Open Collections

BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

S. W. Silver & Co.'s handbook to Canada. A guide for travellers and settlers in the provinces of Ontario,… 1881

Item Metadata


JSON: bcbooks-1.0222290.json
JSON-LD: bcbooks-1.0222290-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): bcbooks-1.0222290-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: bcbooks-1.0222290-rdf.json
Turtle: bcbooks-1.0222290-turtle.txt
N-Triples: bcbooks-1.0222290-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: bcbooks-1.0222290-source.json
Full Text

Full Text

Array W. SILVER & CO.
Christ church.
Eobart Town.
Port Lyttelton.
"Western Australia (Fre-
(De Orey
Cleveland (O.).
Costa Rica (San Jose).
Newfoundland (St. John's).
Ulew Grenada (Tumaoo).
New York.
Portland (Oregon).
Bio de Janeiro.
San Francisco.
Vancouver Island (Victoria).
St. Thomas.
Canary Islands (Lanzarote).
Falkland Islands.
Fiji Islands (Levuka, Ovalau).
Madagascar (Tamatave).
New Caledonia.
Sandwich Islands (Honolulu).
&c.    &c    &c.
All particulars respecting above on application to
PRINCE   EDWARD   ISLAND,   &c.   &c.
■w i t ih:     isr ie w ' im: .a. ip.,
S.  W.   SILVER   AND    CO.
•1881.  PREFACE
The Dominion of Canada will shortly enter upon the
Fourteenth Tear of its confederated existence.
Its history—always memorable and interesting—
has, during that short period, been marked by events
conspicuous alike for their national importance and
their economic value. Foremost among these is the
settlement, by a vigorous population, of the vast areas
of fertile land lately owned by the Hudson's Bay
Company and now known as the North-West Territories.
This section, embracing more than two-thirds of our
transatlantic domain and comprising some of the finest
wheat-producing lands in the Empire, will soon be
traversed by the Canadian Pacific Railway, and thus
be placed in direct communication with British markets
and British homes.
The need of a comprehensive, reliable, and at the
same time cheap and handy work, which would famish,
the kind of information most sought for in regard to
these and other portions of the Dominion, has long been
felt. The present volume will, it is hoped, supply this
want.     Its aim is   to  portray the   Dominion   as  it VI
really exists, and not as prejudice and partiality have
too often pictured it.
The coloured map has been specially prepared for,
and forms a valuable addition to, its pages; while the
marginal notes and index will, it is hoped, greatly
facilitate and encourage reference to its varied contents.
April 1881. CONTENTS.
[A copious Index will be found at pp. 277-288.]
Historical Sketch—Discovery—"French Occupation—Consolidation
of British Power since Confederation—Geography—Population—
Climate—Land Laws—Agriculture—Mines and Minerals—
Natural History—Fisheries—Government—Social Statistics—
Railways and Public Works 1-60
Discovery—History—The French Period—Geography—Geology—
Productions—Minerals—Manufactures and Trade—Land Laws—
Government—Population—Education—Railways, &c.—Principal
Towns—Cape Breton Island 61-103
Position —History
—Chief Towns
Government— Climate—Soil -
■Railways, &c.
. 104-108
History—Divisions—Geography—Natural   History—Geology—Industries—Commerce and Trade--Chief Towns      .        .109-123 "Vlll
The Voyage Out—Geography—Divisions and Towns—Productions
—Miues and Minerals—Agriculture—Commerce—The Eastern
Townships—Government—Population—Education and Religion—
Chief Towds pages 124-153
Territory — Climate — Geography — Agriculture — Population—
Divisions—Free Lands—Railways, &c—Social Statistics—Manufactures—Trade—Inducements to Settlers—Chief Towns—Sport
and Natural History     ....... 154—181
Boundaries and Area—Climate—History—Geography—Productions
—Land Laws—Means of Communication—Vancouver Island—
Chief Towns—Game, &c—Cost of Living—Routes and Fares—
Post and Telegraph Offices 182-5J12
The 'Prairie Province'—Area—Government—Soil—Climate—Geography—Production—Population—Education, &c.—Winnipeg and
other Towns—District of Keewatin      .... 213-231
Area—Fertility—Climate and Geography — Settlements — Productions—The Interior—Government—Mounted Police—Education-
—list of Post and Telegraph Offices—Table of Distances in
the North Atlantic—Lights Sighted on the Voyage Out. 232-264
Notes on the Minerals of Nova Scotia
Historical Sketch.
Period of Discovery,   a.d. 1497 to 1534.
Whatever may be the public verdict upon the claims of
Canada as a field for successful settlement and human
achievement, when compared with those of other portions of the British Empire, there can be no question of
the pre-eminent interest which our Home Colony possesses from an historical point of view.    Her position,
in this regard, is as unique as it is remarkable.   No part
of our world-wide colonial domain has passed through
so many or such stormy stages of existence.    Nowhere
within the circuit of the Crown territory have peace and
war, union and dis-onion, loyalty and rebellion followed
each other in such quick succession.    In none have the
struggles between Church and State, between party and
party, been more bitter, or the great political changes
which they have contributed to hasten been more sudden
or more sweeping.    Nowhere have the loyalty of the
subject and the -prestige of the nation been more sorely
tried, and nowhere have they been more n6bly vindicated or more heroically sustained, than in Canada.    It
is the object of the present brief sketch to trace these
varied stages in her history, to note her growth from
the infant qnasi-colony of a foreign Power to our own
present  prosperous  Dominion,  to   portray the more
important political changes by which each succeeding
stage has been marked, and to show, as far as practicable, the results which the present current of public
opinion and the course of events are likely to bring about.
There was little in the early existence of Canada to
indicate the position which she has already acquired.
position in
Design and
scope of the
Visit of the
Simultaneous discovery of
our Canadian and
ajo. 1497.
Still less was there to foreshadow the greatness to which
she is surely yet destined to attain. The hardy adventurous Norsemen, if they ever really sighted the Canadian
shores, which is extremely doubtful, certainly never
landed on them. Their occupation, at least, if not their
discovery, was reserved for later times and for another
race of people. The best authenticated discovery and earliest attested history we have of the country now called
Canada are associated with the exploits of that brave
band of Venetian navigators who shed such lustre on
the closing annals of the fifteenth century. Onr North
American and South African colonies started in the race
for empire—rather let us say took up their appointed
places in the circling orbit of our civilisation—together.
While Diaz and Yasco de Gama were seeking a new
route to India by way of the Cape of Good Hope, the
Cabots, father and son, were tracking the stormy Atlantic, and hunting for a north-west passage in hopes of
ultimately reaching the same goal.
In the very same year, indeed, in which the Portuguese navigator weathered the Cape of Storms and
sighted the low-lying coast of Natal, his Italian compeer, accompanied by his son Sebastian, in the little
barque Matthew, which the English monarch had given
him, caught the first faint glimpse of the rock-bound
coast of Newfoundland. It was only a glimpse, a first
sight, a prima vista, and so Cabot called it.
Two years subsequently to Cabot's voyage, Gaspar
de Cortereal, a Portuguese adventurer, hoping to accomplish what his predecessor and competitor had failed to
find—a north-west passage to India—set sail from
Lisbon, and with two ships reached the Labrador coast,
which he named Terra Verde. He entered the Gulf of
St. Lawrence, but of further exploration by him we have
no authentic trace. Local historians dwell with considerable enthusiasm on the probability of his having
landed on some portion of the Acadian or Nova Scotian
coast. But this, at best, is supposititious, and if he did
land he left no trace worthy of mention. That he
accomplished something is, however, probable, as he
seems to have made a second voyage in 1501. From
this he never returned.
Thus far discovery on the North American coast had HISTORICAL  SKETCH. 3
resulted wholly from the desire to discover a north-west CANADA,
passage to India Not only was the island which now
bears the name Newfoundland an actual terra nova, but
_the Labrador coast and Acadia to the south of it were
in the same category of newly-discovered or new-found-
lands, and thus they stand roughly outlined on the
maps of that period.
The first voyage to North America with a view to
settlement is that, recorded by Mr. Beamish Murdoch
in his history of Nova Scotia, of the Baron de Lery De Lery's
et de St. Just in 1518. In 1504 the hardy Breton jjfj AD*
and Basque fishermen were on the banks of Newfoundland in quest of the cod which they have fished with so
much success since, but their visits were without historical importance, and this was the first acquaintance
France made with her future possessions in the New
World. Twenty years later, Francis I. of France aspired
to enter the lists with Spain and Portugal for the acquisition of territory and sovereignty in America. Under
his direction Giovanni Yerazzani, a Florentine, was Verazzani's
despatched (January 17, 1524) in the ship ' Dauphine,' V0yaf|",4
with fifty men and provisions for eight months. He is
known to have ranged the coast from Florida to latitude 50° N., which would include the Gulf of St. Lawrence and Newfoundland, and to have landed at various
points on the coast; but, beyond this scanty record, we
have no account whatever either of what he saw or
what he did.
Similarly barren of practical result seems to have
been the visit of a * learned and wealthy English citizen of Thome's
Bristol,' Master Thomas Thorne by name, who, favoured expedition,
with the patronage of King Henry VXIL, fitted ont two A*D* 1527.
ships (one of them bearing the name of the Domvnus
vobiscum),  and set sail in May 1527.    Entering the
Straits of Belle Isle, and, throusrh them, reaching the
Cape Breton and Acadian shores, the ambition of Thorne
and his  companions, or more likely their provisions,
failed them, and thev returned to Bristol in October of
the same year.
Thus fitfully and feebly were the attempts to found
settlements on the coast of North America carried on
until the close of the first quarter of the sixteenth century.
The flag  of discovery had been thus far  wholly in
b2 Jacques
aj>. 1534.
the hands of foreigners, and he would have been a bold
man who would then have predicted that Britain would
become the first maritime nation in the world. A floating population, consisting of a few hundred hardy but
humble Norman and Breton fishermen—anchored on the
open Newfoundland banks for seven months in the year,
or sheltered between the headlands on some part of the
Acadian coast—formed the only approach to what could
be called a settlement or colony. It is not until we
come to the French exploration and occupation that we
reach what may fairly and distinctively be called the
first period in the history of Canada. This period opened
with the voyage and landing of Jacques Cartier in
a.d. 1535
Origin of
French Occupation.
a.d. 1534 to 1763.
Encouraged, no doubt, by the commercial advantages
which resulted from the pursuit of the Newfoundland
bank and Nova Scotia shore fisheries, and further stimulated by the discoveries and subsequent report of his
faithful ally and lieutenant, Cartier,the French monarch
resolved to found a colony. On May 19, 1535, Jacques
Cartier, the St. Malo pilot, with his brother officers (and
three ships of 220 tons in all) after receiving the
Bishop's blessing in the cathedral of his native town,
set sail. Two months later they entered the gulf which
Cabot and Cortereal had already partially explored.
Passing Anticosti Island, they in time (September 7)
reached a fertile, vine-clad isle, which they named Isle de
Bacchus, and which is now known to all St. Lawrence
travellers as the Island of Orleans. Here King- Donna-
cona, accompanied by his warriors in twelve canoes, made
them a State visit, after which Cartier anchored his
little fleet at the mouth of the St. Charles river, in full
view of the ancient Indian town of Stadacona. This
occupied the high beetling promontory on which Quebec
—so named by the Indians themselves, to signify the
strait, or narrow river passage which it overlooked—
now stands. Thus peacefully commenced the French
occupation of Canada nearly three centuries and a half
During Cartier's first visit httle was accomplished in
the way of actual settlement. Capture and conquest or
conversion, not colonisation, have ever marked the policy
of the French in the New World. Cartier seems to have
contented himself with navigating the river as far as
Hochelaga, where he made the acquaintance of the
Huron-Iroquois tribe of Indians and of their King or
Ayuhanna. West of the village rose a mountain which,
with characteristic loyalty, he named Mont Royal,
which it still retains. In this way the city which
stretches out beneath it, as well as the island upon
which it stands, received the name of Montreal, which
it still bears. After this he returned to France, which
he reached July 8, 1536.
Cartier's next visit was made in 1541, in company
with Francis de la Roche, Sienr de Roberval, whom the
French monarch had- created Lieutenant-General and
Viceroy of his newly-acquired possessions. This was
intended as a colonising expedition, the first of any
magnitude of which we have any record. But, if so,
the intention was not fulfilled. Roberval's colony was a
failure, and a similar fate awaited a second expedition,
which he, with his brother Achille, fitted out in 1549.
The loss of these expeditions retarded French colonisation fully half a century. Cartier and Roberval had
found the Indians the sole occupants of the soil,
* monarchs of all they surveyed, with none their right
to dispute,' and thus they left them for a period of fifty
The next attempt at French occupation was of a
very different character. Failing to find respectable
colonists, they had recourse to convicts. The scene
shifts from Quebec and Montreal to Sable Island, a
barren sand-heap off the coast of Nova Scotia. Here,
in 1598, the Marquis de la Roche landed a party of
wretched outlaws, only twelve of whom managed to
survive, subsisting, it is said, mainly on the produce
ofthe cattle which, it is believed, Baron de Lery turned
loose there in 1518.
Excepting the visits of Pontgrave (1601), and of de
Champlain and Chanvin (1602-3), nothing more was
done in the direction of French Canadian settlement
till March 7,1604, when Pierre dn Gneet, Sienr de Monts,_
of Montreal.
Cartier, accompanied
by Roberval, returns
to Canada,
a.d. 1541.
Indian possession undisturbed.
A convict-
settlement. De Monts
A.D. 160").
De Champ-
lain founds
a.d. 1608.
sailed from Havre with four vessels, two of which were
bound for Acadia.
The first actual settlement by Europeans in what
now forms the Dominion of Canada was made in 1605
by De Monts at Port Royal, now Annapolis, in the present
province of Nova Scotia. This followed immediately on
the formation of the ' Company of New France,' under
patent from Henry IV., for ' inhabiting Acadia, Canada,
and other places in New France.' Events now followed
more rapidly.
On July 3, 1608, Samuel de Champlain reached the
bold headland at the confluence of the St. Lawrence
and the St. Charles rivers, tbe spot where his brave
countryman Cartier had first wintered three-quarters of
a century before. Here he founded the -city of Quebec,
and here, fifteen years later, he built Fort St. Louis.
From, this time till 1629, when the city was surrendered to the English forces under Admiral Kirke,
French exploration and colonisation in Canada, or Nou-
velle France, as it was then called, were carried on under
the viceroyalty of Prince Conde, mainly, if not wholly,
by the missionaries. The work of the Church was commenced almost simultaneously in Old Canada and Nova
Scotia. In the former it was prosecuted by the Franciscan friars of the Recollet fraternity; in the latter by the
Jesuits, who entered the field in 1625. Bands of missionaries penetrated the country in all directions, zealously endeavouring to convert the Indians to the
Christian faith. From Quebec as a starting-point, the
missionary lines of the ' Society of Jesus ' radiated in
all directions through every inhabited region, from the
Laurentian valley to the Hudson Bay Territory, through
the region of the great lakes, and down the valley of
the Mississippi. Scantily equipped," as it seemed to the
worldly eye, with a breviary round the neck and a
crucifix in the hand, the fearless priest set forth, the
pioneer of commerce and the avant-courier of civilisation. About this period, so pregnant of good services for the Church, the famous charities known
ever since as the Hotel Dieu and Ursuline Convent
were founded at Quebec. Garrisoned posts were established, and forts and earthworks constructed at various
points.    Scattered remains of Fort Frontenac and other FRENCH  OCCUPATION. 7
of these ancient French works are still to be seen.    The     CANADA,
history of the country at this time is one of almost con-
; tinnal warfare and hostility  with the native tribes,
graphically described by Parkman in his most interesting works ' The Conquest of Canada' and the ' Conspiracy of Pontiac.'    This state of affairs lasted until
Sir David Kirke, or Kirk, appeared npon the scene,
when Quebec was surrendered, under the treaty of St.
Germain-en-Laye, shortly before De Champlain's death,
which occurred in 1635.    By the terms of this treaty
France again became mistress of Acadia.  Between 1629
and 1713 Acadia was several times taken by the British
and restored to France, but in the latter year it finally Treaty of
passed to the British "Crown under the terms of the Utrecht,
Treaty of Utrecht. A*D*1713*
This was the period of Western exploration. The
Jesuits and other proselytising priests were everywhere
pushing the work of the Church. The Jesuits were the
pioneers of civilisation in the Far West. Conspicuous
among them were M. Joliet and Peres Hennepin, Marquette, Alloez, and Dablon. Lasalle, setting forth
from Fort Frontenac, had pursued his way to the southern
extremity of Lake Michigan, the site of old Fort Dearborn and of Chicago in later days, which he reached
October 18, 1678. Four years later the same intrepid adventurer took possession of the Mississippi valley in the
name of the French King, and named it New France.
At this period, as we learn from the * Official Correspondence of Paris,' Quebec Province contained bnt 3,418
persons, of whom 1,344 were fit to bear arms. These
were distributed as follows :—
Quebec  555
Beaupre  678
Beauport  172
lie d'Orleans  471
St. Jean, &c  156
Sillery  217
Notre Dame des Anges        .        .        .       .       . 118
Cote de Lauzon   ........ 6
Montreal  584
Trois-Kivi&res  461
Total .       .    3,418
An event which was destined to have a more im- Hudson
Bay Company chartered,
aj>. 1670.
portant and lasting influence on the future of Canada
than any, or, indeed, all, of these occurrences, was about
to take place.
In 1670 Charles LT. granted to Prince Rupert and
his company of adventurers, since known as the Hudson Bay Company, rights and privileges which have
worked a mighty revolution in the future of the whole
North-West. These will be found treated at fitting
length in other chapters of this work In 1721 the
census of the whole of Canada was returned at 25,600.
The first Legislature of Nova Scotia met at Annapolis
in 1758, and in the following year Wolfe captured
Meanwhile the French had not been altogether idle.
As early as 1762 French traders had traversed the
country as far as the confluence of the Assiniboine River
and the Red River of the North, and built Fort La
Rouge, where all that remains of its successor, the dismantled Fort Garry, now stands.
The Treaty of Paris, ratified Feb. 10, 1763, brought
the memorable Seven Tears' War to a close, and inaugurated the era of England's palmy and permanent
dominion in North America.
capture of
18, 1759.
Consolidation of British Power.
a.d. 1763 to 1867.
Although the actual and sovereign dominion of
France in Canada ceased with the famous passage of
arms on the heights of Abraham in 1759, followed by
the defeat of Montcalm, and the capitulation of Montreal in 1760, French influence continued to be felt in
various ways. After the capture of Quebec the country
was placed under military rule. The French Canadians
were guaranteed the free exercise of their religion, and
their clergy continued to enjoy their accustomed rights
and privileges. La Nation Ganadienne, though dead politically was yet socially and ecclesiastically as vigorous
and active as ever. The definitive treaty between England, France, and Spain, though it left England constitutionally stronger, was really only a prelude to
further disturbance. Territorially all that was left of
La Nouvelle France were the little rock-bound and fog- ■*
capped islands of St. Pierre andMiquelon—a somewhat
insignificant outcome from so ambitious a design as the
conquest, conversion, and colonisation of half a continent. In 1775 the Quebec Act was passed, and in
the fatal concessions to the Canadians contained in this
Act is to be found the origin of that anti-British feeling
which, engendered by the powers so conferred, has
shown itself, though in a smaller degree, even in recent
years. The French criminal law was, however, superseded by the English criminal law.
The colonists were now to pass through another war
period—bloody but brief—this time with their own
countrymen across the border. Blood had already been
shed at Lexington, Concord, and Fort Ticonderoga, and
shortly after Crown Point and Fort St. John fell to the
enemy. The American successes were, if sharp, equally
short-lived. If Montreal opened its gates to the invaders, Quebec stood firm as the rock which she so
proudly sentinels. The ancient city was hotly besieged
by Generals Montgomery and Arnold, the first of whom
was killed, while the second was badly wounded in the
During the years 1784-85 the maritime provinces of
Nova Scotia and New Brunswick were organised under
special constitutional charters, the first legislature of
New Brunswick meeting at St. Ann's, now Fredericton,
during the latter year.
We now pass over a period of six years—to the close
of 1791. This year was marked by the passage of the
Constitutional Act, under which representative government was secured to the people. ' The slow but steady
development of the principles of responsible government
in Canada,' writes Mr. William Leggo, in his history of
the Administration of Lord Dufferin, ( under Lords
Durham, Sydenham, Metcalfe, Elgin, Monck, and Lisgar,
and the unswerving devotedness of Lord Dufferin to
those principles, serve to make this one of the most interesting epochs of Canadian history.' The passage of
the Constitutional Act—the most important event, perhaps, in the purely political history of Canada-—though
far from satisfying the French-Canadian party, who
were yet numerically the stronger, was, nevertheless,
an important step in that direction.    The territory of
Passage of
the Quebec
a.d. 1775.
War with
Representative Government,
a.d. 1791. 10
Act of
union and
responsible government,
a.d. 1840-
Choice of a
Old Canada was at this time divided into Upper and
Lower Canada. The first Legislature of Lower Canada
sat at Quebec in 1791, when that city contained but
about 7,000 inhabitants; that of Upper Canada sat at
Kingston in 1792.
Thus they remained over the period of the American
war and the domestic troubles of a later date, until
their re-union by Imperial Act in 1840. Under one Administration the two provinces were at last peacefully reunited, and responsible government firmly re-established
in the early days of 1841. In June of that year the first
united Parliament was convened at Kingston, which had
been incorporated two years before. The Executive then
consisted of a Legislative Council, to which the elective
principle was applied; a Legislative Assembly, composed of 130 members; a Cabinet, responsible to the
Legislature; and a Governor-General, appointed by the
Grown. Three years later the seat of government was
changed to Montreal, and on the destruction of the Parliament buildings there in 1849 it was again moved
westward—this time to Toronto. At this period Upper
and Lower Canada were on an equal footing as regards
population—the Lower province having 768,334, and the
Upper 765,797. Nine years subsequently, the colonists
being unable to agree between the conflicting claims and
rival interests of so numerous a list of competitors for
the seat of government, the selection of a site was left to
the Queen herself, and under her approval it was established at Ottawa in 1858, where it has since remained.
Party government at this period, as a late writer
has remarked, ' became well-nigh impossible.' In the
successive elections which had been held during the
preceding years, it was found that the hostile majority
from either province in the Legislature had increased
rather than diminished. Six years of party jealousy
and conflict precipitated a crisis. But it was only the
darkness which precedes the dawn. Party spirit had
spent its strength, and wiser counsels and more matured
judgment prevailed; the * dead-lock' was at an end. On
October 10, 1864, the Quebec and Ontario delegates
met the delegates from Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, at Quebec, to consider a general^ scheme
of confederation.     This was known as the ' Quebec CONSOLIDATION  OF  BRITISH POWER.
Scheme.' It was the beginning of the end—the definitive first step to the British North America Act, the Act of
Union, the final Act and law, under and by virtue of
which the Dominion of Canada exists to-day. Confederation was the necessary outcome and result of the
partial and unjust basis of representation which had so
long existed in the country. Notwithstanding its intrinsic excellence its advantages were not immediately
recognised. One by one the links in the lengthening
chain of federal union were welded together. First,
Nova Scotia, then New Brunswick joined hands with
Quebec and Ontario. These several events extended
over a period of nearly three years. It was not until
July 1, 1867, that Her Majesty's proclamation declaring
the Dominion of Canada an accomplished constitutional
fact was legally recognised.' Dominion Day' is now kept
as a holiday throughout the country.
In 1870 the eegis of the Dominion Government
was wisely extended over the vast extent of country
situate between the western boundary of Ontario and
the Rocky Mountains, then known as ' Rupert's Land,'
now shared between the province of Manitoba and the
North-West Territories. In 1871 British Columbia
joined the Confederation, and in 1873 Prince Edward
Island was added to the list. Newfoundland, of all
the Imperial possessions on the vast North American
Continent, alone remains a Crown colony.
Canada since Confederation.
a.d. 1867-76.
The British North America Act came into operation
on July 1, 1867. From that date Canada entered upon
the last and—viewed prospectively—most important era
of her history. The Act provides thatthe constitution
of the Dominion shall be similar in principle to that of
the United Kingdom, that the executive authority shall
be vested in the Sovereign of Great Britain and Ireland,
and carried on in her name by a Governor-General and
Privy Council, and that the legislative power shall be
exercised by a Parliament of two Houses, called the
■ Senate' and the * House of Commons.'
We now proceed to narrate briefly, and in chrono-
scheme of
Act, 1867 CANADA.
a.d. 1867
logical order, the most important public events covered
by the period of Confederation.
H.E. Right Honourable Charles Stanley Viscount
Monck was sworn in as Governor-General, and entrusted the Honourable John A. Macdonald with the
formation of the first Dominion Government, which was
organised as follows:—
Hon. (now Sir) John Alexander Macdonald, Prime Minister.   .
Hon. George Etienne Cartier, Minister of Militia.
Hon. (now Sir) Alexander Tilloch Gait, Minister of Finance.
Hon. William McDougall, Minister of Public Works.
Hon. William Pearce Howland, Minister of Inland Revenue.
Hon. Adams George Archibald, Q.C.,   Secretary of State for the
Hon. Adam Johnston Ferguson-Blair, President of Privy Council.
Hon. Peter Mitchell, Minister of Marine and Fisheries.
Hon. Alexander Campbell, Q.C., Postmaster-General.
Hon. Jean Charles Chapais, Minister of Agriculture.
Hon. Hector Louis Langevin, Q.C., Secretary of State.
Hon. Edward Xenny, Receiver- General.
Lord Monck opened the first Dominion Parliament
at Ottawa, November 8,1867. In his speech on the occasion his Lordship gave utterance to the following memorable words: ' I congratulate you on the legislative
sanction which has been given by the Imperial Parliament to the Act of Union, under the provisions of which
we are now assembled, and which has laid the foundation of a New Nationality that I trust and believe will
ere long extend its bounds from the Atlantic to the
Pacific Ocean"
November 18, 1867.—Hon. John Rose appointed
Minister of Finance, in place of Hon. Alexander T. Gait,
November 14, 1868.—Lord Monck sailed for England. He was succeeded in office by Sir John Young,
who was sworn in as Governor-General December 29.
August 23, 1869.—H.R.H. Prince Arthur arrived at
October 29.—Hon. William McDougall appointed
Lieutenant- Governor of Rupert's Land and North-West
January 15,1870.—Third session of First Parliament
opened by Sir John Young, in presence of H.R.H. Prince
March 4.—Thomas Scott shot at Fort Garry, by order     CANADA.
of Riel's ' court-martial.'  ~
March 7.—The first step taken towards the develop- j^'
ment of Manitoba and the North-west Territories by
the establishment of a Land Department, with Colonel
Dennis, now Deputy Minister of the Interior, as Surveyor-General of Dominion lands.
May 12.—Province of Manitoba and the North-west
Territories admitted into the Dominion. This important event was shortly followed by the arrival of the
military expedition at Fort Garry, under command of
Sir Garnet Wolseley, and the sudden collapse of the
French half-breed rebellion.
February 15, 1871.—Fourth session of First Parliament opened by H.E. Lord Lisgar.
May 4.—Mr. Sandford Fleming appointed Engineer-
in-Chief of Pacific Railway Survey.
July 20.—British Columbia entered the Dominion,
being the sixth province.
June 25, 1872.—Earl of Dufferin arrived at Quebec
and the next day was sworn in as Governor-General.
December 2.—Hon. Alexander Morris appointed
Lieutenant-Governor of Manitoba and the North-West
February 8, 1873.—Pacific Railway charter granted
to Sir Hugh Allan and twelve other directors.
July 1.—General reconstruction of the Dominion
Cabinet as follows:—
Hon. Sir John A. Macdonald, K.C.B., Premier.
Hon. (now Sir) S. Leonard Tilley, C.B., Minister of Finance.
Hon. Peter Mitchell, Minister of Marine and Fisheries.
Hon. Charles Tupper, M.D., C.B., Minister of Customs.
Hon. Alexander Camphell, Q.G., Minister of Interior.
Hon. H. L. Langevin, C.B., Minister of Public Works.
Hon. J. C. Aikins, Secretary of State.
Hon. J. H. Pope, Minister of Agriculture.
Hon. John O'Connor, Q.C., Postmaster-General.
Hon. Theo. Eohitaille, M.D., Receiver-General.
Hon. T. N. Gibbs, Minister of Inland Revenue.
Hon. H. McDonald, Q.C., Minister of Militia and Defence.
This day, the sixth anniversary of the coming into
force of the Confederation Act, was rendered memorable
by the admission of Prince Edward Island, the smallest
as well as the youngest of the Dominion provinces. 14
a.d. 1876-
November 5,1873."—Hon. Sir John A. Macdonald and
his Cabinet resigned. Hon. Alexander Mackenzie formed
the following Ministry:—
Hon. Alexander Mackenzie, Minister of Public Works, Premier.
Hon. Antoine A. Dorion, Q.C., Minister of Justice.
Hon. Edward Blake, Q.C., Without Portfolio.
Hon. "Bichard J. Cartwright, Minister of Finance.
Hon. Luc Letellier de St. Just, Minister of Agriculture.
Hon. David Laird, Minister of Interior.
Hon. David Christie, Secretary of State, afterwards Speaker" of the
Hon. Isaac Burpee, Postmaster-General.
Hon. Thomas Coffin, Receiver-General.
Hon. T. Founder, Q.C, Minister of Inland Revenue.
Hon. William Boss, Minister of Milicia and Defence.
Hon. Richard W. Scott, Q.C., Without Portfolio, afterwards Secretary
of State, vice Hon. D. Christie.
October 7, 1876.—Hon. David Laird appointed Lieutenant-Governor of the North-West Territories, henceforth distinct from the province of Manitoba.
March 26, 1877.—Discussion in Parliament on motion of Dr. Schultz with regard to the destruction of the
June 15.—The Fisheries Commission, appointed under
the Treaty of Washington (Arts. 22-23), met in the
Waverley Hotel, Halifax, and continued in session until
November 23, when the award of 5,500,000 dollars in
gold to be paid by the United States G overnment to the
British Government was made. The Commission was
composed of the following members:—M. Maurice Del-
fosse, President; Hon. Ensign H. Kellogg; Hon. Sir
Alex. T. Gait, K.C.M.G.; Hon. Dwight Foster (United
States agent) ; Francis C. Ford (agent for Great Britain). Dominion Counsel—Joseph Doutre, Q.C. (Montreal) ; S. R. Thomson, Q.C. (St. John, N.B.) ; R. L.
Weatherbee, Q.C. (Halifax, N.S.) ; Hon. W. V. White-
way, Q.C. (St. John's, N.F.) ; Hon. Louis H. Davies
(Charlottetown, P.E.I.).
February, 1878.—The provisions of the Independence
of Parliament Act enforced against members of the
Mackenzie Ministry.
During this month the Fortune Bay (Newfoundland)
difficulty occurred, which led to a lengthy and warm
correspondence, affecting the interests not only of
Newfoundland, but of Canada. The letters of Mr.
W.   M. Evarts,  United    States   Secretary   of  State ajj. 1878.
(March 2), to Sir Edward Thornton, and of Mr. CANADA.
John Walsh, United States Minister in London,
to Lord Derby, are couched in very similar language,
and urge the adoption of such measures as would • not
only put an end to the evil (complained of), but also to
prevent a recurrence of acts which, in addition to the
injuries and losses to individuals^ may have a tendency
to compbcate the good relations which so happily subsist
between the Government of the United States and that
of Her Britannic Majesty.'
The Act creating the District of Keewatin now
came into force. This district may be roughly described
as embracing that portion of the North-West Territories
lying between the meridians 91° 8' and 100° 8' W. of
Greenwich, stretching to the northern limits of Canada,
and bounded to the south by the province of Manitoba
and the United States.
February 11.—His Excellency the Governor-General
and Countess Dufferin visited Montreal, and were magnificently entertained. The senatus of McGill University
presented an address of welcome in Greek, to which
his Excellency replied in the same language.
\The conventional boundary line between British
Columbia and Alaska, as reported by Mr. Joseph Hunter,
C.E., to be at the crossing of the Stickeen River in lat.
5$ 38' 17" N. and long. 131° 58' 14" W., was accepted.
The legislation of this year was marked by the passage ofthe most important Bill of that, or any previous
or subsequent session. This was a Bill providing for the
creation of homestead exemptions in the territories of
April 15.—A monster map of the Dominion, prepared under the superintendence of Lieutenant-Colonel
Dennis, Surveyor-General, was exhibited in Ottawa.
April 16.—An address presented to his Excellency
Earl of Dufferin on the occasion of his farewell in the
Senate Chamber at Ottawa. His Excellency's closing
remarks in reply are worthy of record:—'In conclusion,'
he said, ' allow me to assure you that I shall esteem it
one of the greatest privileges of my future life to watch
the progressive development of your prosperity, to advocate your interests in the British Parliament, and to
confirm our fellow-countrymen at home in their conviction of the high degree to which Canada is destined to HANDBOOK  TO   CANADA.
contribute to the welfare, the strength, and the renown
of the British Empire.'
May 2.—The Secretary of State for the colonies
(Sir M. E. Hicks-Beach), in a despatch to Lord Dufferin,
acknowledged the offer by Canadian Militia officers of
service in the event of war.
May 3.—The following resolutions, on motion of
Mr. Miles,were moved in the Dominion House of Commons :—' That it is expedient that the right of .Canada
to all of British North America, and the islands adjacent
thereto (not including the province of Newfoundland),
should be placed beyond question, and that the offer of
H.M.'s Government to transfer the said territories to
Canada be accepted.' [Boundaries as officially defined
will be found in their appropriate place in this work.]
During the interesting discussion which ensued, much
valuable information respecting the proposed short
ocean route to England by way of the Nelson River and
York Factory was elicited.
