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The north-western tribes of Canada.--Eleventh report of the committee, consisting of professor E. B.… British Association for the Advancement of Science 1896

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Array Section H.—Liverpool, 1896:]
The North-Wesfern Tribes of Canada.—Eleventh Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor ,E. B. TifLOR (Chairman), Mr.
Cuthbert E. Peek (Secretary), Dr. G. M. Dawson, Mr. R. G.
Haliburton, and Mr. Horatio Hale,jappointed to investigate the
Physical, Characters, Languages, and Industrial and Social Condi-
tions^J0te North-Western Tribes of tlie Dominion of Canada.
The Committee were originally appointed at the Montreal Meeting of the
Associaj^On in 1884vand, as indicated in the Tenth Report, presented last
yearg*^pl^S Ipswich Meetin^it had been determined that that Report
shouid1§Dnclude the series. When, however, it was decided to hold the
meeting for 1897 in Toronto, it appeared to be appropriate that the work
the Committee begun at the first Canadian Meeting should be concluded at the second, and the Committee were accordingly continued.
f he concluding Report of the Committee to be prepared for the Toronto
Meeting may afford the occasion of pointing out to the Government and
public of Canada the necessity for further and systematic investigation Of
the ethnology of the country.
The Report presented herewith contains a number of observations by
Dr. Franz Boas, through whose agency the greater part of the work has
been done, chiefly supplementary to articles contained in the Fifth and
Tenth Reports. Although the result of previous journeys by Dr. Boas,
the'sfe have not been heretofore published.
It is now hoped to include in the final Report of 1897 the results of
further field work in contemplation and to be directed toward the filling
of some gaps still existing in our general knowledge of the tribes of
British Columbia, particularly in respect to the anthropometric observations, which, in Dr. Boas' hands, have already yielded results of so much
Sixth Report on the Indians of British Columbia.    By Franz Boas.
The following pages contain notes that were collected by me on previous journeys to the North Pacific coast. They supplement mainly the
data on the Kwakiutl Indians, given in the Fifth Report of the Committee, and those on the Nass River Indians in the Tenth Report of the
There still remain two important gaps in our general knowledge of
the ethnology of the North Pacific coast. In order to fill these, further
anthropometric investigations on the Haida and He'iltsuk* and ethnological and linguistic researches among the H§'iltsuk* would be required.
When these have been added to the data gathered heretofore, it will be
possible to give a fairly satisfactory general outline of the ^anthropology of
British Columbia.
I. Notes on the Kwakiutl.
The Kwakiutl tribes speaking the Kwakiutl dialect call themselves
by the general name of Kwa'kwakyewak1. The following notes refer to
this group, more particularly to the tribes living at Fort Rupert.
The shamans are initiated by animals, supernatural beings, or by
inanimate objects. The killer whale, the wolf, frog, and black bear are
the most potent animals which have the power of initiating shamans.
The cannibal spirit BaqbakualanuQsi'wae (see Fifth Report, p. 54), the
warrior's spirit Wina'lagyilis, the fabulous sea bear Na'nls, the sea monster
Me'koatEm or K*elk*'a'yuguit, the ghosts, the hemlock-tree, and the quartz
may also initiate them. Shamans who were initiated by the killer whale
or by the wolf are considered the most powerful ones. Only innocent
youths can become shamans.
A person who is about to become a shaman will declare that he feels
ill. For four days or longer he fasts in his house. Then he dreams that
the animal or spirit that is going to initiate him appeared to him and
promised to cure him. If he has dreamt that the killer whale appeared
to him, he asks his friends to take him to a small island ; in all other
cases he asks to be taken to a lonely place in the woods. His friends
dress him in entirely new clothing, and take him away. They build a
small hut of hemlock branches, and leave him to himself. After four days
all the shamans go to look after him. When he sees them approaching,
he begins to sing his new songs and tells them that the killer whale—or
whatever being his protector may be—has cured him and made him a
shaman by putting quartz into his body. The old shamans place him on
a mat, and wrap him up like a corpse, while he continues to sing his songs.
They place him in their canoe, and paddle home. The father of the
young person is awaiting them on the beach, and asks if his child is alive.
They reply in the affirmative, and then he goes to clean his house. He
must even clean the chinks of the walls, and he must take particular care
that no trace of the catamenial flux of a woman is left in any part of the
house. Then he calls the whole tribe. The singers arrange themselves'
in the rear of the house, while the others sit around the sides. For a few
minutes the singers beat the boards which are laid down in front of them,
and end with a long call: yoo. This is repeated three times. Then the*
new shaman begins to sing in the canoe, and after a short time he appears
in the house, dressed in head-ring and neck-ring of hemlock branches, hi*K.
eyes closed, and he dances, singing his song. Four times he dances around
the fire. During this time the singing master must learn his song. After
the dance the new shaman leaves the house again and disappears in the
woods. In the evening the people begin to beat the boards and to sing the'
hew song of the shaman which they had learned from him in the morning:
Then he reappears and dances again with closed eyes. This is repeated'
for three nights. On the fourth night when the people begin to sing for
him he appears with open eyes. He wears a ring of red cedar bark to
which a representation of the animal that initiated him is attached. He,
carries a rattle on which the same animal is carved. He looks around
and says to one of the people : ' You are sick.' It is believed that the
" shaman can look right through man and see the disease that is in him.
Then he makes his first cure.
The power of shamanism may also be obtained by purchase. The
intending purchaser invites the shaman from whom hfe is going to buy
the power and the rest of the tribe to his house. There the people sing
and- the shaman dances. During his dance he throws his power into
the purchaser, who falls down like one dead, and-When he recovers-is ON  THE  NORTH-*\VESTEKX  TRIBES  OF  CANADA. 8
taken by the shaman into the woods, where both stay for four days.
Then he returns, and the same, ceremonial is performed that has been
described before- F      '<hb<: *.£:■'" :.    •"?*>'- •* ■ 	
When the shaman, has singled out a person whom he declares to be
sick, he proceeds with the following performance : He carries a small
bundle of bird's down hidden under his upper lip. He lets the sick
person lie down, and feels his body until he finds the seat of the disease.
Then he begins to suck at the part where the sickness is supposed to be
seated, while the people beat the boards and sing his song. Three
times he endeavours to suck out the disease, but in vain. The fourth
time, after having sucked, he puts his hands before his face and bites the
inside of his cheek so that blood flows and gathers in the down that
he is carrying in his mouth. Then he takes it unnoticed from his mouth,
and hides it in his hands. Now he begins to suck again, holding his
hands close to that part of the body where the disease is supposed to be
seated. Then he removes them, blows on them, and on opening his
hands the bloody ball of down is seen adhering to the palm of the
shaman. After a short while he closes his hands again, applies them
once more, and shows one or four pieces of quartz, which he is supposed
to have removed from the body of the sick person. Then he closes his
hands again, and upon a renewed application produces the feathers*. which
he declares to be the soul of the patient. He turns his hands palm downward, so that the ball adheres to his hand. If it becomes detached and
falls down, it signifies that; the patient will die an early death. If the
ball adheres, he-will recover.
For four months the shaman continues to make cures similar to the
one described here. Every fourth day he must bathe. After this time
people whom he treats are expected to pay him for his services.
