tickets and
unnecessarily exerting themselves about
their sleeping berths, and a crowd in present thirst and with prospective hunger
pressing round the counters of a refreshment-room to seize upon tumblers of
curiously compounded beverages, and to
fill baskets with provisions and pickles for
their life on board the cars; and the
quantity of pickles that is purchased here
is astonishing. The transcontinental traveller is a whale at pickles.
At the Omaha depot the directions to
travellers are conspicuously posted in five
languages—English, French, Spanish, Ger- J u~
START FOR  SAN FRANCISCO.
45
man, and another which looked like Russian, and might be anything—and adjoining
the ticket-room is the lands-office of the
Union Pacific Railway. Here the immigrant is shown maps of the vast territory
into which he is entering, and publications
are handed to him for his perusal which
show very conclusively that people choosing
to reside elsewhere than in Nebraska are
simply rejecting a paradise which it has
pleased Providence should be made known
to man through the medium of the Union
Pacific. Mr. Kimball, the passenger
manager of this road, came .down to the
station to see the Governor-General off,
and very kindly extended the courtesy of
the road to myself. Soon after his arrival
there was a sudden rush of busy work;
baggage was piled up in the cars, excited
passengers who belonged to the hind part
of the train rushed into the foremost car,
while those of the front carriage vainly
attempted to storm Lord Dufferin's car in
the rear, and amidst a general scrimmage
■P 46
THE   SEA   OF  MOUNTAINS.
a gong sounded, the train started, and we
were off for San Francisco.
On board this train one feels an interest
and curiosity about one's fellow-passengers
in much the same way as onboard a trans-
Atlantic steamer. You feel that you are
going on a long voyage with them, and
that you ought to know something about
their occupations and affairs. You feel a
desire to know what is the matter with
that invalid lady in the drawing-room
section, how long she has been ill, and
what her chances are. You want to know
whether that lady and gentleman with
the several growing-up children are
moving to California, or whether they
have been east to bring their children
home from school; and the beauty of the
whole thing is that your interest in these
points will be appreciated, and on courteously asking a few questions the fullest
particulars will be given you.
From Omaha the Union Pacific runs for
three hundred and seventy miles through THE   PLATTE   RIVER.
47
Nebraska along the valley of the Platte
River,   dipping into   Colorado  at  Jules-
burgh,   and then  continuing   its   course
through   Nebraska  and  Wyoming.    The
Platte River, though receiving water from
a great many tributary streams, is a slow,
shallow river,   filled  with  shifting   sandbanks.     It   winds  through   a   beautiful
prairie  valley,   varying in breadth   from
five to perhaps fifteen miles, and shut in
on either side by a range of rolling prairie.
The Platte is almost as redolent of early
western  history as  the  Tiber  is  of the
traditions  of Rome.    It   was  the   route
taken by the emigrants to California and
tbe mountain districts, and at one time
Was a favourite resort of the buffalo and
their enemies.    The grass of this valley
grows  over the   graves  of unnumbered
white  men and Indians  who   have slain
one another, the one in attempting to pass,
the others in their efforts to prevent them.
The stories of many of the massacres of
emigrant trains, as well as of stage drivers 48
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
and other adventurers, have their scene
laid in this now peaceful country. The
buffalo are gone, the Indians have disappeared with them, and in the place of
the wild cattle of the plains and the still
wilder men who lived upon them, the motley
coloured herds of Eastern immigrants are
beginning to cover the land.
Some of the Western men appear to
draw a distinction between | the prairies"
and I the plains." They call the prairies
that undulating country in which the long
grasses are found growing in such luxuriance, and give the name of the plains to
the upland plateaus where the short, curly,
and most nutritious of grasses — the
buffalo grass—is principally found. As
the buffalo grass turns colour early in the
Summer, though still retaining its sweetness and nutritious qualities, the plains
would necessarily look yellowish and dry,
while the rolling hills and valleys of the
so distinguished | prairie" were a mass of
bright green.    We saw several patches of THE  PRAIRIES.
49
burnt ground on the plains, whereas the
long grasses would not yet burn. On
leaving Omaha the road begins its gradual
but steady ascent, and soon after quitting
the valley of the Platte, the cars traverse
a long region of plains which stretch away
north till they strike the Black Hills,
which lie partly in Wyoming and partly
in Dakotah. By this time, although meeting with settlements near the stations of
the railway, the cars have passed out
into the wilds, and the vast solitudes of
the Western world stretch out on every
side.
I suppose no one ever steps out upon
the prairies, for the first time in his life,
without experiencing a sense of freedom
from the trammels of his past life, whatever they may have been, and, to a certain
extent, a feeling of rejuvenescence that
is not to be obtained by other means. A
new world seems to have opened itself
before him, in which he has, at least, an
equal  chance  with  the rest of his  kith
vol. I e 50
THE   SEA  OF   MOUNTAINS.
and kin. And just as he who has lived
on the bosom, or by the shores of the
ocean cannot be satisfied with green fields
and babbling brooks, so a child of the
prairie, or one who has learnt to love its
vastness, and' wandered over its unmeasured fields can never leave it without
casting a lingering glance behind, and
hoping in his heart that his lot will lead
him there once more. It is no wonder
that men sell out and go West; it is no
wonder that those whom fortune is pushing to the wall in older communities
escape to find solace for their woes in the
solitude of the plains. They feel that
man is in closer communion with nature
there than elsewhere, and that his neigh-
bour has no right, and will have no inclination to bring with him the restraints
and woes of towns and capitals. This is
sentiment, of course, but that is the
nature of the sentiment begotten of the
plains.
At every   station  at which  the   train GRASSHOPPERS.
51
stops, the traveller can learn, if he wishes,
the story of its early troubles with the
Indians ; its subsequent high tide of prosperity when the road, resting its end
within the | city limits," brought its
accompanying host of gamblers, roughs,
outlaws, and dissolute women, its fall into
dull times as these gentry passed on to
another terminus, and its slow but wholesome recovery now in progress under the
influence of the stock-raisers. For stock-
raising is the business of these Western
States, and the country would seem
almost to have been provided by an all-
wise Providence for that purpose. Nebraska can feed millions of cattle and
billions of grasshoppers without the one
very materially affecting the other. We
journeyed the greater part of one day
through grasshoppers, and we were told
that a delay of an hour during the night
was caused by the grasshoppers on the
rails. This, we learn, is by no means
uncommon
e 2
I  caught one of the grass- 52
THE  SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
hoppers ("locusts") to compare it with
those that visit Manitoba. It was of the
same appearance in all particulars, except
that it was slightly larger than those
north.
Travelling through Nebraska and
Wyoming, one realises what a railroad
through a wilderness really signifies. The
long stretches of land in use in the midst
of great wastes still lying untouched by
•man, the bands of horses and herds of
cattle feeding within gunshot of antelopes,
and the sudden appearance of a town,
with all the signs and sign-boards that
one sees in the State of New York, or the
Province of Ontario. You .see millions of
dollars worth of property where, a few
years ago, civilization was represented by
a New England blanket, or a Birmingham
scalping-knife. The great problem upon
which so much will depend in our Northwest has here been solved. Cattle live
out during the winter. Can they do so
in Manitoba and the  Saskatchewan?    I ■pvi
FEEDING  OF  CATTLE   IN  WINTER.
53
believe they can. The ravines here on
the treeless plains afford them shelter, and
the spurs of the hills from which the snow
is blown by the high winds afford them
food. In our country there is a great
deal more wood than any we have passed
through on this line, and wood is the best
of shelter, and I am told, moreover, that
the cattle here scrape for their food. It
has always been insisted by the residents
of Manitoba that cattle won't scrape
(although the buffaloes do), and that horses
will, therefore horses can winter out and
grow fat while cattle will starve and die.
But if cattle will scrape for their food
here, it is not all of a sudden to be believed that the same breed will not do so
in Manitoba. Their patriotism may be
great, but not proof against hunger; and
if herds can be wintered out in the Northwest territories, we shall want, not one,,
but a couple of Pacific railways. The
cattle here are not of a very superior kind.
The custom is, I believe, to import Texan 54
THE  SEA OF MOUNTAINS.
cattle and grade them up.    Some of them
want grading up.
We saw a great number of antelopes as
we came through Nebraska; some of them
within easy shot of the carriage windows,
and, what was much more to the purpose, we got some capital antelope steaks
for dinner. Along the line we passed
several villages of prairie dogs, who
squatted motionless, each family at the
entrance of their subterranean dwelling,
to watch the train go by. These are
amongst the most eccentric dwellers of
the plains. They gather together and
build their villages., which are subterranean borings, in some place where the
grasses, upon the roots of which they
live, are found. They are a little larger
than a gopher—a species of ground squirrel—and utter a short bark, or cry, rather
resembling that of a certain kind of plover.
In the same holes with these little animals,   are   found   rattle-snakes   and  the ********
AN   ELEGANT  LUNCH.
00
burrowing owl. We saw some owls sitting on the mounds solemnly staring at
the train as it passed. The little prairie
dog, or Wish-ton-wish, does not, in any
. way, resent the intrusion of these visitors,
but quietly goes about his business as if
they were a portion of his family, and, in
return for this hospitality, the owl, who
shares his dwelling, varies the monotony
o" tf
of his existence by driving his beak into
the head of any young prairie puppy that
may be at home about dinner time. In
the same way the rattlesnake appeases
his hunger by a raid upon the nursery of
his host, where he is always able to find
what the keepers of refreshment bars at
Chicago and Omaha call " a real elegant
lunch." Everything on the Union Pacific
Railway that is not " a square dinner,"
is, whether eaten at six in the morning
or ten at night, " an elegant lunch." I
mention this merely as a matter of explanation, that travellers may not be misled
by an interchange of terms. 56
THE   SEA  OF   MOUNTAINS.
»
While passing across a plain out of
sight of all signs of human beings, an
antelope stood within a few yards of the
train looking at it go by. A number of
us saw it, and called to the next car in
order that the Governor-General and Lady
Dufferin might look out. There was a
sudden rush to their window, but no antelope was then in sight. The train had
gone swiftly on, and by the time they
had reached the window, their car was
passing a solitary woman dressed in modern fashion with a veil over her face and
a sunshade in her hand. A disgusted
member of Lord Dufferin's staff ejaculated,
| Oh, nonsense ! that's a woman, not an
antelope," and I almost think that in
another part of the train had certain revolvers been ready, the strange lady would
have been in some danger—-except that
no one with a revolver ever hits anything
but himself, or one of.his friends. As
we  wound round a curve in the rolling
CT
ground, we. came across one of those little
^\v™vwniw\nn\x««' ^■•^np
THE   BRUMMAGEM   1 LORD."
57
railway villages plumped upon the plain,
and this, of course, explained the vision
of the solitary lady, who, when descried
in the midst, as it appeared, of solitude
on the Laramie plains, was a far more
startling object than an antelope.
The brummagem | lord" has turned up
again. He has now reduced himself in
the social rank to Doctor—the fellow will
have some title—and I heard him take his
ticket for Salt Lake City. Probably he
will there blossom as a lord again, and
with the advantage of his self-created
nobility, he ought to get on well with the
ladies. No doubt he will become a distinguished Mormon, but he will pay for it
if his wives ever find out that he is a
humbug. 58
CHAPTER IV.
Expressions of Opinion—Lady Dufferin and American
Ladies—In the Land of the Mormons—The Laramie
Plains—Fossil Remains—The Rocky Mountains —
Highest Point of the Journey—Sherman—The Echo
and Weber Canons—Chinamen and Mormons—Commencement of Mormon Land—Engineering Enterprise.
rpHE Governor-General arrived at Ogden,
-*- Utah, yesterday evening, and stayed
over the night to rest, intending to proceed on his journey to-day. The Pullman sleeping cars are a great invention,
but continuous travelling' in them is apt to
be tiring, particularly to ladies. Lady
Dufferin, however, appears to be an excellent traveller, and is active in her
efforts to see all that can be seen on the
journey.    It very soon leaked out ahead POPULAR  CURIOSITY.
59
of the party that the Governor-General
and "his Countess," as Lady Dufferin
is always called, were coming, and at
every point where they left the train
either for dinner or to look round while
the train stopped, they immediately became
the objects of general attention. But it
is astonishing how well-mannered are the
people, to whom the Governor-General is a
sight which they think they must see.
They don't crowd or rudely stare or make
remarks within hearing, or generally conduct themselves as I have seen crowds
elsewhere do; but with a quiet respectful
attention see those they wish to see, and
reserve their remarks until they are out of
hearing of those of whom they wish to
speak. The general verdict of the people
amongst whom we have passed has been a
very favourable one. It is expressed in
various ways, but all expressions mean the
same thing.
.One  gentleman told me he liked " the
Earl"   because   "he   didn't   put  on   no !'!
60
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
frills;" another said he was an " uncommon affable gent;" and one native-born
Republican, who travelled in the tobacco
line, rather took to him because, his own
name being | Duke," there was a kind of
affinity between him and an English nobleman. Several generations ago this gentleman's forefather had been an Englishman in
Virginia, and they were " kinder aristocratic
there anyhow." Lady Dufferin wins golden
opinions wherever she is seen. She dresses
very plainly, though prettily, and strange to
say this has fetched the Americans that have
been met almost as much as anything. Not
one or two, but half a dozen have commented upon this fact, and expressed their
satisfaction thereat. I don't know how to
express the peculiar attraction her ladyship has for women, but they all take to
her. They think her "real cunning,"
"just as nice as she can be," " an elegant
lady," and find other terms, which I now
forget, in which to express their admiration.
When  the train  stopped  yesterday at a A  FALSE  ALARM.
61
little wayside station to take in water,
Lord and Lady Dufferin were out some
way over the prairie picking wild flowers.
An alarm of | all aboard" was given, and
her ladyship sped across the prairie like a
school-girl, to the great delight of a
number of passengers who were watching
her. But the alarm having proved to be
a false one, Lady Dufferin turned back and
continued her occupation of picking flowers.
I My !" said a lady, | do look ! she don't
scare a bit." "Well, no," said another,
| she's just t,he cunningest little thing I've
seen."
One has but a short time to work here
this morning, as the train for Salt Lake
City goes at 9.30, and there is a great
deal to ask questions and talk about here
in Ogden. One feels here as if one were
in a strange land. I have an uncontrollable desire to ask every man I meet
how many wives he has, and how things
work with his mothers-in-law. I commenced inquiries last night at the railway W*7t,
mm.
P
62
THE   SEA  OF   MOUNTAINS.
station, but the first person I accosted
proved to be a Gentile. He was a voluble
and vituperative young Gentile too, and
turned his talents upon a rival present,
who happened, to be a Mormon. He
chaffed my companion, an American
gentleman, and myself for going to a
Mormon hotel. We didn't mind him, because when you are in Turkey you should
always try and see as much as possible of
the Turkeys. It would, however be an
advantage if one could cease singing " Up
in the Mormon land," for it attracts considerable attention ; but it is very difficult
to break away from a tune when it has
seized upon one. I was in hopes last
night that I should be able to tell your
readers something about the Mormon
women in this letter. Last night two
young women—one with a baby—entered
the sitting-room into which the landlord
had shown me, and the opportunity to
discuss polygamy seemed to present itself,
but before I could  get beyond  the first THE   LARAMIE   PLAINS.
63
introductory common-place remarks, the
young woman with the baby took fright
and bolted, while the other went off into a
gurgling kind of suppressed laughter and
followed her friend. It turned out afterwards they were not Mormons at all.
In my last letter I spoke of the Platte
Valley and the plains that succeed it.
Yesterday was a day of scene-viewing of
quite a different kind. We had passed
through the Laramie plains, and had heard
and read much of the early history of the
road, and the manner in which possession
of the line was regularly disputed by and
conquered from the Indians. The plains
were becoming quite familiar and home-like
to us, when signs became visible that the
more rugged ground of the bad lands
would soon be in sight. During the night
we passed through' many miles of them,
and in the morning the land of desolation
was upon every side of us. Sand hills and
mud hills, fissures, ravines, and curiously-
shaped   mounds  were   to   be seen,   but 64
THE   SEA OF  MOUNTAINS.
nothing more. In this district there are
many fossil remains of interest, amongst
others the fossil of the palm-leaf, showing
that the climate during the prehistoric
times must have been something very
different from that of the present time,
but from a railway carriage you see none
of these things, and merely see the most
dreary and uninviting country on the face
of the globe, at such close quarters that
the picturesque aspect which it presents at
a distance is lost. But by this time the
train is nearing the mountains, and the
highest peaks, with their struggling bands
and patches of still unmelted snow, are
beginning to appear in sight.
On leaving Omaha the road at once
commences its steady and gradual ascent.
It is so gradual as to be imperceptible
unless you happen to be on the look-out
for it, so that when the train arrives at
Sherman, a village in Wyoming, four
hundred and fifty miles from Omaha, and
you find that you are at the highest point SUMMIT OF THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS.  65
■*■*»•]
of the whole journey, eight thousand, two
hundred and forty-two feet above the
level of the sea, the first feeling experienced is one of great disappointment.
You are on an apparently level plateau;
you have passed only a certain number of
mud and sand hills, and yet you are told
that here is the summit of your ascent
across the Rocky Mountains. It does not
appear to the traveller that he has made a
greater ascent than he can find in half a
dozen lines in the neighbourhood of Canada.
But there is a perceptible difference in the
atmosphere. Any attempt at physical
exertion makes this apparent at once.
Even without it, the sky above and the
rarefied atmosphere acts in a double way.
One feels lighter, brighter, and otherwise
different, and—so it appeared to me—one
sees forms and outlines more sharply
defined than at a low level. The passengers moving about on the platform
stood out more clearly in relief than before,
and they seemed, though perhaps uncon-
VOL.   1 Vf. S!
THE   SEA  OF   MOUNTAINS.
scious   of  it  themselves,   to  have  been
affected  by the regions into  which  they
had  ascended.    Still,   on looking  at the
road itself and the immediately surrounding country, one might equally have been
anywhere between Montreal and Toronto,
except that stretching, out before you, and
apparently   barring the  way   to Pacific-
bound travellers,   are  the  peaks  of the
distant mountains.    Away to the South,
and of course to the North, in Canadian
territory, the  mountains are higher, but
the railway naturally   finds  the   lowest
levels that are available.
From this point " Sherman," the line
descends all the way through the Rocky
Mountains toward Salt Lake—except at
one point, where there is a slight ascent,
but not recovering its highest level—and
on to Salt Lake City through the Echo
and Weber canons it steadily declines.
You cannot be otherwise than disappointed
to find that you never have been sensible
of approaching your mountain pass, and
that while you are going across the moun- »«-*•
THE   ECHO  CAfiON.
6
it
tains you are running down hill. But all
disappointment vanishes when the journey
is made through the Echo and Weber
canons. You enter the Echo canon soon
after passing over Dale's Bridge, itself a
magnificent work, bridging a stupendous
height, and one that nervous people will
not care to watch very closely ; and when
once fairly going down the canon your
attention is so engrossed by each successive point that there is no time to do
anything but look and admire. I am told
that several travellers—Dunraven, Burton, and others have graphically described
this picturesque region, so that I commend their works to those who are about
to travel this journey, and, without attempting to emulate them, will myself
merely say how this valley strikes one on
first seeing it.
By the time the traveller has reached
the Echo Canon he has travelled nearly
one thousand miles from Omaha. Before
reaching that city he had travelled five hun-
F 2 -2SZ2
-B-tS
I
Iii
68
THE   SEA OF  MOUNTAINS.
dred and two miles from Chicago through
a country of cultivated prairie, and that
has been succeeded by days and nights of
rolling prairies and level plains, the greater
part of which has been wild as when the
waters first receded and gave birth to the
land. Fifteen hundred miles of prairie
in its different forms and stages have
accustomed the eye and mind to a land of
pasturage and corn fields. Then, with
only a little preparation, one darts into a
valley from which the mountains rise in
diverse precipitancy on either side. On
the south side their face, though serrated
by numerous little gulleys cut by the
melting snow, and rocky throughout, is
comparatively smooth when placed within
a field of sight that takes in the opposite
side of the pass, and beyond receiving an
occasional glance they are forgotten and
unnoticed by the many. It is the north
side of the canon towards which all eyes
are directed as the cars move slowly
through.     It is  not the  height  of   the VIEW  IN  THE   ECHO   CAfiON.
69
precipitous cliffs that gives them grandeur,
for though they are high they are below
the snow level, and not higher than, if so
high as, the more sloping mountains
opposite. But they have thrust themselves forward in bold bright-red bluffs
and. promontories without vestige of plant
or soil, their   face varied bv  caves  and
S ml
weather-worked indentations and sinuosities ; pitted into extraordinary irregularities
by the storms of ten million seasons, and
capped by rocks of fantastic shape that in
one instance look like a sentinel on duty,
in another like the bastion at the angle of
a fortress, in another hke the prow of a
ship, and so throughout the length of the
valley, ever presenting on the summit of
the mountain or on some ledge or peak of
its bold red face an exaggerated image
of some familiar form.
The word "awful" is so commonly
misused that it almost fails to convey
what it should imply, but no other word
than   1 awful"   so   aptly   and   correctly 70
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
describes the feeling begotten of the view
in the Echo Canon, Whether looking out
beyond the train to catch the first sight of
the next appearing spur of the mountain of
red rock that looms up like the hereditary
home of a race of giants, or looking at the
point which is being passed, where a hun--
dred thousand tons of rock are almost
hanging over the train, the awful insignificance of man with his little momentary
flame of life is presented for your contemplation by the speechless evidence of
Time's destroying power. But Echo
Canon is not to be described (at least by
me) it must be seen. There are higher
mountains to be found without difficulty ;
there are grander vistas of scenery, even,
I am told, on this road ; but I do not know,
nor have I ever heard, of any possessing
the peculiar attractions of this mountain
pass. And although there is variety
enough to occupy a week in wandering
through the valley, the train runs through it
in afew hours, and enters a pass as beautiful,
-%, THE   WEBER   CAnON.
1
if less wondrous strange, than that which
lies in such close companionship.
The Weber Canon, which follows the
Echo, presents the somewhat curious
feature of being scarped and rugged on its
south side, whereas, as I have said, the
Echo is so characterised exclusively on its
north face. In the Weber Canon the
train runs down by the side of a beautiful
swiftly flowing pebbly stream, that is fed
by the mountains which rise to a considerable height on the other side of it. It is a
green valley, the stream being shaded by
a growth of deciduous trees, and the flat
land in the valley having been converted
into corn fields and hay grounds by a
small hamlet of Mormons. We had already met Chinamen at work upon the road
■and as waiters at the station dining-houses,
but in the Weber Canon we saw our first
Mormons. The mountain in this region
appears to be bare of all vegetation except
a little bunch grass and low scrubs.
There are no pines, tamarack, or  other 1
THE   SEA   OE  MOUNTAINS.
resinous trees, such as are found in great
abundance in parts of the same range to
the north, but there must be wood in some
of the valleys, for when passing the Bear
River, which runs out of the mountains, I
noticed several thousand sticks of made-
timber floating down under the guardianship of Celestial lumbermen.
The Weber Cafion is almost the practical commencement of Mormon land. It
leads like a long funnel into a very
beautiful valley, which being circular in
form, and entirely surrounded by the high
snow-mottled peaks of the Rockies, looks
like a huge natural amphitheatre. It is
surrounded by Mormon hamlets, and is
cut up into fields and pastures that were
refreshingly green and fertile in the midst of
so much waste and desolation. As the
train enters this secluded and peaceful-
looking little oasis, one wonders how exit
is to be found, for spur overlaps spur, peak
rises above peak, and although we were
compelled to dive into the bowels of the
■*fc THE   WEBER  VALLEY,
73
mountain to enter the vale, there is no
apparent place where such an operation
can easily be repeated. But to sappers
nothing is sacred; to engineers nothing is
impossible; and we wend our way in and
out of the steeps until we have left the
Weber Valley behind, and are speeding on
our way to Ogden. Settlement of the Mormons—Acquisition of Utah—
Territorial Organisation—Cities of the West—Agricultural Districts—Enfranchisement of Women—Gentile and Mormon Households—Salt Lake \City—Elections— Power of Brigham Young—Blood Atonements
—Mountain Meadow Massacre—Ogden—Salt Lake.
THE Governor-General having decided
to remain at Ogden over Sunday
night, to continue his journey by the Monday evening train, some few of an inquisitive disposition were enabled to see a little
of Ogden City, as well as to pay a visit to
Salt Lake City and its founder, Mr. Brigham Young. Lord and Lady Dufferin
did not visit Salt Lake City; indeed the
whole of their immediate party remained
behind at Ogden, and amused and refreshed
themselves with a swim.    The history of HISTORY  OF  THE   MORMONS
75
the Mormons, or "Latter Day Saints,"
and their settlement in what is now the
Territory of Utah, will probably be familiar
to most readers, but for the benefit of those
to whom it is not I may mention the outlines of their story. When, after finding it
impossible to remain at Nauvoo, Illinois,
on account of the incessant hostility of the
people, they set out to seek a home in the
Rocky Mountains, Joseph Smith, their
first Prophet, had been killed, and Brigham
Young, the President or Prophet regnant,
was their leader. This was in 1847, during
the spring of which year " Brigham"
started with one hundred and forty-two
pioneers to find a place of settlement. In
course of time they reached Salt Laker
where they commenced to establish themselves by building a fort covering ten acres
of ground, and hoisting the flag of the
United States—Utah then being a portion
of Mexico.
This new settlement they organised into
what they call " a stake of Zion," and ap- THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
pointed by means of their twelve Apostles,
a President, Councillors, Bishop, and Council. In the course of a short time, the
United States acquired Utah from Mexico,
and in 1850 Congress passed an Act for the
territorial organization of Utah as a territory of the United States, President Fillmore
appointing Brigham Young the first Governor of the new territory. Utah is now
governed by a Governor appointed by
the President of the United States, and
two Houses of Legislature, which are
annually elected by the people. These
Houses make laws, subject to their being
in harmony with those of the United States,
and the Governor signs or vetoes them—
usually as he " darn pleases." The
Judiciary consists of a Supreme Court,
District and Probate Courts, and the old
familiar " J.P.'s." There is an organized
militia, consisting of everybody between
the ages of eighteen and forty-five (women
excepted), and there are in Utah, or
I Deseret," as the Mormons call it, no less UTAH.
77
than thirty incorporated cities. It must
be remembered, however, that the qualifications for a city out in the West are not
great. You may find a city consisting of
one log hut, saloon, and the skeleton of a
buffalo; but in Utah they usually mean
more than this. The cities are all situated
in valleys of the mountains, and the agricultural districts are in such places as are
convenient to mountain streams. Everything that is grown—and very fine crops
are raised—is grown by means of irrigation.
The want of rain renders this imperative,
and the number of small irrigating canals
which lead through and round about the
farms, to be turned on to each field as required, is one of the peculiarities of the
country that first attracts the attention of
a stranger. Only in the raising of colonels,
majors, captains and other military individuals can Utah dispense with the use
of these little mountain-born streams.
| Mountain-dew" imported from Scotland,
or 1 Bourbon" from the United States, is THE   SEA   OF  MOUNTAINS.
found to be the best military irrigator, and
judging by the last militia returns the crop-
is all that could be desired. Although
Utah is a territory of the United States, and
enjoys the presence of an un-Mormanized
American for its Governor, the real Governor is Brigham Young. During his Administration the Legislature passed an Act
enfranchising all the women, and of course
the Act is in force to-day. By this means
the Gentiles—which includes all who are
not Mormons—have always been kept in a
hopeless minority. A Gentile homestead
consists of the husband and wife and a
limited number of children; a Mormon
household has the husband, an unlimited
number of wives, and voting force in the
shape of children up to the nth power.
