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Dominion of Canada. Province of British Columbia : information for intending settlers. With a map Canada. Department of Agriculture 1883

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Province of British Columbia
Intending Settlers
Genaral Features.
Future Greatness.
General Characteristics—Southern Zone—Middle Zone—Northern
Zone—Vancouver Island.
Divisions—Dr. Dawson's Evidence—Farming and Grazing Capabilities—Peace River District of British Columbia—Great Importance^—Fruit Raising and Farming Features.
Forests and Wealth of British (Mumbia—Principal Trees.
Vast Extent—Varieties—Fishery Products.
" Central Industry "—Gold Mining—Equivalents of the Gold Bearing
Rocks of California—Coal—Great Importance of Deposits—Teste
of Value—Iron—Value of Deposits in Proximity to Coal—Silver—
Other Minerals.
Land—Mining Regulations—Provincial Taxes.
Tourist and Artist—Angler and Sportsman.
Cities and Towns—Jndians—Ship-Building—Imports and Exports—
Cost of Living—Building Materials—Clothing and Furniture—
Farm Implements—Fuel—Wages—Collieries—Farm Servants—
Female Servants—Choice of Location.
Wages Quotations Fluctuate.
System of Government—Municipal Government—Education—Social
Position—Religion—Administration of Justice—Militia—Naturalization Laws.
Ocean  Voyage—During   the  Passage—Luggage—Whai to Take-
Money—Rates  of Postage—Money  Orders—Telegraphic  Mebsages.
General Features.
The object of this pamphlet is to present in as concise and plain a form as
possible, for the information of intending settlers, the leading features of the
Province of British Columbia, with reference to Position, Harbours, Inland Waters,
Climate, Resources, Minerals, Agriculture, Fisheries, and other facts of interest to
the intending settler, and generally the conditions of settlement.
British Columbia, which entered the Canadian Confederation in 1871, is the
most westerly of the Canadian Provinces. It has a coast line on the Pacific Ocean
of about 600 miles, that is, in a straight line. If its almost innumerable indentations
and bays were measured, the coast line would extend to several thousands of miles.
The area of the Province, according to the Census measurement, is 341,305
square miles. Its position on the American continent is one of great commercial
importance, and its resources are in keeping with its position. If it were to be
described from the characteristics of its climate, its mineral wealth, and its natural
commercial relations, it might be said to be the Great Britain and California combined of the Dominion of Canada.
The Province is divided into two parts, the Islands, of which Vancouver is the
principal, and the Mainland. Vancouver is about 300 miles long, with an average
breadth of about sixty miles, containing an area of about 20,000 square miles.
British Columbia has numerous harbours and rivers, some of which are of importance, and all are remarkable for their bountiful, in fact, wonderful, supplies of
fish.   The scenery which it possesses is magnificently beautiful.
The climate on the coast is more equable and much milder in winter than in
any other part of Canada; but as the mountains are ascended, greater cold prevails,
with more snow, and the characteristics of greater dryness of atmosphere which
mark the climate of the interior of the continent are found.
The population of British Columbia, by the Census of 1881, did not exceed
49,459, of which 25,661 were Indians. ' This comparatively sparse population is due
to the hitherto isolated position of the Province; but now that railway communication
between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans through the Dominion of Canada, is being
rapidly pushed forward to completion by a route which offers the easiest gradients,'
and the most itaportant natural commercial advantages of any possible hne across
the continent of America, the inducements the Province offers to settlers are beginning
to attract the attention, as well of the emigrating classes of the Old World, as of .the
migrating classes of this continent; and population is already beginning to flow
rapidly in. It is beyond doubt that the percentage of increase which will be shown
at the next decennial census, will be a statistical fact to excite men's wonder.
HT n
Chapter   II.—POSITION.
The Future Greatness op British Columbia.
It is well for intending settlers in a country where there is as yet comparatively httle population, to consider its Position in relation to future development,
not only on the American Continent, but on the Globe.
British Columbia, as has been already stated, according to the measurements of
the Census districts, contains an »rea of 341,305 square miles; but according to some
authorities this area is 350,000. The latter area may be claimed if the waters of the
Province are included in the measurement. This is a large area; a fact which will
appear striking if compared with that of some of the great empires and powers of
Europe. That of England is 50,933 square miles: France, including Corsica, 204,091 -.
and the great German Empire, including the old Kingdom of Prussia, and the Kingdoms, Duchies, Principalities, Free Cities, and Provinces, united and annexed, has
an area of only 208,729 square miles.
A large portion of the vast area of British Columbia is mountainous and not
suited to agriculture; but these mountains are so rich in mineral deposits that they
will, in their turn, render more than ordinarily valuable, those very large areas which
are suitable for farming purposes. The 49th parallel of latitude forms the southern
boundary, deflected a degree to the south in the Island of Vancouver. The northern
boundary is the 60th parallel; the western, the Pacific Ocean; and the eastern
generally a hne from the 114th degree of west longitude, following the course of the
Rocky Mountains, and deflecting to the west, until it intersects the 120th degree of
W. long, which it follows to the 60th parallel.
It is of importance to consider the position of the Province with regard to the
advantages it affords for the construction of a trans-continental railway. The
Canadian line, in the first place, passes over that portion of the Continent known
as the " fertile belt," instead of arid or salt plains, not admitting either of cultivation or settlement. And, next, the highest pass through the Rocky Mountains,
which the Canadian Railway will take, according to the Report of Mr. Fleming on
the line selected by him, was 3,372 feet above the level of the sea, while the transcontinental line through the United States which has its western terminus at San
Francisco, has to scale an elevation of 7,534 feet. It is understood that the Canadian
Pacific Railway Company have found a more southern and shorter route, the
" Kicking Horse Pass," through the Rocky Mountains, than that selected by Mr.
Fleming. The gradients of this are not in all respects quite so favourable as those
ofthe "Tete Jaune " (Mr. Fleming's pass), but the gain in distance is about 100 miles,
and the inclination of the gradients is understood to favour the heavy expected
traffic of products fro**fc the plains, to be carried to the sea-board.
A comparison of profiles of altitudes of three trans-continental railway routes—
the Union Pacific, now completed with San Francisco as terminus; the Northern
Pacific in United States territory, rapidly approaching completion, starting from Duhrfcb
at the head of Lake Superior; and the Canadian Pacific—shows commanding advantages in gradients in favour of the last-named. The following interesting and important
general statements in this connection, are extracted from Mr. Fleming's report:—
"Viewing the Canadian Pacific Railway as a 'through' route between ports on
the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, the comparative profile of altitudes as above given,
illustrates the remarkable engineering advantages which it possesses over the Union
Pacific Railway. The lower altitudes to be reached, and the more favourable gradients
are not, however, the only advantages.
"A careful examination into the question of distances, shows, beyond dispute,
that the Continent can be spanned by a much shorter line on Canadian soil than by
the existing railway through the United States.
I The distance from San Francisco to New York, by the Union Pacific Railway,
is 3,363 miles, while from New Westminster to Montreal it is only 2,730, or 636-
miles in favour of the Canadian route.
"By the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway, even New York, Boston
and Portland will be brought from 300 to 500 miles nearer the Pacific coast than
they are at present.
"Compared with the Union Pacific Railway, the Canadian line will shorten the
passage from Liverpool and China, in direct distance, more than 1,000 miles.
— " When the remarkable engineering advantages which appear to be obtainable
on the Canadian Line, and the very great reduction in mileage above referred to
are taken into consideration, it is evident that the Canadian Pacific Railway, in
entering into competition for the through traffic between the two oceans, will possess
in a very high degree the essential elements for success."
It will thus be seen that the Canadian Pacific Railway has not only Canadian
but Imperial interest.
As regards the Pacific Ocean connections of the Canadian Pacific Railway, it i
worthy of note that the distance from Japan, China or the Atlantic Coast generalh
to Liverpool is from 1,000 to 1,200 miles less by the Canadian Pacific than by the
Union Pacific Railway. In reference to this point, Professor Maury, U.S., writes:—
" The trade-winds place Vancouver Island on the way side of the road from China
41 and Japan to San Francisco so completely that a trading vessel under canvas to
"the latter place would take the same route as if she was bound for Vancover's
*" Island—so that all return cargoes would naturally come there in order to save two
" or three weeks, besides risks and expenses." It must, however, be clearly understood that this advantage, equivalent to the distance between Vancouver Island
and San Francisco, viz., about 700 miles, is independent of and in addition to, the
saving of direct distance by the Canadian route given above.
These very important facts of position in relation to distances are very much
heightened by the further fact of the possession of important stores of Coal on the
Canadian Pacific Coast, and the plains east of the Rocky Mountains. This is put
in a striking manner by Sir Charles Dilke, one of the present Ministers of the
Crown in England, in his book entitled " Greater Britain."   Sir Charles says:—
"The position ofthe various stores of coal in the Pacific is of extreme importance
as an index to the future distribution of power in that portion of the world; but it
is not enough to know where coal is to be found, without looking also to the quantity,
quality, cheapness of labour and facility of transport. In China and in Borneo there
are extensive coal fields, but they lie ' the wrong way' for trade; on the other hand,
the California coal at Monte Diabolo, San Diego, and Monterey lies well, but is of bad
quality. Tasmania has good coal, but in no great quantity, and the beds nearest the
coast are formed of inferior anthracite. The three countries of the Pacific which
must for a time at least rise to manufacturing greatness, are Japan, Vancouver
Island and New South Wales; but which of these will become wealthiest and most
powerful depends mainly on the amount of coal which they respectively possess, so
situated as to be cheaply raised. The dearness of labour under which Vancouver
suffers will be removed by the opening of the Pacific Railroad; but for the present New
South Wales hus the cheapest labour, and upon her shores at Newcastle are abundant
stores of coal cf good quality for manufacturing purposes, although for sea use it
burns * dirtily' and too fast. * * * The future of the Pacific shores is inevitably brilliant, but it is not New Zealand, the centre of the water hemisphere,
which will occupy the position that England has taken on the Atlantic, but some
country such as Japan or Vancouver, jutting out into the ocean from Asia or from
America, as England juts out from Europe."
The preponderance of power which, according to Sir Charles, is to make the
great nation of the future on the Pacific coast, seems to be settled by the fact of the
coal deposits of British Columbia, of which more particular accounts will be given
in another chapter. But it may be well to state in this relation, that according to
the evidence of Dr. G. M. Dawson, before a committee of the Canadian Parliament,
during its last session, tests made by an officer specially employed by the Government of the United States to ascertain what coal on the western coast gave the best
results for steam purposes, showed that to produce a given quantity of steam, 1,800
lbs. Nanaimo (British Columbia) coal, were equal to 2,400 of Seattle (Washington
Territory, U. S.) coal, to 2,600 of Coos Bay (Oregon, U. S.) and the same of Moiite
Diabolo (California) coal. This superiority in quality being established on the unbiased
authority of a test made for the U. S. Government, settles the question of preponderance mentioned by the English writer above quoted.
The simple fact of power, however, from the presence of the mineral deposits for
makin"' steam, is not the only consideration. The question of distances must also be
considered, as well as the trade winds, the great advantages of favourable
grades and curves, the short line passing through a rich and well watered agricultural
country, instead of hopeless deserts; and these conditions, moreover, are to be further ]
considered in connection with the system of St. Lawrence navigation on the eastern
face ofthe continent. Such considerations make it apparent that there are here conjunctions of commercial forces which are unique in the world; and which must, in
the near future, exercise marked influence upon, if they do not command, the trade
between the countries bordering on the Atlantic and those on the Pacific Ocean. These
are facts which greatly affect the future commerce of the globe.
There is still another fact to be considered in relation to the position of British
Columbia, namely, the great English speaking communities so rapidly growing te
wealth and power in Australasia. Already a large trade has been built up between
America and those enterprising provinces, in which Canada has begun to share, as
shown in the recent able reports of Sir R. W. Cameron, the Canadian Commissioner to-
the two last Australian International Exhibitions. The easiest and most rapid route
to reach the Australian Colonies from any part of this continent, is now vid San Francisco and the Pacific Ocean. But for Canadians, the facilities will be greatly increased
when the Canadian Trans-Continental Railway shall be completed. The petroleum
from the immense deposits east of the Rocky Mountains in the Canadian North-West,
described by Prof. Selwyn and others before a committee of Parliament, will be conveyed to the Pacific seaboard in British Columbia, to supply the demand in tha countries on the Pacific. This dem and for the petroleum products of America has already
attained the proportions of a great commerce.
The mutual wants of the countries which constitute so large a portion of the
globe, will, in the near future, find out the advantages of commercial position very
briefly indicated in this chapter. The settler in British Columbia may, therefore,
fairly set 'before his mind pleasures of hope sufficient to satisfy the most ardent
The Province of British Columbia is remarkable for the number of its Harbours and*
deep indentations of the coast from the Pacific Ocean. Mr. Fleming gives a list of
nine large harbours on the mainland, which might serve as a possible terminus for &
trans-continental railway, with their distances from Yokohama, Japan (that being:
taken as a common point), based upon information obtained by him from the Admiralty.
These harbours are in the order of their distances from Yokohama:
Port Essington  3,868 miles.
Triumph Bay, Gardner Inlet  3,983 ",
Kamsquot, Dean Inlet  4,0^9 "'
Bella Coola  4,080 "
North Bentinck Arm   ... 4,086 "
English Bay, Burrard Inlet  4',336 "
Port Moody, "   4,356 "
Howe Sound  4,372 "
Waddington Harbor, Bute Inlet  4',470 "
Port Essington, at the mouth of the River Skeena, thus appears to be the nearest
harbour to the Asiatic coast, and it is also that to which vessels would require the least
The harbours on Vancouver Island are very numerous. One naval officer reports
that on the west coast of Vancouver " nature would seem to have revelled in harbour
making." On the south of the Island is the well-known harbour of Esquimalt—three
miles by two in extent—with an average depth of six to eight fathoms. It may be entered easily at any time, has excellent anchorage for ships of any size, and is the
headquarters of the Imperial Naval force on the Pacific. A very large graving dock is
being constructed there.
The Queen Charlotte Islands also contain numerous good harbours, a fact of importance when it is remembered that the valuable coal deposits on those islands include
the only anthracite coal yet discovered on the Pacific Coast ofthe continent of America.
