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British Columbia as a field for emigration and investment British Columbia 1891

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BRITISH COLUMBIA
AS A FIELD FOR
•
EMIGRATION
.
AND
INVESTMENT.
VICTORIA, B. C. :
Printed by Richard Wolfenden, Printer to the Queen's
Most Excellent Majesty.
1891.  British Columbia.
INTRODUCTION.
The following pages are offered to the emigrating public,
not because they are thought to be adequate to supply the
general want of information about this important Province,
but in order to arouse in the right class an interest in it,
and to indicate in brief those avenues for the employment
<\ of labour and capital which it is purposed to treat more
exhaustively in future pamphlets.
fc
* ■)
J  Information for Emigrants. &
Chapter I.
What an Emigrant may expect, and what may foe
expected of him
When a man determines upon the grave step of leaving
his native land, breaking many of those ties, and surrendering many of those comforts which make life enjoyable,
A Wb is only reasonable that he should do so in the expectation
of some recompense.
It is true that there are individuals who emigrate out of
sheer caprice, or from a desire to escape the responsibilities
of their home life, or because they " have made the place
too hot to hold them," or for some other motive equally
unworthy. But it must be understood that information is
not provided for such as these, and that they are not
invited to repeat their social experiments in this Province.
The welcome emigrant has a right to expect three things
—a Livelihood, a Home, and a Fortune. Probably there
is hardly a man who leaves his old home without expecting
these. It may be worth while then to define more closely
than perhaps he is accustomed to do for himself these
objects of his desire, especially in their relation to British
Columbia, that he may know from the outset how far he
may be justified in his hopes, and beyond what limits they
become unreasonable and visionary. For it is a matter of
common experience that, whereas reasonable hopes are a
valuable and salutary stimulus to exertion, exorbitant
expectations paralyze industry and end in despair.
Every emigrant expects at least the necessaries of life
—food, clothes and lodging. Now, it may be stated
as a fact that for an honest, industrious man to be
in a condition in which he is not able to make a decent
living is inconceivable in British Columbia. For the most
part, those who live in Canada read with horror and dismay
of the congestion of population in the cities of the old
(Vorld.   Of course, in the great centres of life in the Eastern 6 British Columbia.
States of America a stratum of absolute poverty exists.
In the new towns of the Far West it is quite unknown.
There are no " poor people " in the sense in which that term
is used in the United Kingdom. And it may be safely
stated that many thousands may come into British Columbia before the wages point sinks to anything which
approaches " sweating."
But this statement must not be misunderstood. The
capital at present existing in the country could not employ
any such numbers, were they to flood the labour market at
once. Even as it is, men frequently have to wait some time
before they find employment, and unsuitable men have
always difficulty in finding work. But the fact remains
that there is no permanent poverty, and that it will pay
employers in every branch of labour, for many years to
come, to hire men at wages which in England would be
regarded as very liberal indeed.
Every man who voluntarily leaves a home, however
lowly, has a right to expect to find another. A home implies all facilities for domestic life ; i. e., a sufficiency to
support a wife and family, education for children, agreeable
social intercourse, avenues of occupation for children when
they grow up, and the means of supplying every need
which a prudent man may anticipate before he will undertake the risk of marriage. Now the industrious marrying man is a most welcome addition to a new country, and the writer firmly believes that there is no country
in which facilities for domestic life are more amply provided
than in this Province. Indeed, it may be said that married
life is cheaper than single life. Wages in every occupation
are sufficient to maintain a family, education is free, the
climate is a singularly favourable one for children, young
married people predominate in the population, and there is
not a healthy boy born whose future career need cause a
moment's anxiety to his father. This applies to all classes
of society. One cannot live for long in the country without
remarking with surprise the readiness, one might be
inclined to say hardihood with which young people assume
the responsibilities of married life.    Yet this is not from Information for Emigrants. 7
improvidence, for it is generally the more provident and
thrifty man who marries, but because young people need
not assume a position beyond their means, they do not
sacrifice the friendship of their own class by economical
behaviour, and the wife, no matter what her former training, boldly accepts the natural duty of being a help-meet
to her husband.
It is the desire of the Government of this Province that
all emigrants should be settlers indeed j that they should
seek to permanently establish themselves in the country of
their adoption, to link their fortunes with it, and to regard
it as their home. Although some license is to be allowed
to sentiment in speaking of the Mother Country, it is
greatly to be deplored when the new-comer does not wish
to take root, when he wants to " make his pile 1 and then
go " home " to spend it. A good Government is not to be
blamed if it discourages by every means in its power such a
class of emigrants from whatever country, while it undertakes, in all possible ways, to render the bond fide settler
prosperous, happy and contented.
Few men are contented with the necessities of life : they
must, at least, have a prospect of something more. And it
will be generally found that the desire of reasonable men
is towards the acquisition of a sufficiency to enable them to
pass the later years of their lives without the need of ex-
rtion. Their opinion as to the sum requisite for such a
future may vary, and does vary very considerably according to circumstances, but whatever that sum may be it is to
them a fortune.
It may be assumed, then, that those conditions which
can assure to any industrious man such a competency after,
say, twenty years of steady work, will fulfil the third of
the before mentioned expectations.
Now the facilities which exist, and which can be shown
will continue to exist for many years to come, for the
profitable investment of savings in British Columbia would
greatly astonish the inhabitants of an older country. The
rise in land values alone, and this not at speculative but at
legitimate rates, as population comes in to a new country, 8 British Columbia.
is unparalleled. It may be safely said that there is not a
labouring man who has bought himself a plot of land near
any of the towns of this Province whose property has not
doubled, trebled or quadrupled in the past four years.
But it is not in land alone that such an avenue for investment exists. An undeveloped country is thirsty for
capital. It can repay with liberal interest all money which
is expended in almost any industry. So that whether a
man may chose to invest his savings in real property, or in
the extension of his own trade or industry, he will, with
ordinary prudence, be certain to reap a large increase.
That such a statement is borne out by facts will be seen
when the wide-spread prosperity of the people resident in
the Province is regarded ; when it is realized that 60 per
cent, of the houses in such a city as Yictoria are owned by
their occupants; that, though there are few rich men, and
those chiefly rich in real estate, yet the personal property is
taxed at over $11,000,000, probably not more than two-thirds
of its actual value; and that a quite insignificant proportion
brought any money with them at all into the Colony beyond
a sufficiency for the needs of the moment. The case of
Victoria is not exceptional, but is paralleled in every city
throughout the Province, and there is no reason whatever
to doubt its continuance, as the country becomes better
known and its resources more thoroughly developed.
Of course, phenomenal instances, and those not a few,
of sudden prosperity might also be cited. But with prudent
men the ordinary well assured prospects of a competency
will have more weight than those of possible speculative
success.
From the foregoing remarks, the intending emigrant can
CD & 7 O O
judge whether British Columbia is likely to fulfil his expectations in regard to the three essential hopes of the new
settler. He will find more particular information as regards
the relative prospects of different occupations in subsequent
chapters.
But it will only b3 fair to expect him in return to consider the other side of the question, and to ask himself what Information for Emigrants. 9
he, for his part, is prepared to give the country in return
for what it can offer him.
Now there are three things which may reasonably be
expected of him—Health, Industry, and Loyalty.
The man broken in health should not emigrate. It is
unfair to himself and to the country he is going to make
his home.
There cannot be provided, in these new places, such
means for battling with chronic disease as exist in long
established countries. He throws himself upon the charity
of strangers, and the most they can do is to send him back
to his friends. The writer of this pamphlet has had exceptional opportunities of observing the very wide-spread
and unostentatious benevolence of British Columbians; but
there are always sufficient opportunities for its exercise in
the misfortunes inherent in life without burdening it with
the support of strangers who imagine no personal disqualifications will hinder them from succeeding in a new country.
The reverse is the truth, for where there is an unusual
demand for personal vigour and energy, the sickly, physically incapable man must assuredly go to the wall.
A still more insuperable bar to success is to be found in
a certain class of emigrant. The boy who has never been
brought up to exert himself, who despises manual labour,
and who has not the brains for professional work, is one of
the saddest phases of colonial life. He becomes the pariah
of the streets, despised by honest labourers and shunned by
his own class. He drags on a useless existence upon remittances from home, and, if he does not return, sinks into
that residuum of civilized life which is the spawning ground
of criminality.
But there is yet another qualification for the colonist.
It is not sufficient that he be healthy and industrious to
make him. a really welcome addition to the country. He
must be loyal. That is to say, he must recognize his duties
to the country; he must feel the same interest, or a kindred one, to that he feels in his native land; he must not
harbour the thought that he has come to get what he can
and go away again.    For the attitude he adopts towards
J 10 British Columbia.
his  new  home will greatly affect both his conduct as a
citizen and his behaviour in social life.
While colonists, as a rule, are most sympathetic and well
disposed towards newcomers, suffering from the first shock
of'transplantation, they cannot but dislike the chronic
grumbler or alien-hearted individual; and for such an one
their compassion soon changes into scorn.
