BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

British Columbia. Information for emigrants British Columbia. Agent-general in London 1873

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Issued by the Agent-Genekal for the Province,
4 Lime Street Square, E.C,
London, England. 
I shall he glad to he advised of any errors or omissions, for
rectification in subsequent yearly editions.
The Index is at the end of the Book.
4 Lime Street Square, E.C,
London, England,
January 1,1873.
$?*m  ^MIGRATION Jlf/ip
Engraved \y James WyVL  457 Strand London. BEITISH    COLUMBIA.
The Agent-General for British Columbia thinks it necessary to
furnish the following information for the assistance of
persons desirous of emigrating to that province :—
Now that there is a certainty of the Canadian Pacific Railway being made
through British Columbia, the province attracts renewed attention, and
settlers are coming into it to take up land for farms. There are many good
places open for settlement, but the man of small means, particularly, cannot
spend his time and money in visiting all parts of the province, in order to find
the place that will best suit his wants and circumstances. This Handbook
■will give, among other information, some general idea of the different sections
•of the province that have been tested by practical farmers.
The occupation of gold-mining exists still as the principal industry of
British Columbia and as an unfailing attraction to population—&% millions
-sterling having been exported within ten years—but other industries have
■appeared, and promise well. The chief of these has been coal. Within ten
years 330,395 tons of coal have been shipped from Nanaimo. Many articles
of provincial produce, besides gold and coal,—namely, lumber (sawn wood),
furs, hides, wool, fish, cranberries, &c.—figure now in the list of exports. A
small settlement of practical experienced men is found in nearly every district
that is suitable for farming. Such men know, in some degree, what their own
land will produce or support, and they also have a general idea of the extent
of similar land near to them. Availing myself of the wider sources of information thus opened, I hope to be able to give a picture of the province which is
neither underdrawn nor overdrawn. Truth, not exaggeration, is the basis of
these pages. The information that will be laid before the reader, on each
point, will be fully borne out by that best of tests—Experience.
It has been somewhat unfortunate that the rich gold-fields of Cariboo are
among rough mountains, with a severe climate, and that the trunk road to
Cariboo runs for a long way through an unprepossessing part of the province.
"Several persons who have travelled on this road only, and have afterwards left
the country, have in good faith tried to describe British Columbia. These
writers I do not complain of, though their position is like that of a foreigner
who should attempt to describe England after travelling through Wales on a
public coach. I complain of another class of writers—writers who are deficient
in fairness and candour.   In the earlier days of British Columbia, as of all
B 2
young British colonies, certain persons came into the country who had a strong:
desire to make a living without taking off their coats—a desire which could
not be gratified. The friends of these persons at home sent them money,
which they put into silly investments. They rode to the diggings, and rode
back again. They hung, like mendicants, round the doors of the Government
offices. They croaked in the streets, spent their time idly in bar-rooms, and
finally disappeared. Having in some manner got back to England, several of
these persons wrote scraps in magazines, or vamped up books about British
Columbia. I might collect these wails of the unsuitable into a list, but it is
enough simply to state that nobody of any position in British Columbia—no
settler worth his salt—has ever written against the country. On the contrary,
persons who are there, settled comfortably after overcoming early difficulties,
write to their friends to join them.
The intending emigrant may read the following books about the p/ovinee
as good books written by honest writers:—
1862.—' Prize Essay on Yancouver Island.'   By Charles Forbes, M.D.,
M.R.C.S. (Eng.)., late Staff Surgeon, Royal Navy.
1863.—' Prize Essay on British Columbia.'    By the Rev. E. C. Lundin
Brown, M.A., formerly Minister at Lillooet.
1872.—' Prize Essay on British Columbia' (after its union with Canada).
By A. C. Anderson, Esq., J.P., formerly a partner of the Hudson's^
Bay Company.
'Vancouver Island  Explorations,  and Papers  relating to the British.
Columbian Botanical Expedition;'  'Studies of the Forests   and
Forest Life of North-west America.'   By Robert Brown, M.A., Ph.D.,
F.L.S., F.R.G.S., President of the Royal Physical Society, Edinburgh.
j Vancouver Island and British Columbia.'   By Matthew Macfie, Esq.,
' Facts and Figures relating to Vancouver Island and British Columbia.r
By J. D. Pemberton, Esq.
, Vancouver Island.'   By Dr. Rattray, R.N.
' Four Years in British Columbia.'    By Captain R. C. Mayne, R.N., C.B.
'Report on British Columbia.'   By the Hon. H. L. Langevin, C.B.V
Minister of Public Works of the Dominion of Canada.
I wish to express myself very carefully, but I believe that the recommendations of British Columbia by the ' Times' ten years ago, were, upon the whole,
well based, and that the country will justify what was said of it by that far-
seeing journal. " British Columbia abounds with every natural and material
" wealth. It enjoys law and order. There you will find elbow-room, a fair
"field and no favour.    Go to British Columbia and be a free man."
Many circumstances, however (some of which will be learned from this
Handbook), require that emigration to the province should at present be
undertaken very prudently, and with clear notions of what settling in a young
country really means. One of the duties of the office of Agent-General, which
I hold, is to give information to intending emigrants, so that they may not
make any large mistakes. If unsuitable persons go to the province and do ■
not succeed, they must blame their own folly. The province, unquestionably,
is a very desirable place for suitable settlers, compared with any other territory
on the North American continent. "5
A few Facts.
Every reader, perhaps, may not be aware that there is a strange contrast
between the surface, soil, climate, &c, of the countries on the Atlantic side of
the continent, and the countries on the Pacific Ocean side of the continent.
British Columbia (English), Oregon, and California (American) are the three
principal countries on the Pacific side. These are fine countries, but of course
each has advantages.and^disadvantages. I know all of them, and in my opinion
British Columbia, upon the whole, has been most favoured by nature, and is
the best of the three countries for securing a homestead in—for the following
substantial reasons.
Taking the whole year round, or taking a series of years, the climate is
better for farming, and more healthy and enjoyable. The wheat, barley, and
hops of British Columbia beat those of California, and her root-crops beat
those of Oregon. British Columbia has more coal and better coal, finer
harbours, superior fish, sounder trees. It is reasonably believed, and partly
proved, that her mineral lands, containing precious- metals, are very extensive.
The public domain (which is at the disposal of the people of the province) is
sold more cheaply; the taxation is immensely less ; the laws are better carried
out; the people have as much political freedom as men can desire.
These are facts which ignorance only can lead any person to gainsay, and I
state them, at the outset, so that they may be.examined and appreciated.
British Columbia not Remote.
Men frequently call at my office in London who, twenty days before, were
in British Columbia. The Canadian Pacific Railway will bring the province
within a fortnights travel from England.
The Great Snow Question.
British Columbia has not a snowy winter. There is snow, but not much
snow. In cold countries they have a saying that snow is " the poor man's
manure," because if there is too* little of it his wheat may be " winterkilled."
•Gold miners, also, in some places, find snow so useful in their work that they
say, gratefully, "snow is gold." Still, the world in general is prejudiced
against snow, and I therefore record here:—
(1.) That the great mountain ranges in Oregon and California have
deeper snow than is found upon the same ranges in British
(2.) That British Columbia has not a snowy winter such as Eastern
Canada and the Northern States of the Union have. The British
Columbian winter is the winter of England and of France. (See
"Climate," p. 13.)
A Foreigner's First Impression on landing in British
An American traveller, writing in 1872 to the Boston (United States)
* Globe,' said :—
"Victoria is emphatically a beautiful city, for, unlike the majority of
■" Pacific Coast towns, it deserves the name.    The harbour is the prettiest on the
•& mmMSeMggzm
^ jF
" Pacific Coast. Coming up the harbour, you see the main part of the city
" ahead of you extending into suburbs on both sides. The shores are rocky and
" picturesque, and the houses and grounds around them have an air of neatness-
" rarely seen in so new a country. You are immediately struck on landing with
"the fact that everything is English—the people have the unmistakeable
" English look about them, and the flag and arms of England stare you in the
" face at every turn."
Victoria has nine hotels, making up 534 beds, besides several suburban
hotels. The resident population is about 5000. Visitors are numerous at all
What the United States Government thinks of British
Columbian Coal.
By a late order of the War Department at Washington, "United States, it
was decreed that one " cord " (8 feet by 4 feet by 4 feet) of merchantable oak
wood should be consideredequal to:—
1800 lbs. Nanaimo (Vancouver Island) coal
2200   „   Bellingham Bay . \
2400   „   Seattle ....
2500   „   Rocky Mountain
2600   „   Coos	
2600  „   Mount Diablo     .
Coals produced in the United States*
What Farmers have Produced in British Columbia.
Beef, from natural grass, equal to the best Aberdeen stall-fed ; mutton, as
choice as prime South of England ; fine wheat, barley, oats, rye, Indian com,
timothy hay, potatoes, carrots, turnips, cabbages, tomatoes, musk-melons,
water-melons, grape-vine, tobacco, broom-corn, sweet almond, castor-oil plant,
peach, and all fruits of the temperate climes, exuberantly.
Country abounds in minerals of a high character ; Actual mining industries
—gold, coal, and silver (see p. 76) ; copper very promising; indications of
many of the base metals everywhere.
Investments waiting for Men and Money.
—sheep (see pp. 39, 48, 57,
70, 83, 84).
Gold mining (see p. 74).
Coal     ,,      (see p. 77).
Saw-milling (see p. 80).
Fishing (see p. 86).
Beet-sugar making (see p. 89).
Flax (see p. 90). *
Tobacco (see p. 91).
The Country—its History and Natural Divisions.
The country is divided into two perfectly distinct parts—Vancouver Island
and the Mainland. These were constituted colonies, the first in 1849, and
the second in 1858; they were then united in 1866, under the name of
British Columbia, and so continued until the 20th July, 1871, at which
-jjr^J*!\-j&$*> .*'' &YWIF -*
date the colony became one of the provinces of the flourishing Dominion of
With greater correctness, perhaps, it may be said that the province is
divided into three instead of into two distinct parts.
The Rocky Mountains form the eastern boundary of the province. A long
and massive uplift on the Mainland, called the Cascade Range, runs parallel
to- the Rocky Range, and divides the country between it and the Pacifie
Ocean into two divisions, namely, the "East Cascade Region," and the
" West Cascade Region."
The islands of Vancouver, Queen Charlotte, &c., might be considered to make
a third division, though, climatically, they belong to the West Cascade
Population (excluding Indians).
. About 15,000. Nationalities—British Isles (many Scotch and Welsh),
Eastern Province of Canada, the United States, France, Italy, Austria, Germany, Norway, Sweden, Denmark.   Coloured, 750 ; Chinamen, 1500.
Probably about 30,000, quite quiet, over the whole mainland and island;
rather saucy on west coast of Vancouver Island and in Queen Charlotte Island;
useful as .common labourers, and not without capabilities as artisans; some
take to farming and have cattle, others carry on mining with "rockers" on
the Thompson and Fraser Rivers; altogether, the Indians contribute very
largely to the trade of the province.    They use large quantities of flour.
-if   :-■   -
■ •ite-
Public Lands.
Land can be had by the actual settler (not by the "speculator") for
almost* nothing, and on many years' credit, and can be secured against seizure
for Debt.
gcg=    SETTLE   IN   BRITISH   COLUMBIA,  AND     £jg
The soil of British Columbia is, as above said, at the disposal of the Parliament of the Province, not of the General Government as in the United
Surveyed Land.
One dollar (4s. English) per acre; none in market at present, but the
Government is engaged in making extensive and accurate surveys of those
districts in the province most available for settlement.
Unsurveyed Land.
Unsurveyed land is disposed of under a system called " Pre-emption,"
specially meant to meet' the case of the settler with small means. Under
this system a man over eighteen years may get a right to land many years
before he has to pay the money for it. The quantity he can get is 320 acres
in one part of the province, and 160 acres in other parts.
The settler chooses his land; gives rough plan to Government: pays
record fee, 2 dollars (8s. English); puts in corner posts, and, personally or
1 &
by licensed substitute, occupies the place for four years; leave of absence two
months, or special leave of four months in a year; if he dies without a
will, heirs step into his shoes, widow holds during minority of children, or
while she is unmarried ; a settler can sell to another his " pre-emption claim "
to the land, if land has been improved to the extent of 2 dollars 50 cents
(10s. English) per acre.
No payment for the land has to be made by a settler, or his heirs, until
the Government survey reach it. This may not be for years. The price is
not to be more than 1 doUar (4s. EnglisK) per acre. The Government will not
ask for this money immediately on the survey of the land having been made.
The payment may be spread over four years further ahead. The settler
does not pay interest.
Tracts of land near the land actually occupied can be leased for grazing
purposes, on terms designed to be liberal to the pre-emptor. Such leased
land is liable to be " pre-empted" by others; but, in that case, the lessee's
rent is reduced proportionately.
Land covered with wild hay can also be leased in the above way, but not
more than 500 acres of it to any one person, and not for longer than five years.
Mining and timber leases will be named under their proper heads further on.
The Government is authorised to make free or partially free grants of land>
and to sell lands, in large quantities, for purposes of colonisation. Certain
needful arrangements connected with the passage of the Canadian Pacific
Railway through the province have delayed until July, 1873, the much
desired extension of a system of free grants to settlers; but the Provincial
Parliament has already authorised this extension, and will otherwise offer
even greater inducements to real settlers than now exist.
Military and naval officers in her Majesty's service are entitled to free
grants on certain conditions.    The Agent-General will give information.
Homestead Act.
Most important Act. If a settler have a wife and children, this Act must
be dear to him; the farm and buildings, when registered, cannot be taken
for debt incurred after the registration; it is free up to a value not greater
than 2500 dollars (500?. English); goods and chattels are also free up to 150
dollars (30Z. English) ; cattle " farmed on shares " are also protected by an
Exemption Act.
Farm lands in private hands may be bought at almost any price, from 5
dollars (20s. English) to 40 dollars (81. English) per acre, according to situation and improvement. Terms of purchase are as» agreed—generally a portion
in cash, and the balance at stated future periods, bearing interest.
The Canadian Pacific Railway Company, the Puget Sound Agricultural Association, and the English Coal Company at Nanaimo, which companies own
land in the province, are anxious to promote settlement on their lands on
fair terms. I believe that the latter company, in the case of working-men,
will exchange town lots in the thriving town of Nanaimo for land elsewhere
in the province, in order to- stimulate the growth of a town destined to be
important. It is a cheering sign, when all persons in the province recognise
more clearly the great truth that they have a common interest.
>■'*-■*■" ^•?liiigv        «*^Y ^    r»ftwv-  ^f INFORMATION FOR EMIGRANTS.
Popular Names for Lands—a Word to Intending Settlers.
Most countries have peculiar names of their own for agricultural lands, and
the immigrant, on arriving in British Columbia, will hear men talking of
" prairies," " beaver-dam lands," "• bottom lands," " tide lands," and " flats." A
few words to explain these terms may assist him in selecting a proper location.
The term " prairie," on the " Pacific slope," does not mean the treeless sea of
grass which is called by that name in the centre of America, east from the
Rocky range. The Pacific slope prairies may be classed, broadly, as " wet"
and " dry" prairies.
" Wet prairies " are level spaces at the meeting (forks) of rivers. They are
often overflowed in early summer by river " freshets." This kind of prairie is
also found at the mouths of tidal rivers, where the land is overflowed in
winter by high tides raised by wind. Extensive specimens of both these
kinds of " wet prairie" may be seen on the lower part of Fraser. River. They
are generally free of timber, except perhaps some alder shrubs, and produce a
coarse grass called " swamp hay." Cattle do well on the wet prairies, but cows
not so well on the salt-water marsh. These prairies need dyking and draining
in some parts. The soil generally is very rich, and they are considered
desirable " locations.''   In British Columbia they are free from malaria and
The choice pieces of land scattered through forests, and known as " alder
land " (or easily-drained swamp), seem to be, in fact, " wet prairies," on which
the alder bushes have grown to be trees. Another kind of " wet prairie " is
"beaver-dam land," that is, flat land made marshy by beavers having
dammed small streams which run through it. This is very good land generally. Small marshes also are common at the head-waters of streams—
grassy spots among the rough mountains, which are very pleasant to the
traveller and to his horse. We may also class as "wet prairies" the open
marshes (" tide lands" or " flats") where the sea-coast is low and shelves
back. These appear to be portions of the raised coast-line. The sand-drift
encroaches on the wet ground, and the plants of the two localities grow
almost together. It is sometimes difficult to get fresh water for cattle on
these " tide lands."
"Dry prairies" are open spaces generally near rivers. Some have very
rich soil, but they are not generally so rich as the wet prairies. They have
fine grass, beautiful flowers, and often a dense crop of ferns not liked by
farmers. The pine forest bounds them abruptly like a regiment of trees called
to a halt, suggesting to the observer that the " dry prairie " is the remnant of
larger open tracts which existed in some age with a different climate, and that
the pines have encroached. The dry prairies are seldom extensive in the West
Cascade region.
" Bottom lands" are flat lands in river-valleys or adjoining rivers, dry
enough to be classed as "dry prairie" land. They generally bear such trees
as the maple, ash, crab apple, with a stray fir. These trees are easily cleared,
and as the alluvial soil of the bottom lands is often highly productive, these
lands are desirable places to settle upon.
The term " dry prairie," or simply " prairie," seems to be popularly applied
in the East Cascade region (comparatively an unwooded region) to any open
flat tract, not distinctively a valley, and not large enough to be called a plain
wn ramii,'iuvti.
or plateau. The "Grand Prairie," north-west from Okanagan Lake, is 16
miles long, and about 2 miles wide, bounded on either side by mountains,
between which flows a river. It is in fact the piece of a valley, and would be
called one, were it longer.
I need not mention names given to the high lands in British Columbia, as-
there is nothing peculiar in these names, except, perhaps, the term "bench,"'
which is applied to the raised level spaces, or terraces, in some of the river-
valleys. These terraces run at intervals along both sides of the rivers for
miles in length; and they recede where the mountains retire, for distances
back varying from a few acres to a few miles in breadth. They are objects of
curiosity and speculation, and, from the regularity and evenness of their structure, add much to the beauty of the rude scenes in which they occur. They
generally appear on both sides of the river, and in some places are multiplied
into several successive level plateaux, rising one above the other as they recede
from the bank. t
Transport and Travel.
Vancouver Island.
There are no really navigable rivers nor trunk-roads in the island. Several
district- roads are good, particularly near Victoria. The sea is the main highway at present. A Government steamer goes weekly to Cowichan, Maple
Bay, Admiral Island, Chemanis, and Nanaimo, and to Comox fortnightly. The
rates of fare are as follows:—
From Victoria to—
Cowichan, Maple Bay, and Admiral Island, single ticket, two dollars
and fifty cents  (10s. English), return ditto, four dollars (16s.
Chemanis, single ticket, three dollars (12s. English), return ditto, five
dollars (20s. English).
Nanaimo, single ticket, four dollars (16s. English), return ditto, six
dollars and fifty cents. (26s. English).
Comox, single ticket, six dollars (24s. English), return ditto, ten dollars
(40s. English).
Breakfast and tea, 50 cents (2s. English) each meal; dinner, 75 cents
(3s. English).
Freight.—To  all  places between Victoria  and Nanaimo, three dollars
(12s. English) per ton of forty feet.
From Victoria to Comox four dollars (16s. English) per ton.
All cattle to Cowichan, Maple Bay, and Admiral Island, three dollars (12s.
English) per head.
To Chemanis, four dollars (16s. English);  Nanaimo, five dollars (20s.
English); and to Comox, six dollars (24s. English).
Small animals, such as calves, sheep, pigs, &c, from fifty cents (2s. English)
to one dollar and fifty cents (Qs. English).
Mileage.—From Victoria to Cowichan, 36 miles; thence to Maple Bay,
9 miles; thence to Admiral Island, 5 miles; thence to Chemanis, 7 miles;
thence to Nanaimo, 22 miles; and thence to Comox, 55 miles.
* Names of places in this Handbook are spelt as in tbe Map of the Province, 9th May, 1870, with
additions January 1871.
j*ffiE3r*<dT- £ ^*A iffiffi*'
¥■■ aff&y^f gfrfr-    \Mg* INFORMATION FOR EMIGRANTS. 11
A second steamer runs along the East Coast, when the traffic seems to-
require an additional one.
Victoria (in Vancouver Island) and New Westminster (on Mainland)-
A steamer goes regularly twice a week, at least, between Victoria and New
Westminster; running time, 6 hours.
New Westminster to Yale (Head of Navigation on Fraser River from
Stern-wheel steamers, which frequently take a day or more according to-
state of the stream.    Sleigh-road for winter, when sleighing is possible.
Yale to the Interior.
{See Boads on the Map.")
Stage coaches make weekly journeys from Yale (head of steamboat navigation on the Fraser) to Barkerville, Cariboo, and coaches also run weekly
from Cache Creek (near the meeting of the Bonaparte and Thompson Rivers)
to Okanagan, in close connection, at Cache Creek, with the above coaches from
Yale to Barkerville. The coach-owners carry passengers and freight, deliver
parcels, make collections, and execute commissions.
Total Cost of Roads.
ABOUT £300,000 ENGLISH ($1,500,000).
Last Year's Vote of the Provincial Legislature for Roads.
Repairs to Boads and Trails throughout the Province:—
Yale and Clinton Road       20,000 00
Clinton and Cameronton Road  14,000 00
Douglas and Clinton Road  1,000 00
Burrard Inlet Road         1,200 00
New Westminster and Yale Sleigh Road, including bridge
over Coquhalla River         6,000 00
Hope and Kootenay Trail  3,500 00
Lillooet and Lytton Trail  1,500 00
New Westminster  District Roads and Trails, including.
False Creek, Coquitlan Creek, and Sumass Bridges      .. 5,650 00
Trails, Cariboo District  2,400 00
Trail, Quesnel to Germansen Creek, by Nation River      .. 6,000 00
Do. from the Western Coast to intersect same  5,000 00
Roads and Trails, Yale and Lytton District, including
bridge across Nicola River               4,500 00
Repairs to road from Cache Creek to Savona's Ferry..     .. 2,000 00
Road from Savona's Ferry to Okanagan       15,000 00
Repairs to Front Street, New Westminster         750 00-
Esquimalt Road, including new bridges       9,000 00
Victoria District Road  15,200 00
Esquimalt District Roads and Trail, including bridge across
Sooke River            .. 7,150 00
Carried forward     119,850 00-
i¥ "T^pw^w^rr^T^»r7
Brought forward     119,850 00
Cowichan District Roads and Trails    ..     ..             ..     .. 8,200 00
Nanaimo District Roads and Bridges  5,000 00
Comox Roads and Trails        5,000 00
Alberni to Nanaimo Trail, and from this point to Nanoose 2,400 00
Construction of Trail through Eagle Pass  5,000 00
Nanaimo District Roads         1,250 00
New Westminster District Roads         1,000 00
$147,700 00
= (£29,540 Eng.).
Taxes for District Roads.
There is a yearly road-tax on land of 4 cents (2d. English) per acre. Every
man who does not pay the 4-cent tax pays 2 dollars (8s. English) a year for
road-tax.    The money is spent where collected.
Canadian Pacific Railway.   (See p. 72.)
May alter the value of some of these roads, but, owing to the nature of the
country, is not likely to do so importantly.
Description of British Columbian Waggon-Roads.
Superior to the public roads of most young countries. They are 18 feet
wide, the surface being covered with broken stone, where (as in most parts
along the Fraser and Thompson Rivers) such material is at hand, or with
gravel well cambered up in the centre, with ditches on one or both sides where
With the exception of some short pitches as steep as one foot in ten, the
sharpest inclines throughout the trunk waggon-road from Yale to Savona's Ferry
are of 1 foot in 12, the curves beings easyt and the%bridges and culverts substantially built of timber.
Loads of 7 and. 8 tftns are hauled along them, by mules or oxen, at an
average draught load .of 1200 lbs. to 1300 lbs. to each animal, and the ntail
<coach, drawn by six horses, travels between Yale and Cariboo at the rate of
9 miles an hour.
The Young-Country Road Grievance.
This is the grievance of settlers in all countries, but with less reason in
British Columbia than in many other places. Considering the newness of the
■country, there are excellent roads both on the island and mainland. It is
inevitable, in all young countries, that fine districts should be unoccupied for
want of roads. The cure takes a long time. In wooded countries especially,
the want of roads and* the difficulty and expense of making roads and keeping
them open, are great drawbacks to settlement. When settlers go back from
the road already made the obstruction and expense begin anew. Fortunately,
British Columbia, in addition to her fertile Wooded lands, has alluvial flats,
prairies, and extensive irrigable valleys, open or partly open, through which
roads can be made without excessive difficulty, wfien needed and the province
is able to make them.
¥^^^v^^^' -^m^^^mm^ INFORMATION FOR EMIGRANTS.
River and Lake Navigation.
Steamboats can run up from New Westminster to Douglas, the head of
fsteamboat navigation on Harrison Lake (50 miles from mouth of Harrison
River), as well as from New Westminster to Yale, but the Douglas route to
the interior is not at present used.
The Fraser River, above Yale, is not available for much navigation. A
steamer relieves transport on the waggon road when required, from Soda Creek,
20 miles below Alexandria, to Quesnel (see Map), 40 miles above that point;
or some 20 miles higher when necessary. The navigation is then interrupted
by a rapid, ther ascent of which is not attempted. Above this point there is
clear navigation for steamers for a distance of 60 miles, to within 20 miles of
Fort George, where another rapid, impracticable for steamers, occurs. From
this point upwards, both by the Stuart and Fraser Lake branches, and in the
direction of Tete Jaune's Cache, there are stretches very favourable for steam
navigation; but the occasional breaks are a great drawback. Nevertheless,
with the extension of mining operations these portions of the river will
:doubtless in time be made available, in parts, so as to meet the increased
demand for transport; and inducements for settlement will thus arise in the
upper portion of the province which do not at present exist.
There is a useful stretch of navigation on the Thompson River. From
Savona's, at the lower (western) end of KamloopsLake, uninterrupted steamboat navigation extends through Kamloops Lake, and up the South Thompson
River to the upper (eastern) end of Great Shuswap Lake, a distance of 115 miles,
and also up the North Branch of Thompson River, which joins the South
Thompson at Fort Kamloops, to a distance of 85 miles from the latter post.
The Columbia, Nasse, and Skena Rivers are navigable for short distances
.by light steamboats.    So also, of course, are the Okanagan and other lakes.
Travelling may be said to be at present very expensive in British Columbia,
whether by steamboat or coach, compared with the cost of travel in Eastern
Canada or England.
This is perhaps the main point in choosing a place for a home. Parents
Jwill agree with me that fair fields and meadows are little to the emigrant, if
they generate fever-producing miasm and vapour. What are soft breezes
if they waft the seeds of pestilence ? What cares a man for golden grain and
mellow fruits, or indeed for all that this world can yield, if disease annually
visit his dwelling ? British Columbia may be said to be the very land of
health—for man, for beast, for tree. This fact will have a mighty influence
on her future.
General Characteristics of Climate.
The fine climate should be known everywhere—variable, but healthful and
agreeable—nights cool, very suitable to the Anglo-Saxon constitution, and,
indeed, to all races and temperaments—the altitude, irregularity of surface,
serene air and absence of marshy plains, promise health and long life to the
settler—no malaria or asnie—good in cases of functional and nervous debility
—makes people feel vigorous and wide awake—the climate of a large part of
the East Cascade region not unfavourable for chest affections. Over a great
portion of the province the climate is that of England, with rather agreeable
kJ& 8
*    "J    i#"
Is A
differences—no biting east winds, for instance. Over another portion, the
climate resembles that of France. The larger lakes do not freeze over, nor
do the large rivers ever close entirely up. Severe winters seem to come about
once every eight or ten years, but what we call " severe winters" are less
severe than the ordinary winters in Eastern Canada or the Northern States of
the Union. Elevated districts, of course, have the climate that everywhere
belongs to them, but even the roughest mountain climate in British Columbia
is healthful.
Climatic Divisions.
West Cascade Region.
Near the sea—say, west of Cascade Range generally, and in Vancouver
Island, seldom over 80° Fahrenheit in shade on the hottest day in summer,
and rarely falling to 20° Fahrenheit in winter. Genial, though rather humid;
humidity increases as you go north. Summer beautiful, with some rainy
days; autumn, bright and fine; winter, frosty and rainy by turns; the spring
very wet. Snow falls to the depth of several inches, rarely to the depth of a
foot—melts quickly. When the atmosphere is clear, heavy dews fall at nights,
and fogs are common during October and November; summer mists rare,
partial, and transitory; no tornadoes, such as sweep over Illinois and other
^Northern States of the Union, and occasionally visit New England. Brilliant
weather in winter, sometimes for a month at a time. I include Vancouver
Island above as part of the " West Cascade region," because the climate is
similar. Of course, were the matter gone into exhaustively, the island climate
would present insular peculiarities.
East Cascade Region.
Climate different from the climate west of Cascade Range. Heat and cold
greater; almost continuously hot in summer, but not so as to destroy vegetation. Little rain; warm rains, perhaps, April and May—again, but not
always, in August and September. Winter changeable; November frosty,
December, January, and February cold and wintry, but generally clear and
sunny; little ice ; snow say a foot deep on an average of years—melts quickly,
winds melt it, and often leave ground bare for weeks. March and April variable ; plains then begin to show grass. Hill-sides, in some places, show green
grass in March.    Irrigation generally required in this region.
The above description applies to an immense territory in the southern portion
of the " East Cascade region." The description must be modified as regards
certain districts. Approximation to the Rocky Range, or to the rugged
Cariboo and other mountains, has its natural effect; trees abound, more rain
falls, snow is deeper. On the upper parts of the Fraser River, the winter is
oapricious; very severe cold for a few days, then fluctuating' near freezing
point; another interval of intense cold, and then perhaps spring comes all at
once. In the south-eastern corner of the province, a re-modification takes
place. The effect of approximation to the Rocky Range is there mitigated by
the influence of approximation to the border of the Great American Desert
which stretches south to Mexico. About the headwaters of the Columbia, the
•climate is delightful; extremes are rare; snow generally goes as it faUs. The
scenery is very grand, and it is therefore probable that, when made accessible,
this region wiU be the resort of thousands of invalids. Again, where depressions in the Rocky Range occur, towards which we may suppose that the
fa*fo  ■yr^jfe-.,-   wm INFORMATION FOR EMIGRANTS.
Pacific Ocean winds are drawn in their passage eastward, approximation to
the Range does not injure the climate. For instance, near Jasper House, and
for some distance in the Athabasca Valley (see map), snow never accumulates;
there is constant grass; warm rains sometimes fall in January. The same
may be said of other parts. ■
Public Debt.
The Province has no public debt.
The settler in British Columbia at present pays no taxes except the road-tax,
and a tax which is paid indirectly to the General Government of Canada,
averaging about 12£ per cent, on imports. The Government of the Province
is supported by an annual fixed subsidy from the General Government of
Canada. Moderate taxation may be imposed in future in the province by the
Provincial Legislature, to enable improvements to be made for the advantage
•of settlers.