The Gentiles, therefore, hardly take the
trouble to go to the polls. The State
elections took place the day we were at
Salt Lake City, and I learnt that out of
the whole State the Gentiles expected to
carry only one constituency, that in which pp
BRIGHAM   YOUNG. *  79
the miners form the body of the people. I
noticed however a great display of flags,
and printing and injunctions to vote for
Spriggins, "the Liberal candidate," and
on inquiry it turned out that a " Liberal
candidate" meant a person inimical to
Brigham Young and the irresponsible and
tyrannical power of the Mormon priesthood. The force of public opinion is beginning to have weight in Salt Lake City
and other centres, and'bases of apostasy
from the Mormon creed are gradually becoming more numerous. Still, in spite of
United States' Governors, and judges, and
laws, Brigham Young is, practically, as
powerful as he pleases to be. He is the
head of the priesthood—the next being to
the Deity—" One from God," they called
him. He is in direct communication, so
the Mormons say, with the Almighty; he
is directed by revelation from Heaven, and
is, therefore, infallible. The rest of the
priesthood accept his   will as paramount 80
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
law, and by so doing are themselves so
accepted by the faithful Mormons.
The Mormons are in the proportion of
seven to one throughout the territory,
and no Mormon jury will fail to cast their
moral obligations to the winds where the
question is between a Mormon and a
Gentile. Rather, I should say that a
Mormon's moral obligation is to stand by
the Saints at all hazards, and should he
any case be disposed to consider his
m
duty as an American rather than as a
Mormon, a hint from one of the authorities
in his Church turns the scale in an instant.
The Gentiles assert that in the past the
power of Brigham Young was not only
absolute and unquestionable, but that he
is personally and directly responsible for
the many murders that have been perpetrated in sustaining the power and
effecting the aggrandisement of the priesthood. They assert that he not only knew
of, but ordered the Mountain Meadows
Massacre,   and   when,   having  read the MORMON ASSASSINATIONS.
81
recent trial of Lee through to test the
accuracy of this statement, I replied that
I found no evidence of his participation in
that atrocious crime, I was told that
neither would I find evidence of his participation in the murder of Dr. Robinson,
or in the assassination of numbers of
people who had become obnoxious to the
priesthood, or whose property was desired
in the interests of Zion. A publication
was shown me in which the confessions of
apostate Mormons and others go to prove
that what the Mormons call the "blood
atonements," and what we should call
" diabolical murders," were usually made
by direct order of Brigham Young. For
instance, a Mormon implicated in the
murder of a man named Yates, says:—
"We met Joseph A. Young, a son of
Brigham ; he hailed me and said his father
wanted Yates killed." Then he describes
the perpetration of the cold-blooded assassination. In another case a Mormon girl
had married a Gentile, and her friends
VOL. i. g 82
THE   SEA OF  MOUNTAINS.
Wll
being grieved at the occurrence consulted
Brigham Young about it. Brigham told
them to I put the man Hatten out of the
way," and shortly afterwards he was found
dead—killed by Indians. Indeed, it appears that in olden times whenever a Gentile became obnoxious, or a Mormon was
indiscreetly independent, he was always
found within a few days—killed by Indians.
Statements of this kind made by irreconcilable enemies are always to be received
with caution, but one cannot forget that
the Mormon priesthood for fifteen or sixteen years systematically deceived the
world about the Mountain Meadows Massacre, until the confession of one of the
principal leaders in the massacre proved
it to have been perpetrated by Mormons
at the bidding of the Mormon head-men.
The general outline of that atrocity is
this. In 1857 a train of emigrants from
Arkansas wended their way through the
Territory of Utah, bound for California.
There were about one hundred and fifty MOUNTAIN  MEADOWS  MASSACRE.
83
persons in the company. Their coming
and arrival was known to the Mormon
leaders, by whom it was, after some little
hesitation, decided that the emigrants
should be destroyed. The train was rich
in waggons, animals, and general property, while the men it was believed
carried some considerable sum of money.
The train was watched from valley to
valley until the Mormon courage, like that
of Macbeth, had been screwed to the
sticking point. Then the murderous edict
was given, and with the assistance of
some Indians, who were detailed to
butcher the women and children while the
Mormons massacred the men, the Saints
beguiled the alarmed strangers out of the
place of safety in which they had taken
refuge, and at a preconcerted signal the
bloody work was done. Men, women,
and children were shot down or had their
brains knocked out, a few infants only
being spared. The bodies were left out
on the hillside for the wolves and crows
G 2 84
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
I
AM
to pick, and word went over the United
States that another train of emigrants had
been murdered by the Indians. After
eighteen years' immunity, J. D. Lee was
tried last year I before a United States'
Judge, but though confession and damning evidence exposed the whole story, a
Mormon jury sat in the box, and justice,
defeated, went weeping from the Court.*
The evidence showed that Brigham Young
was made aware of the facts at once, and
that he instructed the faithful not to mention the subject even amongst themselves.
It is maintained by his followers—or some
of them — that he did not order the
massacre, only profited by it to the extent
of his share of the emigrants' goods; but
the unbelieving Gentiles are like the
Sacristan,
" Who said no word to indicate a doubt,
But he put his thumb unto his nose,
And he spread his fingers out."
Had Brigham Young  begun life as a
* He has since been tried, sentenced to death, and
executed. ■
BRIGHAM YOUNG.
85
lamb, the circumstances of his career were
exactly calculated to make him the monster his enemies picture him. The head
of a fanatical community, recruited amongst
the poorest and most uneducated of England and the Continent, who believe him
to be inspired by the Almighty to direct
the doctrines and doings of his people;
the chief priest of a religion that teaches
the doctrine of " a blood atonement," and
applies it to such cases as this irresponsible
infallible prophet may at his pleasure
direct; the lord of a harem in which
jealousy, anger, heart-burnings, and revenge are ever seeking to use his power to
their own ends; in short, a human being
possessed of all the passions, weaknesses,
and desires of other men in a position
where, by the exercise of his office, he is
•enabled to rid himself of his enemies,
acquire their property, blast their reputation, and all in the name of religion and
to the glory of God. Brigham Young is
—truthfully   or   otherwise — accused  of 86
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
using his more than despotic power to
revenge himself upon those who cross him,
and to enrich himself by acquiring the
property of his victims. An angel only
could occupy his position without abusing
it. From Brigham Young's description of
himself he is not an angel. After the midnight assassination of Dr. Robinson, who
had tried to acquire the location of the
warm springs above the town on which to
build a hospital, Brigham Young said, in
a sermon in the Tabernacle :—
" If they jump my claims here, I shall
be very apt to give them a pre-emption
right that will last them to the last resurrection."
In a variety of addresses recorded as
having been delivered by him in the
Tabernacle is some very plain speaking
from a man whose instructions to murder
are accepted as commands from the Almighty. For instance :— " Now, you
Gladdenites, keep your tongues still, lest
sudden   destruction    come   upon    you." ■
LAW  OF   i BLOOD  ATONEMENT."
87
" Now, you nasty apostates, clear out, or
judgment will be laid to the line and
righteousness to the plummet." To the
lawyers he was very uncivil. He said :—
I Lawyers are getting pretty thick here.
It was so at Nauvoo. They worried the
life out of Prophet Joseph, and finally
secured his murder. They tried it on me,
and I told them if they did not quit I'd
send them to hell cross lots, and they
quit. If any of these so-called officers of
the law try to arrest me and bring me
before the damned cussed hounds of the
law the Government has sent out here to
lord it over us, I'll send 'em to hell cross
lots, so help me God."
It is unnecessary to quote much of this
sort of thing; enough has been taken to
show that a man of that temper, having
unchecked control over a hundred thousand people who believe his words to be
those of the Creator, and with such an
extraordinarily convenient weapon as the
law of | blood atonement," may be capable I
88 THE  SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
of anything and everything attributed to
him. This doctrine of a blood atonement
is based on the belief that a man can atone
for certain grave offences only by shedding
his blood; that the salvation of a man's
soul is the greatest kindness you can do
him, and therefore the taking of a man's
life under directions of the priesthood is
quite a friendly and neighbourly action.
This, as you see, is our old friend the
Inquisition re-appearing in a new dress.
Brigham Young is undoubtedly a very
rich man. He owns the greater part of
the best lots in the city, and some of the
principal buildings, amongst other places
the theatre and a huge building in which
he has a general store. It is one of the
largest stores on this continent, and over
the door is a board on which is painted an
eye, and underneath it the inscription:—
1 Holiness to the Lord."
I Zion Co-operative Mercantile Institution."
This  irreverent  Gentiles  call  " Brig's NEW  WAY  OF   MAKING  MONEY.
Co-op." They accuse him of having obtained funds to build this palatial shop
by swindling the faithful, and say that
those Mormons who were bitten are very
sore about it. But a far safer and more
harmless way of making money was attributed to him by a gentleman who has
long resided there, and who seems to be
"up to the ropes." It puts polygamy in
a less unpleasant light too; indeed, if the
practice can always be regulated by the
theory, there is a good deal to be said in
favour of polygamy. You must first, however, become a member of the priesthood
of such rank that a matrimonial alliance
with you in heaven is a thing to be
desired. You then look up the city
registers, wills, deaths, &c, and ascertain
what old women have corner lots or other
desirable property. Then you seal two or
three of them, which means that you enter
their names on your card for engagement
hereafter, and in the course of time,
when these old women die, they leave you 90
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
the corner lots and other trifles they may
have. I was told Brigham Young had
made a great deal of money this way. Of
course if any old woman begins to get
affectionate, or hasn't decency enough to
die when she ought, then the blood
atonement comes into play, p This feature of Mormonism is not without its
attractions.
Some little difficulty has from time to
time arisen between Brigham Young and
the United States' Government. We were
shown an eminence in the Echo Cafion
where Brigham had prepared to dispute
the way, and there along the brow of the
mountain were the stones which the Mormons were said to have piled to hurl on
their foes beneath. This is history repeating itself with a vengeance. The Mormon
leader, however, has found a far better
way of defying Congress. He buys up
the Governors and such members of Congress as he requires. I was told by a
Gentile that he had not succeeded in buy- mwmmwm
—'
PURCHASE   OF  WASHINGTON  PEOPLE.      91
ing the present Governor Emery. The
information as to the purchase of eminent
Washingtonians was, I believe, given to
the people by Brigham Young himself,
during one of the familiar discourses in
the tabernacle. An eye-witness told me
that Brigham acted the scene capitally,
in which he explained how Washington
people were to be bought. He shares the
opinion of the man in the moon about
that capital. That person holds his nose
as he sails over the Federal capital. The
enmity between the Mormons and Gentiles
is deep, and it is rather difficult to understand why so many of the latter have
turned their steps to Utah. The population of the territory is about one hundred
and sixty thousand, of which probably
twenty thousand are Gentiles. The Mormons are as one man in " crowding" a
Gentile when opportunity presents itself.
To paraphrase Shakespeare, that which
in a Mormon is but a choleric word, in a
Gentile is flat blasphemy, or words to that 92
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
effect. A Mormon may break the municipal laws and his offence is winked at; a
Gentile is watched with wakeful eyes.
To the credit of the Mormons it must be
said that they like quiet and orderly places,
and come severely down on dissolute characters. Some Gentiles take an opposite
view of the requirements of Utah. A person whom gratitude for civility binds me
to respect said:—" I tell you what it is,
morality don't pay out West here. Yes, I
know.    I come from down East myself.
Maybe you know P ?    That's where
I come from, and I kinder squirmed at
gamblers and dance houses and faro banks
and such like ; I didn't cotton to 'em
mor'n you do, but I come to understand
it don't do. What you want to see in a
western town is a row of faro banks and
herdy houses—that's where they dance—
and saloons, and then the miners '11 come
along and make business lively. That's
what you want to make a town lively.
When you hear them in the  saloons  a- *■■
OGDEN.
poppin' off their revolvers at one another
pretty brisk about midnight, then you
says 'business is lively.'" The Gentile
storekeepers look forward to the mining
operations extending themselves, and
miners like other men will be amused. It
is a pity that miners find diversion in
" shooting round lively."
At present they avoid Mormon cities,
but the waters of commerce are gradually
eating into the heart of Mormon supremacy,
and in a few years Ogden and even Salt
Lake City will grow as " lively as the
miners can desire, until, as in other
Western cities, the more sedate members
of the community set their faces against
liveliness and insist upon law and order.
Ogden, which is the last town on the
Weber River before that beautiful stream
empties itself into the great Salt Lake, is
the junction of the Union and Central
Pacific Railways, as well as of the Utah
Central, which runs down to Salt Lake
City and then virtually becomes the Utah 94
THE  SEA OF MOUNTAINS.
Southern in its further course. It is
pleasantly situated in a valley at the foot of
a range of the " Rockies," and its public
squares, as well as the fields and gardens
of its citizens, are watered by the small
irrigating canals fed by a stream that
pours down the mountain. It is less Mormon in its general atmosphere than the
run of Mormon cities, owing to the rail-
road and the interest which that has
created, and will probably be one of the
first cities to shake off the Mormon yoke.
The same gentleman who gave me the in-
formation about the " crowding" of the
Gentiles, said that Ogden would be " a
terrible pleasant place if it was a Gentile
city. My ! there ain't nothing which this
town couldn't do if we could get rid of
them dodrotted skunks. I tell you, it's a
terrible nice place."
A two hours' ride on the Utah Central
takes you down to Salt Lake City. No
one, I think, should go through to San
Francisco without giving up one day to
H. SALT  LAKE   VALLEY.
95
see the capital of " Turkey in America."
The road soon after leaving Ogden enters
the Salt Lake Valley, and the great Salt
Lake stretches out before you to the right
and left and presents a beautiful sight.
There lies the sheet of deep blue, its
length rather than its breadth attracting
notice. On the further side three ranges
of hills lap one another, and by their
variation in distance and attitude present
an effect of colour and shade which everyone can appreciate, though an artist only
can describe it. On this side of the lake is
the broad valley backed by the range, in
which every acre is under irrigation and
use by the dwellers in the homesteads that
dot the landscape with little patches of
white and green. You pass along at a
little distance from, but gradually closing
upon, the lake, which is about eighty miles
long by forty wide, and approach the end
of the valley and the snow-touched twin
peaks that, sixteen miles beyond the city,
tower above their neighbours. 96
THE   SEA OF  MOUNTAINS.
A strange thing about Salt Lake is that,
although fed by many mountain streams,
it has no apparent outlet. It is very salt,
and persons bathing in it cannot sink.
Since 1850 it has risen about ten feet
above its normal height, and old residents
say that the climate of the Salt Lake Valley
is slowing undergoing a change. It is the
largest valley we have seen in the heart of
the mountains, and gives rise to the reflection, what numbers of places are
nestled and hidden in the bosom of the
Rocky Mountains that are now desolate
wildernesses, but which are destined to
be the homes of tens of thousands of busy
people. 97
CHAPTER VI.
Salt Lake City—The Lion House—The Bee-hive—
Brigham Young—Interview with the Prophet—A
Mormon Uncle—Charge against the President of Utah
—The Tabernacle—Brigham Young's Wives—House
of a Favourite Wife—Flight of Ann Eliza—Salt
Lake City "Tribune"—Aspect of the Inhabitants—
The Theatre—Feeling inspired by the Place.
HALT LAKE CITY, the resting place of
^ the Latter-day Saints, where, after
their long pilgrimage from Illinois, they
discovered a habitation which they believed
to be beyond the reach and beyond the
desire of aggressive Gentiles, is situated in
the vicinity of the Great Salt Lake though
not immediately on its shores. It is
prettily situated, commencing at the foot
VOL.  I. h '!H
98 THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
of one range of hills, and spreading off
through a gently descending plain towards
the encircling range on the other side.
The streets are laid at right angles, and
are, I should think, the dustiest in the
world, notwithstanding the fact that along
their edges rushes a series of little, rapid
flowing streams, which, rising somewhere
in the mountains, are led about the streets
and gardens just as the residents may
require them.
The principal streets much resemble
those in other Western cities, there being
handsome buildings of brick and stone,
several banks, and at least two good
hotels. The finest mercantile building is
the general store, which has for its sign
the representation of an eye and the
inscription already mentioned. For
a city of twenty-five thousand inha-!
bitants the lack of handsome private
residences was very noticeable. Probably
it arises from the fact that the wealthier
Mormons   keep   their   several   wives   in THE  LION   HOUSE.
99
separate residences, and cannot afford, like
Brigham Young, to build a palace for
their last acquired favourite.
The three persons of those accompanying the Governor-General's, party who
visited Salt Lake City were Mr. Stillson,
of the New York " World," Mr. Horton, of
the Toronto " Mail," and the present writer.
Having found a guide, philosopher, and
friend in the person of a gentleman who
designated the great Mormon as an | old
fraud," we were directed along a street
thickly planted with shade trees to a long,
castle-like building—the Lion House—
which seemed to have been attached to an
extended turreted wall, and which is the
home of the prophet, and of nearly all his
many wives. Inside this wall are their
dwellings, which are collectively called the
I Bee-hive." Doors opened from this
building to the street, and at one of these
we entered, and found ourselves in an
office that might have been that of a mer-
h 2 mfo
100
THE   SEA  OF   MOUNTAINS.
chant,   broker,   or  solicitor,   and  in  the
presence of two young men busily writing.
We explained our business,  handed  our
cards,    and    were    informed   that    the
President was out, but would return in
the course of a few minutes.    We said we
would wait, and were shown  into   Brigham Young's  room,   where we  found  a
gentleman and  two  ladies  waiting,  like
ourselves, to interview the Prophet.    The
gentleman was a talkative American, the
elderly lady seemed somewhat overcome
with melancholy—as indeed every woman
in the place appears to be—and the young
girl was evidently inclined to snigger, but
determined if she could to behave herself.
We seated ourselves, and were scrutinizing
a number of unframed oil daubs- which
hung  around the  rooms,  and   which   I
believe   represented   eminent   Mormons,
when the clerk who had taken our cards
re-appeared at a little side door, followed
by  an  elderly  man with the gout,  who
slippered himself across the room, leaning BRIGHAM  YOUNG.
heavily on his stick. He shook hands with
the lady, then with the young girl, who at
this point seemed greatly inclined to abandon'her self-restraint, and eventually with
each of us. Then the talkative American
gentleman began and a meandering conversation ensued, in which the Prophet told us
things that weren't new when they were
true, and probably wouldn't have been true
had they been new. It was evident from
the first that he was prepared for strangers.
Probably he conjectured that, as he has
been a fearful bete noire to the American
people, any exclusiveness on his part
would cause the cup to overflow.
While their travellers and their newspapermen can interview him and tell their
friends what he is like and what he says,
he can be borne, but a contrariety of
conduct would so incense the average
American that the little private arrangement at Utah would soon be overturned.
At the earliest part of the interview I
took occasion to examine the personal appearance of the Mormon Prophet.    If it be 7**v—
102
THE  SEA OF  MOUNTAINS.
not irreligious so to describe him, I should
say that in repose he is an " ornery looking
cuss, without any points about him more'n
any other man." He is seventy-five years
of age, and except for his gout is a hale-
looking man. His complexion is florid, he
dresses in black broadcloth and he is as
natty about his grey hair as a veteran
hair-dresser. He is not tall nor large in
any way, and would not attract attention
amongst a number of unknown men. But
there are peculiarities about his appearance which one notices on closer examination. The lower part of his face is
heavy, he, is under-hung, and his head,
thick at the back, slopes upward. I
don't know anything about bumps on a
person's head, and I should not have
had courage enough to ask permission
to phrenologically examine him, but it
seemed to me that when the subject
spoken of interested him—the cultivation
of flax for instance—his face lighted up in
a wonderful way, and there was a look of CHOICE OF THE SALT LAKE VALLEY.      103
power and ability which was not apparent
in his calmer moments. I felt satisfied
in five minutes that the man we were
speaking to was Brigham Young got up to
see strangers fundamentally hostile to him
and his rule; not Brigham Young the
Mormon prophet, as known to his own
people. It was curious to see him pose
himself as the leader of a persecuted
people. I had read in a Mormon account
of Utah that the Illinois Saints were led
directly by the Lord into the Salt Lake
Valley, for not one of them had any
knowledge of the place; so I asked him
whether it was by pure accident he and
his fellow-pioneers had selected such an
advantageous locality. He replied, " No."
They had some knowledge of it from
General Fremont's report of his exploration,
and trappers directed them to the place.
| Then," said someone, "Isuppose it was
the Lake tempted you to remain, was it not ?"
1 Well," he said, with a smile, " I suppose you ladies and gentlemen would be 104
THE  SEA OF  MOUNTAINS.
surprised if I were to tell you what determined us to remain here. We thought
that we had at last found a place so poor
that our persecutors would not envy it or
desire to take it from us."
And he sat back with a sigh, as much
as to say, " We are the Lord's chosen
people, and it is our lot to suffer at the
hands of unrighteous men. You see the
Gentiles have followed us here." When
he spoke about the poorness of the place,
the lady paid him a compliment about the
fertility they had brought about, but he
didn't quite hear her, and the young girl
found herself obliged to snigger at her
friend or mother's failure. He said with
an air of diffident sincerity, as if a doubt
of the assertion would be impossible, that
the proportion of their people was considerably increased in the last few years,
and that the population was thirty thousand,
one-eighth of which was Gentile. Other
authorities place the population at twenty-
two thousand, twenty-three thousand, and
i__ ■*!
INTERVIEW  WITH  THE  PROPHET.
105
at most twenty-five thousand, and the
Gentile population at one in six. When
pressed on this latter point, the Prophet
admitted that, considering the fact of Salt
Lake City being the centre of mining
business, perhaps the correction was just.
He spoke generally about the climate, and
compared it with other places, giving us
some general guide-book kind of information about it and its first discovery,
but studiously avoiding any approach to
the delicate subject of inner Mormon life.
Another visitor asked him whether he
would not introduce the party to his wives,
but Brigham replied that his wives were
"noton exhibition." When we rose to go
and again shook hands with him, a feat
which the young lady thought a capital
joke—he was particular to ask our names,
and requested us to register ourselves in
his book. At this point our companion Mr.
Stillson, of the New York "World," asked
Brigham whether he didn't come from
Cayuga county, in the State of New York. "Yes," said Brigham, staring at his
questioner.
I thought you did. I've heard my
father speak of you," he added, in a tone
which left no doubt that the parental observations had been otherwise than complimentary.
| Oh, yes," said the Prophet, " I lived
there; why, I helped to build the first
market-place in Albany. What's your
father's first name ?"
I James."
I James !    Oh, yes, I knew him.
brother William married my sister.
The " World" correspondent gave a
start, and muttered something about Helen
Blazes! and said that he didn't believe
that he had an uncle named William. He
scowled dreadfully at the Prophet, and
being next to him I could hear murmured
substantives, of which the mildest was,
" fraud." But Brigham fairly hankered
after this new found relative, and would
not have Uncle William so disposed of. A  NEW-FOUND   RELATIVE.
11 knew him well," he said, and made
some reference to one of his own wives,
but got confused, and escaped further explanation by saying that it was a long
time ago. He really meant that he could
not remember which wife.
| Couldn't have been my uncle," said
the correspondent, " my uncle's name is
Samuel."
I Oh, yes," said this Mormon uncle,
" that must be him. I don't know where
he is now. They are a wandering lot, the
Stillsons."
, This little episode delighted the young
girl, who took it all in and seemed inclined
to ask the Prophet to go on. We registered our names, however, and went
out, the disgusted correspondent of the
I World" expressing his determination to
I go for" that old humbug, in spite of his
relationship. I afterwards saw that he
had spoken of him as " a loathsome old
fraud." I think the same opinion was
formed of the Mormon chief by each of 108
THE   SEA  OF MOUNTAINS.
the party, with only some slight variation.
His appearance was a piece of acting
throughout; he is the well preserved
remains of an ill-spent life. He has had
power and determination to a marked
degree, and is probably still capable of
some great act of fury or revenge if
driven to it. He does not give one the
idea of a man who deceives himself. In
the moments of his solitude, as his life
is drawing onwards to its close, he must
think and think again of the blood that
lies at his door. 1 don't know that he is
worse, or has more crime to answer for,
than would fall to most men in his position. I put polygamy out of the question
altogether. We believe it a fatal mistake,
socially, politically, economically, domestically, and morally, but the Mormons
have some strong arguments in defence
of its morality, and are not the first nor
the only people who practise it. It is not
merely the number of his wives that has
roused the anger of the  Gentiles of Utah, BRIGHAM  YOUNG.
109
and of those Mormons who have left and
are leaving the Church, against Brigham.
None of them ever call Abraham a
hoary-headed old scoundrel, or allude to
Solomon as a murdering old villain. It is
his actions as an irresponsible ruler that
excite their hatred. They say that he
has caused a number of men, whom they
name, to be assassinated; that he has
used his power to aggrandize himself at
the expense of the poor dupes by whom
he is believed to be a messenger of the
Almighty; that his whole existence is a
living lie, and that the fury of his resentment against those by whom he is
angered is only restrained by the presence
of United States troops at Camp Douglas,
in the neighbourhood. He gave me the
impression of a man who had been this,
that, and the other, but who had had his
fling in his own way, in his own time, and
was now—so far as he could consistently
do so—quite prepared to come into the
regular order of things, and pass the rest 110
THE  SEA  OF MOUNTAINS.
of his days at peace and in harmony with
the power which he sees is overshadowing
him, and which is drawing in upon him
on every side. Americans feel strongly
about the iniquity that has so long reigned
triumphantly by the Salt Lake, and would,
if they could, " wipe out" the whole concern to-morrow. But violence is unnecessary ; the thing will fall to pieces as the
mining interest develops itself, and the
beginning of the end will be Brigham
Young's death. Over his coffin the death
chant of Zion will be sung.
After leaving Brigham Young's house,
which we did to the parting salutation of
" I wish you well," we went to the Tabernacle. Brigham himself was the architect
of this building, and it does him credit.
It is one hundred and fifty feet wide by
two hundred and fifty feet long, eighty
feet high, oval in form, without a column,
built on stone pillars twenty feet high, the
roof being of lattice work, having about
nine feet between the top and the plastered THE   TABERNACLE.
ceiling.     It is  filled   with   seats, and at
one end is an enormous organ—the second
largest in the United States, constructed
entirely by local architects.    The Tabernacle seats twelve thousand people, and
can hold twenty  thousand, the  ordinary
congregations   being  over  six  thousand.
One is much struck by the appearance of
such  a  vast room,   without any support
beyond  its   outside   walls.    Beneath   the
organ are three ledges, each having a kind
of pulpit in the centre.    The upper one is
that from which   the Prophet " talks to
the people," so the janitor explained ; the
next is for the councillors, and the lower
one for the twelve apostles.    The janitor
told us that our conversation, even though
conducted in low tones, could every word
of it be heard at the other  end  of the
Tabernacle; but everyone was too hot and
lazy to  go  and  test  the  assertion, and
what reliance can be placed on the word
of a fellow who might have had six wives, BKhmIT
112
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
and looked miserable enough to have had
a dozen?
The Tabernacle is situated in a large
garden, in which a new temple is in
course of construction. One sees the inverted soap-dish cover of the Tabernacle
from all sides, but by-and-by it will be
eclipsed by the Temple. As an instance
how Brigham makes his money may be
cited the case of the Temple, which is of
granite from the neighbouring mountain,
and though not yet twenty feet above
ground, and not a large building, has
already cost over two million dollars.
We then went to see the house of his
last wife, the favourite Amelia, whose
photograph we were shown. Brigham
Young has had nineteen wives—that he
remembers—besides the old women that
have been from time to time sealed to him
for the next world, but he lost one not long
ago in the person of Ann Eliza, who bolted
out of Utah and then went lecturing through SECRETS  OF THE  PRISON HOUSE.       113
the United States exposing the secrets of
the Prison House, and describing what
the skeleton in the closet was like. He
has built a magnificent house for Amelia,
and his first wife is to have the cellar flat.
This it appears is an act of kindness on
the part of Amelia, who desires to protect
and care for the first wife, who is now an
old and unattractive person. There is a
story going that Amelia has found an
affinity in a young officer at Camp Douglas,
and that she has taken a leaf out of the
Colleen Bawn and communicates with the
gallant Gentile by signal-lights. An. account of this was published in the Salt
Lake City " Tribune," a journal that exhibits considerable ingenuity and fearlessness in attacking Brigham Young and the
Mormon Church. One of the staff on this
paper is a nephew of the Prophet. I
asked him whether it would not have been
dangerous a few years ago to publish such
a paper. I was told that it would hate
VOL. i. I 114
THE   SEA   OF  MOUNTAINS.
been impossible, and that it was | pretty
scaly work doing it now."
