BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

The western world. Volume 1. Number 1 Burrows, C. Acton (Charles Acton), 1853-1948 1890

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Office of .
,eal Estate Agent,
Cor. Main & Queen St. E„ Winnipeg.
Below I submit a partial list of Wild Lands and
Improved Farms for sale in the WINNIPEG DISTRICT. Every farm guaranteed as good as represented.    The prices speak for themselves.
W£ sec 26, tp 11, r 2 E, only half mile from the
Driving Park. 160 acres arable land, balance good
hay.   §>18 per acre, very easy terms. 
W| 20, 11, 2 E. 6J miles from City Hall. $12
per acre.
SEJ-andS Jof NEi-30, 11, 2E.   $12 per acre.
S E i 31 & N i of N E i 30, 11, 2 E-    $10 per acre.
S E i and S J of N E i 4, 12, 2 E.   $2,500.
S E I and S i of N E i 27,12, 2 E.   $7 per acre.
N WJ & N* of S Wi-30, SW}&W£ofSE£31
and N § of 31, 12, 2 E. 800 acres, of which 500
acres is high arable land, balance excellent hay.
This can be bought now at $5 per acre and is well
worth $8 per acre. Also N W J 33 & E * of N E i
32, 12, 2 E, at $6. 230 acres of this is good arable
First-class water can be got on any of the above
at a depth of 20 feet'
In township 12, range 1 East, I have the following at $5 per acre; all Al farms for mixed farming,
not one of them containing less than 150 acres of
arable land ; good water at 20 feet:
S E i and S h of N E i sec. 25, SW J and W i of
NW-J sec! 23, N Ei 22 and S i of S E* 27, NEi
and EJ of N W J 31, W £ of WJ 31 and N E136, 12,
1W.  Some nice bluffs of poplar on last two pieces.
S E116 and N i of NE 19. 12, 1E.   $6 per acre.
SE i and E i of SW-|1, 12, IE.'  $8 per acre.
Adjoining the Gerrie farm.
N E1 and E J of N W i 20, U, 1 E. $10 per acre.
Close to Sturgeon Creek.    .
S EI and S i of N E £ 12 and S E J13 and N * of'•'
N EJ12, 12, 1 W. Half mile west of Rosser Station.    480 acres of beautiful land.    Only $8 per ac.
NE£andN*.ofSE|24, N WJ-24 and E * of N
Ei23andSWi&S£of NWJ25, 11, 1 W. 720
acres of choice land, half a mile from the " Egan
Farm."    Only $6 per acre. ^
Parts of 18,19, 20, 21 and 28,12, 3 E. 144(^cres.
Only 7i miles from City Hall. The only large
block of land for sale close to the city. $7 per
acre, well worth $10 per acre.
NE i and E i of NW| 10, 14, 1 W. 7 miles
from Stonewall. A first-class farm, only $3 per
acre.    Close to school, church and post office.
SEi20andNJof NEil7, 13, 1W. Onemile
from Hanlan P. O.    $3 per acre.
One improved farm of 144 acres, half mile west
of Driving Park ; all fenced; 80 acres cultivated ;
73 acres fall plowed. New barn and frame house.
$25 per acre.   School across the road.
240 acres a little nort-west of the Driving Park.
New frame buildings; good well; 35 acres cultivated
and fenced.   $3,000.
240 acres 18 miles north-west of the city ; well
sheltered ; 60 acres broken and fenced; large frame
house; frame granary ; frame stable 30 x 100 feet,
board roof, with a first-class well inside ; 16 good
grade cows and heifers',- in calf, 10 head of A1
young stock, an A1 bull, span of large bay mares,
1 young mare and gelding, 1 pony, 2 hogs ; all the
implements, harness, furniture, house and dairy
utensils,—for $4,000. This is one of the best bargains I have ever offered, and has only been in my
hands for sale two days. ■ '
Also an improved farm of 400 acres on the Red
River, in St Pauls Parish. Three in Headingly
and five in St. Francois Xavier.
The above is only a partial list, but ail extra
good bargains.
Real Estate Agent, Winnipeg.
p .c7?Yt*Wr h        NIXON & CO.,
Real Estate & Mining Exchange fc^^^Bn
Boots, Shoes and Rubbers,
City, Farm and Mining Properties for sale.   .
Correspondence solicited.   Call on or address \
J. E. MILLS & CO.,
L'4* 543 Main Street, Winnipeg-,Man.
Commission Merchants,
99 and 101 Princess Street,
Goodyear Rabbet* Co.
4+w      j  L24W
525 Main Street, WINNIPEG.
Offices-343 Main Street.     WINNIPEG. Telephone 608.
L So w
Threshing Engines
— ANO—
or h ay Presses
381 Main St., Winnipeg.
Kept constant] v on hand.
For full particulars, -write Box 657,
In the best districts of Manitoba, on  most favorable terms of payment.
Or apply to Local Agents.
Real Estate Agents,
451 Main St., Winnipeg. 1-53
No Commission.   No Fines.   No Delay.
Loans Completed in Winnipeg-.
loans Renewed without cost.
Ask your Storekeeper for it.
If he does not keep it, write
Oatmeal Mill,
2?w WINNIPEG. Man.
Save about 25 cents per acre
By Paying for Pre-Emptions in Scrip.'
write TO
Osler, Hammond & Nanton,
381 Main Street, corner Lombard Street,
Send in your Orders early before the rush for
Agents for the Metallic Roofing Go.
-*- esters World.
Entered according to Act of the Parliament of Canada, in the year 1S90, by Acton Burrows, at the Department of Agriculture.
Volume 1.
Number 1
The Past, Present and Future of the
Keystone City.
By C. N. Bell, F. R. G. S., President of Manitoba
Historical Society.
As early as 1736 a party of French adventurers
from Quebec, under command of La Verendrye,
who had authority from the French authorities to
penetrate into the interior of the country to the
west of Lake Superior, arrived at the mouth of the
Assinaboine, where it merges its waters with that
of the Red river. The Assinaboine, so named from the tribe
of Indians of that name living
in its vicinity, was rechristen-
ed the St Charles, and after-
- ward the Upper Red river. At
the junction of the two rivers
a post was established, with
the name of Fort Rouge, and,
according to an eye witness,
the ruins of such a post were
plainly discernible in 1800
on the point where the Hudson's Bay company's mill now
In 1763 occurred the conquest of Canada by Great Britain, and some fifteen or twenty years after fur traders from
Canada began to seek the
Northwest fur trade with the
Indians. In' 1783 a powerful
company of fur traders was
formed in Montreal, consolidating the interests of several
small private concerns who
had been struggling with each
other for some time. This company- bore the title of the
Northwest Fur company, and
it soon began to push its
operations inland to even the
Athabasca and McKenzie rivers. The trade of the Red river seems to
have been, for some unaccountable reason,
almost neglected, and it was only towards
the close of the last century that we find mention made of the establishment of posts on the
upper waters of what we now call the Red river.
The point between the Red and Assinaboine rivers
was known to the fur traders at that time, and for
fully twenty-five years after, as "The Forks." The
Hudson's Bay company had long confined their
trade to the neighborhood of Hudson's Bay—in-
• deed, from 1670 to 1774, they had not established
posts on the banks of the streams flowing into Lake
Winnipeg. It is most likely that their first post on
the Red river was established as late as 1796. For
some years The Forks was resorted to simply as a
camping place for the boat brigades passing up the
Assineboine river, whereon numerous forts were
erected by the Northwest company, the Hudson's
Bay company, and a new body of traders who
styled themselves the X Y company. The last
company was short-lived, amalgamating with the
Northwest company in 1804. About 1803 Alexander Henry, of the Northwest company, who was in
charge of the Red River district, sent a party of his
men to build at The Forks the post afterwards
named Fort Gibraltar, which at first probably only
consisted of one or two buildings, for there is a
record later on of a more extensive establishment
than existed at this time. That a post of the
Northwest company was maintained at The Forks
in 1803 and 1804 is settled by the journal of Alexander Henry, which is still in manuscript- The
. writer extracted from that journal amongst other
items, the following statement of the trade of The
Forks establishment during the winters of 1803
and 1804, when Mr. T)orion was in charge: 356
beavers, l0 black bears, 1 brown bear, 76 wolves,
8 foxes, 25 racoons, 36 fishers, 26 otters, 20 martens,
13 minks, 3 wolverines, 15 lynxes, 6 moose skins,
etc., 22 parchments, etc. As trading posts existed
at Rosseau river and Pembina the same year, it
may be accepted that the above furs were obtained
from animals killed in the vicinity of Winnipeg.
By the erection of Gibraltar, the foundation of the
future commercial greatness of the town was laid
in 1803 as well, for ever since that date mercantile
business has flourished within what are now the
limits of the city of Winnipeg. The old Fort
Gibraltar had both parks and natural farms ninety
years ago. Henry informs us incidentally, on two
or three occasions, that he visited The Forks to
enjoy himself.    After describing the heavy woods
which covered the country south from the Assinaboine, near The Forks, to the Salle river, he says
he caught a number of whitefish, sturgeon and
goldeyes, while the women gathered hazel nuts,
red and choke cherries, Pembina berries, three
kinds of plums and wild grapes, the men going
out on the prairie "towards little Stony Mountain"
and returning with the carcasses of cow buffaloes,
which they had killed, varying this amusement by
bringing in red deer and bears, which were here in
great abundance. Wild fowl in great numbers
frequented the mouth of the Assinaboine, and the
rapids at St. Andrew's was a favorite resort of
pelicans. Nature evidently boomed the wild animal, water fowl and fruit features of Winnipeg at
that early date.
That the present site of Winnipeg was early recognized as a central one for the distribution of
supplies is shown by the custom pursued by the
traders of landing here to assort and repack the
outfits for distribution to the posts south and west.
The Ojibway and Snake Indians, who frequented
the country bordering about the mouth of the
Assinaboine during the first part of the present
century, at least on one occasion entrenched themselves in pits at The Forks on account of a threat
ened attack of the Sioux, which is the first military
operation recorded in the history of Winnipeg.
The Hudson's Bay company began to push to up
the Red river about 1796, and during the next decade had placed trading posts in the vicinity of
those of the Northwest company, with the exception of at The Forks. In 1811 Lord Selkirk, after
controlling a large share of the stock of the Hudson's Bay company, secured from it a grant of land
along the Red and Assinaboine rivers, covering an
area of some 116,000 square miles, under the claim
of that country that their charter gave them control of the country described, which claim was
contested by the Canadian fur traders. Lord Selkirk issued a most glowing description of the land,
climate and general advantages to be gained by
persons joining with him in settling in this tract of
country, and induced a number of persons in Scotland and Ireland to avail themselves of what a writer
in 1817 describes as the benefits of "liberty, of conscience, freedom from taxes and tithes, and all the
temptations of a land of promise painted in most
glowing colors." The party sailed in the spring of
1811 for York Factory, but on arriving there found
the season too far advanced to proceed on their
journey to Red river. They accordingly wintered
at York factory, and suffered
severely before they arrived
at the Red river during the
next year. Miles Macdon-
nell was in charge of the
party, and on arrival in the
vicinity of The Forks, he
paraded them, and exhibited
his commission as governor
of the colony, which apparently was the first occasion
of such an official making
his debut in this district.
Other parties were sent out
in 1813 and 1814 to augment
the number of the first arrivals. The latter behaved in
an arbitrary manner to the
Northwest company's people, which was at once resented by them, as they
viewed the settling of the
country and claims of Lord
Selkirk as illegal and unjustified, claiming that they
had taken possession of the
Red river country as traders
from Canada half a century
before the people of the
Hudson's Bay company had
ventured into it. A struggle
for supremacy at once began
between the rival companies
and resulted in bloodshed on more than one occasion, and the total destruction of the property of
the Selkirk settlers, who were generally simply onlookers. On March 17, 1816, the Hudson's Bay
company people, who had a fort at Point Douglas,
about three-quarters of a mile below The Forks,
attacked Fort Gibraltar, of the Northwest company, at the mouth of the Assinaboine, captured
the inmates, ransacked their stores, and finally
razed the buildings to the ground, carrying away
the timbers to Fort Douglas to use for their own
purposes. Five days later they attacked the
Northwest company's fort at Pembina and destroyed it also. In the following spring the employees
of the Northwest company came into collision with
the Hudson's Bay company's people, under Gov.
Semple, a few miles north of the present city limits, and it resulted in the death of Gov. Semple
and about twenty of his men, while only one Indian on the side of the Northwesters was killed.
Then matters were in a very disturbed state until
the coalition of these two powerful companies in
1820-21, when the Hudson's Bay company established themselves at The Forks and opened stores
to supply the settlers, traders and Indians with'
goods, so another era in the trade of Winnipeg was
entered on.   The Fort Garry, of which only the
\-.^-- ^ - - THE WESTERN WORED.
ruined back gateway, here illustrated, now stands,
was erected in 1835 by Gov. Christie. The people
who from time to time came to the country settled
along the banks of the Red and Assinaboine rivers,
.those of the same nationality- generally settling in
' localities by themselves. The Hudson's Bay company bad repurchased in 1836 all Lord Selkirk's
rights in the settlement for the sum of ,£25,000,
-and according to Sir George Simpson, afterward
sold land to settlers for seven shillings and sixpence, or five shillings an acre, according to location. The land was conveyed under lease for
999 years, and the holder agreed not to traffic
in furs, violate any. of the chartered privileges of
the company, evade any of the restrictions governing the laws relating to the distillation of
spirits, etc.
• Owing to dissatisfaction in the settlement and
to reported American intrigues, a body of British
regular troops was sent out from England to
Fort Garry in 1846, under command of Col. J.
F. Crofton, consisting of 383 persons, covering
detachments from the Sixth Foot, Royal Artil-'
lery and Civil Engineers. Of these, twenty men
remained in the country. James Irwin, of Winnipeg, Charles Lant, of St. James, and Richard
Salter, of the Boyne, are the only survivors to-
day. These troops returned to England in 1848,
and in that year were succeeded by a corps of
fifty-six pensioners, under the command of Lieut.
Col. Caldwell, many of whom afterwards settled
in the country with Lieut. Col. Caldwell  as gov-
cast in their lot with the Canadians who began
to flock into the settlement. Winnipeg, which
was incorporated as a city in 1874, rapidly increased in population for a time, but as the supplies were brought through the United States
and down the Red River in steamboats, the cost of
removing from Eastern Canada and the high
values placed on all necessaries of life proved a
check to the settlement of the .Province until in
1879, when the railway from Winnipeg south to
the International Boundary opened for business in
connection with the American line running to St
Paul. In 1880 came th^ beginning of the great land
boom when settlers and money for investment
came pouring in, and within a year the population
of Winnipeg had increased from about 6,000 to
12,000. In the spring of 1881 the Canadian Pacific
Railway Company began active operations, and
within a few months the population numbered
fully 20,000. Since the close of the boom' period
the city has steadily progressed and is adding
regnlarlv to its population, which now numbers
about 27,000.
The geographical position of Winnipeg may be
described briefly as follows : It is situated at the
junction of the Assiniboine River with the Red
River along the west bank of the latter stream.
It is about 40 miles south of Lake Winnipeg, and
is the great central mart for Canada between Lake
Superior and the Rocky Mountains, within the
limits of a circle described at a distance of 150
miles from the City, she is the objective point for
all the trade arising from the development and
cultivation of varied industries and natural productions. So completely is Winnipeg the central
point in the Canadian West, that not a passenger,
nor a letter, nor a pound of freight is transported in
Canada from the Atlantic to the Pacific, or indeed
from the east to any point in the Canadian prairie
lands, but is routed via Winnipeg.
Railways strike out from the City like branches
from the parent stem  of a tree.    Those actually
constructed are as follows:   East and -west, the
main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, from
the Atlantic to the Pacific.   The Emerson branch,
running to the international boundary line and
connecting with the United States system of railroads.    The Pembina Mountain branch,  running'
to the boundary line and extending through the
south-western portion of the Province.    The Southwestern   Colonization   Railway,    supplying the
country south of the Assiniboine River and contemplated to be continued to the Souris coal fields."' ■
The Selkirk branch, running down the -west bank
of Red  River  to   near   Lake   Winnipeg.     The
Stonewall branch, through a good section of coun-
try-to the north-west of the City.    The Hudson's |
Bay Railway, forty miles of which are completed,"
The main line of the Northern Pacific and Manitoba Railway, south to the international boundary
ernor of the colony. Again, in 1857, 100 men
of the Royal Canadian Rifles were sent around
by the Hudson's Bay, like the others, leaving
Canada for that purpose, aud were likewise
quartered at Fort Garry. It is not known to
most people at least, that three different expeditions of troops were sent to Fort Garry before
the Riel rebellion of 1869-70, when what is called the first Red River expedition, composed of
regular troops and Canadian volunteers, was dispatched from Ontario and Quebec, and arrived
here in August, 1870, to find that Riel had fled.
It was from this date that Winnipeg, as a place
distinct from the Hudson's Bay company's Fort
Garry, became known. On the arrival of the
troops in 1870, the village consisted of a collection of about twenty-seven* houses, centering
about the present site of the post office, the population only numbering about 100 or 150.
Under the terms of the agreement between the
Dominion Government and the Hudson's Bay
Company a large block of land about Fort Garry
was reserved by the latter for their own purposes,
the balance of the territory included within the
ill-defined limits of the village of Winnipeg, being
owned by McDermot, Bannatyne, Schultz, Ross,
Logan and others, who had the river lots, which,
with a few chains frontage on the river, ran back
two miles.
In the spring of 1871 the Ontario and Quebec
volunteers were disbanded and returned to their
homes, though  many remained   in   Manitoba to
66 north of the international boundary line between the United States and Canada. Practically
speaking it is on the eastern edge of the great
prairie country which extends in this latitude from
the line of the Red River, west to the Rocky
Mountains. Ever since white men explored what
is now known as the Canadian Northwest, the site
of Winnipeg has been recognized as a central one
for all matters of trade. It has been aptly - expressed that " Winnipeg is the neck of a double
funnel whose mouths gather the traffic of an
empire and three oceans, the Atlantic, Pacific, and
great lakes. With the growth of the West and
ever increasing wants of the East, who will set a
limit to prairie products when the iron, coal, oil,
salt, and other products of near tributary districts
are developed, aud the fertile Province of Manitoba
be under grain and cattle." One illustration to
show how thoroughly central Winnipeg's local
position is as regards the different known resources
of the surrounding country. To the east are the
mining and timber districts of the Lake of the
Woods ; to the north the mineral deposits, timber
areas and great fisheries of Lake Winnipeg; to the
north-west the timber, salt deposits and fisheries of
Lakes Manitoba and Winnipegoosis; to the west
and south the fertile grain lands' which stand un- i
rivalled in producing the finest of all wheat known
in the markets of the world. In all these. directions are even now to be found vast herds of cattle, I
horses, sheep and other live stock. Thus it will be
seen that, independent of the fact that Winnipeg
line. The Portage branch of the Northern Pacific
and Manitoba Railway to Portage la Prairie, on
the west. Nearly all these lines have branches of
sub-branches tributary to them which act as feeders and give access to Winnipeg from all parts of
the Province and North-West Territories, yet
within reach of any line of rail. Two Railway lines projected south-easterly have also been
incorporated, and the intention of these corporations
is to construct lines south-easterly to the international boundary line, and there join with the
Duluth and Winnipeg Railway in a direct route to
Duluth. Part of the line is already graded and
active operations will follow the opening of the
spring season. The Winnipeg Transfer Railway
is in operation from the south to the north ends of
the City, along the river front. Probably no other
commercial city in the world, of its size, has such
a complete railroad system as the above is shown
to be.
While the Red River inordinary seasons gives a
depth of water sufficient to permit of navigation
by large river steamers from the international
boundary to Lake Winnipeg, some improvements
are necessary at extreme low water to enable lake
vessels to ascend the river to Winnipeg, but the
character of the obstructions is trivial, and the
Dominion Government are now taking steps to remove them, so that large lake vessels can pursue
their course from the City to the north end of
Lake Winnipeg, a distance of over 300 miles. Unlimited supplies of iron ore of the richest quality,,
V •*
— 1890
as proved by practical tests at American smelting
furnaces, exist at Lake Winnipeg in juxtaposition
to immense tracts of timber suitable for the production of charcoal. Lumber and firewood are
brought to the City from the lake, but the transshipment at Selkirk adds to the cost to an extent
that takes the trade to the other districts. On .the
improvement of the Red River, however, lumber
will come direct from the mills by vessel to the
City docks at a minimum cost. Even under the
present difficulties 7,000,000 feet of lumber were
cut at the Lake saw mills in 1889, and' an immense
quantity of firewood was floated into the Red
River. The customs returns for 1889 show that
fresh fish amounting to 1,781,587 pounds were exported from Winnipeg to the United States during
that year. These shipments were consigned to
points in the United States as far east as New York
and west to Denver, a fact that speaks loudly for
the quality of the fish. When to these figures are
added the great quantities locally consumed and
shipped to Eastern Canada, and which are not in-
population of the village of Winnipeg, more
generally known as Fort Garry. In 1874, when
a city charter was secured, the population had
reached 3,000; in 1876 to 6,500; in 1880 to 20,-
000; in 1889 to 24,500; and this spring the
estimate of the assessment commissioner is that
there are between 26,500 and 27,000 inhabitants
within the City limits. The assessment for 1889
was as follows :—
Lands $10,402,410
Buildings      5,925,700
Personal 2,279,750
Exemptions, including churches, public buildings,
&c, amounted in value to $3,599,150, making a
total value of $22,207,010. In 1874 the assessment of the City amounted to $2,676,018, and in
1881 to $9,196,435.
Persons thinking of settling in the Canadian
Northwest, or on the Pacific Coast, will find in The
WESTERN World much-anformation- that'is certain
to be of considerable value and interest to them,
aud each issue will well repay their careful perusal.
Those contemplating engaging in farming may,
however, and doubtless will wish for some more
detailed information, and will act wisely if they
take an agricultural paper, so that by the time they
arrive in their new homes they may have some
knowledge of the farming system of the country.
The Western World has every confidence in
recommending such persons to subscribe to the
Nor'-West Farmer, which is an illustrated paper
devoted to stock raising, grain growing and every
detail of Northwest agriculture. It is the only
agricultural paper published in Canada between"
Lake Superior and the 'Pacific Coast, and is consequently the sole authority on farming in Mani-
cluded in the export statement, it will be seen that
even in this direction there is a good trade in
natural resources already existing having Winnipeg as its centre. Via Lake Winnipeg there is a
transportation business conducted which furnishes,
by steamers on the Saskatchewan River and a short
tramway transfer at the mouth of that river, a
route by water from Winnipeg to the settlements
along the North Saskatchewan even to near the
foot of the Rocky Mountains. A company is now
chartered, having for its object the construction of
a short canal to unite the waters of the Assiniboine
River with Lake Manitoba, and this work, with the
water power improvements in the Assiniboine at
Winnipeg now in the hands of the City Council
for construction or transferring to a company, will
ultimately open a water route in that direction
reaching for some hundreds of miles inland.
By no better means can the permanent and
successful growth of Winnipeg be shown than by
a review of the population statistics of the pas"t
two decades.     In   1870 215 souls comprised the
From The Week.
There is a forest in the wild North land
So weird aud grim the very lynxes thread,
With quickened pulse, its glades and shadows
The iasfored stems, black and fire-blasted, stand
ii i
Close-rooted m the dull and barren sand ;
And over league-long hills and valleys spread
Those ruined woods—a forest dark and dead—
A giant wreck in desolation grand.
So, in that inner world—the mind of man—
Are wastes which once were leaf-adorned and
dear ;
Where beauty throve till fires of passion ran,
And blighted all.    When to such deserts drear
The spirit turns, in retrospection wan,
The proudest starts, the boldest shrinks in fear !
C. Mair.
Prince Albert, Saskatchewan.
toba, Assiniboia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and British
Columbia. It has on its staff practical men of long
experience in the Northwest, and its large circulation throughout the immense.territory above mentioned is conclusive evidence of the value in which
it is held by men actually engaged, in "farming. Its
subscription price is $1 a year or 4s. 6d. in British
sterling money. An advertisement of it appears
in another column of this issue.