This is a contrast to the heavy Federal and State taxes, and burdensome
indirect taxes paid by settlers in the United States.
The advantage which a settler in British Columbia has, in respect of taxation,
over a settler in Washington territory, Oregon, California, or other States of the
Union, is, that the British Columbian settler pays about 12j per cent, all round
•on what he consumes, and the United States settler pays about as follows :—
The farmer in the United States is taxed for trousers he wears 60 per cent.;
flannel shirt, 65 per cent.; vest, 60 per cent.; on the cloth for an overcoat, 60
per cent.; for the buttons, 40; braid, 60; lining, 60; padding, 150; boots,
35; coal, 60; 150 per cent, on the stove-pipe; stove, 55; • 40 per cent, on the
saucepan. His dinner plate is taxed 45 per cent.; his knife and fork, 35 per
■cent. His hat is taxed 70 per cent.; cigar, 150 per cent.; horse-shoe nails are
taxed 67 per cent.; plough, 45 per cent.; chains, 100 per cent.; and harness,
-35 per cent. His pocket handkerchief, 35 per cent.; shawls for his wife and
daughter, 200 per cent.; silk dress for Sunday and holiday, 60 per cent.;
woollen dress, 100 per cent.; wife and daughter's hats, 40 per cent.; stockings
for his family, 75 per cent.; female boots, 35 per cent.; ribbon bow for neck,
60 per cent.; umbrella, 60 per cent.; rice, 82 ; soap, 70 per cent.; candles, 40
per cent.; paint, 25 per cent.; starch, 50 per cent.; needles, 25 per cent.;
thread, 73 per cent.; steel pen, 70 per cent.; pins, 35 per cent.; books, 25 per
cent. His fowling-piece is taxed 35 per cent.; window curtains, 80 per cent.;
window shades, 35 per .cent.; window, glass, 55. per cent; wall paper, 32 per
cent.; wash basin, 40 per cent.; sheeting, 55 per cent.; blanket, 540
per cent.!! His bedstead is taxed 20 per cent.; if sick and needs quinine,
it is taxed 45 per cent., besides the glass phial in which he buys it. His axe is
taxed 45 per cent.; hammer, 50 per cent.; watering-pot for garden, 35 per cent.;
pocket-knife, 50 per cent.; scythe, 50 per cent.; screws, 150 per cent.; garden
and farm implements, 45 per cent.; dinner-can, 35 per cent.; well-bucket,
60 per cent.; hand-saw, 75 per cent.; and his produce is carried to market on
steel rails taxed at 3000 dollars a mile, and which he must pay for in exorbitant freight. The iron car in which his crop is conveyed is taxed 40 per cent.,
and the locomotive which draws it all, and which draws so much unnecessary
profits from his crop, is taxed 45 per cent.
s OTB£5E5
The United States settler, additionally, has to pay a State tax, which each
State collects for State purposes.   In New York State this amounts to
II3 dollars (46 shiUings English) per head.    In British Columbia, there are,
as above said, no provincial taxes at present except a trifling tax for roads.
The British Columbian farmer gets higher prices for his farm produce than
the average price obtained in the United States.
Average Wages in British Columbia.
Bookbinders ..     ..       14s. a day
Blacksmiths  14s. to 16s.    ,,
Bread and Biscuit Bakers        81. to 97. a month, with board
Butchers        101. to 121. ,,       with meat
Bricklayers  12s. a day
Carpenters and Joiners          12s. to 16s.    ,,
Cabinet-makers       16s.    ,,
Coopers  16s.    ,,
Carters with horse and cart      .. 20s.    ,,
Coachmen and grooms 81. a month, and board
Cooks      61. to ,,
Dairy-women ,, ,,
Dressmakers and Milliners     ,, ,,
Farm Labourers ,, ,, ,, (seep.44.)
Gardeners       ,, ,,
Household Servants          47. to 5?.   ,, ,, (seep.23.)
Labourers (day)  10s. a day
Mechanics       14s. to 16s.    ,,
Masons  ..       14s. to 16s.    ,,
Painters and Glaziers ..       14s. to 16s.    ,,
Plasterers      .. 14s. to 16s.    ,,
Plumbers'     ..     ..       12s. to 16s.    ,,
Policemen      ..     ..      81. to 107. a month
Shoemakers        12s. to 14s. a day
Stonemasons        12s. to 16s.   ,,
Saddlers        10s. to 12s.    ,,
Slaters and Shinglers  12s. to 14s.    ,,
Tanners        12s. to 16s.    ,,
Tailors  12s. to 14s.    ,,
Tinsmiths       16s. to 20s.    ,,
Wheelwrights         16s. ,,
These are the highest rates of wages in Vancouver Island, and the New
Westminster district. In the interior of the Mainland, wages are higher still,
and at the mines the wages of labourers reach 32s. and 40s. a day at times ;
but the mining season lasts only for a portion of the year.*
* Compare the above wages with the wages in the eastern portions of the Dominion, which are
about as follows:
Agricultural labourers in Eastern Canada are paid from 25?. to 30?. a year, with board; and from
50/. to 60Z-. a year, without board.
Skilled farm hands are paid from 30*. to 40*. a year with board.
. Common labourers receive from 5s. to 6s. a day, and find their own food.
Mechanics are paid from 6s. to 16s. a day.
The wages of female servants vary from 16s. to 21. a month, with board; but higher rates are
paid according to capacity, very common rates being from 24s. to 32s. a month.
Boys in situations receive from 16s. to 21. a month, with board, according to age and capacity.
The wages in British Columbia are, therefore, attractive; but it must be
•clearly understood by the emigrant that the country is so young at present
that the prospect of continuous day-by-day employment cannot be very confidently held out to a number of skilled artizans, or even to common labourers
if numbered by thousands. The province has not at present the resources of a
large settled population, whose varied wants multiply indefinitely the chances
•of employment. We want producers specially at this time—men of large
rand men of small capital—and we hope the employer and the labourer will
oome together.
The demand for labour is comparatively small, because there is not as yet
sufficient capital to employ a very large number of labourers. When it is
brought, the field of labour will be seen to be unbounded. The number of
situations is increasing every month, and will be, of course, very considerable
when the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway is begun. But it were best
that no great "rush " of emigrants took place. The Agent-General will always
be ready to give the best information which he possesses without any colouring.
The country is sure to go a-head—the whole north-west of America is moving
—but sound judgment dictates at present that British Columbia be peopled
little by little. Any man with confidence in himself, however, may take his
own course, and if the experience of other colonies may be a guide, such
men, if ready for manual work at first, often " fall on their feet." A mixed
emigration of employers and labourers is generally best for young countries.
The purchasing power of the above wages—the true test—is very great, as
will be seen by comparing them with the prices of the common necessaries of
life, and still more with the price of land. The climate, over a great part of
the province, also is such as to enable a workman to work much out of doors
both in summer and winter.
A thrifty man may lay past every day the price of an acre of land.
I invite every working man's attention to the following fact:—The labourer
who puts his own labour into a piece of his own land in British Columbia,
in reality pays himself the above high wages for farm labour, and he besides
makes a home, and improves property which must rise steadily in value, and
which up to 2500 dollars (5007. English) cannot be touched for debt (see
Homestead Act).
Many farm labourers in the province put their earnings into cattle, which
;are allowed to run with their employers' herds. These are protected from
seizure from debt by the Cattle Exemption Act.
Nothing but ignorance and unthrift keeps men from saving money in
order to settle in a land where labour can soon employ itself without asking
leave of capital, and where a man can be his own employer and receive
-exactly all he earns, be the same less or more.
Dominion Government Savings-banks at Victoria, Nanaimo, and Nest,
Westminster—quite safe of course—deposits not less than a dollar and multiples of a dollar (4s. English)—5 per cent, per annum interest added at 30th
June—money returned on demand to extent of 100 dollars (207. English)—
«even days' notice for any sum over 100 dollars—office hours 10 to 3—
Saturdays, 10 to 12.
Immigrants should put their money into the Savings, or other good Banks.
m i> MaMKVaa*"
Money Table.
Table fob converting British Money into British Columbia
Money, and British Columbia Money into British Money.
British money.
Equivalent in
British Colombian
British money.
£    s.    d.
dollars   eta.
dollars   eta
£       s.     d.
1   Oi
2   1
! '       ii
1 00
4   1
1    0
2 00
8   3
1  a
3 00
12   5
1   6
4 00
16   5
1   9
5 00
1   0   6|
2   0
6 00
14   8
2   6
10 00
2   1    1
5   0
1 22
20 00
4   2   2|
10   0
2 43
25 00
5   2   9
10   0
4 87
50 00
10   5   6f
5   0   0
24 33
100 00
20 10 1H
10   0   0
48 67
500 00
102 14   n
25   0   0
121 67
1,000 00
205   9   7
"lOO   0   0
486 67
5,000 00
1,027   7 Hi
1000   0   0
4,866 67
10,000 00
2,054 15 10*
For general purposes, it will be sufficient to remember that the
British Columbian cent and the English half-penny are almost the
Cost of the Common Articles op Household Consumption and Use in
British Columbia, and comparison op the same with English and
Eastern Canada Prices in 1872.
5.   d.
Bread, per lb     0   24 to  0   3
Beer, per gallon  ..       2   0
Beef, per lb.     0   1   „   0   9
Bacon    ,,      0   8   „   0 10
Butter (fresh)           1   8   „   1 10
Cheese, per lb.      ..       16
Coals, per ton      ..     45   0
Coffee, per lb. (ground)           1   4   „   1   6
Eggs, per doz.      *    ..    ..     1   6   „   3   0
Firewood              See page 22.
Lard, per lb.. j 0
Mutton   ,     0
Pork       ,,     0
Potatoes ,,	
Rice        , I
Sugar      ,	
0   44
2    6
0 9
0 10
0 9
0 li
0 4
0 61
3 0
Eastern Provitices
of Canada.
s.  d.
. m
. ,
0   H
m m
2   to
1    6
to   1
5     „
0   6
« *
6    „
0    8
, »
8     «
0   9
.,  0
. .
1     »
1   3
4 #
m   4
0     „
1   3
1    O
•  •
■      0
5     „
0   6
H 1
,   m
, .
O   2*
.   1
H ,.
0   6*
8     „
3   0
Boots 1?. a pair; trousers, 14s. to 20s. a pair; coats, 30s. to 40s.; cotton shirts, 4s.; flannel
shirts, 8s.; socks, Is. 6d. a pair; cotton stuff Is. 6d. a yard; dress staff, 2s. a yard.
Brandy, 20s. per gallon; whisky, 12s. per gallon; gin, 12s. per gallon.
The above are the prices on the seaboard of British Columbia. The prices
of foreign produce are higher in the interior, owing to the high cost of land
carriage, and this will probably continue so until the Canadian Pacific Railway
is finished.
Weights and measures are the imperial; but by agreement, the American
gallon, which is about one-fifth less, is sometimes used. The American ton
is 2000 lbs., not 2240 lbs.
A consideration of the above prices of the principal articles of household
consumption in British Columbia will show to the small farmer, to the mechanic, and to the farm labourer, and, indeed, to many others, that these prices
permit a family of moderate means to have a plentiful supply of excellent
food, and household and personal comforts.
There cannot be found anywhere more charming places of residence than
in several towns and districts of British Columbia. It is therefore extremely
likely that, as soon as communications are improved from California, visitors
will reach the province from New Orleans, St. Louis, Chicago, and other places.
We expect also residents attracted by the climate, scenery, good schools, and
abundance of choice meat, game, and vegetables at moderate prices.
The main difficulty at present for residents is the wages of household
servants and the difficulty of getting them.
For the information of intending residents, I state here the estimated
expenditure at this time on necessaries of a small family in a city in
England with an income of 300?. a year ; and I compare the same for British
Columbia (seaboard districts).
c 2 *s
Per annum.
Pent, rates and taxes	
Servants' wages (15Z. and 93.) ..
Butcher: 23lbs. at lOd. = 19s. 2d.
per week 49 16   8
Baker: 10J quarterns at 84<Z.; i peck
flour at Is. Id. = 8s. 6riL per week
Grocer: s.   d.
lib. tea at 3s. id...    .. 3   4
1 lb. sugar at 6d  0   6
5 lbs. brown sugar at 5k 2   34
2i lbs. butter at is. lOd. 4   14
Spice       0   6
1 lb. cheese at is. Id. .. 11
14 lb. bacon at Is.       .. 16
3 lbs. rice, &c, at 3£c*. 0 10£
Candles  16
22   3   1
Per week    ..    ..   15
40 16 10
186   6   7
Vegetables and fruit      8   8   0
H qr. milk at 5c*. = 74d. per day ..    11    7   6
Beer    14   is 3
8 tons coal at 32s.      12 16   0
233 16   4
Per annum.
.(one servant)
16   3
(at 45s. per ton)
Butcher: at 9<*. per lb. = 17s. 3d.
per week	
Baker:    10£   quarters   at   lOd.;
i peck flour at 24d. per lb. (14 lbs.
in the peck)=9s. 5fc*. per week
s.   d.
3 4
0 10
2    3jr
44 17   0
24 12 11
42   5 0
206 14 11
8    8 0
11   7 6
14 18 3
18    0 0
259    8 8
The principal difference is in servants' wages. The cost of coals and milk
may be reduced in British Columbia, by having a place out of town with
grass for a cow, and wood-fuel for the cost of cutting and hauling. Game and
fish are much cheaper in British Columbia than in England.
The natural productions of British Columbia (berries, animals, birds, and
fish) afford good help for food. Thirty thousand Indians at least have lived
upon these natural productions for nobody knows how long, without, so far as
we can judge, lessening their growth appreciably in the districts inhabited by
Eatable Wild Fruits.
There are hosts of these everywhere, and they attain a size and flavour such
as cultivation only can impart in England. The cranberry is an article of
Ten thousand dollars (2,0007. English) worth of cranberries exported last
season—grow in swampy places—plentiful near New Westminster and
Nanaimo. Picked in the proper season (towards the end of September) cranberries will keep well for more than a year, by being simply put into a watertight cask filled with water.
Beasts of the Chase.
Various, and in parts very numerous—not dangerous, except the grizzly
The principal ones for food are the black-tailed deer—capital venison, sold
by the joint 6 to 10 cents. (3d. to 5d. English) per lb.—very numerous everywhere, but not north of Fort George—come upon low lands, or near the coast
in winter.  Also tbe Large North-Western Stag, called " Elk "—very numerous
in interior of Vancouver and on the coast of the mainland, up to about 52°,
for about 200 miles inland—very good food—as big as a small horse.
The Rein Deer—(Cariboo)—mountainous regions, north of .51° on the coast
or 49° inland —plenty in Chilcotin—is also fine food.
Hares abound periodically on mainland east of Cascade Range—found on the
Grouse, of various kinds, are found almost everywhere in the island and
mainland—in the thick fern near a tiny stream—perched on crab apple or
young fir trees, or drumming on a pine top. Ordinary price of a grouse is
12j cents (Qd. English). Packs of prairie chickens in all the open valleys of
the East Cascade region. Quails have been introduced, and are becoming
numerous. Ptarmigan, on the high mountains—a stray cock of the plains
(sage hen) occasionally about Osoyoos. Numerous wild geese—price 25 to
50 cents (Is. to 2s. English) each. Wild ducks, 25 to 37s cents (Is. to Is. Gd.
English) a brace. Snipe and pigeons plentiful. The mouth of Fraser River
a great resort of wild fowl.    Capita! sport.
Plumage birds very beautiful—song birds not remarkable.
Several harmless varieties of snakes. A few rattlesnakes in southern portion
of East Cascade region.
%'.      Fish-
Sea fish, and lake and river fish, most abundant—one of the chief resources
of the province for consumption and exportation.
Salmon, very numerous at various periods, from early spring to end of
summer. All the larger streams along the coast abound with salmon; they
also go 700 miles up the Fraser. At the regular shops, salmon and other fine
fish are sold at 6 to 8 cents (3d. to 4<2. English) per lb.; but the Indians
frequently sell salmon at 12£ to 25 cents (6d. to Is. English) for a good-sized
fish. Salted salmon are sold at about 7 dollars (28s. English) for barrel of
200 lbs.
Sturgeon, halibut, cod, herrings, oysters, and crabs, are plentiful in the
sea-board districts, and are sold at prices that would be considered absurdly
cheap in England. Good fish abound in the numerous lakes and rivers of the
Houses—commonly wooden, some brick and stone. Saw-mills in principal
places—Nanaimo, New Westminster, Hope, Yale, and Lytton district;
Lillooet and Clinton district; Kootenay and Columbia district. Ordinary
prices of sawn wood (lumber), outside mining districts, delivered at the
Dressed flooring    per mille feet 20   dollars ( 4Z. English).
white pine
1 cedar
white pine
( 51.
( 81.
(27, 10s.
(The measure is a foot—12 inches square and 1 inch thick
•V* fclr?s§?B
Cost of wooden house depends, of course, on size and finishing. Three-
roomed cottage, 500 dollars (1007. English). Rents of cottages range from
5 dollars (17. English) to 25 dollars (57. English) per month. Opportunities
are frequently available to workmen for purchasing a building lot and erecting
a cottage, to be paid for by easy instalments. In the country, rents are much
lower than in towns, and, besides, there is often the advantage of a garden, and
keep of a cow, pigs, and poultry. For temporary accommodation, a man often
puts up the one-roomed house, called a " shanty." Country settler, not near
saw-mill, puts up a log house. Neighbours will help. Cost about 30 dollars
(67. English). Build for sunshine—avoid low ground. Have flowers, and
also books for the children's sake. Successful settlers often speak of the happy
days in the old log house.
Materials for brick and stone houses plentiful—cost not excessive. Bricks
made in many places—Victoria and New Westminster, &c—cost, 10 dollars
£2Z. English) per thousand at the kiln.   Fire-clay not found.
Coal is used to some extent in Victoria, and costs 10 to 11 dollars (40s. to
44s. English) per ton. Wood is the common fuel, and farmers generally have
enough on their land. The price in the seaboard towns is, say 31 to 4 doUars
(14s. to 16s. English) per " cord " of firewood delivered. A cord is 8 feet
long, 4 feet high, and 4 feet broad. Wood is dearer at the gold mines. It
must be cut after delivery into suitable lengths for household use. This will
eost about lh dollar (6s. English) per cord, but many householders themselves
cut it*
Board and Lodging.
The  Government will make special arrangements for immigrants ^ ordinary present advertised rates in good second-class hotels are as foUows:—
Board and lodging, per week, 5h to 65 dollars (22s. to 26s. English).
„ „       per day, 1 dollar (4s. English).
;        Single meals, 37£ cents (Is. 6d. English).
Beds, 50 cents (2s. English).
(Cash in advance.)
New Westminster—
Board and lodging, per week, 8 dollars (32s. English).
Board, 6 dollars (24s. English).
Single meals, 50 cents (2s. English).
Beds, 50 cents (2s. English).
Board and lodging, per week, 8 dollars (32s. English).
Single meals, 75 cents (3s. English).
Beds, 50 cents (2s. English).
* Fuel in Eastern Canada is rather an expensive item; being nearly equal to the rent Wood
costs there in the country from 5s. to 20s. per cord, and in cities from 20s. to 30s., besideB the cost of
sawing and chopping, which is from 4s. to 6s. additional. This latter item, however, can be saved, if
the workman wiU saw and chop the wood himself, which is almost universally the case. Coal is
burnt only in the cities and largest towns of Eastern Canada. The price is from 29s. to 33s. a ton for
the ordinary soft coaL which is burnt in the open grates, and from 31s. to 39s. for the hard
anthracite coal, which is burnt in the stoves. A cord of wood contains 128 cubic feet, the load
containing a cord generally being 8 feet long, 4 feet high, and 4 feet broad A cord of wood is
usually considered equal in heating and lasting power to half a ton of coal, and lasts about a month
in winter, and about two months in summer.
^.rwnMy- ,; J.'gflWr*^ * s*g£ \
At the Cariboo mines higher—I believe 12 dollars and upwards (48s. English)
-•a week for board and lodging.
Household Servants.
Scarce; wages high, 10 dollars to 12 dollars (40s. to 48s. English) a month
for nurse-girls; 20 to 25 doUars, and even 30 dollars (47. to 57. to 67. English)
a month with board for general house-servants, having some knowledge of
cooking; a considerable number of well principled, competent women servants
•can be employed in respectable families—those accustomed to country work
are most wanted—many men of good character and means are pining for
wives in the country districts.
China women do not take servants' places. China men are employed as
cooks at 20 to 25 dollars (47. to 57. English) a month with board. They cut
fire-wood, light fires, clean boots, &c, but a good deal of the household work,
nevertheless, falls on members-of the family. China men are quiet, but many
heads of families object to them. Indian cooks (men) are employed at 20 to
25 dollars (47. to 57. English) with board, and make fair servants when employers understand their character.
A good woman servant might soon make money. For men there is an
open field with no favour. For women an open field full of favours. TJnfor-
•tunately it has been found that some of those women who have reached the
province have been fickle. Many of them have been disinclined to go to
•country work, and some have " tip-tilted " their noses at everything. Surely,
however, the right class can be found, when wages are so good.
The best plan at present for persons of moderate means is to do without
servants; getting help for wood cutting, washing, and scrubbing floors. The
idea may be one to shrink from, but this plan is not burdensome in actual
every-day life. A settler will find many doing this in the province who are
.socially his equals.
Who should go.
If a man is prosperous, healthy, and contented where he is, there let him
stay among his relations and early friends. But if he cannot make the
wealth-producing power of his labour available, if he is restless and uneasy
about his own future and that of his children, and is prepared to emigrate,
let him consider the advantages which British Columbia affords. He will
find at first that the travel and change of life will raise his spirits; then will
oome a period of depression, under the rough task of beginning in a new
oountry, to be followed by the feeling of security of home and subsistence,
which is the most solid blessing to a man. Whatever may have been his
former station, he will find that in the province, he may work in his own
fields with his own hands, and neither feel it to be a degradation in his own
eyes, nor in the eyes of those around him. His mind bowed down lately,
perhaps, by care and anxiety, will recover its natural independence. His
family, instead of being a burden, will be a solace and help to him. If he
sets to work resolutely, and is sober and careful of his money, he will never
regret the change of life which he has made. This is an undoubted truth,
as I know from the mouths of hundreds of settlers, who have overcome early
difiiculties, and settled permanently in the country; nevertheless it is not
now an easy matter to answer letters which I frequently receive, asking me
m rv
to state the actual advantages from different occupations and investments in
the province. No man can answer such questions satisfactorily, without
second sight, and the power to guage moral dispositions. I might draw up
statements on paper which might prove fallacious in practice—so much
depends on the individual himself in every colonial undertaking. It will,
therefore, be more prudent on my part to give general advice, the application
of which, to special cases must be the business of each individual himself.
We cannot at present encourage the emigration of more than a few profes*
sional men, such as lawyers, doctors, surveyors, and civil engineers, unless-
they have money beyond the expected earnings of their profession, and are
prepared to take their chances after arrival. Clerks, shopmen, or those having
no particular trade or calling, and men not accustomed to rough work with
their hands, if without means of their own, would probably meet with disappointment, and, perhaps, hardship. Tutors, governesses, housekeepers,
needlewomen, and women generally above the grade of domestic servants, should
not go alone to the province at present, and they should not go at aU, unless
to join friends or relatives able to maintain them for some time after arrival.
Men who hang about the Government offices in search of " appointments "
are nuisances in all colonies, and British Columbia has had her share of this-
class already. The only way to get an "appointment" in the province is
by recommending oneself to one's feUow citizens, by sharing for years in.
the hard work and honest toil on which all young countries depend for their
stability and progress.
A smart, active, capable man, with only a little money, but accustomed to
work with his. hands, is, however, sure to succeed in making a comfortable
home in British Columbia. Wages, as already shown, are very high; land,,
food, and house materials are cheap. If such a settler has a strong heart
himself, and is blessed with a common-sense wife used to country work, he
may confidently look forward to becoming even rich. He need not long
remain in the condition of a labourer. This certainty of rising in the social
scale must stimulate the emigrant. His chances will be greatly improved if
he is a country mechanic, who can carry on his trade and also farm for himself. Farming is often carried on in shares—the man of no capital giving
his labour for a reasonable proportion of the profits.
To farmers' sons, or persons with moderate means, qualified for the life of
a settler in a new country, who cannot see openings in older countries—who-
cannot go up, because the passages are blocked—who cannot go down because
their habits and pride forbid—to such persons I say—" go to the province,,
set to work at something—no matter what; give up old country notions : by-
and-by take up a farm; grow fields of grain; have an orchard; establish a
dairy; rear pigs and poultry \ get a band of cattle or a flock of sheep; subscribe to a library; avoid whisky; be industrious and patient, and success
in your case also is certain. If you feel faint-hearted at any time under the
new conditions of your life, bear in mind that the men who tackled the
wilderness, and made homes out of the primitive forests of Eastern Canada,,
New England, and Pennsylvania, had little money in their pockets. They
paid more for their land than you will have to pay for land in British Columbia;
they worked in a far inferior climate; they sold their produce at much lower
rates. You can do what they did, if you will, and with far less privation
than confronted them."
Tenant farmers themselves, with limited capital, may accept the above
advice. They should have at least sufficient capital to be independent for
twelve months. It is often best for the father to go out and pave the way for
the little folks.
Opportunities are still good in British Columbia, and just a little enterprise
would give to many a family now poor and discouraged, comfort, hope, and
a new life.
Farmers or other persons with larger means, will also find either tillage
farming, or cattle or sheep farming in British Columbia an agreeable and
profitable occupation. The natural pastures of the country are practicaUy
inexhaustible. They will feed several millions of cattle, and at present there
are only about 25,000 in the country. The East Cascade region of British
Columbia was made by nature to supply the cities on the Atlantic and
Pacific seaboards with beef, butter, and wool. Why should an English farmer
continue to pay rent, and remain under the control of a landlord as a leaseholder or yearly tenant, when, with one year's rental, he can purchase a
partially prepared farm with buildings on it, in the thoroughly British province of British Columbia ?
Farms cannot be made in a day, and it is evident that the demand foi-
farm produce, which the steady growth of the country, also the Canadian
Pacific Railway and other undertakings, will create in British Columbia,
cannot be supplied from existing farms.
The province may be recommended generally to all properly qualified
persons, with some means, and not disposed to croak, who may desire a perfectly natural, genuine, and above-board life, in a land which has the virgin
attractions of great space and freedom, a superb climate, varied resources, and
a bright future.
But for the scarcity of domestic servants, I could recommend British
Columbia as a charming place of residence for families with fixed incomes*.
They would find, with much less difficulty than amidst the crowded population of the Mother Country, a suitable and pleasant home, with every
facility for educating and starting their children in life. Persons living on
the interest of their money can get from 8 to 12 per cent, on good security.
The invalid will find that a visit to the province will brace him up.
The tourist who can command sufficient means and leisure, might well
exchange for a time the beaten tracks of European travel, for a tour of exploration and adventure, where the world assumes a new and to some minds
hot unattractive phase.   To the observant traveller nothing could be more-
instructive than to witness the beginnings of a noble country—the Pacific
Ocean stronghold of the Empire.    In the magnificent scenery of British Columbia the lover of nature would see much that would remind him of Switzerland and the Rhine.    The naturalist and botanist would find specimens-
not known in Europe.    The geologist would witness a panorama to which,
the old world presents no parallel.    The sportsman would find abundance
of adventure, and game of all kinds.    If he wants a new sporting sensation,
let him try the reindeer on the Chilcotin foot-hiUs.    For general tourists-
the novelty of roughing it in the bush, or traversing the fine open East
^Cascade country would possess singular charms.    In the principal towns he^
can have as good a dinner as in Paris.
What I wish to enforce is, that British Columbia is not   a country with.
m ■Ks
*■"—---MgE^lOe*--/f ,ikma
only " one string to its bow;" it is not agricultural and grazing only; it is
also a mining country, whose surface has hardly been scratched by miners,
though about 3000 miners are profitably employed in mining; it has fine
forests, and teeming ocean, river, and lake fisheries, a coast line studded with
harbours and coal fields, besides a position in the world very favourable for
.commerce. The country is on the highway of civilized nations ; it stands to
America on the Pacific Ocean, as Great Britain stands to Europe on the
Atlantic. The "Alta California ' newspaper, says, " That these new settle-
" ments (British Columbia) are yet to become competitors for the trade of the
•"east, if not the commercial supremacy of the Pacific, it were useless to
" deny."   (See Canadian Pacific Railway, p. 72.)
The urgent requirements of the province at the present time are men and
■money—the large and the small capitalist—to employ the labourer who also
must come with his strong hands, to bring out for conveyance to market the
^treasures that are hidden in the soil or merely adorning its surface. The
population of the province at present is far too small to utilise their valuable
•domain. We have mines to be worked, railways to be made, roads to be
opened, water power to be used, fish to be caught, grain, mutton, beef,
and wool to be produced, and for all of them we have requirements and markets.
How to reach British Columbia.
A first-class passenger can go from England to British Columbia in about
•3 weeks, if the connections meet at the proper times. A third-class passenger
will take 10 or 15 days longer.   The spring season is the best time to arrive.
Passengers from England may go round Cape Horn by sailing-vessel, or by
.steamer, vid Panama to San Francisco, and thence to British Columbia, but
the ordinary route wiU probably be as follows:—
(1.) By steamer across the Atlantic to Canada (Quebec in summer; Portland, Maine, U.S., in winter).
(2.) Thence by rail across the Continent to San Francisco.
(3.) San Francisco to Victoria, British Columbia, by steamer.
The Atlantic passage takes 10 to 12 days; the railway trip across the Continent about the same time, and the steamer from San Francisco to Victoria
4 to 5 days.
It is best to take "through" tickets to Victoria. Third-class passengers
ishould provide food for themselves for the railway trip across America, as
provisions at the wayside stations are expensive, and the " through" ticket
price does not include provisions except in the steamers.
The steamer goes from San Francisco to Victoria only twice a month at
present, and it is therefore desirable that, as far as possible, third-class emigrants especially should leave England in parties, so as to reach San Francisco
-about the proper time, and save the tedium and expense of remaining over.
The Agent-General in England, No. 4, Lime Street Square, London, E.C.
will arrange this, if communicated with.
An immigration officer of the British Columbian Government is also stationed
in San Francisco, at 315, California Street. Persons residing in Eastern Canada,
-or in the United States, can write to the Honourable the Provincial Secretary,
.Victoria, British Columbia, for information about the province.
While passing through Eastern Canada, and until Detroit is reached,
■emigrants from England for British Columbia will" apply, in case of need, to
■the Immigration Officers of the Dominion of Canada.