A few days ago an attempt was made to
take the life of this fearless young editor,
but he was too quick with his revolver,
and the disappointed Saints will have to
defer the operation.    The paper continues
as fearless as ever, which is in itself a sign
of the   approaching times.    That   Mor-
monism is   the  galvanized  corpse  of   a
belief is evident in everything.    The word
| Sham"   seems to be imprinted in the
air.    The men look as if they knew they
were   impostors,   and the   women  move
about the  most   saddened-looking   creatures one can imagine.    There is nothing
bright and fresh even about their children.
Everything wears a gloomy aspect.    They
seem to be ashamed of themselves, though
doubtless it is  quiet,   unspoken   misery
which gives them their depressed looks.
It is hard to believe, perhaps, that Mor-
monism can affect others than Mormons,
but there is about everything in Salt Lake THE  STAGE.
115
City an air such as one can imagine
Antwerp to have worn when its gates
were opened to Farnese and the Inquisition.
There are two good Gentile hotels in
Salt Lake City, and a very pretty theatre.
In the matter of theatricals, we may learn
something from the Mormons. They will
not allow indecently-dressed performers.
No Black Crooks in Salt Lake City.
They go a good deal to the theatre when
it is open, because they say :
" To witness dramatic performances is a
natural desire; it is the duty, therefore,
of respectable people to go in order that
the.performance may not be permitted to
be such as the dissolute would choose."
They are very much down on "the
dissolute," gamblers, and similar people,
but great upholders of the stage. It will
be seen that the Mormons have a great
deal of common sense in some things.
Their days, however, are numbered.    As
i 2 116 THE  SEA OF  MOUNTAINS.
a I Liberal" Mormon storekeeper remarked
to me, in reply to some observation,
" I guess the Gentiles will \ get away
with this place j before long.'
We were very glad to get away from the
place.    You can imagine the feeling which
one would experience in visiting a place
where the people all walked about wrong
end up, or with some other abnormal and
horrible peculiarity.    This is the kind of
feeling you have about Utah, and when
you   leave it   behind,  you  seem  to  experience a sensation of escaping from a
community of ghosts, or at least of people
who only partially belonged to the same
atmosphere and hemisphere as yourself.
*Ui 117
CHAPTER VII.
The Sierra Nevada—Central Pacific Railway—The Alkaline Plains—Construction of the Line—Difficulties
overcome — Magnificent View on the Line — Cape
Horn—Comparisons—The " Amythyst"—Pacific Mail
Company's Steamers—Projected Route of the Governor-General— Hotels in America—Arrival at San
Francisco.
TX)R the future, whenever anyone jeers
■*- at the project of the Canada Pacific
Railway through the rocky portion of
British North America, let him be answered by reference to the Central Pacific
Railway through the Sierra Nevada. When
we came through the Rocky Mountains
on the Union Pacific, we ran through pass
after pass at the foot of successive spurs
and ranges, and one felt that the Rocky 118
THE   SEA   OF  MOUNTAINS.
Mountains were a geographical bugbear
that had been used as a means of scaring
enterprising people, substantiating the
rule that in every great undertaking it is
always possible to find a deterrent motive
which is feared, overcome, and finally
laughed at.
But crossing the Sierra Nevada, the
line is on the summit, or crest, of the
mountains" for a considerable period. It
must have got there during the night, for
late yesterday evening we were still rolling
on through the Alkaline Plains (the American desert), and this morning we were
rushing through pine-clad hill-tops with
the valleys almost out of sight beneath us.
Those weary Alkaline Plains, where, if
there be any wind, the dust penetrates
into every car, every valise, every book,
and every individual sheet of paper! It
makes the eyes sore, and parches the
throat; it makes the mere touching of
anything a thing to be dreaded, and
ruffles  the  most   patient   temper.     The '
THE  ALKALINE   PLAINS.
119
porter says you are lucky when you cannot write your name on your face with
your finger. These plains begin a very
few hours after leaving Ogden. But about
this region, a shrub which is commonly
called grease wood grows in profusion,
in company with the wild sage, and a
gentleman informed me that cattle eat
this greedily, and that the region we were
passing through supported a hundred
thousand head of cattle, that got very
little of anything except the grease and
shrub to eat. But any cow that chooses
to remain in such a desolate waste, with
a beautiful country within a few days'
distance, is an animal of very little taste.
In the Sierras, the atmosphere changes,
and travel becomes once more a pleasant
occupation. When the Central Pacific
Railway was first commenced, the business men of San Francisco thought the
projectors were mad. People said that
it could only be built up into a snow bank
and there left; the newspapers chaffed it; 120
THE   SEA   OF  MOUNTAINS.
the friends of the capitalists begged them
not to ruin themselves for an idea; the
public called it "the Dutch Flat Swindle;"
and it was generally treated as a stock
joke, upon which every one willing might
exercise | the gruel he called his brains."
In a speech delivered in Congress one of
the projectors said :
" There were difficulties from end to
end; difficulties from high steep mountains, from snows, from deserts where
there was scarcity of water, and from
gorges and flats where there was an excess ; difficulties from cold and from heat;
from a scarcity of timber, and from obstructions of rock; difficulties in supplying a large force on a long line, from
Indians and from want of labourers. The
dangers were very great: for, first, the
surveyors, then the labourers, then the
track-layers, and finally the passengers
themselves were liable to attack by the
. Indians."
All these difficulties and dangers were CENTRAL  PACIFIC  RAILWAY.
121
overcome, apparently for the chief purpose of benefiting San Francisco. The
cost, of course, was enormous, for everything had to be brought round by sea,
and then carried into the interior. There
are some wonderfully fine engineering
feats on this road. The Summit Tunnel,
for instance, is one thousand six hundred
and fifty feet long, and is cut through
solid granite. Some of the cuttings are
wonderful to behold, particularly in cases
where the road has had to be cut
alongside of a precipice. The Palisades
on the Humbold afford a beautiful view
on this line, but there, as in the
Echo and Weber Cafions, the road
passes at the foot instead of on the top
or on the face of the mountain. Probably
the finest view on this section of the road
is that which shows Cape Horn. A cutting has been made on the brow of the
mountain, from which there is a precipitous fall of two thousand four hundred
feet. 122
THE  SEA OF MOUNTAINS.
The train goes slowly by here, for there
is nothing but the narrow line between
it and kingdom come, and any misunderstanding between the driver and
his engine would entail a swoop through
the air of a very unbirdlike nature.
Straight out at right angles to the road
runs, till it is out of sight, a valley below,
on either side of which the mountains
rise to a considerable height, and lie
along it ridge by ridge. The effect is
very grand, and the sensation experienced
in viewing it quite different from that
which is felt when the mountains are
altogether above the train, and apparently
rapt in consideration of events that happened long before Adam's time. Here
the traveller looks down on the mountains.
The valley appears like a little winding
creek, the pine trees like shrubs. A good
big stone rolled down would take the head
off any of them, and play the mischief
generally on its road. The fact that one
has  got this power   and pull   over the
I ■s.
CAPE  HORN.
123
mountain below enables one to seek a
commanding position, and feel a little
self-satisfaction about man's dominion
over nature, and so forth, which is not
so easy when he feels himself a mite under
an eminence of two or three million tons
weight in the Echo Cafion.
Cape Horn, however, is a beautiful
sight in whatever way it may affect the
individual onlookers. A scene in which
everything one is accustomed to consider
grand and magnificent is dwarfed by the
distance immediately beneath the point
of view, and extending its distance indefinitely as it recedes, is what is here presented. The train stops on the cutting
for passengers to get out—an exceedingly
dangerous thing to do, as one of our
party was nearly finding out to his cost;
and as the scene changes so much, according to the time of year and state of the
atmosphere, and as no one in the world
ever found a view to be what he expected
from what he had read, I will leave Cape 124
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
Horn for the examination of your readers,
as each in his own good time may visit
it.
Just as a last word about the scenery,
both under the Rockies and over the Sierras,
I may remark that every traveller will
be able to say that he has seen higher
mountains, grander declivities, more
snowy peaks, and so forth. I saw nothing
which in these respects would compare
with the Andes in South America, and for
rugged wildness the mountains of Pata-
gonia, and those which are clad in everlasting glaciers near the real Cape Horn,
which so many people now-a-days are
familiar with, are not approached. In
the same way comparison may be made
with the Alps; but the thing to do is to
forget all about what one has seen elsewhere and enjoy some of the most interesting scenery on the continent without
making invidious comparisons. Nothing
is more provoking to a number of people
enjoying a view than to hear it be-littled NEVADA.
155
by some one who prefers some other
place; and yet nothing is more difficult
than to obtain a quiet ten minutes in silent
observation of some grand peak or stretch
of river without being told that it doesn't
come up to such and such a place.
As the train passes through Nevada,
the quantity, excellence, and comparative
cheapness of the fruit that is offered for
sale tell the tale of our whereabouts,
and as we go west through the Golden
State, the Chinamen become more and
more numerous along the line. After
clearing the mountains, the country then
becomes beautiful from an agricultural
point of view. It is strange to see, early
in August, large tracts of stubble on
which the wheat has been cut, thrashed,
and either shipped a month ago, or lying
in sacks along the road waiting for the
freight trains to carry it off. It was
strange also to see an immense field of
what at first looked like potatoes, but
which proved to be cucumbers, harvested 126
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
by lines of Chinamen advancing steadily
over the ground and moving about in
their respective lines like so many blackbirds engaged with a field of grasshoppers.
For many  miles  I  observed  that  the
farms  were   without fences.    There was
one fence  along the railway line, and I
could see no others, with the exception of
small enclosures round the several homesteads.     I asked   how the   cattle   were
managed,   and  was told that when  the
crops   were in  the  cattle   were sent off
and   herded in the neighbouring hills or
by the river, which in another direction
was   the boundary of the plain we were
passing.     This  is  according to   Horace
Greeley's theory, and it is a matter which
is of considerable importance to the settlers
in the North-west, and should have their
earnest attention.    Here were many thousands of acres belonging to a number of
different people, and only  the black roads
through the yellow stubble telling of any THE   "AMETHYST."
127
division. As we reached the ferry which
receives the passengers from the train to
take them across the harbour of San
Francisco, we saw the Amethyst lying at
anchor waiting for Lord Dufferin, and in
a few minutes found that Captain Chatfield,
her commander, had come aboard.
The Amethyst is one of those new corvettes which are specially adapted to hold
no one but their own officers, so that the
Governor-General has to break up his
party and send some by mail. I suppose,
however, it is the best the Admiralty can
do, though they are not famous for being
obliging, and are always huffy about being
asked for their ships; and it is certainly
much better that the Governor-General of
Canada should visit our Pacific Province
in a Queen's ship than arrive there in one
of the steamers of the Pacific Mail Company, which I hear are dirty, crowded
boats, altogether unfit for the work they
perform. As they afford the only means
•—by sea—which Canadians have of going 128
THE   SEA OF  MOUNTAINS.
to, and returning from, Vancouver Island
and the Fraser, and as I believe we pay
them a certain subsidy for carrying the
mails, they are a subject of interest to us
all, and I shall, after having made a passage in one, be able to tell you something
about them.
The Governor-General and Lady Dufferin
leave here on Saturday for Vancouver,
and will not do very much of the lions
until their return from British Columbia.
They were met at the station by a number
of gentlemen, who escorted them across,
and they are now staying at the Palace
Hotel, an establishment which is a sight
in itself. I am trying to discover what it
is about the American that makes him the
only hotel-keeper in the world. I think
it is a love of system. It seems strange
that London — the business centre of
Europe, which receives I forget how many
thousand visitors regularly every day—
should have no hotels which can compare
with those  of Chicago.    The people   of sap
VISIT   TO  THE   THEATRE.
129
London would assemble in crowds to see
the Palace Hotel of San Francisco, if it
could be suddenly placed in Hyde Park.
They are talking of building a thousand-
roomed hotel near the site of the old
Northumberland House at Charing Cross,
but if they do, they will have to engage
an American to manage it.
Last night their Excellencies went to
the theatre, and to-day will devote themselves to obtaining glimpses of the city.
vol. I.
K 130
CHAPTER VIH.
Arrival in British Columbia—Esquimalt—Reception
of the Governor-General—Manning the Yards—Sir
James Douglas, First Governor of Vancouver's Island
—Victoria—Indian Songs—Municipal Address—Lord
Dufferin's Reply — Objectionable Mottoes — Chinese
Arches—Carnarvon Terms, or Separation—The Pacific Railway—Letter to the Secretary of the Reception Committee.
/~\N the morning after our arrival at San
" Francisco I was compelled to start
at once in the Pacific mail steamer, then
going to Victoria and the Northern ports.
The Amethyst, with Lord Dufferin, was
not to leave till Saturday morning following the Thursday on which the mail
steamer started. The passage up was
slow and troublesome for both ships, and ESQUIMALT.
131
although heavy head-winds compelled the
mail-steamer to run for an intermediate
port, it was still believed that she would
be in Esquimalt harbour some time before
the Amethyst. We were somewhat surprised, therefore, on rounding the Race
Rocks, and presently opening Esquimalt
Harbour, to see the topmasts of the
Amethyst coming into sight, and on entering the harbour to find all the preparations made for His Excellency's landing.
Esquimalt is at all times a beautiful as
well as a fine harbour, and this morning
it presented an unusually gay appearance.
It is hidden from the straits by its comparatively narrow entrance, and a vessel
might easily >sail by it. Its rugged and
picturesque surroundings are dwarfed in
grandeur by the supreme magnificence of
the Olympic range, which rises apparently
from the water's edge on the Washington
Territory side, (although really many miles
back), and which lies on your right hand,
alternately hiding and revealing its snow-
K 2 132
THE  SEA OF  MOUNTAINS.
capped peaks amongst the banks of clouds
that always seem to hover about them.
But as a ship turns and enters between
Fisgard Lighthouse and the Dock Yard
Point, Esquimalt Harbour, nestling in the
bosom of an encircling range of rocky
ground, and wandering away to a vanishing point in a small hillside stream that
there empties itself, presents a view as
charming as it is unexpected.
In olden days, ere Vancouver -Island
had become a portion of the Dominion,
and before the requirements of commerce
and civilization had denuded the rocks of
the tall and gloomy pine-trees that thickly
covered them to the water's edge, or had
raised buildings and created gardens where
wigwams and fish poles had been wont to
rest, Esquimalt, on entering it, appeared
to be a watery nook in the heart of an
interminable forest. To-day, if it has lost
some of its wilder pristine beauties, it is
recompensed by the unique appearance
afforded by the still wild-looking rocks, PREPARATIONS  FOR  THE  RECEPTION.
133
and background interspersed by the dwellings of trade, the dwellings of traders,
symbols of war, and the general preparations that have been made for the landing
of the Governor-General. At the point
at which in the early gold days the rushes
of miners from San Francisco and elsewhere were in the habit of scrambling
ashore, a permanent wharf, to the edge
of which the village extends, has been
built. This wharf had been gaily decorated
with evergreens, flags, and so forth, surmounted by a huge inscription, of which
the word " Welcome" was discernible
half way across the harbour. Around
this were clustered groups of ladies and
gentlemen, and right in the midst of them
all was the scarlet line of Marines that
were drawn up as a guard of honour.
In the foreground were the three ships,
O *
the Amethyst, the Rochet, and the Fantome,
dressed in the gayest of bunting, and
wearing that air of cleanliness, neatness,
and order which is peculiar to a man-of-
\ m 134
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
war, and from shore to ship and from
vessel to vessel the white-painted boats of
the Amethyst and the Fantome were gliding
to and fro, carrying aides-de-camp in
scarlet or naval officers in blue, and by
their quick and busy little flights giving
an air of activity and purpose to what
might otherwise be interesting for its
quaintness and beauty alone.
The mail steamer had not been long at
anchor when an Amethysfs boat came
alongside, and Captain Ward, with the
forethought and kindness which have been
invariable with all Lord Dufferin's staff
since our departure, came on board to tell
the correspondents the programme of the
day. After paying a visit to the Amethyst
at the invitation of Captain Chatfield, we
hurried back to catch the Dominion
Government steamer — the Sir James
Douglas—which was to bear us round to
Victoria, some three miles further up the
coast from Esquimalt, that being our
quickest way  of striking the  point  we MANNING   THE  YARDS.
wished to. arrive at. As this active and
handy little vessel steamed off, we saw the
cutters of the Amethyst hauling alongside,
observed the curious clustering about the
rigging of blue and white forms which
always precedes a movement aloft, and in
a few minutes heard the shrill call of the
boatswain's mate's pipe, followed by his
deep, heavy-toned command, and in another moment the riggings of   all three
OO       o
ships were filled with blue and white
forms that ran up the shaking shrouds to
the footholds above, and spread themselves
out along the yards, where they stood with
that sense of comfort and security that a
sailor seems only to feel when he is in some
position specially adapted for the convenient
breaking of his neck.
Then the first white boat, her oars
glittering in the sunshine and her stern-
sheets filled from the bower of bright-
coloured flags with scarlet and gold, moved
slowly away towards the decorated pier,
and immediately afterwards Lord and Lady L36
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
Dufferin appeared at the Amethyst's gangway, and descended into the barge waiting
for them. As she moved away, a round,
spreading column of smoke burst from the
side of the ship, and the quickly following report, succeeded by eighteen more in regular
succession, woke the echoes of the hills and
reverberated around the harbour of Esquimalt, dying off amongst the pine woods at
the upper end. Amidst this the Governor-
General and Lady Dufferin landed, and
were met by Sir James Douglas and the
reception committee. Sir James Douglas,
the first governor of Vancouver Island
when, emerging from Hudson Bay Company rule, it became a Crown colony, and
one of the principal fathers of the colony,
one whose name was a power along
the northern coasts, welcomed the Governor-General in a few appropriate words,
to which Lord Dufferin replied, expressing
the pleasure he felt at being received
by   a   gentleman   of   such   repute   and INDIAN   SALUTATION.
137
so connected with the country as Sir
James.
After a short time spent in introductions,
&c, Lord and Lady Dufferin were shown
into a carriage, and the reception committee and others who were to form part
of the procession having taken their places,
the whole party moved off along the Esquimalt Road for the city of Victoria. It was
during this drive that they saw the Indians
to whom Lord Dufferin refers in his letter
to the reception committee, which is given
in full hereafter. There were some Hydah
Indians here, as well as some Songees,
and others of the neighbourhood, and these
o *'
all uniting paddled along the narrow arm
of tbe sea that runs up past Victoria, and
at the bridge that crosses it saluted His
Excellency with a song. The merits of a
song depended upon the taste of the
audience. Lord Dufferin has not yet
offered any criticism upon this performance
and probably never will. An Indian song
must of necessity be pleasing to some one, 138
THE  SEA OF MOUNTAINS.
l!
or else it would never be taught by one
Indian to another, but it can never be sung
without suggesting the propriety of removing the performers and those who
enjoy the performance to some distance
so remote that they cannot be interrupted
by the presence of un appreciative strangers.
Like caviare, Indian music is an acquired
taste, and it may be remembered that
some things may be acquired at a cost
disproportionate to their value. Sam
Weller's youthful friend, who, when he
got to the end of the alphabet, said that
he questioned whether it was worth while
going through so much to gain so little,
would never have become an Indian
musician. But you may be sure that if
the Indians had asked Lord Dufferin what
he thought of their song, he would have
had something kind and encouraging to
say to them. By the time they had passed
these musical children of the wilds the
procession was in full progress. It would
convey no meaning to your readers were I VICTORIA.
139
to specify the exact route of the cortege
as it passed along between the entrance
of the city and its final halting place at
Government House, at the other side of
Victoria. I will speak, therefore, of the
matter generally.
I had known Victoria some years ago,
when those who are now the staid and
wisdom-teaching men amongst the people
were untamed spirits, hardly settling to
their work of life ; when those calm, gentle-
mannered matrons who to-day, surrounded
by their children, occupied the balconies
beneath which the vice-regal party were
to pass, were yet within that magic ring of
time from which old age seems far beyond
all reach; and I knew that whenever a
direct representative of Her Majesty
should come this way, the opportunity
would be seized to show that an Englishman carries the image of his Sovereign in
his heart, whether it be to the borders of
the frozen North land, or to the confines of
the Antartic circle, and that he is always I
II h
THE  SEA OF MOUNTAINS.
ready to honour her representative; but I
did not expect to see such a general turnout of all classes as there was to-day.    Nor
did I think that Victoria could have shown
such a varied assemblage of people, or the
representatives of institutions so well developed.    The concourse of people that today lined the streets  of Victoria, above
and below, was quite remarkable, and not
a little curious from the diversity  of its
component parts.    One watched for a short
time the doings of a number of elderly
gentlemen, who might have been the City
Council or a railway board in any city of
the East; a few paces on a well-balanced,
but   closely  packed,   and   in  a  measure
struggling crowd of Chinamen were striving to see all that was to be seen; beyond
them, a group of local mounted officials,
some in scarlet coats  and feathers, half
hid  from sight a concourse  of  coloured
folk and their wives and daughters,  who
were  out   in  their  Sunday best   to   do
honour to the Governor-General and i his --MM
GRAND  RECEPTION.
Countess." Then a whole regiment of little
boys from the several schools, each school
having its respective distinguishing mark,
formed a long line which was faced by a
line of equal length composed of a Provincial Rifle regiment. Between these rode
green-coated Foresters and marched red-
coated firemen, while in the general surging crowd were English, Americans, Dutch,
Chinamen, Indians, coloured people,
French, Germans, and to my own knowledge a few Spaniards. The arches were
numerous, and the principal streets were
lined with evergreens, banners, &c, and
but for a slight and totally unnecessary
contretemps, to which I will presently
refer, the reception would have been one
of the most complete that a city of the
size ever offered. At the grand triumphal
arch on Government-street—the principal
street—the processsion halted, and the
Mayor and City Council presented the
following address to the Governor-
General:— 142
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
I To His Excellency the Right Honourable Sir Frederick Temple (nearly every
city in Canada ignores the fact that his
name is Blackwood) Earl of Dufferin, Viscount and Baron Claneboye, of Clane-
boye, in- the County of Down, in the
Peerage of the United Kingdom, and
Knight Commander of the most Honour-
able Order of the Bath, Governor-General
of Canada, &c, &c, &c.
| May it please Your Excellency :—
p We, the Mayor and Council of the
city of Victoria, British Columbia, desire
to accord to you a hearty welcome, and
beg respectfully to offer our felicitatons to
your Excellency on the occasion of the
arrival of yourself and Lady Dufferin at
Victoria.
"We experience unfeigned pleasure, in
receiving at the metropolis Her Most
Gracious Majesty's representative, and we
crave leave to express to your Excellency ■—■■
MUNICIPAL  ADDRESS.
our sentiments of loyal devotion to our
Queen and her throne.
I Apart from the respectful homage
which we offer to your Excellency as the
representative of Her Most Gracious
Majesty the Queen, whose virtues as an
Englishwoman and as a constitutional
ruler are fully appreciated in this distant
part of her empire, we rejoice in welcoming to this remote part of Her Majesty's
dominions the distinguished scholar and
statesman who amidst the labours and
cares of public life has contributed so
largely to the promotion of literature and
the arts. We feel assured that your
Excellency fully recognizes the disadvantages under which this Province labours
by reason of its isolation from the rest of
the Dominion, and that you heartily
sympathise with our earnest wish that this
bar to our provincial prosperity may be
speedily removed, and that on leaving
British Columbia yourself and Lady
Dufferin   may  carry   away   with   you  a 144
THE  SEA OF  MOUNTAINS.
favourable opinion of this Province and
its people and that you will return in
health and safety to your abode in the
Eastern portion of Canada, which we
lament your Excellency is at present unable
to reach conveniently, without the necessity of passing for thousands of miles
through foreign territory."
At the same time two handsome bouquets were presented to Lady Dufferin,
who immediately handed one to the lady
who sat opposite to her in the carriage.
Lord Dufferin then rose and replied to the
address as follows :—
| Mr. Mayor and Gentlemen,—
11 can assure you that I feel very
grateful for the kind welcome with which
you and those whom you represent have
been pleased to greet Lady Dufferin and
myself on our arrival in this important
and beautiful Province.
"I   never  donbted   but   that   British LORD  DUFFERIN'S   REPLY.
145
Columbia, as in every other portion of
the great Dominion of which you form a
part, the representative of Her Most
Gracious Majesty the Queen would be sure
to find himself in the midst of a population inspired by the most enthusiastic
devotion to the person, throne, and
Government of their Sovereign, nor that
such sentiments would be more likely
anywhere to find appropriate expression
than in the flourishing city which has the
honour of bearing her name.
" Almost from the first moment that I
landed in Canada, I felt that my functions
as Viceroy would not be adequately fulfilled unless I could accomplish a visit to
British Columbia, and the personal intercourse I have had with your Parliamentary
representatives at the capital of the
Dominion still further confirmed my desire
to visit a population who in the person of
their members contributed so materially
to enhance the dignity, the ^eloquence,
and   the   intellectual  reputation   of   the
VOL.  I. Ii    • it
146
THE  SEA OF MOUNTAINS.
Federal Parliament. I have now arrived
after a tedious and circuitous journey of
many thousand miles through a foreign
country, and a sea voyage of several days'
duration, in this splendid port, which for
its commodiousness and security is not to
be rivalled by any harbour in the world.
It will be my pleasing duty to become
personally acquainted with all the leading
inhabitants of your community, and to
acquire by personal observation an accurate knowledge of the views, wishes,
needs, and aspirations of every class and
section that compose it, and to carry back
with me to the seat of Government at
Ottawa, and to transmit to the Imperial
authorities at home the valuable information which I thus hope to acquire. On
the other hand, I trust that the presence
amongst you of the head of the Executive
Government of the Dominion, aud of the
officer entrusted by Her Majesty with the
duty of representing her in British North
America  will be  accepted by you as  a LORD DUFFERIN S REPLY.
14:
pledge of the interest and sympathy with
which you are regarded both by the Queen
of England and her advisers, as well as by
the Government at Ottawa and the entire
body of your Canadian fellow-subjects,
who, I can safely assure you, desire
nothing more sincerely than to be united
with you in the strictest bonds of fellowship, patriotism, interest and affection.
I need not add that I have no greater
ambition than to contribute within the
sphere of my constitutional functions as
energetically as possible towards this end,
and I sincerely trust that ere my term of
office is concluded, I may see the material
as well as the political connection already
subsisting between British Columbia and
the Eastern portion of the Dominion in a
fair way of being rendered still more close
and intimate."
At the close of this reply both Lord and
Lady Dufferin were loudly cheered, and
they   passed  on   to   the   principal  arch, where the young school children had some
special compliment to pay to Lady Dufferin.
From this the route lay through a number
of streets in the more residential part of
the town to Government House, at present
occupied only by the Governor-General
and his party. Here there was an excellent luncheon ready, and from this
point, the bands, fire brigade, schools,
&c, turned back and made their way
home. No business was done, all the
shops being shut. Even the drug stores
put up their shutters, locked their doors,
and left their pills and their draughts to
fight it out amongst themselves.
The decorations of the town were very
pretty and ornamental, and the imagination of the decorators had been much
exercised (not always very happily) in
devising mottoes for their arches and
banners. - Amongst others were these
mottoes :—" Hearty Welcome to the
Governor-General;" " Fiat Justitia ;"
" Carnarvon Terms;" " Develop our Re- MOTTOES.
