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Thirty-seventh annual report of the Victoria British Columbia Board of Trade : together with various… Victoria (B.C.). Board of Trade 1916

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Array THIRTY-SEVENTH 
ANNUAL REPORT
OFTHEBritish Columbia
Board of Trade    Thirty-Seventh  Annual Report
VICTORIA
3RITISH   COLUMBIA
Board of Trade
BOARD   OF  TRADE   BUILDING,   VICTORIA,   B.  C.
JUNE,   191 6 CONTENTS
ILLUSTRATIONS Thirty-Seventh Annual report
VICTORIA, BRITISH COLUMBIA, BOARD OF TRADE
To the Member,
Trade, Yu
of the Via
oria, B. 0.
, British Columbia, Board of.
Gentlemen:—In reviewing the progress made in
Canada during the past twelve months, the features that
stand out most prominent are the record crops of the
Prairie Provinces, and the industrial activities in the manufacture of munitions of war in the Eastern Provinces. For
many previous years, Canada enjoyed prosperity in large
measure, due to the expenditure of enormous sums of money
" upon public works, principally railways; and in the building of cities in the Western Provinces with all the latest
utilities, on a scale more with a view to future requirement
than for the needs of the day.
The high-water mark of these enterprises had been
passed prior to the outbreak of the war, and it was apparent that a season of production in large volume would be
necessary to furnish traffic for the railways and, incidentally, to utilize the accommodations provided in the cities.
War conditions afforded an opportunity for production,'and
in the Prairie Provinces the acreage under wheat and
grains was extended, and, thanks to favorable weather,
the harvest was most satisfactory both in regard to quantity and quality. In Eastern Canada, the centre of manufactures, every suitable plant has been, and is, working at
high pressure in turning out munitions of war.
In British Columbia, affairs have not been so favourable; for, apart from the greater distance we are from the war zone, conditions do not so readily respond to war
requirements, except in lumber for export. The foreign
demand for lumber has been unprecedented, and, if it had
been possible to secure vessels for making deliveries, the
effect on business generally would have been very appreciable; and this Province would possibly have enjoyed its
full share of Canada's prosperity.
Encouragement is found in the absence of any general
complaints, which is due to the steady increase in value of
production from our natural resources in minerals-and fisheries, as well as timber, and the determination to develop
our agriculture and industries. Construction on such
sound foundations cannot fail to withstand any future disturbances, and any present depression, in years to come,
will probably be regarded as a blessing in disguise.
Canada's While  Canada  has  not  been   slow  in
Part In profiting from material advantages arising
the War from the war, she has made heavy sacrifices
in the loss of some of the best of her manhood. There are few homes in which the war has not
become a personal matter; especially in British Columbia,
where the call to arms has been most nobly responded to,
and where some relative has not been either included in
the Roll of Honour, wounded or is not fighting in the
trenches. Canada has already enlisted about a quarter of
a million soldiers, and has set herself the task to enlist as
many more. The quality of the Canadian Expeditionary
Forces has been tested, and future generations will read
with pride the historians' account of the part which they
took, in April last, in the battles of Ypres, Festubert,
Givenchy and elsewhere.
Employment Some   of   the   men   engaged   in   those
of Returned   actions have returned, being no longer fit for
Soldiers       military  service;  and  in   October  last this
Board of Trade organized a Returned Soldiers' Employment Committee, with the object of finding occupations for them. This committee is now working under
the Returned Soldiers' Aid Commission (British Columbia).
One difficulty in British Columbia has been to get men
to engage in farming. There are large areas of suitable
land, the soil is. fertile, the climate is excellent, and good
prices are obtainable far all that can be raised. But these
advantages are offset by the lure of the cities, where the
hours of labour are shorter and wages good, together with
more attractions for spare time than is found in sparsely
settled agricultural districts. A committee of this Board
of Trade, in a report as per copy herewith, has recommended a .plan of closer settlement of farm lands, which,
if carried out, gives promise of making farming more
attractive. It is incumbent upon the Government of Canada to assist in rehabilitating her soldiers after the war,
and it is gratifying to state that the recommendations of
the committee have been embodied in the Agricultural
Training and Land Settlement plans drafted by the Provincial Returned Soldiers Commission.
Shipbuilding Shipbuilding  has  been   engaged  in   in
British Columbia for many years, and some
locally built vessels employed in coastwise services have
proved satisfactory in all requirements. Local shipbuilders
are seriously handicapped in competing with British shipyards; a British ship with full equipment being admitted
to Canadian register duty free, whereas when a similar
ship is built in Canada nearly everything imported for use
in construction is dutiable; and the wages, especially in
British Columbia, are much higher than in Great Britain.
This Board of Trade has urged upon the Dominion
Government that all materials used in building a ship
should be admitted into Canada duty free, or, failing this,
that a bonus should be given on Canadian-built vessels
equivalent to the duties paid on imported materials used
in construction. These representations have not been
successful; therefore, the attention of the Provincial Gov- ernment has been called to the abnorm:
of tonnage for lumber shipment and
resolution, as follows:
conditions in lack
ecedented high
und expression
mp:
"That the Provincial Government be asked to take into
consideration the desirability of assisting shipbuilding in
the Province and the provision of tonnage for carrying
overseas the products of British Columbia, and further, the
Committee would recommend in particular
Provincii
based on
be requested to
lage, toward the
British Columbia,
,  British  Corpor-
cost of construction of vessels built i
according to the requirements, of Llo;
ation, or Bureas Veritas.
"That the Dominion Government be requested,
through the Provincial Government, to grant a bonus of a
similar character, and also to remit the duty on the
materials used in the construction of such ships.
"That the Provincial Government be requested to
grant a subsidy for a term of years to all ships built in
British Columbia in respect to all British Columbia products carried in such vessels, the freight charges to be
approved by the Government.
"That the Provincial Government be asked to favourably consider the guaranteeing of bonds to a reasonable
proportion of the cost of vessels built in British Columbia,
such bonus being a first charge on the vessel, and proper
provision being made for the prepayment of the bonds,
and with such Government control as may seem expedient,
by commission or otherwise."
The Provincial Government have announced their
intention to provide for assistance to shipbuilding at this
Agriculture In   October  last  this   Board  of Trade
appointed five of its members a committee,
with  power to  add  to  their  number,  to  investigate  and
report upon the local supply of agricultural food products.
The   enlarged   committee   includes   Government   officials, -dat
.en c
:e becomes
ver Island
here fairly
satisfactory
^questions are probed, the greater their ii
Apparent.   The ground being covered is
and adjacent islands,-and there are loc;
close  settlement  and  co-operation are
results.
Butter made at the Cowichan and Comox Creameries
commands the highest prices in our markets. At Courtenay there is a .milk condensing company which is produ
an article second to none. The strawberries grown near
Victoria take first place in the Provincial markets, and are
shipped by the carload to the adjoining Provinces. A bulb
farm, near Victoria, has established proof of horticultural
possibilities. On Vancouver Island, as a whole, the settlers
are scattered and widely separated.
The cost to the Government in road construction for
these farmers is heavy, while complaints are general that
steamer and railway freights are excessive, although in
some cases the carrying companies, owing to the small
movements of produce, would not be compensated for their
service if they received more than double their present
rates. Possibly one of the greatest disadvantages a farmer
encounters by not working on a co-operative plan is the
high standard of packing and grading which the consumers
have been educated to. Nearly everything for consumption is now standardized and attractively packed, and
produce not so placed on the market necessarily suffers.
The Dominion Government is giving most valuable
assistance to the farmers by furnishing, free of charge,
pedigreed male stock for breeding purposes, besides educational work generally. To follow the recommendations in
feeding, stock, testing cows for the purpose of ascertaining
whether or not they are profitable to keep, excites an
interest in farming, and raises it to a commercial plane of
accounting from what, in too many cases, has been VICTORIA,  BRITISH  (
fined to physical hard work and consequently small returns.
On the Saanich Peninsula an experimental farm station
has lately been established, and the results obtained there
are given the widest publicity.
The Provincial Government also is doing everything
possible to encourage farming. Experts in each of the
several departments visit the various districts, where they
lecture and advise generally any enquirer. Acts of the
Legislature encourage co-operation in all branches, and the
Agricultural Credits Act will he in operation very shortly.
It is difficult to suggest what further assistance the
Dominion or Provincial Governments could give to farming, still it will he found that products of the soil imported
into British Columbia or received from Eastern Canadian
Provinces aggregate in value an average of about twenty
million dollars per annum.
The Provincial Department of Agriculture is at present
administered by the Minister of Finance, but the Government have announced their intention, at this session of the
Legislature, to provide a separate portfolio of Agriculture.
The following information has been kindly furnished
by Mr. W. E. Scott, Deputy Minister of Agriculture:
I ha-
j  honour
to submit herew
t  year,  more  especial!
ent Gulf Islands.
epoi
al
tural home prodm
was $30,184,100; i
1914.
Home Production and Imports
1915 has shown a satisfactory increase in agricul-
ion. In 1914, the total volue of home produce
1915, $30,873,700, an increase of $689,600 over
The
than  the;
10%. B;
in prodm
$3,087,37C
who say tha
ctual increase in production, however, is much greater
figures would lead one to suppose. Prices of farm
l 1915 show a reduction all round of approximately
ed on the same prices as prevailed in 1914, the increase
ion of 1915 over 1914 would, therefore, be $689,600 plus
which equals $3,776,970, a very effective answer to those
ture is not making progress.in our Province. A still more satisfactory state of affairs is shown as regards
importations of agricultural produce. The total value of all
imports in the year 1914 was $25,199,125; in 1915, $16,402,561, or
a decrease of $8,796,564.
The campaign of "Patriotism and Production" carried out
early last year amongst farmers by Federal and Provincial Governments  undoubtedly  has  had  ;
certain   extent  responsible   for   our   increase   in   production,   and
consequent  decrease  in  importa
The following comparative
imports for the last four years:
Home  Production,   Agricultural   Products,   British   Columbia,
1912 to  1915
1912 1913 1914 1915
Total Value Total Value Total Value Total Value
$23,323,269 $26,222,033 $30,184,100 $30,873,700
ised c
The folio'
along the various lines of farming:
Agricultural Production and Impoi
Desc
Live  Stock     $ 8,797,875 $ 3,006,619
Meats   ..'  1,864,673 2,414,195
Poultry  Products    ■ • 1,464,720 810,403
Dairy Products    3,034,340 2,366,136
Fruits and Vegetables   .... 4,450,492 362,695
Fodders     5,816,968 181,312
Grains and Mill Stuffs  .... 3,626,330 4,184,128
Miscellaneous     314,523 6,504
Indians   (output   of   Indian
Reserves)      1,502,980              	
Totals  $30,872,901 $13,331,992
ie values
ts Into British Columbia, 1912 to 1915
1913 1914 1915
Total Value Total Value Total Value
$20,070,757 $25,199,125 $16,402,561
I table Agricultural Conditions
Crops—Crops were, on the whole, satisfactory on Vancouver
and adjacent Islands, though the exceptionally dry summer
lessened the yield somewhat, especially of later maturing crops—
roots, potatoes and late vegetables especially suffering.
Hay and grain crops were about normal, and harvested in
excellent condition.
Tree fruits were a light crop, but of excellent quality, and
free from fungous diseases.    Prices received were a great improve-
Small fruits were slightly below average, but of good quality,
and growers received very satisfactory prices, largely owing to.
co-operative selling, which was carried out -by the organizations
lately established on the Island.
Potatoes were a light crop, but of good quality. Prices were
very low during the fall, but farmers who stored them till spring
have secured satisfactory prices.
Vegetables were generally a good crop, but the market was
over supplied, and prices received by producers unremunerative.
Fodder Crops—The past year has plainly shown the necessity
for farmers growing soiling and fodder crops on their places, and
also the necessity for adopting the silo. Pasturage was very light
during the summer months, due to the heavy drought which prevailed. Those who were growing soiling and fodder crops and
producing ensilage were able to keep up the flow of milk from
their dairy cattle during the dry months.
It is satisfactory to note that the growth of fodder and soiling
crops, and also the use of ensilage, is being rapidly taken up by
stock breeders on the Island.
Live Stock
Dairying—I am glad to report that
farming, for which this Island is so p
making satisfactory progress. Our'cream
ful year. Prices for dairy products ha-,
level, and a marked improvement is sh'ov
.rtant branch of
itiy  adapted,   is
kept at a  satisfact
i in the quality of cj
Va
Isla
grow clover and fodder crops to the
very best advantage, and therefore provides ideal conditions for
dairying. E.very effort should be made to encourage this
important phase of the live stock industry on Vancouver Island
and adjacent Gulf Islands. returns by keeping a flock of well-
Sheep do very well on Vancouver
irt of   a   general   system   of   mixed
rung.
Panthers and dogs are the greatest drawbacks. An increase
in bounty on panthers would help to solve the panther question.
The dog evil is the worst menace, and it would be necessary to
have more stringent regulations for the protection of the farmer
against loss from this source before we can hope to see sheep
raising taken up by our Island farmers to the extent to which it
should be.
Registration of all dogs kept in our rural districts, and the
imposition of a heavy dog tax, would undoubtedly help to mitigate
this very real evil.
Hog Raising—This phase of the live stock industry is, along
with dairying, making satisfactory progress. Great improvement
has been effected by farmers in the quality of stock kept by them.
The man who has skim milk from his cows and, in addition,
grows the necessary amount of hog feed on his farm is making
good returns from hog raising.
Poultry
Raising-
-There    has,    unfortunately,    been    a
very
.rked dec
rease in poultry rai
sing during 1915, due to the
large
inc
:rease in ■
the cost oi
: grains a:
nd mill feeds during the earlj
- part
of
the year,
which  re
suited in
poultry raisers selling off a
large
pr<
^portion <
Df their la
ying stock.
Present
indicatioi
is,   howev
■er,  point   to   this   shrinkage
soon
being made
up again,
and, owin
g to the fact that poultry bre
:eders
na
turally so
ld off thei
r inferior
birds, we may naturally expect to
ha
ve a bett<
:r class of
birds tak
e their place.
Poultry
men   who
produce
their   poultry   feed   on   the
ranch
ha
ve, in spi
te of high
prices, m
ade satisfactory returns; but
those
wt
io  had  to
pay for
all feed c
onsumed at the stiff prices
which
pr<
pvailed.  f<
Dund that
their sea
son's operations were unrem
ati
ve.     It   i:
3,   howevei
f,   only  a
temporary  setback,  and  we
may
j^£?-wi
th confide
:nce look 1
:orward t
j poultry raising taking its ri|
?htful
ph
ice on thi
' Island aj
jain before long.
Land
Clearing
Conside
ring the  i
inancial  c
jonditions  and  general   hard
times,
id   clearir
ig  has  progressed  :
in   a  very   satisfactory   manm
sr,   as
licated   b;
y   the   sal.
.s   of   Go
The    . 12                           VICTORIA,  BRITISI
I  COLUMBIA,  BOARD  OF TRADE
completion   of   the   Esquirr
Courtenay will undoubtedly
ment of that splendid farm
alt   &   Nanaimo   Railway   system   to
help towards a more rapid developing district—the Comox Valley.
New  districts  have  als
facilities afforded by the c
in the near future, become
3 been opened up and transportation
jmpletion of this line, and these will,
producing districts.
Co-operation—Farmers
tion   along   sound   business
farming, and several new cc
have  recently been inaugur
are beginning to realize that co-opera-
-operative organizations on the Island
ated.
The Cowichan, Nanaim
had a successful year.
o, Comox and Island Creameries have
Gordon   Head   and   K
Associations were started, a
these  organizations,  to  sel
than they have done previoi
ratings   Co-operative   Fruit    Growers'
id fruit growers were enabled, through
their  crops  to  far  better  advantage
sly.
Successful public marke
Nanaimo, and, by this mear
together to their mutual ad
public markets,  being cons
will undoubtedly help  towa
best management of public
ts are being conducted at Victoria and
s, producer and consumer are coming
vantage.    The policy of assistance to
dered by  the  Provincial  Government,
rds the  successful formation  and the
markets where they are necessary.
Farmers' and Women's
Institute work has progressed in an
eminently satisfactory manner, and co-operation is the fundamental
principle of these organizations.
Patriotism, Production and Thrift—This is the slogan for the
present year. Farmers are being urged to grow more and better
crops, and to keep more and better stock. It is, therefore, surely
the duty of all consumers to do their part by purchasing produce
from the British Columbia farmer in preference to the imported
article.
If we will all pull together and do our duty as patriotic citizens, and insist on being supplied with home-grown produce and
home-manufactured goods, we shall quickly improve conditions in
this Province. Let us endeavor to keep, in so far as possible, our
own money in circulation at home, and then we shall all benefit.
Every dollar we send out is lost to the Province, and we are so
much the poorer. Let us remember this, and each of *us do our
share towards supporting the campaign for "Patriotism, Production and Thrift."
Co-operative  Land   Settlement—The
:ssful  settle- ANNUAL REPORT
13
generally
with  the
better soc
co-operati
throughout
a co-operat
isolation   c:
ve effort.
the  Province,
ive land settlen
aused   by   indi-
is and the nee
must undoubtedly
lent plan, which w
ridual   settlement,
essary facilities foi
be  c
ill do
arried
afford
:essful
The plan proposed by the Com:
the   question   of   taking   care   of   r<
advantage, be made to apply to all
Province.
stun
futu
ion appointed
led   soldiers   E
re land settlen
night.
nsider
with
n this
Agricultural    Credit   Act-
Agricultural Act of 1915, under th<
on  approval of a  Board  of  Com
Act, be
—The putting into effect of the
; provisions of which loans may,
missioners appointed under the
made to farmers for the legitimate development of then-
farms, and for increasing production therefrom, on a
and at a reasonable rate of interest, will mark an impoi
agricultural development in our Province.
