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The new far West and the old far East, being notes of a tour in North America, Japan, China, Ceylon,… Barneby, W. Henry (William Henry), 1843-1914 1889

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[All rights reserved]  TO
M.P., D.C.L.,
In publishing this volume, I wish to point out to
my readers that I have purposely avoided going over old
ground. In my last work entitled Life and Labour in
the Far Far West, published in 1884, I described many
places in Canada, revisited in my recent tour. I do not
consider a repetition of the same facts necessary; and
though in some cases I may be obliged to mention places
visited before (for the sake of comparison), it will be
as briefly as possible—Granville, now Vancouver City,
in British Columbia, excepted.
The new ground in Canada, over which I lately
travelled, was a district recently opened up by the
Manitoba and North Western Railway, through the
" park-like lands of the Fertile Belt; j from Portage-la-
Prairie to Langenburg, and by the Canadian Pacific Railway, from Calgary over the Rocky, Selkirk, and Cascade
Mountains to the new terminal city of Vancouver.
It was owing to the invitation of a friend (the Vice-
President of the Manitoba and North Western Railway),
who asked me to accompany him in his private director's
" car," over both his own line and that of the Canadian
Pacific Railway, that I was induced to make this my
third visit to the Dominion of Canada; and the more
especially as I was offered facilities for visiting certain via
people who had settled there, and who had been guided
by my advice in selecting the. locality of their future
homes. I was anxious to see how they were prospering,
and to hear from themselves their impressions of the
country; fancying that letters home are not always
quite so unbiassed as they should be, but that they
often from somewhat interested motives paint the
country in too rosy colours. This portion of my book
will comprise that under the title of The New Far West.
Those uninterested in emigration or farming in
Canada are recommended to skip chapters vn., vni.
and  ix. altogether.
After leaving Canada and the United States, I returned home via Japan, China, Ceylon, and Egypt—all
new countries to me, my experiences in those regions
being described in the portion of the volume entitled
The Old Far Fast. I cannot flatter myself that all
parts of this volume will be of equal interest to every
reader, but the chapters referring to the agricultural
lands of Canada may be useful to intending emigrants,
and the others are the result of my personal observations,
which though cut short and rendered meagre in parts
by a severe illness, still I trust may interest those who
have not yet visited those far distant lands.
In conclusion, I wish to thank those gentlemen who
have taken the trouble of verifying my views, and in particular the Rev. Phipps Onslow, of Upper Sapey Rectory,
Worcester, who has perused and slightly corrected this
volume previous to going to press.
W. Henry Barneby.
Bredenbury Court, Bromyard, Herefordshire, and Longworth, Hereford.
Carlton, Clul, S. W., June 1889. CONTENTS.
japan {continued)
japan (continued)
japan (continued)
japan (continued)
japan (continued)
...    257
CEYLON     ...
...    270
...    279
...    291
...    292
...    294
APPENDIX  D 1,  to  IV.   ...
...    298
...    311
...    312
island               To face p.   148
JAPAN      I    202
,..   Frontispiece
To face p.   39
1111111m THE NEW FAR WEST.  •>.
Prairie Fires—Wooden Railway Bridges—Dining Car—Emigrants'
Comforts—A Lonely Station—Change of Reckoning Time—Scotch
Settlers—Courteous Officials—Depreciation of Land—Good Land
We left  Toronto by the Northern  Kail way, and   in
ten hours' time  reached  North  Bay  Station,  on the
main line of  the  Canadian Pacific Eailway, between
Montreal and Vancouver City, about 364 miles west
from Montreal.    Here we had to wait a considerable
time, as  the   Pacific  Express was  already two  hours
late on its journey,  so  we were able  to look  about
us.    North Bay is situated on Lake Nipissing, a rather
pretty lake, dotted with islands, and the town itself is
said to be a rising place.    It  is  reported that there
is some good land in the neighbourhood;  but if so,
it is the last we noted on our journey for many miles
west. But as it is a "junction station," there must be
a fair prospect of some business doing here.
Upon the arrival of the Canadian Pacific train, we
travelled along the north shore of Lake Nipissing,
passing through forest mostly very much burnt. In
the open spaces cleared by fire young self-sown trees
were growing; but in other parts, where the fires
had not done their work so thoroughly, we steamed
through miles and miles of bare, blackened poles,
showing what terrible destruction had been caused by
the ravages of these unchecked forest fires. Rocks,
charred trees, and scrub brushwood formed the order
of the day, and succeeded each other in very monotonous
The train kept up a good pace, quickening at times,
especially down some of the inclines, where it appeared
to go almost too fast; but doubtless this was in order
to make up for lost time. I was struck by the great
number of wooden bridges we passed over; keeping
them in efficient repair will prove a heavy expense
some day. On each bridge I noticed water barrels
marked IC. P. R. fire barrel" dotted alone; on each
side, in case of fire from falling cinders. Every precaution is taken with these bridges; and a number of
watchmen  are   kept   especially to   examine   each   of ■MR
the principal  ones  immediately after  the passing of
a train.
We passed Sudbury in the course of the afternoon,
from which place a branch line is being made to Sault-
St.-Marie, a narrow strait between Lakes Huron and
Superior, over which a bridge was being built (since
completed). The country now appeared quite uninhabited, and we only noticed an occasional settler's
or platelayer's log house; but even these were very
rarely to be seen. We saw but one saw-mill, and only
passed one passenger and one freight train during the
day. I cannot see where the traffic to pay for this part
of the railway is expected to come from. At present
one passenger train is started six times in the week
from each end of the line—west to east, and east to
west: so there must be a string of trains running at
equal distances, for it takes five days fourteen hours to
reach Vancouver City from Montreal, and vice versd—■
the distance being 2906 miles; a long way for the
same car to run, but the locomotives are changed at
certain points. It is a great convenience for travellers
to have the same carriages all the time: though, to
home readers, the idea of stepping into a "through
carriage " for a run of nearly six days, over a distance
of almost 3000 miles, must appear strange.
A dining car was attached to our train from 8 a.m.
to 8 P.M., so there was no occasion for refreshment
rooms at the stations; but I do not know how emigrants
get on, or what chance they have of buying anything.
Their comfort is, however, considerably studied, and
they are supplied with convenient bed racks, like the
"Pullman's" in some respects, but with no mattresses.
The permanent way and rolling stock of thB Canadian
Pacific Railway are excellent, and the carriages superior
to any I have seen elsewhere, either in the States or
Canada. The tariff in the dining car is moderate, three
shillings being the fixed charge for each meal, and the
catering is very good indeed.
There is also a very appreciable difference between
the courtesy of the officials of this line and that which
I have noticed as conspicuous for its absence in many
other parts. A leaf out of the C. P. R. book might
in this respect be taken with advantages by employe's
A traveller between North Bay and Winnipeg, a
distance of over 1200 miles, must not expect to see
any rich agricultural lands, for if he does he will be
disappointed. Minerals there are said to be in abundance, but these are not generally visible at present.
On leaving Onaping we continued to pass through forest,
lake, and scrub wood scenery, all very monotonous, for
about 100 miles.    We were told that this forest is about A LONELY STATION.
400 miles in length, and every part of it is very much
blackened and charred by forest fires. It was a pleasant
change when, after some hours of darkness, we caught
the first view of Lake Superior at Heron Bay. The
engineering work along the north side of the lake must
have been exceedingly heavy and difficult to carry
through, especially before reaching Jack-fish Bay, where
the line is taken through granite rocks of the most
formidable description. Jack-fish Station, on the bay
of that name, did not appear a desirable situation in
which to spend a long winter, its only surroundings
consisting of a pair of cabins and a fisherman's boat.
After ascending a steep incline, we plunged into the
forests and rocks again, and proceeded to Schreiber, a
large dep6t for railway people, platelayers, &c, but
nothing more. It was, however, quite refreshing to
see a few houses again. After this we travelled on
through some very good lake and forest scenery to
Nepigon Bay, where we crossed the river of that name,
which runs from Lake Nepigon, famous for its trout
fishing (and also for its mosquitos). The views of
Lake Superior from Jack-fish Bay up to Red Rock Bay
were exceedingly fine.
During the rebellion in 18 8 5 * the corps of volunteers
under General Middleton were conveyed a considerable
1 See Appendix A. 6 THE NEW FAR   WEST.
distance by the Canadian Pacific Railroad; but at that
time the line between Jack-fish and Red Rock Bays (a
distance of about 70 miles) was not completed, owing
to the very heavy rock cutting before alluded to. The
volunteers marched a great part of this distance, over
the frozen surface of the lake, and after submitting
to great hardships, took train again at Red Rock
Bay.      | I £
We took on board two or three passengers at Nepigon,
the first who had availed themselves of the train since
we joined it at North Bay, a distance of 564 miles.
This tends to corroborate the theory of there not being
many local passengers in this part. At Port Arthur we
came upon a partially open country, where a few cows
were grazing.    These were the first we had seen for 629
o o
miles, the whole of the intervening country being apparently (so far as we could judge) uninhabited and
devoid of cultivation.
Port Arthur is very well situated on Lake Superior,
and is the steamboat junction for Owen Sound, on
Georgian Bay, Ontario. A few miles more and we
arrived at Fort William, an old Hudson Bay Company's
trading station, and here we stopped to have our train
examined after its long run of 1000 miles from Montreal.
From this point westwards, the new mode (to us) of
reckoning  time  was   used  by  the  railway  company, rs5^^srr^3TT^?=T^:^^^^5 '-*''-'
namely,   one   to   twenty-four   o'clock,   beginning   at
Soon after leaving Fort William we skirted the
Kaministiquia river (said to be very good for trout,
and almost a virgin stream for fishing), which is well
wooded on either side. The trees in this district are
untouched by fire, and thus form a most delightful
change after witnessing the devastation caused else-
where. Lake and forest followed each other in due
succession until we emerged at Selkirk Station, about
twenty miles from Winnipeg. The settlement hard
by was formed some years ago by Lord Selkirk, and
named after him. It is said that the settlers here
have intermixed very much with the half-breeds; but
the present race still speak broad Scotch. There was
palpable evidence on all sides that these people are
poor farmers, and have made no progress. Shortly
afterwards we arrived at Winnipeg, a distance of 1059
miles from North Bay (where we had joined the
Pacific Express), and 1423 miles from Montreal. I
must confess that I have never seen a more hopeless
country through which to run a railway, and I cannot
understand how this section of over 1000 miles out of
2900 miles can possibly be expected to pay, except
perhaps as a through connection. Briefly speaking,
this (say)   3000  miles  of railway  between  Montreal 8 THE NEW FAR  WEST.
and Vancouver City may be divided as follows—
1000 miles of forests and rock, 1000 miles of prairie
and agricultural lands, 1000 miles of mountain and
Four years had passed since I was last at AYinnipeg ;
and during that time the suburbs of the town have
been greatly extended, but in the city itself I did not
think there was much difference, except in "Main
Street"; this has been very much improved, and is
now paved with wood, and many of the houses have
been rebuilt, some with a rather top-heavy style of
■ battlement," giving the street a somewhat irregular
appearance. The various back streets appear to have
been at a standstill, and the magnificent streets laid
out to the right and left of Main Street are still
unbuilt, and consist of side-walks and telegraph-poles
only. Excepting Main Street, all the streets are in a
deplorable state of ruts and unevenness; the declivities at the corners appear complete traps, certain to
overturn any carriage other than the native buggy.
There seemed to me to be a want of ■ go i about the
place in comparison to what I had observed in 1883,
and the streets were very empty; but this, I was told,
was due to the farmers all how being busy in the
country, as harvest operations were in full progress.
While at Winnipeg I took the opportunity of visit- DEPRECIATION OF LAND. 9
ing the small property I had purchased in 1881, near
Otterbourne, 30 miles south of Winnipeg. Mr. Herbert
Power, who has now such a practical knowledge of
land in Manitoba, accompanied me, as I was anxious
to hear his opinion of the property, and of the quality
of the land. On reaching Otterbourne Station, Captain
Leckie, the postmaster, drove us out the three miles
in a very primitive buggy. First of all we visited
the brothers McVicar, who live on a neighbouring
section, and whose acquaintance I had made in 1883.
Since then their father has built a new house about
a mile off; but this was the only improvement I
could notice in the Otterbourne district in the last
four years. The Mc Vicars were again most hospitable,
and, having freely expressed themselves to the effect
that they would like to hang " all them speculators,"
very kindly offered to show me my land. The depth
of soil there is about four feet, and Mr. Power,
Captain Leckie, and Neven McVicar all agreed that
it was land of a very first-rate description. At the
same time, this and other land around has gone down
in value quite 30 to 50 per cent, since I was last here
in 1883 ; in fact, it is difficult to put a price on it,
as there are no buyers. All the land round my
sections, except that occupied by the McVicars, is
still " unsettled," and held by non-residents.    I have IO
on former occasions pointed out the mistake people
make by rushing far West (unless they are miners),
instead of settling down on the rich lands of the Red
River Valley; and I am in no fear of contradiction
when I repeat that this is the best land, not only in
Manitoba, but I believe in the whole of Canada and
British Columbia. Yet the population is small and
scattered, and the money-making power of the settlers
does not appear to be very rapid ; for when I reminded
Mc Vicar of how he had told me when I was at Little
Bredenbury before that he could not get married because
there were no girls, he replied, I There are no girls at
all now, and I could not keep a wife if I had one."
As regards the climate here,1 a severe hailstorm had
occurred about the middle of July, and had considerably injured the standing crops; but it was purely local,
and was also very partial, striking one field and sparing
the next. The Mc Vicars said that at the time we were
there (the end of August) the frost was beginning to
whiten the grass.
1 For further information as to climate, see Life and Labour in
the Far Far West, by W. Henry Barneby. CasseU and Co., London,
A Burnt Prairie—Untidy Houses—Ogilvie Elevators—A Barren
Country—Traffic in Buffalo Bones—A Successful Coal Mine—A
Gathering of Monarchs—A Cure for Rheumatism—Primitive
Bathing Establishment—An Original Advertisement—Anthracite
Coal Mine—A new Field for Alpine Climbers—A Difficult Pass
—Change of Time.
Leaving Winnipeg for the west, I was exceedingly
sorry not to revisit Southern Manitoba j by the way, in
order to see what improvements (if any) had taken
place there since 1883. This district is traversed by
the South-Western branch of the Canadian Pacific
Railway, and is a part of Manitoba, in which I take
great interest. On account of the superior quality of
some of the land, it is a favourite district for bond fide
settlers and emigrants, though it has to my mind been
somewhat overlooked by the general public.
However, by following the route adopted, I had an
1 See Life and Labour in the Far Far West. 12
opportunity of observing the whole of the main line of
the Canadian Pacific Railway. The prairie immediately
adjoining the track was much burnt, owing to fires
started by falling cinders or sparks from passing locomotives ; and perhaps the comparative absence of
"settlement" may be due partly to this, as well as to
the fact of the land being held by speculators. The
Manitoba and North-Western Railway, and the district
adjoining now opened up for settlers, which will be
described later on after visiting Vancouver City, branches
off at Portage la Prairie. This place I now passed for
the fourth time in my life; it is one of the oldest settlements, and is almost entirely devoted to wheat raising.
The late autumn is, I think, a very favourable time to
see the country,—for the stacks are finished, and are
dotted about in every direction ; but at Burnside (the
next station to Portage la Prairie) the wheat-fields cease,
and rough unreclaimed land again appears. The wheat-
farming round Portage always strikes me as superior to
any other in Manitoba or the North-West Territory ;
round Carberry, too, there is a considerable amount of
good farming. Brandon, again, is said to be a head
centre for grain growing; but I remember that in 1883,
when I inspected this district, I was more struck with
the business prosperity of the town, than with the look
of the district and the neighbourhood from an agri- OGILVIE'S ELEVATORS.
cultural point of view. Brandon itself now (1887)
appears to have developed; several buildings which
were in wood at the time of my last visit are now
re-erected in stone, and there are also some new public
buildings. On the northern side of the station, how-
ever, several poor-looking structures have recently been
put up, and the neighbourhood of the station generally
does not do credit to the rest of the place, being
neglected and untidy; this is a pity, as Brandon bears
such a good name.