It is forbidden to pass behind the back of a shaman while he is
eating, because it is believed that he would then eat the soul of the
person passing him in this.manner. The person as well as the shaman
would fall in a swoon. Blood flows from the shaman's mouth, because
the soul is too large for him and is tearing him. Then the clan of the
person whose soul he has swallowed must assemble and sing the song of
ihe shaman. The latter begins to move, and vomits blood, which he tries
to hold in his hands. After a short time he opens his palms, and shows
a small bloody ball, the soul which he had swallowed. Then he rises,
while the person whose soul he had swallowed is placed on a mat in the
rear of the house'. The shaman goes around the fire, and finally throws
the soul at its owner. Then he steps up to him, blows upon his
head, and the person recovers. It is said that the shaman in this
case also bites his cheek and hides some bird's down in his mouth, which
soaks up the blood and is made to represent the soul. The person whose
soul was swallowed must pay four or five blankets for the harm he has
done to the shaman, and for his own cure.
The protector of a shaman informs him if an epidemic should be
about to visit the tribe. Then he warns the people, and in order to
avert the danger lets them go through the following ceremony. He
resorts to a lonely place in the. woods- for one day. In the evening the
people assemble in his house and beat the boards three times. When
they begin to beat the boards the fourth time, he enters, wearing a large
ring of hemlock branches. It is believed that the souls of unborn
children and also those of deeea&d'members' of the'" tribe are hanging
H 3—2 4 REPORT—1896.
on the branches of the ring, ten to each branch. He talks to them, and
brushes them off from the ring. When he enters another shaman goes
to meet him, and strews bird's down on to the ring and on the shaman's
head. Then the latter walks around the fire, and stays in the rear of the
house. Now every member of the tribe must go to him, and he 'puts
them through the ring.' The person who is thus cleansed must extend
his right hand first, and put it through the ring, which is then passed
over his head, and down along the body, which is wiped with the ring.
When the ring has almost reached the feet of the person, the latter must
turn to the left, and step out of it with his right foot first, turn on that
foot, take out the left foot and turn once more to the left, standing on
the left foot. Every member of the tribe is made to pass through
the ring. It is believed that this is a means of preventing the outbreak
of the epidemic. Sick persons must pass through the ring four times.
Nobody is allowed to speak or to laugh during this performance. After
the shaman has finished, he speaks to the people, making statements
intended to show them that he knows even their most secret thoughts.
The shaman wears his neck-ring of red cedar bark all the time.
Powerful shamans are able to transform stones into berries.
Their dance is so powerful that the ground gives way under their
steps, and they disappear underground.
Songs of Shamans.
1. Song of Shaman, initiated by the Killer  Whale.
1. K'oSlk-'ulagy%lakyastldQ       haA'ligyaiukoastlasa nau'alakuS wahai
Making alive means of healing from this supernatural being  wahai
Shi' nau'alaltue.
ehe' supernatural being. /
2. QyilgyilddguilakyastU hai'ligyaiukoaqsd nau'alakuS wahai
Making life long       means of healing from this supernatural being wahai
ehe'       nau'alaltue.
ehe' supernatural being.
3. Gyd'gyayapalayuQddQ nau'alakuekoaqsB nau'alakuS       n-ahai
Going along under water supernatural being from this supernatural being wahai
She'        nau'alaltue.
ehe' supernatural being.
4. St'soreapalayutiddQ nau'atakuB        wahai She'       nau'alakuS.
Made to paddle under water supernatural being wahai ehe' supernatural being.
1. He received the power of restoring to life from the supernatural being.
2. He received the power of lengthening life from the supernatural being.
3. His supernatural helper gave him the power to travel under water.
4. His supernatural helper gave him the power to paddle along under water.
2. Song of Shaman, initiated by the Killer Whale.
1. K-oS'k-'ulagyilakyagtlda      nau'alakua.
Life-maker     real this supernatural being.
2. K-a'sBlMUlayatUet        nau'alakua.
Making walk this supernatural being.
5. Ts'S'tltsdh'uSk'llayatldQ        nau'alakua.
Making life short this supernatural being. ON THE NORTH-WESTERN TRIBES OF CANADA. 5
1. My supernatural power restores life.
2. My supernatural power makes the sick walk.
3. My supernatural power cuts life short.
3. Song of Shaman, initialed by the  Wolf.
1. Ziaistali'sslayu<idoQS gyi'lgyildoguilatlaiade   k'auq    nau'alak
Made to go around the world by   making life long  past      the    supernatural
hai tlo'koala. being
hai   magic.
2. To-ista'lisslay5QdoQs gyi'lgyildoguila'laiHde    k'auq   nau'alak
Made to walk around the world by making life long past     the supernatural
hai tlo'koala. being
hai   magic.
3. Md'tsla dnd'gu&'yaskai   gyi'lgyilddguilatlcAnde kauq nau'alak hai
Ahead   I the poor one  making life long past   tbe     supernatural being hai
1. The   one who  makes   life   long made  me  go  all around the world, tho
supernatural being.
2. Tbe one who makes life long made me walk all around the world, the supernatural beina*.
3. The one who makes life long placed my poor self ahead of all, the supernatural being.
4. Song of Shaman, initiated by BaqbalcualanuQsi'tvae,
1. Ai, hai'alikyilaanuidB  no'guaia k-'od'nastSs   BaqbakuulamiQSl'wae, do'kula.
Ai, healing all the time       I       wildness of BaqbakuSlanuQsI'wae, behold 1
2. Ai, qod'g:\ilagyvyaitkyas Ono'gua k''oB,'nastSs JiaqbakuulaniiQsVread, do'kula.
Ai, saving life I       wildness of BaqbakualanuQsI'wae, behold t
1. Behold 1 I am abl e to heal by the power of tb e wildness of BaqbakualanuQsI' wae.
2. Behold I I save lives by the power of the wildness of BaqbakualauUQsi'wae.
5. Song of Shaman, initiated by the Echo.
1. Y&haM,       hS'ilikyayatloa        gyi'lgyildoguilaqs heilibyayuqdS     ham
Y&hau,         healing with      making life long with      means of healing     of
the magician real.
2. Kffyak&yatlDQ giii'lgyildSguilaqs aSyahaybqda hau4
Blowing water   with making life long with means of blowing water of
the magician real.
1. Yahau. The power that makes life long lets me heal with the means of
2. Yahau. The power that makes life long lets me blow water with the means
of blowing water.
The husband of an enceinte woman in the seventh month of pregnancy prepares to insure an easy delivery by collecting the following
four medicines : four tentacles of a squid, a snake's tail, four toes of a j$ REPORT^—1806;
toad, and seeds of Peucedanum leio&arpum, Nutt. If the birth should
prove to be hard, these objects are charred, powdered, and drunk by the
mother. The toad's toes are also moved downward along her back.
This is called 'making the child jump' (da'yuqste). It is worth remarking that Peucedanum leiocarpum is used as a powerful medicine
also by the Salish tribes of Vancouver Island (see Sixth Report of the
Committee, 1890, p. 25), who call the plant k*Eqme'n, while the Kwakiutl
call it le'aqm&n. Judging from the form of the word, I think that it is
rather Salish than Kwakiutl. Certainly the belief in the power of this
plant was transmitted from one tribe to the other. -
During the period of pregnancy the husband must avoid to encounter
squids, as this would have the effect of producing a hard delivery.