The two chief difficulties confronting farmers at i
day are the question of securing money on a long-tern
at a favourable rate of interest for the develop]
of their holdings, and the question of marketing their produce at
a price which will enable them to make a satisfactory living off
their places.
The Agricultural Credit Act, when put
the first difficulty. A carefully thought <
towards  the formation of public markets,
< the marketing difficulty.
Futui
Settlement—The
inclusion
of   th.
nflict in Europe must inevitably witness a large influx of
mts  to  Canada.    British Columbia, with her unrivalled
srting and residential attractions, will attract a very large
* of these immigrants.   We must be ready to
/e  some good system whereby the immigrant may be pu
ich without any unnecessary delay with those who require
different parts  of the  Pre
be   available  with   regai
and the  opportuni
each, so that land seekers may be directed towards the right part
of the Province to suit their particular requirements. The establishment of Government Labour Bureaus undertaken by the Federal or Provincial Government would undoubtedly help towards
a satisfactory solution of this question. 14
IBIA, BOARD OF TRADE
lay look forward to 1
i Vancouver Island espec
large influx of people who wish to settle in a country with good
climatic conditions, and where they will have an opportunity of
leading a quiet and peaceful existence. Let us be ready to receive
these people, and to help them to find what they want.
To ensure our full meed of prosperity, every legitimate effort
must be made to encourage the settlement of our vacant lands.
We have just passed through an artificial period, and are now-
endeavouring to rectify past mistakes and to develop our Province
Our greatest source of wealth will be our agricultural industry.
If it is neglected, we cannot have full prosperity.   The food supply
is the basis of a country's wealth.    Let us use every effort, there-   -
fore, to get the right man on the right piece of land/ and, when he -
is  there,  to  help   him  to  overcome  the  physical  difficulties  with
which he has to contend, and to produce therefrom the fruits of I
the earth, which our fertile soils, with the unique climatic conditions which we enjoy, will, with right treatment, yield in greater _
variety and abundance than any other Province in the Dominion.
■ Pr
ra destiny, and peace,
Pacific   Province   of
itish Columb
Canadian
Northern
Pacific
Railway
mtir
ital :
filled with S.
of the Comp;
but of greater importance
drawn by a single engine
bridge at New Westminst
Another time mark in the history of
Canada was established in October last,
when the first passenger train reached
Pacific Coast salt water over the Canadian
Northern Railway, Canada's third trans-
e. This train consisted of fifteen coaches,
ators and Members of Parliament as guests
y.   Fast time was made throughout the trip,
the
Ferry System
Connection   with   this   Island
made by steam transfer ferries, one c
The approach to the ferry transfer
sr River
: of thia
which
p and a temporary wharf, with a capacity of 7,000 tons, have
been constructed at Patricia Bay, and construction of the
slips both there and on the Mainland will be proceeded
with at an early date.
Patricia Bay Tracklaying was completed 1
Branch        to  the  City  of Victoria,  and  eai
Summer   all   necessary   buildings
erected and the line put into operation.
Victoria
Terminals
The approach to the term
ner Songhees Reserve across Selkirk
Water is being constructed. This structure
will consist of a Scherzer rolling lift bridge of seventy feet
clear opening flanked by a temporary pile trestle, the latter
to be replaced in eight years by a permanent steel and concrete construction.
Until the Johnson Street Bridge is const:
complete development of the terminals cannot
taken, but a partial development of the termini
carried on north of the Point Ellice Bridge.
Victoria- Grading   between   Victoria   and   mile
Alberni Line   136.5, a point about 4.5 miles south of Port
Alberni,    has    been    completed,   with   the
exception of some grading between mile, 112 and 120, which
will require two months to complete.
' All timber trestles are completed as far as Mileage 112,
the construction of the raminder will occupy two months
for completion. No steel bridging has been .erected, as
these structures cannot be built until the material required
be brought to each bridge site by rail.
Esquimalt The   Esquimalt   &   Xanaimo   Railway,
& Nanaimo   which is the Canadian Pacific Railway Corn-
Railway      pany's Vancouver Island  system,  was  not
extended during the past twelve months, but
some wooden bridges   were  renewed with  concrete   and
steel on a permanent basis, and several miles of new heavy line on Malahat
16 VICTORIA,  BRITISH  COLUMBIA, BO
steel were laid on old sections of the..
Hill.
The Canadian Pacific Railway Company's freight cars
enter Victoria over this line, and there are car .ferry slips
at Ladysmith and at Esquimalt.
Notwithstanding the war, logging operations have
been prosecuted in the Cowichan Lake district, logs being
hauled to Crofton and Chemainus over the new Cowichan
Lake branch, thus opening up one of the richest timber
regions on Vancouver Island.
A complete up-to-date shop terminal, ten-stalled round
house, machine repairing shop, car repairing shop and
store, built on concrete foundations and brick and stone
superstructure, have been erected in recent years, which
will form part of the Esquimalt .& Nanaimo Railway terminal facilities on the former Songhees Indian Reserve,
thus establishing Victoria as the general headquarters
repair and rebuilding point for the Island system of the
Canadian Pacific Railway, which now comprises over 200
miles of first class line.
Victoria The Victoria & Sidney Railway, besides
& Sidney     serving the Saanich Peninsula, is a connect-
Railway      ing  link  between  Victoria  and  the   Great
Northern   Railway   Company's   transcontinental system.    Freight cars are transferred between the
Mainland and this Island on barges.
The superstruction of the Ogden Point
Ogden Point
Breakwater
Breakwater has been completed to a length
of 1,800 feet, and there remains 730 feet
additional to construct to finish the work. During the
past twelve months 237,900 tons of rubble stone were
deposited in foundations, and the concrete laid in the superstruction aggregated 17,500 cubic yards. The superstruction is protected against wave action by granite blocks,
and 79,900 tons were laid during the period under review.
The Sir John Jackson (Canada) Ltd., are the contractors. Ocean Docks Messrs. Grant Smith Co. & McDonnell,
Ltd., have the contract for two piers inside
the breakwater. These piers are being constructed of reinforced concrete cribbing filled in with rubble. Nineti
cribs have been sunk into position on the pier site, and
during the past twelve months 83,500 cubic yards of filling
has been deposited between these cribs. Rubble and
broken stone deposited in the foundation aggregated about
38,500 tons. The pier side, nearest the breakwater, will be
1,000 feet in length. The other side of that pier, and the
sides of the adjoining pier, will be 800 feet each. Each of
these piers will be 250 feet wide, separated 300 feet by
water, with a minimum depth of 35 feet at low tide. The
time limit of this contract is March, 1916.
Inner Harbour The improvement of the Victoria Inner
Harbour has proceeded continuously. The
main channel has a depth of water 20 feet at low tide, and
it has been widened and straightened by dredging and the
removal of rock.
It is contemplated to extend these works to give access
to the railway terminals on the late Songhees Indian
Reserve, where additional wharf accommodation is planned.
Railway The Provincial Government is proceed-
Terminals ing with the development of the former
Songhees Indian Reserve. The plans call
for a "common user" road and railway trackage between
"the waterfront and the terminals of the Canadian Pacific
and the Canadian Northern Pacific Railways. The work
in progress is the removal of rock and filling in, to give
the required grade along the waterfront. A sum of $240,000
for this work is included in the Provincial Estimates for the
fiscal year beginning April ist, 1916.
Drydock The proposed drydock at Esquimalt, to
be constructed by the Government of Canada, is to be located on the north side of Lang's Cove. The dimensions of the dock will be as follows:
Length from caisson stop to head wall     Li5° ^eet
Width of entrance         120 feet
Depth on sill at ordinary high water spring tides       40 feet
Width at coping of dock walls      144 feet
It will be divided into two parts, 650 feet and 500 feet
respectively, each part closed by a ship steel caisson. The
dock will be emptied by three centrifugal pumps, each having a capacity of 60,000 gallons per minute. The pumps
and other machinery will be run by electric power generated by the dock power plant.
The dock is to be excavated out of solid rock; the
walls will be built of concrete, with granite coping's and
alters; all keel and bilge.blocks will rest on granite strips
extending the full length of the dock; granite will be used
for caisson stops.
On the south side of the dock a basin will be formed
to allow of repairs while vessels are afloat and to unload
cargoes from vessels before entering the dock; the structure
around the basin will be built of reinforced concrete piles.
Fisheries The total B. C. Salmon pack for 1915
was a large one, viz., 1,133,381 cases, but
only 476,042 cases of these were Sockeye fish. There was an
unusually heavy pack of Humpbacks or Pink Salmon, viz.,
369,352 cases, and this quantity would have been largely
increased if there had been a normal run of this variety
in the Fraser River, but it was much smaller than usual,
which circumstance is generally attributed to the blockage
of the river at Hell's Gate and the consequent diminished
spawning area in 1913, as Humpbacks mature in two years,
as against four years in the case of the Sockeye.
similar diminution -
run of  1917, which
are therefore en
River and Pug
■ b>
the   ANNUAL REPORT 19
Humpback run in that year is also expected to be disappointing.
As pointed out in previous reports, prompt and effective measures were taken by both the Provincial and the
Dominion Governments to clear the Fraser River of rock
debris, which had fallen from the Canadian Northern
Pacific Railway cuttings, and in the year 1915 the fish again
had a perfectly free course.
The Sockeye run in the Fraser was also exceptionally
poor, although not due to the same circumstance. Only
89,040 cases of Sockeyes were packed at this point.
On Puget Sound the pack was relatively worse, as the
canners there only secured 87,465 cases, whereas they
usually pack twice as many Sockeyes as the Fraser River
canneries.
Absurdly large preparations were made by the Puget
Sound cannerymen, with disastrous results, and in order
to reduce as much as possible their stocks of empty cans,
and to reach the minimum pack guaranteed under their
labour contracts, they invaded the Fraser River. Fortunately for the interests of this Province they only added to
their losses thereby, owing to the very high prices they
paid and the very inferior, often entirely unsanitary, condition of the fish when it arrived at the Puget Sound canto the interests of the Province, is that such unsatisfactory
packs they sell as "Fraser" fish, bringing our product into
disrepute by such method-s. The cannerymen, too, naturally feel aggrieved that, after securing two-thirds of the
fish, Puget Sound interests should be allowed to compete
for the small proportion they allow to make their way to
the Fraser River, and if the practice is continued, steps
should he taken to protect the B. C. canning industry.
In Northern British Columbia, most unusually fine
weather was experienced, with the result that at each fish-
-ed. 20 VICTORIA, BRITISH  COLUMBIA,  BOARD OF TRADE
The salmon traps in the Straits of San Juan de Fuca
gave fair results, except as regards Sockeyes, and 31,320
cases were packed at Esquimalt cannery. This business
is, of course, of special interest to Victoria.
Cod Cod fishing is engaging greater atten
tion, and the catch in Fisheries District No.
3, in which Victoria is situated, totalled 21,000 cwt. This
quantity will doubtless be increased as the markets for
cod are extended.
Herring The   Herring   fisheries   on   Vancouver
Island are important. The catch is mostly
kippered, smoked or canned for consumption, and a large
quantity is frozen and sold for fish bait.
Whales At  the  Kyuquot  and  Naden  Harbour
stations the catch was 229 whales during
the season, ist July to 2nd October, of which 132 were Fin,
78 Hump, 17 Sulphur, 1 Bottlenose and 1 Sperm.
Lumber At   the   suggestion   of   this   Board   of
Trade, supplemented by other influences,
the Honourable Minister of Trade and Commerce appointed
Mr. H. R. McMillan, Chief Forester of the Province of
British Columbia, a special trade commissioner. His work
in England brought "good results during the past year up
to the time of the slide in the Panama Canal. Many million
feet of lumber were taken from the mills in British Columbia by ships sent specially by the Imperial Government.
When the slide occurred it became impossible to have
the ships, which were available for Government use, sent
so far, and since that time the only movements of lumber
from our mills to the United Kingdom have been by rail
to the Atlantic Coast and from there trans-shipped.
This business has necessarily been limited to the most
expensive grades, and, but for the good demand reported
from Ontario and the Prairie Provinces, the business would be at a standstill. With the good domestic demand now
existing, the business would very quickly be in a flourishing
condition if it were possible to obtain bottoms to carry the
products of our mills to the overseas markets.
- The demand in the United Kingdom, South Africa,
Australia and China is urgent, and almost any price will be
paid, but it seems impossible to procure tonnage of any
consequence. Ships are the crying need of the lumber industry in British Columbia at the present time, and, until
they are available, the industry cannot experience any great
revival.
Trade After
the War
The
thi
; Board of Trade upon
trade   after  the  war   are   expressed   in   the
following resolution, which the Hon. Mr. J.
H. Turner has been asked to move at the Conference called
by the British Imperial Council of Commerce, to be held ih
London, England, in June next.
"That while it would not be desirable to copy in many .
respects German methods of regulating trade, it i
mended that the following proposals should i
consideration:
(i) "That the tariffs established in any part of the
British Empire should give a preference to Allied
Nations and a further preference to all parts of the
Empire, without limiting, however, the right of each
self-governing portion of the Empire to regulate its
own fiscal laws.
(2) "That all tariffs should be so framed as to
develop diversity of manufacture within the Empire.
(3) "That all Governments within the Empire
should confine, as far as possible, their purchases to
goods manufactured within the Empire either by private firms or in Government workshops.
(4) "That the shipping laws and regulations
should favour the shipment of goods from one port to
another within the Empire in vessels under the British
Flag registered in some part of the Empire, or in vessels belonging to Allied powers." ,  BRITISH   COLUM
Trade and Following    are
Outlook       returns for the twelv
March,  1916, compan
similar period:
he principal trade
months ending 31st
1  with  the preceding
1916 1915
Imports      $ 7,279,554.00 $    4,879,880.00
Exports           3,191,052.00 1,532,782.00
Customs Collections            988,845.96 1,242,154.41
Inland Revenue              176,758.55 192,774.05
Bank Clearings       73,462,922.00 109,668,322.00
It is probable that the. returns for the past twelve
months record the low-water mark of present depression,
for lately there has been noticeable improvement in most
wholesale and retail lines of business. There is also a
demand for lumber in the Prairie Provinces, and the price
■ of logs is equal to that of a few years ago. While there is
nothing to warrant the expectation of phenomenal speed in
the process of readjustment, there is every reason to look
for steady expansion from now on.
The transportation companies deserve credit for the
manner in which they have maintained their rail and
steamer schedules. The frequency of the services has been
maintained at pre-war conditions. The sense of safety,
together with speed and comfort, experienced by travellers
on the vessels operated by the Canadian Pacific and Grand
Trunk Railway Companies, is favourably commented upon,
and, thanks to weather conditions, the arrivals and departures are more in keeping with the time tables than the
transcontinental trains. The Union Steamship Company
gives a frequent service to numerous points on a long coast
line, at which the railway companies' vessels do not call.
Street cars are an important factor in assisting the
growth of cities, and the British Columbia Electric Railway
Company, in Victoria, has proved no exception to the rule.
The services are being efficiently maintained with clean
and  comfortable  cars.    This  Company  also  controls  the domestic electric lighting, and supplies -power to factories;
the hydro-electric plant having a capacity of 30,000 horse
power, and the auxiliary steam-electric plant 6,000 horse
pow
■ additional.
Victoria was fortunate in having completed so much
municipal work prior to the war. There is now an adequate
supply of good water for domestic purposes for a much
larger population. The sewer and surface draining is well
up to requirements, and efficiency is reflected in the low
death rate and general good health of the citizens. The
streets are mostly paved and well lighted. The efficiency
of the fire fighting plant is indicated by the exceedin;
These works have been costly in the aggregate, and to
meet interest and sinking fund under present conditions
requires effort. It is well to remember, however, that the
demand for all these utilities, a few years ago, was practically unanimous, and that the citizens are now in the full
enjoyment of them. Further, apart from the war, there is
nothing in present conditions which could be foreseen when
enthusiasm and confidence, in the future of Victoria was
Interest in the work of this Board of Trade has been
maintained. The Council meetings have been well
attended, and some of the Committees also are to be congratulated upon 'what they have accomplished.
E. G. PRIOR,
C. H. LUGRIN,
Vice-President.
F. ELWORTHY,
Secretary,  APPENDICES
ADDRESS   IN   REPLY  TO   FOREGOING   REPORT
following address
Province, and the <
Mr.   President  and  Mei
ampbell, Minister of
the present condit:
10k for the future:
of 1
by the Hoi
what I beli-
;h Columbia.
W. J.
iual meeting to represent the Govern-
In this connection I have been asked
ier, to present his complin
and to say that he i
to be present himself
as exceedingly sorry not to have been able
,nd speak to you, as he was so kindly invited
to do, but his time is so fully occupied in the Legislature as to
render that impossible. I was requested by the Premier to act
in his stead, because, I presume, I am the only member of the
administration who has not already had thehonor and pleasure of
addressing you on such an important occasion. As a dweller in
the Kootenay Interior during all my residence in British Columbia,
except for the few months each year when I have attended the
Legislature, I cannot be expected to be as familiar with the references in your report and the conditions on Vancouver Island, of
which your body is especially representative, as the other ministers. I have, however, gone carefully over an advance copy of
your annual report, which your secretary was kind enough to
send me, and I shall deal as briefly with its leading features as I
You refer to the conditions created by the
existed before.    You are quite  correct  in :
water  mark was reached before  the
true of the whole of Canada, as well
ir and those which
ng that the high-
ir broke  out, and that is
of British Columbia.   We
in British Columbia, however, though perhaps the most prosperous, or apparently the most prosperous, of all the people of Canada
in 1913, have been unfortunate in that since Canada has steadied
itself again financially and industrially, we have been unable to
get on our feet as quickly as the Provinces east of the Rockies. 26
VICTORIA,  BRITISH
Before the war the.rest of Canada prospered for much the same
reasons—reasons which you give—the expenditure of large sums
of money on public works, the construction of railways and the
building up of towns and cities—as we did, and had it not been
for the war there would have been much the same conditions
there as those of which we- now complain here. The immense
crops of last year in the Middle West, for which good prices were
paid, have placed the people there for the most part on easy street
again. The immense demand for munitions of war and supplies
of all kinds has created unusual prosperity in Eastern Canada.
