Open Collections

BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

Settlers, prospectors, and tourists guide; or, travels through British Columbia. Circular 10 of 'The… Chittenden, Newton H. 1882

Item Metadata


JSON: bcbooks-1.0222271.json
JSON-LD: bcbooks-1.0222271-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): bcbooks-1.0222271-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: bcbooks-1.0222271-rdf.json
Turtle: bcbooks-1.0222271-turtle.txt
N-Triples: bcbooks-1.0222271-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: bcbooks-1.0222271-source.json
Full Text

Full Text

  British Columbia Market
Van Volkenburgh & Co.
WHOIjESALB and bbtail
Alhambea Building,
Corner Government and Yates Streets,
victoria, b. c.
Clothing, Hats, and FurnishingGoods.
Their. Stock is the Largest and the Best Quality
and Value in this Province.
Opposite Post Office, Victoria. Established Twenty Years
A Superior Lubricant and Excellent Lamp Oil,
Put up by the SMdegate Oil Co. Location of Steam Works,
Queen Charlotte Islands II. C
SSThis Oil is produced from Shark Livers, and manufactured by the most
approved steam appliances. Numerous testimonials of undoubted autnority substantiate its excellence, and it has only to be more generally known and used, co establish
a reputation as one of the best lubricating and Illuminating Oils m the world. Put
up in cases, two -r)-gal. cans in each case.
Address:—Skidegate Oil Co., Victoria, British Columbia.
Henry Saunders,
Johnson Street, Cor. Oriental Alley.
-A-CSrESKri"    I»OH.
Steamer Sardonyx and Tug pilot. WELCH, RITHET k CO.
Merchants and Commission Merchants,
Shipping and Insurance Agents
Agts. Pacific Coast Steamship Co's Steamers
Carrying Her Majesty's Mails between San Francisco
and Victoria. Sailing dates from each port:
10th, 20th and 30th of each.month.
Agents for Imperial Fire Insurance Co.
Agents for Maritime Marine Insurance Co.
Agents for Reliance Marine Insurance Co.
Agents for Neto Zealand Marine Insurance Co.
Agents for Moodyvillb Sawmill Company
Advances made on consignments to our friends in England, Australia, China and Canadian markets.
109 California Street, Tower Chamber,
San Feancisco. Liverpool.
There is probably no portion of the North American Continent, -within the confines of governme?it and
civilization, concerning 'which the general public has
less definite and reliable information, than British
Columbia. Hitherto comparatively inaccessible, and
only by tedious and expensive, modes of travel, it Has
been known chiefly as the vast wilderness trapping, and hunting ground, of the Hudson Bay
Company, and gold field of adventurous miners. Since
the inauguration of that stupendous undertaking, the
building of the Canadian Pacific Rail-way, and its
progress towards the western shores of the Province,
people abroad are beginning to inquire what this
region contains, to warrant such an enormous outlay
for its development. In the following pages we have
briefly outlined its resources and capacities for sustaining a large and prosperous population, and directed
attention to its wonderful attractions for the tourist
and health seeker. In the preparation of the same, I
am under great obligations to his Honor Lieut.-
Gov. Clement F. Cornwall, Hon. Jos. W. Trutch, C.
M. G., F.R. G. S., M. Inst. C. E., Dominion Gov-
ernmH Agt.for British Columbia, Hon. A lien Francis,
American Consul, Mr. William 'Charles, Chief Factor of the Hudson Bay Company, to the members and
officers of the Provincial Government, Mr. Noah
Shakespeare, M. P., Mayor of Victoria, Loftus R.
Mclnnes, M. D., Mayor of New Westminster,
the British Columbia Board of Trade, through its
President, Mr. R. P. Rithet, and Secretary, Mr. E.
Crow Baker, M. P., and to Mr. Wm. Wilson, and
others to whom I tender sincere thanks.
N. H. C.
Victoria, B. 0., 4th November, 1882. 
A little over one hundred years ago, that bold mariner,
Capt. Cook, cruised among the wonderful islands stretching
along the shores of the then unknown, unnamed land of British Columbia. Capt. Vancouver of the Boyal Navy soon
followed in his course, and gave his name to the largest of the
islands, and that of New Georgia to the south coast of the
mainland. This was in 1792, but for more than forty years
following, the numerous and populous Indian tribes inhabiting
these shores, were the sole possessors and occupants of this
whole region. Adventurous traders had occasionally visited
the west coast of Vancouver, but no permanent settlement
was made until 1843, when the Hudson Bay Company built a
Fort and established a trading post upon the beautiful site
of the City of Victoria, followed six years later by the formation of the Vancouver Colony. In 1858, daring prospectors
advancing up the coast from California, discovered the rich
gold diggings of the Fraser, and so rapid was the influx of
population, that another Colony was organized upon the mainland, and the present territory of the Province set apart, and
designated British Columbia. In 1866 the two Colonies united,
and in 1871, were confederated as one of the seven Provinces
comprising the Dominion of Canada.    It is a vast region, extending from the 49th parallel of latitude more than 700
miles north to tlie 60th, and from the divide of the Eocky
Mountains on the East, 400 miles West to the Pacific, containing   341,515   square   miles,    or    218,435,200   acres,    a
country   nearly   three   times   as   large   as   England,  Ireland,   Scotland   and   Wales    combined.      It   is   traversed
lengthwise   by   two   great  mountain ranges,   the  Eockies
and the  Cascades,   about   250   miles   apart,   the    former
reaching an elevation of 9,000 and the latter of 6,000 feet-
The Columbia and the Fraser, the second and third largest
rivers on the Pacific Coast, rise  within the Province, and
with the   Skeena,   Nass,   Stickeen  and innumerable  other
streams drain its western slope.    The interior is well watered
by numerous rivers and creeks, and thousands of lakes and
springs.    Parallel to the mainland, and at a distance of from
three to twenty miles therefrom, extends Vancouver Island for
over 250 miles.    The shores of the mainland and of Vancouver, and the intervening waters, embrace the most wonderful
collection of inlets,   sounds, harbors,  straits,   channels and
islands, to be found upon the planet.     British  Columbia, in
common with the whole Pacific Coast, possesses, two distinct
climates.    Along the west coast, even as far north as latitude
fifty-three degrees, the  mean winter temperature is about
forty-two degrees; the annual rainfall   averaging from  forty-
five inches at Victoria to sevent-five inches, at Fort Simpson
630 miles North.      In   the interior the climate  is much
drier, the entire precipitation ranging from ten to twenty
inches;   the mean summer temperature being about seventy-
five deg. and the winter ten deg. above.     North of latitude
fifty-one the winters  are  severe,  but the snowfall  moderate except in the higher altidudes.    This section is not subject to the terrible blizzards which prevail east of the Eocky
Mountains, the coldest weather usually being perfectly calm
and clear.     Though mountains and forests cover a considerable portion of its surface, there are very extensive  areas
excellently adapted to stock-raising and agriculture.     The
great natural resources of the Province are minerals, coal,
fish, timber, grazing and furs.    Although there are millions
of acres as yet untouched by human foot, the discoveries of valuable mineral deposits already made are immense. Her
gold fields are among the most extensive and richest in the
world ; coal underlies hundreds of thousands of acres; there
are mountain masses and islands of iron, and rich mines of
silver, copper and other precious metals.
The  Great  Gold  Fields of British  Columbia
Embrace in area more than 100,000 square miles, extending
from Eock Creek, near the 49th parallel, to Liard Eiver on
the 60th. On the Similkameen and Kootenay, at Hope, Yale,
Boston Bar, Lillooet, and Bridge Rivers; in the Big Bend of
the Columbia, at Quesnelle, Keithley, Harvey, Cariboo, and
Omineca ; on the Peace, Skeena, Naas, and Stickeen Eivers',
and, lastly, at Cassiar, gold has been found not only in paying
quantities, but in many places by the millions, their aggregate
products amounting to about fifty million dollars.
The Cariboo  Gold  District,
Lying between 52 and 54 degrees of north latitude, embraces
an area of upwards of 700 square miles. The Quesnelle
Lake and Eiver form its south and south-western boundary,
and the Fraser north-eastern, western and northern. Here
Williams, Lightning, and Antler creeks and gulches startled
the world by their amazing richness, the Wake-up-Jake claim
yielding 150 ounces in a single day, the Caledonia 300 ounces*
Butcher 350, Steele's 409, the Chittenden claim on Lo^hee
432, the Ericsson 500 ounces, when the Diller claim
cleaned up with the astonishing amount of 102 pounds
of gold! These wonderful deposits have been found in the
beds of the water courses, from 60 to 80 feet below the surface.
There are also extensive lodes of rich gold-bearing quartz
awaiting development. Though the mines of Cariboo reached
their maximum product $3,735,850 in 1864, it is the opinion
of most old miners who have had experience there, that still
greater wealth lies hidden in her mountains and water courses.
The annual yield of the district now ranges from $700,000 to
$1,000,000. Mr. John Bowron, the Gold Commissioner, informed me on my recent visit to Barkerville, that prospectors sent out by the Government had just returned, and reported
having found good surface diggings and extensive ledges of
rich quartz rock. The completion of the Canadian Pacific
Eailway will greatly reduce the hitherto enormous cost oi conducting mining operations here, and greatly facilitate the
development of the vast gold deposits of this region.
The Gold Fields of  Cassiar,
Next in importance, extend over more than 250 square miles
of country lying between the 54th and 60th degrees of north
latitude, along the north-eastern watershed of the gold range.
Gold was first found in this section in 1872-3, near the confluence of the Liard with the Mackenzie Eiver, the most
productive mines being on Dease, Thibert, and McDames
Creeks, tributaries of the Dease Eiver. Several millions
were taken out along these streams during the two or three
succeeding years. Their product for the year 1881 is estimated at one hundred and ninety-eight thousand dollars, and
the number of miners engaged at 300, most of whom go south
to winter. Interviews with Mr. Bufus Sylvester, the well-
known explorer and trader, Mr. John Grant, M.P.P. for Cassiar District, and Mr. W. V. Brown, one of the pioneer miners,
who has spent several years in this portion of the Province,
indicate that the richest gold deposits of Cassiar are yet to be
The Omineca Gold  Mines.
Are also situated on the north-eastern slope of the gold range
of the Province, near the 53rd parallel of latitude, upon the
tributaries of the Omineca, a branch of the Peace Eiver.
There are about seventy men working claims here upon
Vitell's, Manson, and Germansen creeks, taking out about
$35,000 annually.
^ Other Golc   Fields.
Gold is found in paying quantities upon many of the
streams of the south-eastern portion of the Province, especially in the Big Bend of the Columbia, and in the Kootenay country, the claims on Perry and Wild Horse creeks being the
most productive. In 1852 the Hudson Bay Company discovered gold bearing quartz of remarkable richness on the west
shore of Queen Charlotte Island. Gold has also been found
on the head waters of the Leech Eiver and other streams along
the west coast of Vancouver.
Silver, Copper and Iron,
Are known to be widely distributed throughout the Province.
Pieces of pure silver have been found from time to time in
many of the mining camps along the Fraser, also on Cherry
Creek in the Okanagan district, and at Omineca. In 1871 a
rich vein of silver was discovered near Hope, on the Fraser
Eiver and traced for nearly hall a mile. There are deposits
of copper ore upon Howe Sound, Knights and Jervis Inlets,
the Queen Charlotte Islands, and at other points, the former
said to be quite extensive. There are inexhaustible quantities
of iron on Texada Island, situated in the Gulf of Georgia,
about 100 miles north of the City of Victoria, amidst the
great coal beds, timber supplies, and limestone quarries of
th^ Province.
The Coal Fields of British Columbia,
On Vancouver Island alone, comprise many hundred thousand acres, lying mainly along the East Coast of the
Island between Nanaimo and Fort Eupert. The Nanaimo coal lands embrace about ninety square miles, and those
of Comox upwards of 300. There are also extensive bodies
of coal on Quatsino Sound on the North-west coast of Vancouver, about 250 miles North-west of Victoria, and large
veins are reported to have been discovered on the Queen
Charlotte Islands. These coals are chiefly bituminous, of the
cretaceous era and superior for general and domestic purposes to any other found on the Pacific Coast.
The Timber Resources of the Province,
Are very extensive, embracing many hundred thousand acres
of Douglas fir lying in the West Cascade region, the choicest 6
bodies upon Burrard and Jervis Inlets, Mud Bay, Howe
Sound, and the east coast of Vancouver Island. It attains
an enormous growth, and being straight and exceedingly
tough and durable is in great demand the world over for ship
spars and timbers. Over thirty million feet are manufactured into lumber annually, chiefly for exportation to Asiatic,
Australian, and South American ports. The pine and spruce
of the interior, though much inferior in size and quahty to
the fir of'the coast, is sufficient in both and also in quantity
for all local purposes.
The waters of British Columbia teem with countless millions of the choicest salmon, halibut, cod, herring, smelt,
sturgeon, whiting, &c, &o. The canning of salmon for exportation is already a Yevj important industry, the product for
the present season amounting to about 177,000 cases. They
also constitute the chief food dependence of the Indian population. Oil is manufactured from dog fish, herrings, and
oolachans, but the other fish mentioned are as yet, except to
a limited extent, only caught for home consumption.
Fur-bearing Animals
Are more numerous in this Province than in any other part of
America, excepting, perhaps, portions of Alaska, having for
nearly 40 years through the Hudson Bay Company supplied
the world with most of their finest furs. They comprise
Bears, Beaver, Badgers, Coyotes, Foxes, Fishers, Martens,
Minks, Lynxes, Otters, Panthers, Eaccoons, Wolves, Wolverines, and other smaller kinds. The product of the fisheries
and furs of the Province amounts to nearly a million and a
half dollars annually.
Stock Raising in British Columbia.
British Columbia contains a very extensive area of grazing
lands of unsurpassed excellence. The whole inter-Eocky
Mountain Cascade Eegion is specially adapted for pastoral
purposes.    During my recent travels through the interior of the Province, I traversed hundreds of thousands of acres in
the Nicola, Kamloops and Okanagan Valleys and Lake La
Hache country, covered with a luxuriant growth of the nutri-
cious bunch  grass,  and saw bands of thousands of cattle
rolling fat;   and way to the northward in the Chilcotin, Ne-
chaco, Wastonquah and Peace Eiver Valleys, are vast ranges,
hundreds of miles in extent as yet almost untouched.    Interviews with all the principal stock-raisers and dealers in British
Columbia confirms my own observations that cattle raised upon
the bunch grass of this region are among the finest in the world,
very large and fat, and the choicest of beeves.     Mr. B. Van
Volkenburgh, the leading butcher in the Province, meat purveyor to Her Majesty's Navy, the owner of 7000 acres of grazing
lands, and several thousand head of cattle and sheep; Mr. Thad-
deus Harper whose 3,000 or 4,000 head of cattle and horses
range upon his own estate of 25,000 acres, Mr. J. B. Graves
at present the largest owner of fat cattle, 8,000 head, including 6,000 steers, Mr. C. M. Beak, of the Nicola Valley, who
had just sold 1,300 for $28,000 and been offered $27,000  for
the balance of his herd, Antoine Menaberriet, of Cache Creek,
Victor Guillaume, W. J. Eoper,   Hugh Morton,   M. Sullivan,
Wm. Jones, John Pringle, John Peterson   and  W. J. Howe,
of Kamloops,  Wm. Fortune,   of Tranquille,  A. L. Fortune,
James T. Steel, Cornelius O'Keefe, Greenhow, Postill and Eli
Lequime,   of   Okanagan,   and  John  Clapperton,   Alexander
Coutlie, A. Van Volkenburgh, John Gilmore, John Hamilton,
and Guichon of Nicola, Patrick Killroy, of Lytton, and others,
together the owners of three quarters of the sixty or sixty-five
thousand head of cattle in the Province, agree that  stock
does exceedingly well in this region, increases at tbe rate of
thirty per cent, by the herd, or  ninety per cent,   for those
breeding; is free from disease, and subject to less loss from
occasional severe winters, than from drouth on the   Southern
coast.    Fat   cattle   are   now   in   active   demand,    at   from
twenty  to   twenty-five  dollars  for two-year  old,  and  from
twenty-five to thirty-five dollars for three-year old steers, herds
selling at from  fifteen  to  twenty  dollars  per  head.     The
average weight of cattle upon the ranges is 550 for two-year
old, 675 for three-year old, and 800 for four-year old cattle. They feed in the elevated valleys during the summer, and in
winter on the sheltered sunny slopes and bottoms, keeping in
good condition upon a species of white sage, called wormwood, which succeeds the bunch grass, where the latter is too
closely grazed. Mr. Van Volkenburgh has had over 1000 tons
of hay stacked up for over three years, having had no occasion to feed it.
Three winters in twenty, cattle have died from starvation
and exposure occasioned by deep snows covering the feed.
Such losses are confined mainly to breeding cows, in the
spring of the year, for which most prudent stock-raisers now
provide a reserve of hay. The steers seldom succumb;
except in extraordinary winters, such as that of 1879-80,
many of them keeping fat in the mountains the year round.
The winter ranges throughout the Province are generally fully
stocked, but hay for the winter feeding required in the
northern part may be cut in unlimited quantities.
The Agricultural Lands of British Columbia
Comprise in the aggregate several million acres, only a smal
portion of which are at present occupied. Vancouver Island
alone is estimated to contain over 300,000 acres,—100,000 in
the vicinity of Victoria, 64,000 in North and South Saanich,
100,000 in the Cowichan district, 45,000 near Nanaimo, 5,000
on Salt Spring Island, 50,000 in the Comox district, and 3,500
acres near Sooke. Along the lower Fraser, including the
delta, there are about 175,000 acres of unsurpassed fertility-
There is a large tract of open arable land on the Queen Charlotte Islands without a white settler. In the Lillooet, Cache
Creek, Kamloops, Spallumcheen, Salmon Eiver, Okanagan,
Grand Prairie sections there are large amounts of excellent farming lands; and in the Lake La Hache, upper Fraser, Chilicotin,
and Peace Eiver countries, vast bodies, hundreds of miles in
extent, awaiting settlement. They afford the greatest choice
of situation with reference to climate and productions. Heretofore, there has been but little encouragement for agriculturists in the interior, but the completion of the Canadian
Pacific Eailway, will give them an excellent market on the
seaboard for all their surplus grain, potatoes, &c.   The great- ness, character, and diversity of the natural resources of the
Province, Avill ultimately employ a large population in their
development and utilization, creating a great demand at good
prices for all kinds of farm produce.
The  Provincial  Land  Laws
Provide that any person being the head of a family, a widow,
or single man over the age of 18 years and a British subject,
or any alien upon declaring his intention to become a British
subject, may record any tract of unoccupied, unsurveyed and
unreserved Crown Lands, not exceeding 320 acres, north and
east of the Cascade or Coast Eange of Mountains, and 160
acres in the rest of the Province, and " pre-empt" or "homestead" the same, and obtain a title therefor upon paying the
sum of $1 per acre in four equal annual instalments, the first
one year from the date of record. Persons desiring to acquire
land under this law must observe the following requirements :
1st. The land applied for must be staked off with posts at
each corner not less than four inches square, and five feet
above the ground, and marked in form as follows: (A B's )
Land, N. E. post.    (A B's) Land, N. W. post, &c.
2nd. Applications must be made in writing to the Land
Commissioner, giving a full description of the land, and also
a sketch plan thereof, both in duplicate, and a declaration
under oath, made and filed in duplicate, that the land in
question is properly subject to settlement by the applicant,
and that he or she is duly qualified to record the same, and a
recording fee of $2 paid.
3rd. Such homestead settler must within 30 days after
record enter into actual occupation of the land so pre-empted,
and continuously reside thereon personally or by his family
or agent, and neither Indians or Chinamen can be agents for
this purpose.
Absence from such land for a period of more than two
months continuously or four months in the aggregate during
the year, subjects it to forfeiture to the Government. Upon
payment for the land as specified, and a survey thereof at the
expense of the settler, a Crown grant for the same will issue, 10
provided that in the case of an alien he must first become a
naturalized British subject before receiving title.
Homesteads upon surveyed lands may be acquired, of the
same extent and in the same manner as upon the unsurveyed,
except that the applicant is not required to stake off and file
a plat of the tract desired.
Unsurveyed, unoccupied, and unreserved Crown lands may
be purchased in tracts of not less than 160 acres for $1 per
acre, cash in full at one payment before receiving title by
complying with the following conditions :—
1st. Two months' notice of intended application to purchase must be inserted at the expense of the applicant in the
British Columbia Gazette and in any newspaper circulating
in the district where the land desired lies, stating name of
applicant, locality, boundaries and extent of land applied for,
which notice must also be posted in a conspicuous place on
the land sought to be acquired, and on the Government office,
if any, in the district. The applicant must also stake off the
said land as required in case of pre-emption, and also have
the same surveyed at his own expense.
Surveyed lands, after having been offered for sale at public
auction for one dollar per acre, may be purchased for cash at
that price.