When the woman is about to be confined, she leaves the house accompanied by two of her friends who are to assist her. The latter dig a hole
in the ground, and one of them sits down on the edge of the hole,
stretching her legs across it so that her feet and the calves of her
legs rest on the opposite edge. Then she spreads her legs, and the woman
who is about to be confined sits down on her lap, straddling her legs so
that both her feet hang down in the pit. The two women clasp each
other's arms tightly. The third woman squats behind the one who is
about to be confined, pressing her knees against her back and embracing
her closely, so that her right arm passes over the right shoulder, her left
arm under the left arm of her friend. The child is allowed to lie in the
pit until after the afterbirth has been borne. Then the navel string is
tied and cut, and the child is taken up.
. For four days the afterbirth is kept in the house. A twig of yew
-wood about four inches long is pointed and pushed into the navel string,
which is then tied up. Four layers of cedar bark are wrapped around
the afterbirth. That of boys is in most cases buried in front of the
house-door. That of girls is buried at high-water mark, it is believed
that this will make them expert clam-diggers. The afterbirth of boys is
.sometimes exposed at places where ravens will eat it. It is believed that
then the boys will be able to see the future.
The navel string is believed to be a means of making children expert
in various occupations. It is fastened to a mask or to a knife, which are
then used by a good dancer or carver, as the case may be. Then the child
will become a good dancer or carver. If it is desired to make a boy a good
singer, his navel string is attached to the baton of the singing master.
Then the boy calls every morning on the singing master while he is taking
tfis*breakfast. The singing master takes his baton and moves it once down
the right side of the boy's body, then down the left side * once more
down the right side, and once more down the left side. Then he gives the
child some of his food. This, it is believed, will make him a good singer. '
I referred in the Fifth (p. 51) and Sixth (p. 62) Reports to the beliefs
in regard to twins. I'have received the following additional information
in regard to this subjeqt .Four days after the birth of .twins, mother and
father must leave the village and resort to the woods, where they stay for.
a prolonged period. They separate, and each must pretend to be married
to a log, with which they lie down every night. They are forbidden to
touch each other. They must not touch their hair. Every fourth.,day
they bathe, rub their "bodies with hemlock twigs','-and wipe therh- with
white -shredded cedar bark. Their faces are painted red all the time. For
this purpose they do not use vermilion, l>ut ochre.    They are-not "allowed* ON THE NORTH-WESTERN TRIBES OF CANADA.
to do any work. These practices are continued for a period of sixteen
months. During this period they must not borrow canoes or paddles
from other people ; they must use bucket and dishes of their own. If
they should use the belongings of other persons, the latter would have
.also twin children. The woman must not dig clams and the man must
not catch salmon, else the clams and the salmon would disappear. They
must not go near a fire in which bracken roots are being roasted. It is
believed that the birth of twins will produce permanent backaches in the
parents. In order to avert this, the man, a short time after the birth,
induces a young man to have intercourse with his wife, while she in turn
procures a girl for her husband. It is believed that then the backache
will attack them. A year after the birth of the twins the parents put
wedges and hammers into a basket, which they take on their backs and
carry into the woods. Then they drive the wedges into a tree, asking it
to permit them,to work again after a lapse of. four months.
All the young women go to the pit over which the twins were born and
squat over it, leaning on their knuckles, because it is believed that after
doing so they will be sure to bear children.
When a person is about to die, his friends spit water all over his body.
After death the body is carefully washed, so that every particle of the
bodies of the survivors that might adhere to the corpse may be removed.
Even the places where their breath might have touched the body must be
carefully washed. This is done in order to prevent that the survivors
might accidentally bewitch themselves (see Sixth Report, p. 60). If the
death occurs during the night, the body is left in the house until daylight ; if it occurs during the day, it is removed at once. It must not
be taken out of the door, else other inmates of the house would be sure to
die soon.    Either a hole is made in one of the walls, through which the
Fig. 1.
body is c
the house
placed in
enter the
ing for a
turn once
arried out, or it is lifted through the roof. It is placed behind
to be put into the box that is to serve as a coffin. If it were
the coffin inside the house, the souls of the other inmates would
coffin too, and then all would die. The coffin is placed at the
d side of the body. Then a speaker calls the relatives of the
saying : ' Let the dead one take away all the sickness of his
Then they all come and sit down at the side of the corpse, wail-
short time. Now they arise and give the body a kick. They
toward the left, and give the body another kick, repeating this L
8 REPORT—1896.
action four times. This is called 'pushing away the love of the deceased,'
that he may not appear in their dreams, and that his memory may not
trouble them.1 Then the wife of the deceased lets the children take off
their shirts and sit down, turning their backs towards the corpse. She
takes his hand and moves it down the backs of the children, then moving
the hand back to the chest of the body. With this motion she takes the
sickness out of the bodies of the children and places it into the body of
the deceased, who thus takes it away with him when he is buried.
After this ceremony an olachen net is placed over the head of the
body, his face is painted red. and the body is wrapped in a blanket. Then
it is tied up, the knees being drawn up to the chin. Now four men of
the clans of which the deceased was not a member lift the body to place
it into the box. Four times they raise it. The fourth time they actually
lift it over the box. Four times they move, but only the fourth time they
actually let it down into the box. If the box should prove too small, they
must not take it out again, but the body is squeezed in as best they can,
even if they should have to break its neck or feet. The head is placed at
the edge where the sides of the box are sewed up (see Fifth Report, p. 20)
because the soul is believed to escape through the joint. The soul leaves
the body on the fourth day after death, escaping through the place where
the frontal fontanel of the child is located. The box is tied up, as indicated in fig. 1. As soon as the four men who carry the coffin to the burial-
ground raise it the women cease to wail, because their tears would
recall the deceased. The relatives are not allowed to attend the funeral,
as it is believed that their souls would stay with that of their dead friend.
Twelve women accompany the coffin. Children are not allowed to go
with it. When the tree on which the body is to be deposited has been
reached, four poor men are sent up to carry a rope by which to haul up
the coffin. When they have reached the branch on which the coffin
is to be placed, they lower the rope. The men who remained below pretend three times to tie the rope to the coffin. The fourth time they really
tie it. Then the men in the tree pull up the rope. Three times they rest
in pulling it up, so that the coffin reaches its final resting-place after
having been pulled four times. It is placed on the branch and covered
with a large board. Then the men climb down again, cutting off the
branches for some distance under the coffin. When the men come down
from the tree, the women resume their wailing. They scratch their cheeks
with their nails. (The Koskimo use shells for this purpose.) After they
have returned to the village the blankets and mats which the deceased
used are burnt, together with the objects which he used. Food is also
burnt for him. All this is intended for his use, and is burnt because the
dead can use only burnt objects. If he has left a widow, she must use
his blankets, mats, kettle, &c, once before they are burnt. After the death
of a woman the widower must do the same. After four days a person
belonging to another clan cuts the hair of the mourners. The hair is
burnt. This service is paid for heavily, because it is believed to shorten
the Ufe of the one who has rendered it. The climbers receive a payment
of two blankets each ; those who placed the corpse in the coffin and carried
it to the burial-ground receive one blanket each for their services.
1 The widow and the children of the deceased wear strings made of monntain-
goat wool and white cedar bark mixed, one around the neck, one around the waist,
and two connecting ones down the chest; also strings of the same material around
•wrists,' elbows, knees, and ankles. ON   THE  NORTH-WESTERN  TRIBES  OF  CANADA. 9
Chiefs and common people were buried on separate trees. There is
also a separate tree on which twins are buried.