We in the West, who depend largely upon the sale of the products
of our natural resources, have been unable to carry those products
to those splendid markets which exist for the want of transportation facilities, and for that reason and on account of the long
distance to the Atlantic Coast, we can only share in a very small
degree in the industrial production incidental to the war—such
as munitions of war. These things are not our fault, but our
present misfortune. We have done our best to overcome our disadvantages and are succeeding to some considerable extent, but in
these respects we are sharing the fortunes of the entire Pacific
Coast, whose conditions are very similar for similar reasons.
Outlook Hopeful
But, while we are not succeeding as we would in other circumstances, the outlook is improving and is extremely hopeful.
People in hard times dispense with most things they can do without, but there are more telephones in use in British Columbia, for
instance, than ever there were before. The telegraph business,
which is a very good barometer in business activity, is enormously
greater in the West than it was this time last. year. There has
been a shortage in cars to carry our shingles and lumber to the
Middle West; but incidentally, I may say, the congestion of traffic
is being relieved. Mining, to which I shall refer later, as we
know, was never so prosperous before, and the industry has never
been so productive as it is now. Our fisheries are very prosperous,
especially the halibut end of it. Last year was by far the biggest
year we have ever had. On account of, to some extent, the
number of enlistments where employment is more abundant, we
have comparatively little unemployment to deal with. ,My attention has been called to the fact that in some of the counties of
Ontario there are more persons being relieved than in the whole
of British Columbia by the Government. The things which are
weighing most people down at the present time are real estate
holdings and taxes on improvements. The only remedy we have*
is to bear the burden as we can until the business and industry APPENDICES 27
of the Province reach a stage which will make our holdings realizable on a productive basis. This is not the first or second or third
time in this Province when the bottom seemed to have fallen out
of things, when real estate and buildings were unsaleable. Each
period of depression has been quickly succeeded by prosperous
conditions. Whatever may happen in Central Europe when this
war is over and, perhaps, before it is over, there will be an expansion of commerce and industry on this Coast greater by far than
has ever been experienced in any previous period of prosperity.
We are advised that agents, whose intentions are to buy huge
quantities of lumber for France, are already on the ground looking
Patriotic Efforts
in't'h  interest  your  reference  to  the  part  that  Canada
the war, which we know, both in patriotic efforts at
splendid and heroic work at the front, have made the
for   patrio
I  nol
taking
name and fame of thi
good British fighting qualities; and it is all the more gratifying
us in this part of the world to feel that in all Canada no part of it,
in proportion to population, has contributed more, or so much, in
men and, despite depression, in money, as British Columbia.
This brings me to the question of provision for returned soldiers,
dealt with in your report. This has had the earnest and close
attention of the Government, and, as you will have observed from
the reports of the proceedings of the Legislature, in one respect
at least we are making ample provision for returned soldiers, that
is, so far as land is concerned. This, of course, must be in conjunction with some scheme now being worked out for fitting them
for what, to many of them, will be a new life. All returned soldiers will not care to go on the land, and some will not be fit, and
in this respect there is a duty laid upon you all as business men,
as well as upon the Government. We have adopted the policy of
taking care of as many as we can in the Government service and
to give them preference when possible; but we have 500 members
of the civil service either at the front or under training, whose
places are open for them when they return. In the very nature
of things, for several years to come we shall not be able to provide
for many more in that way. The same feeling towards returned
soldiers is everywhere in Canada, whose people are grateful to
those who have enlisted and fought for them. We must not forget
that in fighting for the Allies we are fighting for ourselves.
Shipbuilding
I am taking the subjects in your report in the order in which
they are dealt with, and I come next to shipbuilding.   I am not in VICTORIA,  BRITISH  <
respect to   that
letails of the measure it proposes t
nnot very well give information t
entitled; but I may say that the ma
I I
perhaps more careful considera
has come before the Governm
already stated, preliminary steps
shipments—"vast" is the word u
ment—of lumber on this Coast,
we are informed that $8,258,000
Seattle, and similar enterprise
Francisco.    In
laking I
ich hea-
ikely to
the sit
n  than  any  other  matter  tl
for some months past.
: being taken for placing "va
. in the advices to the Gove
n anticipation of this busin
irth of ships are being built
enterprise is being pushed forward in £
)f the fact that the German submarines ;
roads on the merchant marine of the wot
a great shortage of bottoms even after 1
h an extent is the destruction going on,
that it is likely to affect the food supply
>roblem is, therefore, a serious one for t
Agriculture
In respect of agriculture, the situation is one which affords a
great deal of satisfaction. Production last year was the largest
on record, and for fifteen years at least it has been steadily
reaching its present proportions. I am informed by the officials
of the Department of Agriculture that the area of cultivated land
has been considerably increased during the past two years, and
particularly during 1915. The activity in clearing land is shown
by the much larger amount of stumping powder being used. This
is due in a measure to the collapse of the real estate business,
which has forced upon people the necessity of utilizing the land
for what it will produce rather than offering it for sale as a speculative proposition. In Victoria you have been carrying on a
campaign of production for Vancouver Island, and the co-operation of all parts of the Province in this will bring about accumulated results of tremendous value. The Department of Agriculture
has been making the utmost efforts to assist the farmer in every
way possible, and, with the bringing into immediate operation of
the Agricultural (Credits) Act of last session of the Legislature
and supplementing by credit the programme of instruction, I
cannot even estimate the effect in increased production. As
Minister of Mines I naturally place the mining industry very high
in the scale of importance, but I must admit that a fully developed agricultural industry in British Columbia will be our greatest
mine of wealth.    Before leaving this subject, I wish to point out APPENDICES 29
the great desirability of having a separate portfolio of Agriculture,
which the Legislature has already provided for. A good Minister
of Finance cannot be expected to always have a knowledge of
agricultural requirements, and, on the other hand, a good Minister
of Agriculture might make a very indifferent Minister of Finance;
but the new departure is all the more necessary on account of
the growing importance of agriculture and the increased respon- ■
sibility of the Department on account of the introduction of the
credit system and the placing of returned soldiers on the land.
Mining
I now come to a subject in which I am more particularly
interested. I refer to mining. Mining, in addition to being prosperous, is taking on new phases. Zinc, for instance, is assuming
an importance not before understood. Copper is almost certain
to have a place in the metal markets that it never had before, and
the prices to be maintained for some years to come. With
Granby and other mines in the Boundary, Granby at Anyox and
the Brittania Mines in Howe Sound alive, and prospective developments, we are bound to make British Columbia a factor in the
markets, which, of course, has not been the case in the past. You
know that when you begin to compare" British Columbia's output
in copper, or in any other metalliferous product, with the rest of
America, not to speak of the rest of the world, our place in the
sun is, as yet, very small. The production of copper in British
Columbia, as compared with that of the United States, is only
about as one to twenty; but, basing my estimates on known operations and mining undertakings, I am quite safe in saying that
next year, if not this, the copper output will be more than double
what it was last year, so that in a very few years, in copper, and
in other metalliferous products as well, we shall have a place in
the sun. You are more particularly interested in the mineral
resources of Vancouver Island. The most recent professional
estimate of coal reserves in British Columbia is 76,034,942,000 tons
—a figure so vast as to be beyond our ability to conceive what
it means. Of that reserve, of what is left after over sixty years
of continuous mining, there are 1,060,000,000 tons left on Vancouver Island. When we remember that the total output of those
over sixty years is less than 30,000,000 tons, we have a good many
years to go before the reserve is exhausted, even assuming that
no new discoveries are made. Coal mining on Vancouver Island
has been handicapped recently, owing to the substitution of oil
for fuel. Your market has always been limited to Coast consumption, and probably always will be, and, therefore, one of the problems  of practical  men  and the   Mines   Department  is  how  coal 30
.,   BOARD   OF   1
itilized so as to restore it to its former status of produc-
possibly greatly increase it. We have to study it in
connection with the development of the manufactures of iron, of
which you have vast deposits. I use the word "vast" deliberately.
We have to study it as to the extent and value of its many byproducts. We may reasonably hope, too, that, with the increase
of population and industrial establishments, notwithstanding the
competition of oil fuel, the market for Vancouver Island coal will,
on its present basis, very materially expand.
Expects Development
While at the present time the output of metalliferous minerals
on this Island is relatively small, there is, I believe, good reason
to expect a marked improvement in the near future. It should not
be forgotten that when, from ten to fifteen years ago, the Tyee
and Lenora Mines on Mount Sicker were being operated, they
were productive to quite an important extent. Production figures
given by Mr. C. R. Clapp, of the Geological Survey of Canada, in
his Memoir 13, Southern Vancouver Island, show a total output
of ore from three Mount Sicker mines, about two-thirds of it
from the Tyee Mine—of approximately 250,000 tons, containing
about 23,000,000 pounds of copper, 690,000 ounces of silver and
42,000 ounces of gold. Calculated at present prices of these metals,
the total value of that production would be in excess of $7,000,000,
all from a comparatively small area on Mount Sicker. Surely
we are not justified in assuming that there are not other similar
extensive and valuable deposits of ore on-Vancouver Island. On
the contrary, there appears good reason to expect that when conditions shall be favorable—ample money for exploration and
development and low-cost transportation facilities for machinery
and supplies to, and for ore from, mining properties not now easily
accessible, we shall see achieved the establishment of metalliferous
mining on a profitable basis. At Sooke, where there are good
copper prospects; in the country about Great Central Lake, where
ten years or more ago much interest was taken in the large ore
showings of the Big Interior property; on Quatsino Sound, where
the big deposit of low-grade ore on the Yoreka Company's claims
was found; on another group, also in Quatsino division, now
having the attention of Spokane mining men, and in other
instances where, by reason of lack of capital and transportation
facilities, little or no progress has been -made—all these are
decidedly encouraging indications of the occurrence of much mineral awaiting development and utilization. Now that modern
methods make it possible to treat low-grade ores at a. much lower
cost than was the case ten to twenty years ago, there should be this Island a
■/ith i
etal r
using
ield for e
:rpns
Fisheries
I shall have very little to say about fisheries i
already  been  said,  that  they  are very prosperous,
next big four-year run on the Fraser, we expect to
records eclipsed.    Halibut fishing has been greatly stimulated by
the  new   baiting and bonding   arrangements which have • placed
Prince Rupert at the head of the list for the landing and shipment
of halibut.    This, too, has greatly stimulated the herring fishing,
a matter which is of considerable interest to people
Island.    I   have  already  dealt  with  conditions  which  will  affect
trade after the war, and I do not think I need s
In
• report you pay a good dea
on the
d and sea
: Mainland.
Island,
.nd   I
It has
l Victor)
n island, the question c
in importance greater
.lways been a question
history tells us.
the proposed
Nanaimo Railway and the Canadian Noi
north end of the Island have been delayed
conditions, the result of war, but you have
speak, laid, and I look forward to a large
the carrying of timber, minerals and agri>
which traffic Victoria will be th:
way undertakings referred to, soon to be co:
with the improvements to the Inner Harbi
on the Songhees Reserve, the breakwater j
place this city in a very enviable position to take advantage of
the inevitable expansion of trade after the war. If.our hopes are
realized, that Pacific transportation facilities can soon be obtained,
we shall have  100,000,000 odd bushels  of grain from the  Middle
which ■
■uld I
;uch ;
make
mgest
true th
n  Fort
sland a
George cross
id Mainland
ctoria and Van
ing over John
)y a band of
Water
Pow
nk  I  h
the que
ive  any
thing
the d
evelopment of
he grej
test th
ng an
I have reservee
long the factoi
1  of
r Island 32
industry. It is cheap as air as a natural product, and it is powerful
enough to drive all the machinery of the world if it could be
applied to it all. Especially in this Western country is it of great
importance on account of the high price of labour. It may be
safely estimated that a one-horse power is equivalent to the work
of twenty-five men. I do not mean by this that it displaces the
labour of twenty-five men, because every one-horse power
utilized means the employment of labour; but water is such a
cheap source of power that it enables industries to be created and
made profitable that would and could not otherwise be carried
on. Water power, for that reason, is the greatest producer of
skilled labour. I may tell you that within practically 100 miles
reach from Vancouver and Victoria there is 750,000 horse power,
of which 170,000 has been developed, and of that developed at
least 50 per cent, is not in use at the present time. So you see
that if we could utilize profitably the available water power within
the area referred to, what it would mean to the cities of Victoria,
Vancouver, New Westminster and Nanaimo. Looking at the
Province as a whole and taking what has been developed and
what has been applied for, there is 1,500,000 horse power. In
addition to that, there are many water powers in the central and
northern parts of British Columbia about which little is definitely
• the
It
: pow
i of all
kinds.
driving tramways, and is being introduced :
nnection with railways. It is running factor
iffords cheap power for pumping water to arid lands
when the reservoir is not available; and we have a good deal of
that land in British Columbia. In Norway, Sweden and Germany
it is being used for extracting nitrates from the air. Germany
today depends for its supply of nitrates upon the air for war
munitions. Heretofore the world largely depended for its supply
upon the nitrate deposits of Chile, which are rapidly becoming
exhausted. Water power is a great factor in smelting, and it is
one of our hopes in connection with the reduction of iron ore on
this Coast. In Sweden, when the iron industry was declining on
account of the cost of charcoal for the old process, it was saved
by the establishment of the electrical iron and steel industry. I
referred to nitrates for the purposes of munitions of war, but in
of  ,
thei
value
f Oreg(
the subject of v
offici
r powe
trade we should have potash, nitrate
necessary  potash   can   be   had   fro
:an along the Oregon and Washingtc APPENDICES
Coast.
N
trates c
in be
had from t
he air b-,
' burn
ing in the
furnac
Phospat
es   ca
a   be   secu
red   fron
1   the
rich   depo
Idaho
d    Mon
tana,
and    lim
from
Idah
o,    Orego
Washi
Bgt
an."
p^c
ndustry
create
s another,
and the
nitra
e industry
turn a
tter
tion to
the d
velopment
of you
kelp
beds, and
I^^T
hav
e   dwelt
at   si
ich   length
upon   v
rater'
power   bee
believe
we should
adver
tise to the
world the we
alth of out
Capitalists should have their attention directed to this
ction with our other great natural resources. We cannot
do it yet, but we propose to conduct, some time in the future, an
nvestigation by competent engineers into water powers, estuary
ind swamp lands, and irrigation either by artesian wells or pump-
ng to the low-lying benches from streams or lakes.
Now, Mr. President and gentlemen, I feel that I have occupied
nt and gentlei
your time quite long enough.   I thank yo
and for the privilege of addressing you.
n Early Morning's Si 34
Soldiers and Immigration after the War
The
'resident and Council,
withG
^^^^^^l^tMiw^^S
LT
recon
'     ol?
wTtho
i^3^^^^1^^^^^^^
and.
r expended upon it is lightened by the knowledge that the
B
olding such views, your  Committee would  not presume  to
S
/ing serious consideration, and in the hope that other public
and individuals may be encouraged to offer further sugges-
with
^^^S3?^£^
l
S^iSSBS^S^^j^S'
Jaskueh
mitted that an exceptional opportunity will soon be offered.-
returr
ce olThorme; who -lufS^rSS^VvS Vancouver Island Timber  APPENDICES 35
small proportion of the South African War Scrip was used by the
returning soldiers, most of it being sold to speculators. The idea
of taking up isolated and scattered pieces of land far from transportation did not find favour with the soldiers. Therefore, instead
of 160 acres, we would propose smaller areas, situated near to
transportation, and social surroundings, organizations, practical
advice and co-operative systems, which would, in most cases,
insure success from the start.
It is believed that this could be done at a relatively small
cost by, (1) utilizing lands possessed by the Crown which have
been logged off under timber leases; or, (2) purchasing lands
which have been logged off under Crown Grants.
In selecting such lands, preference should be given, other
things being equal, to large available areas accessible to railways
in operation, or arranged for, and water communication; always
keeping in view ease of access by rail and water, concentration,
and co-operation in the assembling and marketing of the products
of the soil.
The stumping and preparation of the land could be immediately
proceeded with by utilizing enemy interns.
In the planning of the areas a site should be reserved for shipping warehouses, schools, etc., and the roads would naturally lead
to such a centre of the communal domain. Subdivisions should
be on the basis of the support of individual families, and leased to
the ex-soldiers with option of purchase. Such a settlement, if of
suitable dimensions, would admit the appointment of resident
advisors, who would be constantly on the spot and ready to point
out how the maximum wealth of the soil and stock can be realized.
Your Committee have no hesitation in presenting this as the
basis of
an attrae
:tive land se
ttleir
tent scheme, which,
started
effi-
ciently,
if only oi
i a small sc;
lie, ;
would be capable of
vast e
xten-
sion,   and  any  re
asonable  ini
tial
cost  would  ultimately  be
fully
repaid, \
vhile furn
ishing the Pi
-ovin
ce with the nucleus j
of a ge
neral
farming
population of the highest
standard.
It is
more th;
in likely that
: the
hardships of the wa
r will :
make
many m
en who v
-ere previous
ly e;
igaged in office and
other
corn-
mercial
pursuits
seek   other
sphe
:res   of   usefulness.
Such
men
will  hav
e the physical ability
for
any work  required
in fan
ning,
while te
mpered v
/ith  mental
faculties  and ambitions.
Admi
tting
that sue
h men may have had
no farming experience; *
mtn a
taste
for outdoor life developed, if
surrounded with proper
condit
ions,
together
with the
practical gu
idan
ce of expert advisor
s, no better 36
VICTORIA, BRITISH  COLUMBIA, E
material could be found for furnishing British Columbia with the
highest class of agriculturist.
