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Message from the President of the United States, transmitting report on the boundary line between Alaska… United States. Department of State 1889

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  THE LIBRARY
THE UNIVERSITY OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA 5Oth Congress, ) SENATE. i Ex. Doc.
2d Session.     $ ( No. 146.
MESSAGE
FROM THE »
PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES,
TRANSMITTING
Report on tlie boundary line between Alaska and British Columbia.
March 2, 1889.—Read and referred 'to the Committee on Foreign Relations and ordered to be printed.
 •
To the Senate and House of Representatives:
I herewith transmit a report of the Secretary of State, and accompanying documents, relative to the undetermined boundary line between
Alaska and British Columbia.
Grover Cleveland.
Executive Mansion,
Washington, March 2, 1889.
To the President :
The Secretary of State has the honor to submit herewith for transmission to Congress certain documents and maps relating to the undetermined boundary line between Alaska and British Columbia.
During the session of the fisheries conference of 1887-?88 in this city,
it was suggested that an informal consultation between some person in
this country possessing knowledge of the questions in dispute and a
Canadian similarly equipped might tend to facilitate the discovery of
a basis of agreement between the United States and Great Britain upon
which a practicable boundary line could be established.
To this end several interviews were held in this city between Prof.
W. H. Dall, of the XL S. Geological Survey, whose geographical and
geological explorations in Alaska have associated his name with that
Territory, and Dr. George M. Dawson, an eminent Canadian authority
on the Same subject.
Professor DalFs and Dr. Dawson's accounts of these conferences is
herewith submitted, together with other documents, including a letter
of Dr. Dawson to Sir Charles Tapper on the boundary question, a memorandum by Professor Dall on the same subject, and also a supplementary memorandum by him on certain views of Maj. Gen. D. E. Cameron, as submitted in the letter of Dr. Dawson above referred to.
These documents are considered of value as bearing upon a subject
of gre^t international importance, and should be put in shape for public
information.
V ALASKA  AND   BRITISH  COLUMBIA  BOUNDARY  LINE.
Accuracy being essential in the reproduction of the maps now inclosed,
it is respectfully recommended that it be accomplished by photographic
process.
Eespectfully submitted.
T. F. Bayard.
Department of State,
Washington, March 2, 1889.
INCLOSUBES.
1. Mr. Dall to Mr. Moore, January 3, 1^88.
2. Mr. Dawson to Sir Charles Tupper, February 7,1888.
2a. Same to same, February 11, 1888.
3. Mr. Dall to Mr. Bay ard,"February 13, 1888,
4. Same to same, December 19, 1888.
5. Memorandum on the Alaskan boundary, by William H. Dall, A. M.
6. Supplementary memorandum on the views of General Cameron as submitted in the
letter of Dr. George M. Dawson to Sir Charles Tupper, by William H/ Dall.
7. Convention between United States and Russia, April 5-17, 1824.
8. Anglo-Russian treaty, 1825.
9. Am eric an-Russian treaty, 1867.
10. Two tracings by the Coast Survey showing the features of the region on the north
shore of Portland Inlet near its mouth.
11. British Admiralty Chart, No. 2431, showing the latest British survey of Portland
Inlet.
12. Chart 3 of French edition of Vancouver of 1799; covering region north of the 45th
parallel of latitude.
13. Chart 7 of same, covering1 territory between parallels 54° and 57° north latitude.
14. Official Canadian map of British Columbia, 1884.
15. Dawson's Canadian map, 1887.
16. Dawson's Canadian map, 1887, showing conventional liues proposed by Canada.
17. Canadian map, January 23, 1888.
No. 1.
Mr. Dall to Mr. Moore, Third Assistant Secretary of State.
Smithsonian Institution,
Washington, D. C, January 3, 1888.
Dear Sir: In pursuance of your request for suggestions bearing on
the question of the Alaskan boundary, I beg leave to submit the following facts and observations upon them.
The coast of southeastern Alaska is the valuable part of that region.
It has a climate modified by the ocean so as to be comparable with that
of Ireland, water-ways reaching all parts of it, and making accessible
its mines, fisheries, timber, and remarkable Alpine scenery.
The a sea of mountains | eastward from the general line of the coast
is broken by rivers, giving passage to the interior only at the head of
Lynn Canal, at the Taku and Stikine Eivers, and at the head of the
Portland Canal. West of Lynn Canal, the Alps form an impassable
barrier until we come to the Copper or Atna Eiver, which heads west
of the one hundred and forty-first meridian, in American territory, and
is therefore outside of the limits necessary to be now considered.
The country even 2 or 3 miles inland from the coast has a totally
different and subarctic climate, and is of value only for its rich but
very limited placer mines. There are doubtless quartz mines, and
there is timber, but commercially inaccessible, and therefore practi- ALASKA  AND  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  BOUNDARY  LINE. 3
cally valueless. The placers of the Stikine basin are now about exhausted. The Taku basin is small and very alpine. The present attention of miners is chiefly devoted to the placers reached near the
Yukon by the portage from the head of Lynn Canal. Doubtless the
basin of the Upper Yukon, though larger than the others, is limited,
and will in a few years be exhausted of its placer gold, as the others
have been, when for all practical purposes this interior region will be
entirely valueless, as it affords few furs, and not game enough to support a large body of hunters. Even explorers have found it difficult to
support life there, in parties of less than a dozen.
It has seemed to me that the necessities of the case, either with or
without a treaty, would be well met by a plan embodying the following
ideas, it being perfectly well known that the boundary specified in the
existing treaty was formulated on a mistaken assumption as to facts,
and is impossible to determine by survey.
A line which can be most easily surveyed, and which the average
prospector could recognize without difficulty, and which would follow
the spirit of the old treaty more nearly than any other, while modifying its expression, could in my opinion be obtained in the following
manner:
Let a point be determined on each of the four passage ways into the
interior—Chilkoot, Taku, Stikine, aud Observatory (or Portland) Inlet
Eivers—at ten marine leagues (or any other mutually satisfactory) distance from the coast. Then let the territory drained by branches coming into these rivers seaward of this point (which should be shown by
a permanent monument) belong to the United States; that drained by
streams coming in eastward of the monument be British. The boundary would follow the water parting, between the two. At Portland
Inlet and at the head of Lynn Canal the divide between the interior
and coast water-sheds should form the line. This would be easy of
definition, as the pass is narrow and the ridge sharp and distinct. It
would give the United States a little useless territory on the headwaters-of the Chilkat Eiver and take a little away from them on the
Chilkoot Eiver, judged by the present theoretic boundary. This would
reduce the positions requiring careful astronomical determination to
three, namely, the inception of the boundary line at the head of Portland Inlet, and the two monuments on the Taku and Stikine respectively. This reduction would probably save a season's work, and corresponding expenses, as the climate is unfavorable for astronomical
work.
The advantages of the above plan are, first, any man can determine
for himself on which side of the boundary he is without any instrument
except his eyes. There can be no question as to the water parting in
the sharply broken topography of the region; it will speak for itself.
As the rivers and their valleys are the sole roads, no man can plead
ignorance of the fact when he reaches the boundary monument, and
any doubt, away from the river, can be solved in an hour by following
the nearest brook to the stream of which it is 'the tributary.
In general, I suppose that the survey which would be necessary
could be much more easily carried out than in any other project, as the
whole could be done by a meander of the streams, and by very few
streams, except fixing the monuments. If the methods in use by the
Geological or Coast Survey parties on reconnaissance work were
adopted, and the practiced topographers of either organization put at
it (and the Dominion Geological Survey is equally well prepared), the
whole line from Chilkat to Taku, Stikine and Observatory or Portland 4 ALASKA  AND   BRITISH   COLUMBIA  BOUNDARY  LINE.
Inlet could be run in two or three seasons, at most, by about four
parties, and at an expense to the United States (existing agencies being
utilized) of probably not more than $125,000 in all. By military methods
and men the work would take twice as long, and would cost at least
half a million dollars. In regard to this matter of expense, I speak advisedly, having regard to estimates already furnished by military authorities.
The United States, if the river monuments were fixed at the present
treaty limits of 10 marine leagues from the coast, would probably lose
territory theoretically, since the 10 leagues line carried along as on the
Coast Survey map of Alaska (1884) probably extends farther inland
than the headwaters of many of the inland streams. But this loss
would amount to nothing, as the region is inaccessible except from the
British side, and practically worthless.
On the other hand, the plan proposed is more in accord with the
spirit of the present unrealizable treaty than any other which occurs
to me, and far more easy of determination than any plan I have ever
heard suggested.
As to the strip of country between the one hundred and forty-first
meridian and the head of the Chilkat Eiver, it is perfectly inaccessible
from the coast except by way of the Atna and Ohilkat Eivers. It might
well be left alone for many years to come, or settled by taking the
summit of the St. Elias Alps, everywhere visible from the ocean,
which no man has yet reached, much less scaled, but which could be
united by a set of great triangles from the head of the Chilkat and
along the coast of the Pacific from Fair weather Peak to Mount St.
Elias.
Very respectfullv, yours,
* Wm. H. Dall.
II B.—This letter should be read in connection with the Coast Survey map of Alaska, published in 1884, which; though defective in later
data elsewhere, is essentially the most accurate as regards the region
involved.
No. 2.
Dr. Dawson to Sir Charles Tupper.
Washington, D. C. February 7,1888.
Sir : One of the principal difficulties met with in arriving at any
reasonable conventional line of boundary between the coast strip of
Alaska and the adjacent portion of the Dominion of Canada may be
that arising from an erroneous notion with respect to the width of that
strip, which has been loosely indicated on many maps as a belt of country 10 marine leagues in width, while, as a matter of fact, in the language of the convention, 10 marine leagues is given merely as an extreme
width to which under certain conceivable circumstances the coast strip
might in some places be allowed to attain. The actual language of the
convention in the original version is as follows:
A partir du point le plus meridional de File difce Prince of Wales, lequel point se
trouve sous la parallele du 54me degr6, 40 minutes de latitude nord, et entre le 131me
et le 133me degre* de longitude ouest (me'ridien de Greenwich), la dite ligne remontera
au bord le long de la passe dite Portland Channel jusqu'au point de la terre ferme ou
elle atteint le 56me degre* de latitude nord; de ce dernier point la ligne de demarca- ALASKA  AND  BRITISH   COLUMBIA  BOUNDARY  LINE. 5
tion suivra la crete des montagnes situees parallelemenfc a la c6te, jusqu'au point
d'intersection du 141me degr6 de longitude ouest (m6me m^ridien), etc.
Que partout on. la crete des montagnes, qui s*6tendent dans une direction parallele h
la c6te depuis le 56me degr€ de latitude nord au point d'intersection du 141me degr6
de longitude ouest, se trouverait a la distance de plus de dix lieues marines de Pocean,
la limite entre les possessions Britannique et la lisi&re de c6te mentionnee ci-dessus, com-
me devant appartenir k la Russie, sera fonnee par une ligne parallele aux sinuosites
de la c6te et qui se pourra jamais en etre eloignee que de dix lieues marines.
The use of the expression UsUre de la cote, it is submitted, shows that
nothing more was stipulated for than a point d'appui for Eussia on the
main-land coast, and the known circumstances which led to the conclusion of the convention afford additional evidence that this was all that
Eussia desired or Great Britain intended to give.
The definition of the lisidre by a line following la crete des montagnes
situGes paralUlement a la cote, is precisely that which would be adopted
as the most convenient on an examination of Vancouver's charts and
descriptions of the coast, which were at the time the best available.
These charts show, by strictly conventional and arbitrary signs, that a
mountainous country extends inland from the coast for a considerable
distance. The fact alone that these conventional mountain features are
not even similarly placed on the corresponding portions of Vancouver's
overlapping charts, must have been sufficient to show that no dependence could be placed on them. The only line of mountains which is
practically identical on the various charts, and the existence of which
could be confirmed by reference to Vancouver's detailed description, is
that which is represented as everywhere rising immediately from the
coast and which borders upon the sea. It is therefore to the summits
of these mountains immediately bordering the coast that the words of
the convention must be understood to refer. Only in the case of the
absence of mountains is the 10 marine league limit admissible, and then
under certain conditions, for general parallelism with the coast is also
essential.
It was no doubt in consequence of the distinctly conventional mode
of representation of the mountains on Vancouver's charts, and the necessary inference that they did not accurately represent the facts, that
the limiting clause was inserted in the convention.
Such a line as that which it is believed was intended is by no means
impossible of survey, nor should it even be very difficult to define, as
the summits of the mountains are, as a matter of fact, found to be
everywhere visible from the coast, and are probably at an average
distance of considerably less than 5 miles from it.
In respect to the important question as to what is intended by the
expression la cote, Maj. Gen. D. E. Cameron's views, as expressed in a
report on this point, may be substantially adopted, as follows:
In the second clause of the fourth article provision is made for the
case of the mountains being found at more than 10 marine leagues
inland, and it is there laid clown that the measurements shall be made
not from inlets but from the ocean.
The convention stipulates—
Que partout oil la crete des montagnes, qui s^tendent dans une direction parallele
a la c6te   *   *   *   se trouverait a la distance de dix lieues marines de Poee'an   1    *
la limite   *   *   *   sera formee par une ligne parallele a la cote, et qui se pourra
jamais en &tre eloigned que de dix lieues marines.
The word ocean is wholly inapplicable to inlets; consequently the
the line, whether marked by mountains or only by a survey line, has
to be drawn without reference to inlets.
Had it not been so clearly provided against by express stipulation
in the second clause of the fourth article of the convention and by '«—II'—...»
6 ALASKA  AND   BRITISH   COLUMBIA  BOUNDARY  LINE.
the accepted principles of international law, it might, in the case of
the absence of mountains, be agreed that the Usidre should be measured
from the sea-water's edge, wherever—in inlet or elsewhere—it outlined
the continent; and that this being the coast line where no mountains
exist within 10 leagues, is equally the coast line whence to determine
the mountains nearest to the coast.
But, as said above, inlets, in either alternative, the occurrence or nonoccurrence of mountains within 10 leagues, are not part of the coastline determining the boundary.
None of the inlets between Portland Channel and the meridian of
14L° west longitude are 6 miles in width, excepting, perhaps, a short
part of Lynn Canal; consequently, with that possible exception, the
width of territory—on the coast assigned under the convention to Eussia—may not be measured from any point within the mouths of the inlets. All the waters within the mouths of the inlets are as much territorial waters, according to an universally admitted international law,
as those of a fresh-water lake or stream would be under analogous circumstances.
As far as non-mountainous country may extend, but within 10 marine
leagues of the ocean, the inlets are in fact included by the convention
within la Usidre de cSte mentionnee ci-dessus comme devant appartenir a la
Russie.
On the other hand, so much of these inlets as happen to be in mountainous territory, or beyond 10 marine leagues from the ocean, together
with the dry land about them, is assigned to Great Britain as much as
are rivers and lakes in the same regions.
Nothing short of au express stipulation to the contrary effect would,
it is conceived, serve to maintain the proposition that inland waters in
the Usidre de cote assigned to Eussia were not part and parcel of that
Usidre. But if they were really part and parcel of the Usiere itself, their
mere existence can not possibly be a reasonable foundation for arguing
that they involve an increase of the breadth of the Usidre of which they
are component parts.
The limits of the Usiere are by the convention expressly dependent
on the relative positions of ocean line and neighboring mountain line.
The only reference to inlets in the convention ( irt. VII) is in a form
almost directly declaratory of assent to the doctrine of territorial authority over them.
If the sovereignty over inlets does not pass in accordance with the
doctrine that they are part and parcel of the surrounding territory,
there was no occasion for the reciprocal concession made in the seventh
article for right to navigate these inlets.
Eegarded from this point of view rivers and inlets are identical. As
reasonable, then, would it be to hold that under the convention the
breadth of the Usidre assigned to Eussia is determined by the headwaters of its rivers as that the head waters of its creeks and inlets regulate its breadth.