The next few towns we passed did not appear to
have made any recent progress, till reaching Elkhorn,
where considerable improvement was visible; and its
neighbour Virden has made even greater strides still.
A large proportion of the land passed through to-day is
not worth cultivating; I need not mention particular
localities, but it must be understood that I am referring
especially to lands adjoining the railway. Further
away on each side there are many settled houses; and
" Ogilvie's" elevators are to be seen at nearly all the
stations; these have been, for the most part, erected
since my last visit, and are a sure sign of the increased
prosperity of the country, which is satisfactory. Mr.
Ogilvie is the great miller, not only of the province of
Manitoba, but also of the whole Dominion of Canada.
At some stations there was competition, as I noticed 14 THE NEW FAR   WEST.
other elevators bearing the name of Messrs. McBean
Virden has much increased in size since I was last
there, and now possesses a cheese factory, a flour rolling
mill, an English church, town-hall and school, and many
new buildings for the growing population. Leaving
Virden we passed several other places which I had
visited in 1883, including the capital, Regina, and
Moosejaw S and continued our journey westwards over
a very bad bit of line (caused, I believe, by the softness
of the land over which it passed), where our car, which
was attached to the end of the train, shook in the most
alarming manner, so that we fully expected it would
leave the track. However, all went right, and after a
very unpleasant experience of three and a half hours'
rocking, the line improved.
The country west of Moosejaw, along the Canadian
Pacific Railway, appears to be absolutely worthless
for farming purposes, until within 40 or 50 miles of
Calgary—a great deal is completely desert, with sage
bush as the principal crop, and alkali abounds throughout the district. It is true that the Canadian Pacific
Railway Company have started trial farms here and
there. I cannot say' how they are answering, but at
any rate they stand alone | no settlers appear to have
been  tempted   to  follow  the  example,  for   I  hardly
s^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^m TRAFFIC IN BUFFALO BONES.
noticed any settlers' huts at all. The towns adjoining
the various railway stations have, as a rule, not been
much enlarged in the last four years. At Swift Current
the principal traffic appeared to be huge piles of buffalo
bones, which are found here on the prairie in great
numbers, and are bought by the traders from the Indians
to make into manure. Maple Creek has not made
much advance in farming, but this place and Calgary
are developing as shipping points for Montana cattle.
The Americans- send their cattle in bond to Maple Creek,
whence they are despatched by rail; there is a duty of
20 dollars a head for each animal imported into Canada
from the States. At Dunmore the North Western
Coal and Navigation Company make a junction with
the Canadian Pacific Railway. This little line is 109
miles long, and has only recently been opened, for the
purpose of bringing coal from the Gait coal mines—a
speculation started as a company by Sir Alexander Gait
a few years ago, and which is proving a great success.
Passing Medicine Hat, which has increased a little since
1883, and which for commercial purposes is probably a
good centre, owing to the various coal mines in its
vicinity, we continued our way through a very barren
country, where the prairie was composed of loose shingle
and pebbles, and where there was not a house or dwelling
of  any  kind to  be  seen, except  here and   there  an 16 THE NEW FAR  WEST.
occasional cabin. As I drove over it in 1883, I know
that this class of land continues to within about 40 miles
of Calvary; but there its character changes entirely, and
Calgary is recognized as the head centre of the cattle
and ranching business. Around Fort McLeod (to the
south of the line) is the finest district in the Dominion
for ranching, and the various companies and private
individuals who follow this calling have already been
described,1 and are too well-known for there to be any
need for me to touch on the subject now. A stage runs
in five days from Calgary to Edmonton, which latter
has the reputation of being also a fine country, though
better for cattle and horses than wheat growing, owing
to the summer frosts. Then again further north is the
Peace River district, which is very well spoken of, but
not much opened out as yet. At Calgary, which is
beautifully situated, there is an excellent Immigrants
and Enquiry Office, with a large immigrants' shed
From here the foothills of the Rocky Mountains are
seen, and the scenery rapidly improves, until at Banff,
in the heart of the Rockies, it is very grand and
striking indeed. This little town (which has sprung into
existence during the last twelve months) is situated in
1 See Life and Labour in the Far Far   West,  by  W. Henry
Barneby.   Cassell and Co., London, 1884.
R^^^sss^s^^sss^^^ "MOUNTAIN MONARCHS:
a wild rough valley at a spot from which many mountain valleys diverge; hence there are not one or two
solitary mountains only to admire, but two or three
dozen of them, all grand and majestic, but almost devoid
of vegetation, except for a few trees growing apparently
out of the solid rock. When I saw them the mountains
all had a sprinkling of snow, but some of it is annual.
They seemed like a gathering of " mountain monarchs "
assembled here in conclave. The grandest, to my mind,
and I believe also the highest, is the Cascade Mountain,
said to be 10,000 feet high, but Banff itself is at such an
elevation above the sea that it hardly looks its height;
and this is the case with all others in the Rocky
Mountain range, as far as my experience goes. Seen
from Banff this portion of the range has a rugged
grandeur, which would be relieved more or less by its
pine forests, if these had not been damaged to an
irreparable extent by fires which must at times have
made the mountains look as if they themselves were all
ablaze. The remnants of the forest are straight pines
of no girth, looking, indeed, rather like a plantation;
but the soil here, even in the bottom lands, would not
allow of much growth.
Being detached from the train, and leaving our car
on a siding, we took two buggies to view the beauties of
the neighbourhood, and drove first to the " City," where
there was more bustle going on in erecting houses
than in any other place I had seen along the line.
Everything was new; the " City " consisted of at least
as many tents as houses, but the preparations everywhere showed that in another year's time all this would
be changed. We crossed the Bow River—a beautifully
clear stream almost as blue as the Lake of Geneva—on
a bridge made of wooden rafts fastened together; but
this bridge is soon to give way to a new and ugly
structure of light iron and wood. The road was excellent, as all these roads are; they are made by the Government, for the Dominion has taken possession of a district
ten or more miles square here as a National Park (said
to be 24 miles long and. nine wide). I believe all the
houses and shops here now being run up are under lease,
and not freehold. We drove to the source of the Hot
Springs, discovered only about three years ago. It is
about 1000 feet above the river, and we found a very
strong stream issuing from the side of the mountain,
the temperature of the water being about 119°. It has
all been reserved by the Dominion Government, and
six-inch iron pipes have already been laid to convey
this valuable property to baths, &c, for the benefit of
the public. It is said to be a first-rate cure for rheumatism and other ailments. New baths have now just
haen erected,, but the primitive ones of the previous AN ORIGINAL ADVERTISEMENT.
year took my fancy most, simply a wooden covering or
shed divided into two, in both of which holes about
15 feet by 10 feet were dug out of the solid rock to serve
as baths, the water flowing straight through them. The
division between the two was of planks, one being for
ladies, the other for gentlemen. All this has now given
way to a new erection with zinc baths and a large
wooden one as a plunge bath, still rather primitive.
Into these the hot water rashes fresh from the spring.
I could hardly hold my hand in it, so I thought it
advisable to decline a plunge in case I should come out
lobster fashion. There was no touting; everything
seemed open to any one to inspect; and it is evident
that as yet Banff has not been spoilt by the tourist
element. But I fear in the course of a few years, owing
to its attractions and its natural beauties, all this will
be changed. There wTas only one advertisement, and
that such a natural and primitive one that no one could
object to it. Some poor person who had sought a cure
and found it here, had hung up his crutch with this
inscription, " The man who used this crutch is cured,
and gone home."
I think I have never seen anything to compare with
the " cave" and natural i basin 1 here. The former
is now approached by a tunnel, but until quite recently
the only access was from a small hole above into a
c 2 20
natural cave about 30 feet deep, at the bottom of which
was a pool of sulphurous water—as clear and bright
as crystal—rising from a strong spring below. This
cave was till lately perfect, quite round, with a vaulted
roof; the walls and dome are all stalactite, at the top
of which is the hole through which the steam evaporated, which led to its discovery three years ago by a
working man who was a " prospector." A little wooden
platform has now been placed all round, for the convenience of bathers. The i Basin " is about 300 yards
away, and is another warm sulphur spring, bubbling
up through the rock into a natural pool; but in order
to deepen it a little a wall has been erected, and it is
now about 6 feet deep by 30 feet square. A little
chalet has been built outside with dressing-rooms, but
the bath itself is unenclosed. This and the cave are
the most perfect baths I have ever seen, and are quite
unique; their temperature is lower than that of the
hot spring from the mountains mentioned previously.
Banff has great natural advantages, but whether its
distance from centres of civilization will preclude its
being visited by thousands remains to be seen. I
cannot help thinking we shall hear a good deal of this
little spot in the Rocky Mountains and its national
park in the near future; but the whole thing is in
the hands of the Government. *•
From here we visited the coal-mines of the Canadian
Anthracite Company, close to the next station east from
Banff. This mine only commenced working November,
1886 ; already there is an hotel, a store, and several
houses; about 150 hands were employed, and I was told
many more men would shortly be wanted. We walked
straight in, a distance of about 400 yards, along a level
about 20 feet above the railway; it was very wet underfoot, but there was plenty of space to walk upright.
There were two other branches besides the one we
traversed, and a good deal of blasting was going on
in another shaft, which shook the whole place and
made it feel a little uncomfortable : at least so said
a Canadian who was walking next me, and who was
more accustomed to this sort of thing than I was.
Leaving Banff and continuing our journey westward,
the sunrise was beautiful, tinting with a warm red
glow all the snow-capped summits of the Rockies
within sight. The railway follows the valley of the
Bow River, which is guarded by immense mountains
on either side, Castle Mountain being the one of the
greatest importance. Later on we reached the summit
valley, 5300 feet above the sea. This valley appears
to be a certain medium width for a time, until it
contracts and becomes the Kicking Horse Pass, a much
narrower defile.    Many of the innumerable mountains 22
in this part are still unnamed, and this would make
a grand field for adventure for Alpine climbers, with
opportunities of giving names of their own choice to
these I snow-capped giants" of the Rockies. Here
again many trees were scorched and burnt, their
blackened stems spoiling the lovely scenery a great
deal; but I was glad to see a good growth of seedlings rising amongst their ashes, so in a few years I
hope these forests may be green once more. After
passing Silver City (started when silver was expected
to be worked- here, but now a poor miserable place, a
mere collection of shabby-looking log huts), there were
unmistakable signs that we were approaching the
summit. Frost and a thick snow were visible on the
track and adjacent land. The stunted spruce and
poplar grew smaller, and the valley and mountains all
had a very sterile look.
At Laggan our carriage-wheels were examined, and
then we steamed for the summit, passing Mount Mac-
donald on our way; and, neither stopping at the
summit station nor at Stephen, we began at once to
descend the western slope of the mountains. From
Hector to Field a most magnificent panorama lay before
us as we continued our gradual but sure descent for a
distance of eight miles. During this time we passed
Mount Stephen, a magnificent mountain, 12,000  feet te.
high. At Field there is a comfortable hotel, in the
hands of the C. P. R., and half an hour is allowed
for breakfast. The snow soon disappeared as we
descended to the westward, and the timber began to
increase in size; but beyond Field the forests were
again terribly damaged by fire, whole mountain sides
being quite black with charred timber.
Leaving Palliser we entered the canon of the smaller
Kicking Horse Pass, where there was but just room for
the river and the railway, sometimes indeed barely
room for the two. Thus we proceeded for miles, with
immense overhanging mountains above us, passing
through tunnels, and on the verge of precipices. It
is truly a wonder that a railway could have been
constructed along such a course; and yet without such
a communication as this, the thread could never have
been drawn to connect British Columbia with the rest
of the Dominion. At one point, where there appeared
but just room for the river only, a tunnel had been
bored for the passage of the train, but it was through
soft material, and not long ago it fell in. A wonderful
curve has now been made outside the tunnel bordering
on the river bank, and on this the line is laid for the
train to twist round ; the curve was so great that from
our car at the rear end of the train we could plainly
see the broadside of the engine. 24 THE NEW FAR   WEST.
We descended from the Rockies into the Columbia
River Valley at Golden City, the station for the
Kootenay district. Here I made inquiries about the
s.s. Duchess, which, ascending the river 100 miles to
Windermere, is a great help to any one wishing to
visit the Kootenay Valley. I was, however, told that
she could now only go half the distance, as the water
in the river was too low ; and that in another fortnight,
say the middle of September, she would cease running
altogether for this season. The railway followed the
course of the valley to Donald, distant 2445 miles
west from Montreal, and 461 east from Vancouver
City. By our watches it was just noon ; but this being
the commencement of the Pacific section of the line,
the time was here put back an hour by the clock.
We had now crossed the Rocky Mountains, our descent
at Golden City having terminated that portion of our
journey. On the opposite side of the valley rose the
Selkirk range, and this we were next to traverse. The
Columbia Valley divides these two chains of mountains,
and Donald is most beautifully situated between them.
While here, Mr. Baker kindly arranged with the superintendent of the Pacific section of the line that our
car should be sent on with a special engine at 2 p.m.,
so as to give me an opportunity of calling upon my
old friend, Mr. Justice  Crease, of Victoria, who  was DONALD ASSIZES. 25
holding the Assizes at Donald. I found him sitting
in Court, but he soon had an opportunity to adjourn
for a time, and we went together to his house, which
was nicely situated in a pine forest overlooking the
river. I was much struck by the very superior look
of the people I saw in Court, many of them employees
of the Canadian Pacific Railway, who are a highly
respectable class of men, and by the Grand Jury in
Engineering Skill—A Lonely Station—Magnificent Scenery—The
Highest Bridge in the World—Precautions against Fire—Dangers
of Winter Travelling—A Narrow Defile—Eight Miles of Snow-
sheds—A Splendid Glacier—Strange Effects of a Tornado—Mr.
Caine, M.P.—Railway Loops—Chinese Camps.
Continuing our journey westwards from Donald over
the Selkirk range, in British Columbia, our route lay
first along the bank of the Columbia River. The
grade was a steep one, and dangerously liable to falls
of stones and boulders and loose earth from above.
Our special engine took our car about eleven miles,
and we were then hooked on to a ballast train, and
conveyed as far as Bear Creek Station, where we had
to halt for the night; it being too late, owing to the
delay caused by waiting for an eastward-bound ballast
train, for us to reach Glacier House Station, which had
been our proposed stopping-place. ENGINEERING SKILL. 27
The ascent of the Selkirks is by Rogers' Pass, and
is very steep ; the track is laid along the face of the
mountain overlooking the river, the gorge is a very
narrow one, and the scenery is of the grandest description ; snow-capped mountain peaks were visible on all
sides, their lower slopes being clothed with magnificent
pine forests. We passed over two very high trestle
bridges, one 156 feet high, called Mountain Creek, and
the other 298 feet high and 450 feet long, called Stony
Creek. Some of the travelling was not very pleasant,
for the work seemed so new, and the face of the cuttings
was composed of loose sand and shingle, which were
continually silting down; we heard that only a few
days previously some of these loose boulders had caused
the upset of two coaches of the Pacific express, being,
in fact, the train from which we had been detached
at Donald. The line throughout is a marvellous piece
of engineering skill and perseverance ; and it is astonishing how this continuous chain of passes could have
been discovered, which led to the construction of
this wonderful line of railway through a wilderness
of pine forests, among mountains thousands of feet
above the level of the sea, far away from any
The siding at Bear Creek Station, where our car
remained for the night, was in the midst of a thick 28 THE NEW FAR   WEST.
forest, high up on the mountain side, near the top of
the Selkirks, far away from any population;   but this
made no difference to us in our travelling home,  as
our larder was • well supplied for a lengthened outing.
It was a beautiful, solitary spot, with the Beaver River
flowing  far  below,   and  magnificent   mountain   peaks
rising all around, showing their snowy summits over
the heads of the tall pine-trees.    A station was placed
here on account of the water supply;   for as there are
no houses of any description in the neighbourhood, of
course passengers can hardly ever be expected to present
themselves.    The air was very pure and exhilarating;
the weather was perfection,  clear,  bright, and warm,
with only a slight breeze,—and under these very favour-
able conditions for enjoyment we passed through some
of the most magnificent scenery it is possible to behold
in the world.    I have previously attempted to describe
the beauties of the Rockies at Banff;   but in point of
scenery they are not to be compared to the Selkirks;
and, besides, on the latter the timber is much finer,
and the vegetation far more luxuriant.    In this respect
there is on the Rockies a marked change on the Pacific
side, but it is more especially noticeable on the Selkirks,
for the trees gradually and strikingly increase in size, and
ferns and moss and forest vegetation of every description
begin to present themselves in rich profusion.