The success of these plans will depend largely upon the
authority under which they are developed. In such an authority
should be vested the fullest possible control, unhampered by the
Government, save in respect to responsibility for satisfactory
results. This authority might be found in the Commission contemplated under the Agricultural Act, and in that case the appointment should be made without delay, and the necessary funds provided for commencing the preparation of at least one site for our
returning soldiers.
The foregoing plan is possible of expansion to any practical
degree. Your Committee have referred to lands on this Island
for the simple reason that, for natural advantages, such as soil,
climate and proximity to good markets, we know of no other so
suitable. We would like to see the start made under these most
favourable conditions, being convinced that as soon as the success
of the plan is proven, the establishment of other colonies will
follow.    '
All of which is respectfully submitted.
Committee on Immigration:       Committee on Agriculture:
WM. AGNEW, Chairman.        DR. S. F. TOLMIE, Chairman.
W. R. DALE, L. GOODACRE,
H. J. SCOTT, W. CRAWLEY RICARDO.
L. TAIT,
T. H. SLATER.
Some other subjects dealt with by Committees-
Trade, Commerce and Transportation
Special Trade Commissioner to South America.
Canadian Customs Officer at New York.
Steamship Freight Rates to San Francisco.
Trade with the Orient.
Harbours and Navigation
Pilotage.
Use of Esquimalt Dry Dock by Merchant Marine.
Car Ferry Slip, Outer Harbour.
Protection  of  Life  and  Shipping,  West   Coast,  Vance
Island.
Nitanat Inlet, Obstruction at Entrance.
Privileges   of   Norwegian   Vessels   Engaged   in   Coasl
Trade. Railway Freights
Dividing Line of Canadian Pacific Rail-
Freight Rates on Lumber, Box Shooks
nd White Lead.
Clas
Rate-
Carload Weights and Mixing Privileges.
Agriculture
Marking of Eggs.
Abattoir for Victoria.
Mining
Copper  Refining in  British  Columbia.
Zinc Reduction.
Special
Labour for Munition Factories in Great Britain.
Vessels for Lumber Shipments.
Shipbuilding.
Agricultural Food Products, Local Production.
British Columbia Mineral Production for Two Years
1914-1915
The following table, prepared by the British Columbia Bureau
of Mines, shows the quantities and value of the several minerals
produced in the year 1914, and the estimated production in 1915.
It may here be explained that the prices used in calculating the
estimated value for 1915 of silver, lead, copper and zinc are the
average prices for the year, as published in "The Engineering
and Mining Journal," New York, less a deduction of 5 per cent,
off silver, 10 per cent, off lead, and 15 per cent, off zinc.
Mt«____
PKOBHC
TION, 1914
Es
riM_TED PB
DUCTION,
915
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Increase   Decrease
$     565,000
5,109,004
$     745,000
5,051,293
$  180,000
247,170
3,602,180
50,625,048
45,009,69s
244,378
$  5,674,004
1,876,736
1.771,877
6,121,319
346,125
$ 5,796,293
1,621,033
1,917,799
10,006,068
1,554,503
$  122,289
3,434,393
45,990.372
133V?\80!!
$  255,703
3,884!749
1,208,378
Copper lb.
Zinc lb.
$ 15,790,061
6,338,385
1,407,462
$ 20,895,696
5,413,324
1,490,544
1,500,000
$5,105,635
1,810,967
234,577
1,546,664
248,424
$  925 061
83,082
Building Materials,
1352 917
Total Value of
$26,388,825
$ 29,299,564
$2,910,739 VICTORIA,  BRITISH  COLUM
NANAIMO   MINING   DIVISION
Nanaimo Mining Di
at its Marble Bay r
tion concerning coal
Texada Island
sion was that of the Tac.
ne, near Vananda, Texad
lining operations in this ]
na Steel Coi
Island.    Ini
-al i
etal i
mprising  a report  by  D.   G.   Forbes,
in the Annual Report for 1913.
quarter   less   tha
n   in  the prev
ious   yea
r.    The   quantity
of   ore
estimated to have been shipped
to the s
melting works at
Tacoma
is about 10,000 to
is, containing
,400 oz.
gold, 14,000 oz. sil
/er, and
550,000 lb. coppe
.    Very little
las been
heard regarding develop-
ments during th
year,  but it
is believ
zd that shaft-sink
ng was
continued and di
ried on.
imond drilling
and oth
_r development work car-
A small tonn
age of ore is r
aported to have been shipp
sd from
the Little Billie,
i property adjc
ining th
. Marble Bay and
worked
in former years.
This tonnage
was 750
tons, and the ore
is gold-
silver-copper ore
of about the
same ch
iracter and grade
as that
shipped from the
Marble Bay.
It is not believed that the Cornell,
: in 1914, shipped during 1915.
Nothing further has been heard of
h end of Texada Island.
Vancouver Island
Very little productive lode-mining has been done for s<
years on Vancouver Island. The only property, as far as
present known, that shipped during the year 1915 was the Wil
Grouse, on Sooke Peninsula, which has been operated all the
son by the Willow Grouse Syndicate, consisting of local men,
which shipped by scow to the Tacoma smelter about 530 ton;
ore, averaging about 8 per cent, copper, with some 50 cents, a
in precious metals.
Other properties in this vicinity are under development.
The Kallapa, on Meares Island, which in 1914 shipped 1
tons of ore, was closed down all this past year, but the ovt
writes that probably it will be started up again the spring of 1 APPENDICES.
39
:ral claim
fair body
On Cowichan Lake the Blue Grouse i
development by a local company, and a v
copyrite ore has been partially developed.
Some further development work has been done on the Merry
Widow and Old Sport claims in the Quatsino Mining Division,
where a large amount of very fair copper ore has been developed
by diamond-drilling. The property is some twenty miles from
navigable water, and is consequently without value until a railway can be constructed to salt water. Efforts are being made to
have this railway built, but, as far as can be learned, no definite
arrangements to that end have been effected.
Some development work was done by the Valdes Island Copper Company on its properties at Valdes and Steep Islands^ and
it was reported that a small amount of ore was shipped, but no
confirmation of this nor further details have as yet been received.
The lime, cement, and clay products interests had a v-ery dis-
ging year, and did not make any more than half the output
e previous years, which is to be accounted for by almost a
:essation of the building trades. Further particulars of these
ndustries have been noted earlier in this bulletin.
Coal mining has been carried on at all the Island collieries
of
during the year, but a
Particulars as to coal
this bulletin.
. greatly diminished pre
Other Minerals
>ductio
i previ
n was made.
No iron ore has be
ing the past year, and
pecting or development
:en used or
, as far as
shipped fror
can be lean
been done or
a the Province dur-
led, but little pros-
A small quantity o
on the Tulameen Rivei
about $2,000 in value,
ings being carried on,
f crude pia
r, in the Si
This was
and the res
cer platinum
milkameen D
obtained fron
has been recovered
i placer-gold work-
idered encouraging.
■ Prospecting for. pe
progress in South-East
and elsewhere, but oil
Kootenay,
means of boreholes
on the Queen Char
xial quantities has
' has been in
lotte Islands,
not yet been
zinced during the past ;
!  high  price  of this  n
encountered.
Considerable interest has been e
molybdenite  deposits,  owing  to  th
caused by demands for war purposes. This mineral, which is a sulphide of molybdenum, is used in the manufacture of special high-
grade steel for guns. The actual output of molybdenite during the
year was confined to a shipment from the Molly group, on Lost 40
VICTORIA,   BRITISH  COLUMBIA,   BOARD   OF  1
Creek, in the Nelson Mining Division, which was sent to the Henry
E. Woods Ore Concentrating Company, Denver, Colorado; this
shipment amounted to twenty-four tons, and contained by assay
12.26 per cent, of molybdenite. Some development work was done
on the property, and it is now under lease and bond to a Vancouver syndicate, which intends to erect in the spring a small
concentrator. The market requirements are such that a molybdenite ore must be concentrated up to 85 or 90 per cent, molybdenite (MoS2) before it is marketable. The Lost Creek property
has several thousand tons of from 2 to 4 per cent, ore, so that,
with a suitable mill, a small production could be maintained.
Another property, on Alice Arm, in the Skeena Mining Division, controlled by J. D. Ross, of Seattle, is reported to have a
large showing of molybdenite, and it is said that a mill is being
erected on it which will soon be producing a ton a day of high-
grade concentrates. Other prospects in the Nelson, Kamloops and
Lillooet Mining Divisions showing some molybdenite have been
investigated,  but  as  yet  none  of  them  have  assumed  any great
Molybdenite ore, concentrated so as to contain 85 to 90 per
cent, of that mineral, is now worth from $2,500 to $3,000 a ton,
delivered in England or New York.
Antimony is another metal
owing to demands for war purposes. Its
material is to harden the lead bullets used
the war the price advanced from about 18
for the best brands, and from 16 to 39 ce
brands of antimony.
Antimony usually occurs in nature as stibnite, the sulphide of
antimony, and is a common mineral in British Columbia, occurring in association with lead and zinc ores. It does not, however,
as a rule, occur in large quantities, but attempts are now being
made in a few places to sort it out from its associated minerals.
Two cars of antimony ore are reported to have been shipped from
the Alps-Alturas property on a fork of Carpenter Creek, in the
Slocan Mining Division; this ore was shipped to Scotland, and
carried from 50 to 55 per cent, antimony.
Reports of small shipments from other claims have been
heard, but details have not yet been secured.
A deposit of hydromagnesite near the town of Atlin was
worked to some extent this year by Armstrong & Morrison, of
Vancouver. It is known that a few hundred tons were shipped,
but  details  regarding the  shipment have  not  yet  been  received.
greatly advanced in price
Its principal use in war
shrapnel. During
55 cents a pound
for the  ordinary This occurrence of magne
cial Mineralogist in the M
The uses to which the mineral is pi
of refractory brick, for furnace-linings,
of paper stock by the sulphite process,
covering for steam boilers and pipes.
hces 41
3 fully described by the Provin-
if Mines' Report for 1904.
1 is put are for the manufacture
i the  manufacture
a non-conducting
It
ated tha
long tons, of which 414,140 to
net production at 1,546,664 tons.
compared with 1914, of 205,624
The quantity of coke made wa
increase of about 13,847 tons s
poses of comparison the follow
Coal and Coke
the gross production of coal was 1,960,804
were made into coke, leaving the
These figures show a decrease, as
ons gross and of 264,303 tons net.
- about 248,424 tons, which is an
s compared with 1914. For pur-
ing table is shown:—
Est 19 5
1914
1913
1912
1911
1910
Coal, grc
L3$r
1,960,804
414,140
2,166,428
2,570,760
433,277
3,025,709
396,905
2,297,718
3,139,235
Coal
1,546,664
1.810,967
2,137,483
2,628,804
2,193,062
2,800,046
Coke ma
248,424.
234,577
286,045
264,333
66,005
218,029
In these figures the output for the month of December has
had to be estimated, consequently the final figures may vary from
them slightly.
Summarizing the Provincial production of coal, the following
■ table shows the estimated output:
Tons of 2,240 lb.
From Vancouver Island collieries     1,009,779
From Nicola and Similkameen collieries ..     101,060
From Crow's Nest District collieries        849,965
Total quantity of coal mined    1,960,804
Less made into coke (calculated)  ..     414,140
Net quantity of coal produced .
1,546,664
In  addition  to  th
made the coke produe
bve net production  of coal,  there \
shown in the following table:—
Tons of 2,240 lb.
From Vancouver Island collieries    9,246
From Nicola and Similkameen collieries  .. nil
From Crow's Nest District collieries        239,178
Total      248,424 As will be ,
tion  this  year  i
.,  BRITISH   COLUMBIA,  BC
from the above figui
net coal produc-
264,000 tons  less
has been for the last eight
The consumption of coal in the Province during the past two
years has been sadly interfered with by the war, through its
retarding or stopping of many industries; this has had a reflex
action on the transportation lines, which are the largest consum-
The market for the Coast collieries was seriously affected by
the diminished sales of bunker coal to ocean steamers as a result
of war conditions on the Pacific Ocean steamer trade.    •
The competition of fuel oil has been keenly felt, and the adoption of this fuel by the three transcontinental railways for use
in  British  Columbia has removed a steady and growing market
for
>al.
I production of e
Coke.—The
some 248,424 tons, is an increase over that of 1914 of some 13,850
tons (2,240 lb.), despite the fact that the Hosmer plant—which last
year made an output of over 34,000 tons of coke—was closed down.
This total production, while not as great as for the years 1912 and
1913, is nevertheless 10 per cent, greater than the average output
for the last ten years.
The high market price of copper has kept the copper-smelting
plants of the Interior very busy, with a consequent increased
demand for coke, while, on the Coast, the copper-smelting plant
of the Granby Company at Anyox has occasioned the restarting
of the Canadian Collieries coke-ovens at Comox, where this past
year 9,246 tons of coke were made.
Lumbering
ral
The   most   readily
British Columbia's natu
This Pro-
area of m
place the area of Canada
300 to 600 million acres,
: may i
:e, and the British Colu
Columbia with 400 billion feet
over one-half of the forest we
lilable, if not the most important, of
resources is her immense timber reserve,
e said to possess the greatest compact
ir in North America. Recent estimates
merchantable standing timber at from
of which  120 million acres  are in this
i Forest 1
:able
ich credits British
milling timber, or
As far north as APPENDICES 43
Alaska the coast is heavily timbered, the forest line following the
indentations of the shore and the river valleys and fringing the
mountain sides. The Douglas fir, the most widely distributed and
valuable tree found on the Pacific Coast, grows as far north as 52
degrees, where it is supplanted by the cypress, or yellow cedar, ,
red cedar, hemlock and spruce. The fir is very widely distributed,
being found from the coast to  the Rocky Mountains.       On the
height of 300 feet, with a base circumference of 30 to 50 feet. The
best average trees are 150 feet clear of limbs and five to six feet
in diameter. The fir is the staple of commerce, prized for
its durability and strength. Great bodies of this timber are
found on Vancouver Island, on the coast of the Mainland and in
the Selkirk and Gold Mountains. Next to the Douglas fir in
importance is the red cedar, which is much in demand. Red
cedar shingles are the standard, and are finding an increasing
market in Eastern Canada. The white spruce is also much sought
after by certain builders for use in the better class of buildings.
Western hemlock is abundant in the Province, and possesses
qualities which should make it more valued than it is. It is much
superior to Eastern hemlock, and is being used to an ever increasing extent. The western species is different and much superior to
the Eastern hemlock, and is as serviceable in many ways as more
prized timber. There are many other trees of commercial value
which are manufactured into lumber, including white pine, tamarac,.
balsam, yew, maple and cottonwood.
The trees indigenous to the Province are:
Coniferous
Common Name Technical Name
Western White Pine  Pinus Monticola.
White or White-barked Pine Pinus albicaulis.
Western Yellow or Bull Pine   Pinus ponderosa.
Limber Pine  Pinus flexilis.
Scrub or Lodgepole Pine   Pinus contorta.
Western Larch   Larix occidentalis.
Alpine Larch    Larix lyallii,
Tamarac    Larix americana.
Engelmann Spruce  Picea engelmanni.
Sitka or Tide-land Spruce Picea sitchensis.
Black Spruce   Picea mariana.
Western Hemlock   Tsuga heterophylla.
Mountain or Black Hemlock .". Tsuga mertensiana.
Douglas or Red Fir  Pseudotsuga taxifolia. 44 VICTORIA,  BRITISH  COLUMBIA,  BOARD OF TRADE
Common Name Technical Name
Alpine or Balsam Fir Abies lasiocarpa.
Amabilis or White Fir Abies amabilrs.
Grand or White Fir   Abies grandis.
Western Red or Giant Cedar Thuya plicata.
Yellow, Alaska or Sitka Cypress  Chamaecyparis nootkatensis.
Juniper or Dwarf Juniper  Juniperus communis.
Rocky Mountain Cedar  Juniperus scopulorum.
Western Juniper  Juniperus occidentalis.
Western  Yew    Taxis brevifolia.
Broad Leaf
Quaking Aspen  Populus tremuloides.
Black or Balsam Cottonwood  Populus trichocarpa.
Western Black Willow Salix lasiandra.
Almond or Peach Willow  Salix amygdaloides.
Long Leaf or Sand Bar Willow  Salix fluviatilis.
Nutall or Black Willow  Salix nuttallii.
Western  Birch    Betula occidentalis.
Black or Mountain Birch Betula fontinalis.
Mountain Alder    Aluns tenuifolia.
Red Alder  Alnus oregona.
Sitka  Alder    Alnus sitchensis.
Garry Oak    Quercus garryana.
Oregon Crab Apple  Malus rivularis.
Western Serviceberry  Amelanchier alnifolia.
Black Haw   Crataegus douglasii.
Bitter or Wild Cherry   Prunus emarginata.
Western Choke Cherry  Prunus demissa.
Broadleaf Maple  Acer macrophyllum.
Vine  Maple    Acer circinatum.
Dwarf Maple   Acer glabrum.
Bean-berry,   Coffee  Tree   or   Cascara
Sagrada    Rhamnus purshiana.
Western  Dogwood    Cornus nuttallii.
Blue Elderberry   Sambucus   glauca.
There are 425 saw and shingle mills in the Province (including
twenty-two situated in the Dominion Railway Belt), employing
about 5,000 men and producing, in 1914, 967,000,000 feet B.M. The
area of Provincial timber lands alienated by Crown grant, lease,
and licence, to date aggregates 12,165.134 acres. There are also
over sixty shingle mills, with an aggregate daily capacity of
5,000,000   shingles.     Many  of  the  big  mills   are  furnished  with APPENDICES
sash  and  dooi
machinery.