Referring to these features, of the coast line of British Columbia, Lord Dufferin said in
speech delivered by him in Victoria in 1876:	 Such a spectacle as its coast line presents, is not to be paralleled by any
country in the world. Day after day for a whole week, in a vessel of nearly 2,000 tons,
we threaded an ^terminable labyrinth of watery lanes and reaches that wound endlessly in and out of a net work of islands, promontories, and peninsulas for thousands
of miles, unruffled by the slightest swell from the adjoining ocean, and presenting at
every turn an ever shifting combination of rock, verdure, forest, glacier and- snowcapped mountain of unrivalled beauty and grandeur. When it is remembered that
this wonderful system of navigation, equally well adapted to the largest lin^of battle
ship arid the frailest canoe, fringes the entire seaboard of your Province, and communicates at points sometimes more than a hundred miles from the coast, with a multitude
of valleys stretching eastward into the interior, while at the same time it is furnished
with innumerable harbours on either hand, one is lost in admiration at the facilities for
inter-communication which are thus provided for the future inhabitants of this wonderful region."
Of the rivers of British Columbia, the Fraser is the principal, extending with its
branches over a large portion of the Province. Ascending from the mouth at Burrard
Inlet, the ocean terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway, the course is nearly due
north for about five degrees of latitude, to the bend above Fort George. Its upper
waters have close relation with those of the Peace River system; a relation so close
that, with shght portages, Sir George Simpson in 1828 made a canoe voyage from York
Factory on the Hudson's Bay to the Pacific, starting at the beginning of July and occupying three months in the journey. The feat and the fact are both remarkable, and
show the close relation between the vast agricultural resources of the Peace River valley
and the Pacific Ocean on the one hand, and the navigable waters of the Hudson's Bay
on the other.
The Columbia River flows for some hundreds of miles in British Columbia, making
what is called the " Big Bend." The Skeena, Stikeen and other smaUer rivers in the
Province, swarm with fish. There are many smaller streams, branches of the
Fraser and the Peace, which are valuable for irrigation.
Numerous Lakes are also scattered over the face of the Province.
Chapter IV.—CLIMATE.
General Characteristics.
A general reference to the characteristics of the climate of British Columbia has
been made in the introductory chapter of this work, but more particular description is
required in a matter so greatly important. It has already been generally stated that
the hne of the southern boundary of British Columbia, if carried across this continent
and the Atlantic, would strike the continent of Europe, a little to the south of Paris.
The Province has, therefore, the summer suns of Europe at that latitude, with many
other analogies of the corresponding European climate. Stretching from this line to
the 60th parallel of latitude, the Province includes the climates of Europe from the
point below Paris mentioned, up to the Gulf of Finland, taking in the German
Empire, the British Islands, and parts of Sweden and Norway.
The North-west coast of the continent of America appears to be affected by the
same conditions that prevail on the North-west coast of Europe and contiguous continent of Asia, the influence of great masses of water and land producing similar effects,
at corresponding points of the hemisphere.
A pamphlet published under the direction of the Government of British Columbia-
divides-the interior, or mainland part of the Province as to elimate into three zones,
" South," " Middle" and " North." But boundaries of this nature can not be defined
with exactness, owing to the effects ofthe irregularities of the surface. The altitudes,
of course, make a distinct element in the question of climate. The climate of Vancouver and other islands as well as the coast of the mainland, has also special characteristics. {
The Southern Zone.
The | Southern Zone" lies for the most part between the 49th and 51st parallels,
North Latitude. " The traveller journeying from the coast district inland, via
Yale, by the Cariboo waggon road, notices* on passing through the mountains indications of dryness, afforded by the change of the plants. The characteristic
coast plants give place graduaUy, 30 or 40 miles above Yale, to those requiring less
moisture^ "The mean annual temperature of the Southern Zone differs little from
that of the coast region, but a greater difference is observed between the mean summer and winter temperature, and a still greater contrast when the extremes of heat and
cold are compared. The total precipitation of rain and melted snow in the low lying
portions of the Southern Zone is extremely small—for instance, at Spence's Bridge on
the Thompson river (760 feet above the sea, 50" 25 N. L, 8.06° W. L. Green) the ram-
fall, in 1875—was only 7.99 inches—total, including melted snow, 11.84 inches,—at
Esquimalt, southern part of Vancouver Island, it was 35.87. This smaU precipitation
gives rise to the open, or hghtly timbered grass country, so favourable for stock
The foUowing statements of observations from the Canadian Government's official
weather reports for 1875, show the mean of the four seasons at Spence's Bridge, the
point above referred to, and the coast at Esquimalt:—
" Spence's  Bridge     19.8
" Esquimalt     36.1
Speaking generally of the climate of the district of Yale, which practicaUy is the
principal part of the southern interior of the Province, the pamphlet referred to says,
quoting from the writings of Mr. Sproat:—" The district has peculiar chmatic advantages. Trie climate differs essentially from that upon the Lower Fraser and the coast,
in being drier, and seasonably, more regular. A milder and shorter winter is enjoyed
in Yale district.,' compared with the winters in the territorial divisions of the interior
north of it. The summer heat is great, very great sometimes, but a light breeze
generally refreshes the valleys, and no case of sunstroke is known. The summer
evenings and nights are always cool. The year may be divided into eight months of
fine, enjoyable weather, and about four months of winter. The snow is dry and
seldom deep, varying in different winters and locaUties from nine inches to two feet in
the open, with only a slight covering on wind-swept slopes. Occasionally, in some
localities, cattle and horses winter out, without much loss, but the careful farmer provides an ample supply of winter food for his stock." This writer goes on to say that
as mountains are ascended in parts of this zone, and high altitudes reached, severe
winter cold is found.
Middle Zone.
The " Middle Zone" is placed between 51 and 53 North Latitude. This zone,
•'' owing tu the occurrence within it of the high mountains west of the Columbia
and in the Big Bend area formed by that river, and also, of the great mass of the
Cariboo mountains, includes more of the Rocky Mountain climate than do the
zones north or south of it." We are told that there are no trustworthy meteorological
statistics of this middle zone. Dense forests are spread over large portions of it, marking considerable rain fall. In the gold range immediately west of the Columbia,
the winters are severe and there are heavy falls of snow. That portion ofthe country
west of this range in this zone possesses similar characteristics. At " about the 122nd
meridian, the lands begin to descend into the valley of the Fraser, and the climate
correspondingly improves." "Bunch grass reappears in that valley; and in the
vaUeys, benches and rolling hills along the western tributaries of the Fraser, a drier
climate prevails."
The climate of the mining regions of Cariboo in the north-east of this zone is
inclement owing to their elevation. "The first heavy snows sometimes fall in
October," and in May the regular thaw commences. "The maximum depth of
snow in valleys, 4,000 feet above the sea, is about six feet." The pamphlet ofthe Local
Government sums up the character of the climate of this region in these words:
I Though not comparatively attractive, it is singularly healthy." Northern Zone.
The " Northern Zone,"_ according to the authority above cited hes between 53
and 60 N. Lat. The Canadian Government has no weather stations in this region
and very httle accurate information has been recorded. The indications from the
vegetable products are—much greater coldness; that is, of portions of the interior found
after crossing what is caUed the " axial range" of the coast mountains. West of
this the country is affected by the greater mildness ofthe coast influences,
Mr. John Macleod, an experienced chief factor of the Hudson's Bay Company
states that, generaUy speaking, "between the 53 and 56 degrees N. L, the climate may
he caUed mildly Canadian, with a more luxuriant growth of vegetation.
Of the extreme north of the province little is known. The prairie region of Peace
River and its branches is said by the Indians to stretch far to the north. Port
Simpson, near the boundary of Alaska, has one ofthe best harbours on the coast, and
the climate is not much colder than that of ports farther south. The harbour remains
open aU winter; and snow only remains a short time on the ground, and the greatest
depth known is only two feet But without more extensive explorations it cannot be
known how far the country inland is favourable for settlement
Perhaps in the not' distant future, as settlement in the great North-West progresses, a second Pacific Railway wUl be built from Port Simpson to the Peace River
VaUey, and thence connecting with the Hudson's Bay navigation on the east
Vancouver Island.
Respecting the climate of Vancouver Island, there is a mass of testimony.
Captain Vancouver, its discoverer, gave in 1790, the foUowing general description:—
" The serenity of the climate, the innumerable pleasing landscapes and the abundant fertility that unassisted nature puts forth, requires only to be enriched by the
industry of man, with viUages, mansions, cottages and other buildings to render it the.
most lovely country that can be imagined; while the labour of the inhabitants would
be amply rewarded by the bounties which nature seems ready to bestow on civihzar
Professor Macoun stated before a Committee of Parliament:—" The climate of
British Columbia, west of the Cascades, including Vancouver and Queen Charlotte
Islands, is wonderfuUy like that of Great Britain, except that the summers are very
much drier."
Dr. G. M. Dawson in his evidence before a Parliamentary Committee described
Vancouver and the coast generally as possessing a mild and agreeable climate,
arising from the fact of the Pacific Guff stream striking the coast at this point,
bringing with it the warm tropical waters. In addition to these influences, those of
position already stated must be taken into account
The mean temperature for the year at Esquimalt, the southern point of Vancouver's Island, in 1879, according to the Government meteorological tables was
49° 99/.   The means of the twelve months being as foUow:—
Jan.   Feb.   March.   April.   May.   June.   July.   Aug.   Sept.   Oct.   Nov.   Dec.
42*9    43*0      44*9        43*4      48*6      52*4     53*8      53*7     49*3    45*2    43*0     38*4
There is very little frost or snow. An abstract of one year gives 201 fine days,
96 overcast, 50 rainy, and 17 on which snow fell. Gooseberry buds opened the
middle of February; Early plants came into leaf 2nd March, and Native hemp 3 inches
high; Catkins in full bloom on March 7th; Buttercups in flower, March 29th;
Strawberries in bloom, April 13th; Apple trees in bloom, May 6th; Beans in blossom,
May 12th; Strawberries ripe, May 25th ; Raspberries ripe, July 9th.
The climate of Victoria and its suitability for invahds is described by a traveller
in the foUowing words:—"Victoria has a climate unequaUed anywhere, which _ is
speciaUy recommended to health seeking invalids. The atmosphere is charged with
ozone pecuhar to Victoria only. It originates in the snow cooled breezes in the
Olympian range (about 60 miles south-west of the city), mixes with the salt sea air of
the Pacific, giving it peculiar health restoring and life prolonging quaUties, which are
fast making Victoria the sanitarium of the Pacific Coast."
Such a climate and such scenery, when once railway communication is opened,
must attract a large number of people both as visitors and residents. 8
Divisions—Dr. Dawson's Evidence.
The portions of British Columbia best suited to agriculture have been indicated in
the chanter on climate. Dr. G. M. Dawson, who has worked in that Province, in con-
nection'with the Geological Survey of Canada, for the greater part of five years—a
length of experience which gives value to his intelligent observations—gave to the
committee before referred to in these pages, the foUowing description of the agricultural
capabilities of the country:—" British Columbia is naturaUy divided into two very
distinct parts agriculturally by the mountains which form the coast range. The
interior region has a climate of extremes, and the southern part is very dry. The coast
region has a mild equable climate. British Columbia, must, however, be considered
throughout as an agricultural and mountainous country, that is, the amount of arable
land compared to the whole surface, is comparatively small. I do not say this to the
disadvantage of British Columbia, ^as it must be remembered that other countries,
known to be very productive, are similarly situated. In California, for instance, it has
been estimated that only one-fifteenth ofthe State is flat land, not mountainous, and
only a part of it cultivable. The southern part of the interior of British Columbia,
east of the Fraser River, is the district which has so far attracted most attention agri-
culturaUy. The cultivation is restricted as a rule to the vaUeys, which are wide,
trough hke, and cut through the surface of the plateau, and the climate is so dry in
summer that irrigation is necessary. This is, however, generaUy easy on account of
the number of streams running from the higher plateaux and mountains, and with
irrigation very fine crops are produced. The higher plateaux aro not cultivated, owing
to their altitude, and the fact that summer frosts occur. These higher plateaux, however, are largely covered with bunch grass; and form those renowned stock raising
regions which have given the south of British Columbia such importance in that
respect. Thus, the mere area of agricultural lands does not give the fuU measure
of the capacity of the country for maintaining an agricultural and stock raising
population. A man with a comparatively small-farm in these vaUeys has large herds
of stock which roam over the hills and sustain themselves on the natural grasses.
The whole area of agricultural lands east of Fraser River in southern British
Columbia,'I have estimated at something under 1,000 square miles, of which about
500 square miles probably may be easily utilised." " The character of the soil is almost
uniformly, very fertile in these vaUeys. The climate in summer is very dry and
warm. It is one of extremes; in winter the cold is considerable; but the cattle still
winter out very well, and hve all the year round on the natural grasses."
Farming and Grazing Capabilities.
Being asked by Mr. Baker, M.P., to describe the nature and extent of the farm
lands on the Fraser, Kootenay and Okanagan districts, Dr. Dawson said :—" I do not
know that any precise estimate has been made of the farming land about the estuary
of the Fraser, but there is a great deal of flat land there, partly prairie land which has
to be dyked to prevent the overflows of the river, and make it useful for agriculture.
In 1877, Mr.- Dewdney informed me that about 400,000 acres had already been surveyed into townships, of which he estimated about 230,000 as prairie or lightly wooded.
To this may be added 10,000 to 15,000 acres, representing good land near the Fraser,
between CMlakyewak and Hope. I included the Kootenay and Okanagan country in
the general estimate for the southern interior. There is a beautiful tract on Okanagan
Lake, about the Mission, which is already pretty thickly settled, and has many good
farms. Then, on the SpaUumsheen, between Okanagan and Shuswap Lake, there is
much fine land in a very wide vaUey, and irrigation here is not necessary, lt is easfly
accessible by water from Kamloops."
Dr. Dawson said in this connection that the farm and stock raising capabilities of
these localities had been very httle developed, owing to its being almost impossible to
take produce to market, but aU that would be changed on the completion of the
Canadian Pacific Railway. He added:—" I cannot speak too highly ofthe grasses and
grazing land of the southern part of British Columbia They are not excelled if they
are even equaUed by any grazing land I know." 9
He futher explained that horses and cattle could be driven across the passes of the
mountains into the North-West Territory.