—» ♦ «—
Speaking in the Manitoba Legislature recently,
in moving the address in reply to the speech from
the throne, Mr. Thomson, member for Emerson,
said the Government were to be complimented on
the success of their immigration policy; and he
was glad to see that they intended to extend their
system. He hoped their operations would be extended to Great Britain and Europe. A glance at
the increase in land sales by large corporations
during the past year was an indication of the increase of the farming population throughout the
province. //
GLANCE) at the
map will show that
a position which
may be likened to
the hub of a wheel,
the spokes radiating
from which in every
direction are represented by lines of
railway. Owing to
its geographical advantages the city
was, as early as 1879
selected as the point
at which to establish a western railway centre, it being
then determined to
make it the point of crossing the Red River by the
Canadian Pacific Railway, and hence of necessity
the place from which all branch lines would radiate
and to which all connecting lines would be
First in importance is the vast transcontinental
system of the Canadian Pacific Railway, the main
Red River 23 miles north from Winnipeg to Selkirk, and the Stonewall branch extends from Winnipeg northwest to Stonewall 19 miles. This is
over a portion of the route of the original main
line. The General Superintendent of the Western
Division of the Canadian Pacific, Mn William
Whyte, whose headquarters are in Winnipeg, has
under his control a little over 2000 miles of road.
This system gives the C. P. R. the control of
nine-tenths of the carrying trade of the country.
The annual traffic originating on the division and
passing over it is enormous, but the equipment of
the road is fully up to the requirements. Every
accommodation has been provided for shippers and
travellers, and the facilities at each station are as
complete as the volume of business warrants. Although long without a competitor in its field the
company has ever shown a desire to deal fairly
with its patrons, and this fact probably accounts
for it retaining its old customers at the few points
now tapped by a rival road. The company has
been astonishingly enterprising in its service. It
introduced the colonist sleepers, a great boon to
immigrants and people travelling on second-class
tickets. It is the only line that has been built and
owns its own sleeping cars, made after the pattern
of the Pullman cars, but in some respects improved. Owing to its splendid service it has become popular with tourists and transcontinental
travellers, as well as with Manitobans and Nor'-
Westers. The magnificent hotel at Banff and the
elegant dining halls at Field and Glacier are other
pany's work here is greater than many suppose,
and a first visit to the yards is sure to furnish a
surprise. The yard comprises forty miles of sidings, a fact that will give some idea of the work
done here by the company. The shops are the
largest in Canada west of Toronto, and are equipped
with all the machinery necessary for doing everything in railroad mechanism but constructing locomotives. As the system is extended the extent
and importance of these headquarter's shops, offices
and departments will have a corresponding growth.
THE M.   & N.  W.  RAILWAY.
At Portage la Prairie. 56 miles west of Winnipeg, the Manitoba & Northwestern Railway com^
mences, extending 205 miles northwesterly to Saltcoats, in the provisional district of Assiniboia. It
has two branches, one of 15 miles from Minne-
dosa to Rapid City, and one of 11 miles from Bin-
scarth to Russell. The country traversed by the
M. & N. W. R. is a most picturesque and diversified one, admirably adapted for mixed farming,
especially stock raising and dairying. There was
/but a sparse settlement in the northwestern part of
Manitoba before the advent of the M. & N. W.»R.,
but subsequent to the extension of the line from
point to point, a considerable proportion of the
immigration of the past seven or eight years* has
found its way into that promising district, and to-*
day there are numerous thriving agricultural
settlements and flourishing towns contiguous! to
line of which passes through the city extending
eastward 1904 miles to St. John, N. B., and westward 1482 miles to Vancouver, B. Ct, the longest
uninterrupted through all rail line in the world
under one management. Daily passenger trains
pass through Winnipeg from the Atlantic to the
Pacific and from the Pacific to the Atlantic, the
equipment being as thorough as skill and money
can devise. Each transcontinental train includes
luxurious sleeping and dining cars, and comfortable colonist sleeping cars are provided for the
accommodation of second-class passengers. No
less than six branches of the Canadian Pacific
radiate from Winnipeg. East of the Red River
the Emerson branch, 66 miles, connects with the
Minnesota system of the Great Northern Railway
which has its head quarters at St. Paul, Minnesota.
This branch was the first portion of the Canadian
Pacific built in Manitoba and for several years was
the route over which passed all the traffic between
Winnipeg and the east. West of the Red River
another branch of 69 miles runs to Gretna where
it connects with the Dakota system of the Great
Northern Railway. This route is now used for the
through passenger and mail trains to St. Paul,
Chicago, etc. From Rosenfeld Junction, on
this branch the Pembina Mountain branch runs
eastward for 146 miles through the southern portion of the Province to Deloraine. The Southwestern branch runs southwest from Winnipeg to
Glenboro, 104 miles, with a spur track to Carman
of six miles.   The Selkirk branch runs west of the
evidences of the company's enterprise in.catering
to the needs and comfort of travellers.
In connection with the freight traffic department
there are nearly 200 elevators and flat warehouses
on the C. P. R. western division, with a capacity of.
6,132,900 bushels. Large terminal elevators are
located at Fort William and owned by the company. They have a capacity of 2,500,000 bushels.
The capacity of the other elevators and warehouses
range from 1,000 to 300,000 bushels. There are
also nineteen flour mills on the western divisions
with a total daily capacity of 4,595 barrels per
day. The daily capacity of the largest one is
1,200 barrels, and the others range from 50 to 1,000
barrels. There are also three oatmeal mills on the
main line, with an aggregate daily capacity of 275
To operate the western division the company
employs an average of 3,054 men all the year round.
Nearly a third of the staff is maintained in Winnipeg, the headquarters on the division. The busiest
place in the city is- in and about the C. P. R. general offices and yards. A small army of men is at
work there every day in the car shops, freight
sheds, offices and numerous other departments,
attending to the large amount of work that centres
here for the whole division. The merchants of
Winnipeg derive a goodly proportion of their business directly and indirectly from money spent by
company in wages and otherwise, and they
rightly regard the C. P. R. as the leading support
of the local trade.   The magnitude of the com-
the road. Stock raising in that section is keeping
pace with grain growing, and promises to become
a source of wealth to the farmers. Senator San-
ford has a ranch at Westbourne on which he has a
large herd of grade and thoroughbred cattle. Mr.
Walter Lynch's well known herd of thoroughbreds
are in the same neighborhood, and there are also
several other prominent herds. Further up the
line is the Binscarth farm, on which there is one
of the finest herds of thoroughbred Durhams in
Canada. There are, in addition to these, many
smaller herds which are steadily growing in
value and importance. Dr. Barnardo's industrial
farm is located at Russell, in connection with
which there is a large herd of cattle and a model
creamery. Extensive shipments of beef cattle
were made from various points along ihe line last
year to Montreal, destined for the British markets,
and reports from the east state that they were
equal to any cattle that were received from the
prairie country. The grain growing industry is
extending rapidly, - and the settlements along the
line contribute a fair quota to the wheat exports of
Manitoba and the Northwest. In the seasons of
1884-5 the grain shipments from points along the
line were but trifling; in the following seasons
the}- increased to 363,000 bushels, while in the
season of 1887-8 they reached 1,600,000 bushels,
certainly a capital showing for what cannot be regarded otherwise than a newly settled country.
The chief towns along the line are Gladstone,
Neepawa, Minnedosa,  Rapid City, Birtle, Russell, 1890
Solsgirth, Saltcoats, and Shoal Lake. Grain elevators have been erected at Neepawa, Minnedosa,
Shoal Lake and Millwood, and there are one or
more flat grain warehouses at almost every station,
giving a storage capacity.of about 300,000 bushels.
There are also flour mills at Neepawa, Minnedosa,
Rapid City and Shoal Lake. There is also a woolen mill at Rapid City combined with the flour mill.
THE N.   P.   &.  M.   RAILWAY.
The Northern Pacific and Manitoba Railway, a
company organized under the laws of Manitoba,
is practically a portion of the Northern Pacific
Railway system,of the United States. Its main
line runs from Winnipeg west of the Red River
south to West Lynne, where it connects with the
Dakota system of the Northern Pacific, affording'
through connection with St. Paul arfd other
United States points. A branch extends from
Winnipeg, south of the Assiniboine River, to
Pcrtage la Prairie, 56 miles. From Morris, 40
miles south of Winnipeg, a branch is being built
northwesterly to Brandon, 120 miles having been
completed to date. A number of grain elevators have been erected along the line. Extensive workshops, large and handsome head offices
and a covered station have been erected by the
Company in Winnipeg, and work has been commenced on a magnificent seven storey hotel immediately adjacent to the station. The offices,
station and hotel buildings will entail an expenditure of about $400,000.
By S. A. Rowbotham.
been manifested, with the promise of a substan-
stial increase of values in the future.
To-day the values of realty in Winnipeg may be
quoted as follows :—
The growth of Winnipeg, from a population of
300 in 1870 to 6,000 in 1880 and from that to 27,000
in 1890, although not rivalling the phenomenal
development of certain western cities during the
last few years is yet sufficiently remarkable to attract attention, and to distinguish it as one of the
most promising cities of the West.    Situated at the
junction of the Assiniboine and Red Rivers, two
of the most important streams of the Canadian
Northwest, it was early selected by the Hudson's
Bay Company as the centre of their operations in
this   country,   and    notwithstanding   the   great
changes which have taken place during the last j
two   decades,   the   advent of railways   and   the
settlement of the country, no other town or city j
has yet risen which  can even claim pretensions j
as a rival to this the natural  distributing centre I
and metropolis of the Northwest.   The political,
educational, monetary and commercial centre of j
the   Northwest, Winnipeg  is   to-day the  largest i
and most important prairie city north of St. Paul
and Minneapolis.
The growth of Winnipeg 'from 1870 to 1880 was
due  entirely   to  the   natural  advantages  of its
position and the enterprise of its inhabitants, for |
it was not favored with   railways   as a means of
communication with  the outside world or points I
Highest retail business property
Ordinary first-class       ''
Best wholesale
Best residence 'i'"'-"-
Ordinary     " "
Mechanics " "
.. $6oo per foot frontage
..$200 to $300   '■
..50   "    100   "
.. 20   !'    3S ,""
..   10    "      12 "'$!&&
••    3   '
Acres within 2 to3miles of Post office.$100 to $300 per acre.
To those who are acquainted with the values of
realty in other cities these figures will sufficiently
indicate that Winnipeg has not fully recovered
from the effects produced by the collapse of the
boom and the widespread ruin of property owners arising from the enormous shrinkage of
values. Taking the average of cities of the size of
Winnipeg, and with fair prospects of growth,
values range about as follows:—
Best retail business corner prop'y.
Ordinary first-class property   ' .
Best residence '*
Ordinary    "
Mechanics " :'
Acres within 2 to 3 miles of centre
$700 to $Soo per ft. frtge.
300 "   400      ;"-!;/■
100 "   200 "
3° "     S°
20 sJfvtSp'
IO "    .
.... $200 to $500 per acre.
It will thus be seen that real estate here is on a
very solid footing, with prospects altogether in
favor of a considerable advance under ordinary
conditions. Persons' intending to purchase real estate in any city for the purpose of making money
out of   the   investment,   usually   enquire   .what
Of the Winnipeg & Hudson's Bay Railway,
which is projected to run from Winnipeg to
Hudson's Bay, where it will connect with steamr
ers for Europe, 40 miles have been completed in
a northwesterly direction to the vicinity of Lake
Manitoba. Renewed interest is now being taken
in this project, and there is a strong likelihood that
construction will be continued this season and
operation commenced. Two companies have charters for lines from Winnipeg southeasterly to a
point on the international boundary, there to connect with an air line to Duluth, Minn. Both have
commenced, grading operations, and at least one
of them will almost certainly be pushed on this
An examination of the map by the aid of these
notes will show conclusively that the railway system has been so centred in Winnipeg as to literally drain the business of Manitoba and the Northwest Territories into this city from every direction.
Owing to increase in traffic the C. P. R. are about
to build seventeen new Mogul locomotives for the
Rocky Mountain section at the shops in Montreal.
It has been stated in the newspapers that the Imperial and Dominion Governments were arrange-
ing to co-operate with Baron Hirsch in bringing
into the Canadian Northwest several thousand
Russian Jews at a cost to the Baron of a fabulous
sum. . There is no truth in the statement so far as
the Canadian Government is concerned.
within the Province. Up to that date real estate
had advanced steadily with the growth of the
City, and there was nothing to indicate the approach of that period of wild and reckless speculation which coming a year later produced re-
.sults which at the time assisted in building up
the City, but subsequently retarded its healthy
growth. The advent of the Canadian Pacific
Railway in 1881 brought with it a large influx
of people, raising the population of the City to
about 20,000, and at the same time creating the
most violent and remarkable real estate boom
ever witnessed in America. It is no exaggeration to say that the prices realised in 1881 and
1882 would only have been warranted in a city
of at least 100,000 population. The boom was
short-lived, and in the spring of 1882 the downward movement commenced, and during the
three years following real estate became demoralized, falling to a point below that reached
prior to the commencement of the boom, notwithstanding that the population still remained
at nearly 20,000, or three times as great as in
1880. It was not until 1886 that the first symptoms of a return of confidence were manifested,
and that there could be said to be any real
"bottom" to real estate values. The building of
the Canadian Pacific Railway to the Pacific Coast
during those years carried immigration past our
doors, and other events prevented that rapid recovery which might naturally have been expected in a western country possessing great natural
resources and an unlimited area of fine agricultural laud. Thus we find that it is only during
the  last year that  any  real  improvement has
Let us see what backing
' 'backing'' the city has.
Winnipeg has :—
1st. Railways. The Canadian Pacific makes
Winnipeg its chief divisional point on the western
division, and has very extensive workshops and
round houses located here permanently under an
agreement with the City and in consideration
of a bonus of $200,000. Apart from the main
line five branches of the C. P. R. centre in
Winnipeg, making a large area of. country
directly tributary to the City. The Northern
Pacific and Manitqba Railway has its terminus
and headquarters in Winnipeg, and has just
completed the erection of extensive workshops and round houses in the city. Apart from
the main line two branches make a further large
area of country tributary to the city. This company is now erecting a handsome terminal hotel at
a cost of upwards of $200,000. The Great Northern enters the city from Minnesota over the C.P.R.
track. The Manitoba and Northwestern Railway,
draining the northwestern portion of the Province,
is reported to be seeking arrangements to run into
Winnipeg making this its terminus instead of Portage la Prairie. The Hudson's Bay Railway is constructed for a distance of 40 miles out of the city
but is not yet operated. A direct line from Winnipeg to Duluth is projected by several companies
and one of these will certainly be constructed within
the near future. The Winnipeg Transfer Railway
was constructed last year and will probably be in
operation in a few months.
2nd. Territory tributary to the city. On the west
an area of agricultural land suitable for farming
and grazing 1000 miles long bv an average of 400 6
miles wide. On the east about 130 miles distant,
the finest mineral belt on the continent said to
contain unlimited quantities of gold and silver is
being opened out for the first time.
As a distributing centre Winnipeg occupies a
strong position, being separated by 1500 miles from
the nearest wholesale centre in Canada and by 400
miles in the States. There are a number of large
wholesale establishments in every line of trade.
There are branches of six of the largest banks in
Canada established here besides two local institutions. The manufacturing industries as might be
expected are only in their infancy, but with the
proposed development of the Assiniboine water
power and a supply of cheap coal from the Souris
there is no reason why in the course of a few years
commodities now imported from Eastern Canada
should not be largely manufactured here.
The growth of Winnipeg is naturally dependent
upon the increase of population in the Province and j
in the Northwest Territories. Winnipeg having
no rival to contest her claims to be the metropolis
of the Northwest will grow in proportion to the influx of settlement into the country. What are the
prospects of such influx ? It appears probable that
in view of the rapid filling up of Dakota and the
increasing pressure of population in the United
States, this country must in the very near future
attract a very large immigration. A temporary
diversion of population is taking place to
Washington territory and this has postponed the
time when we might reasonably have expected
that influx of people. Another year will probably
exhaust the capacity of Washington territory to
By Major H. N. Ruttan, C. E., Engineer of the
City of Winnipeg.
It is now generally recognized that, in order to
insure its economic development and political independence, a State must be able to manufacture
at least the necessaries of life. The wonderful development of the steam engine?- which has taken
place in the last 40 years, and in which all civilized
nations have borne a part has been due to the
growing necessity for economical power for manufacturing. The largely increasing demand for
cheap power where fuel is expensive has of late
years attracted the attention of engineers and manufacturers both in Europe and America, with the
result that the utilization and improvement of
water powers has become very general; enabling
manufactures to be undertaken where before they
were impossible and even where cheap fuel is obtained competing on favorable terms with the
steam engine. Volumes might be filled with examples of water power works constructed and in
successful operation, and many others are now in
course of construction and improvement. Among
the new works may be mentioned Spokane Falls,
Grand Falls, and new works in the Mississippi at
St Cloud and Minneapolis.
The fact that the development of water power
was, for -a time, neglected has led to the very common supposition that water power was old fashioned
and could not compete on equal terms with steam.
This idea has however been completely exploded
that its capacity can be increased to 10,000 horse
power at lowest water by connecting it with Lake ,
Manitoba, and the Saskatchewan River, thus increasing the drainage area tributary to Winnipeg
to 250,000 square miles, a territory double the size
of Great Britain and Ireland.
The cost of the proposed water power works at
Winnipeg would be for the Assiniboine power
alone, including locks, $500,000, and with the connections between the river and Lake Manitoba
about $1,200,000. The amount of power made
available at Winnipeg would be, for the completed
scheme, 10,000 horse power at low water, the net
revenue from which at $20 per horse pqwer per
annum would be $200,000. Interest and maintenance would not exceed 8 per cent or $96,000,
while the cost of the same amount of power by
steam on the most favorable basis would be $60 per
horse power or $700,000. As it pays to grind wheat
at $60 per year for power, the adoption of water
power at one-sixth the cost would revolutionize the
trade of the country and instead of being, as far as
the grain trade of the country is concerned., a mere
way station, Winnipeg would become a collecting
and distributing point of importance. An idea of
• the,vast importance of the milling and trans-shipping business may be obtained from the fact, that
if 5000 horse power was used for milling, the number of railway cars required per day to bring in
wheat and take out the products would be 1000, or.'
50 trains of 20 cars each. This statement is based
upon the actual requirement of the Pillsbury mills
at Minneapolis. In addition to flour .milling many
other industries would spring up immediately that
and capitalists now are
fully alive to the fact that
there is no better nor
more secure investment
er.     The utilization of water power with modern
absorb population at the rate at which it is pouring in and as nowhere else on the continent is
there any large quantity of cheap and good land
obtainable it seems reasonable to suppose that the
tide of immigration will then come this way. So
soon as it does we may-expect "very remarkable
developments in Winnipeg, and indeed the indications are numerous that we are now on the eve
of another great upward movement in real estate.
Rev. Mr. Bjarnson recently returned to Winnipeg from Iceland, where he had gone in the interest
of the church of his people in Manitoba, and to
Secure a number of students for missionary work
here. His mission was successful, and in a few
weeks a number of students will arrive here to take
hold of religious work in the various Icelandic
settlement. There are now he says few people in
Iceland who have not some friends in Manitoba.
This province and the adjoining Northwest Territories and Dakota are the only large fields to which
Icelandic emigration tends, with perhaps the exception of a settlement in Southern Minnesota.
Twenty years ago an emigration to Brazil took
place, but the people have not prospered satisfactorily, and there is no movement in that direction.
The reports of Icelanders in Manitoba to their
friends in the old land have been encouraging.
The people here like the country and are doing
well, and these facts have no little influence on
their friends.
appliances is not confined solely to new countries.
Some of the largest and most expensive both
for power and navigation have been constructed.
in Europe. By building water power- works in
the Rhone the city of Geneva has secured, with a
fall of 12 ft, some 2000 horse power, which is used
for pumping, electric lighting, etc.
In connection with the improvement on the
Mississippi, Mr. Chas. A. Pillsbury, the great
Minneapolis miller, is reported as saying :—'' I
should not want any better business than to make
electricity by water power, and then sell it for motive or lighting purposes, at what is actually costs
if made by steam, taking as my profit the amount
saved by the use of water at times when plenty of
water could be obtained. Even on the basis of the
last four years when the water has been low, on
the average, a quarter of the time, this would show
a great profit"
It is now very generally known that the city of
Winnipeg possesses in the Assiniboine River a
source of power which surpasses most of the great
water powers in use on this continent. The river
alone drains an area of 60,000 square miles. Its
flood discharge is estimated at 40,000 cubic ft, per
second, and the lowest known discharge at 700
cubic ft per second, the average low water discharge being about double the last mentioned
amount Perhap one of the greatest points of interest, and certainly one of the greatest advantages
of the Assiniboine, as a water power stream, is,
cheap power was to be had,  among others
may  be  mentioned,   building paper, wood
pulp manufactures,   leather, woolen fabrics,
agricultural and milling machinery.   It is not necessary to enlarge upon the importance to any city*
of the establishment of such industries.
While the limit of this article will not permit an
extended reference to that most important factor
in the development of the settlement and commerce of a country, inland navigation, it may be
stated that the connections of the lake and river
mentioned alone would make directly tributary to
Winnipeg 5000 miles of coast line and river banks,
traversing districts well adapted to agriculture and
abounding in the products of the forest and the
Col. Fanning of Minneapolis, consulting engineer, concludes his report on this project as follows:—"The inducements for Winnipeg to make
itself a manufacturing centre seem very great and
as an exceptionally favorable opportunity is presented through the development of its great water
power, I can conceive of no way in which the
city can with more certainty and profit enhance its
own growth, permanent revenues from taxation,
and general prosperity, than by promoting, directly
or indirectly, this Assiniboine water power project,
until its 10,000 horse power should be fully loaded
with busy machinery."  .
C. E. Cullen, of Regina, has gone to Europe as
immigration agent for the Territories. He is sent
by the Legislative Assembly in the interests of the
whole Northwest, each member of the assembly
contributing special information about his own
particular district Mr. Cullen is required to report regularly to the clerk of the assembly. He
will be absent four months. He goes first to England, then over to Germany, Austria, Hungary,
Roumania and Southern Russia and expects to cover
25,000 miles before he returns in June.
~tr 1890
| The following facts were compiled under the I
direction of a joint committee of the City Council
and Board of Trade of Winnipeg. It is a matter ;
of astonishment to new arrivals in Winnipeg to
learn, that while the population of the city exceeds
that of all the other cities and towns of Manitoba j
put together, the lands around it are more sparsely
settled, and a smaller proportion of them under
cultivation, than is the case with the lands around
any town of any prominence in the Province.
The astonishment increases, when the fact is
learned, that among all the fertile lands of the
Canadian Northwest, none are richer from an agricultural point of view, and in few districts are they
so fertile as are these same sparsely settled and
almost unbroken prairie lands around Winnipeg.
It requires a little study of history to learn the
reason for this sparsity of settlement around the
Manitoba capital. It is necessary to go back to
shortly after Manitoba and the Northwest Territories were added to the Dominion of Canada.
One of the conditions upon which the Federal
Government assumed control of this vast country
and its lands was, that every white and half-breed
resident of the country at the time of its being
embraced in Confederation, should receive a free
grant of 240 acres. Thus, every man, woman and
child was entitled to this grant, and so eager was
the Government to secure the peaceful possession
of the country, that the grant was unconditional
beyond their being residents at the time stated. I
had been gradually gaining possession of the lands
which their first owners did not cultivate, and the
prices they sold at were never very high.    There
are those here who remember of many a half-breed
cla;m to 240 acres being traded off for a pair of
blankets.    By the year 1880 the majority of these
lands were in the hands of speculators' living in
this Province and the East, and when the "boom"
of 1881 was at its height, no class were more greedy
in their extortions of high figures for these lands
than the men who had secured them for the price
of a song.    In fact they overreached themselves,
and all the immigration of 1881 and 1882, which
was larger than during all  the balance of  the j
history of Northwest settlement, passed on west-1
ward where free lands   could be had from the |
Government,  or where improved farms could be j
bought at reasonable figures.