•  factories,  planing  mills,
and othei
The increa
ing figures, wh
sing demand for lumber i!
lich show the approximat
5 illustrated
e cut of Bi
mills for nine years:
1903  317,551,151 feet
1904  348,031,790 "
1905  473,713,986 • "
1906  508,069,969 "
1907  846,000,000 "
1908  658,000,000 "
1909  775,000,000 "
1910 1,040,000,000 "
1911 1,201,778,494 "
1912 1,330,000,000 "
1913 1,173,647,000 "
1914  792,829,000 1
1915 1,017,683,000 "
The capital invested in the lumber industry is estimated at
over 200 million dollars, furnished principally by British, United
States and Eastern Canadian investors, and the opportunities for
further profitable use of capital are unsurpassed, as the prices of
lumber are constantly increasing, while the stumpage values are
lower than in any other part of North America. In the Pacific
Coast States, Washington and Oregon, the stumpage values are:
Douglas fir, $2.50; cedar (red), $3.00; hemlock, $1.75; spruce, $2.50,
exclusive of taxes, whilst those of British Columbia vary from 50
cents to $1, to which must be added a licence fee and royalty,
amounting to about 90 cents per thousand, a total not exceeding in
any case $1.90. The figures quoted for United States timber are
standard prices; very choice and easily accessible timber sells at
higher rates. The rates in Ontario, exclusive of a royalty of $2
per thousand feet, vary from $11.37 for white pine to $1 for Jack
pine and $8.55 for spruce. In Ontario and the States the tenure
of timber is limited to a few years, immediate and continuous
operation being imperative.
The prices of lumber have increased from 60 per cent, to 75
per cent, in ten years, and with the rapid settlement of the vacant
lands of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba, the activity in railroad building, and the increasing demands of overseas markets,
further considerable advances in prices are inevitable.
The chief market for sawmill refuse is found in fuel, which pro- 46
? TRADE
centre of population. The market for this in 1913 was (because of
the coal shortage) better than ever before, the sale being estimated
at 300,000 cords, valued at $900,000. Large quantities of sawmill
refuse are also used under burners to produce power; and in addition, the manufacture of sawdust briquettes for fuel purposes has
been started. These appear very satisfactory and sell for the same
price as coal.
Wood Pulp and Paper
Posses
sing   an
imm
ense   quantity
of   paper-making   w
oods,
British  Columbia
iffords
a promising
field for  the paper n
laker.
Pulp wooc
forests
borde
r the ocean a
nd many navigable w
aters,
simplifying transpo
rtatior
, and there are
numerous water pow
ers to
supply mot
ive pow
er to
the mills.     The rapid denudation c
f the
pulp areas
of the
Unite
1  States will
oon  compel it to lo
ok to
Canada for
its supply of
wood pulp, which, according to the
regu-
lations now
in force
, mus
be manufactu
red in the Province.
rhere
is, besides,
a prese
nt dei
nand for pulp
in Japan, China and
Aus-
tralia, and
when the indu
try is fairly de
veloped, the ocean freights
will enable
profitab
e exportation to Gr
at Britain and Europ
Along
the coas
t-line
of the Mainland of British Columbi
a and
Vancouver
Island,
pract
cally inexhaus
tible areas  of pulp ■*
voods
can be four
d.    Sou
th of Knight's Inlet
the most abundant w
30d  is
the Dougla
s fir, wl
ich is
successfully u
sed for the manufacti
ire of
chemical pulp. Its suitability for mechanical pulp is not so certain. North of Knight's Inlet is the spruce and hemlock belt,
affording enormous supplies of excellent pulp wood—the Sitka
spruce especially being unexcelled by any other wood for pulp
purposes. These woods cover large tracts immediately contiguous
to the sea coast, so that logs can be landed at the mills at very
An important point in favour of
of British Columbia is the mildness
of operations being carried on thro
forests of this Province are much me
of Eastern Canada, 500 cords per ac
from 100 to 150 cords may be taken a
lands. With proper husbanding, the forests are practically i
haustible for pulp wood purposes. This is essentially a timber
country. Atmospheric conditions are especially favourable to
tree growth, which is very rapid, and the extent of otherwise value-
- less country along the coast that can be devoted to forestry is
enormous.     Owing to its wealth of raw material, excellent water
ie industries on the sea coast
->f the winters, which admits
g*hout the whole year. The
e densely wooded than those
: being not uncommon, while
r average of good timber APPENDICES
al position,   Bri
ntage in compel
ish  Columbia  occupies   a   .
ng for the pulp and paper
ited market is afforded by
i coast of America—both
powers   and  geogra
position of eminent
trade of the Pacific.
Australia, Japan,  China and the
North and South.
In 1901, to encourage the establishment of the paper making
industry in the Province, the Government granted 21-year leases
of pulpwood forests to bona fide applicants on liberal terms, and
several companies were formed to take advantage of the concession. These companies selected 354,399 acres in various parts of
the Province, and in 1903 the law granting pulp leases was repealed.
The annual rental to be paid under these leases is two cents per
acre, and a royalty of twenty-five cents per cord of pulp wood cut.
The lessees are bound to build, equip and operate in the Province
a mill with a daily output of not less than one ton of pulp or half
a ton of paper for each square mile included in the lease. The
merchantable timber on the leaseholds may be cut and manufactured under special timber licence.
The past year has been the first in which the pulp industry
has fulfilled its early promise. Two mills have been in operation
during the full year, the Powell River having constantly reached its
daily capacity of 225 tons of newsprint. It should be noted that a
small portion of this suffices to supply the Provincial market, while
freight rates prevent the shipment of newsprint to point;
Alberta. A small quantity of newsprint
from Calgary and Edmonton, the balam
cent, of the output) being marketed iii
Newsprint from British Columbia enter,
shipped to be distributed
t (comprising over 75 per
the Northwestern States,
the United States free of
duty under the
2J_ cents per pi
clause
Dund.
itting duty free papei
ralu.
t les
thai
The other operating pulp mill of the Province, that of the B.C.
Sulphite Fibre Company, on Howe Sound, has operated at capacity
during the year, producing daily 40 tons of a very superior grade
of fibre. The market for this product is altogether outside of
British Columbia. Seventy-five per cent, of the output is sold in
Japan; the remainder is sold to paper mills in the Northwestern
States. The manufacture of pulp products on a large scale in
British Columbia depends upon the solution of the problems of
labour, transportation, and markets, the prospects for which are
satisfactory. As for the prime essentials, this Province possesses
natural resources of pulp wood and water power which are not
equalled by any other Province in Canada, the water power on
tide water alone being estimated to be 1,000,000 horse power, and 48
VICTORIA
BRITISH
COLUMBIA,  BOA
BD OF TRADE
many
bill
on
j of feet of p
ulp
wood being ti
ibutary to this
.    Wher
the ti
ans
Pa
:ific ma
rket
b$
pulp products
is developed,
mills or
tide \
/ate
- in
British
Coh
mb
a will thus h.
ve great advantages ir
seeking trade. This market will sooner or later be essential to
the success of the pulp industry in British Columbia, for the section of the Canadian population which under the present basis of
fixing freight rates can be supplied by the mills of British Columbia
in competition with those of Central and Eastern Canada will be
the limited market west of Regina, while the new mills now contemplated or under construction in Alaska and the Northwestern
States will reduce the available market for the British Columbia
product in the Western United States. Fortunately, after the completion of the Panama Canal, the trade routes of the Pacific Ocean
will lead direct to the chief pulp and paper importing nations of
the world. Asia presents a great undeveloped market for pulp and
paper—a market demanding special grades produced by special
machinery processes, and in time will require heavy shipments of
low grade papers and high grade sulphite pulp. The Australian
and South African newsprint market should also be supplied from
British Columbia. The greatest pulp and paper market of the
world is that extending from the Atlantic seaboard of the United
States westward to Chicago. There is here at all times a keen
demand for,high grade sulphite pulp, which now enters the United
States free of duty. It is believed that with the opening of the
Panama Canal shipments will become possible to the Eastern
United States.
)f the pulp and paper exported from British
about $3,000,000.
The total value
Columbia in 1914 wa
This survey of the present situation shows that the expansion
of the pulp industry in British Columbia depends upon the same
factor as the expansion of the lumber industry—namely, the
development and extension of the export market. It is recognized
that this work, which is so important to the public from the standpoint of commercial prosperity, and to the Government from the
point of revenue, should not be left entirely to private individuals.
Already in 1914 the production of $3,000,000 worth of pulp and
paper has helped in the upbuilding of our commerce.
of Value of Productio
1915
roughly divided
product include:
ted beloi APPENDICES                                                               49
Lumber  $15,500,000
Pulp    .....'       3,200,000
Shingles       3,500,000
Boxes         750,000
Piles and poles          1,200,000
Mining-props and posts            400,000
Miscellaneous  (cut by railroads, mines,  settlers,' hewn
ties, cordwood)             900,000
Additional value contributed by wood-using industries,
planing mills, sash and door factories, cooperage,
wood pipes, slab fuel       1,750,000
Product of Dominion lands          1,800,000
Lath          150,000
Total  $29,150,000
no districts or communities that are not directly influenced by the
British  Columbia,  from its  position relative to  markets,  has
no   large  wood-working industries.    This  is  shown  by  the  fact
that out of all the timber sawn in 1914 only 20,000,000 was used
as   a  raw   material   for   further   manufactured   artjcles.    Of   this,
18,000,000 was manufactured into boxes, 1,000,000 in sash and doors
and interior fixtures, 200,000 in cooperage, and the balance in a
number of smaller uses,  such as caskets,  cars, boats,  etc.    This
remanufacture is an important asset to the Province and should be
product that is sold, the more money that is left in the Province
in labour, supplies, equipment, etc.
The wood-using industry  of Ontario,  for  instance, is  worth
over $19,000,000  a year,   according to  statistics  gathered  by  the
Dominion Forestry Branch.    This is made possible by the large
market of Eastern Canada, which uses large quantities of wood in
the   manufacture   of   sash   and   doors,   boxes,   furniture,   vehicles,
implements, slack cooperage, etc.
which  demands  these products.    Moreover,  in  any new  country
the first step is to manufacture lumber which can be sold for a
higher manufacture with a more uncertain market.  It is true, how
ever, that the very fact that British Columbia lumber product has
to stand a relatively high transportation cost makes it all the more
imperative  that the products transported  should have as high a
value at the shipping point as possible.   Why, for instance, should ritish Columbia sell lumber
In;
:ad   of   this
i Ontario, the
British   Coin
freight
wdust
which
doors anc
There
pletely  in   British   Columbia;   some,  like  i
condition;   others,   like   silos,   tanks,   and
down" for shipping."
The outstanding feature of the year 19
industry is concerned, has been the frui
down during 1913-14 by the Provincial Go-,
sion of the market for British Columbia lur
of the Chief Forester by the Dominion :
ments as Special Trade Commissioner to vi
Imperial authorities, resulted in orde:
don, five cargoes being handled by t
of the British Government, in addition
the loan of a prize vessel enabled an
shipped to the United Kingdom.    Th
: the pri
complete
"knocked
appointment
rial  Govern-
i the
= $166,000, an
placed through Government ;
en route to England.    The c
unfortunately put a stop to th
the Chief Forester left Englai
the  Provincial  Governn
be stationed in London
tion.     Another  step   of   impo:
exhibits at the following plac
;d from Lon-
:he Forest Branch on behalf
i to a deck load of ties, while
other cargo of lumber to be
ie value of the cargoes men-
eover, boxes to the value of $40,000,
id, were shipped by rail to St. John
sastrous slide in the Panama Canal
s business for the time being. When
d in order to proceed on his mission,
appointed a
mber
Coi
ich with the situa-
s   the  placing   of   lumber
f the Canadian Trade
those
United Kingdom.—London, Birmingham,
France.—Paris.
South Africa.—Capetown, Durban, Johan
Australia.—Melbourne, Sydney, Adelaide.
New Zealand.—Auckland.
South America.—Buenos Ayres.
China.—Shanghai.
Japan.—Yokohama.
Similar exhibits w
centres:—
Ottawa.—Departm
Winnipeg.—Indust
Toronto.—Excelsie
Exhibition, where it v.
i also placed in Canada
Trade and Coi
e Building (after bein;
■arded a gold medal).   for 60 pe
lumber in
the prairi
Thre,
APPENDICES
51
lg
the early part
of 1916 furth
er
exhibits w
ere pi
eed at
d London, in
Ontario, and
at
Montreal.
>er
Commissione
rs   have  been
ationed  at
Regi
ia  and
to
protect   the
interests   of
Br
itish   Columbia
in   the
arkets for lu
nber afforded
bj
the Prai
ie Pr
jvinces
ern
Canada.    Th
e Prairie  Pro
ces  afford
the  g
reatest
B
ritish Columb
a lumber, ac
nting,  in r
ormal
times,
ent.  of the t
tal productio
The depr
sssion
in the
du
try in recent
/ears was largely
due to the
shrin
cage in
demand.
mpressed themselves upon the Provincial
Government as providing the open door for energetic missionary
propaganda for the extension of the market for lumber on the
prairie. They were: (1) the good crop and market prospects of
1915 and the consequent greater purchasing capacity afforded the
grain growers; (2) the lack of farm buildings for the adequate
housing of implements and live stock; (3) the tendency towards
mixed farming, carefully fostered by the prairie agricultural
organizations,  a  development which  entails  more  buildings  than
does the
/ing of g
The Forest Branch was fortuna
with the University of Saskatchewa
very complete and comprehensive
practically the whole range of fan
advertised in the prairie and farm p
10,000 applications for bulletins ha-
copies distributed in all.
Addressed to a wider circle, bol
seas markets, the Timber Series was
of the
lated.
ing able to co-operate
g 1915 in preparing a
of   bulletins   covering
buildings.    This
prepared, and a large nu
. that series have been e
BULLETINS
Farm Buildings Series
Combination or General Purpose Ban
Dairy Barns, Milk and Ice "House, for
Beef Cattle Barns for Prairie Farms.
Horse Barns for Prairie Farms.
Sheep Barns for Prairie Farms.
Piggeries and Smoke Houses for Pra
Poultry Houses for Prairie Farms.
Implement Sheds and Granaries for ,
Silos and Root Cellars for Prairie Fa
Farm Houses for Prairie Farms. VICTORIA
COLUMBIA, :
Timber Series
How to Finish British Columbia Woods.
British Columbia Douglas Fir Dimension.
British Columbia Timber for Export.
British Columbia Western Larch.
British Columbia Western Soft Pine.
British Columbia Red Cedar Shingles.
British Columbia Manufacturers of Forest
Agriculture
Vancouver Island, which is about 285 miles long, with an
average width of about 60 miles, is separated from the British
Columbia mainland by the Gulf of Georgia and the Straits of
Haro and Juan de Fuca, and bears a close resemblance to Great
Britain in its geographical position, as well as in climate and certain natural characteristics. The climate, mild and moist as in
England, is warmer and brighter, with less average rainfall, the
summers being invariably dry, with continuous sunshine, while
the winters are much less foggy, with frequent spells of crisp,
bright weather. Holly, ivy, broom, gorse, box, heather, privet
and other shrubs grow in perfection, and all the favourite English
flowers are seen in the fields and gardens.    Wallflowers, primroses
whol.
lets bloom the year r<
:ountry is transformed
vated varieties flourishing
ers are, however, far fron
ts of this favoured regior
i the early
the
vild i
erywhere. The climate and the
eing the most important natural
Its timber is the finest in the
world and of great extent; its coal measures are practically inexhaustible; the deposits of other minerals—iron, copper, gold and
silver—are vast and but slightly developed; its fisheries rival those
of the Atlantic, and its soil is of wonderful fertility, capable of
producing every grain, fruit, root and vegetable grown in the tem-
The agricultural settlements on Vancouver Island, near Victoria, along the line of the Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway, and at
Comox, are the oldest in British Columbia, and the excellence of
their products has more than a local reputation. Island poultry,
Island mutton and pork, Island strawberries, raspberries, loganberries and currants, cherries, plums, apples, pears, quinces, etc., and
Island butter, command the highest prices, and such is the demand
that little ever crosses to the Mainland—the local markets absorb
all and ask for more.    Cattle, sheep,  swine and poultry do well APPENDICES 53
on the Island, the climate being so mild as to permit their
roaming at large and 'picking up an abundance of green food the
greater part of the year. Dairying is a profitable and growing
industry, although the local market is still far from being sup-
, while
! progrc
of r
, lumbering and fishing i
mds,
ad the
mtal t
its infancy, assures
} yet
nuance  of good price;
The average price of butter at first hand is 35 cents per pound.
In the Esquimalt, Metchosin, Sooke, Lake, Victoria, North and
South Saanich, Goldstream and Highland Districts, which adjoin
the City of Victoria, there is considerable good land suitable for
poultry raising, dairying, fruit growing, and market gardening.
Malahat District also contains areas of arable land, some of which
is heavily timbered, which might be profitably utilized for poultry,
dairying, fruit growing and sheep raising.
i Valley, noted for its
iwichan, including the
us, Somenos, Sahtlam,
Farther north lies the famous Cowichai
beauty of scenery and fertility of soil. Ce
districts of Comiaken, Quamichan, Chemain
Seymour and Shawnigan, is one of the most flourishing settlements
on the Island. The soil of the Cowichan Valley is of peculiar
richness, being strongly impregnated with carbonate of lime, with
usually a depth of two or three feet and a subsoil of blue clay and
gravel. The soil is suited to all kinds of crops, but is particularly
adapted to fruit, which grows in great abundance and of excellent
quality and flavour. The roads throughout the district are the
best on Vancouver Island—where bad roads are almost unknown
—thanks to the efforts of the local Municipal Council. Very little
wheat is grown, the area under cultivation being too limited, but
oats are a principal crop, yielding 60 bushels to the acre. Peas
produce between 30 and 40 bushels per acre, potatoes from 400 to
600 bushels, hay from two to three tons. Apples, pears, plums,
cherries and small fruits give big crops. Sheep raising is carried on to a considerable extent, a ready market for sheep and
lambs being found at Victoria, Ladysmith and Nanaimo. Hogs
pay well and thrive, and poultry give good returns, the price of
eggs and fowls being always high. One of the best conducted
co-operative associations in the Dominion is located at Duncan,
and handles large quantities of eggs and live poultry.