With regard to the northern portions of the Province, Dr. Dawson stated:—"In the
northern part ofthe interior plateau, there is another extensive low country, which I
have estimated the area of at about 1,230 square miles. The soil of this is almost uniformly good; but, being to a great extent covered with trees, it cannot be utilised so
readily for agricultural purposes, and it lies besides, off the proposed route of the railway, and is not likely to be opened up for some time. Still it is a country whrch I have
every reason to believe will be eventually occupied by an agricultural population. It
hes chiefly north of the 51st paraUel, and west of the Fraser River in the basin of the
Nechacco and its tributaries. The coast region is, of course, not liable to any of those
difficulties of drought or occasional summer frost, that some of the higher regions of
the interior are exposed to. The climate is exceedingly mild, andin the aggregate there
is a large quantity of agricultural land. On the Island of Vancouver, Mr. T. Hunter,
who prepared a report on this subject for the C. P. Railway report of 1880, estimated
that there are 389,000 acres of agricultural land, of which about 300,000 acres are
weU suited for agriculture; of this, only about 10,000 are cultivated, but a great portion
of the flat country which is suitable for agriculture in Vancouver, is, in the same way,
very densely covered with forests, and, owing to the high price of labour at the present
time, and comparatively smaU number of people in the country, it is not yet econ-
omicaUy advantageous to clear these forests or bring these lands" under cultivation."
I On the Queen Charlotte Islands there are some 700,000 acres of low land on the
north-east coast, a great part, of which may eventuaUy be brought under tillage, but
it is also covered densely with forests at present, of very fine trees, and its immediate
value is as a timber producing region.
" At the mouth of the. Fraser River, the flat land probably amounts to more than
the whole in the Island of Vancouver, and some of it is of very excellent quaUty.
Generally, the soils of British Columbia, where they are cultivated at all, are exceedingly fertile, and the crops produced on the mainland and on Vancouver Island are
very largo. Wheat, as an example, averages 30 to 40 bushels an acre on land at aU
well cultivated."
Peace River District op British Columbia—Its Great Importance.
There is a considerable portion of what may be termed the agricultural land
of British Columbia, lying east of the Rocky Mountains, which is described with force
and clearness in the evidence of Dr. Dawson, and therefore his words are again
quoted:—" The eastern boundary of British Columbia follows the 120thmeridian from
the 60th parallel southward tiU that meridian strikes the Rocky Mountains, and a
large triangular portion of British Columbia thus hes east of the Rocky Mountains.
The part ofthe Peace River basin that is of considerable agricultural value, and is included in British Columbia, I estimated at between 5,000 and 6,000 square mues."
" The part of the Peace River country," Dr. Dawson continued, " of which I am
able, from personal knowledge to speak, is that lying south of the 57th parallel of latitude from and reaching to the Athabasca River, and has an approximate area of
31,558 square rmles. The Peace River country, I should state, is naturaUy separated
from the Upper Saskatchewan country by a band of poor land along the Athabasca.
The average elevation of this region is about 2,000 feet above the sea, or a little more
than that. The soil is a very fine silt, which, where it is best, very much resembles
that of the Red River vaUey, and is quite different from most of the soil intervening
between the Red River and the Peace River country. The fertility of the soil, owing to
the small attempts yet made at cultivation in that district, is chiefly evidenced by the
extraordinary luxuriance of the natural vegetation found upon it In general, the
Peace River country is more or less densely wooded, but there are considerable areas
of prairie land also. West of the Smoky River I have estimated that the areas aggregate 3,000 miles, or 1,920,000 acres. One of the largest prairies—Grand Prairie, south
of Dunvegan pass, has an area of 230,000 acres nearly aU prairie, with a few scattered
groves of trees. The soil is magnificent; it is watered by beautiful streams, and is
altogether one of the most attractive countries in a state of nature I have ever seen.
The rest of the tract of 31,550 square mues, which, from its flat character, and low
elevation, constitutes the arable region, is, as a rule, wooded, and for the most part
with second growth wood, which consists of poplar, birch and spruce. Taking this area
again and deducting aU the known districts which contain poor sou, and 20 per cent.
_J^ F
besides to cover other areas which could not be cultivated, it leaves an area of the
Peace River vaUey with soil suited to agriculture, of 23,500 square miles."   ;
Dr. Dawson was here asked whether these remarks referred whoUy or in part to
British Columbia, and answered:—" I have spoken of the whole district, because that
part in British Columbia—between 5,000 and 6,000 square miles of agricultural
land is similar. I speak only of that part of the Peace River country south of the 59th
paraUel^ I do not refer to that to the north, because I have never been there myself,
and could only speak of it from report. To give some idea of the value of the region
as an agricultural country, taking the area I have-given, and supposing as a measure
of its capacity—merely, of course, as an empirical supposition for the purpose of estimating its value—that the whole were sown in wheat, at twenty bushels to the acre,
it would produce over 470,000,000 bushels of wheat annuaUy. I believe that the whole
of this area wul eventually be cultivated. I am not quite sure that over every part
of it wheat will ripen and be a sure crop, but as far as we can judge of the climate, it is
as good as, or better than that of Edmonton on the Saskatchewan River; and where
wheat has been tried in the Peace River district, as a matter of fact, it succeeds, as
weU as other crops, such as oats and barley. We have, therefore, every reason to believe that over the greater part of this area wheat wiU be a satisfactory and sure crop.
If only the estimated prairie area be taken as immediately susceptible of cultivation,
its yield, at the rate above estimated, would be 38,400,000 bushels." _
Dr. Dawson stated that summer frosts which sometimes occur in this region were
not sufficiently intense to prevent the ripening of wheat and other grains. This he
said was a fact within his own knowledge He was asked whether the season in which
he was there, was not more favourable than usual; on the contrary, he said, it was an
unusually severe season, but yet the frost did not affect the wheat crop. He added:—
" I coUected excellent specimens of wheat from the Hudson's Bay Post In fact, the
crops this year were later than usual, on account of a period of wet weather just
before harvest, whieh delayed the ripening of the grain."
He further stated that" wheat thrives at Lesser Slave Lake Post I saw barley
ripe with fine heads, grown by the Cree Indians at Sturgeon Lake on the Plateau and
at Fgrt St John, further up the Peace River and considerably nearer the mountains;
barley and oats are known to have been ripe on August 12th, in 1875, though at the
same place, in 1879, wheat was a failure. Fort St. John is near the western edge of
the country, I consider of agricultural value. Of course, it is very desirable to have.
further experiments in a few chosen localities—chosen as being the most unfavourable
—to show the best and worst that can be said of the country."
The very great importance of the facts stated by Dr. Dawson, can scarcely be
over estimated, in relation to the trade and settlement both of British Columbia and
those of the Dominion at large
The evidence of Prof. Macoun, the botanist of the Pacific Railway survey, is precisely to the same effect as that of Dr. Dawson with regard to the agricultural capabilities of British Columbia, if his testimony be not, in fact, even warmer in its estimation.
He says " I consider nearly all the Peace River seetion (including the portion in
British Columbia) to be weU suited for raising cereals of aU kinds, and two-thirds of it
fit for .wheat The soil is as good as any part of Manitoba, and the climate if anything
milder." "All my observations tended to show that the whole Peace River country,
was just as capable of successful settlement as Manitoba. The soil seemed to be richer
—the country contains more wood—there are no saline marshes or lakes—the water is
aUgood—there are no summer frosts—the spring is just as early and the winter
sets in no sooner." " British Columbia is the garden of the Dominion." " The soU in
the valleys (of British Columbia) is always good."
Fruit Raising and Farming Features.
" Perhaps there is no better place in the world," says the same witness, " for
raising fruit than in the neighbourhood of Victoria. Apples and pears of a very large
size are produced in such abundance that the former can hardly be sold at any price.
 After the railway is built, Vancouver wiU send immense quantities of fruit into
the interior, as it can be raised to any extent and of every kind."
His ExceUency the Marquis of Lome, when he visited Victoria in 1882, was also
struck with the capabilities of that region for fruit growing as weU as its other agricultural resources, and said in a speech which has been much quoted:— 11
I Throughout the interior it wiU probably pay weU in the future to have flocks oi
sheep The demand for wool and wooUen goods wiU always be very large among the
people now crowding in such numbers to those regions which our official world as yet
calls the North-West, but which is the North-East and East to you. There is no
reason why British Columbia should not be for this portion of our territory what California is to the States in the supply afforded of fruits. The perfection attained by
smaU fruits is unrivalled, and it is only with the Peninsula of Ontario that you would
have to compete for the supplies of grapes, peaches, pears, apples, cherries, plums,
apricots, and currants." _ His Excellency further said:—"For men possessing from
£200 to £6001 can conceive no more attractive occupation than the care of cattle or a
cereal farm within your borders. Wherever there is open land the wheat crops rival
the best grown elsewhere, while there is nowhere any dearth of ample provision of
fuel and lumber for the winter. As you get your colonization roads pushed and the
dykes along the Fraser River built, you will have a larger available acreage, for there
are quiet straths and vaUeys hidden away among the rich forests which would provide
comfortable farms. As in the Northwest last year, so this year, I have taken down
the evidence of settlers, and this has been wonderfully favourable. To say the truth,
I was rather hunting for grumblers and found only on*s! He was a young man of
Buper-sensitiveness from one of our comfortable Ontario cities."
Chapter VI.—FORESTS.
Forest Wealth of British Columbia.
British Columbia is rich in forest wealth. The Douglas pine, or fir, called also
" Oregon pine," is at present the tree possessing the greatest commercial value, attaining immense size. There is on the grounds of the Parliament Buildings, Ottawa, a
section of one of these trees 8 feet 4 inches in diameter, cut at 20 feet above the
ground.   The tree from which it was taken was 305 feet high.
These trees are very straight, and the wood, though coarse grained, exceedingly
tough, rigid, and bearing great transverse strain. For lumber of all sizes and shapes
it is in great demand. Few woods are equal to it for frames, bridges, ties, etc. It is
exceUent for ship building, its length, straightness and strength making it peculiarly
useful for masts and spars. Masts have been shipped 130 feet long and 42 inches in
diameter, hewn octagonally. It is also very useful for butter boxes and other things
that require to be kept sweet and odourless. It is largely exported to Australia,
South America, China, etc. Dr. Dawson states the northern limit of this tree to be
the Skeena River, and Tatla and Babine Lakes; the eastern limit the Rocky Mountains. It is abundant ca the eastern slopes of the mountains as far as the Porcupine
Hills, and is now extensively used in the western part of the prairie region for building purposes.
Every part of British Columbia is amply and weU provided with excellent wood
for construction and for other purposes. The coast region has the pre-eminence at
present, owing to the greater facility of export. The gigantic size of the forest trees
is due, according to Dr. Dawson, to the mildness and humidity of the climate. He
speeiaUy mentions the cedar as a tree of exceeding value, sometimes attaining a
diameter of 17 feet," although these very large cedars are apt to bo more or less hollow.
The Indians make their well-knoWn magnificent canoes of these large cedar trunks.
Other valuable trees, which are found in British Columbia, wiU attract much
attention. Dr. Dawson mentions Spruce, an exceUent wood, not so soft as the spruce
of the Eastern Provinces, and of different species. White Pine, different also from
that of the East, producing equally good wood, but, as a rule, so far from the sea
coast that it has as yet not been utilized to any great extent. The Hemlock grows to
much greater, size than at the East, and yields good clean lumber. This tree is found
along the whole coast and over a considerable part of the interior. On the Queen
Charlotte Islands it is found 200 feet in height Maple found on the coast has a'curly
grain, and is useful chiefly for cabinet making. Oak is confined to the southern part
of the coast, and is not found in sufficient quantities to be of much commerciaLim-
portance. Yellow Cedar or Cypress wood wiU be likely to attract much notice. Tt is
found on the northern parts of the coast; is an exceedingly fine wood for cabinet
d i
making, being a close wood, very durable,'penetrated by a resinous substance that
protects it from decay and gives a peculiar odour. The Yellow Pine, found on the dry
southern part of the plateau in the interior, is locaUy a tree of very great value. Dr.
Dawson says the wood is preferred even to that of the Douglas pine, where that
occurs in the same neighbourhood.
Dr. BeU stated before the Parliamentary Committee on immigration last season,
that there were 30 species of timber trees west of the Rocky Mountains.
The Principal Trees.
The pamphlet published by the Provincial Government gives the foUowing list of
the principal trees of British Columbia:—
Douglas Pine, Douglas Fir, and commercially Oregon Pine; Western Hemlock,
Englemann's Spruce, tall, straight, over 3 feet in diameter. Eastern part of Province
and interior plateau forming dense forests in the mountains. Menzies Spruce, very
large, mostly on coast Great Silver Fir, coast tree of great size. Balsam Spruce, abounds
in Gold and Selkirk ranges, and east of McLeod's Lake. Williamson's Alpine Hemlock,
too scarce and too high up to be of much use. Red Pine, Yellow Pine and Pitch Pine, a
variety of the heavy yeUow pine of California and Oregon, very handsome; 4 feet
diameter. White Pine (Mountain Pine) Columbia region—Shuswap and Adam's Lakes
—interior of Vancouver island. White barked Pine, small. Western Cedar {Giant
Cedar or Red Cedar), wood pale,yeUowish or reddish color—very durable—often found
100 to 150 feet high and 15 feet thick. YeUow Cypress (Yellow Cedar), mainland coast,
Vancouver and Queen Charlotte Islands. Western Larch (Tamarac), Rocky Mountains,
Selkirk and Gold ranges, west to Okanagan Lake, large tree, yielding a strong, coarse,
durable Wood. Maple, valuable hardwood; Vancouver and adjacent islands, Queen
Charlotte's, ditto, and mainland coast, up to ,55°, attains a diameter of 4 feet
Vine Maple, very strong, tough white wood, confined to coast Yew. Vancouver
and opposite mainland shores, very tough and hard and of. a beautiful rose
colour. Crab Apple, along aU the coasts; wood very hard; takes good polish
and withstands great wear. Alder, two feet thick on the Lower Fraser; good furniture wood. Western Birch, Paper or Canoe Birch, Columbia region, Upper Fraser,
Peace River; range and value not much known. Oak, Vancouver Island mostly; 70
feet in height, 3 feet in diameter. Dogwood, Vancouver and coast opposite. Arbutus,
close grained, heavy, resembling box; reaches 50 feet in height and 20 inches in
diameter; found on Vancouver and neighbouring islands. Aspen Poplar abounds over
the whole interior, reaching a thickness of two feet. Three other varieties of poplars
are found, commonly included under the name of Cottonivood. One does not extend,
above Yale, and is the same wood largely used in Puget Sound to make staves for
sugar barrels for San Francisco. The other two kinds occur in valleys in the interior, j
Mountain Ash, in the interior. Juniper, Red Cedar or Pencil Cedar, east coast Vancouver and along the shores of Kamloops and other lakes in interior.