May 7.—A motion was made in the Dominion House
of Commons by Mr. Mackenzie to the following effect:—
■ That this House do ratify the Order-in-CounCil dated
April 18, 1878, respecting a subsidy to the Canada Central Railway Company, passed under authority of an
Act to provide for the construction of the Canadian
Pacific Railway, 37 Vic. cap. 14.'
May 24.—Queen's Birthday was celebrated in Montreal by a Grand Military Review, and subsequently by
a dinner at the Windsor Hotel, at which Lord and Lady
Dufferin were present. The threatened Fenian invasion
was adverted to by his lordship, and described as a
' certain amount of Celtic effervescence.'
June 6.—The corporation of the capital city of Ottawa
presented a parting address to Lord and Lady Dufferin,
who took their departure from that city next day on the
Peerless steamer.
June 15.—The Canadian 'Wimbledon' rifle team
(twenty strong) sailed for England in the Allan s.s. Polynesian.
July 28.—The Marquis of Lome accepted the Governor-Generalship of the Dominion.
Aug. 1.—Canada admitted into the General Postal
Aug. 3.—The Albany river was determined upon as
the northern boundary of the province of Ontario.*
Oct. 2.—Viee-Admiral Sir E. A. Inglefield, K.C.B.,
Commander-in-Chief of the N.A. and W.I. station, arrived at Quebec in H.M.S. Bellerophon.
Oct. 16.—The Mackenzie Cabinet resigned.
Oct. 17.—Sir John A. Macdonald sworn in as
Premier, with the following Cabinet:—
Hon. (now Sir) Samuel Leonard Tilley, Minister of Finance.
Hon. (now Sir) Charles Tupper, Minister of Railways and Canals,
Hon. J. H. Pope, Minister of Agriculture.
Hon. John O'Connor, Q.C, President of Council.
Hon. James Macdonald, Q.C., Minister of Justice.
Hon. Hector L. Langevin, C.B., Postmaster-General.
Hon. L. B. P. Masson, M.P., Minister of Militia, $c.
Hon. Senator J. C. Aikins, Secretary of State.
Hon. Mackenzie Bowell, M.P., Minister of Customs.
Hon. J. C. Pope, M.P., Minister of Marine and Fisheries.
Hon. L. P. G. Bahy, MJ?., Minister of Inland Revenue.
Hon. Alex. CampbeU, Receiver-General.
Hon. B. D. Wilmot, President of Senate.
Oct. 18.—Lord Dufferin and suite left Quebec for
England in s.8. Polynesian, leaving General Sir Patrick
L. Macdougall to administer Government ad interim.
Oct. 22.—Sir John A. Macdonald, the present Premier, was returned to the Dominion Parliament for the
city of Victoria, British Columbia.
Nov. 4.—Completion of the Pembina branch of the
Canadian Pacific Railway.
Nov. 24.—The Marquis of Lome, the newly-appointed
Governor-General, and the Princess Louise, landed at
Dec. 10.—-Loan of 17,000,000 dols. negotiated in
London at 96^ on the guarantee by the Imperial Government of one half.
* The full text of the award will be found in the Chapter upon
a.d. 1878. 18
of Canada.
The first and most important question' that geography
has to answer is Where ? Where, then, is Canada ? As
a geographical designation solely, the name Canada—
a corruption of Kanata or Kannatha, an Iroquois word
signifying a collection of huts—has had in history a
variety of meanings. Originally, and up to 1759, it
embraced an almost boundless extent of country, under
the dominion of France, extending from Acadia and the
great Gulf of St. Lawrence, as far as the Mississippi
river and the Gulf of Mexico. This was the ' New
France' of the early French explorer, missionary, and
merchant adventurer. It was subsequently limited to
a region lying chiefly on the borders and banks of the
great lakes and the river St. Lawrence, extending from
Quebec westward to Lake St. Clair, and known as the
Basin of the St. Lawrence. Near the close of last century it was divided into two provinces, Ontario and
Quebec. Quebec at that date was divided into three distinct governments, viz., Quebec, Trois-Rivieres, and
Montreal. It was further divided into eighty-two
parishes, forty-eight of which lay north and thirty-four
south of the St. Lawrence river. These two sections,
under their more familiar titles of Upper and Lower
Canada, were reunited in 1840 by the Imperial Act of
Although now politically, as well as nominally, united
under the same Government, laws, and commercial regulations, the manners and customs of the people still
greatly distinguish them.
The Dominion of Canada as now constituted—first
by the Federal Union of 1840, then by the Confederation Act of 1867, and subsequently by its extensions of
1870-71 and 1873—embraces eight principal territorial
divisions or provinces, each having a government and
parliament of its own. In the order of population they
rank as follows :— DIVISIONS AND  AREA.
Provinces, Sic.
Square Miles
Quebec ......
Nova-Scotia .....
New Brunswick    ....
Prince Edward Island   .       .       .
Manitoba      .....
British Columbia (including Van- "1
couver, Queen Charlotte's and >
other Islands)        .       .       .J
North-West Territory   .
Keewatin district ....
Islands in the Arctic Ocean   .
Islands in Hudson's Bay
Totals .
area, &c.
t According to the census of 1871, the latest of which we have any official
* The proposed new boundaries give to this province 105,690 additional square
The  seven organised   provinces embrace  864,365
square miles.
The Indians belonging to thirty-six tribes numbered Indians.
103,367 in 1878.
As illustrating the composite character of the Cana- Origin or
dian people the following table, showing the origin of Population,
the people of the four old provinces, according to the
census of 1871, is of interest:—
English    .
German   .
Carried forward
c2 20
Extent and
From this it will be seen that while Ontario is distinctively British, Quebec is as distinctively French in
the nationality of its inhabitants ; and that Ireland has
contributed by far the largest share to the whole population, Scotland coming next, and Germany fourth.
The German settlements are mainly in Ontario and Nova
Scotia. British Columbia, Manitoba, and the North-
West Territories contain by far the largest proportion
of Indians, and British Columbia thus far the only
Territorially Canada now embraces everything lying
within the northern half of the North American Continent, excepting Newfoundland and part of Labrador
on the east, and Alaska on the west. Its boundaries
are therefore easily defined by following them with the
eye, or tracing them with the finger on the accompanying map. They are the Atlantic Ocean, Davis's Straits
and Baffin's Bay on the east; the Pacific Ocean, Alaska,
and Queen Charlotte's Island on the west; the Arctic
Ocean and Alaska (lately Russian America) on the
north ; and the United States on the south, south-east,
and south-west. In short, the Dominion of Canada
extends east and west from the 53rd to the 141st
meridian, and occupies a superficial area of 3,336,701
square miles, one-fifteenth of the land surface of the
world, rather more than the United States, and rather
less than the whole of Europe.    The habitable area is, EXTENT AND  BOUNDARIES.
however, largely diminished, when the frozen regions
north of the 60th parallel and the water-area of 700,000
square miles are deducted. It is with the comparatively narrow strip of settled country bordering
on the Atlantic coast and extending through the St.
Lawrence and Saskatchewan valleys on and near the
proposed route of the Canadian Pacific Biailway to the
Rocky Mountains and the Pacific Ocean—the fertile or
food-producing belt—that we propose to deal with in
the following pages.
Physical Geography.
So vast an extent of country as Canada presents
every possible variety of surface, as well as every description of climate, soil, and product. Its leading topographical, geological, and botanical features suggest
three great regions, into which it may very properly be
divided. These are the elevated or woodland, the middle,
or prairie, and the western, or mountain, regions. Timber, and, to a smaller extent, minerals, distinguish
equally the Atlantic and Pacific slopes of the continent,
while the interior is largely adapted for agricultural and
pastoral purposes. Starting from the Atlantic frontier
of the maritime provinces, we find the Cape Breton
highlands skirting the sea-coast, and extending inland
fifteen or twenty miles. This dislocated range of meta-
morphic hills nowhere assumes the height of mountains.
Sixty miles inland from this seaboard, and nearly parallel Mountains,
thereto, the Cobequid Mountains, some of which are
1,100 feet high, traverse Nova Scotia, from the Bay of
Fundy to the Strait of Canso. This range is clothed
with a large growth of timber to its summit, where
agricultural products grow luxuriantly. The third
mountainous range of moderate elevation traverses the
boundary between Quebec and New Brunswick, from
the State of Maine to the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The
east coast of Labrador is also mountainous. The mountain formations of the country lying between the Gulf
of St. Lawrence and the Rocky Mountains assume a
different direction from the lower mountain ranges just
referred to. The country presents' a terraced character,
and the navigation of the principal rivers and streams 22 HANDBOOK TO  CANADA.
CANADA,     is obstructed by numerous falls and rapids.    On either
   side of the Valley of the St. Lawrence the country is
also mountainous. The range on the north side is called
the Laurentides. It extends westwardly from the Labrador coast up the north side of the Ottawa River to
the Arctic Ocean, a length of 3,500 miles. It forms the
watershed between the tributaries of the St. Lawrence
and those of Hudson's Bay, rising to the height of
2,000 feet near Lake Superior. The southern, or south
side range, called the Notre Dame Mountains, is a spur
of the Alleghanies, which, commencing at the Gulf of
St. Lawrence, run nearly parallel to the River St. Lawrence, reaching their greatest elevation of 4,000 feet on
the Gaspe Peninsula, and terminating in Virginia. The
Blue Mountains on the south side of the Georgian Bay
attain a height of 1,900 feet above the waters of Lake
Huron. Westward of Lake Superior, stretching to the
Rocky Mountains, is the great wheat-producing tract,
now everywhere recognised as the ' fertile belt.' Some
peaks of the Rocky Mountains rise_to the height of
15,000 feet. Between the Rockies and the Pacific coast
intervene the Selkirk Mountains and the Gold Coast or
Cascade Ranges, the highest points of which reach an
elevation of 7,000 feet. In the vicinity of Cariboo and
the sources of the North Thompson River, some peaks of
the Selkirk Mountains reach a somewhat higher elevation.
The area covered by the water system of Canada
Gulfs and embraces about 700,000 square miles. The coasts of the
hays. Dominion are everywhere numerously indented.    The
most remarkable of these indentations form the extensive inland seas known as Hudson's Bay, the Gulf of St.
Lawrence, and the Gulf of Georgia
Owing to her remarkable physical configuration and
Lakes and extensive watershed, Canada possesses the largest lake
rivers. and river system in the world.   The volume and surface
area of her lakes and rivers are equally remarkable. The
hydrographies! basin ofthe St. Lawrence with the great
lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, St. Clair, Erie, and
Ontario, alone occupies 330,000 square miles. These
lakes and their tributary streams form the largest and
purest continuous system of fresh water in the world,
and impart to the Dominion a perfectly unique hydro-
graphical character. PHYSICAL  GEOGRAPHY. 2,6
The lake system of Ontario and of the central or     CANADA,
prairie region embraces, among many smaller bodies of
water, Great Slave, Great Bear, and Athabasca Lakes,
Winnipeg, Manitoba, Winnipegosis, and Lake of the
Woods, Simcoe, Nepigon, and Nipissing.
Next to the St. Lawrence, the most important rivers
of the Dominion are the Saskatchewan, Mackenzie,
Peace, Nelson, Athabasca, Assiniboine, Albany, Churchill,
and Winnipeg, all flowing in the vast North-West territory ; tbe Columbia, Fraser, and Thompson in British
Columbia; the Ottawa, which forms the boundary between Ontario and Quebec provinces, and its chief
tributaries the Gatineau, Madawaska, Keepawa, and
Matawan; the Saguenay, Richelieu, St. Maurice, and
Chaudiere, in Quebec 5 the St. John, Miramichi, Resti-
gouche, and Petitcodiac, in New Brunswick ; the
Sbubenacadie, St. Mary's, La Have, Avon, and Annapolis, in Nova Scotia ; and the York and Hillsborough
rivers in Prince Edward Island. Only the better
known of these rivers have been navigated to any considerable extent with steam craft.
Thus Canada possesses a continuous waterway from
the Atlantic to the head of Lake Superior, a natural
highway of travel, and the best, because the cheapest
and healthiest, emigrant route across the American continent.
Salt and other mineral springs are very numerous Mineral
and well distributed, while in no part of the Dominion, sPrulgs.
save, perhaps, in a few of the small arable land sections
in Eastern British Columbia, is irrigation practised or
found to be necessary.
The drainage system of the Dominion is threefold— Drainage
viz., eastward to the Atlantic, westward to the Pacific, system,
and northward to the Arctic Ocean and Hudson's Bay.
1 Climate,' says Professor Ansted, in his admirable Climate,
compendium of ' Physical Geography,' ' is a very complex matter, and one dependent on a great variety of
conditions.' These to some extent affect and depend on
each other, but all may ultimately be traced to certain
general causes connected with physical geography.
Among such causes are—
(1) The position ofthe station in latitude.
(2) The size and figure of the land on which the
J 24
station is situated, whether detached island, archipelago,
or continent.
(3) The elevation ofthe station above the sea.
(4) The position of the land on which the station is
placed with reference to the neighbouring land.
(5) The position, distance, and direction, magnitude, and elevation of the nearest continent.
(6) The nature, magnitude, and direction of the
nearest great marine current to the shores.
Let us now see how far and in what respect the
climate of Canada is affected by these causes.
The public mind, though less abnsed than formerly,
is still greatly prejudiced in regard to the climate of
Furs are sue*°*estive of frost and snow, and, in the
opinion of some people, these are worn the year round
in Canada. The summers and winters are equally decided, and in some interior sections are rather trying to
those accustomed to milder and more equable temperatures. The heat of snmmer-and the cold of winter are
greater than in England. On the whole, however, they
are found to be remarkably dry, bracing, and healthy.
A March east wind in England is infinitely more chilling
and depressing than thirty degrees of frost in almost any
part of Canada. In a country the size of Europe almost
every variety of climate and range of thermometer is
experienced. It has been urged, and justly, that the
climate of a country which perfects the production of
the most valued grains, grasses, fruits, plants, timber,
and animals—including man—cannot be other than a
good one. That of southern interior Canada is greatly
influenced by the vast extent of her lake waters. Temperate latitudes are, it is everywhere admitted, requisite
for the highest development of animal life, and the climate of that portion of Canada which borders on the
Upper St. Lawrence and the great lakes is temperate.
Ontario enjoys an exceptionally temperate climate, while
that of Quebec and the North-West territories resembles
that of Norway. The meteorological service forms a
branch of the General Department of Marine and Fisheries, and is most ably superintended. The Central
Office and Magnetic Observatory are at Toronto.    In PHYSICAL  GEOGRAPHY.
daily correspondence with it are ten principal stations,     CANADA,
viz. :—
Nova Scotia
New Brunswick   .
British Columhia
St. John.
Spence's Bridge.
Observations, extended over a period of years, have
established 44° as the mean annual temperature of Ontario, while that of the British Isles is 48°. The almost
insular character of 0 ntario protects it from the extremes
of heat and cold experienced in the western provinces
and territories. The prairie region west of Ontario and
east of British Columbia has a mean summer temperature of 60°, with abundance of rain. During winter
from 50° to 60° of frost are frequently registered.
Throughout the coast regions of Nova Scotia, New
Brunswick, and British Columbia the range ofthe ther-
mometer is not nearly so great; the climate is also
more moist and changeable.
The general distribution of rain is more uniform, and Bain and
snow falls to a much greater depth and lies much longer snow,
throughout Canada than in the British isles. It must be
borne in mind, however, that snow serves a most valuable economic purpose in Canadian husbandry in quickening the soil. More than this, it makes good sleighing,
and good sleighing is the glory of Canadian winter life.
Next to his health, the most important question for
the settler in a new country to consider is the easy
acquisition and disposition of land. Agriculture, including stock and dairy farming, have long been the chief
industrial interests of the Dominion. Next to these
rank the products of the forest and their manufacture;
after these the fisheries and the mines. As every intelligent and thrifty immigrant will, sooner or later, become
a landowner, it is important that he should, as soon as
possible, make himself acquainted with the system of
system, &c
buying, holding,
improving,   selling,  or   transferring 26
Price of
and Admiralty
land. The laws of primogeniture and entail are abolished, and the transfer of land is cheap and easy. British
tenant fanners, anxious to change their condition of
leaseholders to that of owners, have in Canada, more
particularly in the prairie country—hereafter specially
referred to in the chapters on Manitoba and North-West
Territories—a wide and promising field for investment.
In the provinces of Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick,
Nova Scotia, and British Columbia, the grant of one
hundred millions of acres to the Canadian Pacific Railway
alone excepted, the lands are held by the several provincial governments. All public lands in Canada, as in
other parts of the Empire, are. called ' Crown' lands, i.e.
held by the Crown in trust for the people.
Dominion lands are surveyed in blocks of twelve
miles square. These are subdivided into four townships
of six miles square each; these again into thirty-six
sections of one mile square, or 640 acres each; and
each section into quarters of 160 acres each.* Each
township, therefore, contains 23,040 acres, and each
block 92,160 acres.
They may be bought to the extent of 640 acres at
4s. 2d. sterling per acre, cash down.*}* Unoccupied
Dominion lands will be leased to neighbouring- settlers
for cutting hay, &c, but not to the hindrance of the
sale or settlement of such lands. Timber and mineral
lands are subject to special regulations, which will be
found in the Homestead and other special Acts in the
Appendix. - Improved farms (advantageous for tenant-
farmers newly arrived and unacquainted with tbe
country and its requirements) may be purchased in
almost every part of the Dominion. Such farms are
either partially or entirely cleared of timber and under
cultivation, with dwellings and farm-buildings on them,
and are therefore at once available for agricultural purposes. The prices of such range from 4Z. to 40Z. per
acre, according to situation and productiveness. The
utmost caution should in all cases be observed by new
settlers in the selection and purchase of land.
The principal Ordnance lands remaining unsold at
the close of the fiscal year 1879 are situate at Kingston
* Por full particulars see Dominion Lands Act, in the Appendix,
•j- See Appendix for list of Dominion Government agents. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.
and Prescott in Ontario province, and at Montreal,
Quebec, St. John, South River, Blairgowrie and Sorel
in the adjoining province of Quebec; while smaller lots
lie scattered through both provinces.
Canada is the only British colony, excepting Queensland and West Australia, that grants land free to
settlers.* Quarter sections (160 acres) of untenanted
Dominion lands—in all the provinces—are granted to
any person who is the head of a family, or to any person, not the head of a family, who has attained the age
of twenty-one years, on condition of three years' settlement from the time of taking possession and the payment of the entry free of 10 dols. (21. Is. 3cL) In the
North-West Territories the settler has the privilege of
purchasing 160 acres more in the neighbourhood of his
From the Report of the Surveyor-General, it appears
that the receipts in cash and scrip during 1879 for land
sales in Manitoba and the North-West Territories,
amounted to $218,409, and the fees on homestead and
pre-emption entries alone realised $42,910; while the
area of land disposed of—1,154,072 acres—exceeded the
area disposed of the previous year by considerably over
half a million acres, and only fell short of the entire
extent homesteaded, pre-empted, and sold in Manitoba
and the Territories during the four preceding years by
some 245,000 acres.
Agriculture forms the chief and abiding interest and
industry of the Dominion. That farming pays in
Canada is sufficiently proved by the fact that more persons are engaged in it than in any other branch of industry. In 1871, ont of 463,424 persons enumerated
as employed in the Province of Ontario, 228,708 belonged
to the farming-class; in Qaebec there were 160,041,,
out of a total of 341,291; in New Brunswick 40,394,
out of a total of 86,488; and in Nova Scotia 49,769, out
of 118,645. In fact, nearly one-half of the whole population were then engaged in agriculture; and this proportion has been fairly sustained during the past ten
years.    By way of illustrating the rapidly progressive
* As the system of procuring free lands varies slightly in some
of the provinces, the points of difference will be found noted in the
respective chapters.
Land sales
in Manitoba and
Agriculture. 28
Exports of
character of the Canadian farming industry it is sufficient to quote the yield and export of the staple crops
at three periods during the past half-century. In 1820
the average export of wheat did not exceed 1,000,000
bushels. In 1852 the yield of grain and potatoes was
a little in excess of 50,000,000 bushels; while in 1860 the
grain and green crops together aggregated 125,000,000
During the last twenty years the wheat production
has been greatly stimulated, and Canada now produces
40,000,000 bushels, and a total of 170,000,000 bushels
of all crops, or about 42^ bushels per inhabitant. When
the wheat-fields of the new North-West are fairly
under cultivation, say before the close of the present
century, Canada will have a wheat surplus for export
of 100,000,000 bushels—sufficient to supply the deficit
in the present wheat consumption of the United
Kingdom. Those who may be desirous to obtain
the most recent and authentic information on the
agricultural status and prospects of the Dominion
are advised to peruse the recent reports of the Royal
Commissioners, Messrs. Read and Pell, of the Delegate
Farmers, and of Prof. J. P. Sheldon, author of ' Dairy
Farming'—all of which may be readily procured of any
Government stationer. Agriculturists and farm labourers need not carry implements or tools with them,
as these, better suited to their special requirements,
can be more cheaply obtained in Canada.
Pastoral farming, which includes stock-raising and
dairy-farming—next to agriculture—is the most important industry of Canada, both soil and climate being
favourable for its prosecution. Grasses, it is well known,
thrive best in the region of summer rains and moderate
summer temperatures, e.g. in the middle and higher parts
of the temperate zone. The high quality of Canadian dairy
produce is now everywhere acknowledged. Ontario and
the eastern townships of Quebec offer perhaps the best
openings for those wishing to engage in this branch of
business. Manitoba and the North-West Territories will,
however, offer increased advantages as soon as railway
communication is established through them. The quality
of the wool, mutton, and beef raised on the grasses of
the North-West prairies is even finer than that produced
Cheese and
butter exports.
Mines and
in the eastern provinces and townships. Cheese and CANADA,
butter, to the value of 8,500,000 dols., are annually exported. The production of the former article advanced
from 20,000,000 lbs. in 1874 to 40,000,000 lbs. in 1878.
The foot-and-mouth disease, and cattle epidemics generally, are unknown throughout the Dominion.
During the last four years the pastoral industry has
acquired additional interest from the direct trade in
beef and cattle which has sprung up with England.
The value of the Hve stock of the Dominion in 1874 was
33,000,OOOZ., against 24,000,0002. in 1861.
Fruit may be profitably grown in favoured districts
only, such as the Annapolis valley in Nova Scotia, in
the Niagara, and western districts of Ontario, and in the
southern and more sheltered sections of the St. Lawrence Valley. The total agricultural export of Canada
for 1878-79 amounted to 26 millions of dollars.
Canada, having an extremely diversified geological
* O v O O
formation, is rich in minerals. In the Laurentian region
the mineral deposits are especially extensive.
Though in every way subordinate to her fertile fields
and grand forests as a source of wealth, her mineral deposits must, as capital and labour make their influence
felt in the country, attract increased attention and development.
No single province—except, perhaps, Prince Edward
Island—is without mineral deposits. Nova Scotia and
British Columbia are rich in coal and gold, the total
yield of coal in these provinces for 1879 being 900,000
tons. The following ores have been worked: gold, silver,
copper, lead (galena), iron (magnetic, hematite, chromic, and titanic), coal (lignite and albertite), appatite
(phosphate of lime), graphite, mica, barytes, asbestos,
slate, gypsum, petroleum, rock salt, antimony, iron
pyrites, and manganese. The total exports from the Exports
Dominion for 1878 amounted to 4,125,763 dols., or to
rather more than three-fourths of a million sterling.
These minerals are not confined to any one province,
bnt are found deposited in one form or another, and in
greater or lesser quantities, in every part of the country,
from the Atlantic to the Pacific. We can only mention
a few of the more valuable mining districts and their
chief productions. 30
Coal and
Chid has been found and successfully worked, though
in a small way, in Nova Scotia, British Columbia, Quebec,
and in the Marmora and Madoc districts of Ontario.
The method thus far pursued has been that known as
■ quartz' mining. British Columbia possesses extensive and valuable gold-fields, yielding ore annually to
the value of from 250,0002. to 400,0002. In the early
days of gold mining in British Columbia fortunes were
sometimes made in a few weeks. In 1863 Dillion's claim
yielded in one day 102 lbs. weight of gold. Other
claims frequently yielded from ten to fifty pounds of gold
in twenty-four hours. The average earnings of miners
at the present time is estimated at 700 dols. a year. Explorations connected with the Geological Survey in 1876
x showed the whole province to be auriferous.
Silver is known to exist in several sections of the
Dominion. By far the richest deposits thus far found
have been on the north shores of Lake Superior, south
of the Thunder Bay section of the proposed Canadian
Pacific railway. Silver Islet has been pronounced one
of the most extensive and valuable silver mining properties on the continent.    It is as yet unworked.
Veins of argentiferous galena are found in almost
every section of Quebec south of the St. Lawrence.
Iron and Goal.—Iron exists everywhere throughout
the Laurentian ranges. Nova Scotia takes precedence, so
far, of all the other provinces in the extent and value of
her coal and iron mines. They have both been successfully
worked for many years. There are some thirty mines
in operation on the mainland and in the island of Cape
Breton, and they yield on an average one million tons
annually. New Brunswick ranks next. The Madoc (Ont.)
and Quebec mines exhibit an annually increasing output of iron, but the difficulty of obtaining coal for smelting purposes, and the substitution, as far as practicable, of
charcoal is found to operate unfavourably to its extension. At Hull, opposite Ottawa city, and at Marmora,
Hastings county, there are immense beds of magnetic
and red hematite iron which can be profitably worked.
At the mouth of the Moisic river, 270 miles below
Quebec, there is another vast deposit, estimated to contain 20,000,000 tons. British Columbia is rich in coal
and iron; the coal mines of Vancouver give employment PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.
to a large amount of capital and labour. Anthracite coal
of fair quality is found on Queen Charlotte's Island. The
\ lignite' formations at ' Roche Perce' in the Souris
river valley in the vicinity of the 49th parallel, N.W.T.,
are now undergoing investigation.
Oil.—Petroleum, or coal oil, abounds in south-west
Ontario, and is largely ' pumped ' and manufactured on
the Hne of the Great Western and other railways in that
province. In 1873 upwards of 15,000,000 gallons were
produced. The oil-bearing rock—Lower Devonian
limestone—is largely distributed over the western peninsula.
Copper.—Canadian copper is noted for its purity.
Mines have been opened along the shores of Lakes
Huron and Superior. The ' Bruce' mines of Lake
Huron are said to yield copper ore to the value of
50,0002. annually. The exports from Ontario and
Quebec in 1874 amounted to 3,142 tons. In the eastern
townships of Quebec copper-mining is also extensively
carried on.
Salt weUs and springs are abundant in New Brunswick, and in some portions of Ontario.
Peat abounds in Quebec, in the island of Anticosti,
and in some parts of Ontario.
British North America contains probably the most
extensive and most valuable forests of timber in the
world. Fully one half its entire surface is still covered
with timber. The value of the timber annuaUy shipped
may be roundly stated at 15,000,000 dols. Only the
square timber is exported; the logs are manufactured
into lumber at home. There is no country in the world
where logging or log-roHing is more practised or better
understood. Nature's rotation of crops in the forest is
a most interesting study. Mr. John J. Rowan, in his
charming book, ' The Emigrant and Sportsman in
Canada,' furnishes a characteristic picture of the. process .—-Where a deciduous forest has been cut down
or destroyed by fire, spruce and fir trees rapidly spring
up. Where a pine forest has been so destroyed, blueberries and raspberries grow in immense profusion for
two or three subsequent seasons; then cherry, white
birch, maple, and popple (American poplar) commence
to make their appearance, shoot up  with surprising
Forests. 32
Varieties of
rapidity, and soon a forest of deciduous trees occupies
the site of the ancient pine forests of the country, relics
of which may be seen in the gigantic half-charred stems
thoroughly dried by fire and weather, which remain
standing amongst the young green wood for twenty or
thirty years.    These immense trunks, standing high
over the heads of the young forest-trees, with uplifted
arms and stems blanched white with successive storms
and sunshine, look Hke the ghosts of the forest primeval,
and present a weird and rather melancholy appearance.'
The Canadian forest-growth includes between sixty
and seventy varieties of wood.    Of these the best-known
and most widely esteemed are the white pine and white
spruce.    The white bircbrand cedar are also common.
The latter is perhaps the most remarkable wood in the
Canadian   forest,   justly esteemed   so  on account   of
its lightness and durability.    The foUowing list embraces only the most useful woods, and those most
commonly  met with:—Of  the   family   ConiferoB, the
white or Princes pine (P. strobus) is the best known.
It   is   the   pine of commerce,  grows everywhere in
Canada, and is largely exported.    According to Sir J.
Richardson it is found as far north as Lake Winnipeg.    Two others of the same family, the yeUow pine
(P. mitis) and the red pine (P. resinosa), are frequently
met with.    The hemlock (Abies canadensis) grows to a
great size, and, though considered an inferior wood for
timber purposes, is a valuable tree on account of its
bark, which is largely used in tanning.    Of the spruce,
which in one form or another enters largely into the
export trade of the maritime provinces, there are no
less than three varieties, viz., the white (A. alba), the
black (A. nigra), and the ' skunk ' spruce, so named by
the Indians on account of its strong odour.    Of the
remaining coniferae, the fir (Abies balscemea), sometimes
caUed ' var' by the settler, and the cedar, are the most
prized. Belonging to the Betulacece are the white, yeUow
and black birch.    The first is invaluable for its bark, out
of which many a canoe, and many a snug tent have been
made.    The two last serve admirably for fuel.    The
maple adds its charm to the many autumn attractions
of the Canadian forest.    Of this tree there are two weU-
known varieties, the rock or sugar maple (Acer sacchari- NATURAL  HISTORY,  SPORTS,  ETC.
num), and the white maple (A. dasycarpum). The
I bird's-eye ' and \ curly' maple, so much employed in the
manufacture of furniture, are varieties of the rock maple.
It also furnishes the best of fuel, and is the ' Yule-log,'
so to speak, of Lower Canada and the seaboard provinces. The white oak (Quercus alba), the beech (Fagus
sylvestris), the white and black ash and the white and
rock elm, hickory, poplar, butter nut, and sumach, and
the black walnut—the last named only found in Ontario
—complete the list of the better-known Canadian woods.
Natural History, Sports, etc.
The prescribed limits of a handbook—which, in order
to meet the daily, perhaps hourly, requirements of
the reader on his travels, should, as far as practicable,
be also adapted to the pocket and the knapsack—forbid
any attempt at a complete enumeration of the fauna of
Canada. A separate treatise would be required to do
anything Hke justice to this interesting branch of our
subject. Competent authorities have, however, dealt
with it, and to the results of their labours we must refer
our inquiring friends.
Canada is essentially a sporting country. There is
scarce a section or district of the entire Dominion that
does not offer attractions of some sort to the lovers of
sport. Indeed, it is well entitled to the appeUation by
which it is frequently distinguished amongst Hterary
sportsmen—the ' Sportsman's Paradise.' Excellent hunting, shooting, and fishing may be enjoyed in almost
every locality and at any season not excepted by law.
Nova Scotia, though, according to Lord Duhraven, so
nearly ' settled up ' that' the moose-supporting portions
of the country are becoming very limited in extent, is still
perhaps unexcelled as a sporting field for large game.
Vast tracts being yet primeval forest, the moose (Oervus-
alces) and cariboo (Gervus rangifer) are the principal
large game to be found in Canada. The moose is by far
the biggest of all existing deer.     It is aUied to the
Oo O rt 1*1
elk of Europe, but attains to a greater bulk, frequently
weighing 1,200 lbs. and upwards. The cariboo answers
to the reindeer of northern Europe, on a somewhat
larger  scale  and with  far  finer  horns.    Cumberland
Fauna. 34
county N.S. is described by competent authorities as
' one of the finest moose-hunting grounds in the world.'
There are no private game-preserves in the province, so
that all are aUowed to hunt, shoot, or fish ad libitum.
The close season for moose or cariboo extends from mid-
February to   September  1.    Tbe woods  abound with
wUd  animals,  including   moose,*   deer,  bears,  foxes,
antelope, otter,  beaver,  and squirrel.   The Canadian
Beaver is only 3^ feet in length, of a high chestnut
colour, with a flat tail.    No better model of ingenuity
and industry can be found by the newly-arrived immigrant.    Feathered game are found in abundance—geese,
ducks,   woodcock,   snipe,   plover,  curlew,  partridges,
pigeons, and many other birds.   A Hst of the birds
of Canada published in   1856  gives the names of no
less than 716 ;  of these 243 belong to New Brunswick.
The lakes and rivers abound in bass, dory, &c.    Lakes
Beauport,  St.  Joseph,  and St.  Charles, in the neighbourhood of Quebec, HteraUy swarm with fish.    ' From
Lake Ontario down to the straits of BeUe Isle, a distance of nearly 2,000 nnles, there is hardly a mile of
coast Hue,' says Rowan,   ' without a river or stream
which affords fair angHng.' t    The sea-coast fisheries of
Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and British   Columbia
prodaee a handsome revenue to the country and are
capable of almost limitless extension.    The Dominion
fisheries constitute a most important branch of the public
service, which is superintended by a commissioner in the
Department of the Minister of Marine and Fisheries at
Ottawa.    * In yield  and value,' writes this officer in
his annual report for 1878, ' the Canadian fisheries are
stiU improving.    Compared with last year their produce
is valued at above half a million more.    Succeeding
tables, extending over a series of years, establish the
fact that this improvement is not casual or spasmodic,
but gradual and permanent.'    The value of the fish product for 1879 was 13,530,000 dols., of which one half
* To the true lover of this exciting sport—moose-hunting—we
commend the perusal of a portion of a masterly and characteristic
paper from the pen of the Bight Hon. the Earl of Dunraven, in a
late number of the Nineteenth Century.