With further reference to the position of the boundary as provided
for by the convention, it may be stated that the contention has been
advanced by the government of British Columbia, that the words | dite
Portland Channel," in Article III, are palpably erroneous, and not m
conformity with the detailed description of the course of the line, on the
following grounds:
The portion of the article in question reads :
A partir du point le plus meridional de File dite Princeof Wales * * * la dite
ligne remontera au bord le long de la passe dite Portland Channel jusqu' an point de
la«fcerre ferme ou elle atteint le 56me degre" de latitude nord, etc. ALASKA  AND   BRITISH  COLUMBIA   BOUNDARY  LINE. 7
Now to reach the entrance of Portland Channel from the point first
defined the line must run about 50 miles east instead of north, and,
moreover, by ascending Portland Channel it can not strike the main-land
in latitude 56 degrees north, as the channel terminates before reaching
this latitude, and was known so to terminate at the time of Vancouver's
survey.
If, however, the name only of Portland Channel be omitted, and the
directions given be precisely followed, the line will ascend Clarence
Strait and reach the main-land at the stated latitude and by the stated
course. The several directions with respect to the line of bouudary
may, it is argued, be considered as more authoritative than the single
mention of Portland Channel.
Apart from the above contention of the British Columbian government, it is at least certain that if the line of boundary was intended to
follow Portland Channel it was the channel so named by Vancouver,
the lower part of which channel passes to the north of Wales and Pierce
Islands of recent charts. The line has been erroneously shown on many
maps as running to the the south of these islands along part of Observatory Inlet of Vancouver, in consequence of a confusion of nomenclature
in the region which, it has been ascertained, first occurred on an admiralty chart published in L853, and which has thereafter .been followed
and copied on other charts and maps.
It would appear, in view of all the facts, that some interchange leading to a consolidation of territory would form a mutually advantageous
solution of the boundary question; but that if this can not be agreed
upon it is probable that a conventional line following as nearly as possible the description of the treaty might be arrived at.
I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant,
George M. Dawson.
No,
Dr. Dawson to Sir Charles Tupper.
Washington, D. C, February 11, 1888.
Sir: Having had, as arranged, several informal conferences with Mr.
W. H. Dall on the subject of the boundary-line between Alaska and the
neighboring part of the Dominion of Canada, with the purpose of arriving, if possible, at some conventional line which might be recommended as advantageous to both countries, I have the honor to make
the following report on the result of my conversation with Mr. Dall:
On previous careful consideration of the subject, which I had investigated to some extent on the ground, it appeared to me probable that
some reciprocal concession in respect to territory tending toward consolidation of the regions under the respebtive Governments, would afford the most satisfactory basis for the selection of a conventional line
of boundary; the advantage of%such territorial rearrangement being
particularly apparent in regard to the development of the region on
both sides and the facility of its administration.
I found, however, that Mr. Dall was not disposed to regard with
favor any suggestion which would involve the cession of any part of
the coast line of Alaska, and should this view be maintained it must
entirely prevent a fully satisfactory re-arrangement of boundary, how- 8 ALASKA  AND   BRITISH  COLUMBIA  BOUNDARY  LINE.
ever desirable it might in other respects be to both countries, as the
actual conditions render it impossible for the United States to offer any
other territorial equivalent which would be of value.
Failing any such re-arrangement of territorial rights, it would seem
(and I believe I may say that Mr. Dall and myself are in agreement on
this point) that a conventional line might be adopted, which, while
nearly agreeing with that described in the treaty, would prove more
convenient and less costly of survey than it. The divergence which still
exists between Mr. Dall's views and my own on this subject arises, I
believe, entirely from a difference of opinion as to the meaning of the
wording of the treaty itself, and this divergence does not so much affect
the character of a conventional line as its distance from the coast, which
•would require to be regulated in conformity with the interpretation
which may be given to the treaty with respect to its definition of the
width of the coast strip.
Conventional lines of two kinds in particular have been discussed
by us at some length, and while there is much to be said in favor of
each, and either might be made the basis of an agreement, it appears to
me that that which is entitled below | Conventional line No. 2" would
prove to be the most satisfactory and the least expensive to fix on the
ground.
The lines referred to may be thus described .
Conventional Une No. 1.—A series of straight lines drawn between
certain determined fixed points and running in approximate parallelism
with the general trend of the coast. Such lines would be portions of
arcs of great circles. The fixed points would require to be prearranged,
and after being marked by suitable monuments, their positions relating
to each other might be astronomically determined with sufficient accuracy for the purpose of calculating the directions of connecting lines, thus
avoiding the necessity of an expensive triangulation survey for this purpose. The points which I should propose as fixed points are situated
on Portland Channel, the Stikine, Taku Inlet, and the heads of Lynn
Canal. We are already in possession of information sufficient to enable
us to define these points.
Conventional line No. 2.—A line starting from certain specified fixed
points such as those above described and similarly situated on the inlets named and on the Stikine Eiver; the territory drained by streams
debouching to the seaward of the fixed points to belong to the United
States; that drained by streams debouching on the opposite or inland
side of the fixed points to belong to Canada; it being, however, further
provided that in event of the boundary thus determined reaching a
certain specified distance from the coast, it shall then follow a straight
line with a prescribed course for such distance as the streams may be
found to rise on the inland side of such line.
A boundary thus drawn would practically follow the crests of mountain ranges for the greater part of its entire leugth, while it would be
prevented from attaining an inconvenient inland extension by the prescribed limiting lines. The courses of these limiting lines might be
stated with sufficient precision from our present knowledge of the
region, and should in such case be approximately parallel to the main
trend of the opposite coast.
In the event of the adoption of a conventional line of either the first
or second kind, it would of course be necessary to prepare a detailed
description of it.
In the case of either line I would suggest that the boundary, from the ALASKA  AND  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  BOUNDARY  LINE.
9
point at which it would leave Lynn Canal, should run in a direct course
(preferably a latitude line) westward to the St. Elias Alps; thence to
follow the summit of these mountains to the one hundred and forty-first
meridian.
Neither of the lines would require to be delineated throughout on the
ground at the present time unless so specially desired. It would be sufficient to erect permanent monuments at the fixed points and to ascertain
and define the places at which the line crosses rivers and other avenues of
communication. That part of the line which would follow the St. Elias
Alps might well be marked, as suggested by Mr. Dall, by the mountains' summits themselves united by a series of great triangles. This
lofty chain of mountains, though everywhere visible from the coast, is
practically inaccessible.
If objection should be taken to placing the fixed points by which
either of the above conventional lines would be determined in such positions on Portland Channel, Taku Inlet, and the heads of Lynn Canal
as to give Canada a foothold at the heads of these inlets as means of
access to the interior, I should consider it advisable to revert to the
treaty boundary which, though no doubt requiring expensive surveys,
is not impossible of realization.
Additional surveys of the region through wliich the boundary must run
might possibly result in enabling some line of greater mutual advantage
than either of those above outlined to be indicated, but I believe that a
line which would practically meet the requirements of the case might
even now be adopted, while delay will add to'the difficulty met with in
regard to a conventional line by allowing private interests of one kind
or another to become involved in the case.
Should, however, no such line be determined on at the present time,
I would respectfully suggest that, waiving for the moment any territorial claims under the treaty, some mutual understanding might be entered into by which criminals from the interior may be carried out to
the coast, and thereafter to Victoria or elsewhere for trial; also, that
in view of the fact that no duties are at present collected on goods entering the Canadian territory on the headwaters of the Yukon, whether
they^do so by the main stream or by the Chilkoot Pass, that by a similar temporary waiving of claims, goods from the Dominion of Canada in
transit, in the hands of bona fide miners, should be permitted to pass
without customs formalities to the head of Lynn Canal and over the
pass. This appears to be the more desirable as the miners are generally men of small means; the cost of transport over the pass is very
great, and the necessary hardships suffered considerable, while their
work in prospecting, exploring, and mining all aids in the development
of the resources both of Alaska and the neighboring portions of the
Dominion.
In conclusion I may be, allowed to draw attention to the fact that
although the free right of navigation for purposes of commerce of the
Yukon and Porcupine by the subjects of both countries is provided for
by treaty, there appears to be a doubt whether this provision includes-
the right to cut and collect wood for purposes of navigation by steamers, and that a rule might be established granting equal privileges on
both sides in this respect.
I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant,
George M. Dawson.
V
r ALASKA  AND  BRITISH   COLUMBIA  BOUNDARY  LINE.
No. 3.
Mr. Dall to Mr. Bayard.
Smithsonian Institution,
Washington, February 13, 1888.
Sir: I have the honor to report that the suggested informal conference between Dr. George M. Dawson, of Ottawa, Canada, and the writer
has been held. Dr. Dawson and myself conferred on several occasions
(February 4-11) and discussed matters connected with the Alaska boundary question freely and informally.
It was mutually announced and agreed that the meeting was entirely
informal; that neither party had any delegated powers whatever, and
that its object was simply the arrival at a consensus of opinion as to
•some reasonable and business-like way of settling upon a line satisfactory
to both countries, and the most practicable means of demarkating the
line if one was accepted. It was thought that if Dr. Dawson and myself could unite in recommending some plan as practicable, that opinion
or plan would be entitled to some consideration, from the fact that both
of us are tolerably well acquainted with the nature of the country and
its exploration.
In considering those poinds to which, in his opinion, Canadian interests give prominence, Dr. Dawson referred to—
(1) Freedom of intercourse as between the channels and inlets of
Alaska and the British territories of the interior, for British subjects
and their vessels, boats, or other means of transportation, especially on
the Stikine and Taku Eivers and the portage at the head of Chilkoot
Inlet.
Also, for American citizens, between the latter point through British
territory to the Yukon Eiver in Alaska, west of the one hundred and
forty-first degree of west longitude from Greenwich; since there is no
doubt that, by this route, intercourse with the Upper Yukon country is
more easy than by any other route.
(2) This freedom of intercourse for Canada, Dr. Dawson thought,
should include the mutual concession of the right of river steamers flying either flag to cut wood for fuel from the river banks of either territory, which by the letter of the law is now illegal even for American
citizens in Alaska Territory. It should include the right or concession
of the right of navigating the salt-water channels and so-called inland
passages of the coast archipelagos and inlets in British Columbia and
in Alaska, respectively, by the citizens of the United States and subjects of Great Britain.
There is no doubt that the navigation of these coast and territorial
wTaters might be wholly or partly withheld by either power from the
citizens and vessels of the other; thus materially curtailing or rendering nugatory the conceded right to navigate the navigable rivers which
-extend beyond the boundary into British territory, for Great Britain,
and obliging vessels of the United States, bound for ports in Alaska,
to take the exposed 1outside passage" between the Straits of Fuca
and the territorial waters of Alaska.
(3) It would be desirable also that the transit of British miners from
the coast over, for instance, the Chilkoot portage for the purpose of
mining in British territory, where the passage has to be made by land,
should not be impeded by the levying of customs duties on their outfit
and provisions by the United States at the coast, nor sbouhl a like impediment affect American goods passing through British territory on the V
ALASKA  AND  BRITISH   COLUMBIA  BOUNDARY  LINE.
11
Upper Yukon in their transit from the coast to that part of the Yukon
west of the one hundred and forty-first degree of west longitude from
Greenwich, for use at American trading posts in Alaska Territory.
(4) The right of Canadian sheriffs (or equivalent officers of the law)
to bring alleged criminals from the British territory in the interior and
bold them in custody through the coast strip belonging to the United
States and in the territorial waters of Alaska, while in transit to British Columbia for trial, is one which (under suitable regulations) might
well be conceded in the interest of morals and good government.
To arrive at a state of affairs by which the above mutual concessions
should be most easily managed (and waiving temporarily a construction oi the treaty by which General Cameron and others for Great Britain
have contended that the heads of the inlets are already British territory) Dr. Dawson is of the opinion that the best way is to so arrange a
conventional boundary line as to include some concessions by the United
States on the coast, and, if a quid pro quo is thought necessary, he suggested a cession by Great Britain to the United States of part of the
interior; as, for instance, the triangular region m British territory south
and west from the Upper Yukon, and between it and the present Alaskan boundarv.
From this I felt compelled to dissent, considering that the mutual
concessions desired might be reached by convention or treaty without
cession of territory by either party, and that such an exchange as suggested, especially at the heads of inlets, would cut southeastern Alaska
into two or three pieces, separated by belts of British territory, with
all the inconveniences, legal and sentimental, which that implies. Also,
it is my opinion that no amouut of the subarctic interior would form
an equivalent to the United States for any part of the coast; and I
gathered from Dr. Dawson that he also believed that no amount of the
same sort of territorv now held bv us, north of the Yukon, would be
« «• T 7
accepted by Canada in exchange for any part of the coast of British
Columbia south of north latitude 54° 40;.
Differences have been alluded to, raised by General Cameron in a construction of the details of the Alaska treaty which relate to the boundary. These relate, not to those expressions in the treaty which have
hitherto been considered as obscure, but to its most precise and explicit
wording. As, for instance, it would be claimed from his point of view
that the name Portland Channel in the treaty does not mean Portland
Channel, but an entirely distinct series of waters; which construction
would add to Canada an area somewhat larger than the State of Delaware. He would also regard the "line parallel to the tvindingz (sinu-
osites) of the coast" as a line which should disregard the wiudings of
the coast, and instead of following the "crest (crete) of the mountains"
should skip across the arms of the sea when they are less than 6 miles
wide. *
Waiving these fundamental differences in construction of the treaty,
Dr. Dawson suggested two alternative methods of obtaining a boundary line:
(1) A line starting from certain specified fixed points on the natural
routes between the coast and interior, such as those to be later referred
to; the territory drained by streams debouching seaward of the fixed
points to belong to the United States, and that drained by streams
debouching on the opposite or inland side of the points to Great Britain.
f The views of General Cameron are to be found in the accompanying copy of a letter
to Sir Charles Tupper (printed above as Document No. 2), most courteously furnished me by Dr. Dawson, in order that these views should be clearly put on record. 12 ALASKA  AND   BRITISH  COLUMBIA  BOUNDARY  LINE.
It being, however, provided that in the event of the boundary line above
determined reaching a certain specified distance from the coast, it shall
then follow a straight line with a prescribed course for such distance
as the seaward streams may be found to lie on the British side of such
line. A boundary thus formed would practically be found to follow the
crest of mountain ranges for the greater part of its entire length,
while it would be prevented from attaining an inconvenient inland extension by the prescribed limiting lines. The courses of the latter
might be stated with sufficient precision from our present knowledge of
the region and should be in each case approximately parallel to the main
trend of the opposite coast.
The preceding paragraph, practically in Dr. Dawson's own language^,
agrees with the plan suggested in my memorandum of January 3,1888r
except for the limiting proviso, a proviso which I would cordially accept. It would seem, therefore, that in essentials we practically agreer
when the mode of getting at a line in this region is concerned.
(2) Dr. Dawson's alternative proposition suggests that certain points
on the natural routes cutting the coast mountains should be settled upon,,
and that straight lines should be drawn between these points, believing these straight lines would be little more difficult to survey than the
water-shed determinations suggested in the previous paragraph.
In either case the line as actually surveyed, marked, and accepted by
the boundary commissioners who might have it in charge should
foiever remain the legal boundary line, even though it proved by more
refined surveys at some later period to be slightly at variance with the
theoretical line which it was intended to represent.
As to the situation of the points where these lines should take their
departure, it was agreed that this would depend upon the interpretation to be placed on the treaty of 1825.
But in regard to the Chilkoot portage where there is no navigable
river and which is now the most important inland route, Dr. Dawson
seemed to feel that any plan not involving the possession of territory
through to the sea by Great Britain would be unacceptable; while I
felt equally confident that such a cession is undesirable for the United
States and would not be likely to be considered seriously by them.
We both agreed that the sooner the matter is settled and decided
the better for both countries. The development and population of the
region is progressing and private interests growing up, which, under
some circumstances, might operate to obstruct the adoption of a fair
and equitable settlement in the future. At present there are few such
interests to be affected, and an early settlement is doubly desirable.
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
We H. Dall.
TSo. 4.
Mr. Dall to Mr. Bayard.
Smithsonian Institution,
Washington, December 19, 1888.
Dear Sir : I have the honor to submit herewith, as previously suggested, two documents relating to the Alaska boundary question. The
first is a memorandum, in which I have endeavored to trace without
partisanship the historical process by which the Anglo-Eussian treaty r
ALASKA  AND  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  BOUNDARY  LINE,
13
of 1825 came into being, and to explain the circumstances which may be
supposed to have suggested the language used in the delimitory clauses,
as well as the meaniug that language was intended to convey.