The Mining Laws
Provide that every person over sixteen years of age may hold a
mining claim, after first obtaining from the Gold Commissioner a Free Miner's Certificate or License, at a cost of five
dollars for one year and fifteen dollars for three years.
Every miner locating a claim must record the same in the
office of the Gold Commissioner, for a period of one or more
years, paying therefor at the rate of $2.50 per year.
Every free miner may hold at the same time any num.
ber of claims by purchase, but only two claims by pre-emption in the same locality, one mineral claim and one other
claim, and sell, mortage, or dispose of the same.
The size of claims are as follows :—
The bar diggings, a strip of land, 100 feet wide at high- 11
water mark and thence extending into the river to the lowest
water level.
For dry diggings, 10.0 feet square.
Creek claims shall be 100 feet long measured in the
direction of the general course of the stream and shall extend
in wid h from base to base of the hill, or bench on each side,
but when the hills or benches are less than 100 feet apart, the
claim shall be 100 feet square.
Bench claims shall be 100 feet square.
Mineral claims, that is claims containing, or supposed to
contain minerals (other than coal) in lodes or veins, shall be
1,500 feet long by 600 feet wide.
Discoverers of new mines are allowed 300 feet in length
for one discoverer, 600 feet for two, 800 feet for three, and
1000 in length for a party of four.
Creek discovery claims extend 1000 feet on each side of
the centre of the creek or as far as the summit.
Coal lands west of the Cascade Eange in tracts not less
than 160 acres, may be purchased at not less than ten dollars
per acre, and similar lands east of the Cascade Eange, at not
less than five dollars per acre.
The Government and People.
British Columbia is governed by a Legislative Assembly
of twenty-five members elected by the people every four
years. The Lieut.-Governor and a Council of three Ministers constitute the Executive body, Hon. Eobert Beaven, Premier, Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works, Minister of Finance and Agriculture, Hon. J. E. Hett, Attorney General
Hon. W. J. Armstrong, Provincial Secretary and Minister of
Mines, being its present officers. Political and religious freedom, free public schools, liberal homestead pre-emption and
mining privledges, are guaranteed and secured by the laws.
Justice is firmly administered, good order prevails, and
life and property are secure throughout the Province.
So far as the government is concerned, there has been nothing
to remind me that I have crossed the line into the Queen's
dominions, excepting the glad demonstrations of welcome
accorded the Governor General, the Marquis  of Lome  and 12
the Queen's daughter, Princess Louise. There is the same
freedom of opinion, and outspoken criticism of public men
and measures; elections are conducted with the same partisan
zeal, and the Press is just as abusive as in the United States.
The people generally entertain a very friendly feeling toward
the United States. The portraits of George and Martha
Washington, Lincoln, Grant, Sheridan, Garfield, and other
distinguished Americans, are often seen hanging upon the
walls of both public and private houses in all parts of the
Province, together with those of members of the Eoyal
family. The population is quite cosmopolitan and liberal
in their views. Stopping at an inn in the interior recently, it
was found that each of the seven white persons present,
represented a different nationality. The popular feeling is
strongly opposed to Chinese immigration, the present Provincial Government refusing to employ any Chinamen upon the
public works.
The  Indian Nations of British Columbia
Afford a most interesting study for the ethnologist. They
are eleven in number evidently of Asiatic origin, comprising
altogether about 35,000 souls, —the Tsimpsheean's, Quacke-
weth, and Hydah nations being the most populous. The West
Vancouver and the Hydah Indians of Queen Charlotte Island
were formerly quite hostile to the whites, having cruelly murdered several ship crews cast upon their shores ; but through
the influence of missionary training, several severe chastisements by English gunboats, and their humane liberal treatment by the general government, they are now quite friendly
I have visited most of the principal tribes during the past
season, and have always been cordially received in their
houses or wigwams.
They are generally much inferior both in stature and
form to the white race. A few of the Queen Charlotte Hydah's
are fairly good looking, and well formed, though it would
require an exceedingly fertile and romantic imagination to
discover among these people a single specimen of the beautiful indian maiden, we have all read, about, but whom so few, 13
have ever seen. They are almost entirely self-supporting,
depending not alone upon the wonderful fish and game supplies of this region, but in many instances cultivating farms
and raising cattle and horses. Large numbers are also employed by the salmon fisheries and canneries, lumber mills,
steamboat lines, and railroad contractors, and are considered
superior to Chinese laborers.
Mr. Duncan's remarkable work at Metlakatlah, where he
has colonized over a thousand of the Tsimpsheans, who now
live in good houses, worship in a $10,000/church of their own
erection, school their children, operate a salmon cannery, a
sawmill, and engage in other self supporting pursuits, demonstrates the possibilities attainable by well directed efforts for
their civilization upon a Christian basis.
The Principal Cities, Towns and Settlements
in  British   Columbia
Are Victoria, Esquimalt, Saanich, Cowichan, Nanaimo, Wellington, Comox, Fort Rupert, and Sooke, on Vancouver
Island , New Westminster, Port Moody, Moodyville, Hastings, Granville, Langley, Sumass, Chilliwhack, Hope, Emory,
Yale, Lytton, Lillooet, Cache Creek, Cook's Ferry, Clinton,
Lake La Hache, Soda Creek, Quesnelle, Stanley, Barkerville,
Savona's Ferry, Kamloops, Tranquille, Grand Prairie, Salmon River, Spallumcheen, Okanagan, Mission^Cherry Creek
Similkameen, Port Essington, Rivers' Inlet, Metlakathla,
Fort Simpson, and Cassiar, on the Mainland, containing altogether about fifty thousand inhabitants.
The chief city and capital of British Columbia, occupies a
magnificent situation on the south shore of Vancouver Island,
about 60 miles from the Pacific, and 750 north of San Francisco.
Its immediate surroundings are charmingly picturesque, embracing a beautiful harbor and inlet, pine and oak covered
shores and rolling hills, with green forests of fir and pine clad
mountains in the near back ground. The distant view is one
of exceeding grandeur, comprising the loftiest peaks of the
ju^wi^t^txvC 14
Olympic and Cascade Mountains. A person unfamiliar with
the marvelous progress oi civilization in the new world surveying its busy marts of trade, ships of commerce laden with
exports for the most distant ports, numerous manufacturing industries, well graded streets, and good public and private buildings, would scarcely believe that all these things are the creation of a little more than twenty years, and that only a generation has passed since the Hudson Bay Company first planted
the English flag on these shores. But this is only the begin-
ning as compared with the brilliant future which awaits Victoria. The resources of the vast region to which she holds
the commercial key are only in the bud of their development.
That she has reached her present status while laboring under
the great disadvantages of extreme remoteness from the
centres of population and demands for her products excessively costly transportation, shows not only their enormous
extent and richness, but what may reasonably be expected
when all railway communication shall be established with the
East and the country opened to immigration and capital.
Victoria is provided with all the concomitants of the progressive cities of our times—good religious and educational
advantages, three newspapers, the Colonist, Standard and
Evening Post, a public library, and the usual benevolent
orders, an able and active Board of Trade, gas and water
works, efficient police and fire departments, a beautiful public
park, and a well ordered government.
Victoria as a Summer Resort for Tourists and
Health  Seekers.
Nature has awarded to Victoria, the most attractive and
interesting situation and surroundings, of any city on the north
Pacific Coast. Possessing a most enjoyable, invigorating and
healthful climate, she lies central amidst the sublimest
scenery in the new world. The waters of Puget Sound and
of the Inside Passage to Alaska, between Vancouver and the
Mainland, embraces more that is unique and wonderful in
nature, than can be found on any equal area of the earth's
surface.    I can scarcely conceive of a grander panorama of 15
mountains and inland waters, forests and islands, than that
afforded from the summit of Beacon Hill, her favorite Park
resort. Her drives are unsurpassed, both in respect to the
excellence of the roads, and the beauty of the scenery through
which they pass. The three miles from Victoria to the fine
harbor of Esquimalt, with its pretty village, off lying fleet of
ships, Graving Dock, &c., is a delightful drive or walk; so
is the one to the Gorge, a picturesque romantic spot, situated about the same distance from the City. It may also be
visited by a small boat through a charming inlet extending
from Victoria almost to Esquimalt. To Cadboro Bay, returning by the Government House, Race Course, and Beacon
Hill, a distance of about eight miles, affords a splendid
excursion. Excellent macadamized roads lead from three to
twenty miles into the country in all directions. Victoria is
central in one of the best fields for hunting and fishing of
which I have any knowledge. Deer and other large game
abound.on Vancouver Island, and within a short distance of
the city. All kinds of water fowl are numerous, and the
streams and lakes are full of trout. It is only a few hours
ride by steamer amidst magnificent scenery to the most important places in the Province, New Westminster, Port
Moody and Nanaimo—and to the principal towns of Puget
Sound—Port Townsend, Seattle, Tacoma and Olympia-
Steamers also run among the beautiful islands of the Archipelago De Haro, and of the San Juan group, touching at their
chief points of interest. Upon the completion of the Canadian Pacific and Northern Pacific Railways, Victoria will be
thronged with tourists and health-seekers, from all parts of
East, and should lose no time in providing hotel accommodations in keeping with her other unparalled attractions. MRS. R. MAYNARD^
Photographic Artist
Dealer in All Kinds Photographic Materials
Views of Victoria and British Columbia
For Sale.
"BRp^       Cor, Johnson and Douglas Sts., Victoria, B. C.
Cash Price paid for Hides.
m-e' W&ed.
a <&<
W&t&C' s&W
wyic-c-pc-z'e'l  GUd-zezti
Good Fishing, Boating and Hunting on the Premises. Two-and-a-half miles
from Victoria, on Saanieh Road.
^ELL & ColvrP^MsTYr
Importers and Dealers in
Groceries, Provisions, Fruit, Etc.
AU Shipping Orders Completely  and Promptly Filled and Delivered
per Express  Van Free of Charge.
Johnson Street,   Victoria, B. C.
Has on Hand a Large Stock of Goods, consisting of
Clothing;, Furnishing Goods, Hats, Caps,
Boots and Shoes, Etc.
The above Goods wiU be sold at GREATLY REDUCED PRICES.
Also, Garments Made to order.
Real Estate and Commission Agent, Notary Public and
Conveyancer, Master Mariner and Marine Surveyor.
Secretary to the
Board of Pilot Commissioners.
Board of Trade.
Howe Mining Co., Limited,
Art Union of London.
Victoria-Esquimalt Telephone Company
Office on Langley St., First floor, Far don's Builds
Office Hours :   9 a. k. to 6 p. m.
Telephone Call, 37. Residence. 8.
Real Estate Agents and Conveyancers
Johnson St., Victoria.
Importers of Furniture,
Glassware, Crockery &c.
Indian Curiosities!
Vice-Regal Movements.
Victoria Evening Post, Oct. ith, 1882.
Yesterday afternoon, Her Royal
Highness, accompanied by Miss Harvey,
Miss McNeil, Dr. Burnet and others,
strolled through the principal streets and
visited the London Bazar, S. L, Kelley's
and E. J. SaLnpn's, Johnson street. At
the last mentioned place, Her Koyal
Highness spent nearly half-an-hour examining the numerous Indian curios, the
use and manufacture of which were described by Mr. Salmon. The Princess
seemed to take great interest in the native bead work, mats, painted figures
etc., and before leaving, made many pur
Manufacturer and Importer of
Guns, Rifles and Pistols
Pishing Tackle, Powder, Shot, Caps, Cartridges, Pocket,
Sporting and Table Cutlery, Electro Plate, Opera
Glasses, Gun Tackle, Etc., Etc.
Cor, Oriental Alley and Johnson Sts.
J. ISAACS & CO., Proprs. J. J. HART, Supt.
Belmont Tanning
Boot and Shoe Manufacturing Co.,
Wholesale and Retail Dealers.
Samuel Glay
Tea Dealer,
Family Gr  eries
Cor. Johnson and Douglas Sts,
J.   6UTMAN,
Commission Merchant,
Raw Furs <£ Deer Skins
W. J. Jeffree, Clothier and Outfitter, Government street.
J. Wenger, Watchmaker and Jeweler, Government street.
The Factory Store, S. H. Glover, Proprietor. Agent Scotland
Woolen Mills.    Government street.
W. Allen, Fruits, Pish, Game, etc.   Government street.
George Vienna, Game, Fish, Fruit, etc.    Government street
Colonial Hotel, Johnson street.    M. N. Bechtel, Propr.
Esquimalt, B. C.
JOHN T. HO WARD, Proprietor; also, Postmaster.
 TO.    jf@- BILLIARDS.	
Esquimalt Hotel, Jos. Miller, Proprietor.
Globe Hotel, Esquimalt, W. X. Selleck, Proprietor.
Gorge Hotel, J. D. Johnson, Proprietor.
Royal Oak Hotel, Saanich Road, Camp & Son, Proprietors.
Mt. Newton Hotel, W Saanich rd. Wm. Henderson, Prop. VICTORIA ADVERTISEMENTS.
Neufelder & Ross,
Importers and Dealers in
Groceries, Provisions and Island Produce
Victoria, B. C.
Chemist and Druggist
Importer of English, American and French Drugs,
Chemicals and Perfumery.
JOHNSON STREET,    -   -   -    VICTORIA, B. C.
Importers and Dealers in
Gas Fixtures and Plumbing Materials.
r—^   •
STOVES and tt.A.TSTGr'EltS
Keep in stock the Best and Cheapest Assortment of Gas Fixtures
north of San Francisco. Travels in  British Columbia
From Victoria to Yale, the head of navigation on the Fraser
River, icith Capt. John Irving, on the steamer R. P. Rithet.
Through the Archipelago De Haro, Plumper Pass, Gulf
of Georgia, and South Arm of Fraser River. Magnificent
scenery, salmon fisheries and canneries, rich delta and
bottom lands. The towns of Ladners Landing, New
Westminster, Mission, Maple Ridge, Langley, Matsqui,
Sumas, Chilliivhaclc, Harrison River, Hope, Emory, and
Yale—350 miles.
Tale, B. C, 14th August, 1882.
Victoria, the beautiful capital city of the Province, is the
headquarters and starting point of all the principal steamboat
and other lines of transportation through it. Of these, the
Pioneer line of steamers to the head of navigation on the
Fraser River, is one of the most important. It comprises
three boats, the Wm. Irving, R. P. Rithet and Reliance,
owned by Capt. John Irving and others, which run in conjunction with the Hudson Bay steamers Princess Louise,
Enterprise and Otter. I took passage on the R. P. Rithet,
Capt. John Irving, one of the finest boats upon the waters of
the North-West Coast. She is a new, powerful stern-wheeler,
200 feet long, 39 feet wiele, 816 tons burden, accommodating 250 passengers, and having a speed of 13 miles an hour. Her
cabins are elegantly finished and furnished, state-rooms
large, and table excellent. The usual time to Yale—175
miles from Victoria—is from 18 to 22 hours on the
upward, and twelve hours on the downward trip, the difference being occasioned by the strong currents encountered
both in the straits and river, in some places from seven to
eight miles an hour. No passage of equal distance in the
world affords a succession of more magnificent natural views.
Sailing out of the fine land-locked harbor of Victoria into
the Straits of Juan de Fuca, on such a glorious day as yesterday, presents a panorama of indescribable beauty and
sublimity. The grandest mountains outline the horizon on
every hand—rising 5,000 feet from Vancouver, the snow-
covered Olympian Peaks 8,000 feet—and sweeping East and
Northward along the rugged Cascades the eye is arrested by
the white crowning peaks of Mount Baker, 10,800 feet above
the sea. The intervening landscape is exceedingly picturesque and charming. Sailing northward, the immediate shores
of Vancouver, faced wirli a sea wall of rounded trappean rock,
sparsely wooded with pine and oak, receding gradually,
are interspersed with pleasant green slopes and park-like
openings. The large, conspicuous mansion situated upon
the commanding eminence in the Eastern suburbs
of Victoria is the Government House, now occupied by His Honor Lieutenant-Governor Cornwall. A
few daj^s ago the Governor kindly showed me through the
fine grounds, which afford a most magnificent view of the
incomparably grand scenery of this region. Looking into
Cadboro Bay—three miles from the city opposite the
small, rocky islands of Discovery and Chatham, a fine little
harbor of refuge—a number of well improved farms are visible.
Driven in here by a storm in April last, crossing from San
Juan Island to Victoria, I was surprised to find vegetation
more advanced than in Oregon and Washington, which I had
just left. Several varieties of flowers bloom here throughout the winter.
Approaching the  entrance to the Canal De Haro, San
Juan Island, to the North-East, first engages the attention. 19
It is the largest of the San Juan Group—comprising Orcas,
Lopez, Blakely, Decatur, Waldron, Shaws, Stuart, Speiden,
Henry, and others—being thirteen miles long, with an average
width of about four miles. It acquired historical importance
as disputed territory, having been jointly occupied by the
English and American forces from 1858 to 1873, when the
boundary question was finally settled. The white faced cliffs
of the extensive limestone quarry o± McCurdj's is a prominent landmark on its Southern slope. Lying to the Westward
of the group, and comprising the Archipelago De Haro, are
numerous Islands belonging to British Columbia. Of these,
Salt Spring, Galiano, Saturna, Pender, Sidney, Moresby, and
Mayne are the most important. The main channel, usually
taken by deep draught vessels, runs between San Juan,
Stuart, and Waldron on the East, and Sidney, Moresby,
Pender, anel Saturna on the West; but our route, that of
most river steamers, lay between Sidney, James, Moresby,
Portland, Pender, Provost, Mayne, and Galiano Islands,
reaching the Gulf of Georgia through Active or Plumper
Pass. These islands are uniformly rock-bound, with basalt,
sandstone, and conglomerate formations, interspersed with
lignite, rugged and irregular in outline, thickly wooded with
fir and spruce, and rising from five to fifteen hundred feet
above the sea. Their climate is healthy and uniform, rainfall not excessive, and great extremes of cold or heat are
unknown. The forests abound with eleer, otter, coon, and
mink, and the surrounding waters with salmon, halibut, cod,
and other excellent fish. There are no beasts of prey, or
poisonous reptiles. Approaching the Pass a steam sealing
schooner and three large Chinook canoes, filled with Indians,
are sailing northward. Their huts are occasionally seen upon
the shores. A consiclerable settlement of whites occupy a
pleasant green slope on Vancouver Island at Cowichan. Then
we seem to be advancing against a mountain wall of solid rock,
and, just as we are wondering most where we can be going,
two channels suddenly appear—the left leading on to Nanaimo,
the right Plumper Pass—not exceeding two or three hundred
yards wide in places, and about two miles long, to the Gulf
of Georgia.    Now we head for the Delta of the Fraser River, 20
visible in the distance. The Gulf of Georgia is from nine to
twenty miles in width, and one hundred and twenty miles in
length. When opposite Point Roberts, the boundary line
between British Columbia and the United States, a wide
pathway cut through the timber, entirely across, is plainly
seen from the steamer with the naked eye. Just before
entering the South Arm of the Fraser River we pass the
Steamer Beaver, which Capt. Irving says is the oldest on the
Pacific coast, having come round the Horn in 1835. She is
still doing good service for her owners, the British Columbia
Towing Company.
The Fraser River.
The third largest stream flowing into the Pacific upon the
Continent of North America, rising in the Rocky Mountains,
drains, with its tributaries, an area estimated at 125,000
square miles, reaching from the hundred and eighteenth to
the hundred and twenty-fifth degree of longitude. The intervening country embraces the greatest diversity of physical
features, climates, soils, natural resources, and adaptations.
East of the Cascade Range, mountains, rolling foot hills, and
elevated plateaus, covered with bunch grass, sage brush,
plains, forest and table lands, with occasional prairie openings, are its prevailing characteristics. It is rich in gold and
other valuable minerals, contains extensive stock ranges of
unsurpassed excellence, and large areas of arable lands excellently adapted to the growth of cereals, roots, and fruits
generally. Irrigation is necessary over a considerable portion
of this region. The summers are hot, the nights cool and
sometimes frosty in the valleys and in the elevated plateaus;
the winters dry and not unfrequently severe, though the snow
fall, except in the mountains, seldom exceeds two feet in
depth. Crossing the Cascades its Western slopes, river valleys, embrace the greatest variety of climates and range of productions, varying according to altitude and local surface configurations. Forests of Douglas pine, cedar, spruce, andhemlock
cover a considerable portion of this region, though there are
extensive bodies of excellent grazing and agricultural land.
But no general description can convey correct impressions
L 21
concerning or do justice to this region. The climatic conditions
existing in the same latitudes on the Atlantic coast affords no
guiele in judging of those found here. The warm
Asiatic ocean currents sweeping along the Western coast and
through the Gulf of Georgia modifies the temperature in a
marked degree. It is one of the healthiest portions of the
globe. Even the river bottoms and deltas are free from all
malarial fevers.
The Rich and Extensive Deltas of the
Fraser  River.