West of Duncan, in the Cowichan Valley, there is a large area
)f the north shore of the Cowichan
buntry admirably adapted to farming.
River and Barkley Sound the country
timbered, and is reported to be one
of good land, that portion
Lake being an almost level
From the lake to the Nitna'
is more rugged and heavil* , BRITISH  C0LUMB1
ions  of British  Columbia.     The same
n the vicinity of Ladysmith, and in the
j   Oyster,  Bright,  Cranberry,  Douglas,
ountain is broken,
Valley,  and   the
ind small timbers of
remarks apply to the land p
Nanaimo,  Mountain,  Cedar,
Wellington, Nanoose and Car
with  considerable  good  land  in  the  Millst
uplands furnish excellent grazing, with large a
good quality.     Cedar and Cranberry Districts very much resemble
Cowichan and possess large areas of good farming land.     North
of these districts the character of the soil changes, inclining to be
sandy and gravelly in patches, but around Qualicum it again reverts
to a rich loam of the best quality.     A good deal of land is under
cultivation in the country lying between Nanaimo and Comox, but
much of the  best of it is still unreclaimed, and  many thousand
acres will be available when cleared of timber.
Alberni Valley, at the head' of Alberni Canal, about 20 miles
long and from six to eight miles wide, is destined to become an
important district from an agricultural standpoint, as it is the
centre and natural distributing point for a large and rich mineral
district. It is 110 miles distant from Victoria and 55 miles from
Nanaimo. A very large area of good agricultural land can easily
be brought under cultivation by clearing and drainage. The soil
generally is a clayey loam and very productive, being well adapted
for fruit growing and dairying. A very considerable part of the
fertile Alberni Valley lies within the Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway Grant, and is included in the area which the Company will
render fit for cultivation and offer for sale to settlers. Alberni
has a steamboat service with Victoria, four sailings in each month.
The Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway branch line is now completed to Alberni. British Columbia Agricultural Productic
Calendar Year Ended 31st December
Unit
1915
1
914
(Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Horses	
Lbs.
S 2,247,500
3]512',170
9,000,000
750',00(
14,320,000
'■: ii =■■'»
sgSie
'l67!59J
121,875
$ 8,123,359
999,000
100,100
112,500
Poultry....;	
Lbs.
Doz.
Lbs.
Gals.
2,154,000
3,877,200
' io!ooo
8,963,500
uS
9,058,283
646,793
Total Poultry and-Eggs	
$ 1,464,720
650,540
2,38l',800
$ 2,410,022
Milk (as fresh)	
2,440,887
944,523
334,441
See Eaw
Lbs.
Tons
Bu.
Lbs.
39,934,337
12,207,763
3,359,934
149,726
422,322
22,130
6,585,598
200,000
29,448,120
8,734,687
2,889,820
Small Fruits™!.'3	
238,309
233,688
$ 1,642,300
1,643,248
1,419,844
162,366
393,431
Total Vegetables	
HayandStraw	
$"iS
' 5i;668
30,000
Whole Grains	
Honey	
4,402,753
300,000
2,770,985
51,000
106,000
Hops 	
860,580
143,430
967,824
232,278
Total M iscellaneous	
$    389,278
$31,127,801
	 , BBITISH  C0LUM
OABD OF TBADE
Agricultural Imports  from  Other Provinces in Canada
into British Columbia
t 1914 and 1915
1915                                1914
1 Quantity
Value      Quantityl     Value
Horses	
Beef Cattle	
Dairy Cattle	
No
16,68'
31,33*
82,197
$".297,203
21 ^49'
545
43,918
„702
$    128,830
' 58468
108,208
1,382,667
Total Live Stock 	
$ 2,949,829
$ 5,183,826
Beef and Veal	
Lbs.
3,255,096
l|22li425
1,677,498
132,975
367^66
1,540,287
213.iii
10,172,175
l|970!041
1,538,989
391,104
1,185,374
1,166,884
174^794
Total Meats	
16,023,544
$ 2,322,922
S 2,908,669
Poultry	
Eggs	
Lbs.
Doz.
1,093,468
1,474,978
148,12'
1,256,860
2,731,440
274.313
Total Poultry Products	
$    832,007
$ 1,025,827
Butter	
Gals.
5,666,679
1,834,882
1,509,55'
6,439,408
1,911,335
1,704,862
317,'386
678,640
Total Dairy Products	
$ 2,271,457
$ 2,751,321
ofhir Tree Fruits
Lbs.
No
returns
None
None
S__dWt_-U» (Canned)
2,893,101
168,970
10,446,490
647,670
Ot^rTeg^tableo
Tons
Hps
returns    .
91
ir670
Bu.-
10,315
2,274,717
1 710'067   >5 -*86'793
Tons
Bbls.
Bu.
364!59S
"'  "l69,3i6
 -ejg
193'l65
Total Grains, etc	
$ 4,757,890
$ 7,091,742
&:::::::::::::::::::::::::::
Lbs.
94,874
14,786          9,105
1     579          1,725
hlu
Total Miscellaneous	
$      ,5,365
$       2,168
Geanb Totals	
$13,493,807 APPENDICES
Agricultural Products Imported from Foreign Points
into British Columbia
Years 1-14 and 1915
Unit
1915
1914
Quantity
Vaue
Quantity
Value
Horses	
Beef Cattle    1
DairyCattle  f	
Sheep	
Lbs.
Lbs.
Gals.
Lbs.
Tons
Lbs.
Tons
Bu.
Bbls.
Lbs.
$
24
211,284
733,833
'27l',124
73,877
3,970,528
8,494,800
2,976,10'
416
""696,465
4,029
523,850
90,839
$       2,213
l!343!300
6,9Q6,050
262,639
414,895
8,019,040
"1,269,120
11,101
546,763
751,642
58J752
18,696
Total Live Stock	
Beef and Veal	
Pork and Pork Products, N. O. P.
Mutton	
Lard	
19,377
27^812
19,382
205,399
 58,629
Total Meats	
Poultry	
Eggs	
$    502,754
$    887,305
Total Poultry and Eggs	
Butter	
Cheese	
Milk (as fresh)	
$    137,590
1,584,512
98',113
Total Dairy Products	
Other Tree Fruits', N. b'. P.'.'.'.'.'.'..
Small Fruits	
Canned Fruits	
$ 1,081,663
74^502
74,681
59,610
156!298
46,987
$ 1,737,730
168,792
133i387
139,643
Total Fruits	
Other Vegetabiesi'N.'6!'p'.'.'. '.'.'.'.'.
Canned Vegetables	
$    580,421
 '339,451
Total Vegetables   	
Hay	
Whole Grains	
Malt	
Flour	
$    215,702
44,611
479,531
$    418,812
136,293
171209
Total Grains and Mill Stuff....
Honey	
Hops 	
$    494,235
7,72*
9,251
23!534
Total Miscellaneous	
$      20,440
$      54,784
GRAB- TOTALS	
$ 2,941,163
$ 5,290,670 JITISH COLUMBIA, E
Land
Provincial Government Lands
f the Provincial Government lands on Va
Isl
and
avail.
ble for s
;ttlem
ent will be
furnished upo
l application
to
the
Depa
rtment of
Lands,  Parliam
ent Buildings,
Victoria.
No
Prov
incial Go
E.
:nt lands for sale on Vane
& N. Lands
Duver Island.
Th
Esquimalt &
Nana
imo Railway Company o\
vns 1,060,000
es o
agri
cultural, t
mber
and minera
1 land on Vancouver Island,
ex
endi
tig fi
om   Otte
Poir
t  on  the
southwest  coas
t  to   Crown
Mc
unta
in   ir
the   Comox
District,   v
/hich   include
within   their
bo
inda
ies a
11 the fif
rishing farming,
mining, lumber
ng and fish-
ing
con
mun
ties along
thee
ast coast a
nd the line of the Esquimalt
&
Nan
limo
Railway,
a tra
ct recogni2
ed  to  be  a  ch
oice portion
of Vane
r Island.
This
magnificei*
t estate is bein
g systemati-
cally explored by the Company, and in Alberni and Newcastle and
Comox Districts several reliable colonization companies have
cleared tracts of the land and surveyed it into parcels suitable for
fruit growing, farming, poultry and dairy farms,. which are for
sale at reasonable prices and on favourable terms. Many miles
of roads have also been constructed. As the interior is explored,
it is the intention of the Company to extend the railway into the
most desirable valleys, to afford easy access to the agricultural,
timber and mineral lands. A branch of the Esquimalt & Nanaimo
Railway is now in operation to Alberni, and another branch has
been opened to Courtenay, thus giving access to the beautiful
Comox Valley, well known as a farming centre.
For further particulars, apply to Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway Land Department.
. Apari
:   Go*
i of Land
nt and Rai
■ Companay's land
there is a great variety of desirable land owned by individuals, th
price of which varies with locality, quality of soil, etc. Wild lane
mostly heavily timbered, can be bought from $10 to $50 per acrj
Improved  land  ranges  from $100  to $300  and  up,  according t
While some of these prices may be thought high; the cost c
clearing the land of timber must be considered, also that a sma
farm, well located and well tilled, on Vancouver Island will pre
duce more and return bigger profits than a much larger area c
land i
: other ■ndices
59
iltry  raising  i
s gradually de
which its imp
late, large  qua
lanitoba, Alber
Poultry Raising
:h  of  gene
ilumbia, bu
loultry beii
, Washingt
Poi
which i
from M
s  an  important branc
veloping in British Cc
ortance warrants.    Th
mtities  of eggs and p
ta, Ontario, California
ral  farming
t not to the
pply  is  still
lg imported
on, Oregon,
New Zealand and China. The eggs from the latter country are
very small, and are sold oftentimes as local fresh eggs. To remedy
this, the poultry breeders of the Province have succeeded in inducing the local Legislature to pass an "Egg Marks Act." In 1904
the value of eggs and poultry imported amounted to over $400,000,
and fairly good prices prevail at all seasons, the average wholesale
price for eggs on the Coast being: Fresh eggs, 25 cents per dozen;
case eggs, 22 cents per dozen; while the retail price for fresh eggs
averages 30 cents per dozen, ranging from 25 cents to 70 cents.
Fowls bring from $5 to $8 per dozen; chickens, $4 to $7; ducks, $5
to $11; geese, $1 to $1.50 each, and turkeys, from 28 to 30 cents
A practical poultry raiser, who has made a success of the
business on Vancouver Island, says: "I have no hesitation in
saying that there are good profits in the business, conducted on a
strictly commercial basis by experienced persons. In fact, I know
of no other branch of agriculture which is so profitable, having in
view the amount of capital to be invested and the expense of conducting it. . . . Properly managed, in any number, poultry ought
to reap a profit of at least $1 per head per annum."
Report on the Fisheries of District No. 3
To the Chief Inspector of Fisheries,
New Westminster, B. C.
Sir:—I have the honour to submit my annual statistical report
of the fisheries of Vancouver Island and the adjacent Mainland,
District No. 3, of the Province of British Columbia, for the fiscal
year ended March 31, 1915; including statement of fur seals taken
in this portion of the Province. The past season's operations
would compare favourably with any previous year.
Salmon.—The returns in this branch of the fishing industry
show an increase over the catch of the year previous, the catch
taken being 365,528 cwts., as compared with 297,450 cw-ts., the
catch of the year 1913-14.- There was, however, a smaller quantity of salmon canned than in 1913-14,
being 206,792, while during the prevr
reached 250,740.   This difference is a
a larger number
the traps on the s
vious years. Thre
for the decrease i
was offset in a ce
at Shushartie Ba;
■aim
lumber  of  cases  <
ted for by the
md than
of spring s
outhwest coast of Va:
e of the canneries being closed down, also accou
n the number of salmon canned.    This, howe-,
rtain measure by the erection of a new cann.
r, on the east coast of Vancouver Island.    T
cannery is situated well to thi
management are handling other
their cannery operating during th<
irkets e
fully on this coast, ar
throughout the year.
general in the future.
There was an ad-
shipped to the Orient
for this fish for canni
shipped to the Orien
Large
trolling has been di
north end of the Island, and the
fish as well as salmon,  keeping
greater part of the year.  This
the  right direction,  as  it will  bring into  the
lable food fish which are to be found so plenti-
and will also give employment to the fishermen
sed to say that the trend of fish-
nd no doubt it *<
I be i
ig purpo
:s, ho*.
r quai
of salmon were caught by trolling during the
only within the last two or three years that
ne to any extent, but now this mode of fishing
ing general throughout the district.
One of the greatest enemies that assails the salmon and trout
on this coast is the merganser, which frequents the rivers. They
are terribly destructive to ova, and salmon and trout fry. These
birds have two large broods in the season and live altogether up
the streams, feeding continually on the small fish, and must do an
immense amount of harm. The most destructive period is when
the water is low in the streams, then the merganser destroys large
numbers of salmon fry in the shallow pools. It has been suggested
that the Fishery Officers and Provincial Game Wardens be allowed
to shoot these birds during any time in the year.
Cod.—Cod fishing was more extensively engaged in than ever
before, and the catch was the largest. In 1913-14, 15,325 cwts. of
cod were taken, and in this year 22,485 cwts., an increase of 7,160
cwts. I would again bring to your attention the necessity of having
a close season for the protection of this valuable food fish. As the
cod fishing is done principally in the extensive channels between
Vancouver Island and the Mainland, where the waters are sheltered, the fishing can be  carried on during the whole year, and APPENDICES
taken during the sp;
1 of the c
very large quantities
extends from the mi,
the proper conservat
should be prohibited.
A fishery was opened
largely handled.    Filletted cod was shipped t'o
it.    Wher
1 put up in
[  have  n
o  doubt  thi
■e appreci
iated as the
found a ready
industry
codfish becomes better known
market, cod fish on this coast
important branches of our fishe
Herring.—The herring fish,
inent place in the fisheries of th
tons of herring were taken,
operated, but the fishing seas
catches were good up to the ti)
i adv?
the de-
way, they commj
branch  of  the  fish
scellent quality of i
If   properly  prepared  for
ght to become one of the most
es continue to occupy a prom-
district. Last season over 23,000
V smaller number of salteries
i  began   much   earlier,  and   the
the
:lopment of this branch of the fisherii
ist   of  Vancouver   Islar
:ompared with  the  1913-14
salted and shipped to the
s formerly the bulk c
and plac
then
s teem
there is no doubt that
The spawning a
hibited in good
during the spawning seasi
Halibut.—The halibu
herring take
n pi,
being given to preparing th,
a. manner as to command
in the position that their
th these fish, and they ar
ere
-ell '
>cked *,
d ample protect
-eturr
;sults
: yea:
This
Th,
mally unfa
the loss of one of the largest vessels
This vessel operated from Victoria, and
the halibut banks, laden with halibut,
the coming season is much brighter, as, n
two new vessels were fitted out, and wil
fishing on the west coast of Vancouver I
Oulachans.—The catch of oulachans w
ever before. Last year the catch was 550
cwts. were taken. These fish are nearly
adjacent to the Mainland part of the distri
.onditions
, and secc
•ndly,
igaged in
this indr
istry.
is lost on
her way
from
ie outlook, howevei
r, for
ear the e
nd of the
year,
1 engage
in the halibut VICTOEIA,  BRITISH  COLUMBIA, BOARD  OF  TRADE
Trout.—The p;
1,149 c*,
cwts. taken during the prev
fairly well stocked and a:
-e taken, as compa:
vruus year. The streams
well patrolled.
one  for
vith 650
Clams.—5,045 cases of clams were put up by two clam-canneries. The number of barrels taken this year was 9,322, as compared with 10,000 barrels for the previous year. There are extensive clam beds in the district, but, owing to their distance from
the market, being well to the north, nothing has been done with
them. As the country develops, however, these areas will prove
valuable.
Whales.—The whaling station situated at Sechart, on the west
coast of Vancouver Island, at Barclay Sound, reports taking 86
whales, comprising 4 sperm, 8 sulphur-bottom, 40 finbacks, and 34
humpbacks. The station at Kyuquot, west coast of Vancouver
Island, captured 234 whales, comprising 12' sperr
bottom, 142 finbacks and 57 humpbacks. The total n
whales taken was 16, which is an increase of five c
catch, and equals the catch of 1912-13. The success
industry depends to a great extent on the weather
along 1
sulphur-
lumber of sperm
)ver last year's
of the whaling
conditions.
: of Vancouver
:aling
Fur Seals.—The
Island  are practically the  only !
operations. Their efforts during the past season resulted in the
capture of 257 fur seals. This is a very favourable showing com--
pared with the preceding year, when only 119 were captured.
When it is considered that seal hunting must be done by the most
primitive methods, namely with spears, the use of guns being prohibited, it displays considerable skill on the part of the native when
such good results are shown. The Indians were accustomed for
many years to use grins on board the various sealing schooners,
and it is now a very difficult matter to compel them to revert to
the old method of using spears, but the overseers have been faithful in seeing that the regulations with regard to fur seal hunting
were complied with in every way by the hunters.
It is with satisfaction that I report faithful patrol by the
fishery overseers throughout the whole district, in enforcing the
fishery regulations. They were enabled to do this by the facilities
provided by the Department in furnishing them with boats suited
to -their work. Although the fishing area is so extensive, and so
many fishermen are engaged in the fishing operations, there Were
during the past year very few infringements of the fishery regu-
I am, sir,
E. G. TAYLOR,
Inspector of Fisheries. Dr. Brj
says:
"The Clii
"In all this country
to tne Queen Charlotte Is
grow well, and farm anim;
rich bottoms of the Fraser
great hay crops and pastui
fall is n
late and Health Resorts of Canada,"
from the south of Vancouver Island
ids, "the fruits of temperate climates
> live outdoors the year round. The
lelfa have long been famous for their
lands: but here the extreme of rain-
w West-
k years being 59.66 inche
i of the great Island of Van,
northwest across two degrees of longitude and two degrees of
latitude, presents every variety from that at the sea coast, with, as
at Esquimalt, a very low daily range and no annual extremes—
the lowest temperature in two years being 8 degrees F., the lowest
monthly average being 20 degrees F., and the highest in summer
being 82 degrees F.—to that as above Alberni on the West Coast,
where the Vancouver range rises first into a plateau to 4,000 feet
and even to 7,500 feet in Victoria Peak."