It is a matter of experience that the exhibition of this
discontented spirit is very disproportionate to the value of
the sacrifice that has been made; that whereas those who
have been subject to much greater privations and much
more humiliating conditions than they are ever likely to
meet with in a colony, are often the first to assume airs of
departed greatness and to repine at their lot; others, who
have sacrificed happy homes and many little luxuries to
their desire for honest independence, endure with cheerfulness such hardships as fall to their share.
Chapter II.
Farming and  Clearing.
Where circumstances differ so widely as those which
attend farming in the Old Country from those in a colony,
it is difficult to arrive at a just estimate of the relative
profits without a systematic comparison.
It is owing to the lack of such a comparison that very
erroneous impressions prevail among would-be emigrants,
and that while some form expectations which are destined
never to be realized, others are discouraged at the outset
from undertaking an enterprise which would almost certainly be attended with profitable results.
The farm labourer who has been accustomed to rearard
the possession of land as the sign of affluence and comfort,
cannot imagine there is any dark side to a condition of
things where land is to be obtained for practically nothing.
On the other hand, the farmer who has been accustomed to Information for Emigrants. 11
employ labour to the extent and at the low rate current in
the Old Country, cannot believe any profit possible where
it commands the high rates which  rule  in the colonial
markets.
It will be seen that both are wrong. In the fir^t case,
the man who pre-empts land must understand that he
acquires the right to a certain tract hitherto untouched by
cultivation of any sort. In many instances dense forests
await his attack, before he can grow even the amount produced upon the quarter acre of garden ground he left at
home. The choicest piece of his property is probably an
alder bottom, upon which a rich deposit of alluvial soil and
vegetable mould will reward the successful cultivator with
phenomenal crops. But he has to clear, and to some extent
drain this land before he can hope for reward. The skilful
pioneer from the Eastern Provinces is familiar with the
aspect of "Nature unadorned," but the British labourer,
who has been accustomed to look upon nothing but the
plough lands of his own district, becomes terribly disheartened when he is brought face to face with the realities of
the backwoods. Not that he need despair. His prospects
of a free and happy life were never greater ; but he must
be prepared for the effort of becoming his own master by
gaining the mastery over Nature.
On the other hand, there is no such insuperable obstacle in the rate of wages as an emigrant farmer
imagines. It is true that he must be content with employing a much smaller number of hands upon his farm;
he must also be content with at first cultivating a smaller
area of land; but against these drawbacks he must set the
fact that he is rid of many serious responsibilities attending
the presence of a large and poor agricultural population,
and that the land he occupies is his own, which, without
the use of expensive manures, he is gradually bringing
under cultivation, thus ever increasing the area of his farm
lands and the value of his estate till it is ready to compare
with the property of his former landlord, for which he was
paying a high rent. More than this, he will find that all
the land of the country in which he has made his home,
J 12
British Columbia.
instead of decreasing in value, or at best remaining stationary, is rising, and that in many localities in a ratio beyond
his most sanguine expectations.
It must be clearly understood by intending emigrants
that they have the choice of two distinct kinds of agricultural employment—farming or clearing. If they wish to
prosecute the former they must purchase land upon which
sufficient improvements have been already put to enable
them to get to work at once, and they must take into con.
sideration such questions as the vicinity of a good market
and facilities for handling their crops at least expense. In
this case, it will be found generally that the best policy is
to be content with a moderate sized farm, in a good neighborhood, at a relatively high price, rather than a much
larger property at a lower figure without the same advantages of market.
If, however, their circumstances or inclination should
induce them to prefer the alternative of clearing rather
than cultivating, with a view to greatly enhancing the
value of Crown lands for future sale, they must be prepared
to face a life of isolation and hard labour for some years,
and they should take into consideration prospective govern,
menb or corporation improvements which may have the
effect of greatly bettering their position as regards market
facilities and correspondingly enhancing the value of their
holding at an early date.
The prospects for successful farming depend, like those
of every other trade, upon supply and demand. The
demand must be shown to be a good one, and the capacity
for supplying that demand must be proved to be sufficient
to insure a good profit.
While in the remote districts of this Province, which it
must be borne in mind is one-third larger in area than the
whole German Empire, the demand for farm produce is
naturally at present very limited, wherever there has been
any tendency towards town population it greatly exceeds
the supply. In all the cities of the coast farm produce is
extraordinarily high in price, and large quantities of eggs,
butter, vegetables and breadstuffs are imported.    There are Information for Emigrants. 13
two principal reasons why this should have been the case in
the past. British Columbia made its first reputation as a
fur trading and gold mining country. This fact naturally
caused a determination of import traders to its cities, and
people became accustomed to the idea of subsisting for the
most part upon imported goods. The country, too, was
very vast in area; communication was exceedingly difficult,
and the means of existence had to be conveyed to the
interior in the most concentrated forms. With the ex~
ception, then, of a few cattle ranches, the beasts from
which could be driven long distances, farming to any extent
was hardly thought of. Again, even in the neighborhood
of the towns, the land was so denselv wooded as to dis-
courage individual attempts at clearing. The lighter
growths were upon a dry and gravelly soil, so that though
they were speedily occupied, and after a sort cultivated,
they did not return very encouraging results. With comparatively few exceptions, their cultivators were not
farmers, but men of various occupations, who availed
themselves of the cheapness of the land to engage in agricultural pursuits with little or no knowledge of the subject.
Even under these adverse circumstances industrious men
have done remarkably well; but hampered as they have
been at the start by lack of capital and ignorance of the
right way to set out, many have become mere squatters,
cultivating a few acres of the land they have occupied and
allowing the rest to remain, year after year, untouched and
unimproved.
The aspect of things is now entirely changed. Railway
communication has brought large areas of excellent land
within reach of a market. The good roads, which it has
been the pride of the Government to make and maintain in
a condition which excites the surprise and.ad miration of our
neighbours, provide every facility for the suburban farmer
to bring his produce to market. But still there is as great
a demand as ever for foreign produce, and a correspondingly
large importation. For the cities have increased at a rate
far in excess of the acreage brought under cultivation, and
there is every reason to believe they will continue for many 14 British Columbia.
years to increase in the same, or nearly the same, ratio.
There may be said, then, to be in British Columbia a practically unlimited demand for all sorts of agricultural produce.
Vancouver Island.
A few words may be necessary to convey a just impression of the nature of the supply. Speaking in general
terms, there are three areas of cultivated farming lands :
the Vancouver Island districts, the Fraser districts, and the
interior district of Okanagan.
The first of these include all lands lying within what
may be called possible range of the Victoria and Nanaimo
markets. The south-east coast of Vancouver Island, and
the islands adjacent to it, contain a very considerable
extent of good land for mixed farming. To convey some
idea of this it may be stated that over 70,000 acres
have been occupied in the immediate neighbourhood of
Victoria alone. That is to say, 70,000 have been considered worth purchase for agricultural purposes, and
allowing 10,000 of this to be unfit for cultivation, there
would still be 60,000 capable of producing crops. But of
the 60,000 acres probably not more than 8,000 or 10,000
are cultivated, and of these a very small proportion can be
considered to be highly cultivated.
The land, which is of fair average quality, may be readily
classified according to the timber grown upon it. Upon the
wettest ground of the valleys willows prevail; upon the flat
bottom lands, when not too swampy, alders and black
poplar. This land is generally considered the most fertile.
The subsoil is a stiff grey bolder clay, with a varying depth
of black mould of great richness. The land is cold, and
would be much improved by sub-draining, which, however
is not much practised. The higher lands, which are chiefly
of sandy loam, grow the great forest trees, and these present
the chief obstacle to clearing. With patience, however,
much may be done, and the land amply repays trouble
expended upon it. In the neighbourhood of Victoria there
is another class of land which, as has been stated above,
was the first to invite agricultural operations.    This was Information for Emigrants. 15
once covered with stunted oak trees—"oak scrub," with a
few larger specimens here and there where some local
condition favoured their increased growth. Most of this
land, which is not of very great extent, has been cleared,
but from the very dry, gravelly nature of the soil, conveys
a poor impression of Vancouver Island property, of which
it is probably the worst specimen. Although, however, as
grain producing land, it is not to be recommended, it has
been proved of considerable value for fruit trees, having for
the most part a southerly exposure, and the soil when
irrigated exhibiting much greater powers of productiveness
than would be supposed. Indeed, the generally high average
of fertility of these virgin soils under proper treatment is
very remarkable. Circumstances here greatly favour the
prosecution of small farming. The quality of the farms is
so mixed, the bush is so dense, and there are so many intervening valleys and ridges that the extensive operations of
the large farmer would demand an outlay of capital which
the area of his cultivated land would hardly justify. On ,
the other hand, the demand for every kind of dairy produce
and vegetables makes the labour of the small cultivator very
remunerative, and the comparatively limited extent of suitable land will always render high cultivation profitable.
When a man can, besides making a good living, bring the
value of his land up from £4 or £5 per acre to £30 or £4:0
—which latter would certainly not be an excessive price for
really highly worked farms—there is every inducement to
careful cultivation.
It is a mistake which has been frequently made, and the
fallacy of which has been repeatedly exposed, that in a
rough country rough methods pay best. A rough method
is always an expensive method. The most profitable farm
is that in which the stock or crop producing capacity of the
land, is forced to the uttermost, and where all refuse is
returned to the soil.