As the subject is full of difficulties for any one who has not had the
opportunity for special investigation into the circumstances, I have felt
that perhaps such a discussion might I e of use to all parties concerned.
With this document are submitted the following maps, more or less
necessary for a clear understanding of the discussion:
(1) Two tracings by the Coast Survey, showing the features of the
region on the north shore of Portland Inlet near its mouth.
(2) British Admiralty Chart, No. 2431, showing the latest British survey of Portland Inlet.
If these papers are to be printed it is very desirable that in the same
collection should appear an officially revised copy of the American-
Eussian treaty or convention concluded in 1824.
A similar copy of the Anglo-Eussian treaty of 1825;
A similar copy, with both the English and French versions, of the
American-Eussian treaty of 1867, by which Alaska was ceded to the
United States;
A reproduction, from the atlas of the French edition of Vancouver
of 1799, of so much of chart 3 as covers the region north of the fifty-
fourth parallel and that part of chart 7 which lies between the parallels of 54 and 57 degrees north latitude.
If there are any additional geographical data forthcoming from the
Ooast Survey, during the last year or two, it would be desirable to
have them represented on a chart by themselves.
The second document submitted is a criticism in the light of the previous memorandum of the singular hypotheses regarding the boundary
line which have been emitted by General Cameron of Canada, and which
are formulated by Dr. Dawson in the accompanying letter to Sir Charles
Tupper, of which a copy was courteously furnished by him at the time
of our informal conference, already reported on.
This is accompanied by a c^py of an official Canadian map on which
General Cameron's hypothetical boundary line is depicted, which it
would be well to reproduce as far as it relates to the Alaskan region.
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, yours,
Wm. H. Dall.
No. 5.
Memorandum on the A lasJcan boundary, by William H. Dall, A. M.
1. It is admitted by all that the language of the treaty between Great
Britain and Eussia of February 16-28,1825, in so far as it attempts to
define the boundary of the southeastern portion of Alaska Territory,
then Eussian America, is, from the modern stand-point, insufficiently
precise to render misunderstanding impossible.
Leaving political or national preference aside, as far as possible, it is
obvious that, to arrive at a true understanding of the intentions of the
contracting parties to that treaty, it is necessary to consider the situation and historical circumstances which led up to it.
2. By reference to the publication entitled | Papers relating to the
Behring Sea Fisheries, U. S. Department of State, Washington, 1887,"
it will be seen that Part n is composed of documents relating to the 14 ALASKA  AND   BRITISH   COLUMBIA  BOUNDARY  LINE.
boundary discussion covering the period 1822-1838. A perusal of those
documents will indicate to the fair-minded reader that in the early
part of the discussion between Great Britain, Eussia, and the United
States the views which were finally compromised in convention and
formed the basis of the discussion were that Spain (represented by the
United States, which had succeeded to Spanish rights on the coast),
the United States, Eussia, and Great Britain had alike certain theoretical rights due to priority of discovery, trade with the natives, etc.;
but that the right of possession or sovereignty de facto, though claimed
by all, was conceded by neither, so far as the coast between the Columbia Eiver and north latitude 55 degrees was concerned.
The Eussian claim, due to original discovery, was by some put at the
parallel of 55 degrees north latitude, that being about the limit of the
first discovery of that coast by the Eussian Capt. Alexis Chirikoff in
1741. Others claimed that the true latitude by Chirikoff's discovery
was between the parallels of 48 and 49 degrees north, whence the claim
of Eussia was correspondingly extended southward. (See report to
the Grand Duke Constantine of Capt. Lieut. Paul IsTikolaievich Gol-
ovin, on the Russian colonies in America, St. Petersburg, 1862; in
Morskoi Sbornik, Vol. lvii, No, 1, in, pp. 19-192. A short abstract of
part of this report is to be found in Fortieth Congress, second session,
H. E. Ex. Doc. 177, pp. 109-114, 1868.)
This latter view was not established by the facts which could be adduced, and in the convention between the United States and Eussia
April 5-17,1824, it was virtually abandoned. But, probably because
the parallel of 55 degrees was not so situated as to afford a natural and
recognizable delimitation in harmony with the physical features of the
coast, an approximation to it was adopted by which advantage was
taken of a natural opening in the archipelago which fringes this coast.
This opening, known as Dixon's Entrance, separates the Queen Charlotte Islands from the group now known as the Alexander Archipelago,
by a broad strait almost free from impediments, the eastern end of which
is prolonged into the most extensive inlet which penetrates the American main-land in any part of the disputedtregion. If a person entirely
ignorant of the discussion had been shown Vancouver's chart of this region and directed to select a line which should separate it into two portions in the manner most in harmony with the physical characters of the
land and water, he would unquestionably have drawn a line which, departing from the central channel of Portland Inlet, at its mouth, should
be extended westward through Dixon's Entrance to the Pacific. If at
the same time it was intended to give to Eussia only as much territory
as would bring her to the natural boundary, and no more, this line
would be identical (on Vancouver's chart) with the parallel of 54 degrees and 40 minutes north latitude, which grazes the southern headlands of Prince of Wales Island and enters Portland Inlet practically in
mid-channel.
In this connection it must be borne in mind that Vancouver's^ charts
were at that time, and remained practically up to 1880, the only charts
worthy of consideration, all others being based upon them with but
trifling changes, and these not always for the better. It is certain as
anything can be of which we have not documentary evidence that the
maps used by the agents of the contracting parties were those of the
French translation of the official edition of Vancouver's report and atlas. This translation was issued in the same form as the original, at
Paris, in 1799. There are others, but of later date and more or less
abridged or modified in the translation.   French being the diplomatic ALASKA AND  BRITISH  COLUMBIA   BOUNDARY  LINE.
15
language, the French rather than the original edition would have been
used.
3. It is also necessary to remember that at that period, and for many
years later, the region in question was regarded by all the civilized world
as a horrid wilderness, peopled by blood thirsty savages, in itself valueless, and of importance only through its relation to the amour propre of
the nations concerned and the daring voyages of a few adventurous fur
traders. Considered as territory, a few miles more or less, in one direction or the other, would have been regarded as of absolutely no importance by either nation. Such a view persisted long afterward in relation to the far more attractive Oregon Territory, and is still widely prevalent in regard to southeastern Alaska.
4. The convention of 1824 acknowledged no rights of sovereignty.
TheEussians agreed not to attempt settlements south of the natural
boundary above described (lat. 54° 40' N.), and the Americans agreed to>
make none north of that line. That the trading posts of either should
not be visited by the trading vessels of the other except with the consent of the officer in command of the post, but that the trade away from
the trading posts should be free to all (the sale of arms, ammunition, and
liquor being prohibited) for ten years, after which the Eussians might
exclude the Americans from the waters north of the parallel mentioned.
The convention was practically a modus vivendi, with delimitation of the
areas in which sovereignty might accrue or eventually be admitted, but
without any definite admission of such sovereignty in set terms.
5. The Anglo-Eussian treaty of the following year started from this
basis and took a step in advance. In it the possessions of Eussia were
admitted to extend southward to the parallel of 54° 40', and her sovereignty over them was effectively recognized. In territorial matters
this was the only positive feature of the treaty. The differences between Great Britain and the United States in regard to the territory
south of 54° 40' were not referred to, and the rights of Great Britain
on that part of the coast were recognized only inferentially, if at all;.
that is to say, while it was admitted that she had rights (a fact which
indeed was generally conceded), there was no attempt to state or define
the territorial limits of those rights, except that they did not extend
north of 54° 40'. Thus Eussia gained distinct recognition, but Great
Britain only a modus vivendi.
6. The conventions above referred to were negotiated while George
Canning was in charge of the British department of foreign affairs. We
have the usual official correspondence between the Eussian and American diplomats, and the explanatory dispatches of the latter, printed in
the papers already alluded to, and in British and Foreign State papers
(Vol. xin, pp. 498-520), as well as the volumes of archives which
have appeared under the auspices of the United States State Department. The unavoidable conclusion from a reading of these documents
is, that the parties were (1) chiefly concerned about a matter of principle
or national pride rather than the acquisition of a little more or less
of a territory regarded by all as practically worthless except for its fur
trade; and (2) that in the delimitation of territory it was from the first
and to the last a question of a parallel of latitude rather than of such
a group of islands and such an area of the continent. Eussia knew
better than any one else the value of the fur trade on that coast, in the
preservation of which the imperial family and many of the court were
directly interested through the ownership of stock in the Eussian-American Company.
HI 16 ALASKA  AND   BRITISH   COLUMBIA  BOUNDARY  LINE.
She desired to exclude all foreigners from approaching the coast ^nd
attempted to bring this about by the ukase of 1821. The pretensions
to control of the North Pacific assumed in this ukase were inadmissible
in international law and were the subject of immediate protest by the
maritime powers, Great Britain and the United States. -As the citizens of the United States were the first to explore and to establish trade
in many parts of the region, and a naval officer of Great Britain was
the first to adequately chart the greater part of it, as both had traded
with little molestation on the coast for more than thirty years, it was
intolerable that such a question should be treated by ukase and settled
by the edict of but one of the parties concerned.
7. In the end Eussia was obliged to recede wholly from the false position into which she had advanced, and the fur trade was for ten years
thrown open in the Alexander Archipelago to all parties, and during
that period practically destroyed, so far as sea-otters were concerned.
The only compensation which Eussia received for this mortification was
a recognition of her sovereign rights over the coast southward to 54°
40'. This was really a great gain and probably worth more to her in
the end than that part of the fur trade which she lost.
But in the state papers which have been published there is little or
nothing explanatory of the minor details relating to the territorial delimitation, as finally agreed upon. It is certain that the form used was
essentially the work of the Eussian negotiators and expressed as closely
as they thought necessary the boundaries necessary to secure to Eussia
the control of the trade and fisheries on the islands and shores of southeastern Alaska. The u line of 54° 40"' was then, as for many years, the
central idea, and later became a campaign slogan in the United States
when the northwest boundary was in question. The Eussians wanted
overy inch of the coast to avoid the planting of competitive trading
posts in their midst. But they were obliged to yield to the British demand for free navigation of the rivers by which the traders of the
British interior country could bring their furs to the sea and carry
their goods to the interior. This privilege, however, was never used.
The settlement of a number of minor disputes later, by leasing to
the Hudson Bay Company the trading privileges of the Alexander
Archipelago, put an end to a good many matters of controversy; and
the practical extinction in this region, somewhat later, of the sea-otter,
the object of all this controversy, left no particular occasion for further
•discussion.
8. There is, fortunately, one source of light on the St. Petersburg
negotiations which helps us materially to understand the motives and
interests at work. This is the " Political life of the flight Honorable
•George Canning, from his acceptance of the seals of the Foreign Department in September, 1822, to the period of his death in 1827. By
his private secretary, Augustus Granville Stapleton" (second edition,
3 vols. 8vo. London, Longmans & Co., 1831). Both the writer and the
subject of the memoir were in and of the things of which it treats, and,
apart from an official governmental record, no testimony could be more
reliable and authentic.
The part relating to these negotiations will be found in Vol. in, pp.
114-126.   The quotations which follow are verbatim et literatim.
9. After stating that the territorial claims of the United States, and
a supposed '-secret partiality for the Eussian side of the question,"
rendered it undesirable for Great Britain to join with the United States
in negotiations about this subject, and that Sir Charles Bagot, ambassador to Eussia, was instructed by Mr. Canning, then foreign secre- ALASKA  AND  BRITISH   COLUMBIA  BOUNDARY  LINE.
17
tary, to treat alone with the Imperial Government, the negotiations are
thus described :
The principal object of the negotiation was to obtain a recorded disavowal from
Russia of the maritime pretensions advanced in the Ukaze [of September, 1821].
And then (but this was a secondary consideration) to settle some line of demarcation
between the respective territories of the two countries, the settlement of which
would furnish the Russian Government with a fitting opportunity for making the
disavowal in question.
On the first point the Russian Ministers professed to entertain no difficulty; all
therefore that it was necessary to do was to decide upon the mode of dividing the
territory. For this end it was agreed as the basis upon which the negotiations
should be conducted, that the claims of strict right should be provisionally waived
by both Parties, and that the adjustment should be made upon the sole principle of
their mutual convenience. That, of Great Britain, on the one hand, required the
posts on the.Continent belonging to the Hudson Bay Company, the embouchures of
such rivers as afforded an outlet for the British trade into the Pacifick, and the two
banks of the Mackenzie River; on the other that of Russia induced Her to wish to
secure to Herself Her Fisheries upon the islands and shores of the North West Coast '
and the posts which she might have already established on them. (Ojpus cit., pp.
119-120.)
Here it may be noted that at this time Great Britain, as represented
by the Hudson Bay Company, had no posts on the Pacific shore of the
continent north of latitude 51 degrees north; and Eussia, in the form
of the Eussian American Company, none south of latitude 57 degrees,
in round numbers. The mean latitude between these parallels would
be about 54 degrees north, 40 miles south of that finally adopted.
10. The first propositions of Great Britain were not accepted by
Eussia, and Sir Charles was obliged to appeal to his superiors for a
more extended discretion. Shortly after the British ambassador had
thus suspended his negotiations, the American minister, Mr. Middleton,
succeeded in bringing those with which he was charged to a termination, by the convention of April 5-17,1824. (See Treaties and Conventions between the United States and other powers, pp. 733-734; or
British and Foreign State Papers, Vol. xii, pp. 595-599.)
This convention essentially limited settlements by the citizens of
either nation respectively to the north or to the south of the natural
boundary line of 54 degrees 40 minutes north latitude, which we have
already described, and left the coast, apart from trading posts already
established, open to navigation and trade with the natives for the
period of ten years after the signing of the convention.
11. Mr. Stapleton then continues:
•
The boundaries desired by Russia beyond what Sir Charles had been authorized to
agree to, did not in any way materially affect the interests of this Country [Great
Britain]. He was, therefore, instructed to consent, with some trifling modifications to
the line of demarcation for which Russia contended. But in return for this concession
on the part of Great Britain, certain points as to the navigation of Behring's Straits,
and as to privileges of trading were to be stipulated for which had not been contemplated in former discussions, but nevertheless were not considered to be of a
nature at all unfavorable to Russian interests. Upon these points, however, the negotiation was broken off. Whether the complaints of the Russian Company against
the convention with America made the Plenipotentiaries more difficult to please, or
whatever else might be the cause they remained inflexible; and Sir Charles Bagot,
who was about to return to England, was allowed to quit St. Petersburg in the beginning of September, 1824, without the conclusion of any definitive arrangements.
This, however, was not a state of things with which Great Britain could remain contented. The indefinite postponement of an adjustment of the territorial limits was
a matter of little moment; but the settlement of the maritime portion of the question
she could not submit much longer to defer.
Mr. Stratford Canning was therefore sent shortly after Sir Charles Bagot's return
on a special mission to St. Petersburg for the purpose of bringing to a speedy conclusion these long-protracted discussions.
Mr. Stratford Canning was instructed to propose such alterations as were in accordance with those views of Russia, which were reasonable.   If, however, the Russian
S. Ex. 146 2
m 18 ALASKA  AND   BRITISH  COLUMBIA  BOUNDARY  LINE.
plenipotentiaries should continue to be dissatisfied with the propositions of Great
Britain, Mr. Stratford Canning was to be at liberty to agree to an article stipulating
to negotiate hereafter respecting the territorial limits; but Mr. [George] Canning
considered it essential that Russia should in some way repeal | her unjustifiable abrogation of exclusive jurisdiction over an ocean of unmeasured extent;" which, if the
Russian Government would not do, then Great Britain would resort to some mode of
recording in the face of the world Her protest against the pretensions of the Ukaze of
1821, and of effectually securing Her own interests against the possibility of its future
operations.
For such protest, however, there was fortunately no occasion. On the 28th of February, 1825, Mr. Stratford Canning signed with the Russian Plenipotentiaries a convention of which, the following is the outline:
The first two Articles were in every respect similar to the first two, already described as being in the convention between Russia and the United States. The third
laid down the line of demarcation, which was to commence from the southernmost
point of Prince of Wales' Island in 54° 40' N. latitude, between the 131st and 133rd
degree of W. longitude, and to ascend to the north along Portland Channel, as far as
the point of the Continent where it would strike the 56th degree of N. latitude;
thence it was to follow the summit of the mountains situated parallel to the coast,
as far as the point of intersection of the 141st degree ofW. longitude and thence
along that meridian line was to be prolonged to the Frozen Ocean.