J** -*• jtTPT
Messrs. Allan, Brothers, and Co., James Street, Liverpool, give the following
advice to emigrants:—
"Take passage by the Allan Line of Royal Mail Steamers which leave
Liverpool every Tuesday and Thursday for Quebec in summer, and Portland
in winter. In connection with this line through tickets are issued, either via
Quebec or Portland to Victoria, the chief town of British Columbia. Trains leave
•Quebec and Portland twice a day, which connect at Detroit, Chicago, and Omaha,
with through express trains over the Union and Central Pacific roads to San
Francisco. From this point to Victoria, a distance of 753 English miles, the
communication is by water, steamers leaving San Francisco twice a month.
For rates of passage between Liverpool and Quebec, or
Portland, refer to advertisement on the back page of this book.
" From Quebec or Portland to San Francisco the rates are
—1st class rail, 267. 6s. 6(7.; Emigrant class, 117.; Children—
Between 4 and 12 years, half price; under 4 years, free.
" From San Francisco to Victoria the rates are—1st class,
67. 3s. 6<7.; Emigrant class, 37. Is. Qd,  Children—6 to 12, half
fare; from 3 to 6, quarter fare; under 3 years, free.
" Baggage—100 lbs. free for each full passenger." *
The " through" passage money to British Columbia is, therefore, for this
year, 187. 6s. 6c7. per adult passenger.
Messrs. Flinn and Co., Chapel Street, Liverpool (Agents of the Dominion
Line of Steamships from Liverpool); Messrs. Temperleys, Carter, and Darke,
Billiter Street, London (Agents of the Temperley Line of Steamships from
London and Plymouth), invite the attention of the reader to their advertisements in this handbook.    (See last pages of the book.)
So also do the following agents of lines of sailing vessels to British
Messrs. Anderson, Anderson, and Co., 1, Billiter Court, London, E.C.
The Honourable Hudson's Bay Company, Lime Street, London, E.C.
Messrs. G. H. Fletcher, and Co., The Albany, Liverpool.
Money (Coin) in British Columbia.
The sovereign
current at 4 dollars 85   cents.
2     „     42*
British money is not much used in British, Columbia. Business is done,
and accounts kept, in dollars and cents, and the coins principally used are
United States coins, as follows :—
20   dollar piece
1   dollar piece
Dime (called a "bit").
* The Atlantic passage for steerage passengers approved by Mr. Sproat, 4 Lime Street Square, or
hy Mr. Dixon, Canadian Government Emigration Offices, Adam Street, Strand, London, may be
reduced by Government aid ^,m qj, 6s. to 4** 5&
OK *;r>I*
The United States coins are more uniform in value in British Columbia
than British coins, as the United States have a mint in California (which is
close to the province).
Money (Paper) in British Columbia.
The paper money of the hank of British Columbia, and of the bank of
British North America, passes freely in the province in notes from 1 to 50
dollars.    These notes are payable in gold.
United States paper money is not used in the province. If the emigrant
should see any United States paper money he must remember that it varies
in price, not being payable in gold*
Course of Exchange on England.
Bills at sight 5 dollars 15 cents per £1.
„     30 days' sight 5 dollars 10 cents per £
„    oO       ,, 5     „ „
On New York.
4 to 5 per cent, premium.
On    San   Francisco,
1 per cent, premium.
How to send Money to British Columbia.
The emigrant is not recommended to take British coin to British Columbia.
He should pay that portion of his money not wanted on the passage to the
Post Office in Great Britain, and get a money order for it payable in Victoria,
or he may pay his money either to the Bank of British Columbia, East India
Avenue, Leadenhall Street, London, E.C, (the bankers for the Government
of British Columbia) or to the Bank of British North America, Bishopsgate
Street Within, London, E.C, and get from the bank, in exchange for his
money, an order payable on demand from its Branch Bank in Victoria, British
Columbia, for the equivalent of his money in dollars and cents.
The equivalents at present given for money thus deposited are about as
follows :— Gold
£ Dollars. Cents.
5 paid in England would realise 24
10 % „ I 48
20 „ „ I 97
50 „ „ „       242
100 „ „ „       485
25 in Victoria.
The emigrant, on paying his money to the Bank, must sign his name on a
separate piece of paper, and ask the Bank to send the signature to their
Branch Bank in Victoria, so that the person who applies for the money in
Victoria may be known to be the proper person. If this is neglected, the
emigrant may not be able to get his money in Victoria readily.
The above banks have agents in England, Scotland, and Ireland. The
Bank of British North America has its own branches in the Dominion of
Canada, New York, and San Francisco. The Bank of Montreal is the agent
of the Bank of British Columbia throughout Canada and New York, and the
Bank of British Columbia has its own branches in San Francisco, and in Port-
land (Oregon).   Both banks have correspondents in Mexico, Japan, China,
Australia, and New Zealand.
The American Express and Banking House of Wells, Fargo, and Co., which
has branches in many parts of the United States, has a branch in Victoria,
British Columbia.
Words of Advice after Arrival.
Emigrants are recommended not to linger about the towns at which they
may arrive, but to proceed with as little delay as possible, either to their
friends, if they have any in the province, or to the localities where they are
likely to meet with employment. To ascertain where their services are most
in demand, they should consult the Government Immigration Agent at the
port of arrival, who will assist them with information and advice that can be
relied on. They should be cautious in trusting strangers, and particularly
should avoid the bar-room idler, and the croaker in the street, whose note in
every colony always is that " times are bad—no work for men—country not
worth a cent." These idlers and croakers, together with office-seekers, are
nuisances everywhere—in Australia, New Zealand, and also in young
American states,
If seeking employment, immigrants should at once accept any fair offer of
work, although the wages may be less than they anticipated. They should
remember that, until they get into the ways of the country they are of much
less use to their employers than they will be afterwards.
' If the emigrant wishes to farm, he should not invest all his capital in land,
but reserve sufficient to stock and work it. Let him be careful of his cash
capital, and not put it into investments hastily.
Small capitalists are recommended not to buy land before they have become
acquainted with its character, and the kind of labour required in a new
country; and further, if possible, to purchase or rent a form, with some improvements on it, rather than to go upon untouched land. This last advice
more particularly refers to emigrants from Europe, whose previous training
necessarily has not so well adapted them to the settlement of wild lands as
persons brought up in America. Partially-cleared farms, with buildings
erected on them, may be bought in some districts of British Columbia on easy
terms of payment, owing to the disposition pioneers have to sell old settlements, and take up more extensive new ones. The price of such farms
depends, as already said, much on their situation, ranging probably from 14 to
35 dollars (27. 16s. to 77. English) per acre, within from 5 to 50 miles of
It is better for a small capitalist, possessing from 1007. to 10007., to place
his money, on first arrival, in the savings or other banks allowing interest; to
take lodgings, and to work for wages for a year or more, in order to gain p,
knowledge of colonial life and modes ofmanagement; or he may rent a piece
of land in or near the locality in which he expects to settle, raise a crop, and
look round quietly for a suitable place for a home.
By pursuing the plan suggested the emigrant, at the end of a few years, will
probably be far in advance of him who, on his arrival " went at it with a
rush," as beginners are apt to do.
•*->* ajw,:.
Special Advice to Young British Columbian Farmers.
Oet a wife.
Keep no spirits in the house,
i   Laugh at croakers.
Hold on to your cash capital.
Don't buy poor stock—S runt is dear at any price.
'   Feed your land, and it will feed you.
Do not buy one extra plough or harrow.
Buy as little as possible secondhand.
i   Don't improve—except slowly.
Don't employ a lot of hands at first, building, fencing, draining, &c.
;   Only good farming pays.
Don't hunger for a " big " farm.
Give up old-country notions.
Don't think you are very much wiser than your neighbours.
Make your house pretty with shrubs and flowers.
Go to church.
Work a little—rest a little, but be always about your place.
Aliens may hold and transmit land as fully as British subjects—may be
naturalised after one year's residence—alien women are naturalised by marriage-
We invite emigrants from all nations.:
Public Schools
are in the hands of the people—free to all, without distinction of race or creed
—attendance not compulsory yet—strictly non-sectarian—highest morality
inculcated—no religious dogmas or creeds taught—uniform text-books—
Public School Fund voted every year by the Provincial Chamber—General
Board of Education for the whole Province—a Superintendent of Education,
who visits and inspects—School Districts wherever population is sufficient—
the people choose every year from among themselves 3 School Trustees to
manage schools—Trustees get money from " Public School Fund," on application endorsed by Superintendent of Education—Teachers (3 grades) paid, from
40 to 100 dollars (87. to 207. English) a month—appointed or removed by
Board of Education—must have certificates of qualification from the Board.
The settler will well know how to estimate the capabilities of this school
system. The St. John's (New Brunswick) 'Telegraph' newspaper says—
** Let us take care that the young sister province on the Pacific does not lead
" New Brunswick in education.'
There are very good church schools and private schools, for both sexes, in
several of the larger towns. An education befitting the children of gentlemen
can be obtained for both boys and girls at Victoria and New Westminster on
reasonable terms.
The following are the terms of a Collegiate School established on the'plan
of the Grammar Schools in England, viz. :—
4 dollars (16s. English) per month.
French, 1 dollar (4s. English) per month.
?^V^m&^yT?»vS3r*<'Jirr *
Boarders, from 30 to 40 dollars (67. to 87. English) per month,,
according to age.
In other good schools the prices are somewhat less.
No State Church—no tithes, but religious wants not neglected—Sunday
well kept—Roman Catholic, Episcopalian, Presbyterian, Wesleyan, Congregational, and Hebrew communities have churches and clergymen in the larger
towns—churches built also in some small towns and country districts—other-
places are visited by ministers.
As soon as an infant settlement is formed, the inevitable minister appears,,
generally before even the newspaper correspondent. One of the settlers in a
settlement of about 20 families on the "North arm," near the mouth of
Fraser River, writes—"We have two churches already, and a third is.
" talked of."
Religious societies may take a conveyance of land for certain specified
purposes by appointing trustees and registering the title deeds.
Numerous and weU conducted—receive constantly news by telegraph—the-
wants and opinions of settlers in remote districts are made known through the-
press to their fellow settlers and to the Government.
Rates of Postage.
per half oz.
Papers each.
Book Post,
Lowest Rate.
6 cents          2 cents
3    .,               1    ..
9 cents per 4 oz.
1 cent per 1 oz.
6   ,,
23    ,,
34    ,,
16    ,,
16    ,,
16    ,,
.2    ,,
6    »>
5    ,,
4    ,,
4    j.
4    It
"*               * f                9 9
6 cents per 2 oz.
> »              9 9
2 cents per 1 oz.
*•              » J              9 9
[ Money Orders with Canada and England.
Local Post-Offices.
Duck and Pringle
Burrard Inlet.
Cache Creek.
Lake La Hache.
J* f 2if ■
,Tr ra 7      ffTrlMW
. -- X IsjHSk.
%J^^-\M^t:' Vt*^
Local Post-Offices—continued,
New Westminster.
Nicola Lake.
Okanagan Mission.
150 Mile House.
Soda Creek.
Spence's Bridge.
Van Winkle.
Administration of Justice.
This has always been wholesome. There is very little "rowdyism" in
British Columbia. Life, limb, and property are secured by just laws weU
-earned out. The courts do not ask whether accused parties are Indians or
white men. The San Francisco (California) * Bulletin' said, lately—" It is
"" well that our citizens should note that our neighbours in British Columbia
" do not deal so leniently with those who take life as we on this side of the
" border line."
Local Self-Government.
The people of a locality with over 30 male residents may be formed into a
" municipality," and elect from among themselves Councillors and a Warden
to manage all local affairs.
Provincial Self-Government.
The old system of government has been quite done away with. There is now
•one Legislative Chamber only—elected for four years by the voters—three, or
not more than five of its members form the "responsible advisers" or " ministry "
•of the Lieutenant-Governor—hold office while they have the confidence of a
majority of the chamber—municipal councils are steppingstones to Legislative
Assembly—no social obstacles whatsoever in any man's way—nobody asks
where a settler comes from, nor whose son he is. Among measures passed
last year were the Qualification of Voters Bill, which invites every bond fide
resident British subject to take an active part in the gre.at work of self-government; tbe School Bill, which places a free education within reach of eveiy
«child in the land; the Municipal Bill, which enables every settlement to
manage its own local affairs, and thus educate the people in the art of self-
government ; the Inheritance Bill, which divides equally amongst the children
•or nearest of kin the property of persons dying intestate; the Road Tolls
Repeal Bill, which throws open, free as the high seas to all comers, the main
-trunk road of the Province.
The political constitution of the province, as part of the great Dominion of
Canada, is impressed with the stability of the British system of government,
•combined with the freedom, elasticity, and progressive energy of Republican
The people of the Province may amend or alter their political constitution
in any way not inconsistent with the general constitution of the Dominion of
'i¥YiV iift Tn
ir *-*tv.
The gold shipped from British Columbia by banks, and carried out of the
country by miners, has not been less in value than 4j millions sterling during
the 10 years from 1862. Other exports than gold, namely, lumber (sawn
wood), coal, furs, fish, fish oil, wool, cranberries, &c, average about 75,0007.
per annum, and are yearly increasing in quantity and value. (See Gold
Mining, page 74.)
The exports of coal from the Nanaimo coal mine, during the above ten
years, has been 330,395 tons.
Several new coal mines are about to be opened and worked. (See Coal
Mining, page 77.)
New Westminster.
3 Saw mills—can cut 183,000 feet of lumber per day.
1 Grist mill—can grind 30 barrels per day.
1 Distillery—distils 300 to 400 gallons per month.
1 Beet sugar factory.
Brick works.
Hope, Yale, and Lytton.
2 Saw mills—can cut 7000 feet of lumber per day.
5 Flour mills—2 can grind 23 barrels, the others 10 barrels per day each.
Lillooet and Clinton.
1 Saw and Flour mill (combined)—can grind 60 barrels of flour per day, and
cut 12,000 feet of lumber.
1 Flour mill on Dog Creek—can grind 2000 pounds of wheat per day.
1 Saw mill at Lillooet—can cut 5000 feet of lumber per day.
1 Saw mill at Clinton—can cut 2000 feet of lumber per day.
1 Flour mill at Lillooet—can grind 120 sacks in twelve hours.
1 Saw mill, water-power—in process of construction.
1 Bed Reck Flume—in process of construction.
c, %.
1 Steam Saw mill, on William's Creek, 20-horse power—can cut 20,000
feet of lumber per day.
1 Steam Saw mill, on Ditton Lightning Creek—can cut 20,000 feet of
lumber per day.
1 Quartz Mill, on William's Creek, 3-horse power, 4 stamps of 450 lbs.
each—can crush 4 tons a day.
1 Flour mill, 20-horse power—can grind 50 barrels of flour per day.
1 Flour mill, Soda Creek, water-power—can grind 40 barrels of flour per
1 Saw mill, Quesnel, water-power—can cut 2500 feet of lumber per day. .Ja.\j*&&
1 Saw mill.
1 Saw mill.
1 Iron Fouqdry.
2 Sash Factories.
Gas Works.
4 Breweries.
2 Distilleries.
1 Soap Factory.
2 Tanneries.
Boot and Shoe Factory.
Brick Works..
1 Ship Yard.
2 Lumber Yards.
2 Waggon-makers.
The estimated value of exports and imports for 1870 was as follows:—
Exports, including gold, 1,848,803 dollars; imports, 1,605,809; balance of
trade in our favour, 242,994 dollars. The exports, besides gold, were supplied
by twenty-one articles of home produce,. Here are the germs of productive
manufactures, lucrative trades and of an active commerce.
Tonnage for 1871.
The vessels—sea going—that entered the ports of British Columbia for the
year 1871, numbered 292, with a tonnage of 131,696. Cleared, 285, with a
tonnage of 129,864.
There are three Public Hospitals in the Province, supported by private contributions with Government aid. One at Victoria, another at New Westminster,
the third in Cariboo.
In addition to these, there is the Naval Hospital at Esquimalt for the
accommodation of H.M.'s fleet; and, in Victoria, a private hospital supported
by the French Benevolent Society.
Telegraph Lines.
British Columbia is connected with England by telegraphic wires. Telegraph
lines extend from Swinomish, in Washington Territory (United States), to
Barkerville, at the extremity of the Cariboo Road. There is, besides, a branch
from Matsqui to Burrard Inlet vid New Westminster, in addition to a telegraphic right of way over the line belonging to the Western Union Telegraph
Company, from Swinomish to Victoria, which comprises two submarine cables.
This line of telegraph is 569 miles long, in addition to the submarine portion,
which is a mile and a quarter in length; it originally cost 170,000 dollars.
Besides this line, there is that from the mouth of the Quesnel to the Bahine,
but the line has not been kept up, and is abandoned. INFORMATION FOR  EMIGRANTS.
Public Works.
The Canadian Pacific Railway (see page 72) to be begun this year; also a
first-class Graving Dock at Esquimalt; additional light-houses; improvement
of the River Fraser; Marine Hospital; Penitentiary ; Post-office and Custom
Houses. Among existing public buildings and property are fixed light-houses
on Race Rock and Fisgard, and a floating light at the mouth of the Fraser
River, postal-service steamer, harbour dredge, Mint, Court-houses and jails,
Governors' residences, Legislative and Departmental buildings, &c.
On Vancouver Island: Victoria, Esquimalt, Nanaimo, Barclay Sound.
On the mainland: Burrard Inlet, Howe Sound, Bute Inlet, Millbank Sound,
River Skena, River Nasse. These harbours, being open all the year round, and,
generally speaking, easy of access, sheltered and capacious, give a distinctive
value to the province, which the course of events on the North American
continent will every year make more apparent.
d 2
I Part of Government-street, Victoria.   From a photograph.
Vancouver Island.
Area, 12,000 square miles; length, 300 miles; average breadth, 30 to 50>
miles. Surface very mountainous and woody—flattens at both ends, and for
part of its eastern side—most mountainous region in the interior—highest
mountains (6000 feet) towards north of island—no "back-bone range," such as
some describers say exists—width of arable valleys, from one to six miles—
whole country full of lakes, streams, and waterfalls—(the water-power is
generaUy some distance inland from the coast)—shores boldly picturesque—
promontories, cliffs, harbours, coves, and beaches.
West coast, cut up by arms and inlets, margined by rugged mountains,
bearing fir, hemlock, and cedar—here and there shore is skirted by lower
wooded hills, among which, and along streams, small patches of open or wooded
flat land are found.
No inlets on north and east coasts, but in other respects the above description applies also to them—near Johnstone's Straits, shore-line is even more
continuously mountainous and abrupt than on west coast. Farther down
east coast, and also in south-eastern part of island, the coast is lower, and the
proportion of flat or gently undulating land, good for farming, increases, some
of which is open or thinly timbered.
Prevailing timber—fir, near the coast—hemlock, inland—great cedars on
the mountains—shrubs, berries, and flowers everywhere—grasses, sweet
grass, reed meadow, bent spear—white clover, wild timothy, wild oats, broad-
leaved rush, cowslip, &c.
Fern in the open lands, troublesome to farmers.
Resident Population.
Victoria and neighbourhood      5360
Cowichan district      ..     .. 350
Nanaimo and neighbourhood  950
Comox         250
Indians, say         3000
There are three Farmers' Societies in the island.
gH5i*3E*' ■ ^m^<^^^\ VANCOUVER ISLAND.
Her Majesty's Fleet at Esquimalt adds an average of about 500 to the
population of the Victoria district, which is also considerably increased,
temporarily, by visitors afc all seasons of the year, and by crews of vessels.
These,   being
everything   to   the   farming   immigrant,   will   first   be
Derivation of Vancouver Island Soils.
Four chief sources—disintegration of underlying rocks—deposit of the
sands, gravels, and clays of the great Northern Drift—alluvial deposits—
decay of vegetable matter on the surface.
Distribution of Soils.
The nature of the underlying rocks has produced in various parts of the
south of the island (which the immigrant first sees) gravelly soil, with a thin
coating of vegetable mould.
Further north, along the eastern shore, where the rocks alter in character,
rich loams are found, due to the decomposition of the limestone rocks in their
•neighbourhood. Good specimens in Cowichan valley and at Comox. These
•soils are always ready for cultivation.
The Northern Drift sands, gravels, and clays, are spread out over the whole
undulating surface of the east coast. The sandy gravels form the soil
generally, from which the forests spring, while the clay will be found chiefly
in the open undulating grounds as a retentive subsoil with a thick topsoil
of vegetable mould. This latter clay-vegetable soil is a most valuable soil
—colour, rich brownish-black. It fills up hollows and swampy bottoms, and
forms the sides of gentle slopes. In some localities the clay forms the only
The above clav-vegetable soil is mixed with alluvium in some localities,
JO 9
namely, deltas of rivers, near inlets and in valleys.
The alluvial deposits are not extensive, the streams being short water-
-courses. The brown eairth, or " Humus," resulting from the decay of vegetable matter, is abundant, and mixes with the other soils in various proportions in different localities.
Value of these Soils.
The gravelly soil, found as above stated in various parts of the south of the
island, is poor, from its inability to retain moisture. The rains are drained off
into lagoons, and the sun dries up the surface. This soil produces large timber
.and coarse grass.
Wheat could no doubt be cultivated upon nearly all the other soils with
proper culture.
The clay-vegetable soil, above-mentioned, is very valuable, particularly
where it has been mixed with alluvium. With subsoil drainage this soil
would carry the heaviest possible crops of wheat and other cereals.
The clay, when found by itself, would, like all heavy land, require special
The sandy and gravelly loams are eligible for barley, oats,- rye, buckwheat
beans, peas, root and leaf crops, &c, &c.
u.. w^
The deep loamy soils everywhere are especially eligible for fruit culture.
The alluvial deposits in the valleys are in many places very valuable. Mixed
with the decayed, and the decaying, vegetable matter brought down by the
numerous streams from watersheds, they form a rich black soil, many feet
The brown earth, or " Humus," forms soils of great value, according to the
materials with which ic mixes. Though light and porous, many soils, so
formed in.the valleys and plains of the eastern coast, are well constituted for
absorbing and retaining moisture as well as heat. The brown earth appears
to be rich, when resting, with a depth of 2 to 3 feet, on a gravelly, or even
sandy, subsoil, if we may judge from the successive crops of potatoes which
the Indians have raised from such soil.
HiUy, partly wooded, grazing tracts are interspersed among the prairies
and benches. Often, near arable farms, rocky hills rise 1000, 2000, and even
3000 feet—surface, craggy—patches of thin soil with grass. Sheep and cattle
like these hills in summer.
Running streams numerous; springs excellent. In places, however, where
the clay forms the top-soil, the water runs off, and unless you bore through
the clay the water must be looked for at some little distance, where the clay
is overlaid by a porous material. Many springs resemble the Bath waters,
but are not unpleasant to the taste.   In one place there are il brine " springs.
Estimated Quantity of Farming Land.
Extract, condensed from * British Colonist,' Victoria, August 7th, 1872.
" Near Victoria.—Say 100,000 acres, aU occupied or owned. Some farms
" can be bought or let; terms higher than in places farther from the capital.
" Saanich peninsula.—37 square miles; 64,000 acres. 200 settlers, with
" farms from 50 to 1500 acres each.
" Sooke.—Out of five square miles, 3750 acres fairly good, open land; re-
" mainder tolerably level wood-land.
" Cowichan.—Portions surveyed (including Shawnigan, Quamichan, So-
" menos, Comiaken) 100,000 acres, of which half considered superior.
" Salt Spring Island—area, 90 square miles; 5750 acres, good.   80 settlers.
"Nanaimo district (Mountain, Cranberry, and Cedar districts). 45,000
" acres; a fair proportion superior, some light and sandy. *
" Comox.—50,000 acres; none better in the world.
" The above gives sufficient area for 30,000 country people, at least, and it
<• is known that towards Alberni and in other directions there is land available
" for settlement."
Much of the above land is covered with fine large timber. Many of the
best farm-locations near existing roads—at least the best to the eye—may be
expected to be already taken up or occupied; but there certainly is room yet
for numerous settlers. This will be more clearly seen as communications are
improved. It is said that Victoria buys a quantity of beef every year from
the opposite American territory, and that butter can be imported from Montreal at a profit.   The facilities for dairy farming are excellent in British
•*<&^y-aagyy^ra**- ^^iyy^,^^^ /*, \
Columbia. The truth is that many farms are occupied by non-practical
farmers, who are merely waiting to sell their farms. The climate, scenery,
and abundance of game and fish, have had the effect of making this class of
land-holder rather numerous. They will give place in time to the right class—
as pictured by Franklin:—
" Farmer at the plough,
Wife milking cow,
Daughters spinning yarn,
Boys thrashing in the bam,
All happy as a charm."
Land here must continue to rise in value, and the practical farmer is sure of
a good yield from his farm, and a market for what he produces. The settlers
are hospitable, and will give anyone a warm welcome, particularly if he is
disposed to help himself.
Interior of the Island.
I do not think there is much farming land in the interior of the island anywhere in mass, though detached pieces near lakes and in valleys would, no
doubt, make a considerable area, if all were put together. The mountains in
the interior cross and re-cross, interlaced by valleys, generally wooded. Many
of the larger lakes have steep sides; the streams are rapid, and often have
rocky banks. Nearly all the smaller lakes and rivers, however, have a good
deal of low land near them, swampy or liable to overflow, but capable of being
brought into cultivation. In hollows among the hills also are marshy tracts,
easily drained, which, if there is a subsoil, will make fine farms.
Mode of clearing Land.
The immigrant is often attracted by a fern-covered prairie, or by " brush "
land, covered only with alders, willows, &c.
The fern is troublesome, and is only entirely removed by successive cropping. It is cut year after year in early summer, and the land then ploughed
and cross ploughed. Some use tiles for wet fern lands. In reclaiming " brush "
land, one way is to make an open ditch, three feet wide, and as deep as the
drainage will admit. Next summer the vegetable matter on the surface will
burn, which kills the roots, and frequently lays the brush as though it had
been "slashed;" burn again the following summer, and with a little labour
the land will be ready for winter wheat. Another way which is adopted often
on bottom land, timbered with maple, ash, and only a few firs, is to " slash "
(cut small growth) all but the large growth, felling all one way as much as
possible. The best time to do this is through the months of June or July,
when the sap is at its highest. After the trees have lain one or two months
fire is set to them in different places. When there is much small brush, it
should be piled upon the larger growth. Care must be taken before fire is set
that there is no brush or other inflammable substance near the dwelling or outbuildings. Some farmers cut the vine-maple off about six feet from the ground;
take a yoke of cattle, " hitch on" to the top of these stubs, and " snake" them
out. The soil being loose and the main roots near the top of the ground, it is
not difficult to cut with an axe any root that may hold fast. I have seen
patches of excellent wheat, the ground for which had never been ploughed up.
mi «i *'
The farmer stated that after " snaking " out the roots and sowing the wheat
he took a yoke of cattle and dragged a large brush, made of branches, over the
ground, to smooth it down and cover the wheat. The crop on one of the
patches (a few acres) was a volunteer crop (second year without sowing), and
promised to be good.
The large trees on a heavily wooded farm are usually felled in the following
way:—Take a long shanked auger, and in a standing tree bore two holes, one
above the other, at an angle, so that they will meet some distance inside.
Introduce lighted pitch faggots into the upper hole. The flame draws air
from the lower hole, and acts like a blow pipe. The inside of the tree beneath
the sap burns quickly, and in a short time a huge furnace roars, which can
often be heard ,at a considerable distance. The sappy outside does not bum,
and thus a mere sheU of the tree is left. This shell is chopped through on the
side of the tree on which it is desired it should fall, and the tree comes down
with a crash.
The usual price for " slashing" is from ten to twelve dollars (40s. to 48s.
English) per acre, cutting all down (except the large growth) and piling it up
ready for burning.
The best and cheapest team a farmer can have is a good yoke of cattle.
They can make their own living, and it costs but little to rig them for work:
They are the best adapted for the kind of work usually done on a new farm.
Course of Cropping.
After breaking up new land, perhaps a first crop of peas or oats is put in,
or it is left as a summer fallow until the early part of October, when wheat is
put into the ground. The crops commonly raised are—wheat, barley, oats,
and peas. The green crops are—turnips (swedes), mangel-wurzel, vetches,
potatoes, and aU kinds of vegetables; cabbages and pumpkins attaining a
very great size. Of the cereals, wheat does best; of the leguminous plants,
peas are the most profitable.
Nowhere does the potato flourish more, or have a better flavour; it is
grown in great quantities by the natives.
The rotation of crops in virgin soil is, wheat after fallow, then a crop
of peas; wheat again, or oats ; and then a fallow is made for turnips ; and by
this time the land will be pretty clean. After turnips, a crop of barley or
oats (spring sown) is raised and followed by potatoes, the land being well
manured, and thus mended. After this, farming operations are conducted on
the same rotation four-course system as in Great Britain.
The above rotation, however, may be exchanged for whatever expediency
The following are the usual quantities of seed sown per acre:—of wheat,
lj bushels; barley, 2\ bushels; oats, 2£ to 3 bushels; peas, 2 to 2\ bushels,
vetches, 2\ bushels. The sowing times for oats, barley, peas, and tares are
from middle of March to end of April. These crops are harvested 1st of
August to end of September. Potatoes are planted in March and April,
and are gathered early part of November. Turnips sown between 1st
June and middle of July, and are gathered with the potatoes. Autumn
cultivation not yet common. Clovers, lucerne, and trefoil are good fodder
plants. Sown- in October, they give bulky spring crops. Alsyke clover the
best perennial; crimson clover should be cut in flower.   Lucerne likes light
* .€^^y,-5Bavy^«^:-g
sandv soil, with calcareous subsoil-
8 years' successive crops.   Trefoil, dry,
cattle like it.   Other plants,
sainfoin, tares, rye-grass, fescue grasses, do well sown in autumn.
elevated pastures, deep roots, remains green long;
Production on Good Farms in South-Eastern and Eastern Districts of
Vancouver Island in 1872.
Wheat from   30 to   35
s per
Barley   „      40 „   45
Oats       „      50 „   CO
Pease     „      40 „   45
Potatoes „    150 „ 200
Turnips „     20 „   25
Timothy hay about   2
Hops (equal to the best Kentish),
1000 to 1700 lbs. per acre
Butter, per cow, after feeding calf, about 150 lbs. per annum.
Apples, pears, plums, cherries, white and red raspberries, red, white, and
black currants, and most kinds of fruit thrive remarkably well. Apples have
measured 13 inches in circumference, and weighed 19, ounces, and been well
flavoured and good for cooking or eating. Pears, many of them 11 inches in
circumference, juicy, and fine flavour.
Common winter cabbage have grown 3 to 4 feet in circumference. Red
cabbage and cauliflower equally large and sound.
Carrots, parsnips, onions large.
Tomatoes equal to the best English.
Cattle, sheep; horses, pigs, and poultry do well; sheep (South Down),
mutton choice, fleeces light, wool good; pigs easily reared; wolves and
panthers (not dangerous to man) sometimes kill pigs and sheep.
The average production, of course, is not likely to be so good as the above
over a number of years, even if an intelligent system of farming should be
the rule; but the emigrant may see from the above the capabilities of the soil.
In England it is believed that the average production is—wheat, 28 to
30 bushels; barley, 35 to 40 bushels; potatoes, about 160 bushels, or 4 tons.