Nowadays the bodies are mostly buried in small grave-houses. The
custom of raising the coffin three times before it is placed in its final resting-
place is still adhered to.
The customs of the Koskimo and Tlatlasiqoala differ somewhat from
those of the Kwakiutl. They place the body in the box in the house.
Before doing so the box is turned round four times. Then a hole is cut
into the bottom of the box with an axe, which is raised three times before
the hole is really cut. This is the breathing hole of the soul, which dbes
not die or escape until the fourth day after the death of the body. The
coffin, before it is carried to the burial-ground, is placed on the beach.
The Kwakiutl paint twins, before they are buried, red all over. Four
feathers are attached to the coffin. Nobody is allowed to wail for them.
The surviving twin is washed in the water with which the corpse of the
dead one was washed.
When a person dies by an accident, and his body is not recovered, a
grave is made for him, which consists simply of painted boards. The saying is that, if this were not done, it would be as though a dog had died.
Nobody is allowed to walk behind such a grave, as by doing so he would
indicate his desire to lie in a grave.
The widow, particularly if she has many children, must undergo a very
rigorous ceremonial.    On the evening of the third day after the death of
her husband, her hair is cut.    At the same time a small, hut is built for
her.    It is made of the mats which were hanging around the bed of the
deceased.    The roof is made of the boards which were placed over his bed
in order to keep the soot off.    An old woman, preferably one who has
been a widow four times, is appointed to assist her.    On the  fourth
morning after the death of her husband, she must rise before the crows
cry.   She is not allowed to lie down, but must sit all night with her knees
drawn up to her chest.    She eats only four bites four times a day, and
drinks only four mouthfuls four times a day.    Before taking water or food
she raises it three times.    If she thinks that her husband has been
murdered, she takes her food up, saying that it is the neck of her husband's
enemy, and calling, his name, she bites it foui* times.    Then she throws it
into the fire, saying : ' This will be your food when you are dead.'   That
means that the person whom she named must soon die.    When she is
tired she stretches her legs, first the one, then the other, naming her
enemy.    This is also believed to bring him death.    After four days the
old woman washes her and wipes her with a ring of hemlock branches, as
described above.    This is repeated four times in intervals of four days.
After the last washing her old blanket is hung over the stump of a tree,
and her hat, which she wears all the time, is hung on top of the stump.
Then she is given new clothing, and is taken back to the house.   There she
must stay in one corner, where she has a small fire of her own.    Her
children are not allowed to see her.   When she leaves the house, she must
pass out of a small door of her own.    Four times she must turn before
putting her foot in the doorway.    Four times she must put her foot forward before actually going out, and in the same manner she returns.   The
old woman now washes her every sixth day, and rubs her with the ring of
hemlock branches.    After the fourth washing she is permitted to come to
the fireplace, but she must avoid going around the fire.    Now the old
woman washes her every eighth day, and then four times more every
H 3—3
J 10
twelfth day.    Thus the whole period extends over one hundred and twenty
days. ...
If the woman is poor, and has many children, four washings in intervals
of ten days are substituted for the washings of the last eighty days, thus
reducing the whole period to eighty days. During all this time she must
not cut her hair. She does not wail during the first sixteen days of the
mourning period while she is confined in the small hut.
1. EiJbayu.—These dice have the shape indicated in fig. 2. The
casts count according to the narrowness of the sides. This
game is also played by the Tlingit of Alaska.
2. TVB'mhoajyu.—A stick, about three feet long, with a
knob at its end, is thrown against an elastic board, which is
placed upright at some distance. If the stick rebounds and
is caught, the player gains four points. If it rebounds to
more than half the distance from the player to the board, he
gains one point. If it falls down nearer the board than one-
half the distance, or when the board is missed, the player does
not gain any point. The two players throw alternately. Each
has ten counters. When one of them gains all the counters,
he is the winner of the stake. When the stick falls down so that the
end opposite the knob rests on the board, the throw counts ten points.
3. A'laqoa, the well-known game of lehal, or hiding a bone * played
with twenty counters.
4. T'e'nk'oayu, or ca**rying a heavy stone on the shoulder to test the
strength of those who participate in the game.
5. Mo'h'oa.—This game was introduced from the Nootka. It is played
between tribes. An object is given to a member of one tribe, who hides
it. Then four members of another tribe must guess where it is. They are
allowed to guess four times. If they miss every time, they have lost.
This game is played for very high stakes.
In seal feasts the chest of the seal is given to the highest chief; the
feet are given to those next in rank. The young chiefs receive the flippers,
and the tail is given to the chief of the rival clan, who must give a feast
in return. The hunter, before returning home, cuts off the head of the
seal and gives it to his steersman. He eats the kidney before going home,
and cuts a strip three fingers wide along the back. These customs are said
to have been instituted by O'maqt'd'latle, the ancestor of the clan
Gyl'gyilk'am of the K'o'moyue.
The lowest carving on a totem pole is that which the owner inherited
from his father. The higher ones are those which he obtained by
The hunter, before going out to hunt seals or sea-otters, or other sea
animals, rubs his whole canoe with the branches of the white pine, in
order to take away all the bad smell that would frighten away the
In order to secure good luck, hunters of sea animals bathe in the sea
before starting. Hunters of land animals bathe in fresh water. Both
rub their bodies with hemlock branches.
Of the first halibut caught in the season the stomach is eaten first,
then the pectoral fins, next the head. The rest is divided. If this were
not done, the halibut would disappear.
Hunters carve the figure of any remarkable animal that they have
killed on the butts of their guns, or on their bows.
The souls of hunters are transformed into killer whales * those of
hunters who pursue land animals become wolves. Only when a killer
whale or a wolf dies can their souls return and be born again. Hunters
have the bow seat of their canoes ornamented, and a hole cut in the centre
of the seat. It becomes their dorsal fin when they become killer whales
after their death. It is believed that, after the death of a hunter, the
killer whale into which he has been transformed will come to the village
and show itself. When a great number of killer whales approach a village,
it is believed that they come to fetch a soul.
Not only hunters are transformed into killer whales. I was told that
at one time a killer whale had been killed, the flipper of which showed a
scar as though it had been burnt. Not long before this event a girl had
died who had at one time burnt her hand. She was identified with the
killer whale.
When a wolf has been killed, it is placed on a blanket. Its heart is
taken out, and all those who have assisted in killing it must take four
morsels of the heart.   Then they wail over the body :
AlawestBns hegyoso qeds nEmoqtseqde—i.e., Woe 1 our great friend.
Then the body is covered with a blanket and buried. A bow or a gun
with which a wolf has been killed is unlucky, and is given away by the
owner.    The lolling of a wolf produces scarcity of game.
Wolfs heart and fat are used as medicines for heart diseases (see
Sixth Report, p. 61).
Women are forbidden to touch a wolf, as else they would lose their
husbands' affections (see Sixth Report, p. 61).
The screech owl is believed to be the soul of a deceased person. The
Indians catch them, paint them red, and let them free, asking for long
The root of the bracken (Pteria aquilina, L.) is believed to know
everything that is going on in the house in which it is being roasted. It
must be treated with great respect. If a person should warm his back
at the fire in which it is being roasted, he will have backache. Parents
of twins, and people who have had sexual intercourse a short time previously, must not enter a house in which the roots are being roasted.
When a person dreams that he goes up a mountain and the latter tilts
over, it signifies that he will die soon.