Before breakfast I walked down to Stony Creek
Bridge, which we had crossed the previous night. It
is said to be the highest in the world, and is supported
in the centre by an immense wooden tower, with a
smaller one at either end. There was a water tank
close by, and an iron hose was run along the top of
the bridge near the rails, in order to turn on water
in case of fire; at one end was a house for a watchman
to guard the structure, which was all of wood. The
great care taken by the directors of the Canadian Pacific
Railway to insure the safety of its passengers, and to
guard against accidents, is noticeable along the whole
line, in this and in many other ways.
When the ballast train returned with its morning
load, our car was attached to it for conveyance to
| Glacier " Station, ten miles further on, where we were
to wait the arrival of the ordinary passenger train to
take us on to Ashcroft. The route still lay high up on
the mountain side far above the Beaver River, through
the midst of a fine forest of spruce, hemlock, and fir.
We were fortunate in making our trip in what I was
told was the best time of the year for seeing this
country, viz. September and October; for in the winter
there is a great deal of snow, and in 1886 this pass
(Rogers' Pass) was blocked for several wreeks. Snow
commences to fall usually in November, and lasts till 30
March ; this latter month and April are generally the
most dangerous months here for travelling, on account
O O7
of the falling masses of boulders and loose gravel, which
constitute in a great measure the formation of the
mountain side along which the course of the line has
been laid. This danger will be very materially lessened
by the snow and boulder tunnels now in course of
construction; these are being made in the strongest
possible manner, and indeed all is being done that can
be done for the protection of the trains and their
freight; but at the same time these tunnels of course
naturally very seriously interfere with the views of the
magnificent scenery, which would otherwise be visible
from the train. It was our good fortune to see these
views as well as it is possible to see them, for our car
had plate-glass windows all round, and as it was the
only passenger carriage on the freight train, we could
procure both front and rear views; the only objection
being that when one's attention was startled and riveted
by one magnificent bit of scenery, there would come a
shout from some one of the party from the other end
of the car, to go and look at an equally fine view there;
so that there was a constant rushing backwards and
forwards from one end of our fifty feet car to the other.
In almost the narrowest part of the defile, into the
depths of which the sun's rays could seldom if ever
ramraiKSMIIBRSSSI^^ te.
penetrate, the fine head of Mount Carroll (5558 feet
high) rises above the railway on the one hand, with
Mount Hermit (4983 feet high) on the other.
Steaming on between these two snow-capped guardians of the pass, we continued our way, and gradually
the valley widened, and we found ourselves at Rogers'
Pass Station; with magnificent precipitous mountains
all round us, where the trees, even below the timber-
line, failed to find a footing. Mounts Carroll and
Hermit were still the grandest objects in the view ;
and I fully think that no mountain scenery can
possibly surpass the scenery here, and that a little
further on at Glacier. At Rogers' Pass Station suffi-
cient ground had been cleared for the erection of a
very small town of wooden shanties, but the stumps
of the forest trees were left all around. Soon we
arrived at the Summit house of the Selkirk range ;
and from here the finest view of any was obtained,
combining in beautiful juxtaposition rock, snow, and
glaciers; with timber and patches of grass on the lower
ground; the lights and shadows over the whole being
simply perfect. We now passed through numerous and
lengthy snow-sheds, extending in places over eight
continuous miles of the run. They are made of British
Columbian cedar; I should fear there might be some
danger  of  their  catching  fire  when  thoroughly dry. 32
Glacier  Station  (pronounced  here  " Glazier")  is  approached down an incline.
Here the scenery is most wonderful; on the one side
the huge glacier itself coming down from a frowning
mountain, guarded by Mount Sir Donald, about 11,000
feet high, and the Syndicate Peak; and then turning
the  other  way  there   was   a   beautiful   view  of  the
Illecillewaet Valley, on the further side of which rose
Mount Ross and a crowd of other mountains, partially
clothed with pine forests, which in this case I am glad
to say were untouched by fire.    There is a small hotel
at Glacier, kept by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, and the manager told me that a large new one
was to be built very shortly; fishponds and gardens
were already being planned, but I am glad to have seen
the place before these contemplated changes are made,
for its natural charm and beauty will not be improved
by them.    We walked up to see the glacier, and on our
way passed through forest in a perfectly primeval state,
where the ground under our feet was soft with decayed
timber.    We came upon a most curious section, in a
tract of about three acres, which must have been visited
by a tornado; the trunks of the trees, black with age,
were lying as it were in one huge mass, and twisted and
twirled about in every direction.    This could not have
been the work of an avalanche or landslip, as there was LUXURIOUS  TRAVELLING.
no break or passage in the forest all round. The glacier
is a huge one, but I did not notice any large crevasses
like those in the Swiss glaciers, and therefore the effect
of the beautiful blue shades caused by these was missing.
A mountain pea,k rose high above the glacier, and to
the right of this a new moon was (at 1.50 p.m.) clearly
In due time our car was attached to the ordinary
train and we proceeded on our journey. Travelling in a
private car there are many opportunities for doing little
acts of kindness and of showing hospitality, one of which
appears to have been appreciated by the author of A
Trip Round the World (Mr. W. S. Caine, M.P.), published
in 1888, in whose book at p. 109 I find the following
remarks referring to us and our car, which I venture to
insert here, to explain more fully an outsider's and
total stranger's opinion of the comfort in which we were
travelling, and the special advantages we had of seeing
the country, which I, for one, fully appreciated, although,
not for the first time :—
"Leaving Glacier House on Wednesday, the 21st, we
found attached to the train one of the handsome private
travelling carriages which are used by directors and
officials on the long lines which cross the American
continent, and which are travelling homes of both
comfort and luxury.    Shortly after starting, a coloured
servant brought me a card bearing the name of Mr.
Baker, the General Superintendent of the Manitoba and
North-Western Railway, a line which opens up a fine
agricultural district north of the Canadian Pacific Rail-
way. Mr. Baker wished my daughter and me to ride
through the beautiful scenery of the Selkirk range in
his carriage, which, being at the tail of the train, commanded a clear view, and he also asked us to dine with
him afterwards. He first showed us over his car, in
which he lives all the year round for nine days out of
fourteen, travelling up and down his line. It was a
carriage somewhat longer than a North-Western first-
class coach. It was divided into a dining-room, large
drawing-room, kitchen, pantry, and two comfortable
bedrooms, all handsomely furnished, with a small platform or terrace at each end, on one of which were kept
the stores in ice-lined boxes, and the other was a sort
of balcony on which to sit and view the passing scenery.
An admirable dinner was served, consisting of soup,
oysters, roast beef, two vegetables, pudding, and dessert,
with a cup of excellent coffee. Mr. Baker was taking
a holiday with some English friends. The car was
shunted at any station along the line which they wished
to visit, and the party were enjoying excellent opportunities for sport on the many lakes along the prairie—
the resorts of a great variety of wild-fowl—as well as
ss^ssssssss^s^^^^^ A   TEMPORARY DISAPPOINTMENT.
being able to see the whole scenery of the Rockies and
the Selkirks by daylight, by hooking on to freight and
ballast trains. We left them behind about 10 o'clock
p.m. on an arm of the great Shuswap Lake, where they
had good duck-shooting next day, while Mr. Baker
killed six trout over 2lbs.  each."
Mr. Caine does not add what he told us, viz., that at
the moment the coloured servant (our factotum Frank,
a negro) entered the Pullman sleeper and presented
Mr. Baker's card, a lively conversation was going on
among the occupants (Lord Herschell and ' Mr. Caine, I
believe, among the number) as to the inconvenience
occasioned by the presence of the new-comers (our car),
for, as it was attached to the rear-end of the train, it
was blocking the best view of one of the finest parts of
the Selkirks. The invitation alluded to by Mr. Caine
worked an immediate change in the aspect of the question, so far as he was concerned, and I dare say he
enjoyed the scenery all the more after experiencing
the temporary disappointment caused by our sudden
We proceeded on our journey, descending by what
are called the C. P. R. "loops" into the Illecillewaet
Valley below. These "loops" are a series of doubles,
or zigzags, by which an easy descent is made. Although
very well engineered, they cannot be compared with
similar zigzags to be seen on some European railways,
notably in Switzerland and Italy. We accomplished
the descent safely and easily, and then sped on westwards at a lively pace. The view of the twin mountains,
Sir Donald and the Syndicate Peak, was very fine,
looking back; there were several smaller peaks in close
proximity, which might perhaps be appropriately named
after some of the less prominent members of the syndicate. As we descended lower and lower, the trees
gradually increased in size, and the difference in the
vegetation on the Atlantic and Pacific slopes was again
most remarkable;—as I have said before, the latter is
far more soft and luxuriant.
We continued to have lovely peeps of mountains
through openings in the forest during the whole afternoon, and much congratulated ourselves on our good
fortune in not having been troubled by any forest fires
throughout our journey; they are very prevalent in
July and August, and then (as I have found on former
occasions) the smoke is so thick that one may travel for
days without being able to see anything of the country.
We passed the Albert Canon and its tremendous fissure
of 250 feet, through which the waters of the Illecillewaet
rush ; and then soon reached Revelstoke, which may be
considered the termination of the Selkirk Pass. An
immense number of Chinese were being employed here CHINESE CAMPS.
as labourers on the railway; they were almost the first
we had seen, but as we continued our journey we passed
by many of their camps—always a pretty sight at night,
but rather a dirty one when seen by the broad light of
day. There was no "farm land" at Revelstoke, nor
indeed had I seen any during the whole day; and it
may be roughly said that there are no settlements worth
mentioning between Donald and Kamloops. There is
also scarcely any attempt at private hotel-enterprise in
any of the districts now being opened to tourists (with
the exception of Banff); so the C. P. R. will obtain a
monopoly through their hotels already built or in course
of construction; and a very profitable business they will
find it. 38
A Solitary Walk—An Indian Village—A Fruitful Garden—Irrigation
—Destruction of Bunch-grass—Over-grazing—The Sage-bush—
Desolation—A Chinese Village — Swiss Scenery—The Frasef
Valley—A Deserted Coach-road—An Abandoned Water Eoute—
Disappointed Speculators—A National Railway.
From Revelstoke the country was almost uninhabited
until we reached Sushwap Lake, after passing over the
Gold Range; but here there were several settlements
besides those at Sushwap and Kamloops; in fact, the
land here is better and more settled than any we had
yet met with on our journey through British Columbia.'
As we found we should be delayed on reaching Kamloops, we decided to stop for the night at Ashcroft, on
the Thompson River, so that I might, on the following
day, pay a visit to my friend Mr. Cornwall (the late
Lieut.-Governor of British Columbia). Accordingly, in
the morning the rest of the party went out fishing in   A  SOLITARY WALK.
the Thompson, a  fine, broad river; and I started to
walk the three miles to my friend's house, over a barren-
looking, hilly country, with absolutely   no vegetation
whatever at this time of the year, excepting occasional
patches of sage-bush.    This surprised me extremely, for
I  had  always  understood   that  this  locality was the
centre of the " bunch-grass" district.    As I ascended
the mountain side to reach the valley beyond, I obtained
some   very  fine   views   westwards,   and   also   of   the
"benches" of the Thompson, i. e. large flat stretches of
land falling gradually lower and  lower down to the
river, resembling  to a certain  extent  the  steppes in
Russia.    The solitude of this vast and apparently uninhabited country was very oppressive, and I was not
sorry to come to an Indian village, though I found all
the inhabitants were out fishing.    By the way I called
upon Mr. Henry Cornwall (the late Lieut.-Governor's
brother); he fives on the old Cariboo Road, in a house
which used formerly, before the line of communication
was altered, to be a store and house of entertainment
for the miners passing backwards and forwards between
Victoria and the gold-fields.    A good harvest must have
been made here in those days of high prices, a dollar
and   a   half  (6s.)  being the  usual  price  then for  a
miner's dinner.
My friend   the   late Lieut.-Governor's house was 40
quite a pretty place, with a good stream of water for
irrigation and other purposes; quite a necessity on this
dry soil, for without irrigation no crops could be grown.
I was taken to see the garden and farm. The lawn is
planted with English grass seeds, and, being irrigated,
is as green as any in England, and the flowers well-
grown and bright. The kitchen garden contained all.
the ordinary vegetables, and besides our common fruits
there were grapes. The apple-trees were so heavily
laden that there was some danger of the branches
breaking; but all this is due to irrigation, and this is
the case also on the farm, where I was told the crops
had been very good. These lands formed a great contrast to the hundreds and thousands of acres within view
all round, burnt as brown as could be (the end of
September), with scarcely a particle of herbage on them.
The loss of the bunch-grass will make a "material
difference in the value of property in this part of
British Columbia. Its disappearance is easily accounted
for. This grass is an annual, and the country being
over-grazed, it was eaten off before it had time to seed;
a good deal of it also has been destroyed by being
pulled out of the ground by the cattle, as it grows
in little tufts with very slight roots. Twenty years
ago the whole district was covered with this beautiful
grass, of a fine delicate texture, about twenty inches DISAPPEARANCE   OF BUNCH-GRASS.
high, growing in tufts six to twelve inches apart.    If
timely precautions had been taken by means of fencing,
to allow the grasses to have an interval of rest, things
would have been different; but it is too late now, and
bunch-grass here is a thing of the past; the result being
that where one hundred head of stock could formerly
be kept, the land now will not carry more than thirty.
It has been rapidly disappearing since 1872, and is now
entirely gone; and this disappearance is not local, but
almost  universal over  the whole district  to which  I
refer,  of (say)   about   300   square   miles  or so—from
Kamloops to near Yale.    It is now being to a certain
extent replaced by a small kind of sage-bush, which the
horses and cattle eat, though they do not much care for
it; however, it makes capital beef.    They seldom touch
the  larger   bushes,   excepting   in  winter,   when  their
branches are the only things they can get at in the
snow.    Sage affects the flavour, though not the look,
of the milk and butter, giving them a very unpleasant
taste.    The mountains round have now a most desolate
appearance;   if they could be  irrigated  crops  would
grow  luxuriantly,  for  the   sandy-looking  soil  is  pronounced to be cultivable; but I fear this would be an
impossibility, for the whole district suffers from want
of rain and moisture.    I returned to the car by a more
direct track than the one I had followed in the morning. 42
The town of Ashcroft, which has lately sprung up,
named after Ashcroft in Gloucestershire, consists of
about a dozen houses only, one being an hotel. It is,
nevertheless, a place of some importance; for since the
construction of the railway it has become the starting-
point for the gold-fields of Cariboo—300 miles distant;
the stage coach running there from Ashcroft now,
instead of (as formerly) from Yale, at the head of the
navigable part of the Fraser river.
We left Ashcroft about 2 a.m., attached to the
ordinary train west. It was a fine moonlight night,
and I was able to see the Grand Canon of the Thompson
almost as well as by daylight,—indeed, it was daylight
before we left it. It was a cold rugged scene,—a deep
ravine with the river rushing along at the bottom, and
the railway cut out of the mountain-side. Desolation
was hardly a strong enough word for it; the . only
objects that relieved the eye were a few pine-trees
growing here and there out of what appeared to be
bare shingle. Passing by Spences Bridge we reached
Lytton, a small scattered town, composed of wooden
houses, where the Thompson Canon joins that of the
Fraser, along which valley our route next lay. At
Yale, a little further down, the mountain section ceases,
and we proceeded onwards through forest and field
to Port Moody and Vancouver City.     We  passed a   SCENERY IN THE CASCADES.
regular Chinese settlement, with a complete Chinese
village, at a place called Keefers. One might have
imagined oneself in a pleasant Swiss valley ; the rugged
mountains were replaced by high hills clothed with
pine-trees, with wooden farm-houses dotted about here
and there. At North Bend (where there is a C. P. R.
refreshment house, 25 miles east from Yale) the valley
is still broader, and pleasant in every way to the eye;
but there is at present no room for farming operations,
as the ground is thickly covered with beautiful forests,
which are here happily spared from the destructive
fires which have ravaged so many other parts.