The following Table wiU show to the reader the
Estimated Average Yield, per Statute Acre, of the Principal Corn
Crops, and of Potatoes in various British Colonies.
New South Wales ..
Victoria  <
South Australia    .. <
Tasmania  <
New Zealand ..    .. -J
Cape of Good Hope
(ended 31st
March in some
Wheat      Barley.
The produce of these crops is "
partly cut green for fodder.
8-92    I        4-35    I        6-48
' .■'■*<
p w\
C   >jfaJm&>
I may also invite attention to the
Estimated Average Yield, per Statute Acre, of the Principal Corn
Crops, and of Potatoes, in Imperial Bushels, in various Foreign
Sweden   ..
Norway   ..
Prussia    ..
Holland   ..
Belgium  ..
Portugal ..
Spain..    ..
Austria   ..
United States
Bushels. Bushels.
Maize.   Potatoes
Bushel?. Bushels.,
23 2 ..
13-8        17-1
As regards the United States, 17 bushels of wheat per acre may be assumed
as the wheat average of Minnesota; Ohio, 9*96 ; Illinois from year to year not
more than 8 bushels. Four States only, by the census of 1850, reached an
average of 15 bushels per acre. Oats average, say 19 to 30 bushels. Potatoes
75 to 120 bushels per acre.
The following Articles of Produce and Stock were Exhibited at the
Provincial Farming Show, Victoria, 1872, also at the Saanich Show
(close to Victoria), and at the Cowichan, Chemanis, and Salt Spring
Show, held at Maple Bat (up the east coast, 45 miles from Victoria).
Pure Short-horn Durham bull; other bulls; bull-calves; work oxen;
cows; rams; ewes; boars; sows; stallions ; bfood mares; saddle, carriage,
and draught horses.
Wheat; barley; oats; peas; hops.
Turnips (Swedish and white); mangel-wurzel; carrots ; beet; cattle*
Turkeys; geese; ducks; dorking-fowls ; pigeons; eggs ; butter salt and
fresh; cheese.
Apples; pears; peaches; plums.
Potatoes; cabbages; lettuces; parsnips; vegetable-marrows j cauliflowers;
celery; beets ; onions; melons ; tomatoes ; pumpkins; squashes; cucumbers.
The same as the above, in quantity per acre, and in quality can be produced by the district of Nanaimo—(a flourishing coal port, 79 miles from
Victoria) and by Comox district, farther up the east coast, 134 miles from
Comox is a picturesque settlement—in one locality 12,000 acres well watered
and dotted with oaks and alders—fine stock and crops at Comox—also church,
school, &c.
Comox looks much to Nanaimo as a market.
Prices of Farm Stock.
Victoria Market, 1872.
Beef cattle, dressed weight 12 to 16 cents per lb. £0
Cows with calves, 35 to 60 dollars each     ..     .. 7
Dry cows, 30 dollars each  6
Calves, 10 to 17 dollars each  2
Yearlings (good), 20 to 30 dollars each      ..     .. 4
Two-year olds, 25 to 37 dollars each  5
Three-year olds, 40 to 42 dollars each       ..     .. 8
Pigs dressed, 12 J to 13 cents per lb  0
Chickens, 4s dollars per dozen      0
Eggs, 30 to 75 cents per dozen  0
5f to £0
0   „
, a
o   „
o   „
o   „
o   „
6   „
Prices of Farm Stock (presumed "in gold"), iu 1872, at Olympia (140
miles by sea from Victoria), on the United States Territory, whence
Stock reaches Victoria Market, paying 10 per cent, ad valorem duty.
Beef cattle on foot, 8 to 10 cents per lb. market well stocked.
Milk cows, 40 to 50 dollars each £8   0
Veal calves, 8 to 10 dollars each     112
Yearlings, 10 to 15 dollars each     2   0
Two-year olds, 20 to 22 dollars each     4   0
Work cattle, 150 to 250 dollars per yoke (pair)..  30   0
Sheep, 3£ to 4 dollars each 0 14
Pigs (dressed), 11 to 12| cents per lb 0   0
Hides, 4 to  5 dollars each     0 16
Work-horses, 150 dollars (30?. English) each for good ones; common,
30 to 40 dollars (61. to 8Z.).
0 to £10
0   „    2
0   „   3
0   „   4
0   „ 50
0   „   0
5£ „    0
0   „   1
Prices of Farm Produce.
Victoria Market, 1872.
5 1
Wheat, per lb., 2i to 3,* or English (at 3   cents), 7
d. lbs.
9 per bushel, 62
(at 2\ cents),
(at 2   cents),
3 1
per sack,
,, about l\d. per lb.
zel, per lb., 2 cents, or English, 91. 6s. 8d. per ton of 2240 lbs.
Hay, per ton of 2000 lbs., 20 to 30 dollars, or 4Z. to 61. per load of
18 cwts. (2016 lbs.).
Average "Wholesale Dealers' Prices of Meat in Great Britain for- 3 years ending 1870—per
stone of 8 lbs. sinking offaL
Cattle, 4 qualities, ranging from..
d.         s.
3i   to   5
British Columbia.
d.      Dollars.       Dollars.
4   or    0-82   to   1*33
Calves, 2       ,,                ,,
Sheep, 4       ,,                 ,,
Lambs, 1 quality             ,,        ..
Pigs, 2 qualities               ,,
2i    ,,    5
5f   ,,    5
2*    ,,    6
6i    ,,    5
5    ,,    1*05    ,,    1-35
7± ,,    0-87    ,,    1'39
10    ,,    1-55    .,    1-70
8± ,,    0-88    ,,    1*41 far Umm**Jite»tUA'laA cMfcJaitf^Ufe>
i-, c   »
Cost of Labour on Farms—with a few words on that
All labour is dear in British Columbia.
An ordinary unskilled labourer, such as one would employ to dig or cut
fire-wood, receives 1*50 dollar (6s. English) a day; if he can lay claim to
■skill enough to qualify him to attend to - a garden or an orchard, he readily
commands 2 dollars (8s. English), or 2*50 dollars (10s. English) a day.
Farm servants, engaged by the month, are paid at wages from 20 to 40
dollars (41. to 81. English) per month, with board and lodging, according to
the kind of work required of them, and the responsibility of their positions. A few Indians are employed in the seaboard districts, at 15 to 20
dollars (31. to 41. English) per month, with board and lodging, by farmers
who understand their character. In the interior Indians are largely employed
as herders and for general farm work. In Vancouver Island and the New
Westminster district, it may be said that a dollar (4s. English) a day, with
board and lodging, is the pay of the farm labourer. Higher wages are paid
in the interior.
However strong and active a man may be, he cannot expect the highest
wage until he knows his work and the ways of the country. At the above
high wages, farmers, of course, employ as little labour as possible; indeed,
the item of labour is the great leak in the farming business in British Columbia, as it is in most young countries.
The farmer in British Columbia can get good land for nothing, or almost
nothing; and he gets as high prices for much of his produce as the English
farmer gets. The British Columbian farmer pays no rent, but his labour bill
may be set off, to some extent, against the rent of the English farmer.
If the British Columbian farmer can, himself and by his family, do a large
share of the farm work, he must make money quickly.    That is the point.
Winter Care of Stock.
Nothing strikes a British Columbian farmer more, who visits Eastern
Canada, New England, or even Scotland, than the enormous haymows on
the farms, and the small number of cattle to eat them. The cost of rearing
cattle in some of these countries exceeds their value when reared. It must
cost ten times as much to winter an animal in these countries as in British
Columbia at present; and the value of the animal when sold to the butcher,
is not largely different in the two places.
The winter/bod! question is not a very important one in Vancouver Island.
Some shelter, protection from excessive rain, and a dry bed are what cattle
need in winter in Vancouver Island more than stored food. The undergrowth
in the neighbouring forest generally enables cattle to find food for themselves;
still it is best (and particularly as you get north from Victoria) to have a
moderate supply of hay and straw for winter food, if only to entice the
cattle to approach the homestead.    They then drop manure within reach, and
The average prices of wheat, barley, and oats, in England and Wales, for 3 years ending 18f 2,
Wheat, about 2$ cents per lb (6s. $d. per bushel).
Barley    ,,     2 ,,  (4s. 6d.       ,,       ).
Oats       ,,     If ,, .......    (2s. lid.     ,,       ).
Agricultural implements cost about one-third more in British Columbia than in England.
■:^-^f. k~~
become tame. A dry bed is important. Witb so much wood at hand, rough
sheds can easily be built. The roof may be " shakes" (splitwood). Ferns-
cut in early summer and stored, or branches of firs, make beds. If the site is-
exposed, and the locality is one affording a sale for fire-wood, piles of firewood will afford protecting walls. Milk cows and calves, or sick cattle, may
want closer sheds. When all is said upon this subject, cattle require very
much less attention in winter in Vancouver Island than in England and
Scotland, A little care will make them even improve between December
and April.
These remarks on Winter food, or care of stock, apply to the whole West
Cascade Region of the province.
| pi
SI —--^— - -    -..    _  . jwj >  ■ '■ -—■. — --—.. .1
;y .',3
—'—       ■  ■ ' - _~
Part of Columbia-street, New Westminster.   From a photograph.
West Cascade Eegion.
British Columbia—Mainland portion; vast country—really not much known
yet—length from corner to corner 800 miles ; length by straight north and
south line, about 420 miles; greatest breadth, about 400 miles.
The Rocky Mountain Range forms the eastern boundary of the province.
The Cascade Range is almost parallel to Rocky" Range, between Rocky
Range and coast (see Map) ; very ramified, its own average breadth from 15
to 50 miles; average height, 7000 feet, with towering volcanic peaks; sends
down in westerly and southerly directions rugged mountain spurs to the sea;
deep, gloomy sea inlets run up between these giant spurs; inlets on coast
braced together by high mountains, sometimes called a " Coast Range." Fine
scenery on the whole Mainland coast; the overflow of lakes pours down the
steep declivities; avalanches have cut lines down the forest from mountain
summits to water's edge, green timber growing where the descents are old ;
crevices here and there filled with snow; through rifts and gorges on the
elevated shores are seen mountains far inland, some domed, others peaked.
The Cascade Range runs south into American territory, is broken up in
Oregon and Northern California into spurs, known as Siskiyou Range, then
extends to the east by connecting ranges, and forms the famous Sierra
Nevadas of California.
The reader will be good enough to fix his eye upon this Cascade Range
(see Map), for, as already said, it divides British Columbia into two grand
divisions—the humid forest region, west of the Cascade' Range (that is,
between the Cascade Range and the sea), and the dry grazing region, east
of the Cascade Range (that is, between the Cascade Range and the Rocky
The West Cascade Region, particularly that portion lying opposite to Vancouver Island, is similar in climate and productions, and also in contour to
the island, but has grander features. The island is, in fact, a piece broken
off from this Mainland Region. The soil of the West Cascade Region is
moist and loamy, with luxuriant vegetation.
The East Cascade Region is more open, with extensive plains and valleys,
though mountainous still; climate dry, timber scarce and rather poor; soil
light; herbage excellent.
Soils of Mainland.
I cannot accurately describe these: the geological survey now in progress
will enable better information to be given in subsequent editions. One description, by a well-informed gentleman, states that the soil in the lower
country, and again north of Quesnel River, and generally in the Cascade and
Selkirk Ranges, is moist, well wooded, and mixed with, perhaps mainly
constituted of, decomposed organic substances.
In the middle of the province, the Fraser, Thompson, and Okanagan districts, the soil is light, generally a sandy loam of no great depth, usually
immediately superimposed on gravel beds (northern drift), occasionally of
very great thickness, and always affording perfect drainage.
Another gentleman says that the soil of the Mainland is of three kinds.
The first is rich and loamy, consisting of decayed vegetable matter and alluvial deposits. This is the character of the soil by the banks of the streams
or lakes, and in the bottoms of valleys, and wherever land has been formed
of deposits brought down by the streams from the mountains.
The second kind of soil (characterising the basin of the River Fraser, but
not the country near its mouth) is lighter and more sandy. Being formed by
the disintegration and decomposition of rocks (a process that may be seen any
rainy day), it contains a great deal of lime (the mountains being frequently
limestone). To this fact, together with the strong sun, is probably to be
ascribed its fertility, notwithstanding its lightness. It is found to a depth
varying from 1 to 3 feet, and beneath it is a subsoil of gravel, sometimes
of clay.
The third description of soil is neither so good as the first nor so light
as the second; it rather resembles ordinary land in the mother country. Such
is, for instance, the soil around Williams Lake, on the Brigade Trail, &c.
New Westminster District.—General Remarks.
The " West Cascade Region," above mentioned, is, as also above said, very
similar to Vancouver Island in its climate and productions. Not much
farming land compared with area; country not explored—probably farming
land in valleys and flats (witness the Pemberton Meadows, Lake Lillooet).
The rivers which flow from Cascade Range into the great sea inlets are comparatively small, and often have rocky banks; alluvial deposits (with one
grand exception) are scanty in that portion of Cascade Region opposite to
Vancouver Island, but such deposits are said to be considerable farther
north, as at Skena and Nasse Rivers—the " grand exception" above
named, is the low land at and near the mouth of Fraser Biver, and for
some distance up it, and up tributaries of the lower portion of Fraser River
(see Map).
The Eraser River does not come from Cascade Range, but from Rocky
Range. It is the only river in British Columbia (except in the far north-west
of the province) which has strength to cross the dry country between Rocky
and Cascade Ranges, and get through the latter range to the sea. It is fed in
its course by streams running from every point of the compass—a noble river,
but, as already said, navigable only for considerable stretches, owing to rapids.
Yale is the head of steamboat navigation from the sea.   After bursting through
« ii
the mountain passes at Yale and Hope, the Fraser is a tranquil, steady, clay-
coloured stream for the latter part of its course.
The whole distance from Harrison Lake to the present mouth of the Fraser
was probably once an estuary. This former estuary has been gradually filled
up by sedimentary deposits from the river, a work still going on, protected
by Vancouver Island as a breakwater.    (See Map.)
This country on the lower portion of the Fraser is what I may call the
New Westminster District. It is in general a wooded district, but has large
tracts of open arable and grazing land, delicious atmosphere—no malaria or
ague—water-carriage, facilities for shipment. Snow begins in January and is
gone by March; not continuous; plenty of fish and game in the district;
will raise anything Vancouver Island will raise and more; three large sawmills, employing 600 people; a grist-mill; distillery; a beet-sugar manufactory; farmer's society, &c.
At the Provincial Agricultural Exhibition, 1872, the New Westminster
District competed strongly in all exhibits with the island district, and carried
away prizes for turnips, butter, melons, tomatoes, pumpkins; 2nd best
potatoes, cattle-cabbage, &c.
The * Mainland Guardian' (New Westminster Journal), said, on March,
1872:—" A minimum yield of from .30 to 40 bushels of wheat to the acre,,
" is the ordinary average yield in the districts of Kamloops, Okanagan, Nicola,
" Sumass, Chilliwhack, and the Lower Fraser. Between the town of New
" Westminster and the mouth of the river, a yield very much exceeding this
" is often obtained, not because of better and more suitable soil, but solely due
" to more careful cultivation ; 50 bushels of oats and an equal yield of barley
" per acre are commonly reached. Indian corn yields per acre 60 or 70 bushels.
" The yield of roots and green crops is generally encouraging, being unsurpassed
" by any in the world.
" On one farm the yield of potatoes was 7 tons, on another as high as 15
" tons per acre. Not a few specimens reached the enormous weight of 2? lbs.
" and even 3 lbs. Turnips give 25 tons to the acre. Onions from 4 to 6 tons ;,
" while carrots, cabbages, beets, cauliflowers, &c, grow to a size which may
" without exaggeration be described as enormous.
" Of fruits it may be enough to state, that the ordinary kinds (apples,.
" pears, plums, cherries, currants, gooseberries, strawberries, &c.) found in the
" eastern part of the Dominion and in England, grow luxuriantly and yield
" plentifully."
Capabilities of the New Westminster District.
The capabilities of this district, which contains nearly half a million acres,,
are not quite realised by the public. Men look at the large trees which
cover a great portion of it, and shrug their shoulders. It should, however,,
be remembered that the New Westminster district contains the only large-
mass of choice agricultural land anywhere on the mainland of the Pacific
slope lying actually upon the ocean, with a shipping port in its midst. A
navigable river cuts it through, which is sheltered at its mouth. The river
is full of salmon and other good fish, and the district abounds with game.
The climate, though somewhat humid, has neither the wetness of Western
Oregon, nor the withering dryness of some of the larger Californian valleys.
Similar land to that of the New Westminster district is found immediately
south of it, across the national boundary line, but, being formed by smaller
j^gg^j-^^ySd^jirfiffiffiiJ-^tf WEST   CASCADE REGION.
rivers, it does not lie in such a mass. The land is lower, and comprises
more tidelands cut up by sloughs.
I do not remember in Oregon or California any such land, so placed, as the
New Westminster district. Portions of the Willamette valley, in Oregon,
have as good soil, and the Willamette valley is far larger, but the nature of
the approach from the sea to Portland is a drawback. In California, the
transport from the interior to the shipping port adds considerably to the cost
of wheat. I should be sorry to see our British Columbian settlers " crazy
on wheat"—dairy or mixed farming will be best in the New Westminster
district—but it is clear that the New Westminster district farmers will be
less dependent on provincial markets for any wheat they may produce than
farmers in other parts of the mainland. Being upon the ocean, will give
them the world for a market, in case of need.
The drawbacks are not greater than have been overcome by settlers in
places that do not present such general attractions of fertile soil, situation,
climate, &c. A good part of the district is covered with very large timber;
other parts require draining and dyking; the mosquitoes are vigorous for a
few months.    But go where a settler will he has to balance conditions.
Freshets and Tidal Overflows.
The Fraser River and tributaries of it overflow a portion of the prairies in
this district for a short time in early summer, when the volume of water in the
rivers is increased by the drainage which follows the melting of snow throughout
the country. This rising of the water is called a " freshet." The whole Pacific
slope—California, Oregon, Washington territory, and British Columbia,—
owing to the physical structure of this part of the continent, is more or less
liable to severe floods over low lying districts near rivers.
The rivers generally rise quickly.
The sea also comes over a portion of the land near the mouth of the Fraser
—generally in stormy weather in. winter. This happens perhaps two or three
times in winter-, for a few hours at each time. These tidal overflows do not
interfere with cropping. The above mentioned "summer freshets" do not
overflow these " tidelands."
Parliament has lately passed an Act to facilitate dyking.
New Westminster District.—Special Description.
I will describe the New Westminster district, beginning at the mouth of
the river Fraser :—
We find there extensive, low, rich " tidelands or flats," free from timber,
with patches of willows, rosebushes, and, about the border of higher ground*
crabapples. A coarse grass, called " swamp hay," is plentiful There are a
good many salt-water sloughs, which add to the difficulty of dyking.
Farm after farm is being occupied in this section, and there is room for
settlers.    There are 29,000 acres of very good land in an island between the.
north and south arms of the Fraser.
On the north arm, a small settlement of about 20 farmers; 500 acres
cultivated;  samples of red and white wheat described as 5| feet high,
as tjl TWlTf Tl MM" TL.O ■_■>■!     II I   I
yielding 50 bushels to the acre; average of course less. Two potatoes
("Breely Prolific") yielded 67 lbs. Timothy hay, barley, oats, peas, &c,
good.    A few grasshoppers appeared in 1872.
Churches, schools, &c. Visiting clergyman lectured lately on the " Origin
of the English Language."
Left bank of " south arm]' land very fertile, easily cleared from brush, and
drained; dykes are being made; buildings erected. 47 men, 5 women, 15
white children, and 10 half-breeds.
Mud bay—oyster-beds, great resort of wild geese and ducks.
A district exactly like this mouth of Fraser district, indeed, part of it,
within the United States territory, near the mouth of the Lummi and back
from Semiahmoo, is filling up with population rapidly.
Ascending the Fraser, we in no long time come to forests on each side;
giant pines, cedars, maple, alders, cottonwood; real agricultural value of
the land cannot be seen. Luxuriant vegetation in the forest—berry-bushes
of all kinds, also ferns, ground-creepers, mosa—the sweet-scented white
flowers of the wild apple-tree shine among the green foliage in summer.
Scenery and products altogether on a grand scale. But let the settler take
heart: he is beside the sea here, no railway carriage to the seaboard; there
is much good land requiring little clearing, and plenty well worth the
clearing. There are in parts extensive flats covered with wild hay, also fine
prairies with fertile soil; excellent crops and dairy yield; thriving farms near
the town of New Westminster, and settlements also at Pitt River, Keatsey,
Langley, Matsqui, &c. For instance, at Pitt River 20,000 acres of good
arable land requiring no clearing—the part of it subject to freshets is good
now for grazing.
At Langley a newspaper correspondent (• Daily Standard,' Victoria, November, 1872)  describes farms with "several hundred acres  of alluvial soil,
black mould with clay bottom; at your feet several square miles of green
meadow land, the gleaming river beyond, and across it the dark Cascade
range; a stream full of trout meandering through the meadow." Another
farm of " 1000 acres, every] part cultivated, drained, and laid off into large
parks of 30 to 40 acres each: the steading in the form of a square; a
" fine mansion-house."    Another of "800 acres, 200 cultivated, fine black
soil, all fit for the plough, drained by a stream which skirts it." Again,
" 600-acre grass dairy farm; cows, Durham breed : farmer cures butter."
The next, " 300 acres, stock and crop  owned by the blacksmith.    Good
public school; neat Presbyterian church." The writer ascribes an extraordinary production per acre to these farms.
Higher up the river still (see Map), where the rivers Sumass and Chiluk-
weyuk (Chilliwhack) join the Fraser, are rising settlements. Prime beef,
choice butter and cheese, fine cereals; wide-spreading fertile prairies and
valleys here, only thinly peopled yet; 60 to 70 farms ; good dwellings, barns,
stables, churches, schools, shops, grist-mill; 600 acres wheat raised last year,
40 to 50 bushels an acre; 200 acres oats : also potatoes, peas, beans, hops, fruit,
and even tobacco; supply beef to Yale and Hope (Yale gets some beef also
from Nicola); extent of prairies great; much good land also on the Chilli-
whack above the valley that would do well when cleared. Drawback to
Sumass and Chilli whack at present, overflow in parts from river freshets; roads
muddy in bad weather.
jgjJgg^ggS^^jg^ig WEST  CASCADE  REGION*
I will sketch in the Appendix one year's history of these last-named young
S3ttlements by giving extracts from local newspapers, and thus will photograph
a settler's life in the New Westminster district before the mental eye of the
intending emigrant. The winter was the worst known in America for forty
years.   (See Appendix.)
The New Westminster district and Vancouver Island district, already
described, are the only two portions of the West Cascade region that are
"settled." It would appear that another part of this region is worthy
of attention, namely, the country in the neighbourhood of the Nasse and
Skena Rivers.
Nasse-Skena District.
Steam vessels from Nanaimo now ascend the River Skena. It is one of the
routes selected by miners in order to reach the district of Omineca (Peace
River). This river is acquiring importance, and will probably require some
lighthouses and buoys.
The River Nasse is a little further to the north than the Skena, and derives
a certain amount of importance from its giving access to a more northern region
than that nearer the Skena, and from there being reason to believe that
that region is also rich in gold mines. Both are valuable also for their
fisheries. They receive the waters from or near the Lake Alal, which is on
the high lands. The River Nasse is quite close to the frontier of Alaska,
which by no means detracts from its importance. The steamer ' Union'
ascended it in 1865 to a distance of more than 25 miles from its mouth.
The following account is taken from the " British Colonist,' Victoria, 17th
September, 1872:—
" Messrs. Steele and Shorts, who went to Omineca by the Nasse River ronte and returned by the
way of Fort St. James and Fraser River, are loud in their praise of the magnificent tracts of farming
land over which they passed in going and coming. On the Nasse for forty miles above its mouth*
large grassy fiats spread out like tables on either side. They were not dissimilar to the delta lands
of the Fraser, except that they will not require dyking to be brought under cultivation. From the
mouth to the Falls of Nasse River is forty miles. To this point, and above it again, the river may
be navigated by steamers of light draught. On either side of the river are immense tracts of prairie-
land ; but the finest tracts in the province lie between the Nasse and Skena. The distance between
the rivers is about a hundred and forty miles, and the country is a natural garden, covered with
wild timothy knee high (it was in June when the travellers crossed), well watered by small brooks,
and here and there belts of timber or Indian potato-patches. Thousands of acres adapted for stock-
raising or farming were seen. The virgin soil is like the rich black loam of the famous Sacramento
Valley, where sixty bushels of wheat used to be grown to an acre. The valley is from four to fifteen
miles wide, and so level that a buggy may be driven the entire distance—the Indians having there
maintained a good wide road for centuries. At several points the native suspension bridges across
gulches and rivers are among the most marvellous objects yet discovered in the country. One of
these bridges is four feet wide and a hundred and twenty-five feet long, and spans a ravine seventy
feet above a running stream. It bears the appearance of great antiquity, but is perfectly safe and
strong. At this bridge there is a wonderful spring of sweet soda-water, of which the party drank
with great relish. Its medicinal qualities, as mentioned by the Indians, are astonishing. In June,
Nasse!Biver was full of oolachans and salmon. The ' catch' was simply enormous, and as evidence
of the equable character of the climate and the capabilities of the country to support a large population, we may mention that the Indian tribes inhabiting this section are more numerous than in any
other section of the province, and that game is very plentiful. Between Fort St. James and Nation
River another magnificent country was crossed. At the Hudson Bay Company's stations acres of
wheat, oats, barley, beans, &c, were thriving in the open air, while the tables were graced with white
fish and Arctic trout and game."
Another writer says :—
" There is a nice little prairie between Babine and the Forks of Skena where a hundred settlers
could easily find room to locate.   The soil is black vegetable loam, with red top grass, and a stream
E 2
St" 411
runs through it. This creek is a branch of the Aquilgate (named after a tribe of Indians who dwell
in the neighbourhood, who are very peaceable and well-disposed to the whites). They are mostly
Roman Catholics. Babine is, from all accounts, the best fishing station in the country; the Indians
catch salmon and salmon-trout the whole year round. The timber in this section of the country
is mostly spruce and black pine."
Some years ago Majdr Downie made similar statements in his report of an
exploration of the Skena River and country. He says that, after passing the
coast range, the valleys present extensive tracts of good land well suited for
settlement. He took two days to traverse one of them, which he says is as
fine a farming country as one could wish to see. On a large tributary on the
north side, within this territory, the land is described as good and well adapted
for farming; and there the Indians grow plenty of potatoes. He describes
fine flats running back to the mountains, which recede four or five miles
from the river; speaks of the Skena country being in parts the best-looking
mineral country he had seen in British Columbia; alludes to gold which he
found there; mentions that the river Skena passes through an extensive coal
country, the seams cut through by the river varying from three to thirty-five
feet in thickness; superior to any that he had seen in Vancouver's Island
(where the mines at Nanaimo and elsewhere are already of value commercially), or in British Columbia; and in other reports he says salmon and other
fish are in inconceivable abundance.
Major Pope, chief Engineer of an American Telegraph Company, who surveyed this portion of British Columbia, stated in his Reports that open, grassy
plains, with trees interspersed as in a park, appeared near the Skena, particularly as its head-waters were approached.
Again, in the Victoria i Standard,' towards the end of 1872, a writer,
describing the passage from Victoria to Skena, said:—
" The entire voyage is very little different from river navigation, except in one or two places that
have to be crossed; to those who think that the portion of country extending up to Stekin River
is of little value, allow me to say such will soon be proved to be otherwise; that amidst the apparent
desolation will spring up towns, villages, hamlets, &c, which the unthinking traveller wiU smile
upon when you call his attention to such a possibility. Yet such will be amidst those mountain
fastnesses; many a rich mineral deposit lies hidden for the present, but will be discovered and
developed as man's requirements call for them Further, I am informed that north of the
Omineca country will be found land for farming purposes second to none in the province, so that in a
few years you will have a'district even of more importance to us here than in Cariboo."
It is possible that a practical farmer might find drawbacks to settlement in
this Nasse-Skena country which were not apparent to travellers passing
through it at a favourable season. A part of it may be like the beautiful
swampy interior of Newfoundland. The Indians might at present be troublesome. The moisture might interfere with harvesting. I must, however, add
that statements of the same kind as the above were made to me in California
last year by an American scientific gentleman who had spent a considerable time
in that portion of British Columbia, studying the character.and language of the
natives. He was well acquainted with the whole Pacific coast, and appeared to
think that not the least promising part of British Columbia was in the neighbourhood of the Nasse and Skena rivers—a gold-bearing territory with moderate
climate, good land, fine salmon rivers, valuable timber, also beds of coal, the
whole situated close to the continually open navigation of the Pacific Ocean.
The climate of the district near the coast resembles that of the New Westminster district, with considerably more moisture*
npsjJBmn aaai^&g^agas
Queen Charlotte Islands
Are visible on clear days from the mainland as a hazy outline. Three principal islands—Graham, Moresby, and Prevost; probably much like Vancouver
Island : western side more rugged than eastern side; southern islands lower
than northern ones; Moresby Island high in interior; long stretch of flat
land skirting whole eastern coast; islands densely wooded, chiefly "spruce"
and fine cypress; alders on the flats; undergrowth luxuriant, chiefly salal; no
deer nor wolves. Natives plant potatoes and turnips; climate mild and very
moist; little snow; 1st April no snow on lowlands ; during that month mosquitoes and humming-birds.
Indians tall and fair complexioned; both sexes good-looking; intelligent;
good artistic skill; courageous, but cruel and vindictive; are becoming more
used to strangers, but not to be trusted yet.
As regards the value of these islands, it is probable that so long as better
portions of British Columbia invite settlers, these islands will only attract
the attention of the hunter and miner. Gold has been found on them, and
anthracite coal, &c Hunters might find it profitable to kill sea-otters, which
are numerous on the western shores. The farming capabilities of the islands,
like those of Vancouver Island, will probably prove to be greater than is
now supposed. But at present it is believed that the fierce character of the
natives would render any attempts at permanent settlements, unless in strong
parties, dangerous.
Winter Care of Stock.—West Cascade Region.
See remarks on this subject for Vancouver Island, p. 44. These apply to
the whole West Cascade region of the province, as well as to Vancouver
5: wmm,
*ti noe
From a sketch by A. G. Dallas, Esq.
East Cascade Region.
I have described the West Cascade region of the province.
The emigrant, if he choose the West Cascade region, may either settle in
Vancouver. Island, or in the New Westminster district, or he may become a
pioneer in the more northern Nasse-Skena district.
The East Cascade region now demands attention.
This great region, lying between the Cascade Range and the Rocky Range
(see Map) is about 800 miles long from corner to corner. A straight line,
north and south, would give about 420 miles in length—the breadth varying
from 200 to 225 miles.
