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The mineral resources of British Columbia. Practical hints for capitalists and intending settlers with… Oppenheimer, David, 1834-1897 1889

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Practical Hints for Capitalists and Intend-
ing Settlers
Appendix containing the Mineral Laws of the Province and the Dominion of Canada 

Practical Hints for Capitalists and Intend-
ing Settlers
Appendix containing the Mineral Laws of the Province and
the Dominion of Canada, 
1889.  INDEX.
The Mineral Resources of British Columbia 
Cariboo District 10
Kootenay District  15
Tale District 27
Ulloet District 38
•Cassiar District 41
Qniineca District.. 43
Pacific District 44
Appendix A—Synopsis of B. C. Mineral Act, 1884, and Amendments... .47
Appendix B—Dominion Mineral Lands Regulations, 1887, (Abstract) 49
Mineral Referees x 52
Advertisements , 54
Vancouver Mineralogical and Ethnological Mi seum See Last Page  PREFACE.
. In presenting the contents of the following pages to the Public, I express the
liope that my carefully collected and unbiassed annotations will meet with a favorable reception on the part of all who are intsrested in Mining matters in general,
•and in the develojfcnent of British Columbia's vast Mineral wealth in particular,
.and I shall feel amply rewarded for my labor if the result be an increased public
interest in the Mining operations of a Province so rich in Mineral resources as
this is
City Hall, Vancouver, B. C, December, 1888.
B|  Mineral Resources of British Columbia
It is the universal' accepted belief that British Columbia will one day rank
amongst the richest Mineral Districts of the World, her large deposits of
the precious and useful Metals and Minerals embracing Gold, Silver, Copper, Iron, Coal, Lead, Cinnabar, Platinum, Antimony, Bismuth, Plumbago, Limestone, Marble, Slate and Salt, some of which have been systematically and profitably
mined for years, while others are stilt awaiting the development of which they are
Began on fche Fraser River about 1856; the first so-called "rush" to this Province
taking place in 1858, while the extensive and lucrative gold-field of Cariboo, about
150 miles north of the present Canadian. Pacific Railway; was not discovered until
1860. Some idea of the enormous returns in the best days of this District may be
formed when I state that, amongst other highly productive claims, the Aurora
Co. yielded 500 ozs. daily; the Wake up Jack Co. 175 ozs. daily; the Cameron
Co. 150-400 ozs. daily, and the Rabey Co. from 300-400 ozs daily; the actual output of these claims of the famed Gold Mining region from 1861-1882 amounting to
$10,000,000. /
The Omineca Mines, further north than Cariboo, have likewise added to the
the Gold product, but the amount of travel necessary to reach the locality and the
consequent high prices of supplies have kept back their development, while rich
diggings were discovered in the Cassiar region at the extreme northwest of the
Province about 1877, which, being more easily accessible than Omineca, have been
worked with good results.
In the southern end of the Mainland are the Similkameen and Kootenay
centres, where some exceedingly rich Quartz ledges have been located, but Gold is
traced almost everywhere in the country from the Rocky Mountains to the west
coast of Vancouver Island and the Olympian Ranges to Alaska, so that it is a
common saying that the color of Gold is found on any of the native streams; and
considering that only a comparatively small portion of the 350,000 square miles
which are subservient to the Vancouver Smelter has been explored, it is quite impossible to estimate what store of precious Metals maybe lying ready for development.
So far the official returns show that since the Gold discovery, some 28 years
ago, close upon $52,000,000 of Gold have been taken put of the Province in alluvial mining alone, but the real amount is estimated to be very much greater, as
large quantities have been carried away by Chinese and others, which are not
The argentiferous ores which have been discovered of late, and croppings of
which have been assayed with satisfactory results, prove beyond doubt, that when
proper depth is attained, Gold and Silver Quartz Mining will promptly come to
the front; it is well known too that the great Silver belt, which runs northwest
through Mexico, into Colorado, Wyoming, Nevada and Idaho, extends right
through our Province. Argentiferous ores, yielding high assays, have been found
in the Eureka Mine, near Hope, Nicola Valley, Cherry Creek, Queen Mine, Star
and Ebenezer, near Yale, and at Illecillewaet, and reports have been received to
the effect that rich deposits have been found at Omineca, Kootenay, Upper Columbia, Similkameen and at Burrard Inlet. These prospects give every promise of
development into rich Silver Mines in the near future.
The possibilities of the Mining Industry are illustrated, as I have pointed out
in a recent pamphlet, by the figures of the last year's production in some of the
States of the Union.     In California the production of Gold for that period was MINERAL RESOURCES OF BRITISH  COLUMBIA
$19,000,000; in Nevada, $11,000,000; in Colorado, $22,500,000; Utah, $5,750,000;,
in Montana, $16,000,000; Idaho, $7,250,000; Dakota, $3,250,000; Oregon, Washington Territory, New Mexico, Arizona and Alaska, $9,815,000, making a grand
total of $94,565,000. It will thus be seen that in the whole Mountain range from
the South in Arizona to the Canadian boarder, and to the north of us again in
Alaska, there has been a yield of the precious Metals of nearly one hundred million dollars during the year 1887. Is it not reasonable to conclude that along the
700 miles of mountain range through this Province equally good results would be
obtained from a thorough exploration of our Minerals?
Ore exists in large quantities in various parts of British Columbia; at Sooke, on
Vancouver Island, at the northwest coast in Queen Charlotte's Sound on Rivers-
Inlet, and at Seaforth Channel, Millbank Sound, but the bed most available for
working is situated at Texada Island in the Gulf of Georgia, about 60 miles by
water from Vancouver, where a perfect mountain of this important metal is located, with great masses of rich magnetic Iron ore, within limestone walls, assaying
68 4-10 of iron, and having a low percentage of Phosphorus and other impurities.
Has been found in a number of places, viz: at Yale, (King George Copper Mine);.
at Copper Creek and other creeks near Kamloops Lake; on Texada Island; the
most promising ledge, however, being one on Howe Sound near Vancouver; but ifc
also appears as a base in quartz containing the precious metals.
'II     coal •§:
Mining is an industry which, of late years, has undergone a wonderful development. Coal has been found in places over a wide area of both the mainland and
islands. At Nanaimo, on Vancouver Island, and in its immediate vicinity, is
found the best quality of bituminous coal on the coast, the industry having
reached great proportions in the five mines of the Vancouver Coal Mining and
Land Co. The Wellington Collieries are a few miles from Nanaimo on Departure
Bay, and about a mile distant are the East and South Wellington Mines. At
Comox, further north, the coal-beds cover an area which is estimated at 300
square miles.
The quality of the coal varies in the different localities from the common
Lignite to Anthracite, the latter being on the Queen Charlotte Islands, and the-
only vein of anthracite yet discovered on the Pacific Coast, while there is a vast
deposit of semi-anthracite in the Crow's Nest Co. 's Mines in the Rocky Mountains, Kootenay. Large fields of lignite exist near New Westminster, in the
Nicola Valley and along the North Thompson and Skeena Rivers, and very fine:
bituminous coal has been discovered near Kamloops as well as within the city
limits of Vancouver on Burrard Inlet.
The Fraser and Columbia Rivers are the two principal natural highways to
the Mineral country. The Government has been very energetic in making roads
and trails wherever the prospects of a district warranted it, and both the Dominion and local Parliaments will at their next session subsidize branch lines from the
main line of railway communication, the C. P. R., into the Mining centres. It is
evident that the great transcontinental company will play an important part in
opening up the resources of British Columbia, rendering the methods of transportation easier, reducing the co&t of merchandise transportation, and fostering the
mining industries at laige, and thus the most serious drawback to a successful prosecution of Quartz Mining has been overcome.
Another important feature in connection with the development of Mines in
this Province is the recent*establishment of a Smelter in the City of Vancouver,
with a capacity of 60 tons per day, which will commence operations before the
close of the year, and the wealthy English Syndicate who are erecting this accommodation will also work some of the up-country mines as well as purchase and receive ores for treatment.
If the copper deposits already discovered develop, the Smelting Co. will erect
a copper smelting furnace; it is also the intention of the company to add a refinery
in the summer, and later on works for the manufacture of pig lead.
These Smelting Works are bound to centralize the mining industries of the
Province at Vancouver, for it stands to reason, that with the exceedingly low
rates of freight, 'specially conceded by the C. P. R. for transportation of mineral
ore to the Terminal City, where iron ore and limestone for fluxes, and coal for
coke, can be obtained at reasonable prices, the mine owners will find it more
profitable to send their products to this city than to advocate the erection of smelt -
•era in the Interior. Moreover, by concentration the ores will be reduced from ten to
one, which renders the actual freight ($6 per ton) comparatively trifling at 60 cents.
In connection with the Smelter an Assay Department, on the most approved
methods, has been established, and Dr. W. Bredemeyer, F. R. G. S., the celebrated
Mineral Assayer and Mining Expert, has opened his assay offices, sample mill and
test apparatus, so that with these two technical institutions combined, which will
lieneeforth prevent mineral ores from being sent out of the country for assaying
-and smelting purposes, Vancouver can safely be said to stand second to none in
this important matter on this coast.
The local Government is taking further steps to encourage Mining operations,
.and it has been proposed by the Select Committee on Mines, of the Provincial Legislature, that a first class Mining Engineer for the Province be appointed. It has
been suggested that if such an appointment be made, the engineer selected should
be one who would have the confidence of British capitalists, as it is expected that
.capital for the development of the mineral resources of the Province will come
largely from Great Britain.
The Mining Laws, both of the Province of British Columbia and the Dominion of Canada, are very liberal and yet very simple, but they are strictly enforced.
N. B.—The Appendixes contain a synopsis of the Provincial and Dominion Min-
rral Laws and Amendments.
The Mining History of British Columbia closely resembles that of Australia
-and California; here, as well as there, the richer placer mines, so far discovered,
will eventually become more or less exhausted, but with their decline will arrive
the period when the miner goes to work on the quartz lodes, and with Quartz
Mining will set in stability and prosperity in the most alluring of all enterprises.
It requires the introduction of capital and of skilled prospectors to lay open
the stores of hidden wealth and pave the road to great results; for up to the present the mining operations of the country have been almost entirely carried on by
diggers—men of small financial means, and frequently of still less scientific knowledge, who have a most peculiar and deplorable manner of surrounding themselves
and their affairs with an air of secrecy and mystery, and who show a want of confidence which is apt to discourage would-be investors, or at least raise suspicions
-on their part in return.
It is a weekly occurrence to see miners come into this city from up-country
points with specimens from some newly located metalliferous quartz claim, hunting for pecunious partners or purchasers, but for lack of ready capital on the spot,
and for the reasons just alluded to, many genuine and favorable chances have to
go a-begging. These men should be able to find people ready to receive them
with open arms at a mining centre like Vancouver, as they are willing either to
«ell their claims or a controlling interest in the same at a small sum, or bond
their location. Capitalists who are willing to negotiate with them need not risk
.any money until they have sent their confidential experts to the alleged claim and,
after receiving a report, they are free either to accept or reject the offer according
to their investigator's advice, and perhaps secure for a few thousand dollars mining property which, under the now prevailing circumstances, might not be in the
market below a quarter of a million.
Here now is the chance for foreign capital to step in and by the formation
of prospecting and locating COMPANIES in the Mining centre of Vancouver to
reap a bountiful harvest in return lor their enterprise.
-fli —-
For the convenience of mineral statistical purposes the Mainland of British
Columbia i* divided into six districts, viz:
Cassiar and
to which arrangement I will adhere in the following descriptive pages of the different mines; but it appears probable that, in consequence of recent locations of
valuable Quartz Mines in the vicinity of Burrard Inlet, an additional district will
have to be created with its official centre at Vancouver. Each District is again
split up into Divisions, some of which are under the control of Government
Gold Commissioners, whose duties consist in recording claims, settling disputed
titles, and generally acting as local magistrates. s
Embraces the whole region of the Upper Fraser to Omineca, above Lake-la-Hache,
and is the great placer mining portion of the Province. The chief town is Bar-
kerville, on Williams Creek, while Richfield, Stanley, Quesnelle, Antler Creek,
Lowhee, Jack of Clubs, Lightning Creek, Cottonwood, and others are mining
A good wagon road, on w uc a team of 8 yoke of oxen can safely draw 18,-
000 to 20,000 lbs., traverses the farming region and runs right through to Bar-
The projected railway from these miijes tajgs the C. P. R. at the North
Thompson, and it will open a new and rich goldfield. MINERAL RESOURCES OF BRITISH COlSUMBIA—CARIBOO DISTRIC.
*ft     9
o      o
-P  O .O  2
i-H -P
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r oun
cS q
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Gold Statistics for
1887.    t
iSl      ' ? '• * ■■
■ m    a
Barkerville Division: |jl
Williams Creek and tributaries	
Mosquito Creek and Red Gulch	
Hardscrabble and Sugar Creeks	
Lowhee Creek	
Grouse and Canadian Cieeks	
Antler Creek .'.:	
Cunningham Creek (Upper)	
Conklin and Stouts Gulches	
Stevens, Begs,   and   California  Gulches
and Creeks	
Goat River	
Desultory j	
Lightning Creek Division:
Lightning Creek	
Van Winkle, Chisholm Creek, and Perkins Gulch	
Devil's Canyon and Slough Creeks	
Nelson Creek	
Burns Creek	
Last Chance and Davis Creeks	
Rushon and Deadwood Creeks	
Basford, Campbell, and Peters Creeks ...
West end of Swift River	
Quesnellemouth Division:
Fraser River (commencing 6 miles below
Quesnelle and 20 miles above)	
Quesnelle River (20 miles up)	
Cottonwood River	
Hixon Creek f
Keithley"Creek Division:
Keithley Creek	
Do. Desultory	
Snowshoe Creek	
Do. Desultory ..	
French and Snowshoe Creeks	
Harvey Creek	
North Fork Quesnelle River	
Do. Do.       Desultory...
South Fork Quesnelle River	
Do. Do.       Desultory...