The delta lands of the Fraser are more extensive than those
of any other river flowing into the Pacific. Advancing up the
South Arm, a broad, rapid, muddy steam, the tide lands
stretch away for many miles on either hand, extending from
Boundary Bay on the East to Point Gray on the West, a
distance of thirteen miles, embracing over 100,000 acres
susceptible of cultivation. Enriched by the silt and
alluvial deposits of ages, brought down from the
plains and mountain slopes of the interior, they are famous
for their inexhaustible fertility. They generally require
dykmg to the height of three or four feet, for protection
against high tides, though escaping, almost altogether, any
damaging effects from the spring floods. Messrs. Turner &
Wood, civil engineers and surveyors, at New Westminster,
who have recently examined a tract of 4,500 acres near Mud
Bay estimate that it can be reclaimed in a body for $8000,
and that from two to four dollars per acre will securely dyke
the average Fraser delta land. Every one bears testimony to
their exceeding fertility and durability. At Ladner's Landing the Rithet took on board a quantity of excellent hay, grown
close at hand. The young man shipping it said that three
tons per acre was the average yield, and that it sells readily
for from twelve to sixteen dollars per ton. Hon. W. J. Armstrong, M. P. P., informs me that he saw a field which, after
growing timothy ten or eleven years in succession, produced
three tons per acre. He estimates the cost of cutting, curing,
and baling at not exceeding four dollars per ton.    These delta 22
lands are also well adapted to oats, barley, and roots generally. They are offered in tracts to suit at from ten to twenty
dollars per acre, and are being rapidly reclaimed and improved. Mr. E. A. Wadhams and Mr. Adair have each dyked
over 1,200-acre tracts, and at Ladner's Landing there is a
prosperous settlement of farmers and stock raisers upon
smaller tracts.
The Salmon Fisheries and Canneries.
Although salmon fishing and canning has been an important
industry on the Pacific coast since 1866, and during the last
twelve years has grown to immense proportions—a single
firm on the Columbia River (Kinney's) canning fifty- thousand
cases during the season of 1881—it is only a few years since
the establishment,by Ewen & Co., of the first cannery on the
Fraser. Now there are thirteen—the Phoenix, English & Co.,
British American Packing Co., British Union, Adair & Co.,
Delta, Findlay, Durham & Brodie, British Columbia Packing
Co., Ewen & Co., Laiellaw & Co., Standard Co., Haigh & Son,
and the Richmond Packing Co., their aggregate product
during the present season amounting to not less than 230,000
cases. The fish of Northern waters are of superior quality,
and their ranges for hatching and feeeling so extensive and
excellent that the salmon, especially if protected by the Government, tiill constitute one of the great permanent resources
of this region. Before proceeding far up the Fraser we
meet the advance of the numerous fleet of salmon fishing
boats which throng the river for a distance of fifteen miles
from its mouth. They are from twenty-two to twenty-four
feet in length, and from five to six feet wide, each furnished
with a gill net, made of strong linen, from one hundred and
fifty to two hundred fathoms long, and about forty half-
inch meshes deep, and manned by two Indians. The steamer
stopping to discharge and receive freight at a small settlement
on the left bank, at Ladner's Landing, consisting of the Delta
salmon fishery and cannery and McNeely and Buie's store
and hotel, afforded an opportunity to visit 23
The Delta Cannery.
The largest in British Columbia. Commencing operations
only five years ago, its business has assumed such proportions
that it now employs a force of over 400 men, 280
Chinese, and 160 Indians, and a fishing outfit consisting in
part of thirty-eight boafe and nets, two seines, one steam tug
and four scows. The cannery is 160x120 feet square, two
stories high, and in some respects the most completely
furnished of any on the Pacific coast. It is provided with a
boiler sixteen feet long, and four feet, in diameter, twelve
tanks, two retorts of 3,360 cans capacity each, filling and
soldering machines, four laquer baths, and every convenience
for the rapid and thorough performance of the various operations necessary to secure the highest degree of perfection in
the preparation of this most excellent article of food. Chinamen, under the supervision of experienced white foremen, are
employed for the canning process, and Indians for catching the
fish, receiving from $1 25 to $2 00 per day—the net tenders
the latter amount. The daily catch per boat ranges from fifty
to three hundred salmon, the fleet sometimes bringing in
twelve or fifteen thousand. This season the run has been so
extraordinary that the Delta Cannery put.up 1,280 cases in a
single day and 6,600 cases in six days. Mssrs. Page & Ladner, the
managing partners of the firm, showed me their product for
the last month, amounting to the enormous quantity of 25,000
cases, or 1,152,000 cans, covering every available space of the
immense lower floor to the height of over five feet, the largest
number ever packed by any one establishment during the
same period of time. Two hundred and fifty barrels of
salmon, or about 1,3000, were also salted within the month.
The company ship their goods direct to London or Liverpool through the firm of Welch, Rithet & Co., of Victoria.
Proceeding we soon reach
New Westminster,
The principal city of the Mainland, formerly the capital of
the Crown Colony, occupying a very pleasant and commanding situation on the right bank of the Fraser, about fifteen 2 4
miles from the mouth and 75 miles from Victoria. The site
was chosen by Col. Moody, in 1858, being then covered with
a dense growth of enormous cedars some of which were
twelve feet in diameter. Hon. J. W. Armstrong, just appointed Provincial Secretary, erected the first house—a store
and dwelling—in March, 1859. This gentlemen related to
me how it came by its present name. Originally called Queen
or Queensborough, a dispute having arisen between Gov.
Douglas and Col. Moody as to which should prevail, the
matter was submitted for settlement to Her Majesty Queen
Victoria who decided against both by substituting New
Westminster. It lies in the heart of the great resources of
the Province, surrounded by the most extensive and richest
bodies of agricultural lands, with large tracts of the finest
timber near at hand, and in the midst of fisheries so enormously productive that thirteen canning establishments
within a radius of twelve miles, will put up over
twelve million cans of salmon, alone, the present
season. Vessels drawing fifteen feet of water reach New
Westminster in safety at all times and find good anchorage
and wharfage, and Port Moody, on Burrard's Inlet, the best
anel most commodious harbor along these shores, selected as
the terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railroad, is only six
miles distant. The city, now containing a population of
about 2,500, is in a very prosperous condition, but scarcely
realizes the future which awaits it upon the establishment of
railroad communication with the interior and the East, the
influx of population, and the consequent development of the
great resources of this region. Besides many well built
stores, residences, and hotels, it contains the Provincial
Penitentiary and Asylum, a public hospital, and good church
and school buildings. A fine Post Office is in course of erection. A free reading room and library is well sustained,
There are two local newspapers—the British Columbian and
Mainland Guardian—well conducted and supported. At the.
hospital, Mr. Adam Jackson, the courteous and efficient
Superintendent, after conducting me through the several
commodious and sunny wards showed me, in the fine flower
garden attached, a sweet pea vine over seven-and-a-half feet NEW WESTMINISTER ADVERTISEMENTa
The only Fire-Proof Hotel in the city.    First-class accommodations at reasonable rates.     Private Dining rooms for Ladies and Families.
Importer and General Dealer in Clothing, Boots and
Shoes, Hardware, Crockery and Cordage. Also, Millinery and Fancy Goods, Front street.
Teamster and Dealer in Fuel.
Goods Removed at Moderate Prices.
Orders left at J. Wise's store, Front street,
Promptly Attended to.
Columbia Street, New Westminster.
The '•'British Columbian" is publisheel every Wednesday
and Saturday Morning, and is recognized as the best Advertising Medium on the Mainland of British Columbia.
Subscription, $3 per year.      Robson Bros., Proprietors.
T. R. Pearson & Co., Books, Stationery, Music. Columbia St
John E. Lord, Dealer iu Furniture, Carpets, &c. Columbia St.
G. Leiser, Gentlemen's Furnishing Goods.    Columbia St.
Wm. Rae, Dealer in General Merchandise.
Wm. McColl, General Merchandise.
J. H. Pleace & Co., Hardware, Stoves, Tinware, Paints, etc. ■
E. Bradbury, Tobacco, Cigars, Pipes, etc.    Columbia St.
W. H. Keary, Books, Stationery, Musical Instruments, etc.
W. D. Ferris, Land Agent, Conveyancer and Debt Collector
S. H. Webb, Gunsmith, General Repairing, Cutlery, Guns.
London House, J. Ellard & Co., Dry Goods, Clothing, Fancy
Goods, Millinery, Dress Making. C. G. Major, importer of General Mdse., Columbia street
C. M. McNaughten, Watchmaker and Jeweler.
John Walsh, Excelsior Tailoring Emporium.
Trapp Brothers, Importers, Dry Goods and Hardware Dressmaking and Tailoring.    Also, Auctioneers.
Cottage Bakery, Martha Harvey Proprietress.
James Rousseau, mf and dlr in Boots, Shoes, Leather, Skins
Henry Eickhofp, Gen Mdse, Groceries, Provisions.
Emma Gould, General Mdse, Groceries and Provisions
Telegraph Hotel, Front street, J. Powers,  Proprietor
The Yuet Wah Restaurant, Front street, Moy Ging, Propr.
Henry V. Edmonds, Real Estate Agent and Notary Public.
Woods & Turner, Surveyors, Land Agents and Conveyancers
Webster & Co., Manufacturers of rough and dressed Lumber
Eagle Hotel, Front St., Plumb & Anderson, Proprietors.
New Westminster-Burrard Inlet Daily Stage Line—
Leaves New Westminster at 9 o'clock A. M. and Granville, Burrard Inlet, at 2 p. M.    W. R. Lewis, Propr.
J. B. TIFFIN, Propr.
Columbia Hotel, Joseph James, Proprietor, Hope, B. C.
Fort Hope Hotel
James Corrigan, Proprietor.
Emory Hotel, Emory,
F. W. Geisler, Proprietor.
American Hotel, Emory,
P. Billadeaux, Proprietor.
California House, Yale, B. C, G. Tuttle, Proprietor.
W. E. McCartney, Dispensing Chemist, Yale, B. C.
Kimball & Gladwin, Commission Merchants, Yale, B. C.
Powers Brothers, General Merchandise, Yale, B. C.
Travelers Rest, Alex. McDonald, Proprietor, Yale, B. C.
J. D. Frickelton, M. D., Yale, B. 0.,
Chronic Diseases and Cancer a specialty.
Douglas & Deighton,
Importers, Manufactuaers, and Dealers in every
description of Harness and Saddlery, Yale.
Gilmore & Clarke, Clothiers and Outfitters, Yale. James McBride, Stoves and Tinware, Yale.
Robt. Louttit, Blacksmith and Wagon Maker, Yale.
D. MacQuarrie, Boot and Shoemaker, Yale.
James Fraser, Watchmaker, Yale.
Bossi & Velatti, General Merchandise, Yale.
A. Van Volkenburgh, Butcher, Yale.
E. Pie, General Merchandise, Yale.
Kwong Lee & Co., General Merchandise, Yale.
Lun Sang, General Merchandise, Butchers, and Bakers, Yale.
Sixteen Mile House, E. Cannell, Proprietor.
Boston Bar Store & Hotel, Peter Fink, Proprietor.
Boston Bar House, Store and Stables, H. B. Dart, Prop.
Forest House, 36 m. from Yale, 21 fm Lytton, E. Skuse, Pro.
2-Mile House. Thomas Benten, Proprietor.
Kanaka Bar House, Hautier & Phillips, Proprietor.
H. F. Keeper, Contractor, C.P.R.R., especially^, for employment of natives.
Baillie Hotel,
Geo. Baillie,
Lytton Hotel, Robert Sprout, Proprietor.
Globe Hotel, Louis Houtier, Proprietor.
Lytton Flour & Saw Mill, James Chapman, Proprietor.
John McKay, Livery and Feed Stable.
Wm. Allen Smith, General Blacksmith.
Victor Delatre, Bakery and Grocery.
Jules Boucherat, General Merchandise.
C. H. Charity & J. F. Smith, Boot and Shoe Maker.
Henry Blachford, General Blacksmith.
Joseph Clark Watchmaker and Jeweller.
John McIntyre, General Merchandise.
Kwong On (O.K.), General Merchandise.
Foo Song, General Merchandise.
Kong Chong Hing, General Merchandise.
Hang Woo, General Merchandise and Laundry.
Yong Hing, Boarding House.  '
Man Song Tong, Chinese Doctor and Medicines.
B. C. Express House, Nacomin, Art. Clemes, Proprietor.
Nicomin House & Store, James Place, Proprietor. COOK'S PERRY.
Morton House,
Spence's Bridge, C. Morton, Proprietor.
Cooks Ferry House,
Best of Accommodations for Man and Beast.
S. M. Nejson, Proprietor.
John Murray, General Merchandise.
W. R. McGaw, General Merchandise.
James Vair, Stoves and Tinware.
J. R. Tait, General Blacksmith.
Evan Campbell, Gen. M'dse, 9 miles from Spence's Bridge.
Buonaparte House, Cache Creek, Jas. Campbell, Prop.
G. S. Stephenson, Blacksmith, Cache Creek.
Yuen Kee, General Merchandise, Cache Creek, B.C.
F. W. Foster, General Merchandise, Clinton, B.C. '
Dominion House, A. B. Ferguson, Prop., Clinton, B.C,
John McCully, Horse-shoer, Blacksmith.
Bridge Creek or 150-Mile House, Thos. M. Hamilton, Prop-
Wm. Bargeh, General Blacksmith, 150-Mile House.
P. C. Dunlevy, Hotel and Store, Soda Creek, B.C.
Reed & Huson, General Merchanelise, Quesnelle, B.C.
Hudson Bay Co., Fur Traders, Quesnelle, R. J. Skinner, J. C F.
Robt. Middleton, General Blacksmithing, Quesnelle.
Occidental Hotel, John McLean, Prop., Quesnelle.
Golden Eagle Hotel, Quesnelle, Robt. Pacey, Prop.
Yan War, General Merchanelise, Quesnelle.
Kwong Lee & Co., General Merchandise, Quesnelle.
Wah Lee, General Merchandise, Quesnelle, B.C.
W. W. Dodd, General Merchandise, Stanley.
S. A. Rogers, General Merchandise, Barkerville.
Hudson Bay Co., Gen. Mdse, Barkerville, A. Monroe, Agent.
Kwong Lee & Co., Barkerville, General Merchandise.
Wah Lee, General Merchandise, Barkerville.
A. Pendola, General Merchandise, Barkerville.
Mason & Daly, General Merchanelise, Barkerville.
John Bibby, Hardware, Stoves, &c, Barkerville.
Andrew Kelly's Hotel, Barkerville.
W. D. Moses, Mdse, Fancy Goods, Hairdresser, Barkerville.
Antelope Restaurant, Barkerville, R. K. Evans, Prop. 25
in height, and close by, vegetables of surprising growth.
Rheumatism and paralysis are the most prevalent diseases
among his patients. At the time of my visit, just after payday among the canneries, the city was full of Indians, representing all the various Mainland and Island tribes, living in
canvas tents and huts, dressed in every conceivable mixture
of barbarous and civilized costume, one of the most interesting collections of human creatures ever seen on the earth.
These Northern tribes are generally good workers, and earn
during the summer considerable sums of money which they
spend freely upon whatever most pleases their fancy. Many
of their purchases, which the traders said included almost
everything, were exceedingly amusing, especially in the line
of dress goods. Sometimes a prosperous buck will jump
from a barbarous into a civilized costume at a bound, and
parade the streets in a black suit and white silk necktie, and
everything except habits to correspond. One Indian was
seen proudly leading his little daughter whom he had
gaily dressed in white, with a blue silk sash, a pretty white
waist, and a silk parsol in hand, but bare footed and legged.
Though there were probably upwards of a thousand Indians
in the city I saw no disorderly conduct among them. I am
indebted to Capt. A. Peele, a prominent druggist and apothecary of New Westminster, and Meterological Observer for the
Dominion Government and Signal Officer for the United
States, for the following valuable notes of the mean temperatures and rainfall at that place for a period of six years :—
T.E M P\
January ..
February .
March ....
August ...
October ..
61.9 :
74 ,
Between    New    Westminster    and    Yale,   a   distance
of   100   miles,   the mail  steamers  not unfrequently  make 26
thirty-five landings, including stoppages at railway construction camps. Maple Ridge, twelve miles; Langley, seventeen,
Riverside, thirty-one; Matsqui, thirty-three; Sumas,
forty-one; Chilliwhack, forty-seven; Hope, eighty-five; and
Emory, ninety-five miles above, being the most important
Though only a small village, is the oldest settlement on
the river having been laid out for a town in 1858.
There is a considerable tract of rich, arable land a
short distance back, of which the Hudson Bay Company own
about a thousand acres. Though the area susceptible of
cultivation along the Lower Fraser is comparatively limited
it comprises in the aggregate over 150,000 acres, excluding the
deltas. At Matsqui there is a prairie opening three or four
miles square, and on the right bank opposite, north of the
Mission, Burton's Prairie, containing over 3,000 acres.
Sumas Prairie is estimated to contain 25,000 acres of farming
lands.    Surrounding
A village of about twenty-five houses on the left bank,
there is a large body of level, lightly timbered, alder, maple and
pine wooded bottoms, enclosed by a grand ampitheatre of
mountains. The soil is a deep clay, alluvial, exceedingly productive. Mr. A. Pierce told me that the lessee of his farm, situated
three miles back from the landing, will clear $2,000 this season
from forty-eight acres under cultivation. Though comprising
the principal farming settlement on the river, these lands are
only about half occupied. In common with most of those
described they are subject to occasional overflows
sometimes quite disastrous. The Provincial Government has
undertaken to protect them by dyking and will doubtless
succeed in doing so. For sixty miles from the mouth of
Harrison River the Fraser has little valley proper, the mountains rising abruptly from two to five thousand feet above the
sea,  their rugged,   furrowed sides   sparsely   covered   with
L 27
Douglas fir, and sharply defined peaks with remnants of
the winter snows. There are occasional slopes, benches and
bottoms of small extent, occupied, though the general aspect
of the country, outside the small settlements, is a wild,
unbroken wilderness. This was the field of the great Fraser
River gold excitement of twenty-four years ago, when miners
rushed in from all parts of the world, encountering untold
hardships and dangers to share in its rich treasures. The
best diggings were found upon the lower benches and bars of
the river, American, Murderer's, Texas, Emory, Hill's Sailor's
Boston, Kanaka, Fargo's, Chapman's, Wellington, and Foster's
being the richest. Scores of brave fellows lost their lives in
attempting to reach them, in canoes and small boats, through
the terrible rapids of the awful canyons intervening. Between
Cornish and American Bars, near the mouth of the Coquhalla
River, we touch at the small village of
Charmingly situated upon a high bench at the base of the
mountains. A trail leads from thence 160 miles North-
Eastward into the rich Similkameen and Okanagan country.
A silver mine, said to be very rich, has been discovered upon
the side of the mountain within sight, upon the development
of which great anticipations are based. I am informed by
Mr. B. C. Oleson, Supt. of the C. P.R. R. powder works, that
there are good openings in the upper Skagit Valley, within
forty or fifty miles of Hope, for thirty or forty families.
Salmon Running and Catching Extraordinary.
I have read, with much allowance, accounts of the multitudes of salmon sometimes seen in the smaller tributaries of
the Umpqua, Columbia, and Fraser Rivers, but, after what I
have witnessed to-day, am prepared to believe any fish story
within the limits of possibilities. Arriving at Emory, five
miles below Yale, two young men from San Francisco reported immense numbers of salmon at the mouth of Emory Creek,
a small, rapid mountain stream flowing into, the Fraser just
above.    Going there I found it packed so full in places that I 28
counted, while standing in one position upon the railroad
bridge, over four hundred different salmon. Mentioning the
matter to a resident, he remarked, " Oh ! that's nothing. If
you want to see salmon goto the next creek beyond." Reaching there, after a walk of about four miles, and taking a central
position upon the bridge crossing it, I counted, without
moving, over 800 salmon. This stream plunges down the
mountain side with a fall of, probably, one hundred and fifty
feet within a mile-and-a-half, being from five to fifteen yards
in width. For a distance of several rods up from its mouth,
the salmon were crowding in from the muddy Fraser, now
again rapidly rising, almost as thick as they could swim, and
in their desperate efforts to ascend the successive falls above
presented a spectacle never before witnessed by the oldest
native settler. Mr. John Woodworth, who has lived here
for twenty-four years, says he never heard of the like. The
salmon is a fish of extraordinary strength and agility, and are
said to jump and swim up perpendicular falls from ten to
twenty feet in height. I stood upon the bank an hour and
watched them in their desperate struggles to make the ascent
of several of lesser size within sight. Of hundreds which
made the attempt, only a few, comparatively, succeeded, but
fell back exhausted, splashing and whirling among the
boulders. Many were covered with great bruises, some had
lost their eyes, a few lay dead upon the shore, others were
dying, and all seemed nearly worn out. Stepping close to a
pool filled with them, I easily caught two in my hands, which
offered but little resistance. Before leaving, a photographer,
Mr. D. R. Judkins, of New Westminster, arrived and took two
views of the remarkable scene. Mr. Daniel Ashworth, wife and
family were also present. Reaching Yale I told a hotel-
keeper about it, estimating the salmon at thousands.