This region is not level, as might be inferred from the Emigration Map. In
fact, its surface is a series of continuous upheavals, among which (to speak
of the best known portion of the region), we may distinguish three generally
parallel ranges, or masses, of mountains lying between the valley of the lower
portion of the Fraser River and the Rocky Mountains. These ranges are—
first, the Cascade, immediately east of the Fraser (at this part 3000 to 4000
feet high, and 40 to 50 miles broad) ; secondly, the Gold Range, east of the
Columbia River (2000 to 5000 feet high); and thirdly, the Selkirk Range
(7000 to 9000 feet high), lying east from the Arrow Lakes and enclosed
within the " Big Bend" of the Columbia—so called because the river has to
make a great bend to get round the Selkirk Range.    (See Map.)
The Selkirk and Gold mountains may perhaps, broadly, be considered as
flanking ridges of the Rocky Range. The Gold Range presents generally, west
of the Lower Arrow Lake, a rolling hilly surface, and descends irregularly, and
rather rapidly, to a sea-level of about 1100 feet round Okanagan Lake; 1000
feet round Nicola Lake; 800 to 1100 feet at Kamloops Lake.
Going towards the north, the country tends again to become higher, and
the surface is marked by extensive tablelands of considerable altitude; for
instance, the Bridge Creek plateau, or " divide," between the Rivers Fraser
and North Thompson, is 3500 feet high.
If we cross the Fraser and advance in a north-westerly direction (see Map),
we enter the extensive region watered by the Chilcotin and its tributaries—
a region surfaced like the last-mentioned, and having much the same general
elevation, with of course considerable depressions.   The highest part of the
trail from the coast, crossing the plateau, north-west of Tatla Lake, is 4360
feet above the sea-level.
Retracing our steps across the Fraser, say to about the line of the Horsefly
district, and proceeding thence north and east (see Map), we find that the
country quickly rises into the irregular mass of mountains (2500 to 6300 feet
high) known is the Cariboo Mountains, and does not again lose its general
elevation in that direction, but is merged soon in the mass of the Rocky
The Fraser River has to make a great bend to get round the Cariboo
Mountains, just as the Columbia River (see above) has to bend to get round
the Selkirk Range.
I will not attempt to describe the immense area north and west from the
headwaters of the Chilcotin, further than to say that it is believed to be
somewhat less elevated than the highest Chilcotin plateau, abounding in large
and small lakes, surrounded by mountains, not however without prairies and
wide, park-like grassy plains (possibly somewhat swampy).
Rough Sketch of East Cascade Region.
The general features of its surface may be described in a few words—rugged
Alpine masses, wooded on their slopes and holding lakes, swamps, and moist
meadows in their embrace—arid mountain ranges and ridges crossing and
recrossing—rolling wooded hills and grassy hillocks—tablelands, generally of
high elevation, often of great extent, with and without forest—long terraced
river-channels or valleys—wide, open valleys—deep, narrow, wooded valleys—
short valleys (often called " prairies ")—a land also of lakes—innumerable narrow, elongated lakes of all sizes, from the bright pond to the lake 100 miles long,
often linked by streams—some lakes steepsided right round their margins, others
wall-edged with intervening swamps, but oftener with gently shelving rims
backed by open grassy hills. Bivers—smaller than the drainers of such mountain systems might be supposed to be (the light soil absorbs them)—generally
deep-grooved and rapid—threading the whole country, bursting through rocky
walls—seeking lake after lake—turning and twisting to find a way to the
ocean, but for the most part unable to do so, nearly all being finally swallowed
up by the Fraser and Columbia rivers. Climate, already described. Trees—An
immense area in the southern part of the East Cascade region, say from the
Horsefly district south to the American boundary, is generally unwooded.
There are wide expanses of open land without trees, or only with belts, clumps,
and dots of cone-bearing trees without underbrush—extending, however, into
forests as the Rocky Mountains or their flanking ridges are approached, and
again towards the northern and north-western portions of the region, say
beyond the line of the Horsefly district and Williams Lake. Remotely, in the
north-west, the country again becomes, in many parts, thinly wooded, and the
firs are rarer. In the neighbourhood of the Skena, the maples and Cottonwood
in many parts contrast cheeringly with the sombre hues of the conifers that
abound in the Valley of the Fraser.
To attempt to sum up the capabilities of this great region (itself but a portion of the province of British Columbia) would, in the present condition of
our knowledge of it, be an offence against common sense. We know a little
about parts of the region, and may offer a few remarks accordingly.
ft VI
Taking into consideration the healthfulness of the climate, with its short
winters and long, bright summers, the fertile soil, vast extent of grass pasture,
streams filled with fish, the abundance of minerals, and grand mountain and
valley scenery—adding to these considerations the quantity of vacant public
land open to settlement, and the comparatively small expense required to
form a settlement, I know of no region on the continent of North America
that holds out equal inducements to suitable settlers. It will be peopled by a
happy and prosperous community within a few years after the opening of
a railway through it, which shall supply cheap transportation for immigrants
and their supplies, and for mining machinery.
The main drawback to this fine country at present is the want of quick andi
cheap transportation. This drawback will be removed by the construction of
the Canadian pacific Railway.
Farmers have produced, by the aid of a simple process of irrigation, wheat,
barley, oats, Indian corn, timothy hay, potatoes, carrots, turnips, cabbages,
tomatoes, muskmelons, watermelons, grapevine, tobacco, broom corn, sweet
almond, castor-oil plant, peach, and almost all other fruits.
Fern is seldom seen in the East Cascade region. A few mosquitoes only are
found along .wooded watercourses.    In some parts, flies trouble the animals.
Irrigation is generally required for the production of grain in the East
Cascade region. It is used in all parts from which a market is accessible, and
sure and bountiful crops are obtained. The works consist generally of a dyke
which retains the waters of a lake, or of a river, in such a way as to form a
reservoir. In times of drought, once or twice during the summer this water is
allowed to run through a conduit or ditch, which discharges into another
ditch dug at the upper part of the fields which it is desired to irrigate. From
this latter ditch proceed a large number of trenches, dug at regular distances
along the fields, so that by allowing the water to remain for from 20 to 24
hours, the land between the trenches is moistened, and vegetation progresses as
rapidly as if a grateful shower had watered the fields.
Even as managed now, irrigation is cheaper than clearing land in Eastern
Canada. The cost of unsystematic irrigation, of course, will vary much in
different parts of British Columbia. One authority says that irrigation in
British Columbia costs 3 dollars (12s. English) an acre at present; but this-
appears to me either a high estimate, or it indicates want of skill, for irrigation,
(managed by individuals) costs only about 1 dollar (4s. English) per acre in
Colorado, which country is not so well suited for irrigation as British Columbiav
In India the cost was 2s. an acre many years ago, under a rude and cumbrous
system.    The cost is much less now.
The expense of irrigation is not an outlay like rent, or like the cost of
clearing. Irrigation is rather to be classed as we would class manuring. The
crops fully justify the outlay. The irrigating farmer has neither to clear nor
to drain. His land is generally free from weeds and insects, and does not
wear out. Another advantage is uniform quality of crop—the farmer being
independent of seasons. The ' Rocky Mountain News' (Colorado) lately
said—" Some weeks ago a shipment of flour from the Rough and Ready Mills
" of Denver was made to Boston, and so highly prized there that an order
" came back for fifty cart-loads.    Being always grown by irrigation, it is not
spr^^^**t;»" rliS3*lK£: EAST CASCADE REGION.
" surprising that it should be better than the wheat of California, which is
" not irrigated, and varies in quality with different seasons."
This matter of irrigation is second in importance to none. Individuals
already have done much in British Columbia; associated effort will do more,
and by-and-by the province, and perhaps the Dominion, will help. The depth
of the river channels is a difficulty in some parts, but this is better than
having rivers that are liable to be dried up. The country is stored with
water, and its conformation makes me think that local irrigation on some
considerable systematised scale will be possible—unlike California, where,
owing to the structure of the country, irrigation must be on a gigantic scale,
if undertaken at all.
A few words may be added to explain the general principle of irrigation to
emigrants who have not tried it in their own countries. It is an ascertained
fact that water contains impurities, some of which are good for vegetation.
When you spread water over the earth, much of this fertilising matter settles.
In open soils through which water passes, the impurities are arrested as the
water goes through. It is therefore an error to suppose that the soil can only
be advantageously watered when there is a clay subsoil.
The land in a dry region like the East Cascade region must be regarded as.
being stored with soluble fertilisers, which have not been washed away by
rains into running streams, but now remain, subject to local demands under
some good plan of irrigation. In watering, you must not lay on water too
strongly, or you will carry away more of this fertilising matter from the soil
than you deposit. A level may be used to find in what direction the water
will go with the slowest possible motion. Running water is better for irriga.-
tion than spring water, because it has absorbed ammonia from the atmosphere,
and spring water generally contains only mineral matter.
Though a large portion of the East Cascade region is arid and sterile, the
country generally is pre-eminently fitted for grazing. The grasses are
numerous and nutritious—bunch, sage, alkali, sower, redtop, sedge, with
peavine, &c, &c.
In the absence of carefullyrobtained statistics, it is believed there are in the
province about 25,000 head of horned cattle, 5000 to 6000 horses, 12,000 to
15,000 sheep, and about 10,000 pigs—three-fourths of the cattle, and perhaps
of the others also, being on the mainland. Farmers there have from 200 to
1000 cattle. Cattle multiply rapidly, and grow very large. Prices of course
depend on quality to a large extent, but a rough average would give 101.
(50 dollars) for a cow ; 201. (100 dollars) for a horse; 11. (5 dollars) for a pig ;
11. 8s. (7 dollars) for a sheep.
The bunch grass is a favourite grass. It grows over extensive areas—loves
warm, dry localities—never ceases to grow—heart always green, though
outside dried up—sugary taste perceptible—makes excellent beef—fattens
cattle more quickly than stall-feeding (if weather is good)—yearling steer has
been known to weigh 600 lbs. dressed—full-grown 1200 lbs. and more, fed
entirely on grass—six to eight weeks on bunch grass will make the leanest
beasts of burden quite fat—horses leave grain to eat bunch-grass hay—bunch
grass goes more to fat than milk, so is not best for dairy purposes.
Bunch grass is delicate—roots take slight hold of powdery soil—sheep crop
S4 mam
it too closely—lar£e flocks in a small area will kill the grass—horses and
mules cut the roots with their hoofs—cattle injure the grass least, as their
hoofs are cloven, and they do not bite closely. If bunch grass is destroyed,
wild sage and absinthe usually appear ; these are good cattle food, especially
for winter.    Sheep are very fond of black sage.
Here and there in this region are alkali spots, frequently alternating with
alluvial patches, on the banks of rivers. An alkali spot is not considered a
drawback to a cattle " run "—helps to fatten cattle—stranger cattle sometimes
lick too much—swell and sicken to death—antidote is oil or fat—alkali spots
should be avoided on dairy farms—alkali makes cows lose milk. Alkali is not
found, however, to hinder the growth of cereals. When mellowed by cultivation, alkali land in British Columbia produces very fine beets. In Eastern
Oregon, and in Idaho, alkali lands, mostly covered with sage brush, have
proved well adapted to raising grain.
A Word to the intending Cattle Farmer.
In districts grazed by large bands of cattle it is well to have summer and
winter ranges. The grass thus gets time to recover. The lower lands, such
as terraces of valleys, make good winter ranges—wind blows snow away and
leaves knolls, flats, and even great portions of the surface quite bare. Mountain
ranges are cool in summer, and the cattle get some change of food by going to
them, as altitude appears to change the quality of the grass. About 10 acres
per head will feed a band of cattle throughout the year.
It is not uncommon for men to buy cattle with their wages, and let them
run with their employers' herds. These cattle may be exempted from seizure
for debt in certain cases, when the agreement to " farm " them is registered.
A man may begin cattle-farming with a band of 25 or 30, a yoke of draught
oxen, neck-yoke, logging-chain, horse, saddle, axe, grindstone, and, of course,
a supply of " grub."
A beginning on a considerable scale might be made with the following
50 cows (with calves) at 40 dollars     2000
30 heifers, at 30 dollars            ..      900
20 yearlings, at 20 dollars       400
lbull         75
Outgoings per annum would be (say)—   "i
|§i Labour, 3 men, 2 at 25 dollars I = i00 dollars a month 1200    ''      '      ;
j?          >»     1 ii 50      „      j
Food for men  350
Rent of leased land         250
Material, &c      .. 300
Total 5475 = (£1095)
The increase of stock would begin at once, and be very rapid.
It would be well to have also pigs, as they forage largely for themselves*
and pork is in demand in a mining community. Interest of money is not
shown in the above. The owner's own labour should be thrown in to reduce
the labour bill, and all money outgoings strictly watched.   The farm should
riffitiBfclfc-. -frfr lagftP J£ EAST CASCADE REGION.
be as suitably placed as possible for markets. Its suitableness is increased
when it has good natural boundaries; also when wild hay grows on or near it,
and when it has good outdoor shelter—springs that do not freeze up—dry
sleeping grounds, few slippery spots or water sloughs where cattle may injure
themselves or be drowned.
The cattle, if possible, should be those accustomed to the district or climate.
Get an Indian to watch them, but help him yourself at first, particularly when
other bands of cattle are passing the "run," or your young ones will stray—
cattle take time to know one another and their " run."
Having secured his " run" and his stock, the " stock-raiser," as the cattle
farmer is called, then chops trees and prepares the framework for his
steading—hauls them to the place—fixes a day for neighbours to help to put
up the framework—at his leisure, afterwards covers in the roof—makes windows—daubs gaps—next he has his " corral," or cattle-fold to make—think
well about this—much depends on a good, well-placed " corral."
A word on winter food here also. It is common to say that no winter food
for stock is necessary in the East Cascade Region. This is true to the following extent. Generally speaking, if the grass has been spared during
summer, there is enough for winter food, and the cattle can find it on the
ground.   A good stock-raiser, with a suitable
-brush shelter in-
parts—may not have to feed his whole band once in ten years. But bad
winters occasionally come—1862 was veiy bad, and so was 1872—and, therefore, it is said by experienced men, that a moderate supply, say 1£ ton a
head, that is, enough for six weeks' winter—should be provided and allowed
to accumulate. Cattle may hurt themselves, or get sick. The stock-raiser
should have the balance of chances in his favour. A good deal depends on the
cattle. They will need little looking after, in summer or winter, if they are
used to the climate and know the " run," the trails, springs, dry sleeping
places, &c*
Bunch grass as it grows, is made by the hot sun and dry atmosphere into
the best standing hay; when irrigated it will yield alternate years 2 or 3 tons
per acre of very fine hay; alkali-grass cut in season makes good hay; sower-
grass, when newly grown after a fire, is prized by cattle; fire will improve
the aftergrowth of even sedge-grass; pea-vine and red-top grass much liked—
grow on moist, good soil, on high land generally (in West Cascade Region
pea-vine seeks low land); pea-vine must be cut for hay early, or will go to
powder; in case of extreme need reindeer-moss, willow-sprigs, cotton-wood,
and even pine-tops will take cattle through a bad winter. The varied
resources of such a country as British Columbia come out well by comparison.
The winter of 1671-2 was the worst in America for forty years. The cattle
in British Columbia came out in good condition in spring, though the farmers
had not provided winter food as they might have done. In some of the
Western States of the Union, the bodies of starved buffaloes and cattle lay
along the railways in great numbers.
Newspaper Accounts.
A correspondent of the ' Standard,' a Victoria newspaper, writes of the
southern portion of the East Cascade Region as follows:—ft Having travelled
* Memorandum by W. H. Kay, Esq.
I ffi
twice through a large portion of the farming districts of British Columbia, I
am very strongly impressed with the great advantages the country offers to
any young man who may take unto himself a better half, and settle down in
any of those lovely green valleys, and there grow his own pork and beans,
with none to make him afraid while watching his chuckle-headed calves
and big spotted steers bouncing over the hills. It is a fact that all the
country which I am about to mention is covered with abundance of bunch-
grass, pea-vine, and rye-grass, from 2 to 6 feet high. It is a pity that people
who are looking for peaceful and prosperous homes, such as our Government
can offer, do not knowo more about the country. Upon each side of the North
and South Thompson Rivers, for miles above Kamloops Lake—45 miles from
the trunk waggon-road—there are thousands of acres of good prairie-land,
with plenty of timber for building and fencing purposes. Here all kinds of
grain and vegetables can be raised simply by going to a little trouble in
irrigating. This can be done by raising water from the river with a windmill attached to the top of a lofty fir tree. There is quite strong enough
wind every day in the year for the purpose. Here passes a good waggon-
road leading from the trunk-road to what is known as the immense
Okanagan country. My pen fails me to do justice to it as a farming and
stock-raising country—plenty of fish in the lakes and rivers."
Another gentleman writing in 1872 to the ' British Colonist ' (Victoria
newspaper), after travelling by the coach from Cache Creek to Okanagan,
says, " The country is for the most part open, dotted with trees, giving it
almost the appearance of an old country park. It is so free from wood as to
enable the horseman to canter at will in almost every direction, and in some
instances no obstructions are presented to the free progress of a carriage*
The face of the country is beautiful—relieved by ever changing succession
of hill and dale. The water system is excellent, the surface of the country
being indented by numerous lakes and rivers or smaller streams, everywhere
teeming with fish of excellent quality. A mild climate will have already
been inferred. It may be added that snow seldom falls to any depth, and
never lies long. Horses, horned-cattle, and sheep pass the winter unhoused
and uncared for, and, as a rule, come out in good condition in the spring. On
most of the grass ranges cattle shifting for themselves through winter are in
prime condition for beef in the spring. In the country thus roughly and very
imperfectly sketched, there are a few hundred settlers—we really do not
know how many. In the valleys of the Thompson, Okanagan, and Cache
Creek, there are about one hundred children. There is the making of
happy homes for tens of thousands. In truth no more desirable country
can be found, and it is not unreasonable to hope that the opening of a coach-
road leading through the heart of it, and the facilities for travel presented
by a weekly line of stages, may lead persons in search.of homes to go and
see for themselves."
Healthiness for Cattle.
The healthiness of British Columbia has already been stated to be a great
characteristic. I said at page 13, that the climate was good for " beast" as
well as " man." I was not using rhetoric in so speaking, but had in mind
the immense advantage of healthy herds to the province, and to the North
American Continent.    Glance over the world.    Europe is alarmed at the EAST  CASCADE REGION.
spread of virulent epizootics. The Steppes of Russia are the seat of the rinderpest. Cattle bred there, and fattened in Hungary and elsewhere, are widely
distributed over Europe. They reach London by rail and steam-boat. In
addition to the terrible rinderpest, the English farmer also has the " foot-
and-mouth disease " to contend with.
In the United States, the " Spanish Fever " or " Texas Cattle Disease " has
been long known and dreaded by owners of herds in Missouri and Kansas, and
to some extent in Kentucky, Tennessee and Virginia. It became unusually
serious in the track of Texas cattle beyond the Mississippi in 1867 and 1868.
It broke out in Illinois in June, 1868. For a long time the Eastern States
of the Union thought little of it, but when a new channel for the Texas cattle
trade was opened, and the river steam-boats landed their living freight in the
heart of the West, the ravages of the strange disease extended rapidly, carrying
infection along the pathway of transportation to the seaboard, filling the public
mind with alarm for the safety of farm stock, and even exciting apprehensions
that the public health might become involved in the future progress of the
I here again call attention to what I believe is a fact, namely, that British
Columbia is probably the healthiest country in the world—for man, for beast,
for tree.
Arable Farming in the East Cascade Region.
As might be expected in a mountainous country, the quantity of obviously
attractive arable land is small, when compared with the whole area of the
region. This is saving what might be said of Scotland, and other moun-
tainous yet populous countries. The arable land in British Columbia is
immense, compared with the present farming population. It is to be found
principally in valleys of greater or less breadth bounded by hills. These
valleys are so numerous that the total quantity of arable land mounts up to
not a few acres. Every year shows us more land fit for tillage, and wherever
the soil has been cultivated, it has been found highly productive. I have
already said that irrigation is generally necessary in the East Cascade Region
(see p. 56). Very good, some say the best, grass, and also in several places,
excellent soil are on the high lands and even mountain tops. In these places
you descend from crops and pastures among the clouds, to sterile-looking hills
and benches.
Causes not yet quite understood seem to check here, in some degree, the ordinary effect of altitude upon farming. A good deal probably depends on
aspect. The moist Pacific Ocean winds blowing inland above the surface
winds may modify greatly the climate of the highlands. At all events the
fact is, that any visitor to the province may see fine grass and good grain
growing (of course with some risk) on Pavilion Mountain 4000 feet above the
sea-level; excellent grain growing and harvested, also cabbages, carrots, turnips,
and potatoes, elsewhere at 2700 feet; vegetables of all kinds and grain exuberantly at 2000 feet. Jack Frost, it is true, comes occasionally, and his vagaries
are noticeable, for instance potatoes have been cut off at 1200 feet, in one
part sooner than at 2400 feet in a not distant part of the same district. The
Chilcotin Plain or Plateau, averaging, it is said, 2000 to 2500 feet high, has
been free from frost, when valleys in the West Cascade Region, very much
lower, have had everything cut off.   Another peculiarity is that low bottoms,
M   So? s
,1 KgBSS ^m^^m
in some places, are subject to night frosts, when the slopes that border them
will be found to be free.
The farmer must leave behind him preconceived notions, and go to school
again in some matters, with Dame Nature for his teacher. It is not an easy
matter to select a farm.where there are great differences of altitude within a
few miles. We are, however, slowly learning more and more about the
country.    It improves the more we know of it.
The greater part of the southern portion of the East Cascade Region (say
the portion between the Fraser and Columbia Rivers, and bounded on the
north by the Horsefly District, and on the south by the American Boundary
Line), is highly favoured, and has been proved by practical farmers to be in
many places good under irrigation, for tillage, and in most places unequalled
for grazing.
This region comprises the fine " Thompson country," so often referred to
in the evidence before the English House of Commons Committee in 1857,
upon the Hudson's Bay Company's affairs.
The comparative absence of trees, and greater dryness of the atmosphere, strike
the traveller at once, who, from the West Cascade Region, enters this portion of
the East Cascade Region. In the best parts of the latter, there are rolling hills
.and-table-lands, sometimes stretching out for a great distance, diversified
by green hillocks clothed above a certain height with trees, showing where
moisture, descending as rain or snow, has been caught from the west winds.
The whole tract is well watered, in the intervals between the hills by streamlets ; in the level depressions by small lakes; while the groves and scattered
trees afford a grateful shade by day, and a shelter by night.
Experience of Practical Farmers in East Cascade Region.
I will mention now, in a rough diary fashion, the portions of this region
that have been tested by practical farmers (see Map).
Leaving the already described settlements of Sumass and Chilliwhack (see
p. 50), the immigrant may go to Hope, and thence start eastward. Nico-
lume valley thickly timbered; SumaUow valley, superior land. On the Skagit.
the lands are described as beautiful and fertile, though shut in; mountains
capped with snow; the narrow valleys covered with the " finest bunch-grass
that man ever saw;" good bottom-land along the Skagit, and along the little
winding streams flowing into it, " fringed with verdure." Before reaching
Princeton (1650 feet above searlevel) country becomes more open; bunch-
grass ; firs at intervals ; light soil; good pasture; little arable land; a pastoral
and mining district; hot in summer; sharp cold in winter; little snow on
the general surface, but occasionally deep on the mountains between Princeton
and Hope; periodically a severe winter; 1872 was one..
The entire country for 160 miles along the trail from Princeton, past
Osoyoos, Rock Creek, and to the great prairie at the bend of Kettle River, is
almost free from timber, and abounds in food for cattle; game abundant;
delightful " camping out" weather, generally, almost up to November; gold
indications everywhere. A trail somewhat over forty miles in length, branches
off two miles below Princeton to the Okanagan Lake. There are many spots
between the Similkameen Valley and. Okanagan, specially favourable  for EAST CASCADE REGION.
farming.   On some of these the snow never lies, however much may be
Similkameen Valley.
This valley extends fifty-five miles from Princeton to the frontier (see
Map). Mountains bordering the river are granite, greenstone, and quartz,
capped with blue and brown clay slate; clay of slaty texture stained with
iron; small quantities of blue clay; bed of river filled with boulders of granite,
greenstone, and trap of all sizes; fordable except during freshets, and then it
rises very rapidly; grass very good; timber scarce; sharp bends of river
generally well wooded; underbrush of willow and wild cherry ; near base of
mountains sufficient timber for settlers; soil somewhat sandy and light; free
from stones, and generally excellent for either grazing or farming; dry in
summer ; irrigation necessary; many large portions already well watered by
streams from the mountains, with fall sufficient to facilitate any further irrigation found necessary; grass most luxuriant, also, on the little tributary streams.
Valley very picturesque. " Similkameen beef " is talked of as Englishmen talk
of " Southdown mutton." A settler introduced a Durham bull in 1872, which
cost him 1000 dollars (2001. English): another wrote lately, " We have a
" good mining and good farming district and one of the best stock-ranges on
" the Pacific coast: numbers of cattle, horses, sheep, and pigs. The Indians
" go into farming; quite quiet; keep cats."
It is unfortunate that this fine Similkameen district has not an easier
western outlet in the direction of the New Westminster district.
Osoyoos Lake.
Close to the boundary line—connected with Okanagan L^ake by a chain of
lakes and rivers. Open land between Osoyoos and Boundary Creek (see Map).
Famous Rock Creek diggings were in this neighbourhood, and no doubt all this
country will be again worked by miners. Good cattle-grazing country; last
Reports before me dated autumn, 1872; grain and all kinds of vegetation
looking splendid, and cattle in fine condition. One settler had 200 fat steers
to sell. A hurricane on the lake; broke a bridge; dismantled haystacks.
Mosquitoes troublesome. Trade with Indians good; they seemed to have
plenty of money.
With the exception of a few miles, the entire road from Rock Creek to the
great prairie at the head of Kettle River is, as already said, through a fine
rolling prairie country, thinly wooded, and abounding in bunch grass. Gold
and Selkirk ranges then intervene. Fort Shepherd is a wild barren spot—
rough trail thence over the " divide" between Columbia and Kootenay rivers
to the Kootenay Valley (south from Kootenay Lake); river broad and sluggish;
portion of valley quite level; rich alluvial soil as on Pitt River (New Westminster district); overflowed probably; swamp grass; rich vegetation ; going
still east up the Mooyie River to the lake, there is thick timber—Purcell range
interVenes—beyond this range country opens out; thirty or forty miles farther,
the traveller reaches the Kootenay again; grand scenery approaching the Rocky
In the arid south-east angle of the province among the flanking ridges of the
Rocky range; a well-known and promising mining region (see " Mines ").
Farming land—principally on alluvial bottoms—lies along Kootenay River
and the head waters of the Columbia, say for about 200 miles long and 5 miles
wide ; good grass; timber and water privileges; heat and cold rather extreme
(for British Columbia)—November 14th, 1872, six inches snow on the ground;
facilities for irrigation favourable ; capabilities of the soil are becoming known
after trial.
Wild Horse Creek-^-fine dairy farm—-good stock, grain, and vegetables.
Joseph's Prairie—the same—Columbia lakes the same. At the Columbia, a
fine farm of 5000 acres, rented for grazing; believed to be good arable—along
the streams flowing by the side of mountains crowned,with perpetual
snow in this district, almost all kinds of vegetables can be grown; quality
excellent, particularly the potatoes. Every Chinaman has a vegetable patch.
What is produced finds ready sale in the mining camps. Cattle at present
in this district: 1200 head of stock and beef; 155 cows; 5 bullocks used
every week; resident white men, 85; Chinamen, 200 (own 25 cows);
Indians, 300 (own 30 cows) ; people generally orderly and contented; hopeful
as regards their future ; a number of persons taking up land for settlement;
a water-power sawmill in course of construction. The Kootenay, Osoyoos, and
Similkameen settlers sent lately 23£ dollars to the Royal Columbia Hospital at
New Westminster.
Much trade done at present between Kootenay and the American town of
Walla Walla (408 miles from Wild Horse Creek). Wages in Kootenay in
autumn of 1872 were 3 to 5 dollars (12s. to 20s. English) per day : prices as
follows:—Flour, 14 cents (Id. English) per lb.: beef, 15 to 20 cents (7?d.
to lOd. English) per lb.; sugar, 33 to 40 cents (Is. 4tid. to Is. 8c?. English) ;
tea, lh dollar (6s. English) per lb.; bacon and hams, 40 to 50 cents (Is. 8d. to
2s. English) per lb.; potatoes, cabbages, and turnips, 4 to 6 cents (2d. to 3d.
English) per lb.; beans, 33 cents (Is. 4icZ. English) per lb.
The Roman Catholic Bishop of Oregon considers that the country about
the sources of the Columbia River is of great prospective importance. It
is divided into forest and prairie in proportions favourable for settlement;
mining resources undoubted; birch, pine," cedar and cypress " prevail; climate
delightful; snow goes generally as it falls; a most desirable country, needing people only and road communications. Stock-owners now drive cattle to
winter in neighbourhood of Columbia River lakes—will by-and-by be reached
from the north, probably more easily than by the road from Hope which I
have described.
Many prefer the climate of this section to the climate even at Victoria,
Vancouver Island.
A Question put here to the Reader.
Before going further, I ask the reader whether this is a country to repel a
settler from, looking merely to the strip of the province already described,
namely, Vancouver Island, New Westminster District, and the country south
of a line from Hope to the. Eastern Boundary Line ? EAST CASCADE REGION.
The weird, uncommon, gigantic features of the country, the grand scale on
which its scenery and natural products are presented to the eye, make men
at first feel dwarfed, discouraged; but there are great sources of national
wealth in a territory with such a situation, with such harbours, climate,
soil, and minerals.   Much has to be overcome, but the future is certain.
Okanagan Country.
Very fine stock country, and will also produce grain; yields fall-wheat
only without irrigation ; spring wheat l£-to li tons per acre, with irrigation;
also profusely oats, barley, Indian corn, potatoes, tomatoes, musk-melons,
water-melons, grapevine, tobacco. Summer warm, has shown 98° in the
shade; cold is sharp in winter, but weather clear and sunny, snow seldom
deep, and never lies long; cattle, horses, and sheep, as a rule, unhoused in
winter; moderate preparation, however, recommended.
The lake, 70 miles long by 1\ mile wide: country to the east of it a
fair sample of the best districts between Rocky and Cascade Ranges; open,
grassy hills, dotted with trees like English parks, successive hills and dales;
lakes, ponds, and streams full of fish; soil much the same general character
as the Similkameen; rich sandy loam, substratum of clay in some valleys;
stretches of " bottom " land; some alkali patches; settlers coming in fast
and taking up land since Canadian Pacific Railway survey began. Those who
would have " sold out" a year ago are now tilling and improving their land.
It is said that in Okanagan and adjoining districts, there is room for a farming
population of 10,000 souls (allowing 160 acres for nine persons). Roman
Catholic mission-post (1100 feet above sea-level) on the east side of the lake;
fine country behind it. On the west side of the lake, a little distance back,
runs a low mountain range, from which detached spurs press upon the lake,
and rise above the water in precipitous bluffs; excellent pasture, particularly
on small spits jutting into the lake. The Cherry Creek Silver Mine has been
abandoned for the present.