Towards the close of 1883 the speculative hold-1
ers of lands around Winnipeg began to discover
they had'been killing the goose that would lay the j
golden egg.    Many of them were badly situated
financially.    Mortgages on these lands were falling j
due, and to sell in time to meet these was found to
be impossible.   It was scattered broadcast over the '
eastern provinces and in Europe that lands around
Winnipeg were held at fabulous prices.    Offers to |
sell at reasonable figures were futile and would not I
bring any one to make enquiry about such lands, j
The settler looking for lands flew through Winni-!
peg as he would through a city struck with an
epidemic, and gazed at every land agent much as I
he would at a card sharper or one he suspected of
being a confidence man.    It has taken  years to i
such as never will occur again in the history of the
The Marquis of Lome, in a speech delivered at
Winnipeg, said : " Unknown a few years ago, we
see Winnipeg now with a population unanimously
joining in happy accord, and rapidly lifting it to
the front rank amongst the commercial centres of
the world. We may look in vain elsewhere for a
situation so favorable and commanding—many as
are the fair regions of which we can boast. * *
Nowhere will you find a situation whose natural
advantages promise so great a future as that which
seems insured in Manitoba, and to Winnipeg, the
Heart City of the Dominion."
Professor Gilbert, of Rothamsted, the eminent
British scientist, tested four samples of soil taken
from Niverville, 23 miles south of Winnipeg, Brandon, 132 miles west, Selkirk, 22 miles north, and
from the immediate neighborhood of Winnipeg.
He says : '' These soils showed a very high percentage of nitrogen ; that from Niverville nearly
twice as high a percentage as in the first 6 or 9
inches of ordinary arable land, and about as high
as the surface soil of the pasture land of Great
Britain ; that from Brandon was not so rich as that
from Niverville. The soil from Selkirk showed an
extremely high percentage of nitrogen in the first
twelve inches, and in the second twelve inches as
high a percentage as any ordinary surface soil.
Lastly, both the first and second nine inches of soil
from Winnipeg were shown to be very rich in ni-
The bulk of the lands thus granted were located
near Winnipeg, or Fort Garry as it was formerly
called, and in the days when people looked forward to long years of waiting for railway communication, it would not be expected that they would
be considered of great value. There being no conditions of cultivation attached to the land grants,
and the recipients being largely a people whom
generations of isolation from the outer world had
deprived of incentive to enterprise, as might be
expected very little in the way of cultivation was
done, and thus the virgin prairie sod was but little
broken when railway construction connected Winnipeg with the eastern world. There was another
class of land grants made by the Government, and j
although the recipients were men whose services j
to their country demanded some recognition, they
did not contribute much towards the agricultural
progress of the country. Reference is made to the
grant of 160 acres to each volunteer soldier who
came with General Wolseley in 1870 to quell the
first Riel rebellion. An army of volunteer soldiers
was not by any means likely to become a community of plodding, industrious pioneer citizens, and
, while there can still be included among Winnipeg's
most useful citizens, and opulent business men,
some who followed General Wolseley into this
country, the great bulk.of his following bartered
away for little or nothing, between the granting of
their land and the advent of railway connection,
the homesteads won in the service of their country.
In the interval a crowd of far-seeing speculators
clear away, even partially, the result of the evil
work then carried on. Extremes always bring a
re-action, and one came with a vengeance in connection with the price of lands around Winnipeg.
In 1884-5 and 6 the foreclosing of mortgages, and
other proceedings for closing out margin land speculators went on at a lively rate, and those unable
or unwilling to hold longer had to let go and lose
heavily by so doing. The consequence is that at
the present time lands in the vicinity of the Manitoba capital are now as far (or almost as far) below
their natural value, as they were above it six years
ago, and to agricultural settlers they furnish at the
present time, probably the best opportunity to
secure what can in a few years be made a valuable
farm, that ever was offered in the history of any
new country. Inquiries made by. a committee of
the Winnipeg board of trade and a committee of
the city council working with each other brought
out the fact, that within 20 miles of the city nearly
one million acres of the most fertile land in the
world can be had by settlers at unprecedentedly
low figures. At least a quarter of a million of
acres of the low-lying and moist portion of these
lands can be bought for $3 an acre or less. Another
quarter of a million of better quality, comprising
mixed prairie and grazing lands, can be bought
from $7 an acre, and another quarter of a million of the very best of lands, where settlers can
commence breaking sod at once, can be had at from
$8 to $12 an acre. There are now opportunites of
securing valuable farm lands around  Winnipeg,
trogen, richer than the average of old pasture surface soil."
Professor  Tanner,   lecturer   on   agriculture   at
South  Kensington,  writes:    "Here it is that the
champion soils of the world are to be found, and
we may rejoice that they are located within the
British Empire.   Take as an illustration of their
powers of fertility the simple fact that on the Kildonan farm, near Winnipeg, on which land I saw
their 50th crop of wheat growing—crops which had
followed each other year after year, and had maintained their full yield from first to last, without the
soil losing any of its productive power.    Year by
year had the winter frosts renovated that soil with
I fresh stores of fertility from its rich preserves, and
j thus the land became better prepared than ever for
i its work.'' An illustration is given of the Kildonan
I Farm referred to by Professor Tanner.
Plenty of farming lands can yet be purchased in
this Municipality of Kildonan, at very reasonable
prices and within ten miles of the city.   The follow-
! ing is extracted from an official publication of the
i Ontario Government:    " Numbers of the Ontario
farmers    *   *   *   *    prefer to sell out and go to
i Manitoba and the Northwest, a territory which is
| par excellence a wheat country, and which must
soon become, perhaps, the greatest granary in the
world.   They are more inclined in this direction
because they can sell their Ontario farms at $40 to
j $100 an acre, and can buy virgin soil in the North-
I west at $1 to $10.    By a change of this nature they
can easily establish their children on separate farms, 8.
a thing but few of them can hope to do in Ontario.'' j
It is a fact, that can be establised beyond question, j
that lands within 8 miles of Winnipeg can be
purchased to-day at from $6 to $10 per acre. - If any
intending settler doubts this, let him write or visit
the city to enquire before throwing away his chance
of establishing himself where he can possess advantages positively unobtainable anywhere else.
Grains and vegetables of all descriptions grown in
the Northwest succeed admirably within the 20
mile belt around TV innipeg. Let any intending
settler view the vegetables in the market gardener's stalls in the city, and take a run through the
grain dealers' warehouses, and he will be fully
satisfied that those lands constitute the garden
plot of the Province.
There is no difficulty in obtaining firewood in '
almost an}r direction in the 20 mile belt around
Winnipeg; except   on   the open prairie lying  to
the immediate west  and  northwest of the city i
for a short distance.     Any number of first-class i
farms can be purchased  on which more than a
sufficient quantity of timber suitable for firewood
exists.    South between the Assiniboine and Red
River; east and southeast, along  the  Red River '
and its tributary streams;, north and "northeast,
farmers owning wood lots find a good market in
Winnipeg for firewood, which they can market
when work is slack on their farms, thus obtaining
a revenue from that source, which assists them in
paying for their lands and procuring stock and
implements. Many settlers within twenty miles
of the city have availed themselves of this source
of profit.
Plenty of rolling prairie occurs in the 20 mile
belt about Winnipeg, giving a sufficient area of
hay lands to provide an abundance of grazing
lands in summer and stores of fodder for winter
use. The qualities of the native grasses for stock-
raising are so well known that it is needless to
dwell on the subject; suffice it to say that the
milk, butter and cheese brought into the city by
local farmers is of the very richest and finest
quality produced in the Dominion, and the butter
took first prize at Toronto against all comers
throughout Canada. There is always a ready sale
in Winnipeg for hay, cash down being the terms
of payment. Pork packing establishments already
exist, and it is expected that meat canning will
soon be undertaken, thus offering a special inducement to stock-raising.
Methodist Wesley College, and the Manitoba Medical College-afford the most complete facilities for
obtaining a superior education for young men.
Several colleges for young ladies are also accessible. The Winnipeg public schools, which are
treated of more fully in another column, are open
free to all settlers choosing to take advantage of
them, as many already do. Winnipeg also has a
General Hospital, with a furnished capacity of 70
beds, where the most experienced and able medical-
men are in attendance.
Some- municipalities," such as Springfield, Kildonan and Macdonald for example, have, with
commendable wisdom, expended-considerable sums
on roads and ditches. The people residing within
twenty miles of Winnipeg in these municipalities,
have access to the city at seasons of the year by
first-class roads, the rivulets been spanned by strong,
permanent structures—a standing testimonial to
the energy of the' inhabitants and their abiding
faith in the portion of the Province in which they
have chosen their homes. One result of the construction of ditches has been to prove that in places
where the lands had been considered too- wet in
some seasons, they only required to have the surface water drawn off and the ditches kept open, to
may be found an abundance of wood, in the
form of bluffs or islands, interspersed with areas
of rich, open prairie land. Too many visitors
to the Northwest have visited Winnipeg, and
finding a prairie stretching out to the immediate
west of the city, have erroneously fallen into the
delusion that there is no timber in the neighborhood, while right before them to the south and
east are the wooded districts, on the east, especially, being the edge of the great forest stretching in
an unbroken line to Lake Superior. This forest
does not become dense immediately, but is presented in the form of alternate areas of timber and
open prairie for many miles eastward from the
banks of the Red River. This district is well
watered by the Red and Assiniboine rivers and
the host of 'small streams tributary to them.
Good water may be had at almost every point by
boring. Within the city limits there are fully
fifty wells bored down to the limestone, a depth of
from 40 to 60 feet About 35 of these wells are
owned by the corporation and afford a regular
supply of good water, which is used by a Targe
mass of the population. In certain localities, such
as Cook's Creek, Springfield, Rockwood and Victoria, springs' are common,, and water can be obtained by sinking wells from 12 to 25 feet    Many
As pointed out in another column the Government, educational and legal offices are here established, as well as religious institutions. All the
principal Canadian manufacturers of implements
have warehouses in Winnipeg, and parts of
machines can be repaired or replaced at a moment's notice. Binding twine, harness, tools,
pumps, etc., may be had at all times, a great
variety of quality and make being open for selection at competitive prices, such as can nowhere
else be found in the Northwest. The district is
well supplied with churches and schools. Almost
every section in several of the municipalities in
the 20 mile belt is within easy reach of a good
school, a church of some denomination and a
post office. The principal conventions of religious'
and educational bodies are usually held in Winnipeg, and are open to the visits of the public
interested in them. Having daily mails in
almost every case from 10 railroad routes,
and excellent mail service from the local post
offices, Winnipeg, in this particular, offers great
advantages to farmers residing in its vicinity. The
University of Manitoba, with the Presbyterian
Manitoba College, the Anglican St John's College,
the Roman Catholic   St.   Boniface   College, the
render them the richest and most productive lands
to be found in the country. The city corporation
has built a number of roads in various directions,
to meet those constructed by municipalities surrounding it on all sides, thus affording every opportunity to farmers to gain access to the city from
whatever locality they may come.
One of the first advantages an intending settler
in a new country should look carefully after is prox-.
imity to a ready market for his produce, and in this
respect the district around Winnipeg is one of the
most favored in the western portion of this continent. To have a city of over 26,000 population
within one, two or three hours' drive of home, is
of itself an advantage that few intending settlers
in the west can secure, and the fact that it can be
had near Winnipeg is due entirely to the train of
peculiar circumstances referred to at the commencement of this article, which have left lands
there still vacant. Winnipeg is the railway centre
as well as the metropolis of Manitoba, and towards
it all lines of railway in the province, ten in number, converge. The farmer, in marketing his wheat
there, can at all times secure from three to five
cents a bushel more for it, than he can get at any
of the outside towns of the province.   Thus the 1890
farmer marketing say 3,000 bushels annually of
that cereal will receive each year from $90 to $150
more for his crop, than he would if he marketed
the same at an outside point. It requires only a
novice in arithmetic to see that in a few years this
extra price for wheat would pay the cost of a farm,
at the prices for which lauds around the city can
now be bought. In fact a farmer could better
afford to pay five dollars an acre for land near
Winnipeg, than accept a gift of land at some of
the points three or four hundred miles farther from
the seaboard, and be assured of making the same
in a few years out of the extra price paid for his
wheat. In rough grain marketing the advantage
is even more noticeable, and specially in oats.
There is the only local market for this grain, where
a price beyond a shipping margin is paid, and not
unfrequently the farmer can in the city secure five
or six cents a bushel more, than can be paid at
smaller places where no local demand of any consequence exists, and where the market depends'
entirely upon exports. In every other product
of the farm besides grain the Winnipeg market
offers advantages, which are to be had in no other
town of the Canadian Northwest. The farmer's
butter, eggs, pork, beef and every other product
finds in the city an ever-ready and omnifarious
'cash market, in which he saves the toll taken by a
middleman in the country, and where he can sell
direct to the consumer, local dealer or exporter,
for in the city he has a local market with a larger
purchase his household necessaries, his clothing,
machinery, implements, lumber, general building
materials and other supplies as'economically as in
the older cities of the Dominion, and in no city of
Canada, containing the same population, can the
purchaser of merchandise find such a variety of
goods of every. class from which to select. In
short for either sale or purchase market, few if any
cities of 30,000 population offer such advantages as
are to be found in the Manitoba capital.
The number of immigrants into the United States
during 1889 was (says the New York correspondent of the Daily News of London) about 100,000
less than in 1888, when there were a little over
half a million. There has been a steady decline
since 1882, when the tide reached its highest
point, bringing into the country in that year
about 720,000 aliens. Germany continues to send
the largest number from any single country—nearly 100,000. England, Scotland, Ireland, and Wales
combined send about 140,000. From Norway and
Sweden the tide is still strong, as it has been for
many years, about 45,000 coming this year. The
totals for 1889 will complete the record for seventy
years, during which period accurate statistics have
been compiled. These will show that the United
States have received from foreign countries since
4820 an aggregate of about 15,000,000 people, of
whom Great Britain has sent about 6,000,000, Ger-
demand for his produce than that of all the other
towns of the province put together, and it is the
collecting point from which nine-tenths of the farm
produce exports of the whole Northwest are sent
in car-load lots to the outside world. It is necessary also for the intending settler to remember that the Winnipeg market is a cash one
in every line of produce. Grain, potatoes, beef,
pork, hides, wool, butter, cheese, eggs, fowls, milk
! and in fact anything the farm can be made to produce, can be sold at any time for spot cash in Winnipeg. This is more than can be said for the small
towns of this or any other new western country.
Too frequently the farmer has to truck and trade
his butter, eggs and such commodities, for the
goods of the country merchant, and in doing business upon such principles, it cannot be expected ■
that he can hold his own with men who are posted
in trading matters. Yet such are the disadvantages the pioneer may look for, if his local market
is in seme village or small town, and in many of
these he will rarely find a cash market for anything but his grain. It is with no intention of disparaging other sections that these facts about
markets are here mentioned. But it is well for the
intending settler to be made aware of these facts,
and take them into consideration when selecting
for himself a home in a new land. But it is not in
selling alone that the Winnipeg market offers
special advantages.    In the city the farmer can
many about 4,500,000, Norway and Sweden about
800,000, and France about 350,000. Ireland alone
has sent nearly 3,500,000.
Alex. Begg, of British Columbia, has been considering the servant giil question and has arranged
to have a number sent out from Scotland, provided
situations can be guaranteed for them beforehand.
He has arranged that those desiring domestics can
have them by leaving their names and guaranteeing their passage money, namely $80. This will
be deducted from the girl's wages at a certain stipulated rate per month.
"The experience of the Northern transcontinental routes during the past month," said a Great
Northern official in St. Paul, Minn., recently,
" shows plainly that they will soon be universally
recognized as the winter routes to the Pacific coast
The further north you go the less danger there is
from snow blockades. The Northern Pacific had
much less such interruptions than did its more
southern competitors, while the Manitoba Pacific
route had even less than its nearest neighbor. The
Canadian Pacific had little or no trouble with snow
during the time when the heavy snow storms made
travel through the Sierras, the Blue mountains
and New Mexico a thing impossible; we have
never known a winter during which our trains,
both through and local, arrived and departed so
By D. Mclnlyre, Inspector of Protestant Schools
for the City.
The following brief outline of the Protestant
schools of Winnipeg may furnish a partial answer
to intending settlers who are making enquiry as to
the facilities afforded by our city for the education
of its young people. It must be borne in mind,
however, that there is also a system of Roman
Catholic schools which provides for children of
that denomination, while in addition to the elementary and secondary schools in operation under
the respective systems there are four denominational colleges, making liberal provision for the
higher education. These colleges, as well as the
medical school, also situated in Winnipeg, are in
affiliation with the University of Manitoba, which
alone has the power of granting degrees.. The
Normal School, maintained by the Provincial
Government, and devoted exclusively to the professional training of teachers who have previously
received the requisite academic education, has also
its home in this city.
The Protestant schools of Winnipeg are organized under authority of the general school act Their
administration is in the hands of a local board of
trustees elected by popular vote. Provision is
made for both elementary and secondary education. The Provincial Government pays to the
board of trustees $150 per year for each teacher in
its employ, and $100 additional for each teacher
engaged in the High School. The remaining
revenue required is raised by assessment. Admission to all grades is free. The course of instruction in the elementary departments extends over
eight years. During the first four years of this
time the pupil is occupied with the instrumentary
branches. Reading, writing, spelling, the fundamental processes of arithmetic, including the
simpler fractions, oral and written composition
form the staple of the teacher's work. Elementary
geography is also taught, while oral lessons in
physiology and hygiene are given, with special
reference to the effect of narcotics and stimulants.
The work in the subjects mentioned is extended
during the remaining four years, while Canadian
and British history, grammar, bookkeeping, algebra to the end of simple equations, and one book
of Euclid are added. The pupil who has completed this course can express himself correctly
either orally or in writing on all subjects within
the range of his knowledge, can write a legible
hand with a degree of rapidity and has an intelligent knowledge of the chief events the
history of the race to which he belongs. He
should know the important facts in the geography of the world, and be master of so much
arithmetic as is requisite for the ordinary purposes of commercial life. In dealing with the
subjects of instruction, while it is borne in mind
that the knowledge communicated should be of
such a kind and so presented as to aid the pupil
in the solution of the problems of every day
existence, it is never forgotten that character is
the highest product of the educative process.
Pupils are admitted to the High School on
passing an examination on the subjects of the
elementary course. Provision is here made for
the critical study of representative English authors, along with the history of English literature ;
an advanced course in composition is pursued;
English "nd general history receive careful attention ; bookkeeping, botany, chemistry and physiology, Latin, Greek and French, with an extended
course in elementary mathematics, are included in
the programme. Many of the students prepare
for the examinations for teacher's certificates conducted by the Board of Education for the Province, and for matriculation into the University of
Manitoba. The examination in view determines
the selection of subjects. For those who do not
mean to take either of these examinations, a selection is made with a view to general business
purposes. In all cases the aim of the school is to
prepare pupils of all classes for the highest citizenship. This it is believed is the true function of
a public High School, and the justification for its
existence. The preparation for special examinations is only an incident, important as being a
step towards the real end, but yet not the end.
From the foregoing outline some notion of the
scope and aims of the system may be gained.
A glance at the material conditions will show
what provision has been made for rendering it
effective. There are at present in possession of
the Protestant Board of School Trustees 12 buildings
containing 61 school rooms.    Fifty-nine of these mm
are in actual occupation, and are furnished with
seats and desks for 3,000 pupils. Ten of the 12
buildings are of brick, or brick-veneer. The
rooms are large and well lighted. In the four
largest buildings, containing 38 school rooms,
heating and ventilating apparatus is found, which
while it changes the air in the class rooms from six
to ten times per hour, maintains the temperature
between 63° and 70° Fht. in the coldest weather.
Commodious playgrounds are provided with each
building, that at the Central school covering an
area of about three acres. The estimated value
of sites and buildings is $185,000. The furniture,
valued at' $15,000, brings, the assets of the Board
up to $200,000. The expense of maintaining the
schools forjjthe past year was $50,000, exclusive
of amounts required for new buildings and sites,
and interest on debenture indebtedness of former
years. l   -
Three thousand pupils are enrolled during the
present month. 2,750 of these are in the elementary departments, and 250 in the High
School. Fifty-three teachers are employed in the
former and six in the latter division. In scholarship, professional skill and devotion to their duties
they are abreast of their fellow workers in any
part of Canada. With a school system intelligent-,
ly conceived, faithfully administered and liberally
supported, in addition to the other agencies
mentioned, it is believed that Winnipeg offers
ample facilities for the education of the children
of all who make
this city their home.
A few facts may
be given about the
colleges and university referred to in
Mr. Mclntyre's article. The oldest of
these is St. John's
College, Anglican,
the first educational
establishment started in the country,
which originated in
the Red River academy, in the early days
of settlement Some
30 years ago, under
Bishop Auderson, it
began to do college
work, candidates being prepared for
holy orders in addition to the ordinary
work of a boy's
school. It was reorganized by the
present Bishop of
Rupert's Land, and
now consists of the
college and college
school. It has a
faculty of theology
and  lecturers  who
prepare students for the university examinations
in arts, mathematics, natural science and modern
languages, as well as for the local legal and medical entrance examinations. An illustration is
given in this issue showing the portion of the college so far erected, comprising the north wing,
library and deputy warden's residence. This cost
about $60,000. The whole building, as planned,
is a magnificent structure. Another illustration
shows the boy's school, picturesquely situated on
the bank of the Red River, and the church, which
is the Cathedral of the diocese. It was erected in
1863 on the site of the first church built in the
settlement, and is an extremely plain and unassuming building. The churchyard surrounding
it is a beautiful spot, wonderfully like an old English country churchyard. Within its confines
are buried many of the men who have occupied
foremost positions here. It is also the resting
place of the Winnipeg volunteers who fell in the
Metis rebellion of 1880. Near by are Bishop's
Court, the residence of Bishop Machray, the
Deanery and the houses of the various masters.
The college school is the chief meteorological station of the Northwest.
St Boniface College, Roman Catholic, started
with a school which was opened there in 1818 by
Abbe Provencher, afterwards Bishop. In 1885
Bishop Tache, who had succeeded to the see, erected a building for the college, and in  1880 the
present commodious structure was commenced.
It is beautifully situated in one of the most pleasant and best wooded portions of the town, and
cost over $100,000. The course includes Greek,
Latin, French and English languages and literature, history, arithmetic, algebra, geometry, higher
mathematics, mental philosophy, natural science
and theology, as well as a commercial course.
Manitoba College, Presbyterian, was established
in 1871 at Kildonan, near Winnipeg, and in 1874
was removed to temporary quarters in the city.
In 1875 it was moved to a site on Main street, not
far from the present C. P. R. station, and in 1881
the handsome building, of which au illustration is
given in this issue, was put up at a cost of about
$50,000. It is just a third of the whole building as
planned. In 1883 a faculty of theology was established, in addition to arts. The college now
admits female students, and several have already
graduated at the University.
Wesley College, Methodist, established in 1888,
embraces theology as well as arts. It at present
occupies temporary quarters, but will doubtless be
in a building of its own within the next year or
The Medical College, established in 1884, has a
well arranged building. Its classes are well
The University, so far, is only an examining,
not a teaching body. It includes the four denominational colleges   already   mentioned    and    the
medical college. Steps are now being taken to
add teaching to its work, and it is almost certain
that several chairs will be filled this year.
It has truly been said that the climate of Manitoba has been more discussed than that of any
other section of the North American continent,
and when cold weather is found approaching the
more southerly country, it is said it is a "Manitoba cold wave," or a "Manitoba blizzard." In
winter the cold is certainly great, but, if it is
cold, it is dry cold generally without wind, and
when one has passed a winter here it is found-
to be pleasant. Snow falls only to a depth of
from twelve to eighteen inches, and as a consequence frost penetrates the ground considerably,
which is certainly a benefit, the ground being
made mellow thereby, and giving a moisture
supply which grasses and roots would not otherwise have. Spring opens usually the first week
in April, which is certainly a fine month, with no
rains, giving farmers the very best opportunity to
get in their crops. May and June are the rainy
months, just the time that the crops need the
moisture. July and August have but little rains,
and occasional showers. The weather then- is
warm during the day, but there are cold nights and
heavy dews. Harvest begins from" August 15 to 20.