Cedar Creek	
Quesnelle River (from Forks 40 miles
down, no organized companies, all desultory mining)	
Horsefly River	
Fraser River   (6 miles below Quesnelle
down to Riskie Creek)	
Fraser River—Desultory	
$16 00
17 25
16 60
17 00
16 00
16 00
16 50
16 & 17
16 00
16 50
17 00
17 00
17 25
17 30
17 00
17&17 25
17 00
16 25
16 50
17 40
17 00
16 50
17 40
16 50
$227,673 12
The following are some of the most prominent mines:—
has during the season employed a large force on its claims, of which the most important are:—
The American,
Wilkinson, and
The Bonanza.
(a) The American claim is situated on Stout's Gulch, which empties into
Williams Creek at Barkerville.
Depth of the Shaft, 100 feet.
Country—rock, slate.
Width of Ledge, 24 feet.
The Ledge runs ATorth, 20 degrees West, dipping to East.
Assays from $10 to $62, gold, per ton.
A 20 stamp mill and saw mill are on the premises and will commence full operations in the Spring.
The main wagon road runs in close proximity to the Mine; plenty of wood,
and water is handy for all purposes.
(b) The Bonanza claim is situated at Stout's Gulch.
Depth of Shaft, 120 feet.
Width of Shaft, 20 feet.
Ledge runs North, 20 degrees West and dips East.
Country—rock, slate.
Assays show traces of silver, and yield from $40 to $60 gold per ton.
(c) The Wilkinson claim is situated at the head of Conklin's Gulch, emptying:
into Williams Creek, and is a fine developed Mine.
Depth of Shaft, 40 feet.
Width of Shaft, 6 x 2J feet.
Country—rock, slate.
Ledge runs North, 20 degrees West and dips East.
Assays show $40 to $80 gold per ton.
This Mine is situated on Jack of Clubs and Mosquito Creek Mountain, ancE
the company has removed its 10-stamp mill from the old site at the Kurtz & Lane
works to Jack of Clubs Lake,-where it has been crushing.
Depth of Shaft, 30 feet. '
Width of Shaft, 8x4 feet.
Ledge runs North and South, and dips West.
Country—rock, slate.
Assays show $24 to $130 gold per ton.
Latest mill test gave $52 per ton.
Reports from the Mine quite recently state that the ore improves as the sinking gains in depth.
Satisfactory financial arrangements have been completed to enable the company to work the mine profitably the coming Spring.
Is situated on Hixon Creek, and has an extraordinary yield of free gold, a true fissure vein in granite and slate.
Depth of Shaft, 200 feet, and various cross drives have been run.
Width of Shaft, 2J x 6 feet.
A cross drive at 50 feet level struck the ledge at 20 feet, while a cross-drive
from a 100 foot level did not strike wall-rock at 45 feet.
The company has a 5-stamp mill on the ground.
The body of ore is estimated at 600,000 tons.
Assays show traces of silver, and from $20 to $2,000 gold per ton.
Has done some work in improving its mine.
The depth of its shafts is 50 feet; a tunnel of 600 feet struck the vein at 100
Width of Ledge varies from 10 inches to 2 feet.
Ledge runs East and West and dips to the North,
Country—rock, slate.
The quartz mills from $30 to $60 gold per ton.
The vein of the so-called Perkins Ledge, on Burns Mountain, is reported
eighteen inches thick and 30 feet deep, and to show rich free gold.
Results of assays so far unknown.
Of Messrs. Pinkerton & Flynn Brothers, on Lowhee Creek, who have erected an
arastra to thoroughly test their ore, has been crushing this season.
There are many ledges of free gold bearing quartz on this creek.
Just above Barkerville, with a 5-stamp mill on their grounds, have done better
than last year, and have produced some splendid ore, which yields $94, gold, per
ton, from a ledge 3 feet wide.
On Pomeroy Lode, south-east of Barkerville, has acquired a 4-stamp mill and is
The ore assays and mills well and good results are of a surety expected shortly.
At Conklin's Gulch, bears very rich free gold, with traces of silver.
There are large bodies of ore on this gulch, but it requires a good deal of capital to develop it profitably.
The following are some valuable locations in the Cariboo District:
Hay ward Quartz Mining Co., Snowshoe Creek.
'Georgia Claim, 3 miles from Barkerville, (Mother Lode.)
Snow Shoe Mountain Mine.
Graphite Co., Island Mountain.
Lord Dufferin Mine, Grouse Creek.
Geo. Byrnes Ledge, between Williams and Grouse Creeks.
Green & Taylor Co., near Richfield.
Beaver Pass Ledge
Washburn Ledge, Hixon Creek.
Canton City Ledge.
Valley Mountain.
Truro Mine.
Richfield, 26 November, 1887-
"The B. C. Milling and Mining Co. have, during the season, employed a.
large force under Mr. Craib as superintendent, in putting down a permanent shaft
to the 100-foot level, from which depth a drive has been run along the vein at distance of 100 feet and the vein cross-cut, which is some 26 feet in width and shc^vs^
some very rich rock, although much the greater portion is considered worthless to-
work, under any process known at present.
"It is to be regretted that this company did not continue sinking their main
shaft, as the indications are that higher grade ore would soon have been reachexL
This company has also sunk a shaft and run a tunnel in the American location adjoining, in which the vein has not yet been reached.
"The Island Mountain Cempany has employed from 40 to 60 men during the
season, in removing their 10-stamp mill from its former site at the old Kurtz and
Lane works to Jack of Clubs Lake; putting up buildings., erecting machinery,
burning brick for furnace, and taking out ore, and would, I understand, but for
the non-arrival of a portion of their machinery from San Francisco, have been
crushing ore this winter. As it is, work on the mill has been suspended; Some
half-dozen men are, however, working in the mine taking out ore, which it is intended shall continue all winter, and be hauled to the mill for crushing as soon &&■
the mill is ready in the spring. I understand some excellent ore is being now
brought out of this mine.
"The Quesnelle Quartz Mining Co., of Hixoh Creek, has employed a number of men during the season, but with what result I have been unable to learn^
Work has been suspended for the season.
"The Burns Mountain Co. has done but little during the season to further
prove their mine.
"About 100 quartz claims have in all been recorded during the year 1887—
Many are new locations, some of which show most promising indications.
4'On Lowhee Creek, Messrs. Pinkerton and the Flynn Brothers are at present
putting up an arastra, to more thoroughly test their ore.     They inform me that
they will be prepared to crush early in the new year, and will work any ore
brought to them (that is to say, a few tons) for one-half of the bullion produced-
"The Black Jack Claim, just above Barkerville, has developed a very rich
body of ore, and is now taking out rock, from which (upon being pounded io u.
mortar) a good prospect of free gold is readily obtained. This company (should
their present prospects hold good at a greater depth) will put up a small mill and
at once commence crushing.
"The Boyce Co., on the Pomeroy lode, south-east of Barkerville, being so-
well-satisfied with the results obtained, have entered into an arrangement \ri£h»
Mr. I. B. Nason to remove the 4-stamp mill from Richfield to their mine and start,
crushing ore at once.    The mill is now being removed.
" There are many other promising locations worthy of mention, but enough a
has been said to show that the people here have a confidence in our quartz veins^..
and that an earnest effort is being made to prove that this confidence is not misplaced.
"I have, &c,
"To the Honorable
66The Minister of Alines."
Jno. Bowron,
"Gold Cbmirii88$Q.n#p~
Is in the Southern part of the Province, and embraces the country watered by
.the river of that name and the upper waters of the Columbia River. It comprises
.an area of about 7,000 square miles. Four years ago the district was divided into
Bast and West Kootenay—these subdivisions being now entirely separate mining
districts. The dividing line is a watershed line along the Selkirks, which throws
ike Kootenay Lake country into West Kootenay District.
Is essentially a mining, not an agricultural or pastoral section, but its timber resources, also, are great, and are on the eve of development. So far as known the
^principal minerals are gold, silver, copper, lead and iron. There are excellent
building stones and fine clays. The gold and silver—the latter chiefly in galena,
but also in grey copper—are widely distributed. The Columbia runs north and
south through the district, and is crossed east and west by the Canadian Pacific
Railway. The n&vig&ble waterways for steamboats in the district exceed 500
miles in length. The climate is superb and the mountain, river and lake scenery
very varied and attractive. It is stated by the Gold Commsssioner of West
Kootenay that the shipments of silver ore from his district already far exceed
tkose of any other district, or, indeed, from all the other districts in the Province
put together, and that this distinction will, in his opinion, be maintained. It is
encouraging to know, at this early stage of our quartz mining progress, that about
•Q&0 tons of silver ore have been profitably marketed from one district into which
-capital has scarcely been introduced, and that twenty-ton parcels of that total have
aejbted over 300 ounces to the ton, a considerable proportion from 100 to 140
dances, while none has brought less than 60 ounces, net, per ton, at a distant
smelter. This is the result of mere "prospecting" work, for "real mining" has
aot yet begun, many of the most valuable prospects being still in the hands of
prospectors. Next summer will see the beginning of methodised skilled operations, and a needed improvement of means of transport, chiefly on the great waterways. It will not be long before the district will produce several hundred tons of
silver ore per day, and a good yield also of gold. A large amount of capital is
battling with the deep placer diggings in the northern part of the district, and in
Iks southern part, near the town of Nelson, two gold mills to test gold quartz
claims, owned by men of means, will be erected in spring. This good promise of
development is visible now, but not a tithe of the district has been half prospected.
It is .quite in its infancy as a mining region.
The ores in the district cannot yet be particularly described, but they are of
"varied character and value. There are, in established camps, and known to exist
elsewhere in the district, very great quantities of low grade silver bearing galena
—much of it carrying its own fluxes—which can be treated in an ordinary smelter. At least two of the four established silver claims in the district are high
.grade camps, and it might be an error to class the third as a low grade camp. Of
the two distinctively high grade camps one gives promise of being a first-rate
"^carbonate" camp, second to none anywhere; the other contains claims which all
•experts who have examined them rate very highly, and which have proved their
value by the great average net return from actual shipments above mentioned.
The ores last referred to have a considerable percentage of copper, and probably
^cannot be treated successfully in an ordinary smelter.
The longitudinal formation, or extended metalliferous belt, in the long and
comparatively narrow West Kootenay District, is, for practical administrative pur- 16
poses, subdivided into three sections—the Big Bend,
Kootenay Lake subdivisions.
the Illecillewaet and the
This subdivision derives its name from the sharp bend, southerly, made by
the Columbia River, when, in its N. N.  W. course, the river reaches 52° N.
It was one of the many places in the Province that attracted miners a score of
years ago for a short time.     In 1865-6 the "Big Bend excitement" took place.
Miners from all parts flocked in considerable numbers to the new locality; steamers were built and roads, at a great expense, opened to encourage traffic, but before twelve months had expired Big Bend was deserted, and new discoveries in
Omineca and elsewhere claimed the attention of the wandering miner.     Gold, of
fine quality, was, at that time, found in paying quantities at Big Bend, and the
surface diggings in many of the streams were thoroughly and successfully worked.
The place, however, was then remote, and the cost of introducing supplies high.
After a long interval the completion of the C. P. Railway gave Big Bend aiiother
start.    The Government made a trail in 1885 of about 60 miles in length, for the
accommodation of the miners.   A good deal of gold has since then been taken from
Carnes Creek, French Creek, McCulloch Creek and Smith's Creek and also from
bars in the Columbia River, notwithstanding the high price of supplies, owing to
the cost of packing on the trail and the absence of steamboat communication by
river.     The effect of the summer rise of water on surface mining in the narrow '
creeks has retarded progress and caused attention to be turned to deep diggings.
Several leases of ground have been granted to encourage the introduction of capital which, in some cases, has been secured.     A bed rock flume company on McCulloch Creek has been formed, and has taken a quantity of gold from bedrock.
Fair wages have been made on Smith's Creek, and more extensive work is proposed in that quarter next spring.     A miner took out $500 in six weeks during
the past season, but had to stop work for want of water.     A company on French
Creek, working a hill claim, did very well until they lost the pay streak towards
the end of the season.     This, however, has not discouraged the holders of the
claim.    The high water on Carnes Creek interfered with the previous successful
work of miners there.    It is generally considered that gold placer diggings in this
Big Bend subdivision are more plentiful and more generally distributed than in
any other part of West Kootenay District, but these are not its only source of
wealth.     The timber is very good, and large areas have been purchased lately.
Much of the subdivision is unprospected.     Numerous quartz veins,  generally
small, from some of which very rich "specimens" have been taken, exist in the
neighborhood of McCulloch and French Creeks, and these await examination and
thorough testing.    Indications show that, in all probability, the Illecillewaet belt
(or rather the extended belt already mentioned) traverses the Big Bend subdivision northwesterly, but this subdivision, so far as known, is believed to be more a
gold than a silver yielding section.
The principal mining centres and camps are Golden, Farwell, Perry Creek,
Wild Horse Creek, Palmer's Bar, Moyea River, Illecillewaet, Eagle Creek, Toad
Mountain near the townsite of Nelson, &c.
A company has been organized to open this region by a short railroad and a
steamer line on the Columbia River and Kootenay Lake. The C. P. R. runs
through the Illecillewaet Division, within the closest proximity to its rich quartz
«4H 0>
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0        ,    0
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Northern Division:
Fernie Creek
Smith Creek	
McCulloch Creek
French Creek	
Carnes Creek
Southern Division:
Wild Horse Creek
Palmer's Bar	
Moyea River	
B\ill River	
18 00
$ 50
$ 8,550
Lanarck Mine is situated in the Selkirk Mountains, about 400 miles east of Vancouver near the Illecillewaet Station of the C. P. R. The company have a test
mill on the grounds, and the ore sent to San Francisco and Denver, Col., has
jdelded, by the smelting process, 75 ounces silver per ton, and 70 per cent, lead,
(1,400 lbs to the ton).
The many rich auriferous and argentiferous quartz mines in this locality, most
of which have only been recently discovered, are under course of development, so
that it is difficult to render minute information with accuracy. The following are
the most prominent ones:—
The leads are from 2 to 10 feet thick, the ore is very rich; assays run from
<65 to 1,300 oz. per ton.
John Bull Assays: Silver, 125 oz. per ton.