149
sources;" "Fuimus;" "All Nationalities
welcome the Governor-General;" " The
Iron Horse the Civilizer of the World;"
" Cead Mille Failthe ;" | British Columbia
welcomes Lady Dufferin;" "Coal, Gold,
Lumber, and Fish;" " A Thousand Welcomes;" "British Columbia for British
Columbians;" " Honesty is the best
Policy;" "Our Railway Iron Rusts;"
"Hail to the Chief;" "Free Port;" "In
Union there is Strength;—Psalm xv.,
verses 5 7 (Prayer Book) ; " Hyas Tyhee,
Hyas Kloosh, Mika Chakoo ;" " God Save
Victoria, Empress of India;" " British
Columbia the Key of the Pacific;" "Repeat your Visit;" " The Pacific greets the
Atlantic ;" " Loyal to the Crown;" | No-
lumus Leges Mutari;" " Carnarvon Terms
• or Separation;" " United without Union;"
" Confederated without Confederation ;"
| Railroad the Bond of Union;" " Welcome;" "God Save the Queen;" "The
Prince of Wales and all the Royal Family."
The  Chinese  arches,  which  were three, THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
had the following mottoes—the first:
I Glad to see you here;" the second—
"English Law is liberal;" third—"Come
again." These arches were in pagoda
style.
Before  entering the  city, it had been
intimated to Lord  Dufferin that in the
intended course of the procession one of
the principal arches was surmounted by
the motto, | Carnarvon Terms or Separation," and he asked that this street might
be   avoided.    The   route   was   therefore
taken in another way, and I am told that
some anger is felt—not with him, but with
those who informed him, or rather advised
him, as it is  assumed,   on the  subject.
One or two silly persons tried to turn his
horses'  heads   towards  the  objectionable
route.    The  arch is a most conspicuous
one, and was one of the first that caught
my eye.    It is hardly necessary to comment upon the taste of the individual who
endeavoured to thrust a threat into the
face of the Governor-General on his visit to THE   PACIFIC  RAILWAY.
151
Victoria, particularly as the question is one
within the range of Parliament's powers;
but I fancy it was but an ebullition of
feeling on the part of some one whose
perception of a discourtesy was not as
clear as it might have been.
Readers will observe that many of the
mottoes have reference direct or indirect
to the Pacific Railway, and it may be said
of the Victorians that they have the Pacific
Railway not only on the brain but throughout their entire frames. My opportunities
of learning the general sentiments of the
O O
people have as yet been limited, but
judging by what I have seen and heard,
I should say that all alike feel anxious on
the subject, and that a certain line of
politicians endeavour to cultivate the feeling of anger and the expression of angry
sayings as much as possible. In the
following Chapter will be given the copy.
of an address, which, at a Public Meeting
held a few nights ago, it was agreed to
present  to the Governor-General  during his stay in Victoria. It was at first
adopted by the Meeting in much stronger
terms, but, on reflexion, they moderated
the warmth of their language.
The resolution, appointing the following gentlemen to present the address to
Lord Dufferin, was then read and
carried :—
A. C. Elliott,
Jas. Trimble,
R. Beaven,
J. Douglas,
T. B. Humphreys,
W. F. Tolmie.
Chairman, Mayor Drummond.
Nominees of the Meeting.
J. Spratt,
S. Duck,
A. McLean,
Alex. Wilson,
Eli Harrison,
Chas. Gowan, .
Wm. Wilson,
T. L. Stahlschmidt,
W. K. Bull,
J. McB. Smith,
J. Williams.
The Meeting then separated. LETTER  TO   THE   COMMITTEE.
153
Soon after luncheon, Lord Dufferin, who
was very much pleased with the reception
that had been given him, and who admired
the taste with which the route had been
decorated, caused the following letter to
be written to the Secretary of the Reception Committee:—
" Government House, Victoria, B. C.
August 16, 1876.
"S
ir,
" I am instructed by His Excellency the
Governor-General of Canada to request
you to convey to the President, the Vice-
President, and the other Members of the
Reception Committee, and through them
to the inhabitants of Victoria and Esquimalt at large, His Excellency's very deep
sense of the magnificent welcome with
which he was greeted on his arrival on
your shores to-day.
" The care, forethought,  and consideration shown  on the occasion were beyond
all praise, while the beauty of the various,
decorations, the large concourse of citizens, 154
THE   SEA   OF  MOUNTAINS.
the unanimity of kind feeling which prevailed, and the admirable manner in which
the procession was marshalled, were in
every respect most gratifying. The picturesque display of the Indian population
in their gaily dressed canoes, and the
characteristic ornamentations exhibited by
the Chinese residents, contributed a novel
feature to what His Excellency cannot
help regarding as one of the most successful and flattering demonstrations of loyalty
and welcome with which he has ever been
honoured, and has made him at once feel
completely at home amongst his British
Columbian fellow-subjects.
11 have the honour to be, Sir,
" Your most obedient servant,
" E. G. P. Littleton, Lieut.-Col.
I Governor-General's Secretary." CHAPTER IX.
The "Rebel Arch"—The Victorians and the Pacific
Railway—Vicissitudes of British Columbia—Sinister
Intentions attributed to Canada—Evening Eeception
—Position and Aspect of Victoria—Climate of Vancouver—The Coal Interests of Vancouver—Proposed
Meeting with the Indians — Chinese Population of
Victoria—Peculiar Distinction of John Chinaman—
Chinese Servants.
rpHAT which at one moment appeared
-*- likely to prove an unpleasant interruption to the general warmth of the
welcome given to the Governor-General,
promises now to be only a fit subject for
" chaff." The arch upholding the objectionable motto, "The Carnarvon Terms
or Separation," was raised by certain
gentlemen who, while feeling very strongly Uh
I!
;
156
THE  SEA OF MOUNTAINS.
upon the subject of the Pacific Railway,
repudiate the supposition that they intended to threaten the Queen's representative. They intended the motto as an epigrammatic expression of their political
sentiments, and not as a threat, although
to ordinary observers it bore a very pistol-
at-your-throat aspect. It was really a case
in support of the proverb that out of the
abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh,
and even those who regret and those who
condemn what is now called " The Rebel
Arch," are not slow to say that the political
condition of British Columbia requires
serious consideration.
It always happens that the local contentions and animosities are in an inverse
ratio to the size of the community, and in
Victoria the isolation of the country has
an intensifying rather than a mitigating
effect; but the hearts of all, black or
white, red or yellow, are alike filled to
overflowing with hopes and fears begotten
of their union with Canada, and the sub- PUBLIC  FEELING  IN  VICTORIA.
sequent unavoidable delays which have
occurred in the realization of that which
to them seemed the great boon of Confederation. The Pacific Railway is their
thought by day; perhaps their dream by
night. To them it is the all in all. In it
they see progress, prosperity, and happiness ; without it the prospect looks gloomy,
ruinous, and hopeless. They believe that
to be confederated they were cajoled ; that
in Confederation they have been cheated.
They hardly see that in truth they were
unduly elated, and are now unduly depressed.
I am now speaking of Victoria only;
perhaps it may be found that northward
and on the mainland the feeling is not
quite the same, or, if the same, not so
intense. In Victoria, however, it is
general, though variously expressed.
There are those who speak of the matter
calmly, sensibly, and patriotically; there
are others who regard it from a purely
selfish view; others who are not thoroughly THE  SEA OF MOUNTAINS.
informed upon public affairs bearing upon
the subject, and a small per-centage whose
time would be more profitably occupied in
almost any other manner than in discussing a question of such magnitude and
importance. I have no intention of reproducing all or any of the recriminations
which are levelled at Canada for what is
termed her want of faith.
A knowledge that the Pacific Railway is
the one great idea of life here, together
with a study of the mottoes exhibited on
■the bridges and arches in the recent
decoration of the city, will serve to show
the temper of the public mind. " Nolu-
mus leges mutari" will be easily translated.
There is no question about the lex to
which they refer. " Our railway iron
rusts" is an intimation that is not to be
misunderstood. " Confederated without
Confederation," has a much plainer meaning than many a Delphic utterance upon
which the fate of nations was made to
turn.    " England will see justice done," MR.   MACKENZIE.
159
or words to that effect, and numerous
other indirect allusions, testify to the
groove in which the Victorian mind is
running. An effort has undoubtedly been
made with more or less success to capture
this general feeling for less than general
purposes, but there is a very strong disposition on the part of the public to regard
themselves as one and Canada as the
other, without entering into the question
of whether the Conservatives or Reformers
are most to blame.
A great .number of those who are induced to animadvert upon the present
Government do not appear to be aware
of the difficulties with which Mr. Mackenzie has had to contend. They cherish
the scarcely accurate belief that, because
his opponents were themselves pledged to
the building of the. Pacific Railway, no
opposition emanates from that quarter to
the speedy completion of the through line.
An explanation as to some of the real
difficulties  with   which  the   Minister  of 160
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
Public Works has had to contend appears
to open a view which had not before presented itself ; but the political contentions
of this Province have been such that persons considering the matter find little
difficulty in realizing the probable obstacles
which a Minister of Canada may find it
necessary to overcome. The railway question, however, overshadowing everything
else, has necessarily become mixed up
with other matters, and has been more or
less adroitly made to link itself with issues
to which it does not properly belong. But
right or wrong, with reason or without
reason, the people of this place—English,
Canadians, and British Columbians—have
wound themselves to that pitch of excitement and determination upon the subject
of the Canada Pacific Railway, that to
discuss or consider other interests is a
waste of time until this has been settled.
Curiously enough, those who are most
impatient of delay—so I am told, and I
have partially tested the information—are POLITICAL  VICISSITUDES.
161
Canadians. It might have been expected
that they would have proved to be a
fountain of oil for the troubled waters, but
the reverse seems to be the case, and
remembering some experiences elsewhere,
the conclusion asserts itself that once on
the Westward roam patriotism is apt to be
diluted with the more potent spirit of self-
advancement. It is more pleasing to
listen to those who look with aversion at
any threatened political disruption. Let
me give you as well as I can the substance
of some conversations :—
" We"—says the typical British Columbian whom I am now quoting—" have
seen many political vicissitudes. We were
first transferred as it were from the Hudson's Bay Company to the Crown. We
were then converted into two separate
colonies, British Columbia and Vancouver
Island; we were then amalgamated and
made one, and as a Crown Colony were
happy, reasonably prosperous, and slowly
progressing.     We   were  then  asked   to
VOL.   I. M THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
relinquish our autonomy and become a
Province of the Dominion. It was a proposition not altogether fascinating at first
sight, but it was the wish of the Crown ;
much could be said in favour of establishing a great united British Empire in North
America, and it was pointed out to us
that this could only be done by the admission of British Columbia into the
Dominion, and the connection being made
practical and enduring by a railway from
the Atlantic to the Pacific. So we joined
the Confederation, knowing perfectly that
without such a railway the coupling link
was of thread, and would break under
the first pressure that might be applied
to it.
I The railway was secured, as we thought,
by the most solemn guarantees that could
be devised, but the fulfilment of our consideration was found to be impracticable
by the other contracting party. We
practically admitted that this was so, and
accepted a modified arrangement.     This THE  PACIFIC RAILWAY.
arrangement was in its turn cast aside—
possibly, as you urge, through no fault
of Mr. Mackenzie, but still to our detriment—and while we have long been
satisfied that on the opinions of surveyors
the Government must ere this have determined upon the route, we have come,
through hope deferred, to be so sick at
heart on the subject of the Pacific Railway, and so doubtful of relief, that while
we turn with distaste from any proposition having for its object another political
change, we are compelled to admit that,
the circumstances of the case do not permit our trusting to the usual efficacy of
time to heal the wounds from which we
suffer. You ask how, taking an extreme
alternative, the country is to be benefited,
and we say that in the first place, without
the trans-continental railway British
Columbia is of no use to Canada, nor
Canada to British Columbia, that a large
and very valuable tract of country is removed  from  our  possession  for  railway
m 2 i!
164
THE  SEA OF MOUNTAINS.
purposes, and that the capitalists of California and other parts of the United States,
who are keenly alive to the scope for
profitable enterprise which the coal-fields
of this- country afford, are waiting the
result of our negotiations with Canada,
preferring to seek even less inviting investments for their capital in United States
territory rather than use it in a foreign
country. There are heavy duties upon
our lumber, coal, and fish-oil, which
otherwise would beat all competition. We
have, moreover, a summer resort hardly
to be equalled on the continent, and we
are satisfied that, should we ever unhappily be deprived of our association
with the flag to which we naturally cling,
our material prosperity in a new life
would be beyond anything that we could
achieve by other means than that of complete and reasonably speedy connection
with Canada."
I do not give this as British Columbia's
argument, but rather as the mildest way THE   GOVERNOR-GENERAL'S  VISIT.
in which I have heard the subject treated.
The visit of the Governor-General, taken
in connection with Mr. Lowther's reply in
the House of Commons to Mr. McArthur's
question on the subject of British Columbia
and the Pacific Railway, is now considered
as being expressly in connection with the
railway question. It is doubtful whether
Lord Dufferin will think it worth while to
enter upon any explanations with a view
to disabuse the minds of the people here
of erroneous impressions which they may
have conceived touching Canada's want o
faith, and so forth. I presume that it is
better to go on steadily towards the consummation of Canada's railway intentions,
trusting to the reaction that will follow
when deeds demonstrate the bona fides of
the Canadian people, and convince the
British Columbians—since nothing else
will—that Canada does not now, nor ever
did, entertain the sinister intentions which
are attributed to her.
The  Governor-General has  been  very 166
THE   SEA  OP  MOUNTAINS.
busy since his arrival in making the acquaintance of prominent personages in
Victoria. Having the present use of
Government House, he at once commenced
housekeeping with that spirit of hospitality
that distinguished his residence at Ottawa.
Lady Dufferin has been suffering from a
bad cold, and perhaps from the lingering
results of the very stormy weather between
San Francisco and Esquimalt. This evening Her Excellency holds a reception, and
there is a general buzz about the dry-goods
stores, where ladies are overhauling articles
which I can neither name nor describe,
further than by saying that they are of
the tulle or bombazine, or affiliated order
of stuff; and the gentlemen are, for the
moment, as interested in procuring the
proper white ties as they are to secure
the more important railway tie about
which they have been so much exercised.
The reception is to be held in the evening,
and the ladies all attend in full evening
dress (low neck and short sleeves is,  I
,i ■ VICTORIA.
167
believe, the correct expression). Judging
by some of the young ladies I have seen
here, it will be a very pretty and bright
assemblage.
On Monday there will be an At Home at
Government House; on Tuesday, I believe,
a garden party, and indistinct foreshadow-
ings of a ball or balls meet one every now
and again. The Governor-General and
Lady Dufferin are residing at the official
residence of the Lieutenant-Governor, into
which Governor Richards had not yet
moved. It is a large and roomy mansion
of its kind, and beautifully situated, in so
far as it commands views of interesting and
fascinating scenery. Indeed, the residential portions of Victoria are all desirable localities, for Victoria is one of the
prettiest spots in the northern world. It
is situated on a series or range of small
rocky hills, which were once covered with
pine trees, and which still retain a part of
the growth, and into the heart of the city
run two branching arms of the sea.    Look- 168
THE   SEA   OF   MOUNTAINS.
.
il
ing out from almost any window of the
bungalow-like houses facing the north or
east, a view of the long line of the snow-
tipped Olympic range meets the eye,
separated from Victoria apparently only
by the strip of blue sea that washes the
confines of the city limits and fills the town
and country with its pure fresh breezes.
When there is a slight breeze blowing,
you may open the window of your room
and imagine that the ocean is rolling
beneath you. You may walk to Beacon
Hill, which is in the park of the city, or
drive to any of the neighbouring outlets,
and all the blessings and pleasures of the
sea-side are at your command. If the
Province of Manitoba and its continuation
could be put at the back of Victoria, the
city would become one of the choice spots
of the Western hemisphere. It is agricultural room that is here lacking. At
one time it was believed that Vancouver
Island would be good for nothing but as
a port for British Columbia, but that was VANCOUVER ISLAND.
169
a fallacy which time has exposed. There
is a great deal of rock in the country, but
in the midst of the rockiest parts, within
ten minutes drive of the Post-office, are
fertile fields and abundant crops. Further
back in the country   are large  stretches
J O
which I can remember uncultivated wastes,
but which are now, I am told, raising
grain and garden fruits in rich abundance.
Vancouver is particularly blessed in its
climate, and the luxuriance with which
flowers, creepers, and fruit grow in what
appears to be a not very rich soil is quite
remarkable.
Of course, it is not pretended that
Vancouver is an agricultural country.
The rich open prairies of Manitoba have
made Canadians fastidious about their
choice of farming localities, and the wealth
of this country is in its coal and minerals
and lumber. The prairie has such attractions for some people that they are not
to be frightened by long and severe winters,
and they   find beauty   rather   than  the Iii
K
&
THE   SEA OF  MOUNTAINS.
reverse in the wide treeless expanses of the
North-west; but I have met some who
have returned from the prairie complaining
bitterly of the peculiarites of that country.
They did not like its immensity, nor its
cold, nor its heat, nor anything that
appertained thereto. If they still must
roam let them come here, for they will have
a climate at which they will not be able to
complain, they will have a superfluity of
wood, and they will be able to raise without
difficulty all that they may require. Just
now the coal trade, which is a very important
interest in Vancouver, is dull. A great quantity of wheat is shipped from California to
England, and the vessels outward bound
carry coal to San Francisco as ballast. They
are therefore able to undersell the Nanaimo
collieries. There is still, however, a demand, because the amount brought out
does not supply more than a fourth of the
quantity used. The Governor-General
will visit Nanaimo somewhere about this
day week, when I shall be able to acquire THE  INDIANS.
some information upon the subject of the
coal interest from trustworthy sources.
Lord Dufferin leaves here on Thursday
the 24th, in the Amethyst, and will first
go to New Westminster to meet the
Indians. By some misunderstanding
they were summoned to meet him, and I
hear that there will be a very large
gathering of them. It will afford a good
opportunity for comparing them with the
Chippewas, Crees, and others of the
plains. Those that we see about Victoria
are not favourable specimens, but Indians
resident in the midst of a white population
have but one certain fate before them.
Their demoralization is always speedy and
complete. The Dominion and Provincial
Governments, however, have appointed an
arbitration commission here to settle the
question as to the amounts of land to be
ceded by the Province for each Indian reserve ; a commission on which the Dominion Government is ably represented by
Mr. A. C. Anderson, a gentleman of long THE   SEA OF  MOUNTAINS.
experience in this country; and it is
probable that the unsightly and in every
way objectionable Indian hamlet touching
the city of Victoria may, with equitable
arrangements for the Indians, be removed
for ever.
In speaking of the arrival of the Governor-General here, I referred to the cosmopolitan nature of the city and appearance
of the people, and further inspection confirms the impression. It is in that respect
like a miniature San Francisco, and as in
the city of the golden gate, John Chinaman is a large element in the population.
One thousand was the number of Chinamen given to me by a trustworthy informant ; about the same number or perhaps
a few more than the Indians who make
this neighbourhood their home. John is
a very active and useful member of society
here. He works hard and works steadily.
He is in all grades, from that of a merchant to the less dignified, but equally
useful one of washerman.    Some murmur- £g_33&-3§-_-»-Sa
JOHN  CHINAMAN.
173
ing is occasionally heard about cheap
labour, but the advantage of cheap
labour is so palpable that for some time at
any rate the Californian cry against John
must here echo in his favour. It may not
be natural to employ an adult pig-tailed
son of Confucius to wash one's clothes,
but when the alternative is not having
them washed at all or paying more than
they could be bought for, one does not
hesitate for a second about employing
John's services. John is employed in all
capacities, save that of ladies' maid, by
the inhabitants of Victoria. He is a good
cook, he makes a capital housemaid, he is
docile  and  obliging.    At times he   is a
o      o
little trying, but until angels take to
ministering in domestic service " the
missuses" must remain subject to trials.
Besides the graceful solution of household difficulties is one of the highest
triumphs of a gentlewoman, and who
would deprive the sweeter sex of a legitimate field of womanly occupation at the THE  SEA OF MOUNTAINS.
risk of driving them into some new branch
of manly art. . I heard three ladies discussing " John" one day, and learnt to
appreciate their trouble. In the one case
my fair friend complained that " Sing "
had contracted a friendship with another
Chinaman, who came to the house to gamble with " Sing" when the latter ought to be
cooking the dinner. The consequences in
some cases had been frightful, and repeated
warnings had been in vain. At last
she turned the friend out of doors, and
taking | Sing" by the shoulders she
shook him as hard as she could,
threatening at the same time that on the
next occasion she would beat him. At
her hands the shaking and the beating
were in themselves mere pleasantries, but
I Sing's I dignity was wounded, and he
mournfully remarked " Suppose you
catchee new cook.    My no can stay."
I Ah!" sighed another lady, 11 could'nt
do that with 'Yop.' He's so big. And
besides the only fault he has is that he A  LADIES    DISCUSSION.
175
won't let me go into the kitchen at all,
and won't let me have any dinner until my
husband comes home, which on mail
nights is very uncertain. Sometimes we
get dreadfully hungry, but Yop is inexorable."
I My little wretch is always doing something he ought not to do," said a third,
a young unmarried lady; "I dare not
have any poultry in the house, because
he will insist upon plucking the fowls
alive. My little sister told us about it at
dinner the last time we had fowls, and it
entirely prevented anyone eating any
more dinner. I felt as if I had been eating someone I had helped to murder.
Yesterday when I went into the kitchen I
found him making a skewer red hot, to run
through a mouse which he had caught in
the trap, and so as he is only a boy I
boxed his ears."
" What did he say to that ?" I asked.
I He swore at me in bad French."
"And you." 176
THE  SEA OF MOUNTAINS.
| Oh !" replied my young friend, as the
tinge of the rose mounted in her cheek,
"I swore back at him, and then he got
white with horror at finding I had understood him."
John however does not limit his walk in
Vancouver Island life to domestic service.
He carries on business here both in a
large and small way. When the railway
is set going, his services will be available
at a more moderate rate than those of workmen from the States. Neither does he create
a great pandemonium in every place in
which he stops, whereas it has become
almost a point of honour with railroad
builders in the United States to make
every place through which they are carrying the line a | hell on wheels."
The great fault that is charged against
John is that he hoards his money. I have
heard this said of a people who occupy a
country not a thousand miles from the
Lower St. Lawrence. John lives frugally,
and when he has saved some money goes JOHN S  VISITS  TO  CHINA.
177
over to China with it for a spree.    If any
human being can see any pleasure in going
to China why should he not go, as well as
to Paris ?    We have had out of John the
full value of the money he takes with him.
This habit of John's—that is going to and
returning  from  China—has  served  in a
measure to  mislead Eastern people as to
the numbers of Chinamen coming to this
continent.    A gentleman who  had  been
long in the  San  Francisco  China trade
told  me that only a small percentage of
the  arriving cargo of Chinamen are new
people.    He said that in the last trip he
made, bringing four hundred Chinamen,
the number of new people was under fifty.
All the others were California Johns returning from their visit to  China.    The
objection I make to John is that unless
very clean he is not a pleasant neighbour.
As   a   rule   Chinamen,  and  particularly
the house-servants are very clean, but if
you have ever lived in  China you  will
vol. i. N 1
if
I
tl
1
. -\\
1
178
THE  SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
afterwards always be able to detect the
presence of John even without seeing him.
As I stepped on board the mail-steamer
at San Francisco I saw no one, but I remarked to my companion that there were
Chinamen on board. It was seventeen
years since I had dwelt among them, but
I could not be mistaken. A door opened,
and we saw a Chinese cook and half a
dozen servants preparing the passengers'
luncheon. I explained the manner in
which I detected John, and my companion,
though an old Californian, seemed inclined
to doubt. A few days afterwards he said
that he wished he had never asked me
the peculiar distinction of John, because
he had tasted him ever since in his
tea, in his soup, and in everything that
he had eatemon board the ship. John
is a worthy fellow, but as a substitute for Crosse and Blackwell's flavouring compounds he is not always satisfactory. SSS3MS
CHINESE  PREPARATIONS.
179
I must not forget to mention that in
spite of John's, alleged parsimony he made
elaborate preparations to receive the Governor-General. The Chinese arches and
decorations were very handsome and expensive, and curious ornaments were hung
about his triumphal arches, having some
profound allegorical meaning, if one
could only understand from John what
that was. The principal arches, as well
as the sides of the streets—all of which
were lined with pine saplings—were hung
with Chinese lanterns. John had sent
down to San Francisco for a large
shipment of these, with fireworks, &c,
on purpose to do honour to the occasion. They unfortunately arrived in the
mail-steamer too late for use, but his
display was sufficiently grand, and the
good-will was as valuable as the actual
show. I have made the acquaintance
of a wealthy John at the head of one of
the houses here, and on the strength of
n 2 180
THE  SEA OF MOUNTAINS.
knowing his birthplace we are likely to
become friends. Should we arrive at any
degree of intimacy, I will endeavour to
ascertain what he really thinks about
things in general.
■"•■-— -•-- ■-•■■f - ;--i
'■■'}■' •'■- •-'•' iii   '' Their Excellencies Reception—Deputations from the
Churches—Railway Deputation—Division of Sentiment in the Province—Conservative Demands—British Columbia—Unfulfilled Obligations—Threat of
Separation—Rumours of a Railway Difficulty—Address to the Governor.
rPHE first public appearance of the
-*- Governor-General and Lady Dufferin
since their arrival was at the reception
held by them on Saturday evening in the
Legislative Assembly Chamber. This was
very largely attended, and was altogether
a bright and satisfactory gathering; Lord
and Lady Dufferin stood on the dais usually
occupied by the Speaker's chair, the
members of his own staff and the local
staff officers on either side of the dais,
and the naval officers  of the squadron, 182
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
making an opposite block, and thus
creating the passage by which those presented passed before their Excellencies.
The Governor-General was dressed in the
uniform of his high office, and Lady
Dufferin wore a handsome pink silk dress,
very handsomely got up after a fashion I
am not rash enough to describe. As I
have said, there was a large assemblage
of people, amongst whom one recognized
some whose names have long been familiar
to people in the Eastern provinces, and a
very fair number of ladies who sustained
the reputation Canada possesses of producing pretty women. There has been a
dinner-party at Government House I think
every night, and to-day a garden party
is to come off in the grounds of Carey
Castle.
Deputations from the Reformed Episcopal, Presbyterian, and Methodist Churches
waited on the Governor-General on Saturday to present addresses of congratulation
on his visit, and embodying sentiments of
^^itmt*- COMPLAINT  OF  THE  ISLANDERS.
183
loyalty and goodwill. To these Lord
Dufferin replied with his usual felicity of
expression. The Church apparently does
not share any disintegrating opinions that
may be floating about, or at least does not
believe that reason has yet been given to
utter threats of | separation."
This afternoon the deputation of which
I spoke in my first letter from here, are to
present their address to the Governor-
General, which, as everyone can see, is
sufficiently pronounced although much
milder than when first adopted. During
his conversation with the clerical deputation on Saturday, Lord Dufferin promulgated the fact that the Island Railway—
that is the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway
—is virtually a dead letter. It seems to
be understood in the city that certain
compensation is to be offered in lieu of
such a road. The Islanders have always
urged, rather as a complaint against
Canada, that a twenty mile strip of valuable land has been held by the Dominion 184
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
Government that would otherwise have
been eagerly desired by investors and
settlers, particularly as portions of it are
rich in mineral wealth. If this belt of
valuable land is released, and a fair compensation given to the Island, one may
suppose that if essential to the well-being
of this portion of the province, the Island
railway may be built by the Islanders.
Of course, the people here fall back on the
Carnarvon award, and are not likely to
surrender such a vantage ground of argument. But the extreme people are—as is
always the case—the noisiest, and the
more violently they talk, the more, it
seems to me, they alienate from themselves the support of the property-holders
and other people of influence. There are
some people here who seem to be supremely
satisfied with themselves when they can
fling some insult at Canada and Mr. Mackenzie. Sometimes these are Canadians
who belong to the political party opposed
to Mr. Mackenzie. OPINION  OF  THE   " STANDARD."
185
One of the deputation of the ultimatum
address of to-day, whose avocation is the
dispensing of dry goods, described the
Canadian flag as " the British ensign with
the ring-worm." This gentleman told me
he saw no impossibility at all in carrying
out the original terms as agreed to by
Sir John Macdonald. I think, however,
that persons of this calibre are not the
rule in Victoria or the Island generally.
