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Railways of Canada : their cost, amounts of aid given in cash and land, &c. Compiled from latest authorities Perry, Charles E. 1887

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Array 
COMPILED FROM LATEST AUTHORITIES 
VICTORIA
THE  COLONIST  STEAM   PRESSES.
1887.  RAILWAYS CANADA
THEIR COST,
AMOUNTS OF AID GIVE
 IN-
CASH AND LAND, &Compiled from Latest Authorities.
PERRY.
VICTORIA:
THE COLONIST STEAM PRESSES.
1887. PREFACE.
In presenting this pamphlet to the public, I do so in the
hope that the pro wins; necessities of railway communication
in the Province may be more forcibly made apparent, from a
comparison with other portions of the Dominion, and that
attention will be drawn to the pressing; need  of a thorough
X o o
co-operation between all shades of politicians in advancing
the welfare of the country. Many dormant interests only
await the breath of the iron horse to awaken to full and vigorous vitality. Since the completion of the Canadian Pacific
Railway the attention of railway capitalists has been directed
to British Columbia as a field for profitable investment. The
great areas of mineral wealth are beginning to  be properly
o o o sr      it        J
prospected and opened up. The valuable timber lands are
becoming better known, and vast areas of agricultural capabilities, hitherto neglected or indifferently mentioned, are
attracting capital from the Old World, and not a few of the
thrifty farmers of the New are making this Province their
home.
This pamphlet is merely a compilation from well known
reliable authorities and only aims at presenting an accumulation of facts in a concise form for ready reference.
The following authorities are quoted : Report Chief Engineer Railways and Canals, '84 and '85 ; Report Department
Agriculture, 1886 ; Poors' Manual of Railways, 1886 ; Kirk-
man's Railway Economy.
Charges E. Perry, C. E,
Mem. Inst, G. E. INTRODUCTORY.
The following from the able pen of Mr. Kirkman, although
referring to the railways in the United States is still applicable to all countries—the vexed question of local rates is not
mentioned ; but it is plainly to the interests of a great corporation like the Canadian Pacific to develop all the interior
traffic possible, a great reason fur the very high local rates at
present is the keen competition with rival lines on through
traffic, and the possible consequent necessity of recuperation
at the expense of local traffic; as the interests of the general
community and those of the railway are identical, it follows
that within reasonable limits, all real grievances cannot fail to
meet with prompt and just attention from gentlemen confessedly possessing ability of a high order combined with keen
practical knowledge of railway management.
L O t/ O
(Kirkman.)—"The magnitude of details incident to the
conduct of the affairs of a railroad company, while combining
many of the features common to other classes of business, are,
in the main, peculiar and exceptional in their character. So
far, however, as concerns the construction and the keeping in
order of its plant, its business is not noticeably different, save
in magnitude, from that of manufacturers generally. It is a
liberal consumer of the products of others, and a generous and
continuous patron of labor, including various classes of professional men not immediately connected with its service.
" The expenditures of railroads compass, as we shall show,
an infinite variety of objects, embracing everything required
by a widely diversified business, from the purchasing
of the vast domain required for tracks and station
facilities, to the payment of wages of operatives; from
the erection of mammoth warehouses to the planting
of   shade  trees    about   the   passenger   depots;    from    the r
retaining of a lawyer of distinction and renown, with all the
expenses incident thereto, down to the employment of a lad
whose sole business it is to supply water to the thirsty and
sweat begrimed operatives employed upon the construction
trains of a railroad. The disbursement of a company may be
said to benefit, and therefore to interest all classes. They extend through all the ramifications of commerce, and, affairs
from the purchasing of a cargo of coal needed in the operations of the property, down to the insertion of an advertisement in the morning paper; from the hiring of a janitor's
assistant, through all the various occupations, trades and professions, and the innumerable grades peculiar to each, up to
the employment of a surgeon to dress the broken limb or
Am/ O
maimed body of some luckless tramp caught between the
company's cars. The disbursements of the railroad companies
are the life-blood of many important trades, and help, to a
greater or lesser extent, to aggrandize all classes and degrees
of society. They may be likened unto the wide-spread
branches of a gigantic tree, under whose generous canopy
many widely separated industries find shelter and protection.
These industries, so matured, animate in turn still others ;
these in their turn still others, until in the end every occupation known to man is benefitted by them.
" A .very large and respectable class of people, indeed, I
think I may say, a majority of the people, have not heretofore
considered our railway companies except as common carriers,
formed of non-resident stockholders illiberal in their tendencies,
and short-sighted in their policies ; aliens, so to speak, having
no interests in common with the people; aggregations of capitalists leagued together for the purposes of profit, the suggestion
of this profit being such rates as the interests of the company
required without reference to quality or worth of the service
rendered, the effect of the rates upon the community from
which they are exacted not being a matter of interest or concern to the owners of the property. For this misconception
of the real facts in the case we are indebted to a class of pro- fessional writers who have access to the general ear, and
who, through ignorance or design, or both, systematically
misrepresent the interest and policy of the railroad companies.