The gum of the red pine is chewed. That of the white pine is not
,.used by girls, because it is believed to make them pregnant.
The world is described as a house. The east is the door of the house ;
■the west is the rear of the house. North is called ' up the river,' south
' down the river.' In the north of the world is the mouth of the earth.
There the dead descend to the country of the ghosts.
The part of the beach immediately to the west of Fort Rupert, in front
of the place where formerly the village of the sub-tribe Kue'qa stood,
is called the village of the ghosts, who are believed to reside there from
time to time. IS REPofeT—1896.
When there is an eclipse of the sun a man, named Ba'umle, is rfe^uired
to sing :—
Hok-oai', hok*oai', h5k*oalai', a'tlas lalaq ts'a'ya laqsgya Bawule'—
Vomit it, vomit it, vomit it, else you will be the younger brother
of Bawule'.
In order to gain the love of a girl the following philter is used : The
tongues and gizzards of a raven and of a woodpecker are placed in a
hollow stick, together with some saliva. They are mixed with the latter ;
the tube is closed and worn under the blanket. The underlying idea was
explained to me thus : The woodpecker and the raven are pretty birds ;
therefore the girl will consider the man who wears them just as pretty and
The tongue of a snake or of a frog is also used as a philter. They are
believed to make the wearer irresistible to everybody.
Another philter is as follows : The man wears a snake skin on his
body for some time. About the month of August he gathers a root
called WStayas, which resembles in shape two people embracing each
other. He procures four hairs of the girl whom he loves, which, together
with four hairs of his own, he places between the two portions of the root
which resemble the two people. The root is tied up with sinews taken
from a corpse, and wrapped in the snake-skin which the man has been
wearing. For four days after, the man must not look at the girl. Then
she wiil call him, but he must not follow her.   Finally she will come to him.
In order to bewitch a person it is necessary to obtain some of his soiled
clothing, hair, or blood. I described some methods of witchcraft in tfi&
Sixth Report (p. 60). The following method is also used : The clothing
of the enemy is placed in the mouth of a lifcard, the head of which has
been cut off. Then a snake's head is pulled over the lizard's head, so that
the latter is in the mouth of the shake. The whole is placed in the
mouth of a frog, which is then sewn up. This bundle is tied as tightly as
possible with the sinews of a corpse, and placed inside a stick which has
been hollowed out, and is then tied up again with the sinews of a corpse.
The whole is then covered with gum. This package is placed on the top
of a hemlock-tree which is growing at a windy place. In winter this
method of witchcraft does not do much harm, but as soon as it grows
warm the victim must die.
If a person is believed to be bewitched (e'k'a) his body is rubbed with
white cedar bark, which is then divided into four parts, and buried in
front of four houses, so that the people when entering or leaving the house
must step over it.    This will break the spell.
If the children of a couple always die while very young, the little,
finger of the last child to die is wound with a string. A notch is cut in
the upper rim of the burial box, in which the finger is placed. Then the
cover is put on, and the finger is cut off. It is hidden in the woods that
nobody may find it. The body of the child is placed on a new tree, not
on the tree on which other children are put.
II. The Houses of the Tsimshian and Nisk*a'.
The houses of the Tsimshian and of the Nisk*a' are square wooden
structures, like those of the Haida and Kwakiutl, but they differ somewhat in the details of construction.    While the house of the Haida (see ON  THE  NORTH-WESTERN   TRIBES  OF  CANADA. 13
Fig. 3.
Fig L 14
Dr. G-. M. Dawson, ' Report of Progress, Geol. Surv. of Canada,' 1878-79,
Plates III., IV., and V.), generally has on each side of the central line
three heavy beams which support the roof, the house of the Tsimshian
and of the Kwakiutl has only one pair of heavy beams, one on each side
of the doorway. In the Kwakiutl house these two beams, which rest on
heavy posts, stand no more than 6 feet apart (see ' Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus.,'
1888, p. 210). In the houses of the Tsimshian and Nisk*a' they stand
about halfway between the central line and the lateral walls. This
arrangement necessitates that provision is made for a ridge-beam. The
heavy beams B rest on the uprights U, which are seldom carved. On
top of the beams four supports S are laid, on which rests the ridge-
beam R. The latter consists of two parts, leaving a space in the middle for
the smoke-hole. Sometimes, but not regularly, two additional beams R rest
on these supports. In a few cases the central ridge-beam is then supported by a smaller support S'. The lower end of the roof is either
arranged as shown in figs. 3 and 4, or as indicated in fig, 5.    In the former
case the roof-supports are separate from the walls ; a beam V is laid on
the uprights C, and the roof-boards rest on the beams R, B, and Y.
In the latter case (fig. 5) the corner-post P is connected with the rear
corner-post by a square beam which supports the lower ends of the
roof-boards. The walls of the old houses consist of horizontal planks of
great width. The thick planks of the front, rear, and sides (figs. 4, 5)
are grooved, and the thinner planks are let into these grooves. The two
mouldings of the front are also thick planks, which are grooved. Over
the door D is a short, heavy plank, on which rests a single thinner
vertical plank. The construction of the back may be seen'in fig. 3.
Sometimes the houses are built on steep banks, so that only the rear
half is built on the ground. In this case a foundation of heavy
cedar-trees is budt. A short log is placed with its end into the bank, the
butt end standing out towards the beach, where the side wall is to be.
Another log is placed in the same manner where the second side wall is ON THE NORTH-WESTERN TRIBES  OF CANADA.
to be. A third heavy log is placed over the butts of the two projecting
logs. Then two more logs are put on top of the preceding one with their
ends into the bank, and thus a foundation is built up to the level of the
embankment. This is covered with a platform, and the house is built
about eight or ten feet back from its outer edge, so that the platform
forms the front portion of the floor of the house, and also a walk leading
to the house-door.
IH.   The Growth of Indian Children from the Interior of
British Columbia.
The table below shows the results of a compilation of the rates
of growth of Indian children of the following tribes:—Ntlakya'painuQ,
Shuswap, Okanagan, Kalispelm, Yakima, Warm Springs. I have combined all these tribes, because the adults have very nearly the same
stature, and because the geographical environment is very much alike.
The numbers of individuals are rather small, but nevertheless a few
results of general interest may be deduced from it.
It will be noticed that in the eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth years
girls are taller than boys. This agrees closely with the period during
which the same phenomenon takes place among the whites, and is later
than among the Indians of southern latitudes. The decrease in variability
is not very well marked, probably because there is a considerable uncer
tainty in regard to the estimated ages of the children. Still, it appears
that there is a distinct drop in the fifteenth year in boys, and in the
thirteenth year in girls. Among the Mission Indians of Southern California this drop takes place between the thirteenth and fourteenth years
in boys, between the ninth and eleventh years in girls. Among the white
children of Massachusetts the drop takes place between the fifteenth and
sixteenth years in boys, between the fourteenth and fifteenth years in
girls—i.e., nearly at the same time as, or a little later than, among the
Indians of British Columbia.
Number of
Averag e
Number of
± 6-5
1,692 16
[t is of interest to compare the rate of growth of Indian and white
children. In the following table I give the statures of the Indian children
of British Columbia and of the white children of Worcester, Mass. :—
Age ■ Years
-   1
+ 34
+ 30
+ 32
+ 33
-  9
+ 16
|     Q
+ 26
+ 10
+ 30
— 6
- 4
+   8
It appears from both tables, although more clearly in the case of
boys, that the Indian child is taller than the white child, although in
the adult the inverse relation of statures prevails. I have shown at
another place that a similar relation prevails between full-bloods and
half-breeds ('Verh. Berliner Anthr. Ger.,' 1895, p. 386). It is therefore
probable that the difference in the laws of growth is a racial phenomenon.