•'Thousands!" he exclaimed, almost with indignation, "Why,
there are millions of them now running up the Fraser within
a few miles of town." Getting aboard Mr. Onderdonk's construction train I rode along the river, fifteen miles to the end
of track. Millions was probably not much of an exaggeration, for although the river was quite muddy, schools of
salmon, numbering thousands each, could be seen from the 29
platform of the cars, at short intervals, the entire distance.
The Indians were catching and drying them in large quantities. Standing upon the edge of perpendicular projecting
ledges, they capture the largest and finest specimens, either
by means of hooks or scoop-nets, dress them upon the spot
and hang them up on long poles to dry in the wind and sun.
When sufficiently cured they are packed in caches made from
cedar shakes, and suspended for safe keeping among the
branches of trees from twenty to fifty feet above the ground.
It is the opinion of those familiar with the habits of the
salmon, that not one in a thousand succeeds in depositing their
spawn, and that if hatching places were provided upon these
streams, and protected that they could scarcely be exhausted,
under proper restrictions as to catching them. On the morning of the 15th I reached
The head of navigation on the Fraser River, a town of several
hundred inhabitants and buildings situated upon a narrow
bench, surrounded by mountains of striking grandeur, rising
precipitously thousands of feet among the clouds. In the
early days of the gold discoveries in this region, Yale presented those scenes of wild dissipation and reckless extravagance only witnessed in great and rich mining camps.
An old miner, who was stopped from working his claim when
paying from sixteen to twenty dollars per day, because
encroaching upon the city front, told me that he seldom
cleaned up without finding gold pieces which had been
dropped from the overflowing pockets of men intoxicated with
liquor, and excitement. It was nothing uncommon in those
times to spend fifty dollars in a single treat around at the
bar. It is now an orderly place, supporting churches
schools, and a weekly paper, the Inland Sentinel, by Mr. M.
Hagan—the extreme North-Western publication upon the
Continent. There is still paying placer mining on the river
bench opposite, though the place derives its main support
from the construction of the C. P. R. R., traffic with the
interior, and through travel. 30
The Grand Scenery of the Cascade Region.
The grandest scenery on the Western slope of the Continent is formed by the passage of its great rivers through the
Cascade Range. When I looked with wonder and admiration upon the stupendous architecture of the mountains
through which the Columbia has worn her way by the flow
of unknown ages, I thought surely this scene can have no
parallel; but ascending the Fraser River, above Yale, mountains just as rugged, lofty, and precipitous, present their rocky,
furrowed sides; a stream as deep, swift, and turbulent, rushes
headlong to the sea, between granite walls hundreds of feet in
height, above which rise, by every form of rocky embattle-
ment, tower and castle, and terraced slope which the
imagination can conceive, the snow-covered peaks of the
Cascades. Great broad, deep paths, have been worn down the
mountain sides by the winter avalanches ; crystal streams
come bounding over their narrow rocky beds, sometimes
leaping hundreds of feet, as if impatient to join the impetuous
river below, enormous rocks stand out threateningly in the
channel, over and around which, the waters boil and foam
with an angry roar; anel thus above, and below, and on every
hand for more than fifty miles, extends this sublime exhibition
of nature.
From Victoria to Barkerville, Cariboo, via New Westminster,
Yale, Boston Bar, Lytton, Cook's Ferry, Ashcroft, Cache
Creek, Clinton, Soda Creek, and Quesnelle. Returning
through the Kamloops, Okanagan, Spallumcheen, and
Nicola Country—1,682 miles.
On the 9th of September, two days after returning from
Alaska, I took passage on the steamer Western Slope for
New Westminster, en route for Cariboo, Capt. Moore, commanding, is one of the pioneers in the steamboat navigation of 31
the waters of British Columbia. In 1858, at the breaking out
of the Fraser River gold excitement, he built and run the
Blue Boat as far as Yale, clearing $3,500 in five weeks.
Four years later, during the rush to the Stickeen River, he
earned, with his little boat the " Flying Dutchman," $14,000
in seventy-five days, receiving $100 per ton for carrying
freight from Fort Wrangel to Glenora, a distance of 160
miles. Upon the discovery of the rich Omineca diggings in
1870, he placed two boats upon Stewart and Tatlah Lakes,
800 miles in the interior. His next venture was gold mining
at Cassiar, where himself, and his sons John, William, and
Henry, washed out $35,000 in a little over five months. Then
he built the steamers Alexandria and Western Slope for the
East Coast trade. The latter, a staunch, powerful steamer of
850 tons burden, and good accommodations for thirty cabin
passengers, makes bi-weekly trips between Victoria and Yale,
touching at intermediate ports. At New Westminster we
transferred to the Gertrude, a swift steamer, running
on the Fraser between that place and Yale. Mr. Lipsett,
managing agent, informs me that she will probably return to
her former route on the Stickeen River, next spring. Arriving
at Yale, I proceeded at once to the office of the British
Columbia Express to secure a seat in the .stage leaving for
Cariboo, 385 miles north, the following morning. As I entered, Mr. Dodd, the obliging agent, gravely remarked to a
clerical gentleman who was anxious to express a small parcel,
that there was'nt room on the stage for a tooth-pick. I did
not much regret the detention, for it gave me an opportunity
to examine the most stupendous undertaking in railway building on the North American continent, the construction of
The Canadian Pacific Railroad
Through the Cascade range of mountains. My readers are
probably more or less familiar with the history of the progress
of this great iron highway across the northern portion of the
continent. The necessity for such a road through the several
Provinces of the Dominion for their better security and mora
rapid development becoming apparent, in 1871 surveying par* 32
ties were sent out to explore the comparatively unknown region
through which, if possible, it shoulel pass, and report upon the
most favorable route. Over $3,500,000 has been expended upon
these preliminary surveys. The location of the road east of the
Rocky Mountains being^ much the less difficult, the work of
construction was commenced on the Eastern section in 1874,
and 264 miles completed and in operation in 1880; but from
the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific coast no less than eleven
lines, aggregating upwards 10,000 miles, have been surveyed
before determining the best terminal point and route thereto.
Port Moody, at the head of Burrard Inlet, has finally bee
selected as the Mainland terminus, and the Governor-General,
the Marquis of Lome, has recently stated in a public speech at
Victoria, that the road will probably cross the Rocky Mountains by the Kicking Horse Pass. In 1880 a contract and
agreement was made between the Dominion of Canada and
John S. Kennedy of New York, Richard B. Angus and James
J. Hill of St. Paul, Minn., Morton, Rose & Co. of London,
England, and John Reinach & Co. of Paris, France, forming
an incorporated company, known as the Syndicate, for the
construction, operation, and ownership of the Canadian Pacific
Railway. By the terms of this agreement, that portion of the
railway to be constructed was divided into three sections, the
first extending from Callander Station, near the east end of
Lake Nipissing, to a junction with the Lake Superior section
then being built by the Government, was called the Eastern
section; the second, extending from Selkirk, on the Red
River, to Kamloops, at the Forks of the Thompson River, was
called the Central section, and the third, extending from
Kamloops to Port Moody at Burrard Inlet, the Western
section. The company agreed to lay out, construct)
and equip in running order, of a uniform guage of 4 ft. 8| in.,
the Eastern and Central sections by the first day of May,
1891. The company also agreed to pay the Government the
cost, according to existing contract, for the 100 miles of road
then in course of construction from the city of Winnipeg Westward. The Government agreed to complete
that portion of the Western section between Kamloops and
Yale by June 30th, 1885, and also between Yale and Port 33
Mooely on or before the first day of May, 1891, and the Lake
Superior section according to contract. The railway, as constructed under the terms of the agreement, becomes the
property of the company, and pending the completion
of the Eastern and Central sections the possession
and right to work and run the several portions of the
railway already constructed, or as the same shall be
completed, is given by the Government to the company.
Upon the completion of the Eastern and Central sections the
Government agreed to convey to the company (exclusive of
equipment) those portions of the railway constructed, or to
be constructed by the Government, and upon completion of
the remainder of the portion of railway to be constructed by
the Government, to convey the same to the company, and
the Canadian Pacific Railway thereafter become the absolute
property of the company, which agreed to forever efficiently,
maintain, work, and run the same. The Government further
agreed to grant the company a subsidy in money of
$25,000,000, and in land of 25,000,000 acres, to be subdivided
as follows :,—
1,350 miles.—1st 900 miles, at $10,000 per mile.. $ 9,000,000
2nd 450        "       13,333       "      ..    6,000,000
650 miles at $15,384 61 $10,000,000
1st 900 miles at 12,500 acres per mile    11,250,000
2nd 450        "    16,666.67 acres  "          7,500,000
650 miles at 9,615.35/icres per mile    6,250,000
Upon the construction and completion of, and regular 34
running of trains upon any portion of the railway, such as
the traffic should require, not less than twenty miles in length,
the Government agreed to pay and grant to the company the
subsidies applicable thereto. The Government also granted
to the company the lands required for the road-bed of the
railway, and for its stations, station grounds, work shops,
dock ground, and water frontage, buildings, yards, etc., and
other appurtenances required for its convenient and effectual
construction and operation, and agreed to admit, free of duty,
all steel rails, fish plates, spikes, bolts, nuts, wire, timber, and
all material for bridges to be used in the original construction
of the railway and of a telegraph line in connection therewith.
Company's Land Grant.
Comprises every alternate section of 640 acres, extending
back twenty-four miles deep on each side of the railway from
Winnpeg to Jasper House, and where such sections (the
uneven numbered) are not fairly fit for settlement on account
of the prevalence of lakes and water stretches, the deficiency
thereby caused to make up the 25,000,000 acres, may be
selected by the company from the tract known as the fertile
belt lying between parallels 49 and 37 degrees of North latitude or elsewhere, at the option of the company, of alternate
sections extending back twenty-four miles deep on each side
of any branch line, or line of railway by them located. The
company may also, with the consent of the Government,
select any lands in the North-West Territory not taken up to
supply such deficiency. The company have the right, from
time to time, to lay out, construct, equip, maintain, and
work branch lines of railway from any point or points within
the territory of the Dominion. It was further agreed by the
Dominion Parliament that for the period of twenty years no
railway should be constructed South of the Canadian Pacific
Railway, except such fine as shall run South-West or to the
Westward of South-West, nor to within fifteen miles of latitude forty-nine degrees, and that all stations, and station
grounds, workshops, buildings; yards, and other property,
rolling stock,  and appurtenances required and used for the 35
construction and working thereof, and the capital stock of the
company shall be forever free from taxation by the Dominion,
or by any Province hereafter to be established, or by any
Municipal Corporation therein, and the lands of the company
in the North-West Territory, until they are either sold or occupied, shall also be free from such taxation for twenty years
after the grant thereof from the Crown.
The Great Work of Building the Railway Through
the Cascade Mountains.
Soon after the consumafcion of the agreement, Mr. A. On-
derdonk, an experienced railroad builder, became the managing contractor for the construction of that portion of the
Western division extending from Port Moody to Savonas Ferry,
a distance of two hundred and twelve miles, ably
assisted by E. G. Tilton, Superintendent and Chief
Enginer, John P. Bacon, Chief Commissarry, Geo. F. Kyle,
Assistant-Superintendent, and other gentlemen. It presented
greater difficulties than have ever been overcome in railway
building. The Union and Central Pacific and other lines
have gone over the mountains by gradual ascents, but no such
way of climbing the Cascades was possible, and the wonderful undertaking of running through them parallel with the great
canyon of the Fraser, was determined upon. For nearly
sixty miles from Yale to Lytton, the river has cut through this
lofty range, thousands of feet below the summits. Mountain spurs of granite rock, with perpendicular faces hundreds
of feet in height, project at short intervals along the entire
passage. Between them are deep lateral gorges, canyons and
plunging cataracts. On this sixty miles of tunnels rock work
anel bridges, the greater portion of Mr. Onderdonk's construction army of 7,000 men have been engaged since 1880-
The loud roar of enormous discharges of giant powder has
almost constantly reverberated among the mountains. Fifteen
tunnels have been bored, one 1,600 feet in length, and millions of tons of rock blasted and rolled with the noise of an
avalanche into the rushing boiling Fraser; workmen have
been suspended by ropes hunelreds of feet down the perpen- 36
dicular sides of the mountains to blast a foot hold; supplies
have been packed in upon the backs of mules and horses,
over trails where the Indians were accustomed to use ladders,
and building materials landed upon the opposite bank of the
river at an enormous expense, and crossed in Indian canoes.
It is estimated that portions of this work have cost $300,000
to the mile. In addition to other transportation charges, Mr.
Onderdonk pays $10 for every ton of his freight passing over
the Yale-Cariboo Wagon Road, excepting for the productions
of the Province.
As the work progressed the cost of transportation by such
means increased until Mr. Onderdonk determined to try and
run a steamer through the Grand Canyon of the Fraser to
the navigable waters above to supply the advance camps.
For this purpose he built the steamer Skuzzy. Then came
the difficulty of finding a captain able and willing to take her
through. One after another went up and looked at the little
boat, then at the awful canyon, the rushing river and the swift
foaming rapids, and turned back, either pronouncing the
ascent impossible or refusing to undertake it. Finally Captains S. R. and David Smith, brothers, were sent for, both
well known for their remarkable feats of steamboating on the
upper waters of the Columbia. The former ran the steamer
Shoshone 1,000 miles down the Snake River through the
Blue Mountains—the only boat whieji ever did, or probably
ever will, make the perilous passage. He also run a steamer
safely over the falls of Willamette at Oregon City. He said
he could take the Skuzzy up, and provided with a crew of
seventeen men, including J. W. Burse, a skilful engineer, with
a steam winch and capstain and several great hawsers, began
the ascent. At the end of seven days I found them just
below Hell Gate, having lined safely through the roaring
Black Canyon, through which the pent up waters rush like a
mill-race at 20 miles an hour. Returning from my journey
in the interior, I had the pleasure of congratulating the captains upon the successful accomplishment of the undertaking,
and of seeing the Skuzzy start from Boston Bar with her
first load of freight. Captain Smith said the hardest tug of
war was at China Riffle, where, in addition to the engines, the 37
steam winch, and 15 men at the capstain, a force of 150 Chinamen upon a third line was required to pull her over! The
captains received $2,250 for their work. It would fill quite a
volume to describe in detail even the more important portions
of Mr. Onderdonk's great work. All of the immense quantities of giant powder used is manufactured on the line between
Emory and Yale. Through the favor of the Superintendents
—Messrs, Daniel Ash worth and B. C. Olesen—I was permitted to examine the whole of the interesting process. The
acid works contained 2 vitriol chambers, made of lead, air
tight, the largest 62 feet long, 22 feet wide, and 20 feet high •
24 glass condensers for holding sulphuric acid nearly as larga
as barrels, costing from $30 to $40 each; 24 great earthen
jars for nitric acid, and about 200 tons of brimstone from
Japan, and 60 tons of nitrate of soda from Chile. At the
nitro-glycerine and giant cartridge works a force of 16 men
were manufacturing the terrible explosives at the rate of 1200
lbs. a day. It requires about two hours to make the powder
after the sulphuric and nitric acids and the sweet glycerine
oil and the charcoal have been prepared. The cartridge cases
are made from strong paper dipped in hot paraffine and wax,
and are fromf to 1 inchin diameter—118 weighing, when filled,
about 50 lbs.
The  Yale-Cariboo  Wagon  Road,
Another great highway, runs parallel with the Canadian
Pacific Railway through the Cascade Mountains on the opposite, or south side of the Fraser. It was built by the Colonial
Government, in 1862, at a cost of $300,000 to accommodate the great rush to the wonderfully rich gold fields of
Cariboo, and the travel and trafic resulting therefrom. Beginning at Yale it crosses the Fraser twelve miles above, over
the Alexander wire suspension bridge, a fine structure erected
by Hon. Joseph W. Trutch, in 1863, at a cost of $42,000. From
thence it follows up the left bank of the river to Lytton, then
along the Thompson to Cook's Ferry, which it crosses on
Spence's Bridge up the Buonaparte, through the Green Timber forests, down the San Jose, through the beautiful Lake
La Hache country; again along the Fraser, across the Ques- 38
nelle then up tlie famous Lightning Creek into the heart of the
mountains and of the richest mining camp 400 miles from
Yale, 5,000 feet above the level of the sea. Over the steep
mountain spurs, and across the wild canyons—62 bridges in
25 miles—along the brink of frowning precipices thousands of
. feet above the river, and 3,000 feet below the summits, it winds
through the Cascade Range.
Slides, avalanches, and floods frequently destroy portions
of it, $39,000 having been expended for repairs upon the first
110 miles in 1882. During the great flood of last June the
water rose within four feet of the Suspension Bridge, which
stands 88 feet above low water mark. Mr. Black, who has
charge of the first section of the road, once saw an avalanche
sweep entirely across the river, above Hell Gate, onto the
mountain on the opposite side. He expended, one year,
$2,500 in cleaiing the snow from the first twenty-five miles of
the road. I walked over it by day and rode over it by night,
and what, with the grandeur of the mountains and canyons,
the two great highways which traverse them—only separated
by the roaring river—the Indian villages and burying grounds,
the old placer diggings, the tents of an army of Chinese railway laborers, the long processions of great freight wagons
drawn by from twelve to sixteen cattle or mules, and hundreels
of pack animals filing by, driven by Indians, carrying supplies into the interior, it was a journey of exceeding interest-
At several points there were wayside inns, orchards, gardens,
and meadows. Mr. H. B. Dart, of Boston Bar, anel Thos. Ben-
ten, of Kanaka Bar, showed me apple, pear, and plum trees
bending under their burdens of handsome fruit.
Situated on the left bank of the Fraser, just below the mouth
of the Thompson, fifty-seven miles from Yale, is the first
place reached after crossing the divide, and the next largest
in the interior to Barkerville. Looking at the bare, brown,
rocky foothills surrounding, one wonders what can support
its score of business houses, hotels, and shops, and two
hundred residents. It comes'from various sources, the rich
Lillooet  country  on the  river above, railway construction, 39
through travel and traffic, and the neighboring Indians. Mr.
Seward and Thos. Earl have the most extensive and valuable
improved ranches in this neighborhood, each containing fine
orchards of apples, pears, cherries,"" plums, etc. Mr. Earl
says he gathered $100 worth of apples from one tree this
season, and one apple which weighed one pound and a
quarter. Here Mr. Patrick Killroy, the oldest, and most extensive resident butcher in the interior, told me that he had
lulled, two, five, and six-year old bunch grass fed steers, which
weighed, dressed, respectively, 915, 1,336, and 1,400 pounds,
and showed me the kidney of an ox weighing 69 pounds.
Beyond Nacomin, near
Cook's Ferry or Spence's Bridge,
The road crosses the great mud slide, or moving mountain
which a raildroad engineer said was sliding toward the river
at the rate of eight feet a year. How to build a railway over
this changing base, is a problem the engineers are trying to
solve. I am well acquainted with Mortimer Cook, who
immortalized himself, and made a fortune here, in the days
when Cariboo was rolling out her fabulous wealth, by ferrying
over the armies of gold hunters rushing northward. A man
of remarkable energy and exceptional ability, he rode into this
country poor, on a mule, and out of it hi good style, a few
years later, worth his thousands, added to them by successful
operations in the West, invested all in California, flourished,
became banker and Mayor of the most beautiful city on the
Southern coast, and then, in the general financial crash of
1877, turned everything over to his creditors, like a man. The
place is now quite a little village, and being situated at the entrance to the Nicola country, will always prosper. Mr. John
Murray, an old time resident, owns a fine property and ranch
here, upon which, in adelition to excellent grains, vegetables,
apples, cherries, plums, and berries, he has grown, this
season, grapes, which, he says, the Marquis of Lome pronounced equal to any raised in the Dominion. Crossing the
Thompson River, on Spence's Bridge, I proceeded thirty miles
to Cache Creek, past Oregon Jack's, and through 40
Lieutenant-Governor Cornwall's splendid estate. The mountain valleys to the Westward contain excellent summer stock
ranges, and the rolling river slopes, considerable tracts of
arable land, producing large crops by irrigation. The
manager of the Governor's place told me that they raised
19,500 pounds of wheat from six acres, or over fifty bushels
per acre, and that thirty-three bushels is then average yield.
A few miles beyond, Antoine Minaberriet owns a fine ranch of
2,030 acres, with 400 improved, fourteen miles of irrigating
ditches, where he has made a fortune by stock-raising. He
sold $4,000 worth of cattle last year, and has 900 now on the
range.    Between his place and
Cache Creek
I came near stepping on a rattlesnake, which gave the- alarm
just in time to enable me to jump out of reach of its
poisonous fangs. Procuring a sharp stone, and approaching
as near as prudent, by a lucky throw I nearly severed its
venemous head. It was about three feet in length, with six
rattles. They are not numerous, being seldom seen in the
course of ordinary travel. Cache Creek is situated on the
Buonaparte, about six miles from the Thompson River. I rode
through this rich, pleasant valley, with Mr. Thaddeus Harper,
who owns 25,000 acres of land, large bands of cattle and
blooded horses, improved farms, gold mines, flour and sawmills, town sites, etc. It contains about 2,500 acres of very
rich soil, principally owned by Harper, Wilson, Van Volkenburgh, and Sanford. Stopping a moment, where wheat
threshing was in progress, I found the berry to be exceptionally large and white. When near the Thompson River, the
proposed site for the junction of the Yale-Cariboo Wagon
Road with the C. P. R. R., was pointed out. Returning to
Cache Creek, I rode 275 miles further North to Barkerville
upon the excellent stage of the
British Columbia Express Co.