There is a general feeling of great disappointment ; but I believe that if reasonable
arrangements are proposed in lieu of that
which Canada cannot undertake, and when
work is really commenced, some portion of
the' disappointment will be allayed. At
the same time there are some who dislike
any compromise. The 1 Standard" of this
morning (the Conservative journal) is outspoken against the Governor-General, and
says in effect that they require Carnarvon
Terms or separation. Here is an extract
from it:—
I The first,   the ceremonial act in the 186
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
Dufferin drama, is over. The political
one is just beginning. On one side is the
Governor-General, representing the Mackenzie Ministry and the Imperial Government ; on the other are the people who have
founded a Province, earned their own
bread, paid their own taxes, are indebted
to neither England nor Canada for anything, except a flagstaff with a bit of
coloured serge stuck on the top of it, but
who now ask Canada to keep faith with
them, and fulfil her treaty obligations to
the Province, the chief of which is the immediate commencement of the construction
of the Pacific Railway. How this act will
terminate no one can tell. It may be big
with the fate of empire. It may be the
destruction of the Confederation, or the
thorough consolidation of Canada.
i We are told, however, by the Under-
Secretary of State in England, that Lord
Dufferin would pay an official visit to
British- Columbia to adjust her relations
with Canada.    (Which, by the way, is not
il ■■
CONSERVATIVE   OPINIONS.
what Mr. Lowther said.) Now what is
there to adjust ? Is it the terms on which
the Province will surrender her right to
the construction of a railway from Esquimalt to Bute Inlet, and thence to Montreal ?
or the terms on which separation from
Canada shall take place?"
Itappears from this that the Conservative
party here require the fulfilment of the
" treaty obligations," or an arrangement
as to the terms of separation. I have
no infallible means of judging, but I
do not believe this represents the
actual sentiment even of Vancouver
Island, perhaps not of all the Conservatives. On the contrary, I think that
they—although feeling sore and disappointed at the failure of their hopes—will
be willing to enter into some other
arrangement which will ensure its own fulfilment without any delay. Anything of a
nature requiring the lapse of time to
fructify will not, I think, carry conviction
or satisfaction with it.   It must be borne 188
THE   SEA OF MOUNTAINS.
in mind in judging affairs in this country,
that while Victoria is the heart of the
British Columbian body politic it is by no
means all of British Columbia, nor does
its opinion always jump with that of the
mainland. Here, for instance, is what
the " Mainland Guardian" says of the address which is to-day to be presented to
Lord Dufferin :—
I This ill-advised document, which has
been published in full by the Victoria
papers, is very much what we anticipated
it would be—a cool assumption on the
part of a few Victorians to speak for the
whole Province entirely in the interest of
Victoria. This, to say the least of it, is
a gross insult to the entire mainland, and
will be productive of a result quite the
reverse of that intended—a disposition on
the part of Lord Dufferin and those with
whom he is associated to receive these
statements cum grano salis. Under present
circumstances, however, we must repudiate
any connection with this Victoria ultimatum,
•"SBflK-i
— _ .—?23BEE^pjSi
	 SATISFACTORY COMPROMISE.
189
and declare that the mainland in no way
admits the correctness of the statement
therein contained. The Victorians may
sincerely regret that the Carnarvon Terms
were not fulfilled, but the Victorians were
the chief cause of this misfortune. It is
now generally admitted that the construction of an Island railway, at the
present juncture, would be unwise, because it is unnecessary, whereas a compromise securing the immediate payment
of a round sum of money in cash—which
would be of incalculable value to the entire
Province—with the immediate commencement of the railway on the mainland, would
satisfy the great bulk of our people. The
people of the mainland distinctly deny
any right on the part of Victoria to embody
in their address to Lord Dufferin the following statement:
| j We trust that your Excellency has
it in charge to convey to this Province
the gratifying intelligence that the  Do- 190
THE  SEA OF MOUNTAINS.
minion Government will fulfil their obligations under the Carnarvon settlement, and
that this is the last occasion when the
people of British Columbia will have the
painful duty of making complaint to Her
Majesty, through her representative, of
any breach of the terms of Union by the
Dominion. If, however, that Government
fail to take practical steps to carry into
effect the terms solemnly accepted by them,
we most respectfully inform your Excellency that, in the opinion of a large
number of the people of this Province, the
withdrawal of the Province from the Confederation will be the., inevitable result,
and in such a case compensation from
the Dominion would be demanded for the
unfulfilled obligations which she undertook.'
I It would be interesting to know who
authorized this sapient clique to talk
about separation from the Dominion on
the part of the mainland ? We are sure
the people in this part of  the Province ANOTHER  RAILWAY  DIFFICULTY.        191
did not, because they feel that any assistance to the development of the country
by a railway must come from the Federal
capital, and that the necessity for the
recently imposed local taxes would disappear with a payment of money by the
Dominion, as a set-off to the sacrifices we
have endured, in consequence of the non-
fulfilment of the original terms, upon which
all our calculations were built."
We have some rumours about a difficulty in the line of the railway east of
Fort George, the point of departure west
of the Rocky Mountain pass, but everything about the route of the railway on
the mainland requires to be taken with
extreme caution, unless you hear from the
one person from whom the news arises.
The news gets shaken up and mixed a
good deal coming down that rough
country. No doubt, however, more will
be known about the matter as the Gover-
nor-General's party moves up the coast
and into the interior. 192
THE   SEA  OF   MOUNTAINS.
On  going  to  Government  House this
O O
afternoon, I found the deputatian with
the address. It was toned down a little,
but it appears the Governor-General had
intimated his intention not to receive the
address, expressing his willingness to receive the deputation and explain" to them
his reasons for declining it.
The address in question ran as follows :
"May it please Your Excellency,
I We, Her Majesty's loyal subjects, inhabitants of Victoria and its vicinity, in
public meeting assembled, welcome with
pleasure the visit of Your Excellency to
this Province, and beg respectfully to
address Your Excellency, as Her Majesty's
representative in British North America,
upon the present unsatisfactory relations
of British Columbia with the Dominion of
Canada.
" Your Excellency is thoroughly aware
of the many and urgent representations
made from time to time by the Provincial m»
^•s?
ADDRESS  TO   LORD   DUFFERIN.
Government to the Government of the
Dominion and Her Majesty on the subject of the unfulfilled terms of Confederation.
"Your Excellency is also aware that
these representations resulted in certain
recommendations by the Earl of Carnarvon
favourable to the Dominion, and which
relieved the Dominion of those conditions
of the Terms of Union which they considered incapable of fulfilment. These
recommendations were accepted by the
Dominion as a solution of the difficulties
that existed.
" The action of the Dominion Government in ignoring the Carnarvon settlement
has produced a widespread feeling of disaffection towards Confederation, which has
been intensified by the utterances of prominent public men of the Dominion, who
apparently look on this Province as a source
of expense and trouble to the Dominion,
and as a Province whose withdrawal would
not be regretted. v •
vol. i. o 194
THE   SEA   OF  MOUNTAINS.
| We trust that Your Excellency has it
in charge to convey to this Province the
gratifying intelligence that the Dominion
Government will fulfil its obligations under
the Carnarvon settlement, and that this
is the last occasion when the people of
British Columbia will have the painful
duty of making complaint to Her Majesty,
through her representative, of any breach
of the terms of Union by the Dominion
Government. If, however, that Government fails to take practical steps to carry
into effect the terms solemnly accepted by
it, we most respectfully inform Your Excellency that, in the opinion of a large
number of the people of this Province,
the withdrawal of this Province from
Confederation will be the inevitable result, and in such a case compensation
from the Dominion would be demanded
for the unfulfilled obligations which it
undertook.
" This growing desire for separation is
simply the expression of a feeling which is
gaining strength every day. ADDRESS TO LORD DUFFERIN.
"The knowledge that Canada relies on
the paucity of our numbers and her
power to fulfil or repudiate the terms of
union as she pleases, creates a feeling
of irritation which is being continually
augmented.
| In thus openly addressing Your Excellency we feel assured that, whatever
may be the final result of these unhappy
differences, Your Excellency will seek to
promote the most enduring interests of
this Province, the Dominion, and the
Empire.
| Bounded as this Province is on the
north and south by United States territory, and without railway connection with
the Dominion of Canada, (British Columbia will ever be an isolated Province,)
the railway and other facilities of the
American people are sapping our trade
and diverting commerce and population
from our shores.
I Your Excellency, in recently travelling
through the Western States of America
o 2 196
THE   SEA   OF   MOUNTAINS.
■
must have had ample opportunity of observing the wonderful progress there, in a
great measure resulting from a bold railway policy.
I In conclusion, we beg you to convey
to Her Majesty that whatever may be our
future, whether as a Province of the
Dominion or as a separate Colony, we
shall always entertain for Her Majesty
feelings of the deepest loyalty and affection.
| J. S. Drummond,
■ Chairman.
I Simeon Duck,
I Secretary."
When the deputation was introduced,
on Monday, Lord Dufferin explained that
he could not receive the address, and at
the request of one of the deputation the
reasons were put in writing, and were as
follows :—
| Government House, Victoria, Aug. 21st, 1876.
I Sir,
I The Governor-General regrets that it
mmmt
■lMii-'-tfr  - REFUSAL  TO   RECEIVE  THE   ADDRESS.
is not in accordance with the usual practice
for him to deal with the addresses other
than those of a personal or complimentary
nature, except under advice from his
responsible Ministers, and ventures to
point out that the more correct course in
the present instance would be for the signatories of the present address to proceed
by memorial or petition to the Crown, in
the usual manner.
11, have the honour to be Sir,
" Your most obedient servant,
" E. G. P. Littleton,
" Governor-General's Secretary.
1 S. Duck, Esq., Victoria." >i
198
CHAPTER XL
A Disappointed Deputation and a Furious Editor—Excitement in Victoria—The " Standard"—The Topic of
the Day—The " Colonist"—Feeling excited by the
Abandonment of the Island Railway—Demands of
the Extreme and Moderate Parties—Degraded Indeed
—Report "Wanted—A Convention at Victoria—Mr.
De Cosmos—Departure of the Governor-General.
TVTEXT morning Victoria was in a great
-*-' state of excitement, on the subject
of the deputation's interview with Lord
Dufferin, and concerning the fate of the
Address. All that the street corners
could learn, with any degree of certainty,
was, that Lord Dufferin, while declining
to receive the Address had taken advantage of the deputation being present
to   hold  an   informal   conversation   with
=====
,in^M-_-k__i
J_iy,
BOB THE
STANDARD.
199
them on the topic in which the country is
so much interested. He brought forward
British Columbia's views and position
apparently to the satisfaction of her champions, and then followed with Canada's
reply. It seems to have been understood,
that, while removing any hopes of the
Island Railway being undertaken as a
Government work, he gave the deputation to understand that certain compensation had, or would be, offered for the
inability on Canada's part to meet British
Columbia's reasonable expectations. The
".Standard" (the organ of a gentleman
opposed to the present Canadian Government) published next morning an article
which, though sui generis, and a fair
• example of everything a newspaper article
ought not to be, has had in one way a
.more or less beneficial result. It has
disgusted a number of men who were
blindly following the Editor, and who now
repudiate him, and it has caused those,
who, a few  days  ago,   were violent and mmm
200
THE   SEA   OF  MOUNTAINS.
unreasonable in their language to speak
more calmly, and to approach the question in such a way, that it has become
possible to learn their views and generally
to listen to them. As the article has become a subject of conversation, and has
had such a damaging effect on the leader
of the noisy party, I give it in full:
" THE  TOPIC  OF   THE  DAY.
I All Victoria were on the qui vive
yesterday to learn what were the results
of the efforts of the distinguished, but
temporary, occupant of Cary Castle as
interviewer of the Committee appointed
at the recent Public Meeting. Everybody
asked everybody, f Have the Committee
returned 1 And what is the result ? After
a waste of four mortal hours, the Committee-men were relieved from their painful but patriotic duty of listening to Vice-
Regal subterfuges and queries—all of
which had to be suffered under the ban
of secrecy.    The Vice-Regal interviewer, ARTICLE   IN  THE   " STANDARD.
however, was forced to write something
for the public—something in reply about
the address voted by the Philharmonic
Meeting. It appears elsewhere. Its purport was not unexpected. It fell, not
like a wet blanket on the people, but produced a feeling of profound indignation
everywhere in the city. It was summed
up as an attempt to hoodwink and bilk
the people in the name of royalty; an
effort to shirk royal responsibility whilst
acting as Vice-Regal spy; an effort to sow
dissension everywhere, and, if possible,
win laurels as the price for degrading the
high office of Governor-General. It is
useless for us, as an organ of public opinion, to say anything else. Were we to
speak out still plainer, we might give
utterance to expressions that are popular,
but which we deem unwise and impolitic
to utter. It is better to be moderate,
but firm, and uncompromising in making
a demand for our rights, than give expression to popular indignation in a way 202
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
i >
that will not facilitate the object to be
attained. Lord Dufferin and the Mackenzie Ministry are mere birds of passage.
Neither the one nor the other can. cajole
anyone in this country into a final decision against the interests of the Province,
the Dominion, and the Empire. Battles
have been fought out successfully in this
Province before, with greater odds against
their success than what now present
themselves; and if the people be true to
themselves, whether some be true or not,
the country will win. Tbe attempt yesterday of Lord Dufferin to temporize,
instead of giving a frank and manly answer to the Philharmonic address, stamps
his mission with discredit; and unless he
can find means to explain his conduct, his
departure will be ranked with Edgar's,
and his efforts either to ignore our rights.
o O '
or meet Mackenzie's wishes, will be equally
useless. But we cannot waste time even
on so eminent a person as Lord Dufferin.
There  is  a  more important power than ■ "■—' ■
DISAPPOINTMENT  OF THE  PEOPLE.
203
even he. That is the people. If they
do their duty, all the Edgars, Mackenzies,
and Lord Dufferins may hide their diminished heads in chagrin at their failure.
Let the people act."
The" Colonist"—a journal that supports
the present Dominion Government—speaks
of the chagrin experienced by the people on
hearing of the abandonment of the Island
Railway, but suggests that the question
should be calmly considered. " What now
is best to be done in the matter?"
The people here are one and all sore
and disappointed at Canada's determination, and I think I observe that this is
slightly intensified by the knowledge that
the Mainlanders are not with them on tbe
question, and that possibly an impartial
investigation of the subject might lead to
the conclusion that the construction of
the island railway must be due to the fact
that it was embodied in the Carnarvon
Terms, rather than from any commercial
necessity for its being.    I have not heard
J O 204
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
I bill
any argument advanced in support of the
railway other than that it formed part of
the Carnarvon Terms. The extreme men
call for " the terms, the whole terms, and
nothing but the terms;" while the more
moderate say, " We desire the terms, and
we ought to have had them before now;
but if they are out of the question let us
know what immediate equivalent you propose, and whether it will be accompanied
by an Imperial guarantee. We do not"
desire separation if our remaining with
Canada can be made mutually advantageous,
still less have we any thought of seeking
to change our allegiance to the British
Crown—an idea distasteful to all—but we
regard the present position of affairs as
useless to both parties, and its continuation an absurdity." These people feel
equally sore with the others, and a little
distrustful about anything Canada may
promise. The article in the " Colonist"
this morning, thinks that Lord Carnarvon
having proposed an additional expenditure ARTICLE  IN  THE  | COLONIST." 205
for the building of the Esquimalt Railway,
the Imperial Government should have done
something in the way of assistance, and
altogether I am inclined to think that
while the moderate party will carry the
day here—in spite of any momentary row
which a few unquiet spirits would like to
create—they will desire to be well assured
that there can be no further mistake or
delay in doing that which is to be done.
But if the " Standard" is to be believed,
moderate men will, as is commonly said,
| have no show." Here is what it
says :—
I IMPORTANT.
I So far as we can gather, Lord Dufferin
is endeavouring to persuade people that
the Island railroad will not be built, and
quotes Lord Carnarvon as his authority
for saying that compensation is the only
equivalent for the Island railway. Now
we prophesy that the railway will be
built; and that the Carnarvon Terms will 206
THE   SEA  OF   MOUNTAINS.
be carried out in spite of either of these
noble lords. Tf not, there will be a
separation."
I DEGRADED   INDEED.
I To what degradation have the Imperial
and Canadian Goverments not descended,
when the Governor-General resorts to
secrecy to hide the reply of Lord Carnarvon to our appeal last winter."
I REPORT  WANTED.
"When will the Meeting be called to
receive the report of the secret (?) interview with Lord Dufferin ? Let us have a
Meeting anyhow, and that at once, and
declare j war to the knife.' "
I CONVENTION.
" A Convention will be convened at Victoria to take into consideration our relations with Canada. Due notice will be
given."
Mr. De Cosmos means what he says, for
L OPINIONS   OF   MR.   DE   COSMOS.
207
the following issue of his paper contains
an article in which he says :—
"Yet we are asked by Lord Dufferin,
backed by Lord Carnarvon, to accept compensation—accept money. What for ? To
surrender a route to which Britain, Canada,
and Columbia are pledged—a railway
route that has been endorsed by the most
eminent statesmen and engineers of the
Dominion, and accepted by the greatest
capitalists and commercial men of the
continent. This, then, is the pith and
substance of Lord Dufferin's mission. But
it is what we will never consent to, no
matter what compensation may be offered
or what influence may be brought to
bear. That is the ultimatum of this
country. Hence, if we cannot get the
railroad from Esquimalt to Bute Inlet, and
thence to Montreal, we prefer separation
to union with a Government that offers
money for principle, and asks us to sacrifice
a solemn agreement between England,
Canada, and Columbia.    If Lord Dufferin 208
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS:
wishes to break up the Confederation, and
separate this province from the Dominion,
let him continue his seductive work. Let
him endeavour to persuade our people to
surrender the Carnarvon Terms. When
he fails, let him recommend separation. It
had better be done constitutionally, for as
sure as Lord Dufferin is here to-day, so
surely will separation follow, at any and
at all hazards, if the Carnarvon Terms be
set aside."
I think Mr. De Cosmos will fail in his
purpose. He has created the impression
that he is too unsteady of temper, and is
too ostentatiously unattached to any
political family or flag to be taken as a
guide by a people who, though irritated,
disappointed, and perplexed, are not
desirous of acting in a rash and foolish
manner, and still less of flying off at a
tangent from the associations of a lifetime
and the traditions of their forefathers.
The name of the editor of the " Standard"
proclaims his extended and cosmopolitan MS
MR.  DE  COSMOS.
209
ideas. His love for his fellow-man is
large and impartial, and I don't know that
anyone has a. right to throw a stone at
him on this account. But on the other
hand, the more narrow feeling and the
more practicable one which men call
" patriotism" is that to which the majority
of mankind will cleave with pride and
pertinacity. It may be a noble thing to
love a Turk, and a Chinese mandarin may
be fully equal to a Lieutenant-Governor
under the British Constitution, but while
Mr. De Cosmos is spreading out his
affection in a necessarily thin layer so as
to embrace the world—for is his name not
that compound of Latin, French, and
Greek, Amor De Cosmos ?—other men
will consider that it is better to concentrate one's powers of affection and
retain the not altogether insignificant
title of a British subject. And Mr. De
Cosmos' allegiance being known to fit
lightly upon him, men are not disposed to
step in the direction of a terminus which
VOL.  I. p X
m*
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
they intend to shun. However, the result
remains to be seen. One difficulty in the
way of an easy settlement will arise from
the fact that a monetary compensation for
the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway must
necessarily be paid in to the Treasury,
and be at the disposal of the Legislature.
Thirteen out of the twenty-five members
are Mainlanders; and the Mainlanders—
judging from what I hear—will see
Vancouver Island at the depths of Gehanum
before they consent to all the money being
used on that branch of railway. Yet the
Vancouver Islanders will probably regard
the compensation as peculiarly their own,
as being in lieu of a railway which was
for their special benefit. Unless therefore
a distinct understanding is arrived at
before the money is paid, there will be an
awful scrimmage over its distribution.
The Governor-General goes on board
the Amethyst to-night, I believe—he sails
to-morrow—and this afternoon a grand
regatta takes place up the arm of the sea  212
CHAPTER XII.
Amusements and Social Contact with the Vice-regal
Party—Lady Dufferin's Garden Party—Cary Castle—
"Women at a Garden Party—Ball-room at Government House—Representatives of the Chinese Community—The Regatta—Scene at the Races—Display
of Indian Canoes—A Pretty Pageant—The Heidah
Indians.
SIDE by side with the § topic of the
day"—the material effect of the
Governor-General's visit—runs the less
exciting and more pleasant interest concerning amusements and social contact
with the Vice-regal party. During the
week which the Governor-General has
spent in Victoria, Lady Dufferin has amply
availed herself of the opportunities afforded
her by the temporary possession of the ■—
GARY   CASTLE.
21!
Lieutenant-Governor's official residence.
The hospitality for which Rideau Hall has
of late years become so renowned has been
evinced in like degree in the capital of the
Western Province.    Following the evening
o o
reception held in the Legislative Assembly
Chamber on Monday was a garden party
given at Government House on Tuesday.
Cary Castle—now Government House—
was built by a gentleman who some sixteen
years ago suddenly found himself in the
position of Attorney-General of the newly-
born Crown Colony of Vancouver Island.
He was a young English barrister possessed
of unmistakable ability, and in a short
time built up for himself a considerable
reputation and a house to match. After
enjoying both for some time, he parted with
the house, and in due course of time
removed to a lunatic asylum in England,
where he died. The Local Government
having .purchased Cary Castle, proceeded
by means of prison and other labour to
transform it into a suitable residence for ■R-
214
THE  SEA OF  MOUNTAINS.
their head and front, and in doing so
displayed considerable taste and judgment.
It is situated on rising ground, overlooking
the straits and mountains on one side,
and beneath it the fruitful-looking fields of
a farm that seems to have been dropped
from Heaven amongst the rocks. The
house is surrounded by a terraced garden,
and here, in the midst of luxuriantly
growing roses and shrubs and flowers,
attaining an almost tropical growth, Lady
Dufferin received her guests.
There are few places in which pretty
women look to better advantage than at a
garden party. They are themselves the
roses of creation, and seem to fall naturally
into their places amidst that which is
lovely and fragrant in inanimate nature;
and no woman is ever cross or disagreeable
when she finds herself in a garden. She
forgives her enemies, is at peace with the
world, finds solace for the superior beauty
of another woman's bonnet in the gift of a
flower, and is in all respects loving and ss«
Mi
WOMEN  AT  A   GARDEN PARTY.
215
loveable. When one sees a young matron
slowly sailing across a lawn, dressed in
the rich material permissible to married
Women, conscious of the dignity that
pertains to her state in life, and yet radiant
with the look that pleasure lends to a
gentle-natured woman's face, one feels
that a woman is not a woman till thirty
summers have passed over her head, and
the first brunt of life's battle has taught
her the necessity for patience and forbearance. Juno and Minerva must have
been beauties amongst the fair ones of
Olympus. What is there to excel a comely
face graced by a gentle, courteous smile,
and woman's dignity stamped on every
movement ? Nothing ! is there ? And so
one feels until a Hebe of eighteen comes
springing over the green sward, half
talking, half laughing, and all impatient
as she moves—a beauty clothed in masses
of diaphanous material, garlanded with
flowers, and tingeing everything with her
own youth and freshness, whose wish is a !16
THE   SEA   OF  MOUNTAINS.
law which fifty envious males contend to
obey, whose gratified expression for fealty
owned is itself the reward of obedience,
and whose mission in life is to knock into
a cocked hat the heart of every youth who
ventures within range of her spells.
Perplexed mankind must fall in love with
all, for choice is out of the question.
Yielding to the seductive influences of
the scene, my Damon and I wandered
through the groups, admiring as we went.
There was a brunette who came tripping
across the lawn, whose dress of " deep
deep blue" was surmounted by a carnation
nestling in the folds of what looked like
white sea foam around her neck, and
Damon looked and he was lost. He turned
again, and standing by the window entrance a nymph in white, and pink appeared.    Her hair was fair, and through
*■ * O
her locks a rosebud duplicated by her lips
was peeping out, and Damon's fickle
heart was lost again. Could he have told
what in his thoughts was seeking for ex- rnwrn
LADY  DUFFERIN.
217
pression, he would with brave Macheath
have said,
" How happy could I be with either,
Were't'other fair charmer away."
So each in her own attractive individuality, stood or moved the guests who
had come at the invitation of Lady
Dufferin, while their hostess, herself the
winsome Queen among the fair assemblage passed to and fro, winning by kind
words and gentle looks the homage which
was ready to be given or withheld. And
round and about stood men whose names
familiar are as household words in that
which appertains to the history of the
Colony. Conspicuous amongst them all
was the stately form of Sir James Douglas,
the honoured father of gubernatorial rule
in Vancouver Island. Near him—the first
of the Island Governors, and one now
resting from his labours—stood the acute
and active-minded gentleman who most
recently has assumed the reins of govern- 218
THE  SEA OF MOUNTAINS.
ment, and here and there walked men
whose best years have been spent in guarding the interests of the Colony and developing her resources.
In the middle of the buzz of conversation that falls away amongst the walks
and slopes there is a whisper qf dancing,
the Hebes are pounced upon and carried
off through the widely opened windows
of the tea-room, which opens on the
terrace to the ball-room. Pallas and Juno
follow after with more stately step, until
all have passed through the other rooms,
and the band of the Amethyst is left discoursing the sweet miseries of Leonora
and the effusive agony of Manrico to the
wondering songsters that are chirping in
vexed rivalry amongst the shrubs and
trees. There is a ball-room at Government House that in the matter of floors,
as well as in other particulars, is a ballroom indeed. To step upon it, is to
dance; e'en Ben Battle, who, in spite of
sneering speeches, at duty's call had left BALL   AT  GOVERNMENT   HOUSE.
219
his legs in Badajos's breeches—as Tom
Hood tells us—would here have, perhaps,
regained the affections of the young
woman who so heartlessly turned up her
nose at his double amputation could he
have touched that floor, and as it was
known that time was speeding swiftly by,
and that the hour of departure had been
fixed, the sternest resolutions not to dance
were found to melt away like soft September
snow, and a kaleidoscope of dresses whirled
round and round the room in ceaseless
circles until the moment arrived when the
Vice-Regal hosts themselves stopped
dancing, and stood to bid adieu to the
flushed and breathless couples that filed
past them. Then there followed the more
formal entertainment of a dinner-party,
when guests arrived of other than a dancing
sort.
I must not forget to mention that,
regular in their attendance at publicly
notified receptions, or on occasions when
cards of invitation have been sent to them, 220
THE   SEA  OF   MOUNTAINS.
the leading representatives of the pig-tail
population are to be seen. I can't at this
moment remember their names; which is
which; which my washerwomanman, and
which the head of the Chinese community,
and I'm not sure that it matters much.
One is Youn-Ling, and the other Sing-
Chung. A choice is presented to your
readers. But the fact to be mentioned
is that two or three of the more eminent
Chinamen—the merchants who so liberally
and artistically decorated their streets to
welcome Lord Dufferin—are constant in
their proper attendance at Government
House. At the public reception they
passed before their Excellencies, as every
one else did, bobbing their respective
heads first to Lord Dufferin and then to
Lady Dufferin, exactly as the little Chinese
mandarin figures do on a mantel-piece.
These eminent representatives of John—
one of whom insisted on my smoking one
of his villainous cigars—were early in
their   arrival   at  the garden-party,   and S^
THE  CELESTIALS.
221
were amongst the most loquacious of the
gathering. They did not dance—the
occupation being strictly professional, and
not practised exactly at the Embassies in
their country—but they commented freely
upon those who found amusement in
saltatory exercise, and seemed to enjoy
themselves and to be as much at home as
if such assemblages were common in their
Celestial land. John is always very
polite, and frequently a great humbug.
Politeness and humbug are often inclined
to an alliance elsewhere than in the
flowery land, and whether it be with John
Chinaman, John Bull, or Johnny Crapaud,
we always prefer a little deftly offered
humbug that soothes our weaker nature,
to truths which seem to us to lack
politeness.