Near the north end of the lake is an Indian reserve of very choice land.
Kamloops-Shuswap District.
Let us enter the district from the east. Columbia River is 44 miles from
Shuswap Lake, vi& Eagle Pass. Three Valley Lake (altitude 1912 feet) is
about 34 miles from Shuswap Lake. Directly south from Three Valley Lake
is a long, wide, grassy valley, which leads across a low " divide " to the headwaters of the Shuswap or Spillemeechene River. This is a gentle river flowing
through a large valley, much of which has clay subsoil; fine fall-wheat
without irrigation ; very good and heavy crops here; only about half-a-dozen
energetic settlers; large farm-buildings; well fenced fields; Indians at work
on farms; fine bunch-grass on the high land, round which the river makes a
southern bend.
A farmer on the Shuswap Prairie thrashed out 80 tons of wheat in 1872 ; two
other farmers 40 tons each. Prices here of very superior extra flour, 12 dollars
(48s. English) per barrel of 196 lbs.; choice bacon, 25 cents (Is. 0%d. English)
' per lb.; juicy beef 10 cents (5d. English) per lb.
Leaving the Shuswap or Spillemeechene River at a point, say beyond
where Cherry Creek joins it, there is between that point and the head of the
Okanagan Lake a district of open prairie and sparsely timbered land,
abounding in rich pasturage and dotted with a few farming settlements.
From the head of Okanagan Lake to the Thompson River (south branch)
is about 45 miles north-west. Leaving the open, rolling, bunch-grass valleys
of Okanagan, vou first ascend for about 20 miles through timber land; reach
Grand Prairie—fine soil, luxuriant bunch-grass, dotted with cattle; the prairie
16 miles by 2 miles, bounded by hills; a river between; elevation (1450 feet)
causes some danger from night frost. Grand Prairie to Thompson River—
glittering stream through valley, bordered by alders and willows, green meadows, clumps of trees, small lakes; good soil ready for cultivation.
From the nearest point at which you strike the South Thompson River
down to its meeting (forks) with its north branch is 16 miles of open grass
country. At the junction stands Kamloops, a few miles from the head of
Kamloops Lake—25 miles long—(see Map); rolling prairie land, with fine
grass, and also some fertile valleys on southern bank of lake.
There is an open, or lightly timbered bunch-grass country along the banks
of the North Thompson River, and north of Kamloops Lake, for 130 miles.
Several English gentlemen from the American side have taken a prairie of
2000 acres on the North Thompson, a short distance from Kamloops, and are
making a long ditch for irrigation.
In 1871 the yield of grain on the Tranquille and north and south branches
of the Thompson River was a million and a quarter pounds.
The whole Kamloops-Shuswap district is a district of table-land, with
considerable depressions—abundant pasture, generally free from forests, and
only interspersed with timber; summer climate dry, great heat; winter frequently very cold for a day or two, but on the whole not very sharp ^ snow
generally lies a short time only; cattle are driven here to winter in severe
seasons; Hudson's Bay Company used to "winter out" 500 horses here,
including brood mares and voung horses. This district will doubtless be-
come known again as a mineral distiict. The first gold found in quantity by
the natives was found in this district, and fair wages are still made on the
Thompson River. The Thompson, near its mouth, is too full, rapid, and
rocky for mining.
Kamloops itself is likely to be a distributing centre for the fine country
around it, even if the Canadian Pacific Railway does not come to help the
infant city ; schools, visiting clergymen, three fine stores already, three hotels,
two blacksmiths' shops, &c. Hudson's Bay Company building a store (60 by
40 feet), and going to keep more goods than hitherto ; sawmill 20 miles up
the north branch of the Thompson ; good grist-mill, generally busy, on the
Tranquille (flows from north into Kamloops Lake); the Tranquille Mill grinds
a good deal for the North and South Thompson districts, and also portion of
the Okanagan country. In 1872 wheat was sold for 2 to 2£ cents per lb. (Id.
to l^d. English), delivered to merchants at Kamloops or to the Tranquille
Mill. The higher price was towards the end of the year, and arose partly
from the requirements of the Canadian Railway survey.
Nicola Country.
Directly south from Kamloops, 30 miles, is Nicola Lake (see Map).
The road at present from Kamloops is a sort of natural trail over gently undu- lating but high open country, with fine grass. First few miles no herbage;
many ravines. At the first height turn and survey the magnificent scenery
•of the Thompson River valleys; will give some idea of the grazing resources
of the province. Can bring a waggon with light load across from Kamloops
to Nicola Lake, if you take a guide, an axe, and a spade.
Nicola Lake is reached also from Lytton, which is on the trunk waggon-
road (see Map).   The post comes in from Lytton.
The road in this direction will doubtless be improved. At present, going
from Lytton to Nicola Lake, you first skirt and look down on Thompson
Eleven miles on, at a break in valley, is a waterfall; diverge; steep mountain-
trail 12 miles; strike Nicola River, whence 40 miles to the lake. First part of
river unattractive; wild sage bushes; hot sand in summer; rattlesnakes ^ome
say). River winds through masses of alder and willow; by-and-by plains
dotted with pines; fine land; a few settlers. Rich sheltered bottoms, where
the peach, castor-oil plant, sweet almond, will grow, and fine meadow-grass,
•grain, and root-crops; grassy hills, good for cows. Provincial Exhibition
prize for cheese came to this district. Irrigate from river water; land
in valley heavy black loam; no stones nor gravel near surface; " red pine "
•on the mountains.   Coal, it is said, has been found in the Nicola district.
Nicola Lake, thus reached either from Lytton or Kamloops, is in a fine
district; climate dry and warm in summer; warm rains April and May, and
again August and September. Have to irrigate; can grow finest wheat, oats,
barley, broom corn, and vegetables—one experienced settler says better pro-
■duce than in " Vancouver Island or Oregon;" tobacco, tomatoes, and melons
mature well. Winters mild; two months cold clear weather, with snow.
South winds melt snow and leave ground bare for weeks. Thirty-six settlers—
seven ladies—two wives coming from Scotland. Round the lake open prairie;
bunch grass. Year-old steer of 600 lbs. (dressed). Seldom have to feed cattle on
hay. On 2nd March, 1872, after a bad winter, cattle fat; grass green on hillsides, spring birds and wild ducks back to their haunts. Good land round the
lake occupied, but room in the neighbourhood. Milk cows scarce; a few gentle
£ows for sale at 65 to 75 dollars (13Z. to 15/. English); plenty of cattle, but
young breeding stock dear. Beautiful sheep-farm a mile from lake; level
•plain, river on one side; sloping heights to the north, running parallel to the
river.   About 2000 sheep; do well.
A correspondent, " Observer," in the ' British Colonist,' Victoria, of 28th November, 1871, says:—" I predict a prosperous future to all who obtain a footing
in this most delightful valley It is a fact that all kinds of animals will
" not only thrive by what they can procure for themselves, but will keep fat,
** so great is the quantity of vegetation and so moderate the climate."
East side of Nicola Lake, up river 10 miles, fine valley; home for fifty
families, at least. Open prairie along the river; very good land, easily irrigated; timber scarce, except close to river; "pine" on mountains seven or
-eight miles back.   As far the eye can see, a beautiful prairie of grass.
Hope, Yale, and Lytton.
Hope, 95 miles from mouth of Fraser River, was formerly an active little
place, but the gold-bearing Similkameen country, to the east, having been
F 2 \ S^iS^^I 12^
neglected, owing to the greater attractions of Cariboo, Hope has not thriven ias^
was expected, though it again shows signs of life. The silver mines (which
are likely to be worked near Hope) will tend to increase its importance,,
which, prospectively, must always be considerable, as Hope is the natural
outlet to the Fraser River from the fine farming and mining country of the-
Yale, the head of navigation on Fraser River, 110 miles from its mouth, is a*
most picturesque and thriving little town, situated in a narrow gorge of striking
grandeur. Large quantities of goods and not a few passengers pass through it
daily, in the summer, to the upper country. The Fraser River " bars," near
this town, yielded a large quantity of gold in 1858, and have since been reworked to advantage.
Forty-three miles above Yale the aspect of the country completely changes.
The underbrush and cedars are left behind; there is much less moss upon the
trees; shrubs begin to appear which belong to a drier climate. Here also begk*
the peculiar " benches" or terraces which mark the course of the Fraser River
and its tributaries (see page 10). On one of these flats, 200 feet above the-
stream, is the town of Lytton, named after Lord Lytton. Lytton is situated
at the junction of the Thompson with the Fraser, 43 miles below Lillooet and
57 miles above Yale. It is a pretty town, already something more than a?
wayside town. The population is increasing, owing to mines and farms in its-
neighbourhood. The wheat ground at the Lytton mill makes very fine flour-
There is a good market for all produce. In the upper part of the town there
are a school, two butcher-shops, two hotels, two livery-stables, three shops
two bakers, a sawmill, blacksmith, and shoemaker. In the lower part of the
towm, which is chiefly inhabited by Chinese, there are four bakers, five shops r
four restaurants.
Lillooet-Clinton District.
Including Cache Greek, Bonapakte, also Williams Lake, and up to
Quesnel Mouth.
The whole district is a very fine one, and at present shows what can be done
by applying capital to the soil. It is farther to the north and generally more?
elevated than some sections already described. The risk to crops from summer
night frosts may be said to be very considerable in the entire country on the
waggon-road north of Pavilion Mountain, unless farms have a south aspect or
are protected from north blasts. The remark applies, of course, more particularly to farms further north than Alexandria. .
It is safe to have some winter provision for stock in much of the country
through which the trunk-waggon road from Yale runs. The effect, however, of
the above danger is merely to add somewhat to the amount of capital required
in agriculture.   Farming in this district is the direct child of the Cariboo
O C7
mining region, and farmers with a market at their doors (which for some-
articles the waggon-road gives them), can afford risks that are not excessive.
That the risks under the circumstances are not considered excessive is proved
by the extension of farming every year in the district by men of capital. The
extent to which this will take place will depend on the continued success of
the Cariboo mines, or other mines that can be conveniently supplied from this
The surface in so large a section of country is, of course, varied. It embraces
within its area fertile river-benches (terraces), table-lands, large open valleys,
immense plains, and green rolling hills.
The country near the Thompson, Bonaparte, and Hat rivers is very attractive to the eye; miles of green hills, crowning slopes, and level meadows;
hardly a bush or tree; fine grass almost to the hill-tops. The climate very
healthful and enjoyable; rather a want of timber in parts, also of rain generally, but there are many streams.
For grazing, the country cannot be surpassed, and its agricultural capabilities, so far as the soil is concerned, are in many parts very good. At Cache
Creek and on the Bonaparte there is excellent arable land. The country
through which the waggon-road passes to Williams Lake has some very good
soil, with no more timber than is needed for farming purposes. The fanning
land is bounded by low hills, beyond which there are prairies and valleys.
These hills are undulating and brightly green, and their grassy carpet is daisied
over with countless wild flowers.
The road occasionally crosses some fresh mountain-stream, whose cool clear
waters invite the traveller to drink; now it winds by the bank of a lovely lake,
in whose glassy depths the trees and shrubs along the margin seem to contemplate their own symmetry and face. The summer frosts, however, as
above said, are rather against crop-farming in this section, except on farms
favourably situated; but the frosts do not come regularly, nor with equal
. The great trunk-waggon road of the province goes through the district, and
the farmers produce food for horses and mules largely, in addition to the flour,
bacon, &c, required for the mining towns in Cariboo. The visitor here sees
irrigation-flumes (water-courses) of great length, gang-ploughs, and threshing-
machines ; also several saw-mills, bacon and ham factories, and three flour-
mills, which latter cost 60,000 dollars (12,000?. English). The farmers themselves, to start one flour-mill, subscribed 8000 dollars (1600Z. English). IThere
is a Farmers' Society at Clinton—the Northern British Columbia Agricultural
Society. I believe there are in the Lillooet district about 12,000 horned cattle,
5000 sheep, 4000 pigs, and 400 horses. The average annual yield for the last
five years has been about three million and a half pounds of wheat, with a large
yield of other cereals, and beans, peas, onions, potatoes, &c. The above is not
much to speak of; but it must be remembered that the supply has, been limited
by the demand. These farming facts conclusively show the agricultural capabilities of the province, even in a section of it which in parts is liable to occasional summer frosts. Let but mining towns grow, or let a railway be made
(as it will be soon) to carry surplus produce to a shipping port, and it will be
seen that the agricultural capabilities of even the northern portion of the East
Cascade region of British Columbia are very great.
I give in the Appendix abridged extracts from newspaper correspondence
from this section during a whole year.
What has been described in the foregoing.
. I Jiave now described all the portions of British Columbia which have beer
tested up to this time by practical farmers. sue
&^& <i it/ v <&fcfe^tt\&&&*
r ■   =
Chilcotin, &c.
This is the country on either side of the river of that name (see Map). It
is -bounded on the west side by the Cascade Range, and on the east by Fraser
River. Chilcotin has not yet been thoroughly tested by farmers,. but the
country is attracting attention.
We have different accounts of it from travellers. The probability is that a
good deal of the Chilcotin country is arid and sandy, with poor timber.
Its area, however, is immense, and may include also great tracts of good
grazing land. Near its numerous rivers and lakes we might expect to find
superior arable land. The surface is open in parts, and timbered in others,
generally presenting either rolling prairies or forest table-lands. There are
many lakes and rivers, and a great valley through which the Chilcotin flows-
The average elevation of the district is considerable, say 2500 feet; but the
altitude of the surface varies considerably. I have already stated that the
highest point of the trail, from Bentinck arm, is 3500 to 4000 feet high-
From that summit on the plateau, looking west, you see the Cascade Range;
to the south, lonely massive heights ; to the east, an expanse of forest, broken
by lakes and marshes. Reindeer are numerous on the great mountain plateau
near the head of the Chilcotin River.
Soil probably light on the high land, and rich near some of the rivers and lake?
Climate hot in summer, and very sharp in winter; the slopes oppos'
depressions in the Cascade Range, probably will be found the most suit'
for crops, as far as climate is concerned.
Another large section of the province, east of the Cascade Range,
much known yet, namely, the section extending to a great distance
and west from the elbow which the Fraser River makes to get ro"
Cariboo Mountains.    Some part of this country has been describe
account of the Nasse-Skena district.    (See West Cascade Region.)
Hudson's Bay Company officers describe this northern region ar
and mining region, containing, however, large tracts of good p
bably a good deal of winter fodder for cattle would be required h
Wheat has been raised at Fort George (but was liable to nir
barley and vegetables at Fraser's  Lake; potatoes on the
Stewart's Lake (the hollows are liable to night frost),
common at Stewart's Lake in summer.
A fine country is also spoken of as existing " between T
Nation River;" good land also between Babine and the "
On the whole, though much of the above section of the cr
from the great elbow of the Fraser is known to be mou
it probably is as habitable as some inhabited countries
Under the stimulus of a demand for stock or p'
camps would produce, the district doubtless woulc1
farming results.
A word or two will explain the existing provm^* ^ .1 produce. Victoria and Cariboo are the chief markets at pre* surplus-
stock or produce not wanted in the farmers' own locality. A fai*. mg emigrant must consider this in choosing his " location."
"'jjf ^ *pf*.
immmfft^- MARKETS.
The Island District, also New Westminster District (after the latter has
supplied the town of New Westminster, and to some extent the towns of
Hope and Yale), also the Similkameen District, may be said to look largely
. to the Victoria market. Okanagan, Nicola, and Lillooet settlers would look
partly to the Victoria market as an outlet for stock, but the roads hardly,
enable them to reach it.   The roads are improved every year.
Osoyoos and Kootenay consume most of their own produce at present.
It is said that Victoria imports butter from the eastern provinces of Canada,
and buys 15,000Z. worth of beef-cattle every year from the American territory
opposite to Vancouver Island.
Settlers in all other parts of the country than those named above, depend
mainly for markets on the gold-mining localities of Cariboo, Kootenay,
Omineca, &c. The consuming power of a mining-camp of hard-working
gold-miners, is probably equal at least to that of a town with four or five
times the number of inhabitants, composed of both sexes, and young and
The settler will see on the map the position of these chief consuming centres,
namely, Victoria and Cariboo.
In choosing his "location" the settler further will look to the future. He
will consider where it is reasonably likely that gold, coal, or silver mining
land may be discovered, or where any other industry, such as cattle or sheep
farming, or fishing, or saw-milling is likely to concentrate population.
For instance, think of the industries and occupations radiating from Cariboo
—the mining heart of the mainland—consider the unsupplied demand for beef,
butter, &c, in commercial Victoria, or reflect upon what King Coal has done
at Nanaimo. A single coal-mine in full work appears to be worth an addition of at least 1500 to the population, probably more, if one considers the
workmen and their families, the trades they support, the visitors in vessels,
the fanning districts which supply the mining neighbourhood with meat and
vegetables. If the other coal mines now being opened on the east coast of
the island begin work vigorously, and a demand continues for the fine sandstone from the Newcastle Quarry, the east coast island farmers will have a
home market for whatever they produce, increasing beyond their power to
supply it, and Victoria must continue to look to the New Westminster district,
or elsewhere, for her requirements. In the latter district, however, we find
already a considerable town, flourishing saw-mills, and promising fisheries.
If, additionally, the silver mines near Hope should be worked, the New Westminster district farmers themselves will have a home demand which they
may not be able fully to supply. These probabilities show to the emigrant
the advantages of settling in a mineral country, and particularly in a country
with such varied mineral and other resources as British Columbia. So far as
the first settlers are concerned, the comparative scarceness of attractive accessible tillage land is in their favour, for the land will be high-priced in
course of time, in proportion to its scarcity.
Particularly at this time, the settler, in choosing a " location," must have
regard to the effect of the making of the Canadian Pacific Railway through
the province. The local demand for farm produce in British Columbia will'
be largely increased at the places where the work of making the railway is
actively progressing, and the opening of the line will provide new outlets for
farm produce generally.
i <i
mi _^~—
If more farms are not started in British Columbia, the demand created by
the making of the railway will benefit Oregon and California, instead of
British Columbia. The temporary presence of the Canadian Railway surveyors in 1872 raised wheat one-fourth of a cent a pound in the Kamloops-
Shuswap district.
There is no reason why the markets of China and England should not be
used for the surplus grain of British Columbia, as soon as the farming population is increased in number, and systematic works of irrigation and reclamation aid and enable them to produce a surplus.
Under the head of sheep-farming I will mention markets for wool.
As regards cattle, it will be some time before the cattle-farmer will have to
look for markets outside the province. I may point out, however, that when
the Canadian Pacific Railway is finished, British Columbia will be to England
the nearest extensive grazing country, capable of rearing great herds of
cattle chiefly on natural grasses. Central Canada will not be able to compete
in cattle rearing with her more western sister territory, owing to the long
keen winter and want of shelter. Central Canada for wheat; British Columbia for beef and mutton. British Columbia will be nearer to England
than the River Plate or Texas, and is a finer and healthier grazing country
than either.   (See p. 60, also see Appendix.)
Canadian Pacific Railway.
The only completed railway across tbe continent of North America is the
Union and the Central Pacific, which connect Omaha with San Francisco (both
these places are io the United States); but there are several other lines projected,
the principal one of which is the Canadian Pacific, through British territory.
This railway will connect the present railway system of Canada with a seaport in British Columbia on the shore of the Pacific Ocean. It will bring
British Columbia within about a fortnight's travel from England. The Canadian Pacific railway line has extraordinary advantages over all other existing
or proposed trans-continental railways in shortness, and in conditions of climate
and description of country to be traversed. Under proper management it
cannot fail to be a sound investment, while opening the brightest future to
British Columbia, to the Dominion of Canada, and to the Empire.
The Canadian line will shorten the passage between Liverpool and China,
in direct distance, more than 1000 miles. The sea-trips from its ends on
both oceans will be much shorter than from the ends of the existing American
line. The North American Continent also can be spanned by a much shorter
line on Canadian soil than by the existing railway through the United States.
The distance from New York to San Francisco by the Union Pacific
Railway is 3363 miles; but from Montreal to New Westminster it is only
2730, or 636 miles in favour of the Canadian line. The distance by the
Canadian Pacific from New Westminster, British Columbia, to New York (by
St. Lawrence and Ottawa, Ogdensburg and Rome, and New York Central)
is 305 miles shorter than from San Francisco to New York (by the Union
Pacific, Michigan Central, and New York Central). To Boston, the difference
in favour of the Canadian inter-oceanic route is 335 miles. To Portland, the
difference in favour of the Canadian route is 521 miles.
There can be little doubt that Europe, and particularly England, will derive
vast benefit from the extended cultivation of the rich lands through which the
73 •'
Canadian Pacific Railway will pass. These lands, it is quite well known, contain the best unoccupied wheat-growing tracts in North America, and are very
extensive. The comparative lowness of the surface makes the climate on the
Canadian route, though farther to the north, less severe than the climate on
the existing railway in the United States.
The Government of the Dominion of Canada is bound by the terms of union
with British Columbia to begin the construction of this line within British
Columbia before July, 1873, and to complete it before ten years, so as to connect the Pacific seaboard with the Eastern Canada railway system. The
Dominion Government has prosecuted the preliminary surveys with energy
and success. A chartered company has been formed, and there is no doubt
that the railway will be at once begun and its construction pushed on.
More direct railway communication with Eastern Canada will supply the
great want under which the province has laboured; but long before the line
shall have been completed British Columbia will have derived benefits of the
most substantial character from the work of construction alone, and the
Canadian Pacific Railway will prove in many ways one of the most active and
efficient agencies in adding to the population of the province.
The railway company is to receive a large money subsidy from Canada, but
the work will be undertaken mainly on the Land Grant system, which has been
a common method of providing the means to make railways in the United States.
A few words describing the working of this system in the United States will
enable the intending settler in British Columbia to judge of the probable effect
of the passage of the Canadian Pacific Railway through the province.
In the United States the Government subsidises the railways by granting
them immense tracts of land adjoining the lines finished and in operation.
This liberality is more apparent than real. The grant extends generally, I
believe, 20 miles on each side of the railway; but the Government reserves to
itself every alternate section on this area, the price of which it at once raises.
Thus its position as to the value of its property is just the same as before the
railway was constructed; the Government grants .the railway every alternate
section over a certain area, and doubles the price of the half it retains. The
traffic advantages afforded by the railway make the land well worth the
increased price, and it settles up rapidly. Every settler brings to the railway
a treble advantage. He is a consumer, and much of what he consumes must
pay freight; he is a producer, and a large portion of what he produces must
also pay freight; his mere settlement adjoining the railway increases the value
•of its land which lies all round him, for settlers are gregarious and like to have
neighbours. By this system the Government, while parting with nothing in
actual value, gives the railway a large subsidy, and the railway possesses two
sources from which to reward its enterprising projectors—the usual source of
goods and passenger traffic, and the exceptional source arising out of the
increasing value of the land it obtains from the State. There are persons who
object to the system on the ground that it gives away the " land of the people "
to wealthy and powerful corporations; but the " lands of the people," when
inaccessible, are useless to them or any one else, and unless the railways led
the way, might remain unpeopled for generations to come. The railway bears
the pcor settler to land which he can buy for a few dollars an acre and pay for
by instalments, which a little industry enables him to discharge by sales of
his surplus produce; it bears the wood from the forest, where it is a nuisance,
I* wmmsm&mm
MffltMt «M.'.J!iaMM'
to the prairie, where it is a necessity; and it keeps up that constant stream of
communication with the outer world, without which the settler might, indeed,
live in rude abundance, but could get no market for his produce, could never
amass wealth, and could not fail to lose many of his civilised habits to which
his children would be brought up strangers. And all these advantages can be
secured with incredible facility.
If there is any political danger in the existence of such powerful corporations
in young countries, the law must be adapted to meet such danger. Economically, the advantages of railroad extension in these countries are apparent-
Money and steam-power could not be more beneficently employed.
Mining, generally.*
A large proportion of the population is engaged in mining for gold, coal, and
silver. Iron, copper, lead, and almost every other mineral, including rare
minerals, such as molybdenum, &c, are found; also lime, marble, freestone,
slate, &c. The whole country, in fact, is full of minerals and building material
of a high character. Gold-mining is, at present, the largest wage-affording;
industry; coal comes next; silver promises well. The best known gold and
silver fields are on the mainland; the largest known good coalfield is in
Vancouver Island.
The laws relating to mining generally are designed to be liberal and
The country is difficult to traverse, and the search for minerals has been
conducted hitherto by extraordinary efforts on the part of individuals and
small companies. The Dominion Geological Survey, now in progress, will furnish
information that will enable "prospectors" to search with better judgment and
happier results. Everyone believes that fresh discoveries will follow the
beginning of the works of construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway, which
will run through the province.
The intending settler will know how to estimate the importance of settling
in a mineral country. The interests of all classes are common, and whatever
adds to the number of consumers specially benefits the farming settler, whether
these settlers are engaged in mining, trading, or any other occupation.
In a great undeveloped mining country, or a country in which extensive
railway works are about to be undertaken, the farming interest should always-
be in advance of actual needs, otherwise any additional demand created by
new mines, or by vigorous prosecution of wage-paying work of any sort, could
not be met, and, as a consequence, the benefit would go out of the country to-
help any other country that could supply the demand.
Gold Mining.
It will not be expected that, in this handbook, I should give an account of
the numerous regulations respecting so special an industry as gold-mining.
The mining camps of British Columbia are as orderly as English villages-
Gold claims are taken up anywhere on payment of 5 dollars (20s. English) per
annum.    A 25-dollar (51. English) licence secures a miner in his rights.    No-
* Under tbis and other beads,  I am indebted for information to tbe Honourable C. Good's-
s-x?m?m&mfrrtit MINING.
further tax is levied.   The nature and size of British Columbia gold claims are
as follows:—
For " Bar diggings," a strip of land, 100 feet wide at high-water mark, and
thence extending into the river to its lowest water-level.
For " Dry diggings," 100 feet square.
" Creek claims," 100 feet long, measured in the direction of the general
course of the stream, and extending in width from base to base of the hill on
each side.
" Bench claims," 100 feet square.
" Quartz claims," 150 feet in length, measured along the lode or vein, with,
power to follow the lode or vein, and its spurs, dips, and angles, anywhere on •
or below the surface included between the two extremities of such length of
150 feet.
When a creek has " prospected " well for gold, it is usual for miners to form
themselves into' companies of from four to eight, or upwards, to take up their
claims in proximity to one another, and to work the whole ground thus claimed
for the benefit of the company. If rich " pay-dirt" be struck, and the mine
be in a sufficiently advanced state, companies, anxious to obtain the greatest
possible quantity of gold in the shortest possible space of time, will frequently
employ additional working-hands, and work during the whole 24 hours.
These hired men often get high wages. Usual wages at Cariboo are as
Carpenter     ..     .. 7 dollars (28s. English) per day.
Foreman      ..     ..6     „     (24s.      „      )     „
Workman    ..     ..5     „     (20s.      „      )    „
Chinaman    ..     ..  3£    „     (14s.      „      )     „
The reader will remember that the mining season does not last the whole
The gold-bearing districts extend over several thousand miles of country-
(see Map).   Indications of gold are also found generally in Vancouver and
Queen Charlotte Islands; but very good paying diggings have not yet been
found there.
Wfthin twelve years nearly five millions sterling worth of gold have been
exported, and unless common and scientific opinion is entirely wrong, the gold-
fields of the province have hardly yet been touched. In various spots, discovered by chance, gold-miners have collected. These spots, generally, have
been so remote, that the necessaries of life have been very dear; and in consequence, diggings that yielded 3 to 5 dollars (12s. to 20s. English) per day,
have not been considered attractive.
The conditions of gold-mining, however, have changed of late years in.
several important respects. The steady improvement of communications and
the growth of farming settlements in the interior have reduced the price of
necessaries at the diggings. The miners themselves have long ago given up
fancy-mining, and come down to economy and hard work. It would be too
much to say that the shallow diggings in British Columbia are worked out as
those of California and Australia have long been, but it is true that in several
important gold-fields the more easily worked places have been exhausted.
This is a very different thing from the exhaustion of the gold-fields. It is
simply saying that in those particular places in British Columbia, a stage has
been reached which was reached long ago in California and Australia.
m ■iM
' The deep channels and beds of streams must now be examined, and are
being examined. The era of real " gold-digging " is about to follow the era of
mere " gold-lifting." A different kind of mining is being adopted—deep
mining, with more machinery, and consequently larger expense.
The last Cariboo season was not so good for the mass of miners as many
previous ones; but most vigorous " prospecting" of deep channels is being
•carried on in the various creeks, and sufficient success has been met with to
justify the confidence in Cariboo which is generally felt. Cariboo will for many
years be among the best paying diggings on the Pacific coast.
The miners in the south-eastern angle of the province, on the Kootenay
^and Columbia rivers, are making, good wages, and are pleased with their
prospects. The hydraulic claims there will last for years yet. The miners
show great activity in examining the undoubtedly gold-bearing country in
their immediate neighbourhood, and also at the head waters of the Kootenay and
Columbia. They have good hopes for 1873. The mining season in this part
•of the province is longer than in Cariboo.
Omineca, in the far north of the province, has not yet proved to be a highT
paying gold-field. The gold is plentiful and distributed; in 1872 probably
each miner made about 8 dollars (32s. English) per day during the season.
The country is vast, and not much prospected. Omineca will probably be a
moderate-sized camp for a time, and ultimately will support a large number
of miners. Omineca is kept back at present by the high cost of labour and
supplies, like many other gold-yielding places in British Columbia.
The above are gold-fields which were expected to be, or are, Mgh-paying
•diggings. The immigrant will understand, however, that gold is found almost
•everywhere, and that numbers of Chinese and Indians are mining in all
parts of the province, and are making from 1 to 5 dollars (4s. to 20s. English)
per day.
At this stage of the world's history homilies are not wanted upon the risks
•of gold-mining in this quarter of the globe, or, indeed, elsewhere. In British
Columbia the work is hard, the season is short in the northern parts of the
province, the returns from the occupation are uncertain. But it must have
many compensating advantages, or it would not be so attractive. One thing
.may be said, namely, that a gold-miner has a steady market for his produce;
he has never to wait for a market for his gold, nor is it much affected by competition or over-production.
The point for the settler to note is that it is an immense advantage to a settler
to be in a mineral country, because the mines give work to those able to
undertake it, and create local markets, which otherwise might not exist for
I do not think that any man living will see the exhaustion of the precious
■mineral deposits of British Columbia. The history of the older mining country
of California shows partly what may be expected in British Columbia.
a? aam.-P
Californian Experience.