Their line running the entire length of the' great
Yale-Cariboo    Wagon    Road,   first    established   as    Bar- 41
nard's Express in 1860, was incorporated as the British
Columbia Express Company in 1878, Mr. Frank S. Barnard,
of Victoria, being its managing agent. Horses and men
were used at first for its traffic over the rough and difficult
mountain trails. At Boston Bar, I was told about two Indians
who once sought refuge at an inn, near the Suspension
Bridge, after having been covered up and roughly handled
by an avalanche. As they were leaving, it was noticed that
they shouldered heavily weighted sacks. Upon enquiry, it was
found that they were each carrying eighty pounds of gold
dust for the company, which they safely delivered to Mr.
Dodd, its agent at Yale. But stages were substituted in 1865,
and for eighteen years it has been one of the best equipped,
and managed stage lines upon the Pacific coast. It is stocked
with splendid horses raised by Hon. F. J. Barnard, M. P.,
the largest owner in the company, upon his extensive horse
ranch in the Okanagan country. These spirited animals
are frequently hitched up, wild from the range, ahead of
trained ones, and though clashing away at full gallop,
up and and down hills for miles, over the most frightful mountain roads, are so skillfully managed by Tingley, Tait,
Bates, and Moffit, careful and experienced drivers, that
accidents seldom occur.
A ride of twenty-six miles in a North-westerly direction,
fourteen up the valley of the Buonaparte Creek, lightly wooded
with cottonwood and poplar, and containing about a thousand
acres of rich arable bottoms, exclusive of meadows, and
thence across Hat Creek along the shores of beautiful lakes
golden bordered with the autumn foliage of the poplar and
vine maple, brings us to
It is a pleasant village of about one hundred inhabitants,
two good inns, several stores and shops, situated at the junction of the old Harrison River, Lillooet, with the Yale-Cariboo
road. Within a radius of thirty miles there are summer
stock ranges of considerable extent, especially in the Green
Lake country and Cut-off Valley, and arable lands producing
annually about  30,000 bushels of wheat and other grains. 42
Late and early frosts frequently cut short the root and vegetable crops, though this season's yield was most abundant.
Mr. Foster, the leading merchant of this section, showed me
a potato grown near town which weighed two and three-
quarters lbs. From twenty-five to thirty thousand dollars'
worth of gold dust is sluiced out yearly by Chinamen and
Indians along the Fraser and tributary streams within sixty
miles. The Big Slide quartz lode, owned by Mr. F. W.
Foster, is reported immensely rich, assaying from $40 to $100
per ton. About $20,000 worth of furs are purchased here
annually, principally beaver. A small rapid mountain stream
flows through the village into the Buonaparte. A few years
ago it was stocked with trout, and so rapidly have they increased that a fellow passenger, Mr. Andrew Gray of Victoria,
brought in forty splendid specimens after an absence not exceeding two hours. For fifty miles beyond Clinton, we pursued a North-easterly course over a rocky surfaced mountain
divide between the Fraser and the Thompson, lightly wooded
with black pine, spruce and tamarack, known as the Green
Timber. Near the summit, at an elevation of 3,660 feet, we
pass within sight of the Great Chasm, a remarkable rent in
the mountain nearly a thousand feet in depth, perpendicular
walled, with two lakelets gleaming among the pines at the
bottom. At Bridge Creek there is a pleasant prairie opening
of six or seven hundred acres with meadows bordering, owned
by Mr. Hamilton, and used for dairying purposes. Soon we
are following down the Salmon and San Jose Rivers through
The Beautiful Lake La Hache Country.
It embraces an extensive scope of excellent summer stock
ranges only partly occupied. The winters are very severe but
dry, and the snow fall moderate. At Lake La Hache, a
charming sheet of water, scores of trout were seen jumping
out their full length. A son of Mr. Archibald McKinley, a
former factor of the Hudson Bay Company, who owns a large
stock ranch here, said that they could be caught by the boat
load. On we whirl, at a seven-mile trot, through poplar openings interspersed with small lakes, bordered by hay meadows.
At the head of Williams Lake wejleave two of our passen- 43
gers, Sister Mary Clement and companion, of the St. Joseph
Mission. En route from Kamloops with a settler of that section, his horses took fright, threw him out, and dashed away
at full run with the Sisters for over three miles at the imminent peril of their lives. With remarkable presence of
mind they seized the reins, sat down on the bottom of the
wagon and held on for dear life. At length, but not until the
horses had began to slacken their speed from exhaustion, a
horseman, who had witnessed the runaway from a distance,
dashed up to the rescue. At the 150-mile House we stopped
for a late supper, fresh horses, and a few hours' rest.
A fire broke out in the kitchen of the hotel just as we
had got fairly stowed away in a far off corner of" the second
story, and sound asleep. I awoke fi^st and arousing my
bed-fellow, Mr. Gray, we jumped into our clothes double-quick
and explored our way through a narrow, smoky passage down
stairs. By hard work the flames were extinguished, but there
was no more sleep that night. Mr. Gavin Hamilton, for a
long time an agent of the Hudson Bay Company at their extreme North-western posts, owns in company with Mr. Griffin,
besides the hotel, a large ranch, a store, flour mill &c. They
estimate that 500,000 lbs of grain are raised in the neighborhood. A trail leads sixty miles North-east to the Forks of
Quesnelle and from thence to the neighbouring mining camps.
A rapid ride of 28 miles the following morning brought
us to
Soda  Creek,
A small town situated on the left bank of the Fraser at the
mouth of the creek of that name. Mr. Robert McLeese, M.
P.P., and Mr. P. C. Dunlevy, are the principal traders. The
latter presented me with a potato grown near Mud Lake,
which weighed three pounds nine ounces. Here we made
connection with the steamer Victoria, owned by Mr. McLeese,
which during the Summer months. runs to Quesnelle, about
sixty miles above, at present the extreme North-western
steamboating upon the Continent. Capt. Lane, commanding,
is a grandson of Gen. Jo. Lane, of Oregon, and well-known
in connection with daring steamboat exploits.     The  naviga- 44
ble stretch of the Fraser abounds in subjects of interest.
Numerous parties of Chinamen were seen placer mining on
the bars and benches. Twenty miles out we pass Alexandria,
an old Fort of the Hudson Bay Company, but now aban-
eloned, and a few miles beyond, the well-known Australian
and Bohanan Ranches, the most extensive grain farms in
Northern British Columbia, raising upwards of 400,000
pounds of wheat and oats yearly, and considerable quantities
of apples, plums and other fruits. Away to the Westwarel
over the terraced pine and poplar wooded bluffs lies the
Chilcotin Country
Which embraces several hundred thousand acres of rolling
prairie, undulating, lightly timbered forest plateaus, as yet
unoccupied except by a few Indians, and by bands of cattle
in Summer. Steaming slowly up the rapid stream, past
Castle Rock, Cottonwood Canyon and the Pyramids, at five
o'clock, p. M., the 22nd, we arrive at
The toAvn is very pleasantly situated on the left bank of the
Fraser, at the mouth of the Quesnelle, and contains about
fifty white inhabitants, fifty buildings, two hotels, several
stores, shops, &c. The Hudson Bay Co., J. R. Skinner, J.
C. F., and the firm of Reed & Hudson, carry large stocks
of merchandise and do an extensive trade. The Occidental
Hotel, Mr. John McLean, proprietor, is one of the best in the
upper country. Here we resume our journey by stage, and
before daylight, the 23rd, are on the home stretch for
The Gold Fields of Cariboo.
Twenty-two years ago the advance of the bold and hardy
prospectors, following up the rich diggings of the lower
Fraser, penetrated as far north as the Forks of the Quesnelle,
Here Keithley struck it rich upon the creek of that name, and
then followed in rapid succession those remarkable discoveries which have made Cariboo so famous in the history of
gold mining.    Antler Creek in 1860 and Williams, Lightning, 45
Lowhee, Grouse, Mosquito, Sugar, Harvey, Cunningham,
Nelson, Burns, and Jack of Clubs, in 1861, and then Stouts
Conklings, McColloms, Beigs, Stevensons, Chisholm, Van-
Winkle, Last Chance and Davis Gulches in 1862, poured out
their long hidden treasures by the million. The reports of
their wonderful wealth spread like wild fire, and miners
rushed in by the thousands from all parts of the world.
Victoria was like the encampment of an army of 20,000 men,
and Yale of 5,000 more. At that time the whole of this immense interior region was an almost unknown wilderness,
without roads, and untrodden except by the native Indian
tribes and the yearly pack trains of the Hudson Bay Company. Over the 400 miles from Yale to Cariboo, over the
steep and perilous Cascades flocked the great eager throng
thousands on foot, packing their blankets and provisions,
fording rivers, wading deep snows, sleeping on the ground,
enduring untold hardships by cold and heat, hunger and
fatigue, to reach the shining goal.
The rugged mountains of Cariboo became a beehive of
miners exploring its rivers and creeks. Never were gold-
seekers more liberally rewarded. Gold was found in unprecedented quantities. Three hundred and forty ounces were
taken out by drifting from one set about eight feet by three
and a-half feet square in the Sawmill claim, originally taken
up by Hon. R. Beaven, the present Premier of the Province,
and his associates, Messrs. R. J. Kennedy and Silas James,
and a big, broad-shouldered German named Diller cleaned
up one night with 102 lbs. gold as the result of his day's
work! The aggregate yield of these wonderful deposits can
never be known. Men who reached the diggings penniless,
hungry and ragged, left them again in a short time with a
mule load of gold dust. For several years from 1861 to 1876,
their annual product is estimated to have ranged from two to
five million dollars, maintaining since 1872 a yearly average
of about one and a half million. But of the millions realized
immense sums were absorbed by the enormous expense of
living and conducting mining operations. The costs of transportation alone were so great that strong men earned from
$25 and upwards a day packing in supplies upon their backs. 46
Provisions sold at almost incredible prices; flour from $1.50
to $2 per lb., meats from $1 to $1.50, and salt, $1 per lb. I have
met an editor, Mr. Holloway, who published a paper in Barkerville in those days, who received $1 per copy for a five-
column sheet. The postage on a letter from Victoria
to the mines was $1. Building materials were correspondingly high, lumber, $250 per thousand, nails, $1 per lb., &c.
As in all great mining camps comparatively few carried
their riches away with them. Hundreds made their tejns of
thousands, and sank them again in unsuccessful efforts to find
a real bonanza. Others, bewildered by their suddenly acquired
wealth, spent it as freely as if they were in possession of
the philosopher's stone which converts everything it touches
into gold. I have heard of such a miner who went into a
public house in Victoria, and without provocation, out of a
spirit of reckless extravagance, merely to show his contempt for
money, dashed a handfull of twenty dollar gold pieces through
a costly mirror and then coolly piled them up before the
astonished landlord and walked away. Crossing the Cottonwood and ascending the mountains along Lightning Creek,
through the villages of Stanley and Richfield, by ten o'clock
we were rattling down the famous Williams Creek into
It is one of the most interesting collections of human habitations ever piled together by the accidents of flood and the
fortunes and misfortunes of a great mining camp. Built in
the narrow bed of Williams Creek it has been so frequently
submerged by the tailings swept down from the hydraulic
mines above, that it now stands upon cribs of logs from
fifteen to twenty feet above the original foundation. When
tiie floods break loose, the inhabitants man their jackscrews
and raise their respective buildings, each according to his
views of the impending danger. As a result the sidewalks of
. the toMrn are a succession of up and down stairs from one end
to the other, with occasional cross walks elevated like suspension bridges. Perfect vigilance and sobriety is required to
navigate these streets in broad daylight, which may in some
measure account for the temperance habits of the people. 47
From Cache Creek to Kamloops and through the North ■ and
South Thompson, Okanagan, Spallumcheen and Nicola
Returning to Cache Creek, Leighton's stage which makes
weekly trips to the head of Okanagan Lake via Savona's
Ferry and Kamloops, had left the day previous. I
therefore started out on foot six miles up the Cache Creek,
Valley, previously discribed, and then along the right bank
of the Thompson, 18 miles further to
Savona's Ferry
At the foot of Kamloops Lake. This portion of the Valley of
the Thompson is about 4 miles in width from foothill to foothill, and consists mainly of rolling grazing lands. Bands of
cattle and horses were seen feeding in all directions, though
most of the stock ranges in the mountain valleys from spring
until the beginning of winter. Harper, Graves, Willson,
Stewart, Sanford, Hoar, Uren, Barnes, Pinney, Goten,
Craig and Semlin, are the principal stock raisers and
farmers in this section. Calling at the first house reached
in the village at the ferry, I found it to be the pleasani
home of Mr. James Leighton, pOst master, telegraph
operator and proprietor of the Kamloops stage line. His
father-in-law, Mr. Uren, keeps a good hotel close by, and
is also the owner of a 370-acre ranch, 500 head of cattle
and fifty horses. He showed me fine specimens of pumpkins, vegetables and fruits grown on his farm and in the
neighborhood. Mr. John Jane has a store here, Mr. James
Uren a blacksmith shop and James Newland the ferry. At
Savona's Ferry is the beginning of 140 miles of steamboat
navigation upon the Thompson and through a succesion of
lakes, the Kamloops, Little Shuswap and Shuswap Lakes,
extending to Spallumcheen—25 miles from the mouth of the
river of that name and within 19j miles of the head of Like
Okanagan. Three steamers, the Peerless, Capt. Tackabery,
The Lady Dufferin and Spallumcheen, are running]upon these
waters during about 7 months of the year, from April to 48
November, whenever the traffic requires. All of them were
up the country and the time of their return being quite
uncertain, on the 28th I walked thirty miles further to
Kamloops. The wagon road, a good one, follows the south
shore of Kamloops Lake for a short distance and then turns
away through a rolling mountainous country, lightly timbered
with pine along the summits, with bunch grass on the foothills, and wormwood upon the lower slopes. There are occasional small lakes, some of them strongly impregnated with
alkali. There are but three or four ranches on this road—
Roper's, of a thousand acres being the most extensive. He
has about a thousand head of cattle, and an orchard of apples,
pears, plums, cherries, &c, which has produced 12,000 pounds
of fruit this season. Indian corn reaches maturity here, and
melons and tomatoes are grown without difficulty.
Situated at the forks of the North and South Thompson is
one of the most important places in the east Cascade region.
It commands the trade of a considerable portion of the
richest grazing and agricultural sections of the Province, the
Nicola, Kamloops, Spallumcheen and Okanagan country.
The Kamloops district, which lies between the Gold Range of
mountains on the east and Savona's Ferry on the west, the
north end of Shuswap Lake on the north anel Okanagan
Lake on the south, contained, by the returns of 1881, 8,136
horned cattle, 1,108 horses, and 2,000 sheep. About 3,000 acres
of land were under cultivation, the average yield per acre
being as follows :—Wheat, 1,300 lbs., barley, 1,800 lbs., oats,
1,500 lbs., peas 2,000, potatoes 1,800, turnips 18,000 and
hay 2,000 lbs. The largest stock raisers and farmers are
J. B. Graves, Thaddeus Harper, Bennett & Lumby, Victor
Guillaume, W. J. Roper, Duck & Pringle, Wm. Jones, Hugh
Morton, John Peterson, L. Campbell, Thomas Sullivan,
Thomas Roper, Ed. Roberts, Wm. Fortune, W. J. Howe, A.
J. Kirkpatrick, Peter Frazer, James Steele, Herman Wickers, Alexander Fortune, Mathew Hutchison, George Lynn and
John Edwards. Kamloops was first occupied by the Hudson
Bay Company,   their  old fort still   standing   on the  right 49
bank of the river opposite. In those days the Indian tribes
were frequently at war with each other, and the servants of
the company had to keep a sharp look out for their scalps.
Rosana Shubert, daughter of Augustus and Rosana Shu-
bert, who crossed tlie mountains from Winnipeg in 1862,
was the first white child born in the place. The town now
contains about 40 while residents, exclusive of Indians, a good
hotel by Thos. Spellman, two general stores, the Hudson Bay
House, by J. Tait, and J. A. Mara's, M.P.P., (formerly Mara &
Wilson's), a blacksmith shop by A. McKinnon, a wagon shop
and harness maker. The flour and saw mill of the Shuswap
Milling Company is located here, James Mcintosh, man »ger.
It has a capacity for fifty barrels of flour daily and manufactures the various grades of rough and dressed lumber. I am
indebted to Mr. Tunstall, Government Agent at Kamloops
for much valuable  information concerning  that section.
A Ride  from   Kamloops   through the   North
Thompson Settlement.
The Thompson River, the principal tributary of the Fraser,
forks at Kamloops, the north branch heading near latitude
53 between the Canoe River and the north fork of the Quesnelle. It is navigable for light draught steamers to PeaVine,
a distance of about 125 miles from Kamloops. One of the
most favored routes of the Canadian Pacific Railroad follows
up this stream by an easy grade crossing the Rocky Mountains through the Yellow Head or Leather Pass. It flows between mountains from three thousand to six thousand
feet in height, generally sparsely wooded with fir, pine
and cedar, though containing excellent bunch grass ranges of
considerable extent. The rolling foot hills are also covered
with bunch grass and sage, a fine quality known here as
wormwood'prevailing on the lower slopes and benches. Cottonwood, alder and birch grows along the immediate river banks.
The valley is from one to two-and-a-half miles in width, and
though specially adapted for grazing purposes contains
several thousand acres of rich farming lands. The soil is
variable—gravelly upon the the   benches, with a fine   deep 50
alluvial on the bottom. The Kamloops Indian reservation
of about 23,000 acres at the Forks of the Thompson comprises about 2,500 acres of its best arable lands. The valley
has been occupied by the whites since 1865 and contains at
present ten settlers—Mclvors, Edwards, Sullivan and Kan-
ouff, on the left bank and Petch, McQueen, Gordon, McAuly
and Jameson, on the right bank. They are engaged principally in raising cattle, horses anel hogs, their aggregate stock
amounting to about 1,100 head. Sullivan and Edwards have
between four and five hundred head each. Mr. Edwards
farms upwards of 200 acres of rich bottom land. His wheat
yields on an average twenty-five bushels per acre. There is
room for a few more settlers in this valley. Mr. Sullivan says
there are good cattle ranges in the mountain valleys as yet
almost untouched. The stock-supporting capacity of this
region must, however, be based upon the extent of the winter
feed. This is greater than I had supposed, and sufficient by
the cultivation of tame grasses in the meadows to carry a
large number of cattle through the severest winters. On the
30th of September, furnished with a good horse by Mr. Tait
of the Hudson Bay Company, I rode rapidly over a pretty
good trail to Jameson's ranch, 17 miles from Kamloops on
the right bank. Mr. Jameson kindly ferried me over the
river here which is three hundred yards in width, my horse
swimming behind the boat. I was hospitably entertained
for the night at Sullivan's, returning to the forks the following morning, crossing the South Thompson upon an Indian
flat boat. Since writing the forgeoing I have been informed
that gold has been found in McAuley's, Jameson's and
Lewis' creeks, and a four-foot vein of lignite coal upon the
North Thompson Indian Reservation, 70 miles from Kamloops.
From Kamloops to Tranquille.
On the 3rd of October I crossed the Thompson River
opposite the Hudson Bay Co.'s store, and rode eight miles
westward along the north shore of Kamloops to Tranquille.
Low lands and green meadows from one to one-and-a-half
miles in width, producing thousands of tons of hay extend 51
the whole distance on the left. These were alive with ducks
and wild geese. A low range of mountains sparsely wooded
with pine upon the summits, with gradually sloping foothills
stretch away on the right. There is a band of over 200
native horses living in these mountains belonging to the
Hudson Bay Co., said to be wilder than deer. They fly like
the wind upon the approach of horsemen, but are sometimes
captured by parties of Indians mounted upon their fleetest
horses, and also in the winter upon snow-shoes, when the
snows are deep. Tranquille is the home of Wm. Fortune and
his excellent wife, the former crossing the Rocky Mountains in
1862 and settling here fourteen years ago. Together they have
acquired a magnificent property, consisting of a splendid ranch
of 400 acres (stocked with 250 head of cattle, 100 horses, 100
hogs and a choice band of sheep) a gristmill grinding eighty
sacks of excellent flour a day, and a steamboat, The Lady
Dufferin. The Tranquille River flows through the place affording an excellent water power, and abundant water for irrigation.