■j- Lists of the principal fish of Canada, and of the best angling
streams accessible to the sporting tourist, furnished by this enthusiastic writer, will he found in the Appendix. NATURAL  HISTORY,   SPORTS,   ETC.
was exported. This was an increase of 313,576 dols. over
-the yield of 1878; for 1877 it was 12,029,957 dols.;
for 1876, 11,147,590 dols. The production in each
-province ofthe Dominion in 1877-8-9 was as foUows:—
Nova Scotia
New Brunswick
P. E. Island
British Columbia
Dols. -
The values of the different principal fish or fish-pror
•ducts for 1879, were—
Codfish .
Salmon .
fish, &c. .
Seal, Whal
Porpoise, Dog-
It is estimated that folly 250,000 people, or one-
sixteenth of the entire population, support themselves on
-this industry. Within twenty miles of Halifax, N.S.,
"trout and salmon-fishing can be obtained in every phase
which the gentle art is capable of assuming. Shel-
Trarne, Queens, and Lunenburg counties—the lake region
•of Nova Scotia—offer, perhaps, the greatest attractions
to the patrons of ' the rod and reel.' The Nova Scotian
salmon rivers are mostly short, running in parallel lines
to the sea only a few miles apart. The fishing-grounds
seldom extend more than ten or twelve miles from their
mouths. Sea- or salmon-trout, averaging about 3 lbs. in
weight, commence running up these streams at the end
of June, and the best sport is to be had at that deHghtful
season. Rimouski and various other points on the St.
Lawrence river and its seaboard tributaries are famed
for their salmon-fishing. Englishmen going to sport in
Canada are recommended to supply themselves with
both guns and dogs at home. Fishing-tackle can also
be bought better in England.
The artificial production of fish is promoted by public
n 2
Value of
Fi shin si's. 36
Iii vers.
grants of monev, and bv the establishment of' hatcheries *
or breeding: establishments. The following: table exhibits
the distribution of fish during: 18/8 and 1879 :—
Fish Hatcheries
Kinds of Fish
1. Newcastle, Ontario
S. Sandwich        „
3. Bedford, Nova Scotia .
4. Restigouche, Quebec   .
5. Gaspe                 „
6. Tadoussac         „
7. -*/Branuch*,NewBruns-
wiek        ...
Total distribution, 1879
„              „          1878
12,800,000 I
21,900,000 |
Salmon .
California Salmon
Salmon Trout
Speckled Trout     .
Total, 1879 .
„     1878 .
The foUowing Hst of
Provinces of Quebec and N
useful to the angler :—
Du Gouflre
Ste. Marguerite, N. E. Branch
do. N.W.   do.
A Mars
Little Saguenay
Anse St. Jean
Sault au Oochon
Not angled
Becscie }-Not angled
St. John, Mingan
Natashquan *
Watsheeshoo       "1 -vT a       -i j
w   , . -      J. Not angled
\\ asheecootai     J
the   leased rivers  of   the
ew Brunswick will be found
Little S.W. Bic
St. Anne des Monts
St. John
Grand Pahos
Little Pahos
Little Cascapedia
Grand Cascapedia
Restigouche, Lower Division
do. Middle    do.
do. Upper     do.
S. W. Mi rami chi
do.       (Rough Waters) ■^
Nearly 56,000 lbs. of salmon were taken from these     CANADA,
streams in 1879, the Grand Cascapedia, Matapedia, and
Restigouche yielding nearly hah0 the amount.
Political Geography.
Social Statistics.
The Govern ment of Canada is that of a limited monarchy, Govem-
framed on the principles of the responsibiHty of Minis- ment
ters to Pariiament. It is vested in a Governor-General
as executive, appointed by the Queen but paid by Canada,
and a Cabinet of thirteen members, who, with the addition of the Speaker of the Senate, form the Queen's
Privy Council. Each Cabinet officer presides over a
department known as the—■
1. Minister of Interior.
2. Finance.
3. Railways and Canals.
4. Postmaster-General.
5. Justice:
6. Public Works.
7. Agriculture and Immigra
8. Customs.
9. Militia and Defence.
10. Secretary of State.
11. Marine and Fisheries.
12. Inland Revenue.
13. President of Privy Council.
The seat of the Federal Dominion Government is at
Ottawa city, Ontario, on the Ottawa river.
The ParHament consists of the Queen, an Upper
House of seventy-eight members appointed by the Governor-General for Hfe, styled the ' Senate •' and a
Lower Honseof two hundred and six members, elected for
five years, styled the ' House of Commons.' Sessions are
held annuaUy, and the Governor-General has power to
dissolve the House before the expiration of the five-year
The foUowing list of Governors and Governor-Generals since the Union wiU be found useful:—
Sir Edmund Head
Viscount Monck
Lord Lisgar
Earl of Dufferin
Marquis of Lome
The several provinces have Heutenant-governors,
paid by the Dominion, and systems of responsible local government, formed on the model of that of the Dominion.
Lord Sydenham
Sir C. Bagot
Sir C. Metcalfe
Earl Cathcart
Earl of Elgin
Seat of
Governors- 38
The counties and townships have also their local
governments or councils, which regulate their local taxa-
tion for roads, schools, and other municipal purposes.
The judges of the Canadian courts are appointed by
the Crown, and are not elected by the people as in the-
United States.
The highest court in the land is the Supreme Court
of Canada. It is composed of a chief justice and five
puisne judges, and has appeUate jurisdiction within and
throughout the Dominion, in crinainal as weU as civil
cases, from every court. This is the only Dominion
court, all others being provincial in their powers and
character. The most important of the Provincial courts
are the Court of Chancery, the Court of Queen's Bench,
the Court of Common Pleas, and the Court of Error and
Appeal. The lower courts are the County Courts, the
General Sessions, and the Division Courts. In the chief"
towns and cities there are stipendiary magistrates who
hold court daily for the hearing of ordinary police cases.
They also have jurisdiction in certain civil cases, snch.
as the non-payment of wages. Aldermen of cities have
magisterial powers ex-officio. In aU parts of the country
there are justices of the peace, holding their commissions-
from the Crown, who inquire into all such cases as may
arise within their respective jurisdictions.
Courts of Assize and Nisi Prins, and of Oyer and
Terminer and general gaol deHvery, are held from time
to time in every county. The jury system prevails
throughout the land.
Education, Religion, 8fc.
There is no State Church, and no national system of
education, and the utmost religious Hberty prevails
throughout the Dominion. The means of education by
free pubHc schools, both secular and religious, are abundant, each province directing its own system. In all
parts of the country there are grammar-schools, managed,
like the common schools, by a Board of Trustees. At
these institutions, as well as at many exceUent private
schools, the pupUs receive a classical education, and are
trained and prepared for the legal and other professions.
Above these again there are colleges, possessing Uni- ^
versity powers, endowed with scholarships of considerable value, open to youths prepared in the lower
schools. There are also schools of medicine at Toronto,
Montreal, and other places; while the various leading
reHgions denominations have schools or coUeges at which
young men are prepared for the ministry. For the higher
education of young ladies there are numerous exceUent
schools, many of which are denominational in character.
Nor are the afflicted forgotten, there being schools for
deaf-mutes and for the blind, supported and maintained
at the pubHc expense.
The pubHc and grammar-schools are under the supervision of duly qualified inspectors appointed by the
Among rehgious denominations in Canada the Roman
Catholic Church comes first in point of numbers, with a
membership of 1,750,000. Next come the Church of
England, Methodist, and Presbyterian Churches with
about 750,000 adherents each; the Baptists follow with
250,000; the Congregationalists with 11,000; besides a
few other sects nnmericaUy weak, such as the Reformed
Episcopal Church, &c.
The Roman CathoHes possess four archbishops,
sixteen bishops, and about 1,200 clergy, three colleges,
and a number of exceUent private schools, prominent
among which are their convents. Lower Canada, where
there are about a milHon French CathoHes, of course
is the stronghold of the Roman CathoHc faith; the
remainder are chiefly Irish. In localities where there
are a sufficient number of Roman CathoHes they have
their own separate schools under the supervision of the
priests of the districts. This privilege was granted to
the CathoHes of Upper Canada as a set-off to the Protestant separate schools in Lower Canada.
The Church of England possesses fourteen bishop-j,
about 800 clergy, and six i divinity colleges. It comprises almost exclusively the upper classes, and is very
flourishing in the cities and towns. Till lately it has
not been so successful in the rural districts as might
have been expected, owing perhaps to the rigidity of its
The two schools of thought are as clearly defined here
as in England, and a good deal of bitterness is often
denominations, &c. HANDBOOK TO CANADA.
displayed. Though there are a few advanced Ritualists,
the prevailing tone of opinion among the clergy seems
to be moderate High Church; but there is a strong and
rapidly increasing Low Church minority, which wiUere
long be the prevading party. Patronage in theory is
vested solely in the bishop of the diocese ; virtually it is,
in nine cases out of ten, in the hands of the congregation, who make a selection, and petition the bishop to
appoint, which is hardly ever refused. The affairs of
every diocese are managed by a parliament consisting
of the clergy of each parish and a lay delegate, elected
by the pewholders or communicants of each church.
This assemblage, which is called the Synod, has within
certain Hmits great power, and administers all the pubHc
funds of the diocese. The bishop sits as president of
this assembly with the power of veto, and both lay and
clerical members have an equal vote and voice, except
in the case of the election of bishop, when the successful
candidate must have at least two-thirds of the lay votes.
The head of the Canadian Church of England is the
Bishop of Fredericton (Right Rev. J. Medley, D.D.).
With the exception of fifty-seven endowed parishes in
Ontario, which had land specially granted to them by
Crown patent many years ago by Sir John Colborne,
the Church is entirely dependent upon the volnntaiy
offerings of her members.
The Presbyterian Church in Canada numbers over
900 ministers, possesses six divinity schools and two
ladies' colleges, and raises annually for all purposes
about 250,000Z. The clergy of this Church are said
as a whole to be the best-educated class in Canada.
Formerly the Presbyterians were divided into several
minor bodies, but a few years ago they all united under
the name of the Presbyterian Church of Canada.
The Methodists have about 1,500 ministers and
assistants, one large University and Divinity College
at Coburg, Ontario, and several large ladies' colleges. A
few years ago the Wesleyan Primitive and New Connection bodies united under the name of the Methodist
Church of Canada, leaving the Episcopal and Bible
Christians still separate and independent.
The Baptists are subdivided into three bodies, one
"of which, however, constitutes more than nine-tenths of
-the whole denomination, and has about three hundred
and fifty ministers, one Divinity school, and a large
ladies' coUege.
The Congregationalists have about a hundred ministers and a college in Montreal. Though numerically
«, weak denomination, they possess a large proportion of
very able preachers, and the Church stands high in
public opinion.
The average stipend for a Protestant clergyman in
the country may be laid down at 1S01. per annum. This,
-with the rate of living, and the assistance always
rendered to a clergyman in kind by his flock, is at
least equal to 300Z. per annum in England. About
two-thirds of the clergy are suppHed with a parsonage,
and it is the almost universal custom among business men to charge the clergy reduced rates for every-
In social position the clergy of the Church of
England rank first, the Presbyterians next, then follow
-the Methodists and Baptists; but in the remoter
rural districts where, the people have not the sHghtest
idea of social distinction, all ' preachers' stand on an
A very brotherly feeHng exists among the various
Protestant denominations.
Value of
Trade and Commerce.
The trade of the Dominion has made itself felt only
-within the last fifty years. It may, indeed, be said to
be the outgrowth of the system of internal improvement which has characterised its history during the
last twenty-five years. The first steamer navigated the
St. Lawrence waters as early as 1809, but commerce
advanced with slow and measured step for more than
twenty years after that date. Since 1830 trade has
multipHed fifteenfold, a rate of increase nearly fourfold
greater than that of the population of the country.
The foUowing table shows the trade of the Dominion since confederation. The increase is remarkable, notwithstanding the check during the last two
years, caused by the very general commercial depression :—
Trade and
commerce. 42
Growth of
Entered for
8,298,909  '
9,462,940  '
Measured by the officialreturns of the last thirty years
the gross trade ofthe Dominion has increased as foUows r
1845-47     .        .        .    £4,4'
"0,000 per annum
Per capita
of Population
1865-67    .       .        .    31,660,000
1875-77    .       .       .    41,180,000
.      10
Comparative Table of Expokts.
' 1877
Agriculture      . 19,115,614
Increase or
Forest               . 23,010,249
Live Stock, &c.. 14,220,617
Fisheries .       .    5,874,360
Mines       .        .    3,644,040
Miscellaneous . 10,010,513
Thus Canada, with a population of four millions,
carries on a trade equal in value to that of Great-
Britain at the beginning of the century, with a population of nearly sixteen millions. To accomplish this,
Canada's shipping has similarly increased in number
and tonnage. In 1850 it amounted to 61,000 tons.
In 1877 it reached 1,310,000 tons, and in 1879 it
aggregated 1,450,114 tons, showing an average annual
increase of more than 50,000 tons. Ninety-four per cent-
of this tonnage is in saUing-vessels. Valued at 71. per
ton it represents a net capital of rather more than nine
millions sterling. This is equal to 21. per head of
the population, a ratio thirty-three per cent, higher
than in the United Kingdom.    Canada owns a greater PUBLIC  WOBKS, ETC.
marine tonnage in proportion to her population than    CANADA,
any other country, and ranks fourth among the maritime powers of the world.
Public Works, etc.
Possessing, as she does, fine natural harbours,
Canada has been free to devote her attention, her
natural resources, and her credit to the extension and
improvement of her means of inland communication.
Her principal pubHc works compare favourably with
those of any other country in the world. During
1879, 8,120,562 dols. were expended in their construction, repair, and maintenance. Their valuation at the
close of 1879 was 420,184,596 dols., or about eighty-
five millions sterling.   This is apportioned as foUows :—
Invested in Dominion Government railways
„ railways other than above
„ canals, Class I.
I      &c, Class H.
-,, Government buildings, &c      .
Equal in round numbers to about
.     £85,000,000
They are:—1. RaUways and telegraphs. 2. Canals.
3. Bridges and docks. 4. Colonisation and post-roads.
By Act 42 "Vict. cap. 7, the Department of PubHc
Works was divided and reconstructed as two administrations under separate ministers—the one known as the
' Minister of BaUways and Canals' (Right Hon. Sir
Charles Tupper, C.B., KC.M.G.), the other as ' Minister
of PubHc Works' (Hon.H. L. Langevin, OB.). Under
the Minister of Railways and Canals is the Chief Engineer of Government RaUways in operation (CoUing-
wood Schreiber, Esq.). Railway construction in Canada
commenced in 1835, with the buUding of a Hne sixteen
miles in length between La Prairie and St. John's. It
was first worked with horses, and afterwards (in 1837)
with locomotives. The next was the Queenstown and
Chippewa raUway, opened in 1839. In 1848 the original
survey for the present intercolonial Hne from Halifax to
Quebec was commenced in New Brunswick. This line
and the Grand Trunk have since been completed.
The foUowing is a summary' statement of mileage,
capital, debt, &c, of raUways now in operation : —
The first
Eailway. 44
The raUways of the Dominion are steadily increasing
in nnmber and importance. WhUst progress has been
slow in other directions during the last four years,
Canada's railway system has continued to expand faster
than in most other countries during prosperous times.
The mileage of the entire railway system of the
Dominion on June 30, 3878, was as foUows :—
Railways actually in operation        .       .   6,143*49 miles.
„        partly running .       .       .      721        „
,        under construction   .       .       .    1,041*50   „
Total mileage
During 1877 the mUeage was only 7,571, there being
5,574 mUes in operation, and 1,997 under construction.
There were thus 569 mUes more in operation during 1878,
and 234 less under construction. Deducting from the
total mileage those sections of the Grand Trunk and
other Unes which are located in the United States, "viz.
228 miles, the actual length of over fifty Canadian
raUways in running order is 5,915 miles, and the total
length, both finished and under construction, is 7,678
miles, or about one mUe to each 600 inhabitants—a very
creditable exhibit for four miUions of people to be able
to make. Of the completed Unes nearly 6,000 miles
are of the medium (4 ft. 8^ in.) gauge. Of the total
mUeage, rather more than one half is laid with steel rails.
The amount of capital now invested in Railways is
362,086,138 dols. The sum is double the entire public
debt of the Dominion. By far the greater portion of the
amount was raised by shares on Bonds, although the
Government and Municipal aid has been considerable.
The actual figures are as follows:—
Ordinary share capital        ....    122,176,083
Preference capital
Bonded debt       .
Amount of aid from—
Dominion Government
Ontario „
Quebec „
N. Brunswick  „
Carried forward
79,413,153 PUBLIC WOBKS,  ETC.
Brought forward . . 79,413,153
Nova Scotia Government . 7,224,578
Municipalities      .       .       . 718,750
Less   included   in   paid up
securities.       .        .       .        1,882,000       85,574,481
Total capital invested
Balance .
Grand total .
To this must be added the net increase of capital
•during 1878-79, 1,468,952 dols. This amount was
increased during 1879 to 88,210,520 dols., leaving a
-further subsidy of the amount of 10,733,550 dols. to be
paid on the completion of the several roads.
The foregoing shows the par value of aU the securities
issued by the cufEerent Companies. The actual capital
-received and expended by them was considerably less,
as in some cases the bonds were disposed of at a discount,
leaking all due aUowance for bhis, however, the actual
amount of capital now invested in Canadian raUways is
exceedingly large considering the circumstances of the
The nominal cost of construction—that is, taking aU
securities as sold at their full value—has been 45,925
•dols. per mile. This is made up as foUows: Ordinary
-share capital, 15,583 dols.; preference shares, 8,820 dols.;
Tjonded debt, 10,677 dols.; and Government and Muni-
•cipal aid, 10,915 dols. The actual cash expenditure per
mile must, for the reasons already given, have'been much
l)elow 45,925 dols. per mUe. An interesting report
of Mr. ex-Commissioner C. J. Brydges presented to the
Dominion Parliament gives statistics showing the relative cost and the proportions of the Government and
municipal aid, and private railway enterprise. The
report is to June 30, 1878, and the figures are as
Twelve railways aided, total mileage completed   .    877*51
Of these the Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa, and   .
Occidental with a mileage of   .        .        .       .    326*66
•had been subsidised to the extent of $10,338,000
Leaving mileage of other railways
550-85 Traffic.
State aid
to railwavs.
Brought forward ....
The remaining railways are either branch
lines or local roads, and may be estimated to cost as much as similar roads
in Ontario, say $18,000 per mile:
550-85 at $18,000, say
Government aid to those completed, miles
paid and unpaid.....
Municipal aid to ditto    ....
Private capital      .....
10,338,000 00
9,915,300 00
20,253,300 00
9,724,2§0 00
3,531,500 00
6,997,550 00
The foUowing were the figures of the same expenditure in Ontario up to Dec. 31, 1878, since which time-
very few additional mUes of raUway had been completed :—
Twenty-three    railways    aided,    total S
mileage 1,357 at $18,000  .       .       .      24,426,000 00
Railway aid .       .   $1,677,481 65
Railway subsidies.       .      1,211,303 00
Municipal aid
Private capital
2,888,784 65
7,139,480 00
14,397,735 35
From these figures it appears that in Ontario private-
capitalists and municipalities furnish the larger amount
of the capital and buUd the roads with the Government
assistance. But in Quebec it is the reverse, the Government there furnishes the money and the capitalists
and municipaUties assist to bund the raUways.
Turning now to the traffic of Canadian railways, we
find that the returns for 1878 exceed those of any
previous year. The number of passengers carried was
6,443,924, equal to six per cent, more than during the
preceding twelve months. The tonnage of freight
handled was 7,883,472, an increase of 1,023,676 tons, or
over 15 per cent. The total number of passengers and
tons of freight carried by the principal lines during
1878 were as follows :—
Grand Trunk   .
.       .
.     2,025,737
Great Western.
Intercolonial   .
Canada Southern
Midland .
Toronto, Grey, and Bruce
Toronto and Nipissing
The total earnings on aU raUways from all sources     CANADA.
for 1879 amounted to £4,000,000, equal to the payment jTT	
of a dividend of 1*67 per cent, upon the share and bonded Revenue.
liability of the companies.
The total raUroad earnings for the twelve months
ending Dec. 31, 1878, amounted to 20,520,078 dols.
How this compares with the preceding year can be seen
at a glance by the annexed statement:—
Passenger traffic
Freight traffic
Mails and express
Other sources
The increased receipts during the year were
1,778,025 dols., or a Httle over 9 per cent. The increase was almost entirely in freight receipts. So far
as the passenger traffic is concerned, the receipts declined to the extent of 72,168 dols. The earnings per
mile were 3,479 dols. as against 3,418 dols., being an
improvement of 61 dols. per mile.
It is gratifying to find that the operating expenses-
of the different railways also exhibit an improvement.
The outlay on this account for the past two years was
as foUows:—
1878 16,100,102
1877 15,290,091
This advance is only about 5*30 per cent., whereas
the receipts augmented by 9*65 per cent. The operating expenses per mile of railway running, according
to the official report, was 2,734 dols. in 1878 as against
2,885 dols. in 1877, or a decrease of 151 dols. per mile.
According to this, the raUways of the Dominion increased their earnings 61 dols. per mUe during 18 78,
and did the work for 151 dols. per mUe less.
The importance of this fact may not at first sight be
fuUy realised, but it wfll be more clearly comprehended 50
by placing side by side the receipts and expenses of the
two years:—
1878. 1877.
Receipts       .... $20,520,078     $18,742,053
Expenses       .        . *      .        .    16,100,103        15,290,091
Nett profit on working
The increase of the receipts over the operating
expenses in 1878 as compared with the preceding year,
is no less than 968,013 dols., or over 28 per cent. This
is a very large increase, and testifies to the judicious character of Canadian railway management. The nett earnings would allow 2 per cent, dividend upon the shares
and bonded capital of the roads, but nothing on the
Government or Municipal investments.
The Canals of the Dominion are amongst its most
important pubHc works. They have been constructed
on the foUowing* routes of inland navigation:—
Length of
Miles of
1. The River St. Lawrence and Lakes .
2. The River Ottawa	
3. The Rideau Navigation from Ottawa
4. The Trent Navigation to Kingston   .
5. The River Richelieu to Lake Champlain .
*6. Fort Prances Canal, Rainy River, N.W.T.
7. St. Peter's   Canal,   Cape   Breton, Nova
Scotia        ......
Total    .
' 21°,4
• Work suspended.
The Canadian Canal system consists—First, of the
WeUand Canal from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario. Thence
the route is across Lake Ontario to Kingston, where the
navigation of the River St. Lawrence bearins. As is
well known, this nver along its upper portion, owing to
numerous rapids, is unfit for continuous navigation.
Hence, at various points these rapids are avoided by
canals, the vessels passing back from them to the river.
These are the Galop Canal, the Rapide Plat Canal, the
Farran's Point Canal, the Cornwall Canal, the Beau-
barnois Canal and the Lachine Canal where the river PUBLIC WOBKS,  ETC.
is reached at Montreal and ocean navigation begins.     CANADA.
When it is remembered that  the Erie Canal between
Buffalo and Albany is 350 miles long, and has seventy- p    ,   , .
two locks, a table showing the superiority of the Canadian on Cana-
route in the matter of plain sailing will be instructive, dian canals,
since with 365^ miles it reaches ocean navigation:—
Welland Canal	
Lake Ontario
River St. Lawrence
Galop Canal
River St. Lawrence
Rapide Plat Canal
River St. Lawrence
Parran's Point Canal  .
River St. Lawrence
Corn"wall Canal   .
Lake St. Francis
Beauharnois Canal
Lake St. Louis   .
Lachine Canal
Totals   .
From Lake Erie to Montreal the distance is thus
shown to be 365^ mUes.
This route has only fifty-four locks. It cah accommodate vessels of nearly three times the tonnage of
those on the Erie Canal. It can remain open to navigation about the same length of time. It has nine feet of
water in the lowest of its locks, against six feet in those
of the Erie Canal.
The entire distance between BeUe Isle Straits and
Duluth, Lake Superior, 2,384 mUes, may now be
traveUed by water.
Besides the St. Lawrence Canals there are—
St Ann's .
Carillon    .
Chute a Blondeau
Granville .
St. Ours   .
Chambly .
St. Peter's
Burlington Bay
J 52
Telegraph and Postal System, etc.
The telegraph system of Canada is in the hands of"
three companies chartered by Act of Parliament. These
own and operate the four main lines, viz., the 'Montreal,'"
(12,044miles)-the 'Dominion' (7,824nnles), 'Western
TJhion,' and the ' Canadian Pacific,' between Fort William and Edmonton, N.W.T. (1,219 mUes, and still in
progress). The 'Montreal' was incorporated in 1847,
and operates upwards of 20,000 miles of line. The tariff"
on messages to places distant twelve miles and under
is 15 cents for ten words; beyond twelve mUes, 25-
cents for ten words, and 1 cent for each additional
word. There is also a half-rate for messages transmitted in the night and deHvered next day. The
' Western Union' is an American Company with headquarters in New York City.
The postal system extends to every village in the
Dominion. In 1766 there were only three post-offices-
in Canada, and 180 mUes of post road. Now there are
upwards of 5,200- post-offices in addition to 297 Post-
office savings banks, with a total deposit during the
year of nearly 2,000,000 dols. from 10,755 depositors-
The rate of domestic postage, reduced in 1868 from 5
cents, is 3 cents for half an ounce prepaid; unpaid, 5
cents. Newspapers and postal cards 1 cent each. The
ocean postage for letters is 5 cents per half-ounce prepaid, and for postal cards 2 cents.
Money orders may be drawn throughout the Dominion, except in Manitoba and British Columbia, for-
sums from 1 dol. to 100 dols., at a charge of half per
cent. The same regulation applies to orders drawn on
offices in the United Kingdom at a charge of 2 per cent.,
or 1 dol. on 10Z.
A year or two ago the Canadian Government became
aHve to the great importance of a telegraphic system
connecting the islands, lighthouses, and ports of the
Gulf of the St. Lawrence together, for the better protection of the fisheries and the salvage of shipwrecked
vessels. Not only can the electric telegraph afford an
instantaneous signal for lifeboats in the case of stranded
ships, but it wUl flash the whereabouts of cod and her- TELEGRAPH,  MONEY ORDER, AND  POSTAL SYSTEM.    53
ring schools to fishers on the watch along the haunted     CANADA.
•coast.     Accordingly, the  India-rubber,  Gutta-Percha,  	
-and Telegraph Works Company, of Silvertown, under
•contract with the Dominion Government, have recently
laid cables between the virgin island of Anticosti and
the mainland at Griffin's Cove, between Prince Edward's
Island and the Magdalen Islands, between Grosse Island
And the Bird Rocks, and between Manin Island and a
place called Mainland, situate in the State of Maine.
The Canadian Government steamer Newfield, which is
regularly employed on lighthouse service in the Gulf,
having been fitted up with the necessary cable-tanks
and paying-out gear at Silvertown, wUl be retained in
the cable maintenance service. Canada is also contemplating a great extension of her telegraph system in the
west. A Pacific Railroad telegraph across the Rocky
Mountains from Red River to Vancouver's Island, and
■a submarine cable from thence to Asia, are being pushed
forward. At present messages between Canada and
British Columbia have to pass by the United States
Unes, but, according to a recent report by Mr. Sandford
Fleming, the immediate construction of a link line
between Fort Edmonton and Cache Creek will complete
the trans-Dominion telegraph. To join the system to
Asia, and thence by Siberia to Europe, Mr. Fleming re-
•commends the laying of a cable from Vancouver's Island
to Japan, vid the Aleutian and the Kurile Islands.
Further still it is proposed by Mr. Gisborne, superintendent of the Canadian Government telegraphs, that
■one island of the Kurile group should be purchased
from the Japanese Government as a landing-place for
•cables, and two branch lines laid to Hong-Kong and
Australia. This is a bold scheme, but it shows the
enterprise of the Canadians, and forecasts the ultimate
development of the Dominion.
The laws and forms of judicial procedure are not Judiciary*,
uniform throughout the Dominion. The law of Quebec,
like its social life, had its origin in France; while the
common law of England is the basis of the law of
Ontario, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward
Island, British Columbia, and Manitoba.
The Supreme Court and Court of Queen's Bench
take precedence of aU law courts in the Dominion.   The 54
CANADA,      points of difference in the several judicial systems wUl be
found noted in the respective chapters.
Military The law requires that every able-bodied man be en-
and militia. roUed for the defence of the colony. An enrolment takes
place in February of each year. The Governor-General
for the time being is ex-officio commander-in-chief of the
army and militia, and of the navy in British North
American waters. He alone can exercise the pardoning
power. The Canadian Mifitia is now more immediately
under the command of a Lieut.-General ofthe British
By the terms of the Act to provide for the defence of
the Dominion the mUitia consists of all male British
subjects between eighteen and sixty. It is divided into an
active and reserve force. The active force includes the
volunteer, the regular and the marine militia. Volunteers have to serve for three years, and the regular and
marine militia for two years. The foUowing table shows-
the organisation and disposition of the active force on
J anuary 1, 1879 :—
Cavalry    .....
Field Artillery ....
Garrison Artillery
Engineers ....
Infantry and Rifles   .
Reserve Militia
Imperial troops forming the garrison of Halifax
Total   .
There are seventeen Field Batteries, viz.:
13 9-pounder muzzle-loading rifles.
1 6-pounder Armstrong breech-loading.
2 9-pounder bronze smooth-bore, and a 24-pounder howitzer.
1 at Melbourne, armed entirely with bronze 24-pounder howitzers.
Under the amended Act of 1871 Canada is divided
into twelve military districts as foUows:—Ontario, four;
Quebec, three; Nova Scotia, one; New Brunswick, one;
Manitoba, one; Prince Edward Island, one; British
Columbia, one. Two schools of military instruction for
artiUery are established in each of the provinces of
Ontario and Quebec, and one each in New Brunswick
and Nova Scotia. There is also a Royal Military College at Kingston. Reporting upon Canada's system
and means of defence, Lieutenant-Colonel Strange, commanding Quebec citadel, says: ' Owing to the peculiar- POPULATION  AND  IMMIGRATION.
configuration of the southern boundary—on which side
alone it is open to attack—few such vulnerable points
exist. The Intercolonial and Grand Trunk systems, supplemented by the Dominion Railroad system, generaUy
enable the troops and militia to act upon what are practically interior lines. Montreal, vid Rouse's Point,
would, be the point d,appui, and it is utterly defenceless.
Quebec once in the hands of an enemy, Canada would
be in peril.'
The population of Old Canada (Quebec and Ontario),
exclusive of Indians, in 1784 was 166,256. In 1806
the population of British North America, which included Newfoundland, had only reached 476,000. Since
that time, and especially since confederation, the growth
of population has been very rapid. The figures show
a relatively greater increase than in the United States.
Increase of
1881 (estimated)
* Exclusive
3,090,561 "I
3,833,000 f
of Indians, who number 102,358.
24,000 per annum
70,000       „
If the present rate of increase is maintained during
the next two decades, and it is more likely to advance
than otherwise, the population at the close of the present
century wiU reach, in round numbers, ten miUions.
According: to the census of 1871, more than four-fifths
of the population are native-born.
Tins rapid growth in population is largely owing to Immigra-
the uninterrupted influx of British immigration.    Be-    on*
tween 1850 and 1878, a period of twenty-eight years,
684,542 strangers settled in Canada, an average of rather
less than 25,000 per annum.
Tear             Settled in Canada
Settled in Canada
1851    .
1858    .
.    12,340
1852    .
1859    .
1853    .
1860    .
.      7.827
1854    .
1861    .
.    12,486
1855    .
1862    .
.    28,798
1856    .
1863    .
.    26,118
1857    .
.    33,663
1864   .
.    21,738 56
Tear          Set
led in Canada
Tear            Set
tied in Canada
1865    .
1873     .
.   50,050
1866    .
1874   .
.    39,373
1867   .
1875   .
.    27,382
1868    .
1876    .
.   25,633
1869    .
1877   .
,   27,076
1870   .
1878   .
.   29,807
1871    .
1872   .
Pending the pubUcation of the results of the census
of 1881, we are unable to obtain such vital statistics
as would enable us to estimate the precise rate of natural increase in the population of Canada. It is slightly
lower than the EngUsh rate, and not more than half that
of Australia and New Zealand. It wiU be found, on
close investigation, to be not far from 1*10 per cent., or
12 per 1,000. The settlement of the back country,
rapid as that has been, has not thus far kept pace with
the flow of population to the cities and towns.
The foUowing- list embraces the chief cities of Canada
a tneir population lnlo/l:—
Montreal ......
.    117,225
Quebec     ......
Halifax, Nova Scotia        .       .
St. John, New Brunswick .
.      28,805
Hamilton ......
.     27,716
Ottawa (Capital)       ....
London    ......
.      15,826
Kingston ......
Three Rivers    .....
Charlotte Town, Prince Edward Island
Fredericton       .....
Victoria   .......
St. Hyacinthe	
Many of these cities show an increase in population
during the past ten years of from 40 to 50 per cent.
Montreal now contains 160,000; Quebec, 75,000;
Toronto, 80,000.
The Indian tribes of Canada are stiU numerous. In
Nova Scotia there are a few representatives of them
in every county, and in the North-West Territories
they are constantly met with. The 'Indians and
Indian  Lands  Office' forms the  third of the seven INDIAN  TEIBES,  ETC.
57 through which the operations of the Department of the Interior are conducted. It is a sub-
department, and is administered by a Deputy Minister,
-officially designated ' Deputy Superintendent-General
•of Indian Affairs.' It is gratifying to know, on the
best Uving authority, that the condition of the aboriginal
inhabitants of the Dominion is, on the whole, not only
satisfactory, but graduaUy and surely improving.
' The condition of the Indians settled on Reserves
within the older provinces is encouraging.
' More inebriation for and greater -progress in agfri-
•culture is observable among* them.
' Intemperance has become of more rare occurrence;
and the physical health of the several bands during the
_year 1879 has been for the most part good.