Silver Tip
Whale -	
The Sprague	
Pride of Illecillewaet
244   „       p
224   p
OO    ti        . ii
300 to 1,500 oz. per ton
85 to    135   ii       ti
500 to 1,500   |       I
250 to    500   I       1
100 to 1,000   1       1
90   1
Canadian Lass, Christina, Primrose, Silver Mug, King of the Hills, Sham-
Tock, Emerald, Happy Find, Highland, and others of varying percentage in silver
.and gold.
This mine is situated only three miles from the town of Golden, on Kicking
Horse Creek, close to the C. P. R. track and%about 800 feet above it. The moun-
tain is about 1,500 high, facing due south.
Assays vary from to oz. silver per ton and one per fcent. mercury. - ■    ~-..—
Situated on Jubilee Mountain, 40 miles from Golden, on the Columbia River, produces very rich silver ore, containing also gold. The shafts are down 22 feet in
Has its tunnel in 535 feet, it follows pretty much the Same course as the old tunnel, being above it and in fifteen feet further. The work is in the old river channel, and going through what has evidently been a canyon. So long as they are in
this canyon gold is not expected to be found in paying quantities, as the bedrock
is so smooth that gold will not remain on it. The gravel taken out prospects from
ten to fifteen cents to the pan, but the returns are small, for the reason that more
boulders than dirt isytaken out in driving the tunnel. On October 27th a wash-
up was made from the dirt taken, out by two men in two days, resulting in a
clean-up of over an ounce. This was an improvement on former clean-ups, the
gold being coarser. The work is supposed to be about four feet above the bedrock. From present indications, the channel will soon make a turn; if so, the
bedrock will form a natural riffle, and immensely rich ground is sure to be struck.
Official reports received from the Superintendent, Mr. G. A. Dow, speak of the
unexpected encounter, six feet above bedrock of pay ground. Mr. Dow gave permission to some wandering Chinese to wash the dirt first taken out of the tunnel,
as it yielded only two dollars a day to the hand, and would not have paid the
company to work it. But the dirt recently taken out gives 12 cents to the pan, a
yield sufficient to pay the whole working expenses of the mine. Moreover, the
richness of the overlying ground indicates an abundance of coarse nuggets on the
bedrock. The time for reaching the latter simply depends upon the grade of the
ancient channel.
The prospects of the company are as favorable as possible, for it was not expected to find gold until bedrock was reached, yet it is now discovered that the
whole ground is auriferous, and, as the tunnel is driven into Mount Cenis, the gold
increases in quantity and coarseness.
On the Columbia River, 100 miles up from Donald, was discovered last July and
promises to turn out well. The ledge is a well defined one with slate and granite
walls. It is 24 feet from wall to wall, carrying mineral the entire length. The
pay streak is fully six feet wide, of almost solid mineral. The ore is cube galena,
carrying silver and a little gold. An assay made at Ottawa gave a return of $66
in silver to the ton, and one made by the Utah expert, McVicker, of Salt Lake
City, gave $72 in silver, and $1 in gold, to the ton, besides yielding 78 per cent,
in lead.
In September last a new find was made about 40 miles below Revelstoke.
The ledge is over 15 feet in width, and carries gold and silver in galena.
Assay returns give $38 to $80 in silver, $2 to $3 in gold to the ton, and 40 per
cent. lead.
The camp is easily accessible, as the claim stakes are within a few feet of
navigable water on the north-east arm of the lake. The owners are doing development work and believe they have a property that will prove a good one shortly.
Assays, made by Dr. G. J. W. Bredemeyer a few days ago, of specimens from
the "Monitor" and the " Southern Cross," at the headwaters of the river, result
as follows:—
Monitor.—From 44 to 77 per cent, lead; 32 to 59 oz. silver, with a traee-of
gold. The vein matter went from 6 to 25 per cent, lead; 6 to 17£ oz. of silver.
The vein matter could easily be concentrated. ■ ili.rr   T' ■■-
Southern Cross.—From 42 to 58 per cent, in lead, and averages 22 oz. in
silver, and the vein matter gives 12 per cent, in lead and 20£ per cent. M silver-
They contain from 60 cents to $1 in gold per ton. The ores are very good smelting ores.
Near Spallumacheen River, quite recently discovered by George McCabe, *are
likely to rival Toad Mountain in both extent and richness.
A sample sent from the |Crescent Claim" to McVicker, of Salt Lake City,
for assay, returned $226.03 in silver, and $8.44 in gold, to the ton, besides 39 per
c?nt. lead, and 11 per cent, copper; pretty good rock to be sure.
Other locations of importance are:—
Otter Tail Gold and Silver Mining Co., Rocky Mountains.
Findlay Creek Mining Co., (Hydraulic).
Farwell Silver Mine, Illecillewaet.
Connolly Silver Ledge, Illecillewaet.
New Jerusalem Mine, Kootenay Lake.
Ruby Mine, Kootenay Lake.
Crow's Nest Co.'s Coal Mines, Rocky Mountain.
Bald Head Mining Co.
Ericson Mining Co.
Big Bend Mining Co.
On the west shore of the lake at Warm Springs are the mines of Wheeler &
Brant, "Let'er go, Gallagher," the "Crayhoo," "Little Donald," and the rich
quartz claims of Mr. G. B. Wright, "No. 1." In these mines is found a very rich
vain of galena on the lower limestone ledges and mica schist with high deposit of
silver above red carbonate ores, rich also in silver. On the opposite shore of Golden Bay is the "Blue Bell," assaying 140 oz. silver per ton.
TOAD MOUNTAIN MINES.  "     ..     . -fc
The district is remarkably rich, otherwise these mine could not be worked.
The principal ones are:—
Hall Brother's three claims—The Bonanza, Silver King and American Flag—
the latter assaying $380 silver, and $250 gold, to the ton, besides going 28 per
cent, copper.
The Dandy, owened by Cook & Kelly.
Iroquois, owned by Pat Grace & Co.
Tough Nut, Jim Crow, Phoenix, and several others, which have not been
properly tested.
On Cottonwood, Smith Creek, between Hall's claims and the townsite of Nelson, is the gold mine of King & Co., and further down the stream, beyond the
point of navigation, at Eagle Creek, seven miles from Nelson, is the "Eagle Creek
Mine," owned by Neil & McDougall. There are very promising indications of
gold quartz, a fine vein laying between black granite, low silver quartz and carbonate ore, which has been traced 300 feet on the surface; it crops up all oyer and
widens to two feet at a depth of 25 feet. It .was the intention of the company to
take in a small stamp mill this fall, but owing to the condition of the trail it was
Impossible to get it to the spot. They have an eighteen inch vein of free milling
gold ore that assays'$100 to the ton, and some of the ore has panned out $400 to
the ton. 20
Farwell, 24th December.
Memorandum on the silver mining field discovered lately in the
Fort Shepherd Subdivision.
"The land rises from the valleys of the Columbia and Kootenay by low
roughly wooded hills, backed by mountains about 5,000 feet high, which rise still
higher to the eastward, over Big Kootenay Lake.
"The drainage, chiefly, is by 49 Creek and Cottonwood Creek which enter
the Kootenay,—by Salmon Creek which flows southerly into the Pend d'Oreilles*
River, and by Bear Creek which flows into the Columbia River nearly opposite
Fort Shepherd. I do not think there is any important drainage into Big Kootenay Lake.    The general slope is westward.
"The Kootenay River Valley—a rough trough somewhere about 20 miles
long from the outlet of the Big Kootenay Lake to the Columbia—forms, as above
said, the northern boundary of the Fort Shepherd subdivision.
"Upon the southern wall of that valley, six or seven miles from the river,,
and situated about the headwaters of 49 Creek—a little east therefrom I think—
is a mountain called 'Toad5 Mountain, variously estimated as of the height of
4,000 or 5,000 feet; it is at any rate high, for the snow this year was on it till
July, and snow showers fell in autumn.
"The largest group of claims, at present discovered in the Fort Shepherd
subdivision, is on Toad Mountain.
| Those mines were discovered late in autumn of 1886 by Winslow, Hall &.
'Co. Nothing was done until the spring of 1887. After the discovery had become:
'k-iown, I outfitted two men who went to the mines with about ten others, and
| all ftiade locations, working them during the summer. I myself went there in
j September last, to look at the mines and see what my men were doing. I found
'about thirty men in camp, and more coming every day—the mines the best ever
'discovered on the Pacific Coast,—ledges there running from ten to thirty feet in.
f width, and all looking well.
"'Mr. Cobaugh, who went in there with his assay office with Messrs. Hall &
'Co., made assays from the rock of the different ledges as high as 1,600 ounces in
I silver. The average assay of ore at the time I was there ran a little over $300*
'and without a doubt this will be one of the best camps in British Columbia.
" 'At the time I left this camp, the last of September, there were about thirty
'claims located, and men working on about eighteen of them. Experts were-
' coming in from all parts of the country examining the mines. I am informed
'there have been about twenty-five more locations since I left.'
"I am not able to describe the nature of the silver-bearing rock; some thafc
was sent to me did not reach as the boat was stopped by ice last week; it is said
not to be galena. A miner here lately from Toad Mountain said that some thought
that the rock would yield more gold than silver when sunk into. To show the
size of the ledges—a matter as to which all accounts agree—he said that one was
stripped over fifty feet without finding the walls. These might be masses instead
of veins, but he said the general belief was that they were veins.
"The Honorable
"The Minister of Mines,
"I have, &c,
G. M. Sproat,
Gold Commissioner.'*
North Kootenay, 30 December, 1887.
Sir :—	
"As regards quartz, it is now provided that a metalliferous formation, composed, mainly, of black or dark pyritous slates, yielding gold and silver, chiefly
silver, so far as known, runs on the west slope of the Selkirks (and of course on
the east of the Columbia River) longitudinally, and, as far as can be judged, continuously, in a strip of varying breadth, north and south, throughout the district,
and probably, for a long distance north and south, beyond.
"This formation appears, for example, in the Fort Shepherd subdivision—on
Big Kootenay Lake,—also in the section immediately east of Lower Arrow Lake,
(which I will call 'Slocan' subdivision), again, upon the shore of Upper Arrow
Lake, and, as you already know, at Illecillewaet, Carnes Creek and Big Bend.
"Notwithstanding the rough, deeply covered surface of the country, the continuity of the formation is traceable, or fairly inferable, throughout the above
distance—the general trend being a little west of north. Innumerable quartz
veins, ramifying and crossing in all directions, are found in it.
"They are to be seen on the stony scarps of lofty mountains; they pierce and
sometimes climb up and over ridges; they burrow under hill, crop out on benches,
traverse valleys and variegate lake margins and beds of streams. A large part of
the formation is hidden, and always will be hid, under vast mountains, but the
numerous valleys enable it to be attacked in many parts of its length.
"Judging by the little that 200 men have been able to do in examining a circumscribed, small bit of this elongated strip, during the past season, on the South
Fork of the Illecillewaet River, I should say there will be plenty of prospecting
work to be done in this district, a hundred years hence, even with a mining population numbered by thousands, instead of hundreds.
"The smallness of developing work done, so far, forbids generalizing, but my
impression is that the northern part, and perhaps the extreme southern part, of
the district will yield more gold than silver, which latter may be found chiefly in
the central part. What other valuable metals exist is not known. The presence
of cinnabar is vaguely reported. Silver ores, so far, are the commonest. These
consist, generally of galena and gray copper, as the main constituents. In some
veins the above two ores are mixed; in others, one or other predominates, and the
galena occassionally occurs in considerable purity. The cupreous ores, as a rule,
have the highest silver contents. The veins often lie close together, and, as above
said, they frequently cross. In such a broken country, the course of a particular
vein is not easily detected. And with so much cover on the surface, examination
is difficult on the lower parts of the mountain. But anybody on the mountain
side may get a good general idea of the greater work of nature in the surrounding
area, by observing, as he constantly may do, the ramifying and crossing, the swelling and. dwindling of veins, and some of the hidden causes of mining misadventure,
depicted as a picture lesson in miniature quartz tracery, on the smooth face of a
yard of square split slate that may be lying near his feet.
"The question whether there are many so-called true 'fissure5 veins or lodes in
given parts of the great metalliferous strip, is probably not so important. The
metal is where you find it, and adventurers in mining have to satisfy themselves
as to the nature and presence before investing their money. The upholders of one
theory as to the cause, or causes, of the presence of metal in the veins, say that
fissure veins are more likely to be metalliferous. The upholders of another theory
say that you are just as likely to find metal in ores that are not contained in
'fissure' veins.
"I said above that low grade ores, as a rule, required large capital to handle
them. We have plenty of these ores, chiefly galena, in the district, but it is also
very probable (though, indeed, only croppings have been tested) that we have also
veins—generally yielding gray copper and smaller in size than those yielding
galena,—which are distinguished by having a small quantity of rich ore, commonly silver-bearing, it would appear.     There thus may be room for individuals, or
ii 22
small companies, whose concern with the ores from the mine will be simply their
extraction and sale to the highest bidder on the spot. Such sales would be made
through the managers of sampling works, and the cash received would enable the--
mining to be continued. But this industry cannot exist without sampling mills
and smelters, which are to the miner very much what gristmills are to the farmer-
"Noplacer diggings have been found in this Subdivision, but it is thought
that the North Fork of the Illecillewaet, Fish River (which enters the head of
Upper Arrow Lake), and some other streams may prove to be placer streams.
| The great feature at Illecillewaet is quartz mining, which, accordingly, I
have studied with some closeness. I frequently visited the camp, and on one oc-
cassion ascended the dividing ridge in company of Professor Selwyn, C. M. G.,
and examined the veins at the highest elevation.
"The records of mineral claims number 205; certificates of expenditure 59^
transfer 77, during the past season.
"The largest owner of claims there is the Selkirk Mining and Smelting Company, Limited. They are interested in more than a score of claims. Messrs.
Corbin, Kennedy & Wood have about half that number. A dozen other claims
are distributed in the hands of holders, many of whom probably could find more
or less capital to work them, or to open them, for a satisfactory test. A few are
held by men who have been able to expend the necessary $100, and hold the claims
for what may turn up. The remainder, say 146 claims out of 205 recorded, would
appear to be vacant.
'' The largest and almost only large transactions in mineral claims at Illecillewaet has been the sale of § of one claim for $16,000. The other 76 transfers have
been for amounts ranging from $3,000 and $1,000 down to the small or nominal
sums which constitute the consideration in most of the cases.