"Apart frc
i the
mineral wealth of Var
tion possible, becomes most attra
Ider than many parts of England.
Island, its e
Climate of Victoria, B. G.
There are many beautiful localities in this Grand Province of
itish Columbia, and the general healthiness of the various cli-
itic conditions throughout the whole of its extensive boundaries
a point on which there is a universal consensus of favourable
Pre-eminent, however, for its natural beauty and its de
lightful
climate,   stands   Victoria,   the   "Queen   City,"   the   capital
of  the
Province, and the seat of its Government.    Situated at the
south-
eastern extremity of Vancouver Island, its insular climate
sidered to be the most delightful on the  Pacific Coast, a
nd has
been compared to that of the south of England.
nd
"It is spoken of as England without its ei
it is Torquay in the Pacific;  a mild and even
occasional snow;   an early spring;   a dry
a bright and enjoyable atmosphere; thund,
here; they can be heard in the interior, bu
The
ranges, i
nter with ra
situation of Victoria,  sheltered by the Isla
nd mountain
auses its rainfall to be much less than that o
er and New Westminster on the adjacent Ma
mland.    The
>ortion of the moisture from the ocean has
been caught
lensed on the westward side of the Island r
eavy precipitation does not occur until the mc
isture-giving
rike  the highlands on the opposite  coast. VICTORIA, BRITISH  COLUMBIA,  BOARD  01* TRAI
Meteorological Statistics—Victoria, B. C.
y E. Baynes Reed, Chief Meteorological Agent for Br
Jan. 1 Feb. 1 Mar.
Api.
May Ijune
July
Aug.l Sep. j Oct | Nov. Dec. 1 Year
1911  ...
1918....|
1913....'
36.2 39.0 43.7
40 6 43.042.5
36.038.441.4
45.5
48.6
48.4
52.356.4
56.0 59.1
53.7 59 1
62.3
61.9
60.155.5 50.0 42.8 41.3 48.76
59.9|57.2|48.6 45.2|41.3 N50.33
62.6 56.6:48.8 44.1 42.8 49.48
1916 ee
40.5 43.3 48.6
53.9|57.8 59.9 62.0 56.5 51.143.3 41.4 50.78
mx.m:
I 66.8,72.4 73.2 89.5 79.5 72.7 66.
B 61.8 84.2 85.9 89.8 81 8 78.4 63.
.85.8 71.1
3 80.3 81
''.4 87.9172.8
4 82.5
62.2 55.8
67.0 54.
153.7
LOWEST TEM
=ERATURE
1911...
H14.9I24.4I27.2I27.7I37.5I4O.2
44.7|46.2|37.8|33.5
14.2
30.0
14.2
1912...
23.528.527.2|30.237.941.2
45.5'41.241.733.0
30.3
31.4
23.5
1913...
21 0 27.0 22.7 30.7 37 243.3
45.346.041.535.0
31.3
33.7
21.0
1914...
28.0 25.6 29.4 35.2 42.0 42 5
48 245.943.842.C
33.2
25.6
1915...
30 9 34.0 38.0 38.842.047.9
50.0 48 9 44.8 43.0
33.2
27 0
27.0
1916...
|15.0 23.8 30.8 37.2 36.1   ...
1911.
1912.
1913.
1914
1915.
1916.
1.93 0.59
1.431 30
1.90 0 62
2.041.04
1 53 0.57
5.351.12
29.53
23.00
25.72
3. OF
DAYS
ON w
PREC
ION FELL
1911....
22
si-n-.
:?i&
4
10
7
%ffi$
3
#13$
7
21
21
130
1912....
20
17
•ei<f
13
6
ja*B;--
>&>
17
14
19
148
1913....
23
9
>M
10
10
'f&*
tfcp^
imk
W^
15
17
12
137
1914....
27
13
wii
12
4
mfe
4
12
12
25
10
139
1915....
14
15
16
10
13
S^i.
9
*tS
SSl
20
26
21
155
1916....
15
16
19
15
9
J    *■•
1911...
1912...
1913...
7.15
3.20
4.50
3.60
8.20
2^90
0.30
|
loo e
rW
9.'io
olio
16.35
3.20
1914...
1915...
0.10 ...
.10
0.20
4.10
1916...
30.20
46.40 APPENDICES
Bright Sunshine Registered at Victoria
1913
1914
1915
1916
Month.
i-  II
||
h
fig
.13
.23
.32
.42
.63
.58
68
.69
.24
.35
.16
.32
ll
g-g
S
|f
ie
.3
.2
.4
.5
.3
.6
.5
.5
.5
.2
.2
.2
f-
if
50.12
81.06
121.42
127.48
166.00
167.42
274.48
237.18
198.06
91.30
56.36
33 42
.18
.28
.33
.31
.35
.35
.57
.53
.53
.27
.20
.13
35.06
65.54
117.24
178.24
296.12
279.48
328.30
305.30
92.00
117.24
45.00
84 30
83.06
64.18
159.24
222.00
180.30
304.54
261.06
262.36
201.30
98.36
66.30
61.54
67.42
98.48
89.36
169.36
230.36
!32
May	
June	
.49
July   	
August	
September	
November	
December	
Total	
1606.30
[1945.42
1966.24
The following comparison
centage may be of interest:
Torquay    39
Eastbourne    39
Plymouth    37
Oxford    34
"The rainfall i
Glasgow
.36
than that of London, though
greater in amount. From May to September is usually a period
of small rainfall and bright skies at Victoria, while in London the
summer and winter rainfall is not very different, and the percentage of bright sunshine from May to August at Victoria is
largely in excess of that of London."
New Observatory, Victoria, B. C.
following information has been kindly furnished by Dr.
.skett, Astronomer to the Canadian Government:
new Observatory on the summit of Saanich Hill, which
approaching completion, will contain a telescope larger
r in existence, and will undoubtedly increase the attractive-
the ordinary visitor, and especially for men
and
3 of the
reflei
_ing type, con
^,12 inches thick
the lower end of the tube, the uppe
has a bright coat of silver on the fr
light back to the upper end of
:ither ■
ning ;
weighing nearij
;nd being open
t surface, whicl
e othei
the side, or back through a hole 66 VICTORIA,   BRITISH   COLUMBIA,  BOARD  OF  TRADE
in the centre of the main mirror, to the lower end of the tube,
where it may be visually observed  or photographed.
The tube is 7^ feet in diameter, 30 feet long, and weighs about
15 tons.     It is  carried  by the  "declination"  axis,  a  steel  forging
16 inches diameter, 14 feet long", weighing 5 tons, which is
attached at right angles to the tube, and which in turn is supported also at right angles by the "polar" axis, composed of three
steel castings bolted together and weighing 10 tons. This "polar"
axis, which is adjusted so as to be exactly parallel to the axis of
the earth, is carried in ball bearings at its ends on a massive concrete pier. It is driven by a governor mechanism accurately at
the same rate as the earth revolves, and hence causes the telescope
tube  to exactly follow the motion of the stars.
The telescope is set and guided wholly by electric power,
seven motors as well as numerous solenoids and clutches being
required, and the enormously heavy moving parts, about 45 tons,
can be handled with as great accuracy and ease as if it were only
one-tenth the size. The bearings are so beautifully made that a
pressure of five pounds at the end of the tube is sufficient to set
this great mass in motion.
The building is circular, 66 feet in diameter, with a wall about
35 feet high, this being surmounted by a revolving hemispherical
dome, making the total height 75 feet. The whole is of steel construction with double sheet metal walls arranged to allow complete circulation of air, which enters at the bottom and passes up
' between the walls of building and dome, passing out through
louvres at the top. The purpose of this construction is to keep
the interior at the shade temperature during the day, and allow
it to rapidly assume the night temperature. Only in this way
can the conditions of atmospheric definition be kept at their best.
The dome has been specially designed and has many original
features to assist in the operation of the telescope, and the whole
equipment forms not only the largest but the most complete in
every operating convenience and the most accurately and perfectly constructed of any ever built. The makers, the Warner &
Swasey Co., of Cleveland, who have built the largest refracting
telescopes in the world, have taken great pride in making this
equipment more complete and convenient in operation than any
before constructed, and Canada is to be congratulated on possessing so magnificent an instrument, which will undoubtedly markedly
increase astronomical knowledge.
Victoria Vital Statistics
The mortality rate for the year 1915 Vas 7.86 per thousand,
a little higher than the previous year.
Fire Losses, 1915
Buildings     $13,276.31
Contents    |     16,403.37
Total Loss on  Buildings and  Contents   $29,679.68
Insurance on Buildings and Contents
Buildings  $343,250.00
Contents     177,450.00
Total Insurance  $520,700.00 m Mfl
*-*' O^
K,x
mmam,   Victoria City Municipal Statistics
Victoria City Ai
Assessed value of 1;
Assessed value of ir
Corporation Properties-
Waterworks, schools, public
Property in Trust 	
Properties Free from Ti
minion and  Provincial  Gove
Churches,  C.P.R.  Hotel,  et.
.. $62,738,863.00
..    25,302,431.00
.. $88,041,294.00
. $ 5,431,130.00
2,318,000.00
1,500,000.00
. .$105,460,834.00
Mileage of Paved Streets, Sidewalks, etc.
The total mileage of pa
de up as follows:
ved streets at tl
of 191.
3^
ny2
Wood   Block  Pavemen
Concrete   Pavement
Macadam Pavement   ..
Tar Macadam Pavemen
Vitrified Brick Pavemen
t
Unpaved   Streets   	
Total Mileage of Concr
"    Boule
ete Sidewalks  .
i3iy2
"    Sewer
117
"    Watei
1324/
"    Surfai
:e Drains   	
82V. ea I S » S 5 II £ 3      5
8 1    8S8888I
«    8 I    8£
o 3   3
IIISIeI: VICTORIA,  BRITISH  COLUMBIA,  BOARD  OF TRADE   j
Shipping
tement
if vessels en
iployed   ir
arrived
at and depar
ted from t
rch, 191
D, 1911, 191-
, 1913. 19
2,636
1,222,890
1,472.417
74.433
88,803
3.457
1,808,122
rro,824
3.727
2,675,582
137.992
3.77°
2,923,067
H9,65i
3,220
2.383,313
3.137
2,259,673
93,258
red inward
Vom sea e
12,  191^
, 1914, 1915
With Cargo
and 1916
Vessels
Tonnage
Crew
777
9°3,445
52,804
793
869,957
55,883
[,406,797
65,490
I.5Q5
76,452
1.433
[,484,039
1.139
>,363.479
65,785
1,086
64,15'
seis ent
red outward
to sea di
12. 191.
, I9H, 1915
With Cargc
and 1916
Vessels
Tonnage
Crew
513
700,397
36,447
754,992
478
696,173
35,745
634
48,263
787
1.145,103
53,948
Tonnage
Crew
2,635
991,327
7M46
1,118,529  '
89,932
3,487
1,876,301
111,372
3,849
2,381,699
137.703
3,827
2,621,886
147.578
3,258
2,244,618
107,129
3,i89
1,991.798
94.875
e years
ending Marc
In Ballast
Vessels
Tonnage
Crew   1
218
332,139
11,447
349
452,933
16,723
38l
467,305
i3,5io
499
470,473
15.457
693
655,356
26,474
529
647,378
24,849
593
640,871
22,839
Tonnage
Crew "
676,571
004,869
40.957
.052,576
41,450
091,161
43.H7
,260,109
50,153
145.057
46,439
319,864
50.05I
Victoria Post Office Statistics
Years Ending 31st March
1913 I9H 1915
Gross Postal Revenue     $   171,533.21      $   182,857.35     $   158,715.52
Number    of    Money    Orders
issued  No. 81,284 No.  79,603 No.  56,317
Total amount of Money Orders
issued     $1,340,407.58      $1,189,525.19    $    793.988.47
Total amount of Money Orders
Paid     $   731.572.34      $   823,846.64   $    727,447.47
Number    of    Money    Orders
paid           No. 32,363 No.  37.114       No. 37,818
Total amount of Postal Notes
paid     $     43,928.91      $   -46,577.12     $    47,286.33 APPENDICES
V£|?$$i
Victoria's Bank Clearings
For the Past Eleven Years
.$17,342,421
1904.....Jan. to June $15,727,588   July to Dec	
1905   "            "       17,824,982     "             "    ....
.  19,065,482
1906   •'             "       19,864,742     "             "    ....
. 25,750,873
1907   "             "    ..... 25,975,821     '■'            -    ....
. 29,354,767
1908   •'             "      26,785,118     "             ■'....
. 28,570,895
1909   '•             '•       30,886,765     "             "    ....
.  39,809,117
1910.....  "             "      44,878,016     "             "    ....
.  56,687,058
1911   "             '■      66,176.400     "             ■•....
.  68,752,876
1912   "             "       82,033,003     "
.101.511,235
1913   "             "..... 92,302,792     "             "    ....
..  84,674,282
1914   •'             "       65,856,781     "             "    ....
. 55,806,491
1915   "             "..... 39,601,826     "             "    ....
,.  37,076,100
Education
  -
British Columbia has, since 1872, maintained a sy-
item "of free
public schools, which have been conducted on strictly
secular and
non-sectarian  principles.     These   public   schools   are
free   to   all
children between the ages of six and sixteen years,
and attend-
ance at the public schools is compulsory for all childi
-en between
seven   and  fourteen  years,   inclusive.      High   schools
have  been
established in all the larger centres, the latest report showing that
at thirty-five centres throughout the Province high schools were
in   operation.      The   University   of   British   Columbia
opened   its
doors to students for the first time in the autumn o
f 1915, with
an excellent staff and with an enrolment of about th
ree hundred
and  seventy-five  students.     Instruction  in  the high
schools  and
in the University is also free and non-sectarian.
Whenever any  locality  in  the   Province  can  fur
nish  to  the
Department of Education the names  of at least ten
children of
school  age,   the   Department   establishes   what   is   kn
iown   as   an
assisted  school,  by  which   is  meant that  the  full   salary  of  the
teacher is paid by the Government but the people a
re  expected
to  provide  a  building,  to  furnish  it,  and  also  to pay  the  usual
incidental expenses.     When a settlement grows to sue
:h an extent
that it can muster the names of at least twenty children of school /'-^£b§§£sa
age, the district is gazetted as a regularly organized
school dis-
trict.     The  Government  then  proceeds  to  erect  a  s<
chool  house
free of cost to the people of the district, and to fur
nish it with
modern school desks.
The total.cost of education for the year ending
the 30th of
June, 1915, including the amount expended by the Pro
v-incial Gov-
ernment, was $3,917,446.00. 72                           VICTORIA,  BRITISH COLUMBIA, BOARD OF TRADE
Ordinary Port Charges, Victoria, B. C.
Hospital dues, per net ton, payable three times annually ...
Harbour dues, payable twice annually 	
$   .01%
5.00
1.00
Pilotage (as per schedule below).
Port agency    $15.00 a
Dockage charge   (no cargo landed), $4 for the first 200 tons
and y2c. for each additional ton.
STEVEDORING—
Ballast (furnishing and supplying
per ton  	
Lumber and timber, per M feet .
required, 2240 lbs.)
 $1.10 to
General cargo (weight and r
Coal, per ton	
Ballast (2240 lbs.), (excepti
rement), per ton
ud), per ton  	
The Ports of the Pilotage Dis
(1) Port of Victoria.
(2) Port of Esejuimalt.
(3) William Head Quaranti
(4) The limits of said Por
■ict of Victoria and Esquimalt shall
s Stat
shall be inside a line drawn from
Clover Point to Brotchy Ledge (upon which a stone beacon
electric light is placed), bearing about W. by S. % S.—and a
line drawn from Brotchy Ledge to Fisguard Light House
(outside Scroggs' Rocks and Brother's Island), bearing
approximately W. by N.
(5) The limits for speaking vessels bound into either Harbour
shall be at or outside a line drawn from William's Head to
Trial Island, bearing N.E. and S.W. (All bearings are
magnetic.) APPENDICES 73
(6) Any vessel, arriving at any Port within this Pilotage District, and not having been spoken in compliance with the
Pilotage Act, it shall be optional with the Master of such
vessel as to the taking of a pilot outward.
(7) Vessels calling at William's Head Quarantine Station, and
i     immediately proceeding to the Port of Victoria, or Esquimalt,
shall be subject to the charges prescribed under Clause (6)
Dues.
(_)    Vessels bound to other Ports and coming to an anchor in
Royal Roads, the pilotage shall be free, except the services of a Pilot
are employed, when pilotage according to the following graduated scale
shall he payable:
From Inside or North of Race Rocks to Royal Bay or vice versa,
50 per cent, of the prescribed rates under Clause (6), Sec. 18.
(b)
i Beechy Head to Royal Roads or vice v
i Pillar Point to Royal Roads or vice ve
i Cape Flattery to Royal Roads or vic>
For  vessels  entering  into  or  clearii
■sa, $1.00 per foot,
ia, $3.00 per foot,
versa, $6.00 per foot,
from  the  Por
of
Victoria and Esquimalt, the rates of Pilotage shall be a
(1) For Regular ocean steamers, 50 cents per foot draught of
water and i^-cent per net registered ton up to a maximum
of 3,500 tons on the inward voyage subject to a discount of
20 per cent., and 50 per cent, of the above rates on the outward voyage.