The policy of farmers in such conditions as those which
are presented above, is undoubtedly towards the high cultivation of small farms, say of 30 to 50 acres, the profits
from which, as their children grow up, will amply provide
them with means to gradually bring more of their waste 16 British Columbia.
land under the plough. It has been frequently proved that
farms of the above size, where there is a good market, pay
well, and the writer of this pamphlet would earnestly invite
the attention of Old Country farmers with a little capital
to the advantages offered them in these districts. Such
men are very much needed, and would certainly find that
the position of the farmer here contrasts favourably in
every respect with that at home; indeed, that it fulfils every
demand that the most extreme advocate of small farming
could insist upon.
Lower  Fraser.
The circumstances which attend farming on the Fraser
are similar in many respects to those of the Island, but it
may be said that on the average the land is better and less
mixed in quality. The lands of the Delta have long been
known as unexcelled for fertility of soil. Enormous crops
of hay can be raised upon dyked lands with very little cul"
tivation, and roots of all sorts grow to a size which is almost
beyond belief. It was many years before any systematic
attempt at dyking on a large scale was attempted, consequently the only land capable of cultivation was that nearest
the sea, which could be reclaimed by individual effort. Of
this many thousand acres have been now reclaimed by
private owners, and the various Municipalities are doing
much to help, by making dykes of considerable extent.
These lands admit, no doubt, of treatment on a larger
scale than the more heavily timbered farms of the Island,
but it is highly probable that the small holding system will
be productive of much better results both to the country
and the farmer. To the former the presence of a comparatively dense and prosperous community of agricultuists
cannot but be beneficial in every way,- and to the farmer
himself the association of neighbours, healthy competition,
and the power of numbers in achieving any object of mutual
benefit are most essential aids to prosperity and comfort.
There are in New Westminster district alone about 200,000
acres of land upon which improvements have been put, and
a very large proportion of these is capable of a high degree
of cultivation.    Another 500,000 acres may be added to the ■WP
Information for Emigrants. 17
above for land situated within what are called the Munici.
palities, which are adjacent districts, each possessing its
own local authorities and controlling its own affairs. The
chief markets are Vancouver and New Westminster, both
cities growing at a rate which precludes the likelihood of
any possible over supply of farm produce.
Okanagan.
A comparatively new district, of great beauty, fertility
and almost unlimited possibilities, is being placed within
reach of a market by the new Shuswap and Okanagan railway and lake navigation. This district may be described
as a belt of land extending from the shores of the great
Shuswap lake, in a southerly direction, to the boundary line
between British Columbia and the United States. For
many years the value of the land has been recognized, and
some large cattle ranches and grain farms have been carried
on successfully by their enterprising owners. But the
inaccessibility of the country and the absence of any available market discouraged settlers, and it is only quite recently
that the capabilities of the district for mixed and fruit
farming have been fully realized.
The railway, which joins the Canadian Pacific at Sica-
mouse, will render accessible some 400,000 acres of most
excellent land in a country of peculiar beauty and health-
fulness of climate. As regards this latter point, it may be
well to remind the emigrant that there is no part of the
American continent which so nearly compares with the best
climate of Motherland as British Columbia. It is frequently a matter of surprise with visitors from Eastern
Canada and the United States how great a resemblance
exists, and'how coming into the temperate regions of this
favoured province seems almost like going home to the Old
Country. The balance is indeed much in favour of the new
one, the seasons being very much more certain. It is rarely
that a crop cannot be harvested in good condition, such a
contingency having arisen only once in the last fifteen years.
Gentlemen  Farmers.
Since this pamplet is intended to supply information to
every class of suitable emigrant, it will not be amiss here to 18
British Columbia.
,
refer to the prospects of that ever increasing section of the
emigrating public, which may be described under the above
title. Although, to a certain extent, an erroneous classification, the writer intends it to comprise those who, not
having been brought up to the profession of agriculture, are
impelled by circumstances or their inclinations to seek a
home in the agricultural districts of this province, and to
whom, though not absolutely dependent upon the proceeds
of their farming, the profitable management of a small
property is of the utmost importance Fathers of families
who wish to settle their boys, and who have no occupation
at home which prevents their taking the very best steps
under the circumstances, going with them; retired officers
of both services; Anglo-Indians, who do not care to settle
down in the United Kingdom, and men of small incomes
and large families, who find the obligations of Old Country
life in their own station more than they can afford; these
form a large class of desirable emigrants if they succeed in
establishing themselves under favourable conditions. They
are desirable because their tone and culture are of the
greatest value in a new world where personal influence is
more felt by far than in the old one. They are of value,
too, because they convey a more just impression of Old
Country life and manners than those unfortunate waifs of
the better class whose outrageous behaviour so often prejudices sensible Canadians and Americans against the class
they represent. British Columbia is particularly well
adapted to the requirements of such as these. Of all places
outside the Old Country it is perhaps the most homelike in
general character, and the temperate climate, good sport,
and accessibility make it well suited as a place of residence.
There are already several localities in which the predominating element of the settlers is drawn from this class, and
where life resembles closely country life at home. It has
often been a subject of discussion among the writer and his
friends whether a poor gentleman can live more cheaply in
this country than at home. Against this view the high
price of clothing, and many other articles, has been cited;
but in favour of it has been urged the greater freedom from Information for Emigrants. 19
unnecessary expenses incidental to the maintenance of a
certain rank, the cheapness of land, free education, low
taxes, and, above all, the possibility of settling children in
an independent position so impossible in the overcrowded
state of Old Country trades and professions.
It has always appeared to the writer that the balance is
largely in favour of this province, and that though life may
in some respects seem harder, it is in many respects happier.
Of course, there might be reason for hesitation before
adopting such a life, were there necessity of isolation
from all congenial society and from all current literature J
but when it is realized that the latter is as easy to obtain
as at home, and that almost every new book worth reading
can be purchased in reprint at a quarter of its original
price, while well educated and agreeable companions may be
met with in almost any locality, it will be seen that no
very great sacrifice beyond that of leaving home is
demanded.
Clearing.
Sufficient has been said to show that there is a first-rate
opening in this province for the bona fide farmer. It
remains that some reference be made to the more hardy and
adventurous pursuit of the pioneer.
For this an entirely different temperament is requisite, as,
indeed, it is an entirely different occupation. Sufficient
attention has not perhaps hitherto been drawn to this fact,
and consequently men have come from cultivated countries
to the backwoods with altogether wrong impressions of the
kind of work they were about to undertake, and have
become hopelessly disheartened at circumstances with which,
had they been prepared for them, they would have been
able to cope.
The work of the pioneer may be described briefly as con*
sisting in pre-empting, occupying and improving Crown
lands. Government land may be taken up by settlers in
blocks of 160 acres per man, if west of the Cascade mountains, and 320 if east. It must be resided upon and
improved; then, in four years, a title to it may be obtained •»--■
20
British Columbia.
on payment of $1 (4s. 2d.) per acre. After a certain
amount of improvement in the way of clearing, fencing,
draining, etc., has been made, and should the property be
well situated, the pre-emption ranks as an improved farm
and becomes a more or less valuable freehold, by the sale of
which, should he be desire to part with it, the fortunate
owner will be amply recouped for the outlay of his time
and labour.
It will be seen that the work of the most successful
pioneer is always to a certain extent speculative. He goes
in advance of a market, and trusts that in a few years time
it will follow him. Those years have to be spent in a very
rough and isolated life, so it requires a man of some deter,
mination and energy, of an adventurous spirit and sound
judgment, and, above all, of good robust health, to make a
successful backwoodsman. Hitherto such have been found
chiefly among immigrants from Eastern Canada. Brought
up among the woods from their youth, skilled in every
rough and ready method for overcoming the difficulties
which the situation presents, expert at picking up a living
by the chase and by rough farming they make the right
sort of men to encourage to this undertaking. The writer
has met individuals of this class who have prosecuted such
work as a regular profession, never staying permanently on
their various pre-emptions, never wishing to make a home
except for a few years, and becoming steadily enriched by
the prices they obtained for their farms as the edge of
civilization reached them.
There are great opportunities in the country for such
men. The enormous extent of little known territory will
undoubtedly gradually become settled, wherever the quality
of the land justifies cultivation. Railways will be pushed
in every direction where there is good land for settlement
or valuable minerals to be extracted, and these railways
will increase the value of all property in their neighbourhood
a hundred fold.
The present Government is anxious that the resources of
the country should be thoroughly examined and developed.
To this   end survey parties have been sent into various Information for Emigrants. 21
remote districts in order to ascertain the extent of good
and, to lay off townships, locate centres of distribution,
and to aid by reliable information those who may wish to
settle.
As an instance of the success of this plan may be cited
the exploration this summer—1890—of a region to the
north of the Chilcotin country, hitherto little known except
to a few fur traders and prospectors. Hundreds of thousands
of acres of valuable land have been located in a beautiful
country with an excellent climate, and there can be little
doubt that at no very distant date a large and prosperous
community will be established there.
It would appear to the writer that good work might be
done in such a case as the above by combined effort; that
an emigration society might establish an entire settlement
under conditions which would repay all outlay and return
a good profit on the undertaking.