I have said enough to explain that the scenery in
these, the Cascade Mountains, is quite different from
that in the Rockies or Selkirks, but so far as difficulties
and obstacles to railway building are concerned, the
Cascades carry off the palm. In my opinion the engineering difficulties are greater, and the works much
heavier here than on any other part of the line, including the far-famed works on the north shore of
Lake Superior. Before reaching Yale, the Fraser River
flows at the bottom of a deep narrow gorge; the railway is carried above, along the face of the solid rock,
in many cases through a succession of short tunnels.
This is work of the heaviest description; and the
greatest credit is due to both the Government and the 44
contractor (Mr. Onderdonk, the representative of one of
the oldest and most respected of the New York families)
for the admirable way in which it is carried out.
Wonderful as the whole of the Canadian Pacific
Railway truly is, there is no work so heavy or so well
done as this part of the Fraser River Canon; and I
think it somewhat a pity there should have been a
disagreement (now a subject for arbitration) between
the Dominion Government and the Canadian Pacific
Railway Syndicate, as to the carrying out of the agreement on the part of the Government according to the
strict letter of the law.
Almost insurmountable difficulties presented themselves on the Government section of some 350 miles
at the western extremity of the line. This portion
pierces the Cascade range, and is, as I have said, an
exceedingly heavy piece of work; but now that it is
all handed over to the syndicate, a claim has been
brought forward for some one or two million pounds
sterling, as compensation for faulty embankments and
frail bridges, and for not coming up in equality to the
standard of a stated U, S. Railway line. I visited
a portion of the works in 1883, during construction,
and I do not believe there was any intention of
putting in faulty work: indeed, my opinion, on the
contrary, is, that well laid as the line appears to be A DESERTED STAGE-ROAD.
throughout, this western portion as far as Port Moody
(the original terminus) is better constructed and more
permanent than some other parts undertaken by the
syndicate themselves.
Gliding  smoothly along the  track,  it makes  one
almost shudder to look up at the old Cariboo stage-
road, following its own crooked route along the mountain side ; sometimes high up, supported at weak points
by trestles and wooden piles, sometimes down on a level
with the railway.    Yet a few years ago this road was
in constant requisition, being the only means of communication.    I was nearly travelling along it in 1883, with
my friend the late Mr. Meysey Clive, of Whitfield, and
Mr. Arthur Mitchell, before the railway was completed,
at  the risk of an upset, which  sometimes  occurred.
The road is apparently now getting out of repair, which
is a pity;  it owes its construction to the pluck and
energy  of   the   British   Columbians, and  their great
Governor Douglas, and should, I think, be maintained.
Of course now that the stage-coach starts from Ashcroft
instead of Yale, this section of the road has little or
no traffic ; but the Fraser Valley is so very grand, that
if a good road were maintained, many of the present
and  future  generations  of   travellers  might well   be
tempted to enjoy its wonders at a slower pace than
is possible if whisked past by a locomotive. 46
Yale was reached at last; I believe the place was
partially burnt down not long ago, but I thought it
appeared to be less prosperous than on my previous
visit; probably the railway has had something to do
with its decline, as it used to be reckoned the head of
the navigation for light traffic on the Fraser. In those
days the place was approached by a regular line of
flat-bottom, stern-wheel steamboats from New Westminster, giving the traveller an opportunity of seeing
this beautiful river. Now an occasional cattle or
market boat is the only mode of transit, with the exception perhaps of a birch-bark canoe; and not one
in a thousand of those who visit British Columbia by
the Canadian Pacific Railway will see the beauties of
the river to advantage. As we travelled on, the line
lay at a greater distance from the river banks, and
only occasional peeps were obtained; but they were
very beautiful, and I still think that for river scenery
this Fraser River cannot be surpassed. Not only are
the mountains most picturesque in outline, but the
lights and shades are exquisite, varying as they do
from dark purple to soft hues of gray. The variety
in the foliage of the trees (especially when we saw it)
enhances the beauty of the scene, the dark green of the
Douglas pine contrasting well with the lighter shades of
the cedar and hemlock, and the blood-red of the maple. DISAPPOINTED SPECULATORS. 47
Hope is the prettiest spot on the river between
Yale and New Westminster junction. On leaving it
we steamed through a splendid forest of grand old
trees, extending for many miles. But little land is
cleared in this part; but here and there are swampy
bottoms which might be much improved by drainage.
There is a fine marsh between Hammond and New
Westminster junction, but at present it is in the hands
of the Government; and on the whole, I was a little disappointed by the appearance of the land in the valley.
At Hammond there is a large brickyard in full operation. Wharnock was a pretty place, and from Mission
we had a magnificent view of Mount Baker, the highest
of the Cascade mountains in Washington territory. A
branch line took the passengers bound for New Westminster, and soon we reached Port Moody, situated
at the innermost extremity of Burrard's Inlet. When
I was here in 1883, it was proclaimed as the terminus
of the C. P. R., and the charter for the line was only
granted as far as this. Many hopes have been disappointed and fortunes lost by the change. It was
always obvious to me that the railway could not stop
at Port Moody, but must be carried on at least as far
as (if not further than) Granville on Coal Harbour,
now designated Vancouver City by a charter obtained
in 1886.     Port Moody has  changed but  little since 48
1883 ; there may be a few new houses, and certainly
a  great  many  trees  have  been  cut  down;   but the
absurdly high prices asked for town lots there  have
had4 to be withdrawn, and indeed they are at a discount.     Burrard's  Inlet  is  from  one to three  miles
broad,  and about 14 miles  long, including the  First
Narrows, opposite Capilano; the mountains  round are
clothed with magnificent forests from summit to base,
reaching  right  down to  the  water's  edge, and  it  is
indeed a fine and imposing entrance to Her Majesty's
Dominions.    The line from Port Moody to Vancouver
City, the terminus, skirts the southern shore, and is
about   14  miles in  length.     Curiously enough, it  is
only a branch line;  the C. P. R. Co. having power to
construct  such  branches  as they please,  but  not  to
make a main line without applying to the Dominion
I have now completed my description of the Canadian Pacific Railway, as far as the terminus, Vancouver
City, and have endeavoured throughout to do full
justice to this national undertaking, for such indeed it
is. It is impossible to over-estimate its importance to
the Dominion of Canada and to the British Empire at
large, but the fertility of the district through which it
passes is scarcely so impressive as the stranger coming
from this side of the Atlantic may probably have been A  NATIONAL RAILWAY.
led to expect. The fact is that the shortest route
was chosen ; and one also comparatively but a short
distance from and parallel to the American boundary,
in order to leave no opening for a competing line
between it and the States territory. The result of
this is, that the undoubtedly fertile portions of Manitoba
and the North-West do not at once meet the eye, for
the richest lands lie off the line of route. They are
being rapidly opened up by branch lines, which will,
as feeders, eventually prove a source of wealth to the
Canadian Pacific Railway. At one time (I think for a
period of 20 years) this company had a monopoly in
railway-making direct south of its course; but objections have lately been raised to this state of things ;
and although an arrangement was arrived at, heated
discussions on the subject are even now in progress,—
of which the Red River Valley Railway dispute is an
instance. It is sincerely to be hoped that the Canadian
Pacific Railway will prove a success; for as a new
route to Japan, China, Australia, and India, its value
is beyond question, not only from a commercial, but
also from an Imperial point of view. But whatever
the pecuniary result may be, the energy displayed in
its furtherance and completion cannot be too highly
admired and commended. VANCOUVER CITY,   BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
Surprising Growth of a City—A Novel Sign-post—A Modern Phoenix
—Chopping—Enterprise and Energy—Increasing Value of Land
—A Public Park—Cutting down a Princess—High "Wages—An
Inviting District — Opening for Market Gardeners — Need of
I have seldom been more surprised and never so much
impressed with the growth of a town, and with the
changes made in a short time, as I was upon reaching
Vancouver City. Of course I had heard in some
measure of the transformation which had taken place
—of trees being cut down and houses built,—but I
was quite unprepared to find a real town so far advanced
and making such rapid strides towards being worthy of
the name of "City." When here in 1883, we drove
across from New Westminster through dense forest for
13^ miles over a "corduroy" road to Granville on
Coal Harbour, now called Vancouver City. The town
•of Granville then consisted of a couple of hotels, a
Methodist church, a saloon, a telegraph office, butcher's fcs
shop and general store, and three other small buildings;
and the population in the neighbourhood consisted
entirely of lumber men; the total population of Granville being at the outside perhaps 150 people. Nearly
all the inhabitants had turned out to witness our
departure on that summer's evening in June 1883,
under somewhat uncomfortable circumstances; the fact
then being that our driver had exceeded the limits of
temperance, and that we had no option but to return
to New Westminster in a dark night under his charge.
Our start afforded the then townspeople much amusement ; but, fortunately for us, we reached our destination in safety. During 1884 the town began to grow,
and in 1885 there were about 800 people here. In
the spring of 1886 its name was changed from Granville to Vancouver, and it was incorporated as a city;
a book of over 100 pages being filled with printed
matter in recording this ceremony.
The place was totally destroyed by fire on the night
of June 13th, 1886, every single house being burnt
down with the exception of one hotel; the fire originated from forest fires in clearing the ground. At that
time the population amounted to 1800. The re-building actually commenced on the very day following
the disaster, viz. June 14th; and the proprietors of
one hotel (known then as the C. P. R., now called the
E 2 52
Northern) were so energetic as to immediately run up
a three-storey building, into which they received some
of the homeless people as lodgers, with the roughest
accommodation it is true, but still any sort of roof on
such an occasion would   be better than none.     They
hung out as a sign for this house, " Raised from the
ashes in. four days."    The  population was only 2500
on June 1st, 1887, for at that time Port Moody was
still the terminus of the railway, and holders of land
there naturally raised legal objections and obstructions
to the line being continued to Vancouver City;   and
although the latter had by that time been proclaimed
as the terminus, yet the company did not gain possession of the entire right of way till January 1887, and
owing to an unusually severe winter, did not complete
the line until the  beginning of April 1887.    A rush
then set in rapidly, and the population when we were
there   the   following   September  amounted   to   about
4000.    In November 1888 it was more  than  double
that number,   say  8500.     There were  ten  miles  of
streets laid out and planted with trees on the walks
at each side; three of the streets are 100 feet wide, the
remainder measure 66 feet; the side walks are all eight
to ten feet in width.    Several of the houses, both completed and in course of construction, are of stone or
brick, the remainder being of wood, of a superior, and A  MODERN PHOENIX.
in many cases of a very ornamental, description. There
are already 64 hotels and saloons, one Church of
England church, and Roman Catholics, Presbyterians,
Methodists, and Baptists, each have their respective
places of worship—and we were told the Salvation Army
was coming! Vancouver City possesses a town-hall,
a rolling skating-rink, three banks, and two daily newspapers. There is an excellent Volunteer Fire Brigade,
with apparatus worth £2000, and twelve tanks at
different points, from which to draw a supply of water
in case of need; it is lighted by both electricity and
gas, and rejoices in the telephone as well as the telegraph. A charter had been obtained for street cars,
and they are probably in operation by this time. The
town is admirably situated for drainage, there being
a good fall either way. Drainage works were in progress, but of a primitive description, the material used
being simply thick wooden planks nailed together.
These can only be regarded as temporary; but the
public debt is already £40,000, bearing six per cent,
interest, and so it is not advisable to go too far ahead
at once; and in fact, until the city is more fully
developed a complete system cannot be laid out, as it
is uncertain which set of the tree stumps now covering
the lots will draw the greatest amount of population;
and there are besides of course rival interests at work, 54
endeavouring from speculative reasons to draw the city
in this or that direction.
Some idea may be formed of the aspirations of the
citizens when I mention that the city boundary extends
seven miles long by two and a half broad; of this 1763
acres have already been I chopped" for the "town site."
By I chopping I is meant beheading, at about ten feet
from the ground, the magnificent Douglas pines, cedars,
and hemlocks, which grow to perfection here, and attain
a height of from 100 to 250 feet. The trunks and
branches are then burnt, but the poor stump remains,
charred and blackened but only partially burnt, and is
sold with the lot on which it stands; its fate then probably being to be blown up with dynamite or gun-cotton,
so that a house can be erected in its place. We saw
thousands of these stumps standing all about, many
being still on fire (for of course owing to their size they
burn for days); and at night the place looked as if
surrounded by numerous camp-fires. The majority,
however, were burnt out, and remained like black monuments mourning their own destruction. This timbered
land was worth only from one to ten dollars (4s. to 405.)
an acre a few years ago; but now the 1763 acres
mentioned above are divided up into lots—streets and
ways of communication excepted—and in the central
part  of the town lots with  25 feet frontage,  and  a VANCOUVER   WATERWORKS.
depth of 120 feet, now command a price of from 2000
to 3000 dollars each, according to position. [This
was in 1887, but town lots have much increased in
value since that date.] Land within the city limits
can even now be bought at from 50 dollars an acre
upwards; this, however, of course is on the outskirts.
Beyond the boundary it is as low as 10 dollars per acre ;
but it must be remembered that this land is heavily
timbered and very expensive to clear. Great credit
is due to the private enterprise which has undertaken
to provide the city with water; the original s apply
being insufficient and of a very inferior quality. The
works of this company (called the Vancouver Waterworks
Company) will, at an estimated cost of £60,000, provide a practically unlimited supply of excellent water
from the Capilano Creek, flowing from the Coast range
of mountains on the north shore of Burrard's Inlet.
The plan is to convey it by means of pipes first
across five miles by land, and then under the waters of
the inlet for three more miles; and it will gravitate
to a height of 300 feet above the sea level of the city.
Ironworks (since completed) were also going to be built
by. Messrs. McKelvie and Cook; and when- we were
there the City and Local Government were offering
between them a bonus of £7500 in all towards estab
lishing smelting works. 56
As regards other points connected with the city, I
may state that the Dominion Government owns about
1000 acres, called the Military Reserve, adjoining the
city in the direction of the First Narrows. This it
is proposed to turn into a public park, with roads laid
out in various directions. Being well-timbered and
beautifully situated (surrounded as it is on three sides
by water), it will be a great source of enjoyment to the
inhabitants. The authorities have destroyed all the
trees in the town, with the exception of one solitary
one, which will probably be blown down. A short time
ago there was another, an immense Douglas pine, called
the Princess Louise, but as its existence was considered
to be dangerous to the adjoining houses, the inhabitants
petitioned to have it cut down, which was accordingly
done. The whole country is most favourable for the
growth of trees ; those in the forests round the city are
very remarkable for their size; the principal varieties are
cedar, hemlock, spruce, Douglas pine, maple, dwarf maple,
alder, dog-wood (bush), and the Oregon vine (creeper).
Vancouver City has the great advantage of a
naturally beautiful situation, standing as it does on
rising, gently undulating ground; on a neck of land
between Burrard's Inlet and Palse Creek (the latter
communicating with English Bay), with the lovely Coast
range of mountains across the water to the north, and HIGH  WAGES.
the forests of New Westminster to the south. The
First Narrows at Burrard's Inlet are but one mile broad;
the tide, which rises about thirteen feet, comes in very
rapidly. Shooting and fishing are both good in the
neighbourhood, and the waters of the inlet and creek
afford capital boating, Burrard's Inlet being very deep
close up the shore, and with safe anchorage. The
climate is excellent; snow begins to fall in December,
but never lies longer than ten, and usually only about
three or four days. The latter part of the winter (say
January, February, and March) is very wet; but the
weather is always beautiful from May to the end of
October. Thunderstorms are almost unknown on the
coast, but are of frequent occurrence in the interior.
Wages in Vancouver City at the time of my visit
were as follows :—Carpenters and bricklayers, 3 to 3|-
dollars per day ; day labourers, 2 dollars per day ; farm
labourers, 1J dollars per day and board ; house servants
(women), 15 to 20 dollars per month. (A dollar is 4*,
of our money.)
I subjoin a list of distances from Vancouver City to
various places in the neighbourhood:—To Victoria, by
water, 77 miles ; Moody ville, by water, 3 miles; Port
Moody, by water, 14 miles; ditto by rail, 14 miles;
New Westminster, by road, 13J miles ; ditto by rail,
20 miles ; Indian Mission, by water, 3 J miles; Capilano 58
Creek, by water, 3 miles; to entrance to North Arm
of Burrard's Inlet, by water, 17 miles; to North Arm
Settlement at further end of ditto, by water, 25 miles;
nearest point of the Fraser River, 5 miles.