The exhaustion of the easier diggings in California has had the effect of
creating new plans of management and new appliances and methods of working : and so will it be year after year in British Columbia. In California, at
the present time, many small claims are thrown together, so as to be worked
on a grand scale under a single business administration. Long bed rock—
tunnels are made to secure outlet and drainage to deep and extensive basins
of gold-bearing gravel, covering often many individual claims, none of which
could otherwise have been worked. Various other labour- and money-saving
expedients have been adopted to aid the effect of this co-operation of labour
and consolidation of interests. Not the least remarkable fact in California is,.
that new kinds of mineral deposits have been discovered, additionally to the
ordinary " placers " and " quartz veins." (In British Columbia we have not yet
even begun to work our quartz veins.) Successively in California have been
brought to light those singular deposits known as " gold bluffs" and " gold,
beaches;" the " dead rivers," with their strata of auriferous cement and gravel;.
the deep hydraulic banks, almost mountains of gold-bearing material; the beds
of " gossan " and broad belts of slate, also auriferous; and finally, the " seanx.
diggings," consisting of narrow veins of decomposed quartz, running irregularly through porphyritic and other formations, and which, being full of free
gold, and, withal, so friable that they can be broken down with a pick, and often,
with even a stream of water, are likely to become the sources of extensive and
profitable mining. Already a good many have embarked in the business of
working these " seams."
The " dead rivers " and hydraulic banks are worked on a vast scale, being
now the principal theatres of placer-mining in California. The auriferous-
gossans, some of which were worked quite extensively a number of years ago,,
are again attracting attention.
The San Francisco Herald and Market Review, 17th January, 1873, contains the following:—
" It is curious to observe how almost every one of those discoveries of gold
which, like Fraser River (British Columbia), &c, had come to be regarded
popularly as the sheerest delusions, have all the while been the theatres of a
tolerably extensive and prosperous mining industry After proceeding
from one description of deposit to another, our miners return and attack those-
earliest discovered and which had at first been slighted, or perhaps wholly
discarded, under the impression that they were unworthy of notice.
"In this manner the vast accumulations of tailings, at first abandoned
without any thought that they would ever be looked after more, have since
been re-washed, in some cases several times over, and are still preserved for
additional operations, when sufficient gold shall have been liberated by further
decomposition to warrant the same. Thus it is, certain of our diggings possess
a sort of perennial existence, growing out of this power to renew themselves-
from time to time.''
The whole of the above is a lesson to gold-mining croakers.
Coal Mining.
The presence of good coal in Vancouver Island, and its absence on other
portions of the Pacific coast, are much in favour of the province.   A distin- fcM iir w   r~
guished scientific traveller, acquainted with the north-west, Dr. Robert Brown,
M.A., President of the Royal Physical Society, Edinburgh, states that the
•only North Pacific coal specially fitted for steaming purposes is found in the
British possessions, all others being of tertiary age and very inferior in
quality—slaggy and often sulphurous. " In her coal-fields," Dr. Brown says,
•" British Columbia has, within herself, the elements of lasting prosperity."
Distribution of Coal Fields.
The tertiary beds of inferior coal are found in California, Oregon, and
Washington (United States) ; and tertiary croppings are also seen here and
there in the southern part of the British territory of Vancouver Island, on part
of the west coast of the island, and also in the southern part of the mainland.
They extend east, with some interruption, right across the Rocky Mountains.
I The secondary beds of the North Pacific coast, affording very good coal,
situated so as to be more or less capable of being profitably worked—are
believed to be confined to Vancouver Island.
The coal-fields in the Nasse-Skena district have not been carefully examined
yet. Anthracitic coal is found in Queen Charlotte Island, which would be of
immense value to the whole Pacific coast could it be worked profitably.
Mines at Nanaimo.
Bituminous mines at Nanaimo, on the east side of Vancouver Island, have
been worked by an English company (the Vancouver Coal Mining Company)
successfully for many years, and a flourishing town has grown up around the
mines. The number of miners, artisans, and labourers employed in mining
and delivering the coal to vessels at the date of the latest returns was 241;
' but the entire population of the town (numbering about 1000 souls) may be
said to derive its subsistence from the miners. Nanaimo also is a market for
the beautiful farming district of Comox.
The excellent quality of the coal of Vancouver Island is well established.
It is in great request for gas, steam, and domestic use, and as compared with
other coals mined on the Pacific coast its superiority is unquestioned.
See page 6 of this handbook for proof of the quality of the Nanaimo coal.
The coal shipped by this company during the ten years ending 31st December,
1872, reached 330,395 tons, nearly one-half of which was for the San Fran-
■cisco market. The production of the mines has kept pace with the demand,
and the works are being freely extended at several points in view of a growing
Wages paid at Nanaimo are as follows:—
to 4   dollars (12s. to 16s. English) per day.
• •
3   to 4
Mechanic   ..
• •
• •
9          3i
Blacksmith ..
• •
9          34-
4     „ ct
• •
1*   » 2
Chinese or Indians
1     „ li
( 8s.
( 8s.
( 7s.
( 4s.
As the works are being extended, skilled miners would be likely to find
employment, and able-bodied men also are required to act as " runners " and
" loaders."
There is no fire-damp in the Nanaimo mine.
^^£MSfSJ£^^^k ma
Many of the miners and artisans occupy their own dwellings. The company sells town lots at moderate prices, and is extremely desirous to promote
the growth of a town of independent freeholders in this eligible spot.
Nanaimo is pleasantly situated, and is already a busy, thriving colonial
town, with churches, schools, and a member of parliament. It has none of
that " dried-up," blackened appearance which colliery villages so often present in the mining districts of England. The climate is very like that of
England—better than the climate of the north of England. Game and fish
are abundant in the neighbourhood.
I have named the above mine because it is worked on a large scale.
Subsequent editions of this handbook will describe the progress of other
coal mines—one at Departure Bay, near Nanaimo, under experienced management, and others proposed to be worked in the same neighbourhood, and also
at Baynes Sound, at Koskeemo, and other places.
Capital and labour are the two essentials to the almost unlimited development of coal mining in British Columbia. The existence of a fine quality
of coal on the seaboard cannot fail to be of the very greatest importance when
the Canadian Pacific Railway converts British Columbia into one of the
world's highways. By that time, at least three trans-continental railways
will connect on the Pacific coast with lines of coasting and ocean steamers,
which will get steam coal from the only North Pacific district that can supply
it, namely, Vancouver Island. The effect also of a supply of coal on local
manufacturing industry cannot be overlooked as an element of future
Free Stone.
About a mile from the town of Nanaimo, on Newcastle Island, a freestone quarry is worked. From this place the stone was supplied to build the
new United States Mint at San Francisco, California. The stone is easily
worked, hardens by exposure, and has all the appearance of a very fine grained
There is plenty of marble in the province, but it has not yet been worked.
Silver Mining.
There appears to be really good prospects for silver mining in British
Columbia—a branch of mining which would affect the labour market in much
the same way as coal mining. Several promising leads have been found, and
men are now searching the Cascade Range for more. At one silver mine, near
Hope, works of a considerable extent are being carried on; a road is made
from Hope to the mine itself.
The above silver mine is not the only one known to exist in the Fraser
Valley, and so soon as the Hope mine shall haVe been worked more extensively, and shall have yielded, as is expected, good results, there is no doubt
but that other mines, situated in the same range of mountains, will likewise
be worked.
The Standard newspaper of October, 1872, says of the neighbourhood
of the town of Hope:—
" It is now established, bej'Ond all reasonable doubt, that British Columbia
is rich in silver.    Our silver prospects are even better than our gold, and we
£ it
should not be surprised to see, in the course of another year, not only silver
mining on an extensive scale commenced, but such a rush into^the interior of
this country in search of silver leads, as our neighbours have witnessed in the
case of Washoe, White Pine, and other localities." *
Copper Mining
has been begun in many places, but not been actively prosecuted, owing to
want of capital. The appearances for successful copper mining in several
parts of the province are considered to be very encouraging.
"Logging " and " saw milling never will be industries to be much relied
upon by newly-arrived emigrants from Europe, as the various descriptions
of labour required aire best carried on by persons who have had special
The West Cascade region of the province is densely wooded, chiefly with
many species of gigantic conifers, but a very large part of the East Cascade
region (see page 55) is generally unwooded, or but thinly wooded. Where
wood exists in the East Cascade region the conifers still predominate.
The settler who is near any main line of communication should not look
upon his fine timber as a valueless possession which may be wasted improvi-
dently. The timber on his farm may, within his own lifetime, be worth as
much as the soil of his farm.
In reply to many letters from Eastern Canada as to the " lumbering
business " in British Columbia, I may state that it is already an important
industry and capable of considerable extension. During 10 years ending
1870, about 60 million feet of rough and dressed Douglas fir lumber, with a
quantity of shingles, laths, pickets, and about 3500 spars, were exported.
This export has greatly increased since. Wages to woodmen range from 25
to 45 gold dollars a month with board, and the same in saw-mills, with
higher wages for a few of the more skilled and responsible men. The snow is
not of any use in logging in the seaboard districts. Logging roads are made
through the woods, and the logs are drawn by oxen, and rolled into the water
O 7 O •/ 7
and floated to the mills. Work in the woods goes on throughout the year,
but time is lost to workmen when it rains heavily in winter. Rivers are not
greatly used for the conveyance of logs. The business at present is carried
on almost entirelv on salt water. There are 15 saw-mills throughout the
province, but of these 3 only furnish cargoes for export. Logs delivered at
the mill cost from 4 to 6 dollars a thousand feet superficial, and the cost of
sawing adds other 5 to 7 dollars.
In British Columbia leases of unpre-empted Crown lands may be obtained
on very easy terms, but subject to pre-emption by individuals who, however,
are not allowed to cut timber on the pre-empted land for sale, or for any
purpose, except use upon the pre-emptor's farm.
As regards water power, the whole country is full of most picturesque
waterfalls of all sizes, many of which might be used for local saw-mills and
other mills. There is some doubt, however, whether, within the Douglas fir
region, near the coast, many good water privileges can be found suitably
placed, and with a sufficiently regular, powerful, all-the-year-round flow of
v *<**• timber;
-water to drive large export saw-mills. Probably steam-power will always be
found safest for large saw-mills.
With respect to the use of the British Columbian rivers for " logging"
purposes, the lumberman must bear in mind the physical structure of the
North American continent, according to which the long and gentle slopes
•descend from the spine of the continent—the Rocky range—-towards the
Atlantic Ocean, and the short and rapid slopes towards the Pacific Ocean.
This gives a character to the rivers west of the Rocky range. The rivers
generally are interrupted by rapids; they often flow compressed between
gloomy rocky walls; they rise and fall with great rapidity. The aridness of
the country east from the Cascade range in British Columbia diminishes the
volume of the East Cascade rivers very much—the Fraser in fact being, as
already said, the only one strong enough to get through the Cascade range to
the sea.
That the Fraser River, if valuable timber grows near its upper waters, may
be, by the adoption of " slides " and other improvements, made available for
water carriage of logs from the East Cascade region to the seaboard for export
"purposes, I do not doubt, but the difficulty and expense will postpone this
undertaking until the supplies of timber in the West Cascade region, both in
English and American territory, are considerably exhausted.    The saw-miller
1 who proposes to cut for export must look at present for a saw-mill location
and a logging ground in the West Cascade region.
The only timber exported in cargoes is that of the Douglas fir, commonly
•oalled "pine." It is a tough, strong wood, well adapted for beams, but good
also for planks and deals. It makes excellent masts and yards, and is used
for shipbuilding and housebuilding. It grows to the height of 150 to 200
feet, and attains a thickness of 5 to 8 feet at the butt. It carries its thickness
well up. Dressed masts of 36 inches in diameter, at one-third from butt, and
with proper proportions for the required length, have been supplied from the
Douglas fir forests. This British Columbian wood is known in Australia,
New Zealand, and Great Britain, as " Oregon pine," though Oregon does not
•export it to these markets. A good growing demand for British Columbian
Douglas fir timber and square timber exists in South America, Australia, and
China, and a few cargoes of spars are sent annually to England.
This Douglas fir (or " Douglas pine," or " Oregon pine") predominates in
the forests of the West Cascade region, but not in the arid parts of the East
Cascade region. It is plentiful in Washington Territory (United States).
^The Douglas fir is also found in some of the Rocky Mountain valleys, on the
Blue Mountains of Oregon, and here and there eastward as far as the head
waters of the Platte. At present the principal seats of its manufacture for
export are the coast of British Columbia, and in Puget Sound (United States).
The Douglas fir does not grow in any quantity north of Millbank Sound, in
lat. 52°.
The principal existing mills are in the New Westminster district, and probably that neighbourhood will continue to be the chief seat of the export of
Douglas fir. The Nasse-Skena district looks like a good saw-milling country
on the map, but the Douglas fir, as just said, is not found so far north. The
inlets on the mainland, or some of the outlying islands between Millbank
Sound and the New Westminster district, probably offer locations for export
' saw-mills, but it is not known, however, at present, that these places can be
G &
i ft
found readily. Many of the inlets are almost wall-sided, with short watercourses or torrents emptying into them the water collected among the surrounding gloomy mountains. The rivers generally which flow into these
inlets are not good " logging" rivers. There is, however, a vast extent of
sheltered water-line between Millbank Sound and the New Westminster
district, and it is impossible not to believe that suitable places for large
Douglas fir export saw-mills are to be found where practical saw-millers woulcfi
make fortunes.
The West Cascade region is difficult to traverse, and has not been a tenth
part explored by saw-mill men. If it should prove that suitable locations for
large saw-mills are few, the value of these to the possessors will be proportionately increased.
The saw-mill business in British Columbia would be greatly helped if the-
San Francisco market were opened by the reduction or removal of the duty on
foreign lumber.
None of the other conifers in the north-west are likely to take the place
of the Douglas fir for export trade, until the latter is completely exhausted in
accessible situations in both English and American territory. I may, however, name a few of these conifers.
Menzies' fir ("spruce fir," or "black spruce") is plentiful; smaller than the
Douglas fir,but still a Titan. Merten's fir ("hemlock spruce") is also a very
large tree, with a straight trunk. The wood of these trees has little export
value compared with the Douglas fir. Hemlock lasts well in the ground and
makes good laths. Another large fir is the " Canada fir," but the timber is
inferior, though when seasoned it makes boards, scantling, and shingles.
The bark is useful in tanning. The " Contorted pine "—which some call the
" Scotch fir "—is found through the valley of the Fraser on the high grounds ;
it grows from 25 to 50 feet high, and 1 foot in diameter. On the upper parts
of the Fraser this tree is plentiful, but of little value except for its resin.
The white pine (the north-western representative of the Strobus) is a fine tall
tree, with wood like the white pine of Eastern Canada, but it is not known tO'
grow sufficiently in groves to supply large export saw-mills. For local uses-
the white pine will be important.
In selecting a farm, the settler will find small cedar a most valuable farm-
wood for fencing and roofing. It is durable and easily split. Cedar grows
scattered among the fir forests. Many fine specimens are found on the mountains, 30 to 40 feet round at the butt, and 200 feet high. The Indians use
cedar for numerous purposes; I speak of the Thuja gigantea. It becomes rare
as you go north, and ceases about 58°. There is another fine tree of the same
kind, the yellow cypress ( Cupressus nutkaensis). This grows small in Vancouver
Island and in the south of the West Caseade region, but north of 53°, up to
about Sitka, it is plentiful, and as large as its southern congener, the cedar.
The yellow cypress is tough, light, and fragrant, and takes a fine polish. I
think it likely that it will be exported in small cargoes when the Nasse-Skena
district is settled.
The alder is frequently met with among the fir-forests, chiefly beside streams,
or in cool, humid places. It grows to about 30 or 40 feet, with a straight smooth
trunk. Alder land is generally good, and is easily cleared. Alder makes good
firewood. The large-leaved maple is our best substitute for hard wood; it
grows 70 feet high and 2 or 3 feet thick, generally on the banks of streams and
in rich river-bottoms. The Indians make snow-shoes, spear-handles, &c, of
this wood, and weave baskets, hats, and mats, from the inner bark. It is
plentiful in the Nasse-Skena district, but is found scattered in the West Cascade
region generally (including Vancouver Island). The crab-apple is common in
swampy places, but of no great size. It is hard enough to take polish. Birch
is found scattered in the Nasse-Skena, and also again in the Kootenay districts.
Some say the elm grows in the last-named district.
The oak (Garry's oak) is too rare a tree in British Columbia to be of much
value. It is found in some parts of Vancouver Island—for instance, near
Victoria—on lands over which firs have not yet encroached. It is a small
crooked tree. I need not mention the arbutus, dogwood, cottonwood, and
other trees, as the immigrant does not require a complete catalogue of trees.   •
Sheep Farming.
The following is a rough estimate of the wool-clip of the world in 1868 :—
British North-American Provinces      ..      10,000,000
Australia, South America,and Africa.. 76,000,000
United States          100,000,000
Spain, Portugal, and Italy  119,000,000
France |      123,000,000
European Russia  125,000,000
Germany  200,000,000
Great Britain  260,000,000
Asia          470,000,000
One great reason, probably, why the supply of wool is so small, comparatively, in North America (including the United States), is that the characteristics of the soil, surface, and climate of the north-west of the continent have
not been known, and that consequently sheep have not been taken to the part.
of the country specially suited for wool-bearing animals. Mountain-sheep and
goats have fed for ages in the north-west.
Domesticated sheep thrive well in British Columbia, increase rapidly, and
are profitable both for the mutton and wool they yield. A considerable population, which will eat mutton, will always be employed in mining, agricultural,
and other pursuits.
Sheep—West Cascade Region.
In the humid, wooded West Cascade region there are few large ranges for
sheep, and at present the wolves and panthers occasionally kill sheep, as well
as pigs. If these pests would permit it, the West Cascade farmers might
always advantageously add a few head of sheep to their general fanning stock,
as is done in Eastern Canada.
These sheep would be a benefit to the farm by eating the grass which other
stocks did not consume, and by giving good manure in return. The wool also
would generally command a good price, as small flocks can be better cared for
than large ones.
Sheep—East Cascade Region.
Thriving flocks of 2000 sheep are found in the East Cascade region, but
" wool-growing " is yet quite in its infancy.   The plains and undulating grassy
table-lands of the East Cascade region are especially cattle-lands; but bold,
g 2
1 ss1
■ j
hilly land with natural features, affording shelter from wind and weather, such,
as the sheep-farmer likes, can be found in many parts. Lower ground also,
stony and dry, would answer well in this region for sheep, except, perhaps,
the alkali lands, which, it is said, cause wool to be deficient in lustre and
• I have already spoken of the natural pasture, bunch-grass, as a prime grass
for fattening all the year round, and as also being delicate and liable to be
injured by close, continuous sheep-feeding.
There are various other good grasses—black sage, for instance, which sheep
are very fond of—and my belief is that these grasses are in sufficient quantity
on good natural sheep-runs to justify the expectation of sheep-farming being
undertaken on a great scale.
I am quite aware it is one thing to have sheep merely as an adjunct to a farm
or other establishment, or as fat stock for the markets, and quite another thing
to establish a wool-producing sheep-station, distinctively on a secure and self-
supporting footing.    It is the latter undertaking I am thinking of.
Mr. A. C. Anderson, author of a Prize Essay on the country, and who has
travelled much through it as an officer of the Hudson's Bay Company, says
that he " can recall to mind extensive tracts which seem specially adapted for
the pasturing of very extensive flocks."
The climate, though variable within certain limits, is, as already explained,
on the whole, temperate in summer and winter; and, as a consequence, the
grass is generally in such a state that the sheep would not lose condition. The
soil in general is dry; the supply of pure water abundant.
Disease among the flocks now existing in the East Cascade region has been
most rare. The sheep are not subject to that formidable enemy of the sheep-
farmer, the scab.
Kind of Sheep.
The sheep, of course, must be adapted to the country. This is a fundamental principle in sheep-farming. A man may change his " run," but he
cannot easily change his flock.
It is the opinion of several experienced sheep-farmers in Scotland, with whom
I have consulted, that a suitable breed for the whole of British Columbia might
be found in a cross between a Cheviot ewe and a Leicester ram.
The large and heavy Cheviot proper would stand the wetness of the West
Cascade region, as well as the winter cold of the East Cascade region; but this
. sheep might not like the hot summers of the latter. Again, the Cheviot is
inclined to roam, and yields comparatively little wool. Crossing a Cheviot
ewe with a Leicester ram, however, would produce a sheep which probably
would stand both the heat and cold of the East Cascade region; this crossing
would at the same time tame the Cheviot, make the sheep more disposed to
take on fat, and would almost double the fleece, while improving the quality
of the wool.
While travelling in Colorado last year, where the climate somewhat resembles
that of portions of British Columbia, I was told that the favourite plan there
for wool-sheep was to cross imported thorough-bred Merino rams with native
Mexican ewes. The latter are believed to be the old Spanish Merino breed,
run out, but healthy, hardy, and acclimated.
This cross prepared the way for mutton-sheep, crossing readily with Southdown or Cotswold, and giving a large frame and fine mutton.
RE:*^ MM
There are good breeds of sheep in Oregon (quite close to British Columbia)—
Southdowns, Cotswolds, Merinos, and also a cross of the Merino and Leicester.
Oregon and California, which by their surface, and also climatically, do
not seem to me quite so well suited for sheep as British Columbia, produced
the following clips in 1871, 1870, and 1869 :—
California: 1871. 1870. 1869.
Spring clips, lbs...  13,134,680 12,847,760 8,959,545
Fall clip, lbs.       ..    9,052,508 6,624,900 4,718,175
Oregon, lbs. ..
20,876,630       14,717,120
In San Francisco the receipts from foreign countries for 1871 aggregated
1139 bales, weighing 365,649 lbs. The average price obtained for wools in
1870, by the commission-houses in San Francisco, on account of consignors,
California Spring Wools  ..    29 cents per lb. (Is. 2?d. English)
'i       Fall „      ..
Oregon Wools     40
.   Foreign     „      	
(Is. Ohd.
(Is. 8d.
(Is. 10hd.
These prices were not maintained in 1871 and 1872, and the California
"growers" and speculators did not make much in those years. The reader
will see above the difference between the value of California and Oregon wool.
British Columbia would class with, probably surpass, the produce of Oregon.
The price at one term in 1872, in San Francisco, for best " Northern" wool
came down from a nominal price of 40 cents to about half that price.
There is a great demand in America for the hair of the Angora goat—an
animal that would probably thrive well in British Columbia.
These animals delight in stony or rocky places. They are more attached
to the place where they have been bred than sheep, are more sagacious, and
require less herding.
They are inclined to breed oftener than once a year, but should not be
allowed to do so. They often produce twins, and having an abundance of
milk, are able to rear their young well. On any farm where they thrive well,
they are not liable to any disease ; consequently the increase of a flock is very
Goats should lamb when there is young grass. If grass be scarce, and the
goats consequently have little milk, or if their udders be tender, they will
reject their kids. To make goats take to their offspring is the only difficulty
connected with farming them. Young goats, more than old ones, are liable
to this fault. After the kids are a month or six weeks old—during which
they should not be allowed to follow the flock and get lost behind srones or
heaps, or destroyed by beasts or birds of prey—neither young nor old require
any particular attention. In feet, they should be left alone as much as
possible.- -When the hair becomes loose it should be combed off for market.
1 «p
General Remarks on Wool Growing.
Upon the whole, it may be said that the sheep and goat farming capabilities
of British Columbia are worth the attention of practical sheep-farmers in Great
Britain, Germany, Australia, and New Zealand.
I need not point out the advantage of being early in the country to start
sheep-farming on the natural pastures, before sheep-farming becomes an affair
of cultivated grasses and enclosures.    This is a great point.
Sheep-land in New Zealand sells high, and there is but a limited quantity.
Victoria, again is out of the question, as every acre of sheep-land is taken up
(that is, claimed and occupied) right through to Sydney, and heavily taxed.
South Australia again—there is no surface water; all well-sinking—which is
very expensive. The days have gone by for an overseer or manager in these
countries to get a share, or even an interest, in a run, and the colonial laws
are pressing heavily on the squatters.
Wool Markets.
An almost home market for British Columbian wool exists at present in
San Francisco, California, to which buyers from the Eastern States of the
Union come; but the British Columbian producer can, if he please, send his
wool direct, chiefly by railway, to the markets of New York, Boston, and
Eastern Canada.   He might find he could reach the English market.
These American markets can be reached at present in a month or six weeks,
and will be brought nearer when the Canadian Pacific Railway is finished.
Canadian makers of woollen and worsted goods will probably by-and-by get
most of their wool from British Columbia. In 1872 nearly three-fourths of
the whole Pacific coast wool went to the Atlantic States by rail from San
In speaking of the fisheries of British Columbia, one may almost be said to
be speaking of something which has no existence. With the exception of a
small attempt at putting up salmon in tins on the Fraser River, and one or
two whaling enterprises of a few years' standing, no attempt whatever has
been made to develop the actually marvellous resources of this province in the
way of fish. I will, therefore, proceed to give a list of the fish that are to be
found in quantities that would warrant the establishment of fisheries, adding
a brief description of the habits, locality, and commercial utility of each class
of fish.
Description of fish found in British Columbia and Vancouver Island:—•
Whale, sturgeon, salmon, oolachan or houlican, cod, herring, halibut, sardine,
anchovy, oysters, haddock, and dog-fish.
There is no law governing fisheries in British Columbia. Fishing is carried
on throughout the year without any restrictions. This state of things is well
suited to a new and thinly populated country. The restrictions of a close
season would be very injurious to the province at present, and for many years
to come.
On this subject the Hon. H. L. Langevin, C.B., reports:—
;.'g<- MM
" I saw one of the whalers, the' Byzantium,' in Deep Bay. She was an English
brig, commanded by Captain Calhoun, and on board of her was Captain Roys, the
inventor of an explosive ball, which is used in the whale fishery, and which,
on penetrating the marine monster, explodes, and throws out a harpoon. The
first whale against which this projectile was used was killed in 1868. In
1869 and 1870, the company made use of a small steam-vessel; and their
.success last year induced them to devote to the trade a brig of 179 tons,
manned with twenty hands.
" I was assured that, if that expedition proved a success, there is room in our
Pacific waters for at least fifty undertakings of a similar character. I observe
that, since my return, the whaling schooner * Industry' has arrived at
Victoria with 300 barrels, or about 10,000 gallons of oil, after an absence
of only five weeks. One of the whales killed during the expedition was sixty
feet long, and would certainly yield nearly seventy barrels of oil.
" On thip subject the Blue Book of 1870 contains the following:—
" ' During the year there were three whaling companies in existence (one of
these has since broken down). Thirty-two whales were killed, yielding
25,800 gallons of oil, worth 50 cents per gallon. There was one vessel with
boats, and there were two stations with boats, altogether employing forty-nine
hands. The capital invested in this interest amounted to about 20,000
'"The dog-fish catch exceeds in importance'that of the whales. 50,000
•gallons of dog-fish oil were rendered, worth 40 cents per gallon. This branch
of industry is steadily progressing.'
" From another source I have obtained the following information respecting
" f There are three whaling expeditions now in action in the waters of British
•Columbia, viz.:—
" - 1st. The British Columbia Whaling Company, with the * Kate,' a schooner
of 70 tons, outlay 15,000 dollars. They have already secured 20,000 gallons;
they expect 10,000 more. The value of oil here is 37 cents a gallon. In
England it is worth 35Z. a ton of 252 gallons. This company have in addition
secured already 30,000 gallons of dog-fish oil, worth 37 cents here per gallon,
55 cents in California, and 351, a ton in England.
" 2nd. The brig * Byzantium,' 179 tons, expenditure 20,000 dollars. Their
take for the year is not known.
" * 3rd Steamer ' Emma • and screw * Industry,' expenditure 10,000 dollars,
estimated take 15,000 gallons.'"
This coast is considered by an old whaler from Providence to be one of
the best fields in the world from whence to start whaling enterprises.    The
mildness of the climate as compared with northern Atlantic climates, and the
sheltered coasts of British Columbia, offer great advantages to whale-fishing
The Sturgeon abounds in the rivers and estuaries of British Columbia,
It attains a gigantic size, over 500 lbs. in weight. The flesh is excellent,
both fresh and smoked. No attempt, that I am aware of, has ever been made
to put the fish up for market. Its commercial value is derived from the
isinglass and caviare which can be made from it. I am not aware of there having
been any attempt made to manufacture isinglass in the province.   Caviare of
ft ^j
excellent quality has been produced. At present I should be inclined to
believe that there is no person in the province capable of making isinglass,,
which is, therefore, a resource entirely undeveloped as yet.
Sainion.—The salmon in the waters of British Columbia are excellent in
quality, varied in species, and most abundant. In the rivers, which they
penetrate up to their head waters, they are caught by a drag-net in the deep
waters, and by a bag-net in the rapids. In the sea they are generally caught
with hook and line; a canoe at certain seasons can be filled in a day by the
latter method. The Fraser River salmon is justly famous. They begin to
enter the river in March, and different kinds continue to arrive until October,
the successors mixing for a time with the last of their forerunners. There
is a greater degree of certainty in the periodical arrivals of each kind in this
river than at the coasts and islands. The salmon is used fresh, salted, pickled,
smoked, and kippered, and for export is put up salted in barcels, and fresh
in one or -two pOund tins; the latter process has only been commenced during
the past three years. The article produced is of a most excellent description,
and will doubtless prove a source of considerable export trade when it becomes
known in suitable markets. There would appear to be no limit to the catch
of salmon.
Oolachans or Houlicans.—This small fish, about the size of a sprat, appears
in the rivers of British Columbia and about certain estuaries on the coast,
towards the end of April. Their run lasts about three weeks, during which
time they may be captured in myriads. Eaten fresh they are most delicious,
and they are also excellent when salted or smoked. This fish produces oil
abundantly, which is of a pure and excellent quality, and which, some think,
will eventually supersede cod-liver oiL The fish are caught with a pole
about 10 feet in length, along which are arranged, for 5 feet at the end, nails
like the teeth of a comb, only about 1? inch apart. The comb is thrust
smartly into the water, brought up with a backward sweep of the hands,- and
is rarely found without 3 or 4 fish impaled on the nails. I have seen a canoe
filled with them in 2 hours by a couple of hands.
Cod.—Several kinds of cod are found in the waters of British Columbia,
which are excellent both fresh and cured. It has been often asserted, I cannot
say with what truth, that the true cod is found on the British Columbian
coast. That, however, remains to be proved. The true cod is found in the
waters near Behring's Straits.
Herring.—This fish also abounds during the winter months, and is of
good sound quality. It comes into the harbours about March. It is largely
used in the province, both fresh and smoked, but nothing has been done in>
the way of export.
Halibut.—There are many halibut banks in the waters of this province
The fish attain an enormous size, and are caught by deep-sea lines. They are-
only used in the province at present. They are of first-rate quality and an
excellent article of food.
Sardines.—These are found among the herrings. I cannot state if they
are precisely the fish known to commerce under that designation, or in what
quantity they exist; but they "are firm in flesh and excellent in flavour.
*3£t'' £#' VX*&i® IS BEET  SUGAR.
Anchovy.—This fish is only second to the oolachan, or houlican, in its
abundance. During the autumn it abounds in the harbours and inlets, and
may be taken with great ease in any quantity. Eaten fresh they have rather
a bitter flavour.