Such schemes have been already attempted in the North-
West, where the rigours of the climate, the extreme uncertainty of the harvest, and the prevalence of devastating
fires and storms have rendered the venture a far more
hazardous one than it could possibly be in British Columbia.
Cattle Grazing.
There is one branch of farming peculiar to the grass
ranges of the Interior, where excellent facilities are afforded
for its prosecution. The rolling hill-sides of the eastern
slope of Coast range, and the many similar table lands
found throughout this elevated region, are clothed with a
natural grass of the most nutritious qualities. This, the
famous " bunch grass | of the stock-raiser, provides a better
feed than any pasture known. Unfortunately, in those
districts which have been longest occupied, this invaluable
grass has been in many places destroyed—-eaten out by overstocking. Where this has taken place it has been generally
superseded by the sage bush, which although a tolerably
good food, does not compare with the grass. Bunch grass
is not found much to the north of latitude 53°, where it
yields to red top, blue joint and other natural grasses.
There are, however,  excellent  facilities  for stock-raising 22
British Columbia.
even so far north, for these grasses make good fodder, and
grow to a height which makes it profita'ble to cut them for
winter feed.
Stock-raising is pre-eminently the farming of the rich
man. It cannot, be engaged in successfully without considerable capital, and though the profits are large the risks
are usually greater than those undertaken by the small
farmer. Yet in none of its forms can farming be regarded
as a risky occupation in this province. There are, of
course, the vicissitudes of the seasons to expect, as elsewhere, but it is questionable whether any other country
could be pointed out having greater immunity from the
terrors of the farmer—drought, storm, and destructive
pests.
Chapter III.
Mining
There is no field in which enterprise may be more profitably employed than in the mining regions of British
Columbia; there is none in which rash and imprudent
attempts are more likely to be productive of disastrous
results.
Past experience has made the residents of this province
exceedingly cautious of embarking in such operations, and
with reason, for some of them have paid dearly for their
experience.
The comparative facility with which placer mining was
carried on in the early days of the gold discoveries, and the
success which attended these undertakings, induced many
to turn their attention to the more serious and expensive
work of quartz mining, buoyed up by the undoubtedly
promising assays which on all sides rewarded the prospector
Difficulties of transport and cost of development were not
realized, and shares were readily taken in companies which,
being formed in good faith, were yet of necessity subject to
all the vicissitudes of mining enterprise in its infancy.
Shareholders who had expected speedy dividends soon
became disheartened, and failure was the inevitable result. Information for Emigrants. 23
A brighter period has dawned since railway construction.
Men thoroughly competent to administer mining properties
are coming into the country, and there is every reason to
believe that the era of successful quartz operations has
begun.
Mining for the precious metals should not be regarded
otherwise than as a perfectly legitimate undertaking.
Where proper prudence is exercised good returns may be
confidently anticipated; nor should the preliminary expenditure necessary to establish the value of a claim be so
excessive as to preclude the attempts of men of moderate
capital. It is only when the fever of expectation carries
the public beyond all bounds that opportunity is afforded
unscrupulous men of floating wild-cat schemes upon easily
gulled speculators.
Such a point has never yet been reached in this province.
There is a great absence of speculation in mining properties,
and those who undertake this form of enterprise do it with
the honest determination of making the property, not shareholders, pay for their expenditure. No " wild-cat" has ever
yet defaced the record of British Columbia mining men.
British Columbia has been proved to be exceedingly rich
in metalliferous deposits. This is only what might have
been expected from its geographical position.
The great metalliferous belts, which are found to correspond roughly with the axes of the Western mountain systems of the United States and Mexico, might be supposed to
persist with the course of those upheavals through the
province. This is undoubtedly the case, for wherever exploration has been made through the 1,200 miles of mountain
ranges which traverse British Columbia, metal-bearin^
ledges have been discovered accompanying geological formations which correspond with those of like discoveries
farther south.
There are some notable exceptions to this rule due to
local modifications in the mountain systems, but such
variations, so far as has been ascertained, are, if anything,
in favour of a wider distribution of the precious metals in
the province. 24
British Columbia.
The principal metalliferous regions of British Columbia,
which extend laterally from the western slopes of the
Rocky Mountains to the coast, and include the Selkirk,
Purcell, Gold, and Cariboo mountains, the interior plateau,;
and the Coast ranges, correspond roughly with the regions
of the Cceur d'Alene and Bitter Root Mountains of Idaho
and Montana, the Great Basin of Utah and Nevada, and
the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada.
Through these regions belts, more or less defined, occur
containing valuable deposits of the base and precious metals,
of which those in Cariboo—gold gravel and quartz; in the
Selkirks—argentiferous galena, copper and associated ores;
in the Nicola—gold and silver sulphurets; and in the
canon of the Fraser, gold gravels—have been so far the
most prospected.
" Everything which has been ascertained of the geological
" character of the province, as a whole, tends to the belief
" that so soon as similar means of travel and transport shall
" be extended to what are still the more inaccessible
" districts, these also will be discovered to be equally rich
*l in minerals, particularly in the precious metals, gold and
" silver."    (Dawson's "Mineral Wealth," p. IS, R.)
Gold.
Gold was first discovered in any considerable quantity in
British Columbia in  1848  upon Queen Charlotte Island.
Although large nuggets were at first obtained from a
reef close to the waters' edge, this was soon found to dip
into the sea, and after various disasters the enterprise was
abandoned, some $20,000 of gold having been extracted.
In 1858 the great gold discovery of the Eraser was made,
and in the first two years several million dolk.'s' worth of
the precious metal was obtained.
A few years later, as the stream of mining prospectors
penetrated further into the country, the Cariboo, Omineca,
and Cassiar regions were respectively opened out.
Subsequently small local discoveries have been made in
various districts, and almost every year fresh sources of
the gold supplyjcome to light.   Altogether about $55,000,000 Information for Emigrants. 25
[have been taken out of the province,  the present annual
output amounting to from $500,000 to $600,000.
The discovery and working of the rich placers of the
Fraser are now matters of history. In the years 1858,
1859, a very large amount of gold was extracted, and something like theee million dollars' worth is considered a
Moderate estimate of the amount derived from this source
iince 1860. Although little is heard outside the province
>f this industry now-a-days, there is still an annual output
1 between $100,003 and $300,000 (£20,000 to £40,000).
The ricm benches which were abandoned when no longer
-remunerative, offer a promising field of enterprise to
bydraulicing companies. In their hands gravel which
;ould not possibly pay the individual miner to wash will,
10 doubt, eventually return large profits, as has been the
jase in California, where by the aid of modern appliances
;he abmdonecl plasers hive been made to yield far larger
and more constant supplies of the precious metal than ever
whey did in the days of their first discovery.
The gold discoveries of Cariboo, of Omineca, and Cassiar
were a repetition of those on the Fraser, with even greater
results.
Enormous sums were taken out on Williams Creek in
Cariboo, as much as fifty-two pounds weight per day having
been secured in one claim alone for several days in 1862,
and the average of that claim's earnings amounting to
$2,000 per day through the entire season. In 1863 three
claims on this creek yielded $300,000, and twenty claims
produced steadily from 70 to 400 ounces per day. A more
astonishing haul even than any of the above was made in
one day's work on another claim upon the same ground,
when 200 pounds weight of gold worth $38,400 (£7,680)
was taken out. At the present day, although placer mining
is still carried on in a limited way, Cariboo is looked to as
the coming gold quartz district. Strong ledges have been
prospected, and a good deal of work put upon them. An
experimental reduction mill has been erected by the Government, which is anxious in every way to assist in the
establishment of this industry.    A railway will certainly 26 British Columbia.
be introduced  into  the  district  shortly,   means of cheap
transport at present being the greatest bar to development]
Silver and Base Metal Discoveries in Kootenay.
During the process of railway construction through the;
Selkirks valuable deposits of argentiferous galena and tetrahe-
drite were discovered not far from the track. Several claims
were taken up in the neighbourhood of the Illecillewaet, a
mountain torrent which discharges into the Columbia neaa
Revelstoke. Steady work has been done upon these properties, and there is every reason to expect a large production
of ore from this source.
The ores of the Illecillewaet District are chiefly argentiferous galena, running from 40 to 120 oz. silver per ton
of 2,000 lbs., and from 50 to 70 per cent. lead. There|
are also veins of tetrahedrite, or grey copper, which runs
very high in silver, from 200 to 1,000 oz. Where this 1
latter is found associated with the galena the average of
silver in the ore is raised proportionately.
The veins occur with a general north-west strike and
south-east dip so far as has been ascertained, though there
are some strong cross courses, in a country rock of black
slates and bedded limestones, probably of Cambro-Siiurian
age. The gangue is chiefly quartz, calc-spar and decomposed
earthy matter impregnated with oxides of lead. The slates
abound in iron pyrites, and zinc is also found associated
with the other ores.
About $25,000 of ore was shipped to San Francisco in
1887-8, averaging 60 oz. silver and 70 per cent. lead.