'' The shipments of ore, other than small lots for assay, have been made solely
by the above named Company, arid consist of about 250 tons of selected ores, between the 25th of July and the 7th of November, which represent a gross value o£
$21,000, and a net value at the smelter of about $15,000, say nearly $63 per ton as
the average net yield at smelter. The range of the percentage of lead was from
36 to 159 ounces per ton.
"The ore got out, and now at the mines and on the dump, by the above-
named two mining companies, may be roughly estimated as worth $15,000.
"The Selkirk Company has spent $5,000 on Smiles of trails to its different
claims, and Messrs. Corbin have spent a large sum on similar work.
"The crashing and sampling mill, capable of sampling 100 tons of ore per
day, and with a very complete assay office attached, has been erected by the former company at a cost of about $8,000, and this company, further, has made considerable expenditure on ore sheds, workmen's houses, &c.
"I understand it is probable that Messrs. Corbin, who have spent the summer
in tunnelling and testing some of their best-looking claims, with satisfactory results, may erect sampling works next summer, if means of access to their valuable-
claims on the North Fork is provided.
"Mineral claims have been recorded which are situated both north and south
of the C. P. R. line, all along from Illecillewaet to Glacier Station, but most of
the claims are on the north side of the line, about two miles east from Illecillewaet
Station. They extend almost from the track up to the summit—4,000 feet high—
of the'divide between the South and North Forks of the Illecillewaet, and some
of the veins run through or over the summit, and reappear or continue on the
North Fork slope, and in the bed of the North Fork stream.
" The latter valley cannot be thoroughly prospected, oi
until means of access are provided up it from Albert Canyon,
on both sides, and snow lies long on it
its mines utilized,
The divide is steep
' Owing to the migratory character of the population it is difficult to estimate
i -u-aasSfi
the number of miners, but I think that an average of 200 prospectors at Illecillewaet would be approximately correct.
"The visits of a number of experts from the United States and England show
that the locality is becoming known outside of the Province.
"The energy and enterprise of Mr. G. B. Wright have been mainly instrumental in starting the Illecillewaet camp, and Messrs. Corbin, Kennedy & Wood
are the pioneer prospectors of both North and South Forks.
"A small village of about 30 houses has sprung up around the railway station
.and sampling mill, with the usual small hotels and shops, but there has not bean
.any active competition to secure lots at Illecillewaet. The buildings are partly on
the land of the railway company, and partly on Dominion land.
"The slackness of competition for ground is not owing to any doubt of the
goodness of the mines, but perhaps for some notion that Albert Canyon, at the
Junction of the two streams, may be a better place lor a village than Illecillewaet
" The formation, locally at Illecillewaet, so far as examined, presents commonly a heavy limestone caprock, and foot-walls of slates—black and darkpyritous
"Iron sulphurets, highly colored on the surface, form part of the veins and
lhanging walls.
"The ore itself consists usually of galena, carbonates of lead and grey copper.
"Thegangne of the vein is generally a reddish quartz, which lies in regular
veiny varying from 4 to 12 feet in thickness, and is sometimes closely mixed with
streaks of pure limestone. The carbonates run through this quartz in &treafcs
from a size of a few inches up to two feet, and generally carry from 20 to 40
ounces of silver to the ton, and from 10 to 25 percent, of lead. Some streaks,
however, are found which assay from 100 to 300 ounces to the ton.
"Mixed with these carbonites is the pure galena ore in pieces varying from
.•an ounce up to a ton in weight, and lying in veins from 3 to 18 inches in thickness. This ore, when free from the gangue, gives from 65 to 70 ounces of silver
per ton, and 55 to 60 per cent, of lead.
"The grey copper ore lies in solid veins, from 4 to 18 inches in thickness—
-sometimes mixed with galena—and assays from 200 to 800 ounces silver per ton,
and from 6 to 30 per cent, of copper. Some of the decayed copper ore of a gree&r
ish hue has run as high as 1,000 to 1,900 ounces, and one specimen gave 2,825
ounces to the ton.
"If one might generalize from very limited data, the claims on the southern
-side of the mountain divide appear to be richer in lead and carbonites, while
*hose on the northern side show more grey copper. Ore from several of the latter,
packed over the ridge on the backs of men, with copper, galena and gangue mixed,
gave returns of about 250 ounces to the ton.
"The specimens sent to your address, in a small box, will show the different
3cinds of ores above-mentioned.
"The Isabella, Carnmony, Shamrock, Lanark, Maple Leaf, &c, are on the
^south side of the divide—the Lanark being the mine now most worked. The
vShark, Whale, and other claims called by the names of fishes, are on the
north slope of the divide.
"The claims being on the slopes of a lofty divide between the South and
North Forks, it is obvious that a railway or road up both valleys is essentia
'The C. P. R. furnishes the south valley with this.     The North Fork valley, where
many think the richest claims are, is in a state of nature.
"The next consideration will be to have the best means of getting the ore
.down the slopes to the railway or road. This has been done on the South Fork
by the trails already mentioned. On these pack mules have carried, each, 320 to
400 lbs. of ore from mines at a height of 3,500 feet to the railway, but this must
be considered a temporary arrangement. Wire tramways probably must be used.
•Such a tramway, l\ mile long, and at an angle of 20 to 30 degrees, would transport from 60 to 100 tons in 24 hours. It would cost about 12,000. No machinery
would be required, as the weight of the loaded buckets would run it. Until some
smch cheap means of transport to the railway is provided, so that all the ore <mi 24 MINERAL RESOURCES  OF BRITISH COLUMBIA—KOOTENAY DISTRICT.
be shipped as it comes from the mine, a heavy expense is incurred at the mine in
assorting the better from the poorer grade.
"A further and vital consideration is the provision of a smelter. In connection with this question it has to be borne in mind that nearly § of the ore found
thus far will not average over 30 or 35 ounces of silver to the ton, and consequently will not bear expensive transportation. It is, however, of a class which carries
most of its own fluxes.
"ThSre is not, I believe, a single smelter in any part of Canada. The present annual consumption of lead and its products in Canada is of the value of
$250,000. The import duty is $12 a ton. A very large demand for lead exists in
"I am not able to express any opinion as to the description of smelting works
required, or the best locality for them. As to the latter question, much depends
upon the transportation rates of the C. P. R. Possibly the cheaper prices of coke,
coal, limestone and iron ores on the coast may show an advantage in having the
works there, particularly as municipal subsidies may be available, in aid of the
cost of plant.
"Looking to the nature of the Illecillewaet ores, as described above, I should
suppose that suitable smelting works would not be a small affair. There ought to
be refining plant to separate the silver and gold from the lead, furnaces to reduce the copper and roast the sulphurets, &c.
J" It is a slow, difficult and great business to make a successful quartz camp,
even when a railway runs through it, but when once established, the industry is
valuable and, often, permanent. Illecillewaet is in its infancy, but, upon the
whole, I think that the camp may succeed and grow. It won't amount to much
though if the North Fork section remains undeveloped.
"Smith's Creek (opposite Goldstream) and Fernie Creek, on west side Columbia (8 miles north of Smith's) are the two creeks of the groupe of a dozen large
creeks, between Goldstream and Boat Encampment, from which pay gold has
been taken this season. All these creeks show fine colors, and are well worth
careful prospecting.    Several of them were proved to be auriferous 20 years ago.
"I have, &c,
"G. M. Sproat,
"The Honorable p Gold Commissioner."
"The Minister of Mines.
Donald, December, 31st.
J!        "Sir:—	
"Quartz—auriferous and argentiferous—seems to abound throughout the district; some very rich 'grey copper ore' has also been found; but as no capital has
as yet been invested towards the development of any of the ledges discovered, it
is unnecessary to particularize them.
"In time, no doubt, bona fide experts and capitalists will come in, and then
these mines will be developed and worked to advantage.
"The Otter-tail Gold and Silver Mining Co., which had commenced operations for the development of some ledges containing respectively gold, silver, copper, and galena ore, in the Rocky Mountains, were, unfortunately, burnt out last,
June. Considerable property was destroyed, consisting of stamping mill, sawmill, store and dwelling house, tramways, tools, provisions, &c. The total loss is
estimated at $60,000.
"Kootenay Lake has again caused considerable excitement by the discovery
last fall of some very rich grey copper ore in that locality.
"These mines are situated about twenty-five miles from the lake, viz., 19
Ik ^
miles by water down the outlet, and thence six miles south from the outlet over a
heavily timbered ridge or divide 2,700 feet above the river or outlet. The west
fork of Cottonwood, Smith's Creek, heads at the mines and flows east, with Salmon River and 49-Mile Creek flowing to the west.
"The mineral belt is, as near as could be estimated, from one and a half to
two miles wide, running about 20x west of north, and extending, so far as has been
discovered, about five miles north and south. The ore foandisvery rich in silver,
as will be seen by the assay returns enclosed, which show an average of $105 to
the ton for first twelve assays, and $127 for twelve others. I also forward some
samples of the ore, duly labelled. It is claimed that some of the rock sent out assayed from 1,000 oz. to 1,160 oz. of silver to the ton.
"Three claims upon the same lead have been taken up by the discoverers, and
are known as the property of the Kootenay Bonanza Co. One of these, the Silver
King, shows an immense body of ore between the walls (granite and mag. limestone) from 20 to 25 feet wide.    The other two promise equally as well.
"There have been some twenty-five mineral claims taken up, and with the exception of two of them, which show galena, they all contain grey copper ore.
"About twenty-five men have built houses and intend wintering at the new
mines, should they be able to get in provisions before the winter sets in. These
men are mostly from Colville, and seemingly are all Americans of a very intelligent class, and anxious to conform to the laws of the country.
'' There is no doubt but that there will be at least 100 men at these mines
next spring, and I would reccommend that provision be made for an acting recorder and constable at that place during ^he summer months.
"The trail from the landing on the outlet of the mines, at present, is a very
rough one, having been made in a hurry last fall by the miners. The latter are
very desirous that a wagon road should be constructed over that route, so that
they could get in machinery, &c. I think that a very good trail could be made at
a cost of from $1,0Q0 to $1,500. It is a steady climb all the way, and upon present trail a horse can with difficulty pack 150 pounds. There is a trail from
the mines to Colville, which was made by the miners when coming in after first
"Only three men were living at the old camp on the lake, who appeared to
be doing nothing except existing upon locations.
"As discovered in the Crow's Nest Co.5s mines in the Rocky Mountains, Kootenay Mountains, is to be found in vast quantities. - There are in all fifteen seams
in sight, three of which are respectively 14 feet, 25 feet, and 30 feet in width; the
remaining twelve are from 3 to 7 feet wide. This is the most extensive showing
of coaj, I think, on record, being an aggregate width of 130 feet, situated on one
hill, the belt being one-quarter of a mile wide. Mr. Dawson, in his report,
classifies some of this coal as semini—anthracite.
"The wagon road, with bridges, completed this year, from a point known as
'Steamboat Landing,' on the Columbia River (about 50 miles above Golden), to
the old camp (south), a distance of about 140 miles, is looked upon by all interested in the country as one of the most important works ever undertaken in the district, assisting, as it must, to a degree incalculable, the future development of
mineral and other resources in this part of the Province.	
"A considerable amount of prospecting is being still carried on for quartz,
and fresh finds are continually recorded, but all by poor men who can do nothing
towards opening up such mines. In this office some 61 mineral claims have been
recorded this year, in addition to those previously taken up.
"I have, &c,
(Signed)       "A. W. Vowell,
u The Honorable G. C. & S. M. &c.
The Minister of Mines." Wk  THE YALE DISTRICT
Is a large one, extending from the Fraser, below Hope, to the Columbia, and from
the United States boundary to the fifty-first parallel, covering an area of 24,000
square miles.
Across its entire northern and eastern ends runs the Canadian Pacific Railway, passing through its largest towns, Yale, Hope, Kamloops, Lytton, Spence's
Bridge and Savona's Ferry.    Through it run the Thompson, Nicola and Okanagan
Rivers, with their many tributary streams and lakes, and along either side flow
the Fraser and Columbia.
On the Okanagan and the Similkameen River, a tributary of the former,
placer gold mines are being worked, and many undeveloped quartz ledges have
Seen located.
To the southeast and east of Lake Okanagan lies a rich mineral region, which,
although partly prospected, is as yet little developed.
Value of
gold per
value of
gold for
the year.
Hope, Yale and Lytton Divisions:
Desultory mining on bars and benches of
Fraser and Thompson Rivers	
$15 00
17 00
16 00
14 50
17 25
17 25
17 25
17 25
18 00
17 25
$ 20,000
Kamloops Division:
Scotch Creek	
Tranquille River	
Okanagan Division:
Smilkameen Division:
Granite Creek	
Tulameen River	
Slate Creek	
$ 158,200
The mines of this important mining company are situated on Mineral Hill to
the east of Stump Lake, and comprise a number of claims which are being rapidl
developed by a syndicate and under the management of Mr. Wm. Craib. MINERAL RESOURCES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA—YALE DISTRICT.
The shaft has a depth of 120 feet, dipping at an angle of about 30 degrees to
the north, a feature peculiar to all pay shafts on the hill.
There are various cross-cuts on a vein of about 3 feet wide, and at places the
body of ore widens to 8 feet between tin wallrocks.
Assays, from $35 to $250 silver per ton, and averaging about $70 silver per
Work is being carried on in three other shafts of from 20 to 55 feet depth.
Has a depth of 20 feet, and is still sinking.
The development of this shaft, as indicated by levels run on the ledge to the
north and south, for over 100 feet, shows a continuous body of heavy mineralized
ore. At the 200 feet levels the indications are precisely the same, with a shade of
advantage with respect to richer assays. At 250 feet another level will be run to
make connection with a tunnel of 1,300 feet in length, now being driven from the
side of the hill against Stump Lake.
Assays, from $40 to $350 silvfer per ton, averaging about $100 silver per ton.
<. ' • ,,..•'
Is regarded as the most promising ledge in the district, and has been prospected
on three different ledges.    The shaft is now down to 130 feet.
At the 50 feet level of this shaft, running north, a rich body of ore is disclosed.