On p. 23 of the Tenth Report of the Committee I pointed out the
difference of racial types found along the coast, and stated (p. 24) that
the nose of the Kwakiutl represents a peculiar type which is not found in
asy other region of the coast. I have investigated the same question on
a series of skulls, and have obtained the following results :—
"aaai Indices
of Skulls of-
Nanaimo and
Songish, not
- .
- 3$jb._ p
Nasal Indices of Skull of—{continued).
Nanaimo and
Songish, not
Cases    .    .
10                     12
47-8                   47-6
It appears that the nasal index of the Kwakiutl is by far the lowest,
and that it increases among the Coast Salish. The nasal bones are at the
same time large and high, while among the Coast Salish they are small,
decidedly flat, and sometimes synostosed.
IV.   Linguistic Notes.
1.     KWAKIUTL.
I indicated on p. 107 of the Sixth Report of the Committee that there seemed *o
exist cases in Kwakiutl. I have since investigated this matter more fully, and find
that cases clearly exist.
There is a definite article which has the following forms :—
Nominative: da.
Genitive:       sa
Accusative:   qa.
Locative:      laqa.
The indefinite artiole is expressed only in the genitive and locative :—
Genitive:    i  s.
Locative:       laq.
The possessive pronoun has the following cases:—
1st Person. 2nd Person. 3rd Person.
Nominative:     —un              —os —as.
Genitive: sen sus ses.
Accusative:       qen qos qSs.
.   Locative: laqun laqos laqSs, laq—(a) t
Examples : 1. Definite Article :—
Nominative: Yd'k''egyatle da nEmS'k'ue bsgud'nEm.
It said     the.     one man.
Genitive:        Qyi'k'a/maya sa        md'q'endq.
The chief of the  killer whales.
Accusative: Aatltsa'ia  qa     do'weq.
He tore   the cedar twigs.
Locative:     Ld'gyaa     lu'qa    ts'sld'tl.
He arrived  at the     lake. 18
2. Indefinite article:—
Nominative i
Ma'q'enoq        ky'd'tama'ya        sa      gySk'
Killer whale  painting on front of the house
Genitive: t/Emii'is   s   Tsa'qis.
the beach of Tsa'qis.
Accusative:     Km,a'qa     wdqj.
He found water.
Locative :       Gyb'qwuha sa    gyo 'kuS laq Ky'&'k a.
He built a house of the house   at Ky'S/k-a.
8. Possessive pronoun:—
1st Person.  Nominative:  Yi'qa g-u'nlty'in     k-'a'lkoa.
This   my nettle harpoon-line.
Genitive:       Ia'lak'Bman   sen    B'mpS.
I am sent by my father.
Accusative :     Lamsn aq'S't qsn liltyd'yu.
I took    my   hammer.
Locative:       Lae'tl     Id'qsn gyu'kua.
He entered in my    house.
3rd Person.  Nominative:    Gyo'kuas.
His house.
Genitive': Gyo'gu-at ses    gyu'kuS.
He had a house of his   house.
Accusative:     Dd'la     qSs se'ky'ak'cmd.
He took   his       staff.
Locative:       NS'alaVa    Idqes ts'a'ye.
But he said to his younger brother.
I pointed out in the Sixth Report that these possessive forms may be modified
according to the location, as near speaker, near person addressed, absent visible,
absent invisible. I have not, so far, discovered these distinctions in the genitive,
while they occur in all the other cases.
As my treatment of the Nisk-a language in the Tenth Report of the Committee
was very brief, I give here some additional information in regard to it.
In the Fifth Report (p. 82) I have treated the formation of the plural in the
Tsimshian, and Count von der -ichulenburg has treated the same subject on pp. 9 ff. of
his work (' Die Sprache der Zimshlan-Indianer.' Braunschweig, 1894). The principles
underlying the formation of the plural will become clearer by the following remarks
on the formation of the plural in the Nisk*a dialect:—
1. Singular and plural have the same form.
This class embraces the names of all animals except the dog and the bear, trees,
and a great many words which cannot be classified. I give here a list of some of
ss, day.
yd'tSEsk', animal.
fr'slc'd'a, wing.
mnak 'd'a, down of bird
yic, hair.
Dpq, forehead.
dz'ak', nose.
ua'n, tooth.
ie'mlf, beard.
t'Bmld'nia, neck.
tlak-s, nail.
qtlkau'm, payment.
mi'uka, sweet smelling,
hatllid'tluks, lean.
tlana'k't, old.
bam, belly.
md' dz'ikys, breast.
ntsh, upper lip.
tlatsq, tail of fish
liawi'l, arrow.
iBatlgya'dtk', axe.
ia'ns. leaf.
mSg-'d'ukst, salmon berry.
laq'am&'k's, prairie.
ts'aky, dish.
wd'os, dish.
k'Dtl, yes.
ts'awik-SBtqa', moccasins, hasa'eq, front.
lak', fire. ts'Sn, inside.
akyc, water. wuldi'gytt, warrior.
pEli'st, star. aVa'lgylq, language.
axk', night. le'Elgyit, feast.
Tdcand'tlk1, to be astonished.
Isqld'h, to fall (rain, snow).
Uya'k; to hang (v. a.).
i&'ky, to thunder.
saanurvd'k, to rebuke.
silg'aue'l, to accompany.
de'lemsqk', to reply.
me'lEk, to damn.
le'mia, to sing".
gye, to see.
hasa'k-, to want.
tlmd'sm, to help.
hatk't, to rush.
gyi'dsq, to ask.
k ala'n, to leave something.
bah, to feel.
2. The plural is formed by reduplication, the beginning of the word, as far as the
first consonant following the first vowel, being repeated with weakened vowel. The
accent of the word is not changed. The reduplicated syllable remains separated
from the reduplicated word by a hiatus.
"'This is particularly evident ih words beginning with a vowel. In these there is a
distinct pause between the terminal consonant of the reduplication and the initial
vowel of the reduplicated word:—
da       plural ia'd'a, to throw. a'lgyiq       plural sVa'lgyiq, to speak. .
a/m „     Em'd'm, good.
It seems to me that this method of forming the plural may be considered duplication affected by certain laws of euphony. Monosyllabic words beginning and.
terminating either with a vowel or with a single consonant, according to the rule
given above, are duplicated. Monosyllabic words terminating with a combination
of consonants drop all the elements of the terminal cluster of consonants, except
the first one, because else there would be a great accumulation of consonants in the
middle of the word. The same causes that bring about the elision of the terminal
cluster of consonants probably affect polysyllabic words in such a manner that the
whole end of the word was dropped. This seems the more likely, as the repeated
syUable has its vowel weakened. If a polysyllabic word was thus repeated the effect
must have been very similar to the repetition of a word with a terminal cluster of
consonants. For instance, wuld'a, to know, duplicated with weakened vowels, would
form wuiawuld'H. In this word, according to the rule governing the reduplication
of monosyllabic weirds with a terminal cluster of consonants, the first a would drop
out, so that the form wulnmld'a would originate.