The 4th Article explained the third as giving the whole of Prince of Wales' Island
to Russia; and win n the summit of the mountains should exceed ten marine leagues
from the coast, then the boundary was to be formed by a line drawn parallel to the
windings of the coast at the distance often marine leagues.
The 5th Article bound the two contracting parties not to form establishments
within the limits respectively assigned to the possessions of the other.
The 6th gave to Great Britain t^e privilege of navigating freely all the rivers and
streams which in their course toward the Pacific might cross the strip of land on the
coast assigned to Russia.
The 7th mutually conceded the right of trading with the respective possessions of
each other for a period of ten years.
The 8th opened the port of Sitka to the commerce and vessels of British subjects
for the same period, and provided that in case an extension of the term be granted
to any other power the same extension should be granted to Great Britain.
The four remaining articles regulate some minor points which are not of sufficient
importance to be detailed. By this Convention Great Britain secured for Herself as
far as Russia was coucerned all that was important for Her commercial interests.
(Opuscit.j pp. 120-125.)
The explanatory words in brackets have been added by the writer to
secure clearness.
12. It forms an interesting confirmation of the little weight laid by
Great Britain on the matter of territorial limitation in its minor details
to find, in the Life of the Bight Hon. Stratford Canning by Col. Lane-
Poole (London; Longmans, Green & Co., 1888, 2 vols., 8vo.), a work
which, besides embalming greajter things, fairly teems with the trifles
of petty diplomacy, only the following paragraph in regard to the negotiations alluded to:
The object of this instrument [the treaty of 1825] was a good deal more than a
mere question of boundary, though the latter was made to cover and mask the larger
design. A Russian ukase of 1821 had advanced claims to exclusive maritime rights
in the Pacific, and some public repudiation of this inadmissible pretence had to be
made on the part of England. This was to be accomplished in a friendly and innocent manner by the first article of the new boundary treaty, in which our maritime
and fishing rights in the Pacific were clearly maintained. The article was debated
by Nesselrode and Poletica, but the treaty was finally agreed to 28 February, without any material concessions on the side of England.   (Omis Git,,, Vol. I, p. 363.)
13. These extracts show conclusively that so far from entering into a
detailed study of the minutise of the line suggested by Eussia, the
British negotiators paid but little attention to it and its geographical
relations, their desires and intentions hinging almost exclusively on the
repudiation of the principles involved in the ukase of 1821.
14. It is also sufficiently evident from the above citations, as it is
from every scrap of written evidence historically available, that Bussia's
object was to secure to herself the control of the "islands and shores| ALASKA
BRITISH  COLUMBIA  BOUNDARY   LINE.
19
northward of latitude 54° 40', and, as the wording of the delimitory
•clauses appears to have been that suggested by the Russian negotiators,
that she supposed that wording to be sufficiently precise for the purpose. Nor was she alone in this opinion. Whenever by British authorities any reference is made to this subject during the succeeding half
century, the Russian position and construction of the treaty is not only
not opposed, it is taken as a matter of course. One citation, among
the many which might be made, to prove this, will suffice for present
purposes.
Sir George Simpson, governor of the Hudson Bay Territory and a
director of the Hudson Bay Company, an astute man of affairs, and
who focused in his own person all the interests which might profit by
■any insecurity of Russia in the generally received construction of the
wording of the treaty, made in 1841 a voyage around the world, it is
believed with diplomatic as well as other purposes in view. He visited
southeastern Alaska, of which the fur trade*was then under lease to
the Hudson Bay Company, and the coast of British Columbia, etc. He
published in 1847 an account of his travels in two volumes. In the
second volume (p. 209) we find the following observations:
Russia, as the reader is of course aware, possesses on the mainland between latitude 54° 40' and latitude 60 degrees only a strip, never exceeding 30 miles in depth ;
■and this strip, in the absence of such an arrangement as has just been mentioned [the
■aforesaid lease], renders the interior comparatively useless to England.
15. It does not, in the writer's opinion, require further argument to
enforce the conclusion that whatever construction be placed on the
wording of the treaty to conform to the historic evidence and practical
international usage of the two parties most interested, that construction must assume:
(1) That the parallel of 54° 40/ north latitude was the dominating
factor.
(2) That the coast and islands north of that parallel and excepting
the right of river navigation were wholly and entirely conceded to the
sovereignty of Russia.
(3) That the geographical basis upon which both parties rested their
delimitating description was based on the charts of Vancouver, of which
the edition used was probably the French translation of 1799.
16. We may now proceed, using the officially-revised copy of the treaty,
to discuss the wording in those points in which it concerns the boundary.
According to Vancouver's chart, as already herein stated, the southern headlands of the body of land called by him Prince of Wales Island
were supposed to graze the parallel of 54° 40'. Their position has not
yet been officially determined within the limit of accuracy now possible
to geodetic surveyors with the best instruments. As Vancouver's latitudes depended on the use of the sextant of those early days, there was
an evident possibility that the position of the headlands might finally
prove to be a mile or two north or south of the accepted parallel. To
avoid a wording by which Russia (in the event of the headlands being
shown to project south of that parallel) should be deprived of sovereignty over the few acres concerned, the proviso was made that the
island called Prince of Wales Island should belong wholly to Russia.
This conclusion seems quite self-evident, and is in harmony with the
rest of the treaty. We have seen no other explanation worthy of consideration so much as suggested.
17. It having been decided after years of controversy that the parallel of 54° and 40' should constitute the essential part of the boundary
line, it probably did not occur to any of the parties concerned that 20 ALASKA AND  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  BOUNDARY  LINE.
before stating where the boundary line should diverge from it, they bacE
omitted to state that the said boundary line should follow the parallel;
to the point of divergence from the point on that parallel wher$ they
specified the boundary line should begin. Nevertheless, as we have
already shown, there is no other conclusion in harmony with the progress of the negotiations, and it has been tacitly accepted for half a century by all concerned. We therefore hold that the intent of Article III
of the Convention of 1825 is to betaken as if the interpolated words in
brackets formed part of it:
Commencing from the southernmost point of the island called Prince of Wales' Island, which point lies in the parallel of 54 degrees 40 minutes north latitude, and between the 131st and 133rd degrees of west longitude (meridian of Greenwich) the sail
line [proceeding along the said parallel of 54° 40'J shall ascend to the north along
the channel called Portland Channel, (etc.)
18. At this point we come across another difficulty, or, rather, one
has been suggested very-recently. By a careful study of Vancouver's-
text it is evident that there is on this point a certain discrepancy between his charts and his text. In reading over his whole account of
the survey of this inlet and its branches (Vancouver, official English
edition, Vol. II, pp. 329,330,331,334-340, and 371), he seems to have varied a little in his notions, but his final treatment of Observatory Inlet
extends it to Points Wales and Maskelyne, while in another place he
seems to regard it as beginning at Point Ramsden (cf. op. cit. II, p. 375)w
On the other hand, he treats Portland Inlet as continuing to the sea
behind Wales and Pearse Islands. So that, if the treaty is to be tried
by Vancouver's text, it will result in giving to Great Britain the above-
mentioned islands and some other small ones.
But on Vancouver's charts the names of Portland Canal and Observatory Inlet are not extended southward to the main body of the iulet
south of Point Ramsden. They are attached to the two bifurcations,
extending northward of which Portland Canal is the longer and most
important. This is especially marked on chart 7, where there is abundance of room for extending the names southward if that had been de*
sired by the cartographer. On the other chart, that of the northwest
coast in general (No. 3, French edition), which is on a/very much smaller
scale, the names, especially | Entree de l'Observatoire," do extend some
distance south of Point Ramsden; but when compared with the larger
and much more detailed chart 7, where this is not the case, the inference
by a non-critical observer would be merely that there is not room for
the name on chart 3 alongside the inlet northward from Point Ramsden,,
and that the extension was merely accidental. At all events, the larger
and more detailed chart would be likely to produce the strongest impression on the minds of those examining both, and we may be quite
certain, in view of the education at that time in v.ogue, that none of
these gentlemen were geographers or qualified geographical critics.N
There will therefore be little improbability in the assumption that
the longer northern part and the broader southern part were regarded
as one inlet, under the name of Portland Channel or Canal, to which
Observatory Inlet became tributary at Point Ramsden. This on the
same principle, by which of a newly-mapped river the largest and
most important ramification is selected to bear the river name from its-
source to the sea, while others are regarded as tributaries.
This is the natural view to take, as' nobody would mouse out the
minutiae of Vancouver's text when they had, as they might justly infer,,
the resultant of it in the graphic form of his detailed chart. This view
I believe to have been taken by the negotiators, as it certainly has since K
ALASKA  AND  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  BOUNDARY  LINE.
21
been taken by the British Admiralty office, on its charts (1853), and by
•everybody else until the present revival of controversy.
19. It will hardly be denied that, in the construction of the meaning
of the treaty, we are to be guided by what the negotiators had before
them, and the ideas they held, rather than by what was unknown and
unconsidered by them. It can not be assumed that these gentlemen,
after the manner of antiquaries or philologists, made searching investigations into Vancouver's nomenclature or microscopic comparisons of
his charts one with another.
The most reasonable, indeed, we may fairly say, in view of all the
evidence, the only reasonable conclusion is that they took as a basis for
their discussion, without research or special comparison in details, the
two charts (Nos. 3 and 7, French edition) in Vancouver's atlas which
related to the region concerned; that they assumed their essential correctness for the purpose and were well aware that no other charts existed to which a higher grade of accuracy could be assigned.
I may add that there are to be found in Vancouver's text, when carefully compared with his charts, several instances of such discrepancies.
No one can be surprised at this when aware of the melancholy circumstances under which his life was terminated just as his report was issuing
from the press. I may add that, as is the general rule in such cases,
subsequent geographers haye followed the charts rather than the text
in their use of the work.
20. We conclude, then, that an unpartisan survey of the circumstances
would lead to the acceptance, in this instance, of the usage which has
obtained among geographers in general, and those of the British Admiralty in particular, since the negotiation was concluded, and against
which no single objection has been raised until the present time. Besides the fact that it has been adopted, the line drawn through Portland Inlet has the obvious advantage of being the natural as well as
the conventional way northward of the boundary departing from the
parallel of 54° 40'; and that this was the reason it was selected by the
Russian negotiators I have not personally a particle of doubt.
The passage behind Pearse and Wales Islands is very narrow and
obstructed by rocks. It also has several entrances at its southwestern
-extreme, which would lead to new difficulties of selection. Pearse and
Wales Islands, though not small, are very narrow, high, rocky, bold
islands, valueless for any purposes as far as now known. The general
features of this vicinity are indicated on the XL S. Coast Survey reconnaissance charts reproduced herewith.
21. As we are confronted by a hiatus in the wording of the 'treaty,
which jumps from Cape Muzon ("the southernmost point of Prince of
Wales island") to Portland Canal or Channel, so, as we proceed in order, at the head of the inlet we v are met with another hiatus in the
wording:
The said line shall ascend to the north along the channel called Portland Chanel
:as far as the point of the continent where it strikes the 56th degree of north latitude.
Now by Vancouver's observations Portland Canal does not reach the
fifty-sixth degree of north latitude. By the most recent British survey,
even including the estuary of a small stream at the head, the inlet falls
short of that latitude about 3 miles, but on Vancouver's chart about
five times as much. Vancouver is probably wrong in the latitude, but
this is of no help to us.   Furthermore:
From the last mentioned point the line of demarcation shall follow the summit of
the mountains situated parallel to the coast (efc.). 22 ALASKA  AND  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  BOUNDARY  LINE.
I
Now, if the channel did reach the latitude of 56 degrees north, there
would necessarily be a hiatus between it and the " summit of the
mountains" for which no provision is made.
The rational rendering of the clause is not difficult to conceive. The
negotiators merely intended that, following the channel as long as it
was available, the line should be projected in the same direction until
it reached the said parallel, along which it was to extend to the summit of the mountains which are represented on Vancouver's chart 7, as
existing in this vicinity in about latitude 55° 50' to 55° 55' north, and
on his general chart in latitude 56° to 56° 15'. The mean latitude for
the summit would be about latitude 56 degrees. That this is the correct
explanation is confirmed by Stapleton, who says:
The line * * * was * * * to ascend to the north along Portland Channel
as far as the point of the continent where it would strike the 56th degree of north latitude,,
etc.
This is obviously the interpretation which common sense would suggest in the absence of such historical confirmation.
22. As the "summit of the mountains" and the waters of the channel
can not be conceived to physically coincide it is obvious that their intersection was not intended. It was perfectly apparent that the channel
and the fifty-sixth degree of north latitude were separated on Vancouver's chart by some 15 geographical miles, consequently an intersection of
these two could not have been intended. But the only remaining construction which can be put upon the wording is that the line of demarka-
tion and the fifty-sixth parallel should intersect, which is in accordance
with common sense and the historic record, as well as the subsequent
usage of the parties interested, and must therefore be adopted.
23. We now come to the "crest of the mountains situated parallel to-
the coast." What could have suggested this expression? We turn to
Vancouver's charts for a reply. There we find the area behind the sea-
level on the mainland covered with the conventional signs, which, in the
cartography of those days, signified mountainous or broken country.
The area so treated varies in width on different parts of the coast and
is bounded on the interior by a much higher and, for the most part, continuous range of mountains, indicated in the conventional manner. This,
range is separated from the sea by a distance which, in some places,
does not much exceed 5 miles, while in other places, measured at right
angles to the axis of the range, it is over 40 miles.
We have already shown that a mean position for the crest, taking:
charts 3 and 7 into consideration, is very close to 56 degrees north latitude, at the intersection of the produced "line of demarkation" north of
Portland Channel. In logic as well as trigonometry, one intersection of
two projected lines gives probability to the correctness of its location,
but a third coinciding with the first amounts to proof positive of the
correctness of the joint intersection. We may fairly claim, then, to have
established in this manner the following first principles:
(1) That it was the "line of demarkation" which was to intersect
with the fifty-sixth parallel.
(2) That the " summit of the mountains " was the crest of the range
represented on the chart as coinciding practically with the above intersection.
24. Furthermore, though there are numerous spurs and short ranges,
of less importance indicated more or less scattered over the conventional mountainous area, the above range is the only one which preserves, together with a general*parallelism to the coast, a fairly continuous domination over all other mountains represented on the chart k
ALASKA  AND  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  BOUNDARY  LINE,
25
between Portland Canal and the meridian of 141 degrees west of
Greenwich. It was (assuming its existence, as the negotiators must
have done) the obvious and only natural line of demarcation possible
under the circumstances.
There are, however, a few breaks in this natural rampart as indicated
by Vancouver; the most marked on the general chart is at the head
of the Taku Inlet or estuary. For the bridging of these some provision was necessary; so in the following article it was provided that
when the crest (crete) of these mountains shall prove to be at more
than ten marine leagues from the ocean the limit or boundary shall be
formed—
hy aline parallel to the sinuosities of the coast and which shall never exceed the
distance often marine leagues therefrom.
25. Had the topography of the main-land been really what the negotiators supposed and what Vancouver depicted, it is not probable that
any important difference of opinion would ever have arisen about thq,
boundary.
But we now have the best of reasons for the belief that no such
dominating range exists, at least until the Alpine region west and
north of Cross Sound and the Alexander Archipelago is reached.
What shall be substituted for it with justice to our neighbors and the
proper reservation of the rights of the (Tnited States is a problem with
which this memorandum is not concerned. Here we have endeavored
to resuscitate, as far as practicable, the circumstances under which the
definition of the Russian territory was produced, the circumstances
which determined its wording, and a fair and unpartisan construction
of its intended meaning. If we have succeeded in throwing any light
on these obscure points our object will have been accomplished.
\S
No. 6.
Supplementary memorandum on the views of General Cameron, as submitted in the letter of Dr. George M. Dawson to Sir Charles Tupper, in
regard to the Alaskan boundary, by William H. Dall.