' In the newer provinces and more remote territories
of the Dominion, Indians have not yet learned the value
of agriculture. As, however, the game and fish on which
they now rely for subsistence (notably the buffalo in the
North-West and the salmon in British Columbia) become
scarce, they must turn their attention to tilling the
-soU or raising stock to enable them to Uve.'—Report,
The ' Treaty' Indians now within the Dominion
number 103,367, distributed as foUows :—
Ontario    .        .
Nova Scotia
New Brunswick
Prince Edward Island
Manitoba and North-West
Athabaska District   .
British Columbia
Rupert's Land .
'  2,398
* The treaties of Canada with the Indian tribes occupying
^Manitoba and the North-West territories are ten in number, viz.
(1) Selkirk Treaty; (2) Robinson Treaty; (3) Manitoba Island
"Treaty; (4) Srone Fort Treaty;   (5) Manitoba Fort Treaty;  (6)
North-West Angle Treaty; (7) Q'Appelle Treaty; (8) Winnipeg
'Treaty; (9) Carlton and Pitt Treaty; (10) Blackfoot Treaty.   The
full text of these treaties and Supplementary Adhesions thereto
.are given by Hon. Alexander Morris, late Lieut.-Governor of Mani-
■toba, &c, in his recent work.    Belford, Clarke & Co., Toronto.
with the
J 58
The official returns for 1877 placed the number at
The Ontario Indians belong principally to the tribe*
of the Six Nations, and Mississaguas, on Grand River,
and to the Chippewas of Lakes Huron and Superior,.
and Great Manitoub'n Island. Those in Quebec are all
that remain of the once famed Iroquois tribe and the
Naskquaapees of the Lower St. Lawrence. The Crees-
and Blackfeet in the North-West Territories and Manitoba, locally distinguished as ' Prairie' and' Thickwood ->
Indians, number nearly 18,000, while those of British
Columbia at the Victoria and Eraser River Superinten-
dencies—estimated at upwards of one-third of the whole
Canadian aboriginal race—comprise among them representatives and sole survivors of a great variety of tribes,,
by far the most numerous being the Tsimpsheean, Quach-
eweth, Hydah BeUa Coola, and Bet Luck Indians. The
business of this branch of the Department is administered by 116 officers and employes, known as commis-
sioneis, superintendents, agents, interpreters, clerks,,
and farming instructors; and the total expenditure for-
1879 amounted to 304,667 dols.
The tourist who is not a sportsman in the strictest
sense of that much-abused word, but who goes to Canada
in the spirit of good Dr. Syntax, in search of the picturesque, and for the benefit of that best, of aU good company, his health, will have no cause to regret his choice
of camping or tramping ground. Thirty-one years ago,
Canada was what might truly be called ' a rough country.1"
The means of reaching it were in excellent keeping with,.
and formed a suitable introduction to, the country itself.
The 'floating palace,' as the modern ocean-steamship
has been justly styled, had not then come into fashion—
had not, indeed, been built. Three and four, and not
unfrequently five and even six, weeks were passed in
crossing the Atlantic and the Newfoundland banks preparatory to beating up the long Gulf of St. Lawrence
against wind and wave. There was no ' getting off' or
leaving ship at Rimouski or at Father Point in those
primitive and pre-steam- propelling days. No short cuts,
as now, via Riviere-du-Loup, Richmond, by Grand Trunk,.
and North Shore RaUways. It was sea and river, river
and lake, lake and canal navigation long drawn out; and PLEASURE  RESORTS.
when at last Quebec and Montreal, and finally Toronto, CANADA,
were reached, the adventurous, and possibly ambitious
traveller, found himself at the remoter end of an attenuated, straggling, thinly tenanted frontier, face to face
with the virgin prairie and the backwoods. A diversion to
Chaudiere or Montmorenci, to Niagara EaUs, New York,
or the White Mountains in Vermont, a week at Cacouna
and the Saguenay, a sail through the Thousand Isles, or
a ride round Mount Royal, rather varied than dispeUed
the monotony of the long journey to the ' Far West,' as
all beyond Toronto was then called. Now, happily for the
modern tourist, all this is changed. Magnificent ocean-
ferries ply semi-weekly between the British ports and the
principal seaboard cities of the Dominion; the Intercolonial, Grand Trunk, North Shore, and Great Northern.
Railways afford continuous Unes of easy and even luxurious travel from Halifax, Quebec, and the whole Atlantic
seaboard to Winnipeg and the growing settlements of
the Saskatchewan and Assiniboine vaUeys. Steamer,
railway, and stage-coach companies vie with each other
in providing the readiest, cheapest, and most expeditious
means of locomotion. Hotels are numerous and excellent, and the facilities for observation and recreation are
abundant. The eight or ten weeks' journey in a timber
barque or coal-ballasted brig and merchandise-freighted
propeller through the St. Lawrence and Great Lakes to
Sarnia or Detroit has become a pleasure tour of at
most a fortnight; and the six or twelve months' trip of
'49 or '50 is now a pleasant hoUday excursion, a profitable way of passing the London ' silly season ' or the
' Long* Vacation.'
The principal and most popular resorts for Canadian Pleasure
tourists and pleasure-seekers are in the seaboard or resorts,
maritime provinces, and mainly on the St. Lawrence
river and its tributaries. They are all readily reached
by steamboat, or by raUway over the Grand Trunk and
Intercolonial lines from the chief centres, Halifax (N.S.),
St. John's (N.B.), Portland (Me.), Charlottetown
(P.E.I.), Quebec, and Montreal. Prom Portland the
famed White Mountains of New Hampshire are distant
only ninety miles, and are readily reached in three to
four hours by the Grand Trunk railway vid Gorham Station.    Mount Washington, ' the monarch '  of the White 60
Mountain range, is best approached by turnpike and the
mountain raUway, three miles in length, from the Glen
The city of Quebec, the ancient colonial capital,
and still the provincial capital, occupies the centre of
picturesque Canada. Though shorn by recent changes
of all its political and much of its commercial importance,
it is stUl historically one of the "most interesting and
remarkable cities on the continent of North America. It
is the first landing-place of a large majority of Canada-
bound travellers not reluctant to ' step ashore' and once
more tread terra firma after experiencing the ' ups and
downs' of ' Ufe on the ocean wave.' This fact alone
wUl serve to render a short stay desirable. Added to
this, the city contains two very excellent hotels—tbe
St. Louis and Russell—both for many years under the
able management of Mr. Willis RusseU, and a stUl finer
than either is about to be erected on the popular promenade, the Boulevard or Terrace Dufferin, near its
eastern extremity, where it wiU command one of the
most extensive and picturesque inland views to be
found on the American Continent. The drives in the
neighbourhood are varied and charming, each in its own
peculiar way. They wUl be found briefly described in
the chapter on Quebec.
A sleigh and ' toboggin' party to Montmorenci
Falls in winter constitutes the 'sensation' of that delightful season, and should not be omitted from the
visitor's programme.
For the western sections of Quebec Province, Montreal is the natural centre, as Toronto is for the adjoining province of Ontario. On the Pacific coast aU points
of special interest to the sportsman or sight-seeking
tourist can be most advantageously reached from Victoria, V.I., and New Westminster, B.C. These routes
wiU be found briefly described in the chapter on British
Columbia. An exceUenu compendium of inland tours,
readUv accessible from the main centres of Atlantic and
St. Lawrence river travel, accompanies the handbook
issued by the Allan Steamship Company, and can be had
free on appUcation to them or their agents. 61
Nova Scotia and Cape Breton.
The peninsula of Nova Scotia, so named in the grant NOVA SCOTIA,
made by King James I. to Sir William Alexander, in
1621, forms the most easterly or seaboard province of the
Dominion of Canada. It is, therefore, nearer to England
than any other inhabited portion of the American Continent. Nova Scotia and New Brunswick—to which
the former is joined by the narrow Isthmus of Chieg-
necto, sixteen mUes long—and Prince Edward Island,
which is separated from both provinces by Northumberland Strait, form what are now known as the maritime
provinces of Canada. Up to, and for some years subsequent to, 1621, they formed part of the French possessions in North America, and were called Acadie.
Although its settlement as a colony of the British
Crown commenced at a comparatively recent period, its
history dates from the earliest authenticated explorations on the North American Continent. To Jacques
Cartier, the St. Malo pUot, fresh from his discoveries in
the Straits of Belle Isle and the Gulf of St. Lawrence,
these rugged shores first revealed themselves in 1534.
Some portion of the coast now belonging to Nova Scotia
may have been seen by the Northmen who are said to
have sailed these seas a.d. 1100-1200, and by them
named Markland, or the ' Forest Country.' Bat this is,
at best, supposititious. Adventuring in a south-westerly
course in his little sixty-ton craft—which only two
months previously had been ice-locked off Cape Bona-
vista, Newfoundland—Cartier first sighted the welcome
shores of Acadia. It is beUeved by some that Verazzani,
the Venetian, ranged this coast from the Florida Capes
to Newfoundland about the same time, but we have no
authentic record that he ever visited any portion of the
present territory of Nova Scotia.   The land first sighted
visit. CANADA.
by Cartier is supposed to have been Cape Escuminac,
at the southern entrance of Miramichi Bay, New Brunswick. The land-faU took place June 30. The next day,
his chroniclers teU us, he ' landed and found the country
to be fertile and weU wooded.' ' Nevertheless, we went
that day ashore in four places to see the goodly and
sweet-smelling trees that were there. We found them
to be cedars, ewe trees, pines, white elms, ashes, willows,
with many other sorts of trees to us unknown, but without fruit. The grounds, where no wood is, are very
fair, and all full of peason, white and red gooseberries,
strawberries, blackberries, and wUd corn, even like unto
rye, which seemeth to have been sown and ploughed.'
Such is the account given, in briefest form, of this
part of Canada by its first recorded discoverer.
The fisheries of Newfoundland and Acadia, however,
proved, even at that early day, more tempting as an
incentive to further adventure and discovery than their
inland productions, however attractive these may have
been. Large numbers of hardy seamen flocked to the
fishing-grounds, ready to cast their nets or to trade with
the Indians, as occasion for gain offered.
In this way the whole coast of the great Gulf of St.
Lawrence, from its north shore to Gaspe and Chaleur,
became weU known long before Canada or Acadia contained a Bingle white settler. The ' toUers of the sea'
then were the pioneers as they yet are the industrial
mainstay of the maritime provinces. Thus, slowlv but
steadUy, the dim outline of the New World displayed
its form to the people of Europe, and the spirit of adventure—no longer confined to the great and the wealthy
—grew and strengthened in the hearts and consciences
of the people.
The French Period.
a.d. 1604 to 1710.
T)e Monts Among the numerous early French explorers in the New
Lieut-** World, the name of De Monts is seldom mentioned. Yet,
General of if the records of these early days are to be credited, to
Acadia. )xLm the honour of founding the first permanent settle-
4.D. 1603.
ment within the limits of the present Canadian Dominion is unmistakably dne.  But little is known of him THE  FflENCH PERIOD.
beyond the fact that he was a gentleman of King
Henry IV.'s bedchamber, whom Chauvin and Pontgrave
had accompanied. From the liberal-minded Henry he
obtained (November 8,1603) a patent, constituting him
Lieutenant-General of the Territory of Acadia between
the 40 th and 46th degrees of latitude, with power to
take and divide the land, to create offices of war, justice, and policy; to prescribe laws and ordinances, to
make war and peace, to buUd forts and towns, and
establish garrisons; in short, ' to* do generaUy whatsoever may make for the conquest, peopling, inhabiting,
and preservation of the said land of Acadie.'* Such
in brief were the terms of his patent from King Henry.
Between 1603 and 1606 De Monts and Champlain
established a colony on St. Croix Island, which was subsequently (1605) moved to Port Royal on the north
bank of the river of that name, now the R. AnnapoUs,
and six miles from the present town of AnnapoUs. Four
years later the colony was strengthened by the arrival
of Poutrincourt and his son Biencourt, who, with De la
Tour continued faithful to its failing fortunes untU its
destruction by Captain Samuel Argal a Virginian freebooter in 1614. Beyond this mere handful of French
colonists and the native Indians, there were no inhabitants
in Acadie. Yet we are told the winter of 1605-6 passed
pleasantly. ' Fifteen of the leading men formed a club
which they named the Order of the Good Time. Day-
about each member held the office of Grand Master,
whose duty it was to provide for the table, and to furnish
amusement during his day of office. Each, as his turn
came to play host, strove to outdo his predecessor. After
dinner the members of the club smoked their lobster-
olaw pipes and listened to the old chief's (Memberton)
Indian tales.'
Sir William Alexander, afterwards Earl Stirling,
obtained a grant from King James of territory, afterwards confirmed by his son Charles I., which embraced
the whole of the Provinces of Nova Scotia and New
a.p. 160
aj>. 1621-
* This word, by which the whole territory now embraced within
the provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward
Island continued to be called while under French rule, is said to be
derived from the ilicmac Cadie, 'abounding in.'   The Latin form
is Acadia. 64
The Company of
a.d. 1630.
Brunswick and the Gaspe Peninsula. The territory
thus granted was to be known by the name of Nova-
Scotia, and ' to be held at a yearly quit-rent of one
penny Scots, to be paid on the soil of Nova Scotia on
the festival of the Holy Nativity,' if demanded. Beyond
a brief visit in the following year, and the creation of a-
smaU settlement on the west side of AnnapoUs Basin,
nothing resulted from this ambitious scheme of the
Scotch nobleman.
Two years after the accession of Charles, the war
between England and France, which was ostensibly
undertaken for the reUef of the French Huguenots, suddenly broke out, and again changed the fortunes of the
infant colony. Cardinal Richelieu, then at the height
of his ecclesiastical power, as weU as of his temporal
ascendency over Louis XIIL, formed an association of
one hundred gentlemen, among whom were RicheUeu
himself, Champlain, and De RazUly. This was called,
the ' Company of New France.' Its prerogatives were
in accordance with its ambitious title. Twelve of its-
principal members received patents of nobiUty. The
receipt and transmission of merchandise of every kind
was allowed it, without payment of dues, and free entry
was given in France to all articles produced or manufactured in Canada. To these privUeges were added
the monopoly of the valuable fur trade, of hunting and
of the shore fishery, the power of government, and of
declaring peace and war.
In July 1629, Lord James Stuart landed at Port
aux Baleines, about ten miles from the present settlement of Louisburg, in Cape Breton, where he erected a
fort which was soon after destroyed. This is the ear-
best recognition we have of the importance of Cape
Breton as a position of defence for the Gulf of the St.
Lawrence. On April 30 of the foUowing year, La Tour,
who, with his son Charles, had been created a baronet
of Nova Scotia, received from Sir WUliam Alexander a
grant of Acadian territory extending from Yarmouth to
Lunenburg, a tract roughly estimated to contain 4,500
square miles. Port La Tour in Shelbourne county marks
the site of La Tour's fort in the seventeenth century.
Up to this time neither England nor France had seriously
regarded either the value or the growing importance of THE  FRENCH PERIOD.
a.d. 1632-
these New World possessions. Charles I. was unwilling, NOVA SCOTIA,
it seems, to risk further difficulty on their account with
his Most Christian brother Louis, and on March 29,
1632, the whole of Acadia was, together with Canada,
formally restored to France under the terms of the
treaty of St. Germain-en-Laye. Port Royal soon after
surrendered to Isaac De RaziUy, and with it the name
and aU but the memory of Sir WUliam Alexander's
Scotch colony in Acadia was extinguished. The succeeding four years cover a comparative blank in the
history of the country. Isaac De RazUly's settlement
at La Have, his brother Claude's command at Port
Royal, and Charles La Tour's little colony at Cape Sable,
were almost the only inhabited places in the vast territory now embraced within the Provinces of Nova Scotia
and New Brunswick, and this conspicuous but isolated
and soUtary distinction they seem to have enjoyed for a
period of forty years. The tenure of the locality on
which Charnise's little band of French colonists landed
on the Annapolis—or, as it was then known, the Port
Royal river—was of too uncertain and precarious a character for it to be regarded as a settlement.
The rival claims of La Tour and Charnise for supremacy now led to civil warfare,and the Puritans of New
England, under the then governor Winthrop, found
themselves entangled in the domestic factions and
colonial aspirations of those ' idolatrous French.' The
conflict which ensued, and which was carried on with
great bitterness tiU 1645, resulted destructively to both.
La Tour lost all he possessed, and was actuaUy beggared,
while Charnise's financial condition was scarcely less
hopeless. Three years later he died. During his occupation of Port Royal he had cultivated two farms on his
own account, and built two vessels of seventy tons each,
besides some smaUer craft. These were probably the
first vessels buUt in the present province of Nova Scotia.
They were the most meritorious acts of a life which was
soon after terminated by drowning, and which, according to his contemporary Nicolas Denys, was ' marked
by rapacity, tyranny,- and cruelty.'
We now return to the period of English occupation.
On August 16, 1654,   Port Royal surrendered to the
fleet  and forces  of Colonel  Sedgwick;  and
Civil War
Port Royal
O 66
interference justified.
a.d. 167
Early immigration,
a.i>. 1686.
Captain John Leverett was stationed there as governor
and commander of the Forts St. John, Port Royal, and
In 1656 the Lord Protector Cromwell gave to La
Tour, in conjunction with Thomas Temple and William
Crowne, the grant of the greater part of Acadia, on
condition of the payment of a smaU annual rental in
beaver-skins. This mixed ownership and occupation
seems to have lasted till the death of CromweU and the
restoration of Charles II., in May 1660, when Temple
regained possession of his former rights and territory
by an annual payment of 6001.
In July 1670, Hubert d'Andigny, Chevalier de
Grande-Fontaine, under the treaty of Breda and a commission from Louis XIV., received Acadia from Temple,
who had been peremptorily ordered by King Charles
to dehver it up. Thus Acadia became once more an
appanage of France. The total number of inhabitants
in the country at that time, as established by the census
of 1671, was four hundred and forty-one, including
twenty-five soldiers, which formed the garrison at
Penobscot. In the whole of Acadia the amount of
cultivated land amounted to only 439 arpents, and the
Uve stock consisted of 866 horned cattle, 407 sheep, and
'66 goats.
Chiegnecto was about this time added to the list of
settlements, and a few years later the stUl richer and
more populous colony of Minas was founded. The arrival of the ship L'Granger with sixty immigrants also
marked the increased vigour which was at this period
infused into the work of colonising Canada.
Grande-Fontaine was succeeded by Chambly, De
Castine, and La VaUiere, and these were in turn foUowed
by Bergier, Gautier, Boucher, and De Mcentes. These
latter formed a company for the prosecution of the
shore fisheries. Fifteen years later the census taken
by De MeuUes shows the population of aU the Acadian
settlements to have amounted to 851. The gain
of one hundred per cent, in a period of fifteen years
must have been largely due to immigration, as the natural increase was very smaU. In April 1687 M. de
Menneval was appointed Governor, with orders to prevent foreigners fishing or trading on the coast.    Three THE FRENCH PERIOD.
years later Port Royal surrendered to an EngUsh expedition, under command of Sir WiUiam Phips, recruited
at Boston, Massachusetts. The inhabitants took the
oath of allegiance, and bound themselves to administer
the affairs of the settlement' under the Crown of Engr-
land and the Government of Massachusetts.' In 1692
VUlebon, a brother of Menneval, removed his garrison
from Jemseg to Fort Nashwaak, on the St. John River,
the better to continue his warlike operations against the
hated New Englanders. Here he commenced the erection of a new fort on a point of land nearly opposite
Fredericton, the present New Brunswick capital.
Until his death in 1700, France and England now being
at peace, ViUebon's energies, which seem to have found
their fuUest occupation in the field, were chiefly directed
to keeping the EngUsh fishermen off the coast, and in
confining the ambitious colony of Massachusetts within
its proper bounds. Nothing, however, could long withstand the sweeping tide of affairs. ' It is of Uttle moment now,' as the historian of Acadia, Hannay, remarks,
' to comment on the folly of the French in abandoning
the St. John, for it was inevitable that this river and
the whole of Acadia would fall into the possession of
the EngUsh whenever they chose to make an effort to
take it.' *
By the twelfth article of the Treaty of Utrecht, Treaty of
'all Nova Scotia or Acadia comprehended within its utrecht*
ancient boundaries, as also the city of Port Royal, now
caUed AnnapoUs, ' were yielded and made over to the
Queen of Great Britain and to her Crown for ever.' In
the course of time the Umits of Acadia, like those of
Oregon, British Columbia, and many another international boundary, became the subject of dispute and
arbitration. But these, with other matters thereto
pertaining, wUl more properly be considered elsewhere.
In 1693 the Acadians *#ere again numbered, and the Population,
census found to represent a population of 1,009,  of
which one half, divided into eighty-eight families, resided at Port Royal.    A census  of Port Royal and
Minas, taken in 1714, returned the population of these
* ' History of Acadia from its first discovery to its surrender
to England by the Treaty of Paris.' By James Hannay. J. &
A. McHillen, St. John, N.B.  1879.  London : Sampson Low & Co.
f2 68
Port Royal
settlements alone at 1,773. The entire population at
the time of the Treaty, independent of the native Mic-
mac tribes, did not certainly exceed 2,500.
Of aUthe possessions once held by France in Acadia,
she now alone retained Cape Breton, the Island of St.
John (now Prince Edward Island), and the smaller
islands of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. In 1710 Port
Royal was again and finaUy given up, and in honour of
the reigning Sovereign its name was changed to Annapolis Royal.
But though once more a British colony, it was, dm%
ing the early period of the thirty years' peace, found
difficult to reconcUe its inhabitants to the fact—a circumstance scarcely to be wondered at, when the nature
of its previous tenure and occupation is fairly considered.
On the death of Queen Anne in 1714, Messrs. Ca- ,
poon and Button were commissioned by Governor Nicholson to proceed to Minas, Chiegnecto, St. John River,
Passamaquoddy, and Penobscot, to proclaim King
George. The French refused to take the oaths of allegiance, and General Phillips, who became Governor of
Nova Scotia in 1717, met with no better success. Despite the peace which then existed between the home
governments, there were occasional outbreaks both in
Acadia and Maine. Fortunately both for New England
and for Nova Scotia, the Indians were growing tired
of war and were disposed to treat for peace. FinaUy,
a treaty was entered into between the representatives
of the Penobscot, Norridgewock, St. John, and Cape
Sable native tribes, at Boston in 1725, and afterwards
ratified at AnnapoUs and Falmouth, by which the
Indians engaged to abstain from further hostilities, and
to acknowledge the Sovereignty of King George to the
Province of Nova Scotia.
At the conclusion of the long peace between France
and England there were only two garrisoned places in
the province—Annapolis and Canso—and the garrisons
in both were extremely weak. Louisburg, on Be
Royal, as Cape Breton was caUed, was a mighty fortress for that continent and that age, and was spoken of
and written about as the ' Dunkirk of America.' It
was determined to reduce it, and, for this purpose, 4,070 French
troops were enlisted in Boston in March 1745, and placed
under the command of Generals PeppereU and Warren.
Du Chambon, the French Governor, after a siege of
forty-nine days, capitulated, and on June 17 the flag of
England floated gaily over fort and town. One, and
only one, further serious attempt was made by the
French to drive the British out of Acadia. A great
fleet of seventy sail, under command of the Duke
D'An ville, was despatched from Brest to attack Louis-
burg, AnnapoUs, and Boston, and a large body of Canadian Rangers was collected at Quebec to co-operate
with the fleet. The fleet, however, was crippled by a
storm, and the expedition failed in its object. Another,
commanded by La Jonquiere, one of D' AnviUe's officers,
shared a simUar fate. All subsequent events of a mili-
tary or aggressive character on the part of the French
only helped to betray their utter inabUity to recover
either their prestige or their possessions. The power of
France to achieve the reconquest of Louisburg and
Acadia had departed. The Treaty of Aix-la-ChapeUe,
which was signed October 18, 1748, brought the war
to a close, and virtually ended the French poUtical occupation of Acadia, as it had closed in old Canada.
Notwithstanding this, Acadia, in 1749, continued to be
as much a French colony as ever. The only difference
between the situation of affairs then and what it was
forty years before was that the EngUsh, instead of the
French, were at the expense of maintaining a garrison,
and that the former issued orders to the inhabitants
which the latter very seldom chose to obey.
The British Period.
a.d. 1749 to 1880.
In the year following the passage of the Treaty of Aix-
la-ChapeUe, the Hon. Edward CornwaUis was appointed
Captain-General and Govern or-in-Chief of Nova Scotia,
and in June 1749 arrived in Halifax harbour with some
two thousand five' hundred immigrants, mainly from Immigra-
England. This was the first distinctively British settle- n*
ment within the present Province of Nova Scotia, which
then held about  8,000 Acadians.    CornwaUis left the
Treaty of
a.d. 1748. 70
of Acadi-
and was succeeded  by  Governor
10, 1763".
An expedition consisting of two thousand men, commanded by Lieut.-Col. Monckton, saUed from Boston,
May 23, 1755, to attack and reduce Beausejour (afterwards Fort Cumberland), the last fortress erected and
occupied by the French in the country. Forts Bale
Verte and Gaspereaux and the settlement of Beaubassin
soon followed, and then the exUe and the end of Acadie.
Louisburg surrendered to Wolfe, Boscawen, and Amherst, in 1758, after a seven weeks' siege, and in 1759
England's sovereignty was supreme.
On the conclusion of the Treaty of Paris and the
Seven Years' War, a large number of Acadians settled on
the Great and Little Miquelon Islands off the island of
Newfoundland, where they built a town (St. Pierre),
and established a valuable fishery. The great majority,
however, finaUy took the oath of allegiance as British
subjects, and returned, many of them, to their former
homes, to the Acadie they loved so well. In 1766
settlements were commenced at MaugervUle in Sun-
bury County. In 1775 the American colonies revolted,
and the coast settlements were kept in a state of constant alarm by New England privateers, who plundered
them aU the way from -Yarmouth to AnnapoUs. In
1788 Great Britain acknowledged their independence,
and in the same year some 10,000 Loyalists were suc-
ttlement cessfuUy settled in the province, and half as many more
at Parr Town, now St. John, at the mouth of the St.
John river, New Brunswick. During 1784 New Brunswick and Cape Breton were organised as separate
provinces. The population of Nova Scotia at this time
was 13,000, of which number Acadians formed one-fifth.
Since then, for a period of one hundred years, the history
of the province has been marked by many political
changes. These are briefly noted in the preceding
historical portion of this work. Among the most important of these changes was the establishment of responsible government in 1836, and the adoption and
abrogation of Reciprocity with the United States, the
former of which events took place in 1854 and the latter
in 1870.
Physical Geography.
Noya Scotia consists of the peninsula of Nova Scotia
proper and the Island of Cape Breton, from which it is
separated by the narrow Strait of Canso. It extends in
a north-easterly and south-westerly direction, and is
about 350 miles long and from 100 to 120 mUes wide.
It has a coast-line of about 1,200 mUes, and embraces
an area of 21,731 square miles, equal to nearly 14,000,000
acres. About one-fifth of its surface is covered with
lakes and small rivers. The land reported as fit for
tUlage is estimated at 5,000,000 acres. The remainder,
which is chiefly a sea-coast belt, is barren and rocky,
and presents to a stranger visiting its shores a very
rugged and in some parts a sterile appearance. The
coast, however, affords a very imperfect idea of the interior. The best soU is found on the northern slope of
the peninsula. The coast is everywhere indented with
deep-water bays and harbours, which combine to make
it one of the most charming summer cruising and yachting stations on the American continent.
Being almost sea-girt, its bounds and landmarks are
well defined. It is bounded on the north by Northumberland Strait, Prince Edward Island, and the Gulf of
St. Lawrence. On the west- and north-west by the Bay
of Fandy and New Brunswick, on the east and soutl
by the Atlantic Ocean.
The following is the list of Ldeut.-Governors since Lieutenant-
_ Governors.
Major-Gen. Sir C. Hastings Doyle, K.C.M.G.
Sir Edward Kenny.
Hon. Joseph Howe.
Hon. A. G. Archibald, C.M.G., &c.
Being, as already stated, a peninsula, Nova Scotia Climate,
has a climate greatly influenced by the salt water which
all but surrounds it.    The Gulf Stream, which sweeps
along a few mUes of its southern shore, exerts  considerable influence on the temperature.
The Province is also protected from the chUly north
winds of the St. Lawrence Valley and Quebec by an
almost continuous belt of mountains or very high hills, 72
NOVA SCOTIA, which stretch along its northern border. The extreme
cold which is experienced in the interior and more
northern portions of the Dominion and of the United
States is seldom felt in Nova Scotia. This province
may indeed, considering its comparatively limited extent, be said to afford a great variety of climate as well
as of productions—the average temperature of Annapolis
County being 8° higher than in the Cape Breton
counties, and 6° warmer than in the State of Massachusetts. In the central portions the mercury seldom
rises above 85° in the shade, and as rarely faUs below
zero in winter. The maximum salubrity of the cUmate
is attested by the low rates of mortality and vital
statistics of the province generaUy.
The geology of Nova Scotia, as bearing upon the
future mineralogical and manufacturing progress of the
province, is a subject of the highest interest. Nova
Scotia undoubtedly possesses the materials required for
buUding up large mining and manufacturing industries.
The various rock systems, according to Dr. Dawson, are
distributed as foUows:—
1. Triassic strata, occupying the AnnapoUs vaUey
and the north shore of the Min as Basin.
2. Carboniferous, including five groups :—1. Upper
coal measures. 2. True coal measures. 3. Millstone
grit. 4. Lower carboniferous marine formation 5.
Lower coal measures,
3. Devonian.—These strata occur in AnnapoUs
county, and contain very valuable beds of magnetic and
hematite iron ores.
4. Upper Silurian, holding valuable deposits of bedded
iron ores.
5. Lower Silurian, undefined.
Succeeding these strata come a vast depth of strata
considered to embrace all the older measures typicaUy
developed in Canada proper. The true coal measures
contain aU the workable seams thus far opened in the
province, and are estimated . by Dr. Dawson to have an
average thickness of 4,000 feet.
The areas covered by the various metalliferous or
ore-bearing districts are thus estimated by Mr. Edwin
GUpin in his recently-published compendium :— PHYSICAL  GEOGRAPHY.
Gold district ......
Associated granites       .....
Iron (thus far worked by two companies)
Coal and carboniferous measures  .
Devonian, lower and upper Silurian, or iron ore
bearing strata   ......
Total area
Square miles
.    3,000
.    4,500
.    5,000
The central watershed of Nova Scotia extends the
whole length of the province, throwing streams to the
north and south. The South Mountains, in Annapolis
and King's counties, form a part of this central ridge.
The North Mountain, rises parallel with the Bay of
Fundy, from Cape Blomidon to Digby Neck. The
Cobequid Mountains extend through Cumberland and
Colchester Counties from Cape Chiegnecto to the borders
of Pictou. The northern part of Cape Breton, from
Nigonish to St. Anne's is mountainous and much admired
for its bold scenery.
The number and extent of its lakes invariably surprise the Old Country visitor. In the Atlantic coast
counties the lakes are very numerous. Grand Lake is
the largest of a chain of lakes in the basin of the
Shubenacadie river. Lake George is the largest of the
Tusket group in Yarmouth county. Rossignol, in the
western portion of Queen's County, and Lake Ainslie in
Cape Breton, have fine scenery and good fishing. The
rivers, owing to the peculiar configuration of the
province, are short and of smaU volume. The largest
are the St. Mary's, La Have, Annapolis, Avon, Liverpool,
Shubenacadie, WaUace, PhUip, and East river of Pictou,
Minas Basin. The east arm of the Bay of Fundy is
considered the most remarkable body of water in the
province. The tides, which at the equinoxes rise sometimes to a height of 50 feet, rush in with great force and
form what is called the bore.
The most important islands on the coast are Pictou,
St. Paul's, Scatarie, Cariboo, Boularderie, Madame,
Sable, Tancook, Cape Sable Island, Long Island, and
Briar Island. Isle Madame, separated from Cape
Breton by Lennox Passage, is sixteen miles long, and
has a population of 6,000, chiefly engaged in fishing.
Boularderie forms part of Victoria County, C.B., and
Lakes and
Bays and
contains about 1,300 inhabitants. Sable Island is situate
about 100 miles south of Cape Breton.
The foUowing are the principal coast waters of Nova
Scotia:—On the Bay of Fundy—St. Mary's Bay, Grand
Passage, Digby Gut, AnnapoUs Basin, Minas Basin,
Cobequid Bay, Chiegnecto Bay, and Cumberland Basin.
On Northumberland Strait—Bale Verte, Pugwash Har-
bour, Tatamagouche Harbour, Pictou Harbour, and
Merigomish Harbour. On the Atlantic Peninsula coast,
Chedabucto Bay, MUford Haven, Tor Bay, Sheet
Harbour, Musquodoboit Harbour, Halifax Harbour, and
Bedford Basin, Lunenburg Harbour, Mahone Bay, Shel-
burne Harbour, Port la Tour, and ArgyleBay. Nothing
can weU exceed the scenic attractions of many of these
lovely waters. The principal capes are: Chiegnecto,
Split, D'Or, Blomidon, Mulagash, Jean Mabou, St.
Lawrence, St. George, Egmont, Granby, Dauphine,
Sambro, Breton, Baccaro, Sable and Fourchu.
Nova Scotia is geographically divided into Nova
Scotia proper, and Cape Breton Island. A narrow
strait, known as the Gut of Canso, alone separates them.
It is further sub-divided for legislative and judicial
purposes into eighteen counties, fourteen of which are
in Nova Scotia proper:—
County                                   Chief Town
in 1871.
Annapolis    .
Antigonish  .
Antigonish .
Colchester   .
Truro .       ,
Digby .        .
Digby .
Hants .
Lunenburg  .
Lunenburg  .
Pictou .
Shelburne    .
Shelburne   .
Yarmouth   .
"Yarmouth   .
And four in Cape Breton Island, viz.:- PBODUCTIONS,  ETC.