One of the most interesting social events
that have yet taken place has been the
regatta of Wednesday. The Governor-
General had given a sum of money to be
divided into  prizes  for boat  and  canoe 222
THE  SEA OF MOUNTAINS.
racing, more particularly for competition
among the Indians in and around Victoria
and Esquimalt. Colonel Powell, the Indian Commissioner, had taken care that
his department should be well represented,
and an interesting sight was the result.
There is an arm of the sea which runs
past or through the city of Victoria,
narrowing out of the harbour into a strait,
and rushing through a narrow gorge into
a small inland sea beyond. Immediately
before the gorge the strait becomes a bay,
and so narrow is the gorge which immediately succeeds it, that the waters of
the rising tide have not room to flow on
their even level, but rush between the
two approaching rocks and tumble over
in a fall as if the level were of normal
inequality. On either side this strait is
lined by rocky pine-covered banks, and
over the gorge a slight rustic bridge has
been constructed. It was here that the
regatta was to be held, and to attend
it every boat and wherry in Victoria had THE  REGATTA.
223
been engaged, and numbers were compelled either to walk or drive to the place
of gathering.
As the hour for meeting drew nigh, the
strait became dotted with the boats and
pleasure canoes that were making their
way up from the town. Here were men-
of-war boats, wherries, ships' boats and
Indian dugouts, boat-loads of ladies
and gentlemen, canoe-loads of men and
canoe-loads of Indian women, and everyone dressed out in his or her Sunday
best. Tents were pitched on the projecting promontories, and comfortable-looking
hampers reposed by the doors of their
proper tents. In the bay, and up to the
edge of the gorge, the waters were alive
with the gaily dressed canoes, arranging
for the preliminary demonstration before
the Governor-General; and in and out
among the huge hollowed trees which, by
art and patience, are made to serve as
Indian ships of war and commerce, the
wherry   and   the   outrigger,   with   their 224
THE   SEA  OF   MOUNTAINS.
closely flannelled occupants, contrasting
so forcibly with the gaudily painted and
attired natives, glided in and out, impatient for their turn in the day's performance. The canoes which were to
take part in the grand demonstration, as
well as to compete in the races, were huge
dugouts, varying from twenty to forty
feet in length, and four to five in breadth
of beam. They were divided into two
fleets—the Northern and the Southern
Indians — for the latter, having lighter
canoes than their neighbours who had
come down the Gulf of Georgia, would
otherwise have been at a disadvantage in
racing.
But before the races commenced the
demonstration was to come off, and to
this end each canoe had hoisted a temporary mast, with lines to the bow and
stern, and had covered itself with miniature
flags. The crews were painted and head-
dressed in curious and fantastic ways, and
numbered thirteen paddles in each canoe. PICTURESQUE  SPECTACLE.
225
They gathered together waiting the arrival
of the   Governor-General,  and  when  he.
arrived commenced their  congratulatory
o •/
song, accompanying themselves by rapping their paddles against the sides of
their canoes, and making the mOst infernal,
untuneful, hideous noise that ever yet
was offered as an example of melody or
composition. But they made a very picturesque and pretty sight as, gathered
in three squadrons, the canoes of each
abreast, they prepared to receive the Great
Taihee.
Immediately on arriving, Lord and Lady
Dufferin embarked from the main heauland
of the httle bay in Commodore Chatfield's
galley, and pulled through the fleet of
canoes, by all in which he was loudly
cheered, and amongst the gaily dressed
crowds that floated upon the water, receiving and returning the salutations of the
O D
Indians and of the citizens.   Then the proceedings commenced with what was really
one of the prettiest pageants that could
VOL. i. Q ■"■P
226
THE   SEA  OF MOUNTAINS.
have been devised in such space. The three
squadrons of the large canoes, numbering
over twenty, broke from their formation
into single line, and starting off from the
neck of the gorge paddled off at racing
pace, shouting their song the while, up
the strait sufficiently far to make a circuit
round the Governor-General's boat, returning to the point from which they
started. As they were all large, high-
prowed canoes, all gaily decorated with
flags, all fully manned, and each one
closely followed by the next, their appearance was singular and effective, and all the
picturesqueness, grotesqueness and general outlandishness that could be desired
was supplied by the drumming, shouting
noise and general frantic energy of their
occupants, whether male or female. When
their performance was over the first batch
of them started in the race, and then
when they were off the band commenced
to play, the baskets were opened, corks
began to pop, and the world there present THE HEIDAH INDIANS.
227
sat down beneath the shade of the towering pine trees or straggling shady arbutus
and dined.
Some of the Indians who took part in
this race were Heidahs, from Queen Charlotte's Island, and their canoes are, as
may be supposed, of gigantic size, as
they must be to permit them to navigate
the* Straits of Georgia. It was these
Indians who, some years ago, came down
from Queen Charlotte's Island and, encamping on this arm of the sea on which
they now race, threatened to take the
Colony. There was some difficulty in restraining them from acts of violence, and
it became necessary to send down to
Esquimalt for a detachment of Marines.
The sight of red coats moving upon the
encampment, and the sound of the bugles
through the forest, had a very wholesome
effect, and they remained quiet until a
little later, when the steam frigate Tribune,
under Captain Hornby, was ordered to
take   them   up   to   their   own   country.
q 2 228
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
Their women and baggage were got on
board the frigate, and the canoes were
made fast in lines astern and at the sides,
but the Tribune had hardly gone as far as
the mouth of the harbour when every
canoe cut itself adrift, and the Indians
stood up and yelled for their wives and
baggage. I am afraid that the | wives "
and " baggage " were sometimes synonymous terms, but good or bad they were
kept on board the Tribune as she steamed
off for the North*.
At night these ladies were sent on shore
to camp, and in the morning were taken
on board again, the Tribune proceeding on
her way, and trusting that the gentlemen
would follow. Some of the ladies decamped, and set off overland to find their
husbands, but the majority of them had so
long been made to follow their lords that
they came to the conclusion that a little
reciprocity would be advantageous, and
frankly declared that if they were worth
caring   about   they were worth coming THE  HBIDAHS.
229
after. This was very true, but the question that would obtrude itself was were
they worth caring about ? They evidently
were—although there is uo accounting for
tastes—because their lords followed after
in their canoes, dreadfully sulky at being
obliged to paddle while their wives were
carried on board, but still desirous of
regaining their mates, and when they
were all united at a spot to the north of
the island, they were so overjoyed that
they proposed to celebrate the reunion by
immediately wiping out another tribe that
resided in the neighbourhood. Had it not
been for the threatened anger of the
Tribune's guns they would have proceeded
to the contemplated festivity at once. On
her road up, the Tribune met a large number of war canoes of the same people on
their road to Victoria, so that some
danger was narrowly escaped.. These
Heidahs have the reputation of being the
most warlike tribe on the coast—a kind of
sea coast Blaqkfeet—and they have from THE  SEA OF MOUNTAINS.
time to time obliterated stray parties of
white men who have fallen upon their
shores. It is to their Island—Queen
Charlotte's Island—that Lord Dufferin
starts to morrow. He will call first at
Nanaimo, the coal-producing place, and
will then go up the coast to Queen Charlotte's Island and Fort Simpson, returning
to the Fraser by the 7th of September.
From there he will go up into the interior
as far as Kamloops, and return to Burrard's Inlet by the 13th, probably reaching
Victoria on the 14th September. I do
not know his date of departure from
Vancouver Island. It will probably depend on circumstances, but Lady Dufferin's ball is announced for the 18th, and
it is understood that there is one, if there
are not two others to come off during
the Vice-regal stay. »*™«
231
CHAPTER XIII.
ssssa
Arrival at Nanaimo—The Great Coal-Field of the
Pacific—Lord Dufferin's Reception—The Person most
Interested in the Island Branch—Freight of Coal by
Railway—Location of the Terminus—Importance of
good Anchorages—Election of an Indian Chief—Bute
Inlet—Agreeable " Mess" on Board the Dominion
Steam-Yacht — Scenery of the Haro Straits — San
Juan's Island—Origin of the San Juan Difficulty.
f\N Wednesday evening the Governor-
^ General and Lady Dufferin went on
board the Amethyst, at Esquimalt, to start
in the morning for their northward trip.
There was a grand illumination in their
honour. At 8 a.m. on Thursday morning
they got under way, and steamed up to
Nanaimo, where they arrived about four
in the afternoon. It had been arranged
that they should land on the following day, 232
THE   SEA   OF  MOUNTAINS.
I
and the citizens of Nanaimo were all
busily employed till late in the evening
preparing for the reception.
Nanaimo is the coaling depot of the
North Pacific, and is an incorporated city
of some one thousand inhabitants. .There
are three mines at present working, but
the trade is not now as brisk as it
has been, and as it will be again. The
first mine that brought Nanaimo into
notice was on the water's edge, but that
appears to have been worked out, and
those from which the supply is now
obtained are all situated at distances of
from three to seven miles from the city.
The coal is brought to the seaboard on
tramways, or by buckets, each carrying
two hundred pounds, which travel along
a hawser road high up in air. This is
done on the endless wheel principle, the
buckets being attached to the rope, which
carries them unceasingly to and from the
mine. Lord Dufferin wished to travel the
four miles to the coal-pit in one of these NANAIMO. 233
air-buckets, but it appeared that every now
and again they jump off, and the risk of
thus exposing a Governor-General could
not be incurred.
Nanaimo has a very beautiful and well
sheltered harbour, but it is not practically
very large, on account of shoals and mud
flats. Some way down from the city there
is a second bay, on which a coal discharging depot is established, and where we saw
vessels taking in coal. The whole place
is completely landlocked by a high range
of hills on the one side, and a group of
islands out towards the straits on the
other. You will observe by the address
presented to the Governor-General that
the people are much less exercised on the
subject of the Island Railway than are the
inhabitants of Victoria. I think the
reason is that they do not care very much
whether it be built or not. They have the
sea as their high road, and are not likely
ever to use the railway for the transport
of coal.    Probably coal could not be car- 234
THE   SEA   OF  MOUNTAINS.
ried on it except at rates which would entail a useless and very serious loss on
e^ery shipload. At any rate such is the
impression I have gained, and it is also
felt that they have the solid foundation
for progress and prosperity, irrespective of
the fillip that might be derived from the
construction of the road. Of course they
would be glad to have the railway, and
are in fellowship bound to say that the
Carnarvon Terms should be carried out.
The sentiments of the inhabitants, however, may be supposed to be expressed in
the following address :—
i To His Excellency, the Right Honourable Sir Frederick Temple, Earl of
Dufferin, Viscount and Baron Clane-
boye of Claneboye in the County Down,
in the Peerage of the United Kino*,
dom.
I May it please Your Excellency :—
£ The inhabitants of the city of Nanaimo
respectfully tender to Your Excellency and
It- ADDRESS  TO  LORD  DUFFERIN.
235
her ladyship the Countess of Dufferin their
heartiest welcome, and thank you for the
very distinguished honour conferred upon
them by your Vice-regal visit.
I Embracing the opportunity afforded
by Your Excellency's presence amongst
them, Her Majesty's liege subjects desire
to express their unanimous and deep-
rooted feeling, of loyalty and attachment
to the throne and person of Her Most
Gracious Majesty the Queen, whom Your
Excellency so worthily represents. If we
are not quite so demonstrative in our
mode of reception as the residents of
older cities we are none the less hearty
and sincere.
"We beg leave to remind Your Excellency, with, we trust, pardonable pride,
that our spacious harbour, which is navigable for the largest vessels, and safe at
all seasons, forms the chief port of shipment of the coal-fields of the North-West,
and receives more tonnage than any other
port in this Province.    As a site for a dry 236
THE   SEA   OF  MOUNTAINS.
dock our harbour is unrivalled. The
rising city of Nanaimo is the seat of the
most important industry in British Columbia, and is at present in a most prosperous
and progressive state; the coal mines are
being worked with a vigorous energy and
extensive outlay of capital that fully maintain the British reputation for enterprise
in the prosecution of legitimate commercial
undertakings.
I But we regret to say that our coal
trade is carried on under the serious disadvantage entailed by the heavy duty imposed in the United States upon our
large exports to that country—our principal foreign market.
I We have a long felt and pressing need
of direct communication with the telegraphic systems of the world, and there is
an entire absence of suitable buildings for
the Customs, Post-office and other federal
departments at Nanaimo. We would fain
hope that in taking the liberty of bringing
these requirements before Your Excellency ADDRESS  TO  LORD  DUFFERIN. 237
we may secure that immediate attention
and action on the part of the Dominion
Government which the exigencies of our
case fairly demand.
I Although, as a community, we do not
take a prominent part in the discussion of
political questions affecting the most vital
interests of the Province, we would nevertheless ask to be pardoned for mentioning
here that for the peace, progress, and
satisfaction of the people of British Columbia, we believe what are known as the
Carnarvon Terms should be fulfilled intact
by the great Dominion of Canada.
" We have much pleasure in testifying
to the high regard in which Your Excellency's able administration of the important duties of your elevated office, and
your liberal patronage and encouragement
of education and the arts, are held by the
people of this Province.
I In conclusion, we trust that Your Excellency and Lady Dufferin may accomplish
your tour with safety and enjoyment, and 238
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
IP
that you may be blessed with long life and
the highest happiness.
" Mark Bat^, <e
" Mayor of the City of Nanaimo.
| John Hirst,
I Richard Brinn,
I Samuel Gough,
I Joseph Bevilockway,
I George Baker,
"William E. Webb,
i John Sapiston,
| Councillors of the City of Nanaimo."
This document was read and presented
by the Mayor on Lord Dufferin's coming
on shore on Friday morning. I will not
ask your readers to follow me through
any description of the decorations of the
one street which comprises the business
part of the town, or to picture the general
effect of what had been done, because,
beyond saying that it was a most creditable display for so small a community,
and  that   the   harbour   and  the   grand LORD   DUFFERIN S  REPLY.
beauty of the scenery which impresses
me at every step in this country, are of
themselves sufficient to occupy an hour's
close attention, I should not be able to
bring any distinct likeness before them.
When the address had been read, Lord
Dufferin replied as follows :—
I Mr. Mayor and Gentlemen,
" I beg leave  to thank you for  your
O ml mf
loyal address.
" I am very glad to have an opportunity
of paying a visit to the harbour and city
of Nanaimo, and of appreciating by personal
observation the satisfactory indications of
the mineral resources by which you are
surrounded.
I As every sound economist must do, I
regret with you the existence of those
heavy duties along the United States
frontier which impede so disastrously to
every one concerned, commercial intercourse between the communities of this
continent. 240
THE   SEA   OF  MOUNTAINS.
11 shall not fail to bring to the notice
of the proper authorities the absence of
those conveniences as regards both your
telegraphic communication and your public
buildings generally of which you complain.
"I can assure you I fully sympathise
with the anxieties to which you give
utterance in respect of the accomplishment by the Dominion of those engagements to which you refer as the j Carnarvon Terms,' more especially as the
performance of one of them, in which I
understand you consider yourselves so
deeply interested, viz., the construction of
the Nanaimo and Esquimalt Railway, has,
through the action of one branch of the
Canadian Legislature, become extremely
problematical.
11 can only hope that a friendly consideration by the parties concerned of the
difficulties which have arisen out of this
disturbing incident may lead to the substitution of some equivalent which may
be found acceptable to the Province. VISIT TO THE DOUGLAS  MINE.
241
I With regard, however, to the principal feature, namely, the construction of a
railway to the Pacific Ocean, although
it is no part of my business to give you
any assurance on that point, I sincerely
hope that your just expectations may be
realized."
The presentation of this address and
reply took place in a large al fresco, ever-
greened, buntinged construction of which
the children of the city occupied one side,
where they sang God Save the Queen and
other things, and in which all the principal
residents had mustered for the occasion.
When the formal address had been presented to the Mayor, Lord Dufferin spoke
to those assembled in what may be called
a private capacity speech, appropriate to
the occasion, and one which was well received by those present.
After the principal personages of the
community had been presented to their
Excellencies, and cheers had been called
vol. I. R 242
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
'
for and given, Lord and Lady Dufferin
drove off to visit the Douglas Mine.
There they are now, while their absence
affords correspondents the opportunity of
recording what has already been done.
Nanaimo, which already calls itself the
Newcastle of the Pacific, is destined to
be a prosperous place, no matter in what
locality the railway terminus may be
ultimately fixed—always supposing, however, that the Keely motor does not work
some revolution abolishing the utility of
steam coal. And the knowledge that they
are independent of railway locations is
apparent in the conversation of the inhabitants. They have coal and heaps of
it. They have the raw material, and whoever wants to cook it must come to Nanaimo to buy it. One large proprietor said
he didn't care whether the railway came
there or not.
The person who expressed most anxiety
on the subject was a young lady, who
said    that   she   wished   Mr.   Mackenzie 1
ANXIETY FOR THE  RAILWAY.
243
would hurry up with the railway, because
then she would be able to run down to
Victoria without a fuss, and have a good
time. And it is impossible to doubt that
if Mr. Mackenzie knew the young lady in
question he would be more moved by her
entreaties than by the reproaches of those
who are equally impatient with her, but
from more sordid motives. Besides this,
the knowledge that the construction of a
railway from Nanaimo to Esquimalt is to
result in the frequent visits to Victoria
of the young lady who normally adorns-
the society of Nanaimo, must inevitably
prove an incentive to the unmarried men
in Victoria to urge the construction of the
Island branch.
But the mass of the Nanaimo people
are in the position of those who are open
to approve of any number of railways
that anyone may choose to build, but
who are not going to distress themselves
on the subject. They have the sea at
their feet, and the small passenger steamers
r 2 244
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
run the seventy or seventy-five miles
between the two places in a few hours.
Carrying coal by the railway is out of the
question. I am told that the cheapest
railways in England—bar one short line—
charge seven-eighths of a penny a ton
per mile for carrying coal. The freight
here would be at least two cents a ton.
A thousand tons, therefore, would cost
for freight between Nanaimo and Esquimalt fifteen hundred dollars. But a
thousand tons shipped on board at Nanaimo
could be towed round to Esquimalt, if
that was necessary, for a few hundred
dollars, and if the freight was destined
for any place beyond the island even this
small expense would not be incurred.
And .if the railway is not required to
carry coal, what will it carry—except the
young lady to whom I have referred and
her friends—that cannot equally well
be carried by sea ? Only can it be
necessary by Esquimalt becoming the
terminus.    Whether or not that harbour LOCATION  OF  THE  TERMINUS.
should so become is a matter of diverse
opinion, and the likelihood of such an
eventuality a matter of much speculation.
Every man in the Province has his opinion
and wish on the subject.
While everyone should rejoice that the
question of locating the terminus devolves
on what Dundreary would call " some
other fellow," one thing has made itself
clear to me, viz., that if I were the Pacha
of the Pacific Railway, I should begin by
not paying any attention at all to what
outsiders said about the proper locality at
which to meet the ocean vessels. I hear
people blame Mr. Mackenzie because he is
guided by people who don't know British
Columbia, and only go through it measuring and surveying. I believe he is perfectly right, and that the question should
be determined only on the knowledge and
advice of competent professional men of
land and sea service, who are not possessed
of property at Victoria or any of the rival
inlets.    Talk to three men on the subject 246
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
of the line west of the mountains, and
though they may not disagree while together, each one of them will afterwards
explain the advantages of his route, and
enlighten you as to the quantity of land
that the others own in their respective
sections. But it does strike one that, in
the discussions which one is in the habit
of hearing in Canada, as well as in some
of the reports which are presented for the
instruction of the Canadian people, an
undue prominence is given to the matter
of the land line, and not sufficient importance to the question of harbours and
approaches from the sea.
It would be an evident folly to locate
the terminus at a point which, by reason
of fogs and reefs, was shunned by seagoing vessels. It is at least as reasonable
to say, " First find the best practical harbour in British Columbia, and then take
your line from that," as to ask " what is
the easiest route down to the sea ?" One
knows,   of course, that  the  Minister  of HARBOURS  AND  THEIR APPROACHES.     247
Public Works never loses sight of this
point, but he is necessarily much guided
by the reports of surveyors, who are apt,
like all professional men, to view that
which is out of the limits of their own
knowledge as of secondary importance. A
map shows distances correctly, and a chart
shows soundings, but an engineer whose
acquaintance with and opinion of a harbour
and its approaches is derived from these
documents only or even chiefly, is not a person whose authority on the subject is conclusive. The men at sea who are to make that
harbour—I mean who are steering for it—
are considering the question of fogs and
tides, and dangers that must be passed in
order to reach their destination, but which
may be situated a long way from it. The
reputation of a harbour is as delicate as a
woman's, and ought, when possible, to be
spoken of with confidence and admiration.
| Ifs" and a buts" in either of these cases
are fatal.
And in these waters  good anchorages m<
THE   SEA   OF  MOUNTAINS.
are not common. The mountains fall
close to the water's edge, and in many
cases inlets and harbours that look inviting are useless on account of the depth
of water up to the very edges of the rocks.
Even intelligent surveyors are not always
sufficiently awake to this point, and people
on shore, who want the railway in their
direction, never think of it. When the
officials of the Northern Pacific were travelling along Puget Sound and its neighbourhood seeking a fitting terminus for their line
now building, they reached a place which
in many ways looked inviting. They went
on shore, and found on investigation and
casual survey that the place was well
fitted for a terminus. They had been
shown about by a retired General, who
owning property in the place, was greatly
excited on the subject of securing the
terminus. Everything looked satisfactory, and the party went off to the ship
again, the General greatly elated at the
prospect of the coming line.    In the mean- A  HARBOUR WITHOUT  ANCHORAGE.
249
time the people on board had been sounding the bay, but had not succeeded in
finding bottom, and in reply to the congratulatory tone of the General's remarks,
one of the directors said :
"But, General, I'm afraid this place
won't do ; there's no harbour."
| No harbour 1" said the warrior settler,
in astonishment, looking round the bay in
which the vessel was tied up.
| There's no anchorage to be got," said
the other.
I No anchorage !"
| No; they can't find any soundings to
speak of."
I Soundings be doggoned 1" replied the
General. "Why, what in thunder are you
talking about. There's a hundred fathom
of them alongside of you."
There are several such harbours in
places spoken of as a possible terminus
for the Canada Pacific Railway.
Nanaimo is at the foot of Mount Benson, one of a number of mountains that 250
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
run in a range along the coast of Vancouver Island. There is not, therefore,
any great amount of agricultural land, and
the little town has anything but the appearance of an agricultural centre. But
it has plenty of coal, and in the neighbourhood there are untold quantities of
iron ore. The population is principally
composed of miners from the mining districts of England, and there is a liberal
complement of Indians. It was intended
by the Indians themselves to come out in
canoes and meet the Governor-General,
but the movement entailed the election of
a new chief, and somehow or other the
wrong man was elected, and the defeated
party upset the arrangement. An Indian
who has claims upon the chieftainship
regards the principle of election as an
excellent one when it results in the choice
of himself, but he is apt to regard it as
foolish trifling when the wrong man is
returned.
An   Indian—grandson  of  a   chief—in AN INDIAN'S iota OF emotion.     251
Manitoba, who at the election of chiefs for
the first treaty had failed to inspire snit-
oient confidence in the band, subsequently
'   gave a great deal of trouble to the officers
of the Government, and declined to behove
that an intimation to Ottawa that he had
been put aside would have no effect |
altering his position. He was told over
and over again that the selecUon of a
chief had been left to the ledums them-
selves, and that they had chosen ano her
person, and as often he rephed that that
las the very thing which he dcredth
Government to know, for what could be
the use of "election" when it was plam to
everyone  that they had passed tarn b,|
Possibly the Nanaimo candidate fel .» tbe
same way.    It   is  aonoyiug   to  lose an
election,   let the   worid be   ever        m
different on the subject.    There does not
appear to a casual observer to be as muob
intermixture of the races here as on the
. l,   tV,P Tndian women-
other  side, though the India
nA   d-mall     good   and   bad,
who,   large   and   sman,   to THE  SEA   OF  MOUNTAINS.
Heidah or Songees, are all alike called
Klootchman"—are frequently found as
helpmates to white men. On the afternoon of their arrival at Nanaimo, Lord
and Lady Dufferin were pulled off in
the Commodore's galley towards the
island to fish. During their stay on the
water they came across a man and an
Indian woman, who were also fishing from
a boat, and Lord Dufferin entered into
conversation with the man. Lord Dufferin ,
knew the part of the country from which
the man came, and with that affability
which everyone delights to comment upon,
talked for some time with the man,
concluding the conversation with the
question,
I And that is your wife ?"
I Well," said the man in reply, " well,
ye-es—no, not exactly."
This describes the kind of friendly,
neighbourly relationship of which there is
a good deal existing. After all, parsons
don't grow   like   blackberries   in   every BUTE   INLET.
253
wood, and we are told that it is not good
for man to be alone.
It was finally arranged before leaving
Victoria that after the visit to Nanaimo
had been paid,  Lord and Lady Dufferin
should go on to Bute Inlet.    Bute Inlet
has been a familiar word to us all since
arriving in Vancouver Island.    It is the
hope of the Victorians, because the railway
being built down Bute Inlet they regard
its crossing and continuation to Esquimalt
as certain ; and it had become known, so far
as a conclusion was possible, that Mr. Mackenzie had determined to take that outlet
from the mountains.    Bute Inlet therefore
rose at once to the surface in men's minds
and in public discussion, and considerable
interest was felt in the Governor-General's
proposed visit.    We had heard, too, that
the scenery of Bute Inlet was very fine,
and wondrous stories were told about the
echoes in the cafions.    The steam whistle
could be heard for thirty miles up the
Homalco River,   and a  ship's gun   had 254
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
It
been heard by a party of surveyors one
hundred miles inland. I tell the tale as it
was told to me. But echoes and scenery
apart, Bule Inlet has now an importance
and interest attaching to it that made
numbers of persons in Victoria anxious to
accompany us.
The Dominion steam-yacht, the Sir
lames Douglas—a little vessel that has
done good service of late years—had been
ordered to attend the Governor-General,
and Lord Dufferin had arranged that
accommodation on board of this craft
should be given to your correspondent and
certain other gentlemen. There were two
other correspondents on board; Captain
Cooper also, the British Columbia agent of
the marine and fisheries, and Mr. Blen-
kinsop, an ex-Hudson's Bay Company's
officer, who was accompanying Lord
Dufferin as Indian interpreter. These,
with the captain of the vessel, filled the
little cabin accommodation below, and
formed a quiet but sufficiently merry and ON THE   " SIR JAMES  DOUGLAS."
255
agreeable mess.    On all subjects appertaining to the British Columbian coast, Captain
Cooper and Mr. Blenkinsop served as walking cyclopaedias; on questions bearing upon
the Indians, Mr. Blenkinsop was infallible ;
Captain Devereux, the commander of the
little craft, had in times past, like Ralph
the Rover, sailed away and scoured the
sea for many a day, and was therefore a
landsman's vade mecum ; the correspondent
of the New York | World" was an authority
upon all events and personages south of
the   49 th   parallel;   the   other   Toronto
correspondent was a Canadian by birth,
with a proper and laudable pride in the
Maple  Leaf and its associations.    I had
set foot on the shores of all five continents,
and so, with  this varied store of useful
knowledge     and    | legends,     of    their
strange ventures happed by land or sea,
hardly any subject came upon the  tapis
which   was   beyond   the   range   of  the
collective information, and what we lacked
in positive knowledge we made up with
confident surmises. 256
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
It was deemed desirable that, whenever
practicable, we should make port by-port
about the same time as the Amethyst, on
board of which were Lord and Lady
Dufferin, and as that ship steamed four or
five knots faster than the Douglas, we
were always to start at an earlier hour in
the night or morning. For that reason
we left Victoria about two hours before
the Amethyst left Esquimalt, and owing
to her small draught of water the Douglas
was enabled to take short cuts, and
traverse channels which, though practicable for large ships in cases of necessity,
are not usually sought by them. In this
way we came up the inner chaunels of the
Haro Straits, amidst such scenery that
were it removed to the Eastern Hemisphere, the waters would be white with
the sails of yachts and refugees from
crowds and cities. Here island succeeds
island, strait succeeds strait, and at every
opening between one land's-end and
another, a spur of the range of mountains
rises clear up from the sea and lifts its SAN  JUAN S   ISLAND.