It is evident a settler in British Columbia would never be at a loss for wood for
any necessary use, and it is further plain that tho great stores of forest wealth in that'
Province must, in the near future, lead to the opening up of industries and a great
Vast Extent and Kinds op Fish.
The fisheries of British Columbia are among the richest, if not the richest in the
world. They are probably only equaUed by those on the eastern coast of Canada
The fish which are at present most important in British Columbia are the Salmon.
Those of Fraser River are justly famous. There are five species, and they make their
way up the river for 1,000 miles. The silver salmon begin to arrive in March or
early in April, and last tiU the end of June The average weight is from four to
twenty-five pounds, but they have been caught weighing over seventy. The second
kind are caught from June to August, and are considered the finest The average
Bize is only five to six pounds. The third, coming in August, average seven pounds,
and are an exceUent fish.   The noan, or humpback salmon comes every second year 13
lasting from August till winter, weighing from six to fourteen pounds. The hookbill
arrives in September, and remains till winter, weighing from twelve to fifteen and even
forty-five pounds. Salmon is sold at Victoria at five cents per pound, and there appears to be no limit to the catch.
The oulachans, a small fish like a sprat, appearing at the end of April, area
•delicious fish, fresh, salted or smoked, and yield an oil of a fine and exceUent quality.
They enter the river in millions, and those caught at the north are said to be so full of
oil that they wiU burn like a candle.
Several species of cod are found, and it is believed that there are extensive cod
banks in the Gulf of Georgia.
Sturgeon of very large size are found in the rivers.
Herring also abound during the winter months, and are largely used, both fresh
and smoked, and are of good quality.
Anchovies are only second to the oulachans in abundance, and may be taken
with great ease during the autumn.
Haddock are caught during the winter months.
Dogfish can be taken with great facility in any of the bays and inlets, and the
oil extracted from these'is of great value.
Excellent trout are found in most of the lakes and streams, weighing from three
to eight pounds.
Oysters are found in aU parts of the Province. They are smaU, and not equal to
those of the eastern coast. It is therefore recommended that beds should be planted
with some of the best varieties from the eastern waters. This is also suggested with
regard to lobsters, which are not found in British Columbia waters, though there
eeoms no reason why they should not do weU.
Fur seals of great value are found among the coast islands, and sea otter were
also formerly found, but seem now to be extinct In the northern seas whales
abound, and the whale fishing could be carried on with g.-eat convenience from British Columbia.
Fishery Products.
The pamphlet published by the British Columbian Government states: "If the
estimate by the Canadian Inspector of Fisheries, as to the consumption of Fish by
Indians, is correct, the annual fish product of British Columbia already exceeds that
©f any province in the Dominion. The fisheries of British Columbia are as yet almost
untouched industrially, except the salmon fishery, which has rapidly become an important industry. Its chief seat at present is on the Lower Fraser, in the rich agricultural district of New Westminster, through which the railway passes. Salmon fishing
is carried on, also, on the rivers Skeena and Nass, and at various places on the coasts.
Nearly aU the salmon are canned and exported to England; a few are salted and
"In 1876, there were only three "canneries." which produced 8,247 cases (each
48 1-lb. tins). In 1882, 250,000 cases were shipped, valued at $1,247,000. Several new
canneries have been started lately. The salmon fisheries now employ about 3,000
men during the season.
" A marked difference between the Canadian Atlantic ana Canadian Pacific fisheries is that, in the Pacific (or British Columbian) waters, the salmon are more numerous. A hundred fathom drift net on Fraser river has taken 853 salmon in ten
hours. There are more species of salmon also in British Columbian waters,—of six
species more or less abundant, four are excellent for the table, and of these four, three
are in such numbers as to be commercially important. (It is said that a seventh
species exists—a fine salmon which is not known to ascend rivers).
" Again, the range of the North Pacific salmon is wider than that of the Western
Atlantic salmon; some of them grange from California to Northern China. Salmon of
the sameispecies differ markedly in quahty in the different rivers of the North-West,
but it cannot be said that the salmon of any one of the large rivers, taken altogether,
are speciaUy superior; the average quahty is about the same.
"The general fisheries have been comparatively neglected, as capital has been
chiefly drawn to the salmon fishing. Herrings and oulachans have been salted,
smoked and pressed for oil. A factory is in operation to make guano-scrap from herrings. As a sea product, the fur-seal hunting comes next in value to the salmon yield,
being not far short of $200,000 a year.   This valuable animal is not found on the At-
E^=—-—H 14
lantic coast Oil is another important sea product Increasing quantities of oil from
the dogfish, seal and porpoise, and as above said, from the herring and oulachan,
appear annually in the returns.
" A fish of the same family ag the common herring, and closely resembling it m
appearance, is very abundant It approaches the shore in vast shoals from February
to July. Many species of cod, alhed to the real cod, are found, and it is probable that
the latter exists on the off-shore banks, but in the absence of any large present demand
on tho coast for cod, few care to go to the expense of seeking for cod banks. A good
kind, tho colour of which is affected by living among weedy rocks, locally knownas the
" redfish,'.' is very common. Cod banks, yielding fish considered to be the same as
the Eastern cod, are regularly fished by the Americans off the coast of Alaska, and
the same fish probably is in British Columbian waters. Halibut are abundant, of fine
quality and large size. They are found in the inner waters, on the banks off the west
coast of Vancouver Island, and on many banks farther to tho north. Sturgeon, up te
1,000 Kjs. in weight, are numerous in the Fraser and some of the larger rivers. The
oulachan (" candlefish," " oilfish," or "greasefish,") is a valuable, delicate fish, about 8
inches long, which comes to the shore in spring. It enters Fraser river in May in
great numbers; farther north, it is fatter. The surf smelt is almost as numerous as
the oulachan, and about the same size—an exceUent table fish. The very common
smaller smelt is prized at table, but the flesh is softer than that of the surf smelt and
oulachan. Many other kinds of good table fish are brought to market which need not
be here enumerated. Fine trout abound in the lakes and streams. The greatly
esteemed whitefish is common in the lakes in the middle and northern interior of the
province. Native oysters exist, but the lobster has not been found. The eastern
oyster and lobster should be introduced. The food of the lobster is much the samo as-
that of the crabs, which are so numerous on the coasts of the province, and it would
be of great value commercially. The eastern oyster should thrive where the native
one grows. Those familiar with the coast mention many Ukely places for oyster
beds,—in the New Westminster district, on the Vancouver coasts, and in Masset
Sound and Virago Harbour, north coast of Queen Charlotte Islands. The demand for
oysters and lobsters east of the Rocky Mountains, and for the European market wiU be
so great, that these fisheries might quickly rival that of the salmon in value.
" It is abundantly evident that there is a great source of wealth in the fisheries of the
province. The central regions of Canada will be largely supplied with sea fish from
British Columbia as soon as raUway communication is opened."
The "Central Industry."
Dr. Dawson in his evidence last session before referred to, than whom there can
be'no higher authority on this subject, said " Mining has been from the first, and is
likely to continue to be the main central industry of British Columbia, around which
all others group themselves." He added:—" In this Province there is about 800 miles
in length, with a width of about 400 miles of the same mountainous and plateau
region which yields all the ores of the Western States and Territories, and has given
them such prominence as metalliferous regions. British Columbia as yet can scarcely
be said to have more than begun the development of its mining industries."
Gold Mining—Equivalents op the Gold-Bearing Rocks op California.
With reference to gold mining, Dr. Dawson was asked, whether there was amy
reason toiieheve the gold bearing rocks of British Columbia were the geological equivalents of the rich gold-bearing rocks of California ? His answer was:—" I think there
is very httle reason to doubt that the gold-bearing schists are geologicaUy equivalent
to the gold-bearing rocks of California,"   What these have done, ah the world kriows
As respects the reasons why the development of the mining industries of British
Columbia can scarcely be said to have begun, Dr. Dawson said:—" The country is te
a large extent, covered with forests, which makes it much more difficult to prospect for
mines.   Then, the present cost of hving and the difficulty of getting at aU to some of 15
thJfQ Places which ar« most promising in their metalliferous deposits, and also, I may
add, the fact that many of the efforts made in the first instance have been very injudicious, and have led to the discouragement of the people of the country to prosecute
further enterprises of the same kmd." He continued:—" Gold, however, is known to
be almost universaUy distributed in the Province of British Columbia. There is
.scarcely a stream of any si.*e in any part of the Province that one cannot wash a few
' colours,' as they say, out <.f, at the very least, and in 105 localities, which I catalogued in 1877, actual mining '>ad been carried on for gold. Tho main auriferous belt
of British Columbia runs from ,-outh-east to north-west, just inside the Rocky Mountains, and includes the mining localities which have been called Kootenay, Big Bend,
Cariboo, Omenica and Cassiar. From south to north, from 1858 to 1882, the gold produced in British Columbia amounts to $46,685,334, which is a great return, considering that tho average population ofthe Provinco taking tho period altogether, would not
exceed about 10,000 whites. The average number of miners employed in these placer
diggings has been 2,940, and the average yield per man employed, obtained by dividing the total by the number of miners, $683 per man per annum. It should be also
considered that these placer deposits are, as a rule, only to be worked in summer, and
that tho sum stated was earned in less than half the year of actual work. The greatest
yield, of any one year was in 1864, when $3,735,850 was sent out of the country. Last
year tho total yield was only $1,013,827. Since 1864, with occasionalfluctuations, the
yield of gold haB shown a general tendency to decline, and the state of the country at
present is simply this: The richer placer mines so far discovered having been more or
less worked out, the gold yield is faUing off. Such placers have been more or less
completely exhausted, early in the history of gold-mining countries, as in Australia
and California Then the period comes when the miner goes to work on the quartz
lodes, whence the gold in the placer mines has been derived. That period has not
arrived yet in British Columbia. There is not a single auriferous quartz vein worked
there yet, and the present is the interim period between the full development of placer
mines and the beginning of the quartz mining, which is a more permanent industry.
There is no doubt that before long auriferous quartz mines wUl be worked."
On another occasion referring to his report for the Pacific Railway survey, Dr.
Dawson said:—" It is my opinion that when the country is opened up and the cost of
labour and supplies lessened, it wiU be found capable of rapid development, and may
soon take a first place as the mining province of tbe Dominion, and ultimately, as
second to no other country in North America"
With reference to his remark that no quartz veins had yet been worked, Dr.
Dawson was asked if there were not quartz mines in Cariboo. He answered:—" An
attempt was made some years ago to work them, but, as far as I know, there is no
mine now in operation. The difficulties are very great in some parts of the country
owing chiefly to the cost of transport and supplies. Until very lately, it cost from 7£
cts. to 12£ ete. a pound to freight goods and supplies to Cariboo from Yale, according
to the season, and such prices are so heavy a tax on expensive mining operations that
it renders it impossible to work any but very high grade ores. In Ominica, still further north, it costs 15 cts. a pound to carry supphes into the district, and thus it is
almost impossible for private miners to continue prospecting on their own resources,
and unless they have a very rich claim which they can work, they must leave the
country. One advantage of the construction of the railway and opening up of the
interior wiU be that the poorer placer deposits wiU be extensively worked."
Companies have been formed for this purpose, and a prospectus of one of these has
been placed in the hands ofthe writer by one of the members of the House of Commons from British Columbia, entitled " QuesneUe Quartz Mining Company." The
operations of this Company have been for some time suspended, but are proposed to
be again continued. Considerable works have been already constructed, and the
assays ofthe quartz made at different times have shown the occurrence of very high
grade ores.
Coal—The Great Importance op the Deposits—Tests op Value.
'Coal Mining is at present next in importance to that of Gold in British Columbia;
and, in the near future, it wiU probably prove to be more important The deposits
are very widely spread, both on the main land and in the islands; tho coal of
Nanaimo, on Vancouver Island, being so far the best that has been found on the i6 nn
western coast of America. AU authorities agree as to the extent and value of the
coal beds of British Columbia. Mr. Selwyn, the head of the Geological Survey, mentions, besides the coal beds of Queen Charlotte's Islands—some of them anthracite,—
and the only anthracite coal yet discovered on the Pacific Coast,—and the Nanaimo
Mines, a bed in the vicinity of Barclay Sound, on the west coast of Vancouver; and
beds near New Westminster and in the neighbourhood of the Nicola VaUey, on the-
main land, and several other places.
Thirty-two different places are named by Dr. Dawson, in a report on mines
pubhshed in the Report ofthe Geological Survey, in which coal and lignites are known
to occur; and some of these are extensive districts. Of these the Nanaimo and Comox
coals on Vancouver's Island, and those ofthe Nicola Vallev and on the North Thompson, on the mainland, are known to be excellent.
One of the beds of lignite coal in the inferior is over 40 feet in thickness. The
tertiary coal measures underlie nearly 1,000 square miles, about the estuary of the
Fraser. In the Nicola Section, the coal bed is over 100 miles in length and nearly 40
In the middle zone ofthe interior, lignites of various quahties occur, and exceUent
lignites, nearly equal to carboniferous coal, have been found at the forks of the
Skeena, in latitude 54° 30/ North, and the forks of the Pine River, one degree farther
to the north. The beds have not been worked, as so far, they have been shut out from
any market, though the same class of coal is extensively worked south of the boundary
hne and sent to San Francisco.
The coal area of the east coast of Vancouver's Island, to which the Nanaimo
Mines belong, is 130 miles in length, and is already largely worked. No less than 80O
persons are employed in the Nanaimo Mines, and last year nearly 300,000 tons of coal
were raised.