September is the best month of the whole, while
October is rather blustery with some wet, and just
the time for fall plowing. Winter begins about
Nov. 15, but it is not until December that the cold
becomes intense. December, January and February are the coldest months, yet they are bright
bracing and healthy. This is not the home of the
blizzard, and such a thing is almost unknown, and
we leave it where it rightly belongs, in the United
States south of the 49th parallel. There is not a
more healthy climate on the face of the globe.
Twenty-five degrees below zero here does not chill
one half as much as freezing point - does -in the
east, or any place where there is a damp atmosphere. It is a bracing, dry, exhilarating climate,
where one feels able to stand any amount of exercise without getting fatigued..
The pictorial papers have ever illustrated Canada by winter sketches, ice palaces, snowshoe exhibitions and other like scenes, making very
charming pictures, but all suggestive of arctic regions and an intense degree of cold, so that Canada, particularly Manitoba and the Northwest, is
lever associated .with frost and snow and rigorous^
winter. Whereas, for six months in the year along
the chain of the Canadian Pacific Railway, "from
the Atlantic to the Pacific ocean, the boundaries
of this vast dominion, stretch millions of acres
where the artist's pencil can find innumerable '
scenes of  sylvan   beauty,   wood   and. waterfall,
which, faithfully portrayed, 'would give
a more correct idea
of Canada when limned in a temperature
of semi-tropical
warmth. Two
months of what in
other countries,
would be denominated bracing weather,
when the whole face
of nature presents a
phantasmagoria of
bewildering beauty,
when the roads and
prairies are gorgeous
with the varying
hues of nature's decay—a scene which
sight alone can realize, for the words of
the poet, the pen of
the traveller or the
brush of the artist
must fall short in depicting, describing
and portraying the
glorious beauty, the
innumerable blended tints of vegetable
decay present. Therr*
comes four months
of undoubted 'winter ; no rain ; snow
falling principally at
night; days of bright
sunshine, when the rays of old Sol make themselves gratefully felt through an atmosphere registering 30° and reaching 50° below zero, then during the midday hours not unpleasantly cold, for
this low temperature is attended by almost real
stillness, and the absence of all superfluous moisture in the surrounding atmosphere renders the
cold far less penetrating than that of a foggy day
in New England in November, or a damp day in
Chicago. No doubt there are a few days in -winter
when the elements are masters of the situation,
and to defy them is absurd, but where is the climate and where is the country to be found entirely
enjoyable throughout the year and free from all
drawbacks ? All countries have some points unfavorable ; there is no perfect climate under the
sun. But the climate of Manitoba is above all
other countries the most favorable for transplanting the Saxon race and perpetuating that stalwart
physique for which that race is remarkable. It is
.in its hygienic sense that the climate of Manitoba
excels, and, if it were better understood, physicians
would gladly avail themselves of adding another
field to those already known where climate influence is chiefly depended upon for the arrest of
disease and the repairment of its ravages. That
the climate of Manitoba exercises a most salutary
effect on the incipient stage of chest troubles-is a
well established fact, demonstrable by hundreds of
cases.    The pine forests of the Engadine   have
■ i n—iin)i wmy«*»aM
been for a long time a favorable resort for the
phthisical patients and the mild climate of Algeria, which as winter quarters must always
hold its own. But it is probable that in no
part of the world will climatic influences do
more for the arrest and removal of lung trouble in
the early stages than this climate for at least five
months, from the middle of April to the middle of
September. Scattered throughout the Northwest
are groves and belts of gigantic coniferae, in comparison with which the Engadine firs would sink
into insignificance; so that if the vicinity of this
timber exercises a prophylactic influence, one's
hut may be pitched in pine groyes overhanging
magnificent lakes, abounding in fish, and amidst
scenery of sylvan beauty, on ground rarely trodden by the foot of man. Through such a country
the tourist may wander for hundreds of miles,"
and for the first time realize the feeling of absolute freedom.
Dr. T. Graham Phillips, M. D., Medical Health
- officer of the city, says :—"Few cities having, the
same population as Winnipeg can show a less
death rate, it being fifteen in the thousand annually, forty-six per cent of which, according to Dr.
Neilson, the statist   for  the   Dominion   Govern-
- ment    are   children   under five   years   of   age,
. many  of  whom   come   from   foreign   countries,
and are exhausted by the long journey. Quite
a number have died from zymotic disease within
the last few years,
doubtless imported
by immigrants
from other parts,"
chiefly Ottawa and
Montreal, where it
prevailed to an
alarming extent. A
number of cases
along the Canadian Pacific Railway, from Port Arthur to Vancouver,
as well as many
idiopathic cases,
occurring all over
the Province of
Manitoba and the
Northwest, are sent
to the General
"Hospital in Winnipeg. Besides quite
a number of consumptives, in the
advanced and
hopeless stages of
the disease, coming to Manitoba
from other countries'to be benefitted by its well
known salubrious
climate, annually
die. All these cases
should very properly be deducted
from the temporary rate of mortality    mentioned
above, so that the normal death rate of the city of
Winnipeg when the waterworks, sewerage and
other systems of hygiene and improved sanitation
are perfected, which will be in the near future,
will, I venture to say, be far less than in any other
city of the same population in the Dominion. The
almost total absence of malaria in Manitoba and
the Northwest territories no doubt contributes
largely to so desirable a result."
short notice, and experience has shown that the
retailers and country merchants take full advantage of the situation. The railway corporations
recognize Winnipeg as one of the principal wholesale depots of Canada, and deal with its wholesalers on that basis. While it is impossible to give
in detail, within the limits of a short article, a full
list of the lines of goods handled by the wholesale
trade of the city, it will be sufficient, after making
the general statement that all the wants of a mixed community are supplied, to specify the following as a partial list of leading lines':—wholesale
dry goods, clothing, millinery, fancy goods and
notions, stationery and paper, furniture, leather
and findings, boots and shoes, china and glassware,
groceries, liquors, tobacco and cigars, drugs and
chemicals, hardware, iron, stoves and furnaces,
gas and plumbers' goods, oils and paints, teas and
coffees, sugar, soap, furs, meats, biscuits and confectionery, lumber, coal, arms and sporting goods,
agricultural implements, flour, grain, seeds, fruits,
jewellery, watches and clocks, pumps and fixtures,
mill supplies, marble and granite goods, and
aerated waters. Various industries are already
established in Winnipeg, including furniture and
upholstery, brooms and brushes, oatmeal, flour
and grist mills, awnings, tents and mattrasses,
bookbinding, carriage works, soda water, breweries, meat curing and packing, bricks and tiles,
boiler and machine shops, foundries, biscuit,  con-
^^t*.?.'- ^.-i^L'.
By C. N. Bell (Secretary Board of Trade.)
Naturally Winnipeg is the centre for the wholesale and jobbing trade of the great Northwest. Immense stocks of goods and merchandise, covering
all varieties required to supply the wants of the
districts devoted to grain production, stock breeding and cattle ranching, mining, lumbering and
fishing, as well as the more diversified demands of
the city, town and village people, are to be found
in the handsome buildings, supplied with all modern conveniences and appliances, which are a
marked feature of the city's edifices. Shipments
are daily made to points over 1,000 miles distant,
so extensive a range of country is supplied from
this well stocked central market. The complete
railway systems radiating from Winnipeg afford
great facilities to the retailer in the Province and
and Territories for the securing of his stocks at
fectionery and bakery products, coffee and spice
mills, harness and saddlery, marble works, tinware,
sash, doors and boxes, paper boxes, saw mills,
cigar factory, oil mills, plumbing and gas fitting,
tanneries, soap, etc. Inquiries are constantly
made of the Board of Trade, from foreign and
other capitalists, as to the necessity and feasibility
of establishing other and additional manufactories,
and indications point to investments of a considerable amount of money in new branches of industries in the city ere many months.
While no accurate statistics have been compiled
to show the actual amount of the volume of
trade centered in the city these are not required
to get an impression of the business transacted.
The following chartered banks have branches in
Winnipeg:—Bank of Montreal, Bank of British
North America, Imperial Bank of Canada, Union
Bank of Canada, Bank of Ottawa, Merchants
Bank of Canada, and the Commercial Bank of
Manitoba has its head office here, the combined
capital represented being nearly $30,000,000, with
some $12,000,000 of reserve funds. These .banks
have agents in all parts of the world. A large
number of English and Canadian loan and investment companies, representing an enormous
amount of capital, have general agency offices
in the city. The leading life aud fire insurance j
companies   of   Great   Britain,   Canada   and   the
United States have offices as well. An active
Board of Trade, incorporated by the Dominion
Government, exercise all the functions usually undertaken by such bodies, and closely watch the
business interests of the city. The headquarters
of the Manitoba grain and flour trade are to be
found in the rooms of the Winnipeg Grain and
Produce Exchange, which comprises in its membership the principal millers, grain dealers and
exporters of the Province, as well as many of
the leading grain exporters of the Dominion, resident in Eastern Canada. The Northwest Commercial Traveller's Association, with a membership of
220, is one of the city's business organizations
that illustrates the extent of the wholesale trade
conducted with the country. to the west and
the northwest. The Bell Telephone Company
control the telephone business, and have 700
instruments in use within the city limits. Two
electric light and one gas companies supply both
street and house light. Street cars run on the
principal thoroughfares. Many miles of mains
distribute water for public and domestic purposes,
though the service is not compulsory, and in
parts of the city public wells and other contrivances are resorted to for a water supply. The
city is now in negotiation with the waterworks
company to purchase their property and privileges, with the object of controlling the water
service as a public one.     While   this article is
not intended
to cover the
ground of the
ordinary handbook the following public
works undertaken by the
city will give
an idea of the
size and importance of the
place. At the
present time
119 miles of
sidewalks, 83
miles of graded streets, 9
miles of paved
streets, 21
miles of sew-
ers, 41 fire
tanks, 40 public wells and
4 public drinking fountains
are owned and
maintained by
the corporation. A com
plete and well
managed fire
brigade, with
full equipment
of s t e a m e rs,
chemical engines, &c, are
on duty night
and day in
three conveniently situated fire halls, alarms being
given by means of an excellently arranged electric
system. The police force consists of picked men,
the minimum standard of height being 6 feet
Postal and telegraphic arrangements are provided
to meet every requirement. A street postal delivery is in operation. The following description
of the appearance of the city, as it strikes a visitor, is extracted from an article sent to a great
American daily last summer by a travelling
" This brief sketch will give you some idea of
the metropolitan city Of Manitoba, and one which
Lord Dufferin, when governor General of Canada,
so aptly named, ' - the Bull's Eye of the Dominion.''
This city is not as regularly laid out as many of the
new cities on the other side of the forty-ninth
parallel, owing to the original owners having become possessed of their lands by measuring from
the river front, thus giving various angles and
breadths. The city shows this now. The part
laid out by the Hudson Bay Company and contiguous to old Fort Garry has been most regularly laid
out at right angles. Main Street has scarcely a counterpart on this continent It was laid out
by the government of Assiniboia in 1835, and was
originally a colonist road, extending from West
Lynne on the international boundary near Pembina
to Lake Winnipeg, and had an established width 12
of two chains, or 132 feet This great highway has
never been allowed to be encroached upon. It
follows the windings of the river at a pretty regular
distance, or rather the Indian trail. As a consequence the road is winding, and the result is that
Main Street is far from straight But herein lies
its beauty. For two and a half miles it has been
paved with block pavement, with eighteen-foot
walks at each side, with only enough rise from a
perfect level to drain itself. On either side are
palatial warehouses and stores, and, the architecture being so varied, the changes are certainly
unique. You think you are coming to the end
of the street when lo! another and a finer view
opens out; and this change is more than once or
twice. The view at the City Hall is one that cannot
be easily forgotten. Looking south on the right
is the city hall, a model building, and of choice
architectural design, with its turrets, balconies and
steep roofs, in front the monument erected to the
volunteers who fell a couple of years ago in the
Metis rebellion; further on the handsome business
blocks, and the view is closed by the mammoth
Hudson Bay Company's store, and the bridge across
the Assiniboine. On the left, and near at hand, is
•the post office, built of white limestone and red
brick, massive and plain, while beyond are numerous banking and other blocks, and the iron-fronted
Cauchon block closes the view.   Turning north
ward you see almost to the Canadian Pacific station,
a mile away, and either side is seen lined with
and every advantage is taken of these eligible
building sites. Winnipeg is a handsome city, and
the march of improvement can be seen in all directions."
Some slight idea is had of the foreign trade of
Winnipeg by reference to the  customs returns.
The returns for the Province of Manitoba for 1889
were as follows:
Value  of  dutiable, -goods* imported
during the year ending June 30,
1889 ...'... -t:       $1,797,293
Value of free goods  410,021
Duty collected  549,458
Of this amount of duty $473,659 was collected in
the Winnipeg Custom House.
Value for above year ......... $782,606
Nothing is more erroneous than the general idea
that an inspection of the customs returns, from
Manitoba gives a full index to the volume of trade
conducted into and out of this province. Foreigners who search the Dominion blue books and
accept the figures therein contained as of the same
value, as say English custom house returns, are
totally misled as to the trade of Manitoba. The
truth is that the Northwest consumes large quantities of goods imported into Canada the duties on
which are credited to Montreal, Toronto and other
and measures, food products examiners, coal oil
and gas inspection, post office inspection, grain,
flour, and hide and leather inspection, intelligence
office, emigration, Receiver General, Government
Savings Bank, and other offices for the Canadian
Northwest are placed in the city on account of its
importance and central position. Winnipeg is also
the Provincial capital and in consequence the
Manitoba Legislature, government departments of
agriculture and statistics, Attorney General, public-
works, Treasurer and Provincial Secretary, with
the Registrar General of lands have their official
headquarters within the city limits. The- superior
courts are held here, which entails the attendance
of the principal barristers and attorneys of the
Province. With other government institutions, the
institute for the deaf and dumb is placed here.
The regular troops on duty in' Manitoba are in
barracks in the city, and the volunteers with headquarters here cover corps of cavalry, field artillery
and the line. The head offices of the Hudson Bay
Company (in America), the great land companies,
and in a word all the great corporations doing
business in this country, find it not only convenient, but necessary, for the proper transaction
of their affairs to have their chief offices in what has
been termed by a Governor General '' the heart
city of Canada.'' The Winnipeg General Hospital
is an institution which the city may well be con-.
gratul a ted on maintaining, for the great part, by her
own contributions.   The poor and suffering receive
buildings filled with all kinds of merchandise. On
the parallel streets are the brick blocks occupied
and these great warehouses will compare favorably
with those of any other city. There will be a
large amount of street pavement done this season,
and, as a thorough system of sewerage has been
put in, the city will be second to none in the excellence of its streets. Although on a prairie, tree
planting has been very successful, and the residence portion will soon have avenues with stately
trees with plenty of shade. The city has more and
better walks than any city you visit. Portage
Avenue is another colonist road, extending from
Main Street west to Portage la Prairie, of the same
width as Main Street, and following the windings
of the Assiniboine River. This has been paved
for some distance, and is bound to become one of
the principal business streets, although at the present Main Street has the lead. The wholesale
trade will no doubt look after this main thoroughfare. The principal residence portion of the city
is south of this avenue, and is near the parliament
and other public buildings,' although Fort Rouge,
as the part of the city across the Assiniboine is
called, holds it own with any part of the city for
elegant residences and pleasant drives. The main
street in this part is also paved, and it is a favorite
driving boulevard. The river banks are heavily
wooded, and extend some distance from the river,
eastern ports, as the merchandise is entered and
duty paid at those ports. Consequently Ontario
and Quebec show large customs collections rightly
belonging to Manitoba. Take the matter of exports for instance. In 1888 it should appear we
only exported direct to foreign countries produce
to the value of $789,983, of which the item of raw
furs to England covered $585,012. What became
of the 15,500,000 bushels of wheat that we sent out
(as wheat and flour) in 1888-89 via the C. P. R. to
Ontario and Quebec ? When English and Scotch
wheat and flour merchants are regularly quoting
and selling Manitoba hard wheat and flour, it may
be seen that Montreal is getting the credit of our'
exports, because they leave that port in vessels for
Great Britain.
The Winnipeg Customs House books show that
last year goods from the following countries were
entered for duty at this port: Great Britain,
United States, France, Germany, Holland, Belgium, Spain, Portugal, Switzerland, Australia,
Italy, Denmark, China, Japan, British West Indies,
Brazil, British East Indies.
Winnipeg is not only the commercial capital of
the vast extent of country lying between Lake
Superior and British Columbia and north of the
International line, but it is the centre for the Federal Government offices situated therein. The head
lands and timber offices of the Dominion Government for the west are located here. The principal
custom houses, registry of shipping, excise, weights
here the most careful andhumane treatment in well
appointed buildings at the hands of skillful and
experienced medical men and nurses. During the
week preceding the date of this article 73 cases
were treated, the afflicted persons coming from all
parts of the province. A Maternity Hospital and
Training school for nurses are attached to the
parent institution. The Children's Home is another
instance of the charitably disposed persons of
Winnipeg working for the poor and homeless. The Christian Women's Union conduct
children's night schools and perform other good
work. Winnipeg is justly proud of her athletic
associations. The senior four of the Winnipeg
Rowing Club are champions of America, having
met and defeated the best amateur oarsmen "of the
Continent last summer at Chicago. In curling our
clubs stand prominent and by holding the Gover-'
nor General's trophy are the acknowledged champions of Canada. In cricket, lawn tennis, lacrosse,
snowshoeing, bycicling, foot ball and rifle shooting,
the youth of Winnipeg are well known to the
Canadian public. Social clubs of all kinds are a
special feature of private life, while in secret aud
other societies there is a plethora. Freemasonry
in nearly all its grades, Oddfellowship, Forestry,
Knights of Pythias, A. O. U. W. temperance, &c,
are well represented. The societies for benovel-
ence of St. Andrew, St. George and St. Patrick are
well organized and do much good and useful work.
Musical and dramatic associations are not wanting. ™-
The Manitoba and Historical Society maintains a
public library and museum, and has published a
large number of valuable papers dealing with subjects coming within the scope of its operations. A
large number of churches are to be found in all
quarters of the city, and according to the census
taken in 1886 by the Dominion Government the
religions of the people were as follows :-^5,962
Church of England, 5,271 Presbyterians, 3,217
Methodists,. 2,244 Roman Catholics, 1,357 Lutherans, 847 Baptists, 584 Congregationalisms, 510 Jews,
109 Protestants general, 21 Brethren, 13 Disciples,
11 Unitarians,' 5 Adventists, 5 Free Baptists, 5
Quakers, 3 Universalists, 46 not given, 21 other
denominations, 7 no religion. The Y. M, C. A. is
an influential and active body, with a large membership, which maintains open rooms and a library
besides covering the usual field.
Year by year it is found that Manitoba's natural
resources are greater and more varied than has
been supposed, and just in proportion to such
revelations does the probable future growth and
importance of Winnipeg appear to increase. At
one time Manitoba was supposed to be a purely
wheat country, and now it has been proved beyond all doubt that it is also a dairy country of
the first class. Creameries are in operation all
over the province, their output being sent to Winnipeg for disposal by local consumption and export.    Train loads of the fattest and best of cattle
acres line the shores of the lake, which is nearly 300 miles in length. Capital is required to
work these mines and erect the necessary blast
The fishing grounds of Lake Winnipeg, Manitoba, Winnipegoosis and hundreds of smaller
bodies of water have scarcely been touched on
yet, and already the exports to the United
States amount to nearly 2,000,000 pounds per
year. Illustrating the unrivalled quality of the
larger sized whitefish (some of which weighing
up to 13J pounds each have been exposed for
sale in the city this winter) it may be said that
the market in Toronto and New York to the
east, Minneapolis and Kansas City to the south,
and Vancouver to the west, receive regular shipments from Winnipeg. The fish are frozen, both
naturally and by artificial means, and kept in
that condition in freezing houses for shipment
at any season, so that they are turned out fresh
and firm.
Building stones and brick clays are fonnd in unlimited quantities near to the city, and the tall and
stately edifices lining the streets of Winnipeg bear
testimony to their appearance and quality. The
coal mines of the west and southwest are being
worked, and the product supplies, to a great extent, the Wants of Winnipeg and the rural districts
where firewood is not utilized. So vast are the deposits of coal that, thousands of square miles are
when mixed with straw. A large business, as well
as a profitable one is assured. There is only one
paper mill in the country, and only the coarsest
descriptions of paper are made. Wood pulp for
the manufacture of pressed woodenware can be
obtained in any quantities.
Sugar is another industry which will be started
here, and one which will pay. The soil here is
particularly adapted for beet raising, as the roots
nave the best nourishment that can he had anywhere from this rich soil, yielding over 300 bushels
to the acre. The freights on sugar would make
great profits, and whoever engages in this industry
cannot fail in making a fortune. The raw material
can be supplied at the least paying price.
Manitoba is noted for the excellence of its potatoes, and the farmers frequently do not know what
to do with their prodigious crops, picking out the
larger ones for market and for winter supply, and
letting the others rot. By starting a starch factory
a market would be found for all surplus, and the
demand would no. doubt equal the supply. There
has been great demand in the Southern markets
for Manitoba potatoes, certain species being preferable, and no better paying crop can be put in
on any farm, the yieldf being so large, and the
labor to raise such a crop being at the minimum.
Such potatoes as do not command the highest
market price could easily find their value at a
starch factory.
were shipped last year to Eastern  Canada and
The gold bearing rocks of the Lake of the
Woods, while not within the political boundary of
Manitoba, are so close to it that for all commercial
purposes that district may be said to be largely
tributary to Winnipeg for. its supplies. Reduction
works are now in course of construction at Rat
Portage*, and already large quantities of gold ore
are awaiting the crusher.
In Lake Winnipeg, on Black Island, within 100
miles of the city, are two large and valuable deposits of iron ore Four tons of this ore were
shipped to the Car Wheel Works of J. H. Bass
& Co., Chicago, Illinois, for treatment. They
certify as follows:—"After being purified we
operated upon it in various ways, and have produced carburet of iron, iron, steel and paint. We
further say that the quality of this ore is far superior to anything yet brought to our works for treatment as from its composition it works and smelts
much easier and with less fuel, and contains its
own flux, melting in a common cupola furnace
without any other addition except fuel, and we
are fully satisfied that with proper furnaces these
ores can be made to produce all the grades of iron
and steel required for commercial purposes."
Vast forests of timber most suitable for the
manufacture of superior charcoal are on the island adjacent to the iron deposits, ■* and any
quantity reaching  to  hundreds of thousands of
underlaid with them. In the early days of the
first existence of Manitoba as a province of the
Dominion practically all the salt consumed in this
western country was obtained from deposits in the
neighborhood of Lake Manitoba, but in sections
somewhat remote from the present lines of railroad,
so that the poor facilities*for transport yet existing
have not induced the manufacture of quantities
sufficient to supply the requirements of the population. It is, however, only a question of time
when these salt deposits will be drawn on for the
entire supplies demanded in the Northwest. Traces
of petroleum have been discovered west of the salt
deposits in the Devonian formation which shows
itself there. Geologists predict that stores of the
fluid will be discovered when the broken country
there is thoroughly explored.
In this climate one of the chief building materials is paper, as it makes a warm house, when used
with wood in building. As a consequence immense
amounts of it are used, and it comes here from
long distances, the freight being the principal item
in its cost. Here the raw material—straw—can be
had ;n abundance, and at certainly a lower price
than it can be got elsewhere, the straw being so
abundant that it has, in many cases, to be burned
to be got rid of. Paper mills would give a market
for this excess of straw, and not only_ building
paper, but the coarser kinds of wrapping paper.
And not only that, but there is a.plentiful supply
of - cottonwood, just the material  for print papers
There is no better point than this at which to
locate a pickling factory. Here all kinds of cauliflower, onions, cucumbers, and such like come to
maturity, and of an excellence to produce an
article to compete with the best made anywhere.
The material is as good, if not better, than any
that can be found anywhere, and there is already a
good market ready to hand. Pork and meat factories and curing establishments are already situated
here. Meat canning will become a paying business
as soon as the country is more fully developed. It
can be done here cheaply, being so near the supply
point, and this business cannot fail in reaching
gigantic proportions, the ranches near the Rocky
Mountains giving an inexhaustible supply when
joined to the product of the herds on the Manitoba
These industries are only a few of those that
might be mentioned, and are referred to as instances where capitalists seeking investments
should make enquiries. A new country like the
Canadian Northwest, rapidly being developed,
offers a field for investment such as cannot be found
in older lands.