Further discoveries were made to the south, among the
mountains bordering on the great lakes through which the
Columbia flows. Of these the Toad Mountain camp is,
perhaps, the most famous, very valuable deposits of high
grade ore having been discovered there. The Hot Springs
camp is also the centre point of rich discoveries, and there
are many other claims, probably of equal value, in the
neighbouring districts. Indeed, this region appears likely
to become one of the most famous lead and silver producing
districts on the American continent, to judge by the size Information for Emigrants. 27
and number of the veins and the high average grade of the
ores.
To indicate the high opinion formed in well qualified
circles of the probable value of these discoveries, it may be
mentioned that no less than four railway companies are
seeking to provide them with facilities for shipment.
A large smelter has been already erected at Revelstoke,
land another is nearly completed at Golden, the two crossing
points of the Canadian Pacific Railway over the Columbia.
The ores of the Kootenay may be roughly classified as :
1. Low grade galena, strong veins occurring lowest down
the mountains, running 5 to 30 oz. silver per 2,000
lbs. (as at Hendryx's camp.)
2. High grade galena, with oxides and carbonates of lead
and wire silver; from 30 to 300 oz. silver (as at the
Hot Springs' camp.)
3. Pyriteous copper ores, averaging  from 200 to 700 oz.
silver (as at the Toad Mountain camp.)
"When sufficient is known of this region it is probable
that these classes of ores will be found, as in other mining
districts, to range in well defined zones parallel to the axes
of the mountains in which they occur.
Interior Plateau.
The Highland District, between the Gold range on the
East and the Coast range on the west, has been found to
contain many indications of mineral riches. In the Nicola,
considerable development has been made upon veins bearing
iron and copper pyrites with galena, tetrahedrite and associated gold and silver sulphurets. At Rock Creek good
hydraulicing claims are being worked. At Cherry Creek a
valuable lead of very high grade argentiferous tetrahedrite
was discovered some years ago, and a company is at present
employed in exploratory work upon it.
Many other prospects have been made in this extensive
district, but with the exception of those mentioned not
much development has been undertaken.
Coal.
Coal constitutes the most important mineral export of
the province at the present day. 28 British Columbia.
It was discovered upon Vancouver Island as early as
1837, and before 1850 some 10,000 tons had been mined
by the Hudson Bay Company. Since that date about nve
million tons have been extracted from the Vancouver Island
coal measures, the output of the various mines during the
past year totalling a value of no less than two and a half
million dollars.
The two principal sources of this coal are the Nanaimo
mines, owned by the Vancouver Coal Company, and the
Wellington mines, owned by Messrs. J. and A. Dunsmuir.
The latter company have also recently opened the extensive
coal field of Comox, their nbw mine, the " Union," being
situated in that district. These mines together employ
about 3,000 men.
•^ The Vancouver Island coal measures are of cretaceous
formation, and produce a very excellent bituminous ccal,
the best at present known upon the Pacific coast. The
seams are from 6 to 10 feet in thickness.
The chief point of export is San Francisco, where they
hold the market against all other coals imported.
The Nanaimo coal district embraces an area of some two
hundred square miles, that of Comox about three hundred
square miles. The quantity of workable coal in the latter
district has been computed at 16,000,000 tons per square
mile.
Excellent coal has also been discovered on the Queen
Charlotte Islands, and successful borings have been made
in other parts of Vancouver and on some of the adjacent
islands, so that there is every reason to believe that many
new collieries will be established at no very distant date.
Upon the Mainland considerable deposits of lignite have
been found in the districts of the Lower Fraser, also a good
bituminous coal in the Nicola. These occur in the tertiary
formations.
Farther east, there has been an astonishing discovery of
fine bituminous coal seams in the Crow's Nest pass of the
Rockies (in the Kootenay District). Here fifteen seams
have been found, two of which are respectively Jourteen
and thirty feet in .thickness. This valuable property awaits
railway construction to bring it within reach of a market. I
Information for Emigrants. 29
Iron.
Magnetic iron ores of a good quality have been found in
several localities, but not much development has so far
been done in this class of mining.
The ores of Texada Island, a large island lying between
the north-east shores of Vancouver Island and the Mainland, have been worked to a limited extent, present shipments aggregating about 10,000 tons per annum.
The ore is of good quality, containing about 69 per cent,
of iron and only .003 of phosphorus. It is found in lenticular masses about 25 feet thick, and is apparently very
abundant. The country rock is a contact of limestone and
granite. Other localities of its occurrence are Sooke, a
district to the extreme south of Vancouver Island : Harriet
Harbour, Queen Charlotte Island; Rivers Inlet, Hope,
Nicola and Kamloops on the Mainland.
Copper.
Copper ore, in considerable quantity, in the form of
pyrites, tetrahedrite, and native copper have, from time to
time, been found in various parts of the province, but
hitherto hardly any mining for that metal has been
attempted.
" In connexion with the mining of the precious metals,
" the output of copper from British Columbia is likely
" before long to become considerable, and it is only a ques-
I tion of time till copper ores shall be worked as such."
Platinum.
Platinum has frequently been met with in the gold
placers. The most remarkable discovery was at Granite
Creek, in the Similkameen District of the Interior. Here
some 3,000 oz. of the metal, in combination with osm-
iridium, were secured during the years 1887, 188S.
It would be beyond the scope of this work to enter more
exhaustively into so technical a subject as that of mining.
Very careful and complete data of explorations and development up to the present time have been supplied in a
pamphlet issued by the Dominion Government, entitled
§ The  Mineral Wealth   of   British    Columbia,"   by  Dr. 30 British Columbia.
Dawson, of the Geological Survey Department of Canada.*
This gentleman, to whom the thanks of all interested in
mining matters in the province are due, has done more than
anyone else to investigate scientifically the mineral deposits
of the country, and the writer would advise those who seek
further information upon the subject to obtain this work.
It remains only to add a few remarks which may prove of
use to any who are desirous of undertaking or investing in
such enterprises.
There are generally three classes of operators in quartz
mining. There is the prospector, who is a man of
local experience, acquired by continuous exploration, but
who has no sufficient capital for systematic development.
He hunts for good surface croppings, and when he has
found one which, from the quantity of ore in sight, would
appear to justify some labour being expended on it, he
stakes out a claim 1,500 feet by 600 feet in that direction
which he thinks will include most of the lcde. This he
registers in the office of the Recorder of the district in
which it occurs, and holds from the Government until he
can secure a title, by doing $100 worth of development
work upon it per annum. In this way he can obtain a
title in five years. Then there is the small capitalist, who
by obtaining an interest at the outset in some promising
claim is induced to find the funds necessary for its development into something like a mine. And, lastly, there is the
wealthy or influential mining man, who is able to command
sufficient means to purchase and thoroughly work a developed claim. It is necessary to warn the prospector that
men of this last class will rarely touch such properties as
he may have to offer. Their operations are too extensive
to be hampered by preliminary work, and their credit in
the American and European centres of capital is too valuable
to be hazarded on the possible failure that might attend
these early efforts.
It is to the small capitalists that he must turn; they are
his best friends, and he should give them no reason to
doubt his good faith, nor should he readily suspect these
* Montreal, Dawson Bros., 1888.   25c. (Is.) Information for Emigrants. 31
whose interests are identical with his own of wishing to
take advantage of him. Any one of practical experience
in elementary mining will know how necessary are these
cautions, for the amicable relations of the two classes are
easily disturbed, on the one hand by the prospector conceiving that his partners are seeking to defraud him of his
rights, or on the other by those who, at considerable pecuniary risk have attempted the development of a prospect,
discovering that the original owner values them only so
long as they can be plundered with impunity.
It must be remembered also that the hazard of developing
a claim absolutely precludes the expenditure of any large
sum on its first purchase. Though the assays obtained
from surface specimens of the ore run into the hundreds of
dollars per ton, and though the ledge appears wide and well
defined and rich in mineral, yet until a sufficiently large
body of ore has been exploited to justify the outlay of
capital upon outside works the property is practically of no
value. It is, therefore, to the interests of all parties that,
every dollar of the purchase money should be expended in
judicious work upon the claim. Then, if success rewards
the efforts of the miners, it is fair that the prospector should
receive a good premium on his fortunate discovery.
Chapter IV.
Lumbering.
The growth of the forest trees upon the north-west shores
of the Pacific has always excited the surprise of travellers.
The enormous dimensions attained to by the Douglas Fir
(Abies Douglasii) and the Cedar (Thuja gigantea) are
unequalled by any tree occupying corresponding latitudes
in other countries.
It is not, however, the excessive size of individual trees,
but the very high average of the growth and quality of the
timber, which has placed British Columbia in the first rank
as a timber producing country. 32
British Columbia.
"Whereas in the eastern lumbering districts of Canada and
the United States, the timber limits average from 9,000 to
15,000 feet per acre, on the Island of Vancouver and the
Mainland coast they run from 20,000 to 500,000 feet,f and
a very moderate average estimate would be 30,000 feet per
acre.
Under 20,000 per acre, a timber limit would scarcely be
considered worth acquiring.
Douglas Fir.
The principal timber cut is that of the Douglas Fir,
which is justly celebrated as the best ship-building timber
in the world, and is also largely used for all building purposes. It is exported to Australia, South America, and
China. The latter trade, which has only of late years
been initiated, bids fair to become of much importance in
the future.