1. The letter herewith reprinted was courteously furnished with the
permission of Sir Charles Tupper by Dr. Dawson. It had been requested by the writer, in order that some definite statement might be
had of some very surprising claims which were being discussed by unofficial agencies. As those of a venerable and gallant officer, however
unversed in history or logic, General Cameron's views deserve attention ; and, in showing their irrationality, I wish to repudiate once for
all any intention of reflecting upon him personally, or upon any of the
enthusiastic persons north of the United States who have recently
amused themselves by coloring maps of North America in accordance
with those views.
2. With the introductory remarks of Dr. Dawson, the reader who
has followed the reasoning of my memorandum on the boundary will
observe that I am in general accord. One exception to this must be
taken.   Dr. Dawson says:
The fact alone that these conventional mountain features are not even similarly
placed on the corresponding portions of Vancouver's overlapping charts, mast have
been sufficient to show that jio dependence could be placed on them.   The only line 24 ALASKA  AND   BRITISH  COLUMBIA  BOUNDARY  LINE.
of mountains which is practically identical on the various charts, and the existence
of which could be confirmed by reference to Vancouver's detailed description, is that
which is represented as everywhere rising immediately from the coast and which
borders upon the sea. It is therefore to the summits of these mountains immediately
bordering the coast that the words of the convention must be understood to refer.
Only in the case of the absence of mountains is the 10 marine league limit admissible,
and then under certain conditions, for general parallelism with the coast is also
essential.
It was no doubt in consequence of the distinctly conventional mode of representation of the mountains on Vancouver's charts, and the necessary inference that they
did not accurately represent the facts, that the limiting clause was inserted in the convention.
3. I have already shown in my memorandum that (1) there is no reason to believe that Vancouver's charts and text were subjected to any
critical comparison whatever. If there had been any one competent to
critically compare them concerned in the matter, it is highly improbable
that so slipshod a definition of the boundary line would ever have
been adopted.
(2) There is not in Vancouver's Atlas any continuous line of mountains represented as everywhere arising immediately from the coast and
which borders upon the sea. The seashore forms the edge of an area
conventionally indicated as mountainous, which is a different thing.
Moreover, the true line of mountains has, I believe, been positively identified in the memorandum.
(3) I have already stated what seem to me to be the obvious reasons
for the insertion of the limiting clause.
4. General Cameron's views may be taken up seriatim. As quoted
by Dr. Dawson they begin :
In the second clause of the fourth article provision is made for the case of the
mountains being found at more than 10 marine leagues inland, and it is there laid
down that the measurements shall be made not from inlets, but from the ocean.
It will be observed here that the insertion of the words " not from
inlets, but" gives what is really a very false impression, though doubtless not so intendedi It assumes the whole point of contention, and
can not be admitted as it stands.   The general continues:
The convention stipulates, | Que partout oil la crete des montagnes, qui s'e'tendent
dans une direction parallele a la cdte * * . * se trouverait a la distance de-plus de
dix lieues marines del'ocean * * * la limite * * * sera former par une ligne
parallele a la cdte, et qui ne pourra jamais en 6tre eloigned que de dix lieues marines."
The word ocean is wholly inapplicable to inlets.
This last sentence, it will be observed, is pure assumption, unsupported
by reason, history, or fact, but a very convenient way of deciding the
question in advance and saying the trouble of making an argument.
The decision naturally follows with military promptitude—
consequently the line, whether marked by mountains or only be a survey line, has to
be drawn without reference to inlets.
Had it not been so clearly provided against by express stipulation in the second
clause of the fourth article of the convention—
Unfortunately there does not appear to be any "clear provision" or
"express stipulation" in the second clause of the fourth article which
bears upon the general line of announceraQnt (for we can not call it
argument) which the general is giving us; but in the next clause we
come at last upon something tangible, as follows:
and by the accepted principles of international law, it might, in the case of the
absence of mountains, be agreed that the breadth of the Usiere* should be measured
*Lisiere literally means list, the continuous strip of selvage on the edge of woolen
cloth, and hence has become applicable to any continuous narrow strip or margin-
ating band. ALASKA  AND  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  BOUNDARY  LINE.
10
from the sea water's edge, wherever—in inlet or elsewhere—it outlined the cortment,
and that this being the coast-line, where no mountains exist within 10 leagues, is
equally the coast-line whence to determine the mountains nearest to the coast.
But, as said above, inlets in either alternative, the occurrence or non-occurrence
of mountains within 10 leagues, are not part of the coast line determining the boundary.
The last paragraph is again purely annunciatory.   But to proceed:
None of the inlets between Portland Channel and the meridian of 141 degrees west
longitude are 6 miles in width, excepting, perhaps, a short part of Lynn Canal; consequently, with that possible exception, the width of territory on the coast assigned
under the convention to Russia may not be measured from any point within the
mouths of the inlets. All the waters within the mouths of the inlets are as much
territorial waters, according to an universally admitted international law, as those
•of a fresh-water lake or stream would be under analogous circumstances.
As far as non-mountainous country may extend, but within 10 marine leagues of
the ocean, the inlets are in fact included by the convention within la Usidre de cdte
mentionnee ci-dessus conime devant appartenir a la Russie.
On the other hand, so much of these inlets as happen to be in mountainous territory, or beyond 10 marine leagues from the ocean, together with the dry land about
them, is assigned to Great Britain as much as are rivers and lakes in the same regions.
Nothing short of an express stipulation to the contrary effect would, it is conceived,
serve to maintain the proposition that inland waters in the Usiere de cote assigned to
Russia were not part and parcel of that Usiere. But if they were really part and
parcel of the Usiere itself, their mere existence can not possibly be a reasonable foundation for arguing that they involve an increase of the breadth of the lisi&re of which
they are component parts.
The limits of the Usihre are by the convention expressly dependent on the relative
positions of ocean line and neighboring mountain line. The only reference to inlets
in the convention (Art. VII) is in a form almost directly declaratory of assent to the
-doctrine of territorial authority over them.
Though expressed with extreme obscurity of language, the idea which
lies at the bottom of this contention is at least perceptible.
Civilized nations have agreed that to a certain limit from the shore
the waters of the ocean and their ramifications shall be as subject to
the sovereign authority of the seaboard nation for administrative purposes as if those parts were dry land.
By a legal fiction, for such purposes this part of the ocean is called
territory, though not one drop of water is converted into land by that
fiction.
Now comes General Cameron with this legal fiction as a yard-stick,
and proposes to measure the area of a piece of property which is held
by a deed expressed in "metes and bounds." In other and homely
phrase, he is trying to " measure clover-seed by the yard."
5. Apart from the essential and inexpugnable irrationality of such a
proceeding, the contention may be refuted with ease in several ways:
(1) By the historical method. The historical development of the Russian colonies in America in their territorial relation has been traced in
my " memorandum." It is not necessary to recapitulate it here. It is
needless to say that it gives no support to General Cameron's hypothesis. It shows that Russia needed, asked, and obtained the possession
of the entire undivided coast margin, subject only to a hypothetical
right of navigation through the rivers heading in the interior, which
was never exercised.
(2) By the reductio ad absurdam. It happens that there are none of
the islands in the archipelago north of Dixon's Entrance which do
not at some point approach within 6 miles of one another or of the continental shore. They are all mountainous. As General Cameron, if he
applies his hypothesis, has no right to apply it partially or imperfectly,
it will follow that all the archipelago for that purpose will become
solid land. Of this "land" there would be a,strip, excluding all of the
continent, in no place less than 50 and sometimes over 80 miles wide. f
26 ALASKA  AND  BRITISH   COLUMBIA  BOUNDARY  LINE.
Under the treaty not over 30 miles from the ocean could be possessed
by Russia when not mountainous, and as the mountains come to the sea
nearly all the way from Cape Muzon to Cape Spencer, the only property possessed by Russia in the archipelago would have been (1)
Prince of Wales Island, which in the treaty is absolutely given to her,
and (2) a strip a mile or two in average width on the ocean shores of
the most seaward of the islands. It is perfectly easy to verify this
if one would take such trouble, and it is certainly absurd enough for
anybody.
There are other ways, if more were needed, of puncturing this hypothesis, but the above will suffice for the present.
6. There is a point in General Cameron's next paragraph which illustrates how remarkably the line of contention adopted by him lends itself
to argument in any direction.
The paragraph is as follows:
If the sovereignty over inlets does not pass in accordance with the doctrine that
they are part and parcel of the surrounding territory there was no occasion for the
reciprocal concession made in the seventh article for right to navigate these inlets-
Those who have followed the historical data of my memorandum
will not need to be told that the concession in Article VII, which allows
ten years' free trade in the archipelago, was given to Great Britain
becstuse it had been given to the United States one year before, and was
given to the United States as a sort of sop, to quiet the cry for permanent rights of trading there, owing to the fact that American vessels
had traded there freely for nearly thirty years.
Moreover, if by General Cameron's hypothesis the heads of all the
inlets were British territory there was no need of any concession by
Russia for her to reach them. She would have had the right of access,
without any treaty, to her own ports, by the most ordinary principles
of law, and any such concession as that of Russia would have operated
to diminish and derogate from those rights rather than increase them,
unless it distinctly stated in set terms that the right of trading and
navigation through the archipelago was in addition to the rights of
which Great Britain (by that hypothesis) was already in possession.
7. It is, of course, in view of all the facts, nothing less than preposterous to suppose that Russia would have accepted a treaty which cut
her "strip" of main-land into several portions, or that Great Britain*
having the right to occupy with trading posts the richest fur region of
the archipelago, and represented by the Hudson Bay Company, the
keenest corporation of that period, should nevertheless not only not
assert and use these rights, but on the other hand pay money and otter
skins for these very privileges to a foreign and competing corporation.
8. General Cameron continues:
Regarded from this point of view rivers and inlets are identical. As reasonable,
then, would it be to hold that under the convention the breadth of the Usidre assigned
to Russia is determined by the head waters of its rivers as that the head waters of its
creeks and inlets regulate its breadth.
In this we heartily agree with the general, and believe not only that
it is "as reasonable," but that it is the undoubted and invincible truth
that the river valleys are not the "crest of the mountains," and when
they extend more than 30 miles from the coast that the seaward portion
of them is the property and possession of the United States up to the
30-mile "line drawn parallel to the sinuosities of the coast."
9. We now come to the second part of the general's report, which
.treats of the Portland Canal or Inlet question. In this we discover the
soldierly qualities of his pen as conspicuously exhibited as heretofore, ALASKA  AND  BRITISH   COLUMBIA  BOUNDARY  LINE.
27
and with even more courage.   He attacks the theory that Portland-
Canal means Portland Canal, and demolishes it as follows:
With further reference to the position of the boundary, as provided for by the convention, it may be stated that the contention has been advanced by the Government-
of British Columbia that the words "dite Portland Channel" in Article III are-
palpably erroneous and not in conformity with the detailed description of the course*
of the line, on the following grounds:
The portion of the article in question reads: "A partir du point le plus m6ridionaide File dite Prince of Wales * * * la dite ligne remontera au nord le long de*
la passe dite Portland Channel jusqu'au point de la terre ferme ou elle atteint le 56me-
degre" de latitude nord," etc.
Now, to reach the entrance of Portland Channel from the point first defined the
line must run about 50 miles east of north, and, moreover, by ascending Portland
Channel it can not strike the main-land in latitude 56 degrees north, as the channel
terminates before reaching this latitude, and was known so to terminate at the time
of Vancouver's survey.
If, however, the name only of Portland Channel be omitted, and the directions,
given be precisely followed, the line will ascend Clarence Strait and reach the mainland at the stated latitude and by the stated course. The several directions with respect to the line of boundary may, it is argued, be considered as more authoritative than the single mention of Portland Channel.
The inner meaning of this heroic argument is that its originator has-
discovered that between the termination of Portland Canal and latitude
56 degrees north there is a hiatus, and he thereupon goes about to
find a way to dispense with that hiatus. He is so much engrossed by
the fact that he has found a way to reach the parallel of 56 degrees by
water that he has omitted to observe that by this process he has created
a new hiatus. It is not conceivable that he regards the "crest of the
mountains" as situated in the channel of Burroughs Bay, where he terminates his water-line. But his new line provides no way for getting
to the "crest of the mountains", from the water, so his argument, all
other points being waived temporarily, is as "palpablyerroneous," and
for the same reason, as the construction it was intended to overthrow..
Of course the historical argument, as detailed in my "memorandum,"'
renders any further attention to the present hypothesis unnecessary;
but it may not be undesirable to point out that the treaty contemplated
that the "line of demarcation" should pass through one channel, passage, or named body of water. The new hypothesis carries it through*
three, which were named by Vancouver; i. e., Clarence Strait, Behrn
Canal, and Burroughs Bay. There is no reason why this should have
been done, as the line of 56 degrees north latitude can be reached
through Clarence Strait with less divergence from a northerly course
than by the route suggested, and, though the hiatus is bigger there,,
in principle it does not differ from a smaller one. Besides this, a little-
more territory would have been added to the hypothetical Canada by
the direct northerly line. There are other routes which present advantages, and in fact if one has courage to repudiate explicit statements in*
the treaty there is hardly anything impossible to be made out of it.
10. The general's argument then proceeds to its third point, that
is to say, the construction to be placed on the name Portland Channel-
Here his argument, provided one admits that the treaty is to be construed by the text of Vancouver, is sound.   He says:
Apart from the above contention of the British Columbian Government, it is at
least certain that if the line of boundary was intended to follow Portland Channel,
it was the channel so named by Vancouver, the lower part of which channel passes
to the north of Wales and Pearse Islands of recent charts. The line has been erroneously shown on many maps as running to the south of these islands, along part ot
Observatory Inlet of Vancouver, in consequence of a confusion of nomenclature in
the region, which it has been ascertained first occurred on an Admiralty chart published in 1853, and which has thereafter been followed and copied on other charts and.;
maps. f
;28
ALASKA  AND  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  BOUNDARY  LINE.
This matter has already been discussed in my "Memorandum." The
answer to the contention is that we must construe the treaty, not by
the details of Vancouver's text, which were insufficiently represented
on his chart, but by the facts which the negotiators supposed they had
before them in his charts and the subsequent usage of geographers.
The sticklers for the adoption of the ideas found in Vancouver's text
may safely be challenged to find a single map or chart published before 1860 in which the name of Portland Canal or Channel is applied
to the waters behind Pearse and Wales Islands. Unless they can find
•■a majority of the charts and maps expressing that view it maybe safely
denied that those waters are or have been, at any time, to geographers
" known as Portland Channel." Even the official maps published in
1884 under the direction of the Hon. W. Smithe, chief commissioner of
dands and works for British Columbia, and on which General Cameron's
new boundary line is inserted, still retain the names of Portland Canal
and Observatory Inlet in the places where Vancouver charted them
and where they have by the common consent of cartographers ever since
remained.
No. 7.
^Convention between the United States of America and His Majesty the
Emperor of all the Bussias, relative to navigating, fishing, etc., in the
Pacific Ocean.
/[Concluded April 17, 1824;  ratifications exchanged January 11,1825;  proclaimed
January 12, 1825.]
[Original.
[Translation.
Au nom de la tres Sainte et Indivisi-   In the name of the most holy and in-
ble Trinite. divisible Trinity.
Le President des Etats Unis
«l'Amerique, et Sa Majesty l'Em-
pereur de toutes les Bussies, vou-
lant cimenter les liens d'amitie qui
les unissent, et assurer entre eux le
maintien invariable d'un parfait
accord, moyennant la presente Convention, ont nomme pour leurs
Phmipotentiaires a cet effet, savoir:
Le President des Etats Unis
'd'Amerique, le Sieur Henry Mid-
dleton, citoyen des dits Etats, et
Jeur Envoye Extraordinaire et
Ministre Plenipotentiaire pres Sa
Majeste Imperiale: et Sa Majesty
1'Empereur de toutes les Bussies,
ses ames et f6aux les Sieurs
-Charles Eobert Comte de JSTes-
&elrode, Conseiller Priv6 actuel,
Membre du Conseil d'Etat, Secretaire d'E tat Dirigeant le Minist&re
•des affaires 6trang6res, Ohambellan
actuel, Chevalier de l'ordre de St.