New York parties have arranged with Vancouver,
B.C., city council, to erect a sugar refinery there*
with a minimum capacity of 100 barrels daily. The
city gives $30,000 towards a site and exemption
from taxation for 15 years. The works are to be
in operation within eight months. 14
The Wester Wotp.
Which is larger than that of any other periodical in Canada
published -west of Lake Superior, and is equalled by only some
half dozen publications in the whole Dominion.
The Western World is published on the.'15th of each
Head OFFiCE-^-Caldwell Block, opposite the Post Office,
Winnipeg, Manitoba.
A Branch General Office will at once be established in
"Vancouver, and other branches, for the receiving of Advertisements and Subscriptions, will shortly be opened in Montreal,
Toronto, New York and Chicago.
Subscription Price to Canada or the United States $2 a
year ; to Europe $3.25, or Ss. od. sterling.
Advertising Rates—35 cents per nonpariel line, twelve
lines to an inch, 133 lines in a column. Rates for space of half
a column and over and for time contracts quoted on application.
Advertising copy should be sent in not later than the 7th of the
Address all communications,
Winnipeg, Canada.
—It may be well for the convenience of European readers to explain the abbreviations which
will be noticed as frequently used in these columns
after the names of places to distinguish the Province in which they are situated. Man. represents
Manitoba. The provisional districts of the Northwest Territories are abbreviated as follows: Assi-
niboia, Assa., Alberta, Alta., Saskatchewan, Sask.
B. C. represents British Columbia ; Ont Ontario ;
Que. Quebec; N. S. Nova Scotia ; N. B. New Brunswick ; and P. E. I. Prince Edward Island.
The most important question for immediate consideration in Canada west of the Great Lakes, is
that of immigration and the best means to secure
by it density of population and the thorough development of this vast extent of territory.
The publication of The Western World has
been decided on at the suggession of several persons actively engaged in colonization work, who
feel the necessity for a paper specially devoted to
the natural resources and advantages of this region,
and to the progress which is being made, and also
to refute, by indisputable facts, the many erroneous
statements made in regard to the climate and other
Boom statements and highly colored pictures
will be avoided, the truth being good enough to
tell. Everything bearing on the subjects above
mentioned will be carefully collated from current
publications and presented in condensed form,
supplemented by original articles by experienced
and practical men. Stories, sketches, poems, &c,
of western interest will also be published, and care
will be taken to omit nothing of value regarding
the development of the territory covered.
Tons of immigration literature, much of it worthless and exaggerated, have been issued, principally
in pamphlet form, but until now no attempt has
been made to supply a first class publication continuously and regularly, furnishing fresh and reliable information of current interest
The publisher is well aware that there is a strong
demand for such a magazine and it will be his constant aim, by the most scrupulous accuracy in the
• information furnished, to thoroughly establish The
WESTERN World as the standard authority on the
region to which it is devoted.
Considerable space is devoted in this issue to the
prairie capital, the largest Canadian city west of
Lake Superior. A perusal of the various articles
relating to it, particularly those on commercial
matters and on realty, will show that the city is established on a sound and permanent basis and that
the disastrous effects of the boom period have been
thoroughly effaced.    That there is a highly pros-
J perous  future before  it is  unmistakably felt by
I its people and that this confidence extends to outsiders is evidenced by the investments made here
I during the past year. Though less than fifteen
years old, Winnipeg possesses substantial and permanent improvements which are the wonder of
Eastern and European visitors.    Its citizens com-
| prise an enterprising class of men whose tireless
energy can not fail to keep it in the front rank of
progress and who, as the western prairies fill up
with settlers, will undoubtedly make of it the Chi-
| cago of the Canadian Northwest.
The farming resources of the Canadian Northwest have been most wonderfully developed within the few years that railroad communication has
made general settlement practicable, and the
spread of railroads over the country is not only the
strongest factor in its development but the best
evidence of its success. Ten years ago farming,
as it is now understood, had scarcely an existence.
Several years before 1880 there were outlying
groups of English speaking settlers at such points
as Westbourne, Gladstone, Carberry, Carman and
Nelson, but the Mennonites-were the only people
who had ventured to settle outside the shelter of
the timber along the river tracks, and no one
thought of raising grain or stock for export. It is
only nine years since the first locomotive crossed
the Red Payer of the north, and now the country
is covered with a network of railroads, unequalled
in the record of any new country's progress.
There are already three competing railroads entering the country, and two more, the Winnipeg and
Duluth, and the Hudson's Bay route, are certain
to be opened in the near future. The western
division of the Canadian Pacific Railway, with a
total of 2,000 miles, two-thirds of it in Manitoba,
the Northern Pacific and Manitoba with.266 miles"
built last season, the Manitoba and North Western
-with 240 miles, the Northwest Central with 50
miles, and further west the Qu'Appelle, Long
Lake and Saskatchewan and the Alberta railroads,
with others projected, show the confidence of the
financial world in the rapid and certain development of the districts they traverse. Railway companies do not go' on extending their lines every
year without having satisfied themselves that the
lands they go through will, when fully cultivated,
help them to pay satisfactory dividends.
The nature of the land and the conditions of the
country show why railroad extension has been
gone into so freely. In one year an industrious
man may break, backset and prepare for seeding
as much land as he could have cleared in fifteen in
the east, and it is easier to harvest a 40 acre crop
in Manitoba thairit would have been to do 20 in
the east. By the use of improved machinery one
skilled man with a team can put in .and collect a
crop, almost incredible to those familiar only with
the agricultural processes of older countries. In j
many cases too much dependence has been placed
upon those easy methods of cultivation and disappointment has followed. But men realty experienced in farming have been able, if prudent
and provident  to acquire in a few years means
enough to render them practically independent
Unfortunately, when the great rush of immigration-
took place in the three years following 1880, thousands of speculative adventurers came in, allured
by the promise of free homesteads, who  knew
next to nothing of farming,   and did not mean to
farm more than just enough to fulfil in the slightest way the easy terms on which the government
granted a title, and then sell their homesteads to
the next comers.   This speculative holding kept
out very many capable men,  who with' the same
opportunities could have done very much to advance their own fortunes and promote the general
prosperity of the country   Thousands of the best
and most prosperous men here are of this very
class, who coming with small means and much
energy and capacity have in a few years turned
the wild prairie into fruitful fields covered with the
unbeaten No. 1 hard red Fyfe wheat, which is the
boast and glory of Manitoba  and the Northwest
Mixed farming is now generally admitted to be
much safer than grain growing alone,  and the
rearing of cattle and horses as well as dairying is
now extensively   followed   everywhere.   With*-a*
million acres of land ready  for seeding' in Manitoba alone this season,  and a robust, skilful and
hopeful farming population now fully conversant
with the methods of husbandry most suitable to
the country,   Manitoba   has before her   a   most
promising future,    Her progress during the last
ten years is evidenced by the thousands of fine
farms found in every direction,   her prosperous
towns, her educational institutions, her religions
organizations, and all the varied manifestations of
a,prosperous and  progressive  people.     All she
needs to make her   future   progress   still   more
rapid, is more settlers of the right sort.
The Western World intends to show from
I time to time the resources of the great Canadian
j Northwest and Pacific regions, and it has full faith
i in the rapid development of these resources with-
! in a shprt period.    Considering that it is scarcely
ten years since these resources were made known
to the outside world and only five years since the
opening of the Canadian Pacific Railway on Canadian soil made the country west of Lake Superior
easy of access, the development of the Canadian
Northwest has been very wonderful. This development has certainly not been helped but a good
deal hindered by the climatic conditions of those
few years.   The year 1887 was one calculated to
give settlers and visitors of a doubtful turn   of
mind a revelation of the wonderful power of the
climate and soil of the new Northwest   It was
not uncommon in the winter following that fruitful year to see big piles of grain in bags tying for
weeks on railroad platforms,  and even  on   the
streets of one half the towns of Manitoba, simply
because the whole available means of transport
were not half sufficient to immediately carry out
the great crop of wheat harvested in the previous
season.   Old residents say that in the years immediately preceding the great rush of immigration
in the "boom" years of 1882-3 such crops were the
regular rule, that the seasons here, as elsewhere
in the world, run in cycles, and that according to
all previous experience the Northwest is now on
the eve of a period of abundance.   The past season was a very dry one.   The previous fall had
been equally dry and-the winter exceptionally
mild and fine with very limited snowfall, so that
the seed of 1889 was put in so dry, with a correspondingly dry summer following, that in many
cases the yield was discouraging.    But even these 1890
poor, yields have not been attributed by any one to
want of fertility in the soil, and the most capable
farmers of the country assert and have fully proved in their own experience that more thorough
-cultivation, and a more careful adaptation of their
methods of cultivation to the peculiarities of the
season would have enabled them in a great degree
to master the difficulties of the situation and produce capital paying crops, with even the limited
amount of rainfall which took place in the last
-crop year, the very driest ever known to settlers
The minimum yield of a new country is always
a safe criterion by which to estimate its farming
possibilities, and it is safe to say that the last was
just  such a season.     Notwithstanding   this fact
there are farmers all over the country, and in some
districts a great many of them, who can truthfully
report average yields running all the way from 15
to- 25 and' in some cases up to 30 bushels per acre
, for their whole wheat area, running from 50 to 200
i acres each.    And plenty of these men say with
• confidence that with the suggestions derived from
their experience last year,   with   more   suitable
methods of cultivation, already put to the test and
found satisfactory, they could so handle their land
as to ensure a paying crop in the worst possible
season.    But whether he is to be engaged in farming or any other line of business, no man of ordinary sound judgment makes his prospective estimates either from a year of splendid results or of
exceptional business losses and disappointments.
He takes the average of a number of years, the
best with the worst, and, to the best of his ability,
seeks to forecast whether the coming years are
likely to get above or go below that average, and
decides accordingly.   Tried by this common sense
view of the case the future merits of the Canadian
Northwest as a farming country are beyond question, and will bear any amount of fair investigation.    It is not contended, no prudent man would
seek to contend that there have not been already
or will not again be drawbacks and disadvantages
here as elsewhere in every line of business, farming not excepted, but it can be truthfully contended that to the right man, farming steadily and intelligently pursued, offers attractions and rewards
here rarely to be found elsewhere.    The boom of
1882 brought thousands of men here who had been
failures in every other place and in every other
line of business, who were in fact mere speculators
and adventurers.   These men,  knowing next to
nothing of real farming, but frequently launching
out into extensive schemes that nothing short of a
miracle could save from disaster, got hold of thousands of free homesteads, did in a way the limited
amount of duties required by the law, mortgaged
their lands for all the money they could get upon
them, and after doing all the harm they could,
had to leave or were driven out of the country,
where they had unfortunately got hold to the exclusion of better men.   There could be but one
form of experience for such adventurers, and serious loss and discredit to the country as the fruit
of their operations.    The aggregate experience of
the real farmer, the man who came not to get
hold of land as a means to lucky speculation, but
to make a home for himself and family, and by
steady and persevering industry build up at the
same time his own fortune and the prosperity of
the country, is the only-proper criterion to which
a careful enquirer can look for light on his own j
chances here.    It is precisely to the experience of f
this sort of farmers, who can be found everywhere, |
that The Western World would point the new
comer for light and leading.
One such case is given in detail on another page
of this issue. Mr. Alexander Nichol, a capable
and experienced farmer, now Reeve of his municipality, settled west of Brandon in 1882, and reaped his first wheat crop of five and a half acres the
following year, the yield being rather more than
35 bushels per acre. His last crop in 1888, the
worst season of his experience here, made an
average of 15 bushels on 220 acres sown. Part of
this was on hard stubble, plowed dry in the fall
and so left till spring, the worst possible, sort of
handling in such a year. Over his seven year's
crop, with one very good and two very dry season's,
he had an average of 30 bushels per acre for his
whole wheat crop. Deduct from this two year's
yield for fallow and depreciation, and there is still
left an average yield for a not too favorable cycle
of seasons of 21£ bushels obtainable from land
that did not costits owner $5 per acre and is now
worth double that money. This statement, publicly made six months ago by a man well known
in his own neighborhood, has never been
challenged, and as Mr. Nichol well says, "Mine
is not an exceptional case.' ■ There are scores of
men here, who were only tenants in Ontario or
farm hands in Great Britain, in the same enviable
position as Mr. Nichol. Where they were, their
chances for improving their condition were hampered and circumscribed. Here they own their
own land, with buildings, stock and general
equipment for their proper cultivation, and
families of farm servants from Great Britain
might be pointed to who in 'eight or ten years have
by settlement and purchase become possessors of
1,000 acres of land as good as that on which at
home they could never hope to rise above the condition of hired servants. And there are plenty of
such men who will readily testify that comparing
the advantages accruing from improved railroad
communications,- ready markets aud superior social
advantages, land at $10 per acre to-day is as cheap
as theirs, which cost in money only a few dollars -
of entry fees.
In view of these facts and such experiences is it-
not legitimate to come to the same conclusion as
Mr. Nichol when he says, "I am well pleased with
the country and the prospects before me, and think
that any one who is able and willing, to work, and
has some capital to start upon, can do well in this
country, a good deal easier than in the older
The letters of Messrs. John H. Griggs and of
Alexander Nichol, in another column of this issue,
indicate pretty plainly, both the sort of people who
should,   and the kind who should not try their
hands at farming in the Northwest.    The man who
gives a welcome ear to the pleasing fiction that you
only need to  "tickle the land and it will respond
with a laughing harvest,"  and carries out all his
operations with implicit confidence in that venera- j
ble fiction is not the man that will achieve permanent success in any line of farming yet tried here.
He must first of all know all he can of his business
before coming here.    One hears of young gentlemen who do not know the difference between a
hoe and a hay fork being sent out with .£150 premium in the expectation that their teachers are in >,
two years to transform them into capable western
farmers.    Such faith if foredoomed to disappoint- j
ment and all such plans to miserable failure.    The j
men who are to succeed here must have been
moulded in a somewhat different style.    However
their former experience may have differed from
what they must practice here, they must [have had j
experience of real work, but not of work alone.
Thought, skill, aptitude to learn from their own
successes and failures, as well as from observations
of the same things in other men's experience, careful, cautious, ready to turn their hands to anything,
and grudging' no pains to ensure the result they
aim at. Such farmers are not made anywhere in
a year or two, but when found they fill the bill and
rarely fail to secure success.
What is quite as much to the point is they could
not succeed anywhere else without just the very
same qualities as are wanted here. Sir Frederick
Young, speaking for South Africa at a recent meeting of the Colonial Institute, in London, said, and
the utterances of such a man ought to carry weight
" Colonization is a subject on which I wish to
say a few words. The definition given by Adam
Smith of the three elements of national wealth,
Land, Labour, and Capital, cannot be too often repeated. How to blend them in proper proportions
is a problem which has puzzled generations of
statesmen, philosophers, and philanthropists. I
have always been a warm advocate for colonization.
It appears to me to be a question of such supreme
national importance that I think it ought to be undertaken by the State. This, of course, means
that it is possible, as it is undoubtedly indispensable, to get a Government to act wisely and well.
In order to have a chance of its being successful,
colonization must be conducted on sound principles
and practice.
"In South Africa I have seen millions of acres
of fertile land—in Bechuanaland, in Natal, in the
eastern and western provinces of the Cape Colony,
to say nothing of the Transvaal—capable of supporting many thousands of our surplus population.
But I have also satisfied myself that it is no use
whatever to transplant those who are unfitted for
it. Instead of a success, certain failure will be the
result of an attempt so unwise. Colonial life is
alone suitable for the enterprising, energetic,
steady, and industrious men and women who are
determined, with patience and courage, to overcome the difficulties and trials which they must
certainly encounter on the road to ultimate success.
South Africa is a land of promise for them. It is
by no means so for the feeble, the self-indulgent,
the helplessly dependent class, of whom, unfortunately, we have so large a number in the over-
populated Old Country. Cordial co-operation with
the self-governing Colonies is also absolutely indispensable to ensure success in any national system
of colonization. It is equally essential that a strict
selection of the right sort of people should be
made. According too, to their positions in life,
they must be provided with sufficient means to
support them on their first arrival, while they are
settling themselves, and their crops are growing,
and they are enquiring knowledge of the natural
conditions of the new land, to which they have
been transplanted.
"These are the principles necessary to be observed in any nation's system of colonization. Thev
apply to all the other British Colonies equally with
South Africa, in order to prevent failure and command success."
What is most of all to the point, when the man
possessing in the requisite proportions, skill, industry and limited financial resources, wishes to
invest them in. a new country and make that country his future home, he wants to know where they
can be located to the best advantage, and here the
Northwest presents attractions that compare most
favorably with anything in the old world or the
new. Give him an acre of uncleared bush in the
very best spot open to free settlement in Eastern
Canada and the cost of the toil needed to clear
that rocky wilderness would buy two acres of the
best and costliest land in Manitoba. There can
not be any free land anywhere approaching in
attractiveness that which is now being settled upon
in the Lake Dauphin distriet of Manitoba. Much
is said of the fruitful lands of Kansas and
Nebraska in the United States. Last year and
three years ago they did have very large yields of
Indian corn, the staple crop down there. In the
first of those years the Chicago Tribune stated
cases in which after a car of corn  from Western 16
Nebraska was sold in that city the returns did not
cover the costs incurred after the corn had left the
farmers hands, and sometimes all he had back was
five cents a bushel. This year the price runs from
11 cents in out of the way towns to 15 cents in the
best markets of Kansas. Low as wheat rules in
the world's markets to-day, is there any chance of
its ever falling in value to the level indicated by
such prices as these ? There is the authority of
the St. Paul Pioneer Press, the leading paper in
Minnesota, U. S. A., for saying that while their
markets are glutted with corn from the heaviest
crop they have ever reaped, many farmers are
without money to buy the commonest necessaries
of life. A 50 bushel crop at 15 cents is only $7.50
per acre and the same crop at 12 cents is only §6.
This is for their best crop in their best season.
There are farmers in Manitoba who in 1888 drew
§30 per acre at the price of that one crop, got with
much less labor than any corn crop ever reaped in
Turning from the United States, it may be well
to enquire what attractions Australia offers to the
British farmer.   Not long ago a correspondent of
• an Edinburgh paper wrote as follows :—
" Those who come here, bringing a small capital
to embark in agriculture, are often grievously
disappointed. It is quite true that land is cheap,
and that conditional purchase leases are granted on
easj terms; but the British immigrant should
know that a great deal of the land is sterile,
heavily timbered, or, most important of all, without a sufficient water supply. The terrible droughts
to which Australia is subject render agriculture, in
New South Wales at least, an extremely precarious
investment, and few Australian capitalists would
care to put money in it. The farmers here are a
very different class from those at home, being
mostly Irish or German immigrants, who contrive
to eke out a scanty livelihood by cultivation of the
most primitive kind. Their social position is that
of an English laborer, and their lives ar&passed in
hard, monotonous toil. In bad seasons, which
here are of frequent occurrence, they get into debt
to the storekeepers, who are for the most part
money-lenders, and mortgage both their crops and
their farms; they are charged a high price for
commodities, fall further and further into arrears,
and not unfrequently, after years of labor, see their
homes pass into other hands. Of course, much of
this is owing to their ignorance of agriculture;
but it is doubtful if the most scientific farming of
the Lothians, backed by a fair amount of capital,
could guard successfully against the climatic influences, which are such terrible foes to the Australian farmer. Victoria, though subject to drought,j
has a climate better suited for agriculture than that
of New South Wales; but her territory is much
smaller, and almost all the land, except in out-of-
the-way places, is taken up."
But though the Canadian Northwest is in one or
other of its sections well worthy the attention of
intending emigrants from Europe, there are no
settlers so desirable as farmers and sons of farmers
from the older provinces of Canada, and these are
the men who can most readily comprehend the
attractions offered by wide stretches of fertile land,
ready for the breaking plow, and often with
scarcely a stone in the way of the pioneer's plowshare. To a man who has grown old before his time,
chopping, burning, stoning and stumping, the advantage of entering on land where a single man
with a yoke of oxen can in one working season
prepare 40 acres for a good wheat crop in the next,
needs no " booming." There is in some cases no
timber of any sort but by proper care nice shelter
belts can be secured in a few years time, and meantime, his fields are giving returns undreamt of in
the" days when the three cornered harrow was the
chief implement of husbandry and the cradle the
foremost means of cutting grain crops. No end of
testimonies might be offered from among the older
settlers here of the difference they have felt be
tween old times in the east and their pioneering
experience here. But as railroads spread and the
more difficult problems of cultivation are being
solved the troubles of the beginners get fewer, and
difficulties are smoothed out It is not pretended
that there are no "difficulties and draw-backs, but
it is safe to say that they are becoming every year
less formidable.
The cold is one of the first objections made.
But that has its own advantages, and the Jast winter which was an exceptionally mild one was one
which no old timer interested in farming would
wish to see repeated. The winter now closing has
been much more severe and with much more snowfall than some of those preceding it, and every
farmer notes the fact with- rejoicing as an augury
of a capital summer following. In the portion of
the United States to the north of the Canadian
Northwest there have been two mild winters in
succession, and this is the way the St. Paul Pioneer
Press speaks of the genial winters :—
" There is not a resident of Minnesota, we venture to say, who would not vote for a return of the
most rigorous season ever known to this latitude
rather than for a third visitation like that of last
winter and this. We have had a taste of the imported winter climate of the Southern zone, and it
is a taste that goes a long way. To begin with the j
business aspect, these phenomenally mild winters
are financially disastrous. We must confess to an
utter breakdown of the theory that they are helpful to the poor or beneficial to the laboring man.
But the worst effect is seen upon the public health.
We have no need to refer to the mortality records'
of the nation. There is prostration, sickness,
death everywhere. We suffer less than others, because we still have occasional days of the good,
old invigorating sort, when a breath from the north
gives us strength enough to sustain a siege of
lowering skies and steaming streets. But we, too,
have felt physically the assults of unseasonable
weather in an almost general prostration by the
prevailing malady. And the most inveterate corn-
plainer understands at last that there are more
deaths of young and old, in and following one of
these unseasonable winters, than' ever came from
severity of climate. There is no gain to match
the loss. The poor man has saved, perhaps, a few
dollars from his fuel bill; but he is much more
likely to have lost instead the means of purchasing
fuel, or he has consumed in doctors' bills several
times the amount of the saving. And so there is
one long cry, --oh, for a genuine Minnesota winter.
Let us have again the hyperborean breezes, laden
with ozone, that shall shrivel and crush these germs
that lurk in the moisture saturated air. Welcome
the white flag, with its central square of black,
that tells us of a wave on its journey from the frozen pole. Give us but a few weeks of our native
climate, and cheeks will be round and rosy, and
hearts full of cheer once more. And to the last
day of his life, though the seasons should be as
unexampled in their severity as these have been- in
their mildness, will the man who has passed
through the winters of 1888-90 never dare raise a
voice against a climate whose virtues we have not
sounded half as valiantly as they deserve.''
Mr. R. T. C. Cameron, writes from Falca, Chili,
under recent date, to the Winnipeg Free Press :—
"By a letter recently received from a friend in
Canada, I am told there are a great number of
Canadian railroad men about to leave for this country, and through the medium of your columns I
should like to warn anybody before taking such a
step. Before my departure from Canada for Chili,
I read a great deal in newspapers regarding the
railway projects which were to be carried out by
the Chilian Government through the medium of
an American syndicate, calling itself the North
and South American Construction company. The
accounts as given in the press, I found on my
arrival out here in April last were sad misrepresentations of the real state of affairs. The syndicate was at loggerheads with the Government on
financial and other matters, and frequent squabbles
were the rule of the day between the engineers of
both parties, resulting in some cases in the com-"
plete paralization of the works, to the detriment
of those who had taken contracts. After a while,
in August, the affairs of the syndicate were in such
a state that the result was a complete change in
I the management, a German Jew of some influence,
in Chili, but utterly ignorant of railroading, Don
Julio Bernstein, being appointed chief. The works
were again begun all over the country, but only to
get into a deeper mess, and at the present time
none of us know how affairs will turn out, or
if we will ever receive a cent for work done.