There is great scarcity of lumber in China, and when
once the possibility of obtaining supplies from this province
becomes fully known the demand for it will undoubtedly be
very considerable. At present there is a ceitain amount of
prejudice against the use of a foreign article to be overcome, and an import duty, which is regulated per piece of
lumber imported, has confined the trade to large baulks of
timber, which are subsequently cut up on reaching their
destination.
The completing of the Nicaragua canal will greatly
facilitate eastern transport, and will, no doubt, increase
the volume of Atlantic trade in proportion. There
is also a large and rapidly increasing trade with the
province of Manitoba and the North-West Territories,
which are becoming verv considerable consumers of British
Columbia lumber.
The Douglas Fir attains to a height of over 300 feet.
The circumference of the largest specimens, six feet above
T Messrs. King & Casey, prominent loggers in the province,
have actually cut and measured 508,000 feet of timber on an acre in
the Comox district, and this case has been paralleled upon other
occasions. When it is considered that, contrary to the custom in
the Eastern Provinces, where every tree down to 4 inches in
diameter is cut, those under 2 feet or over 7 feet in diameter are
rarely felled, the much greater average growth on this Coast will at
once be apparent. Information for Emigrants. 33
the ground, has been found to range from 30 to 50 feet.
These, as has been previously stated, are not of much commercial importance at present, since they cannot be moved
and sawn economically when of so great a size.
The best trees average about 160 feet to the first limb,
and are in the neighbourhood of 70 inches in diameter at
the butt, which is now cut about four feet above the
ground. Formerly eight or ten feet was the height at
which trees were cut, but since the saw has superseded the
axe this height has been reduced and a corresponding
saving in each log has been effected. These splendid sticks
are found perfectly free from shakes and flaws, straight and
sound all through.
The lumber cut from the Douglas Fir is admirably
adapted, as has been stated, for all purposes in which
strength, elasticity, and even quality are desiderated. It
constitutes about 85 per cent, of all which passes through
the mills, and the supply is practically unlimited.
The fine British Columbia spars familiar to yachtsmen
are of this wood, and it would astonish those who pay from
£4:0 to .£60 a piece for them if they could see the abundance
in which they grow in their native woods.
Cedar.
The Cedar, which exceeds in picturesque grandeur every
other tree in the province, attains to a girth greater even
than that of the Douglas fir. Specimens have been measured
from 60 to 80 feet in circumference several feet above the
ground, their wide-spreading roots greatly increasing the
area which they occupy. All cedars of any considerable
size and age decay at the heart, and this decay gradually
spreads until a mere shell is left supporting an apparently
vigorous tree.
The wood of the cedar is employed chiefly for fine dressed
lumber, doors, frames, sashes, etc. The veining is very
beautiful, which renders it well adapted for all interior
work, and it is now being extensively used in Eastern Canada
and the United States for that purpose. Cedar posts and
rails are also in great request, as they are of all woods the
most durable and least affected by weather, requiring no 34 British Columbia.
paint and remaining for years, even in damp ground, without rotting.
The Hemlock (Tsuga Mertensiana) is a handsome tree,
which grows in some localities in great abundance.
Although inferior to the two former, it makes useful
lumber for building purposes, and its bark is of great valuo
for tanning.
The Oak (Quercus Garryana), which grows plentifully
upon the gravelly soils of the southern extremity of Vancouver Island, attains under favourable circumstances to a
considerable size, is a very striking feature of the landscape,
but is not of much value commercially, as it is brittle and
frequently flawed.
The Spruce (Picea Sitchensis) grows in swampy places,
inhabiting delta lands and similar situations. It enjoys
the monopoly of the salmon cases and fruit boxes, for
which purposes it is in good demand. Its high quality as
a boat building wood is also well known.
Of the other trees the most useful are the Cyprus, the
maple, and the alder, all of which are employed extensively
in the manufacture of furniture. The second of these is
the most beautiful of the deciduous trees, and grows in
some localities in great abundance, resembling the sycamore,
but with more massive foliage.
It must be understood that though there are dense forests
throughout the interior, the valuable timber areas to which
reference has been made are chiefly confined to the humid
a/
regions of the coast. Climate appears to have more influence
on the growth of trees than soil, large trees frequently
growing in situations which make it a matter of surprise
whence they can derive sufficient nutriment, while others,
apparently living under much more favourable circumstances, attain to only moderate dimensions.
But granted the peculiar adaptability for forest growth
of these shores, there can be little doubt that the law of the
survival of the fittest has much to do with the result
attained. When tree has struggled against tree for count-
less generations in dense forests where only those which
attain to a superior height secure the best advantages of Chapter V.
The  Fisheries.
Information for Emigrants. 35
sun and air, it stands to reason that a race of giants will
be fostered, the most lusty and rapid of growth in each
generation surviving, and producing the most healthy and
numerous offspring.
Timber limits, or forest areas suited to the requirements
of the lumberman, are leased from the Government at a low
price per acre, under conditions of actively working them.
Ten cents per acre per annum rent is charged. Fifty
cents per thousand feet cut, with a rebate of 25 cents per
M exported out of the province is the royalty.
Each mill is allowed to lease limits up to 400 acres per
M. per diem, producing capacity. Thus a mill sawing
20,000 feet a day might lease 8,000 acres, at a rent of $S00
(£160), paying $10 a day royalty, or $5 if the gross output
were exported.
There is a steady demand for labour in the lumber trade.
All strong men who can handle an axe may find employment at high wages. Messrs. King and Casey pay their
hands from $50 to $100 (£10 to £20) per month and board.
These have to be first rate men, average wages at the mills
running from $45 per month. Old country hands are not
in as good demand as men from Eastern Canada and the
States, for these latter understand far better how to use an
axe, and are more at home in the woods. Many backwoodsmen take up land, having excellent facilities for locating
good claims, and improve them during their spare time
when they are not working in the woods. Thus they get a
good homestead almost for nothing, where their families
can live and increase their income by farming while the
father is earning good wages at another occupation.
f!
Attention has repeatedly been drawn of recent years to
the abundance and excellent quality of the food fishes in
the seas of the North Pacific, and especially in the Archipelago of British Columbia.     Notwithstanding this, even ."36 British Columbia.
the local market is but indifferently supplied by a few Scotch,
^Greek and Italian fishermen, and in one branch only of the
industry has any considerable progress been made. A
fishing population is perhaps the most difficult to transplant. Peculiarly inured to hardship, they are the last to
yield to the force of adverse circumstances; and skilled in
the local navigation of their own coasts, they are not easily
persuaded to exchange the known for the unknown, to
forfeit their experience and to begin life over again in a
new country.
Yet probably to no class of labour does this province
offer so tempting a field and so certain a remuneration as to
the fisheiman. Here he will find a steady and increasing
market at paying prices. He will find a great plenty of
salable and easily caught fish; and he will find facilities
unequalled elsewhere for establishing a home in which his
family may thrive and be happy.
The Salmon.
The exception to which reference has been made in
speaking of this neglected industry is that of salmon
canning.
The salmon of British Columbia has acquired perhaps
the widest reputation of any product of the province.
Canned salmon, indeed, may be considered at present the
best advertising medium of the country, for it penetrates
into regions where the source of its origin is otherwise
wholly unknown. Unfoitunately, mankind in general are
so little curious as to the source of their food supplies, that
probably not cne in every hundred of those who consume
canned salmon, troubles to^ enquire whence or how that
delicacy is obtained.
It is difficult to persuade those who have never witnessed
the sight, of the existence of a river swarming at certain
periods with large fish, which may be plainly watched
excitedly jostling their way past every obstruction until
the last survivors of the struggle are found in remote
streams five or six hundred miles frcm the sea, haggard and
worn, bright scarlet in colour, their scales scraped off
against rock and gravel, but still in sufficient numbers to Information for Emigrants. 37
almost fill the waters, and to become the parents of other
countless myriads which in their turn will one clay repeat
the scene.
Year by year, at stated seasons, this sight presents itself
to travellers on the Canadian Pacific Railway. It is the
great salmon run of the Fraser river, and is duplicated
upon every river and stream of the coast of British
Columbia.
There are three principal migrations each year of these
remarkable fish,—the winter and spring run of "tyhee"
salmon, the summer run of the "sockeye," and the autumn
run of the "cohoe" varieties.
The Tyhee, or spring salmon (Oncorhynchus Chouicha,)
is the finest, of a flavour and delicacy equal to the best
Scotch fish.
The tyhee runs in all the larger rivers of the province
from between November and March. It varies in size from
a two-pound grilse to an eighty-pound salmon. Twenty or
thirty pounds is a fair ordinary size.
The Sockeye (0. Nerka), which, as has been stated, is
not quite so choice a fish as the former, is nevertheless the
commercial salmon of the coast. It is a fine, dark-fleshed
fish, averaging from five to fourteen pounds, of good flavour,
though rather dryer and less rich in curd than the tyhee.
It runs through July and August, upon the Fraser, the
Skeena, and many other streams, but is much more local in
its distribution than the first named fish, and is said
never to be found in a river which does not issue from a
lake. The prodigious numbers of the sockeye in a good
run on the Fraser cannot be estimated.