The President of the United
States of America, and His Majesty
the Emperor of all the Bussias,
wishing to cement the bonds of
amity which unite them and to secure between them the invariable
maintenance of a perfect concord,
by means of the present Convention, have named as their Plenipotentiaries to this effect, to wit:
The President of the United States
of America, Henry Middleton,
a citizen of said States, and their
Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary near his Imperial Majesty: and His Majesty the
Emperor of all the Bussias, his
beloved and faithful Charles
Eobert Count of Nesselrode,
actual Privy Counsellor, Member
of the Council of State, Secretary
of State directing the administration   of Foreign  Affairs, actual
■■■■■ ALASKA AND  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  BOUNDARY  LINE.
2$
Alexandre Xevsky, Grand Croix
de l'ordre de St. Wladimir de la
Ire classe, Chevalier de celui de
l'aigle blanc de Pologne, Grand
Oroix de l'ordre de St. Etienne
d'Hongrie, Chevalier des ordres du
St Esprit et de St. Michel et
Grand Croix de celui de la Legion
d'Honneur de France, Chevalier
Grand Croix des ordres de l'aigle
noir et de l'aigle rouge de Prusse,
de Pannonciade de Sardaigne, de
Charles III d'Espagne, de St. Ferdinand et du m6rite de Naples, de
PElephantdeDanemarc, de 1'Etoile
Polaire de Suede, de la Couronne
de Wurteinberg, des Guelphes de
Hanovre, du Lion Beige, de la
Fidelity de Bade, et de St. Constants de Parme: et Pierre de
Poletic a , Conseil ler d'Etat actuel,
Chevalier de l'ordre de St. Anne
de la Ire classe et Grand Croix de
l'ordre de St. Wladimir de la
seconde; lesquels apr&s avoir
^change leurs pleins-pouvoirs,
trouv6s en bonne et due forme, ont
arrets et sign6 les stipulations
suivantes.
ARTICLE PREMIER.
II est convenu que dans aucune
partie du grand oc6an, appeM com-
munement Oe6an Pacifique on Mer
du Sud, les citoyens ou sujets re-
spectifs des hautes puissances con-
tractantes ne seront ni troubl6s,
ni gen6s, soit dans la navigation,
soit dans Sexploitation de la peche,
soit dans la faculte d'aborder aux
cotes sur des points qui ne seroient
pas deja occup&s, a tin d'y faire le
commerce avec les indigenes, sauf
toutefois les restrictions et conditions d6termin6es par les articles
qui suivent.
ARTICLE DEUXlfeME.
Dans la vue d'empecber que les
droits de navigation et de peche
cxerces sur le grand ocean par les
citoyens et sujets des hautes puissances contractantes ne deviennent
le pr^texte d'un commerce illicite,
il est convenu, que les citoyens des
Etats Unis n'aborderont a aucuu
Chamberlain, Knight of the order
of St. Alexander Neysky, Grand
Cross of the order of St. Wladimir
of the first class, Knight of that of
the White Eagle of Poland, Grand
Cross of the order of St. Stephen
of Hungary, Knight of the orders of
the Holy Ghost and of St. Michael,
and Grand Cross of the Legion of
Honor of France, Knight Grand
Cross of the orders of the Black
and of the Bed Eagle of Prussia^
of the Annunciation of Sardinia,,
of Charles III. of Spain, of St. Ferdinand and of Merit of Naples, of
the Elephant of Denmark, of the-
Polar   Star  of   Sweden, of   the-
Crown   of  Wirtemberg,   of   the
Guelphs of Hanover, of the Belgic
Lion, of Fidelity of Baden, and of
St. Constantino  of Parma, and
Pierre    de   Poletica,   actual
Counsellor of State, Knight of the
order of St. Anne of the first class,
and Grand Cross of the order of
St. Wladimir of the second; who,
after having exchanged their full
powers, found in good and due
form, have agreed upon, and signed,,
the following stipulations.
article first.
It is agreed, that, in any part of
the Great Ocean, commonly called'
the Pacific Ocean or South Sea,.
the respective citizens or subjects-
of  the   high  contracting powers-
shall be neither disturbed nor restrained either in navigation, or in
fishing, or in the power of resorting to the coasts upon points which
may not already have been occupied, for the purpose of trading
with the natives, saving always
the restrictions and conditions determined by the following articles.
article second.
With the view of preventing the
rights of navigation and of fishing,.
exercised upon the great ocean by
the citizens and subjects of the-
high contracting powers, from becoming the pretext for an illicit
trade, it is agreed, that the citizens
of the United States shall not re- 30
ALASKA  AND   BRITISH  COLUMBIA  BOUNDARY  LINE,
point ou il se trouve un etablisse-
inent Busse, sans la permission
•du Gouverneur ou Commandant;
-et que reciproquement les sujets'
Busses ne pourront aborder sans
permission a aucun etabiissement
-des Etats-Unis sur la Cote nord
ouest.
ARTICLE  TROISlfeME.
II est convenu en outre, que do-
renavant il ne pourra 6tre forme
par les citoyens des Etats-Unis, ou
sous Pautoritedes dits Etats, aucun
Etabiissement sur la Cote nord
ouest d'Am^rique, ni dans aucune
•des lies adjacentes au nord du cin-
quante quatrieme degr6 etquarante
minutes de latitude septentrionale;
-et que de ineme il n'en pourra etre
■forme aucun par des sujets Busses,
ou sous Pautorite de la Bussie, au
sud de la rnerne paraHele.
ARTICLE QUATRIEME.
11 est n£anmoins entendu que
pendant un terme de dix annees k
•compter de la signature de la pre-
sente Convention, les vaisseaux de
deux Puissances, ou qui appartien-
droient a leurs citoyens ou sujets
respectifs, pourront reciproquement frequenter sans entrave quel-
conque, les mers int6rieures, les
golfes havres et criques sur la cote
mentionnee dans Particle precedent, afin d'y faire la p§che et le commerce avec les naturels du pays.
ARTICLE CINQUI&ME.
Sont toutefois except£es de ce
m6me commerce accords par Particle precedent, toutes les liqueurs
spiritueuses, les armes a feu, armes
blanches, poudre et munitions de
guerre de toute espece, que les
deux Puissances s'engagemt reciproquement a ne pas vendre, ni
laisser vendre aux Indigenes par
leurs citoyens et sujets respectifs,
ni par aucun individu qui se trou-
veroit sous leur autorite; II est
egalement stipule que cette restriction ne pourra jamais servir de
pretexte,. ni   etre   allegu6e  dans
autoriser soit la
sort to any point where there is a
Eussian establishment, without the
permission of the governor or commander; and that, reciprocally, the
subjects of Eussia shall not resort,
without permission, to any establishment of the United States upon
the Northwest Coast.
ARTICLE THIRD.
It is moreover agreed, that hereafter there shall not be formed by
the citizens of the United States, or
under the authority of the said
States, any establishment upon the
Northwest Coast of America, nor in
any of the Islands adjacent, to the
north of fifty-four degrees and forty
minutes of north latitude; and that,
in the same manner, there shall be
none formed by Eussian subjects, or
under the authority of Eussia, south
of the same parallel.
ARTICLE FOURTH.
It is nevertheless understood
that during a term of ten years,
counting from the signature of the
present convention ,the ships of both
powers, or which belong to their citizens or subjects respectively, may
reciprocally frequent without any
hindrance whatever, the interior
seas, gulphs, harbours, and creeks
upon the coast mentioned in the preceding article, for the purpose of
fishing and trading with the natives
of the country.
ARTICLE FIFTH.
All'spirituous liquors, fire-arms,
other arms, powder and munitions
of war of every kind, are always
excepted from this same commerce
permitted by the preceding article,
and the two powers engage, reciprocally, neither to sell, nor suffer
them to be sold to the natives by
their respective citizens and subjects, nor by any person who may
be under their authority. It is
likewise stipulated that this restriction shall never afford a pretext, nor be advanced, in any case,
to authorize either search or detention of the vessels, seizure of the ALASKA  AND   BRITISH  COLUMBIA   BOUNDARY  LINE,
31
visite ou la detention des Vais-
seaux, soit lasaisie de la marchan-
dise, soit enfin des mesures qu el-
con ques de contrainte envers les
armateurs ou les equipages qui
feroient ce commerce; les hautes
Puissances contractantes s'etant
reciproquement reserve de statuer
sur les peines a encourir, et d'in-
fliger les amendes encourues en cas
•de contravention a cet article, par
leurs citoyens ou sujets respectifs.
ARTICLE   SIXlfeME.
Lorsquecette Convention aura ete
•duement ratifiee par le President
des Etats Unis de Pavis et du con-
-sentement du Senat, d'une part, et
de Pautre par Sa Majeste PEmpe-
xeur de toutes les Bussies, les ratifications en seront echangees 4
Washington dans le deiai de dix
mois dela date ci-dessousouplutdt
si faire se peut. En foi de quoi les
Pienipotentiaires respectifs Pont
sign6e, et y ont fait apposer les
•cachets de leurs armes.
Fait a St. Petersbourg le "M Avril
de Pan de grace mil huit cent vingt
•quatre.
Henry Middleton. [l. s.J
Le Comte
Charles de Nesselrode. [l. s.]
Pierre de Poletica.       [l. s.j
merchandise, or, in fine, any measures of constraint whatever towards the merchants or the crews
who may carry on this commerce;
the high contracting Powers reciprocally reserving to themselves
to determine upon the penalties to
be incurred, and to inflict the punishments, in case of the contravention of this article, by their respective citizens or subjects.
article sixth.
When this Convention shall have
been duly ratified by the President
of the United States, with the advice and consent of the Senate on
the one part, and on the other by
his Majesty the Emperor of all the
Eussias, the ratifications shall be
exchanged at Washington in the
space of ten months from the date
below, or sooner if possible. In
faith whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed this Convention, and thereto affixed the
seals of their arms.
Done at St. Petersburg, the M
April of the year of Grace one
thousand eight hundred and
twenty-four.
Henry Middleton.
Le Comte
Charles de Nesselrode.
Pierre de Poletica.
No. 8.
Convention between Great Britain and Bussia.
tSigned at St. Petersburg!! February f|, 1825; presented to Parliament May 16,1825.]
In the Name of the Most Holy and   Au Nom de la Tres Sainte et Indi-
Undivided Trinity. visible Trinite.
[ Translation.]
His Majesty The King of the Sa Majeste le Eoi du Eoyaume
United Kingdom of Great Britain Unide La Grande Bretagne et de
-and Ireland, and His Majesty The PIrlande, et Sa Majeste PEmpereur
Emperor of all the Eussias, being de toutes les Eussies, desirant res-
desirous of drawing still closer the serrer les liens de bonne intelli-
Ties of good Understanding and gence et d'amiti6 qui les unissent, 32
ALASKA  AND   BRITISH   COLUMBIA  BOUNDARY  LINE.
Friendship which unite them, by
means of an Agreement which may
settle, upon a basis of reciprocal
convenience, different points connected with the Commerce, Navigation, and Fisheries of their Subjects on the Pacific Ocean, as well
as the limits of their respective
Possessions on the North West
Coast of America, havenamed Plenipotentiaries to conclude a Convention for this purpose, that is to
say :—His Majesty The King of
the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, The Eight Honourable Stratford Canning, a Member of His said Majesty's Most
Honourable Privy Council, &c, and
His Majesty The Emperor of all the
Eussias, The Sieur Charles Eobert
Count de Nesselrode, His Imperial
Majesty's Privy Councillor, a Member of the Council of the Empire,
Secretary of State for the Department of Foreign Affairs, &c, and
the Sieur Pierre de Poletica, His
Imperial Majesty's Councillor of
State, &c, Who, after having communicated to each other their respective Full Powers, found in
good and due form, have agreed
upon and signed the following Articles :
I. It is agreed that the respective
Subjects of the High Contracting
Parties shall not be troubled or
molested, in any part of the Ocean,
commonly called the Pacific Ocean,
either in navigating the same, in
fishing therein, or in landing at such
Parts of the Coast as shall not have
been already occupied, in order to
trade with the Natives, under the
restrictions and conditions specified in the following Articles.
II. In order to prevent the Eight
of navigating and fishing, exercised
upon the Ocean by the Subjects of
The High Contracting Parties, from
becoming the Pretext for an illicit
Commerce, it is agreed that the
Subjects of His Britannic Majesty
shall not land at any Place where
there may be a Eussian Establish-
au moyen d'un accord qui regleroitr
d'apres le principe des convenances-
reciproques, divers points relatifs
au Commerce, a la Navigation, et
aux P6cheries de leurs Sujets sur
POcean Pacifique, ainsi que les
limites de leurs Possessions res-
pectives sur la Cote Nord Ouest
de PAmerique, ont nomme de&
Pienipotentiairespour conclure une
Convention a cet effet, savoir:—
Sa Majeste le Eoi du Eoyaume
Uni de La Grande Bretagne et de
Plrlande, le Tr&s Honorable Stratford Canning, Conseillerde Sa Majeste en Son Conseil Prive, &c
Et Sa Majeste PEmpereur de
toutes les Eussies, le Sieur Charles-
Eobert Comte de Nesselrode, Son
ConseillerPrive actuel, Membre du
Conseil de PEmpire, Secretaire
d'Etat dirigeant le Ministere de&
Affaires Etrang&res, &c.; et le
Sieur Pierre de Poletica, Son Conseiller d'Etat actuel, &c. Lesquel&
Pienipotentiaires, apr&s s'etre communique leurs Plein-pouvoirs respectifs, trouves en bonne et due
forme, ont arrete et signe les Articles suivans:—
I. Ilestconvenuquedansaucune
partie du Grand Ocean, appeie com-
munement Ocean Pacifique, les Sujets respectifs des Hautes Puissances Oontractantes ne seront ni
troubles, ni g6nes, soit dans la navigation, soit dans Pexploitation dela
peche, soit dans la faculte d'aborder
au^ cdtes, sur des Points qui ne
seroient pas d6ja occupes, a tin d'y
faire le commerce avec les Indigenes, sauf toutefois les restrictions
et conditions determinees par les
Articles qui suivent.
II. Dans la vue d'empecher que-
les droits de navigation et de peche
exerces sur le Grand Ocean par les
Sujets des Hautes Parties Oontractantes, ne deviennenfc le pretexte
d'un commerce illicite, il est convent! que les Sujets de Sa Majeste
Britannique n'aborderbnt a aucun
Point ou il se trouve un Etablisse- ALASKA   AND   BRITISH  COLUMBIA  BOUNDARY   LINE,
33
ment, without the permission of the
Governor or Commandant; and, on
the other hand, that Eussian Subjects shall not land, without permission, at any British Establishment on the North-West Coast.
III. The line of demarcation between the Possessions of the High
Contracting Parties, upon the Coast
of the Continent, and the Islands
of America to the North-West, shall
be drawn in the following manner:—
Commencing from the Southernmost Point of the Island called
Prince of Wales Island, which
Point lies in the parallel of 54 Degrees 40 Minutes, North Latitude,
and between the 131st and 133d
Degree of West Longitude (Meridian of Greenwich), the said line
shall ascend to the North along the
Channel called Portland Channel,
as far as the Point of the Continent where it strikes the 56th Degree of North Latitude; from this
last mentioned Point the line of
demarcation shall follow the summit of the mountains situated parallel to the Coast, as far as the
point of intersection of the 141st
Degree of West Longitude (of the
same Meridian); and, finally, from
the said point of intersection, the
said Meridian Line of the 141st*De-
gree, in its prolongation as far as
the Frozen Ocean, shall form the
limit between the Eussian and British Possessions on the Continent of
America to the North West.
IV. With reference to the line
of demarcation laid down in the
preceding Article it is understood;
1st. Thatthe Island called Prince
of Wales Island shall belong wholly
to Eussia.
2d. That wherever the summit
of the mountains which extend in
a direction parallel to the Coast,
from the 56th degree of north Latitude to the point of intersection of
the 141st degree of West Longi*
tude, shall prove to be at the distance of more than ten marine
leagues from the Ocean, the limit
S. Ex. 146 3
ment Eusse, sans la permission du
Gouverneur ou Commandant, et
que, r6ciproquement, les Sujets
Busses ne pourront aborder, sans
permission, a aucun Etablissement
Britannique, sur la Cdte NordOuest.