It is the intention to connect this shaft with the outside world by a tunnel piercing it at the 100 feet level, of about 450 feet in length. When the shaft reaches
240 feet, a level will be run to the north to connect with a second tunnel, now advanced 130 feet, being driven from the hillside above the lake.
Width of ledge, 2 feet and over.
Assays average about $150 silver to the ton; one assay gave as much as $400
silver per ton.
Depth of shaft, 60 feet.
Width of ledge, 3 feet.
Assays from $20 to $50 silver to the ton.
Depth of shaft, 36 feet.
Width of ledge, 4 feet.
Assays, $50 to $60 silver per ton, and $10 gold per ton.
Width of ledge about 1 foot.
Assays from $25 to $60 silver to the ton.
Is situated at the head of Nicola Valley, about half-way between the wagon road
and the lake.
Depth of shaft, 45 feet.
Width of ledge, M feet.
Country rock, slate and porphyry.
Ledge runs north and south and dips to the east.
Both ledges can be traced for over 1,000 feet.
Assays, $44 in silver, and $8 in gold, to the ton. MINERAL RESOURCES  OF BRITISH COLUMBIA—YALE DISTRICT.
Situated on Mineral Hill, and running parallel to the Tubal Cain, is owned by
George Henderson and Wm. Patterson.
The shaft is 100 feet in depth. The mouth of shaft is 352 feet over the level
of Stump Lake, a surface of water 5 miles in length and | of a mile wide. The
distance of shaft from the lake is 1,400 feet.
The ledge and ledge matter of porphyry is m to 5 feet between the hanging
and foot wall and the ore body is from 20 inches to 2 feet, and is well mineralized
throughout.    150 tons of ore have been stoped out from the 70 feet level.
The machinery for concentration on the ground consists of a Blake rock
breaker, a Marchultz & Cantrell roller mill, for pulverization purposes, and two
Triumph concentrators. This machinery is so placed on a descending gradient surface that the ore, after passing through the rock breaker, descends to the pulverizer, and from there again descends to the concentrators. A 15 horse-power
steam engine, on the same floor as the concentrators, affords power which is communicated to the different parts of the machinery by belting from a centrally
placed drum near the roof of the building containing machinery. A 5 horsepower steam engine, detached from building, drives a force-pump to fill a water
tank 80 feet over the lake, and thus furnishes water to pulverizer, concentrators
and steam engine. The capacity of the pulverizer is equal to a 5-stamp mill, and
the concentrating power of the mill equals about 1 ton of concentrates in 24 hours.
Wood for fuel is abundant and cheap, costing only about $1.75 per cord.
The ore at bottom of shaft is a higher grade than at any other point; a general average of the bottom gave $65 in silver and $36 in gold to the ton, with about
8 per cent. lead.
At the foot of mineral Hill, about one-quarter of a mile from the Star Mine, is
owned by the same firm.
The present cj^pth of the shaft is 70 feet, and when sufficiently sunk, so as to
admit of drifts being run, a large amount of ore can be stoped and hoisted to grass.
There is no machinery on the ground, but everything to operate the mine is compact and complete with buildings, stables, and 320 acres of bunch grass land for
pasturage of horses, etc.
Assays average from $35 to $150 silver per ton, gold predominating.
Is located in Nicola Valley, Yale District, and proves a true fissure vein.
The ore ledge is 16 feet wide and 20 feet between walls of porphyry, the lead
widens downwards.
Country rock, porphyry and granite.
Trend of lode north by west, 20 degrees.
The true length of the lode has been traced 2J miles in a rolling bunch grass
Assays $38 in silver and $8 in gold to the ton.
Located on Idaho Mountain, are developing into valuable property, and a great
deal is expected from their different claims during next season, as everything is
teing brought into working order.
The most prominent claims are:
Robert Dunsmuir Assaying $ 65 to $800 silver per ton.
Mary Reynolds....,         | 350 „    900
Gold Cup         I 90
The Giant         | 200
Elk Horn...:  I 75 .
King Hiram       M 39 „      80 30
Are now being vigorously worked and their development pushed. Among their
claims are:
The Minnie, on Minnie Hill.
Eureka, on Rockford Hill.
Banner, on Idaho Mountain.
Idaho, on Idaho Mountain.
Are: W. McCulloch's Jenny Long, with a 60 foot tunnel, assaying $80 silver to
the ton, and carrying besides a large percentage of gold; Longfellow, Dentist*
Nellie Grant and Last Chance.
Turner & Wilson's claims.
W. Palmer's Azelia and others.
Morrisson's Silver Mine.
Is situated 17 miles north of Kamloops.
Shaft sunk 40 feet, width of ledge 20 feet.
Assays $60 silver to the ton, besides a good percentage of gold.
Situated on the North Thompson River about 100 miles north of Kamloops.
Assays average $50 to the ton, gold and silver.
Is located 28 miles south of Kamloops.
Depth of shaft 25 feet.
Ledge is 22 inches wide, of solid ore.
Assays $100 silver to the ton. tii%
Is situated on the Canadian Pacific Railway, about 40 miles from Spence's Bridge,
and promises to turn out a valuable acquisition to its owiier.
A 120 foot tunnel has been run and matters are looking well.     Silver and
gold-bearing quartz has been dumped ready for shipment.
The claims of this very important and promising concern are located on
Cherry Creek, 90 miles southeast of Kamloops, in the Okanagan Division.
Depth of shaft 60 feet.     During the sinking for the main ledge three defined
rich leads were crossed.
Assays, 26 ounces of gold and $869.24 silver to the ton, but as high as $1,500
silver have been obtained.
Discovered in 1877, is situated on the third North Fork of the Similkameen, 50
miles from Hope, Fraser River.
Width of ledge, 2x6 feet.
Country—rock, granite and slate,
uedge runs north and south and dips to the east.
Assays, $ 75 50 gold per ton.
112 47
I 138 50
And sundry assays averaging from $4,676 to $19,797 gold to the ton; an assay
made February 18th, 1886, resulted in $729 in silver, and $5,109.52 in gold to the
From the mines of this company, situated on the Similkameen, the following
assays were made:
Assay. No. 1—Gold  0.02 oz.~$ 0 50 per ton.
Silver. 18.22  jj — 23 56
Copper 25 39-100 per cent.
Assay No. 2—Silver.. 23 oz.—$29.73 per ton,
Gold None.
Copper 45 3-10 per cent.
Have very rich claims, amongst which the 1Bonanza," situated on the Tulameen
River, assaying $113 in gold, and $42 in silver to the ton.
Cherry Creek Mining Co., Monashee Ledge.
Mission Creek Hydraulic Co.
Pogue Co., Granite Creek.
Gladstone Co.,        \l
Cariboo Co.,    Rock Creek.
Victoria Mine, |
La Fave Mine, |
Ming Mine, |
S. King Mine, |
Pondra Mine, |
Alice and Emma,    |
These mines are located on a mountain known as the Silver Peak, near Hope,
on the Fraser River, and consist of the "Eureka" and "Victoria" claims, which
run parallel about 300 feet apart.
The average width of both is about 20 feet.
Trend, northeast by southwest and dips to the east.
Country rock, granite.
Assays—Victoria, from $ 75 to $400 silver to the ton.
1       Eureka,       I     100  j   800     | |
Is situated about 2 miles north of the town of Yale on Yale Creek, and is within
easy distance from railway communication.
In the vicinity of the mine there is an inexhaustible supply of wood to meet
all exigencies, and hard by—200 feet—a never failing stream of water, capable of
working a powerful mill.
The lode is in a congenial formation of Mica Schist and is well defined.
Lode at surface shows fully 50 feet wide, composed of quartz, ribbons of argentiferous ores, blende, friable quartz, flookan, and heavily charged with iron
pyrites.    A tunnel has been driven between 60 and 70 feet at 26 feet from surface.
Assays, silver, 80, 70, 48, 38, 36 and 24 ozs. to the ton.
Gold—traces throughout—highest, 2£ dwts. per ton.
Government Assay, $498.50 in silver, and $144.69 in gold to the ton. C-ffiMi
w- ran
This promising claim is/situated about 50 miles from Vancouver, on Harrison
Lake, and was discovered on the 14th August, 1884.
Within a near distance from the Canadian Paeific Railway, its location is
extremely favorable for the conveyance of mineral and mining materials, either by
railway or steamboat.
There is a copious supply of wood in the neighborhood, and the working of
the ledge necessitates only a small outlay.
It is a true fissure vein, 3 feet wide, in a formation of chlorite.
Assay, $9 in silver and $20.67 in gold to the ton.
A free gold showing quartz ledge, is in process of development, and gives inducement to great hopes.
Assays from $78 to $960 in gold to the ton.
Of coal mines the Yale District has a few, amongst which the following are
most noticeable:
Forks Nicola Coal Beds, Nicola Valley,
A. A. Green & Co.'s Mines, on North Cold Water, 45 miles from Spence's
Kamloops Coal Co., 2\ miles south of Kamloops,
North Thompson Jliver Mines, 40 miles north of Kamloops.
Several copper mines are going to be worked near Kamloops and Yale next
spring, for instance:
King George Mine.
Kamloops Mine.
On Salmon River, North Bend.
Boston, Victoria, Jumbo, Eureka, Vancouver, Conqueror, Mina, Balla-
rat, Golden Heap and Oxford.
On Siwash Creek, Yale:
Free Quartz, Peach, Gladstone, Lillie and Rob Roy.
At Yale:
Reevsbeck and Anderson.
At Spatsum, near Spence's Bridge:
Three hundred feet ledge, Jno. Mclntyre, and three hundred feet ledge,
Josh Butler; Spatsum, Cook's Ferry, Murray, French and Armatage.
At Hope:
Hope Bonanza King, Elderado, Pacific, Maple Leaf, Louis 3, Martha and
"Kamloops, B. C, 24th, 1887.
«*SiR: I have the honor to forward my mining report for the Kamloops
ISfeiaon of Yale District.
^'A M5&W and enormously rich mining district. Thirty miles south of Kam-
3tatm$, fey a good wagon road, in the Nicola District, a number of claims have
^4g£?jtely been located, between Stump and Nicola Lakes. The former lake is
x&fe&at seven miles long and one mile wide. It derives its name from the number
*af stumps projecting above the surface of the water, indicating that a forest once
oratsred the ground which now forms the bed of the lake.
**The formation of this district is dorite, flanked in the east and in the west
Bjr granite ranges, and is similar to that of the richest silver mining districts in
Mexico. Bukart, a mining expert, who lived many years in Mexico, classes this
rmek as d®rite, but Bustamuite, an authority of great weight, calls it syenite. . It
^reeeiits many of the characteristics of chlorite slate, and a blue agillaceous slate.
JEaflbaB Mexican mines this formation has been found to be tbe best feeder of the
,£sifc&r^bearing lodes, which have been worked for centuries, and yielded enormous
Mmtames. Messrs. Scott & Palmer, of Nicola, discovered valuable ore near Stump
!!L*ie some five years ago, and took up a number of claims. Very little devel-
♦oMBerit work was done for some time. A Mr. Wiitters became interested, in this j
j&w^erty; he worked for a few months on the claims, and then abandoned them
not €«afall of 1885. Mr. John Morrison, formerly of Montana, who was prospecting
i^tffee valley at this time, re-located the claims, and organized a company to pros-
^eeste the development. The company, known as the Nicola Milling and Mining
Cftw&pany,. was composed of parties in Victoria, New Westminster and Nicola,
-wlSk Mr. Morrison as manager; under his supervision work was carried out for
twf> years at a cost of $12,000. Eight claims were taken up, and five shafts were
anuSs: fc© a depth of from 20 to 50 feet, a number of leads were struck from two to
-&wfeet wide, containing gold, silver, copper and galena, all assaying from $40 to
^S&p5r"ton in gold and silver, besides copper and galena. This year the property
wassrsold to the Nicola Mining Company, a strong syndicate of capitalists, of Lon-
<$«&, England, who are represented by Messrs. Wilson and Turner, of Victoria.
*cJfes5 company took possession of the property in August last, and have been
^TO?dkimg from 14 to 20 men for the last three months; six shifts of men have been
w^kang<day and night for some time, sinking shafts, building shaft houses, level-
fag ^ranps. They intend sinking four of the most promising shafts to a depth of
IM>feet, and if the outlook is as encouraging at that level as it is at the present
1gei@*&p Che work will be continued.
^'During the past 12 months 200 claims in the district have been recorded in
"tke Government Office, at Kamloops, many of them being taken up by residents
<o£ fclse neighborhood. The limited prospecting done has demonstrated the exis-
£es£« ©f over fifty ledges on Mineral Hill and Idaho Mountain, all of which carry j
iwre ot less mineral. Mining men from California, Nevada, Idaho, Montana
and Colorado, who examined the locations during the past season, have expressed
ihfcfor surprise at the large number of quartz veins highly mineralized near the sur-
fi&ee^ and have freely admitted that they never before were in a mining camp
wh«re,'from the grass-roots down, there was such a prospect to rich mines. The
majsiity of veins on Mineral Hill ran almost due north and south with an easterly
■<Ep», bat there are a dozen or more which have a northwest and southeast course,
a^cl several which run almost east and west, and intersect the north and south
att the northwest and southeast ledges the whole forming a complete network of i-i
mineral zed veins. It is considered highly probable by experienced ihiners that
at a certaip. depth some of these veins will come together and unite in large ore
bodies, as have been the case in other mining countries of somewhat similar
"The Nicola Mining Company have a number of claims on Mineral Hill, east
of Stump Lake, prominent amongst which are the Joshua, a vein three feet wide;
has two shafts, one being 30 feet deep, and the other 90 feet deep. These shafts will
be run down to a depth of 120 feet. There are about 200 tons of good ore taken out
at this claim, running from $40 to as high as $350, and averaging $100 per ton.
The King William has four shafts, from 2Q to 55 feet, with various cross-cuts on a
vein about three feet wide, on which work is still being carried on. There are 100
tons of ore taken out, assaying from $35 to $250 per ton, and averaging about $70
per ton.
"The Gentle Annie has one shaft about 50 feet deep, which will be continued
to a depth of 100 feet. The ledge is three feet wide, and there are about 15 tons
of ore taken out, Averaging from $20 to $50 per ton. This shaft is being sunk by
"The Tubal/Cain is the most promising ledge in the district; has been prospected on three different ledges, and about 10 tons of ore taken out. A shaft has
been sunk some/35 feet, and will be carried down 100 feet. The width of the ledge,
which is very rich, is two feet; it averages about $150 per ton—one assay going
about $400 per ton.