Chief Town
in 1871.
• Cape Breton
1 Richmond    .
Port Hood  .
Nova Scotia proper
Grand total
Productions, etc.
Next to her forest growth and wealth of wood, the
fisheries of Nova Scotia constitute her most important
interest. In 1879, the number of vessels employed was
745, number of boats 10,706, and number of men 27,610.
The quantity of codfish caught was 576,101 cwt., valued
at 2,448,429 dols.j of mackerel, 102,000 barrels, valued
at 1,015,590 dols.; of haddock, 126,542 cwt., valued at
442,897 dols.; of herrings, 131,000 barrels, valued at
527,000 dols.; of lobsters, 3,182,276 cans, valued at
477,340 dols. Of fish oUs, the quantity obtained was
357,030 gaUons, of a value of 228,168 dols. The total
value of the fisheries of this province for 1879 was
5,752,936 dols. For 1877 it amounted to nearly 7,500,000
dels., of this 4,157,193 dols. was exported as foUows*.—
To Great Britain 465,264
United States
West Indies
Other Countries
Of the amount shipped to Great Britain, by far the Tinned
larger portion consisted of canned lobster. This is alately Lobsters,
developed and rapidly extending industry. Commenced
in 1870, in four years it developed into a trade amounting to 5,600,000 pounds annuaUy, since which time it
has maintained its position as an important branch of
trade.    The close season is now rigidly enforced. NOVA SCOTIA.
The coast waters afford an ample supply of shellfish
of every kind, such as oysters, scallops, clams, mussels,
and quahaugs (pronounced l cohogs'); whUe the rivers
and lakes furnish splendid sport in the way of salmon
trout and srayUne*. The Uttle brook-trout is an exceUent
pan fish, whUe the sea-trout is especiaUy deUcious.
Arichat, Petit de Gras, and D'Escousse in Richmond
County, C.B., are important fishing-stations.
This province is especiaUy remarkable for its
minerals, more particularly for its deposits of coal, iron,
and gold. These she holds in juxtaposition—a boon
which Nature, lavish of her gifts, has conferred on few
countries. The known productive coal-fields of the
province occupy an area of nearly 700 square miles. In
this department (mineralogy) Nova Scotia wUl be chiefly
remembered by EngUsh visitors by the Ulustrative collection of specimens which were on view at the London
Industrial Exhibition of 1862. Nova Scotia coal is
wholly bituminous, no anthracite having as yet been
met with. It may be divided into coking, fire-burning,
and cannel. Coal-mines have long been extensively
worked in Cape Breton and Pictou counties, and latterly
in the county of Cumberland. The former date back indeed over 100 years. The coal obtained from the Sydney
mines, C.B., is held in especial repute for grate-burning
or domestic purposes, while its steam-producing properties are of a high order. The foUowing analysis
has been furnished by Mr. Henry How, Professor of
Chemistry in King's CoUege, Windsor, N.S. A considerable proportion of the quantity raised goes into
domestic consumption. The chief exports are to the
United States and to the Dominion Provinces and
Newfoundland. The total coal produce for 1876 was
709,646 tons. The produce of the gold-mines in the
same year was 12,039 oz.; of iron ore, 15,274 tons; of
gypsum, 80,920. Valuable deposits of high-class iron
ore are found in different parts of the province, which
of late have attracted the attention of capitalists, who
are erecting furnaces with a view to extensive manufacturing operations. Some valuable notes on the
minerals of Nova Scotia, from the pen of John Rutherford, Esq., M.E., of Halifax, wiU be found in the appendix (p. 265). PRODUCTIONS,  ETC.
Sand and clay
Peroxide of iron
Sulphate of lime
Lime   .
Phosphoric acid, decided traces
Manganese, traces
Chlorine, traces    .
By Mr. G. Buist, Manager of Halifax Gas "Works. Coal gas.
Gas (average of four tests) per
ton of 2,240 lbs. .        .    8,200 cubic feet.
Coke, ditto   ....    1,295 lbs., of good quality.
Illuminating   power   of   gas
(average of six tests) .    8 candles.
The ash has about the average composition of that of
bituminous coals.
{I conclude,' saysMr.How, "that the Sydney coal fuUy . Extent of
merits the very high esteem in which it has been so long co<d-beds
held for domestic use ; and I am inclined to think its
sulphur has been over-rated by repute.' The coal-fields
of Pictou have been pronounced by mining engineers to
be the most extraordinary carboniferous deposits in the
world. The seams already opened in the leased areas of
the Sydney District are said to contain over 212,000,000
tons. Mining operations were first commenced by the
French more than a century ago; there are now twenty
mines in fuU or partial operation; and in Cumberland
and Pictou counties, in Nova Scotia proper, there are
half as many more.
Of the Pictou Coal-field, Mr. Rutherford remarks,
' though not so extensive as the Sydney and Cumberland areas, is of great capacity as regards yield by
reason of the great thickness of its seams.' The following list embraces all the mines now being worked,
with their yield in 1877, so far as can be rebably ascertained :— HANDBOOK TO  CANADA.
Collieries                                      Seams
in 1877
Cumberland County, N.S.
Cumberland      ....
Spring Hill
Pictou County, N.E
I Acadia
Albion Mines*   .
\ 1
; Deep
Nova Scotia
, .
Vale ....
McBean    .
Cape Breton County, C.B.
Block-house       ....
Caledonia .
Gardener   .
3,540 ?
Glace Bay.
McAulay .
Lingan      .        .        .        .
Mclnnes and Le Cras
Ontario     .       .       .       .
Phelan     .
Reserve     .        .        .        .
Phelan      .
Schooner Pond  .
South Head
Sidney Mines
Victoria    .
Inverness Counts, Cl
Broad Cove
Port Hood.
Victoria County, C.B.
New Campbellton
* These valuable mines are at Stellarton on the Pictou branch
of the Inter-colonial Railway, three miles from New Glasgow, and
100 NE. of Halifax. The Foord Shaft of the mine was the scene
of the late casualty by which many lives were lost.
The foUowing table Ulustrates the progress made in  NOVA SCOT IA
the coal production of Nova Scotia from 1827 (the year
in which the General Mining Association commenced
operations) to 1879, inclusive:—
Increase of
coal trade.
1827 to 1830
1831 to 1840
1841 to 1850
1851 to 1860
1861 to 1870
1871 to 1879
Grand Total
. 788,273
.  29,889
.  95,126
The following summary exhibits the extent of the Summary
mineral production of Nova Scotia during 1879 :— °f mineral
Gold 13,801   Ounces Produce-
Iron Ore
Limestone  .
Manganese Ore
Coke made .
Building Stone
Grindstones, &c
The most noticeable feature in the coal trade for the
past year has been the marked increase in the sales to
Quebec and Ontario, and the still more marked decline
in export to the United States.
Next to coal the most important mining industry of Gold,
this province is that of gold. The first mine (the
Tangier) was opened in 1860-61, and operations have
been conducted, with more or less activity, during a
period of twenty years. Nova Scotia gold, like that of
CaHfornia and AustraUa and other countries, is an alloy
in which sUver forms the chief impurity. 'The distinctive features of the gold leads of Nova Scotia,' writes
Dr. T. Sterry Hunt, 'are their general conformabUity
with the slate and quartzite beds and their regularity,
suggesting that they are rather beds than veins. But
there are characters that point to their being true veins
in spite of these features, and they are the foUowing :—
1. The roughness of the planes of contact between
quartz and slate and quartzite; 2, the crushed state of 80
NOVA SCOTIA, the slate or gouge on some foot-walks; 3, the ir-
regularity of their mineral contents; 4, the terminations
Gold ore. of the leads : 5, the effects of contemporary dislocations ; 6, and the influence of stringers and ofF-shoots on
the richness of the leads. These are characters that
singly or coUectively it would be difficult to account for
associated with a stratified deposit. So far as my present
observation goes, I think that to describe the gold lodes
otherwise than as interstratified beds would be to give a
false notion of their geognostic relations. The laminated
structure of many of the lodes, and the intercalation
between their layers of thin continuous films or layers of
argiUite can hardly be explained in any other way than
by supposing these bodies to have been formed by successive deposition at what was at the time the surface
of the earth.'
' The extent of the formation in which the auriferous
rock is found,' writes Mr. Rutherford, ' may be said to
cover almost the entire length of the Southern coast of
Nova Scotia. The width inland is, roughly speaking,
from twenty to forty miles.'
The principal gold-mining districts are situate in the
counties of Halifax, Guysborough, Victoria, and Hants,
and are named as foUows:—Tangier, Waverley, Oldham,
Musquodoboit, and Lawrencetown in Halifax County;
Sherbrooke, Wine Harbour, and Stormont in Guysborough ; Renfrew in Hants, and the rest in Victoria.
Claims have also recently been opened in Queen's County.
GoldenvUle, three miles from Sherbrooke, is said to be
one of the richest fields in the province. Halifax is the
gold centre of the province.
The mines reached their highest yield in 1867, when
upwards of 1,000 men were engaged in their operation.
Since that time the amount produced has been steadily
on the decline, until the year 1879, which has been
marked by increased activity. The foUowing tables
show the number of mines open, men at work, the
yield from year to year, and the fluctuations, and total
production for a period of eighteen years:—
gold mines.
Average earnings
Total ounces
per man per day
of Gold
and year, at 300
2,000 lbs.
working days,
$'8 per oz.
Oz.   Dwt. Gr.
A Day
A Tear
7,275   0   0
1      2
14,001 14 17
20,022 18 13
25,454   4   8
1      0
25,204 13   2
27,314 11 11
20,541   6 10
17,868   0 19
19,866   5   5
19,227   7   4
13,094 17   6
11,852    7 19
9,140 13   9
11,208 14 19
12,038 13 18
16,882   6   ]
12,577   1 22
13,801   8 10
297,372   5   1
Alluvial gold-mining has not been thus far carried
on in Nova Scotia to any great extent.
The Montague mines, seven mUes east of Halifax The
city, wUl weU repay a visit. The total value of their
gold-yield since 1861 is estimated at 6,000,000 dols., or
about 1,200,000Z. The manager of the Rose Gold-
Mining Company at Montague is announced to have
recently brought to Halifax a bar of gold weighing 800
ounces, and valued at 16,000 dollars. Its production
had occupied fourteen men for six weeks. The profit
to the company on it would be over 14,500 dols.
Iron.—Iron ore, though known to exist in one form
or another in every part of the province, has thus far
been Uttle worked. There are but two mines in actual
operation. These are the ' Acadia' at Londonderry in
Colchester county, owned by the Steel Company of
Canada, and the works of the New York and Nova
Scotia Iron and Coal-Mining Company at Clementsport,
Annapolis county. The former mine and works were
visited by the Governor-General, Aug. 16, 1880, in his
recent visit to and through the province. The amount
produced in 1879 was 29,889 tons of iron ore, and 2,444
Iron. 82
statistics. PRODUCTIONS,  ETC. 83
tons of ankerifce.    The average daUy force employed is  NOVA SCOTIA,
177 men.    In reference to the more phosphoric ores of ^7    T~
,-, . .. , ,    j   ,-,  r,   ., r . Phosphoric
tne province, it may be remarked that they promise to iron>
become workable  by the Thomas GUchrist process, as
by this method pig iron holding 1*4 phosphorus and 1*4
of sUicon, and nearly 20 phosphorus and 10 of sUicon,
lias given a satisfactory product in Germany, and the
process appears to be considered practicaUy workable in
The total number of persons at present engaged in Miners.
the various mining industries of Nova Scotia may be
stated in round numbers at 6,000, divided as foUows :—
Coal 3,000
Gold 3,034
Iron    .........        117
'The development of our iron ores and coal,' writes
Mr. John Rutherford, M.E., ' must form an important
page in the future history of the province.' Lead Lead,
(galena) has been found at Lower Gray's River, oneraUe
from Shubenacadie station, on the Intercolonial Railway.
No copper mines have yet been systematically worked.
Superior buUding stone is found throughout the province. gtones &c
Manganese is also worked. Splendid varieties of agate
are found on the shores of the Bay of Fundy, and
amateur geologists wiU there find an extensive and
remunerative field for the prosecution of their researches
and studies. Mineral waters are found in Halifax,
Pictou, Shelburne, and Hants counties.
The productions of Nova Scotia, as already shown,
are mainly those of the sea, the mine, and the forest.
Pines, spruce, hemlock, beech, and birch are among the Timber &c.
best-known woods.    It is not in any sense an agricultural  country,  and  so  long  as  there is an acre  of
uninhabited  or   uncultivated  prairie-land left  in  the
Dominion it is not likely to become  so.    The  soU   in
many parts, however, is very fertile, and in some of the
interior counties  (Hants, King's, and Annapolis espe*
cially) fine crops are raised.    The best soU for farming Agricul-
purposes is on the northern slope.    The agricultural in- ture*
terests of the province are superintended by a Central
G  - 84
NOVA SCOTIA, Board of Agriculture, now in its fifteenth year of operation.
There are 80 agricultural societies, with 4,130 members,
the number having increased from 37 with a membership
in 1864 of 1,744. The total grant in aid of these societies
in 1878 was 6,478 dols.
Fruit. AnnapoUs county is fully entitled to precedence as the
best general farming and fruit-growing district of the province. The AnnapoUs valley proper presents such a picture as is found nowhere else except in Devon, Kent, or
some ofthe southern counties of England. In this charming vaUey, sheltered from the rude cold winds by the
north-western mountains, and consequentlyfavoured with
a higher temperature than any other part ofthe province,
Indian corn ripens and fruits grow in perfection. The
AnnapoUs orchards are famous throughout the Atlantic
sea-board. Both soU and climate are adapted to the
growth of apples. At the Truro exhibition of October
1878, no less than thirty-five single varieties were shown;
among them the nonpareU, ribston pippins, golden russets, pomme-grise, bishop pippins, northern spy, greenings, harvey delawares, chebucto beauties, newtown
pippins, bald wins, spitzenbergs, and yellow beUefleurs.
Peaches, pears, plums, grapes, and melons are grown in
the open air. AU the small fruits, such as currants, gooseberries, strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, blueberries, huckleberries, cranberries, &c., are very abundant,
Hops. both in a wUd state and cultivated.    Hops may be pro
fitably raised, as the climate is weU adapted for the growth
of the plant, and the dry, warm cUmate of some of the
western counties would ensure the early ripening of the
blossoms. A few EngUsh hop-growers would do well,
as there is a steady home market for the article. Cumberland county is noted for its hay crop. Antigonish
country, in the eastern part of the province, is a good
grazing district, and large droves of horned cattle are
raised there for the Newfoundland market. This branch
of industry might be profitably extended, Halifax offering every facUity for shipment. Yarmouth county is
famed for its 'pogies' (potatoes). Peat abounds in
King's county, and will in time, no doubt, be largely cut
Boilding      and used for fuel.  The marble and Umestone deposits of
stone. Cape Breton are worthy the attention of investors. They
are situated at North Mountain on the West Bay of the
Bras  d'Or Lake, and are pronounced by Mr.   Hugh  NOVA SCOTIA,
Fletcher the ' most valuable deposits yet developed in
Nova Scotia.'    Quarries of Umestone have been opened
at Catalogne, L'Ardoise, Salmon Creek, McNab Cove,
and other places.    Of the marble in its several varieties Marble.
Professor How reports: ' While  somewhat similar to
the Vermont and New York marbles, it is tougher, and
takes   a   much   sharper   cutting.    The   facUities for
mining, draining, and shipment are exceUent.'
Oil is stated to have been discovered in Cape Breton
in large quantities, and a Halifax Company is already
formed to assist in its working. From the sap of the
rock-maple, sugar and syrup are produced in considerable quantities. Both have a deUcious flavour. The
season for collecting the sap is March, when the trees
are tapped by boring them with an auger a foot or two
from the ground, and allowing the sap to run into
troughs. When a sufficient quantity is collected, it is
boUed down in large pots, or cauldrons, and sugar is
made by a simple process known to all Nova Scotian
and New Ens-land farmers.
sugar, &c
Manufactures, Trade, etc.
The inteUigent and observant visitor to Nova Scotia
cannot fail to be struck with the great natural advantages which this province enjoys for manufacturing on a large scale. Advantages, which other
countries possess to a much smaller extent, have been
utUised, while those of Nova Scotia have been either
despised or neglected. Partly from this apathy and indifference, and partly by reason of the unjustly discriminating tariff regulations of her. southern neighbours,
her great privUeges have remained unimproved. She
is possessed of aU the great requisites for becoming an
important manufacturing centre. A cUmate at once
bracing and healthy, coal and iron in abundance,
numerous exceUent harbours, a position at once central and commanding—half-way between the great
bread-producing prairies ofthe North-West and the combined markets of Great Britain and Europe. Possessed
of such transcendent advantages, her present manufacturing industries are capable of almost limitless ex-
J 88
handbook: to Canada.
NOVA SCOTIA, pansion. * I know of no part ofthe globe,* says a late
writer, * so weU adapted by Nature as Nova Scotia to
become a manufacturing centre.'
Nova Scotia owns more shipping in proportion to
her population than any other country in the world. In
her list of ports Yarmouth ranks first in the amount of
tonnage owned by her shippers; Halifax coming second.
At the close of 1878 the registry books showed a total
of 2,975 craft of all kinds owned in the Province, with
a carrying capacity of 552,159 tons, distributed as follows :—
Ships and
Name of Port                                  Vessels
Amherst                 .
Digby    .
Halifax .
Pictou   .
Port Hawkesbury .
Port Medway
Sydney .
"Windsor        .
tal   .
.During 1879 the total number of new vessels built
was 126, with an aggregate tonnage of 39,208.
Exports. The total Exports of Produce, for 1877, amounted
to $7,425,723, of which $5,538,402 worth were the produce of the sea, the forest, and the mine, as foUows :—
>ta *•*
Great Britain (mostly lobsters,
canned)   .....
United States (mostly pickled fish
in barrels, mackerel, salmon, and
herrings).        ....
Newfoundland (eodflsh)
"West Indies       ....
Balance to other countries .
Forest Produce   .
The business of the Crown Lands Department is Public
administered by the Commissioner of Crown Lands, to lands-
whom, or to one or other of whose deputies, appUcation
should, in aU cases, be made by intending purchasers.
The price per 100 acres is 44 dols. (8Z. 16s.) The
customary fees are—for search, 20 cents; for copy of
plan, 50 cents. A copy of the law relating to Crown
lands (Chap. II., Revised Statutes) may be had free
on appUcation at the office of Crown Lands, Halifax,
N.S. The cost of survey is defrayed by the Government.
Should the settler select a lot of land covered
with hard wood, with easy conveyance for the same to
market, the labour of clearing his land (which, to use the
mildest form.of expression, is simply herculean), may be
made to pay, because he could dispose of his wood at
from 8s. to 10s. sterling per cord, according to the loca-
Uty and season. Other lands are best left unoccupied,
as they wUl not repay the time and labour expended on
them. We repeat that Nova Scotia holds out no inducements for the settlement of its wUd lands, and has,
therefore, for many years past, prudently abstained from
encouraging'' agricultural immigration.
Notwithstanding the fact that Nova Scotia has long Area,
since ceased to encourage the immigration of European
farmers to the province, the settlement of the soU has not
whoUy ceased. In 1875 there remained 2,532,288 acres
of ungranted or Crown land in the province. Since then
nearly 150,000 acres have been disposed of, leaving
nearly 2\ millions of acres stiU for sale at an average price of 44 dols. per 100 acres, or 44 cents or Price.
Is. Vdd. an acre.    During the year ending December 31, 90
NOVA SCOTIA. 1879, 285 grants, covering 45,053^ acres, were made in
eighteen counties. The amount received as the proceeds
of these Crown lands, during the same period, amounted
to 10,446 dols. 84 cents, distributed as foUows:—
Crown Return showing the amount of Moneys paid into the Provincial
Lands Treasury for Grown Lands, by the several Counties, during 1879.
revenue. $
.       .
Cumberland .
Digby   .
.       .
.       .
Hants   .
.       .
Lunenburg    .
Pictou  .
.       .
Queens .
.       .
Total in
Scotia Propel
6,932 14
Cape Breton .
Eichmond      .
.       .
3 514 70
1   .
Grand tots
10,446 84
The receipts in 1877 were
7,825 97
»       ,,       ii  18/
8    „
.       .
7,001 88
The responsibilities of government are divided in Nova
Scotia, as in other confederated provinces, between the
General or Dominion and Provincial authorities. She
sends twenty-one members to the Ottawa ParUament,
two each from Halifax and Cape Breton counties, and
one each from the remaining sixteen. The Provincial
executive or Local Government is precisely similar to
that of the other provinces.
There is a Lieutenant-Governor appointed by the
Governor-Gen era! in Council, and an Executive CouncU
of nine, chosen from the members of the Legislature. This
includes the heads of the various departments, viz., the
Treasurer, Secretary, Attorney-General, and the Commissioners of Works and Mines and Crown Lands.    A
* Antigonish and King's counties are unrepresented. GOVERNMENT.
Legislative Council  or Upper House,  of twenty-one  NOVA SCOTIA.
members, appointed by the Governor, and the House of
Assembly or Lower House, of thiriy-eight members,
elected every fourth year by the people, form the Legislature.
The Members of the Executive and Legislative Councils are Justices of the Peace throughout the Province,
so long as they belong to either branch.
The population in 1871 was 387,800.    It is now Population
about 402,500, and increasing under the laws of natural
increase, there being little immigration for purposes of
settlement.    Nearly three-fourths of the population are
Protestants, and the remaining fourth Roman CathoUc.
Immigration to and within Nova Scotia is now almost immigra-
entirely *» transitu to the North-Western provinces and tion.
to the Western States of the American Union.     In November 1879 the arrivals were 990, eight-tenths of whom
were farm and general labourers and female domestic
Mr. H. P. Clay at Halifax is the acting agent
The public schools are sustained by provincial endowment, county and district assessment, and are free &c
to aU chUdren over five years of age. There are five
coUeges, viz. ■—Dalhonsie, belonging to the province;
King's, to the Episcopalians; Acadia, to the Baptists ;
and St. Mary's and St. Francis Xavier, to the Roman
The Free School System prevaUs in this province.
At the close of 1878 there were 1,673 school sections
with 1,915 schools, and 101,538 registered pupils. The
cost is thus stated :—
2,000 teachers, paid	
Of which the Government grant (local) .    #208,114
The balance by assessment     .      .        .        513,784
Government (Nova Scotia local) grant   .
Subdivided: Public Schools   .        .        182,214
Colleges and Normal School       25,900
Temperance movement has gained a firm foot- Temper.
i this Province,   and at the  close of 1879 the ance
various temperance organisations had an approximated Societies.
The 92
I0VA SCOTIA. enroUed membership of 44.700, the numericaUy strongest
being the ' Sons' and the ' Blue Ribbons ' clubs.
Indians. The Indians of Nova Scotia belong to the Micmac
tribe. They number 2,122, and are pretty evenly distributed throughout the province; Pictou and Cape
Breton counties having the largest number of them.
There are two reserves for them in Cape Breton county,
near Sydney.
Railways. The railway system of this province embraces the
foUowing lines :—
Halifax to Annapolis     .   129*
Digby to Yarmouth       .     67
New Glasgow to Antigonish  60
Halifax to Aulac, NJ3. .    144f
Truro to Pictou     .        .     52
"Windsor and Annapolis
"Western Counties
Eastern Counties     .
The Intercolonial line is admirably buUt and equipped throughout its entire length, with comfortable hotels
* At Annapolis a steamer connects with the Windsor and Annapolis
Eailway for Digby and St. John, N.B., and thence by rail or steamer
to all parts of New Brunswick, the United States and the Upper
f The Intercolonial Railway connects at Pictou (during the
navigable season) with Prince Edward Island Steam Navigation
Company's steamers for Port Hood, Charlotteto wn. Georgetown,
Summerside. and Skediae; also at St. John, by rail and steamers,
with all parts of the Upper Provinces and the United States. This
fine road which was opened July 3, 1876, embraces 730 miles of
main line and branches, connecting Halifax with St. John, N.B., and
with almost every important town in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick,
and Prince Edward Island. The following sections and mileage are
comprised in its operation:—
Riviere-du-Loup to Rimouski, Quebec
Bimouski to Campbellton, New Brunswick
Campbellton to Bathurst    „ „
Bathurst to Miramichi       „ „
Chatham Branch „ „
Miramichi to Moneton        ,, „
Moncton to Point du ChSne „
Moneton to St. John „ „
Moncton to Amherst, Nova Scotia   .
Amherst to Truro „       „
Truro to Halifax ,,       ,,
Truro to Pictou „       „
52 ETC.
and refreshment stations at way-stations, and affords NOVA SCOTIA.
views in many of its numerous divisions and sections of
unsurpassed beauty and grandeur, It affords through
communication between Nova Scotia and the neighbouring provinces of New Brunswick, Quebec, and
There are also ample means and facuities of commu-  Steamer
nication by steamer and stage coach with every portion an(i coach
cf the province which the tourist may desire to visit.   rou.  *
The departures from Halifax are as foUows :—
To Tangier (Mines), Beaver Harbour, and Salmon Biver, 84 miles,
by stage every Monday, "Wednesday, and Friday.
To Musquodoboit, vid Shubenacadie, Tuesday, Thursday, and
Saturday, &c.
To Sherbrooke, Goldenville, Antigonish, Guysboro1, vid New
Glasgow, daily.
To Sydney Mines, vid North Sydney, 12 miles, daily.
To Liverpool, vid Annapolis, 68 miles by stage, daily.
To Yarmouth, vid Annapolis, Clementsport, and Digby, 88 miles,
by stage, daily.
Steamers.—To Annapolis by western shore, daily.
To Newfoundland (St. John's) fortnightly by Royal Mail ('Allan')
'steamers, and triweekly by ' Cromwell' Line steamers.
To Portland (Maine) and Boston (Mass.), weekly.
To Bermuda, West Indies, and South America (' Cunard' Line),
To Great Britain (' Allan' Line), fortnightly.
The Western Union Telegraph Company own or
operate on lease all the telegraph Unes in tbe United
States and the Maritime Provinces, from Port Hood to
San Francisco, and connecting vid Atlantic Cable and
Northern line with aU the telegraphs in the world. They
Miles of wire in Nova Scotia 2,400
The Dominion Telegraph Company operate .       .    1,200
Total 3,600
Sport, Game, etc.
It is no disparagement to other portions of the New
Dominion to say that Nova Scotia is a sort of sportsman's paradise, there being exceUent hunting, shooting,
and fishing in almost eveiy county. ' As a game
country,' says Mr. Charles HaUock, in his ' Fishing
Tourist,' • it is unsurpassed.'     Large portions are stUl a ■ ■>*■■
NOVA SCOTIA, primitive wilderness, and in the least accessible forests
the stately moose and cariboo are scarcely molested by
the hunter.    Cumberland county has been pronounced
' one of the finest moose-hunting grounds in the world.'
This animal resembles the reindeer of Europe.    Nearly
every stream abounds in trout,  and although civiUsa-
tion, with its dams and mills, had nearly exterminated
the salmon at one time, the efforts of the Canadian Government since 1868 have so far restored the streams
that this royal fish may also be taken in nearly aU its
old haunts.     The salmon rivers are short, only a few
mUes apart, and readily accessible from Halifax.    Sea-
trout begin to run up them towards the end of June.
Shelburne, Queen's, and Lunenburg counties—' the lake
region'—afford, perhaps, on the whole, the best sport for
the angler.    There is also capital salmon and trout fishing to be had among the mountains of Cape Breton
county, and on the Margaree river in Inverness.    The
scenery around Lunenburg, the county seat of Lunenburg county, and in the neighbourhood of Chester and
Mahone Bay, is picturesque.    AnnapoUs, so desirable in
other respects, also offers attractions to the sportsman.
Woodcock, snipe, duck, and plover shooting are first-
rate.    The close time for woodcock, snipe, blue-winged
duck or teal, is from March 1 to August 1.    Officers in
either of EM's services are exempt from the licence fee
when subscribing members of the ' Game and Inland
Fishery Protection Society, of Nova Scotia.'    The game
Annapolis    laws of the province should be rigidly observed.   Moose,
valley.        deer, hares, and foxes afford good sport in certain seasons.    Digby, situate at the foot of the AnnapoUs basin,
and readily reached by the AnnapoUs and St. John
steamers, commands some reaUy fine scenery,  much
patronised by New Brunswickers.    Judge Thomas C.
HaUburton and General Fenwick WUliams (of Kars)
are both natives of the AnnapoUs Valley, the former
having been born at Windsor, the latter at Annapolis
Royal.    Hillsborough, nine miles east of Digby, lying
on both banks of Bear Biver, and sentinelled by high
hills, is the centre of a large trade in lumber and herrings, the product of the Annapolis Basin.    Clements-
port, one of the oldest settlements in the province, is close
by.    Along the shores of St. Mary's Bay, south of Wey- Evangeline' is laid here-
mouth, a pretty vUlage at the mouth of the Sisiboo river,
there is a large settlement of Acadians. Windsor, the
county town of Hants, is the seat of King's CoUege. The
ruins of Fort Cumberland and the site of Fort Lawrence
are reached from Amherst, the county town of Cumberland County. Halifax, being strictly a shore county, with
a coast-line upwards of 100 miles in length, offers special
attractions to the salt-water tourist and sportsman.
Bedford, nine miles from the city, on the line of the
Intercolonial Railway, is its chief summer resort, and
affords every facility for boating, fishing, and bathing.
Lawrencetown, Middleton, Aylesford, Berwick, Kent-
viUe, a beautifuUy embowered little town and the county
town of King's county; WolfviUe, where is situate
Acadia CoUege; and Grand Pre, which is the extreme
eastern point of what is called the ' Annapolis Valley,'
wUl each repay a visit.
The scene of LongfeUow's
abouts. The scenery is charming, and the view of the
Grand Pre, Blomidon, and the Basin of Minas, from the
top of the Horton Mountain, is remarkably fine. Here
the discerning and meditative traveller learns the simple
lesson that poetry is not in nature but in the searching,
loving eye, and that after beholding this lovely landscape ' the light that never was on sea or land' may
shine round his own farm and fireside.
In the Acadian Land, on the shores of the Basin of Minas,
Distant, secluded, still, the village of Grand Pr6
Lay in the fruitful valley.   Vast meadows stretched to the eastwards,
Giving the village its name, and pasture to flocks without number.
Stall  stands  the forest   primeval;   but under the shade  of its
Dwells another race, with other customs and language.
Only along the shores of the mournful and misty Atlantic
Linger a few Acadian peasants, whose fathers from exile
"Wandered back to their native land to die in its bosom.
In the fisherman's cot the wheel and the loom are still busy,
Maidens still wear their Norman caps and their kirtles of homespun,
And in the evening fine repeat Evangeline's story,
While from its rocky caverns the deep-mouthed neighbouring ocean
Speaks, and in accents disconsolate answers the wail of the forest.
The foUowing characteristic sketch of this charming
The Basin
of Minas. 96
il Grant's admi-
M8VA SCOTIA, section of the province is from Principal
rable paper in ' Scribner's Magazine:' —
' Every year tourists flock to see Evangeline's
country. In truth, were it only for the sake of the
hoUday they could not do better. The wise Acadians
had found or had Ughted upon the garden of Nova
Scotia. Fairer scenes the eye seldom looks upon than
the valley of the Gaspereaux or that wide expanse seen
from Lookout or almost any point on the North or
South Mountain. This is the lovely Annapolis VaUey,
where, as Joseph Howe used to boast exultingly, " you
can ride for fifty miles under apple-blossoms." The tidal
waters of the great Bay of Fundy, rushing along the
coast outside, seeking for admission into the heart of
the province, have found an opening, three mUes wide,
between the high trap needles of Cape SpUt and a cape
on the opposite shore. SwirUng round Cape SpUt and
pressing through the narrow passage like a mUl stream,
the turbid waters peacefuUy expand into the Basin of
Minas. The broad basin reposing at your feet looks
like a wide-opened hand, sending out long, beneficent
fingers aU round into the heart of a grateful country.
One of these fingers touches the vaUey of the CornwaUis,
and into its tips stream the tidal rivers, dyked by the
old Acadians.
another race,
large"* modern
On these fat and fair dyked lands dwells
with other customs and language—in
farm-houses, embowered in roses and
In fancy you can rebuUd the old thatched
cottages beside ancient apple-trees with taU poplars,
and young wiUows branching widely out from decayed
roots—sure signs of the former inhabitants. At Grand
Pre the first person you meet points where the sturdy
blacksmith's shop stood, and the village church, and the
wells, and the once weU-fiUed ceUars, now only grass-
grown depressions pockmarking the face of green fields.
The great features of the landscape are stUl the same—
the vast meadows reclaimed from the sea, and worth from
one hundred to four hundred doUars an acre; the orchards
and cornfields "spreading afar and unfenced" " o'er the
plain;" while away to the north, across the Basin of
Minas, grand old Blomidon upUfts to the sky his dark
cindery forehead over bright red sandstone and scatters
agates and amethysts at his feet.    Not one Frenchman 97
is to be found where everything reminds us of them NOVA SCOTIA,
and their handiwork. Ton meet their descendants
almost everywhere else in Old Acadie—from Cheti-
camp to Clare, and from Chezzetcook to the Bay Chaleur ; but not one on the Canard river, not one from
Grand Pre to AnnapoUs Royal. Farmers from New
England received the reclaimed lands; and their grand-
chUdren—a race as little likely as their ancestors to
surrender their fathers' inheritance—now raise potatoes
for the New England of to-day, and buUd ships from the
forest primeval on Cape Blomidon, and not only build,
but own and saU them on every sea.'
There is Uttle need of saying much of Halifax, for the Halifax,
simple reason that the visitor wUl prefer to explore and
see it for himself. It is at once the poUtical, commercial, and social capital of the province, the centring
and radiating point of travel along the coast and to and
from the interior. It is, moreover, the only British
military and naval station in British North America.