III. La ligne de demarcation en-
tre les Possessions des Hautes Parties Contractantes sur la Cote du
Continent et les lies de PAmerique
Nord Ouest, sera trac6e ainsi qu'il
suit:—
A partir du Point le plus meridional de Pile dite Prince of Wales,
lequel Point se trouve sous la parallele du 54me degre 40 minutes de
latitude Nord, et entre lel31me et le
133me degre de longitude Ouest
(Meridien de Greenwich), la dite
ligne remontera au Nord le long de
la passe dite Portland Channel, jus-
qu'au Point de la terre ierme ou elle
atteint le 56me degr6 de latitude
Nord: de ce dernier point la ligne
de demarcation suivra la crete des
montagnes situ6es parallelement a
la Cote, jusqu'au point d'intersection du 141 me degre de longitude
Ouest (m^me Meridien); et, finale-
men t, du dit point d'intersection,
la meme ligne meridienne du 14lme
degre formera, dans son prolonge-
ment jusqu'a la mer Glaciale, la
limite entre les Possessions Eusses
et Britanniques sur le Continent de
PAmerique Nord Ouest.
IV. II est entendu, par rapport
a la ligne de demarcation deter-
ininee dans PArticle precedent:
1°. Que Pile dite Prince of Wales
appartiendra toute entiere 4 La
Eussie: *
2°. Que partout ou la crete des
montagnes qui s'etendent dans une
direction parallele a la Cote depuis
le 56me degre de latitude Nord au
point d'intersection du 141me degre de longitude Ouest, se trouve-
roit a la distance de plus de dix
lieues marines de POc6an, la limite
entre les Possessions Britanniques
I; 34
ALASKA  AND   BRITISH  COLUMBIA  BOUNDARY   LINE.
between the British Possessions
and the line of Coast which is to
belong to Russia, as above-mentioned, shall be formed by a line
parallel to the windings of the
Coast, and which shall never ex
ceed the distance of ten marine
leagues therefrom.
V. It is moreover agreed, that
no Establishment shall be formed
by either of the Two Parties*within
the limits assigned by the two preceding Articles to the Possessions,
of the Other: consequently, British Subjects shall not form any
Establishment either upon the
Coast, or upon the border of the
Continent comprised within the
limits of the Eussian Possessions,
as designated in the two preceding
Articles; and, in like manner, no
Establishment shall * be formed by
Eussian Subjects beyond the said
limits.
VI. It is understood that the
Subjects of His Britannic Majesty,
from whatever Quarter they may
arrive, whether from the Ocean, or
from the interior of the Continent,
shall for ever enjoy the right of
navigating freely, and without any
hindrance whatever, all the rivers
and streams which, in their course
towards the Pacific Ocean, may
cross the line of demarcation upon
the line of coast described in Article 3 of the present Convention.
VII. It is also understood, that,
for the space often Tears from the
signature of the present Convention, the Vessels of the Two
Powers, or those belonging to their
respective Subjects, shall mutually
be at liberty to frequent, without
any hindrance whatever, all the
inland Seas, the Gulfs, Havens,
and Creeks on the Coast mentioned
in Article 3 for the purposes of
fishing and of trading with the
Natives.
VIII. The port of Sitka, or Novo
Archangelsk, shall be open to the
Commerce and Vessels of British
Subjects for the space of ten Years
from the date of the exchange of
the Eatifications of the  present
et la lisiere de Cote mentionnee ci-
dessus comme devant appartenir &
La Eussie, sera formee par une
ligne parallele aux sinuosites de la
Cdte, et qui ne pourra jamais en
etre eioignee que de dix lieues marines.
V. II est convenu en outre, que
nul Etablissement ne sera forme
par Pune des deux Parties dans les
limites que les deux Articles prece-
dens assign en t aux Possessions de
PAutre. En consequence, les Sujets Britanniques ne formeront
aucun Etablissement soit sur la
cote, soit sur la lisiere de terre
ferme comprise dans les limites des
Possessions Busses, telles qu'elles
sont designees dans les deux Articles precedens; et, de meme, nul
Etablissement ne sera forme par
des Sujets Eusses au dela des dites
limites.
VI. II est entendu que les Sujets
de Sa Majeste Britannique, de
quelque Cote qu'ils arriveut, soit
de POc6an, soit de Pinterieur du
Continent, jouiront a perpetuite du
droit de naviguer librement, et
sans entrave quelconque, sur tous
les fleuves et rivieres, qui, dans
leurs cours vers la mer Pacifique,
traverseront la ligne de demarcation sur la lisiere de la Cote
indiquee dans PArticle 3 de la
presente Convention.
VII. II est aussi entendu que,
pendant Pespace de dix Ans, a
dater de la signature de cette Convention, les Vaisseaux des deux
Puissances, ou ceux appartenans
a leurs Sujets respectifs, pourront
reciproquement frequenter, sans
entrave quelconque, toutes les
Mers interieures, les Golfes,
Havres, et Criques sur la Cote
mentionnee dans PArticle 3 afin
d'y faire la peche et le commerce
avec les Indigenes.
VIII. Le Port de Sitka, ou Novo
Archangelsk, sera ouvert au Commerce et aux Vaisseaux des Sujets
Britanniques durant Pespace de
dix &ns, a dater de l'echange des
Eatifications de cette Convention. ALASKA  AND  BRITISH  COLUMBIA   BOUNDARY   LINE,
35
Convention. In the event of an
extension of this term of ten years
being granted to any other Power,
the like extension shall be granted
also to Great Britain.
IX. The above-mentioned liberty
of Commerce shall not apply to the
trade in spirituous liquors, in firearms, or other arms, gunpowder or
other warlike stores; the High Contracting Parties reciprocally engaging not to permit the above-mentioned articles to be sold or delivered, in any manner whatever, to
the Natives of the Country.
X. Every Britishor Eussian Vessel navigating the Pacific Ocean,
which may be compelled by storms
or by accident, to take shelter in the
Ports of the respect ive parties, shall
be at liberty to refit therein, to provide itself with all necessary stores,
and to put to sea again, without paying any other than Port and Lighthouse dues, which shall be the same
as those paid by National Vessels.
In case, however, the Master of such
Vessel should be under the necessity of disposing of a part of his
merchandise in order to defray his
expenses, he shall conform himself
to the Eegulations and Tariffs of the
Place where he may have landed.
XI. In every case of complaint
on account, of an infraction of the
Articles of the present Convention,
the Civil and Military Authorities
of The High Contracting Parties,
without previously acting or taking
any forcible measure, shall make
an exact and circumstantial Eeport
of the matter to their respective
Courts, who engage to settle the
same in a friendly manner, and according to the principles of justice.
XII. The present Convention
shall be ratified, and the Eatifications shall be exchanged at London
within the space of six weeks, or
sooner if possible.
In witness whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed
Au cas qu'une prolongation de ce
terme de dix ans soit accordee a
quelque autre Puissance, la meme
prolongation sera egalement ac-
cordee a La Grande Bretagne.
IX. La susdite liberte de commerce ne s'appliquera point au trafic
des liqueurs spiritueuses, des armes
a feu, des armes blanches, de la
poudre a canon, ou d'autres munitions de guerre; les Hautes Parties
Contractantes s'engageant recipro-
quement a ne laisser ni vendre, ni
livrer, de quelque mauiere que ce
puisse etre, aux indigenes du pays,
les articles ci-dessus mentionnes.
X. Tout Vaisseau Bntannique
ou Eusse naviguant sur POcean
Pacifique, qui sera force par des
tempetes, ou par quelque accident,
de se refugier dans les Ports des
Parties respectives, aura la liberte
de s'y radouber, de s'y pourvoir de
tous les objets qui lui seront neces-
saires, et de se remettre en mer,
sans payer d'autres Droits queceux
de Port et de Fanaux, lesquels seront pour lui les mernes que pour
les Batimens Nationaux. Si, ce-
peridant, le Patron d'un tel navire
se trouvoit dans la necessite, de se
defaire d'une partie de ses mar-
chandises pour subvenir a ses d6-
penses, il sera tenu de se conformer
aux Ordonnances et aux Tarifs de
PEndroit ou il aura aborde.
XI. Dans tous les cas deplaintes
relatives a Pinfraction des Articles
de la presente Convention, les
Autorites Civiles et Militaires des
deux Hautes Parties Contractantes, sans sepermettre au pi-ealable
ni voie de fait, ni mesure de force,
seront tenues de faire un rapport
exact de l'affaire et de ses circon-
stances a leurs Cours respectives,
lesquelles s'engageut a la regler a
Pamiable, et d'apres les principes
d'une parfaitejustice.
XII. La presente Convention
sera ratiiiee, et les Eatifications en
seront echangees a Londres, dans
Pespace de six semaines, ou plutot
si faire se peut.
En Foi de quoi les Pienipoten-
tiaires respectifs Pont signee, et
i ALASKA  AND   BRITISH   COLUMBIA  BOUNDARY  LINE.
the same, and have affixed thereto
the Seal of their Arms.
Done at St. Petersburgh, the
Twenty eighth (Sixteenth) Day of
February, in the Year of our Lord
One Thousand Eight Hundred and
Twenty-five.
[l. s.] Stratford Canning.
[l. s.] The Count de Nesselrode.
[l. s.J Pierre de Poletica.
y ont appose le Cachet de leurs
Armes.
Fait & St. P6tersbourg, le Vingt
huit (Seize) Fevrier, de Pan de
Grace mil huit cent vingt-cinq.
[l. s.J Stratford Canning.
[l. s.J Le Comte de Nesselrode.
[l. s.J Pierre de Poletica.
No. 9.
Treaty concerning the cession of the Bussian Possessions in North America
by His Majesty the Emperor of all the Bussias to the United States of
America.
[Concluded March 30,1867; ratifications exchanged June 20, 1867; proclaimed June
20, 1857.]
The United States of America
and His Majesty the Emperor of
all the Eussias, being desirous of
strengthening, if possible, the good
understanding which exists between them, have, for that purpose,
appointed as their Plenipotentiaries: The "President of the United
States, William H. Seward, Secretary of State; and His Majesty
the Emperor of all the Eussias,
the Privy Counsellor Edward de
Stoeckl, his Envoy Extraordinary
and Minister Plenipotentiary to the
United States.
And the said Plenipotentiaries,
having exchanged their full powers,
which were found to be in due form,
have agreed upon and signed the
following articles:
Article I.
His Majesty the Emperor of all
the Eussias agrees to cede to the
United States, by this convention,
immediately upon the exchange of
the ratifications thereof, all the
territory and dominion now possessed by his said Majesty on the
continent of America and in the
adjacent islands, the same being
contained within the geographical
limits herein set forth, to wit: The
eastern limit is the line of demarcation between the Eussian and the
Sa Majeste PEmpereur de toutes
les Eussies et les Etats-Unis d'A-
merique, desirant raffermir, s'il
est possible, la bonne intelligence
qui existe entre eux, ont nomme, a
cet effet, pour leurs pienipoten-
tiaires, savoir; Sa Majeste PEmpereur de toutes les Eussies, le Con-
seiller Prive Edouard de Stoeckl,
son envoye extraordinaire et mi-
nistre pienipotentiaire aux Etats-
Unis; et le President des Etats-
Unis, le Sieur William H. Seward,
Secretaire d'Etat, lesquels, apres
avoir echange leur pleins pouvoirs,
trouves en bonne et due forme,
ont arrete et signe les articles
suivants:
Article I.
Sa Majeste PEmpereur de toutes
les Eussies S'engage, par cette
convention, si, ceder aux Etats-Unis,
immediatement apres l'echange des
ratifications, tout le Territoire avec
droit de souverainete actuellement
possede par Sa Majeste sur le continent d'Amerique ainsi que les
lies continues, ledit Territoire etant
compris dans les limites g6ographi-
ques ci-dessous indiquees; savoir:
la limite orientale est la ligne de
demarcation entre les possessions ALASKA  AND   BRITISH   COLUMBIA. BOUNDARY  LINE.
37
British possessions in North America, as established by the convention between Eussia and Great
Britain, of February 28-16, 1825,
and described in Articles III and
IV of said convention, in (he following terms:
" Commencing from the southernmost point of the island called
Prince of Wales Island, which
point lies in the parallel of 54 degrees 40 minutes north latitude,
and between the 131st-and the
133d degree of west longitude,
(meridian of Greenwich,) the said
line shall ascend to the north along
the channel called Portland channel, as far as the point of the con-
tinnnt where it strikes the 56th
degree of north latitude; from this
last-mentioned point, the line of
demarcation shall follow the summit of the mountains situated parallel to the coast as far as the point
of intersection of the 14ist degree
of west longitude, (of the same meridian;) and finally, from the said
point of intersection, the said, meridian line of the 141st degree,
in its prolongation as far as the
Frozen ocean.
IIV. With reference to the line of
demarcation laid down in the preceding article, it is understood—
" 1st. That the island called
Prince of Wales Island shall belong wholly to Eussia," (now, by
this cession, to the United States.)
"2d. That whenever the summit
of the mountains which extend in
a direction parallel to the coast
from the 56th degree of north latitude to the point of intersection
of the 141st degree of west longitude shall prove to be at the distance of more than ten marine
leagues from the ocean, the limit
between the British possessions
and the line of coast which is to
belong to Eussia as above mentioned (that is to say, the limit to
the possessions ceded by this convention) shall be formed by a line
parallel to the windingof the coast,
Eusses et Britanniques dans PAmerique du Nord, ainsi qu'elle
est etablie par la convention, con-
clue entre la Eussie et la Grande-
Bretagne, le || fevrier 1825, et d6-
finie dans les termes suivauts des
articles III et IV de la dite convention :
"A partir du point le plus meridional de Pile dite Prince of Wales,
lequel point se trouve sous la parallele du 54me degre 40 minutes
de latitude nord, et entre le 131me et
le 133me degre de longitude ouest
(meridien de Greenwich) la dite
ligne remontera, au Nord le long
de la passe dite Portland Channel,
jusqu'au point "de la terre ferine oil
elle atteint le 56me degre de latitude nord; de ce dernier point la
ligne de demarcation suivra la crete
des montagnes situees parallele-
ment a la cote jusqu'au point d'intersection du 141me degre de longitude ouest (meme meridien), et
finalement, du dit point d'intersection la meme ligne meridienne du
141me degre formera, dans son pro-
longement jusqu'A la merGlaciale,
la limite entre les possessions Eusses et Britanniques sur le continent de PAmerique nord-ouest.
IIV. 11 est entendu, par rapport
a la ligne de demarcation determi-
nee dans Particle precedent:
11°. Que Pile dite Prince of
Wales, appartiendra toute entiere
si, la Bussie;" (mais des ce jour en
vertu de cette cession aux Etats-
Unis.)
u2°. Que partout ou la crete des
montagnes qui s'etendent dans une
direction parallele & la cote, depuis
le 56me degre de latitude nord au
point d'intersection du 14lme degre
de longitude ouest se trouverait a
la distance de plus de dix lieues
marines de Pocean, la limite entre
les possessions Britanniques et la
lisiere de cote mentionnee ci-dessus
comme devant appartenir a la Eussie" (c'est-^-dire la limite des possessions cedees par cette convention:) "cera formee par une ligne
parallele aux sinuosites de la cdte
et qui ne pourra jamais en etre 38
ALASKA  AND  BRITISH   COLUMBIA  BOUNDARY  LINE.
and which shall never exceed the
distance of ten marine leagues
therefrom."
The western limit within which
the territories and dominion con^
veyed, are contained, passes
through apointin Behring's straits
on the parallel of sixty-five degrees
thirty minutes north latitude, at its
intersection by the meridian which
passes midway between the islands
of Krusenstern, or Ignalook, and
the island of Eatmanoff, or Noonar-
book,and proceeds due north, without limitation, in to the same Frozen
ocean. The same western limit,
beginning at the same initial point,
proceeds thence in a course nearly
southwest, through Behring's
straits and Behring's sea, so as to
pass midway between the northwest point of the island of St. Lawrence and the southeast point of
Cape Choukotski, to the meridian
of one hundred and seventy-two
west longitude; thence, from the
intersection of that meridian, in a
southwesterly direction, so as to
pass midway between the island of
Atton and the Copper island of the
Kormandorski couplet or group in
the North Pacific ocean, to the meridian of one hundred and ninety-
three degrees west longitude, so as
to include in the territory conveyed
the whole of the Aleutian islands
east of that meridian.