I have purposely avoided saying anything as to my
opinion of the future prospects of Vancouver City. I
have (however imperfectly) only described its state at
the time of our visit in September 1887, and contrasted
it with its condition in June 1883. under its old name
of Granville. It is the present actual terminus of the
Canadian Pacific Railway—or rather, it is a mile and a
half short of the final point to which the line is now
graded, viz. English Bay; but no trains run further
than Vancouver at present, and there is no population
at all on English Bay, with the exception of one
settler's house, standing close to a dense forest of 6000
acres lately acquired by the Canadian Pacific Railway
Company. Vancouver City must rely on its position
and resources as a commercial port, and not on becoming
the centre of an agricultural district; to the latter it
can lay no claim, for the cultivated lands round are
insufficient to support even a small population, and
certainly not one of the size to which the citizens of
Vancouver expect their  city will  eventually attain.
As regards the question of lands and farming, it is
rather difficult to say much ; the best plan always is for FARMING PROSPECTS.
a man to go out, and after personal observations on the
spot, to decide for himself what he is most suited for;
but I can state at once that British Columbia, west of the
Cascade Mountains, is not primarily a farming country,
simply because it is so densely wooded, rocky, and
mountainous, and there is comparatively so little soil
suitable for farming operations, except after great labour
and expense in clearing. There are, however, a limited
number of places in which suitable land is to be found,
and New Westminster may, perhaps, be reckoned as
the depdt of the agricultural district, and, provided
he can get the land, no country to my mind can be so
suitable for an English farmer. The climate is good;
the people kind, open, and hospitable; and there are
not the same differences in society as in England.
Every one is comparatively on the same footing, but
it is the footing of "live and let live," with none of
the nonsense of universal equality which I have noticed
in some other places, and which I have generally found
to be more talk than practice.
The British Columbian farmer has, I think, an
easier time of it, and is more to be envied, than the
Manitoban one; his house looks larger and better,
and he has plenty of barn room. Of course lumber
is cheap enough here, and he can have it for the
cutting;   and  any way he  has  less  chance  of being 6o
too cold in winter, as the climate here is so very
much milder—in fact, milder often than in England.
But farming lands being scarce is the objection; and I
therefore turned my attention in another direction,
viz. to market gardening and fruit raising. Some of
the soil is admirably adapted for this kind of enterprise ; and if (as its citizens expect) Vancouver City
will shortly have a population of 20,000 or 30,000
people, it is obvious that there, at any rate, a ready
sale would be assured. I believe that apple and pear
orchards would answer capitally ; there are but few of
these trees as yet, but those I saw bore excellent crops.
I was told that both they and plums and cherries do
admirably; and in some parts apricots and peaches also,
though generally not so well as the former. Strawberries, raspberries, and currants answer very well, but
gooseberries have so far not been a success, owing to
mildew. All root crops, such as potatoes, carrots,
beet-root, and indeed all garden stuff, thrive capitally,
as I have seen by my own observation. A market
gardener, with or without a small dairy farm attached
(say 50 or 60 acres in all), should get on very well.
It must be remembered that the west coast of British
Columbia—i. e. west of the Cascade Mountains—is much
more humid and damp, and does not in the least
resemble the arid  region  to the east of the Cascade SUMMARY OF CULTIVABLE LAND.
range  previously described,  such  as  Ashcroft in  the
Kamloops district.
To   give a rough  summary, there  are  about half
a million acres of land fit for cultivation in the lower
Fraser Valley,  of which  150,000 acres or thereabouts
are on  the  rich  alluvial  delta of that  river.    Below
New Westminster, on Lulu Island, in the Richmond
Municipality,   there  are   about   60,000   acres   fit   for
cultivation;   and   about   90,000   more   on   the   Delta
Municipality, which  is on  the southern  bank of the
Fraser, about ten miles from its mouth.    The rest of
the lands lie above New Westminster on either side of
the Fraser River, for about 90 miles going up stream;
such  as  Pitt River, Hammond, Port Haney, Mission,
Agassiz, Chilliwack, Popcum, and Langley.    This latter
is mostly wet land, and would require draining, but
would then become first-class pasture or root land.    It
is also said that this soil would do well for hops; but
at present it is all mostly used for hay cropping.    A
large tract of land, known as the Pitt River meadows,
lies between Port Haney and New Westminster junction on the C. P. R. ; this is now in the hands of the
Dominion Government, and could easily be reclaimed if
they thought proper to dispose of it, as will probably
be the case.    At present these meadows are liable to
floods from the Pitt River, and possibly also from the 62
high water of the Fraser; but the erection of the
railway embankment just here has kept the latter back
a little of late. Lulu Island is as yet only partially
farmed, and possesses the advantages of being situated
near Vancouver City, and of being almost devoid of
trees. It is proposed to connect this island with the
mainland by a bridge, and a new road is being made
to communicate with North Arm Settlement, on the
Fraser River. There is also a line of steamers up and
down the river as far as New Westminster from Victoria.
Land on Lulu Island can be bought at from 12 to 25
dollars per acre, according to the reclamation needed ;
this will give a pretty good idea of the value of
cultivatable lands generally in this part of British
Columbia. Many of the islands in the Gulf of Georgia
(westward from Vancouver City, between the mainland
and Vancouver Island) are well adapted for sheep-raising.
The principal cattle ranches lie to the east of the Cascade Mountains, such as Kamloops, Ashcroft, Okanagan,
Nicola, Osoyoos; but owing to the disappearance of the
bunch-grass in most of these places, there are probably
as many cattle there now as the land can support.
My remarks about Ashcroft will unfortunately apply to
the bunch-grass districts generally; roughly speaking,
where it is not yet totally extinct, the present system of
feeding is likely to make its disappearance universal. EXPEDITION TO LULU ISLAND.
City Improvements—Blasting in the Street—Chicken Farms—A Cedar
Bottom—A Promising Field for Capital and Energy, or for Energy
-without Capital—A Thoroughly Successful Emigrant—Ahundance
of Salmon—A Logging Camp—A Waterwork Trail—Magnificent
Timber—Filching a Good Name.
From Vancouver City I made an expedition with a
friend residing there (whose acquaintance I had formed
during my previous visit in 1883) to see Lulu Island.
I was told that I should find the 60,000 acres on that
island, and the 90,000 acres on the adjoining delta of
the Fraser, to be a good farming district, with perfectly
flat lands of a uniformly good quality. We started off
in a one-horse buggy, but were soon brought to a
sudden stop by a number of men rushing across the
street shouting and gesticulating. This made me think
that a train must be coming; but after we had both
jumped out to go to the horse's head, there were half 64
a dozen loud explosions just in front of us, and large
stones were thrown up some distance in the air. It
was only i City improvements," i. e. blasting for some
new works in the centre of the street, a kind of thing
quite common in a new place like this. We crossed
the bridge over False Creek, and then for a short
distance followed the new road to New Westminster;
getting a fine view (on looking back when ascending
the hill) of the city of Vancouver, of Burrard's Inlet,
and of the Coast range beyond. For about a mile we
had to pass through burning stumps of Douglas pine
on each side, as the process of clearing is making rapid
strides in this direction, and it appears that all owners
of lots think- this clearing of their ground a necessity
in order to tempt purchasers into their locality. In
travelling this new road it seemed odd to find some of
the stumps of trees divided in two, the centre being
taken out in order to get the proper width of track,
instead of being cleared away at once. This shows to
what an immense size these trees must have grown, as
a portion was left standing on either side of the road.
I was told that behind the road-frontage there were
a number of chicken farms, and some of these I saw
as we passed along. We were soon in the primeval
forest, where magnificent Douglas pines were the chief
feature,   running  straight  up  from   100   to   250   feet
m mmmmmmmmmm*
high ; and then presently came an acre of land railed
off adjoining the road, which was the new cemetery.
Forest clearing is going on very rapidly round here, and
the log roads pushed in here and there showed by the
system on which they were laid that they were intended
to carry off the finest of the timber to the saw-mills,
so that I fear within a few years' time this road will
have lost much of its charm. We travelled along a
gravel ridge until, we reached what is called a " cedar
bottom"; and in order to properly appreciate these
forest scenes in all their perfection, commend me to a
" cedar bottom." The one I allude to is near the North
Arm Settlement, and is supposed to have been originally
caused by a beaver dam. Although it was a hot day,
this place felt cool and damp enough. Hemlock, cedar,
and Douglas pine were there, running up to such a
height it almost made one giddy to look up ; moss four
or five feet long hung from and entwined itself around
.the branches, and the ground must have been covered
yards deep with trees of all descriptions rotting with
-age, lying on the ground in every possible position.
The whole scene was as perfect a picture of untouched
natural beauty as could well be imagined, ,and no
description can do justice to it. The skunk' lily and
a great many different varieties of ferns tended to
show  the  dampness  of the  spot,  and  also  to  make 66 THE NEW FAR   WEST.
me realize how lovely a fernery can be without the aid
of art.
We put up our pony at North Arm Settlement, and
took a boat across the arm of the Fraser River to Lulu
Island, where we were to inspect the lands;   the first
thing   we   saw   being   a   capital   garden,   where   the
vegetables were the same as those grown in England.
Properly cultivated, these lands might be made into
excellent farms.    Those under crop bear good grain and
roots, but  I  think the soil is especially adapted for
market gardening, with or without  land for farming
attached.    It is a peaty loam with clay subsoil, and
stands at a very slight elevation above the stream of
the Fraser River.    I should think that in spring-time
it would under such circumstances be wet; but with
a proper system of drainage and with the help of dykes
there can be no doubt that these lands might be made
very valuable indeed.    I was much struck by the comfortable look of the houses, and by the immense wooden
barns for the storage of hay and wheat.
There is still a great deal of land open for settlement
on Lulu Island and the adjoining delta; but a price
would have to be paid for it, for the pioneers in this
district have already secured as much as they want for
themselves, and more besides, to sell at a profit. Still,
as the present holders are generally willing to sell, it
is not too late to go in, if a man has a little capital,
knowledge, and energy. If he does not possess the
former of these three requisites, he can meet with
employment from a farmer at about 25 dollars a month
and his board. One of the settlers here told me that
ten years previously he came to these parts without
a shilling, and at first had to set to work "logging."
After a time he bought on credit an improved farm of
160 acres on this island, and paid off the purchase-
money by instalments. He worked hard; his wife
doing her share with dairy and cheese-making; and
he got on, and after a time bought a little more land ;
and this sort of thing continued, till now he holds
1500 acres in a ring fence, of which 160 are under
crop, with an excellent wooden house, and barns all
complete. As to profits, he said he ought that year
to have realized 6000 dollars, but that it would not
really be more than 4000. However, I think this
prosperous emigrant may well be contented with the
latter sum, and the acres he has accumulated round him
—the result of his own hard work. Now that he is
getting old, he said he should be willing to sell the
whole or a part of his land. He spoke highly of the
climate, saying that everybody enjoyed excellent health,
and that there were no mosquitoes—a great desideratum !    We were offered some milk to drink, for the
F 2 68
same hospitality and kindness are shown here as in
Manitoba and the North-West. It proved rich and
of the best quality,  and we found it very refreshing.
It may give some idea of the place if I mention
that at this particular farm there were roses, honeysuckle, and ivy growing up the verandah of the house,
apple-trees in the orchard, and all kinds of fruit and
vegetables in the garden ; also I noticed that in the
fields white clover was growing wherever it had a
chance. I fancy the grasses in British Columbia must
be good for sheep, as the mutton at Vancouver City
was by far the best we had tasted since leaving
We re-crossed the Fraser by the ferry, and returned
through the forest to Vancouver City. Later in the
evening there was an alarm of fire in the town, and
two blocks of buildings consisting of four new wooden
dwelling-houses approaching completion were burnt to
the ground in a very short time. The fire brigade did
its business well, but water had no chance against such
a fabric and such a flame; happily, however, the houses
stood alone, and as there was no wind the fire did not
spread. It rather shook my confidence in house property
here, to see this sudden collapse; but it was very
obliging of Vancouver to have a fire like this during the
time of our stay, for one had not occurred for some ABUNDANCE OF SALMON.
time.    Nobody was hurt; and as the property was fully
insured, no one appeared to care very much.
It was on a Sunday afternoon that I made an expedition with a couple of friends to Capilano Creek,
whence the water supply for the city is to be drawn.
We had a beautiful row of three miles across the inlet,
over a very calm sea, and landed at an Indian settlement ; then, after crossing the creek, we made our way
to the opposite bank over the fallen trees, one of which
I measured as I walked along, counting 200 feet; it was
an old Douglas pine, and probably when standing it
was over 100 feet more in height. The creek was full of
salmon endeavouring to get up stream; they were so
thick in the water that any number could easily have
been caught with a landing-net. The Vancouver City
water supply was to come from the upper part of the
Capilano Creek, and a track was being cut through a
dense forest along which the pipes were to be laid. We
were told the " waterwork trail" would be four miles
long. The woodmen were at work felling the trees, and
we followed the trail for a considerable distance, until
we came to the logging camp pitched by the side of the
river. It being Sunday, no work was going on, and the
men—a fine, strong, healthy-looking lot—were sitting
about, reading, smoking, or washing their clothes. In
the creek below, salmon were continually rising, but 7o
they are so plentiful in these parts that no one appears
to trouble about them. The logging camp consisted of
a number of small tents, and one long one for a mess
house, and it all seemed comfortable enough. The cook
of the party was. just turning out some excellent white
bread in long, narrow, crusty loaves.
This   |waterwork  trail" gave me a better opportunity of seeing the forest to advantage than I have
ever  had  before;   it  was  about   30  feet broad,   and
cut straight through the heart of an Indian Reserve;
hence  timber  merchants  had  had   no opportunity of
taking the pick of the trees, for the Indian Reserves
are  always  strictly  forbidden  ground  to  the   outside
public.    The trees were truly magnificent: I  counted
forty stumps of grand old Douglas pines about 18 feet
from one another, and  almost  in a row, which  must
have stood a good deal more than 200 feet high, their
diameter  being   about   five  feet.     The  neighbouring
trees, out of the direction of the^ track, and therefore
still standing, ran up straight as arrows high into the
air.   Besides the Douglas pine, hemlock, cedar, and maple
abounded, their limbs covered often with the beautiful
hanging fern-mosses.    Preparations  were  being made
to burn the felled trunks and their branches—an operation which I hope was carried out without setting the
surrounding forest alight.    Any one visiting Vancouver THE  C. P. R. TERMINUS.
City should not fail to row across the inlet to Capilano
Creek, and to take a walk along the | waterwork trail,"
and, if a fisherman, he will be amply repaid if he takes
his rod. I only hope he may be able to see the forest
as I saw it, still unravaged by the brand of fire, and to
dive into the heart of its natural beauties.
While at Vancouver City I went to English Bay, the
actual point where the C. P. R. grade terminates. It
was much the same walk that I had taken on my
previous visit with my two travelling companions;x but
the primitive state of things then existing has since
been quite obliterated by the march of civilization on
all sides. It appeared to be rather curious that this
branch of the C. P. R. should be continued to Green's
house on English Bay, when the proclaimed terminus of
the branch line is Vancouver. It is said that the provincial-Government insisted on this extension, but for
what reason I cannot understand, unless it be that it
pierces a large tract of forest which adjoins English Bay,
and which belongs to the C. P. R. Company. One could
not help wondering and speculating where the permanent
terminus of the C. P. R. will eventually be located; but
probably a great many other people would like to know
the same thing.