" The interests of the railroad companies and the public
are practically the same. No disaster can overtake the one
without destroying the prosperity of the other, one cannot
reap substantial or permanent advantage except the other is
correspondingly benefitted.
| The capital invested in our railroads, U. S., is so vast
(amounting to $4,590,048,793.00 in 1878) and so deeply rooted
and fixed in perpetuity in the heart of the country that its
nwners are always the first to apprehend any disaster to the
people, and are the first to discountenance any act the effect of
which is to cripple or destroy the prosperity of those to whom
they look for support, and without whom their property is
valueless.
" Few classes of business represent in the same degree
this phase of perpetuity that characterizes railway property.
The great bulk of it has, it may be said, no value outside its
immediate local purpose, and can neither be removed nor disposed of; this important fact, if no other, will forever define
and fix the conservatism of railway owners; their interests, if
not their inclination compel them to pursue on the whole, an
equitable policy towards those on whom their property is dependent for its security and employment.
" Another important fact in connection with our railways
is very often forgotten or overlooked; namely, that their
revenues, whatever they may be, are largely expended, as fast
as collected, in the community from which they are derived-
Fully 64 per cent, of the revenue earned by companies is expended as fast as it accrues, for labor, supplies, etc. In addition to the large number of persons steadily, in the service of
railroad companies variously estimated at from 400,000 to
500,000 men, representing a population of from 2,000.000 to
2,500,000 people, they give employment incidentally to a vastly 6
greater number. The classes thus engaged may be said to
represent as do our railway operatives, the most industrious
and frugal element of society.
" The beneficiaries of the railway companies are discoverable in all the avocations of life from which men derive profit
or renown. We find them identified with our mercantile
houses, in our woi'k-shops, in our printing rooms, in the offices
of lawyers and doctors; they are to be found in our mines,
upon our shipping, in ( ur forests, and upon our farms. Our
telegraph system is but an appanage to the railway interest,
dependant upon it.
" The vast armies of people engaged in these widely
separated industries are vitally interested in the prosperity of
railway companies. They have in their turn still others
dependent upon them, and so the line is lengthened, and the
connection of interest strengthened and broadened until it may
be said to embrace civilized society as a whole.
" Hence it is apparent that anything that affects the railway interest injuriously, affects injuriously all other interests,
the bond of sympathy between them being in all things complete and irrevocable."
&— The following Tables show the aid given to Canadian
Railways in cash and land:—
Chief Engineer Railways and Canals Report,
1884,  1885.
Government and Municipal Loans, Bonuses, &c„ promised on
Railways, the construction of which is already commenced
(including cost of Government Railways).
Paid.
To be Paid.
Total.
tDovninion Government....
Ontario " ....
Quebec "        ....
New Brunswick   " ....
Nova Scotia " ....
Municipalities in Ontario....
" Quebec...
"        New Brunswick
"        Nova Scotia. . .
* Manitoba	
140,062,024 52   $15,245,026 13 $I55.307,050 65
5,946,984 52
6,878,295 41
3,594,165 00
2,718,275 00
9,418,805 81
1,982,14462
296,500 00
250,000 00:
525,000 00
i,34S,6i4 61
338,500 00
528,274 00
150,235 97
2,129,855 38
20,000 00
5,946,984 52
8,223,910 02
3,932,665 00
3,046,549 00
9,569,041 78
4,112,000 00
316,000 00
250,000 00
525,000 00
Totals $171,672,194 88   $19,557,506 09 $191,229,700 57
*The Province of Manitoba has granted $1,000,000 to the Hudson Bay
Railway, although only 40 (forty) miles of the road lies within the Province
boundaries.
The Dominion Government expended in five years for Railways $63,844,948,
and this is exclusive of the Canadian Pacific Railway loan, and of advance to St.
John's Bridge extension.
tDominion Government has paid $750,000 to the Esquimalt and Nanaimo
Railway as a bonus not included in above amount paid.       14
IR, _4_ T IE S
Through Traffic is the traffic between the extreme or ter-
iminal points of a road.. ■
Way Traffic is the traffic to intermediate points or Local
Traffic.
The expenses of loading and unloading trains is provided
for in England by a special charge. Transfer companies attend to the loading, unloading and delivery,—the rate for six.
miles or any fraction thereof being the same as for twelve
miles, in addition to the charge for unloading;, etc.