Mr. Fortune's garden is one of the best I have seen in the
Province, growing in great abundance and perfection a long
list of fruits, berries and vegetables, including melons and
tomatoes.    Learning that there was placer
Gold Diggings on the Tranquille
Accompanied by Mr. Fortune I went three or four miles up
the stream, and was much surprised at their extent and production. From twenty to forty Chinamen have mined here
for several years and are evidently doing very well. The first
one whom we asked to show us some gold, brought out
several packages containing an ounce or more in each. They
build log cabins, cultivate gardens, raise chickens and live
here tine year round on the best the country affords. An
oven was shown me made of rocks and mud, where they
occasionally roast a whole hog, usually on their national
holidays. Mr. Fortune says that they frequently go home to
China and bring back their relatives with them. Returning,
Mrs. Fortune spread an excellent lunch of home productions,
—meat, bread, butter, jams, jellies, tarts, fruits, etc. On the
wall of the sitting room I noticed a  first premium   diploma 52
awarded Mr. Fortune by the North and South Saanich Annual Exhibition of 1879 for flour of his manufacture. John
Johnson an employee of the Hudson Bay Co., who has
been in British Columbia for thirty years, took charge of my
horse at the Forks and paddled me across to Kamloops in a
tiug-out. He remembers but four severe winters during his
long residence in the Province.
The Okanagan Spallumcheen Country.
From Kamloops to Okanagan Mission, via Duck e& Pringle's
Grand Prairie, and Okanagan; returning through the
Spallnmcheen, Salmon River, Round and Pleasant
On the 4th of October I resumed my journey through the
south-eastern portion of the Province. For eighteen miles
to Duck & Pringle's ranch we followed up the South Thompson, passing through a fine pastoral and wheat growing
country. The valley proper is from one to one-and-a-half
miles in width, flanked by mountains, with gradually receding
foothills covered with bunch grass. From thence we rode
eighteen miles south-eastward, over smooth, rolling mounf
tains from 1,550 to 2,600 feet in height, to
Grand Prairie.
These mountains aie thinly wooded with fir and pine, and
interspersed with lakes, bordered by meadows and marshes.
Grand Prairie is a rich and pleasant opening, about four miles
long, and two miles wide, occupied by four settlers, Kirkpat-
rick, J. Pringle, Jones, and the Ingram heirs. There is room
in the light pine lands bordering it, for a dozen more families.
Proceeding early on the morning of the 5th, we soon crossed,
and then followed down, the Salmon River for upwards of 53
twenty miles, through a rolling, pine timbered section. This
stream then flows North into Shuswap Lake, its lower valley
containing several thousand acres of open, fertile farming land.
Continuing south-easterly, ten miles brings us to O'Keefe's
and Greenhow's ranches, at the head of Okanagan Lake.
They came here fourteen years ago with limited means, and
and are now the owners, each, of 2,000-acre ranches, and
seven or eight hundred head of cattle, worth twenty-five or
thirty thousand dollars.    We are now in the
Okanagan Country,
Which, together with the near lying valleys of Spallumcheen
and Salmon River, embraces the largest scope of pastoral and
arable lands in one body, in south-eastern British Columbia.
Okanagan Lake, the source of the Okanagan River, a tributary
of the Columbia, is about eighty miles in length, and from two
to three miles in width.
A survey has just been completed for a canal connecting
the lake with the navigable waters of the Spallumcheen, only
about twenty miles from its head. Its construction would
extend steamboat navigation to within thirty miles of the
Boundary Line or 49th parallel, and greatly promote the
rapid settlement and developement of naturally the richest
part of the interior of the Province. Reaching O'Keef 'satnoon
and lunching hastily, I walked four miles, and then mounting
a powerful horse, galloped thirty-eight miles South on the
East side of Okanagan Lake and took supper at seven o'clock
with Eli Lequime at
The Okanagan Mission.
I rode through the most magnificent pastoral and farming
region I have seen since visiting the Walla Walla Valley of
Washington. On the right a low range of mountains about
four miles in width reaching to the Eastern shore of the Lake
extends most of the way.
They are covered with bunch grass from foot-hill to summit, and though lightly pine timbered afford excellent suminei
grazing.    Immediately  on the left lie a chain of beautifuJ 54
lakes, extending Southward over twenty miles. First Swan
Lake, surrounded by extensive meadows, and splendid wheat
lands with a grand stretch of rolling foot-hill grazing lands*
lying to the South-eastward. Over this section under charge
of Mr. Vance range the six hundred horses of Hon. F. J.
Barnard, M. P., the most extensive breeder of fine horses in
the Province. Here are also the ranches of Lawson, Andrew;
and Lyons. Next comes Long Lake, eight or ten miles in
length, and about a mile in width with a large scope of good
grazing country surrounding its Northern shores. To the
East lies the Cherry Creek settlement, the home of Hon. G.
Forbes Vernon, and Girouard, Deloir, Ellison, Walker,
Keefer, Duer, P. Bissett, Louis Christian and Williams. A
narrow strip of land known as the Railway separates Long
Lake from Wood Lake. Tom Wood has a ranch and six
hundred head of cattle on its South side.
Now we reach the head of the Mission or
Okanagan  Valley,
Which is about fifteen miles long, and from three to four miles
in width. It was first occupied by Peter Lequime and wife>
who came into the valley almost dead broke from Rock Creek,
twenty-two years ago, and are now the owners of a thousand-
acre ranch, 1000 head of cattle, a store, good houses, and
barns and thousands of cash besides. The soil is a rich sedimentary deposit growing enormous crops of cereals and roots.
Mr. Lequime says his wheat averages from twenty-five to
thirty bushels per acre. He showed me a potato which turned
the scale at four pounds. Fruit, melons and tomatoes grow
finely, and Indian corn usually reaches maturity. The climate is healthy, water good, and fuel abundant. The lakes
abound with fish, wild geese and duck. There are about twenty
white settlers in the valley, engaged principally in stock
raising, though farming several hundred acres. First below
Woods' is the Postill Ranch of 800 acres, beautifully situated
upon Postill Lake. They have 400 head of cattle, 100 horses
and cultivate 150 acres. Their neighbor, Fulton, was digging
potatoes, which he estimated would yield over 500 bushels
to the acre.    He had farmed in the East  and in  California, 55
and never saw such a crop. Then follow the ranches of Jones,
Whelan, Fulton, McGinnis, Simpson, Lacerte, Bucherie,
Brant, Moore, Simpson, Ortolan, Jos. Christian, Eli Lequime, McDougal and Hay ward, in the order named. Two
settlers, Fronson and Brewer, live in Priest Valley and
three white men, Major Squires, Copp and Hermann, are
gold mining on Mission Creek, about seven miles above the
Mission. There are about 4.000 head of cattle in the Okanagan Valley, and 6,000 in the seventy miles of country between the Mission and the Boundary Line. The Government
wagon road terminates at Lequime's, from whence pack trails
lead over the mountains to the Custom House, and 160 miles to
Hope on the Fraser River. On the morning of the 6th, I
rode forty-two miles to O'Keef's, horseback, then five miles by
wagon, when a walk of seven miles brought me to Bennett
& Lumby's ranch, in the
Spallumcheen  Valley,
The choicest body of farming lands in this whole region. The
Spallumcheen or Shuswap River rises in the Gold Range of
mountains, and flows into Shuswap Lake, and from thence
into the South Thompson. It is navigable for steamboats to
Fortune's Ranch, about 25 miles from its mouth. Undulating lightly timbered pine lands, several miles in width, extend nearly the whole distance. There are occasional small
openings, the largest, occupied by Mr. Dunbar, containing
upwards of three hundred acres. He is the only settler upon
this large tract, which will furnish farms for at least one hundred families. The soil is a deep clay loam, and the rainfall
sufficient to secure good crops without irrigation. But the
most beautiful portion of the Valley of the Spallumcheen does
not lie along the river, but beginning at Spallumcheen Landing extends south for fifteen miles, with an average width
of 2^ miles. It contains about 3,000 acres of level prairie
opening, exclusive of Pleasant Valley and Round Prairie,
comprised within the same valley but separated by narrow
belts of pine. The soil is a deep clayey loam, producing on
an average one ton of wheat per acre and abundant crops of
all the cereals and roots grown in this latitude, and without 56
irrigation. The climate is salubrious, water good, winters of
moderate severity, the snow fall usually about two feet in
depth. Mr. A. L. Fortune and Mark Walks, its first settlers,
in 1866 took possession of the fine farm of 320 acres now
owned by the former. He cultivates 200 acres, and has 200
head of cattle, thirty horses, &c. There are about 1,500 acres
improved in the valley, Herman Wichers, E. M. Furstenau,
Frank Young, G. J. Wallace, A. Shubert, H. Swanson, W.
Murray, D. Graham, J. W. Powell, and the Lambly brothers
being its other occupants.    Upon the
Bennett & Lumby Farm,
Owned by Messrs. Preston Bennett & Moses Lumby, are car
ried on the most extensive farming operations in this part of
the Province. Their ranch comprises 1,300 acres, beautifully
situated in the heart of the valley between pine wooded mountains on the East and a low range of hills on the West.
Over 400 acres is arable land,—a splendid level tract all in
one body, well fenced and nearly all under cultivation. There
is also a fine meadow of 100 acres adjoining, which produces
from three to four tons of hay to the acre. A belt of young
pine and poplar extends along the eastern borders at the base
of the mountains. Through it flows a living stream of good
water, upon which, in a pleasant grove of pine, are their
comfortable and commodious farm houses and barns. They
have raised about 320 tons of wheat this season, the average
yield being over one ton to the acre. The most improved
agricultural implements are used, Osborne's harvester, two
gang-plows, one sulky plow, seed drills, &c.
The Spallumcheen and Okanagan Canal will run the
whole length of the ranch without touching the arable portion, and afford extraordinary facilities for the shipment of
its produce. It is, however, only three miles from the Spallumcheen Landing, where steamboats run during six or seven
months of the year. Mr. Lumby, an exceptionally well in-
formeel and cultured gentleman, resides on the place and gives
it his personal supervision, assisted by Mr. Matthew Hutchinson. Here I had the pleasure of meeting Mr. Bowman, who
is engaged in  a  geological  survey of this region.     He is 57
accompanied by Mr. G. Brown, an artist from San Francisco,
who is making very fine sketches in oil of its incomparable
scenery. Mr, Brown is the pioneer in the line of oil sketches
in the Province, and his work merits the liberal patronage of
the people.
A Ride Through the Salmon River Valley, Okanagan Indian
Reservation, and Round Prairie. An Intervieiu with
His Excellency the Governor-General, the Marquis of
The Salmon River, rising in the mountains South-east of
Kamloops, in its lower course runs parallel with and about
ten miles from the Shuswap River, emptying into the Lake
of that name. It embraces from three to four thousand acres
of prairie and rolling foot-hills, and a much larger body of
open pine land easily cleared for farming purposes. The
soil is a deep dark sandy loam, producing large crops without
irrigation. It is occupied by the Steele Brothers, (James,
Thomas, and W. B.) Matthew Hutchinson, Geo. Lynn,
Donald Matthews, A. C. Wilkie, and Thomas James, 320
acres each. They cultivate altogether about 400 acres, and
raise a few cattle, horses and hogs. Mr. James Steele has
the best improved farm in the valley, and twenty-eight
thorough-bred shorthorns.
Mr. A. Postill is building a saw-mill on Deep Creek,
where there is a considerable body of good pine timber.
Galloping through it on the morning of October 9th, I overtook Wm. Richardson who was blazing the trees from his
ranch to the main road. He thought it was the best country
in the world for a poor man. Landing at Burrard Inlet four
years ago with one dollar and a half, he had since earned by
his own labor one farm of 160 acres, partly paid for 320 acres
more, has a small band of horses, and is entirely out of debt.
A little further on my horse suddenly sprang forward, and a
small shepherd dog ran by at full speed.    Looking back ex- 58
pecting that his owner was following, great was my surprise
to see a coyote wolf in full pursuit. He stopped when about
three rods off, sat down on his haunches, as if knowing that
I was unarmed and perfectly harmless. When I advanced
he retreated deliberately, sitting down again when in climb -
ing a very steep hill I halted to dismount. Reaching the
summit I gave chase at full speed, but the cunning animal by
choosing the roughest ground, escaped. I have seen a shepherd dog and wolf in company once before standing together
upon the banks of the Rio Grande in Mexico. Riding on 14 miles
to the head of the valley and turning Eastward, I followed a
good trail seven miles across the Okanagan Indian reservation, a rich bunch grass range capable of supporting 500
or 600 head of cattle, but unoccupied except by a few
Indian ponies. Descending the foot-hills toward Lake
The Governor-General, the Marquis of Lome,
And party, ex-Lieut.-Govenor Trutch and Col. DeWinton,
were seen shooting in the distance. The Marquis is very
popular with the people who came flocking in from the remotest settlements to see him. To use their own language the Marquis is not in the least "stuck up," but chats as freely with the
poor as with the rich and titled. One of the settlers told me, with
great satisfaction, that he had a talk with the Marquis without knowing who he was, and when he asked him his name
the Governor replied simply " Lome." His Excellency
expressed himself to me as highly pleased with what he had
seen in the Province, and seemed to take a deep interest in
its further development and prosperity. Mr. Campbell of
the Governor-General's staff, who accompanied the Earl of
Dufferin on his visit to the Province, was busy taking notes
upon the resources of the country. He thinks the scenery of
British Columbia is the grandest and most beautiful he has
ever seen. I returned through Round Prairie, a very beautiful opening of 500 acres, between the Salmon Rirer and
Spallumcheen Valleys. Messrs. Jones, Kirkpatrick, Prindle,
Clementson and Shubert, have secured this choice location. 59
From the Spallumcheen Valley to Messrs. Barnard and Vernon's
Ranches, via Pleasant Valley.
From Messrs. Bennett and Lumby's farm to Mr. Vernon's
is about twenty-five miles. En route I passed through
Pleasant Valley a fine level prairie opening of 800 or 900
acres, lying a mile and a half to the Eastward of the main
road. In reaching it by a short cut across a swamp my
horse suddenly sank belly deep, when, dismounting, we both
floundered out covered with mud and water. I found the
settlers, Clinton & Murray, Edward Thorne, Herman Wichers,
Donald Graham and the Croziers in the midst of threshing-
Mr. Murray gave me the yearly product of his cereals for a
term of six years, which shows an average yield of twenty-
eight bushels per acre. Being quite wet, to avoid taking cold>
I left my horse at O'Keef's, and proceeded from thence on
foot. Four miles Southeast of the head of Lake Okanagan*
I took a trail leading along the East side of Swan Lake. At
A Thousand Wild Geese
Were standing together upon the shore. Two or three miles
beyond, darkness overtook me, and after two hours' unsuccessful search among the foot-hills for Vance's, wet to my waisti
I found shelter in the cabin of a neighboring settler. It contained a single room already occupied by two white men, two
Indian women and their babes. But in the smallest house in
this country, as in a stage-coach or street-car, there is always
room for one more, ind after ringing and drying out for an
hour before a roaring fire I laid down upon a mattress on the
floor until daylight.    Early in the morning I reached
Hon. F. J. Barnard's Horse Ranch.
And saw upwards of 400 of his 700 horses now on the range.
Sired by Belmont, Morgan, and Norman, stallions, they are
the finest animals I have seen in the Province. Mr. Vance,
for 14 years manager of the ranch, says that they subsist
throughout the year upon the native grasses and have suffered 60
from cold and scarcity of feed only one winter during that
period. In view of the early completion of the Canadian
Pacific Railway along over 100 miles of the route of the
British Columbia Express service for which they have been
raised, a portion of them will probably be sold the ensuing
year. Five miles further over a rich rolling country, comprising several thousand acres of excellent wheat land, brought
me to Hon. G. Forbes Vernon's Ranch. It contains
2,500 acres, beautifully situated, between the mountains upon
Coldstream, which flows into Long Lake. Near here two
coyotes came leisurely down from the foot-hills and circling
round me within a short distance, returned up the mountains.
They are quite numerous, and catch large numbers of small
pigs and occasionally a young calf.
From Spallumcheen to Kamloops by Steamer, through the
Little and Big Shuswap Lakes and down the South
From the present head of navigation on the Spallumcheen River to Kamloops is about 125 miles. As previously
stated, the building of a canal twenty miles in length from
Spallumcheen to the head of Lake Okanagan would extend
navigation over eighty miles further through the heart of the
richest portion of the interior of the Province. The surface
and soil of the country through which it would pass is very
favourable for its cheap construction. Qn the 16th of October, having exhausted the time at my disposal for examining
the Okanagan and Spallumcheen country, I took the steamer
Spallumcheen for Kamloops. The smallest of the three running
upon the upper waters, she is not of oceanic dimensions
and being built exclusively for carrying freight, her passenger
accommodations are very limited. But her deficiencies' in
this respect were the source of amusement rather than discomfort. Capt. Meananteu, who was also engineer, mate and
pilot, kindly shared his bunk with me, and wnen duties on deck called away the Indian boy cook and interfered with the
regular service of meals, I officiated as assistant, and so we got
along splendidly.
For two days we slowly steamed through a magnificent
stretch of lakes and rivers, amidst scenery of exceeding
grandeur and beauty. For a distance of twenty-five miles
down the Spallumcheen, both banks are lightly wooded with
fir, cedar, white pine, poplar and birch. Hazel bushes
and highbush cranberries are seen growing near the river.
The valley is from one to three and a half miles in
width, surface generally level, soil a rich clay loam and alluvial, and will afford homes for more than 100 families. Some
portions will require dyking to the height of about three feet
for protection against overflow. Should the Canadian Pacific
Railway adopt the South Thompson and Kicking Horse
Pass route these lands will soon become quite valuable.
When about half way down the Spallumcheen
A Deer was seen Swimming across ahead of us.
Giving chase, the frightened animal instead of turning back to
the shore and escaping, plunged on directly in our course, until
standing on the bow of the boat, armed with a long pole, I
was able to strike it a fatal blow on the head. Our two Indian
helpers sprang into a canoe, seized and threw it on deck, an
acceptable addition to our larder.
Swan, wild geese, and duck were seen at almost every
turn, but there were no firearms, not even a pistol on board.
We tied up for the night on the shore of the Lake, opposite
a logging camp. The best timber found in this part of the Province grows upon the borders of these lakes and of the streams
flowing into them. A party of Indians were catching fish by
torch light near us. Salmon and trout were so numerous
that I could count them by the dozens from the boat as we
advanced in the morning. Reaching the Thompson River
the mountains recede more gradually, the bare rolling foot-hills
affording considerable grazing, and occasional benches of
arable lands, chiefly occupied by Indians. 62
From Kamloops to Cook's Ferry, through the Nicola Country.
The N icola River, a tributary of the Thompson, is the
principal stream draining the mountainous region lying between the latter, and Lake Okanagan on the East. The valley
is narrow, and disappointing for the first twenty miles, but
then spreads out over the rolling foot-hills and mountains,
embracing one of the finest bodies of grazing country in the
Province. It contains a population of about six hundred, four
hundred of which are Indians, the former being engaged
chiefly in stock-raising, owning at present about 8,500 cattle,
1,500 horses, and 1,200 sheep. The climate and sod are also
well adapted to the growth of grain and root crops, upwards
of a thousand acres being under cultivation by irrigation.
A fair wagon road trail extends all the way from Kamloops to Cook's Ferry, the distance being a little over one
hundred miles. With the exception of John Gilmore's express, which runs up the valley about half way from the Ferry
with H.M.'s mails, it is not traversed by any regular conveyance. Starting out early on the morning of October 18th, for
nearly twenty miles I gradually ascended the summit of the
Thompson-Nicola divide through rich, rolling bunch grass
ranges, occupied by Messrs. McConnell, McLeod, Jones,
Newman, and others. Then descending Lake River, the head
waters of the Nicola, through Fraser's and Scott's ranches, I
stopped a few moments at Mr. William Palmer's dairy farm-
He milks thirty-five cows, churns by water-power, and makes
an excellent quality of butter and very good cheese, the
former selling readily for 40 and the latter at 20 cts. per
From thence I took a trail several miles over a spur of the
mountain, leaving the fine ranches of the Moore Brothers on the
right. Soon I reach the head of Nicola Lake, a beautiful
body of water extending down the valley for fourteen miles,
with an average width of about one mile. The little village
of Quilchanna, consisting of Joseph Blackbourne's Hotel,
Edward O'Rourke's store, Richard O'Rourke's blacksmith
shop, and P. L. Anderson's store, is situated on the East side.
A. Van Volkenburgh owns a splendid 2,000-acre ranch here,
stocked with 900 head of cattle, and Blackboume, John Ham- 63
ilton, George C. Bent, John Gilmore, Samuel Wasley, Byron
Earnshaw, and Patrick Killroy, other exceUent ranges in this
The Douglas Lake country, lying to the Eastward, contains a considerable extent of choice pastoral lands, owned by
C. M. Beak, Hugh Murray, L. Guichon, T. Richardson,
McRae Brothers and others. It is said that one of its most
prosperous stock-raisers recently wedded a lady from the
Golden State, and started with her for his ranch. The fair
bride had been led either by the overdrawn statements of her
anxious lover, or the natural fancies of a youthful, inexperienced maiden, to expect to be ushered into a mansion
house becoming the possessor of such large bands of fat cattle
and wide areas of rich pasturage. Now it is well known that
some of these cattle Lords dwell in habitations which would
not be considered first class for any purpose, ■— single
room, dirt floor, dirt roof, one window, low, small, dirty log
cabins, where, in the dim light of a tallow candle, they make
their slap-jacks, as I have seen them, on the top of a dirty stove.