On leaving Vancouver City for Victoria I had to say
1 See Life and Labour in the Far Far West.
i   rail
■M 72
good-bye to our comfortable railway car the "Minne-
dosa," which I felt quite sorry to do ; for she had been
my home for nearly a month, in which time I must
have travelled about 2000 miles in her (not reckoning
several hundred miles of driving expeditions whilst in
the North-West territory).    It certainly proved a most
comfortable way in which to see the country; indeed,
I  may  say it  is  the only way to see and  study it
thoroughly.     Travelling  thus,  and  being detached at
will, the people one meets bring many facts under one's
notice, which by going on in the usual way, straight
through in a Pullman car, by the ordinary trains, one
would miss the chance of seeing and hearing.    I  left
Vancouver City for Victoria, on Vancouver Island, by
the s.s.  Yosemite, and had a charming steam to that
place over an extremely calm sea, threading our way
amongst beautiful islands, covered with trees feathering
down  to the  water's edge.    Plumper's  Pass  was the
narrowest part, and here the tide ran swiftly.    We had
a very good view of Mount Baker nearly the whole of
the   way, and, after  leaving Vancouver   City, cleared
land   was  still in  sight  while  passing  English  Bay.
Although   Vancouver  City has  made  great   progress
latterly, it is still only in its infancy.    I have always
thought its name an ill-chosen one ; it requires the word
I City I to be added after it in order to distinguish it ARRIVAL AT VICTORIA. 73
from the island of the same name, and this addition is
rather an Americanism. Neither do I consider it fair
on the island thus to filch its name. But the chief
objection really is that it is apt to convey to the outside
public a wrong impression as to its whereabouts. Arrived
at Victoria, I was most hospitably received by Mr.
Justice Crease's family, and though he and Mrs. Crease
were still away on circuit, I was taken to stay at their
house, by their express invitation. 74
A Cpmfortahle Eailway Car—The Best Season for Emigration—An
Immense Farm—A Vibrating Trestle Bridge—Slovenly Farming
—Summer Frosts—A Scottish Land Company—Current Rate of
' Wages—Method of Engagement—Demand for Female Servants—
»Contented   Settlers—Old   Neighbours—Dr.   Barnardo's  Farm—
Sheep  and  Stock Farming—Wolves.
Having- now, for the sake of convenience, conducted
my readers straight across the American continent by
the Canadian Pacific Railway to its western terminus
on the Pacific Ocean, I must ask them to return with
me once more in thought to the province of Manitoba.
If they will glance at the map of that locality, they
will see a line of railway branching ^off the main line
at Portage-la-Prairie (56 miles west of Winnipeg), and
running north-west to a place called Langenburg. This
branch line is the Manitoba and North-Western line;
it is as yet only constructed for a length of 180 miles
to Langenburg, but is eventually to be  carried on to TRA VELLING CONVENIENCES.
Prince Albert, an   old and thriving colony 250 miles
further.    I have already inserted a description of our
•travelling car, as given by a stranger.    Besides  that
comfortable means of locomotion, we had for this trip
additional facilities for seeing the country, for we were
the guests of Mr. F. H. Brydges, the Vice-President,
..and of Mr. W. R. Baker, the General Manager of the
.line, and received from them the greatest hospitality
and  kindness.    A baggage  van was  attached  to  the
DO    o
train for our dogs, guns, and general shooting requisites,
and this formed also our gun-room and game larder.
-We had besides a horse-box for four horses, and a
carriage truck for our two buggies ; the owner of one of
these conveyances and a pair of the horses being Mr.
Herbert Power, of Assiniboine Farm, who joined us for
the trip. We were thus rendered independent of any
local help, and could "untrain" ourselves with our
belongings wherever we pleased, and drive over the
prairie to any spot we wished to inspect, or go in pursuit
of prairie-chicken and wild-duck. I think a description
of the main features of the locality along the line of
route of this railway, and of the lands in the district
over which I was fortunate enough to be driven by
local gentlemen for many hundred miles, may be interesting to some of my readers. I myself was particularly
interested in seeing some settlers here, who, in the early 76
part of the year, had sought my advice previous to
starting for Canada. Of these I will select three as
examples—viz. a clergyman's son, a farmer's son, and a
labourer's son ; and I think I cannot do better in the
next chapter than explain to my readers how they were
prospering. It had been one of my especial objects in
visiting Canada to pay these three young men each a
personal visit; and unless I could satisfy myself that
thev were getting on well, to recommend their return
to England, and (if necessary) to supply them with the
means for so doing.
On leaving Portage-la-Prairie we were attached to
the ordinary train, of which, in point of fact, our " outfit I made up the greater part, as the district through
which we were about to travel is at present anything
but filled up by settlers, and the regular emigration
season was over for the year. Either February or
March is the best time for an emigrant to start from
England; he then arrives here about the time the snow
disappears, and at the commencement of the planting
season. The Manitoba and North-Western station at
Portage-la-Prairie was completed in 1885, and this new
line opens up a fine agricultural country. As far as
Macdonald—a distance of ten miles—the marsh lands
are very good for either cattle-grazing or hay-cropping,
and the country was free and open to all comers, until AN IMMENSE FARM.
we reached Westbourne, at which place is a fine stock
farm, the property of a Mr. Sanford. This farm is said
to be about 30,000 acres in extent, and feeds a very
large herd of cattle. Travelling on, the aspect of the
prairie changed, and between this and Woodside there
was a good- deal of wood and scrub. There is said to
be some-good land for grazing purposes round Gladstone, but after this we passed through a very thinly
populated country, with nothing particularly attractive
about it till we entered a district called the Beautiful
Plains, which from this side is nothing more nor less than
a high gravel ridge or plain about a quarter of a mile
wide extending northwards for forty miles. The further
north-west we travelled from Portage-la-Prairie, the
later the crops appeared to be in ripening. I was told
to look out for some of the best country along the line
beyond Arden ; my first impressions, however, were not
very favourable, but later on I thought much better
of the locality. In the distance we saw the Riding
Mountains; they are well covered with timber, and are
about 300 miles broad, running about 800 miles in a
north-westerly direction.
On approaching Neepawa (the Indian word for
plenty), we passed quite a little town, at a short distance
from the station, consisting of about sixty houses and a
large town-hall.    The land in this district seemed very 78
much superior to anything I had previously seen; but
as I intend describing this part, and indeed the country
from the end of the railway back to Neepawa also, on
my return journey, I must ask my readers to allow me
to take them straight on 91 miles further, to Binscarth,
so that I may commence -a more detailed description of
the country from there. We travelled through a considerable part of the night in order to reach this
district, 155 miles distant from Portage-la-Prairie; and
on waking in the morning found our car at a stand-still
on a siding there. Binscarth seemed to consist of a
station-house, a store, three wooden houses, the same
number of sheds, and a water-pumping windmill. When
the line was opened, only a year previously, there was
not a single house here; now it will soon become the
centre for 'a large agricultural district. We set off
about 6.45 A.M. prairie-chicken shooting; for, to get
these birds, one must be out either quite early in the
morning, or late in the evening; however, they afford
but poor sport in comparison to the English partridge.
We started off, a party of six, along the railway on a
hand-car, working the machine ourselves with the help
of an Icelander. Our course layover "Silver Creek'-'
trestle bridge, which is 450 feet long and 70 feet high,
approached at either end by a high embankment. We
passed over it at a rattling pace, but the fact of having A  TRESTLE BRIDGE.
to cross it at all took most of us unawares; however,
whatever my feelings in doing so, it was nothing to the
return journey on foot, for that was really giddy work.
The sleepers were laid about four or five inches apart,
with no ballasting or hand-rail, and the whole bridge
vibrated with the wind. I managed to cross all right,
but I do not wish to try the experiment again at such
a height, on a structure of this description.
I saw a few settlements during our walk.    The first
house was abandoned, and the once-cultiva/ted ploughed
lands were one mass of weeds (lamb's-quarter, &c).    It
was explained to me that the owner had probably taken
up another homestead; but the law enabling this sort
of speculation to be carried out was (fortunately for the
country) repealed in June 1887.    The second farm we
' noticed looked extremely untidy and neglected, and I
thought at first  that  it also must be deserted;  but
upon going to the house I found an Ontario man in
possession.    Although his farm looked so slovenly, he
spoke very highly of the neighbourhood and its capabilities, especially as regarded rearing cattle and horses,
for which he said it was particularly well adapted.    It
turned  out  subsequently that  this man does a good
trade in horseflesh, and that he finds it pay better than
grain growing.     In  observing how  untidy his farm
looked, he said the fact really was, that as there had 8o
been so many bad years previously, he had last spring
left a great part of his land unsown, waiting to see how
this one would turn out; however, he expected to get
twenty-five bushels of wheat to the acre (sixty pounds
to the bushel) from what little he had planted, and
he allowed that this season the harvest would be an
excellent one. The third settler's house I came across
was, in appearance and surroundings, very much like an
Irish cabin. There was a very good crop of wheat, as
yet unharvested; but adjoining this was a field which
had been ploughed but not planted, and was now overgrown with weeds and rubbish; while hard by in a
third field lay sheaves of corn of a previous year's
growth, bound up with string, but left to rot on the
ground. This latter crop must have been spoilt in
some unexpected manner. I fear the mischief may in
all probability be easily traceable to a summer frost;
for these are very prevalent in this district, and when
they occur are sadly fatal to the corn in ear. For the
last few years great damage has been done by these
summer frosts, and the farmers in Manitoba \ are still
puzzling over the problem of finding means to get in
their seed earlier, so as to reap it the sooner, and thus
avoid the consequences of a late harvest.
Whilst at Binscarth I was fortunate enough to be
introduced to Mr. George Smellie, the able manager of   A  SCOTTISH LAND COMPANY.
the Scottish Ontario and Manitoba Land Company; a
farm started about five years ago, before the existing
railway was made; now distant four miles from the
station. Under his guidance I was enabled to visit a
large tract of country round Binscarth. For several
miles it is much wooded, in patches, and there are a
good many nice settlements, especially about Silver
Creek. There is a branch line to the north to Russell,
at which place there is a quantity of good land. Near
Harrowby and Russell Dr. Barnardo has purchased or
acquired a large tract of land, and is starting his new
home for emigrant boys. The place of the greatest
importance as yet in the neighbourhood of Binscarth
is the farm under Mr. Smellie's care, belonging to the
Company to which I have before alluded. It consists
of 350 acres; but the Company's whole estate amounts
to 18,000 acres. The average price required for the
uncultivated land is five dollars per acre, but there are
no buyers at present. I heard this same complaint
made in other parts; and under such circumstances it
is almost impossible to value any lands just now. The
ordinary emigrant takes up free grants of land on going
out; hence the priced lands are almost unsaleable, there
being no demand. The soil in this district is twelve
to eighteen inches deep, with a kind of clay subsoil, and
the land lies about 1800 feet above the sea level.    The THE NEW FAR   WEST.
farm itself is well laid out, and bears excellent crops.
I noticed a small flock of sheep, which appeared to be
doing well; and there is a large (about 250 head) and
successful herd of shorthorns established here, which
has taken many prizes at various shows all over the
dominion of Canada. The buildings consist of a
manager's house, Presbyterian church, a manse for the
pastor, a farmhouse for the employes, a large cattle-shed
containing every convenience for labour, and a blacksmith's shop. The estate is well wooded, and also well
supplied with running water, being close to the Silver
Creek—a deep wide valley with a good stream flowing
through it, which intersects part of the farm. I ascertained the current rate of wages at the time of our visit,
which information may possibly be of use to intending
settlers, but it is only good men who can expect to
reach this scale; indifferent workmen or weakly ones
would not succeed.
I.—Per month for a year's engagement, 20 dollars
(£4). |
II.—Per month for six months, from 15th April to
15th October, from 22 to 26 dollars.
III.—Per month for six months, from 15th October
to 15th April, 15 to 18 dollars.
The above terms include also board  and lodging,
but not washing. CURRENT RATE OF  WAGES.
IV.—Per day, from 1 to \\ dollars—usually 1 dollar
and food.
V.—Per month, any time during the summer, from
20 to 25 dollars.
The usual custom in such a large undertaking as
Binscarth Farm is to engage men in the spring or
autumn for six months or one year, and if they want
to re-engage they ask at the end of six months whether
they are required for a longer period. Boys are usually
only employed at home, for old hands on a farm do not
care for the trouble of teaching them; but sometimes
they are required for tending cattle from 8 a.m. to
8 p.m., out on the unenclosed prairie. Girls are in
great demand, and can always readily procure places
for housework. In some parts of Manitoba wages are
not so high as those quoted above, being only 15 dollars
a month for a year's engagement, or at the rate of 20
dollars per month from 15th April to 15th October; or
of twelve dollars a month for the winter months from
15th October to 15th April, and a dollar a day for a
day's job. Of course as the population increases wages
will decrease.
The country lying round Binscarth, especially that
towards the north, is open rolling prairie, well wooded
and uneven, with plenty of sloughs or ponds; and
unlike anything  I  have seen in Southern  or Central
6 2 84
Manitoba, or indeed elsewhere in the province. It
appears to be admirably suited for cattle and horses,
and also for sheep. There seems to be no spear-grass
(that great enemy to sheep) of any consequence; but
I should consider that, on account of the quantity of
brushwood and short stunted silver willow existing
here, two acres of land here would not be more than
equivalent to one in many other districts where there
is prairie grass alone; still probably young stock would
do better in this country, with the advantage of shade,
than in a more open one. My first drive was one of
about thirty miles, and it gave me a good insight into
the capabilities of the district. I found that with the
exception of Binscarth Farm the inhabitants were quite
small settlers with but little capital, and very poor
farmers. All, however, appeared to be contented and
happy, and spoke of the excellence of the season'3 crops,
and were in good spirits about their future prospects,
saying that the turn had now come, after recent bad
and disappointing years, and that prosperity was now
in store for them. The country appeared to be very
thinly inhabited, but I fancy a good deal of land is
being held, waiting for higher prices.1
Some years ago I formed the opinion that establishments similar to the Binscarth Farm would, if dotted
1 See Life and Labour in the Far Far West. mmmm
about at different points, prove of infinite service for the
development of the country generally; not only by the
outlay of capital, but as a guide and assistance to surrounding settlers, and also by keeping good stud horses,
bulls, and sheep, and selling good draft stock. Much
more attention is now being paid to summer fallowing
than formerly, a system which I have always advocated.1
Rich as the soil is, the settlers have found out that
they cannot crop it for several successive years without
seriously injuring their holdings. But little care is as
yet being bestowed on manuring the land; however, no
doubt this will come in time, otherwise it remains to
be proved whether the soil can continue to grow crops
as abundantly as at present, even if summer fallowing
is generally adopted. Mr. Smellie is an excellent
farmer, and he fallows his land in rotation once in
every two or three years. I am glad to say that
settlers here are giving more attention to mixed farm-
ing, which is very suitable to this locality; they are
also keeping more stock, and of a better quality, and
in some cases are endeavouring to rear sheep. But, as
my companion pointed out, sheep require a person to
tend them, and the ordinary settler cannot afford this
■expense. Doubtless, however, now that a start has
been made in this direction, sheep, will soon increase in
1 See Life and Labour in the Far Far West. 86
this country. I have always hoped to see them kept
in much greater numbers, and I feel certain they will
prove successful and profitable. At Binscarth Station
there is a very good spring of water, but at the farm
it was very indifferent. The uncertainty of the quality
of the water supply is a great drawback to all parts
of Manitoba and the North-West. I did not notice any
alkali, and saw but very few golphers.
Whilst in this neighbourhood, I took the opportunity of calling upon Mrs. Gwillim and her family,
who are well known in parts of Herefordshire, and
who emigrated here from Wacton in 1882. I found
them at home, and delighted to see me. They have
acquired 1200 acres between them, and are doing well,
and now that they have got accustomed to the life,
they like it and also the country very much. One
daughter married a clergyman of the Church of England
the year before my visit; they were located a hundred
miles away—quite near neighbours in this part! I
hear that a sister has recently followed her example.
Curiously enough, on the section adjoining the Gillams
I found another Herefordshire man, hailing from Led-
bury. All the country about here is open rolling
prairie, very suitable for wheat growing, and will carry
both stock and sheep.
We also made an expedition while here to see the DR. BARNARDO'S FARM. 87
lands selected for Dr. Barnardo's Home for Emigrant
Boys. The location seems a pleasant one, about four
miles from Russell; the land is rolling prairie, a little
hilly, with a few trees scattered about, and small
patches of water here and there. Dr. Barnardo appears
to be buying out existing occupiers as well as investing
in unbroken land ; thus he will acquire a large acreage
in a ring fence. The out-going settlers do not leave
him much behind, for weeds are predominant on the
broken land. Afterwards we drove through Russell;
a poor miserable place with nothing to recommend it,
but I understand there is some good land in the
vicinity. A branch line railway was opened from
Binscarth to Russell in 1886.