The test ofthe Nanaimo coal for steam raising purposes, by officers ofthe Federal
Government of the United States, has already been referred to in this pamphlet; but,
in view of the very great importance of the subject, the following extract from Dr.
Dawson's evidence in relation to it is further given: " It is true bituminous coal of
very excellent quality. It was tested by the War Department of the United States,
some years ago, to find out which fuels gave the best results for steam-raising purposes
Pacific coast is concerned, the coal of Nanaimo has a marked superiority over aU the
others. In 1882 the coal raised from the Nanaimo mines was 282,139 tons, which is
equal to about one-fifth the coal product of Nova Scotia, though that Province has
been so much longer a coal-producing region. Of this 151;800 tons were sold in San
Francisco, the retail price being about $12 a ton."
Dr. Dawson subsequently explained, in answer to questions of British Columbia
members, that this coal had been sold on the San Francisco markets at $8 per ton *;
the price ranging apparently from $8 to $12 per ton. The fact of importance, in this
connection, is that the excellence of this coal is so marked, that it forces its way, notwithstanding the American protective tariff and the large supplies of coal found on
the Pacific coast, within the U. S. borders, into the markets of San Francisco,
commanding the prices named.
The northern or Comox portion of the area is estimated by Mr. Richardson, of
the Geological Survey, to cover 300 square miles, without taking into account what
extends beyond the shore.
Other beds are found on the north-west coast, and lignite coals at various places
on the south-west coast, and at Quatsino Sound, on the West coast, there is an extensive coal district, and the coal of a superior kind.
The anthracite coal beds of Queen Charlotte's Islands are known to extend 20
miles, and it is beheved extend 100 nines. Fragments of true anthracite have been
discovered on the east coast of Vancouver, and also in several places inland.
Iron—Value op Deposits in Proximity to Coal.
A very important fact in connection with these extensive coal deposits, is the
presence of iron ore in close proximity.   Iron is found in many localities, but httle
I attention has been paid to the subject   On Texada Island, a long wooded island in
1 17
the Strait of Georgia, between Vancouver and the main land, there is a mountainous
mass of iron ores traceable for mues. Professor Selwyn describes them as "some of
the finest iron ores known in Canada;" and "lying in close proximity to great beds
of marble or hmestone and the coal fields of Nanaimo." Dr. Dawson describes the
bed on Texada Island as " a very rich magnetic ore assaying 68*4, of iron, and a very
low percentage of phosphorous and other impurities"; and having " only twenty miles
ofthe navigable waters of the Strait of Georgia, between it and the Comox coal field,
and both the iron and coal close to the water's edge."
SUyer has been found near Hope, on the Fraser River. The specimens of ore assayed
galenas at Omenica and Kootenay. Professor Selwyn states that there is every
reason to believe that rich mines of silver will be opened in the province. Specimens
received by the Geological Survey, from the Rocky Mountains, show a high percentage-
Other Minerals.
Copper has been discovered in a great many localities, both inland and on the
coast | Seventeen are mentioned in the Geological Survey report. The Howe Sound
mine is considered by Dr. Dawson as the most promising.
Galena has been found in many parts of the Province in connection with gold,
and Cinnabar has been obtained in the gold washings on Fraser River and the Hope
sUver ores.   Rich Cinnabar ore was found on the Homatheo in smaU quantities.
Mercury and Platinum have also been found, but as yet in smaU quantities.
Specimens of Antimony and of Bismuth have been found at Shuswap Lake; of
Molybdenum near Howe's Sound and on the upper part of the Cowitchan River, and of
Plumbago in Vancouver's Island.
Salt Springs are found on Admiral Island, Shoal Bay, Vancouver, and salt is also
found on the Chilcotin and Mazco Rivers, but httle is known of these or their
capabilities for use.
The public lands of British Columbia are vested in the Provincial Government
with the exception of the 20 mile Railway Belt (so-called, that is, a belt on each
side of the railway), which was made over to the Dominion Government as a set off
for railway works within the Province. The Provincial Lands are under the management of the Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works, Victoria, who has official
assistants in the districts-
Any head of a fannly, widow, or single man over 18 years of age, a British subject, or an ahen declaring his intention to become such, may record any surveyed
or unsurveyed crown lands not already occupied or recorded, as either a "homestead " or 1 pre-emption." The quantity of such land not to exceed 320 acres north and
east of the Cascade or coast range of mountains, or 160 in any other part of the
province. .
The Drice to be one dollar per acre, payable m four annual instalments, the first
instalment to be paid one year from the date of record.
Apphcation to be made in writing to the Land Commissioner, m duplicate, with
description and plan ofthe land, and declaration under oath that the land is properly
subject to settlement, and the applicant qualified to record it. A recording fee of two
dollars (8s 3dstg.) is to. be paid. Land recorded or pre-empted cannot be transferred,
or conveyed until after a crown grant or patent has been issued.
. The land must be staked off and posts put at each corner, not less than iour incnes
square, and five feet above ground, with the apphcant's name on each post, and its
position as N. E., S. W., &c. 18
The settler must enter into actual occupation of his location within 30 days after
recording, and continuously reside on it, either himseff, his family or his agents.
Neither Indians nor Chinese can act as agents.
Absence from the land for more than two months consecutively or for four month*
in the year, renders it subject to cancellation.
After the payments for the land have been made, and the land surveyed, a patent
wiU be granted, upon proof, by declaration in writing of himsalf and two other persons, of occupation for two years from date of pre-emption, and having made permanent improvements on the land to the value of $2.50 per acre. But any alien must
become a naturalized subject before he can receive such patent.
The patent excludes gold and silver ore and coal.
The heirs or devisees ofthe household settler are, if resident in the Province entitled to'the Crown grant on his decease. If they are absent from the Province, at
the time of his death, the Chief Commissioner may dispose of the pre-emption, and
snake such provision for the personfentitled thereto, as he may deem just.
No person may hold more than one pre-emption claim at a time. Prior record or
preemption of one claim, and all rights under it, are forfeited by subsequent record
•or pre-emption of another claim.
By the Homestead Law of British Columbia, real and personal property, duly registered, is protected to the value of $2,500 (£513 13s lid stg.) from seizure and sale
Unsurveyed or unreserved crown lands may be purchased in traGts of not less
than 100 acres for $1 (4s l£d stg.) per acre, payable at time of purchase, by giving
two months' notice in the "British Columbia Gazette," and any local newspaper,
stating name of applicant, boundaries of land, &c, and such notice must also be posted
in some conspicuous place on the land itself and at the Government office of the district in which the land is located. The land must also b6 staked off as in case of pre-.
eruption, and surveyed at the expense of the applicant.
Surveyed lands, not town sites nor Indian settlements, may, after they have been
offered for sale at pubhc auction, be purchased at one dollar (4s ljd stg.) per acre, to
be paid for at time of purchase.
Partners, not exceeding four, may pre-empt, as a firm, 160 acres, west of the Cascades, to each'partner, or 320 acres, east of the cascades, to each.
Each partner must represent his interest in the firm by actual residence on the
land, of himself or agent. But each partner, or his agent, need not reside on his particular pre-emption. The partners, or their agents may reside together on one homestead, if the homestead be situated on any part of the partnership pre-emption.
For obtaining a certificate of improvements, it is sufficient to show that improvements have been made on some portion of the claim, amounting in the aggregate to
$2.50 per acre on the whole land.
Military and naval settlers may acquire free grants of land under the military
and naval Settlers Act, 1863.
The Lieutenant-Governor-in-Council may make special grants of free, or partiaUy
free, lands under such restrictions as he may deem advisable, for the encouragement
of immigration or other public purposes.
He may also sell, or make free grants of any vacant lands, for the purpose of
dyking, draining, or irrigating them, subject to such regulations as may be deemed
Landholders may divert for agricultural or other purposes, the required quantity
of unrecorded and unappropriated water from the natural channel of any stream or
lake adjacent to or passing through their land, upon obtaining the written authority
of the Commissioner.
An Oregon newspaper lately said: *' Emigrants coming here are extremely wary
in looking after the titles of the property they desire to purchase." In British
Columbia there is no necessity for this. ' Titles are secure, and there is no difficulty
with regard to them.
Mining Regulations.
Every person over sixteen years may hold a mining claim. For this purpose he
must obtain from the Gold Commissioner, a " Free Miner's Certificate," which may be
for one year or three, at the cost of five doUars (£1 0s 6^d stg.) a year. Every claim
located must be recorded in the office of the Gold Commissioner, annuaUy. at a fee of
$2.50 (10s 3ifd stg.) ' 19
A free miner can only hold two claims by pre-emption, but may purchase any
Claims must be, as far as possible, rectangular, and must be staked.
The sizes are:—" Bar diggings," 100 feet wide at high water mark, extending into
the river to the lowest water level.
" Dry diggings," 100 feet square..
"Creek Claims,"100 feet long in general direction of stream and in width from
base to base of the hiU or bench each side. But if the hills or benches are not 100 feet
apart, then the claim shaU be 100 feet square
" Bench Claims," 100 feet square.
" Mineral Claims," containing or supposed to contain minerals (other than coal) in
lodes or veins, 1,500 feet long by 600 feet wide. Discoverers of new mines allowed 30O
feet long for each discoverer. " Creek discovery claims," 1,000 each side of the centre
or as far as the summit
" Coal lands " east of the Cascade Range may be purchased in tracts of 160 acres,
for five dollars an acre ; west si that range, for ten dollars an acre
Provincial Taxes.
As supplementary to the Land Regulations, it may not be out of place to state
what the Provincial taxes are.   They are moderate, as wiU be seen by the foUowing:—
A general head tax. of $3 for educational purposes on aU males over 18 years ;
one-third of one per cent, on real property; five cents per acre on wild land; one-fifth
of one per cent on personal property; and one-half of one per cent on income, if paid
before 30th of June each year.
If not so paid, they are:—One-half of one per cent on real and one-fourth on personal property; six cents per acre on wUd land; and three-fourths of one per cent, on
The Tourist and the Artist.
The completion of the Canadian Trans-Continental Railway will open up a new
ground—a new world almost—for the tourist and pleasure seeker, affording the most
striking possible contrast to the " toujours perdrix" of European travel. All the physical manifestations ofthe earth's surface are here on the grandest and most magnificent scale ; and this fact is found whether these mountains are approached from the
east or from the west
Speaking of the eastern approach, the Rev. Dr. McGregor, in a paper contributed to the Contemvorary Review, is the most recent, but not the only writer. Dr.
McGregor was one of the party who accompanied His Excellency Lord Lome in
his tour to the interior of the Canadian North-West in 1881; and he thus expresses
himself on his first sight ofthe Rocky Mountains :—
" Our first glimpse of that long and magnificent line of gigantic peaks and mighty
masses—a broken mountain waU of glittering snow some hundred mUes away—was
a vision of glory never to be forgotten. On our ascending from a great Indian powwow on the Bow River to the upper level they looked in the clear morning air like
a long series of sharp-cut white pyramids built upon the prairie; then the great dog-
toothed line rose higher; then the long serrated range of jagged peaks and twisted
masses, seen under sunsnine almost tropical in its beat and purity, stood out in all
its splendour, sharp and distinct as if only a few miles away, their sides blue in
shadow, whue their peaks and faces were a glittering snow-white down to the yeUow
prairie level out of which they seemed to rise. When forty-five miles distant from
them, I noted as special features the straightness of the range from the two extreme
points of -vision, and that though broken into every variety of form, the pyramidal
peak predominating, the summit hne was pretty uniiorm hke a deep and irregularly
toothed'saw. I suppose that nowhere else on earth is there such an ocean of verdure
bounded by such a shore." . _,
The eloquent appreciation of the Earl of Dufferin of the glories of British Columbia, as seen from the west coast, has been already given m an earher chapter ot 20
this pmphlet     He said " the ever shifting combination of rock, verdure, forest,
glacierand snow-capped mountain, form a scene of unrivaUed grandeur and beauty."
Acorrespondent, speaking of the outskirts of Victoria, Vancouver Island, thus
writes:— . .
"Nowhere else can such a park of unsurpassed loveliness be found as m Victoria.
Beaco HUI park affords the traveUer a place of resort, adjacent to an important city,
at once so charmingly rural, and so easy of access to those who toU for their hving
in theheart of the city. Magnificent beyond description are the views to be seen at
early daawn fromthis park. To the south the Olympian range rise in their mighty
grandeur; on the right the lovely green foliage ofthe opposing Vancouver hills and
the placid entrance to Esquimalt harbour, render the scene superbly grand."
His ExceUency Lord Lome, when he visited British Columbia in 1882, referred to
the importance of utilizing the attractions of the magnificent scenery of the Province
in these words:—" I would strongly advise you to cultivate the attractions held out to
the travelling pubhc by the magnificence of your scenery. Let this country become
what Switzerland is for Europe in the matter of good *oads to places which may be
famed for their beauty, and let good and clean hotels attract the tourist to visit the
grand vaUeys and marveUous mountain ranges. Choose some district, and there are
many from which you can choose, where trout and salmon abound, and where sport
may be found among the deer and with the wild fowl. Select some portion of your
territory where pines and fir shroud in their greatest richness the giant slopes, and
swarm upwards to glacier, snow-field, and craggy peak, and where in the autumn the
maples seem as though they wished to mimic in hanging gardens the glowing tints o
the lava that must have streamed down the precipices of these old volcanoes. (Loud
cheering.) Wherever you find these beauties in greatest perfection and where the
river torrents urge their currents most impetuously through the Alpine gorges, there I
would counsel you to set apart a region which shaU be kept as a national park."
In the past it has been difficult to reach these scenes. It required either a long
and toilsome overland journey; or the route by San Francisco or the Isthmus. The
easy communication now about to be opened wiU, by reason of its great facilities,
change aU this for the tourist and pleasure seeker, both from Europe and the eastern
face of the continent of America.
The Angler and the Sportsman.