(2) For Irregular ocean steamers, $1.00 per foot draught of water
and 54-cent per net registered ton.
(3) For Regular steamers in the coasting trade between San
Francisco and Lynn Canal inclusive, the rate shall be the
same as for Regular ocean steamers, as rated in Clause 1.
(4) For vessels under sail, $2.00 per foot draught of water and
1 cent per net registered ton.
(5) For sailing vessels in tow, $1.50 per foot draught of water
and 1 cent per net registered ton.
(6) For all vessels entering into or clearing from William's
Head Quarantine Station, the rates shall be 50 per cent, of
thje prescribed rates of any class of vessel for Victoria and
Esquimalt, subject to exemptions in Sec. 17, Clause 7; provided, however, that all coasters between San Francisco and in Canal inclusive, when compelled by special instructions
m the Dominion Government to call at William's Head
Lrantine Station, shall be exempt from Pilotage dues,
ess the services of a pilot are requested.
vessels  of  500  tons  and under,
i  pel
Note.
draught of |
rhe dues befor
intioned are subject to i
disce
mt
20%.
ssels, from the limits of the Ports
aits of all ports on Puget Sound
;he rate of Pilotage shall be $1.00
(c) Gulf Pilotage.—For all
of Victoria and Esquimalt to the
and Gulf of Georgia and vice vers,
per foot draught of water.
(d) Vessels proceeding from Victoria to Esquimalt, and vice
versa, and having discharged or received a portion of their cargo in
either harbor, and- having paid full pilotage into either harbor, if
proceeding with the assistance of steam, shall pay $1.50 per foot.
(e) Any fraction of a foot not exceeding six inches shall be paid
for as half a foot, and any fraction of a foot exceeding six inches shall
be paid for as a foot.
(/) Pilots shall, when called upon to do so, remove vessels from
one part of either harbor to another part of the same harbor for the
specific charge of $10.00 for each and every removal.
{g) The Pilotage Authority shall have power under this By-law
to make such arrangements from time to time concerning the pilotage
of vessels making regular trips between Victoria and Puget Sound, as to
them may appear necessary or expedient in the interests of Trade and
Commerce.
(h) Compulsory payment of -Pilotage dues is not chargeable
against vessels while in Royal Roads, unless such vessels shall enter
either or both the harbors of Victoria and Esquimalt.
s#:':'fe
When a vessel
is bound to
or from any other
port
in
the
Provin
3e, either laden or
in ballast, a
nd does not disehar
je or
ive
any cargo, passengers or
mails, but
imply enters it as
a harbor
of
refuge,
such  vessel  shall
be  exempt
from  Pilotage  into
and
out
of
Esquin
alt, excepting in
cases where
a Pilot is actually
enga
ged
by
the Ma
ster for such servi
ces.
&?!:V
Steamers  maki
lg regular  trips  to  Victoria  an
d  Es
luim
alt
and ha
ving paid the pres
cribed rates
under Clause  (6)  o
i the
inw
ard
voyage
and returning ag<
in to either
of said harbors within a
period
of 20 days, shall only paj
one-half the
inward rates The Salmon Industry of Vancouver Island  APPENDICES                                                                    75
Esquimalt Graving Dock
1. Length of dock to gate, 450 feet, level with keel blocks;   480
with gate on outer kerb.
2. Width of gates, 65 feet.
3. Depth of water varying from 27 feet to 29 feet 6 inches at
springs, according to season of year.
The use of this dock will be subject to the following tariff, viz.:
For  the
Gross  Tonnage  of  Vessel                 first day of
Including  undocklng day
all vessels up to 1,000 tons...
n 1,000 to 2,000 tons	
all vessels above 2,000 tons.. .
els from 450 to 480 ft. in lengtt
).00     5 cents per te	
).00    4j4 cents per ton
400.00 i f cents per ton up t
550.00     tons and 2 cts per
I all tonnage above
[ 200.00     5 cents per ton
YARROWS, Ltd.
Marine Railway, Esquimalt.
Cradle,  length   300   feet
Capacity  (dead weight) 2,500 tons
For scale of charges, apply to the Manager, Victoria, B.C.
Victoria Machinery Depot
e Railway.
Cradle, length    280 feet
Beam        69 ft. 2 i
For scale of charges, apply to the Company, Victoria, B.C. Victoria, British Columbia, Board of Trade
OFFICERS    1916-1917
C. H. LUGRIN
JAMES FORMAN
-    President
Vice-President
F. ELWORTHY
COUNCIL
-                       Secretary
J. L. Beckwith
Jas. Forman
J. J. Shallcross
Beaumont Boggs
Joshua Kingham
W. J. Shortt
A. W. Bridgman
G. A. Kirk
H. B. Thomson
A. C. Burdick
Capt. W. H. Logan
Dr. S. F. Tolmie
J. O. Cameron
C. H. Lugrin
L. A. Walker
F. Elworthy
F. A. Pauline
N. A. Yarrow
BOARD OF ARBITRATION
Beaumont Boggs
L. Crease
M. B. Jackson
A. W. Bridgman
R. S. Day
J. Kingham
J. O. Cameron
Jas. Forman
J. C. Pendray
Arthur Coles
C. A. Holland
Hon. E. G. Pr
STANDING   COMMITTEES
TRADE, COMMERCE and TRANSPORTATION
Hon. T. W. Paterson (Chairman) W. H. Bone C. C. Castle
John Hart J. J. Shallcross
MANUFACTURES
D. C. Hutchison W. A. Jameson
W. E. Staneland
FISHERIES
B. C. Mess (Chairman) J. T. Deaville Robt. Dur
C. H. French Richard Hall AGRICULTURE
R. W. Perrj
f (Chairman)                    H. A. Munn                    L. Stevenson
Dr. S. F. Tolmie                          Thos. Walker
FINANCE
J. F. M. Pil
pkham (Chairman)             F. L. Crawford             J. A. Taylor
MINING
W. Blakemi
ire (Chairman)             Richard Hall             W. A. Lewthwaite
H. A. Ross                                W. T. Williams
IMMIGRATION
Geo. McGre
gor (Chairman)                   W. R. Dale                    A. W. Elliott
H. J. Scott                              L. Tait
PUBLIC WORKS and RAILWAYS
C. T. Cross
(Chairman)                    H. F. Bullen                    R. W. Douglas
H. Humphrey Jones                   J. S. H. Matson
HARBOURS and NAVIGATION
F. A. Pauli
ne (Chairman)         Beaumont Boggs         Capt. W. H. Logan
T. H. Slater                                Capt. J. W. Troup
RAILWAY FREIGHTS
J. C. Dows.
stt (Chairman)               H. B. Davenport               A. E. McLean
J. C. Pendray                      C. P. Schwengers
CITY AFFAIRS
Lewis Hall
(Chairman)                   M. B. Jackson                   Stephen Jones
H. O. Kirkham                        Edwin Tomlin
LEGISLATION
A. P. Luxt.
In (Chairman)              A. T. Monteith              H. W. R. Moore
H. F. Pullen                             R. F. Taylor
RECEPTION
J. W. Amb
ery (Chairman)              H. E. Beasley              A. W. McCurdy
R. H. Pooley                          W. T. Williams
AUDITORS
A. M. J. E
nglish                        W. S. Fraser                        G. W. Mitchell Officers of the Chamber of Ci
of Victoria, Vancouver Island
TEAR
MjUib
VtCE-PBE
n
1863
Jules David	
Jules David	
James Lowe...
Henry Rhodes
Gustav Sutro !!
A  F Main
Jules David
James Lowe	
1866	
RobeVtPluramer
Henry Rhodes	
Henry Rhodes	
T. L. Stahlschr
T. L. Stahlschr
t! L. Stahlschr
T. L. Stahlschr
T. L. Stahlschr
nidt	
Officers of the Victoria, British Columbia, Board of Trade
TEAR
PRESIDENT
VrCE.PBESH.ENT
SECRETARY
Oct. 28th, 1
July 3, '80)
R. P. Rithet, J. P	
R. P. Rithet, J. P	
R. P. Rithet, J. P	
R. P. Rithet, J. P	
R. P. Rithet, J. P	
R. P. Rithet, J. P	
Robert. Ward, J. P....'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.
Robert Ward, J. P	
Robert Ward! j! p!!!!!!!!!!!!
Thomas B. Hall	
Thomas B. HaU	
A. C. Flumerfelt	
A. C. Flumerfelt	
Edgar Crow Baker!]!""
Thos. Earle	
   E. Crow Baker
1881-2	
  |- grow |aker
Thomas B. Hall !'!!!!!!"
A. C. Flumerfelt"!!!!!!!
A. C. Flumerfelt	
C.E. Renouf	
Gus.Lelser..::;!;;:.;:::!!:
c! f! Todd .'!!!!:"!!.
C. F.Todd	
1889-90	
1890-1 	
'!!!!!!  F. Elworthy
    F. Elworthy
1893-4	
-   1894-5	
    F. Elworthy
  F. Elworthy
   F. Elworthy
1898-9	
1899-1900	
'.!!!!!!  F'. Elworthy
 1 F. Elworthy     '
j*£jj	
W. T. Oliver	
J. A. Mara	
Simon Leiser!!:!!!!!!!!!.!
a! e! Todd...!!!"'!!!!!!!!!
J. J. Shallcross	
JW. T.Oliver 1
IT. W. Paterson f
J. A. Mara	
F Elworthy
1906-7	
 I I'sil
1909-10	
1910-11	
1911-12	
i9i3-i<c;;~
Hon. E.G. Prior	
C. H. Lugrin	
C. H. Lugrin	
Hon. E. G. Prior	
 1 F. Elworthy MEMBERSHIP ROLL
Barnard, G. H.  ...
. Barnard, Robertson,
Heisterman & Tait	
Barrister-at-Law.
Barnard, Hon. F. S.
. Lt.-Governor of B.C	
Barnes, H.  T	
. B. P. Ritliet & Co	
Insurance.
Barton, George   ...
. Gordons Ltd	
Manager.
Bassett, H. W.   ...
. Grant, Smith & McDonnell
Ltd...Gen. Manager.
Beasley, H. E	
. E. & N. By	
Superintendent.
Beckwith. J. L.  ...
Commission Agent.
Blakemore, Wm.  . .
J'rnalist and Min'g E
Blashfield, P. H.
. West. Union Tel. Co	
Manager.
Bodwell, E. V	
.Bodwell & Lawson  	
Barrister-at-Law.
Boggs, Beaumont  .
Eeal Estate.
Bone, W. H	
. Hibben & Co	
Stationery,  etc.
Boultbee. A. P.  ...
. Bank of Toronto   	
Manager.
Brenchley, R. H.
. F. E. Stewart & Co.  .....
Wholesale Fruits, etc.
Bridgman, A. W.
Eeal Estate and Ins.
Brown, Edwin M.  .
. Victoria Fuel  Co	
Manager.
Brown, Guy S.   . . .
Lumber.
Brown, P. B	
. P. R. Brown, Ltd	
Real Estate and Final
Bullen, H. F	
. B.C. Salvage Co	
Shipbuilder.
Bullen, W. F	
. B.C. Salvage Co	
Shipbuilder.
Burdick,  A.  C.   ...
. Green & Burdick  	
Real Estate and Ins.
Butchart, B. P.  ...
.Vane. Portland Cem't Co..
Managing Director.
c
Callow, Henry  Eoyal Nurseries, Ltd	
Proprietor.
Cameron, J.O Cameron Lumber Co., Ltd..
Director.
HoTnornn     W     A                         . ..                 	
Merchant.
Campbell, Angus   ..
.'.Campbell & Co.	 , BRITISH  COLUMBIA, BOAI
Coles,  Arthur
Collison, J. J.
Dale, Wm. R	
Darling, W. Stewai
Davies, A. Dale ..
Davenport, H. B.   .
Day, E. S	
Deaville, Jno. T. . .
Dickson, Jno. F. ..
Dilworth, John   . . .
. Pioneer Coffee & Sp. Mil
. Balfour, Guthrie & Co. ..
. Can. Bank of Commerce .
D.   	
as, E. W.
Dowsett, J. C.  .. .
Drake,  S.  J	
Dunn, Eobert ....
Dunsmuir, James
Elgee, E
Elliott, .
Elworthy, F.   . . .
English, A. M. J.
.Civil'Engineer.
. Contractor.
. Land Agent.
. Eetired Mercha
. Manager.
mt.
il Estate and Ins.
ired Merchant,
nter and Publisher.
. Great Northern Ey. Co.  ... Manager.
. Dominion Bank    Manager.
. Gordon Drysdale, Ltd Manager.
. Dodwell & Co Manager.
 Real Estate and Ins.
 Merchant.
.Victoria-Phoenix Bry. Co... Brewer.
 Retired Merchant.
. Bank   B.N.A  Manager.
. . •. Eeal Estate and Ins.
.Shore Hardware Co., Ltd...Managing Director.
. The Drake Hardware Co.. . Director.
. Times P. & P. Co Manager.
.Be
red.
Fletcher, Jas.
Floyd, J. S.  VICTOEIA,  BRITISH  COLUMBIA, 1
Jones, H. Humphn
Jones,  Stephen   ..
Ketchen, H. J. ...
jham, Joshua
Kirk, A. M.  .....
!. Sand & Gravel Co.
Leigh,
M 	
, D. 0	
Lewthwaite, W. A.
Lineham,  Arthur   .
Lockard, J. E.
Logan, Capt. W. H.
, H. S	
Luxtor
A. P.
1 Hotel    Proprietor. •
. B. & K. Milling Co.   .. Managing Director.
. Imp. Canadian Trust Co.  .. Manager.
.Northern Crown Bank  Manager.
. Kingham & Co Coal Dealer, etc.
. Kirk & Co Managing Director.
. Turner, Beeton & Co Merchant. '
. H. 0. Kirkham & Co Grocer.
L
. Leeming Bros., Ltd Eeal Estate.
. Jas. Leigh & Sons  . Manager.
. Pither & Leiser   . . . , . . Wholesale Liquors.
 Wholesale Dry Goods.
. Can. Nor. Pac. Ey. Co.  .... District Engineer.
 Mining Engineer.
 Finance.
.Canadian Collieries, Ltd.  ..Manager.
.Lloyd's   (London)     Special Eepresentative.
. H. S. Lott & Co Eeal Estate.
. Colonist P. & P. Co Editor.
. Pooley, Luxton & Pooley  . . Barrister-at-Law.
M
Macneill, E. F.   .... .Bank of Nova Scotia   Manager.
Mara, J. A Merchant.
Matson, J. S. H Colonist P. & P. Co Managing Director.
McArthur, James  . . . Grand Trunk Pacific Ey.  .. Agent.
McCurdy, A. W Eetired Merchant.
McGregor, George Tug Boat Manager.
MacKenzie, A. B Merchant.
McKeown, Angus Wholesale Leather Mcht.
McLean, A. E E. P. Eithet & Co., Ltd.  . . . Wholesale Grocer.
McLennan, K. A Kelly, Douglas & Co. .. Manager.
McLorie,  J Mt. Eoyal Milling Co. ..'... Superintendent.
Mess, B.  C.    Findlay, Durham _. Brodie..Manager.
Milne, Dr. G. L Physician.
Mitchell, G. W Mitchell   Bros.   . Commission Merchant. rieb, W. E.
Ison, C. H.
5,  Fred'k.   .
Payne, Bobert
Home
.Sperling & Co.  (Londo
n)   ..Fin.
uncial Agent.
Pearce, Henry
 Fin
incial Agent.
Pearson,  Ed.
 Eeti
red Merchant.
Pearson, 0. W
Swift Canadian Co.  ..
 Mar
ager.
Pemberton, F.
B.   ..
Pemberton & Son ....
.... Eea
Estate and Ins.
Pendray. J. C.
B.C. Soap Works  	
i  Mfrs.
Pendray, H. J
B.A. Paint Co	
 Pair
t Mfrs.
Perry,  E.  W.
Gt. West Perm. Loan
Co.. . Fin
nee.
Pigott, A. H.
Pinkham, J. F
M.  .
Quebec  Bank   .......
 Mar
ager.
Pither, Luke
Pither & Leiser	
 Liqi
or Merchant.
Pitts, S.  J.   .
 Rett
red Merchant.
Plimley, Thos.
Thos. Plimley & Co.  .
 Aut
ds, etc.
Plow, H. A.   .
Canadian Pacific Eaih
'ay.. Dist
Porter,  E.  J.
Eobt. Porter & Sons, I
,td... Man
ager.
Pooley, E. H.
Pooley, Luxton & Pool
ey  ..Bar
ister-at-Law.
Prior, Hon. E.
G. ..
 Pres
ident.
Pullen,  H.  F.
 Jou Scott, H. J.
Shallcross, J. J.
VICTORIA,  BRITISH  <
.Western Pickling "
. Barnard & Eoberts
. Vane. Portland Cer
 Plumber.
Hill & Duncan, Ltd.. Jeweller.
Staneland Paint Mf:
Coffee and Spice Mi
Swinerton & Musgra
Tait, Leonard
Taylor, J. A.
Taylor, R. F. .
Taylor, E. R.  .
.Vic
i. Tran
. Manager.
. Manager.
. Eoyal Bank of Ca
. Colonial Trust C<
.Drake Hardware Co., Ltd.'. Secretary.
Terry, W. S. Druggist.
Thomas, C. E The Dominion Bank    Manager.
Thomson, H.  B Turner, Beeton & Co., Ltd.. Merchant.
Thomson, Jas. G.   .. .Chic, Mil. & St. Paul Ey. .Agent.
Todd,  C.  F.    Merchant.
.Ve;
• Surgeon.
1... Manager £=_
5..P. Burns & C
.CP.  Ey.   Co.
. Hall & Walker .. .
.Wallace & Clarke
Merchant.
Ice and Cold Storage.
Wholesale Grocer.
Yarrow, N.  A.
Young, J. H.   . . 

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