Article II.
In the cession of territory and
dominion made by the preceding
article, are included the right of
property in all public lots and
squares,vacant lands,and all public
buildings, fortifications, barracks,
and other edifices which are not
private individual property. It is,
however, understood and agreed,
that the churches which have been
built in the ceded territory by the
Eussian government, shall remain
tie property of such members of
the Greek Oriental Church resident
in the territory, as may choose to
worship therein. Any government
archives,-papers, and documents
61oign6e que de dix   lieues   ma~
rines."
La limite occidentale des terri-
toires cedes passe par un point au
detroit de Behring sous la parallele
du soixante cinquieme degre trente
minutes de latitude Nord & son in-
tersection par le meridien qui se-
pare a distance egale les iles Krusenstern ou Ignalook et Pile Eatmanoff ou Noonarbook et remonte en
ligne directe, sans limitation, vers le
Nord, jusqu'& ce qu'elle se perde
dans la mer Glaciale. Comnieugant
au mfime point de depart, cette
limite occidentale suit de la un cours
presque Sudouest, a travers le detroit de Behring et la mer de Behring, de maniere & passer & distance
egale entre le point Nordouest de
Pile Saint Laurent etle point Sudest
du cap Choukotski jusqu'au meridien cent soixante douzieme de longitude Ouest; de ce point, a partir
de Pintersection de ce meridien,,
cette limite suit une direction
Sudouest cte maniere & passer k
distance egale entre Pile d'Atton et
Pile Copper du groupe d'ildts Kormandorski dans Pocean Pacifique
Septentrional jusqu'au meridien de
cent quatre-vingt treize clegres de
longitude Ouest, de maniere a en-
claver, dans le Territoire cede
toutes les iles Aieoutes situees a
Pest de ce meridien.
Article II.
Dans le Territoire cede, par Particle precedent a la Souverainete
des Etats-Unis sont compris le
droit de propriete sur tous les terrains et places publics, terres inoc-
cupees, toutes les constructions
publiques, fortifications, casernes-
et autres edifices qui ne sont pas
propriete privee individuelle. II
est toutefois entendu et convenue
que les eglises construites par le
Gouvernement Eusse sur le Territoire cede resteront la propriete des
membres de PEglise Grecque Orientate residant dans ce Territoire et
appartenant a ce culte. Tous les
archives papiers et documents du ALASKA  AND  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  BOUNDARY  LINE,
39
relative to the territory and dominion aforesaid, which may be now
-existiug there, will be left in the
possession of the agent of the
United States; but an authenticated copy of such of them as may
be required, will be, at all times,
.given by the United States to the
Eussian government, or to such
Eussian officers or subjects, as they
may apply for.
Article III.
The inhabitants of the ceded territory, according to their choice,
reserving their natural allegiance,
may return to Eussia within three
years; but if they should prefer to
remain in the ceded territory, they,
with the exception of uncivilized
native tribes, shall be admitted to
the enjoyment of all the rights,
advantages and immunities of citizens of the United States, and shall
be maintained and protected in the
free enjoyment of their liberty,
property and religion. The uncivilized tribes will be subject to such
laws and regulations as the United
States may, from time to time,
adopt in regard to aboriginal tribes
of that country.
Article IV.
His Majesty the Emperor of all
the Eussias shall appoint, with convenient despatch, an agent or
agents for the purpose of formally
delivering to a similar agent or
agents appointed on behalf of the
United States, the territory, dominion, property, dependencies and appurtenances which are ceded above,
and for doing any other act which
may be necessary in regard thereto.
But the cession, with the right of
immediate possession, is nevertheless to be deemed complete and absolute on the exchange of ratifications, without waiting for such
formal delivery.
Article V.
Immediately after the exchange
of the ratifications of this convention, any fortifications or military
posts which may be in the ceded
Gouvernement ayant trait au sus-
dit Territoire et qui y sont mainte-
nant deposes seront places entre
les mains de Pagent des Etats-Unis;
mais les Etats-Unis fourniront
toujours quand il y aura lieu, des
copies legalisees de ces documents
au Gouvernement Eusse, aux offi-
ciers ou sujets Eusses qui pourront
en faire la demande.
Article III.
11 est reserve aux habitans dii
Territoire c6de le choix de garder
leur nationalite et de rentrer en
Eussie dans Pespace de trois ans;
mais s'ils preferent rester dans le
territoire cede ils seront admis,
a l'exception toutefois des tribus
sauvages a jouir de tous les droits,
avantages et immunites des citoyens des Etats-Unis et ils seront
maintenus et proteges dans le plein
exercise de leur IJberte, droit de
propriete et religion. Les tribus
sauvages seront assujeties aux lois
et reglements que les Etats-Unis
pourront adopter de temps en
temps a Pegard des tribus abori-
genes de ce pays.
Article IV.
Sa Majeste PEmpereur de toutes
les Eussies nommera aussitot que
possible un agent ou des agents
charges de remettre formellement
a Pagent ou aux agents nommes
par les Etats-Unis, le territoire, la
souverainete, les proprietes, de-
pendances et appartenances ainsi
cedes et de dresser tout autre acte
qui sera necessaire a Paccomplisse-
ment de cette transaction. Mais la
cession, avec le droit de possession
immediate, doit toutefois etre con-
sideree complete et absolue a
l'echange des ratifications sans
attendre la remise formelle.
Article V.
Immediatement apres Pechange
des ratifications de cette conven.
tion, les fortifications et les postes
militaires qui se trouveront sur le 40
ALASKA  AND   BRITISH  COLUMBIA  BOUNDARY  LINE.
territory, shall be delivered to the
agent of the United States, and any
Eussian troops which may be in the
territory, shall be withdrawn as
soon as may be reasonably and conveniently practicable.
Article VI.
In consideration of the cession
aforesaid, the United States agree
to pay at the Treasury in Washington, within ten months after the
exchangeof the ratifications of this
convention, to the diplomatic representative or other agent of his
Majesty the Emperor of all the
Eussias, duly authorized to receive
the same, seven million two hundred thousand dollars in gold. The
cession of territory and dominion
herein made is hereby declared to
be free and unincumbered by ariy
reservations, privileges, franchises,
grants, or possessions, by any associated companies, whether corporate or incorporate, Eussian or
any other, or by any parties, except merely private individual
property holders; and the cession
hereby made, conveys all the rights,
franchises, and privileges now belonging to Eussia in the said territory or dominion, and appurtenances thereto.
Article VII.
When this convention shall have
been duly ratified by the President
of the United States, by and with
the advice and consent of the Senate, on the one part, and on the
other by his Majesty the Emperor
of all the Eussias, the ratifications
shall be exchanged at Washington
within three months from the date
hereof, or sooner, if possible.
In faith whereof, the respective
plenipotentiaries have signed this
convention, and thereto affixed the
seals of their arms.
Done at Washington, the thirtieth day of March, in the year of
our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-seven.
[l. s.] William H. Seward.
[l. s.] Edouard De Stoeckl.
territoire cede seront remis a
Pagent des Etats-Unis et les troupes
Eusses qui sont stationnees dans le
dit Territoire, seront retirees dans
un terme praticable et qui puisse
convenir aux deux parties.
Article VI.
En consideration de la. susdite
cession les Etats-Unis s'engagent
k payer a la Tresorerie 4 Washington, dans le terme de dix mois apres
Pechange des ratifications de cette
convention, sept millions deux cent
inille de dollars en or, au Eepre-
sentant diplomatique ou tout autre
agent de Sa Majeste PEmpereur de.
toutes les Eussies dument autorise
a recevoir cette somme. La cession du territoire avec droit de
souverainete faite par cette convention, est declaree libre et dega-
gee de toutes reservations, privileges, franchises ou des possessions
par des compagnies Eusses ou tout
autre legaleTpent constituees ou
autrementou par des associations
sauf simplement les proprietaires
possedant des biens privfis indi-
viduels et la cession ainsi faite
trausf ere tous les droits, franchises
et privileges appartenant actuelle-
ment k la Eussie dans le dit Territoire et ses dependances.
Article VII.
Lorsque cette convention aura
ete dument ratifi6e par Sa Majeste
PEmpereur de toutes les Eussies
d'une part et par le President des
Etats-Unis avec Pavis et le con-
sentement du S6nat de Pautre, les
ratifications en seront echangees a
Washington dans le terme de trois
mois, a compter du jour de la signature, ou plus tot si faire se pent.
En foi de quoi les plenipoten-
tiaires respectifs ont signe cette
convention et y ont appose le sceau
de leur armes.
Fait k Washington le 18-30
jour de Mars de Pan de Notre
Seigneur mil huit cent soixante
sept.
[l. s.] Edouard De Stoeckl.
[l. s.j William H. Seward.       No. 11.—British Admiralty Chart "No 2431, showing the latest British survey of Portland Inlet   No. 14.—Official Canadian Map of British Columbia, 1884. No. 15.—Dawson's Canadian Map, 1
Wi.u.i.il
SO(/RC£S OF INFORMATION and AUTHORfTIES
FOR POSITIONS ASSIGNED TO PRINCIPAL POINTS ON THIS MAP COMPILED BY
H)J-JOHNSTON,CHl£F DRAFTSMAN,
 DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
DOMINION OF CANADA
1887
COASTS jlhdI§ IAN OS.— Rvduced from 'flags'in ilS-Pacific C03.it filet - Alaska.. -f%rt 1.1883.
PORT  WRANGELL." lat Sb'ZX IS'N.    Long. 132'Z3'23'K  From (/-SCuast Pilot, f93.    NOTEi Qn the U-S-Pacitic Coast Pilot Plats.
'position of Fori- W, onfall does not precisely agree with that assigned to it iy tit recorded latitude *j>d Jongitude or, p. 95. consequently the
r    <tting of Hit const and Islands adjacent ho FortiVranqell, connecting with the Stikine, 2™ not in this ma.fi ouite reliable (Se, U-S-Charts)
STIKINE Rl VER - Lower pgj-t from survey iy -J- Hunter CE, on ,ce, (igrAwiih transit ajid chain ; upper part", to TeUgroph Creek, R-G-MfCennel!s
tGttl.Surv. Can.)survey (/887) tuith Circumferenter and Rochon Micrometer.  Telegraph Creek to Dease lithe, J.>*'Evoys(Assistant to G-WDa*son
GroISvrv Ci.n) survey (/SS7) with Fnsmatic Compass And pacing  along frajl. -  Latitudes  of Glenors. , Telegraph Creek and Dea.se Lake (head)
observed iy G M- D.iwson with /inch Sextant.   Longitudes of Telegraph Creek and  Dease Lake {head) transferred from Wr&npcil fy mjin of two
chronometers.   The measured distances agree very s.itisf&cton/y "ith the results of the ohse.rvalions.
TELEGRAPH CREEK NORTHWESTERLY to Lit 60'N - From Telegraph Exploration (Byrnes route./8e?J ■ The traverse as mapped
iy Hie exploration is adjusted so as to connect Telegraph Creek v,,th 'Ts.hko' or Togisk LsJe According h the best a.vaiia.b/e information respecting
connecting waters, And the -position of 'Tshko-Lake- 'as ascertajned iy Mr. OgilneS survey {/887)
CHILKAT   RIVER AUB VICINITY according to Dr. A- Krauze's Maps (Bremen Geog.S0c.l88Z    Berlin Geog. Soc. 1893)
CHILKOOT on TAYJA  PASS and LEWIS  RIVER   to siH of Old Fort Selkirk, according to instrumental survey iy W-Ogilvie DLS(l8S7).
Tba imhej poi/it of this survey is Pyramid Island, Ch.Ikat Met  the position of which on tie authority of the U-S-Coast Pilot (Alaska., fkrf I,
p. IS?) is   Laf. SB'lFWH.,    Long. 135' 27' Ot-'-S W.     The position of Air. Qgihtiit point opposite Old FfSelkirk ( N- ia^k ofnver) o.s deduced
from his traverse   is,  Lot. 6f W IS'N.,    Long. 137'3Z'08'W.   The position of the Old fort according to Lt. SchwaJ-ka is La.t. 6Z-4S'Zo'N,
Lo/ig. /37'22'4-S-ty (difference in dista.net between the hro longitudes oiout d-Ststatufe- miles)
THE PELLY RIVER bilew OldPfSelkirk is tat-n from Maps accompanying Lt.Sohvutk&s report reductdproportionally 6,t~een OgilvieS position fir
FrSe/k,rk % Capt. Raymond's potion for Old F^Yokon (Ut- 66'3s'4-i-S/     Long. I4S" //'4-7'land ■' pr.sumed fo ie feirly correct.
DEASE   RIVER „„,/ route iy Frances Lake, »,tk Pelly River, obove Old PSelkirk according to track-survey byGM-Oawson (IB87) With mam fi
tf^if: ^^ec/^.
S Ex JMk. 50 2 No. 16.—Dawson's Canadian Map, 1887, showing conventional lines proposed by Can
COASTS **o ISLANDS.— Rvdvced from 'Plates'in U S-Pacific Cozst Pilot - Alaska.. Part I. 1883.
PORT   WRANGELL.-  L&t. S(rZ8'l5'H.    Long. I32S3-23'W.   From U-SCoast Pilot,  PS3.    NOTE '. On the US-Pacific Coast hist Pla
ion of Fort Wrongt/I does not precisely agree with that assigned   to if by the recorded  latitude and Jongttede on p. S3, coisreum.
lands adjacent to Fo,
plotting of the coast ond Is/An.
ort rVrangell,
by J-Hunter-
r *.„d Rochon Mi
STIKINE RIVER - Lower part from survey by J- Hunter C-E-.on ,ce,(nm)wiH  tranfif asid chain ; upper part to Telegraph Creek, R-6MfConne/ls
:rtr.  Telegraph Creek to Dease I.  '
(GeW.Surv. Con.) survey (I8S7) with Circumferenter esid Rochon Micrometer. Telegraph Creek to Dease Lake, J. M^Evoys (A.
Geo/-SurvCa-n) survey (/8S7) with Prismatic Compass and pacing along trail. - Latitudes of Glenora .Telegraph Creek aj
observed by G M-Oojvson wth j-mch sutant. Longitudes of Telegraph Creek and Dease Lake (hiod) transferred from Wi
cJironom iters.   The measured distances agree very satisfactorily iiih the results of the observations.
TELEGRAPH CREEK NORTHWESTERLY to Lat. 60'N - from Telegraph Exploration {Byrnes route. IBS?) - The trav.
by the exploration is adjusted so as in cmnect Telegraph Creek with 'Tahko' or Tbgish Laic according to the best a,vaila.ole inform,
connecting waters, and the -position of .'Tahio.La.ke'as ascerfa-ined iy Mr OgilvieS survey (1887)
CHILKAT   RIVER Ado VICINITY Accord.no to Dr. A- KrauseS  Maps (Br.mcn Geog. Soc  mz .   Berlin Geog.Soc.l88i)
CHILKOOT or TAY1A   PASS *N0 LEWIS  RIVER   to site of Old Fort Selkirk  According to instruments survey iy   W-Ogilvie DL-S (W87).
The initial point of this survey ,s  Pyramid island, Ch.lixt Met. the position of which  on tne  authority Bf the ClSCoast Pilot (Alaska, Part I.
p/S7) is   Lot. SS'll'-tS-H,    Long.  /J5' 2?' Od-S W.     The position of Air. OgilvnS point opposite Old F-'Seikirk (tank of nver) as deduced
from His  traverse   is,   Lat. 6Z'*9'lSmM.,    Long. /37'32'08'W.   The position of the Old Fori
U/ig. !37"2Z'4rS'rV (difference, in distance   between  the two longitudes  ctieut 6-84statute miles)
THE PELLY   RIVER  Mow Old FrStlkirk  ,s taken from Maps accompanying Lt. Schwgtkas report, reduced proportionally i,
PSelhirk * Caph Raymonds pos.hon for Old F-tYvkon (Lat Wii'tlty     Long US'if*T)and .sprimed to be fairly cornel.
DEASE   RIVER and rout, iy Frances Lake, with Pally River oiove Old fS elk irk according to track-survey iy GM-Oawson (1887) with
find astronomically. 

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