For the angler there are rivers and lakes abounding in salmon and
other fish, while the mountains and forests wUl tempt the sportman. Grouse of
various kinds, ptarmigan, quails, wild geese and several kinds of ducks, snipe and
pigeons are plentiful. Hares abound east of the Coast range. Black tailed deer are
found everywhere. Wapiti, mountain sheep, mountain goat and cariboo furnish sport
to the hunter. Moose have been found in the interior in the northern part of the
There are bears, brown, black and grizzly, badgers, foxes of several varieties,
fishes, fur seals, mountain minks, grey and spotted lynx, musquash, sea and land
otters, panthers, raccoons, black and grey wolves and the smaU " Cayote " wolf
Cities and Towns.
Victoria, on the southwest coast of Vancouver Island, is the capital, and the
principal city of the Province. Its population is about 7,000. It is picturesquely
situated; ~
than twenty miles around the city.   There are six churches—a pubhc
hospitals, and many pubhc buUdings, and a stone dry dock in course of construction.
Nanaimo is on tlie east coast, and has a safe and commodious harbour.   It has
several churches, a hospital and excellent schools.
' New^ Westminster, the chief city on the mainland, has a population of 3,000, and is
rapidly increasing in size and importance.   It is the market of a flourishing agri- 21
cultural district, and the seat of a large salmon canning industry. There are many
-other important industries springing up around the citv, and a number of pubhc buildings. Handsome residences on the outskirts of the town command beautiful views up
and down the Fraser, on which steamers are constantly passing; and there is also
steamboat communication with Victoria, Nanaimo and'San Francisco- The climate
is healthy and pleasant, and the situation exceedingly fine, occupying a gentle
acclivity, looking towards the south, with the Fraser at its feet jj to the south-west, an
archipelago of beautiful islands, and north and east the mountains of the Cascade
Range standing out against the blue sky.
There are a number of smaUer towns and villages. All of them have postal and
telegraphic facilities.
The Indians of British Columbia are remarkable for their peaceable and law
abiding character, They are largely employed in the salmon fisheries and in seal
hunting, etc. Some of them are farmers and raise cattle, others are miners, and altogether they contribute largely to the trade and industries of the Province. Lord
Lome said of them when at Victoria : " I believe I have seen the Indians of almost
every tribe throughout the Dominion, and nowhere can you find any who are so
trustworthy in regard to conduct, so wUhng to assist the white settlers by their labour,
so independent and anxious to learn the secret of the white man's power. While elsewhere are met constant demands for assistance, your Indians have never asked for
any, for in the interviews given to the chiefs, their whole desire seemed to be for
schools and schoolmasters; and in reply to questions as to whether they would assist
themselves in securing such institutions, they invariably replied that they would, be
glad to pay for them. It is certainly much to be desired that some of the funds apportioned for Indian purposes should be given to provide them fuUy with schools, in
which industrial education may. form an important item. But we must not do injustice to the wilder tribes. Their case is totally different from that of your Indians. The
Buffalo was everything to the nomad. It gave him house, fuel, clothes and bread.
The disappearance of this animal left him starving. Here, on the contrary, the advent
of the white men has never diminished the food supply of the native. He has game
in abundance, for the deer are as numerous now as they ever have been. He has
more fish than he knows what to do with, and the lessons in farming that you have
taught him have given him a source of food supply of which he was previously
Ship Building.
Owing to the high price and scarcity of labour, few large vessels have so far been
built in the Province, though the Douglas spruce furnishes first class timber for this
purpose, as weU as for masts and spars. Many steamboats and smaller craft have
been buUt, and the material and faculties are so excellent, it is probable this industry
wiU assume important dimensions at no distant day. There is another consideration
in connection with ship building. It wiU happen in the future development of the
Province, when it becomes the Great Britain of tbe Pacific Ocean, the deposits of coal
and iron, each so conveniently situated in relation to the other, wiU give rise to a
great iron ship building industry.
Imports and Exports.
The amount of the exports from British Columbia, compared with the smaUness
of its population, is remarkable. Tbe per capita value was in 1882 more than three times
that of any of the other Provinces of the Dominion, and exceeded that of any of the
American Territories on the coast. The principal articles of export and their value
in that year -were:
Minerals, (chiefly Gold and Coal) ?1 *4?7'°J£ 22
Sea Products, (chiefly Salmon and Oils)  ^t'ol? H
Timber, (chiefly Douglas Spruce) •      „„„'?Ii ™
Animals and their Produce, (Furs and Skins)      o00,529 00
J 22 *
The value of the exports in 1882, the produce of British Columbia, was
$3,118,119, and the total value, $3,154,194; showing a per capita export of $63.7(k
The imports for the same year were:
From Great Britain   $  759,603 00
"    Eastern Provinces, Canada      559,732 00
"    UnitedStates  1,846,939 00
"    China      240,17000
"    Other Countries        35,383 00
TotalValue $2,882,095 00
Per Capita  58 27
These facts show both the great natural resources of the country, and the energy
of its small population. British Columbia is, naturaUy, the richest of aH the Provinces,
and a country of strong life. It is claimed on their behalf, by the pamphlet of the
Provincial Government, that probably no other people can show such a record. With
the opening ofthe Pacific Railway, the trade both with the Mother Country and the
other colonies, must enormously increase.
Cost of LrvraG-
The ordinary rates at second class hotels in Victoria were in the winter of 1882-83
from 20 to 26 shUlings sterhng per week, or 4 shiUings per day. Single meals were
1 shilling each, and beds from 1 to 2 shillings. At New Westminster, the rates were
nearly the same, and also at Nanaimo, at the workmen's boarding houses.
In the interior on the mainland the rates are higher, owing to the difficulties of
transport, but the contractors for the Pacific Railway state the price of board along
the railway to be $4 a week.
On March 23, 1883, the market report of prices of provisions at Victoria were as
Butter from 50 to 75 cts. per lb.
Cheese    "    25 to 374  " "
Eggs       "    25 to 33    "  per doz.
Oornmeal    5 "   per lb.
Oatmeal 624 cents per 10 lbs.
Flour $5.75 to $7.50 per bbl.
Meat 2i to 21 cts.      "
Beans    6 to 8    " "
SplitPeas 124-
Potatoes    1} " "
Onions    3 " "
Celery  374        "   per doz.
Carrots    14 "   per lb.
Cauliflower  $1.50 per doz.
Green Peas	
Vegetable Marrows.
Cod Fish	
20 cts. per lb.
124   "      "
75    " per doz.
4    " per lb.
. 25 to 30 cts. per lb.
224 tO 21        r\
6 "
Smelt    6 cts. per lb.
Sturgeon    6
AVhiting    6 "
Salmon Trout    8
Soles    fi "
Crabs  50 to 75 cts. per doz. .
Smoked Fish 124 cts. per lb.
Canned Salmon  $2 per doz. cans.
Coffee—ground 50 cts. per lb.
"       green 28      "
Tea *  374 cts. to $1.25 per lb.
Sugars    6 lb. for $1 to 81b. $1.
Beef    5 t» 12i cts. per lb.
Mutton    6tol2|      ,r
Pork 124 "
"Veal 124 "
Lamb  $1.50 per quarter.
Ducks 37* cts. to $2 per pair.
Chickens 624 cts. to 75 cts. each.
SpriDg Chickens  $5 per dozen.
Turkeys 25 ots. per lb.
Geese.  25      "
Hay $1,374 per cwt.
Oats 24 cts. per lb.
Middlings  2 to 2± ots. "
Bran  14 "   "
These are the ordinary retail prices. At New Westminster and at Nanaimo they
are much the same, but in the interior meat is cheaper, and aU imported articles
dearer, from the cost of transp. ■> *ation.
The wholesale prices of Fal.i Produce at the same date were :—
/Wheat $2 to $2.25 pe
Oats     2to   2.50    "
Barley and Peas     2.00 "
Hay     1.25
Potatoes     1.00 "
Butter 28 to 30 ots. per lb.
Cheese  18 "
Eggs  25 cts. per doz.
Beef, dressed, per cwt $8.50.
on foot, gross     4.00.
Sheep, g            5.50.
Mutton, dressed, per cwt $12.50.
PigSi " " 9 to 10 ro
Lambs, each    3 to 4.00
Teal, on foot     5.00
Hides, green     7 to 8.50 per owt.
dry......   13to 17.00   "
Fowls.    6 to 6.50 per doz.
rurkeys, dressed  25 ots. per lb.
Bucks....   $5 to 6.00 per doz. brace.
Geese, each  1.50 to 2.00. 23
Building Materials
are plentiful.   Bricks at Victoria cost from 32 to 40 shiUings sterling per thousand at
the kiln.   The present prices of lumber at Victoria are:—
Lumber, rough  $14 per 1,000.
" dressed, tongued and grooved.   25
" "    on both sides     27.50   "
Lumber, Cedar $17.50 per 1,000.
dressed  50.00
Shingles     3.50
The prices at New Westminster are less.
Rente of small houses and cottages vary from £1 to £5 per month, but are net
easy to be got.
Clothing and Furniture.
Clothing is about 20 or 22 per cent, more than in England.   Furniture is made in
the Province, and may be got at the foUowing prices:—
Chairs 75 cts. to $1.25 each.
Bedsteads  $3.00 up.
Tables     1.50 up.
Dining Tables  12.00 up.
M attresses $1.50 to 30.00.
Carpets 80 cts. to $1.75 per yd.
Bedroom Sets $25 up.
Farm Implements
may be bought in Victoria as follow:—
Thrashing Machines $450 to 850.
Reapers   150.
Mowers  100.
Self-Binders  330.
Ploughs    20 to 40.
Harrows | $ 20 to 35.
Waggons, with box and seat  131).
' withbrake  110.
running gear only  100 to 110.
Fuel is plentiful. Wood is commonly used, and the price in the seaboard towns
and at Yale ranges from 14 to 20 shillings per cord of fir firewood delivered. A cord
is 8 ft long, 4 ft. high, and 4 ft. broad. It wiU cost about 6 shiUings per cord to have
it cut ready for household use.   Many householders cut it themselves.
Goal is used in some households, and costs from 30 to 32 shiUings per ton.
On the 1st March, 1883, the advertised rates of wages on the Canadian Pacific
RaUway in British Columbia were:—
Overseers $125-per month.
3.0) to 4 00 per day.
3.0 to 4.00      "
2.50 to 3.00      "
3.0 J to 3.50      "
Blacksmiths, 1st class.
2nd   "   .
Teamsters, with board.
$3.50 per day.
3.C0 "
2.00 to 2.25 "
1.75 to 2.00 "
3.50 "
2.00 to 2.50     "
60.0 J to 75.00 per mth
Bock Foremen
Earth Foremen	
Bridge Foremen	
"       Carpenters, 1st class
"        2nd    "
AU outside labour, ten hours per day
aU employes to find themselves board and lodging.   Wages to be paid monthly, on
the 10th of each month.
The ordinary rates are given in the Provincial Government Pamphlet as follow:
carpenters to furnish their own tools, and
At the Colleries.
-Carpenters and Blacksmiths. .$3.00 to 3.75 per day.
Laborers •• 2.00to2.59      |
Miners' earnings, contractwk 3.00 to 4.00
Fishermen 50.00 to 60.00 prmth.
Stonecutters,   Stonemasons ? 4.00 to 5.00 per day.
and Bricklayers )      „ ,   „ _.      .,
TheirLaborers   2.00to2.50      u
Plasterers  H0toi*nn
Carpenters and Joiners  3.00 to 4.00
Ship   "        "   Caulkers  4.00 to 4.50      u
■Cabinetmakers & Upholsterers 3.00
Painters  3-50toH2
•Shoemakers  2.00to3.00      «
Tailors  2.50to3.00      '4
Tailoresses  1.00 to L50
Bakers, with board & lodging
Butchers, cutters	
Boys, as strippers, &o	
Tinsmiths, Plumbers, and
Machinists, Moulders, Pattern and Boilermakers, and
Wood turners	
Laborers of aU sorts	
$65.00 per month.
75.00 to 100.00 p mth.
75.00 "
2.00 to 4.00 per day.
2.00 to 5.00 per week
45 cts. per 1,000 ems.
$3.50 to 4.00 per day.
13.50 to 4.00
13.50 to 4.00      "
50 cents an hour.
$3.00 per day.
2.50 24
by the month, with board and lodging, £4 to £8 per month. .
In Vancouver Island and New Westminster Districts, farm labourers receive 4
shUlings per day, with board and lodging.
In the interior higher wages are paid. A man who can attend to a garden or
orchard would readily get 8 to 10 shillings a day,
are scarce, and wages high. Nurse girls get from 40 to 48 shilfings sterling per month,
and general house servants, with some knowledge of cooking, and able to wash, £4 a
Chinamen are mudh employed as cooks; but the women do not take servants
In choosing a location, the agricultural immigrant, as advised by a Provincial
Government publication, should regard the railway, both in the local markets its construction opens and those which wiU be permanently opened east of the Rocky
Mountains. A farm in the vicinity of a mining camp is always a desirable location.
Horses are already in demand east of the mountains. Cattle, horses and sheep de
well in all the agricultural districts. Fruit grows well also in all of them. Dairy
farming does specially well in the New Westminster district. The Angora goat thrives
weU in the province, and the Mohair as well, as wool will probably be in demand for
manufacturers. Flax and tobacco grow well, but wages are too high to make their
cultivation profitable at present. The northwest province differs essentiaUy from the
great plain region east of the mountains, in its more varied capabilities. There wUl
be many things required eastward which British Columbia can best supply.
The immigrant may be helped in choosing a proper location by some explanation of
the terms he wiU hear cpmmonly applied to lands in British Columbia. " Prairie " on
the Pacific slope does not mean a treeless sea of grass—but level or open spaces near
rivers. Many of them are " wet prairies," and require draining or dyking. The soil
is very rich, and they are free from malaria, and considered desirable locations.
| Bottom lands " are flat lands in river valleys, bearing such trees as maple, ash, etc.
They are easily cleared, and are often highly productive. The term " bench " is given
to the raised level spaces or terraces in some of the river valleys. These terraces run
along both sides of the river for miles in length, and in some places are multiplied
into several successive level plateaux, rising one above the other as they recede from
the bank. The term " prairie" east of the Cascade Range, is popularly apphed to any
open flat tract, not large enough to be caUed a plain.