257
snow-capped head far up into the clouds.
Grandest amongst all the peaks of this
Olympic range is Mount Baker, rising in
solitary grandeur, with its summit encased
in everlasting snow. Its sister peaks are
high; in winter they are all snow clad,
and at the close of summer many retain
gulches of snow which feed the little
torrents that flow down into the sea.
but Mount Baker plunges its snow-
covered head into the clouds, and never in
summer or winter shows itself uncovered.
It is thirteen thousand feet high, some
give it a greater altitude, and far away
down from the summit extends its white
cape-like covering.
Soon after leaving Victoria, about twelve
miles away, we passed San Juan Island;
lost for ever to the British Crown. It
occupies a formidable position, and in
Canada's interest ought to have been
retained at almost any cost, particularly
as there was not any real doubt that it
belonged   to  Great  Britain.    When   the
VOL. i. s 258
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
San Juan difficulty occurred, the writer of
this was then  in Her Majesty's service,
and was one of the force sent up to prevent   the   Americans   landing,   and   the
circumstances attending it all came vividly
enough to mind as we steamed past the
Island.    The row  originally   commenced
about a Hudson's Bay Company's pig.    A
Yankee settler  on  the   island   had tried
to  annex  one   of   the  Company's  pigs.
There were on the island at the time—
I860—only the Company's post, and the
dwelling  of the  enterprising Southerner,
so  that,   there being.no magistrate,  or
other official to intervene, the angry claimants of the pig declared war in the name
of their respective countries and reported
progress to their superiors elsewhere.    It
came about, after a little while, that General Harney—a fire-eater then commanding
in    Oregon—determined    upon    sending
some troops to the island to claim it as
territory of the United States.    Sir James
Douglas—then Governor Douglas of Vancouver Island—hearing of this intention, THE   SAN JUAN DIFFICULTY.
259
communicated with Captain Hornby of
the Tribune, and that vessel at once
steamed up to the island, and prepared,
vi et armis, to prevent the landing of the
American troops.
Shortly after the Tribune had anchored,
a vessel steamed in bearing the American
force, and a message was sent off by
Captain Hornby, stating, in effect, that
United States' soldiers would not be permitted to land upon San Juan Island.
There is no use arguing under the guns
of a frigate, commanded by an officer who
has specific orders, and whose profession
is fighting, so the American commander
took time to consider. In the meantime,
Admiral Baines, in the Ganges, had
arrived at Esquimalt from the south, and
orders came up to the Tribune to return
at once. A company of Marines was then
detached from the force recently arrived
from China, and General Scott, superseding General Harney, the island was
jointly and peaceably occupied by the En- 260
THE  SEA  OF MOUNTAINS.
glish and American troops, and thus held
for years until the arbitration. I don't
know who eventually got the pig, but the
the Americans secured the island. Now,
everyone says that if Admiral Baines
had not arrived, and had the matter been
left to Governor Douglas and Captain
Hornby, the Americans would not have
pressed a landing when they were obviously in the wrong, and that to-day the
island would have belonged to Canada.
Of course, whoever holds San Juan Island
must, in the event of war, be prepared
to maintain their naval supremacy in these
waters, for San Juan does not absolutely
command the Haro channel, although
commanding the way usually taken by
large ships, and if it did, that party which
commanded the seas would very shortly
reduce San Juan. I should imagine that
the harbour of Esquimalt would prove
quite as good a strategetical point as the
Island of San Juan, for if its possessors
are strongest on the sea, nothing can
safely go by it. 261
CHAPTER XIV.
St. John's Point—Unsuccessful Sport—Bute Inlet—
Magnificent Scenery—"Waddington Harbour—The Sea
of Mountains—Running on a Sunken Rock—Fitzhugh Sound—The Dean's Canal—Dangerous Navigation—Entrance to the Juan de Fuca Straits—Burrard's Inlet—Magnitude of the Canadian Undertaking
—Prudent Conduct of Mrs. Mackenzie.
TTTHEN all the formalities appertaining
* ' to the Governor-General's visit had
been completed, we started from Nanaimo
in the Amethyst—the Douglas having previously gone on—and steamed away for
Tribune harbour. We had now left the
last white settlement on the island, and
expected therefrom to see none but Indians, or a chance white man, until we
reached the furthermost point of our jour- 262
THE  SEA  OF MOUNTAINS.
ney at Fort Simpson. Lady Dufferin, who
had suffered very much on her journey
up from San Francisco, was now enabled
to remain on deck, and take advantage
of the day and the passage to become
familiar with the wild but beautiful scenery of the British Columbian coast. At
an early hour we rounded what is called
on the charts St. John's Point (so called
from the fact that in days when it had no
name, your correspondent used to hide
there for wild fowl) and anchored in Tribune Bay. Then the Governor-General
and Lady Dufferin went on shore, and
every one who had a gun followed after.
Such an array of sportsmen was prophetic
of almost unlimited game.
The ardour of the party was a little
damped by the calm infidelity of Captain
Ward, the Governor-General's A.D.O., on
the subject of birds, and the gently expressed belief that, perhaps, if we brought
one gun amongst the whole party, it
would be found   amply   sufficient.     We IN SEARCH  OF  GROUSE.
263
were not to be deterred, however, by
any such croakings, and plunged vigorously into the woods in search of grouse.
I found a dried water-course thickly overgrown with willows, which, in older days,
had been always a safe find, but after a
short walk, a broad, well-defined trail appeared, and further on evidences became
plenty that Indians, or others, had struck
a belt of cedar here, and had used the
place for the manufacture of shingles.
In the distance, moreover, appeared the
hut and fences of a settler who, probably
desiring solitude, had settled in this
remote unfriendly spot, and everyone
returned to the beach disappointed, each
carrying his gun as if he had only just
brought it on shore in case of starting
anything, and had not expected to use it.
Nothing started, however, except a marten, which took refuge under a rock, and
by steadily refusing to be stoned out or
poked out to be fired at, caused a waste
of much valuable energy" and forcible ex- 264
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
pletives. TVard smiled a triumphant and
Mephistophelean smile.
. But we were here able to observe more
closely the peculiar construction of rock
of which some of the mountains appear to
be composed. It is like moulded sand,
and rubs away in one's hand quite easily.
Coming up we passed high lands composed
of this stone, which, from its softness, had
been worn into most fantastic shapes by
the action of the tide and mountain watercourses, and through which, at varying
distances from the water's edge, hard
granite boulders protruded themselves like
the ends of Brobdingnag soda-water bottles
sticking through a cheese. There were
some very grotesque rocks in Tribune Bay
which had been completely severed from
the mainland by the action of the thousand
tidal washings, and one of these two
correspondents sat down to sketch for
future use. My sketch resulted in a thing
that looked like a debilitated mushroom,
so I tore it up. CHANNELS  INTO  BUTE  INLET.
265
It was thought likely that the Douglas
might be required up at the head of Bute
Inlet to take the Governor-General on
beyond a point at which it was proposed to
leave the Amethyst, so we started from
Tribune Bay and Hornby Island as soon as
the new morn appeared, and steamed away
for what we were told is likely to be the
future terminus of the Pacific Railway*
Early in the morning we made the mouth of
Bute Inlet, which, it struck me, would be,
with the aid of a lighthouse, sufficiently
easy for the approach of large vessels.
There are two channels into the Inlet, and
then the course lies up a long, narrow
strait for about a hundred miles. On
either side the mountains rise straight
from the water's edge, and tower high up
into the clouds. It was a wet, misty,
rather than foggy, morning, and the effect
was very peculiar.
The mountains rose from either side of
the narrow opaque green strait for some
distance, and then a broad even band of
■M 266
THE  SEA OF  MOUNTAINS.
cloud stretched along them for miles,
leading one at first to suppose that th e
rest of each mountain was out of sight.
But looking up, the grim green side appeared again and rose still higher till once
more it dipped into the feathery mass, and
its peaks were lost in settled clouds, from
out of which silver ribands of water fell
almost perpendicularly into the sea. Here
and there, when the upper clouds were
broken, we could see a snow-patched peak
high up above us, and the hemlock, pine,
and cedar which in the region above the
first band of clouds had appeared like
shrubs were now lost in the mist and
distance. There was something supernatural in the appearance of the great
heights and mighty gorges that surrounded
us, as if the place were inhabited by a
race of giants whom it were death to look
upon, and the echo that answered the
report of a gun sounded like the gruff
shouts of angry genii. The Amethyst,
cleaving her way in the shadows of these WADDINGTON  HARBOUR.
267
mountains, looked like a school-boy's boat,
and together we seemed as if, in the
fashion of modern assurance, we were
penetrating the abode of antediluvian
creatures who might at any moment come
forth from their hiding places and punish
our temerity by effacing us from existence.
And hour after hour we steamed along
our narrow path, surrounded on ■ every
side by these virgin monsters of creation.
Morning passed, noon came and went,
and still the smooth green sheet unfolded
itself in front of us, until towards the
evening we found ourselves at anchor in
Waddington harbour at the mouth of the
Homalco River. It is a land of mighty
upheavals, and who can tell how deep is
the unfathomable water-covered gorge that
separates the confronting ranges ? In
Victoria they have taken with bad grace
Mr. Blake's perfectly justifiable remark:
about "a sea of mountains;" but he
might with truth have spoken of Bute
Inlet as a sea of mountains in a gale of 268
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
wind. It is marvellously beautiful in its
wild grandeur, so lofty, rugged, and
defiant are the mountains that wall in the
calm narrow strip of pale green sea, but
it almost takes one's breath away when
regarded as a railway route. Though the
mountains through which the railway has
to come range up to eight thousand feet
high, that fact has no particular bearing
on the road, because the line will not, of
course, be taken through the heights. It is
intended to carry it along the base of the
mountain following the sea line, and if
engineers say that can be done, it is
not for unprofessional men to foster
incredulity; but no one can fail to perceive that as in some parts—indicated
in the Admiralty charts—the mountains
dip almost perpendicularly into unfathomed
water, without the apparent vestige of a
shore or shelf to build on, the construction
of the road in this part will be anything
but child's play.
Assuming Bute Inlet  to be taken  as CHAMELEON  BAY.
269
the railway route, there are two ways
upon which it can reach the mainland
of Vancouver; one crossing Veldez Island,
and the other by thirteen to fifteen miles
of ferry down Nodale's Channel. This is
taking it for granted that the line will be
carried down the inlet instead of terminating at the head, concerning which it
may be said that Waddington Harbour is
small, with very limited anchorage, and
that there is no anchorage in the strait
that approaches it.
We waited but a short time in Waddington Harbour, for the Amethyst arrived
soon after us and we were directed to
make our way to Chameleon Bay. To
reach this, our way through Bute Inlet
was retraced, and after passing through
the Corders Channel we made Chameleon
Bay, the harbour being a large inlet of
Nodale's Channel. For the benefit of those
whom it may concern, I may mention
that we ran upon a sunken rock near the
entrance to the harbour.    The anchorage THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
is reached through a narrow passage of
which the soundings are well laid down,
but about one-third of the way across
from the northern shore, and at the point
where a bed of kelp terminates, there is a
sunken rock over which vessels cannot
pass. The Admiralty chart shows the
figure 6, but this, of course, like all other
figures, denotes " fathoms," whereas it is
evident that what was intended was " 6
feet" (at low water), so that the want of
the two little letters ft. might cause the
loss of a man-of-war. Mr. Stillson, the
'World" correspondent, and myself had
gone down below, he to lie down and I
to write. He had stretched himself on
the sofa, and was pensively singing a
mournful song about some
Poor sailors clinging to the mast,
And the land lubbers lying down below, below, below,
And the land lubbers lying down below,"
when with a thump and a bump and a
lurch the vessel struck. Visions of the
Mohawk, the   President, the  Transit, and QUEEN  CHARLOTTE'S  SOUND.
271
other nautical tragedies flashed in an
instant across our minds, and we both
made for the companion-ladder in a
manner much more resembling the proverbial lamplighter than the contemned
land-lubber. It proved that fortunately
the water was at half-flood, and the little
vessel being light forward had run well
up, and bumping still further had lurched
herself off, which she could not have done
had the tide been at the ebb. With the
exception of a slight scare all round no
harm was done.
Here we had done with Bute Inlet, and
were instructed to make the best of our
way to Safety Cove. This was on Saturday, the 26th, and we left at once,
steaming up Johnstone's Straits through
the night, and making Queen Charlotte's
Sound early on Sunday morning. We
had now reached beyond the northernmost point of Vancouver Island, and were
entering upon Fitzhugh Sound, which is
the approach to the Dean's Canal, spoken 572
THE   SEA OF MOUNTAINS.
of last session as a possible terminus of
the railway. It had been said at Victoria
that this inlet was useless, because the
approaches to it from the ocean were filled
with dangers, and taking everything said
at Victoria on the merits of rival routes
with a fair allowance of salt, it became
interesting to see for one's self how far
the course was likely to be acceptable to
vessels arriving from China or Australia.
By the ordinary great circle sailing a China
ship bound for Dean's Canal would first
sight the southern coast of Queen Charlotte Islands. She could then shape her
course by Fitzhugh Sound, or by the
more northerly channels of Milbank Sound.
Of the latter I am told, by men who have had
long acquaintance with these waters, that
it is dangerous and difficult, next to impossible of navigation in heavy weather,
and without anchorage when shelter has
been obtained. If that is the case no
large steamer or clipper ship would, during
the winter  months, venture  near it,  so DANGEROUS  NAVIGATION.
273
that the passage is reduced to the one
way by Fitzhugh Sound. But a vessel
steering for this opening would find
directly in its course a tract of water into
which a vessel would enter at the risk of
almost certain destruction.
It has been long known, but its assumed
size was indefinite until Mr. Pender, of
the Plumber, after vainly endeavouring to
reduce the dangerous spots into some
order, drew a circle round these troubled
waters, and indicated by outline whither
it was dangerous to go. The tract is
about twenty miles long by fifteen wide,
and hes in the ocean course to FitzhugH
Sound. It is dotted with reefs and sunken
rocks, the home of seals and sea-otters.
And as we passed along to leeward of it
the intermittent breaking of the long rolling sea resembled the spouting of a school
of whales. It was unlike the regular
breaking of surf upon a reef, for one
might look for several minutes together
without seeing any indication of danger,
vol. i. T H**"^*"*"*-*-*""""
274
THE   SEA   OF  MOUNTAINS.
when all of a sudden up would shoot a
heavy expanding column of spray, to be
succeeded by another and another until
tbe ocean had once more resumed its even
surface. A vessel would have to pass
close to this to reach Fitzhugh Sound, and
between it and a shore only less dangerous
because it is easily to be seen. But a ship
approaching the coast in a gale of wind
such as are common in the winter months
in the North Pacific, or having been some
days without an observation (common
enough), would have alee shore,close by
her whichever way the wind might be
blowing,, without any means in heavy
weather of correctly knowing her position.
In most places in the world a ship can
work her. way by her lead. Soundings
are an excellent guide, for they are as a
rule most carefully indicated in the Admiralty charts* and they are constantly
verified and supplemented, but here there
are no soundings.
The  entrance   to  the  Juan   de   Fuca QUESTION   OF  HARBOURAGE.
Strait is exceptionally fortunate in these
waters, and this is one of the great advantages possessed by Esquimalt. Thirty-
five or forty miles out from Cape Flattery,
which is at the entrance to Juan de Fuca,
soundings commence, and from that point
a ship can feel her way through the Straits
and into port by the use of her lead alone,
even were the lights obscured by fog.
There is, so far as I can make out, nothing whatever to help a vessel in winter
making her way to Dean's Canal, and I
would almost venture to say that before
long neither owners nor underwriters
will consent to ships running for that
place except in certain seasons of the
year.
A great difficulty throughout—though
of course not the only one—which has to
be surmounted is this question of harbourage, and Esquimalt seems to be
beyond all question the best that can be
obtained. Directly that is passed, the
difficulties of the Straits of Georgia com- mxm
wmm
276
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
mence. We are going to Burrard's Inlet
and the Fraser River, and of both of these
I will take occasion to speak. The general
opinion (not always infallible) seems to
be that if the railway is to terminate on
the mainland, Burrard's Inlet is tbe most
proper place, and the chart in a measure
supports this view; while it is evident
that if it is to cross to the Island, the
crossing must be made much further to
the north. But there is a point worth
considering, though I am not sufficiently
acquainted with all the conditions to
dwell much upon it. The Northern Pacific
Railway contemplate making their Pacific
terminus at Port Angelos, just opposite
Esquimalt, on the Juan de Fuca Strait.
This place is as easily made as our own
present harbour, and is to seaward of all
the intricacies and dangers of the Straits
of Georgia. Is it safe to assume that
vessels will pass this terminus in order to
seek One further north, beyond a passage
abounding in islands and necessitating the THE  PACIFIC  RAILWAY.
277
use of tugs for sailing ships? I don't
know—like Rosa Dartle, I am only asking
for the sake of information. But the
more  one looks at  the  question of the
Pacific Rail
way,
the  more one becomes
impressed with the magnitude of the
undertaking into which Canada has entered,
and the more one feels inclined to applaud
Mr. Mackenzie for not permitting himself to be badgered into prematurely commencing the construction of a work which
is even yet encompassed with doubts and
difficulties, and which when finished will
be the marvel of a century in which wonder
has succeeded wonder. With a full knowledge of the engagement into which Canada
unfortunately first entered ; with a recollection of the subsequent understanding
into which she rather permitted herself
to drift; and with every sympathy with
the British Columbians for the disappointment of their hopes, an honest expression
of opinion will compel the admission that
to commence the active construction  of 278
THE   SEA   OF   MOUNTAINS.
the railway on the west coast until every
effort has been exhausted to discover the
proper outlet to the ocean would be an
action the very reverse of commendable,
and one which, in spite of all that has
been said upon the subject, the country
should feel grateful to Mr. Mackenzie and
the Government for having avoided. 279
CHAPTER XV.
In the Straits—Steamer in Sight—Fort Simpson—The
British and American Boundary—A Heavy Fog—Indian Tillage—Diving for Coppers—Indian Canoes—
Chase of the Sea-Otter—■Wolves—Linguistic Abilities
of " John"—Salmon—Curious Establishment—The
Oolican, or Candle Fish—Fisheries on the Skena River—Objectionable Expressions—Enterprise of Early
Navigators.
MY last letter was mailed to you from
the mouth of the Skena River.
Early in the morning there was a cry
of a steamer in sight, and a general
tumbling out ensued, and a rapid unlocking of despatch boxes and sealing up of
letters. It was the steamship California,
southward bound from the former Russian
settlement of Sitka in Alaska, and now
on her way out of Wrangel,   where she 280
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
had been picking up unsuccessful miners.
These men were on their way southward
from the Cassiar mines, up the Stickeen
River, where there are about two thousand men working. The mines are in
British territory, but there is a strip of
Alaska, about thirty miles broad, which
intervenes between Canada and the sea
at this point, and the miners therefore
make their way to Wrangel, where they
are picked up by the vessels from Sitka.
Those that passed us in the California
were men who had failed to make a strike
this year, and were therefore leaving early.
Those who have good claims will remain
on for another month before leaving for
the winter. Tbe California was the only
vessel out to the northward of where we
now are, and it was our last chance of
mailing letters until our return to New
Westminster on the Fraser.
We are now far up to the northward
of Vancouver Island, lying off the mouth
of the Skena River, waiting for the Ame- GRENVILLE  CANAL.
281
thyst to overtake us, that we may proceed
on to the Indian settlement at Metla-
kahtla, and thence to Fort Simpson.
The latter place is nearly fifty miles
beyond us, and there British possessions
terminate and the American territory of
Alaska commences. We have passed
through numerous " passages," | straits,"
I sounds," and archipelagoes, travelling
for the most part by day and night, and
have long since left the high mountains
that characterize the country from Knight's
Inlet southward.
We are still amongst high hills, but
they are now sloping down towards the
north. In some passages made we have
experienced fogs and what sailors call
dirty weather, making progress difficult.
Last night a heavy fog came on, remaining with us the greater part of the way
through the Grenville Canal, obscuring
the land, which lay within a pistol-shot
on either side. The heavy banks of fog
mixing with the smoke of the funnel lay >82
THE   SEA  OF   MOUNTAINS.
like bluffs  of land ahead,  and  could be
distinguished by a dark, gloomy outline,
which  might be fog  or  might be land.
There was a tide running so that we could
not stop, there was the rock-bound coast
on either side so that we could not go on,
and  there   was never  a  sounding to be
had.    Sometimes in these cases a vessel
may go alongside the hills and tie herself
up to a tree, but it is ticklish work doing
so at night time in a fog.    The last person
who tied   his vessel up in these   waters
forgot to take soundings, and in the morning found himself high and dry  upon a
shelving rock.    Generally speaking there
is some local circumstance which enables
a  man who  knows his  business  to pull
through all right, but in all such positions
there is one unfailing rule : the best thing
to do is to do the best you can.
Yesterday morning we visited the first
Indian village that it has been possible to
stop at. It has been formed round a
small Hudson's Bay post at Bella-Bella, INDIAN  HOUSES.
2S3
where a supply of coals had been sent on
for the Douglas. The Indian houses,
situated on the very edge of the water,
were built of roughly, hewn cedar planks,
and were each about fifteen or eighteen
feet square. The planks are made by
splitting cedars, which have grown to an
enormous size, and smoothing them after
a fashion with a rough kind of adze.
Posts are stuck in the ground and the
plapks are nailed round them, and a plank
bark-covered roof is then put on, with an
aperture in the centre for the escape of
smoke. Round the enclosure in several
different corners were small rooms resembling large dog-kennels, which were
doubtless the dormitories of the commingled families. In the centre of the
main floor a fire smouldered, and over its
smoke hung lines of dried salmon and
other fish, together with berries, skins,
bark, or any other article of household
nse that required drying or seasoning.
Round the common chamber, squatted on 284
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
its mud floor, were women smoking their
pipes and busily engaged making mats.
They seemed quite content to be visited,
and the elderly ones made light and
amusing jests at our expense. I may say
that the older tbe joker the lighter the
jest, the younger women being disinclined
to be brought into notice. In every house
there was at least one slumbering papoose
and an endless variety of dogs. The
several houses and apartments appeared
to belong quite as much to the dogs and
cats as to their masters. There was a
very ancient and fish-like smell about
these dwellings, as well as haloing round
their inhabitants, and although they pass
their lives on the edge of the clear
green sea, I doubt whether they ever
go into it except when upset out of a
canoe.
I tried to bribe a small boy to jump overboard, but he objected to the colour of the
money and required a half dollar to be substituted for the copper, a request with which I
1;u*bm" INDIAN  OANOEMEN.
285
declined to comply.  His sister seemed more
inclined to accept my offer, and probably
would have jumped, but a dusky gentleman who was  either her father or husband   objected,    and   so   prevented   the
performance coming off.    In the  islands
of the southern seas one has only to throw
a penny into the water to see any number
of Indians  diving for it.    Tbe Indians,
however, are as expert canoemen as their
kindred the Saulteaux of the upper lakes,
and take their large cedar dugouts to sea
in  weather that would astonish  many a
more   civilized   long-shoreman.    On   the
western coast of Vancouver Island, which
is one of the principal hunting-grounds
for the sea-otter, the Indians go out to
great   distances   in   canoes,    sometimes
thirty or forty miles, without paying great
regard to the weather.    When off on these
expeditions, inflated bladders or the inflated
skins of young seals are attached to the
side of the canoe, and then she may fill
or not; her occupants can bail her   out THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
and go on with their hunt. The captain
of a vessel coming to the coast met one
day far out at sea a canoe half-filled with
water and with two men in her, as he
thought, dead. They were only asleep,
however, and on being awakened, baled
out their canoe and paddled off towards-
the land.
Tbe sea-otter hunting is now the remnant of what was once a large trade. In
1794 an English vessel from China made
her way over here, and after meeting with
Vancouver, who was then conducting his
discoveries on the coast, returned to China,
carrying with her a number of sea-otter
skins*. Captain Cook£, too, on his leaving
this coast took with him a quantity of this
fur, and the rich field that existed over on
the American coast induced some China
merchants to send over ships regularly to
secure this trade. From 1800 till about
1812, or perhaps a little later, the number
of sea-otters annually taken by the six or
seven ships in the trade ran from two to SEA-OTTER  HUNT.
six thousand each, but after awhile it fell
off, and the trade became more general in
peltry, until the arrival on the hunting-
grounds of the Hudson's Bay Company's
steamer The Beaver, in 1837, (now running from Victoria as a tow-boat), when
the China ships ceased coming and left
the trade to the Company. In those days
the sea-otter extended all the way from
San Francisco as far north as Cooky's Inlet,
and Indians from Vancouver were shipped
down the coast to hunt. Now, however,
this most valuable of all furs—a prime one
usually fetching from eighty to a hundred
dollars first cost, though the price is now
temporarily down—is scarce on the coast,
and is principally found on the rocky west
coast of Vancouver Island and in the
northern parts of British Columbia and
Alaska.
The   Indians    hunt   the   sea-otter
parties.    Several canoes go out and make
for  some  surf-washed  rock, on  or  near
which the otter may be found.    Directly 288
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
he is sighted, several shots are fired
whether he be within or without range.
This is done in order that he may dive at
once. The canoes then extend and endeavour so to place themselves that the otter
shall rise between them, and as be shows
his nose above the water more shots are
fired and he again dives. The canoes
close a little on him, judgment being used
as to closing on the probable place of his
reappearance, and when he shows he is
again fired at. So it continues until the
animal is worn out, when some well-
directed shot finishes him. Sometimes he
is found asleep on the rocks, and shot
either with a gun or bow and arrow. The-
fur is rich and heavy, of a dark pepper-
and-salt colour. It is sometimes used in
Canada for caps and cuffs of coats, but I
have seen a great deal more of it in China,
where the Mandarins use it on their capes
and cloaks.
Tbe H.B. post at Bella-Bella is kept by
a Mr. Kennedy, one of an old H.B. family, SELF-PRESERVATION.
who has a small house and trading-store,
surrounded   by   a   large   and   well-filled
garden   containing the   hardier kind   of
vegetables—the more  delicate  ones  not
ripening in this latitude.    There was a
quantity of timothy growing wild about
the patches in the rocks, and Mr. Kennedy explained that he had had two cows,
but that the wolves had killed them.    In
the winter-time he said the wolves came to
his doors,  and hunted dogs or anything
they could find.   "They tried, last winter,
to avail themselves of a spare Indian, who
was mooning around, but he managed to
keep them at bay till assistance  came.
Apparently the Indians in all parts are
alike in attaching an undue importance to
the preservation of their lives.    I once
told one who objected to run a rapid on
the Winnipeg   with me  that if he was
drowned it would only be one Indian the
less, to which he replied that my observation
was correct, but unfortunately the drowned
Indian would be himself.
vol. i. TJ 290
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
Most of the Indian men were out in
their canoes, carrying coals to the vessel,
two only remaining on shore to continue
a game in which they were engaged; but
if they had all been on shore, they would
probably all have been loafing or gambling.
One large canoe, starting on a voyage, came
alongside to hear what the news was
from Victoria. The amalgamated families,
goods, chattels, food, dogs, kittens, and
general impedimenta, including cedar bark,
and poles for the temporary lodges of three
establishments, were on board this frail
craft, and stowed away with great order
and regularity, preparatory to starting out
to sea. Men and women alike had their
paddles ready for work, the children only
being exempt from this labour. They were
intensely delighted on being adressed in
Chinook—the general jargon passsing
current on the coast—by our Chinaman,
and called our attention at once to the
fact that "John could understand their
language."    They   called   him   "John," SALMON EISHING.
291
and took great pains to spread the information about his linguistic abilities.