Such   is the   state of affairs in  connection with
I the syndicate.   Another trouble is the poor rate of
exchange, and consequent loss in the value of the
paper dollar,   that added to the extremely low
I prices given for contract work made matters worse.
j In fact, even if affairs do take a better turn, the
profits will be next to nothing,' and perhaps barely
enough to cover the expenses' of a ticket for the
return journey to Canada.    This country is about
the last for Canadians to come to, as many have
found to their cost,  and I therefore write these
lines to warn anybody intending to make a long"
and fruitless journey here."
Der Nordwester, the German paper published in
Winnipeg, has in a recent issue an article on "The
New German Immigrants in Winnipeg.''   It states-
there were in no former year, so many arrivals of"
German immigrants in Winnipeg as during the
winters of this and last years.    Most of■»those who
spent last winter here were from Austria and Russia;
they settled in the spring in the neighborhood of"
Medicine Hat, Assa., forming the largest German
I settlement in the Northwest Territory.   At present
I there are   many families of German  farmers in
Winnipeg, of whom about forty arrived from the
1 old country after the end of October.    These are
all undecided as yet, where they will take up their
free homesteads in the-spring.   Several were very
well situated in their former homes, having had
from four to six horses, 20 cattle,  etc.,  and only a
regard for their numerous children and the prospects of getting a large extent of land in the
Canadian Northwest have induced them to emigrate.
Besides the political relations in Russia are becoming more and more intolerable.    Der Nordwester
learns that in consequence a great many families
will arrive here in the coming spring and later, of
I whom some will bring a few thousand dollars with
i them and be able at once  to make a good start.
Two-thirds or more of  the Germans who have
hitherto settled here have been quite poor people,
! but by industrious labor and intelligent observation
I of the pecularities of the country, they have made
good progress.    All the Germans who are now in
I Winnipeg waiting for the spring, so far as known,
| are making a very favorable impression and Der
! Nordwester extends to them a hearty welcome.
Premier Greenway recently stated in the Manitoba Legislature he had reason to believe that the
estimate that 8,000 had been added to the population by immigration during the past year was far
too small. Greater efforts during the coming season were proposed, and the House would be asked.
for a larger sum of money. It was proposed to
extend the operations across the Atlantic, and to
undertake -work in the United States. A most
efficient man was working in Ontario and there
were sure to be good results.
A letter from Rev. Father Decorby, missionary
to the Germans at Langenburg, Assa., gives the
following about the progress of the colony :—"Next
spring, under the skilful direction of Mr. Reidle,
who is devoted to them, and spares no trouble to
"advance the progress of the colony, they are going
to have a fine house, one and a half stories high,
which will serve at the same time as a school,
church and dwelling for the school master and
priest A small addition at one end of the house
will be used as a chapel. An altar ■will be erected
in it, and on Sundays and festivals the folding-
doors closing this part will be pushed back, and
the whole will be thus transformed into a church,
where the people for some years to come will find
room enough to join in the services. Mr. Riedle
had not even forgotton the little bell tower, front
whence a small bell will call the good settlers of
Landsheet to prayers and service. But all this is
only for the first years. When the people are
better off and more numerous they are surely
going to build something better. I have confidence
in this settlement"
% 1890
The following statement in reference to this
municipality has been prepared under the direction of the municipal council, and is therefore to
be regarded as official.
What will be a prominent feature of the tide of
immigration to the Northwest in the next  few
years will be the diversion of a large portion of it
to the unoccupied lands in the eastern and central i
portions of Manitoba, and more especially to the
vacant lands in the immediate neighborhood of
Winnipeg.   The old adage,  " Go further and fare j
worse," has never been more strikingly exempli- j
fied  than   in   the inclination of new comers to '
push on to far away and remote  parts   of the •
country.   The past season, however, has indicated j
the coming of a change in that respect, which is :
expected to be made more apparent during the j
present season.
Of the different tracts of unoccupied land in the j
vicinity of Winnipeg that covered by the Munici- |
pality of Macdonald furnishes so many exceptional advantages to the immigrant that a knowledge
of the same is all that is required to ensure a very
large influx of settlers during the coming year. ;
This municipality, as will be seen by reference to ;
the sketch map here given,  is situated  to the i
southwest of and adjoining the corporate limits of j
the city of Winnipeg, covering territory 18 miles j
north and south, by ,12 miles east and west.    Its
geographical position in the Red River valley is ;
sufficient  evidence  of the   fertility of  the soil, I
and nothing further need be said  on that point I
than to  state  that   there    is   not  an   acre   of
barren  land   in   the whole   municipality.     The |
Pembina   Mountain   branch
of the Canadian Pacific Rail-
way     running    trans-
versly   across   it makes  all
parts of it accessible by rail;
the   Northern   Pacific    and
Manitoba   Railway  skirting
its eastern boundary ensures
competitive rates, while the
markets of the city of Winnipeg, available at all times
to the fanner,   secure   him
from anxiety as to the disposition of his produce, a matter of great importance anywhere, but more especially in
a new country.
This was territory granted
to the native population in
1872, in pursuance of the
act for the extinguishment of
the Indian title, and was
allotted to them in fee
simple, with the result that
the ownership of the unoccupied
very nearly all passed into the possession
of the monied men and financial institutions of the city of Winnipeg. The prices
and terms of sale are as reasonable as it is possible
to make them. From $3 to $6 per acre may be
cited as the ruling price, with 25 per cent paid
down. Some of the holders will even allow the
purchaser to retain the cash payment on condition
of its being expended on improvements on the
land. And in all cases the intending settler may
count on the fullest liberality as to terms, and on
honorable and fair dealing as well.
The farmers of this municipality, leaving out
those who went in during the last year or two, are
principally those who took up their homesteads in
advance of the survey in 1872 and before the
granting of it to the native population. The fact
of their choosing this part thus early is very good
evidence of its superiority as a place for settlement ; and on its being locked up as a native reserve they still preferred their location with the
certainty of material prosperity, though accompanied by their isolation in the midst of unoccupied territory. This refers especially to those who
settled along the Salle river (so named after the
eminent explorer) in advance of the survey. They
now see the approach of the time when unoccupied land will be the exception and not the rule.
The district was organized as a municipality in
1882, and the vigilance and determination which
have   always   characterized    the   ratepayers   of
Macdonald in their oversight of municipal affairs
has resulted first in the municipality being actually
clear of debt, and secondly in a system of
municipal improvements in roads, bridges and
drains superior without exception to that of any
other municipality in the Province of Manitoba.
The outlines on the sketch map'show in brief the
various most' important works. The new comer
will at once reap the full benefit and advantage
of these important public works and not be
called on to pay any part of their cost, which
has all been defrayed from year to year by
direct taxation, and the entire system being
practically completed, the rate of taxation for the
future must be low. These improvements include
60 miles of road graded an average of two feet
high, 33 miles of drains dug, of an average width
of eight feet by three feet deep, besides three first-
class bridges across the Salle river and others on
the numerous creeks leading thereto.
There are five schools of the Protestant denomination in the municipality, making school privileges convenient in the principal settlements. It
may be mentioned here that the settlers are nearly
all English speaking people from the older
provinces of Canada. The different settlements
named are Donore and Macdonald in township 7,
Ashland and La Salle in township 8, and Otto
settlement in the northern part of the municipality nearest Winnipeg, which has been formed during the past year, and which may be taken as a
good index of what may be accomplished in a
short time, in the way of large fields ready for
seed,  substantial buildings,  ■wells of good water,
doubt but the dry period has passed and that during the coming summer the prairies will be abundantly saturated by rain, as the wet atmosphere
that rested on the eastern provinces last summer
and this winter is evidently drifting westward.
Sufficient summer rains will make an extraordinary change in the condition of "Manitoba; once
more the fields will carry a heavy yield of grain,
meadows will be loaded with hay, and as was the
case in years that are past, cattle will show only
the upper portion of their bodies as they wade
midst a sea of verdue. The vast flocks of wild
fowl will return, shoals of fish will force their way
from the great lakes up the swollen rivers, and
Manitoba will appear as it did when the admiration
of the first settlers was excited to the utmost by the
existence, year after year, of the finest crops that
any country ever produced."
parts,    has
and a school in operation, all done in tbe short
space of less than nine months.
To the stranger who may contemplate locating
in Macdonald, nothing is of more importance than
for him to know that he will deal with persons
from whom nothing but fair treatment is to be expected, and in view of the above he is referred for
guidance and advice at the outset to the managers
of the Imperial Bank, the Merchants Bank and
the Bank of Ottawa in Winnipeg. Application
can also be made to Aikens & Montgomery and T.
A. Gamble, dealers in real estate, Winnipeg, who
have large lists of lands for sale.
The Pilot Mound, Manitoba, Sentinel, the editor
of which, Mr. Murdoch, is an observing and thoroughly practical man, says:—"There is much evidence that wet and dry periods of five or six
years each have existed in this country during the
past. In the northwest portion of the province,
near Fort Ellice, and on both sides of the Assiniboine, it is no uncommon thing to see the old cart
trails passing through low portions of the prairie
that, until lately, have been covered by water ever
since the country has been settled. As a further
proof of the former dry condition of the plains a
couple of old pitchforks were discovered a few
months ago near the centre of what for years has
been a large slough but which, last season, .was dry
enough to pass over -with the mower. It is believed that the old pitchforks had been lost or left by
some members of the mounted police force, once
stationed at Fort Ellice, and who must have cut
hay in that meadow many years ago. There is little
Senator Loughheed, of Calgary, speaking in the
Dominion Senate recently, in seconding the address in reply to the speech from the throne said:
I may indulge in the hope, at this juncture, that
the Government of the Dominion will yet see
its way to the adoption of an exceptionally
vigorous immigration policy, which will be commensurate with the resources of our country. I
am satisfied it is difficult to secure such a volume
of immigration as will be adequate to the settlement of the country, by reason of the American
Government, the South American Republics and
the Australasian Governments expending such
vast sums of money toward turning the tide of
European immigration to
their respective shores. Yet,
I would venture the opinion
that the adoption by the
Dominion Government of an
immigration policy equally
vigorous to that adopted by
other nations upon this continent would receive the en-
dorsation and support of the
Dominion at large, even
though it might necessitate
the negotiation of a new loan
for the more effectual carrying out of that object. It is
unnecessary for me to say,
because it has been reiterated
for years, that our Northwest
country possesses every inducement for immigration.
Using almost the language
contained in the address, we
have there incomparable
agricultural capabilities ; our
mountains, our plains and
our rivers teem with mineral
wealth ; our grazing lands, in
the production of nutritious grasses, are unequalled
on the continent; our climatic conditions are
most favorable, and these, with other natural advantages, when developed, I am satisfied will
eventually result in making that country the
dominant portion of this Dominion. Satisfaction
is expressed in the address at the signs of progress
which are there evident. Cities and towns are
springing into life where a short time ago lay but
silent plains. We find marts of commerce making
a chain over the length of that vast territory ; we
find industries being gradually established. The
plough of the settler is turning the virgin soil in
all directions, and now railroads are beginning to
precede settlement and are becoming the pioneers
of settlement and civilization. This measure of
growth in what I might term the last decade of
years is a subject for particular pride and satisfaction. It manifests the energy and pluck of
Canadian enterprise ; it suggests the great possibilities which may be accomplished by the efforts
of a united people.
A recent telegram from New York announced
the arrival there of the steamer Finance, from
Brazil, with forty Germans and Hungarians who
sailed from New York last November to start a
colony near Maranham, Brazil. They were in a
wretched condition, and said they were promised
houses, farms, tools and capital, but were given
only palm-leaf huts, in a swamp of uncultivable
land, and no tools, but were paid 30 milreis a
month for each family—a sum not sufficient to buy
food. After great suffering they were finally given
passage back to New York. L
The description of this Municipality, here given,
has been prepared by the Municipal Clerk, Mr.
Thomas Frankland, under the direction of the
The Province of Manitoba is surveyed in townships and ranges.    The townships are belts of land
6 miles wide from north to south, and the ranges
are divided 6 miles wide from east to west, thus
parceling out the land into blocks 6 miles square
containing 36 sections of land, each section containing 640 acres.    Rockwood Municipality consists of townships 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 and 18, ranges
1  2, and west half of 3 east of the principal meridian, comprising an area of 36 miles from north to
south by 15 miles from east to west.   The south
eastern corner is distant about 12 miles from Winnipeg, the capital city of the Province, while its
northern territory is bounded on the east and west
by the two great lakes Winnipeg and Manitoba.
Situated at such a convenient distance from the
capital city, the great distributing point in the province, gives Rockwood market facilities inferior to
none, and the ameliorating influences of the two
large bodies of water mentioned and the extensive
forests, especially to the north, with bluffs of timber dotting the prairies all over its area, make it
one of the most promising municipalities in Manitoba.    The highest elevation of the land is along a
ridge running north and south through its entire
length at about the boundary line between ranges
1 and 2 from which point the land has a gentle
slope east and west; this ridge forming the dividing
line between the water sheds of the two great lakes.
The surface soil in general is a rich dark loam,
though in some parts it is lighter and more sandy
and in others a gravelly loam.    The subsoil varies
from a thick layer of white clay, which is found to
make excellent brick, to gravel; the whole resting
upon a limestone foundation of perhaps the Upper
Silurian and Lower Devonian geological ages.    It
will be readily seen by the careful reader that for
mixed farming,  few if any sections in Manitoba
can offer so many advantages to the intending
settler.    At the foot of the eastern  and western
slopes hay of the best quality is procured while
along the sides of the ridge the far famed No. 1
hard wheat as a staple product and the intervening
bluffs furnish all the fuel, fence material and build-
in°r timber required by the inhabitants, with an
abundance to spare.
The population at present is something over 2000
and the land taken up and settled upon is about
100,000 acres, of this 20,000 acres is under cultiva-
• tion. From this land up to the middle of January
1890 the station agent at the local market, Stonewall, states there were shipped 62,415 bushels of
wheat alone and 2000 sacks of flour, and when the
nearness of the district to the Winnipeg market
■ is borne in mind, it must be concluded that
at least 100,000 bushels have been marketed
not taking into consideration the fact that two rol- j
ler process mills at Stonewall and Balmoral have !
been kept supplied. It is further estimated-that
the quantity of wheat now 'January 18, 1890) held
for market together with what will be required for
bran and seed is at about 130,000 bushels. The total
estimated crop of wheat raised in the municipality
in 1889 was about 240,000 bushels, notwithstanding
the drouth that prevailed in the early part of last
season and the average per acre was not far short of
■ 25 bushels.    The other grains raised were very
much influenced by the drouth, but oats averaged
25 bushels (about half the usual yield) and barley
was about the same or two thirds of the general
average of other jrears.   Potatoes and turnips were |
a fair yield but came short of former years, amply j
sufficient however for home demands and a respectable surplus for other markets.    In live stock, I
from the returns given in-to the assessor, it is estima- j
ted that there are about 1000 horses, a large num-
ber of which are well bred draught and roadsters.
Neat cattle number about 6000 with several herds
of thorough bred, among them there are 500 sheep
and 1000 pigs.    One or two enterprising settlers
have several colonies of bees that are now (Jan. j
IK, 1890) in their winter quarters for the second
time, and from the favorable reports of past seasons
this will no doubt in the future add to the resources
of the province.   The gopher pest so common in
the west is not known here.    In the bluffs are j
found wild raspberries, blackberries, high and low !
bush cranberries,  currants,   gooseberries, plums, j
grapes, and wild hops.   The fact of these being
indigenous has led several to think that cultivated
fruits of these and other varieties will succeed well I
on this favored inland peninsula.   Apple trees, ]
Russian and Northwest seedlings, together with a '
large number of varieties of plums have been on
trial for nearly three years, and so far as reports
indicate they will soon be added to our products. For many years small fruits have been
found to succeed, almost every old settler having
them growing in his garden. Vegetables of all
kinds do well, water melons, squash, pumpkins,
&c, ripening in the open air.
Stonewall,  situated on the Stonewall branch of
the Canadian Pacific Railway, contains a registry
office, county court office and municipal buildings,
4  churches,  Church   of England,   Presbyterian,
Methodist and Baptist, two schools,  1 normal for
training of teachers, 1 post office, 4 general stores,
2 groceries, 2 hardware,   1 tin shop,  1 drug store,
1 millinery and dressmaking establishment, 1 watch
maker, 1 merchant tailor, 2 blacksmith, 1 harness
shop, i bellows factory, 2 hotels, 1 livery,  1 furniture store, 1 wagon shop, 2 butchers,  1 carpenter,
I 1 bakery, 1 cheese factory, 1 doctor, 1 lumber yard,
4 implement dealers, and a roller process grist mill
of 50 barrels capacity daily, 1 skating rink, 3 grain
warehouses,   1   newspaper,   also extensive stone
quarries, and lime kilns, the output of which is
reported at $50,000 yearly.    Its population is 326.
The prices paid by buyers of wheat this year in
this enterprising little village have ranged at from
65 cts. to 76 cts. per bushel. At Stony Mountain, also
on the Stonewall branch of the  C. P. R.,   8 miles
south east of Stonewall,  is situated the Provincial
Penitentiary.     There are also 1 hotel, 1 general
store and post office, 1 blacksmith shop,  1 creamery, extensive quarries, several lime kilns and 1
brick yard, together with 2 excellent schools and
Presbyterian, -Church   of  England   and   Roman
Catholic churches.    Eight miles north of Stone-
'wall is the village of Balmoral where there are 2
churches, Methodist and Presbyterian, fifty barrel
I roller process mill, 2 general stores, post office, 1
school, 3 blacksmith shops, 1 shoemaker, 1 hotel,
2 doctors, &c.    In different parts of the municipality are 19 public schools and churches of different
denominations as well as ample conveniencies as
to post offices, &c.
The roads are becoming gradually graded.    In
fact   strangers travelling   upon   them invariably
comment on the progress made in this direction
during the 10 years of the establishment of the
Municipality.    Besides the coulies and small lakes
that here and there occur, for watering cattle, excellent water can be had by digging or drilling into
the rock.    There are several flowing wells along
the eastern slope.    To the north there are pretty
extensive groves of spruce, tamarac, pine poplar
and oak, and a saw mill is located in the neighborhood.    The implement supplies for the farmer are
shipped in abundance,  the dealers in  Stonewall
alone reporting sales during the past year to the
amount of $25,000, and one agent at Balmoral has
no doubt made sales in proportion to that amount.
The foregoing will give some idea of the capabilities of the land, &c, in this section, but like other
portions of Manitoba the demand of boom prices
has kept much of the land practically out of market.    Now there seems to be a disposition to sell
at reasonable figures.    The total area of the Municipality is 345,600 acres, of which 100,000 is owned
by settlers, 91,520 is Crown land or belonging to
the C. P. R., and 154,080 is in the hands of non
resident owners.     Nearly 250,000   acres can be
selected from and a large portion of this is as desirable land as that already settled upon.    During
the past year there has been quite an improvement
in land transactions, the registrar reporting 40 per
cent increase over each of the last former years,
and no doubt when intending immigrants are informed of the resources of this, one of the most
productive municipalities in the province, the available lands will soon be occupied by incoming settlers.   The cry hitherto has been westward,. and
the lands within a radius of 20 miles from Winnipeg
have been kept in the back ground.    In concluding
this article it may be well to mention the.names of
several prominent settlers, any one of whom no
doubt will gladly give information to prospective
immigrants.    The council is composed of James
Toombs, Reeve, Stonewall; Alex. Hickev, farmer,
Stonewall; Geo. G. Graham;  blacksmith,  Stonewall; John  Siddons, farmer,  Stonewall ;   George
Tocher, farmer, Balmoral; William  Andrew, farmer,   Balmoral; Wm.   C. Ross,   farmer,  Foxton ;
Thos. Frankland, County Clerk, Stonewall; Thos.'
Lusted,    Registrar,    Stonewall;   S.   J.   Jackson,
M.P.P., Stonewall; S. L. -Bedson, Warden of Penitentiary, Stony Mountain.
About 50 new buildings were erected in the village of Carberry, Man., last season.
Land south of Portage la Prairie, Man., has risen
rapidly in value during the past season.
A nugget of gold recently taken to Victoria from
the Cariboo, B. C. district, sold for §1,250.
There is considerable activity in regard to dairy
matters in Manitoba, and meetings are being held
in several districts to arrange for the establishment of creameries and cheese "factories.
February opened with renewed activity in real
estate in Vancouver, B. C. Douglas & Co. report
that within a week the}- sold no less than 52 lots
in the eastern part of the city and on Mount
Pleasant. Barker & Mackay also made sales of
acre property near Hastings, which have netted
their principals over 100 per cent on the prices
paid for their property a few months ago. Rand
Bros, also concluded some large real estate transactions in outside property.
Homestead Regulations,
All even-numbered sections of Dominion Lands in Manitoba
or the North-West Territories, excepting S and 36, which have
not been homesteaded, reserved to provide wood-Jots for settlers, or other purposes, may be homesteaded by any person
who is the sole head of a family, or male over eighteen vears of
age, to'the extent of one quarter section of
ico acres, more or
Entry niav be made personally at the local land office in which
the land to be taken is situate, or if the homesteader desires he
may, on application to the Minister of the Interior, Ottawa, or
the Commissioner of Dominion Lands, Winnipeg, receive
authority for some one to.make the entry for him. A fee of $10
is charged for an ordinary homestead entry; but for lands which
have been occupied an additional fee of $10 is chargeable to
meet inspection and cancellation expenses.
* Under the present law homestead duties may be performed in
three ways, and on making* application for entrv the settler must
declare under which of the" following - conditions he elects to
hold his land:
i. Three years' cultivation and residence,during which period
the settler mav not be absent for more than six months in any
one year without forfeiting the entry.
2.' Residence for three years anywhere within two miles of
the homstea'd quarter section, and afterwards actual residence
in a habitable house upon the homestead for three months next
prior to application for patent. Under this system 10 acres
must be'broken the first year after entry, 15 additional in the
second, and 15 in the third year; 10 acres to be in crop the second
year, and 25 acres the third year.
i_ 3. The five years' system under which a settler may reside
anywhere for the first two years (but must perfect his entry bv
commencing cultivation within six months after the date thereof), breaking 5 acres the first year, cropping those 5 acres and -
breaking 10 acres additional the second year, and also building
a habitable house before the end of the second year. The settler must commence actual residence on the homestead at the
expiration of two years from the date of entry, and thereafter
reside upon and cultivate his homestead for at least six months
in each of the three next succeeding years.
mav be made before the local agent, any homestead inspector or
tlie intelligence officer at Medicine Hat or Qu'Appelle station.""
Before making application for Patent the settler must give six
months'. notice in  writing to the Commissioner of Dominion
Lands of his intention to do so.
are situated at Qu'Appelle Station and Medicine Hat. Newly
arrived immigrants will receive at any of these offices information as to the lands that are open for entry ..and from the officers
in charge, free of expense, advice and assistance in securing
hinds to suit them.
mav be taken bv anyone who has received a homestead patent
or a certificate of recommendation countersigned by the Commissioner of Dominion Lands upon application for patent made
by him, or had earned title to his first homestead on, or prior to
the second day of June', 1SS7.
Full information respecting the.land, timber, coal and mineral
laws, and copies of "these Regulations, as well as those respecting Dominion Lands in the Railway Belt in British Columbia,
may be obtained upon application to the  Secretary: of the De-
A paper mill will be started at Portage la Prairie,
Man., at once, making a general line of building
and wrapping paper.
partment of the Interior, Ottawa; the Commii
ion Lands, Winnipeg, Manitoba; or to any
J^inds Agents in Manitoba or the North-West Territories.
doner of Domin-
of the Dominion
Dep. Min
of the Interic 1890
IiPYed Farms and Vacant Lands in all parts of tlieProvince from SI to Si 0 per acre,
ESai ^JS,
Special List of Farms in Winnipeg District,
Winnipeg is the greatest railroad centre in the Dominion, nine lines centering here, all built within the.Iast ten years, a record not equalled bv anv city on this Continent. The construction
of the HUDSON'S. HAY HALLWAY is now assured. The WINNIPEG & DULUTH RAILWAY is to be completed within eighteen months,'and the magnificent WATER POWER
on the Assiniboine (within the City limits) is to be utilized, which must cause a rapid increase in the-values of City Property.       BUY BEFORE THE RISE.