It appeared from a memorandum of the Government of British Columbia, laid
before the Canadian House of Commons last session, that the settlers specially desired
in that Province are men for tho construction of public works and the development of.
its mining, agricultural and other resources. This memorandum further set forth that
men of these classes were desired to take the place of Chinese workmen, who are not
regarded with favour on the Pacific coast, for the reason that they form an inferior class-
apart, and are not adapted for minghng with or forming part of the civilization of the
Caucasian or white race.   The children of the very poorest white ii
immigrants, on the
**mand.   A large dis-
other hand, have a tendency to rise to the highest social positions.
The class of female domestic servants is scarcely less in dema:	
proportion exists between the men and women in the Province, the men being greatly
in excess, and it is desired to redress this disproportion by female immigration.
BuUdings of various kinds wiU, as a matter of course, follow rapidly the construction of the transcontinental railway and the progress of settlement It therefore follows that mechanics and artisans skiUed in the common trades, such as carpenters
and joiners, bricklayers, etc., wiU be in demand.   Men to work in and develop the 25
mines and also to work in metals, will be required with the progress of settlement,
which wiU undoubtedly very rapidly follow the opening of the railway.
The general advice elsewhere given may here be repeated, that professional or
literary men, or clerks seeking employment in offices or shops, should not be advised
to go to a new country like British Columbia, unless in pursuance of previous engagements, or unless they have made up their minds to labour with their hands. It happens
that the children ofthe immigrants who have been educated in the country, seek and
obtain employment in the professions and the lighter avocations and pursuits referred
to, and render the openings for newcomers more difficult to find. It may be generally
stated that as labourers of all kinds are now required in British Columbia, this demand
wiU be found to increase with the progress of the country, the appetite, in fact, growing by what it feeds upon.
Wages Quotations Fluctuate.
It wiU be seen by quotations of figures, in another part of this pamphlet, that the
wages now paid in British Columbia are very high. These figures may, however,
fluctuate, as there is a constant tendency for wages to equalize themselves between
the great labour markets, as the means of communication become cheaper and more
perfect The probabilities, however, in a new country, and in a gold-producing one
especiaUy, are, that for many years to come, the natural tendency wiU be for wages
to be high. It is not, however, simply a question of high wages which is the
chief inducement for settlers in a new country. It is the opportunity offered to labourers from the crowded communities of the Old World to improve their condition in
life and that of their families. There are hundreds of thousands of men in all parts
of Canada who landed in the country without any means at all, and in a state little
removed from pauperism, who are now comfortably settled, and have been able to
educate their children and place them in positions to achieve success in any walk in
Many persons who emigrate from old countries to parts of Canada, have a fancy
that they* are leaving civilization behind, and are about to take up their abode and
begin life anew ia a semi-barbarous state. Nothing could be more erroneous,—the
fact really being that settlers in a new country start from the point of the civilization
attained by the old, while the necessities of the new world tend to sharpen the inventive faculties, and. create fresh adaptations, which very often mark great progress,
especially in mechanical contrivances and labour-saving apphances.
System op Government.
British Columbia, being a Province of the Confederation of the Dominion of
Canada, has both a local or Provincial Government and a proportionate representation
(not simply according to its population, but taking in view also its territorial interests)
in the General Parliament of the Dominion at Ottawa
The Local Government is representative under a Lieut-Governor appointed by
the Dominion Government, and an Executive Council responsible to the Legislature
of the Province in such a way that the Executive Council or Local Ministry can only
continue to hold office while it maintains a majority in the Legislative Assembly.
The effect of this system is to establish the most immediate and direct popular control
over the government of the day which it is possible to attain, or which anywhere else
exists. This control is very much more direct than any which is found in the Republic of the United States; while its other conditions afford well-ordered stabiUty.
No-taxes can be imposed, except voted by representatives of the people.
The seat of the Federal Government is at Ottawa, having for its head a Governor
General appointed by the Queen, but having his salary paid by the people of Canada-
Members of the House of Commons elected by British Columbia have to go to Ottawa
to attend the sessions of the Federal or Dominion Parliament   And here agam tha 26
principle of responsibility of Ministers to the House of Commons prevails; and the
same remark may be made in regard to the tenure of office of the Federal Mi^try.
The completion of the Canadian Pacific RaUway wiU afford members from British
Columbia much greater facilities for visiting Ottawa than at present, and wiU create
' a sense of much greater nearness, if not of greater actual unity.
While it is impossible to estabhsh, among perfectly new communities on the
American continent, a political system exactly similar to those which have grown out
of the conditions of feudal times, the system which prevails in Canada leaves very
httle to be desired as respects the advantages of weU-ordered stability on the one hand
or certainty as respects direct control of the people over the Government on the other,
as compared with the institutions of any republican government in the world.
The electoral suffrage in Canada is very general, being almost universal; and in
British Columbia every British subject, after one year's residence, has a right to vote,
Municipal Government.
A feature of special interest and importance of the self-government in Canada is
the Municipal system. The municipalities are both of counties and townships, and
each has its elective councU and officers. These local councils vote the taxes for
county or township purposes, such as roads, bridges, local pubUc buildings, &c, and
the people, therefore, are the judges of what their own interest requires. Having
agreed to impose taxes upon themselves for necessary expenses and improvements,
they pay them cheerfuUy and look very sharply at what they vote and whom they elect.
This kind of " Home Rule" gives everywhere afeeling of contentment and satisfaction
and the practice of managing local affairs at home by representative institutions,
leads naturaUy up to the larger political systems of the Provincial and Federal Governments.
In the Province of British Columbia there has been a little exception as relates to
road-making, owing to the difficulties presented by the pecuhar nature of the country.
The provincial government, as before stated in this pamphlet, has expended large
sums of money in the construction of waggon roads through the mountains on the
mainland. These works, in the particular circumstances of the province, have the
nature of arterial or general communications.
British Columbia has, however, a municipal system, and the people of any rural
locahty, with over thirty male residents, may be formed into a municipality and elect
from among themselves councillors arid a warden to manage local affairs.
It wiU be found that settlers from the United Kingdom or immigrants from the
older provinces or the United States, will very soon avail themselves of these municipal facilities, which may well be the envy of the peoples of many older European
The School System in British Columbia, like the Municipal Government, is in the
hands of the people. In its general features it is not unlike that which prevails in
che other Provinces. The public schools are free and non-sectarian. Uniform textbooks are used, and the teachers, of which there are three classes, must have certificates of qualification from the Department of Education. This Department is under
>ue charge of a Superintendent of Schools, who visits and inspects. Any district having fifteen children, between five and fifteen years, may choose from among themselves three Trustees to manage their schools ; and these Trustees appoint or remove
*he teachers, and obtain the money from the public School Fund on certificates
endorsed by the Superintendent. The teachers receive from ten to twenty pounds
sterling a month, according to qualification.
In some of the larger towns there are very good church schools, and there are
private schools for children of both sexes. As the Province becomes more populous
coUeges and universities will be establishea, as elsewhere in Canada. Perhaps no
where else in the world is education more general. It is a very common thing for
children of emigrants, who when they first landed in Canada were in a state of
great poverty, to obtain an education which is open to all, and then attain to the
highest positions, and a comfort and respectability which would have been impos-
siole for them at home.
The perfecting of the School System, under the machinery established, will
rapidly foUow the progress of settlement in British Columbia, as it has done in other 27
parts of Canada;   and the same remark apphes to municipal and other kindred
Social Position.
An immigrant from the United Kingdom coming to British Columbia, or,in fact,
to any part of Canada, wiU find himself among his own people; and if he is poor he
will probably soon obtain a much better social position than he could have at home.
Society is much less marked in its distinctions of ranks, though the general features
are the .same. There is no class of feudal nobility. Nearly every farmer owns his
acres, and is his own master, the lord of the soil, free to do as he wiU. This state of
independence goes through the whole frame of society; and there is a general condition of social freedom impossible in the countries of the old world, where the feudal
castes stiU prevaU. The children of the poorest labourer or artisan by talent, industry,
and the education open to aU, may make themselves the equals of the richest; and
they often do so, rising to the highest positions. In a new country hke Canada, it is
what a man is, rather than who he is, that is looked at
Everywhere in Canada the utmost rehgious liberty is found. In British Columbia, churches are numerous for the population. There are two Roman Cathohc and
three Anglican bishops with their clergy, and the Presbyterians and Methodists have
also a number of clergymen. Other denominations are organizing churches and
missions; so that even the pioneer settlers, in the most thinly peopled districts, wiU
not long be anywhere shut out from either church or school.
Administration op Justice.
The administration of justice in every part of Canada has always been satisfactory
and impartial. The laws give security to life and property, and are thoroughly
carried out and respected.
The Criminal Law of Canada is copied from the English. Judges are appointed
for life by the Crown, and they are chosen for their abiUty and learning. Party
politics sometimes run high in Canada, but the impartiahty of the Judges is never
Trial by Jury prevails everywhere, and legal expenses are, as a rule, much less
than in England, the proceedings being much simplified. Magistrates Courts are
everywhere to be found throughout the Provinces. Then there are the County and
District Courts; "the Superior Courts, the Queen's Bench, and the Supreme Court at
Ottawa, the highest tribunal in the Dominion, from which, however, there is an appeal'
to the Privy Council.
No settler need fear not being able to obtain prompt redress for any wrong done
him. The organization of machinery for the administration of justice always rapidly
foUows settlement in the newer parts of Canada.
The militia force is composed principaUy of volunteers. All able-bodied men are
enroUed in either the Active or Reserve Militia, but only the volunteers are caUed out
for annual drill. A military school for the instruction of officers or any who wish to
avaU themselves of it is about to be estabhshed in British Columbia
Naturalization Laws.
The naturalization laws are very liberal. An alien can transact business and
hold real estate in Canada. By residing three years and taking the oath of allegiance
he becomes a British subject, and is possessed of all political and other rights.
Aliens naturalized in Canada, are now placed on the same footing as those
naturalized in the United Kingdom in aU foreign countries. Persons from the continent of Europe intendin°* to emigrate, should remember that in Canada all that is
required for naturalization is a simple oath of allegiance, in addition to the three
years residence stated; and persons from the United Kingdom should remember that
if thev select the United States, in preference to Canada, they must also take an oath 28
of special renunciation of their native country, pledging them in the event of war
to become its enemy; and in some of the States, as New York, for instance, they
cannot hold real estate without this. Five years' residence is also required, instead
of three, as in Canada, to obtain naturalization.
j There are not as yet any raUways within the Province of British Columbia,
except the section of the Pacific Railway constructed by the Dominion
Government, now nearly completed; it is on the mainland, in the vaUeys
of the Thompson and Fraser, and wiU connect the western end of Kamloops lake, at Savonas ferry with Port Moody, the Pacific terminus on Burrard Inlet
It is expected that by the end of this year (1883) there will be railway communication
between Port Moody and Lytton, a distance of 143 miles.
The Canadian Pacific Railway is being pushed to completion with rapidity unprecedented in the railway construction of the world, and the most active exertions are
being made to complete the connection by the extension of the line from the east,
which, it is believed, will reach the Rocky Mountains this summer. The unprecedented number of over 24 mUes of track have been laid in the Prairie region in one
week, and Mr. Van Home, the general manager, recently stated in publiche hoped
to have the railway from Ocean to Ocean completed in two years; that is in 1885.
Such a fact was considered to be impossible three or four years ago.
British Columbia has at present over 2,000 miles of excellent waggon roads, which
were constructed by the Provincial Government at a cost of about three million dollars.   They are kept in repair at an annual cost of about $75,000.
Between the points on the coast the water communication is easy and satisfactory.
The usual route of travel from the Eastern Provinces to British Columbia is via
San Francisco by the Union and Central Pacific Railway, and thence by steamer to
Victoria. Many heavy supplies are sent from England around Cape Horn; and it is
behoved many immigrants wiU avail themselves of this means of communication.
The present advertised passage from San Francisco to Victoria is twenty doUars
(£4 2s. 2d. stg.)
The advertised cost of immigrant tickets from the Atlantic seaports to Victoria is
from 80 to 90 doUars (£10 8s. 9d. and £18 9s. lOd. stg.) The immigrant wUl have to
furnish himself with provisions on the railway.
For crossing the Atlantic from any port in the United Kingdom .to Quebec or
Halifax, emigrants would be able to obtain the Government assisted tickets of
£4 0s. Od. for labourers or general workmen, and £3 0s. Od. for agricultural labourers
and their families and female domestic servants. These are the rates per ocean adult,
which is fixed at 12 years. Under 12 years and over 1, the rate is £2 0s. Od. and for
infants, under a year old, the rate is 10s. 6d. each. The ordinary unassisted rate oi
emigrant ocean passage is £6 6s. stg.
As far as possible, " Through Tickets " should be purchased. On the American
transcontinental railway, from the Missouri River to the Pacific coast, sleeping cars
are provided, without extra charge; but passengers have to furnish their own
bedding and blankets.
It should be remembered that the fares quoted are the present advertised prices*
These of course may change, and it is therefore better that appUcation should be made
to the authorized agents.
_ One hundred pounds weight of baggage is aUowed to each adult on the raUway from
Chicago to San Francisco, and one hundred and fifty pounds weight on the steamer
from San Francisco to Victoria, this being the same as on the eastern raUways.
The mail steamers leave San Francisco for Victoria on the 10th, 20th and 30th of
each month.
.   9°- arriving at Victoria the Immigration Agents of both the Dominion and Provincial Governments wUl furnish information with regard to lands, rates of wages
routes, where employment can be found. ' 29
In Chapter XH. of this pamphlet the classes of persons who may, with confidence,
be advised to go to British Columbia, have been indicated; and in Chapter XIV, the
principal facts have been given in relation to the important question of routes and
communications. There are, however, some further important points which intending:
emigrants will do well to consider.
Lists of Agents of the Department of Agriculture, that is, of the department of the
Canadian Government speciaUy charged with the subject of immigration, wiU befound
on the inside of the last cover of this pamphlet, and it cannot be, at every step, toe
strongly impressed on the mind of the intending emigrant, that the first thing he
should do, as weU before he starts from home as after his arrival in Canada, is to consult the Government agents. He may do so, either by letter, or, if convenient, personally. These agents are aU responsible to the Canadian Government for the advice
and information they give, and are charged to use the utmost carefulness in giving;
either. They are especially charged not to mislead emigrants by any exaggerations.