"The Schomberg has a ledge 4 feet wide, and a shaft has been sunk 36 feet.
The ore is estimated at $50 to $60 per ton, but no assay has been made yet.
"The No Surrender is about a 10-inch ledge. There are some 20 tons of ore
on the dump, assaying from $25 to $60 per ton. The character of the ore in the
above shaft is grey copper, galena and sulphurets.
"Mr. Morrison, who has resigned his position as manager of the Nicola Mining Company, will be succeeded by Mr. Wm. Craib, who has been manager of the
British Columbia Mining Company, at Cariboo, for the past year. The Company
have recently secured three sections of land for grazing, timber and water purposes, with a view of erecting smelting and reduction works if prospects continue
to reward the enterprise. A blacksmith's shop, cook-shop, storehouse, and a number of camps for the employees have been erected. The pay-roll of the company
for October was $500, for November $2,000, and this month it is estimated $1,200
at least. Between $17,000 and $18,000 has been spent on this property, directly
and indirectly, and it is estimated that there is at the present time about $20,000
worth of rock on the various dumps. In all of their claims ore was taken out from
the surface; not more than six inches of excavation was required in any case to
strike the ore veins.
"Shipments of ore have been sent to Idaho, San Francisco and Denver, but it
is expected that next spring will warrant arrangements for treating the ore in the
vicinity of the mines.
"The Star claim, adjoining Tubal Cain, and running parallel with it, is at
present the deepest shaft on Mineral Hill. It is owned by Messrs. G, Henderson
and W. D. Patterson. The shaft is down 110 feet on a three-foot ledge of good
ore. Some drifting has been done at the bottom of the shaft, and prospects are
most encouraging, the ledge holding out and increasing in body and value. The
ore runs from $30 to $150 per ton. Work will be resumed on this property in the
spring. The gangue of ore in the Star is porphyry and quartz, each forming a separate body, and may be called a dyke lode. The surrounding country rock is a
metamorphic slate. Messrs. Kinstall & Co., of San Francisco, who have worked
the ore by various processes, state that, although it is of a refractory character, it
will not be difficult to treat. The breadth of ore body at the surface having a
quartz gangue was two feet; at 100 feet in depth the quartz increases in breadth,
forming an ore floor, and partially cutting out the porphyry; this floor shows
"The Planet claim, at the foot of Mineral Hill, is also owned by the above
firm. The depth of the shaft is 35 feet; the ore on the dump is good, averaging
$35 to $150 per ton, gold predominating.
"Messrs. Wright and Fletcher are the owners of several promising claims,
among them are the Minnie, on Minnie Hill; the Eureka, on Rockford Hill; the
Banner and Idaho, on Idaho Mountain. No great amount of sinking has been
done upon any of these claims so far, but there has been enough work to show ore
richly mineralized. There is every prospect of American capitalists, in conjunction with Messrs. Wright & Fletcher, pushing the development of their claims
early next spring in a vigorous manner.
"The Hepburn group of mines, on Idaho Mountain, owned by Messrs. J.
Hepburn, W. Wilson and R. Dunsmuir, of Victoria, gives promise of developing
into a valuable property. Besides the work required by the Mineral Act, a shaft
has been sunk 33 feet on the Robert Dunsmuir. The width of the ledge is two
feet, and there are 12 tons of ore in sight, assaying from $65 to $800 per ton.
"The Mary Reynolds has two shafts, one 35 feet, and the other 90 feet; the
latter will be sunk deeper. The width of the ledge is from four to six feet, and
there are 70 tons of ore on hand, the lowest assaying $350, and the highest $900
per ton.
"Gold Cup shows a wide ledge opened up with a shaft 10 feet deep, the.assay
goes $90 per ton.
"The Giant is also a wide ledge, an 8-foot shaft, and about 12 tons of ore,
assaying $200 per ton. The ore on Mineral Hill carries carbonates, galena, and
black sulphurets of silver.
"Elk Horn, a 15-foot shaft, with a wide ledge, has 30 tons of ore in sight, assaying fairly.
" The King Hiram, one of the most promising claims in the claims on the
hills, is tapped in three places, and assays from $30 to $80 per ton; the width of
the vein is 26 inches. Mr. W. McCulloch, Drs. Jones and Dearden are the owners
of a number of claims, called the Jenny Long, Longfellow, Dentist, Nellie Grant,
and Last Chance. The Jenny Long is evidently a first-class claim, carrying tell-
uride of gold, which assays into the thousands. There is also quite a pile of ore
on the dump, which will average $80 per ton at least. Very little work has been
done on the other locations as yet. The ore is composed of galena, sulphurets
and blende in a quartz matrix, between walls of syenite.
"Messrs. Turner, Wm. and Joseph Wilson, have about 20 claims, besides
their interest in the Nicola Mining Company.
"Messrs. W. Palmer and R. Scott, of Nicola, have five or six claims, on which
have been sunk from 12 to 20 feet, with encouraging results.
"I have, &c,
(Signed) "William Dodd,
'4 To the Honorable \' Mining Recorder.
\ \ The Minister of Mines."
Granite City, December 24th, 1887.
"Sir:—I have the honor
44 Wm. Jensen, a reliable gentleman, whose long and varied experence in Cal-.
ifornia and elsewhere, constitute him an excellent authority in mining matters,
visited'this place on his way to Rock Creek, whilst representing the interest of
several prominent business men of Victoria and the Mainland, and spent two
weeks on the upper Tulameen, above Bear Creek, examining the quartz ledges and
benches which exist in the vicinity.    At my request he embodied the result of his 33
investigations in a report, which I take the pleasure of forwarding for publicas^a-
"As it contains all the information concerning some lodes 'discovered a, few
weeks before his arrival, it will not be necessary for me to comment iipon. at&ali-
ject, the particulars of which he has supplied in his communication.
"I have, '&c,
"7o the Honorable
"The Minuter of Mines."
"G. C. Tunstall,
,? \ Gold QommiHsiomer
mr. jensen's report.
Granite City, September 2Isty ISS7-.
"Dear Sir:—In accordance with your request of even daier. in ipegsord. i&way
impressions of the value and character of the quartz lodes and grao^l^^aosite^
this portion of British Columbia, I beg leave to make the following; answer-.—
"I arrived at Granite City on the 4th of the present month. The follcamgr-
day I started up tne Tulameen River, a distance of twenty miles from- tMs pmast^
and on my way closely observed the formation of the country,, audits poss^iSies.,
both in regard to quartz and gravel; and the following are the condusioos I Isfiftfe
reached :—
"To prelude my remarks about the general character of the country, If*qg:
your permission to describe partially a few of the claims met with on the way.   I
first visited the quartz locations made by Merssis. O'Donnell, Kelly,,Buttexmore,.
and others.     These gentlemen are at present engaged in bench, minmg,. and. meeting with fair success; but as this class of mining has necessarily to stop for iiae
season, on account of the near approach of winter, they have turned;.their rffesi—
tion to quartz, and this is the result of their efforts:     Mr. O'Donneell zmtS. Mm*
associates have located a ledge, called the 'Hidden Treasure..'    It is sftnated&£
the north bank of the Tulameen River, about 16 miles north and.west of i&fe
place.    The ledge is about 8 feet, in width; it is enclosed in slate walls*, and* is., kh>
doubt, from close observation, a true ledge.     It is very free in gold- any pxrt <a£"'
the rock, broken up by the mere primitive method and washed in a common*isw^erfe
pan, showing innumerable particles of gold.     Rock has been sent from tSsfe location for assays, but returns had not been received at the time of my &E2pG&cbs®rxz~
My belief, however, is that it will reach $100 and over, in free gold.
"Extensions on this lode, called the Gold Hill, Evening Star* &\i&oneiw%
whose name now escapes me, have been made.     They show the ledge croppi&g
freely across the divide into Bear Creek, a tributary to the Tulameen,.   The erog»-
pings show similar rock to the Hidden Treasure.      No w;ork has as yet foeeaa &*»*>
upon these extensions, but preparations are now being made to do so.
"About three-quarters of a mile south and east from the above ledge, anc&sag^
the Tulameen, another location has bsen made.     It is owned by Mr. Buttcnrarmv
the locator, Mr. Jensen, of Victoria, and Mr. Fell, of the same city.    Rock frans*
this ledge, which is called the Bonanza Queen, has been sent to Victoria for assm^
and has yielded the handsome return of $88 in gold and $12 silver per ton-     IW
hundred pounds of rock have, also been sent, to-San Francisco for milling: tesfc;
the returns have not yet reached here.     I understand it is the hit ent&ua of iJbe-
owners to immediately begin, the construction of a tunnel, near the base*oif tie?
mountain, which will penetrate the ledge at a depth of 600 feet.     This lode»le--
tween three and four feet in width, and very promising.. . It is. also easily'trarasiEIe?
acrois the divide to Bear Creek by its croppings, and has, as all tine ledges here?
have, a general course of N. 21° YWto S. 21° E.     The  extensions; of this ledge
have also been located, under the name of the' 'Star' and the 'Genesta^' UQew^M&h^
of which work will soon be c Dinmenced.
I' Some two miles further up the river a location has also been made*, .ranrasS.
'Union.'     This ledge is owned by three parties, two of whom are residents.te^. MINERAL RESOURCES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA—YALE DISTRICT.
and one a gentleman residing in Victoria. It is a large ledge, being about 12 feet
in width, and showing unmistakable evidences of being a rich mineral deposit.
My opinion, however, is that silver predominates. A shaft is now being sunk on
this ledge, to more fully prove its character. Upon the southeast bank of the
Tulameen two other locations are made, one called the iAlbion.' The other is
named the 'Cascades,' and is an extension of the former. They are both four feet
in width on top, and carry a little free gold, and though not rich, it is my belief
that by sinking on they will be found valuable properties. . They are both owned
in Victoria, and I understand that work will shortly be begun upon them.
"This is all that has yet been done in this vicinity in regard to quartz, though
I understand that prospectors are now in the field looking for veins, and I have no
doubt their labors will be well rewarded." TIE LILLOET DISTRICT
Lies on the west side of the Fraser above the mouth of the Thompson River. It-
extends for 100 miles atong the Fraser, whose auriferous deposits have been worked for many years.
Clinton, the principal town, is an important station on the stage road from
Yale to the mines further north.
ue of
d per
ue of
d for
** o I
'^2 S
>o |
Bridge River	
Cayoosh Creek	
Bars and benches of Fraser River.
$15 00 $106,000
to    |	
16 50!
Is situatad on Cayoosh Creek, about 11 miles from the town of Lilloet, in the
Lillooet District.
The distance to the mine from Ashcroft, C. P. R., to Lilloet, via Marble
Ganyon wagon road, is 56 miles, via Clinton (good wagon road) 79 miles; from
Lilloet to Seaton Lake (road) 2 miles; from lake to the mine estimated nine miles,
par trail. From Lytton to Lilloet, per trail, 40 miles. It comprises 6 mineral
claims of 1,500 feet each, in all 9,000 feet by 600 feet wide.
A shaft has been sunk on the line of No. 2, and 3 locations to a depth of 50
The bottom of shaft is in solid ore.
An open face has been cut in No. 1, or the lower location, 14 feet high by 14
feet wide, all in solid pay stuff. Many assays have been made, the average giving
$51.88 gold per ton.
Specimen pieces have been taken off the ledge that would assay from $500 to
$30,000 per ton, but the owners have avoided any assays made from rock that gold
could be found in.
One milling test made by H. Kustle & Co., San Francisco, of rock from surface gave $48 per ton in free gold.
The ore is free milling, carrying a small percentage of sulphurets; one seen*
in the vein carries arsenic pyrites, and is assaying very high.
Is located on the Big Slide, and bids fair to become one of the most prominent-
enterprises in the Lilloet Mining District.
The company possess powerful machinery, in addition to which a mill has
been erected and a mining expert has been secured, who will start operations very
Owing to a number of difficulties experienced in separating the gold from the
o:e, little has been done during the season, but there is no doubt that with the M
ehlorinating p:o3ess in fall warking order the result will come up to expectations
about this rich concern.
Assays have given as much as $300 gold to the ton.
Situated on Mad River, a tributary of the North Thompson, brings forth rich gold
A3 well as silver bearing ore, of which recent assays, made at Ottawa and other
places, give ample proof.
Located on Cayoosh Creek, produces.both quartz and free gold in slate.
The shaft has now reached a dep'h of 35 feet, and tests show excellent prospects at any point where the ore has been promiscuously taken.
Other claims in the viciiity are: on Mahood Lake, Deception Creek and
Bridge Creek, and some in lea ledges at Clearwater.
There is also a promising gold quartz ledge on the west side of the Fraser, op-
p >site Pavilion Mountain.
Latest reports inform as that as many as 116 mineral claims have been registered during the year 1883 i 1 the Lilloet District, besides 135 alluvial ones, and
one may with safety reckon on a return of gold yielded during the last twelve
months as being equal to tho produce of 1887.
"Government Office, Clinton, December 16th, 1887
"On the mica ledges at Clearwater and the auriferous ledges on Mahood Lake
and Deception Creek n*o work has been done daring the past season. On Mad
River, a tributary of the North Thompson, a gold and silver-bearing ledge has
been discovered by Mr. Allingham, and one claim recorded thereon. Assays of
the ore of this ledge at Ottawa gave very good returns in both gold and silver.
"Located on the Big Slide.—I regret that the very favorable exp3ctations entertained last fall regarding this company have not so far been realized. Various
obstacles to the chlorinating process required to separate the gold from the ore
resulted last spring in shutting down the works and discharging the whole
of the workmen. Up to the present nothing further has been done, the
whole of the works and the costly plant of the company being now in charge of
one watchman. Grave errors have been made by the management, notably in the
construction of the road to the mine, the location of the buildings too near to the
«■ i
high water mark of the river, and others of a minor nature, but it is sincerely to
be hoped that the company will ere long see the way clear to going on with the
work. If sulphuret ores, even of a low grade, can be worked on a paying basis in
other lands I fail to see why they cannot be made to pay here.