A few euphonic changes of consonants take place :—
ky, gy, and k, following the first vowel of the word, are aspirated in the reduplication, and form a.
g- and k are also aspirated, and form q.
y becomes the surd aspirate a.
ts becomes s.
The weakened vowels have a tendency to change into b or f. The variability and
indistinctness of the vowels make it difficult to establish a general rule.
I classify the examples in order to bring out the points referred to above.
a. Monosyllabic words beginning and terminating either with a vowel or with a
single consonant.
plural taqt'a'q, lake ; also t'st'a'q:
„ dzikdzo'k, to camp.
„ t'st'S1, valley.
„ mifbmi'tl, to tell.
„ gyicgyi'c, wrong.
„ (lo) nono', hole.
„ Ispla'dp, stone.
„ tsiptsa'p, to do.
„ ts'ilts'a'l, face.
„ ts'spts'e'ip, to tie.
' b. Monosyllabic words beginning with a vowel or a single consonant, terminating^
with a cluster of consonants.
ia'd'a, to throw.
bs'u'x, dog.
Bni'd'm, good.
al'o'l, bear.
diuda'n, hill.
d'iafl'e'c, to push.
(io) no'
tlsptla'p, deep.
la'dp .
bstlba'tl, to lay down
a flat
hapha'p, to shut.
yang a'n, tree.
si'epk' ■ plural sipsi'epk', sick.
ts'Spk'        ,,     ts'ipts'e'pk', hard.
ixk' „     ts'i'xk', stench.
g-iok' „     g-icg-i'ck', lean.
keek' plural kaske'ek', narrow.
delpk' „      delde'lpk', short.
(Id) dd'ltk' „     (lo) dEldd'ltk', to meet.
tlantk' „     tlsntla'ntk', to move. 20
mitk' plural mttmftk', full.
gyitk        „     gyitgyt'tk', to swell.
gyatlk'      „     gyttlgya'tlk', to pierce.
liana „     hanha'na, thin.
tltnta plural tlsntli'nta, to be angry.
gyepkc „ gyipgyi'pkc, high.
Stkc „ afs'tkc, to end.
mao'xku „ maxmad'wkt, meek.
yaltk „ yUgd'ttk, to retarn.
o. Polysyllabic words beginning with a vowel or a single consonant.
sVeVeu    plural stpsi'sVEn, to love. dS'lta
had'a'qk      „     liadhad'a'qk', bad. lo'lak
rould'a „     wulwidd'h, to know. (qom)ma'la
bd'siqk'        „     bssb&'siqk', to separate, a'lgytq
n-a'llu „     wulwd'lia, load, to carry ma'lg'iksk'
on bark. liaoda'k
d'd'ikysk     „     ad'd'd'tkysk, to come. ho'mts'iq
gyi'dsq „     gyidgyt'dsq, to ask. ha'gjf'at
astl'n ,-,     as'asd'u, foot.
plural dildS'lia, tongue.
„     Ijtllo'lak, ghost.
„     (qanymElmu'la, bottom.
„     xl'a'lgytq, to s>peak.
„     mBlmu/iirileysk, heavy.
„     MahaQda'k, bow.
„     hamho'mts'iq, to kiss.
„     haqha'qg~'at, sweet
(/. Change of ky, gy, and k into /•.
/'a^ plural ttatfa'ky, to forget.
hakgs „ haaha'kys, to abuse.
5A"/0 „     aa'dkyc, to drop.
id'dkys      „     ia'id'dkys, to wash.
rt/.'.y.v „     ia'dkys, broad.
dakytl       „     dhula'ltytl, to lie around.
sakysk' plural sinsa'kysk', clean.
ttegya't        „     tliatligya't, cripple
mdk' „     miamb'k, to catch fish.
gyuko „     gyeagyu'kc, fish jumps.
holtelt' „     haaho'kck', to join others.
e. Change of y into s.
f. Change of g' and k into q.
plural Mnho'yiq, just.
plural mtqmag'&'nsk', explanation.
„     g'sqg-d'ikok', to sit.
,,     ssqsd'nksk', to dive.
,,     ksqk'aktl, to drag.
,,     aq'a'kk'tl, to arrive.
g. Change of ts into s. and of </.- into 2.
•yafe plural jy'Ss'Ms'jf*, to chop.
k'dts „    ^•'ssft-'tf'*!'', to chop a tree.
he'its „    lu"she'its, to send.
(V(hilts „     az'ii'dziks, proud.
he'tswriEq        „    lir/s/tc'tsittnEq, to command.
h. Words beginning with combinations of consonants do not always reduplicate*
in the manner described above, as it sometimes results in an accumulation of consonants in the middle of the word. If such inadmissible clusters should result, only
the first consonant of the word is repeated. In such cases initial q is transformed
into k.
ptd plural pptd, door. qtlkd'luq     plural k-Eqtlko'luq, to scold.
qtlkS „     kBqtlk d, to pray. qtsa'e „      k-Eqtsa'e, thick.
(See, however, the words with initial ts on page 19.)
i. Words beginning with hw have in the plural hum. When hw is considered as
one syllable, the semi-vowel w standing for a weak w and w, the reduplioated form
would be hrohw, which, when pronounced rapidly and with the foUowing vowel, must
naturally become hu?v. I believe, therefore, that this plural must be included in the
Awa plural k8m>a', name.
hrvilp „     hiiwi'lp, house.
hwdt „     hHwd't, to sell.
hwtl        plural h&mi'l, to do.
hwd „     Mwd', to call.
hwds „     huw&'n, paddle. ON THE  NORTH-WESTERN  TRIBES  OF  CANADA.
regular reduplications.
. Elision of the consonant following the first vowel.
gyin   plural gyigyi'n, to give food.
gyik        „ gyigyi'k', to buy.
ts'aky     „ ts'Bts'd'ky, dish.
faq        „ t'Et'a'q, lake.
ts'Sp       „ ts'Ets'e'p, bone.
yyit        .» gyigya't, people.
mal        „ mmdl, canoe.
J3. Introduction of (euphonic ?) h.
dsdWlsk plural
a/mb's „
t'otsk „
yind'tsiq wE$ik
Endd'yan „
Bnsqye'ist „
hatlsbtsk' „
sanlai'dikys „
e' Bsk' „
aqyd'dkysk' „
tgalume'Ismtlk „
Here may also belong*
diadF.dtl'lsk. to talk to.
aa'atmo's, corner.
fiafd'tsk, iron.
yiaindtsiq, whip.
aa'Kndo'yBn, garden.
aa'EnsgyS'ist, grave.
stasd'atlk, weak.
haaetld'alst, to work.
haaHlsbi'sk, knife.
siasonlai'dikys, sign.
aa'S'ssk', debt.
aq'iayd'dkysk', to trust.
tycduwiawe'lsmtlk, servant.
yo'tlmsq plural hiaid'tlmsq, to command.
y. Introduction of consonants other than H.'Is plural dsldS'ls, alive.
makysk „ niEsm&'kysk'.
ksg-e'tk' „ kBtg'S'tk', difficult.
laqle'lp'sn „ laqlsple'lp'En, to roll.
J. The reduplicated syllable amalgamates with tbe stem.
ali'ck'   plural   alli'ck'   weak   (instead of a-Vali'ck').
ane'st „       anne'st branch (      „     „ an'ane'st).
f. The vowel of tbe reduplicated syllable is lengthened and the accent is
thrown back upon the first reduplicated syllable, while the vowel of the stem i3
Inks   plural   l&'lsks, to wash the body.
wdk''        „       wd'wdk' to sleep.
calty        „       oS'idky, to haul out.
tlaity       „       tlS'tliky, to bend.
tfdk        „       t'd't'Bk, to scratch.