They are all reliable men, and their statements may be received with perfect confidence.   Their advice should always be taken instead of that of irresponsible persons.
These remarks apply to all persons intending to emigrate to any part of Canada-
Those going to British Columbia should, immediately on landing at Victoria, put
themselves in communication with Mr. John Jbssop, the Dominion Immigration
Agent for that province, who will generally be in attendance on the arrival of the
steamers. If the immigrant have any complaints of any kind to make, he should at
once address himself to this officer. If any baggage should be lost or left on the route,
a fuU description of it should be immediately left with him, and he will at once enter
into correspondence with the officers of the transportation companies to recover it.
He will further give to the immigrant general information regarding the places or
districts where employment may be found, rates of wages, routes of travel, distances,
expenses of conveyance, etc., and he will receive and forward letters and remittances
from settlers to friends at home, or from their friends to settlers.
He wiU also give information regarding tho districts in which land may be most
easUy obtained for homesteads, or where farms may be bought. His duty is thus to
be a disinterested and faithful friend to the immigrant, under his responsibility to the
Government of Canada.
The Provincial Government of British Columbia has also intimated in a formal
despatch to the Dominion Government at Ottawa, its wiUingness and intention to
supplement the agency of the Dominion Government by Provincial Agencies, in order
to insure to immigrants on their arrival the necesssary assistance and tho fullest possible guidance, so as to prevent as far as possible any of those mistakes to which
settlers, on first entering a new country may be Uable.
Immigrants on their arrival may give their confidence to the Provincial agents in
the same manner as to the agents of the General Government. It is well to caution
them against giving imphcit confidence to any statements made, or advice offered to
them by mere hangers on who are sometimes found about the stations or landing
places on the arrival of parties of immigrants. Until the immigrant has been a sufficient time in the new country to learn its ways, he should look very closely at the
motives or interests ofthoso persons who offer transactions or advice, and not accept
them without consulting the responsible officers.
If any further information should be desired by the immigrant which he cannot
obtain on the spot; or should he desire to make any statements, he can write directly
to the General Government at Ottawa, addressing his letters to the " Secretary of
Department of Agriculture, Ottawa," and he wiU receive due attention. Letters
addressed as above are post free, and may be simply dropped in the nost office without
The Ocean Voyage.
All emigrants from "the United Kingdom and the Continent of Europe, with
scarcely any exceptions, now cross the Ocean in steamships. These are in every way
better for the service than sailing vessels, as the passage is made in eight or ten days. 30
A certain number of feet of space is prescribed by law for each passenger, so that even
in the most crowded or busiest times there can be no overcrowding, or such crowding
-as would be injurious to the health of the passengers. Good food is amply suppUed,
<and there is ahvays a medical man on board in case of illness, when medicines and
■medical comforts are provided. The steamships are in all cases inspected by officers
ofthe Imperial Parliament before the departure ofthe steamship, to ensure the carrying out of the provisions of the Passengers' Act
The steamship owners are, however, as a rule, sufficiently alive to the conditions
•necessary to secure the comfort and weU-being of their passengers, in order to continue
-to deserve pubhc support, it being certain that those whom> they have carried wiU
■send reports to their friends. From aU this care and interest it follows, there is now
very seldom room for any reasonable complaints. The old ship diseases which were
eo common and so disastrous under the old system are now almost unknown.
The laws passed by the Canadian Parliament contain strict provisions for the
protection of immigrants, and severe penalties are imposed for aU attempts to deceive or defraud them.
On landing at a Canadian port, aU immigrants wiU be visited by a medical
•officer of the Government, called the Inspecting Physician, and any who may be Ul
•wiU receive medical treatment, and aU necessary medicines and comforts wiU be provided.
The days of sailing of the steamships, and the rates of passage—cabin, inter-
•mediate and steerage—wUl be found by the intending emigrant in the handbills or
advertisements now so very generally published. It may here be particularly pointed
•out, that the most favourable rates of assisted passages are offered to female
domestic servants and families of agricultural labourers. Assisted passages are, however, afforded to other labourers and certain classes of mechanics and agriculturists.
The Government assisted passage, as regards the former class, is less than half of the
ordinary advertised rates of steerage passage. The assisted passages are confined to
the steerage, and do not apply to either the intermediate or saloon passage. Applicar
tion should be made to any Government Agent to obtain information respecting the
■rates of assisted passages and the conditions necessary to obtain them.
The saloon passage includes all provisions and stateroom. The intermediate
passage includes provisions, beds, bedding, and aU necessary utensils. The steerage
includes a plentiful supply of cooked provisions, but steerage passengers must provide
their own beds and bedding, and eating and.drinking tins. The outfit for a steerage
passage is as follows:—1 mattress, Is. 8d.; 1 piUow, 6d.; 1 blanket, 3s. 6d.; 1 water can,
Sd.; 1 quart mug, 3d.; 1 tin plate, 3d.; 1 wash basin, 9d.; 1 knife and fork, 6d.; 2 spoons,
2d.; 1 pound marine soap, 6d.; 1 towel, 8d.; total, 9s. 6d. The whole of these articles
can be obtained of any outfitter in Liverpool at one minute's notice.
These articles may now, however, be hired at a merely nominal rate from some
or all of the steamship companies.
AU children above the age of twelve years are considered ocean adults, and
charged fuU price. AU children under twelve, and over one year old, are charged
"half-price; infants in arms being charged 10s. 6d. stg. Children, under the ocean
.adult age, have special rates made for them in the assisted passages of the Canadian
The steerage passengers being so weU provided with food on the steamships of the
principal lines, need not think of providing themselves with any kind of provisions.
If they should be sick, they wiU be attended to by the ship's doctor, and suppUed with
medical comforts.
During the Passage.
As soon as the emigrant gets on board the steamship he should make himself
^acquainted with the rules he is expected to obey whilst at sea These are generaUy
printed and hung up in the steerage He should do his best to carry them
out; to be weU-behaved, and to keep himself clean. He wiU thus add not only to bis
own health and comfort, but to that of those around him. If he should have any
•grievance or real cause of complaint during the passage, he should, of course, make
it known to the Captain, who wiU naturally seek to have justice done, as weU for his
own interest as for that of his ship and his employers. But if for any reason there
should be a failure in this, the immigrant should make his complaint to the Government agent immediately upon landing, while the ship is in port
I 31
The large steamships have stewardesses to look after the female portion of the
steerage passengers, who have separate and isolated accommodation in the better
class of steamers; a necessary precaution where large numbers of both sexes are
carried within a limited space
On aU the steamship bills the passenger wiU find stated how many cubic feet
of luggage he can take with him on board the steamship. Cabin passengers are
aUowed 20 cubic feet, intermediate passengers 15 feet, and steerage passengers 10 cubie
feet of luggage free Ten cubic feet, however, may be a much larger amount of luggage.
than wiU be aUowed by the raUways after landing.
It has been already stated in this pamphlet that the weight of luggage allowed
each immigrant on the raUway crossing the continent to San Francisco is Umited to»
100 lbs., and any excess over this weight wiU have to be paid for at very high rates.
It is therefore highly important that the emigrant before leaving home to take the
long journey to British Columbia should not be encumbered with any heavy or
lumbering things. In fact, if he starts with the intention of crossing the continent he
should see his luggage weighed before leaving and not aUow the weight to exceed one
hundred pounds.
It may be here explained that the Canadian raUways are, in general, very libera!
in the weight of immigrants' luggage they carry. The advertised limit per adult,
however, is 150 lbs., and this seems to be the weight generally aUowed for immigrants
by the railways of North America, the exception being the railway across the continent from the point of Chicago to San Francisco. This railway has a very long
distance to carry, and some very heavy grades, therefore every pound of weight is an
On aU boxes, trunks or other luggage every passenger should have plainly written
or printed his name and destination.
AU heavy luggage and boxes are stowed away in the hold of the steamship, but
the emigrant should put in a separate and small package the things he wiU require
for use on the voyage.   These he should keep by him and take into his berth.
Emigrants sometimes suffer great loss and inconvenience from losing their luggage. They should, therefore, be careful not to lose sight of it until it is put on shipboard. It is then perfectly safe. Upon arrival at Quebec or Hahfax it will be passed
by the Customs officers and put into .what is called the "baggage car" of the railway
train, where it is " checked " to its destination. This means that there is attached te
each article a Uttie piece of metal with a number stamped on it, while a corresponding
piece sinrilarly numbered is given to the passenger to keep until his destination is
reached. The Railway is then responsible for the safety of his luggage, and wUl not
give it up until he shows his "check." This custom has great safety as well as
After seeing his luggage marked as passed by the Custom House officer, the im-»
migrant should see that it goes on the same train with him, and if he is going to cross
the Continent via San Francisco, there to take the steamer for Victoria, he should alse
see that his luggage is passed by the United States Custom House officer at Port
Huron, and that it is on the train with him when he leaves that point. Many immigrants have suffered great inconvenience by the detendon of luggage at this point, and
too much care, therefore, cannot be taken to see that all is right.
It may happen if a party of emigrants are going together, that their luggage
may be bonded through, and ih this event, a great deal of trouble may be avoided.
After the year 1885, however, when the Canadian Pacific Railway wUl be opened.
through to the Pacific ocean, aU this trouble wiU be saved.
What to Take.
Emigrants should take with them good supplies of wearing apparel both wooUen
cotton and linen, and also articles of household use of these materials withm the
limit of the hundred pounds weight, which can be carried on the trans-continental
raUway. But articles of household furniture, such as crockery, stoves or articles of
hardware, should, generaUy speaking, be left behind or sold, as they would not be
worth the carriage on the long journey to British Columbia, and would, besides, cause
a great deal of trouble as weU as expense. 32
Agricultural labourers should not bring any of their tools with them, as these can
he easily got in Canada, of the best kinds, and suited to the needs of the country.
•Generally speaking, the farming tools used in England would not be suitable for
Mechanics and artisans wUl of course take with them special tools for special
trades, or pursuits, but they must consider that good tools can be bought in Canada,
-at reasonable prices, and also the question of weight over the 100 lbs., so as to be
certain that they wiU be worth after they arrive what it wiU cost to carry them.
GeneraUy speaking, an emigrant is better with money to buy what tools he requires
after he arrives than he would be hampered with heavy baggage.
The prices at which many tools and implements can be obtained in British
Columbia are given in a previous page of this pamphlet
It may be explained that the denominations of money in Canada are Dollars and
Cents, although the denominations of Pounds, Shillings and Pence are legal. But the
system of DoUars and Cents being decimal, is much more convenient than Pounds,
"Shillings and Pence; and, moreover, being in use all over the continent of America,
that nomenclature is used in this pubhcation. A comparison with sterling is subjoined, which wiU at once enable the reader to understand in sterling, values stated
in doUars and cents:—
Sterling into Dollars and Cents.
%d. sterling is 0 01
Id.      1        " 0 02
Is.       "        " 0 24
£1 "        " 4 87
DoUars and Cents into Sterling.
£   s. d.
1 centis ■ 0   0 0J
IdoUaris 0   4 l|
4 dollars are 0 16 5J
5 "        |    1   0 6£
For smaU change, the half-penny sterling is 1 cent; and the penny sterling is 2
cents. For arriving roughly at the approximate value of larger figures, the Pound
sterling may be counted at 5 DoUars.   This sign $ is used to indicate the dollar.
The money used in Canada consists of bank biUs, gold and silver coins, and bronze
in single cents.   The bank biUs are instantly convertible into gold; and from the confidence they everywhere command, practicaUy displace gold from the circulation
ceing more portable and easily handled.
Rates op Postage.
The rate of letter postage is 3 cents (l£d.) per half ounce, prepaid, between post
offices in Canada. The postage for letters between Canada and the United Kingdom
is 5 cts. (2Jd.) Postal Cards can be sent between Canada and the United Kingdom
for 2 cts. (Id. stg.)
The newspaper postage in Canada is merely nominal; and there is a parcel,
sample, and book post, at a cheap rate, which are found very useful.
Money Orders.
The money order system in operation is similar to that of England. All Money
Order Offices are authorized to draw on each other for any sum up to one hundred
doUars; and any applicant may receive as many one hundred doUar orders as he may
•require.   An order for $4 is sent for 2 cents; $10 for 5 cents, and so on.
Telegraphic Messages.
The Telegraph is also very general. The usual, charge is 25 cents for a message of
ALL persons desirous of obtaining information, whether of
Bates of Passage, or otherwise pertaining to Canada, can
make application to the following Agents :—
LONDON ..... Sir Charles Tuppbr, K.C.M.G., &c, High Commissioner for the Dominion,
10 Victoria Chambers, London, S. W.
Mr. J. Cocmbe, Secretary, High Commissioner's Office (address as above).
LIVERPOOL Mr. John Dyke, 15 Water Street
GLASGOW.. .Mr. Thomas Grahame, 40 St. Enoch Square
BELFAST.... Mr. Charlto Fox, 29 Victoria Place.
DUBLIN Mr. Thomas Connolly, Northumberland House.
BRISTOL .... Mb. J. W. Down, Bath Bridge.
QUEBEC Mr. L. Stafford, Point Levis, Quebec.
TORONTO Mr. J. A- Donaldson, Strachan Avenue, Toronto, Ontario.
OTTAWA Mr W. J. Wilis, Wellington Street, Ottawa, Ontario.
MONTREAL..Mr. J. J. Daley, Bonaventure Street, Montreal, Province of Quebec.
KINGSTON.. -Mr. R Macphbrson, William Street, Kingston, Ontario.
HAMILTON. .Mr. John Smith, Great Western Railway Station, Hamilton, Ontario.
LONDON Mr. A. G. Smyth, London, Ontario.
HALIFAX. ...Mr. E. Clay, Halifax, Nova Scotia.
ST. JOHN Mr. S. Gardner, St John, New Brunswick.
WINNIPEG. ..Mr. W. C. B. Grahamh (Mr. H. J. Maas, German Assistant), Winnipeg,
EMERSON... Mr. J. E. Tbtu, Railway Station, Emerson, Manitoba.
BRANDON.. .Mr. Thos. Bennett (Mr. Julius Ebhrhard, German Assistant), Office at
the Railway Station.
.. llr. John Jessop,  


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