For this reason, if for no other, it possesses a transcendent
interest for the stranger Briton.* Occupying as it does
the west side of what was once called Chebncto Bay,
covering the whole of a peninsula formed by the harbour
on the east, and by its river-Uke inlet—the North-West
Arm—on the west, upwards of four miles in length,
with an average width of nearly two miles—its site is at
once picturesque, impressive, and commanding. The
whole area of the city may be roughly stated at eight
square miles, and of this more than one-half is either
built upon or available for building purposes. Fort
George, or the ' Citadel,' commenced when the Duke of
Kent, father of Queen Victoria, was in command of this
station, crowns the summit of the slope on which the
city proper stands, and commands the best view to be
obtained of it and the surrounding landscape and waters.
The Prince's favourite residence was on the west side of"
Bedford Basin, a beautiful place belonging to Governor
* ' Not the least of its recommendations,' says Rowan, ' to the retired or reflective stranger is that it is one of the few towns on the-
American continent which combine all the advantages of a high
standard of social life—clubs, pleasant society, official and unofficial
—with the equally endearing charm of being within easy reach of"
forest and barren and river and lake.' mm
NOVA SCOTIA. Wentworth, and known as the Prince's Lodge. Clustering almost beneath the observer's feet, and spreading
out more visibly on his either hand, north and south, is
the town, stony, wooden, and smoke-begrimed. Beyond it lies what is often, and not without truth, called
'the finest harbour in the world.' Set in it, like a
gem on the throat of some fair lady, is the green, moundlike St. George's Island, crowned by Fort Charlotte.
These waters—blue as ever the Mediterranean was—
stretch away to the right, or south-west, laving for
miles the shores of McNab's Island, with its forest-clad
hills and breezy downs ; gleaming through the dark
pine-tops of the luxuriant Tower Woods ; niirroring the
pretty viUage of Falkland, which seems to clamber up
the steep bill-side from the lofty summit of which frowns
York Redoubt (a venerable fort, with a formidable
modern battery on the seaward face—crowns a high,
steep bluff, its armaments of nine- and ten-inch guns
sweeping the approaches for mules, with shot and shell
not quite as big as a barrel of flour, but somewhat
heavier); now playfully rippUng and anon roUing
in curhng and foaming waves, over Point Pleasant-
ledges and the more distant Thrum Cap shoal; untU off
Sambro Head, scene of many a shipwreck, about nine
mUes distant, they mingle with the broad Atlantic. On
the farther, or eastern, shore of the harbour, the thriving town of Dartmouth, buUt to the water's edge, and
backed by bold wood-crowned hills, rises to view. On
the other hand, to the northward, this sheet of water
contracts in width,forming what are called The Narrows,
the shores of which are beautifully variegated with
groves, green-fields, and pretty clusters of houses. Pursuing the view stUl farther in that direction, we may
catch a gUmpse of Bedford Basin over the shoulders of
the hUls which form the northern part of the peninsula.
Turn to the rear or westward, and Halifax Common, or
Campus Marti/as, spreads out from the base of Citadel
HiU, an expanse which is, every year, being more extensively planted and otherwise improved, and wUl soon be
a charming pubUc park. This—more properly the
North Common—comprises, together with the Public
Gardens, an extent of about ninety acres. Of this area
the Public Gardens comprise over fourteen acres.  They
Views in
are kept in first-rate order, contain ponds and fountains, NOVA SCOTIA,
and a croquet lawn, and, although comparatively new,
are already a delightful public promenade and a great
boon to the citizens of Halifax. Beyond this Common
there extends west, north, and south, a great and nearly
level plateau, which will, doubtless, at no distant day,
be the heart of the town, as well as of the city, of Halifax. GranvUle and HoUis Streets are the principal
thoroughfares, and contain most of the important pubUc
After the citadel already mentioned, the objects of
greatest interest to the stranger in Halifax are Her
Majesty's Dockyard, which occupies half a mile of the
upper harbour, and the adjoining Wellington Barracks
and Admiralty House, and the insane or provinciallunatic
asylum on Mount Hope. Dartmouth Orphans' Home,
the Exhibition buUding, now used as a skating-rink,
the Deaf and Dumb Institute, and Dalhousie College,
the Old and New Provincial Buildings, Presbyterian
Theological Seminary, Government House, the City
Prison, are noteworthy edifices. Dalhousie College,
founded 1820 by Earl Dalhousie, then Governor, was
buUt out of the duties collected at Castine in the State
of Maine during the war of 1812. The suburbs abound
in pretty walks and drives. These constitute the chief
charm of the place. Point Pleasant and Tower Woods
in the extreme south end are a favourite resort. The
Public Gardens, North and South Common, Camp Hill
Cemetery, afford pleasant promenades. Among the
numerous popular drives that on the west side ofthe basin
to Bedford, and that from Dartmouth to Bedford on the
opposite shore, and another to the Waverley or Montague
gold mines, may be safely commended to the sight-
seeking tourist. The Eastern Passage also presents some
lovely landscapes. What serves to add greatly to the
charm of inteUigent travel in Nova Scotia is that
the country is settled by various nationalities, English,
Scotch, German, French Acadians, and Indians, who
retain their characteristics as strongly marked as when
they first set foot on the soil. In passing, for instance,
from Pictou, Antigonish, or Inverness, the traveller' to
Lunenburg virtuaUy passes from the Highlands of Scotland   into  Germany;   while  in  Chezzetcook of East
Characteristics of the
people. 100
A run
the Province.
NOVA SCOTIA, Halifax, the more southern section of Yarmouth, and
Clare township in Digby, most of the inhabitants are-
more conspicuously old-fashioned French than are the-
natives of old France itself. Annapolis is the oldest
town in the province. The ruins of the old fortifications
form the chief attraction for tourists.
From Halifax north and westward the Intercolonial
Railway furnishes the most direct and speedy means of
communication. A fine view is had of Halifax in rounding the head of the bay near Bedford. The soil here-
abouts is of that scant but strong character which
grows nothing but rocks, and Bedford itself is what
might be called a Micmac pic-nic sort of a place.
Grand Lake, twenty-three miles north, is a beautiful
sheet of water, eight mUes in length. Wellington Lake,
nestling lovingly midst pines and cedars, affords a passing
picture. At Elmsdale, seven miles beyond, the Nine
Mile River joins the Shubenacadie, and affords some
fine salmon and trout fishing. The Shubenacadie is one
of the main rivers of the province, which it almost bisects.
Passing Polly Bog,* Stewiacke and Brookfield stations
the town of Truro is reached. Here are extensive manufactories, also the provincial normal and model schools.
From this place, which is situated on the Onslow Marsh,
a branch line, fifty-two mUes long, carries the traveUer
on through SteUarton, and New Glasgow, to Pictou, the
centre of the great coal-mining region of Nova Scotia
proper. The 'Albion' mine at Stellarton and the
' Vale ' coUiery at New Glasgow, wUl each repay a visit
from the inquiring traveller. At Londonderry, on the
main Une to Moncton, Spring Hill and Maccan, there-
are also mining properties, and near the latter station
some fine scenery. Outside of Halifax, Pictou is considered to be the richest town in Nova Scotia, the most
ofthe wealth having been made in the coal and ship-
bunding trades. There are several hotels in the place,,
in which the table and accommodation are very good,
Pictou.        and the charges moderate.    The steamers of the Prince-
Albion and
Vale Coal
* This is said to be the traditional spot where Noah rested
the ark and threw overboard all the rocks with which it was
ballasted. Between Amherst, the capital of Cumberland county, and
Aulac the line crosses the Massisquash river by a bridge with a
single span of 100 feet, and enters the province of New Brunswick. INTERCOLONIAL  RAILWAY.
Fdward Island Steam Navigation Company leave Pictou
-four times a week for Charlottetown, Prince Edward
Island, and Port Hawkesbnry, Sydney, and other places
on Cape Breton. Steamers of the Quebec and Gulf Ports
Line leave on Tuesdays and Fridays, for Charlottetown,
Prince Edward Island, and Shediac, Newcastle, Chatham
and Dalhousie, New Brunswick, and ports on the St.
Lawrence. The boats of the Montreal and Acadian
Steamship Company also call weekly. The sail from
Pictou, through Northumberland Sbraits, to Charlotte-
-town is very pleasant; the water is seldom rough, and
the boats are strongly built and comfortably furnished.
Cape Breton.
As stated in the opening of this chapter, the island of
off the
Gape Breton is situate immediately off the northern
extremity of Nova Scotia proper. Though for the
most part tame and monotonous in its scenery, it has
some strongly marked features. Its history may be
thus briefly stated. It was discovered by Verazzani, who
named it Isle du Cape ; ceded to France under the
treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748 ; annexed to Nova
Scotia in 1763 ; made a separate colony in 1784; and in
1820 reannexed to the mainland. Previous to this it
was known without doubt to the Basque fishermen,
who came to the banks and coasts of Acadia in quest of
•cod-fish. As early as 1516 Jacobus Bartoldus, according
to Peter Martyr's account, speaks of it as 'A newe
lande where is neyther cities or casteU, and where the
inhabytants Uve in companies lyke heardes of beastes.'
Its inhabitants, who may now be fairly numbered at
about 65,000, are mainly the descendants of Scotch
Highlanders and Acadians.
It is 110 mUes in length and eighty-seven mUes
wide, and embraces an area of 3,231 square mUes.
Gapes North and St. Lawrence, its most northerly
■extremities, are each about seventy mUes south of
Cape Ray, Newfoundland. The area of the island is
about 2,650,000 acres, one-haU of which is said to be
susceptible of cultivation. ' Few countries of its
limited extent,' writes its historian, Richard Brown,
F.R.G.S., ' present such varied natural features.'    Of
ajd. 1535—
Area. 102
St. Paul's,
and Sable
these the Bras d'Or (pronounced Brah-dor) lakes, the
Mediterranean Sea of the island, are the most remarkable. They divide the island into two unequal parts or
peninsulas, united by an isthmus less than twelve
mUes wide. The trend of the hills and vaUeys is N.E.
and S.W., corresponding with the distribution of the
geological formation of the island.
In the eastern division there are only two ranges
of hUls of noteworthy elevation. One of these runs
parallel with and near to the source of Bras d'Or lake
from St. Peter's to the head of East Bay. The other
from Long Island nearly to the Straits of Barra. The
land rises very graduaUy from the coast to the interior.
The cliffs, which are composed for the most part of
sandstone and shells of the carboniferous formation,
constitute the northern boundary of the Sydney coalfield, which occupies an area of 250 square miles on
the N.E. coast. The old capital town of Sydney,
situated on the S.W. arm of Sydney Harbour, contains
the barracks and other memorials of the olden time
when this land formed a separate province.   The mines,
three  miles  from  North   Sydney, will
l  repay a
Englishtown, near the entrance to St. Anne's Harbour,
is famed for its highland scenery. Lonisburg, the old
French capital, is now only a small fishing vUlage.
The scenery of the Bras d'Or lakes, and of the northeast coast between Margaree and Cape St. Lawrence, is
diversified and striking. The western division consists mainly of a vast plateau, elevated in some places
1,000 to 1,200 feet above the sea, bounded on three
of its sides by a coast-line of bold, rugged bluffs and
lofty precipices, furrowed by deep clefts and gorges.
The Mira hills, which stretch from Salmon River to
L'Ardoise, form a prominent object in the landscape.
Mira River, thirty miles long, is the largest and only
navigable river. The remaining rivers and considerable
brooks are the Margaree, Mabou, and Grand, which
flow into the sea, and the St. Denys, Wagamatcook, and
Baddeck, which discharge into the Bras d'Or lakes.
Scatarie Island, separated from Cape Breton by
Main-a-Dieu passage, is composed largely of felsites of
various colours interesting to the geologist. Its shores
consist alternately of rocky headlands and sand and SI
gravel beaches, guarded by reefs and inclosing ponds.
Fishing is the main pursuit of the inhabitants. There
are scarcely ten acres of cultivated land on the whole
island. St. Paul's Island, a dangerous rocky islet about
three mUes long, the dread of St. Lawrence navigators
and the scene of many a shipwreck, situate ten miles
north of Cape North, and Sable Island, eighty mUes
south of the mainland, constitute the only other
dependencies of Nova Scotia.
"The climate of the whole island is marked by rather climate,
wide extremes of heat and cold, accompanied by sudden
fluctuations ofthe thermometer. Snow covers the ground
usuaUy from December to April.    The summers, which
usuaUy last from May to October, are delightful.
The coal measures and mines of Cape Breton have
been already described in the chapter on Nova Scotia
proper. It only remains necessary to mention the recent oU discoveries which promise to make this island
as famous as Pennsylvania and Ohio and some portions
of Ontario were a few years ago. Lake AinsUe is stated
to be the centre of the oil-bearing district. Already, we
are informed, at least 100,000 acres of land—probably a
good deal more—have been leased or purchased around
Lake Ainslie, and large expenditures for exploring, for
boring machinery, for tanks, and for actual sinking of
wells have been made. Here, as elsewhere throughout
the mineral fields of Nova Scotia, the enterprising
Americans are taking advantage of local apathy and indifference and securing the best places. The first company to appear on the scene was the American Oil
Company, and they were quickly foUowed by the ' Cape
Breton OU and Mining Company,' Inverness OU and
Land Company, in both of which Boston capitalists
have controlling interests. The ' Standard ' Company
of New York and Cleveland have also made extensive
purchases, with a view to immediate operations. At
Baddeck the Victoria OU and Mining Company own a
large tract. The oil belts in the Lake Ainslie district
are very clearly defined, and of great extent. The oU
thus far discovered is chiefly a lubricant, and possesses
valuable properties. Professor Richards, of the Boston Institute of Technology, reports as follows on the oU:—Test,
22J gravity; 375° flash test; 460° fire test; limpid at zero. 104
extent, &c.
Prince Edward Island—so-called after H.R.H. Prince
Edward Duke of Kent—forms the smallest of the
divisions of the confederated Dominion of Canada.
Under its former name, the Isle St. John, it was ceded
by the French to King George HI. under the Treaty of
Paris, and constituted a separate colony in 1770. Its
situation in the middle of the St. Lawrence Gulf, not
less than its fertUity—the result largely of the alluvium
deposited by that mighty river—have earned for it the
title of the ' Garden of the St. Lawrence.' It is sometimes caUed the Garden of North America.
It is 150 miles in length and thirty-five mUes in
extreme width, and covers 2,135 square miles or about
1,365,400 acres. Its coast-Une is, however, so indented
and irregular that in some places its width is narrowed
to three or four mUes. Its peculiar geographical position virtuaUy cuts it off from the adjoining provinces
during five months of the year. From November untU
end of March it is UteraUy isolated, for the floating
masses of ice render navigation even in the narrowest
part of the straits always difficult, and sometimes
perilous. The winter passage between the island and
the mainland from Cape Traverse to Cape Tormentine,
a distance of nine mUes, is one, therefore, to be
cautiously considered before undertaking it.
The island during the summer months is more easUy
reached. A steamer runs daily between Summerside
and Pointe-du-Ch^ne, N.B., in connection with the trains
on the Intercolonial Railway and the railway on the
island. The steamers have excellent accommodation
for passengers, and are first-class boats in all respects.
The journey by water occupies between four and five
hours, and in the months of July and August is a
delightful trip.     But  even  in  summer the  island is EAKLT SETTLEMENTS.
somewhat out of the beaten track of travel. It is not
surprising, therefore, that the pleasure-seeking pubUc,
whb are ever on the gui vive for personal enjoyment, and
-who are keenly critical of the ways and means of
securing it, leave the pretty island and its hospitable
inhabitants very much to themselves.
At Summerside a very good hotel exists, called the
' Island Park House,' where exceUent accommodation
can be had. It is placed in a shady grove of trees on
a beautiful island of about 200 acres, surrounded by
salt water, which affords excellent, bathing and fishing.
A steam ferry runs hourly between the island and
The earUest settlements on the island were commenced about 1715. In 1728 there were not more
than sixty families Uving on it, and in 1752 the whole
population was returned at 1,354. In 1763, when
Cape Breton was surrendered at Louisburg, this island
was formally ceded to Great Britain, and placed under
the government of Nova Scotia. Five years later the
islanders petitioned for a separate government, and in
1780 the first governor was appointed. The entire
^population at this time did not exceed 5,000. The
Earl of Selkirk in 1803 settled about 800 Highlanders
on the island, and in 1827, during the administration
of Governor Ready, a census showed the population to
have increased to 23,266. Responsible government
was established in 1851, and in 1860 the Selkirk lands,
comprising 62,059 acres, were sold. Since that date
the progress of the island both in population and
wealth has been rapid and permanent. Confederation,
which had been for many years strenuously opposed
by the people, gained strength after the passage of
the British North America Act, and on July 1, 1873,
Prince Edward Island entered the Dominion.
The island raUway which, on the resolution of the
Hon. Jas. C. Pope, present Minister of Marine and
Fisheries, had been authorised in 1871, was opened in
AprU 1875. H.E. the Governor-General and H.R.H.
the Princess Louise visited Charlottetown, and made
a tour of the island. According to the census of 1871
Prince Edward Island contained a population of 94,021,
which has been since increased to 100,000.    The fol-
Responsible government established, A.D.
1851. 106
PRIBCE lowing is a list of the Governors since it became a
EDWARD separate province, and of the Lieutenant-Governors.
ISLAND,     gince Confederation :—
"Walter Patterson .       .       .       .
Lieut.-Gen. Edmund Panning
CoL J. F. W. DesBarres
Charles Douglas Smith .
Col. John Eeady   .
Sir Aretes W. Young
Sir John Harvey   .
Sir Charles Augustus Fitzroy
Sir Henry Vere Huntley
Sir Donald Campbell    .
Sir Alexander Bannerman
Sir Dominick Daly
George Dundas
Sir "Wm. F. C. Robinson, K.C.M.G
.    1854
Since Confederation
Sir Robert Hodgson, Administrator
.    1874
Hon. Thomas Heath Haviland, Q.C
.    1879
and soil.
and productions.
The coast, as already stated, is indented by numerous
bays, two of which nearly divide the island into three
parts, and the harbours are numerous. The surface is
gently undulating, presenting a charming aspect of hill
and dale; it is weU watered with numerous springs and
rivers, and it has a larger proportion of land occupied
and under cultivation than any other province in the
The climate is temperate and healthy, and fogs do
not prevaU to the same extent as on the coasts of Nova
Scotia. The winters are less severe than in Quebec
and New Brunswick provinces, and the range of the
thermometer throughout the year less variable. The
soil is a light, sandy, fertile loam, easUy cultivated.
Large deposits of what is called ' muscle mud' are
found in the beds of all the rivers, some of them from
10 to 30 feet deep; it is used as a fertiliser, giving
very large crops of hay and clover, and is speciaUy
adapted for the growth of oats, buckwheat, and root crops.
Farming is the chief industry of the island. Ship-
buUding ranks next in importance. The fisheries are
among the best in the Gulf, and give employment to a
large number of men. Cod-fish, mackerel, and herring
abound on the entire coast.    Lobsters and oysters are SOCIAL STATISTICS.
plentiful. The ' canning' and shipment of lobsters has
of late years become an important branch of industry.
The province is famed for its horses, which are much
sought after by New England dealers. A stock farm is
maintained near Charlottetown for improving the breed
of cattle.
The island contains about 100,000 inhabitants, mainly
of EngUsh and Irish extraction, whom half-a-dozen
policemen serve to keep in perfect order.
Good sea-bathing, boating, shooting, and fishing
may be enjoyed on the island. Black duck, snipe, and
plover abound in August, and speckled salt-water trout
are plentiful. Hares (lepus Americam/us) are very numerous. In winter they form 'yards' like moose and deer.
They are sold in the Charlottetown market for Sd. a pair.
The school system is under the control of a board of
eleven members. The first school was established in
1821. In 1852 the Free School Act was passed, and the
number of schools now open is 417, attended by nearly
20,000 pupils.
There is one raUroad on the island, running between
Tignish and Georgetown, 198-J miles long. It is under
the control of the Dominion Government. Steamers
ply regularly during the season of navigation between
the ports on the island and the seaports of Quebec, Nova
Scotia, New Brunswick, and the New England States.
A steam ferry crosses the harbour to Southport every
half-hour. The chief drawback is that during a part of
the winter communication is interrupted with the main
shore owing to ice blockades.
A submarine telegraph connects the Island with
New Brunswick.
It is divided into three counties, King's, Queen's,
and Prince; each of which elect ten representatives
and four councillors.
Charlottetown, the provincial capital, is pleasantly
situated on the north side of the East River, near ite
confluence with the North and West rivers, in the
parish of Charlotte, Queen's County. It is weU laid
out, lighted with gas, contains a population of 12,000,
and several spacious pubUc buUdings. Among these
the most noteworthy are the Colonial BuUding, built of
Nova  Scotia freestone, the Provincial Building, Post
chief towns,
Office and Custom House, Market House and PubUc
HaU and several handsome churches, Prince of Wales'
CoUege, Government House, the Lunatic Asylum at Fal-
conwood, Victoria Park, Bishop's Palace, St. Dunstan's
GoUege, &c.
o    •*
Summerside, the second town in population and
trade, is situate on the north side of Bedeque Bay. It
is the centre of the oyster trade and of the traffic on
the island railway, which extends westward seventy
miles to Tignish, and eastward fifty miles to Charlottetown. The Island Park Hotel, situated on a pretty
island opposite the town, is the largest buUding of its
kind in the province. At Tignish, fifty-five miles from
Summerside, are large fishing estabUshments, where
large fleets of vessels are employed in mackerel fishing.
No better sport can be had than to spend a day in one
of these vessels, catching mackerel in almost endless
numbers. The fish-curing estabUshments are also weU
worth a visit, and the scene along the coast during
the mackerel season is most enjoyable. At Alberton,
another point on the Une of raUway, are also large fishing estabUshments. Here, also, and indeed aU over the
island, shipbuUding is very extensively carried on, there
never being less than 100 vessels building in the different yards, some of them being of 1,000 tons measurement.
From Charlottetown the raUway extends to Georgetown and Souris, the latter at the eastern extremity of the
island. The Une passes through a pretty and generaUy
weU cultivated country, and crosses numerous rivers and
arms of the sea, where excellent fishing is to be obtained.
Sea trout, some weighing six pounds, are to be had in
abundance, and in many of the smaller streams brook
trout are very plentiful. The fishing all over the island
is exceUent and diversified, and easUy accessible.
Georgetown, the capital of King's County, is the
eastern terminus of the Prince Edward Island RaUway,
and has a fine harbour open during three-fourths of the
year. The rivers Cardigan and BrudeneUe divide the
narrow strip of land, on the extremity of which the
town is built, from the mainland.
Rustico, at the back of the island, 16 miles from
Charlottetown, has fine bathing and good accommodation for visitors at the ' seaside hotel.' HISTORICAL  SKETCH.
New Brunswick borders Nova Scotia to the west, the IEW
narrow isthmus of Chiegnecto, so often referred to in BRUNSWICK*
the preceding pages, forming the only land-Unk between
them. Northward and north-westward it is bounded Position
by the province of Quebec, eastward by the Gulf of St. an<*area*
Lawrence, south by the Bay of Fundy and Nova Scotia,
and west by Maine, the most northern of the original
thirteen states of the American Union. It is 210 miles
in length and 180 mUes breadth—somewhat larger than
the united areas of Belgium and HoUand, and about
two-thirds the size of England. Its area is 27,322
square miles, equal to 17,486,280 acres. Its coast-Une
of 500 miles greatly resembles that of its sister province,
Nova Scotia, being everywhere indented with commodious bays, harbours, and inlets, and penetrated by
navigable rivers. The numerous fine harbours on its
eastern shore afford unsurpassed facilities for the prosecution of its extensive the Gab? of St.
Lawrence and Northumberland Straits. The interior
is generaUy a level, undulating country. On its northwest coast from the Bay Chaleur to the boundary of
Nova Scotia 200 mUes, there is hardly a hill exceeding
300 feet in height. There are some elevated lands
skirting the Bay of Fundy, La Pa/ye Frangaise of De
Monts, and the River St. John, but the only section of
a mountainous character is that bordering on the Province of Quebec, where the country is beautifully diversified by oval-topped hiUs ranging from 500 to 800 feet
in height, clothed with lofty forest trees almost to their
summits, and surrounded by fertile vaUeys and tablelands.
It was first settled by the French in 1639. Together First
with Nova Scotia, untU the fall of Quebec, it formed setfled,Aj».
part of Acadia, or New France.    As an independent NEW
Made a
province it has not yet reached its first centenary.
Prior to 1784 it formed one of the Nova Scotian counties
under the name of Sunbury.
In that year it was formaUy separated from Nova
Scotia and endowed with provincial honours. In the
foUowing year Sir Guy Carleton was appointed Governor, with his seat of government at Fredericton,
which had been previously known as St. Anne's. At
this period eleven or twelve Acadian families, scattered
between the Nova Scotia boundary and the Miramichi
river, formed the entire population. In 1842 the boundary between New Brunswick and the United States,
which had been a formidable bone of contention between the two Governments for many years, was finally
adjusted. Eleven years later the European and North
American RaUway was commenced, and in 1854 the
Reciprocity Treaty was concluded, only to be abrogated
in 1870.
in 1871
County Town
Westmoreland  .
St. John   .
Charlotte .
St. John
St. Andrew's
Fredeeicton (the capital)
Grand Falls
Total Population       286,137
Pop. estimated 1880, 320,000.       Total area, 17,486,080 acres.
The available land in these counties amounts to PRINCIPAL  RIVERS.
•6,000,000 acres, and is classified as ' upland,'   ' inter-       HEW
-vale,' and ' swamp.'    MaugervUle in Sunbury County,  BRUNSWICK.
twelve miles N.E. of Fredericton, is the oldest EngUsh
settlement in the province.
Indian reserves are established on the Tobique Indians.
River in Victoria County, and on the St. John, Iroquois,
and Madawaska rivers in the same county. The Micmac
Indians number 913, and the Amelicites 536—1,459.
In the census of 1851 they were returned at 1,116,
and by Mr. Perley in 1841 at 1,377.
An inspection of the map wUl show that the surface. Rivers,
•of the province is everywhere intersected by rivers and
streams, adding to the fertility of the soU, and furnishing easy access to every locality. The principal river
is the St. John, which is 450 mUes in length. It is
navigable for steamers of large class as far as Frederic-
ton, eighty-four mUes from the sea. The steamers running between St. John and Fredericton almost rival
the splendid steamers that ply on the great American
rivers. Above Fredericton smaUer steamers ply to
Woodstock, about seventy miles farther, and when the
water is high they make occasional trips to Tobique, a
farther distance of fifty miles. Sometimes they extend
their trips to Grand Falls, a distance of 220 miles from
the sea.
Into the St. John flow numerous large tributaries
navigable for various distances: these are the Kennebec
casis, the'Washademoak, the Grand Lake, the Oromocto,
the Tobique, and the Aroostook. The Madawaska,
another affluent, is navigable to Lake Temiscouata, the
npper end of which is within twenty miles of the St.
The Miramichi is a large river navigable for vessels
•of 1,000 tons for twenty-five miles from its mouth, and
for schooners twenty mUes farther, above which for
sixty miles it is navigable for tow-boats. The Resti-
gbuche* is a noble river 220 miles long, three miles
wide at its entrance into the Bay Chaleur, and navigable for large vessels for eighteen miles. This river and
its tributaries drain about 4,000 square miles of terri-
* This is accounted by all sportsmen who have tried it one of
the finest salmon-fishing rivers in the world. The name is Indian,
and signifies 'the river which divides like the hand' = 5 Rivers. - 112
NEW       tory, abounding in timber and other valuable natural
BRUNSWICK,   resources.    Besides these rivers, there are the Richi-
bucto, the Petitcodiac, and the St. Croix, all navigable
for large vessels.
Lakes. Grand Lake in Queen's County is the largest of the
New Brunswick lakes. It is twenty-eight miles long,
with an average width of nearly three miles, and communicates with the St. John river fifty miles from the
sea. Washademoak, also in Queen's County, is next
in size. Maquapit and French Lake, connected with
Grand Lake, are near the boundary of Queen's and
Sunbury counties. Temiscouata Lake, at the head of the
Madawaska River, is within twenty miles of the Trois-
Pistoles River, an affluent of the St. Lawrence. Loon
Lake, Eel Lake, the Oromocto and Magaguadavic lakes
form a chain along the main boundary in the provincial
county of Tork. The Miramichi, Salmon, Nepisiquit,
and Nictaux lakes are in the eastern division of the
One of the most important and interesting features
of the topography of this province is the extent and
varied character of its sea-coast. Its bays are world-
famous for the value of their shore fisheries. In the
south division the most noteworthy are the Bay of
Fundy, and the smaUer bays of Chiegnecto, Cumberland, and Passamaquoddy. In the east division Bay
Chaleur (Bade des Chaleurs), which forms the northern
provincial boundary, Restigouche and Kouchibouguac
bays, and Nepisiquit and Great and Little Shippegan
and Shediac harbours are the most important. Bay
Chaleur is said to produce the best wheat crops and the
greatest profusion of salmon and' trout in the province.
Tides. The tides of the whole New Brunswick and Nova
Scotia coast are peculiar, but those of the Bay of Fundy
are especiaUy so.
Natural History-
New Brunswick presents a rich field for the studies
and researches of the naturalist. Its wealth of forest
and marine growth is scarcely equaUed on the American
continent, and is nowhere surpassed. ' There is probably no equal water area in the wide world,' says
Rowan, ' in which so many or such variety of fish are Fish
to be taken.' Nature has bountifully provided within NEW
its waters the utmost abundance of those fishes which BRUNSWICK,
are of the greatest importance to man, as affording not
only nutritious and wholesome food, but also the means
of profitable employment. The value of the fish caught
and material employed in 1876 was nearly two mUUons
of doUars, and later years show a steady increase.
The mackerel, herring, and cod fisheries are the most
extensive and most valuable.
The subject of riparian rights, which is one of very Riparian
great importance, is still undergoing judicial inquiry in "S"*8-
the NewBrunswick courts. It affects the fishing rights of
all who own lands along the banks of the fishing rivers of
this province, including such noble streams as the Restigouche, Nepisiquit, South West and Little South West
Miramichi, Big and Little Sewogle, Tabusintac, Charles,
Jacquet, Upsalquitch, Tobique, St. John, and, in
fact, all the rivers of New Brunswick, and, for that
matter, the whole of the Dominion. It also affects the
value of these lands, for if the decision of the New
Brunswick Court be sustained, the lands at aU points
favourable for salmon fishing wUl at once be held at a
high price. There is also the possibility of ordinary
sportsmen being offered a wider range of choice than
at present, when the rivers are held by a few persons.
The way in which the Dominion revenues wUl be
affected, though a smaU matter compared with other
interests at stake, is stUl worthy of consideration.
There appears to be an apprehension in some quarters that, in the case of final decision being adverse to
the Dominion Government's claim, the rivers above
tide water wUl be entirely freed from Government
supervision, and the owners of the lands and reckless
sportsmen wUl be a law unto themselves.
A list of New Brunswick fishes, compiled from the
weU-known works of Gesner, Perley, and others, wiU be
found in Alexander Munro's work on New Brunswick.
The extensive seaboard and marsh and meadow Sport,
lands of this province afford every facility that a reasonably enthusiastic or exacting sportsman can desire
for shooting snipe, ducks, plover, woodcock, sheldrakes,
and wild geese. The north-eastern coast abounds with
wUd geese and brant.    These birds make their appear-
I 114
ance about the middle of March, and remain from six
to eight weeks. Of the fisheries and fish of the province we have already given a brief notice. In regard
to its zoology and ornithology, the foUowing classification of the animals and birds commonly met with and
taken must suffice.
The number  of   the  animals  indigenous  to  New
Brunswick does not exceed forty.
The foUowing list embraces only the best known and
most valued varieties :—
Common deer "j
Reindeer, or Cariboo I Ruminantia.
Moose, or Elk J
Bear \
Martin V Carnivora.
Fox (red, grey, and black)]
Weasel (two species)       /
Beaver (Restigouche)       1
Squirrel ! D ,   ..
tut ,        „   , i    I- Rodentta.
Musquash, or Musk-rat    I
Hare J
The moose—a splendid animal—has
mammoth of the Northern Continent.
1,000 lbs. to 1,500 lbs. It is found on the New Brunswick side of the St. John river and in the Nepisiquit
district. Cariboo are said to be plentiful aU the way
between Bay Chaleur and Grand Lake. The Cariboo
is much smaUer than the Moose, averaging from 350
lbs. to 400 lbs. The * mouffle,' or upper lip, is considered
a great delicacy.*
Besides those already mentioned the following birds are found:—
Eagle (grey or bald)
been called tbe
It weighs from
Hawk (five varieties)
Owl (four varieties)
Snow Bird
Sparrow (four species)
Moose Bird, or Jay
Swallow (three varieties)
Patseres ambulaiores.
* Captain Campbell Hardy, in his Forest Life in Acadia, and
more recently Lord Dunraven, in the Nineteenth Century, havo both
written at length on this famous sport.
The principal part of the feathered tribes seen in the
summer months are migratory, the number peculiar to
the province being very small.
New Brunswick is rich in timber, the growth of her
forests being scarcely less abundant than the increase
of her waters. The trees are arbitrarily divided into
' hardwood' and ' softwood,' or those which drop their
leaves in autumn, such as the maple, beech, birch, &c,
and those of the evergreen famUy. Of the latter the
most valued are the white and red pine, black spruce,
cedar, and hemlock.
Bay Chaleur offers unrivalled opportunities for the Canoeing
practice of canoeing. New Brunswickers have rendered
themselves famous for their aquatic achievements. The
secret of their success in the rowing world is said to be
the tide in the St. John river. A canoe voyage down
the St. John is one of the pleasantest experiences
imaginable. There are only two portages in 400 mUes
of navigation. Indeed, this fine river only requires to
be better known to become as famous as the Hudson or
the St. Lawrence.