■ 3. The plural is formed by diaeresis, or lengthening of vowels.
ana's       plural
gyi'na'm      „
kyiba' „
ana'ks, skin.
gye'nam, to give.
kyiba', to wait.
gwula'   plural   gulla', cloak.
hala'it       „       hu'lait, ceremonial dance.
han&'k       „       lid'nak, woman.
4. The plural is formed by the prefix ka—. In this class are included many names
of parts of the body, adjectives expressing states of the body, such as blind, deaf, and
also poor, words of location, and miscellaneous words which cannot be classified.
Parts of the body.
t'umye'c plural
kafsmg-'e'e, head. an'd'n
kats'Bmi'a, ear. pln&Q
kats'Emd'k, mouth. k'etlk
k apEmka'a, arm. g'dd
kafEmtla'm, leg. tg'amd'k
katsuwe'Ent, fingers, g-'e'sss
plural kaan'd'n, hand.
f „ .k aphid'Q or plnufy body.
„ kak'Stlk; chest.
„ kag'd'd, heart.
„ katyam&'k, lip.
„ kayiS'sxB, knee. 22
b. Adjectives expressing states of the body.
kyiba'      plural kikyiba!, lame.
sins 1 kasi'ns, blind.
ts'dk „ kats'a'k. deaf.
mewd'tsq      „ kaniEWd'tsq, crazy ( = similar to a land otter).
Here may belong also
e. Locations.
gma'B       ■ plural   kagwaa'x, poor.
huQto'nst       ,,       hmka'id'nst, liberal.
da ii plural kadd'H, outside.
iaq'o „ k alaq'o', on top.
std'dkys   „       kastd'dkys, side of.
<Z. Other words, unclassified.
sEmo'tlis plural kasEmb'tks, to believe.
no'd'En „ kamo'd'sn, to adorn.
yiegu'sgyitk'e „ yiskagu'sgyitk'o, to rejoice.
le'lultc „ kale'lukc. to steal.
guiasiW Ensgut „ guiafcosile'Ensgut, hunter.
■«■& „ kowi'st, root.
yt-S'ii „ kakd'it, hat.
5. Terms of relationship from the plural by the prefix ka— and the suffix — (l)k.
nidi plural kania'Etk, grandfather.
ntse'sts „ kantseEtsk, grandmother
nEgud'dt       „ kansgua'dlk, father.
nube'p „ kanEbe'pk, uncle.
waky „ kawaltyk (?), younger brother.
The following two have besides reduplication of the stem with lengthening of
the reduplicated syllable:
nakys   plural   kane'niltysk', wife
ndq „       kand'nEqk, mother.
I found the following two without the prefix ka—
!'   '• waky      plural   n-akyk', younger brother.
gyimade      ,,       gyimade'tk', elder brother.
Irregular is
huQdd'eky'En   plural   tluQdd'ek'Entk', grandson.
Here belongs also
me'sn   plural   kamS'sntk, master.
6. The plural is formed by the prefix I— with variable vowel,  Words forming the
plural in this manner have a tendency to form irregular plurals.
a. okys      plural laa'kys, to drink.
yoxk „ leyb'xk, to follow.
gbksk „ Isgd'hsk1, to be awake.
d'ak „ iKoVa'k, to devour.
Pjf*?. qbEts'ao.       „ laqbe'ts'sqt, afraid.
b. Some words have the prefix l— combined with reduplication.
Qdan plural luade'dia, hunger.
'f&'?:    c. Initial gy and k are elided when they follow the prefix l—
..' gydkyc   plural   Idkyo, a bird; swims.
.('.:-, gyibd'yuk   „       libu'yuk, to fly. • .
:>.■.!. ke'nsq       „      li'nxq, a tree falls. i }
Here belong also the reduplicated plurals :— /"' '^
gyamkys   plural   lEmla'mkys, to warm one's self. f -""TO
gya'mgyitl    „       lEmla'mgyitl, to warm something. ^**'  '  '
d. Irregular but related to this class are C3 «L
s»t. 2.
yact plural 1%'ISq, to hide.
yiqya'k       „ lisli'slt', to hang (v. n.).
Qdak „ liduQ, to shoot.
gyenS'tk      ,, lenMs-rnkst, to arise. '2'W     / t
7. Irregular plurals.
a. Singular and plural are derived from different stems.
gy'aqk   plural   ho'ut, to escape. da! atl   plural   sa'kysk, to go away.
ye „      tlo, to walk. malk „ tqa'ldst, to put into fire.
iu'oqk „     tqd'oqk, to eat. maqkt „ centk, to go aboaid.
iok'E'n        „      tqak 's'n, to feed. baq „ ^-5Z, to run.
dia „     warn, to sit. ma'g-at „ tail, to put.
lsk*d!a'       „     Isksma'n, island. gyett „ la'tl, to lie down.
dzak' „      ye£s,tokill(pl. = to chop), ts'en „ la'mdziq, to enter.
&e?$' „     mo^-«A', to stand nds „ daq, to die.
dEphe'tk'    „      dEpma'ksk, short.
wgfk „      JaA', form. yaa „ tltle'ngytt, male slave.
^5 „     dok, to take. n-at'ak „ tltle'ngytt, female slave.
(jjtlna)        „      (gtl/na) sgyi'tk, to kneel, tlgo „ Hobs, small.
iycao „     ksitld' (ksi—, out. ilo, to   tlgdwi'lky- „ kbpEWilkycitlk',
walk), to go out. citlk' nobleman.
niakt „     wilkt, to carry. gyat „ e'uQt, man.
tkuts'a'Q     „     alisgyi'da, ugly. nn „ wudSa'q, large.
ts,osky „ ses'o's, small.
d. Singular and plural are formed from the same or related stems.
wuyitk plural si'ya'tk, to cry, to weep.
axarcd'tk „ alayuwa'ds, to shout.
wiBme's „ wuiVaq alEme'd?E, to shout.
lumd'ltysa „ Idle'diltysa, to wash clothing.
winak „ nne'nsk, long.
midld'Q „ (TKcid'6'q, stout.
k'staks „ lukstsa'deks, to leave.
q'aema's „ q'aema'kst, young.
am'a ma's „ am'ama'lcst, pretty.
The composition of words in Tsimshian and Nisk-a is remarkably loose. Although
there are a great number of formative elements which have no independent existence
they do not combine very intimately with the words to which they are prefixed. I
pointed out before that the reduplicated syllable remains separated from the stem
by a hiatus or pause. The same is true of all compositions, as the following examples
will show:—
Aaguii'iS'B, to walk towards.
ts'Em'a'Jiys, in water.
lEg-sm'SH, to throw into (from top).
This loose connection is also shown by the fact that in compounds the plural is
formed from the stem alone.
kalts'a'p   plural   halts'sts'a1 p, town,     nse'bsnsk   plural   nsEpse'b'E-nsk, friend.
kalhmtlp      „       kalhwrva'lp, house.
daqgya't        „        daqgyigya't, strong.
There are very few cases of contractions.
StyidEmna'k, chieftainess; plural, siyidsmha'nak. The end of this word was
undoubtedly originally hanak, woman. PRINTED   BY


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