Haddock.—This fish, called in the country "mackerel," to which, however, it has no resemblance, is a great favourite both fresh and cured. It is
caught in the winter months,M and when smoked forms a luxurious addition to*
the breakfast-table. A very large -tirade will be done some day in exporting
this fish to the southern ports of America, where fish is highly valued in a
smoked or cured state.
Dog-Fish.—This species of fish can be taken with great facility with a
line and hook in almost any of the numerous bays and inlets of this province-
The oil extracted from them is obtained in abundance, and is commercially
of much value.    It is produced in moderately large quantities by the Indians,,
and exported.   (See Mr. Langevin's Report, quoted above.)
Oysters are found in all parts of the province. Though small in their
native beds, they are finely flavoured and of good quality. When, in course,
of time, regular beds are formed, and their proper culture is commenced, a
large export will, no doubt, take place both in a fresh and canned state^
There is a large consumption of oysters in cans on the Pacific coast.
Beet Sugar.
A gentleman in New Westminster has starred a beet Sugar factory, and is-
pleased with his prospects.
It seems to me almost certain that British Columbia will produce beet
sugar for herself, and perhaps also to export. The primary essentials for thisr
manufacture are cheap land and fuel, and pure water—three things which
British Columbia can offer more of than any region in North America. The
sugar of a civilised country, it is said, costs nearly as much as its wheat, and
certainly beet sugar is almost a necessity in British Columbia, where the cost
of carriage to many parts of the country must always add so much to the
price of imported cane sugar. The demand in the province at present is,
of course, in proportion to the population; last year about 20,000Z. worth of
foreign sugar was imported. The refuse of the beet is good food for either
beef-cattle, cows, or sheep—3 tons of refuse beet being equal to 2 tons of
the best hav.
Sandwich Island sugar is at present largely used in the province, and is sold
in Victoria for about 8 to 13 cents. (4<i. to 6|<Z. English per lb.) The price
in the interior is much higher. Foreign sugars, according to grade, are
subject to a duty of f cent, to 1 cent, a lb., and 25 per cent, on the value.
About 15 tons per acre have been grown in British Columbia, with rough
cultivation, but this could be largely increased. The average yield of beets
per acre in Austria is 10 tons; in France 12 tons; in Prussia 14 tons ; in
Ireland 16 to 40 tons. France produced 300,000 tons in 1869 worth 25L
English (125 dollars) per ton.
I may add that for the beet, a mixed soil, not too easily dried, is best. The
alkaline matter should not be in large proportion for sugar, but for spirit
manufacture this circumstance is not so important.   Deep ploughing is a
N =-,*/
requisite to success, and even double ploughing is desirable. Seed, in England,
should be sown by the middle of April. A fair average yield would be 20 tons
of beets, and the leaves besides. A beet crop takes largely from the soil
valuable ingredients—for instance, potash and phosphoric acid—and their waste
should be supplied by manuring with the refuse matter of the sugar manufacture. The waste liquor of distillation alone contains three-fourths of the
abstracted potash. The manure of animals fed upon the pulp and the leaves
would nearly embody the remaining fourth.
Flax Growing.
The existence of wild hemp and flax in British Columbia promises well for
their cultivation. An immense growing demand exists for these and other
fibred plants. New Zealand hemp in 1872 sold for 25?. to 44?. per ton in
London; the tow 12?. to 18?. per ton. The Egyptian Government dressed
flax 43?. to 56?.; Egyptian scutched 54?. to 60?. per ton. Flax is a crop
which requires much attention. It is not, therefore, likely to be grown by
settlers who are hard at work " making" their farms, but older settlers should
try this crop as a portion of the regular rotation on their farms. It is essentially the small farmer's crop, sown by himself, and cleaned, pulled, steeped,
and sometimes even scutched, by his wife and children. This is the only
way in which it can be grown in British Columbia until labour becomes much
oheaper. I imagine the best plan at the present time would be to collect
wild hemp or flax, also to cultivate some from the best and purest seed, and
send several tons of the simple, unprepared plants to be dressed in England.
It will thus be ascertained what the wild, and also the cultivated plants,
from British Columbia are respectively fitted for. They may be fit for fine
oloths, or only for ropes, twine, and coarse fabrics. Flax has been cultivated
in Oregon, but only to make oil-cake for cattle. If British Columbia would
show what kind of hemp or flax she can produce, the next question would be
to get farmers in a district to grow flax regularly, and subscribe to build a
scutch-mill of a size regulated by the probable wants of the flax-growers in
the immediate neighbourhood. A small 4-stand mill could be built for 750
dollars (150?. English). Water-power would be best for such mills, as they
would only be worked for part of the year. Perhaps, as the growth of flax
increased, practical flax-makers from the north of Ireland might form in the
province flax-preparing associations on some principle not requiring the
paying out of high wages. Land is rich and cheap, water abundant, wood
plentiful, and perhaps Chinese or Indian hand labour might be used.
The Government of the province can give full information as to the proper
management of a flax crop. It may here be stated that flax is usually grown
on a wide range of soils—sandy, calcareous, clay, loam, peat, &c. The most
suitable, probably, is a deep friable clay loam, or the alluvial deposit of rivers.
The land should be very well drained and subsoiled, and thoroughly weeded
and pulverized like a garden soil. There must neither be underground nor
surface water. Plough in winter and expose to action of frost. Replough
and harrow in spring. Sowing time in Europe is March to May—say April
—2\ bushels to the statute acre. Favourite seed comes from Russia, but
Dutch seed is extensively used for heavy soils. The flax is not cut with the
scythe, but is pulled up by the roots.
\&jte^m ^n°w"-..7v;xkv?^i TOBACCO.
That tobacco will grow luxuriantly in most parts of the southern portion
of the East Cascade region appears now to be beyond a doubt, and from all I
can learn from American growers, there are quite as few drawbacks to its
successful cultivation there, as in any part of America. In recommending
this crop, however, to immigrants as a source of profit, I should certainly
mislead them muclj. if I represented it as one which could be brought into the
market in a saleable state, without the greatest care and attention in every
stage, from the seed-bed until it is packed for manufacture. The rules for its
preservation are perfectly simple, but a want of attention to them must
inevitably end in failure,—in this respect differing altogether from crops
which require little attention. As, however, the climate and soil appear,
judging from results, to be so well suited to this plant, and its consumption,
moreover, being now so general, I cannot but think that many may be
induced to try their luck with it, if only for their own consumption. If
undertaken by skilled tobacco planters, there would be a ready and profitable
sale for almost any quantity.
Tobacco, according to the latest returns, is grown to the extent of about
7,000,000 lbs. in Holland, 5,000,000 lbs. in Belgium, 55,600,000 lbs. in
France, 4,700,000 lbs, in Austria, 3,000,000 lbs. in Greece, and 274,000,000
lbs. in the United States.
f I
(   92   )
«    Notes for a Year respecting the Settlements at Sumass and
Chilliwhack, British Columbia.   (See page 50.)
A Wearied traveller from Cariboo arrives.   He says:—•
< " The exprefs canoe landed us at Kinset, by the Sumass. What a noble landscape! the grass so
green, the earth so cool, the flowers so beautiful, and the supper! such a treat! fresh eggs, fresh
butter, real-tea, and cream that smacked of mountain thyme. I wished to sleep outside; no! _ I
wanted to lie outside and watch the stars and tbe river and drink the pure air all night; but the
farmer insisted on giving me a bed. I tumbled in, and was nearly lost in the mountains of down. I
assure you I was astonished by the sleep I had here."
" January 8th.—The snow has all gone from this neighbourhood, except that which has drifted in
low spots. The stock in general are looking splendid; farmers, having plenty of feed, lost none of
their animals during the last cold snap."
" Two horses dead from some disease—public meeting about bridges and roads; removing driftwood
from river; fences—the following resolution passed among others i—
"' That the Government make a survey during the coming summer of the Sumass Valley, for the
purpose of making an estimate of the cost of building a dyke to prevent the flooding by the Fraser at
high stages, of a large tract of valuable land supposed to contain from 15,000 to 25,000 acres fit for
agricultural purposes.'
" February.—Bad weather—rains and snow—three calves eaten by wolves, and some lost in
quagmires—some weak cattle died.
" March 11th.—Weather changeable; has been raining; cattle doing well; fall wheat looking well,
though winter was bad; 80 additional acres to be sown in spring—farmers busy ploughing; fences
and improvements going on; two years ago a farm sold for 450 dollars (90*. English), three months
ago, 1600 dollars (320*. English).
" New grist-mill arranged for—school flourishing.
" April ibth.—Weather beautiful—a pinch of frost occasionally—new Tariff disliked—600 doUars
(120&. English) subscribed for Wesleyan parsonage—camp meeting to be held before ' high water *
this year—seeding not yet finished—had a visit from buyers of work cattle—potatoes shipped to Yale
sold for 2 cents. (Id. English) a lb. at the landing.
" May 6th.—Another splendid tract of 'alder brush' land, 12,000 to 15,000 acres, found near
Matsqui—soil very rich—new road will go near it—80 feet above highest water. A twin heifer, after
a bad winter, when slaughtered, yielded 62£ lbs. loose fat. Stock well—new flouring-mill begun
—seeding about finished—busy planting wheat—both spring and fall wheat forcing its way out, though
the past weather has been bad—delightful weather—bright sun—cloudless sky—balmy air—unwelcome night visitor—a slight nip by Jack Frost—very unusual—mosquitoes not appeared.
" May 18th.—The Fraser rising fast.
" June- 25th.—Dry—a few showers wanted—petition about Post-office, and against all liquor-licences
—school teacher appointed—will bring his family—hotel to be built.
" June 2»tA.—Beautiful showery weather—crops well—haying will begin in a few days—the place
now has a saw-mill, grist-mill, market, school, and church.
" July 3rd.—Too dry—woods seem on fire—water at its height some weeks ago—very few mosquitoes—a farmer 60 acres wheat in one block.
" July 20th.—Haying about finished—harvesting commenced—root crops have suffered from want
of rain—school opens next Thursday—bush fires raging—smoke annoying.
" August 12th.—Fine weather—crops very heavy—the prairies that were flooded at high water have
splendid grass—harvesting drawing to close—good crops—forest burning on American side—annual
Wesleyan Camp Meeting to be on 3rd September—new parsonage begun—a farmer who sowed 5
bushels of wheat (Chili Club) got 100 bushels—the heads averaged 10 to 100 kernels each—grist-mill
nearly finished—a fins dwelling-house being erected—mosquitoes disappeared—sent 35 dollars subscription to the Royal Columbia Hospital at New Westminster.
" September.—Some farmers not quite done harvest—some still cutting wild hay for wintering—
one farmer has 50 stacks up—hay very good, owing to low overflow of Fraser River this year—a
marriage—thrashing about to commence.
September 23rd.—Many farmers busy ploughing for fall wheat—thrashing will be finished soon-*
another teacher arrived—some frost on night of 19th—heavy rain 21st, and now a gale."
'wp/.ir tfiv wiftl APPENDIX.
Abridged Newspaper Reports for one tear respecting the Lillooet-
•   Clinton Country, including Bonaparte, Williams Lake, and up to
Quesnel Mouth.   (See page 68.)
" Bonaparte Valley, January llth.—Stock has not suffered, except a few cattle which dipped on
the ice—fed on sage-brush on the side hills, not covered with snow.
" Clinton, February ith.—Had been very cold about Christmas, mercury frozen—gradually moderated to freezing-point on 10th January—ranged since 10 above to 10 below, zero—stock doing well—
sleighing splendid from the Bonaparte up—one firm will have 100,000 lbs. of bacon and hams for
Cariboo and Omineca. markets,.
" Cache Creek, February, 20fh.—Whiter gone suddenly—sudden thaw—beef cattle rolling in fat—
a few exhausted stock died% during winter.
" Clinton, March 9th.—Spring weather—all snow gone—a little frost at nights—clear sunshiny
days—farmers on the Thompson and Bonaparte busy ploughing—cattle doing well.
" Williams Lake, April 10th.—All seed in ground—cattle quite fat—Cache Creek and Bonaparte
mild spring weather.
" Lillooet, April 274ft.-—Wheat crops magnificent—cannot see the land from the road—green blades
waving like a meadow in summer.
" Clinton, July 30th.—Busy baying and harvesting—had unusual rain for such a dry climate—might
injure hay crop.
" Lfllooet, August IOtft.—Everything in the shape of a crop in the district abundant and in fine condition.
" August 20'7i.—Busy harvesting— some finished on the Fraser River, and now eating bread from
this year's wheat.
" Clinton, October llth.—-Fine CotswOld rains arrived—flour-mill finished; lumber (sawn wood) cost
30 dollars (6*. English) per thousand feet superficial; shingles for the roof cost 8 dollars (32s. English)
per thousand in number. The new thresher has threshed this month 5£ million pounds of oats
in country about Williams Lake, Lake "La Hache; and San* Jose Valley.
*• November 1th.—Snow fell on Lillooet flat (a bench of the Fraser River, 1000 feet above sea-level)
severcfrost—zero—river frozen (this was a very bad winter). In 1861, the severest winter known for
twenty years at Lillooet begun on 27th November, and may be said to have lasted to end of March."
Trade in Tinned Meats.
Looking to the future, the facts stated at page 72 are important in view of one growing trade alone
—namely, tinned meats. The following imports of this article into England are from distant
Australia, though the consumption has been mainly hitherto among the middle classes:—
..    ..    ..       Nil.     ..    ..    ..    ..value     ..
       9i i	
The effect of this has, of cOurse, been to raise the price of beef and mutton in the colonies very
The meat companies paid from 10 to 15 per cent, profit in 1871. In addition to the meat, they sell
concentrated meat-juice, taUow, marrow, tongue, hide, bones, horns, hoofs, &c.
There is probably more active speculation in the cattle business of the United States than in any
other business, but I will here state last year's prices in two of the greatest markets, namely, Chicago
and St. Louis, in order to assist the British Columbian cattle-farmer in estimating his own comparative
position.   The prices are paper money, not gold :—
" The prices of cattle steadily advanced in the Chicago market from February, ] 867, from 3*50
dollars to 7*50 dollars per 100 lb. gross, to from 5'00 dollars to 9*00 dollars per 100 lbs. gross, by
April 1st of that year, which was at a period to stimulate a very active drive of Texan cattle.
The same market on May 1st, 1868, had established a decline of 1 cent aU round per 100 lb.
gross; but the market in February, 1868, continued into March, was good, the range of prices ran
from 4 dollars to 8*50 dollars, which was at a period to influence an active drive for 1868. The
late winter and spring market of 1869 was not so satisfactory.   Prices started in February at from it
- *%.
-," \ *?
4*00 dollars to 8*30 dollars, steadily shrinking throughout that year, inducing a less proportionate
supply going into the hands of feeders, and checking to some extent the drive of Texan cattle,.
resulting in a rapid advance, and reaching in April of 1870 from 4-50 dollars to 9 dollars per 100 lbs.
gross—these values continued up to August 1st.
"The operation of feeders of cattle for the market of 1870, was, perhaps, the most profitable to
them as a class in our history, and begat a partial insanity that did not stop to reason out the
St. Louis Market, March 1872 (pee 100 lbs. gboss).
Dols.    Dols.
Choice native blood steers, av. 1300 to 1600 lbs.    ..    ..   5*25 to 5*50
Prime second-class native blood, av. 1150 to 1400 lbs     ..    ..    ..   45-0  „  5'00
Good third-grade native blood, av. 1050 to 1300 lbs. 4*00 „ 4-50
Fair butchers'steers, of-1000'to 1200 lbs. av. and over 4-00 „ 4*50
Thrifty stock steers, av. 900 to 1300 lbs 3-50 „ 4-00
Light uneven stock steers, av. 500 to 850 lbs 3*00 „  3"50
Inferior scrubby steers and heifers 2*00 „ 3-00
Good heavy fat oxen, small boned and smooth     ..    ..     3*50 „ 4*50
Coarse bony oxen, of all weights, fat      .. 2-50  „ S'OO1
Choice cows and heifers, av. 900 to 1100 lbs 2-00 „ 2-50
Good cows and heifers, av. 850 to 1000 lbs 3-50 „  4-05
Common cows and heifers, lean 3*00 „ 3*50
Inferior mixed stocK, including tailings 2-00 „ 3*00
Choice corn-fattened Texans and Cherokees 3*50 „ 4*50
Good Texan and Cherokees, corn-fattened     ..   3*00 „ 3*50
Inferior to common Texans 2*00 „ 3*00-
Veal calves, common to choice, per head .. 5-00 „ 10*00
Cows with calves, per head     ..    .. 25*00 „ 50*00"
I 5-VV-*'
30!*2^ JtP*i*
W:* K.
(   95   )
Advice to young farmers     ..     ..    30
 , words of 29
Aliens      30
Bants, savings        17
 , other  28
Beasts, eatable        20
Beet, sugar            89-90
Birds        ,     •• 21
Board and lodging          22
Bonaparte         68
Books on province          4
Building material  22
Cache Creek 68
Canadian Pacific Railway   .. 5,12, 72
Capitalists, large and small..     ..    26
Cariboo 76
Cascade range               7,46
Chilcotin         70
Churches         "   •.     • •    31
Classes, suitable    ..     ..     ..     ..    23
Climate       13-14
Clinton     68
Coal      ..     ..6,78
Coal mining 77
Columbia River     ..     ..       14,55,63
Copper mining       80
Debt, public 15
Douglas fir      81
East Cascade "Region:—Surface,
products, irrigation, grazing,
healthiness of cattle, arable
farming, description of various
districts             54-70
Emigrants, suitable      ..     .. *   ..    23
Exports 33
Family (300Z. a-year)     20
Farm prices 16
■ products             6
 produce in other colonies ..    41
 in foreign countries   42
Farming 7-9
Vancouver Island .. .. 36-45
New Westminster District 47-50
East Cascade Region       ..      59-69
Sheep farming       83-86
Also see Appendix.
Fish, for household use       ..     ..    21
Fisheries       86-89
Flax growing         90
Foreigner's impressions       ..     ..      5
Fraser's Lake  7
Fraser River, 7, 11, 13, 21, 47, 49, 55r
68, 88, and Appendix.
Free grants  8
Freestone         79
Freshets  49
Fruits, wild  20
Fuel          22
Game for household use
Goats      .<
Gold mining;  ..
Government   ..  32
Harbours..     ..     ..     .. . ..     .. 35
Hat River        69
Homestead Act       8
Hope         67
Hospitals          34
Household articles:—
Prices  19
Servants       23
Housing.  21
How to go
How to send money          28
Justice, administration of
Kamloops       48,65
Kootenay      64, 76
-, popular names for
j Leases :—Land, mining and timber    8
j Lillooet-Clinton District
And Appendix.
I Lvtton     67
Markets  ..
Minerals ..
Mining    ..
..     ..       70-72,86
Money table 18
 in the province     27
 , how to send            28
Mouth of the ■ Fraser'     49
Nanaimo Coal Company
Nasse-Skena District .
Navigation (coast)
1 V
Navigation (inland)          13
Newspapers 31
New Westminster District  ..     47, 49
Nicola      48,66
Officers' land grants    8
Omineca 76
5, 15
Osoyoos  63
Passage money        27
Population       7
Post rates         31
Meat in Great Britain     ..     .. 43
Cattle in United States   ..     .. 43
And Appendix. ■
Public debt      15
 Schools •       30
 Works..     :  35
Puget Sound "Company:  8
Queen Charlotte Islands
-Quesnel   ..   • v.   • *..
Boad tax ..     	
..    53
..    68
..    12
Telegraph lines           ..    34
Thompson River     -LZ'1?
(47, do
Tidal overflow         49
Timber       80-83
' Times'' opinion  4
Tobacco  91
Tonnage  34
Trade        34
.Transport and travel      10
-Wages       16
^Weights "and measures  19
West Cascade Region:—Scenery,
soils, New Westminster District,
Nasse-Skena District, Queen
Charlotte Islands      ..     ..      46-53
Williams Lake        68
Wood, prices of        21
Wool markets"         86
..     .. 86
..     .. 29
..     .. 17
Saw-milling   .
Schools, public         30
Servants, household       23
Sheep-farming        83
Shuswap  65
Silver-mining  79
Similkameen Valley       63
Stewart's Lake	
Sugar (Beet)       89-90
Sumass and Chilli-whack       48-50, 62
And Appendix.
Words of advice
Working man's position
Vancouver Island, description of.. 36
Clearing land       39
Cropping       40
Farming land      3S
Farm produce  43
Interior         39
Labour on farmsj in  44
Population  36
Prices of farm stock  43
Production  41
.-Soils    ..   •■..     •.  37
' Water  38
- Winter food for stock in  ..     .. 44
Victoria  5
Visitors 6,19
Notes for a Year respecting the Settlements .at Sumass and Chilliwack,
•British Columbia 92
Abridged Newspaper Reports for one year respecting the Lillooet-
Clinton Country i*     93
Trade in Tinned Meats 93
** <KT
- -> *
Harbour and Site of Victoria
View near Victoria Title-page
Government Street, Victoria  ..    ..     page 36
..   Frontispiece.
Columbia Street, New Westminster
East Cascade Region     	
page 46
„     54
;• ■.» *.» r i
mmm&t^&&z*w!m TURNER, BEETOK, & TURSTALL,
Commission tlJjMJjmits,
Basis Ale, bottled by M. B. Foster <2f Sons,
Guinness s Stout, do.    do.
Sanford, Vail, & Bickley, of Hamilton, Canadian Tweeds.
D. Mclnnes & Co., Hamilton, Canadian Tweeds,
J.   P.   TUNSTALL   &   Co.;
Nl t^iMt
East India, Colonial and General Outfitters,
Manufacturers of Cabin and Portable Military Furniture,
Bedding, Regulation Overland Trunks and Bags, Bullock
Trunks, Sea Chests, Mess Utensils, &c. &c«
The prices quoted are for goods of a superior character, and the
lowest at which such qualities can be manufactured, although lower
estimates can be submitted if required.
Outfits completed and arranged—every article washed, marked
and packed without trouble to the parties.
•4 Plans of ships sailing, with the prices for accommodation, forwarded upon application. Baggage shipped either in London or
Southampton. Cabins fitted and every arrangement made conducive
to the comfort and convenience of passengers.
$5 1
9i vff-^v
I**   •,-•,►-•
«*•* •***
Incorporated by Royal Charter., 1862.
Capital £500,000 in 25,000 Shares of £20 each.
With power to increase.
Court of JBitettors.
T. W. L. MACKEAN, Esq., Chairman. ROBERT GILLESPIE, Esq., Deputy Chairman.
General Manager—HENRY E. RANSOM, Esq.
Bankers—Messrs. SMITH, PAYNE & SMITHS.
In England.
Bank of Liverpool.
North and South Wales Bank.
In Scotland.
British Linen Company Bank.
In Ireland.
Bank of Ireland.
In New York.
Messrs. R. Bell & C. F. Smithers, 59, Wall St.
In Canada.
Bank of Montreal.
In Mexico and Peru.
London Bank of Mexico—Mexico-
Ditto Lima.
In Australia.
Bank of Australasia.
Commercial Banking Company of Sydney.
English, Scottish, and Australian Chartered Bk-
In New Zealand.
Bank of New Zealand.
In China and Japan.
Oriental Bank Corporation, Hongkong, Shanghai, and Yokohama.
The Bank grants Letters of Credit on its Branches at San Francisco, in California ; Portland, in
Oregon; and "Victoria, in British Columbia ; and similar Credits are granted by the British Linen Company Bank, the North and South Wales Bank in Liverpool, and the Bank of Liverpool.
The Bank also purchases, or forwards for collection, Drafts on the above Branches.
Importers & General Commission Merchants,
London Office:—31,  GREAT  ST.  HELEN'S, E.C.
3 tff
Established in 1836.—Incorporated by Royal Charter in 1840.
listaftlisfjmetttg m America.
General Manager—CHARLES McNAB, Esq.
NEW YORK—Agents, Messrs. JOHN PATON and D. B. DAVIDSON, 48, Wall Street.
SAN FRANCISCO.—Agents, Messrs. Archd. McKINLAY and A. S. FINNIE, 322, California Street.
Montreal, Quebec : Quebec.—Ottawa, Arnprior, Renfrew, Toronto, Kingston, Napanee,
Hamilton, Brantford, Paris, Dunville, London : Ontario.—Halifax : Nova Scotia.—St. John,
St. Stephen : New Brunswick,—Victoria, Barkerville : British Columbia.
The BANK GRANTS CREDITS on its Branches and New York and San Francisco Agents payable
on presentatioti, free of Charge.
Also Purchases or forwards for Collection BILLS on AMERICA and COUPONS for Di-Jdends on
AMERICAN STOCKS, and undertakes the Purchase and Sale of STOCK, and other Money Business
Bank of Liverpool; Bradford Commercial Banking Company, Yorkshire ; Halifax and Huddersfield
Union Banking Company; Manchester and Salford
Bank ; Union Bank of Manchester, Limited ; Birmingham Banking Company, Limited; Birmingham
Town and District Banking Company; Lloyds
Banking Company, Limited, Birmingham • Wolverhampton and Staffordshire Banking Company ;
Norwich and Norfolk Bank (Messrs. Gurney & Co.);
Devon and Cornwall Banking Company; West
Cornwall Bank (Messrs. John Michael Williams
& Co.); West of England and South Wales District
Bank • London and County Bank; National Provincial Bank of England; Alexanders, Maw & Co.,
Ipswich; Dingley and Co., Launceston ; Garfit
& Co.; Gloucestershire Banking Company ; Lamb-
ton & Co., Newcastle-on-Tyne ; Lancaster Banking Company; Lincoln and Lindsey Banking
Company, Louth; Stuckey's Banking Company.
124, BisJiopsgate Street Within,
London, B.C., July, 1872.
Bank of Scotland; Clydesdale Banting Company;   Commercial Bank of Scotland;   National
Bank  of Scotland;  North of  Scotland  Banking
Company; Royal Bank of Scotland.
Bank of Ireland;* National Bank I Provincial
Bank of Ireland ; Royal Bank of Irelald.
AUSTRALIA.—Union Bank of Australia.
Union Bank of Australia; Bank of New Zealand.
Chartered Mercantile Bank of India,   London,
and China; Agra Bank, Limited.
WEST INDIES.—Colonial Bank.
PARIS.—Messrs. Marcuard, Andre & Co.
LYONS,—Credit Lyonnais.
R. W. BRADFORD, Secretary.
I A**
A First-class Vessel is despatched about every Two Months.
A First-class Iron Vessel is despatched about every Six Weeks.
An Iron Clipper Ship.is despatched Once a Month.
'   Apply to G. H. FLETCHER & CO.,
9 & 12 a, Exchange Buildings, Liverpool.
"»  1
fmw\m^-^c, ,.^% w^mm&£vd 1
Intending Emigrants for British Columbia or other parts of Canada,
should apply to the Local Agents of the Mississippi and Dominion
Steam Ship Company, Limited, or to the Managing Directors, Flinn,
Main & Montgomery, 12, Lancelots Hey, Chapel Street, Liverpool, from
whom they can obtain passages from Liverpool to Quebec at REDUCED
The Canadian Government has made arrangements with the above
Company to convey Emig#ants at " Assisted" Rates, viz., £4. $s. per
Adult over 8 years, £2 2s. 6d. between 1 year and 8 years, and 14^. 2d*.
under 1 year, from Liverpool to Quebec.
Steerage, or Third-class Passengers, are the only Class to which this
assistance extends.
Passengers have to provide themselves with Plate, Mug, Knife, Fork,
Spoon, Water Can, and Bedding.
Leave LONDON and PLYMOUTH regularly throughout the season
for QUEBEC and MONTREAL, carrying Passengers and Goods at
moderate through rates to all important places in CANADA, the Western
States of America, and BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Chief Cabin Passengers are provided with a very liberal Table, Bedding
and all requisites, except Wines, Spirits, and Beer, which can be obtained
on board.
The Saloons and Sleeping-rooms of this line are, well ventilated and of a
superior description.    All the Steamships carry Doctors and Stewardesses.
Chief Cabin Passengers by this line are not subjected to the annoyance
caused by excessive numbers of Steerage Passengers.
Baggage is conveyed from the Steamships to the Railway Cars free of
DAVID SHAW, Montreal ROSS & Co., Quebec.
T. MEADOWS & Co., The Albany, Liverpool; and Milk Street, Cheapside.
21, Billiter Street, London.
ies£ I
IK   '
Under Contract with the Government of Canada for t^te Conveyance of the
The Steamers run in connection with the Grand Trunk and other Railways, forwarding
Passengers on easy terms to all Stations in Canada and the United States of America.
S.S. CASPLfflT. "
„    ST. DAVID.
„    ST. ANDREW.
Every TUESDAY and THURSDAY, calling at LONDONDERRY (Ireland) on the
following day, to take on board Passengers and Mails; and from
Every ALTERNATE TUESDAY, calling at QUEENSTOWN on the f|lowing
'day lor Mails and Passengers.
Every TUESDAY, calling at DUBLIN to embark Passengers.
LIVERPOOL   TO   ST.   JOHN'S, 'N.F., ' f
Once a-Fortnight.
Cabin Fares—From LIVERPOOL to any of the above Ports, 15 and 18 Guineas ; and
from GLASGOW, 13 Guineas.
QUEBEC   TO   LIVERPOOL     jSV   :      :
Every SATURDAY, calling at LONDONDERRY to land Malls artd Passenger!
Cabin Fare—80 Dollars and 70 Dollars.
#'",   ,. ^BALTIMORE  TO   UVERPOOL.J^   1&P
Every ALTERNATE   TUESDAY, caping at QUEEJNBJfQWN uh^nd Mails and
Passengers.    Cabin Fare—80 and 70 Dollars.
Every ALTERNATE TUESDAY, calling at QUEENSTOWlN; to land Mails and
Passengers.    Cabin Fare—8q and 70 Dollars.
INTERMEDIATE PASSAGE, 9 Guineas, mcltt#ng Beds, Bedding, and all ne<-*ssary
utensils^* STEERAGE PASSAGE.. 6 Guineas to either QUEBEC, PORTLAND,
plentiful supply of cooked Provisions.
Children between one and eight, Half-price ; and infants under one year, Ten Shillings.
Baggage taken from the Ocean Steamships to the Railway Cars free of expense.
The Steamers of this Line are well known for their rapid passages. The Saloon and sleeping, accommodation is unsurpassed for elegance and comfort, and the style of living is all that one could wish. Cabin
fare, however, does not include Wines and Liquors, but they can be obtained on board on the usual terms.
THROUGH TICKETS can be issued to all parts of Canada, the United Slates, and British Columbia.
RETURN TICKETS issued on favourable terms, and good for Twelve Months.
The attention of travellers to and from the WESTERN STATES is specially directed to this route.
tt^** During the Winter Months—from the beginning of November until the first week in April—the
Steamers go to Portland instead of Quebec, the same Railway facilities being in operation there for
Through Booking to all parts of Canada and the States.
For further Particulars appfy to
••-  T
*V T"**v'  


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