" The- length of hai™ taken in connection with the terminal expense should in all case's govern t&e rate-"
Imports and Exports of the Dominion by Provinces.
Nova Scotia	
New Brunswick  	
Manitoba	
British Columbia	
Prince Edward Island.
Northwest Territories,
Recapitulation	
Imports.
Total Value.
$ 8,418,826
5,972,836
2,728,868
4,089,492
780,141
390,202
'  108,941,486
Per Head
18.06
17-75
21.65
45-83
6.74
5-86
23.20
Exports.
Total V;.lue.
$ 8,894,085
6,489,293
1,083.528
3,237,804
1,494,469
Nil.
89,238,361
erHead-
i9.o8:
19.28.
8.59
36.28
12.91
19.00
From table it will be seen that while British Columbia imported $4,089,492,
the exports only amounted to $3,237,804, a difference of $851,688 Imports in
excess of Exports. 15
Length of Railways in the World.
United States    125,379 M
German Empire     23,909
United Kingdom •.     18,864
France      17,000
Russia     16,368
Austria     13,601
India	
Canada	
Australia Tasmania and New Zealand   	
Italy	
Spain	
  12,004
  10,150
  7,497
  6,000
  5,42o
Sweden and Norway  5,OI8
  3,143
  3,6oo
  3,050
  1,925
Brazil     	
Mexico	
Argentine Republic.
Switzerland	
Cape of Good Hope    I,523
Chili  1,411
Netherlands    1,368
Egypt  1,276
Turkish Empire  1,25!
Denmark  1,150
Roumania  1,100
Portugal  1,007
Peru ,     996
Belgium  73°
Japan  250
Greece  210
Ceylon  «.  184
Natal  125
Mauritius  94
Jamaica  67
Trinidad  46
British Guiana  21
les.
Distances.
Liverpool to Yokohama—By Quebec, Ottawa, Port
Moody through Straits of Belle Isle, 9,648 geo. miles. 11,121
stat. miles. 16
By Quebec, Ottawa, Port Moody, via Cape  Race, 9,806
-geo. miles, 11,921 stat. miles.
Boston,  Chicago and   San Francisco   10,342 geo.  miles,
11,921 stat. miles.
During   summer   season  Canadian route  shorter  than
American 800 miles.    During entire season, shorter 528 miles.
Canadian Pacific length -        -        2,893   miles.
14 Branches,    -----      432£     "
Total length,        -        -        3,325
H
Net public debt in Canada in 1884,        -        - $182,161,850
1885,    -        - 196,407,692
Showing an increase of         - 14,245,842
Gross amount, 1884,                 -                 -        - 242,482,410
1885,    ----- 264,703,607
Of this increase of over fourteen millions of dollars upwards of ten millions were payments on account of construction of Canadian Pacific Railway, and three millions on public
works. While the gross increase in public debt in 1885 was.
$22,221,191 or 9.16 per cent., the increase in the assets of the
country was $7,975,350 or 13.22 per cent.
In 1850 there were but 55 miles in operation.
1857        -        -       1,505    I
1867    -        - 2,473    I
1884        -        -       9,575    I
1886    -        - 11,585    I
With a paid up capital in 1885 amounting to $625,754,703.
Great Railway Increase in 1886.
The new railways constructed the past year in the United States, 8,010 miles, would form two lines from Boston to
San Francisco (3,463 miles) and another line from Boston to
80 miles west of Chicago.    These new lines,  however, were   17
scattered. Kansas alone constructed 1,520 miles, or about 19
per cent., that is nearly one-fifth of all the new track. Next
Nebraska, 737 miles; then Dakota, 678 miles ; fourth Minnesota, 587 miles; fifth Texas, 543 miles—the first four having
3,522 miles, or 44 per cent, of all. Iowa, 403 miles ; Wisconsin, 378 miles; Florida, 321 miles; California, 231 miles.
During ten years past, nearly sixty thousand miles (59,602
miles); and during the preceding ten years, 40,007 miles, making almost exactly 100,000 miles of railway built in the United States during twenty years past, or about three times as
many miles as there were in all this country in 1867, two
years after the close of the war. The following gives each
year s construction :—
Years.         Miles.            Years.         Miles.           Years. Miles.
1867 2,449 1874 2,117 J88i   9,796
186S   2,979 1875 I,711 x882 11,568
1869 4,615 1876 2,712 1883   6,741
1870 6,070 1877   2,280 1884   3,825
1871   ....  9,379 1878 2,629 1885   3,131
1872 5,878 1879   4,746 1886 8,010
1873 4,°79 l88o 6,876
Total 99,609
It has been estimated that a railway benefits the country
at least fifteen miles on each side, by affording market facilities. Allowing only ten miles on each side, these 99,609 miles
of railway has affected about 1,992,180 square miles, or about
1,435 million acres, equal to over fourteen million farms of
100 acres each.— Winnipeg Free Press.