Send for our new Map of the Province, with List of Lands for Sale.- GLINES & CO., 421   Main St., Winnipeg,  Man.
* L71 w c*
Improved and unimproved Lands for.sale in all parts of Mani
toba, at prices ranging from $1 per acre up. A large list of
Lands along the line of the Great Northwest Central Railway.
Special attention to Rockwctod lands, the Banner Municipality.
Good roads, good water, good land, good schools, plenty of
timber, convenient to market, prosperous district. Lands for
sale in this Municipality at from $3 to $S per acre. Average
wheat yield last season (1SS9) 25 bushels per acre.
Correspondence Solicited. L76W
.        .    •
Positively  Pure;   Won't  Shrink
Flannels, nor hurt hands, face
or finest fabrics.
L 41 w
arms for Sale
A few choice Improved Karms at less than wild land prices,
attention of persons wanting Farms for immediate occupation,
CHEAP and on EASY TERMS, is specially directed to this
announcement.     Call -upon  or address
•Bankers and Brokers
FOREIGN MONEY of all kinds
SCEIP foe S-ikXjIB
We do not buy or sell land on commission.
We have a few choice Farms in good districts
which we wish to dispose of, and will sell on easy
terms.    Write for particulars.
A. ROSS & CO.,
eal Estate Agents of Winnipeg
Established 1877.—The longest established and most complete Land Office in the city.
We have been inspecting lands for Loan Companies and private individuals for the past 14 years and know nearly everv
farm within a radius of 40 miles from Winnipeg. We have seen these lands in wet and dry years and know every lot that
is liable to be flooded during wet seasons. PURCHASERS can inspect our FIELD NOTES and get reliable information
OVER 1,000,000 ACRES for SALE.   200 IMPROVED FARMS from $500 Upwards
, Cheaper than buying wild land, as these farnis are all ready.for a man to commence Farming Operations at once, and have
a living for himself and family the first year.    We take a small payment down, aud nr.tke the payment of the balance very easy.
We make a specialty of LARGE BLOCKS, where several families can settle close together.
Knowing the country so well, we are better able to judge what will suit different individuals. We always strive to place
settlers where there is GOOD LAND. Good Water, and Good Neighbors, close to Timber, Schools, Churches, etc.,
thereby-giving them theadvantage of an older settled country and consequently  make them feel more AT HOME.
We keep our own horses to  drive purchasers out to see our lands.    We are Sole Agents for the sale of lands of four
Loan Companies, and spare no time and trouble to have parties satisfied with their location.   Send for Printed Catalogue.
J British Canadian Loan Co. (Limited). Freehold Loan and Savings Co.
I Trust and Loan Company. Manitoba & Northwest Loan Co. 70W
id Loan Company.
Manufactured from Manitoba Hard Wheat only.
IfYoii will
require some
this f|
We have even-thing you want to furnish a house, from a Cabin to a Castle.
Agents for LONG BROS.-BRANTFORD WOVE WIRE SPRINGS, 2 cars in stock
Agents for American Rattan Company's Baby Carriages.   They are
the only first-class carriage.   We guarantee each one sold.
A Large Stock of PARLOR SUITES, EASY CHAIRS, ETC., on hand. Our own make
SCOTT * LESLIE, 276 Main Street
A fact that speaks volumes for the prospect of a
satisfactory season of trade returns in New Westminster, B. C, is that there are very few vacant
houses of any description in the city, and rent
rates are held up at top figures with a decided tendency to go higher. Several new buildings are
contracted for and will be commenced immediately.    Several  more large proposed buildings, for
which contracts are not yet concluded, are sure to
be built during the spring. A new cannery is to
be erected in the city limits. A new fruit preserving establishment is spoken of as likely to be
started. Real estate is in demand at firm figures,
and generally the prospects are encouraging, and
the population is surely, if not very rapidly, increasing. mmwm
The following official description of this municipality has been prepared under the direction of
the municipal council:—"Where shall I go?" is
the question many persons wishing to improve
their condition are now asking themselves. The rural Municipality of Woodlands, in the province of
Manitoba, offers inducements to intending settlers
in a great variety.of ways. It is within easy distance of Winnipeg, the metropolis of and the best
market in the province, and the main body of the
settlement is within 30 miles of the city.
This is an advantage not to be overlooked in selecting a new home, as the settlers in this district
have at once a market for all their produce at fair
prices, and are enabled to have a choice of all that
they require from some of the largest stocks of
goods in America. The municipality is naturally
adapted for mixed fanning, the good arable land
and hay meadows so lying that almost every quarter section has a proportion of hay land ; the soil
is of the very best, ranging from sandy loam to
heavy clay, the generality of it being very rich,
and therefore it is well adapted to grow all varieties of grains and roots.
Dairying is carried on to a large extent, the
butter and cheese of Woodlands always being in
good demand on account of its excellent quality,
and the farmers finding that they can command
a good price for their dairy products are anxious
to produce the very best, the excellent pasturage
giving them a great advantage.
The great present want of the municipality is
good farmers. In
the boom times,
four years ago,
hundreds of homesteads were taken
up by mere adventurers, who knew
nothing of farming,
and never meant to
farm. Their aim
was to do just as
much superficial
cultivation as would
entitle them to the
patent for then-
lands. All such farmers have been a
deadweight on the
country's progress.
Live men, who have
had some exper-
i e n c e elsewhere,
and can by judicious mixed farming turn their work
to the best advantage for themselves,
are what are wanted, they will find
a   hearty   welcome
here; and land as good, cheap and permanently
productive as any that can be found on the continent of America.
The Canadian Pacific Railway runs along the
southern boundary of the municipality, and the
Hudson's Bay Railway traverses the eastern part
for 25 miles. Thus every portion is within about
10 miles of railway facilities. Wood for fuel is
easily obtained, and the best of water is obtained
by digging. There are 20 public schools, 13 post
offices, several churches of various denominations,
several general stores, a cheese factory, which is
becoming famous for its product, and has appliances for working up the milk of 600 cows.
The grist mills at Stonewall and Balmoral are
easy of access. The Reaburn Fair Association, a
joint stock company, holds periodical fairs for the
sale and barter of live stock, and has grounds at
Reaburn station, the grounds being fenced and
equipped with scales, &c. These fairs are becoming quite notable, and prove of much beiiefit to
farmers. The Ridgemere stock farm, owned by
Messrs. Everest & Kerr, has established an enviable reputation for the importation and breeding
of horses, Holsteiu cattle and sheep.
It is well known that this part of the country
withstood the extreme drought of last season to
better advantage than most other portions of the
province, the crops being a fair average. Samples
of the grain grown will be on view daring this season at the Provincial Government Immigration
offices in Winnipeg, and at Marquette and Reaburn
Intending settlers will find it to their advantage
to purchase land in this district. Reasonable terms
can be obtained, taxes are low, and there are many
conveniences not at present obtainable in newer
settlements. Reliable information may be obtained by applying to the Provincial Immigration
offices, Winnipeg, or to the Reeve and Council of
the municipality, whose names and addresses are
as follows:—
Chas, Stewart, Reeve, Meadow Lea.
Jas. Macdonald, Hanlan.
David Porteous, Jr , Woodlands.
Jas. D. McEwan, Meadow Lea.
Alex. Cunningham, Poplar Point
Wm. Livingstone, Lake Francis.
Kdw. Joslyn, Argyle.
Jas. Proctor, Treasurer, Woodlands.
A. M. Campbell, Clerk, Argyle.
The traffic  earnings of  the   Canadian  Pacific j
Railway for February, 1890, were as follows :—      ^
1st to 7th .
7th to 14th
14th to 21st
21st to 28th
. 207,000
. 196,000
. 227,000
would report their views and communicate with
the board at home. I think that a judicious, in-v
vestment in a central locality in Winnipeg would
be of advantage to the company, and from our
past experience I think we have great reason to
have confidence in the judgment and discretion of
our representatives in Canada."
While at Port Arthur, Ont, recently, General
Superintendent Whyte, of the C. P. R., was interviewed by the Mayor and other prominent citizens
in regard to some desired changes and improvements in service. He promised to consider the
suggestions, and said that Port Arthur, with her
Northern and other good hotels, private boarding
houses, Kakabeka Falls, Nepigon fishery, and
many other interesting places, including the
silver mines, should command more tourist travel
than she had.
Attorney General Ashford, of the Hawaiian Islands, recently stated to a reporter in Chicago,
111., that he felt confident the Islands would soon
have cable connection. Two lines are proposed—
one from British Columbia to Australia, and the
second from the United States to Japan. Both wjll
touch the Islands. Great commercial advantages
are likely to accrue to the country which reaches
them by cable first. -He added that the new steamship line of the Canadian Pacific Railway wpuld"
make the relations of the Islands with Canada extremely close, and they might look in that direction for an interchange of trade."
$822,000       $874,000       $52,000
A well known  Manitoba
The Winnipeg Commercial says:—"Really, the
prospects look good for the immediate future. The
number of men employed in Manitoba is greater
than ever before, owing to the activity in getting
out saw logs, ties for railway construption, bridge
timber, etc. Next summer promises to be the
boom year in railway construction in the west
Prospects for building in Winnipeg have not been
so good for years. A foreign railway company is
investing a large amount of money in building;
and other improvements in the city, thus showing
faith in the future of the country. The snowfall
this winter is heavy, and it has not drifted off
the plowed ground, which are favorable features
for crops next year. This year's crop acreage will
be the largest eyer sown in the history of the
country, and altogether the prospects ahead seem
reassuring, rather than to give cause for alarm."
At the annual meeting of the North of Scotland mortgage company, in Scotland, the chairman said:, "We also discussed the propriety of
erecting offices for the company in Winnipeg.
They thought that could be done how very judiciously—that is to say, our managers and advisory board in Toronto thought this step might
now be taken with very considerable advantage.
The reaction had had full effect in Winnipeg, and
there was no doubt that from the location of the
railways aud other circumstances that Winnipeg
would remain the chief town of the province of
Manitoba. The only difficulty was as to the selection of the site which might be expected to prove
to be, and to remain, the centre of the town. When
they had made up their minds on this point, they
farmer .writes :—" I
believe that this
country can be made
to suppo'rt a thriving
family of twelve on
each 160 acres, the
land is so productive    and    rich    in
In conversation re-
cently Mr. S. J.
Thompson, M. P. P.
for Norfolk, said he
had farmed in Manitoba for eight years,
and never had a crop
which might be called a failure. Last
autumn he expected
to reap 5,000 bushels
of wheat but reaped
only 4,000. However he was well
satisfied with that.
. Last summer Mr.
J. Guest carried on
a   new . industry  at
Lake     Winnipeg,
making a large quantity7 of oil from the
fat of fish gathered up at the fishery establishments.
He sold it in Winnipeg to use in making lubricating oils and axle grease.
The Canada Western Hotel Co. will erect an
hotel in Victoria, B. C, at a cost of $250,000. It
will be first class in every respect.
The Dominion Minister of Finance' recently
mentioned in Parliament that eastern tanners stated that hides from Manitoba and the Northwest Territories made the best leather manufactured by them.
The directors in England of the Bank of British
Columbia state in their report that owing to new
branches recently opened there has been a large
increase in the bank's operations generally. They
have decided to recommend an increase of capital.
The Canadian Live Stock Journal, Toronto, Ont,
says :—"We understand there is considerable progress in Manitoba at the present time, and that
more land will Be under cultivation this year
than ever before in the history of the province.
This news is of special importance to Ontario
farmers. The latter should also not fail to lose
sight of the fact pointed out by Mr. McMillan,
the government agent, when addressing several
of our Institute meetings this winter, that it is
not only in grain raising that progress is noticeable, but that there is a marked increase in the
number of cattle, sheep, horses and pigs. The
figures given by the government show very unmistakably that this is so. This year it is said
there will be over 1,000,000 acres in crop in
Manitoba alone. There is food for reflection in
this for Ontario farmers." 1890
Last autumn a Mr. W. Douglass, living near
Alexander, Manitoba, wrote to a local paper in
Eastern Canada, the Gananoque Journal, com-.
plaining as to the result of his farming operations.
On investigation it turns out that he had rented
two farms in that neighborhood and like most such
tenants, expected to get a good return from the
smallest possible outlay in cultivation. His complaints were promptly taken up by two of his
One of them, Mr. J- H. Griggs, living on section
19, township 9, range 21 west, wrote as follows :—
"Mr. W. Douglass had two farms rented and in
going from one to the other he had to pass the
crops of R. Y. Griggs, and J. Bedford. If he had
told about their crops instead of the worst he could
find, his letter would have had a different tone.
From 71 acres of wheat, Griggs had 1075 bushels,
while from 37 acres of wheat Bedford had 700 bushels, on neither of these farms was there any new
land under crop. The land was well worked both
before and after seeding. The result was over 14
bushels to the acre in one case, and over 18 in the
other. Part of Griggs' land which was a good deal
better fitted than the rest yielded 22 bushels of
wheat to the acre. I am confident that if Mr. Douglas' land had been as well fitted and the seed as
well put in his crop would haye been as good. It
is a deplorable fact that the farmer who considering
the way he worked his land, should least expect a
crop, is the quickest and surest to complain of a
dry year like the present when it affects the crop.''
Another neighbor, Mr. Alex. Nichol, Reeve of
Whitehead Municipality, wrote :—"As I live only
about seven miles from Mr. Douglas and know the
farm well, I would just say that the land was not
in good condition for a crop, and was not well put
in; and further, in a dry season like the present
he could not expect to get a crop. In a good season it would have given a fair crop; but in Manitoba like all other farming countries it will pay to
have the work done well. I raised my first crop in
1883 from land broken late in 1882, and backset in
the spring of 1883, and had from 5J acres sown
196 bushels of wheat No. 1 hard. In 1884 I had 40
acres rented to another party that yielded 32 bushels per acre. In 1885 the yield was 34 bushels
per acre. In 1886 (another dry season) the yield
was 20 bushels to the acre. In 1887 160 acres
yielded 6900 bushels, an average of 43 bushels per
acre. In 1888 the average was 32 bushels per acre.
In the present year the average was 15 bushels on
220 acres sown. I had 125 acres that yielded 20
bushels per acre ; the balance on account ojF a very
hard stubble plowed under last fall and a very dry
season only yielded 10 bushels per acre. Now^for
seven years I have had a crop, the average for
wheat was 29 bushels per acre, and oats 43 bushels.
And for five years the average for barley has been
25 bushels per acre. With the exception of 1887
when oats ranged 75 bushels, and the present season at 12 bushels the general average was 50 bushels per acre. Mine is not an exceptional case.
There are plenty of others who have as good a record as mine, and some better. The present dry
season may be discouraging to new comers, yet it
would be unfair to judge our country by the present
dryseason, and it convinces me that our soil with
proper farming will raise a fair crop, under almost
any circumstances. My crop this year had almost
no rain, as not an inch fell from seeding to harvest
1 came here from near Guelph, Ontario, with a
capital of about $700, and now have a farm of
about 1000 acres of land, 450 under cultivation;
will sow about 350 acres next spring and break 100
more. I have 11 horses, 3 good colts rising 2 years
old, 4 colts rising one year, 12 cattle and 20 hogs,
in all worth $2500. Implements worth $1000.
Dwelling house, granary and stable cost $1500.
Now it would have taken me a long time in
Ontario to have gathered this much together on my
capital. The difference between me here and there
^-six good crops, and one poor one in seven years
in Manitoba, and one good crop and six poor ones
in seven years in Ontario. I must say I am well
pleased with the country and the prospects before
me, and think that anyone who is able and willing
to wotk, and who has some capital to start upon,
can do well in this country a great deal easier than
in the older country. I can point you to hundreds
of settlers who seven years ago had hardly enough
money left after coming here to buy a yoke of
oxen, who to-day have a good half section (320
acres) of land, two good teams and everything
needed to work their farms, and living comfortably."
J^umbe^, Wholesale and Retail.
mmm ,
Importers and Dealers in American dry White Pine Dimensir n, Flooring, Ceiling, Siding, Shingles,
Lath, Sash, Doors and Mouldings.     Special facilities for handling large orders.
Office and Yard corner Broadway and Christie Streets, WI^MIPEG.
uropean & Continental Points     BELL BROS
Lowest Rates.
Best Accommodation.
Berths Secured.
Choice of Lines.
Via New York, Boston,
Portland, Halifax,
Quebec and Montreal.
Baggage checked through in
No annoyance from Customs.
Low Round Trip Rates.
Out—via New York A N. Falls
Back—via Montreal.
Sailing Lists and full information on application.
Liverpool to Winnipeg $32.
Write to
H. C. McMICKEN, 376 Main St., Winnipeg,
72W Corner of Portage Avenue.
The best and only centrally located house in town.
Commercial Boom in Connection.
pool  .a.it:d  billiaed  tables-
Good Stabling and Attentive Hostler.
Livery/ Feed Stables
Farmers and others will find their teams receive
every attention    If advised by letter or wire
will meet parties .in Winnipeg, or immediately on arrival at Stonewall. 37-w
ISAAC RILEY,    -   -   Proprietor.
Rooms heated with hot air and all
modern conveniences.
liiiiisB  m     uss
and Relics of the Wild West, Agate, Amethysts
and Mineral Specimens at
W. F. WHITE'S, 605 Main Street,
Two Blocks from C.P.K. Depot, Winnipeg.    6jw 22
Capital (aUpalfl up) $12,000,0001 Rest Puiid.... $6,000,000
Brandies in Canada.—Montreal—H. V. Meredith, Ma'gr.
West End Branch, Catharine Street. Almonte, Ont,; Belleville,
Ont; Brantford, Ont,; Brockville, Ont; Calgary, Alberta;
Chatham, N.B.; Chatham, Ont.; Cornwall, Ont.; Goderich,
Ont; Guelph, Ont; Halifax, N.S.; Hamilton, Ont; Kingston,
Ont; Lindsay, Ont.; London, Ont.; Moncton,. N.B.; New
Westminster, B.C.; Ottawa, Ont; Perth, Ont; Peterboro, Ont;
-Picton, Ont; Quebec, Que.; Regina, Assa.; Sarnia, Ont;
Stratford, Ont; St John, N.B.; St. Mary's, Ont.; Toronto, Ont.;
Vancouver, B.C.; Wallaceburg, Ont; Winnipeg, Man.
In Great Britain.—London—Bank of Montreal, 22 Ab-
church Lane, E.C.
In the United States.—New York—Walter Watson &
Alex. Lang, 59 Wall Street. Chicago—Bank of Montreal, W.
Munro, Manager.
Bankers in Great Britain.—London—The Bank of England; The Union Bank of London; The London and Westminster Bank. Liverpool—The Bank of Liverpool. Scotland—
The British Linen Company and Branches. cow
HEAD OFFICE,   -   -   -   MONTREAL.
Capital paid in ..$5,799,300
Accumulated Reserve Fund  3,135,000
Transacts a General Banking Business.    Notes discounted.
Advances made on Security.   Sterling and United States Drafts
Bought and Sold.   Collections made.   Deposits received, etc.
Three per cent, in Savings' Bank, payable on demand. Four
per cent on Special Deposit Receipts remaining three months.
With a Capital and Reserve Fund of Eight Million Dollars
Depositors in this Bank, and Note Holders, have absolute security for their money.
Careful attention given to business transacted by mail.
58W Asst. Manager. Manager.
Bank of British North America.
Paid-up Capital SI ,000,000 gtg.
Reserve Fund, £850,000   "
MM OFFICE—3 Clements Lane, Loafiari Street, E.G.
Court of Directors—J. H. Brodie, H.J. B. Kendall, John
James Cater, J.J. Kingsford, Henry R. Farrer, Frederic Lubbock, Richard H. Glyn, Geo. D. Whatman, E. A. Hoare.
A. G. Waixis, Secretary.
R. R. Grindley, General Manager.   E. Stranger, Inspector.
Branches and Agencies in Canada—London,Kingston,
Fredericton, N.B., Brantford, Ottawa, Halifax, N.S.. Paris,
Montreal, Victoria, B.C., Hamilton, Quebec, V: ncouver, B.C.,
Toronto, St John, Winnipeg, Brandon, Man.
H. ML Bkeedon, Manager, Main St., Winnipeg.
Agents in the United States—New York, II. Stikeman
and F. Brownfield, Agents; San Francisco, W. Lawson and J.
C. Welsh, Agents.
London Bankers—TheBank'of England; Messrs.Glyn & Co
Foreign Agents—Liverpool, Bank of Liverpc ol; Australia,
Union Bank of Australia; New Zealand, Union Bank of Australia; India, China and Japan, Chartered Mercantile Bank of
"India; London and China, Agra Bank (Limited); West Indies,
Colonial Bank; Paris, Messrs. Marcuard, Krauss et Cie; Lyons,
Credit Lyonnais. 61 w
Capital (paid up) $1,500,000     Best, $650,000.
H. S. Howland, President    T. R. Merritt, Vice-Prssident
Head Office, Toronto—D. R. Wilkxe, Cashier.
Branches in the Northwest—Winnipeg, C. S. Hoare,
Manager;   Brandon, A. Jukes, Manager;  Calgary,  S. Barber,
I Manager; Portage la Prairie, N. G. Leslie, Manager.
Branches in Ontario — Essex Centre, Fergus, Gait,
Niagara Falls, Port Colbornc, St Catharines, Ingersol , Yonge
St, Toronto, Sault Ste. Marie, St. Thomas, Welland,Woodstock.
Deposits received and Interest allowed at current rates.
Drafts and Letters of'Credit issued, available in Canada,
Great Britain, United States, France, China, India, Australia
and New Zealand.  Municipal and other Debentures purchased.
Agents in Great Britain—Lloyds, Barnctts & Bosanquets'
Bank (Limited), 72 Lombard, Street, London, England*  /
. Correspondents—London and Southwestern Bank; Manchester and Liverpool District Banking Co. (Limited); E. W.
Yates & Co., Liverpool. 57W
Th'e Guardian Assurance Co.,	
City of London Fire Insurance Co..
..    10,000,000
The North-West Fire Insurance Co $500,000
All classes of insurable property covered on the   shortest
notice at current rates.
Upwards  of $300,000  paid in  losses since commencing huslness in 1879.
Office-375 & 377 MainSt.,Winnipeg,Man
ffiSl"™L Manitoba &North-Western
Capital (paid up). $375,870 | Rest $35,000
D. Macarthur, President   R. T. Rokeby, Vice-President
A. A. Jackson, Accountant
Portage la Prairie, I. Pitblado, Manager.
Minnedosa H. Fisher, Manager.
Morden C. R. Dunsford, Manager.
Deposits received and Interest allowed at Current Rates.
Drafts and. Letters of Credit issued, available in Canada,
Great Britain, United States, France, China, India, Australia
and New Zealand.
Municipal and other Debentures purchased.
agents in Great Britain.—r. a. McLean & Co.,
i Queen Victoria Street, London, E.C.
CORRESPONDENTS.—Boyle, Campbell, Buxton & Co., So
Lombard Street London. 77w
HEAD OFFICE,  ||'.-     -    OTTAWA.
Capital paid up..$1,000,000 | Rest $400,000
James MacLaren, Esq., Pres.   Chas. Magee, Esq., Vice-Pres.
Alex. Fraser, Esq., Hon. Geo. Bryson, John Mather, Esq.,
Robert Blackburn, Esq., George Hay, Esq.
Branches—Arnprior, Pembroke, Carlton Place and Kee-
watin,. Ontario.   Winnipeg, Manitoba.
Agents—Canada, Bank of Montreal; New York, Messrs.
W: Watson and A. Lang; London, England, Alliance Bank;
St. Paul, Merchants National Bank.
We receive accounts of Corporations, Manufacturers, Firms
and individuals on favorable terms. Interest allowed on Deposits. Sterling and American Exchange bought and sold.
Drafts issued on all the principal points in Canada. Letters of
Credit issued for use in Great Britain and elsewhere. Collections promptly attended'to.
Sow F. H. MATHEWSON, Manager.
bEbAND House
W. D. DOUGLAS & CO., Proprietors.
Muatea Prices,    pure spring- water.   Recently Fnniislied
City Hall Square, Winnipeg, Man.
Canadian Pacific Hotel,
Good Accommodation furnished the travelling
public, on reasonable terms.