Continuing our drive, we passed through a good deal
of brushwood, and then came to a fine open country
with good corn-growing land. We followed the trail to
Silver Creek Settlement, started about five years ago by
Ontario men, who I was told were really farmers by trade,
and not amateurs like so many of the settlers. They
certainly seemed to have rather different ideas about
farming to most I had previously seen about here, for
their fields were laid out square and fenced in, the lands
were clean, the crops good and properly harvested, and
the farming altogether seemed done on a good system.
Of course they are all on a very small scale; many of 88
these men begin with very little capital and hardly
any stock,—perhaps a single cow as the commencement
of the future herd. They were all of opinion that
sheep would do well, but few appeared to keep them
probably for want of capital. One man was the happy
owner of seven sheep, and told me he would like to
have more. Keeping sheep would, however, either
entail employing a herdsman or putting up extra wiring
on the fences, which at present consist of only a single
one strained from post to post. Sheep-farming is, in
fact, as yet in its infancy here ; but the sooner all
this is changed the better, for I feel that it is a branch
of farming which would pay very well. From Silver
Creek we had a long drive homewards across the open
prairie, losing the trail three times, and getting a very
severe shaking on the way.
Before reaching home we called upon another
settler, who had come to this district five years
previously as a lad of 17, accompanied by a younger
brother. There was then no railway within 50 miles,
but now he has a station only two miles off. The
father, being in good circumstances in Ontario, had
started him with £600 capital; and he is now the
owner of 320 acres, having homesteaded 160 acres,
and pre-empted  the rest.1     The  place  appeared  well
1 See Appendix E. fthte—
chosen, and he told me that before settling he had
looked out for land combining fair soil, wood, and
water, and had succeeded in finding these three requisites here. At starting he had lived in a tent
during the summer months, meanwhile erecting his
wooden house for the winter. He made a kraal for
his cattle and fenced in a portion of the land, and
possesses now 20 cows and a flock of 27 sheep. There
was an air of comfort about this man's place; being
surrounded by trees, it had not the same desolate
appearance that so many of these houses have, pitchforked as it were haphazard on the open prairie, with
marks of untidiness all around; for, as space is no
object, all sorts of things are often thrown down anywhere—the waggon-wheels in one place, the waggon-
OO X ' Do
bed in another, the cutter in a third, old preserve cans,
rough logs of timber, chopped wood, &c, making up
a deplorable mixture, with no real place for anything.
Flocks of sheep are scarce in Manitoba, and I particularly questioned this settler on the subject, as his
flock of 27 was the largest but one that I had seen in
the province. At Binscarth Farm there were 30; but
the only others I had seen were the seven sheep at
Silver Creek, and a poor solitary one tethered to a
rope ! The man told me that he had not tried sheep
at first, having  commenced  business  with  one  cow; go
but that he had since found them do very well. He
said his would never cross a creek, did not stray, and
did not require tending (but I expect myself that the
herd law, when enforced, requires this) ; he turned
them out on unfenced lands during the day, taking
them in at night. The water from the sloughs does
not do for them to drink. During the winter-time he
gave them hay, but he had no shelter for them, so
they had to get on without, though he confessed a
covered shed would be a great advantage. Of course,
however, sheep would not thrive if confined for any
length of time in an enclosed building. He sold the
wool either to a dealer at the station, or sent it direct
to Winnipeg; the butcher usually gave him fivepence
a pound for the animal, and this year he had got sixpence a pound for the wool. There is considerable
danger in some parts of sheep being picked up by
wolves, but this is a subject for the settler's consideration, and he must be guided by circumstances. The
above is a pretty good description of a young settler's
progress with a little capital to start him. It appears
that the average herd owned in this district by each
settler of five years' standing is eight head of cattle ;
some have more, others less, and some none at all.
I  have  now  attempted  to  describe  some  of the
country in  the  Binscarth neighbourhood.     The  farm SUMMER FROSTS. ' 91
of that name is of course the centre of attraction, and
is a go-ahead concern on which capital has been spent.
Indeed all that is possible has been done on the portion
of the prairie selected by the Company. It would
well repay any one travelling in this part, who may
be interested in agriculture, to visit this estate. There
is always the danger of summer frosts here, as well
as in other parts of Manitoba; and the further north
one goes the greater the risk. Immense damage was
done in 1885, and again in 1888, to the crops in this
way; and therefore I think that putting more than
a limited acreage under crop must always be rather
a risk, and farmers located here, in what is called | the
park-like lands of the fertile belt 1 (i. e. the northwestern part of the province of Manitoba), should turn
it into a stock-raising and grazing district in preference
to anything else. THE NEW FAR   WEST.
Promising Site for Cattle Ranch or Sheep Farm—A German Colony
—Settlement of Church Colonization Society—A City consisting
of a Smithy and a Finger-post—An Icelander Settlement—A very
small School—Volunteer Crops—Kubauka Wheat—Successful
Emigrants—A Labourer's Son—A Clergyman's Son—A Tenant
Farmer's Son—Dangers of Borrowing and Lending—The 111
Effects of a Boom—A Comfortable Farm-house.
We continued our journey by rail beyond Binscarth,
and crossed the Assiniboine River at Millwood; and then
steamed for a considerable distance along one side of
its beautiful valley. Presently, after ascending to
higher ground, we passed through some uninviting
country, which continued until reaching Langenburg
Station at the end of the track, 180 miles from Portage-la-Prairie and 236 miles from Winnipeg. The
main thing that struck me during the journey bounding
the valley was the excellent opening afforded in this
part for a cattle ranch, or more particularly for a
sheep-run, which could be easily formed on the slopes
of the Assiniboine valley, provided enough land could A FLOURISHING GERMAN COLONY.
be acquired within a ring fence. The difficulty that
would be caused by intermixed sections is, so far as
I can see, the only drawback to carrying out such a
scheme. At the time of my visit, Langenburg Station
consisted only of a station-house, an emigrants' shed,
and a few tents; one of the latter being occupied by
a dealer in boots and drapery, and another by a detachment of mounted police. Near at hand, however, a
very flourishing German colony is located on good land,
and is doing well; and the place derives its name from
these Germans.
At this point railway communication stops for the
present, but pioneers are, as usual, already on ahead,
awaiting the advent of the line. The information I
gleaned about the country further on is as follows :—
About 100 miles north-west of Langenburg in the
direction of Prince Albert Settlement (230 miles distant
from here) is a locality called Salt Plain; it has a great
deal of alkali on it, and the water is bad; but the
grazing land is good, though a portion of it is very
swampy in the spring. From this place to Prince
Albert the lands are good for both cattle and horses ;
but from Prince Albert westwards to Battleford they are
again but indifferent.
I only had time to visit one place beyond Langenburg, namely, a new settlement called  Churchbridge, 94
started a short time previously by the Church Colonization Society. The trail leading to it was over the open
prairie, and rough enough for anything; the land en
route appeared to me to be rather light, and could not
be called first-rate. 1 At the time of my visit there was
a population of some 60 or 70 people at Churchbridge;
17 houses and a blacksmith's shop were already built,
and a church, school, and general store were shortly to
be commenced. I did not fancy the colonists here
were quite the sort of people to make good and successful settlers ; they appeared to be drawn from the well-
to-do class in England, rather than from the yeoman,
farmer, or agricultural classes; and were generally too
far advanced in years to make a fresh start in life
under such different conditions from those of the old
country. I think the English managers of such societies
should use the greatest discrimination in selecting
people to send out to a new settlement like this. The
settlers' houses already erected are perched up on any
little bit of rising ground, and the sites are well chosen.
The site for the future city was fixed upon, but if built
on the ground selected it will have the disadvantage
of standing in a shallow hollow with the ground rising
slightly on all sides. When I was there, however, the
smithy was the sole representative of the projected
city ; or perhaps I  should say it shared that honour AN ICELANDER SETTLEMENT.
with a large finger-post erected close by, pointing eastwards, on which was painted " Barker Street," but no
street was there.
Beyond Churchbridge there is another new settlement called the | Commercial Company," at which a
station named Bredenbury was to be located this
present year. On our return drive to the railway car,
we halted at an Icelander settlement. These people
have every appearance of being very hardy and healthy ;
but the aspect of the house we stopped at did not
tempt me to seek admittance. It was built solidly
enough, of logs, the sides and roof being both covered
with sods of earth; but the little dwelling was out of
all proportion in point of size to the number of its
inmates ; however, large families are at a premium here.
The great object in a new settlement is to build up a
population ; and though the farming round seemed to
be as bad as can possibly be imagined, the Icelander
is looked upon with some favour by the agents employed
in filling up the country; probably because he will be
content with less, and take land which others would not
hold at any price.
The next place we visited after leaving Langenburg
on our return route towards Portage-la-Prairie was
Birtle, which is very prettily situated on the Bird-tail
Creek, and is quite a rising place.    The town is, however, 96
on the opposite side of the valley to the railway,-
which is rather inconvenient. There is some good land
round here, much wooded in places; but a good deal
of it is in the hands of speculators, hence settling is
retarded. We took a long drive from Birtle, calling in
to see a school on our way : there were only six scholars
present (three boys and three girls), but the mistress
said she had as many as twelve on her list! She had
only just opened school when we called, which she
excused on account of the wet grass ; but she was
evidently a little uneasy at our visit, fancying we were
inspectors or somebody of that sort, and was much
relieved when reassured on this point.
About seven miles from Birtle we came again to the
open treeless prairie, extending as far as the eye could
reach; the land we crossed appeared thin, and not
nearly of such good quality as that nearer Birtle. We
halted for half an hour at an English settler's house;
the man had been there eight years, and though not
quite satisfied with his past experiences, he said he
hoped the change for the better had come; and like
all others with whom I had come in contact, he pronounced the year's crop to be the best ever seen. He
told me that two years previously six of his neighbours
had given in and deserted their farms, succumbing to
" bad   times."     According   to   this   man,  prices  had • -.«■■ i ".  M.  "
completely altered as compared to six years ago ; e. g.
butter was then one dollar to one and a quarter dollars
a pound, and now only fetched about 20 cents; and a
100 lb. bag of flour, which was then worth six dollars,
was now sold for two. This great fall in the price of
wheat must have a considerable effect upon the amount
of land to be broken up for corn ; and I have always
pointed out the error of recklessly breaking up prairie
pasture land, for this cannot be replaced at will.
We saw a good many deserted farms in the course of
this drive, and in two instances what are called | volunteer crops," i. e. crops from grain which had seeded itself
the previous year. The farms under cultivation were
not so well tilled as those about Silver Creek. I had
an opportunity of procuring some information from a
resident on the subject of the summer frosts which are
acknowledged to be so prevalent, and which often do so
much damage to the ripening corn. In answer to my
inquiry whether autumn seeding might not be adopted
instead of the spring seeding (about April) which is
almost universally practised, he replied that some
farmers were trying it, and he thought it would answer;
adding that he had himself observed, on comparing a
crop of spring-sown corn with a | volunteer crop," that
the latter was much stronger and ripened earlier than
the former.    What is required in this country is a seed
H 98
which will mature early in August; and if by means of
autumn sowing the harvest can be gathered a fortnight
or so earlier than at present, by all means let it be,
for this would make all the difference, as even if summer
frosts do occur (as sometimes happens) before the early
part of August, they are not known then to do any
damage to the wheat. Curiously enough, a frost is
always expected on the 6th or 7th September, and sure
enough on the 6th we experienced a very sharp one, which
injured a good deal of outstanding grain. Several settlers
told me that autumn seeding would not answer if the
ordinary Canadian seeder was employed, for this machine
does not plant as deeply'as our drills; and the wind here
drifts the snow a good deal, leaving the ground bare, and
often blowing up when light the sandy soil also. In the
case of I volunteer crops," I was told the old stubble
would catch the snow and prevent the ground being left
bare. Since writing the above I have come across the
following extract from a Canadian newspaper, which
tends to show how very much Canadian farmers have the
question at heart of ripening their wheat a little earlier,
either by sowing earlier or by procuring a new seed.
Referring to the experiments on Russian wheat,1 the
Toronto  Globe says :—
1 It has since appeared that Kubauka wheat is a delusion.    See
Appendix B. KUBAUKA"   WHEAT.
" If Mr. Field-Johnson, of Headingly, Manitoba,
has not been extraordinarily fortunate in his experiments with Black Sea wheat, the value of the North-
West will prove vastly greater than has recently been
supposed. He states that j Kubauka' wheat sown on
April 28 th was ready for the sickle on August 1st,
having matured in three months. Red Fyfe, which is
worth two or three shillings less per quarter in England,
requires nearly four months to ripen, and has therefore
been injured or entirely destroyed by frosts again and
again in Manitoba. In all respects the ' Kubauka'
wheat is said to be the superior variety. If every
farmer can do as well with it as Mr. Field-Johnson,
the great problem of growing wheat successfully year
after year in the North-West has been solved. Nothing
has been so necessary to the prosperity of that country
as a good milling wheat that would ripen two or three
weeks earlier than any extensively sown there hitherto.
The announcement of the Headingly farmer is really
more important to Canada at large than any piece of
news published for years. Upon the development of the
prairie the future of the Confederation really depends,
and the ' Kubauka' grain may give the Dominion some
adequate return for the hundreds of millions risked upon
the North-West."
Solsgirth was the next place we visited, not many
miles from Binscarth; the land in its immediate
vicinity is more adapted for wheat-growing than for
stock-raising ; but a few miles further on it improves
very much indeed, and I was greatly interested in
visiting an estate overlooking Bird-tail Creek, called
River View, consisting of about 4000 acres, belonging
to a Mr. Sharman, an importer of Hereford cattle.
This farm has been started about nine years, and has
grown gradually to its present size. Harvest operations
were in progress, but this holding is almost exclusively
a stock farm. The I Herefords 1 looked well and fresh,
much the same as well-bred cattle would look in
England in the autumn on a good aftermath. The
nearest house to this homestead was two miles off, and
Mrs. Sharman complained of the difficulty of getting
any female help. Mr. Sharman's house was pleasantly
situated, and from the brow of the hill close by we
had a beautiful view of the Bird-tail Valley with its
winding stream.
The next place we came to was Shoal Lake, 15
miles from Solsgirth; and here I was agreeably surprised at receiving a visit from one of my emigrant
friends, the labourer's son before alluded to. His
master had driven him in, a distance of 25 miles,
to see me. I found he had engaged himself to his
present employer from the   10th  June,  1887, to  the FRIENDLY ADVICE.
10th June, 1888, for £26 and all found, including
board and lodging in his master's house. He liked
the country and was getting on very well, and thought
of taking up a homestead-of 160 acres the following
year on his own account, after his present engagement
was over. A few days later I called unexpectedly on
this man at the farm, driving from a place called Rapid
City, and found him just sitting down to dinner with
his master's family over a good dish of fried bacon
and potatoes. I advised him not to be in a hurry
about taking up land, and not to decide on settling
anywhere without seeing more of different parts of
the country; but after staying his year with his
present employer, and getting acclimatized, to travel
about a bit the following spring to see other parts of
Manitoba. After this, provided he had saved sufficient
money to pay for what stock, implements, &c. he
would require, to take up land and settle down; but
on no account to run into debt or borrow money to
make a start. There are plenty of people willing to'
lend young settlers money on mortgage at a high rate
of interest; this may be all very well for the lender,
but ruins many a man who otherwise might, by perseverance and thrift, have saved enough to commence
business without help, had he only had the patience to
wait.    This system of mortgages also acts another way, 102 THE NEW FAR   WEST.
for in reference to several deserted farms in a certain
locality, I was told by a settler that this was accounted
for by people having borrowed 1000 dollars or so on
the security of the land, and having then absconded
with the cash to Dakota. In such a case, on account
of the drop in the value of land, or from some other
cause, the mortgagees cannot realize what they lent;
neither can they re-let the land or farm it themselves
(being probably incapable of doing the latter). Besides,
some mortgagees prefer keeping the land on their books
to showing a loss of some hundreds of dollars on a
particular section, when perhaps they are trying to
sell an adjoining one.