"The result of the failure of this company to extract the gold from the sulphurets has, in this district at least, been most disastrous; prospectors will not
touch anything that shews sulphurets, and, since the discovery of free gold-bearing quartz on Cayoosh Creek, have run to the other extreme, and will not look at
anything unless shewing gold to the naked eye,. or under the magnifier. The
claims recorded on the extension of the Big Slide Ledge have all been abandoned,
and, in fact, sulphuret ledges everywhere in the district.
"A gold-bearing ledge was discovered by Messrs. Gould and Ward on Cayoosh Creek, about 10 miles above its confluence with Seaton Lake Creek, early in
September last, and six cjaims were then located. This ledge has been subject to
violent upheavel, as fragments of it are found far from the line of ledge. It seems
strange that, like the alluvial workings on Cayoosh Creek, this ledge, and others
in the immediate neighborhood, should have remained so long undiscovered, as
nearly any piece of the surface croppings shews free gold. The Chinese miners
found some specimensin their claims below the line of ledge, notably one in the
possession of Mr. .Smith, valued between $70 and $80.
" Several assays find milling tests from different places on the ledge have been
made in Victoria and/San Francisco, the former shewing from $4 to $105, and the
latter from. $5 to $48 per ton.
"A shaft is being sunk on the Discoveiy claims, and at the present writing
has reached a depth of 25 feet, the ore from the shaft at different points, tested by
reducing to powder and washing, shewing excellent prospects at any point in the
shaft. The ore in the ledge is composed of a yellow-tinged quartz, thickly interspersed with slate; both quartz and slate carrying free gold.. A continuation of
the Discovery ledge has been found, on the north side of Cayoosh Creek, and several claims located, on one of which a shaft will shortly be commenced. A
supposed continuation of this ledge has also been discovered on Anderson Lake,
and three locations recorded on it. From one of the latter an assay made in Victoria gave $17.50 per ton. The value of these ledges being established by thorough
prospecting in the first instance, there should be no difficulty in inducing capital
to take hold of them for practical working. They are naturally placed in excellent
position for working either by tunnels or shafts, not difficult of access, and the
motive water-power for driving machinery unsurpassed.
"Five mineral claims, said to be free gold-bearing, were located on a ledge on
Big Bar Creek a short time ago, but at present I am not well enough acquainted
with their nature to report on them.
1 have, &c,
"To the Honorable
The Minister of Mines."
"F. Soues,
"Gold Commissioner
Occupies the north end of the Province, and is a rich and extensive mining region,
The winters are rigorous and the summer season short.
Peace River and other tributaries of the Maclveim:) hsad in this region.

Laketon Division:
Dease Creek	
Thibert Creek . ..
j Desultory mining
McDame Creek Division
McDame Creek	
Walker Creek	
$15 00    $18,430
16 00      10,000
 1:    3,000
17 00
Skeena Division
Lome Creek. .
Bones Gulch..
16 50
16 50
I .$60,485
Situated at Kitimat at the head of the Douglas Channel.
Ledge is a true fissure vein.
Width of ledge: 5 feet, exposed for 500 feet.
Ledge runs northeast by southwest.
Assay gives $35 in silver and $11 in gold to the ton.
Situated at Seaforth Channel, Millbank Sound, on the northwest coast of B. G,
produces sulphurets of iron containing gold in good quantity.
Width of ledge: 9 feet.
Assays $40 to $600 per ton, working test.
An adit has been run in 50 feet.
There are further numerous locations of silver and gold ledges on the Skeena
River, &c. .rf*~
'•Laxeton, Cassiar, 15th October, 1887.
a Q-
Sir:—I have the honor herewith to transmit the Mining statistics of the
Cassiar District for the current year, and for your further information submit the
following report.
"The accompanying statistics will be found to show a decrease from last
year, on account of the old claims being worked out and no new ones having been
"On Dease Creek there were two hill claims that did pretty well, the balance
did not pay wages. There were but few white miners on this creek; most of the
gold was taken out by Chinese, of whom there were about 40, working in the bed
of the creek with wing-dams on ground that has been worked over several times-
before.    No new discoveries having been made this year on this creek.
"On Thibert Creek there were a few white miners more than on Dease, but
fewer Chinese. This creek, with the exception of a few hill claims, is nearly
worked out, and some of the miners have left for good, and you will see by the
returns that there is quite a falling off in the amount of gold from last year on thisi
"McDame Creek has held its own; the amount of gold is a little over that of
last year. Most of the miners are Chinese. One company, situated on the flats
below the canyon, took out $12,000. It is a large company working eighteen
men. The other companies did not do very well. This creek is like the others^
very near worked oat. The yield of gold for the past season, as you will see hy
the statistics, has been $55,205, as near as I can ascertain, which, I think, is
pretty accurate.
"Very little prospecting has been done this year,  for the reason that few
miners have the necessary means, Donald McDonald, George Thompson, and O.
Barry, spent most of the summer on the southwest branch of the Muddy River.
They built a boat at Sylvester's Trading Post and ascended to its head, but did
not discover anything that would pay.
"There were two miners worked on a bar 15 miles below the Post on the
Muddy, and I hear did fairly well with rockers.
j | The prospects for next year do not look encouraging, but I hope that some
new discoveries will be made, for there is a considerable portion of this district
that has not been prospected. The great drawback is that the seasons are so short
and provisions are high; consequently there are not many miners that can afford
to prospect.
"There will be about twenty white miners and about seventy Chinese winter
in the district.    Provisions are plentiful, and at usual prices.
"I have, &c,
(Signed) "J. L. Crimp,
"The Honorable § Gold Commissioner, Cassiar-
mr. Dempster's report.
Aberdeen, B. C, 20th October, 1887.
"Sir: I have the honor to enclose statement of proceeds of this season's
mining. I regret to have to report so small a yield, owing, in part, to the unfavorable season; water remaining high till late in July; with heavy rain and high
water again on the 1st September, which made the season very short for thofee
working in the bed of the creek.
" Hoping to be able to give you a more favorable report next season,
"I have, &c,
(Signed)       "W. H. Dempster,
"The Honorable, "Collector:
"The Minister of Mines"
Situated to the north of Cariboo, commencing at about 55°, northern lattitude,
and extending into the unexplored regions of British Columbia, is not only rich in
alluvial gold deposits, but lumps of free native silver have been found in the
creeks tributary to Omineca, Mesilinca, Osilinca and Peace Rivers or the Trout
and Taela Lakes;
Also quartz lodes ai e well defined in the district on one or the other of the
following creeks, while indications of the precious metals aie everywhere: Lost,
Manson, Slate, May, Germansen and Vital Creeks, and Kildare and Black Jack
Value of gold per ounce, $16.00.
Estimated value of yield for the year, $13,000. THE PACIFIC DISTRICT.
Under this name I will in brief add an enumeration of4 those metalliferous
mines and claims which, being dispersed over the whole pacific slope of British
Columbia and the adjoining islands, should by rights belong to a defined mineral
district-with a centralZy located Mining Bureau at the Terminus of the C. P. R.~,
Vancouver, *S$|
Mining on the coast is still in its infancy, in fact very little more has deeh done
than prospecting, am it is consequently difficult to offer anything but a summing
up of existing mines and locations. Almost every precious metal or economic
mineral is found:m the Pacific District, as also a large quantity of garnets in mica
This mine is situated on Millbank Sound at Seaforth Channel on the northwest
CDast of B. C.
Width of ledge 9 feet.
Sulphurets of iron carrying goldr
An adit has been run in 50 feet.
Assays $40 to $600 gold to the ton, working test.
Fort Rupert, northeast of Vancouver Island.
Queen Charlotte Sound, W. Huson's ledges, assaying from $5 to $120 gold to
the ton
Salt Spring Island, A. Koch's claims, assaying $8 gold and $3 silver per ton.
Salt Spring Island, Brethour's claims, with a ledge of eight feet width and no
wall apparent yet.
Goldstream, Vancouver Island.
Texada Island, Surprise claim.
Tip-Top    £
Thurlow Island, W. Gillies' claim.
»  '•' • SILVER ; ;    :
Sf-- -.--- HEBREW MINE,       ?  '
Situated on the northwest coast of B. C, on the Bella-Bella River, about 400
miles from Vancouver.
Width of ledge 9 feet.
Tunnel of 50 feet.
Assays $40 to $80 silver to the ton.
Located on the Kokasilah River, Saanich Arm, Cowichan District, Vancouver
Width of ledge 8 feet.
.Defined walls of limestone, quartz, &c.
Assays J>32 gold and $23 silver to the ton.   W ^^^M
Ob. Burrard Inlet, opposite Vancouver, 2J miles up the creek, .and very easily ac-
Depth of shaft between 30 and 40 feet.
Seam from wall to wall at top 10 feet.
-Assays of ore taken at 25 feet $8 gold and $10.25 silver to the ton.
..Latest assay in San Francisco of ore at 35 feet, $53.75 silver per ton.
^JfairoBdfty Messrs. McLean and Moore, situated on Howe Sound, near Vancover.
Width of ledge 18 inches.
IDepth 50 feet, will be sunk further.
"Trend, northeast by southwest, and is pretty nearly perpendicular.
Cfountry rock, slate. SpF\
-A xich vein of bismuth silver.
"TSmb property of John Rainey, on the North Arm of Burrard Inlet, is situated
«MtIj A2 miles from the City of Vancouver and quite handy to the smelter.
Width of vein 30 feet.
Trend, northeast by southwest, and stands perpendicular.
Assay of surface rock, $3 gold and $9.37 silver to the ton, but the ore is sure
ikm fcsmi ©ut much richer.
Es&tecL close to the Lottie Mine, on the North Arm of Burrard Inlet, 11  miles
Jx&m Vancouver; belongs to the same owner, and promises well.
Width of vein 30 feet.
'3PreiidJ, northeast to southwest, and dips slightly to the northwest.
ISdKne as on the side of a mountain.
Assays from surface, $10.95 gold and $2.45 silver to the ton; it is expected
Aat the deeper the shaft is being sunk, the richer the percentage of silver to gold
will .Wcame.
^iaatedon Burrard Inlet, 13 miles by water from the city, on a range of mountains running to the horth, will be developed in the spring.     It contains mainly
■ffli grey silver.
-Assays $20 silver to the ton.
Ueywood Mine, Prince of Wales Island.
©Silver Queen, Texada Island.
CFnion Jack, |
•^Cowiehan Bay, Vancouver Island.
asjatoated on Burrard Inlet, a few miles from the City of Vancouver, and pro 1
duces very rich copper; it will be vigorously worked now that the Vancouver
Smelter is approaching completion.
Assays 59 per cent, copper and $87 silver to the ton.
Dean's Channel, Northwest Coast of British Columbia.
Copper King, Texada Island.
Eliza Jane, n
Sooke Copper Mine, Sooke, Vancouver Island.
Beechy Bay, Vancouver Island, (Garibaldi Copper.)
Spring Ridge, „ ; m   .
|      IRON.
Is situated near Vancouver on Texada Island at 3J chains from tide water on a
fine harbor, and is virtually a mountain of ore, very favorable for working.
Walls of limestone.
Assays average 64 per cent, iron, no sulphur.
Located on Rivers Inlet, at Queen Charlotte Sound,  Northwest Coast of B. C,
produces Magnetic Oxide of Iron.
Assays 65 2-10 per cent, of iron.
THE SOOKE IRON MINE,       1      -
Situated on a hill 3 miles east of Sooke Harbor, about 20 miles from Victoria, V.
I., produces magnificent hematite iron ore of extraordinary purity and richness;
74 per cent. The hill mainly composed of crystalized hornblende, upwards of 200
feet high and J mile wide, is traversed throughout its length by numerous contemporaneous veins and segregations of very fine magnetite, varying from an
inch to several feet in thickness.
Vancouver Coal Mining and Land Co., Nanaimo, V. I.
Wellington Coal Mines, Departure Bay, near Nanaimo, V. I.
South Wellington Collieries, near Nanaimo, V. I.
East ii ii ii it
Union Coal Mines, Comox, V. J.
Anthracite Coal Beds on Queen Charlotte Island, near Skidegate Inlet,
Robertson's Coal Mine on Queen Charlotte Sound.
Salt Spring Island Coal Mine,
Under the townsite of the City of Vancouver and its vicinity. APPENDIX A
1. Every person engaged in mining for minerals (other than coal) shall take
out a free miner's certificate.
2. E^ery person over 16 years of age shall be entitled to hold a claim, if a free
miner, and shall, as regards such claim and liabilities contracted in connection
therewith, be treated as an adult.
3. Every free miner shall during the continuance of his certificate, have the
right to enter and mine upon any waste lands of the Crown not for the time being
lawfully occupied by any other person, and may also enter on timber lands and
cut timber for mining purposes.
4. In case of dispute as to occupancy the matter is to be settled by a Gold
Commissioner or Court, with or without a jury of five, but no person shall be recognized as having any right or intarest in a mineral claim unless at the time the
dispute arose he was a free miner.
5. Any incorporated company of B. C. may, in its corporate name, take out
a free miner's certificate.
6. Mining companies, incorporated in a foreign country, and duly registered
in British Columbia, shall have the rights of a free miner.
7. A free miner's certificate may be granted for one or three years upon payment therefor of five dollars for one, or fifteen dollars for three years. It shall
have but one name and shall not be transferable.
8. Free miner's certificates shall be granted by a Gold Commissioner or a
Mining Recorder.. Mining Recorders shall be appointed to issue such certificates
and record mining claims.
9. No person shall be entitled to receive any wages for work in a mine if not
a free miner.
10. Every free miner localing a mineral claim must, if within 10 miles, record
same with Gold Commissioner or Mining Recorder within three days of location.
One day additional is allowed for every 10 miles, or fractional part thereof, such
location is distant from the place of record. If no Commissioner or Recorder be
in the locality, the miners of such locality may, by a two-thirds vote of
their number at a meeting, appoint a person to issue free miner's certificates and
record mining property.