J. H. MONTGOMERY, Proprietor, Selkirk.
Give Home Production the preference
by asking for our brands :
ColMuiis, Selects. La Rosa si Havana Whips,
Quality and style equal to the best.   Try them.
23w Cigar Manufacturers, Winnipeg.
I offer for Spring planting a large stock of
every description of Hardy Evergreen,
Forest. Fruit & Ornamental Trees,
Tree Seeds, Shrubs, Roses, Vines,
Hedge Plants, etc. Best varieties, northern grown. All sizes for all purposes.
Prices the lowest. Stock well packed and
shipped with safety to all parts of Canada. Xo Agents employed.   Catalogues free.   Address
Box 346, Winnipeg.
Through the Park Lands of the Fertile
Belt, and the Picturesque Valleys of
the Little Saskatchewan, Bird Tail ]f£
and Assinihoine .Rivers
— TO —
Westbourne, Gladstone, Neepawa,
Minnedosa, Rapid City, Shoal Lake,
Birtle, Binscarth, Russell, ^
Langenburg and Saltcoats.
Leave Portage la Prairie at 16.15
On Tuesdays for Russell and Intermediate Stations;^
On Thursdays for Birtle and Intermediate Stations,-and
On Saturdays for Saltcoats and Intermediate Stations.
Leave Saltcoats on Mondays at 4.40;
Russell on Wednesdays at 6.10;
Birtle on Fridays 7.45.
A Mixed Train leaves Birtle on Friday morning
at 8.00 for Russell and Saltcoats.
Passengers leaving Portage la Prairie at 16.15 on
Thursday can connect ■with this train.
A Mixed Train leaves Saltcoats for Birtle' on
Fridays at 17.00, and leaves Birtle for Portage la
Prairie on Saturdays at 6.45.
Regular passenger trains make a close connection
at Portage la Prairie with the trains of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
16.15 I
16.38 !
16-55 j
17.18 ;
18.00 ;
18.19 1
18.38 !
19.00 :
O *>T3
g? 3
Portage la Prairie  14.15
Macdonald I 13.52
Westbourne '. j 13.33
Woodside  13.10
fGladstone  12.50
Midway  12.07
Ardent  11.47
Neepawa  11.23
Bridge Creek '. £ . 11.00
Minnedosa  10.40
Rapid City
, ;-" ■■'' '•:
Basswood .
Newdale . .
Shoal Lake
Kelloe . .
Solsgirth .
tBirtie*. . .
Binscarth   .
Russell   .' .
Harrowby _J_   6.08
t Meals
General Superintendent
Assistant General Pass. Agent. 1890
The Only Transcontinental Line.
The Short and Direct Houte
To Montreal, Quebec, Bfalifax,
Boston, New York, Buffalo,
Toronto, London, etc.
To Vancouver, Victoria, Seattle,
Taconia, Portland, San Francisco, Los Angeles, etc., etc.
I To Grand Forks, Fargo, Minneapolis, St. Paul, Chicago,
St. Louis, Kansas City, etc.
Canadian Pacific Railway
Its Dining and Sleeping Cars are
Models of Comfort & Elegance.
Free Colonist SleepingCars
Are run on all Through Trains, East, West,
and South.
Steamship Iiine
Will sail from PT. ARTHUR for OWEN SOUND,
making three trips per week, connecting
with trains from the West.
Through Trains
No change of cars to Montreal or the
Pacific Coast.
Through Baggage *SSS
Through Tickets
at Lowest Bates.
Apply to Company's Agents, or to
, City Ticket Agent,
471 Main Street, Winnipeg,
Gen; Traffic Mgr, Montreal.
Gen. Pass. Aert, Montreal
Gen. Pass. Agt, Winnipeg.
cean Steamship Sailings
The following is a list of the various Companies' Steamship Sailings during March and April,
together with Single and Round Trip Rates.
Intending.passengers are requested to call upon their nearest Steamship or Railway Ticket Agent,
or communicate with the undersigned, when full information will be-given, aud Berths or Staterooms
engaged without charge.
In writing for accommodation passengers should state the Line of Steamships they prefer, the
date of their proposed sailing, and the class of accommodation required, there being several Saloon
Rates by some of the Lines, according to the location of the Berths.
Return Tickets are sold at Reduced Rates, and are good for one year. If required they may be
extended to two years.    Children, under 12 years, half-fare*   Infants free.
The name of this Line is a guarantee of
SAFETY,   -    SPEED,   -   AND   -   COMFORT.
Steamships. From Portland.      From Halifax
SARDINIAN 20th March  22nd March
PERUVIAN  27th   "        29th    "
PARISIAN  3rd April  5th April
POLYNESIAN   i7thj "     19th    "
Saloon,    $50 and $60.    ' Return,..$100 and 110.
Second Cabin, $25. "  f®"-
Steerage, $30.      S§gg95     $40.
The equipment of the Steamers of this Line is superb. The
"Vancouver," by her speed and comforl, has earned the reputation of an Atlantic favorite.
Steamships. From Portland     From Halifax.
VANCOUVER  13th March 15th March
OREGON   10th April 12th April
SARNIA 24th   "      26th   "
Saloon $50 and $60.      Return..$100 and $110
Second Cabin  $85. "       $50
Steerage  $20. • "      $40
Nothing that human ingenuity can devise has been spared to
make these boats worthy of the unexcelled reputation of this
BRITTANIC From New York, Wed., 10th March
GERMANIC " " «      ioth     "
TUTONIC  I .■.;;;   «       2ndAPril,
and every Wednesday thereafter.
Saloon   $50, $60, $80 and $100
Return     $100, $110 and $144
Second Cabin  $35.      Return $70
Steerage  $20. "        $40
Every Steamer is of the highest class, and every passenger
advertises the Line.
LAKE ONTARIO.froin Boston to Liverpool, 26th March
LAKE HURON..      " " " 8th April
LAKE SUPERIOR   "     New York       " 2nd     "
Saloon     .$50.      Return $100
Second Cabin $25. "            $50
Steerage $20. "           $40
The Largest Steamers afloat.  Crossing the
Atlantic in less than Six Days.
CITY OF PARIS From New York.. Wed., 10th March
CITY OF BERLI \...      " « «      ,6th     "
CITY OF NEW YORK   " " .'.'    "       2nd April
Saloon $50, $60, $80, $100
Return , $100, $110, $144
Second Cabin $35.      Return        $70
Steerage $20. "        $40
ALASKA From New York Tuesday, 2Cth March
WYOMING        « " ....       «'*  1st April
ARIZONA         " ....       g Sth    "
and every Tuesday thereafter.
.Saloon, $50, $60, $80, $100   Return, $100, $130, $144
Second Cabin  $35 " $10
Steerage   $20 " '.".'.'.'.'.'.'■.'.'.'$40
(Established 50 years.)
GALLIA From New York Saturday, 22nd March
ETRURIA...'.'!.'       " " ■■■•       " 29th
AURANIA   ....        " " ...       " S* April,
and ever)' Saturday thereafter.
Saloon $60, $80, $100, $125
Return f ....$120, $144, $180
Second Cabin  $35.
Steerage $20.
Return $70
New York to Havre every Saturday.
Splendid Steamships.    Built expressly for
Passenger Traffic.
 Thursday, 27th March
  "        3rd April,
and every Thursday thereafter.
Saloon $45 and $55.       Return .. $90 and $100
Second Cabin $30. "        ... $55
Steerage $20. "        '.!"'.'..'.'.'.'$4©
CITY OF ROME .... TO LIVERPOOL, .... Sat., 5U1 April
CALIFORNIA TO NAPLES, ... Wed., 2nd April
Hamburg-American Packet Co.
New York to Bremen every Wednesday aM Saturday.
Tickets'are sold by all Agents at the same price as they can be obtained at the Steamship Offices
at the point'of embarkation, and passengers will find it to their advantage to purchase at the nearest
ticket office, as generally the railway fare, in connection with the ocean ticket, is less than the
ordinary rate to the seaboard. ««.«-.«» „^nR
55W    . General Passenger Agent, Winnipeg.
A Wm?Fr
% &
Grazing Lands, Market Gardens, Etc.,
The attention of intending Settlers is drawn to the
fact that Lands within the PROVINCE OF
MANITOBA, and near to Winnipeg,
are better and cheaper at
From $3.00 to $8.00 per Acre
Than Free Grant or Railway Lands located
further West.
Remember, the difference in Freight is a profit
in itself. The 'prices of supplies are lower, and
Grain, Cattle and General Farm Produce command
higher prices on account of the great competition
in the Winnipeg markets.
3 Portage Avenue, Winnipeg, Man.
Office-No. 500 Main St., Winnipeg, Man.
8,000 Acres of best Farming Land in Manitoba,
in" the celebrated Tobacco Creek district, where the finest crops
in the Country have always been grown, and which escape
frosts when other districts suffer severely. Having the
Northern Pacific to the south, and the C.P.R. to the North, two
leading markets (Miami and Carman) are within easy reach.
As proof of the excellence of the land, the .resident farmers are
buying all they can as fast as their means will permit it.
Apply to
THOMAS RENW1CK, Lintrathen,
Bank of Montreal Buildings,
Real Estate, Financial and Insurance Agents,
Established 1S79.
City, Suburban and Farm Property
Rents collected and Taxes paid.     'Write for list and prices.
No. 1 Market St. E., WINNIPEG. 33w
Real Estate & Financial Agents.
Rents and Interest Collected.   Insurance Brokers.
450 Main St., opp. the Post Office, Winnipeg, Man.
CAPITAL    -   -   -       -   $1,500,000.00.
RESERVE FUNDS -        850,000.00.
Head Offices: Toronto, WALTER S.-LEE, Managing Director.
Branch Offices:  Winnipeg,
W. M. FISHER, Manager.
a  re^i
Upon Farm and City Properties.
Mortgages, Municipal Debentures and
School Debentures purchased.
Scrip held for use of Clients. Clients' Title
Deeds are not sent out of the Province, but are
lodged in the Company's vaults at Winnipeg,
where they may be examined at all times. Agents
at all principal points throughout.the Province.
For further information write to the Manager
of the Winnipeg Branch.
VM. HESPELER, Manager.
Money to Lend and Land for Sale,
on the most favorable terms. 30W
The fllliafiee Tfast Go., Ld.
Farm Lands and City Properties
in all parts of the Province.
LANDS for Sale by M. FORTUNE & CO ,
Real Estate Brokers, Insurance and Commission Agts. Office,
463 Main St., "Winnipeg, Man. We have several good farms near
Winnipeg, three and-four miles west of city limits, easy terms^
also improved farms for sale in best districts in the Province.
50,000 acres Farm Lands in Winnipeg District. 200,000 acres
to select from in other parts of the Province. Improved Farms
$5 to $10 per acre. Stock Farms, all sizes, $1 to $5 per acre.
For full particulars, apply to
7w M. FORTUNE & CO., 463 Main St.
C _E3_ _B _^L_ _L~j
_L~' _^_ _bi Ibvdl S
In the following Municipalities in the
One-sixth cash ;  balance in five yearly instalments at 7 p<
cent interest.   No expense to purchasers for mortgage papers
Argyle. Glendale.
Blanchard. Lansdowne.
Cypress (South)   Lome.
Daly. " Miniota.
Deloraine. Norfolk (North)
Franklin. Odanah.
Glenwood. "Osprey.
Shoal Lake.
These lands are all of good quality and capable of cultivation ; no swamps or sandhills; and the most of them have
been more or less cultivated.
For any further information, address
1 w P. O. Box 1306, "WINNIPEG.
1   * k v. fc   fr\Jf „
Established 40 Tears.       Head Office—London, Eng.
Offices in Canada—iobteeal. Toronto aid wjmpjjb.
Expenses Moderate, and can be added to the principal
■.   and included in the Mortgage if desired.
Advances made upon Farm Properties on very advantageous terms for 3, 5 or 8 years, with option
of repayment by annual instalments.
10 Commission Clargefl.       Renewals Elc'ed witnont Expense,
Interest at lowest- rates, payable TEARLY, and computed only froili the date on which the money
is actually advanced.
Any further information can be obtained by addressing the
ALFRED M. PATTON, Winnipeg;.
iw   Solicitors, Branch Offices at Brandon and Morden.
■  Bents Collected, Estates Manages end FnMs Invested. '
Over 200,000 Acres of Improved and Unimproved
Farms for Sale at lowest prices and easy terms.
Office-ROOM No. 4 McNEE'S BLOCK,
Three-and-a-half miles from Churchbridge Station, on Mani-
tob & North-Western Railroad. 15 acres broken and fenced.
Log house, 20x26 ft. Stable for 10 head. Piggery, root house
and wells. Splendid land, some hay. A bargain at $3 peracre.
Apply to C. Crujkshank, 9 Selkirk St. East, Winnipeg.    Ssw
Watchmaker and Manufacturing Jeweler
Waltham, Elgin & Springfield "Watches.
Repairing a Specialty.   Satisfaction guaranteed.
2iw 584 Main Street., "WINNIPEG, MAN.
Raymond   Settling  Oflaehines
Agents Wanted in unoccupied territory.
Address: JAS. HADDOCK & CO.,
271 Main St., Winnipeg, Man.
Have always on hand a large stock of
Staple and paney Dry Goods,
Give us a call before making your purchases.
Northwest Head Office-Winnipeg, Man.
Complete Outfits.
request you to see our Agents before you buy.
invite your carefui inspection of our samples
solicite your support and patronage,
guarantee ail our Goods reliable & first-class
farming in Jiorth-mestern Gaflada.
Everyone contemplating farming in Manitoba or the Northwest Territories
of Canada should subscribe for
which was established in 1882, and is still the only agricultural paper printed
between Lake Superior and the Pacific Coast, having in that vast territory .
a much larger circulation than all other agricultural publications
combined.    It is an illustrated paper, devoted to Live Stock, '
Dairying, Veterinary,  Grain Growing, Poultry, Forestry,
Gardening and every other detail of Northwest Farming, written by practical, experienced men of long
residence here, and is specially adapted to the
conditions of this region, to the farming
•of which it is the ONLY PAPER"
in Canada exclusively devoted.   ■
Complete and accurate Market Reports are among its special features.
Subscription to any place in Canada or the United States, $1 a year, in
advance. Persons remitting- from/ Great Britain should send money order
value 4s. 6d. sterling. To other countries in the Postal Union the subscription
is os. 6d. sterling. Money orders to be made payable at Winnipeg to F. M..
The Manitoba Free Press says : "The jNfor'-West Farmer is a journal that
should be read by every man cultivating an acre of land or owning a domestic
animal in Manitoba and the N. W. T. As its name implies, it is edited especially to meet the requirements of the great fertile belt of the Northwest. It is
alike valuable to the farmer, gardener, dairyman, rancher, aparian and pet-
stock "fancier. ''.
WINNIPEG, Manitoba.
NEW YORK C1XY, IT. S. A.:—THOS. H. CHILD, Manager, ISO Nassau Street.
CHICAGO, 111., U. S. A.:—F. B. WHITE, Manager, 543 The Rookery.
Teas, Sugars, Wines, Liquors,
Corner Princess & Bannatyne Sts., Winnipeg.
Goods sold to the Trade only.
Cor. 6th St & Rosser Ave.,
24 & 26 McDermotSt.,
J    ■"TIllllllU   w   VUIJ
Lumber, Shingles and Lath,
Office: opposite C. P. B. Passenger Depot, WINNIPEG.
Montreal and Winnipeg.
The Ames, Holden Company,
33 Queen St., Winnipeg.
Jas. Redmond, Winnipeg.   A. C. Fi.umekfei.t, Victoria, B-.C.
o gra;
> ft
n Northoiest
Deep soil, well watered, wooded and richest in the world—easily reached by railways. Wheat—average 30 bushels to the acre,
with fair farming. The Great Fertile Belt: Red River Valley, Saskatchewan Valley, Peace River Valley, and the Great Fertile
Plains, vast areas suitable for Grains and the Grasses, largest (yet unoccupied) in the world. Vast Mineral Riches—Gold, Silver,
Iron, Copper, Salt, Petroleum, etc., etc.
ROUTE—Including the great Canadian Pacific Railway, the Grand Trunk Railway, and the Intercolonial Railway, making
continuous steel-rail connection from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean through the Great Fertile Belt of North America and the
magnificently beautiful scenery of the North of Lake Superior and the Rocky Mountains.
Wholly through British Territory, and shortest line through Canada to China, Japan, Australia and the East.    Always sure and
always open.
oi 1
•<r   B L
to every male adult of 18 years, and to every female, who is head of a family, on condition
of living on it, offering independence for life to every one with little means, but having
sufficient energy to settle.
Further and full information, in pamphlets and maps, given free on application by letter, addressed to
i|||| HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR CANADA, 9 Victoria Chambers, London, S.W., England,
and all Emigation Agents.
J 1S90
TXlhat do You Ulant ?
We are Headquarters for everything in the
Book line. Public and Private Libraries
supplied on very best terms.
We have without doubt the finest lines of
Staple and Fancy Stationery in Manitoba.
Crests and Monograms cut to order, and
Embossing done at reasonable prices.
We will do you a nice job in any kind of
Printing at reasonable rates. We also engrave and print from copperplate.
408 Main St., Winnipeg-.
Or a Fashionable Outfit of
vw'aa ^xicCOW^   ^■^v c nn sa ^ssty isa Ban
Strong Bakers' Float*.
■s^S»5i Daily Capacity
ROYAL—Montreal 1800 barrels
GLENORA—Montreal 1200     "
GODERICH—Goderich, Ont 1000     "
POINT DOUGLAS—Winnipeg .... 1000     "
SBAPORTH—Seaforth, Ont 300     1
26 w
AflD pU^HlSHl^OS
StoGk neier more Gomplete than at present
Fruit & Produce,
General Commission Merchants,
RKE &. CAS6,
One of the Best and Cheapest Family Hotels in Winnipeg".
Every Convenience Every Comfort, Good - Table, Moderate
Charges, and close to the Railway Station.
C. HARVEY & SONS, Proprietors.
We invite all Immigrants, Farmers, Housekeepers and others
to call at our Warehouse for their Seed Grain, reeding Stuffs,
etc. 6/w C. H. & SONS.
TORONTO, Ont., 36 Wellington St.
WINNIPEG, Man., Whitla Block, Albert St.
17 w VICTORIA, B. C, Wharf St.
Gent's and Ladies' Furnishings
Fancy Goods, Smallwares &c.
Our new Samples are nearly all to hand. We are showing a
larger assortment than ever, and we claim as good value as can
be found in the markets. Our Travellers will be on the road in
a few days. All orders placed with us will receive our best
37 Portage Avenue East, WINNIPEG.
S. W. CokNEi.i.. A. E. Speka. . Geo. Stott.
!■? w
Railway and Steamship Tickets
Two Blocks from C.P.R. Depot.        Note the Address.
Established 1SS2.
Wholesale and Retail Dealer in
Moulding, Base, Casing, Balusters, Ac.
Between Main and Princess Sts., south side of C. P. R. Track,
My complete and extensive stock in every line ensures
promptness in filling all orders entrusted to me.
Price List on application.   .
Lath, Shingles, Doors, Sash, &c.
Office and Yard:  Higgins St., WINNIPEG.
Telephone No. 346. Siw
flletfehan t Tailop
Main St. opposite Post Office, Winnipeg.
This establishment is noted for the Superior Quality
of Goods kept in stock and of the Artistic
Style of the Garments turned out.
Wholesale Dry (
S  A V I  1  G
PUBLISHER, 10 Spruce
Street, NEW VORK.
1890]  STOCK COMPLETE  [1890
— IN —
Dry Goods & Men's Furnishings
Ladies' Mantles in Cloth and Fur,
Men'* Fur Coats, Caps and Mitts.
Opposite the N. P. &. M. Railway Station.
31 w 388 Main St., cor. Graham St., Winnipeg.
^ K
11    JI..IWW
Hj r xj iv
Taking Quantity and Quality of Circulation into consideration, THE MANITOBA FREE PRESS is the best and
cheapest Advertising Medium published.
Its Circulation's throughout the East, West, Northwest and Southwest, and probably covers the largest territory of any Daily
Newspaper published in Canada.
No expense is or will be spared by The Manitoba Free Press to retain its acknowledged position
The Subscription Price of THE WEEKLY FREE PRESS is as follows:   Payable in advance,
I Year $2, or 8s. 3d.  6 Months $1.25. or 5s. 2d.   3 Months 75c, or 3s. Id
Give Post Office Address in Full.     Remit by Post Office Order, payable to The Manitoba Free
Press Company, or in Registered Letter at our risk.    Address
The Manitoba Free Pres
T*7"Ix^z^Ipeg%  Zh/faxn-ItoToa,-
- . -   ~ - .-
The Manitoba and pofth^ttlestera Railway
3,000,000 acres in theP ARK LANDS
For Sale on. Easy Terms of Payment. #
Along this Railway there are many thriving Towns and Villages, with Cheese Factories, Creameries, -Saw, Flour and Woolen
Mills, Elevators, Grain- Warehouses, &c., and among the points of interest are Binscarth Stock Farm, Dr. Barnardo's Home for Boys,
and many Horse and Cattle Ranches. At Saltcoats is the settlement of the Commercial Colonization Co., who have placed on homesteads a great number of successful colonists and assisted them by building houses and advancing stock, implements, &c.
^ For further particulars, maps, pamphlets, &c, apply or write to A. F. EDEN, Land Com'r, Winnipeg. A
Atlantic Steamship Liines.
available by any line of Steamers
crossing the Atlantic.
At 471 
It is a well-known fact that the facilities afforded'at THIS OFFICE  for ticketing passengers to any part of the world
cannot be equalled at any other office in Winnipeg.
If you are going to ENGLAND, IRELAND or SCOTLAND, or any part of EUROPE, you  will find it to your
advantage to call.
The best accommodation can be reserved, and every comfort is secured.
Fares are the lowest, and if time is an object, you can reach the Old Country in 8 or 9 days after leaving Winnipeg.
Passengers are booked at the above address and at all Canadian Pacific Railway Offices by
Sailing direct to London, Liverpool, Glasgow, Antwerp, Hamburg, Bremen, Amsterdam and
Naples, and are ticketed through via these routes to any point in E March
manufacturers! of and dealers in
Straw Cutters & Grain Crushers.  "Si
Ayr-American Plow Co.'s Plows.
Printed matter sent free.
H. S. WESBEOOK, Manager, Winnipeg, Manitoba.
I. 2W
n jwfiyJvw ■ ■ b
.- .■.    :   ~- --
VICTORIA; and other principal points in Manitoba, North-West
Territories and British Columbia.
Will find at these Stores Goods imported
rect from all the principal markets of the world, offered at moderate prices.
L 34\v ■      ■    _; -''	
Fanning Mills.
Feed Grinders.
Grain Crushers.
Garden Tools.
Pumps and Tanks.
Hay Loaders.
Eta, Etc, Etc
Permanent Warehouses and Reliable Agents at all
leading centres in Manitoba, the North-West, and
British Columbia, from, which we supply in season
every kind of implement or machine used on a farm.
See our Agents or write for Catalogue and Prices.
Press Drills.
Broadcast Seeders.
Land Rollers.
Disc Harrows.
Sulky Plows.
Gang Plows.
Wood Goods.
Carts and Sleighs.
Etc, Etc., Etc
Paris, France, 8th Nov., '89.
H. A. MASSET, Esq., Pres.
My Dear Mr. Massey:—
In answer to your enquiry of this
day, I beg to state, that the result of the International Trial of Reapers and Binders
at Noisiel has obtained for your Binder the
Highest. Award, which consists of an object
of A rt of considerable value. I may further
state that your Binder, under most severe
dynamometrical tests, proved the Lightest
Actual Draft of anyi/tv the field, and moreover, was the only machine which went
through the whole of its work without missing, a single sheaf. As one of the judges of
the'trial, I am glad to be in a position to
give you. this information. You have also
obtained the Gold Medal for the whole col-
lect,ipn{gf your Implements. I may further]
IBM in recognition of the valuable
\s which you have thus rendered to
nltxvre, by the production of such superior Implements, the President of the
French Republic has honored you with the
decoration of Officer of Public Instruction,
for which please accept my sincere congratulations, and believe me,
Yours truly,
(Signed)   J. X. PERRAULT,
Member of the International Jury of the Paris Exposition.


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