The happy couple, after a splendid ride through the beautiful
country, halt before a rough pile of logs, having the appearance of a stable. "What is this?" the bride asked. "This
is my home—our home," replied the bridegroom. "Home!
Home!! You—you cruel deceiver, you call that miserable hovel our home ? It may do for your home, but it will
never be mine," she exclaimed with dramatic emphasis, and in
spite of all entreaties, left him then and there and returned to
the Sunny South. Nine miles further down the now narrowing valley brings me to
Its principal town. It is pleasantly situated near the foot of
the lake and comprises a neat little church and school-house,
Pettit & Co.'s store, George Fenson's flour and saw-mill, and
several private residences. Leaving Nicola, the valley
broadens again for several miles, stretching away across the
river bottoms and over the Westward slopes of the mountains. John Clapperton, A. D. G. Armitage, Paul Gillie,
Edwin Dalley, John Chartres, Wm. Chartres, Wm. Voght and 64
Alexander Coutlie are the principal settlers of this section.
The latter has one of the best places in the interior. From
thence the valley rapidly narrows, and below the Woodward
farms and mills, to less than a mile in width, flanked by precipitous, thinly pine wooded mountains. There are small
tracts of arable and irrigable lands, chiefly occupied by Indians, James Phair, proprietor of the 22-mile house—a very
comfortable, home-like inn—being the only white settler for
the last twenty-five miles. I am informed by Mr. Thaddeus
Harper and others, that there is a six-foot vein of good bituminous coal in the central portion of the valley, easily accessible.
From Victoria to Burrard Inlet upon the steamer Alexander,
Capt. Donald Urquhart, Commanding. A Visit to Port
Moody, the Moodyville and Hastings Saw-mills, Granville,
and the Indian Villages, Returning via Departure Bay and
Nanaimo.    Round Trip, 215 Miles.
On Board Steamer Alexander,
November 11th, 1882.
Burrard Inlet, an arm of the Gulf of Georgia, extends
about twelve miles inland from the entrance, between Points
Grey and Atkinson. Port Moody, on this harbor, has been
selected as the Pacific terminus of the Canadian Pacific
Railway. Everyone familiar with the topography of the
North-west coast, and the character of its sea approaches,
will recognize the wisdom of the choice. The Inlet is a perfect land-locked harbor, with excellent anchorage and easily
accessible, in all kinds of weather, for the largest ships afloat.
It is situated about eightyS\e miles from Victoria, six miles
from New Westminster, and thirty-six miles from Vancouver
Island at Nanaimo.    Immediately bordering its shores are VICTORIA AND BUBEABD INLET ADVERTISEMENTS
E, M, Johnson,
Notary Public,  Conveyancer,
Real Estate Agent.
Agent for the Principal Owners of the Port
Moody Townsite, the Terminus of the
Canadian Pacific Railway.
All Transactions in Land expeditiously effected
Looms  on Mortgage and other available Security Negotiated at Current Rates.
Maps and all information can be obtained
at Office,
Bastion Street, next Bank of B. C, Victoria.
Postoffice Box 188-
Correspondence Promptly Attended., to.
The Port Moody Hotel,
Port Moody, B, C,
CarryingH. M. Mails, leaves Cache Creek for Okanagan Mission every Tuesday on arrival of mails
from Victoria.   Passengers and Freight put
through, on time.  General Express Business.     Charges Moderate.
mopolTtan hotelT
The Best Hotel in the Interior.
Hudson Bay House,  Gen'i Merch'dse, John Tait, J. C. F.
J. A. Mara, General Merchandise.
Mara & Wilson's Steamboat Line.
Archibald McKinnon, General Blacksmith and Wagon Maker.
Shuswap Milling Co., Kamloops,
James Mcintosh, Proprietor.
William.  Fortune,    Flour     and    Sawmill,   and   Steamer
Lady Dufferin, Tranquille.
Cornelius O'Keefe, General Merchandise, Okanagan Lake.
Thomas Greenhow, General Merchandise, Okanagan Lake.
Eli Lequime, General Merchandise, Okanagan Mission.
E. O'Rourke, General Merchandise, Nicola Valley.
Richard O'Rourke, General Blacksmith, Nicola Valley.
P. L. Anderson, General Merchandise, Nicola Valley.
John Hamilton, Horse Dealer, Nicola Valley.
Nicola Lake House, Joseph Blackbourn, Proprietor.
John Gilmore, Stock Ranch, and Nicola and Spence's Bridge
Express, Nicola.
Nicola Flour & Sawmill, G. Fensom, Proprietor.
Petit & Co., General Merchandise, Nicola, Valley, Nicola.
C. M. Beak, Stock-raiser, Nicola Valley.
John Chartres, Stock-raiser, Farmer, Nicola Valley.
Alex. Coutlie, Gen. Mdse, Stock-raiser, Nicola Valley.
R. M. Woodward, Flour anel Sawmill, Rosedale, Nicola Val.
22-Mile House, James Phair Pro., Nicola Valley. 65
the largest bodies of valuable fir timber in the Province.
Here great saw-mills have been in operation since 1865, exporting immense quantities of timber, direct to all the principal eastern ports of the world. Steam tugs have been employed
towing back and forth the numerous fleet of vessels engaged in
this trade; of these, the Alexander, Capt. Donald Urquhart,
commanding, is the largest, finest and most powerful on the
Pacific coast. She was built at Port Essington, near the
mouth of the Skeena, in 1876, and is 180 feet in length,
twenty-seven feet wide, with two 400-horse power engines.
Leaving the fine harbor of Esquimalt on the evening of the
9th, with two ships in tow, she steamed along easily through
the Straits and across the Gulf at the rate of eight miles an
At daybreak the following morning we were heading
directly for a lofty snow-capped peak of the mainland, beneath which flashed the brilliant light of Point Atkinson.
The dark outlines of the grand old mountains were clearly
defined against the cloudless starlit sky. Just before rounding Point Gray the rising sun gilded the snow covered summit of Mount Baker, and of the Cascade Range. A large
black whale is rolling and spouting within rifle range on the
right. Entering the inlet, Indian villages are seen on the
shores, and two Indians paddle by, making the woods ring
with their salutations. A dense forest of Douglas pine reaches
down to the water's edge, except where leveled by the axe
of the lumberman. We leave the ships a little beyond
English Bay, and run alongside the wharf of
The Hasting's Sawmill Company.
This firm are manufacturing about fifteen million feet of
lumber annually, most of which is shipped to Chinese, Australian and South American ports. Four foreign ships were
waiting for their cargoes. The company own large tracts of
the choicest Douglas pine, and frequently fill requisitions for
enormous sticks of timber, some twenty-six inches square and
110 feet in length, and forty-two inches at the base and 120
feet long. The pleasant village of Granville lies adjoining the
Hastings Mills.    It had strong expectations of securing the 66
prize which has fallen to Port Moody. Crossing the Inlet
to the North side, about six miles from the entrance, we discharge freight at the wharf of the
Moodyville Sawmill Company
The most extensive manufacturers and exporters of lumber
on the coast, North of Puget Sound. Their great mill, furnished with ten electric lights for night work, completely
equipped with double circular and gang saws, edgers, scantling,,
planing, and lathe machines, and employing a hundred men,
were cutting up huge logs at the rate of from 75 to 100 thousand feet daily, or from 20 to 25 million feet a year. Quite a
fleet of ships lay waiting for their cargoes for China, Japan,
Australia, and the West Coast of South America. The town
with its mill, machine shop, store, hotel, boarding house, and
numerous dwellings, and the shipping in front, presented the
most interesting scene of activity on the Inlet. The company
own large bodies of the best timber in this region, and have
about 100 men logging in their several camps. They obtain
the largest and finest specimens of fir on Howe Sound, Mud
Bay and Jervis Inlet, furnishing almost any size required.
Mr. Hickey, chief engineer of the steamer Alexander,
measured one of them which was seven feet six inches through
at the butt and six feet and six inches fifty feet therefrom,
five feet and four inches 100 feet up, and five feet in diameter
130 feet from its base. These mills are owned by Welch & Co.
of San Francisco, Mr. George B. Springer being their manager at Moodyville, and Welch, Rithet & Co. their agents
at Victoria. Returning we cross the Gulf, about thirty-
six miles, to Departure Bay, arriving just as the steam
collier Barnard Castle is starting for San Francisco. After
coaling from the North Wellington mine the captain runs
down three miles to
The principal mining city of the great coal fields of Vancouver and the home of Robert Dunsmuir Esq., M. P. P.,
their largest owner. It is surrounded by the Wellington,
Newcastle and Vancouver coal mines, the most productive in 67
the Province, their aggregate annual output amounting to about
210,000 tons. A fine bark, the first vessel built here, was
nearly ready for launching. The suburbs of the city were
alive with Indians gathering from far and near to engage in
the festivities of a grand potlatch.
trip number four.
From Victoria to Port Moody, the Terminus of the Canadian
Pacific Railway, via Neiv Westminster. Round Trip,
164 miles.
From Moodyville, the farthest point reached at Burrard Inlet by the Alexander on the 10th inst., I could only
obtain a distant and unsatisfactory view of the situation of
Port Moody. I therefore proceeded to New Westminster by
steamer, and from thence walked six miles to the Inlet. Most
of the way, great fires have swept through, and nearly
destroyed the once magnificent forest. A few giant trees remain, a Douglas fir which I measured girting 33 feet, and a
dead cedar from which the bark had been burned measuring
47jj feet in circumference four feet from the base. About a
mile in an old Indian canoe with Peter Calder, brought me to
the townsite of
Port Moody.
It is situated on the South side, near the head of the
Inlet, a beautiful sheet of water so perfectly sheltered on all
sides by a thick forest growth that it may be safely navigated
in stormy weather by the smallest craft. High mountains
rise abruptly on the North, the Southern shore receding
gradually over rolling timber lands. This is the favorite
abode of the mountain sheep, and bears are so numerous that
they are frequently caught stealing from the mess tents of
the railway camps. A force of 750 men under the superintendence of Mr. Albert J. Hill,  Assistant Engineer of the 68
C.P.R.R., were at work preparing the terminal facilities of
the great railway which reaches the tide waters of the Pacific
here. An immense wharf, having a frontage of 1,324 feet, and
requiring over 20,000 piles for its construction, was approaching completion. The warehouse is 210 feet long and 48 feet
wide, and accessible at low tide for ships drawing 24 feet of
water. Grading for the road-bed was being pushed with all
possible vigor. Four ships loaded with railroad iron are now
on their way here from England. Mr. Hill and his wife—the
first lady resident of Port Moody—were just commencing
housekeeping in the second story of the new railway offices
and depot. It requires no prophetic foresight to predict with
reasonable certainty regarding the future of the terminus of
such a great railway, stretching from ocean to ocean across
over 2,500 miles of country, embracing hundreds of millions
of acres of the choicest pastoral and wheat growing lands in
America. Fleets of ships will soon be sailing between Port
Moody and Eastern ports, laden with the exports and imports
of a great commerce; lines of steamers willrun regularly from
thence to Victoria and the cities of Puget Sound and of the .
South Pacific; connection with the Northern Pacific and
the American railway system will doubtless be made, and
machine shops, car-works, ship-yards, and other manufacturing industries established at an early day.
From Victoria to North Saanich.    Round Trip, 42 miles.
Saanich is one of the most important farming settlements
on Vancouver Island. It is situated upon a narrow peninsula
from three to six miles in width, surrounded by the waters of
the Haro Straits and of the Finlayson Inlet or Saanich Arm,
which extends Southward for about twenty miles nearly to the
harbor of Esquimalt. Though this portion of Vancouver,
like most of its surface, is generally covered with a thick
forest of fir and spruce, it comprises several thousand acres 69
of prairie openings. Both soil and climate are well adapted
to the growth of large crops of hay, grain, roots, hops, &c.
There are two good turnpikes, known as the East and West
Saanich Roads, extending from the suburbs of Victoria
through South and North Saanich. Every few miles there
are comfortable wayside inns and summer, health and pleasure
resorts. First, the Swan Lake Hotel, by William Lewis,
about three miles out from the city; then the Royal Oak, by
John Camp & Son, at the junction of the two roads; next
Stephens', about two miles beyond; the Mount Newton
Hotel, by John Henderson, 13 miles; and lastly, Henry
Waine's Inn, 20 miles from Victoria,—all convenient to excellent fishing, hunting, and boating.
At the Mount Newton House the waters of Finlayson
Inlet were seen through the bordering groves of oak and pine.
The Saanich tribe of Indians have built their village on the
shore of a pleasant cove on the east side. Approaching it, I
met two Indians, a man and boy, the former carrying a bow
and arrow. Expressing my surprise that a grown man should
be hunting with such a weapon, the Indian said it belonged
to his son, and that he was only teaching him how to shoot.
This explanation was made in a manner soapologeticalthatit
showed that he felt above the use of such savage and childish
implements himself. Here as elsewhere their lands afford
little more than a camping place, only small patches being indifferently cultivated for root crops, their main support
coming from the sea, the forest, and rivers. Upon the ground of
original occupancy, many of the choicest situations throughout the Province generally have been reserved for the
Indians. This I believe to be just, to the extent of giving
them all the lands which they reasonably require. Where,
however, as in many instances, both in British Columbia and
in the United States, extensive tracts have been set apart for
small bands who do not make any profitable use of the same,
it is an injustice to the whites who desire and need the land
for homes and cultivation. From what I have seen of the
condition of the Indians in various parts of North America,
I am of the opinion that the time has come to abolish the
reservation system altogether, and grant to the Indians, indi- 70
vidually, liberal quantities of land, giving them a reasonable
time in which to avail themselves of such an aHowance, and
then open the balance of their reservations to settlement the
same as upon other portions of the public domain. After a
good dinner at Waine's, I returned to Victoria by the East
road, passing several quite extensive, well managed and productive farms. Meeting a party of settlers, they suggested
what I have often observed, that in following public highways
many of the finest portions of the country escape notice, and
by way of illustration inrited me to go with them less than
fifty rods from where we stood—which I did—and saw a beautiful level prairie of several hundred acres hidden from the
ordinary traveler behind rising ground and a grove of pines.
From Victoria to Fort Wrangel, Alaska, with Capt. McCulloch
of the Hudson Bay steamer Otter. Through tlie Canal De
Haro, Gulf of Georgia, Dodd's Pass, Seymour Narrows,
Discovery, Johnstone, and Broughton Straits; Queen
Cliarlotte, Fitzhugh, Millbank, Wrights, and Chatham
Sounds; Tolmie, Greenville, and Revilla Gigedo Channels, via Departure and Alert Bays, Fort Rupert,
Rivers Inlet, Port Essington, Bella Bella, Metlakatlah,
and Fort Simpson. Magnificent Scenery, Extensive
Coal Pields, Salmon Fisheries, Indian Villages, Trading
Posts, Missions etc. &c.   Round Trip 1,600 miles.
On Board Steamer Otter,
In Alaska Waters, Sept. 1st, 1882.
The Hudson Bay Company were the pioneers of the
steamboat navigation of the waters of the North-west coast,
having brought the Beaver round the Horn in 1836, the oldest
steamer on the Pacific, the Otter in 1853, and the Labou- 71
chere in 1859. Though at first employed principally in the
fur trading service of the company, they established as
early as 1862, upon the breaking out of the Stickeen River
gold excitement, a regular line of steamers for passengers and
freight between Victoria and Fort Simpson, B. C, running
occasionally during the summer months to Fort Wrangel,
Alaska, 160 miles beyond and 750 miles from Victoria. From
May to September is the most favorable season for the
voyage, rain, mists and fogs prevailing along the coast North
of lattitude 56 during a considerable portion of the remainder of the year. On the 26th of August we started from
Victoria for Fort Wrangel on the steamer Otter. Capt.
McOulloch, commanding, has had over twenty years' experience
in navigating these wonderful waters. An Irishman by birth,
in 1860 he sailed upon the Nanette for the Island of Vancouver. The vessel was wrecked and lost upon Race Rocks,
in the Straits of Fuca, a few miles from the harbor of their
destination, and to this circumstance the New World is indebted for his skinful and faithful services. Following the
Fraser River route to near Plumper Pass, and then taking
the Nanaimo Channel, a little past noon we emerged from a
narrow rock-bound passage, known as Dodd's Pass, and sailing within sight of the city of Nanaimo, three miles beyond,
enter the fine little harbor of
Departure Bay.
This is the location of the most extensive and valuable coal
mines on the Pacific Coast. While the steamer was coaling
I jumped into a car and rode three miles through a'thick
forest of Douglas fir to the North Wellington Colliery, the
most productive mine now in operation. Here I found a
pleasant village and several hundred men taking out coal
at the rate of about 800 tons a day. Five ships and
two steamers were waiting for cargoes at their wharves
for San Francisco, Wilmington, Honolulu, and China.
These mines, owned by Dunsmuir, Diggle & Co., were first
opened in 1870 and are now being worked by two slopes and
three shafts to a depth of about 300 feet, the annual output
amounting to 175,000 tons.    Mr. Dunsmuir informs me that 72
they are sinking another shaft and can soon take out 2,000
tons a day if the demand should require it. Resuming our
voyage that night, early the  27th we were passing opposite
One of the largest and most prosperous farming settlements on Vancouver Island, 135 miles from Victoria. We
are now in Discovery Passage with Valdez Island on the
right, upon the shore of which the brown huts of a small
Indian village are visible, and soon enter Seymour Narrows*
through which the waters rush whirling and foaming at the
rate often or twelve miles an hour. The most powerful
steamers seldom attempt to go through against the tide.
The U. S. steamer Saranac struck a rock here a few years
ago and went down in 500 or 600 feet of water. This is the
point where the Canadian Pacific Railroad have considered
the practicability of bridging for an extension of their line
from the mainland dowm Vancouver Island to Esquimalt
Harbor. It would be an enormously expensive undertaking.
Another glorious day 's ride amidst scenery of exceeding
grandeur, through Johnstone's and Broughton Straits, between
Vancouver, Thurlow, Hardwicke, Cracroft, Hanson, and
Pearse Islands, all rocky, mountainous and thickly timbered
with fir, cedar and spruce, just before sunset we arrive at
Alert   Bay,
Two hundred and thirty miles from Victoria. It is a
sheltered indentation upon the West side of Cormorant
Island, opposite the mouth of the Nimpkish River, of Vancouver, the home of the Nimpkish tribe of Indians from time
immemorial. They were discovered here by Captain Cook,
over 100 years ago. They now number about 190, and
occupy a picturesque village of large houses made from cedar
logs and planks. The fronts of several were covered with
grotesque paintings and had tall cedar outposts with hideous
carvings. As I walked through it, old and young squatted in
groups upon the ground around the entrances, many in blankets, and exchanged salutations in a friendly, hearty manner. 73
Large quantities of dried salmon, their principal food, hung
insiele of their dismal, windowless houses. In the edge of the
forest close at hand, suspended among the branches of the
tallest trees were at least a dozen bodies of their dead. The
Episcopal Church of England has established a mission
among them, built a church and school, and placed Rev. Mr.
Hall in charge. Just as we were leaving, a neatly dressed
Indian boy passed through the village ringing a bell for
evening service to which many were responding. Messrs.
Earl, Huson & Spencer built the Alert Bay Salmon Cannery
here last year, at an expenditure of about $20,000, putting up
5,000 or 6,000 cases of salmon of superior excellence. The
salmon are caught in the Nimpkish River, chiefly by the
Indians. This stream is the outlet of Karmutsen Lake,
bordering which, there are reported several hundred acres of
land suitable for cultivation.
Fort  Rupert,
A village of the Fort Rupert Indians, and Hudson Baj trading post is next reached. It is finely situated on the East
shore of Vancouver Island, about 35 miles from Cape Scott,
the extreme North-western point of the Island. From thence
we sailed by moonlight through Queen Charlotte Sound, a
stretch of about thirty-five miles of open sea, sometimes
rough enough, but now placid and unrippled, the long swells
rolling gently without a break, entering Fitzhugh Sound bj
daylight the 29th. " The finest night we have had for six or
seven months" said the watchman, as I met him on deck early
in the morning. We had passeel the Sea Otter group of
islands, also Calvert and Hecate, all on the left, and
Rivers Inlet
On the right. Here the steamer on her return received seven
hundred cases of salmon from the Rivers Inlet Canning Co.,
Thos. Shotbolt & Co., proprietors, established at the mouth
of the O-wee-kay-no River in February last. They will pack
about 5,000 cases this season. The salmon are larger than
those   caught   at   most   other places,   frequently  weighing 74
seventy-five pounds. At nine o'clock we are opposite the
entrance to Burke's Channel which leads away for fifty miles
North-eastward through the North Bentic Arm to
Bella Coola.