The mouth and lower reaches of the river during the run
present an appearance of great activity. Early in the
morning hundreds of boats may be seen drawing in the
nets, and bringing loads of bright silver fish to the cannery
wharves. There they are tossed up, caught and counted,
and rapidly passed into the factory, where, in an incredibly
short time, their heads and tails are cut off, they are opened,
cleaned, tinned and steamed by a large stall, chiefly composed of Indian women and Chinese. ■
38 British Columbia.
This third variety (0. Kisutch) is found in all streams
in September, and is in no way inferior to the sockeye.
It is followed in turn by the hooknose, and in some
localities the humpback, but these have no commercial
value, and are rarely eaten except by the Indians.
The salmon pack from all the canneries has this year
amounted to about 400,000 cases, a slight decrease from
the previous season, when about 435,000 were put up. The
price per case has fallen considerably, a circumstance which,
however much it may be regretted so far as it affects the
year's profits, cannot but produce an increase in the demand
for the fish, and a subsequent corresponding development
of the trade.
The most valuable commercial fish, next to salmon, is
undoubtedly at present the dog fish, of which there are
two; one (Squalus Acanthus), about three feet in length,
and one locally known as the Tope shark, which averages
about six feet.
Their value consists in the excellent lubricating oil which
they yield, and which is extensively used throughout the
province and the interior of Canada. The high tariff practically excludes it from the States, where a mineral oil is
chiefly employed for the same purpose.
Of the food fishes of British Columbia the variety is so
great as to exclude particular mention.
Among them may be mentioned the Skil, commonly
called the black cod (Queen Charlotte Islands), a very fine
large deep-water fish, which weighs up to twenty or thirty
pounds, and is beginning to come into favour as a salt fish
of delicate flavour.
The Bock Cod, a first rate table fish, found on all the
coast.
Tho Red Cod, which is capital stuffed and baked.
The Halibut, very plentiful up to 600 pounds weight;
identical with the British variety.
The Sturgeon, only made use of as a fresh fish; weighs
up to 1,000 pounds, and is good eating.
The Oolachan, a particularly rich little fish of fine flavour,
from which an oil is extracted. Information for Emigrants. 39"
Anchovy.
Capelin.
Smelt.
Herring.    All first rate pan fishes.
And of Shellfish, the Crab, Prawn, Shrimp, Clam,
Cockle, Muscle, and Oyster.
This last, of which there is great abundance, is small,
but in the writer's and many of his friends' opinions, one
of the best oysters in the market, and more choice and
delicate than any Eastern variety. In good situations they
attain to a plumpness and flavour which is unrivalled except
by the best natives.
The peculiar advantages of this province for the pursuit
of fishing industries are not confined to the abundance of fish
which may be caught, nor to the excellence of the average
quality. The fact which ought, perhaps more than any
other to commend itself to fishermen, is the safety and
comfort of the occupation upon these inland waters in so
temperate a climate, compared with the danger and hardship
which he has to face elsewhere.
The islands off the coast of Vancouver Island have
numerous little landlocked bays and coves where a boat
may ride safely in all weather, and where a fisherman's
family, within reach of Victoria or Nanaimo, can live with
comfort, cultivating a little farm, the produce from which
may be taken off to market with the fish whenever required.
The sea will provide as much fishing as can possibly be
wanted, and no disastrous storms need be dreaded to break
in upon the happiness of the home.f
Should his circumstances be such as to preclude the
purchase of boats and nets, the writer would advise the
intending emigrant to time his arrival with the opening of
the salmon season, when he will be pretty certain to obtain
employment, and will earn enough money over and above his
keep   to go someway towards the purchase of an outfit,
T The atmosphere of this province will be fonnd to he peculiarly
favourable for prosecuting fish curing operations. Salmon and
halibut can be dried m slices in the open air without any o.her
preparation, which, inch ed, is the con anon method pursued by the
natives, and is entirely successful in the result.
.1 40 British Columbia.
when the run is over. A family of brothers succeeded, in
this way, in establishing themselves with hardly any capital,
and although inclined upon their first arrival to be disheartened at life so far from their old home in Scotland,
now consider British Columbia a fisherman's paradise.
In reference to this temporary discouragement of the
•emigrant, the writer may say that he has never yet met
with one in any condition of life who has not at first
endured a period of apparent disappointment. Whether it
be that proper information is not sought, that false hopes
•are foolishly aroused by the reckless language of friends,
•or that—as the writer suspects in most cases—homesickness
is as certain to attack the emigrant as a new boy in a
boarding school, there is nearly always a time when regret
is felt and expressed for ever having left the I old home."
But for the benefit of those who may anticipate this
•disagreeable malady, the writer would say that he has
haidly ever met with a case which was not followed by a
pleasant reaction, when the patient, in the enjoyment of
health, steady occupation, and every reasonable comfort,
has learnt to regard in their true light the benefits he
enjoys in comparison with the sacrifice he has made,
It is also a point well worthy of the consideration of
emigrants that the abundance of fish and the ease with
which they may be caught in the creeks, streams and lakes
secures a certain and wholesome food supply to the settler,
be he professional fisherman or not.
Chapter VI.
Sealing and Fur Trading.
No reference has as yet been made to the above important
industries, for they lie somewhat outside the track of the
•emigrant.
There are already some thirty schooners engaged in the
seal fisheries, employing about five hundred men, and
returning an annual yield of from $200,000 to $300,000. Information for Emigrants. 41
It is a matter much disputed, as is well known, whether
or no the fur seal is being threatened with extinction.
Opinions are freely advanced on both sides, since many
conflicting interests are at stake, but the point cannot be
said to have been scientifically determined.
It is otherwise, however, with the fur-bearing animals of
the forest and plain. There can be very little reason to
doubt that the more valuable ones are becoming scarcer
year by year, and that those who are already employed in
the pursuit are probably quite sufficient to secure the annual
harvest of skins, without danger of extinguishing the
supply.
The avenues of trade and manufacture, other than may
be immediately connected with the great staples of the
province—Farming, Mining, Lumbering and the Fisheries
—are such as may be found in any growing community.
Wholesale and retail trade is well represented, though with
a rapidly increasing population there is necessarily a corresponding extension of business and opportunity afforded
for the establishment of new houses.
It is clear, however, that no advice can be given on this
point, and that success will be due to the particular qualifications of the individual. In home manufactures a great
development has been mide of recent years, and ironworks,
furniture factories, soap works, brick yards; woollen, rice
and flour mills, breweries, tobacco factories, and potteries
are successfully in operation.
Yet one cannot fail to be struck by the fact, on examining
the returns of the Minister of Customs, that heavy duties
are annually being paid for many articles which might
profitably be produced in the country. The inauguration
of such industries must, however, be left to the enterprise
of individuals, who will be able best to decide for themselves what prospects of remuneration are afforded in their
especial occupations. c
■
42 British Columbia.
Chapter VII.
General Considerations as to the   Introduction of
Capital and Labour into a New Country.
In the preceding pages it has been shown that the natural
resources of British Columbia are to a great exttnt undeveloped, and that the province could support a population
in comfort and prosperity vastly greater than the present
one.
"When this condition exists in a country it is manifestly
to the interest of the Government to force its capabilities
by increasing the number of its producers and consumers,
even if it were for no higher motive than that which leads
a farmer to increase the number of cattle upon an understocked farm.
But when, as in the present day, the deplorable spectacle
is exhibited of the older world, in which the avenues of
capital are blocked by over-production, and in which the
labourer is starved by over population, it becomes no longer
a matter of interest only, but of duty, to draw the surplus
in a direction where it may be profitably employed.
The chief difficulty which presents itself to those who
-are anxious to assist in emigration is to secure a just proportion between the labour and the capital which they are
seeking to introduce. For if the labour should exceed the
capital ready to employ it, the labourer will suffer; or if
the capital be in excess, it will be no longer capable of
profitable employment and can return no increment, and this
condition, though temporary, would prove of considerable
embarrassment to many. Great caution has, therefore,
necessarily to be exercised in inviting the right class of
emigrants in just proportion. Nor is much help afforded
by the emigrants themselves. The labouring man who
hears that he can obtain ten shillings a day for his services,
does not stop to enquire who is to pay him, and often does
not trouble to write for any information, but presents himself destitute at the immigration office under the impression
that work must immediatelv be forthcoming. Information for Emigrants.
43
Among a more educated class there is generally found to
be extreme reluctance to leave the beaten paths of life until
driven by actual force of circumstances. When every
resource has failed and ruin stares him in the face, then,
and not till then, will a man talk of emigrating, as if a
mere change of habitat would reverse every misfortune,
and as if none but Adullamites were welccme in a new
country.
If, on the other hand, he had otily had the courage to
transfer his interests to a profitable field while he had anything left to transfer, he would have been spared a great
deal of suffering and loss, and he would have found that
the little capital he was able to bring with him would at
once have placed him in a position which it Avould be years
before he could hope to occupy without its assistance.
Again, in seeking to influence capital, it is found that
there is nothing more absolutely the sport of fashion and
caprice than the investment of money in foreign securities.
Millions of pounds of English capital are annually plunged
into the investment of the moment, whether it be African
colonization schemes, American syndicates, or Argentine
bonds. And for no other reason than that it is the craze
of the moment.