11. Any free miner who has duly located and recorded a mineral claim shall
be entitled to hold same for one year from recording, provided within six months
from recording he shall have expended on same money or labor to amount or value
of $100, and furnish proof of expenditure to Gold Commissioner and obtain a certificate from him of such expenditure. If such certificate is not obtained and
recorded the claim shall be deemed vacant and abandoned. Such free miner shall
in each succeeding year be entitled to hold same for one year from date of re-recording if he shall prove an expenditure in money or labor of $100 within 6
months from date of re-recording, and has obtained a certificate that he has expended
that sum from the Gold Commissioner. Proof, upon oath, of expenditure is to be
given. If certificate is not obtained in each year claim is deemed vacant or
abandoned. A certificate of expenditure is not necessary where claim is continuously worked. 48
12. Claims may be transferred by writing only, signed by transferer oirby fafe
agent, duly anthorized in writing.    Such transfer must be recorded^
13. Every free miner shall be entitled to hold two claims by pra-emptiaa andl
any number of claims by purchase.
14. Mineral claims which includes all minerals, except coalv maybe acqp£nd£
by any free miner. Such claims shall be in the form of a parallelogram^,as. nearly
as may be, 1500 x 600 feet. The boundary lines shall be marked by posts,, trsas.* «sx ~
stumps, on which shall be a legible notice in writing, stating name (if any) of"
claim, its length in feet, width, date of notice, and name of claimant* Claims-
must follow vertical planes of their boundaries.
15. When two.or more veins cross or intersect each other, priority of location
shall govern, and the prior location shall be entitled to all ore or mineral contsuboedL
within the space of intersection, but subsequent locator shall have right, of wsajrfoir
working his mine.     If two or more veins unite the oldest, or prior location^ sfesiSL
take the vein below point of union.
16. When a tunnel is run to develop a claim or lode, the; owner of ttnisieF.
shall have the right to all veins or lodes discovered in such tunnel,, if the grooml
containing such veins or lodes be marked as a claim within three days and.diaiy
recorded, and provided also that such vein or lode is noo hi eluded in any exi^tinig/
17. Any lawful owner of a mineral claim shall be entitled to a.Crowai Gr<m&
for same on showing title and that he has expended $500 upon same. Such grant
shall transfer to claimant the right to all minerals, precious or base- (excepting
coal) inKupon, or under the land. Notice of application for such Grown Gssssfc
must be advertised for 60 days, and any adverse claims thereto are to be cledklad?
by the Gold Commissioner, Assistant Gold Commissioner, or Judge of a. CoairiL-
having jurisdiction in mining claims.
18. Any lawful holder of a claim shall be deemed entitled to a Crown Grant'
for same on paying $75 per acre therefor in lieu of expenditure.
19. Every free miner shall be entitled to a printed copy of Mineral Act cm
application to Gold Commissioner of district.
20. The Lieutenant-Governor in Council may grant a bonus of a sum. not! exceeding $12,000 to a company which shall erect a quartz mill or smelting-^orfa.,.
or both combined, capable of treating properly 20 tons of ore per day; suchbexnzf:;-
to be paid when 2,400 tons of ore are so treated or reduced.    Only 25 per cent <*£
sum expended on works to be given by way of such bonus.
Sums not exceeding $12,000 may also be given by the Lieutenant-Governor fe&
Council for the erection and maintenance of crushing, chlorinating and. smelting
works. N
Synopsis of regulations for the disposal of Dominion Lands containing minerals
other than coal.
Approved by Order-in-Council dated October 5th, 13S7, under R. .S. Can., Cap,
54, Sec. 47.
Section 1. Regulations are applicable to all Dominion lands containing gold-,
silver, cinnabar, lead, tin, copper, petrolum, or other mineral deposit of economic
Sec. 2. Any person or persons may explore vacant Dominion Land?, not appropriated or reserved, either by surface or subterranean prospecting, with a view
to obtain a mining location for same. No running location is to be granted until
actual discovery of the vein lode or deposit of mineral or metal within same.
Sec. 3. The length of location not to exceed 1,500 feet, its breadth not more
than 600 feet. The boundaries shall be four parallel straight lines, unless prior
locations prevent it, when location may be of such shape as Superintendent of
Mines may approve of. The boundaries beneath the surface shall be the vertical
planes in which the boundaries lie.
Sec 4. The location shall be marked by four wooden posts, one at each corner.
In rocky ground, where posts cannot be driven, a pile of stones to support posts is
to be erected. Ln timbered lands the boundary lines are to be blazed. Name in
full of location shall be cut or written with colored chalk on each post with date
of marking. Posts to be numbered 1, 2, 3 and 4, with the letters "M. L." (mining location) on each post. Where corner of location falls in an inaccessible location
witness posts, on which shall be cut or written the letters "W. P.," instead of
44M. L.," shall be erected near the corner of the location and indicating where
such corner is.
(a) Within 60 days after such marking a declaration, under oath, in a prescribed, form, shall be filed with the Agent of the Dominion Lands Office of the
District, setting forth circumstances of discovery, location, and its dimensions,
and pay to such agent five dollars.
(6) The agent shall give a receipt to such applicant, which shall authorize
him, his representatives or assignees, to enter into possession of location and. by renewing from year to year, retain same for five years. At the end of each year
the locatee shall furnish proof that he has during the year expended at least $100
on his location, and on payment of $5 shall obtain a renewal for one year.
(c) Any party of miners, not exceeding four, whose claims adjoin, and each
of which claims has been entered within three months of the other, may, for the
better development of these claims, and with the consent of the said agent, for the
1st and 2nd years after entry, expend upon any one of their respective claims the
sum which is directed to be spent on each.
Sec. 5. Before expiration of said five years from date of entry a locator, on
proof that he has expended not less than $500 on his claim, and complied with the
regulations, may purchase same.
Sec 6. The price shall be $5 an acre, cash.
Sec. 7. Fifty dollars, to cover costs of survey, shall be paid by applicant.
Patent shall issue when plan and field notes are ready.
Sec 8. If claimant, or his legal representatives, fail to prove each year that
sq has made the required expenditure on his location, or should not apply to pur- m
chase within five years from entry, the location shall revert to the Crown.
Locations in surveyed townships shall conform to such purveys and be subdivisions
thereof. In townships with only one boundary surveyed, the applicant may conform with these regulations regarding locations.
Sec 9. In case of rival claims to location the right to acquire shall be in him
who can prove he was first to discover and take possession by staking as aforesaid.
Sec 10. Priority of discovery without taking the steps set out in the regulations shall not take precedence of a subsequent bona fide discoverer of same
location, who has perfected his discovery as directed.     A person fraudulently
making use of the prior discovery of another shall not benefit by first filing his*
Sec 11. Only one location on the same lode or vein shall be granted to an
individual claimant.
Sec 12. Five acres for mills or reduction works, incidental to mining operations, may be patented and paid for at same rate as mining locations.
Sec 13. Locations of 160 acres for mining iron or petroleum, bounded by
north and south and east and west lines of equal length, may be granted by the
Minister of the District. If location proves to have mineral deposits other than
iron or petroleum, the right of locator shall be restricted to the limits of a mineral:
location only, and the remainder of such 160 acres revert to the Crown.
Sec 14. If there be two or more applicants for a mining location, none of
whom is the original discoverer, or his assignee, the Minister of the Interior, if he
sees fit to dispose of same, shall do so by tender or auction.
Sec  15. A locator may assign the right to purchase in manner prescribed.
Sec 16. The assignee of a duly registered claim may purchase at the same-
price and on the same terms as the locatee could have done. MINERAL REEEREES.
Mayor. D. Oppenheimer Vancouver,
Messrs. Ross & Ceperley	
Bank of British  Columbia (J. C. Keith, Esq.,
The Rand Drill Company	
Messrs. W. L. Leonard & Co	
B. C. Smelting Company	
Messrs. Findlay & Co	
Vancouver Foundry and Iron Works	
F.  C.  Cotton,  Esq.,  Editor " News-Advertiser"
Bell-Irving & Paterson	
Vancouver Board op Trade	
Dr.   W.   Bredemeyer,   Mining   Engineer   and
Dr. Paul Hebbing, Analytical Chemist	  "jLU
Hastings.. . ©
Reports on any Mining Properties in British Columbia made by
competent Mining Engineers. All matters connected with mineral
locations, and the securing of Government patents therefor, undertaken.
Also the formation of Mining Companies, either in this Province,
or through Messrs. Ross & Ceperley's agents in London, England.
Advances Secured for the Development of Mining Properties 
British Columbia
ViilTCOUVSB,   B.   C.
The fifdtish Columbia Smelting Company
Having completed its Smelter in Vancouver, B. C, is now prepared to
The Highest Market Price Paid for Ores,
Which the Company will smelt at an agreed price per ton.
yJkm BOBl i ■!!■! wm \/       ohm E&uxi ff-JaM^J     No^BiGMMlkgr ■■■ViMIBIMMM gg^aamabmmr wsrarrafflft
On shipments .of base bullion from ores smelted by the British Columbia Smelting
Company, and consigned to its agents for refining purposes.
ASSAYS OR ANALYSES MADE of every description of ores or Minerals.
Vancouver, B. C JAS. FINDLAY & CO.,


Hoisting and Pumping Machinery.


Correspondence attended to,  Estimates given.

Oppenheimer Bros.' Warehouse TA/E have a full and complete outfit for prospecting
and boring for Coal, Coal Oil, Natural Gas, or other
mineral substances. It
We have engaged the services of a thoroughly competent man, who has charge of all the boring work, and
who is prepared to give estimates at any time.
We have identified ourselves with the mining interests of British Columbia, and have aided several miners
in their endeavors to prospect the country.
We have devoted more time and invested more
monev in mining enterprises than anv other firm of
Mining Brokers in British Columbia, and are therefore
in a better position to make investments for parties who
are unable to attend.
We have a branch office in London, England, and
parties can always communicate with us by addressing
E. E. Rand, care of Bank of British Columbia, 28-
Cornhill. :     " §
Prospectors or Investors will find it to their advantage to communicate with us.
RAXD BROS.,    -
Managers of the Rand Drill Co-
Offices:—Vancouver, B. 0% or London, England. 

Foundry & Machine Works Co.
THIS Company have latsly greatly increased their facilities for doing
business by exsensive additions to their premises, such as the erection
of Boiler and Carpenter Shops, extension of  Machine, Foundry
and Moulding Shops, construction of Coke and Iron Sheds, etc.;
as also by the introduction of an independent Electric Light Plant
on both the Arc and Incandescent principles. These improvements,
in addition to their former advantages in the shape of the newest and
best Machinery, first-class skilled Mechanics, ample Wharf accommodation for the largest Vessels needing repairs, a special Siding from
the Main Line of the C, P. R., etc., place them in a position second to
none in this Province for the Construction and Repair of Marine
and Stationary Engines and Boilers, Saw Mill and Mining
Machinery, Fish Cannery and Bridge Work, Iron Girders and
Columns, etc., and generally everything in the way of BRASS and

IKttboleaale an& Commission flDercbants.
:.',.. —BORDERS   TAKEN   FOR(^—9
Iron   (Bar and Sheet),   Rails,      Gas   and   Water   Pipes,
Galvanized Corrugated Sheets,     General Galvanized Iron Ware,    Tin Plates, and
all classes of Metal Work.
-■£$> AGENTS    FOR %V
Bass & Co., Burton Ale; John Aitchison & Co., Edinburgh Ale: Furze
& Co., London Stout; Renault & Co., Cognac Brandy; Andrew
Usher & Co., Scotch and Irish Whiskies; W. & A. Gilbey, Wine
Growers find Distillers; Stallard & Smith, Port and Sherry;
Moigneux, pere and-tils, Epernay Champagne; L. Rose & Co., Lime
Juice and Lime Juice Cordial; A. Wilson & Co., Ginger Ale;
Menier, Chocolate; Keen, Robinson & Co., Mustard, &c; Percval
Vicars & Co., English Glassware; "The Royal Blend" Scotch

THE  DAILY  NEWS-ADVERTISER  is  the oldest paper in
 Vancouver, and the principal daily paper in the Province; while the
WEEKLY NEWS-ADVERTISER is the best journal of that character on the Pacific Coast.
The mining development of the Province is fully and accurately
 recorded, and the latest and most reliable information on all matters
pertaining to the mining interest in all parts of British Columbia will
 be found in the columns of the NEWS-ADVERTISER.

Those desiring information respecting the Mines and Minerals of
$| British Columbia should subscribe for the NEWS-ADVERTISER.
Daily News-Advertiser $10.00
Weekly           2.00
Vancouver, B. C W. L. LEONARD & CO.,




Blake, Knowles, Davidson and

330-332 Cordova St., VANCOUVER, B.C. THE

Capital Authorized
Capital Paid-up
Reserve Fund
LONDON OFFICE—28 Cornhill, London.
Branches at San Francisco, Portland, Or., Victoria, New
Westminster, Nanaimo and Kainloons.
In Canada—The Bank of Montreal and Branches.
United States—Agents, Bank of Montreal, 59 Wall Street, New York;
Bank of Montreal, Chicago.
United Kingdom—Bank of British Columbia, 28 Cornhill, London ; National
Provincial Bank of England, North and South Wales Bank, British Linen Company's Bank, Bank of Ireland.
India, China, Japan, Australia, New Zealand—Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank
ing Corporation; Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China; English, Scottish
and Australian (bartered Bank; Bank of Australasia, Commercial Bank Company of Sydney.
Mexico and South America—London Bank of Mexico and South America.
Telegraphic Transfers and Remittances to and from all points can be made
through this Bank at current rates.
Collections carefully attended to and every description of banking transacted.  
Mineralodcal and Ethnological Museum.
Dear Reader,:—
It is the intention, if sufficient support can be secured, to amplify an existing
local Mineral Cabinet, and, with the addition of geological and ethnological objects, to establish a
in the City of Vancouver.
Suitable rooms having been provided for, you are hereby requested to assist
in the good work by the donation and forwarding of mineral, geological and ethnological, specimens, and objects of other kind and nature for embodiment in this
-entertaining as well as scientific and educational public collection.
A short but minute description should invariably accompany your valuable
gift, and if mineralogical particulars, such as | formation of mine, assays, 4c,"
-#an be furnished, they will greatly tend to a successful completion of the Museum.
Faithfully yours,
D. Oppenheimer,
Mayor's Office, City Hall, Mayor.
Vancouver, December, 1888.   


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