So far as explorations have determined the geological Geology,
formations of this province, they may be thus classified.
1. Grey sandstone. 2. Upper SUurian. 3. Cambrian.
4. Granite. 5. Lower SUurian. 6. Red sandstone.
7. Trap. Of these the grey sandstone, or coal formation, is the most extensive, covering more than one-third
of the entire area of the province. The Albert mine,
situated twenty mUes from Moncton, and five and a
half from Hillsborough on the Petitcodiac river, is one
of the most valuable bituminous deposits on the whole
Atlantic coast. The upper SUurian system embraces
the counties of Restigouche, Victoria, and parts of
Northumberland and Carleton, and the lands more
favourable for agricultural settlement. The granite
region is mainly confined to a ridge extending from
Bathurst Harbour to the Chiputneticook lakes on the
St. Croix river. The red sandstone, or lower carboniferous system, comprises a great variety of soils, and
is met with in Albert, Westmoreland, and King's counties. The counties of King's and Restigouche contain
the largest extent of trap, which indicates land difficult
of cultivation.
i 2 116
Productions and
New Brunswick being a level, semi-maritime country, situate in the temperate zone, has a bracing, healthy
climate. It is, however, subject to occasional and sometimes sudden extremes of heat and cold. The range of
observations over a period of years give the foUowing
figures of thermometrical registration at St. John:—
Average extreme of cold ....
,, ,,        heat ....
Mean annual temperature....
At Fredericton the range is somewhat wider. The
mean length of summer for farming, operations is about
seven months. .The average number of stormy days in
the year is about ninety-five, which is rather less than
the usual British average. The New Brunswick autumn
months are especiaUy deUghtful for travel and sport.
Essentially a maritime province, New Brunswick's
greatest wealth is in her ships and ocean trade. She
san never become a farming country. Situated on the
sea, with forests of superior ship timber, New Brunswick
has long been celebrated as a shipbuUding country and
for furnishing vessels remarkable for their model,
strength and durability. With a population in 1871 of
285,594 souls, she had in 1876, on the registry books of
the Dominion, 1,154 vessels having an aggregate of
324,513 tons. The first vessel known to have been
built in New Brunswick was the Monnequash, built by
Jonathan Leavitt in 1770. St. John is the fourth port
in the British Empire in respect of tonnage. The
following table shows the amount of shipping remaining on the port registry books on December 31 of each
year for the past twenty-one years:—
o. of Vessels
1854 582
1855 .
1856 .
1857 .
1858 .
1859 .
1860 .
1861 .
1862 .
1863 .
1864 .
1865 .
,  ETC.
Year                                        No. of Vessels
1866 612
1867 .
1868 .
1869 .
1870 .
1871 .
1872 .
1873 .
1874 .
Next to St. John the principal shipbuUding places are
Richibucto, Bathurst, Dalhousie, CampbeUton, Cocaigne,
St. Andrews, &c.
The following is a summary of the tonnage of St.
John on December 31, 1874, showing the number and
tonnage of each class of vessels:—
Vessels Tons
98 ships measuring      ....    119,555
121 barques
9 barque*!tines
8 brigs
61 brigan tines
316 schooners
142 woodboats
3 sloops
50 steamers
as less than
In 1782 the total tonnage of the province w
300 tons.
Commerce and Trade.
New Brunswick being a country originaUy covered
with magnificent forests, the cutting and shipping of
timber naturaUy soon became the foremost industry
of its people. St. John is, next to Quebec, the largest
timber port in Canada. Masts and spars for England's
navy constituted the first articles of export, and to this
day these staples enter largely into ite foreign trade.
Since 1784 the character of the trade has greatly changed.
Pine wood has been superseded by spruce. How enormously the export of this article has increasedin less than
thirty years may be seen from the fact that in 1845, the
total quantity of deals shipped from the entire province
was only 127,860 superficial feet, while in 1874 217,691,000
superficial feet were shipped from St. John alone.
trade. 118
The statement of the value of the experts from the       NEW
Port of St.   John,   for   the    month   ending May 31,   BRWSWICI-
1880, compared with the same month in the preceding Exports,
year, shows the increase in the latter year to be 56,112
dols. in the exports of the forest, 8,556 dols. in animals
and their produce, 8,087 dols.  in manufactures,  and
2,853 dols. in miscellaneous articles.    The produce of
the mine and the sea receded somewhat.    The facts
brought to hght by the tables are fair subjects for
analysis.    We quote as follows :—
Products of the mine
Fisheries and their produce   .
Products of the forest  .
Animals and their produce
Agricultural prod-actions
Manufactures          ....
Miscellaneous articles    .
Total produce of the Dominion
Goods, not produce
Total exports
The timber trade returns of New Brunswick for 1880
exhibit an increase in the exports of 111,000,000 feet
over those of the previous year.
The shipment of cattle direct to England has lately  Cattle
become an important feature of New Brunswick trade,    trade.
The following is a list of the ports where duties are
On the Bat op Fundy, etc.
St. John
Grand Manan
St. George
St. Stephen
St. Andrews
Ok the Gulp op St. Lawrence, etc.
Bay Verte
Dalhousie 120
St. John
The mineral wealth of this province is admittedly
large. Both coal and iron are abundant, the coalfields
alone covering 10,000 square miles, or nearly one-third
of its entire surface. A bed of haematite iron ore exists
within three miles of Woodstock. Thus far, however,
the proximity of the more extensive and more valuable
deposits of Nova Scotia has attracted capital and labour
to them, and retarded the development of the New
Brunswick beds.
St. John has been styled the f. Liverpool of British
America,' and not inappropriately, as the following description of it will show. It is most picturesquely situated
on a rocky and almost insular eminence at the mouth of
the St. John Biver, the entrance to which is protected
by Partridge Island. For municipal and electoral purposes St. John embraces the adjoining towns of Portland and Carleton. The river, which forms a prominent
feature in the harbour, together with its tributaries, has
an almost uninterrupted steamboat navigation of 800
miles, and a further length of nearly 1,000 miles
navigable by boats and canoes. Its Indian name is
Looshtook, the ' Long River.' The river rises and falls
26 feet. The area drained by it is estimated at seventeen
miUions of acres, of which nine millions are in New
Brunswick, six millions in the state of Maine, and two
millions in the province of Quebec. In approaching
the city from the sea, Partridge Island, circular in shape
and with hisrh, rocky banks, is first seen, then a high
O      ' •/ ' O
bluff, commanding the western entrance, called Negro-
town Point. Thus approached the city presents a very
imposing appearance. The whole upper portion of it—
rebuilt since the great fire of June 20, 1877—stands on
solid rock, which for the purpose of street construction
has been excavated to a depth in many places of from
30 feet to 40 feet. St. John has been three times swept
by fire since its incorporation in 1785, first in 1837,
second in 1839, and third in 1877.* King Street, the
Broadway of St. John, extends from the St. John river
on the west, to Courtenay Bay on the east, side of the
city. Market Slip and Square and the wharves contiguous thereto form the commercial centre, and here at
The Story ofthe Great Fire, by George Stewart, jun. Toronto:
BelfordBros.   1877. ST.  JOHN  CITY  AND  SUBFBBS.
all hours of the forenoon a busy, motley crowd is to be
met. The aroma which pervades these haunts of commerce and midst which the trade flourishes is eminently suggestive of codfish and molasses, the leading
features of St. John's import and export trade. The lower
end of Market Square marks the spot where, on May
18, 1783, the loyalists of St. John landed and founded
the city. The French settlements, dating from the time
of De Monts and Poutrinconrt's visit in 1604, had all
disappeared, and the embryo village commenced by Captain Peabody and Mr. White in 1764 was alone visible.
The other principal thoroughfares are named Water,
Prince William, Dock, and Charlotte Streets. King's
Square contains about 3 acres, studded by trees, which
were planted in 1860 during the visit of the Prince of
Wales. From the east end of King Street a fine view
of Courtenay Bay and Portland Heights is obtained.
The public buildings and institutions best worth visiting are the Provincial Penitentiary, the Wiggins Protestant Orphan Asylum, the Academy of Music, near
the site of the Victoria Hotel, and Trinity Church, both
destroyed by the last fire. The Custom House and
Post Office are fine buildings.    Among the drives and
walks of St. John and its vicinity may be noted the
following:—To Portland, the Falls, Indiantown, and
Point Pleasant. To Spruce Lake by the Manawagonish
Road, through Fairville, is a pleasant drive of eight
miles. Spruce Lake is five miles in length, and teems
with fish.
From Carleton Heights another pleasant drive is Carleton.
that to the Rural Cemetery, Moose Path Park, and
Lawlors Lake, by the Marsh Road; and still another to
Mispec (Anson) and the Loch Lomond chain of lakes.
The first, or lower lake, is four miles long and one and
a half miles wide. The fish in this lake are larger than
those in the others, and are of two species, the red and
the white—the latter appear to be pecuhar to these
lakes, and vary in weight from -J- to 10 lbs. The best
fishing ground is on Land's Bar, across the head of the
lake. Another favourite spot is at the mouth of Dead
Brook, about half-way up on the left side.
In the neighbourhood of these lakes there are a
great many smaller ones, teeming with fish, the prin- 122
1EW       cipa! being Ben Lomond, Henry's, Tracey's and Mount
BRUNSWICK, Theobald. The last-mentioned, owing to its great distance from town, is but little disturbed, and splendid
sport can be had, as the fish are plentiful.
Carleton is historically interesting as the spot (Navy
Island) selected by La Tour in 1629 as the site of his
fort, so heroically defended by Madame La Tour against
Fredericton, the capital, is a charming little semi-
rural city, bearing very much the same relationship to
St. John that the Dominion capital, Ottawa, sustains to
Montreal. It has a new Parliament House, a fine library,
a beautiful cathedral, and—adds Rowan—'a real English
bishop'—Right Rev. J. Medley, D.D., Metropolitan of
Dalhousie, situated at the head of Bay Chaleur, is a
delightful summer resort, directly in the path of communication between London and Quebec, if the Hues
were but laid.
New Brunswick is well supplied with railways and
other means of internal communication, connecting the
commercial capital, St. John, with Halifax on the
Atlantic, with Pictou on the Gulf of St. Lawrence, with
Quebec, Montreal, and other places in Canada, by the
Intercolonial RaUroad, and all the cities and towns of
the United States, by lines vid Bangor. Besides these,
there are the Riviere du Loup line, vid Fredericton and
Woodstock to the great river St. Lawrence, and several
interprovincial lines of considerable importance, comprising a total length of 1,085 miles in actual operation.
Land. Free grants of land for purposes of actual settlement
are also made in this province. The limit of the grant
is 100 acres, and the customary conditions are enforced.
Education. The common school system prevails in this province.
The sum of 120,000 dols. is annually and publicly appropriated to educational purposes. The balance is raised
by rate.
Population.        The population of New Brunswick, by the census of
1871, was 286,137.    It is now probably about 320,000.
The population of St. John in 1840 was 19,281, in
1851 it was 22,745, and in 1861 it numbered 27,317.
Including Carleton, the total population, according to
Munro, in 1864 was 38,817 souls: the census of 1871 MANUFACTURES
states the population of St. John, including Portland,       new
to have then been 41,508. The oity now contains nearly BRUNSWICK.
The chief local elements in the composition of a Manufac-
successfal manufacturing district, such as cheap and tures.
abundant building material, cheap fuel, easy modes of
collecting the   raw material and of  distributing the
o o
manufactured products thereof, are not wanting in and
round St. John as a centre. The manufacturing interest of the province has accordingly increased during
the past few years, though it has scarcely kept pace
with the growth of the staple industries already mentioned. Establishments for the production of woollen
and cotton goods, boots and shoes, leather, lumber,
furniture, carnages, doors, sashes, stoves, paper, soap,
agricultural implements, nails, steam-engines, locomotives, &c, &c, are in successful operation, and yearly
multiplying, giving employment, directly and indirectly,
to thousands of operatives. QUEBEC.
To a very large proportion of Canadian tourists the
maritime provinces, through which we have just
journeyed, are a sealed book. The Dominion tour
is usually made during the summer and autumn
months, when the ports of Quebec and Montreal are
open, and the St. Lawrence river and lakes are navigable throughout their entire length. Ocean steamers
arrive at and depart from these ports almost daily, while
the Grand Trunk railway and the various other Canadian
and American fines from Portland, Boston, New York,
Saratoga, the White Mountains, and the whole of New
England bring thousands daily, at the height of the St.
Lawrence season, to join the gay parties who throng
the seaside and rural resorts of this truly picturesque
province. To those among our home readers who purpose making the ' round trip,' and who are naturally
anxious to see as much of Canada as possible, we unhesitatingly say go by way of Belle Isle and Quebec, and
return vid Halifax and St. John's, Newfoundland. The
sum mer voyage in clear, fine weather, on board one of the
splendid 'Allan' steamships between Belle Isle and
Quebec forms one of the most delightful features of the
whole tour. As will readily be seen by reference to the
accompanying map, the Belle Isle route is much the
shortest, the entire distance to Quebec being 2,502 miles,
while the ocean voyage by Halifax is 2,464 miles, and
that by New Tork 3,016 miles. If our traveller decide
to visit Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince
Edward Island before proceeding westward, he will of
course take the steamer to Halifax. In either case he has
ample choice, of both ways and means, the steamers of
the 'Allan' line sailing for Quebec weekly during the
summer from both Liverpool and Glasgow, and weekly
for Boston, vid Halifax, during the winter, leaving Liverpool every Thursday and Londonderry every Friday.
The service has been regularly maintained for more than
twenty years, and the steamers composing the fine are ST.   LAWRENCE  ROUTE.
unsurpassed for safety, speed, and comfort.    The New-     QUEBEC,
foundland tour now forms a subsidiary service from
Halifax direct to St. John's.
The voyage out, when made by Queenstown and the
South of Ireland, brings the traveller to Cape Ray, the
most south-westerly extremity of Newfoundland, usually
on the seventh day, and soon after the steamer enters
the great Gulf of St. Lawrence. On the steamer's
port bow rises Prince Edward Island, sentinelling the
huge bay formed by Cape Breton Island on the east, Nova
Scotia on the south, and New Brunswick on the west.
Farther on the steamer's course the Magdalen group of Magdalen
islands and a treacherous islet, known as the Bird Rock, Islands,
and Mount St. Louis, 2,000 feet high, are passed.
Higher up the gulf Anticosti Island is sighted and
passed. Then come the noble Saguenay River and Riviere
du Loup, the picturesque summer resort of the Quebec
excursionists, with the rugged range of Laurentian hills
in sight all the way up the river, until the lovely Isle Isle D'
D'Orleans, with its clusters of snow-white cottages and
luxuriant gardens, rises to view; then Montmorenci's
cataract of waters, with its fleecy cloud of vapour overhanging it, are seen on the right bank. Eight miles
farther the lofty promontory of Cape Diamond, surmounted and surrounded by the loftier citadel and the
walled city of Quebec, is reached. Here the ocean voyage
fitly terminates and the inland journey commences.
This sketch of the St. Lawrence summer route to
Quebec supposes the traveller to have made his sea
voyage from Liverpool by Cape Race and the south
shore of Newfoundland. The northern and now usually
travelled summer route by Moville and the Belle Isle Belle
straits reduces the distance and the duration of the ocean Isle,
voyage nearly a whole day.* Belle Isle, which towers up
in rugged majesty to the height of 650 feet at the mouth
of the straits, 800 miles below Quebec, forms a fresh
point of departure, so to speak, both in the outward and
homeward voyage, and thus serves greatly to enhance
the interest and popularity of this route from the landsman's point of view.
* The Allan steamer Sardinian has performed the passage
between Moville and Belle Isle in 5 days and 20 minutes, while her
passengers lost sight of land for only 4 days and 19 hours. Quebec
was reached on the eighth day. QUEBEC,
The history of this province up to the period of
Confederation may almost be said to be the history of
Canada, and may be thus briefly recapitulated. Discovered by Cabot in 1497, it was first settled by Cartier
in 1541. In 1608 a permanent colony was founded by
De Champlain on the present site of Quebec city. A
Council of Administration was appointed in 1663. The
French occupied the country from this period till 1759,
when it was surrendered to the British forces, and soon
after (1763) formally ceded to the Crown by the Treaty
of Paris. It was divided into Upper and Lower Canada,
and a Constitution granted in 1791 ■ and in 1840 reunited under the name of the United Provinces of
Canada. In 1867 these were once more separated, and
now form, under the names respectively of Ontario and
Quebec, the two most populous and wealthy provinces
of the Dominion.
and extent.
Physical Geography, etc.
Quebec long occupied the first place among the
Crown colonies of Great Britain on the American
Continent. It is now second to Ontario, both in population and production. It possesses an historical interest which no other province in the Dominion can boast,
and this interest is greatly enhanced not only by the
perpetuation of the French language, laws, and customs
amongst a large majority of its inhabitants, but also by
the uniquely picturesque character of much of its landscape, and the antiquated appearance of many of its
public institutions.
Quebec is bounded north by Labrador and the
Height of Land, east by the Gulf of St. Lawrence,
south by Bay Chaleur, New Brunswick, and the
States of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, and New
York, and west by the river Ottawa and Ontario. It
has a mean length, east and west, of about 850 miles
and a mean breadth of 300 miles. Inclusive of Anticosti
and the Magdalen Islands, which belong to the electoral
district of Gaspe, it comprises a territory of 210,000
square miles, equal in round numbers to 130,000,000
acres.   This is classified and distinguished as follows :— PHYSICAL  ASPECT.
Conceded in fiefs .....
In full and common socage (townships).
Surveyed in farm lots ....
Awaiting surrey   .....
Total 130,000,000
These figures represent the total territorial superficies
under the new measurement. The total land area under
county organisation in 1871 was 1*20,018,964 acres.
Mr. Jesse Sparrow, of Woodlands Farm, Doynton,
near Bath, furnishes the following description of its
physical aspect, in a recent letter to Mr. J. W. Down,
of Bristol:—
Speaking of its physical aspect and general advantages, he says:—' The province of Quebec is principally rolling land, or hills and valleys. La some parts of
it are large tracts of bush land or woods, containing the
pine, spruce, and many other sorts of timber. The
sugar maple grows to a great height. The farms
throughout this province are offered at very low prices.
A person can purchase a farm here, with good barns,
stables, &c, and dwelling-house, already cleared and
fenced (except a portion of woodland left for repairs of
farm buildings), at from SI. 10s. to 61. per acre, payable
on easy terms. These are not such good wheat lands as
those in Ontario. They will grow remarkably good
oats and capital roots, the soil being a sandy loam
and gravel loam. I have seen some splendid crops of
potatoes in these parts, much better than in Ontario.
From three to four pounds I have seen drawn from
one haulm. The water here is very good, and the
farmers have much better accommodation and comforts
for their cattle in winter than on many of the farms in
England. The barns are so constructed that they tie
up their cattle under the corn and hay lofts. I have
seen barns that will accommodate fifty head of horned
cattle (a stall for every one), with root-house. They
generally have a pump in the centre, with troughs in
front of the cattle ; the water, by pumping, runs through
these troughs from one to the other.'
The surface of the country is much diversified in
flood and field, by hills and mountain ranges, rivers,
aspect, &c 128
Rivers an<3
lakes, waterfalls, and rapids. There are two principal
mountain ranges which run in an easterly and westerly
direction ; being, to the south of the St. Lawrence, the
Notre Dame or Green Mountains, and to the north, the
Laurentian range. The magnificent St. Lawrence River
flows like a main artery "through the province, from east
to west. Forming the western provincial boundary, the
River Ottawa, a splendid stream of 800 miles in length,
debouches into the St. Lawrence, and further on down
stream to the right the latter receives the Richelieu
River, which has its source in Lake Champlain, the
St. Francis, which rises in Lake Memphremagog, and
the Chaudiere, the outlet of Lake Megantdc. Flowing
into it from the left bank are the St. Maurice, the
Batiscan, and the Saguenay.
Quebec, as will be seen by reference to the map, is
by its great artery the St. Lawrence, naturally divided
into two rather unequal parts, that which lies north of
that river being by far the larger but less populous.
For civil purposes it is further divided into parishes,
townships, counties, and districts.
The parishes are of French and the townships of
Engfish origin. The parish and township municipalities
comprised in a county, form what is called a county
municipality, the affairs of which are managed by
councillors. Each county sends one member to the
Dominion Parliament every five years, and one to the
Local Legislature every four years.
The province is divided into sixty counties and
sixty-five electoral districts, as follow :—
Counties and Constituencies
in 1871
County Towns
Argenteuil        .       ■
St. Hughes
St. Francois
Berthier   .
New Carlisle
St. Michael
Chambly  .
Carried forwa
rd     .
Counties and Constituencies
in 1871
County Towns
Brought forward   .
Champlain        .
>   Batiscan
St. Paul's Bay
St. Martine
Saguenay .
Compton   .
Ste. Henedine
St. Christophe
Longue Pointe
Iberville   .
St. Athanase
Jacques Cartier
Pointe Claire
Joliette '
La Prairie
La Prairie
Ste. Rose
L'Islet      .
St. Jean Port Me
Lot bi niere.
Rivi&re du Loup
Megantic .
Montcalm .
St. Julienne
St. Thomas
Chateau Richer
Montreal C.
Ottawa     .
Portneuf   .
Cap Sant6
Quebec, C.
;,   e.   .
„    w.
Quebec Co.
Richelieu  .        ,
Rimouski .
Rouville   .
Carried forwa
rd    .
K 130
and soil.
Counties and Constituencies
in 1871
County Towns
Brought forward   .
St. Hyacinthe
St. Hyacinths
St John's .
St. John's
St. Maurice
Shefford   .
8 516
Soulanges .
Coteau Landing
Stanstead .
Isle Verte
St. Jerome
Three Rivers
Three Rivers
Two Mountains
Ste. Scholastdque
Vercheres .
Yamaska .
St. Francis du Lac
Total Populai
The official figures are 1,191,516, between which and the census
returns per county there is a difference of 17,391.
Total area of above counties, 120,018,964 acres.
This province is further subdivided into five land
districts or main centres for purposes of colonisation and
settlement.    These are briefly treated on p. 140.
The rigour of the Lower Canadian winter has been
very much exaggerated. The province of Quebec,
especially, may be said to furnish the climatic piece de
resistance for remarks such as these. Its people are
certainly amongst the hardiest and most vigorous to be
met with on the American continent, or, indeed, in the
world. The snow, far from being a disadvantage, is
almost as valuable a covering as manure, and the
effect of the winter's frost and snow is to make the
land more friable, and to impart to the soil the vigour
which makes the northern vegetation of the1, colony so
sudden and luxurious. The soil is naturally rich, and
susceptible of the highest cultivation. In point of
quantity and quality the crops in Quebec compare
favourably with those of other parts of the Dominion.
Overcropping and reckless farming, combined with ignorance of the more modern and improved systems of
cultivation, have in some districts impoverished a soil
otherwise fertile. CLIMATE  AND  SOIL.
The summers, like the winters, are also decided, but
most enjoyable. It may be observed that these decided
•climatic tendencies seem to produce an effect of another
kind also, which is not least, among the enjoyable
features of the country. In no part of the world is the
-atmosphere clearer, or the 'skies,' clouds, sunrisings and
sunsets, more captivating. Fruits and vegetables which
•cannot be ripened in the open air in England come to
maturity in Quebec. The length of season in which
labour may be performed in the field is apparently
greater in Great Britain. The province is also wholly free
from fever and ague and from the low malarial fevers
which so frequently visit settlers in the western United
States. An instance illustrative of its fine climate is
"that the sparrow at all seasons of the year may be seen
-flitting about.
Productions, etc.
The products of the forest constitute the second
most important interest of this province—agricultural
products alone aggregating a greater value. The
"timber regions of Gaspe, Labrador, and the Upper
Ottawa, under judicious management, must long continue to be a fruitful source of revenue to both Quebec
■and Ontario.—especially to the former. Thus far the
great hindrance in the path of the enterprising lumber
merchant who acquires timber limits, has been the dif-
tficulties and cost of getting the product of his capital
and skill to market. It is estimated that there are still
upwards of 100,000 square miles of timber territory
•within the province awaiting purchase. These form the
preserves, so to speak, from which this staple provincial
"trade is fed. It may be well here to mention that the Government never relinquishes the fond or proprietary right
over these timber-lands, but merely leases the usufruct.
The leases, under the present system, continue in
force twenty-one years, with the right of renewal (usu-
-ally sale by auction to the highest bidder) under certain
■conditions. A most useful list of the timber and ornamental trees of Quebec province has lately been prepared by
Dr. G. M. Dawson. It forms part of the report for 1879
•of the Montreal Horticultural Society.
The lumberman is a most valuable pioneer and agent
timber, && 132
QUEBEC. in settling the country; the operations of a lumbering*
camp furnish employment for the settler, and a profitable and ready market for his products. The forests
are divided into ' limits' embracing a certain number of*
square miles. The numerous streams which intersect
the country serve to float the logs and timber to market.
The districts watered by the Saguenay, the St. Maurice,
and the tributaries of the Ottawa from the east, are the
principal lumbering grounds. Lumbering operations are
carried on in winter, and about 30,000 men are yearly
employed in the business. During the summer months
the logs and timber are floated down to the various
' coves,' saw-mills and markets. The average value of
the timber exported is about 10,000,000 dols.
Mines. Mining in Quebec is still in its infancy.    In 1876—•
the last year for which we have any official return—the
yield of all mines in the province is said to have been
365,546 dols. Within the past four years this department of industry has shown signs of revival and extension. During 1879 no less than 680 licences were issued
to eighteen different companies for mining in the seign-
ories of Rigaud, Vaudreuil Parish, St. Francis of
Beauce. On the Du Loup river hydraulic mining is being-
prosecuted by New York capitalists. The total reported product for the year amounted to 32,97*2 dols.,
which sum, the division-inspector states, represents only
about one-half the amount actually obtained.
The Chaudiere gold district, situate fifty miles south
of Quebec city, comprises about 8,000 square miles, and
is attracting much attention at the present time.
Minerals. Recent explorations and surveys, extending over an
area of 3,500 square miles on both sides the St.
Lawrence, give promise that at no very distant day
Quebec will take high rank as a mining country.
Valuable beds of apatite, containing phosphate of
lime, which is valuable as a fertiliser, exist in Hull,.
Templeton, and Buckingham townships, and hopes are
entertained of successfully working them. The lands
containing these phosphate deposits are withdrawn from
sale under 32 Vict. c. 11. Geological surveys of the
rocks comprising the Quebec group are now in progress
by Messrs. Selwyn, Richardson, Vennor, and Hitchcock.
On the whole, it may be said that the mineral resources of this province are well worthy the attention of Old
World capitalists. Immense beds of mineral pigments
and ochres occur at Ste; Anne de Montmorenci, Cap
•de la Magdeleine, Pointe du Lac, Vaudreuil, and in the
Eastern townships. Iron ore is found in most of its
varieties and in great quantities. Magnetite at Hull,
Buckingham, and other places on the Ottawa; bog ore
•on the St. Maurice and Eastern townships and Vaudreuil,
as well as hasmatite (soft) and brown haematite, and magnetic ironsand at the Moisic River in the Gulf. Asbestos
is found at Lake Megantic and in other parts of the
-townships. Plumbago is plentiful at Buckingham. In
the valleys of the Lievre and Gatineau there are vast
d eposits of apatite or phosphate of lime, yielding first-grade
•ore, from 70 to 90 per cent., which are attractin g attention,
-and recently a French company has secured 100,000
acres for the purpose of mining. The copper sulphuret
•deposits of the Eastern townships are very extensive.
Cereals, hay, and green crops grow everywhere in
abundance. The total quantity of wheat grown in
1877-78was about2,068,000bushels; barley, 1,668,208;
oats, 15,116,262; rye, 458,970; peas, 2,205,585 ; beans,
79,050; buckwheat, 1,676,078; corn, 603,356 bushels.
This is the produce of less than 250,000 acres. A total
of 128,185 acres produces 18,068,323 bushels of potatoes,
of turnips 812,073, and of other root crops 597,160
bushels. An acreage of 1,211,953 produces 1,224,640
tons of hay and grass, and of clover seed about 143,535
■bushels. The melon and tomato grow and fully ripen
in the open air. Indian corn, hemp and flax, and occasionally tobacco, are also grown and yield fair returns
in favoured localities. The extent of the farms in Quebec
average about 100 acres. These farms in the older
settlements are worth from 2,000 to 4,000 dols. a-piece.
With a view to stimulate the settlement of British
farmers in this province, the Government has lately made
a special appropriation of 100,000 acres and despatched
a special commissioner to England to organise a party.
Something more than this is necessary, however, to
stem or even turn the tide which is setting in to the
newer and more immediately productive lands in the
J>Torth-West Territories.
is becoming an important occupa-
Stock-raising. 134
manufactures, &c.
tion in Quebec, and the province has sent to England
a class of cattle unsurpassed by her own best breeds.
The lands in the eastern townships, ' the Garden of
Quebec,' and north of Ottawa, for pasturage, are of
special excellence. They embrace nearly one million
acres, and are offered at from 2s. to 2s. 6d. an acre. It
is undeniable that the eastern townships possess advantages for the settlement of a robust, thrifty class of
farmers, which are well worth their careful consideration. Briefly stated these advantages are—their contiguity to the seaboard, and therefore to the European
as well as domestic markets, the steady, equable
climate, and the proximity of manufacturing privileges.
In Chambly county five butter and two cheese factories
have been started since 1878. Dahy-farming is yet in
its infancy, but the active co-operation and aid of the
Government is giving to agriculture an impulse which
must result in very important consequences to the
The geographical situation of the province, added to
its great water power and cheap living, and the fact
that its ports are situate at the foot of inland and the
head of maritime navigation, render Quebec a field
where manufacturers with sufficient capital can do well.
As the province is the leading mercantile and financial
section of the Dominion, so is it declared to be the leading manufacturing centre. Lumber, as already stated,
constitutes the staple article of produce. Next in
point of value and importance rank stoves, pig iron,
india rubber goods, cloth, linen, chemicals, soap, leather,
boots and shoes, cotton, and woollen goods, and all descriptions of agricultural implements, wooden ware and
furniture. Fully four-fifths of this trade is centred at
Montreal. In looking at the figures representing the
export and import trade of Quebec, it will be well to
consider its importance as the central province and
assorting market of the Dominion. The export trade in
1876 amounted to 37,876,815 dols., and the import trade
to 35,035,091 dols. The principal manufacturing centres
and points next to Montreal and Quebec are Richmond
and Sherbrooke, Three Rivers, St. John's and St.
Hyacinthe, Valleyfield, Kingsey and Windsor Mills.
It may be asserted in all fairness that the banking and COMMERCE, ETC.
other financial institutions of Quebec are the chief institu- QUEBEC*
tions of the kind in Canada. The shipbuilding industry
ofthe province is well known, and so, too, is the manufacture of timber, or, as it is commonly called, the lumber
trade; but a summary statement of the exports will, Exports,
perhaps, give a better insight into the commerce of
Quebec than mere words. The figures in 1876 stood
The Mines yielded   *       .
The Fisheries   .       .       .
The Forests
Animals and their produce
.    7,487,027
Agricultural products
Manufactures   .
Miscellaneous articles
This does not include coin and bullion.
The provision trade of the St. Lawrence, dependent
as it largely is upon the development and progress of
the interior and the agricultural' and pastoral industries of the entire province, has shown during the past
season (1879-80) a very marked enlargement.
The exportation of live stock from Montreal has
been as follows:—
1878 1877
18,655 . 6,940
41,250 . 9,599
2,078 . 430
The returns for 1880 are to October 8 only.
The increase of numbers is not the most gratifying part
of it, but the fact that of the 18,655 cattle exported in
1878 fully one-half were American cattle, whereas in
1880 they were all Canadian. The shipments of cereals
also showed a very considerable increase:—
1879 1878
Flour, barrels .       .       .       626,593    .        .      602,658
.    68,151
.    9,535,144    .
.   5,749,347
»              •
.    4,004,708    .
.   6,612,990
.    2,402,891    .
.    1,905,086
m              •
618,531    .
ji              •
413,592   .
»              •
333,491    .
. 17,308,357
14,432,875 136
Crown and
ivild lands.
The great feature in the development of the grain shipments was the establishment of a direct export trade
with European Continental ports, instead of serving
them, as heretofore, through agents or middlemen in
remaining    {
.    515,360
.   455,449
.    180,863
.    101,596
Some of the shipments of cheese, however, were not
Canadian, but American, from the counties bordering
on the St. Lawrence, and from Wisconsin, which were
attracted to this route by the more favourable freights.
During 1879 there were built and launched in this
province twenty-nine vessels, measuring 7,421 tons.
The following is a list of the provincial ports, with the
shipping and tonnage belonging to each:—
Amherst   .
Montreal   .
New Carlisle
.   1,007
These figures are exclusive of the .craft engaged in the
fisheries. Of these there were at the close of 1877 upwards of 400 vessels and 16,000 boats, giving employment to nearly 12,000 men.
The land area of Quebec is thus classified:—
Old seignories, now held in fee simple
Crown sales and grants
Grown lands ....
About 5,720,939 acres of the Crown lands have been
surveyed and subdivided into farm lots, and are now
offered by the Government partly for sale and partly in
free grant.
These lands may be purchased at prices ranging
from 20 to 60 cents per acre, on the following conditions.