A village of about 300 of the Bella Coola Indians, and a
trading post of the Hudson Bay Company, W. Sinclair, agent.
Rev. Mr. Wood, a missionary of the Methodist Church of
Canada, just returned from there, tells me that the situation
is a very beautiful one, and that there are about 2,000 acres
of rich delta lands at the mouth of the Bella Coola River, a
portion of which are cultivated by the Indians for raising
potatoes. He also reports finding them in a very degraded
condition, many of the men living by the prostitution of their
women. Steaming on through Fisher's Channel we turn into
Lima Passage, which extends in a North-westerly direction
into Ogden Channel. When about ten miles up, the vessel
suddenly rounds into a little cove opposite the Indian viUage
and Hudson Bay trading post of
Bella Bella.
The Bella Bella tribe having their permanent quarters here
number about 250.    They are entirely self-supporting.
A resident missionary, Rev. C. M. Tate, is provided by
the Methodists of Canada. There is no landing, but the engine had scarcely stopped before we were surrounded by a
fleet of canoes of all sizes, containing twenty-five or thirty
natives, men, women and children, who had come, some from
curiosity, others to receive their friends, several young men of
the tribe, employes of the Hudson Bay Company, returning
home for a visit. Their houses are built of logs and plank,
with low double roof, generally wdthout chimney or windows,
and one small entrance in front. Numerous graves were seen
on the neighboring hills, made very conspicuous by the brilliant red bunting floating over them. Rude monuments, consisting of enormous wooden circulars with images and canoes,
marked the graves of the chiefs. In less than an hour our
voyage was resumed.    Crossing Millbank Sound at the close 75
of one of the most beautiful days of the year, a bright
moonlight night, lights us through a succession of most
remarkable waters—Tolmie Channel, Fraser's and McKay's
Reaches, Wright's Sound, into Greenville Channel by daybreak the 30th.
At Lowe's Inlet, about half way through on the right
there is a salmon fishing and salting establishment. Precipitous rocky mountains, covered with stunted cedar, their sides
furrowed by avalanches, and summits white with snow, describes the general features of the landscape for hundreds of
miles. The mountains on the mainland rising to the height
of 3,500, are here called the Countess of Dufferin Range.
At noon we reach the mouth of the
Skeena River,
One of the most important streams in Western British Columbia. It has four entrances, the main channel leading
from Chatham Sound, and is navigable for light draught
steamers to Mumford Landing, a distance of sixty miles, and
about 200 miles further for canoes. This is the shortest and
best route to the Omineca country, and to several of the Hudson Bay trading posts.
Port Essington,
Situated near its mouth, a small village of white traders, and
about 125 Tsimpsheean Indians, is the principal settlement
upon its banks. There is one salmon cannery—the Windsor
Canning Co.—situated at Aberdeen, within sight of the opposite bank, and another—the Inverness—on Inverness
Slough, about eight miles below. They will put up not far
from 26,000 cases the present season. Mr. Wm. V. Brown,
a pioneer miner and prospector, who has spent four years exploring this region, reports quite extensive tracts of open
grazing country, lying between the Skeena and Naas Rivers,
and also still larger ranges between the former river and;
Fraser Lake.
About sixteen miles beyond the mouth of the Skeena, we
suddenly come in full view of the most populous and inviting 76
place wre have seen thus far,—a neat village of about 150
houses, beautifully situated upon the Tsimpsheean peninsula.
A large, fine church and school-house are conspicuously prominent. There is also a store, Salmon Cannery, and Sawmill.
This is
The field of the remarkably successful work of Mr. Duncan,
in civilizing and christianizing the Tsimpsheean Indians. He
first established a mission at Fort Simpson, a post of the
Hudson Bay Company, but for the purpose of greater isolation in 1862 removed to Metlakathla, where he has gathered
about 1,000 of that tribe, and through a firm Government and
faithful secular and religious training raised them from barbarism to the condition of civilized people. They live in
comfortable houses, dress like the whites, school their children, and worship in one of the largest the Province, erected at a cost of $10,000.
Fort Simpson.
About 15 miles further across Chatham Sound, brings us to For t
Simpson, the principal trading post of the Hudson Bay Co.
upon the Pacific coast. It has been the favorite abode of
the Tsimpsheean Indians, one of the most populous and powerful of the native tribes of North America from times immemorial. When first occupied by the Hudson Bay Company,
their village here contained over two thousand people. They
were found living in houses, many of which are still standing,
strongly built of great hewn timbers and thick planks split
from enormous cedars. Some of their canoes, made from a
single tree, are over 65 feet in length, carrying seventy people,
anel in which they not infrequently make voyages as far South
as the Straits of Fuca, and North to Alaska. The situation
was the most commanding which could have been selected for
traffic with the neighboring tribes. They came here to trade
from the Skeena, Naas, Stickeen, Takou, and Chilkat Rivers,
the'Queen Charlotte and Prince of Wales Islands, Wrangel
and Sitka, and from the distant interior, to exchange their
furs for goods.    For several years most of this barter w<as car- 77
ried on through the Tsimpsheeans, who would not permit the
inland tribes to deal directly with the agents of the company,
but jealously reserved that privilege for their own people.
Fort Simpson was then the base of supplies for all the trading
posts of this region, which were brought in the company's
own ships direct from England. The fort consists of a simple
stockade about twenty feet in height, made from large cedar
poles, with watch and shooting towers, and encloses the store
warehouses, and quarters of the servants of the company.
The village contains at present about 800 Indians, most of
whom live in comfortable houses and dress in civilized costumes. Remaining here several hours discharging freight, I
had the pleasure of meeting Rev. Mr. Crosby and his estimable wife, missionaries of the Wesleyan Methodist Church of
Canada, of examining the mission church and school and attending an interesting service in the evening. To their noble self-
sacrificing labors during the past eight years, the marked
improvement in the condition of these people is mainly due.
Their houses for worship and instruction, erected almost exclusively by Mr. Crosby and the Indians at a cost of about
$8,000, chiefly expended for material, are well designed, well
built, commodious and comfortable. Taking a purely secular
view of such results, it must be conceded that the missionaries
are doing more than all other agencies combined to bring
these semi-barbarous tribes into peaceful subjection to the
general Government, and harmonious and beneficial relations
with the whites. Fort Simpson is situated about 35 miles
from the mouth of the Skeena, 40 from the Naas, and 160
miles South-east of Fort Wrangel. Sixty miles or more to
the Westward lie
The Queen Charlotte Islands,
The extreme North-western land of British Columbia. Count
Zuboff, a Russian geologist, who has spent two summers
upon these islands, gives me a very interesting account of their
geography, resources and inhabitants. Their extreme length
is 156 miles, and their greatest width 52 miles. Mount&ins
thickly wooded with cedar, spruce and hemlock, cover most
of their surface, though Graham Island, one of the largest 78
of the group, contains a tract of timberless grazing land sufficient, it is estimated, to support over a thousand head of cattle.
The climate is comparatively mild, and snowfall so light that
stock would subsist throughout the year entirely upon the
native grasses. It is peopled by the Hydahs, evidently of
Asiatic origin, the finest specimens, physically, and the most
courageous of all the native tribes. They live in villages upon
the seashore, building large and substantial houses from
great logs and planks of cedar. They now number
about 850, but were formerly much more populous. Hunting,
fishing, and trapping is their main dependence, though they
are great canoe builders, supplying them to the other tribes,
and also very skillful workers in gold and silver, and carvers
upon wood and slate. Bold and skillful navigators, and warlike, they ruled among the natives of these northern seas, and
until a comparatively recent date have been hostile to the
whites. Now they are friendly, and anxious for missionary
teachers, who are about to establish a school for their instruction. The Count has discovered an extensive vein of lignite
and a four foot vein of anthracite coal, and also coal-oil there.
Graham Island has been occupied as a trading post by the
Hudson Bay Company since 18 , and for the last four
years by the Skidegate Oil Company, which is manufacturing
a very excellent lubricating and burning oil from sharks.
They are so numerous in the surrounding waters that the
Company have caught over 5,000 in thirty-six hours, by
means of thousands of strong steel hooks, fastened by cotton
cod lines to a fifteen thread hemp rope, and anchored in
from seven to thirty-five feet of water. At daybreak on the
morning of the 30th we were crossing the waters of the entrance to the Portland Channel, into which flows the
River Naas.
This stream abounds with salmon, and is the greatest known
resort of the oolachan, which swarm here by the million, and
are caught by the Indians in the Spring of the year in immense numbers. A kit of them salted has just been brought
on deck. They are a bright silver colored fish, smaller than
the herring, of more delicate flavor and so rich in oil that when 79
dried they burn like a candle. It is extracted in large quantities and forms a staple article of diet and barter among the
natives. There are also two salmon fisheries near the mouth
of the river, Croasdaile & Co's. and Welwood & Co., the
former packing about 7,500 cases, and the latter several
hundred barrels of salted salmon this season.
Upwards of a thousand Indians dwell upon the banks of
this river, within seventy-five miles of its mouth, most of
whom are being reached, in their villages of Kincolith,
Greenville, Ahyns and Kitladamax, by missionaries, Dunn,
Green and Robinson, the first sent out by the Episcopal
Church of England, and the two latter by the Wesleyan Methodists of Canada. Mr. Robinson describes them as being
very friendly to the whites, he having been the only white
man in their village of Kitladamax for several months at a
time. We are now in the American waters of Alaska, the
Portland Channel being the dividing line between British
Columbia and that Wilderness Possession.
Alaska is a vast region stretching away 1,400 miles north
from 54 degs. 40 min., and over 2,000 miles from the Pacific
Ocean Eastward. High, rocky, precipitous mountains, thickly
covered with forests of cedar and hemlock, extend over nearly
all that portion embracing the first four hundred miles of
coast, known as Southern Alaska. The interior, so far as explored, contains a diversified surface of mountains and plains,
lakes, marshes, meadows, lowlands and roUing plateaus,
through which flows a mighty river, the Yukon, as broad as
the Amazon and navigable for 1,500 miles. It is inhabited by
the aboriginal tribes, the Eskimos, Aleutes, Kenaians and
Tlinkets, numbering, altogether, perhaps, 25,000 souls. The
climate of Southern Alaska is comparatively mild but very
disagreeable, owing to the excessive rainfall. The winters of
the interior are extremely cold and the summers hot.
There are about 300 whites in the Territory, mainly at
Sitka, Juneau and Fort Wrangel. Mountains, forests, islands,
straits and  channels innumerable, rock-bound   shores and 80
snow-clad peaks compose ] the general outline of the scene
which meets the eye on every hand, Thickly wooded from
the summits of all but the highest peaks, there is . scarcely a
spot in all these last hundreds of miles which invites settlement. It is as grand a wilderness as lies under the dome of
heaven, and abounds in great resources of fish, fur and
minerals, the utilization of which wiU attract and support
scattering communities, but beyond this the immigration of a
hundred years will probably make but little change in the
face of. Alaska. The climate and soil of the southern coast
especially, is adapted to the growth of grasses, potatoes, carrots, turnips, cabbage, etc., but the area susceptible of cultivation is so extremely limited as to practically exclude the
agriculturist. Captain Oakford, Collector of Customs at
Fort Wrangel, told me yesterday that he received frequent
letters from people in the East who thought of coming to
Alaska. One man wrote that he was well provided with agricultural implements, reapers, mowers, etc, and wished to
engage in farming on a large scale. Such inquiries indicate
that erroneous views are entertained abroad concerning this
region. It is scarcely possible to exaggerate its resources of
fish, and it is undoubtedly the greatest range both as to
number and quality of valuable fur bearing animals in the
world, and also rich in coal, copper, and gold ; but its habit -
able lands and timber supplies have been greatly over-estimated. With the exception of a few hundred acres upon the
bottoms and deltas of the rivers, I have not seen nor been
able to hear of any tracts of open arable country exceeding a
few acres in extent. And while the forest area is so vast, only
very small portions comparatively are either fit or available for the manufacture of lumber. There are small bodies
of enormous cedar, or cypress, and scattering tracts of good
spruce, but probably 75 per cent, of the forest comprises
stunted cedar, spruce and hemlock, growing upon scanty
soil, and among the crevices of the rocks, in many places
dying for want of nourishment. Mr. George Williscroft, who
has owned anel operated a sawmill at Georgetown, near Fort
Simpson, for eight years, manufacturing about 900,000 feet
of lumber annually for the local market, tells me that above 81
Deans' Canal, B. C, the Northern limit of the fir or Douglas
pine, though he has examined the country thoroughly, he
knows of no good timber in sufficient quantities to warrant
the manufacture of lumber for the general export trade. At
Fort Wrangle I found Mr. William Woodcock, who has been
in Alaska for several years, swearing oyer the Rev. Sheldon
Jackson's statement before a Congressional Committe concerning it, which lay spread out before him. Mr. Jackson
says in substance that the climate and resources of the country are such that it is bound to have a large population, but
that he cannot encourage immigration into it until provided
with some form of government, for the security of life and
property. While nearly all agree that it should have a local
magistrate or commissioner with power to enforce law and
order, all whom have consulted, quite a number of traders,
miners, and others who have been in Southern Alaska from
two to fourteen years, are unanimous in the opinion that the
very reasons, the character of its climate and resources, which
Mr. Jackson thinks offer inducements to immigration, will exclude it except to quite a limited extent. Speaking more
from information obtained from such sources than personal
observation, it is difficult to understand how that any man of
intelligence and honesty at all familiar with the country,
could, under any circumstances, be induced to recommend it for
colonization by the American people. Its fish, furs and minerals are alone worth more than it cost, and will attract considerable settlements along the Southern coast, and hardy
Northmen will doubtless by slow degrees settle in the vast.
almost unknown interior, though Alaska may probably for
generations to come be most fitly described as the " Great
Lone Land."
Heading for Cape Fox, the abandoned U.S. Fort Ton-
gass and an Indian village adjoining are seen in the distance
on the right. A little further on the U.S. Coast Survey steamer
. Hasler, lying at anchor in a snug little harbor on the left,
sends out a boat and receives her mail. Then steaming on
through the Revilla Gigido Channel, Duke of Clarence and
Stachinski Straits, before daylight the 31st I was awakened 82
by a loud prolonged chorus from the wolfish yelping Indian
dogs of
Fort Wrangel,
And going upon deck found the steamer nearing the landing.
The town is situated on Wrangel Island, seven miles from the
mouth of the Stickeen, 160 South-east of Sitka, and contains
about thirty resident whites and several hundred Indians.
The Presbyterian Indian Mission Church, the McFarlan
Home, and the former Government buildings, are the most
conspicuous among the 150 or more houses and cabins
crowded together on the picturesque shore. The Indian village comprises several houses of large size built from great
cedar logs and planks generally without partitions, but some
having floors, and all an open central fireplace. These are
frequently paved with smooth stones, but have no chimneys,
the smoke escaping through an opening in the roof. The great
cedar posts, three feet in diameter supporting the monster ridge
poles, and also columns standing in front from forty to fifty
feet in height, were covered from the ground up with rude
grotesque carvings of Indians, bear, beaver, frogs, fish, eagles,
ravens, and frightful imaginary hobgoblins. They were formerly supposed to be objects of worship, but are now known
to represent family and tribal totems, crests and heraldic designs. Fort Wrangel is an important point for the purchase
of Alaska fur, and also does a considerable general trade with
the Indians and the Cassiar mines. Wm. J. Stephens, W.
King Lear, Benjamin Levi, and Oscar Northrup are the principal traders. Mr. Stephens showed me a splendid lot of fur
comprising otter, beaver, mink, wolverine, wolves, lynx, seal,
and sea lion, including a bull fur-seal over 8^ feet in length.
His shipments of fur last season were valued at $26,000. This
is also the winter rendezvous of the Cassiar miners. The
principal mines are situated on Dease Creek, 238 miles Northeast, 160 miles up the Stickeen river to Glenora, then a portage of 85 miles to the head of Dease Lake, and from thence 18
miles further by water. The Juneau gold fields of Alaska
are situated near the mouth of the Takou river, 160 miles
North-west from Wrangel. 83
Parties just down from these mines report several claims
paying from $8 to $16 per day.
On the evening of the 31st the Otter turned her bow
homeward. A heavy rain fell during the first night, and in
the morning scores of streams were plunging and flashing
from the snowy summits down the avalanche furrowed sides
of the high, precipitous mountains bordering the channel of
Revilla Gigido. Sailing through the same wonderful waterways, traversed on the upward voyage, through long stretches
of river-like passages, shadowed by their mountain walls,
across Sounds affording more extended and grander views,—
then through an archipelago of innumerable rock-bound
islands and islets, with arms and inlets reaching out in all
directions, on the 7th of September we arrived safely in
port at Victoria.
Victoria, B. C, 20th Dec, 1882.
In conclusion, I tender my sincere thanks to Surveyor-General W. S. Gore, and Thos. Elwyn, Deputy
Provincial Secretary, to whom I am under special
obligations for government maps, documents, etc. I
shall soon publish, at San Francisco, a second edition
of uThe Watering Places, Health and Pleasure Resorts of the Pacific Coast.'1'' It will be a well bound,
illustrated volume, of about 150 pages, embracing
descriptions from personal observations and experience, of the principal sea-side, lake-side and mountain
resorts and mineral springs from Mexico to A laska.
The following are among the places which will be
prominently noticed : Victoria, Puget Sound, Gray^s
Harbor, Shoalwater Bay, Sea View, Ilwaco, Tillamook and Faquina Bays; Wilhoit, Foley^s, Harbin's, 84
Highland, Pierson's, Witter% Ziegler's, Howards,
Bartlefs, Allen's, Hough's, Calistoga, White Sulphur, Congress, Gilroy, Paraiso, Paso Robles, A r-
royo Grande, Santa Barbara, The Ofai, A rrowhead,
Temescal and Fulton Mineral Springs; Lakes Ta-
hoe and Donner, the Calaveras Big Trees, Yosemite,
Monterey, Pescadero Pebble Bejch, Santa Cruz, Santa
Barbara, Nordhof Santa Monica, Passadena, San
Gabriel, Orange and San Diego.
Persons desirous of obtaining copies of the same at
$2.00, please address me at San Francisco.
N. H. C.
Mr. and Mrs. R. Maynard, of Victoria, the leading photographic artists of the North-west coast, have the most complete collection of British Columbia and Alaska views extant,
They have been taken by Mr. Maynard, personally, for which
purpose he has traveled extensively through the interior, and
along the coast as far north as Portage Bay, within thirty-two
miles of the Yukon. THE COLONIAL HOTEL
(J. E. Insley, Proprietor,)
The Largest and Best Hotel on the Mainland of British Columbia.
Columbia Street, New Westminster, B, C.
Baggage Conveyed to the Hotel Free of Charge.
The Tables are Supplied with Every Euxury in Season,
This House Affords Every Accommodation
for Guests.
Oriental Hotel.
Good Accommodations
Sf5X   per  <3La,-y  oi* $€3  per week.
New York.
iVashington. D. ('
New York, Washing-ton, and San Francisco.
A General Practice in State and Federal Courts, and before all the Executive
Departments of the Government.
Special attention to cases in the Supreme Court of the United States, Court of
Claims, and before the General Land, Patent and Pension Offices.
Reliable legal correspondence in all the principal cities of the Union. For matters
requiring attention in New York, Washington, and in any of the States East of the
Rocky Mountains, address ft. II. Chittenden, Brooklyn, N. Y., or Chittenden and
Lincoln, Washington, D. C. All communications pertaining to legal business on the
Pacific Coast should be addressed to Chittenden & Van Duzer, U. S. Court Building,
North-east corner Sansome and Washington streets, San Francisco. Cal. M. W. WAITT & CO.
Booksellers ,   Stationers
Importers of Law, Theological, Miscellaneous and School Books. A Full Line of
Memorandum and Blank Books, of ail sizes and styles. We keep a large assortment
of Artists' Materials, Gold Pens and Pocket Cutlery, English and American Playing
Cards, Pianofortes, Organs, German Accordeons and Concertinas.
Hole Agents for British Columbia for the Toronto Safe and Lock Works. Vault
Work a specialty; detailed specifications furnished on application. We deal with the
Publishers and Manufacturers in Europe, the United States and Canada for all goods
used in our line. Intending purchasers will find it to their advantage to place their
orders in our hands.
~T. N. HIBBEN & CO.,
Booksellers, Stationers, News Agents,
General Dealers in  other Goods more Immediately Connected with Similar
Importers of Stationery directly from the manufacturers and Books from the publishers
Books sent to any part of the Province at the Nominal transport cost of four cents per Ponnd,
Particular attention paid fa Superior qualities, and the constantly increasing newly
invented devices in Fancy Stationery.
British Columbia Express Co
Incorporated.   1878.
A General Forwarding, Commision and Collection Business Transacted
connecting with Wells, Fargo & Oo.'s Express, at Victoria.
YALE W. DODD, Agent.
A well equipped four and^six-horse line of Stage Coaches, carryi g H.
M. Mails, ply between Yale and Barkerville, a distance of 40$J
miles into the interior.


Citation Scheme:


Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics



Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            async >
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:


Related Items