We were only a few hours coaling, and
then left Bella-Bella, steering north for
Metlakahtla. The Amethyst had passed
us at Bella-Bella, but our course lay
through narrow straits and groups of
islands which a vessel of her size would
hesitate to take at night with foggy
weather threatening, and she therefore
anchored a little further on, telling us to
wait for her at the entrance to Chatham
Sound, where Lord Dufferin intended to
come on board the smaller craft and go
off to the Skena River to see the salmon
fishing and tinning establishment which
has recently arisen there. The factory is
the property of a joint stock company
started by an American capitalist, Colonel
Lane, and comprising stock-holders both
of Ore.o*on and Vancouver.    This is their
O
first season, but we hear that they have
put up over five thousand cans of salmon
already, with every prospect of establishing
u 2 mtmsrmmmmmmmm
mmm
£92
THE   SEA   OF  MOUNTAINS.
a good business. There is room for
several enterprises of this kind properly
managed, for the business done need not be,
nor is it generally, confined to catching
and canning salmon. Besides any fur
trade that may be done, there are several
kinds of fish on this coast that repay the
expense of catching them. There is a
great number of seals also, and there is a
little fish called the oolican or candle fish ;
so full of oil that it can be lighted at one
end and used as a candle, which is found
in large quantities on this coast.
The industries of this country are, however, in their infancy. It is a vast wide
field, in which wealth is pecked at in a
more or less spasmodic manner, but which
will doubtless in time be systematically
worked. The high price of labour is the
usual explanation given in answer to
inquiries as to the reason of the country's
backwardness, and yet they are beginning
to revile | John." At the fisheries, on the
Skena River, John was largely employed, CHINESE   SETTLERS.
293
but it was found that the Indians could be
obtained for the same price, and that they
were more expert and understood the
business, at least of catching, better.
John, however, is permeating the labour
market of this country. In all departments
of life here one finds him, and no one seems
to have any complaint against him except
that he doesn't spend his money, and
takes the greater part of it with him
to China. I don't hear of any of the
charges of bestial living, frightful immorality, and crime which are common in
the press of California, but, on the contrary, in Victoria the Chinamen seem to
live reputably and with what is to them
some degree of comfort. They live on
good terms with £heir white neighbours,
although there seems to be considerable
animosity between them and the Indians,
all of whom regard John as a kind of third
party, who has no rights that the other
two are bound to respect. Very few of
them are persuaded to change their religion. 94
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
John, our cook on board the Douglas,
is one who has discarded the Joss House
for the Church, and united the woollen
shirt and bifurcated integuments of nautical
Christianity with the plaited pig-tail of
Celestial paganism. It is necessary to be
careful in describing portions of men's
dress, as I was recently reproved for the
mention of a word which I had thought
to be unobjectionable. At the same time a
very charming young American lady was
shocked at hearing me speak of a certain
gentleman's wooden " leg," and on expressing my regret and asking wherein I
had erred, she told me that I should have
spoken of his | foot-stick"—a fact I was
not aware of before.
Since leaving Bute Inlet our course has
been northerly with hardly any variation,
and the change of latitude—we are now
in 54 deg. 20 min.—has made itself apparent in more than one way. The high
mountains, as I before mentioned, have
sloped away to hills, and mists and rain IN NORTHERLY  LATITUDES.
come on with little warning; we wear our
great coats on deck and have a fire in the
cabin, and this before August has departed.
There are no birds in the woods, and when
we ask about game we are told that we
are too far north for grouse. Seals are
getting plentiful, and we see them lying
on the rocks or swimming about the
bays as we pass. We went ashore to-day
to try and secure one, but the first
bullet fell a little short of the round doglike head that was raised out of the water,
and we did not get another shot. Everything is beginning to wear a northerly
aspect; and it is nearly time, for the
little vessel has steamed four hundred
miles on her northward trip, and we are
beginning to reach those regions where
man abandons the efforts to raise his food,
and stands confessed the foe to death of
all the quadrupeds that cross his path.
I don't think one ever appreciates the
intrepidity and enterprise which early
navigators evinced, or fully understands 296
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
the hardships they may have been called
upon to endure, until one sees the
scene of their labours. We speak of the
dangers of this coast—dangers that truly
exist—having at. the same time charts
which enable us to read it like dry land,
and boats that move exactly as we wish;
but we scarcely remember that Quadra
and Vancouver sailed and resailed these
seas in lumbering water-pounding sailing
craft, with only a compass as their guide
and Providence to trust to keep them from
reefs and sunken rocks. And we seldom
realize, until we have seen the coasts and
experienced the ocean in its wrath, the
daring determination of the men who, in
vessels that we should now think unworthy
to carry coals, found out the straits and
passages we use, or hunted their enemies
about the unmeasured ocean, and ran them
into holes and corners bristling with rocks
and shoals. It seemed nothing to us to
run close by Cape Caution and anchor
in Safety Cove; they were but names to ASPECT  OF  THE   COUNTRY.
297
us, but to Vancouver, when we struck on
the one and found anchorage—there so
scarce—in the other, they must have had
a different and a deeper meaning. The
country through which we are passing is
not dreary-looking, for it is all thickly
covered with trees of the resinous tribe,
and pearly-looking streams run down the
hills, but the woods are silent, gloomy,
and apparently tenantless. There are
probably deer, and wolves, and small fur
animals, but every step is through the
growth of centuries, and the fallen trees
have crossed and intertwined themselves,
forming barriers that wear out strength
and energy in overcoming them. If a
wreck took place on such a coast and the
vessel sank, there would be little but
patience and cannibalism between the men
and death. —
298
CHAPTER XVI.
Mission to the Tsimpsean Indians—Mr. Duncan—Met-
lakahtla—Indian Trading on the Co-operative Principle—The Governor-General's Visit—Presentations—
An Indian Bride—Improvement and Education of the
Indians—Mr. Duncan's Plans—An Arithmetical Problem—Musical Acquirements—Address to the Earl of
Dufferin, and the Governor-General's Reply.
TT7E came on to-day from the Skena
' " piloting the Amethyst through the
mist and rain, and anchored this evening off
Metlakahtla. Lord Dufferin abandoned the
project of visiting the salmon-curing
establishment, owing to the unpropitious
state of the weather. The Amethyst's gun
brought off Mr. Duncan, in a canoe manned
by a crew of his Tsimpsean Indians, and
from  the   Douglas  he   went  on   to   the METLAKAHTLA.
299
Amethyst to arrange for the Governor-
General's visit to-morrow. Lord Dufferin's
coming was not expected, and many of
the Indians are off fishing, but doubtless
in the morning we shall be able to comprehend the history and system of Mr. Duncan's successful experiment.
At half-past nine this morning the little
Douglas steamed alongside her larger
sister, the Amethyst, and two boats came
off to be taken in tow. Lord and Lady
Dufferin, with Commodore Chatfield, in
the latter's galley, made fast to one side,
and on the other a ship's cutter, blazing
with the scarlet and gold displayed by
Colonel Littleton and Captains Ward and
Hamilton. We steamed in from the outer
harbour, and amidst a salute fired by the
Indians of this exceptionally interesting
mission the Governor-General and Lady
Dufferin landed, and were received by Mr.
Duncan and his recently arrived associates,
Mr. and Mrs. Collinson.
The history of this mission is of interest THE   SEA   OF   MOUNTAINS.
as showing the good results that may be
obtained when work is systematic and in
the right direction. When Captain Prevost
came out here in the Satellite in 1857 to
assist in determining the boundary line
between British and United States' possessions, he brought with him a gentleman,
Mr. Duncan, who had undertaken the task
of christianizing the Tsimpean Indians
of Fort Simpson and its neighbourhood.
These Indians, like their neighbours the
Hydahs of Queen Charlotte's Islands,'were
a fierce, quarrelsome, and unruly set.
They were made up of a number of
smaller tribes, some of which, under certain circumstances, practised cannibalism,
all of which, together, went by the
national appellation " Tsimpseans." They
were known along the coast as dangerous
and impracticable Indians. Fort Simpson,
tbe most northerly post of the Hudson's
Bay Company in British Columbia, a few
miles only from the boundary of Alaska,
was the  headquarters of  the Tsimpsean TSIMPSEAN INDIANS.
nation, but although the Company supplied the Indians with the only articles of
civilized manufacture that they possessed,
yet the intercourse was of the most
guarded nature, and the security of the
fort was zealously cared for, the gates
being shut to all Indians for months at a
time, and the walls, flanked with their
armed bastions, being regularly guarded
night and day by sentinels. The Indians
were expert canoe-men, and fond of fighting, medicine dances, and the usual diversions of their kind, with an entire belief
in necromancy, evil spirits, and the propriety of killing any person, white or red,
except authorised medicine men, who were
supposed to be able to work spells. Any
white man who was seen with astronomical instruments, or who was known
to be much busied with books, &c, was
naturally set down as a medicine-man of
the whites, and disliked accordingly by
those who believed their peculiar province
invaded by the stranger. —r-
302
THE  SEA OF MOUNTAINS.
It was among this unpromising community that Mr. Duncan was called upon
to commence work. The Hudson's Bay
Company gave him quarters inside the
fort, and when he had mastered the
language sufficiently, a schoolroom was
arranged outside, and his tuition of the
young and adult natives began. His
diary shows the slow but steady progress
he made, the difficulties he overcame, the
antipathy to himself which he removed,
and the general revolution that was taking
place amongst the Indians around Fort
Simpson. Then another came to share
his labours, and, for various reasons, unnecessary to enter upon, it became expedient that the old Tsimpsean village at
Metlakahtla should be re-occupied, and
another mission started there. It fell to
Mr. Duncan to do this, and fourteen years
ago he started from Fort Simpson to
Metlakahtla—twenty-four miles south—
with fifty Indians whom he had been
teaching in his first school-room.    To-day METLAKAHTLA.
he has eight hundred round him at Metlakahtla. Their village is prettily situated
on a large and well-sheltered bay, entered
by straits in several directions, and here
they have established themselves in decent
comfortable houses, and live a peaceful,
industrious life. Formerly a movement
of Indians on the coast was attended
with great danger, each tribe having its
own particular enemies on the look-out
for small parties, and few ever ventured
past Fort Simpson, where the Tsimpseans
were most numerously collected. Now-
a-days,, Indians from all parts—across
from Queen Charlotte's Islands, and even
as far north as Sitka—come down to trade
at Fort Simpson and Metlakahtla, and do
so with perfect safety. This, in itself, is
a great result, but it has the additional
advantage of bringing within civilising
influences a number of Indians who would
not otherwise easily be reached.
Besides being a mission, Metlakahtla is
a trading post, and its business is carried 304
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
on by the Indians with the Indians and
for the Indians. The trade is done on
the co-operative principle, and the Indians
not only sell their own catch, but purchase from other parties who visit the
settlement. In times past they owned a
schooner, but she was lost, and they have
not yet replaced her. Possibly Mr. Duncan may think it as well to keep his people
away from the temptations of Victoria,
which is to the Indian a sink of iniquity.
At Metlakahtla one is struck by the order
and system that, in a rough way, prevail,
as much as by the cleanliness and neatness of its inhabitants. Nevertheless the
contrast which they and their houses present in the matter of cleanliness and decency is very marked; and nothing seems
to be wanting to give ordinary completeness to their little village.
These Indians have a very handsome
church, a school-room for males and
another for females, a dispensary, a
trading-store, a lock-up, and a corner of HANDSOME   CHURCH.
8 Of
the green is devoted to a gymnasium for
the boys.
Their church is a marvel of great
results from little means. Outside it is a
handsome building, having more pretensions to architecture than one usually
finds in village churches; inside it is one
hundred and twenty feet long by sixty
feet wide, and eighty-six feet high. It is
built entirely of cedar, and, like all the
other bnildings, erected by the Indians
themselves without other help than the
plans and directing aid of Mr. Duncan.
They have a new saw-mill now, which was
cutting its first log when the Amethyst's
gun was fired, when, of course, all work
stopped as suddenly as does the work in
one of Her Majesty's dockyards when the
first stroke of the clock proclaims the day
to be at an end. With the exception of a
little ornamentation, this new church is
quite finished. It is unpainted, but very
clean and fresh. The pillars which support the aisles are to be moulded along the
VOL. I. x 306
THE   SEA   OF   MOUNTAINS.
sides, and there are, at regular spaces in
the roof, certain slot-like openings which
are made for the purposes of ventilation,
and which are to be further " fixed."
The church is so large and open that at
first one is apt to consider this peculiar way of ventilation unnecessary, until,
little trifles being explained, one understands that in warm weather a community
of fishing Indians require air.
The Governor-General's visit was unexpected at Metlakahtla, and a very large
number of Indians were away in the fishing grounds. On these occasions they
lock up their houses and take their families
with them. But word had been sent to
the nearest fishing place, and the men
there engaged had come in, and had at
once set to work in making such preparations as they could to welcome so great a
chieftain. When Lord Dufferin landed, he
passed before the guard of honour that
the Indians had drawn up to receive him
—a guard which, if it fell short a little of PRESENTATIONS  TO LADY DUFFERIN.      307
what military men would consider up to
the mark, was loyally intended and was
the best the place afforded—and then proceeded .to a small open space that had
been prepared for him. Here a modest
and timid Indian belle came forward and
presented Lady Dufferin with a bouquet of
flowers, in which poppies and sweet
william, being the hardier and more
readily cultivated in these latitudes,
figured most conspicuously. Mr. Collinson,
the associate of Mr. Duncan, was with his
wife introduced to their Excellencies, and
after them a number of the women of the
village, the last presentation being that of
a tiny urchin who could just steady herself sufficiently on her legs to walk across
and offer her hand, which she did without
the least trepidation.
The women were all a little scared at
first, but Lady Dufferin has a peculiar way
of setting, at their ease the humblest of
those with whom she comes in contact, so
that the first fear very soon merged into
x 2 308
THE   SEA   OF   MOUNTAINS.
a feeling of confidence and liking. There
had recently been a marriage in the
village, and on learning of it Lord and
Lady Dufferin at once expressed a wish
that the bride might be brought forward.
Accordingly the name was called out, but
the call had to be repeated several times
before she appeared. At last a short, solid,
Dutch-built young lady, neatly dressed,
and wearing a yellow handkerchief on her
head, came forth from out of the ranks of
the girls—not yet having taken her place
among the matrons, grinning all over the
countenance, as if the idea of her marriage
being mentioned was a tremendous lark.
Lady Dufferin made some courteous remark to her, but this only intensified the
lark that she evidently felt was going on,
though after a little she told her husband's
name, and explained that he was away at
the fishing grounds. Lord Dufferin asked
her some question to test her scholastic
abilities ; but this was such a climax to the
lark that she was obliged to turn for sym-
a-M "WALK  THROUGH   THE   VILLAGE.
309
pathy in her merriment to the gentleman
who had introduced her.
Lord Dufferin was very anxious to test
the erudition of the young women, and
tried several of them, dropping upon one
with an inquiry as to her acquaintanceship
with the multiplication table, but they
were all too much out of their usual
groove to display their abilities. One has
heard of young ladies much nearer home
than Metlakahtla to whom the multiplication table was what Dick Swiveller would
term a staggerer.
Do
When we had parted from the bride and
her young associates, Mr. Duncan took
the Governor-General and all his following
over the village, showing the church, the
schools, the houses, and explaining all the
several histories, purposes, and plans connected with each. The Indians, incited
thereto by Mr. Duncan, have become discontented with their present houses and
locations, and are about to pull down
their old dwellings in order to build new mm
310
THE  SEA OF  MOUNTAINS.
ones on a plan of their teacher's suggestion
and to arrange them in better order of
streets. There is nothing like having
some ambition about your town, even if it
is built on a cleared cedar-swamp. The*
great thing about Metlakahtla is that
everything is done by the Indians themselves—a marked divergence from the
foolish plan so often adopted in other
places—and done of their own good-will
and approval, for Mr. Duncan adopts the
plan of leaving all matters in abeyance
until the Indians come to see things in the
same light as himself. Then he strikes
while the iron is hot. By this means the
Indians themselves become interested in
the work, and do it to please themselves,
not other people.
The want of real success in Indian
establishments on the Eastern side has
been the principal of petting and paying
the Indians to do that which they ought
to desire to do for their own advantage.
If an Indian is asked to do anything, his INDIAN  RECEPTION  OF FAVOURS.       311
first idea is that he should receive something for doing it. Thus when Mr. Duncan first told the Indians at Fort Simpson
that he was opening a school for their
children they asked to be paid for letting
their children go to school. And so in
missions that I know of, the Indians have
been allowed to think that by going to
church and sending their children to
school they deserved well of their missionary and should receive favours from him.
It is seldom sufficiently impressed upon
them that they may go to Jericho if they
insist upon it, but that here is a chance of
doing much better. When they are made
to understand that the favour is conferred
upon them, they are ready enough to
accept it—Mr. Duncan's village is a fair
proof of this.
The plan usually pursued at Missions
would not have resulted in the attainments which many of these Metlakahtla Indians possess. In the new school-room which
we visited, there was a black board with O 1 —J
THE   SEA   OF MOUNTAINS.
an arithemetical question chalked upon it.
This question asked what share a certain
man would have in one hundred and
eighty barrels of apples after he had complied with some very complicated partnership conditions. I read the question
through, and gave it up at once. Hamilton then set himself well before the board
and frowned upon it, but after a short
time turned from it to examine a picture
of Jack the Giant Killer that was near,
and so the whole party, including, I
think, the Governor-General, who had a mental shot at the problem, and then sought
relief from this abstruse study in the contemplation of the coloured print which
hung adjacent there, and which some one
now says was not Jack the Giant Killer
at all, but David and Goliath. It is clear
that if the Tsimpsean children of Metlakahtla can work out arithmetical questions
where' many people would take refuge in
algebra, they are considerably more advanced than the ordinary run of children 1
MUSICAL   ENTERTAINMENT.
010
at Indian Missions.     And  their accomplishments are varied.
When all the village had been seen,
and all the points of interest explained,
we came to a place that had been set off
in the centre of the village where some
planking had been laid down to form an
impromptu platform. Here a long row
of chairs were set, and the little cloud of
personages —- scarlet-coated staff-officers,
blue-coated naval officers, plain-coated
correspondents, and others—that were
accompanying Lord and Lady Dufferin on
their visit were seated in a line. The
Indians present, then dividing themselves
into lines of men, women, boys, and
girls, sang some catches, hymns, and other
compositions for the edification of their
Excellencies. They sang "Home, Sweet
Home" in Tsimpsean, the " Home" having
direct reference to and being mentioned
as Metlakahtla. Then they sang a catch,
the words of which may be taken as the 314
THE   SEA   OF   MOUNTAINS.
motto    which    has   guilded    the    community :—
" When a weary task you find it,
Persevere and never mind it,
Never mind it, never mind it,
Persevere, and never mind it."
They sang it remarkably well, and it
seemed strange to find the inhabitants of
an Indian village in the remotest corner of
the North-west of British Columbia
possessed of sufficient musical knowledge
to enable them, without accompaniment, to
sing a composition in which the voices
are not in unison, and where the basses
are singing one line while the boys and
women are singing others. The air was
familiar, and the song sounded like a
moral :
" Merrily lasses fill your glasses,
Let the bumper toast go round."
To this air it has haunted us ever since,
and is worse than " Punch in the presence
of the Passenjaire." In our ears still
ringing, our companions singing " Never
iitt^— nnmpmi
IL  BARBIERE   DI   SIVIGL1A.
315
mind it, never mind it, Persevere and
never mind it, Let the bumper toast go
round."
Of course they don't sing anything about
bumpers at Metlakahtla, because liquor is
strictly forbidden within its precincts, and
Mr. Duncan being a J.  P. attacks very
fiercely any erratic schooners that bring
whiskey into his neighbourhood.    He has
boarded and captured more than one, and
has   thus  far  succeeded  in  keeping  his
people free from the evils of the whiskey.
The singing was not confined to the two
things  already   mentioned,   for we   were
all surprised to   hear them commence   a
familiar "Do, re, mi," harmonised for the
several classes of voices, and which, after
a little   attention,   we  recognised as the
singing   lesson   from   " U   Barbiere   di
Siviglia."    Almaviva and Rosina at Metlakahtla 1
The Governor-General expressed a great
desire to hear the men sing one of their
national melodies (Heaven save the mark !) THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
but they begged to be excused on the
ground that they would be ashamed to
sing it before him on shore as they were,
but that they would follow the ship
and sing it in their canoes, which they
did on his return from Fort Simpson. I
don't think Mr. Duncan encourages reminiscences of their former life, which
these war songs are, and it struck me that
he threw, and successfully threw, cold
water on the Governor-General's bestowing
any special mark of recognition on the
chief. He has to conduct his operations
in a peculiar way, and it can easily be
understood that much of his advice and
direction would be thrown away, were
there a recognized authority over the
Indians other than himself. He strives
to make industry and merit the standards
by which the men of the village are
measured, and in presenting an address to
the Governor-General, which was done
immediately after the singing was concluded, there was no apparent priority or
distinction amongst them.
Uk MR.  DUNCAN S ACTIVITY*
317
If one may associate by simile that which
is excellent and praiseworthy with that
which is in every respect the reverse, one
would be inclined to say that Metlakahtla
suggests itself as a miniature Salt Lake
City, with the repellent doctrines and
practices of that place—not confining the
remark merely to polygamy—abolished and
replaced by the conduct required by
Christian teaching. As Brigham Young
is prophet, priest, and proprietor of the
theatre, president, policeman, and principal dry-goods merchant, and, in short,
everything else that pays, so Mr. Duncan
combines in himself all the professions
necessary for the government of such
a community, and practises all that entails
self-denial and hard work. And the obedience that Brigham Young received from
the fears of men and the infatuation of old
women who want to be sealed for marriage
in Heaven, Mr. Duncan receives from the
respect and esteem of his people. He is a
busy. man.    In the morning the business 318
THE   SEA   OF  MOUNTAINS.
Ml t
of the place requires his attention, in the
afternoon he teaches, and in the evening
adjudicates, according to the laws of the
Dominion, between Indian and Indian.
Amongst other multifarious duties he was
compelled to learn to play several instruments, in order that he might teach the
Indians music, and organize a band.
When the Governor-General replied to the
address of the Indians, Mr. Duncan took
it down in shorthand and translated it
from his notes.
The address was as follows :
" To His Excellency, the Earl of Dufferin,
Governor-General  of the Dominion of
Canada:—
I May it please Your Excellency :—
| We, the inhabitants of Metlakahtla, of
the Tsimpsean nation of Indians, desire to
express our joy in welcoming Your Excellency and Lady Dufferin to our village.
" Under the teaching of the Gospel we
have learned the Divine command, I Fear ADDRESS  TO   LORD   DUFFERIN.
319
God; honour the King,' and thus, as
loyal subjects of Her Majesty, Queen Victoria, we rejoice in seeing you visit our
shores. We have learned to respect and
obey the laws of the Queen, and we will
continue to uphold and defend tbe same in
our community and nation.
" We are still a weak and poor people,
only lately emancipated from the thraldom
of heathenism and savage customs, but
we are struggling to rise and advance to a
Christian life and civilization.
" Trusting that we may enjoy a share
of Your's Excellency's kind and fostering
care, and under your Administration continue to advance in peace and prosperity,
" We have the honour to subscribe ourselves Your Excellency's humble and
obedient servants.
" For the Indians of Metlakahtla,
David Leask,
" Secretary to the Native Council."
In reply to this the Governor-General 320
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
made an impromptu speech of which the
following is a verbatim report:—
"My dear children,—I have come a
long distance in order to assure you in the
name of your great mother, the Queen of
England, with what pleasure she has learnt
of your well being, and of the progress you
have made in tbe arts of peace and the
knowledge of the Christian religion under
the auspices of your kind friend Mr. Duncan. You must understand that I have
not come for my own pleasure, but that
the journey has been long and laborious,
and that I am here from a sense of duty
in order to make you feel by my actual
presence with what solicitude the Queen
and Her Majesty's Government in Canada
watch over your welfare, and how anxious
they are thatyou should persevere in that virtuous and industrious mode of life in which
I find you engaged. I have viewed with
astonishment the church which you have
built entirely by your own industry and
intelligence.    That  church  is in itself a LORD DUFFERIN S ADDRESS.
321
monument of the way in which you have
profited by the teachings you have received. It does you the greatest credit,
and we have every right to hope that
while in its outward aspect it bears testimony to your conformity to the laws of
the Gospel, beneath its sacred roof your
sincere and faithful prayers will be rewarded by those blessings which are
promised to those who approach the throne
of God in humility and faith. I hope you
will understand that your white mother
and the Government in Canada are fully
prepared to protect you in the exercise of
your religion, and to extend to you the
benefit of those laws which know no difference of race or of colour, but under which
justice is impartially administered between
the humblest and the greatest of the land.
The Government of Canada is proud to
think that there are upwards of thirty
thousand Indians in the territory of
British Columbia. She recognises them
as the ancient inhabitants of the country.
Y
VOL.   I. 322
THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
Im ■}
The  white men have not come amongst
you  as conquerors,  but as friends.    We
regard you as our fellow-subjects, and as
equal to us in the eye of the law as you
are in the eye of God, and equally entitled
with  the  rest  of the community to the
benefits   of   good   government   and   the
opportunity of earning an honest livelihood.
I have had very great pleasure in inspecting your school,  and I am quite certain
that there are many among the younger
portion of those I am now addressing who
have already begun to feel how much they
are indebted to that institution for  the
expansion of their mental faculties, for the
knowledge of what is passing in the outer
world as well as for the insight it affords
them into  the  laws  of nature and into
the arts of civilized life; and we have the
further  satisfaction of remembering that
as year after year flows by, and your population   increases,   all   these   beneficial
influences will acquire additional strength
and momentum.     I hope you are duly LORD   DUFFERIN'S   ADDRESS.
323
grateful to Him to whom, under Providence, you are indebted for all these
benefits, and that when you contrast your
own condition, the peace in which you live,
the comforts that surround you, the decency of your habitations, when you see
your wives, your sisters, and your
daughters contributing so materially by
the brightness of their appearance, the
softness of their manners, their housewifely qualities, to the pleasantness and
cheerfulness of your domestic lives,. contrasting as all these do so strikingly with
your former surroundings, you will remember that it is to Mr. Duncan you owe.
this initiation into your new life. By a
faithful adhernce to his principles and
example you will become useful citizens
and faithful subjects, an honour to those
under whose auspices you will thus have
shown to what the Indian race can attain,
at the same time that you will leave to
your children an ever widening prospect
of increasing  happiness and progressive
y 2 324
THE  SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
improvement. Before I conclude, I cannot
help expressing to Mr. Duncan and to
those who are associates with him in his
good work, not only in my own
name, not only in the name of the Government of Canada, but also in the name of
Her Majesty the Queen, and in the name
of the people of England, who take so
deep an interest in the well-being of all
the native races throughout the Queen's
Dominions, our deep gratitude to him for
having thus devoted the flower of his life,
in spite of innumerable difficulties, dangers,
and discouragements, of which we who
only see the result of his labours can form
only a very inadequate idea, to a work
which has resulted in the beautiful scene
we have witnessed this morning. I only
wish to add that I am very much obliged
to you for the satisfactory and loyal
address with which you have greeted me.
The very fact of your being in a position
to express yourselves with so much propriety is in itself extremely creditable to THE   INDIAN. MISSION.
32;
you, and although it has been my good
fortune to receive many addresses during
my stay in Canada from various communities of your fellow-subjects, not one
of them will be surrounded by so many
hopeful and pleasant reminiscences as that
which I shall carry away with me from this
spot."
Soon after the delivery of this, Lord and
Lady Dufferin shook hands with the principal people on shore, and then embarked to
proceed in the Douglas to Fort Simpson,
and I think that both were no less surprised than pleased at what they had seen.
It must be said, however, that the starting
of the mission has cost money, and that
the Indians are not yet in a position to
raise a revenue beyond their immediate
wants. Only the hardier vegetables will
grow, so that, having no farming to fall
back upon, they will be slow in reaching
the over-producing point.
END   OF  VOL.   I.     

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