The intelligence and enterprise of the Canadian people
is shown by their prompt realization of the importance of a
thorough system of railways throughout the Dominion. When
we consider that the enormous sum of $171,672,194 has been
paid by Dominion Government, Provincial Governments and
Municipalities as bonuses to railways to 30th June, 1885, and
not less than $43,201,300 for canals (enlargement and construction alone), it is clear that the development of the best 18
and most rapid means of transit and communication has been
and is the constant aim of both the Government and people of
the Dominion.
Prompt railway development in British Columbia is imperatively demanded by the agriculturalist, the miner, the
lumberman, and a vast host of industries awaiting that triumph of mechanical skill and wonder of the century, the
engine and its train, the vanguard of civilization, the assurance of future prosperity, the key to unlock the treasures of
mine and field of forest and river.   RAILWAY.
Canada Atlantic	
Canada Southern	
Canadian Pacific System	
Central Ontario	
Grand Trunk System	
New Brunswick	
Northern and North Western.
North Shore	
Quebec Central	
South Eastern	
Windsor and Annapolis	
Other Lines	
Total	
Government Railways.
Total for Canada.. .
O -A. IfcT .A. ID _A. .
Statistical Abstract and Record, 1886, published by Department of Agriculture.
Miles
in
Operation.
1881.
9575
1885.
Capital Paid Up.
No. of Passengers.
1881.
1885.
1884.
1885.
Tons of Freight.
1884.
82
135
359J
3621
2806
3318
104
104
259H
259U
4151
415*
380
386
209
209
156
156
260
260
84
84
964i
913J
8414
8965
1167
1185
10150
| 3,000,000
32,472,991
151,102,049
970,000
253,0/6,973
10,414,584
7,238,531
5,544,866
6,423,340
8,230,853
3,783,471
27,219,345
? 3,270,000
32,510,777
155,745,604
970,000
282,749,918
13,240,653
13,393,413
5,544,866
6,528,076
8,230,853
3,808,777
50,491,386
$509,477,008 §576,493,323
48,138,061      49,260,380.
74,637
487,865
1,372,825
11,174
4,994,355
169,943
516,060
298,123
80,376
180,527
101,690
8,979,783
1,002,575
$557,615,069 $625,754,703:,
9,982,3,58
88,950
453,029
1,427,367
43,332
4,575,499
164,951
555,040
284,474
70.046
196,824
101,165
624,271
3,584,948
1,087,651
9,672,599
1885.
Train Mileage.
Receipts.
1884.
1885.
1884.
91,724
2,221,114
1,601,515
9,259
5,795,014
211,253
580,662
174,044
80,067
213,032
60,478
1,611,989
117.908;
2,475,550
1,655,969
63,000
5,760,600
225,451
582,5951
160,486
82,460'
305,376
61,576
2,115,015
166,705
2,624,634
6,237,801
20,500
13,278,851
1,019,232
434,852
192,587
639,539
166,570
1,007,313
12,650,1.56
1,062,113
13,611,989
1,047,282
25,788,584
3,970,092
179,478
3,004,548:
5,343,261
II
212,760
13,279,131
648,798
999,050
495,379 !
198,730 j
590,413
164,892
1,184,824
26,301,268
4,322,421
13,712,269  14,659,271 , 29,758,676! 30,623,689
I  173,142
3,817,085
6,084,345
40,486
16,291,435
635,849
1,347,804
562,323
172,668
505,448
182,289
971,674
1885.
Working Expenses.
$     199,632
3,440,374;!
6,928,869
98,665 I
i!
14,477,858 i
614,968
1,340,316||
584,132
180,419
460,384
212,173
1,065,417
1884.
1885.
Proportion
of
Working   Expenses
to Earnings.
1884.
$30,824,548
2,597,157
$29,603,237
2,624,242|
1885.
$33,421,705   $32,227,469
1
$     154,171
$     176,609
p. c.
88.
p. c.
88.
2,712,963
2,623,546
71.
71.
5,165,184
4,557,519
89.
65.
50,788
81,406
125.
82.
11,283,616
10,716,448
69.
74.
437,604
439,575
68.
71.
840,307
804,444
62.
60.
368,784
346,555
65.
59.
130,326
145,488
75.
80.
472,040
379,572
93.
82.
131,070
154,362
71.
72.
874,195
840,118
89.
78.
$22,921,048
$21,265,642
74.
71.
2,074,293
2,749,709
101.
104.
$25,595,341
$24,015,351
76.
74.

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