No doubt, the same thing will happen with reference to
this province. The mines, or the fisheries, or some land
venture, will catch the public favour, then nothing will be
talked of but British Columbia investments, and every
facility will be afforded adventurers of impairing the
reputation of the country by floating bubble companies.
But, until that time comes, must the British investor
remain in ignorance of the possibilities of profitable investment within the boundaries of the Empire, and must
the development of the country be retarded by lack of the
necessary capital? Of course, if time be given it, a country
will, no doubt, gradually develope its own resources up to
their extreme limit, and it is plain that the inhabitants can
far better afford to wait for that time than their more
crowded neighbours. But there is no reason why, considering the congestion of capital and labour in one part of 44 British Columbia.
the Empire, those conditions should be allowed slowly to
evolve themselves in other parts, which it would be to the
benefit of all to hasten by every legitimate means.
Capital, under the same law and government, should find
its level like water, and it is plainly detrimental to the best
interests of any nation that its available wealth should bo
squandered in millions upon the development of alien
countries, while the resources lying within the limits of its
own territory remain unemployed.
What, it may be gravely asked, is the practical use of
the so-called dependencies of Great Britain, if they are not
to provide a natural field for the expansion of the surplus
energies of the Mother Country ?
But although there is occasionally manifested a keen
desire to avail themselves of this field, when impecunious
relations, scapegrace sons, or homeless waifs need eliminating from their immediate neighbourhood, it must be
acknowledged that there is little dispoiition among British
capitalists to select a sphere for their investments under
their own flag. On the contrary, they rush headlong, like
a flock of sheep, into every venture outside the empire that
presents itself, never pausing to enquire whether more solid
inducements may hot be found nearer home.
But can it for one moment be imagined that a sentimental
attachment will be forever exhibited by those on the circumference of theE npire while those who are at the centre
seldom allow their feelings to confine their interests within
its circle?
It is surely idle to talk of Imperii! Federation as a
scheme of government, as if by adding to the machinery
of legislation ties would bind more closely, and the conflicting forces of commercial life would thereby be lulled to
rest. Federation, to be anything more than a name, must
be a union of interests. While every obstacle is put in the
way of the profitable interchange of commodities between
the integral parts of the Empire, there will be a continual
tendency towards dissolution, no matter how specious an
appearance of unity may be outwardly preserved.   Interests
' Information for Emigrants.
45
are divergent, and so soon as a sufficient accumulation of
interests compels it the cord of sentiment will be sundered.
But if it were possible—and there is no reason why it
should not be possible—for men throughout the Empire to
regard their interests as identical, for those who have the
capital, as well as the labour, to strive together with those
whose wealth is potential and whose fellow labourers are
few, towards the development of the ample resources of
their common heritage, then a new era of prosperity, more
sound because more national, would arise, there would be a
continual drawing together of the ties which bind the old
and the new portions of Greater Britain, there would be
a continual and discriminating interchange of social and
commercial relations, and the dream of the federationisfc
would be realized.
The American Republic has already set the world an
example of how to foster national sentiment over vast areas
of territory by creating common sympathies of trade and
commerce. It is for the mother and her younger daughters
to learn the lesson from their elder sister. Let them practice a real federation of interests; let them seek in every
way to know and respect each other better; let the rich and
poor unite in building a more lofty commonwealth, and
Britannia shall yet rule over distant seas, nor sink into
slavery, dependent upon the wage of starving labourers
and upon the increment of other nations' wealth.
The tables in the Appendix will afford the emigrant
information as to the trade, climate and resources of the
province, from recent trustworthy sources. Attention is
especially drawn to those on Mineral Assays and Strength
of Timber. r Appendix.
47
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Remarks.—Mean temp, for year, 51.1; being 3.2 above yearly mean. I Rainfall,
46.16inches; being 12.37 below mean of 16 years. Days rain fell, 199; ab^ve
mean, 8. Snowfall, 16.5 inches. ' Days snow fell, 14. Cloudy days, 134. Fair
days, 127. Clear days, 104. January, moist and mild, snow and sleet. February,
very mild. March 5th, swallows and frogs. April 11th and 19th, white frost; 21st,
lightning and thunder. May 1st, lightning and thunder; 31st, mock suns. June
1st and 2nd, mock suns; 14th, highest freshet, 9 ft. 1 in.; very low. July, smoke
and fog; fires ; 21st, heavy run of salmon. August 1st, smoke and fog; fish continue ; 15th, rain off and on until end of month; heaviest run of fish for years.
September 9th, hail and rain ; new snow on mountains; 11th, frost on sidewalks ;
12th, small tidal wave; 29th, heavy S.E. gale. October 6th, robins, geese, ducks;
20th, slight earthquake at Port Moody; 27th, worms in rain gauge. November
2nd to 6th, fogs; 17th, tremendous circular gale from S. E., trees down by hundreds;
22nd, first general frost. December Sth, snow; 19th, lightning; 29th, ice on river;
sleighing; 31st, river fast; total snow on ground, 11 iriches.
A. PEELE, Captain. ]
Appendix.
49
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52
Appendix.
FARM   PRODUCE,
Which is imported, from the United States chiefly, and which might readily be
srrown within the Province.
Grains and
Meal.
Fruit and
Vegetables.
Meat,.
Dairy
and Poultry
Yard.
Total.
Duty.
$181,722
$57,496
$88,218
$125,505
$452,941
$74,568
 	
This does not include the importation from Canada, which in some lines is
very heavy; nor canned goods, which arc also largely consumed.
Average Price obtained, by the Farmer on the
Coast of B. C. for Grains, &e.
Hay (Timothy), per ton of 2,000 lbs  $18 00 to $22 00
Wheat,
11
Oats,
per cw
Barlev,
Peas.
Roots,
per ton
Potatoes,
Hops,
per lb.
30 00 to
35 00
1 35 to
1 50
1 35 to
1 75
1 75 to
2 CO
8 00 to
10 00
2J 00 to
30 00
OS to
12
WAGES IN BEITISH COLUMBIA.
Stonecutters, stonemasons, and bricklayers ,
Their labourers	
Plasterers 	
Carpenters and joiners	
Ship caipenters and caulkers	
Cabinet-makers and upholsterers	
Painters	
Shoemakers	
Tailors ,	
Tailoresses	
Bakers (with board and lodging)	
Butchers (cutters)	
Slaughterers	
Cigarmakers	
Boys, as strippers, etc	
Printers .	
Waggon-makers	
Tinsmiths, plumbers, and gasfitters	
Machinists, moulders, pattern and "boiler-makers,
and blacksmiths	
Longshoremen	
Female domestic servants	
per day.
2 CO
to 2 50 per day.
4 00
to 4 50       ,,
3 00
t'O 3 50       „
4 00
to 5 00       ,,
3 00
IS
3 50 to 4 00
2 00
to 3 00       „
2 50
to 3 00       „
1 00
to 1 50
65 00
per month.
75 00
to 100 00   ,,
75 00
J>
2 50
to 4 00 per day.
2 00
to 5 00 pet week.
45
& 50 cts. a 1000 ems.
3 50
to 4 00 per day.
3 50
to 4 00       „
4 00
to 4 50      ,,
50
cents an hour.
12 00
to 25 03 per month. Appendix. 53
LIST OF EETAIL PEIOES
Of ordinary articles of Food and Maitnent.
PROVISIONS.
Bacon  $0 18 per ft.
Bread, white and brown  08 •     ,,
Butter, salt  SO      „
Butter, fresh  40      „
Beef,' mutton, and veal 124 to 15      „
Pork.  12£tol6      „
Beer  10 per quart.
Candles  20 per lb.
Cheese  20      „
Coffee  25
Corn meal  4 00 per 100 fts.
Eggs  25 per dozen.
Flour, 1st quality  5 50 per bbl.
Flour, 2nd quality  4 75       ,,
Flour, buckwheat  6 00 per 100 fts.
Fish, dry cod  8 00 per cwt.
Firewood  4 00 per cord.
Ham  18 per ft.
Ham, shoulders  12?}    ,,
Mustard  25      ,,
Milk  10 per quart.
Oatmeal  4 50 per 100 fts.
Pepper 	
Potatoes .'	
Rice	
Soap, yellow	
Sugar, brown •.	
Salt	
Tea, black	
Tea, green	
Tobacco	
Coal	
CLOTHING.
25
per ft.
90
per bushel.
05
per ft.
05
99
09
99
02
99
50
99
50
75
99
8 00
per ton.
Coats, under, tweed $ 6 00
Coats, over,        ,,      10 00
Trousers,            ,,      3 50
Vests,                  „      2 25
Shirts, flannel  150
Shirts, cotton  1 00
Shirts, under, " wove "  1 00
Drawers, woollen, " wove "  1 00
Hats, felt  2 00
Socks, worsted   25
Socks, cotton   20
Blankets, per pair  4 00
Rugs  3 00
Flannel per yard, 40
Cotton shirting        „ 10
Sheeting        ,, 25
Canadian cloth        „ 75
Shoes, men's  3 00
Shoes, women's :  1 50
Boots, men's  3 50
Boots, women's  3 00
Rubber overshoes, men's  l^OO-
Rubber overshoes, women's  *6         

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