One-fifth of the purchase-money payable on day of sale, CEOWN LANDS.
the remainder in four equal annual instalments, with
interest at 6 per cent. The purchaser must take possession within six months from the date of sale, and must
reside on the land for two years. During the first four
years the settler must clear and cultivate ten acres for
•every hundred acres so held, and erect a habitable home
at least 16 ft. by 20 ft. in extent. In the case of Free
Grants the exceptions are trifling. Pamphlets containing full particulars and instructions in regard to the
acquisition and cultivation of Crown lands in the pro-
-vince may be had on application to the Commissioner
of Crown Lands, Quebec. The emigrant who enters
upon the occupation of an uncleared farm must expect
that eighteen months, or a year at the very least, will
•expire before he can get a return from his land. Such
being the case, it would be highly imprudent for a
family of five or six persons to settle on a lot of wild
land, unless they possessed at least 200 dols. While he is
clearing his own lot, the settler may find occasional work,
either in workinsr for a more fortunate neighbour, or on
a colonisation road, or by hiring for a month or two
-during the winter season with a lumber merchant. Fish
and game are very abundant, and with these, at certain
seasons, the settler may furnish his table. The cost of
clearing, when it is done by contract, is about 10 dols.
per acre. A skilled farmer who has not the means of
purchasing a farm, or settling at once upon uncleared
land, will find many proprietors prepared to lease their
farms, or to farm on shares. The English immigrant
who selects as his home the Eastern Townships will find
himself in the midst of his own countrymen, and in a
section of Canada which, in every respect, is, for all
practical farming purposes, unsurpassed on the continent
of America. In the townships there are stiH upwards of
"three-quarters of a million acres of land for sale at from
•50 cents (2s. 4^d.) to 70 cents (3s. 4(2.) per acre.
There are also lands held by the British American
Land Company. On the other hand, ' improved farms '
may be purchased by the larger capitalist, with a house,
Taarn, stables, fences, &c, already built, and with crops
already growing, and everything in readiness for immediate farming operations. The actual purchase money
"varies,  naturally,  according   to   circumstances.     The
farms. 138
QUEBEC, reason why these farms are open for sale is that there is-
a constant tendency among the original settlers, or
'pioneers,' after clearing a homestead and remaining
there for a few years, to move further afield, either-
from a love of adventure or for the sake of obtaining- a
larger area for the settlement of their sons. Having*
completed the period of settlement necessary for acquiring absolute possession of their land, and improved its
market value, these old colonists seize an opportunity
of selling it at a price, in order to proceed to the new
lands continually opening up, which they and their sons
may secure, as already pointed out, for a merely nominal
sum. It is this spirit of progress and advancement which
has through past generations made the British Empire
what it is, and at the present time these circumstances-
afford an opportunity to tenant farmers at home which
many of them will not be slow to seize.
Soil and The soil of the Eastern Townships is very fertile and
products. susceptible of the highest degree of cultivation. The
features of the country are rolling, having the appearance, when viewed from an elevation, of an upheaval
of immense waves suddenly stilled; these slopes and valleys, before they were cleared, were covered with a luxuriant growth of those kinds of forests which in America
are known as a sign of naturally drained soil and great
fertility. There are many kinds of wood in the forests,
among which the following may be enumerated—mapler
hard and soft; birch, elm, ash, spruce, bass-wood, butternut, hickory, cedar, &c. These woods are of great
value for making agricultural implements, &c, and
supply numerous local factories for the manufacture of
tools, carriages, furniture, &c. Contiguous to these
woods are numerous streams, affording water-power
for mills or factories. The country is literally intersected with streams and rivulets, the waters of which
are clear and cold, and the home of the red trout. There-
are also numerous lakes of very great natural beauty;
one of them, Lake Memphremagog, compares with, if it
does not exceed, Loch Lomond in loveliness of scenery.
These lakes, as well as the streams, are rich in valuable
fish. In a word, for natural beauty of landscape the
Eastern Townships may compare with any part of the
world.    Grapes may also be grown in the open air, and EASTERN  TOWNSHIPS.
the conditions are favourable for their culture. Apples
and the ordinary small fruits will not only grow in great
abundance, but the conditions of the country are specially adapted to their production. Grazing and stock-
raising have, however, been special features of agriculture there ; and the ordinary cereals—wheat, oats, barley,
&c.—are growing in great abundance. Sheep and
cattle are raised in great numbers, and have largely
contributed to the export trade in live meat to England
which has sprung up of late years. Excellent cheese
and butter are produced, and sent in vast quantities to
the United States and also to Europe ; while the wool
from the sheep supplies a number of woollen factories in
the district.
As regards climate this part of the Dominion is very
favourably situated; tbe southern frontier is on the
parallel of 45° N., corresponding to the latitude of the
south of France.
The Eastern Townships were originally settled by
United Empire Loyalists, who left the United States at
the time of their separation from England, and who
made thereby enormous sacrifices to preserve their
allegiance. From that root the spirit of loyalty to the
Crown has continued to grow and spread. That original
stock has been replenished and added to by immigrants
from all parts of the United Kingdom; and people from
the British Islands going to settle there will find them-
selves at home among men speaking their own language
and in sympathy with their feelings, customs, and laws.
There are many French Canadian settlers in the townships who live in the most perfect harmony with their
brethren who speak the English tongue; but this may
be said to be a particularly ' English' portion of the
province of Quebec.
Notwithstanding the comparatively small portion of
the land under cultivation, the great bulk of the rural
population five by agriculture. The extent of the farms
generally is 100 acres ; farms in the older settlements
being worth, as a rule, from 2,000 dols. to 4,000 dols.
The sons of farmers invariably push back into the new
settlements, where a partially cleared farm may be purchased for about 200 dols.; or purchase a lot from the
Crown Lands Department at a cost of between 30 or 40
ist s.
ttlers. 140
•Colonisation Centres.
cents (Is. Sd. to 2s. sterling) per acre; or take a free
grant of 100 acres along one of the colonisation roads.
Of these there are thirteen, named as follows:—Tache-
Temiscouata, Metapedia, Kempt Matame and Cap Chat,
Elgin, Etchemin, Mailloux, Ware and Langevin, Lake
St. John, Maritime South and North Shore, Kennebec.
On these roads 17,424J acres were located during 1879.
There are five main centres of colonisation:—(1)
The Valley of the Saguenay—The extent of land surveyed
and disposable in this district is about 616,600 acres,
the price of which is about 20 cents (10d. sterling)
per acre; (2) The VaUey of St. Maurice—There are in the
Townships of this district, surveyed and divided into
farm lots, 441,200 acres of land for sale at 30 cents (Is. Sd.
sterling) per acre; (3) The VaUey of the Ottawa—The
number of acres surveyed and divided into farm lots
actually to be disposed of in this district is 1,358,500
acres, the price of which is 30 cents per acre ; (4) The
Eastern Townships—In this rich grazing district there
are 850,000 acres of wild land, which the Government
is prepared to sell at a moderate rate: the Government lands in this section sell at from 50 cents to 60
cents (2s. Id. to 2s. 6d. sterling) per acre; (5) Gaspe—
In this district the Government offers for sale 491,100
acres of land, at the rate of 20 cents or 30 cents (lOd. to
Is. 3d. sterling) per acre. Besides this, on the south
shore of the Lower St. Lawrence, the Government offers
for sale 1,423,200 acres at 30 cents (Is. Sd. sterling)
per acre. A Homestead law is in force which exempts
from seizure under certain conditions the property of
The lands in St. John district, situate north of the
City of Quebec, from which a railroad is in course of construction, and in the Ottawa Valley, are also attracting
attention rapidly, especially in those parts opened up by
the Q. M. O. and O. Railway. A vast territory of fertile
land has also been opened up by the Intercolonial
Railway, in the county of Rimouski. The townships
along the line of the Quebec Central and the St. Francis
and Megantic and International Railways offer superior
inducements to settlers.
The Government, having 129,000,000 acres of land
at its disposal, performed the best service a Government RAILWAYS AND CANALS.
can perform by making an effective survey.    Having
divided into farm lots 6,400,000 acres of land, it next j
caused the greater part of this territory to be traversed ments to
by colonisation roads, founded agricultural societies, and *
enacted a law to give aid to intending settlers.    It has
0 O
laid the basis of a most important railway communication ; spends thousands of dollars also, yearly, in promoting education. There are no questionable titles in
Quebec, so that the purchaser from the Crown has
nothing to fear.
The comparative labour and cost required to purchase and put ready for successful cultivation a small
farm in the North-West Territories and in the Eastern
Townships of Quebec, are thus stated by a recent writer
who has given much attention to the subject.
In the North-West Territories.
Land Free.
Breaking up 10 acres, at two dollars
and a half per acre
Barn and stable         ....
House materials         .... #260.00
Labour 40.00
In the Eastern Townships.
Purchase of 160 acres at 40c, #64
Clearing 10 acres of land at #15 per
acre   ......
(This means making the land fit for
Cost to build a   good   block house
20x24 # 80.00
Cost to build a good barn, 25 x 35      .    100.00
Cost to build a good stable.       .       .     40.00
Difference in favour of Eastern Townships
The following railways are wholly or partially ope- -1
rated within the province:—Grand  Trunk;. Intercolonial ; Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa, and Occidental (or
and canals. QUEBEC-
North Shore) ; Quebec Central; Levis and Kennebec;
Lawrentian; Montreal and Vermont Junction; South
Eastern; Stanstead, Shefford, and Chambly; St.
Lawrence and Industry j and the Montreal, Portland,
and Boston.
These various lines comprise over 1,500 miles, to the
construction and maintenance of which the Government
and municipalities have contributed over 13,000,000
dols. A large sum has been expended in the construe-.
tion of pubHc works in the province, the most noteworthy of which are the canals, and particularly the
submerged canal in Lake St. Peter, below Montreal,
which has been excavated by steam at an enormous
expense, to enable vessels drawing 22 ft. of water to
reach that port from the sea. It has a length of 16^
miles, and a width of 200 ft. The last stone of the
Chaudiere railway bridge has just been laid. This
bridge is 3,800 ft. in length, exclusive of 900 ft. of
work on the islands. There are eleven piers, and four
Political Geography.
The public affairs of this province are administered
by a Lieutenant-Governor (Hon. Theodore Robitaille,
m.d.), an Executive Council of seven members, a Legislative Council of twenty-four life members, and a Legislative Council of sixty-five members.* The present
premier is the Hon. J. Adolphe Chapleau,, q.c,
who succeeded Hon. H. Gustave Joly, October 30,1879.
Public instruction is under the direction of a member
of the Provincial Government, called the Superintendent of Public Instruction, who is assisted by a Council
of twenty-one members, appointed by the Lieutenant-
Governor ; of these fourteen are Catholic and seven
The separate school system prevails to the utmost
satisfaction of all creeds and classes in the province of
Quebec. Primary education is compulsory, so far that
every citizen is bound to contribute to its maintenance
a moderate sum, which is assessed on his property. To
poor municipalities 8,000 dols. per annum are allowed.
There are three normal schools-—two Roman Catholic
* See County and Constituency Divisions on pp. 128-130. PUBLIC  INSTRUCTION.
and one Protestant, where 640 school teachers are
trained. There are nearly 4,453 primary schools, attended by about 200,000 pupils; about 225 secondary
and 115 model, schools, attended by 11,500 pupils. Besides these there are special schools, lyceums, commer-
oial schools, and schools of agriculture. These number
about 150, and are attended by 3,000 pupils. The whole
-number of scholars in attendance in 1879 amounted to
237,489. The total number of educational institutions
giving instruction in 1878 was 4,681, attended by
234,828 pupils, independent of 211 libraries, containing
130,000 volumes. There are fifteen superior schools in
Quebec, where the classics are mainly taught; twelve
are Catholic and three Protestant. The Roman Catholic
schools owe their existence to the generosity of the
Catholio clergy. The first was opened at Three Rivers
by Pere de Plessis, the next at Quebec by Pere le Jeun
in 1632. The professors are nearly all ecclesiastics, and
are content to receive a remuneration of 40 dols. per
annum. This explains the low rate paid by pupils for
board and tuition, which is about 100 dols. per year.
There are three universities in Quebec, two of which
—McGill, founded 1827, and Bishop's, founded 1843—
are Protestant, and one Roman Catholic. The Catholic
University of Laval was founded in 1854 by the Seminary of Quebec (1678), and is maintained, without State
aid, by that important college.
The law provides that if at any time ten Catholic or
five Protestant members of the Council shall be of
opinion that their respective educational institutions
should be separately managed, they shall be separated.
The council thus resolves itself into two, so that the
members of the different rehgious creeds shall have
the exclusive management of the schools of their respective denominations. Nothing, however, thus far indi-
cates a desire to put into operation this clause of the
law which provides for separation; on the contrary, the
most friendly relations exist among the gentlemen of
different religious denominations who constitute the
The religious and charitable institutions form a
pleasing feature in Quebec. There is, as might be expected, a very large preponderance of Roman Catholic
instruction. QUEBEC.
establishments, to meet the demands of the population,
four-fifths of whom are Catholic. With the earlier missionaries came the Sceurs Hospitaliers to care for the
sick, and the Ursuline Sisters to attend to female education and assist in civilising the Indians. By the side of
the Roman Catholic institutions have grown up and
prospered those of other religious communities, between
which and the Roman Catholic institutions no rivalry
exists except in doing good. The province devotes a
large sum to the support of charitable institutions.
For -Judicial purposes the province is divided into
twenty districts, each district having equal jurisdiction
in all matters, except as to revision and appeal. The
Supreme Court of Canada, established by 38 Vict. c. 11,
is composed of a chief justice and five puisne judges, and
has four terms. There are two chief justices in Quebec
—Queen's Bench (Sir A. A. Dorion) and Superior
Court (Hon. W. Collis Meredith) and sessions are held
at Montreal and Quebec. A Dominion Law Society
was formed at Ottawa June 6, 1879, and is now fully
At the last census, taken in 1871, the population of
Quebec amounted to 1,191,516 souls. Of these 929,817
were of French origin, 69,822 of English, 49,458 of
Scotch, 123,478 of Irish, and the remainder of other
Classified according to religion, the population ofthe
province is composed of 1,019,850 Catholics and 171,666
Protestants. There is also a considerable ' sprinkling'
of United Empire Loyalists, whom the War of Independence in the United States caused to emigrate to
Canada. To recompense their allegiance the British
Government granted them magnificent grants of land in
the Eastern Townships of Quebec, and in the peninsula
formed by the great lakes of Ontario. In this way there
exists to-day in the province a mixed population consisting of French and English speaking people.
In 1871 the Indian population of Quebec was returned at 8,657. They now number 10,917; of these
4,024 reside on reserves. The Naskapees ofthe Lower
St. Lawrence, and the Iroquois of Caughnawaga, are
the most numerous tribes. There are about 600 Mic-
macs settled at Restigouche and Gaspe Basin. TOURIST ATTRACTIONS.
The chief attractions and points of interest of this
province, and indeed of the whole St. Lawrence valley,
for the tourist and sportsman, are readily accessible
from Quebec and Montreal as centres of travel. They
are the citadel of Cape Diamond, Plains of Abraham,
and Wolfe's monument, fortifications, gates, &c, and
Montmorenci and Chaudiere Falls. Both the latter are a
short distance from the city. In and round Montreal
the chief objects of interest to visitors are the Victoria
tubular bridge, the mountain, cathedral of Notre Dame,
and Bonsecours market and quay. The Saguenay Riven,
Riviere du Loup, Tadousac, Murray Bay, and Cacouna,
and the Thousand Islands—the former 130 miles below
Quebec, and the latter 130 miles above Montreal—afford
two of the most picturesque tours in the province.
There are many inducements to sportsmen in the
salmon and speckled trout fishing of numberless
streams both north and south of the Sb. Lawrence ; the
moose grounds of the eastern part of the province bordering on New Brunswick and Maine; and the wild
fowl found everywhere in the marshes of the numerous
streams. The tourist will not fail to be attracted by
the grand and beautiful sights of nature.
The winter sports of this province are most enjoyable. Sleighing, skating, and toboggining, and coasting or
sledding, are among the exercises and pastimes most indulged in. During the winter months, November to March,
the trees are frequently covered with frost. Nothing more
brilliant or artistic can be imagined than the effect of
the sun's rays on a cloudless calm day on the frost-clad
boughs. At such times every particle of the icy crystals
sparkles with the refulgence of a Koh-i-noor, and all
nature seems literally decked with diamonds. A ' thing
of beauty is a joy for ever.'
No sketch of Quebec Province, however elaborate
or exhaustive in other respects, could possibly be considered complete which did not treat in more or less
detail of its scenery. Nor could we expect to be forgiven by our friends of the gun, rod, and saddle, if we
turned from the natural history of Eastern Canada
without some reference to the opportunities it affords
for the pursuit of their favourite pastimes. Quebec has
an area equal to nearly twice that of Great Britain and
Points of
Tourist attractions. 146
Ireland. In such an extent of country the stranger will
naturally look for great diversity of scenery. Nor will
he look in vain. Mountains and valleys, rivers and
lakes, waterfalls and rapids, forests and plains, combine
in wonderful and pleasing variety, and form a natural
panorama of most picturesque diversity and rugged
The chief attraction in the picture to very many will, no
doubt, be the sight of Quebec City—the' Ancient Capital'
—itself. Although more than two centuries and a half
old it looks as newly finished as if Champlain had just
left it.
In the bright, crisp, untainted air of the St. Lawrence
Valley, citadel, cathedral and college, even the cottage
and cabin of the humblest habitant all have the appearance of having been freshly painted yesterday.
Not altogether improperly, outsiders regard Quebec
as common property—as a bit of the Old World transferred to the New—tucked away carefully for safe keeping as it were in this remote corner of the continent,
and to be religiously preserved from all iconoclastic
desecration, especially from that phase of the latter
which, with some, goes by the name of modern improvement, but passes for wanton Vandalism with
others. They wish to have to say of Quebec at the
present day, as Longfellow sang of Nuremberg of yore,
that it is a
Quaint old town of toil and traffic,
Quaint old town of art and song,
Memories haunt thy pointed gables,
Like the rooks that round them throng.
Historically, Quebec is the most interesting city in
the British possessions. Situated 360 miles from the
mouth of the St. Lawrence, and 180 miles below
Montreal, it was once the capital of French dominion in
America, and for a long period the capital of the lower
or eastern province of Canada. It is still the provincial capital. Though shorn by recent changes of
much of its political, as well as of very much of its
commercial, importance, it is still, historically, one of
the most interesting and picturesquely unique cities on
the continent of North America.    Approached either by THE   ANCIENT   CAPITAL.
and  fine   residences;
narrow strip of land
steamer or railway, the view of the citadel and ramparts,
crowning Diamond Point, leaves an impression on the
visitor which no amount of subsequent sight-seeing is
likely soon to efface.
No city which the New World tourist is likely to
visit in the course of his journeying so impresses, by the
startling peculiarities of its site, or the novelty of its
physical aspect, or stamps that impress so indelibly on
eye and memory, as the quaint old citadel, which has
very appropriately been called the ' Gibraltar of the
New World.' Whether seen from below, in ascending the
river, or from the railway station and steamer landing,
at Point Levi, the picture it presents to the visitor is
•equally novel and impressive. Thus viewed, the upper
and lower towns are no imaginary divisions, but altogether separate and distinct quartiers, the former crowning the lofty promontory of Cape Diamond, with its
•double line of massive ramparts, and containing the
civil and fashionable quarters, with the public buildings
the latter extending along the
beneath the cliffs and under the
beetling walls as far as the suburb of St. Roche. From
the Dufferin and Durham Terrace, or, indeed, from
any of the prominent ramparts and terraces of the.upper
town, the view downward upon the wide wooden quays
and tortuous, narrow streets of the lower town, crowded
with carioles and caleches, and busy throngs, dwarfed
to pigmy proportions by the dizzy height, while the eye
wanders to the blackened throats of ponderous chimneys, the well-worn flights of breakneck-looking steps,
and upon the moss-overgrown roofs of the time-browned
and grimy buildings, is one to be studied with the eye
of an artist, and to be long remembered.
The city-was founded by Samuel de Champlain, the
French geographer and navigator, in 1608, on the site of
fhe Indian village of ' Stadicona,' at the confluence of
the St. Lawrence and St. Charles Rivers, which Jacques
Cartier is said to have first visited in 1535. Its form is
-triangular, the base resting on the memorable Plains of
Abraham, and the St. Lawrence and St. Charles Rivers
upon either side. A massive wall of hewn stone, nearly
three miles in length, with projecting bastions and
frowning cannon, pierced by five massive gates, encloses
-c 2
Citadel and.
gates. 148
walks and
the better portion of the upper town. Prescott, Palace,
and Hope gates communicate with the lower town-
Through St. Louis gate, newly restored, the suburbs,
in the direction of the Plains of Abraham, are reached.
St. John's gate leads to the suburbs of St. Roche, Beau-
port and Montmorenci. Through these two gates the
remnants of Montcalm's shattered forces made their
retreat from the Plains of Abraham to their camp at
Beauport. St. Peter Street is the principal thoroughfare
of the lower town, and St. John and St. Louis Streets
the leading avenues of the upper town. Kent gate is
still under construction. The St. Foye and St. Louis
roads (Grand AUee) are lined with fine residences, and
afford pleasant drives.
The Citadel, Mount Hermon Cemetery, Plains of
Abraham, the Public Garden with Wolfe's and Montcalm's Monuments, Governor's Garden, Place D'Armes,
and English Cathedral, Ursuline Convent, University of
Quebec, and the Custom House and Exchange, in the
lower town, constitute the show-sights of the city. The
Literary and Historical Society has a valuable library
of 12,000 volumes, besides magazines, reviews, &c. It
is open daily to visitors on a member's introdnction. The
Geographical Society has been recently organised, and
numbers nearly 300 members. Delightful drives may
be had to Montmorenci Falls and the battle-ground,
Montcalm's Cottage on the Beauport Road, round the
Isle of Orleans (19 miles long and 5^ miles wide),
Chaudiere Falls, and the Indian village of Lorette. At
the confluence of the St. Charles and Lairet Rivers, on
the road to Lorette, Jacques Cartier wintered and left
one of his ships, the Petite LTermine, 1535—36. A census
of the settlement (which dates from 1697), taken in
1879, returned 336 as the total population of the village.
An interesting sketch of a visit to Indian Lorette is
given by J. M. Le Moine in bis recently published
'Historical Notes on the Environs of Quebec' The drive
round the lovely Isle of Orleans, and that to Montmorenci are among the most delightful experiences of
the tourist's visit to the Valley of the St. Lawrence. A
sleigh and ' toboggan ' party to Montmorenci constitutes
the ' sensation' of the winter season, and to the true
lover of innocent sport is worth the Atlantic voyage to THE ANCIENT CAPITAL.
-experience. The hotels are the St. Louis and Russell.
A new hotel, which is much wanted in this delightful
old city, is shortly to be built on the Dufferin Terrace to
"the east of the citadel and officers' quarters. It is to be
■called the Chateau or Hotel St. Louis. It will occupy
tlie site of the ancient chateau, built by Champlain in
1624, and burnt down January 23, 1834. The view
from the windows of this building when complete will be
at once extensive and picturesque, commanding a view
of the noble river and opposite shore for many miles
The population of Quebec is 75,000.
Point Levi, opposite Quebec, marks the site where
•General Arnold encamped in 1775, in his foolish attempt
"to dislodge the British forces within the city.
Chaudiere Falls, 9 miles below Quebec, are best
Teached vid Point Levi. The Chaudiere River is 400
feet wide, and the fall 130 feet.
Montmorenci Falls are 8 miles from Quebec, vid
Beauport, and afford a charming drive. They are
-situated in a beautiful nook in the river bank, and are
■nearly 250 feet in height. Iu winter the spray from the
fall freezes, and forms into cones, which are much
patronised by the toboggan ' sports ' from Quebec. The
natural steps, two miles above the falls, and the
famous ford—the scene of Montcalm's defence in 1759
—will each repay a visit. Another pretty drive from
•Quebec is that by the New Provincial Government
buildings (Edifices publics) on St. John's Road ; Female
•Orphan Asylum, Battle-field Cottage, and by Wolfefield
"to ' Benmore,' the country seat, model farm and scientific
vegetarium of Colonel Rhodes. At Wolfefield may be
seen the precipitous path up St. Denis' Burn by which
the Highlanders and British soldiers gained a footing on
the memorable Plains of Abraham on the eventful
September 13,1759. Thornhill, Spencer Wood, Spencer
Grange, the residence of J. M. Le Moine, the historian,
Clermont, ' Cataraqui,' ' Ravenswood,' and other pretty
oounfcry seats of the Quebec merchant princes are
passed, until ' Cap Rouge ' is reached. The return to
town by the St. Foye road is scarcely less attractive.
Since Confederation Spencer Wood has been in turn
occupied by Sir N. F. Belleau, Lieutenant-Governor
•Caron, Lieutenant-Governor Letellier de St. Just, and
Hotel St.
Point Levi.
Wood. 150
the present Lieutenant-Governor Theo. F. Robitatlle,
whose munificent hospitality adds greatly to the natural
charms ofthe place.*
From Quebec as a centre, as already stated, tours
may be made to the Saguenay River, the largest tributary of the St. Lawrence River, below Quebec, and one
of the most remarkable rivers on the continent.
Steamers leave St. Andrew's wharf, Lowertown (except Sunday and Monday), during the season (June to
September) daily at 7 A.M. For times of arrival and
departure of trains and steamers the local guides published in various cities of the Dominion must be availed
of to ensure the tourist against delay or disappointment.
Riviere du Loup (en bas), 112 miles from Quebec,,
formerly the eastern terminus of the Quebec branch
of the Grand Trunk Railway, is now a section station
of the Intercolonial line.
Cacouna, 6 miles below Riviere du Loup, is a pleasant watering-place, with a good hotel (St. Lawrence
Tadousac, 134 miles below Quebec, is a pleasant
summer resort at the mouth of the Saguenay. It is
22 miles from Riviere du Loup and 66 from Rimouski,
where the mails from the incoming and outgoing steamers
are landed and taken on board.
Ha-Ha Bay is that portion of the Saguenay River at
its confluence with Lake Kenokaim. The village of
Grand Bay, 132 miles from Quebec, is much resorted to
by sportsmen and those who wish to remain in the
neighbourhood of the Saguenay. The finest scenery on
the river is found between Ha-Ha Bay and the mouth,
a distance of 60 miles.
From a strictly commercial point of view, Quebec
city is mainly interesting as the centre of the important
Uoininion export timber and lumber trade, and in this
aspect of it a visit to the various coves and mills in its
vicinity, where the timber is stored and sawn, may be
profitably made.
Montreal, the commercial metropolis and most populous city of Canada, is unquestionably one of the hand-
* An interesting historical sketch of this fine old domain and
viceregal lodge, is given in Quebec: Its Gates and Environs, by
J. M. Le Moine.    ' Chronicle Office': Quebec, 1880. MONTREAL*
somest and best built cities on the American continent,
and will well reward the traveller for a few days spent
in visiting it. The St. Lawrence Hall, situate near the
Bank of Montreal and General Post-office, in the very
heart of the city, is an excellent hotel and affords
the best accommodation for travellers. The city stands
on the island of Montreal, at the head of St. Lawrence
river navigation proper, just below its confluence with
the Ottawa and at the foot of inland navigation, 540
miles from the Gulf, and commands a large and prosperous trade both with Europe and with the interior.
Mount Royal, from which the city is named, rises
550 feet, and forms an imposing background to the
The site of the present city was first visited by the
explorer Jacques Cartier, in 1535, it being then known
by the Indian name of ' Hochelaga.' The permanent
foundation took place in 1642. It remained under
French rule till 1760, when it passed into the hands of
the British. The population at that time was less than
5,000.   It now numbers 160,000.
It has a river frontage of nearly three mi les, extending from Victoria Bridge to Hochelaga village, and
wharfage for shipping purposes extending nearly 4^
miles. The best view of the city and its surroundings
is that obtained from the river in nearing the Victoria
Bridge. This is one of the grandest works of modern
times, and forms the most imposing feature in the
Montreal landscape. It is tubular, and rests on twenty-
four piers. The centre span is 330 feet, and 60 feet
above the river level. It is the work of Robert Stephenson, and was completed in 1860. It is two miles long,
including the approaches, contains 3,000,000 cubic feet
of masonry and 10,000 tons of iron, and cost 6,300,000
dols., or rather more than 1,200,000£. The passage of
the bridge occupies six minutes. Permits to inspect the
interior may be obtained at the Grand Trunk Railway
offices, Point St. Charles. The work of tunnelling the
river at Hochelaga has recently been undertaken.
The other chief objects of interest for the visitor to
Montreal are: The Cathedral of Notre Dame, said to be
the largest church edifice in North America, and capable
of holding 10,000 worshippers.     It is 260 feet by 140
Cathedral. 152
Views in
feet, and the towers are 220 feet high. The interior
has just been redecorated. The ' Gros Bourdon' bell,
in the left tower, weighs 15 tons. A fine view, extending as far as the Vermont Hills, is had from the
right tower on payment of a small fee. Bonsecoux's
Market is a substantial, spacious structure, with an
assembly room capable of seating 4,000 people. The
English Cathedral, on Catherine Street, is a fine
specimen of Gothic architecture. The interior of
the Jesuit Church, on Bleury Street, contains some fine
McGill College, Nelson Monument at the head of
Jacques Cartier Square, the new City Hall, Court
House, Post Office, the Banks of Montreal and of British
North America, Merchants' Bank, Molson's Bank, and
Mechanics' Institute, on Great St. James Street, are
noteworthy edifices of the more modern type. The
Champ de Mars, Place d'Armes, or Cathedral Square, Victoria Square, with the fine modern edifice of the Young
Men's Christian Association, and fountains, are noteworthy. Windsor Hotel is a large, well-constructed
edifice facing Dominion Square. Some of the other
squares afford pleasant promenades in the very heart of
the city. St. Paul Street is the heavy wholesale centre,
and St. James and Catherine Streets the fashionable
promenades. The St. James, Metropolitan, and City
are the leading clubs. Besides these there are curling,
snowshoe, skating, lacrosse, cricket, golf and football,
and chess clubs, and an excellent gymnasium. Strangers
are admitted only on the introduction of a member.
The Hotel Lieu, and the Grey Nunnery, founded in 1642,
will each repay a visit.
Drives 'round the mountain' in almost endless
variety, may be indulged in by those desirous to study
Montreal and its lovely surroundings in all their varied
and charming aspects. One-horse vehicles may be hired
for 50 and 75 cents, perhour. For two-horses one dollar
per hour is charged. The Reservoir, which suppfies the
city with water, drawn from the St. Lawrence a short
distance above the La Chine rapids, commands a wide
view. Mount Royal Cemetery, and the Roman Catholic
Cemetery, may be included in the same drive. The La
Chine Road also affords a pleasant drive, the lower road
commanding a view of the famous rapids.    La Chine TOURS FROM  MONTREAL.
may be reached in   36 minutes by the trains  on the     QUEBEC.
■Grand Trunk Railway. —	
The extensive workshops and locomotive and car p ■ . g
sheds belonging to the Grand Trunk Company will Charles,
well repay a visit from all those who would judge
fairly of the progress and present position of railway
enterprise and industry in Canada. They cover some
ten acres of ground at Point St. Charles, a western
suburb easily reached by cab, and give employment in
their various departments to upwards of 2,000 men.
From Montreal, as a radiating point for the picturesque portion of Canada and New England, tours may
be made in all directions. The more prominent and
popular of these may be briefly classified for reference
as follows:—
Route I.—To Rouse's Point, Lake Champlain, and Lake Tours.
George, by Grand Trunk Railway.
Route Ii.—To White and Franconia Mountains, Lakes
Memphremagog and Willoughby, by South-Eastern
Route III.—To Richmond, Quebec, Halifax, and Portland, and the White Mountain region vid Gorham, by
Grand Trunk Railway.
Route IV.—To Ottawa city, Rideau and Chaudiere
Falls, Carillon Rapids, and points beyond, by Q.M.O.
and O. Railway direct, or by water and rail. From
Bonaventure station to La Chine, 10 miles; steamer up
Lake St. Louis vid St. Ann's, through Two Mountain
Lake to Carillon, 50 miles; by rail to Grenville, 12
miles; thence up the Ottawa vid L'Original and
Buckingham to Ottawa, 50 miles. (For description
of Ottawa, see chapter on Ontario.)
Route V.—To Cedar Cascades and La Chine Rapids,
Cornwall, Brockville, Kingston, Thousand Islands of
the St. Lawrence, Cobourg, and Toronto, by Grand
Trunk Railway.
Route VI.—To Chambly and Richelieu Rapids (fine
boating and fishing), by Montreal, Chambly and Sorel
Route VII.—St. Hilaire and Belceuil Mountain, by
Grand Trunk Railway. 154
First Parliament
Sept. 17,
Ode sketch of the early political existence of Ontario—
we cannot call it a history—must be of the briefest description. The rapid sequence of events during the present century, and the magnificent progress which this-
province has made since Confederation, far transcend in
public interest and importance all that we find recorded
in the earlier stages and annals of her history. For ihis-
reason, among others scarcely less cogent, we shall confine ourselves within the narrowest possible limits.
Ontario is the name by which the western or upper
section of old Canada is now officially and familiarly
known. It is a relic of the significant and sonorous
language of the Wyandot Indians, who formerly occupied so much of its territory, and means the ' beautiful
land.' The existence of Upper Canada as a distinct-
province dates from the passage of the Constitutional
Act of 1791, previous to which it formed part of Quebec
Province. The then Governor, Lord Dorchester, by
proclamation, divided it into four districts, each with a
German name, as follows:—Lunenburg, extending from
the River Ottawa to Gananoque; Mecklenburg, extending from Gananoque to the Trent; Nassau, extending
from the Trent to Long Point on Lake Erie. These
were shortly afterwards changed to the ' Eastern ' or
Middle, ' Home' or Niagara, and ' Western' or Detroit
districts. Hesse, including the rest ofthe western part
of Upper Canada, to Lake St. Clair, formed the fourth
Major-General John Graves Simcoe, was the first
Lieutenant-Governor, and the first Parliament met at
Niagara (then called Newark), September 17, 1792.
Three members of the Legislative Council—'plain,