The farm-house near Rapid City, where the emigrant
above mentioned was working, was a frame (wooden);
house of about 16 feet by 24 feet. His master was one
of the ordinary settlers, occupying his own land; he
told me the country was not filling up very rapidly, and
that the hitch had been caused by the last boom; this
account tallies with what was told me by many others.
As regards sheep, he was of opinion that spear-grass
would not really injure them (there is not much in
this locality), but they would require herding or more
fencing, and thus would entail extra labour and ex-
pense. Wood was, according to him, the best fence
to  have,  and barbed wire  fencing was  objectionable. MB
He told me that the enforcement of the herd law was
optional; it had been put in force in his (the Oak
River) district, and was observed from 1st June to
1st October; i. e. during the time crops were likely
to be damaged by straying cattle or sheep.
While in the Binscarth district I also saw the
clergyman's son from Herefordshire, who had emigrated
the previous year. He seemed very well, happy and
comfortable, and told me he liked the country exceedingly, and had already saved a considerable number of
pounds sterling. Unlike the labourer's son just mentioned, he had not engaged himself for a year; for,
upon arriving in the country, he had not been able to
procure the exact kind of place he wanted, so he had
sought and obtained work on the railway. Now that
winter was approaching the gangs were being reduced,
and as farm wrork would also be stopped, he would
probably not be able to get work in this part through
the winter months. He therefore talked of trying for
temporary employment in some American city, and of
returning here in the spring. From this I dissuaded
him, thinking the town-life would not be a good preparation for the solitary life and hard work of a prairie
settler. He told me he would like to settle in North-
West Manitoba, take up land, and start farming. I was
quite  satisfied, from the account he gave of  himself, io4
that he was in a fair way to be successful, for hardworking young fellows like this are sure to get on ;
so I wrote to his father, giving my views, and stating
that a little help from home, added to what his son
had already saved, together with what he could make
the following summer, would be particularly useful
to him in enabling him to set up for himself; and I
have since heard that my advice was acted upon.
The third emigrant I saw was the son of a tenant
farmer of my own in England. This young fellow
was doing remarkably well; he had, on coming out,
engaged himself to a farmer for a year, from June to
June, at the rate of £2 8s. (12 dollars) a month, board
and lodging being found him in the house.    He was
o     o o
very well indeed, quite happy and contented, and his
master's right-hand man, with the privilege of the loan
of his gun from time to time,—a privilege which I
could see he valued greatly. The farm-house here was
one of the best I have seen, consisting of kitchen,
dining-room, parlour, and several bedrooms. The living
rooms are open to all connected with the house alike,
and master and employes all take their meals together.
It must be understood that wages are lower in proportion for a year's engagement than for a summer six
months' term; but it is much the best plan, at any
rate at starting, for a man to engage himself for a year SCARCITY OF WORK IN WINTER. 105
if he can do so, for he is then secure for the winter
months, at which period of the year there is otherwise
great difficulty in obtaining employment.
I have now given an outline of the progress made
by three of the young men with whom I was acquainted;
the result cannot be regarded as an unsuccessful start
on the part of any of the three.
I had intended writing only two chapters on this
part of Manitoba, but fearing to make them too lengthy,
I find I must devote a third to this subject before
resuming the thread of my narrative at Victoria, British
Note.—The Manitoba and North-Western Kailway was extended 25
miles towards Prince Albert during 1888, and the following new
stations have been opened—Churchbridge, Bredenbury, and
Saltcoats. THE NEW FAR  WEST.
"the park-like lands of the fertile belt."
manitoba—shoal lake—minnedosa—
rapid city—neepawa.
A Successful Shoot—A Cattle-raising District—A Severe Hailstorm
—Stacks of Manure—A Thriving Cheese Factory—Mayor and
- Corporation do not keep their Engagement—Shooting for the Pot
—Chickens and   Shells—A  Severe  Thunderstorm—Method   of
: • Assessment—The Kootenay Valley—Counsel to Emigrants—Misrepresenting Letters—The American Dollar and the English
Shilling—A Poor Man's Land—Milk-producing Oxen.
We made another trip of inspection through the country
round Shoal Lake, taking our guns with us, and killing
about 50 wild-duck in the course of our 30 mile drive.
When out shooting here it is the custom to traverse
these long distances so as to secure a very large range;
however, it all often results in but a small bag in the
end. I found the country better than I had anticipated.
A great part of the district is, in my opinion, more
suitable for cattle-raising than corn-growing, although
O O O3 o
one farmer I met told me he expected to get that year A  PRAIRIE FIRE.
40 bushels of wheat to the acre. In a good year a fine
crop of corn may certainly be grown, but I fancy this
is more the exception than the rule, and there is besides
no safeguard against summer frosts, which are more
frequent in this latitude than further south. At the
time of my visit the whole country was unusually dry,
there having been a long drought during the previous
year; a great many of the sloughs and small lakes were
quite dried up, and we were occasionally driven through
one of them at a trot. But even when they are full of
water, many of them are not fit to use for drinking
purposes. When in the neighbourhood of Russell two
small lakes were pointed out to me within a mile of one
another, one containing salt water, the other fresh. A
tremendous prairie fire occurred not long ago in this
district (Shoal Lake), extending over many miles, and
we noticed some of its after-effects on the trees and
brushwood, which were much damaged. This fire must
apparently also have burnt up all the prairie fowls in
the district, for we did not see a single chicken in the
whole day's drive.
During another 30 miles expedition in the direction
of the Riding Mountains, I was able to see the Strath-
clair Settlement. At this place we left the low marshy
ground, over which we had hitherto travelled, behind
us, and got on to a higher ridge, better cultivated in THE  NEW FAR   WEST.
every way. The settlers here had been visited in the
month of June by a severe hailstorm which had completely destroyed many crops of wheat, and must have
been especially disappointing in this particularly good
season. I counted throughout this drive 150 head of
cattle, but only one sheep; perhaps this is partly
accounted for by the existence of the Shoal Lake
cheese factory, where many of the farmers find a ready
sale for their milk. There were several instances of
summer fallowing, but I saw no attempt whatever at
hauling out manure for the land. In fact, near the
various homesteads we passed, I noticed many stacks of
manure which I should think must have accumulated
ever since the settlers first came in, about nine years
ago, when the Canadian Pacific route was surveyed to
come this way. It did not appear to me that any new
houses had been erected lately, a fact which rather
pointed to the conclusion that immigration was not
setting in rapidly in these parts. The houses were
nearly all log buildings, built before framed houses were
so easily procurable ; and partly from this reason, and
partly from being really older, do not present as neat
an appearance as others I have seen elsewhere; though
hardly any can ever be called " smart" in appearance
anywhere, for they are quite the exception.
In the course of the afternoon I visited a cheese A   CHEESE FACTORY.
factory, about half a mile from the railway-station and
immediately adjoining  the lake;   it  is run  by a Mr.
Waldock.    This sort of enterprise  is  a comparatively
new industry now being started  in many parts;   and
when run by a man who knows his business it is pretty
sure to be successful.    It is also a great help to small
settlers round owning one or two cows, as it affords a
ready  market   for   their  milk  without  entailing   any
trouble; for the proprietor sends many miles round to
collect it.    This particular factory is   run during four
months and a half of the year; namely, from 16th May
to 1st October, and makes on an average 14,000 lbs. of
cheese per month.     The proprietor keeps 45 cows at
his homestead, some of which are hired from the neighbours.     He has 52 settlers' houses on his  list from
whence to collect milk, for which purpose he keeps four
teams of horses to send in various directions through the
country for a distance of  20 miles round, picking up
cans of milk en route.   The factory is pleasantly situated,
and appears to be a thriving and go-ahead business.
The sample of cheese I tasted was excellent, and I was
told a ready sale was found in Winnipeg for as much as
could be made.
The next place we visited was Minnedosa, the largest
town on the Manitoba and North-Western Railway
after leaving Portage-la-Prairie.    It is situated on flat "■*
ground, in a wide valley, through the centre of which
the Little Saskatchewan River flows, and is well backed
up by hills and rising ground. A very bad and rickety
bridge spans the river, and the sooner the citizens
replace it by a new one the better; otherwise I fancy
we may soon hear of a serious accident. It was from
Minnedosa that I visited Mr. Hall's farm, where my
tenant's son had obtained his situation, as stated in my
last chapter. We passed through good land almost all
the way, first ascending the side of the Little Saskatchewan valley, and then skirting along the open prairie
through good grass and clumps of trees till we reached
the farm. The house was a capital new wooden one,
and was well situated facing a lake, with many trees
round it, several of some growth; and the cultivated
lands were well laid out, and properly fenced in. In
fact, I was surprised to find so nice a place created in
the short space of only three years. The oat crop was
excellent; the wheat crop had also been very good,
but had been, unfortunately, much damaged a fortnight
before by an early frost. The estate consists of 480
acres, the land is good and well-wooded, and there is
a capital brook of excellent water intersecting the farm,
as good to drink as any in England, my emigrant friend
told me.
Rapid  City is   17 miles  from  Minnedosa, and is A  BROKEN ENGAGEMENT.
approached by the valley of the Little Saskatchewan,
along which the crops were indifferent. Probably the
damp here affects them, and lands adjacent to a valley
are said to be always more liable to summer frosts—a
truth we often see exemplified in England in the
autumn, when the beauty of a flower-garden situated
on low ground, or near water, is destroyed by an early
autumn frost, while higher ground escapes. On our
arrival at Rapid City we were met by a deputation
from the Mayor and Corporation, who were directed to
give us all the information we required.    We arranged
with these gentlemen to be met at 5.30 a.m. the
following morning, which entailed our breakfasting
between 4 and 5 A.M., but our new friends did not
keep to their engagement, so after all we started off
without them. I did not think much of Rapid City,
nor did the attractions of the surrounding country
impress me very much after a 40 miles drive; there
is; however, some good strong corn-growing land in
patches, and especially 20 miles away in the Oak River
district, where my emigrant friend the labourer's son is
Sheep-rearing might be a little dangerous in the
Rapid City district, as there is a certain amount of
alkali in the ground. There are a great many deserted
homesteads in this part.    I came across another school 112
here, with six pupils on the list, and only one actually
The next district I visited was that of Neepawa—
the Indian word for "plenty." It is situated in the
county of the Beautiful Plains, to which I have alluded
in a previous chapter as containing the gravel ridge 40
miles in length, running through the district. No land
in the district traversed by the Manitoba and North-
Western railway is so good for corn-growing as that
which can be found round Neepawa. The "city" is
only a small village about three-quarters of a mile away
from the station, but the land round is mostly taken up,
and the country well settled. I am sorry, however, to
have to add that the frost which occurred on the 6th
September did considerable damage to the outstanding
grain crop; as a rule, it is gathered in this district
before that date, but this year there were some exceptions
which suffered accordingly.
I made the acquaintance of an old resident "at
Neepawa, who offered to show me a portion of the
country round. He took his gun with him, and in
due course we came across a covey of prairie chickens.
Much to my surprise he did not allow them to rise,
but shot four on the ground and one flying, at which
he was much delighted, and returned to me, saying,
11 guess I have killed five chickens and brought back SPECULATION IN LAND.
the five shells," i. e. for reloading. We went through
a very fine agricultural district, the finest I had seen
in this part of Manitoba, though more suited for wheat
than cattle. The greater part of the land was well
settled, and many of the houses had been rebuilt
and were of a superior description. I noticed but
few cattle and no sheep. Large cornfields adjoined
one another, all well fenced in, and the country often
resembled some well-cultivated district in the eastern
counties of England. Nearer the town the land was
uncultivated, which was accounted for by its being
in the hands of speculators and mortgage companies.
I saw a fine (uncultivated) lot of 640 acres, which was
a school lot, and will shortly be in the market.
Although discontent is often expressed at the way
speculators hold land in Manitoba, waiting for better
times, it appears to me that the authorities themselves
very frequently set the example by holding back such
lots as school lots (which are generally the pick of the
township), awaiting better prices: which are usually
brought about in consequence of the adjoining sections
being taken up and built upon. A "boom" in land is
generally charged with being the source of all the evil:
when one occurs lands change hands at such prices that
they cannot be resold without loss; and although there
may be a dulness now, I fancy that the present holders 114
would very soon clear out if they could only get up a
boom again on their own account.
While here I was overtaken by one of those sudden
and terrible thunderstorms which are prevalent in this
country. My companion had just predicted a fine afternoon, and yet within five minutes there was a flash of
lightning, quickly succeeded by a second, and down
came a deluge of rain, and we were at once in the midst
of one of the most severe storms I have ever experienced.
Fortunately there was a building near, and to it we
hurried for shelter. It proved to be the pioneer hut of
the neighbourhood, erected about nine years previously,
when settlers were first attracted to this district, and
when the town of Neepawa (about ten miles off) was
not even dreamt of. With a settler's usual hospitality
(they are nearly all Ontario people in this part), the
inmates at once invited us in to tea, for which meal,
with other visitors in the house who had been detained
by the storm, we formed a large party. No payment
is ever thought of, and to decline the invitation would
be a breach of etiquette. The first thing said to a
stranger on arriving at a settler's house always appears
to be—I Have you folks had anything to eat ?" This
is the invariable greeting, alike from the humblest and
the well-to-do and prosperous ; in each case the same
genuine kindness and hospitality are manifest. SiHi
From the description I have now given of the lands
adjacent to the Manitoba and North-Western Railway,
it will be seen I am of opinion that they are generally
more suitable for cattle-raising or mixed farming than
anything else. Were I selecting land, I think I should
turn my attention to the north-west (perhaps Binscarth)
for this kind of farming; to Minnedosa for a town
centre with good agricultural land around, and to
Neepawa for a corn-growing country,—to say nothing
of Westbourne, which has already attained notoriety as
a cattle ranch and breeding establishment.
A word as to the plan of assessment in Manitoba
may not be amiss here. It is arranged to suit the
requirements of the country, and I was told the amount
was exactly the same whether the land was let, sold,
improved, or unimproved. At the time of my visit the
rate was levied on an assumed marketable value of four
dollars (16s.) an acre in the Oak River district; this is
the same in the Red River valley, although the quality
of the land in the two districts is very different indeed.
Another subject I asked about was how funerals are
managed here, and I found the rule has been to bury a
farmer on his own land, but that the Government is
now urging the Manitobans to set aside a plot of ground
as a cemetery in each municipality.
Neepawa was the last place I visited in this neigh-
I  2 anHowi
bourhood before returning to Portage-la-Prairie, where
I had appointed to meet Colonel Baker of Kootenay,
with whom I returned to Winnipeg,—seeing that place
for the fourth time in my life. I was very much disappointed to find from him that, owing to the lateness
of the season, and the shallowness of the water in the
Columbia River, I should be unable to visit the Kootenay valley, or see Cranbrook, his place there. From
him I learnt that the best time to visit the valley was
either the last week in May or the first week in August.
He gave me a very glowing account of the valley, which
he said was about 200 miles long, by five to 25 miles
broad ; he considers it essentially a mining country, and
not a farming district; there is some good land suitable
mostly for cattle and horses, but not enough of it fit
for cultivation ever to make it a farming centre. This
same view I have since heard so often repeated, that I
fancy there cannot be any doubt on the subject. The
beauties of the Kootenay valley have been again and
again extolled; but the more I hear about the place,
the more certain am I becoming that it can also boast
mosquitoes not to be equalled, and that they exist in
greater numbers here at certain times in the year than
in any other place in the world.
I close my chapters on Manitoba with a few words
on the subject of emigration generally.    First, a word of *mm*
warning to parents and friends in England. Letters
home are often written by the employer in the name of
the employed, and at his request; but they. are not
always altogether dictated by him. The fact is, the
emigrant is often but a poor scholar, and is glad to get
it done for him, and at any rate it saves him trouble.
Now of course the small landlord in Manitoba and the
North-West is anxious to increase the value of his
property, and also to lower the cost of labour. In order
to acco'mplish the first of these objects, it is to his
advantage to get the sections adjoining his own land
cultivated and built upon; and as to his second object,
the more people he can induce to come into his locality
the greater the competition for employment, and, consequently, the lower the standard of wages. Glowing
accounts are, for these reasons, too often introduced in
homeward-bound letters, and have the effect of making
parents and friends feel discontented at home and wish
they could reach this promised land. In my opinion
it is only the young and able-bodied from an over-
populated district, and who cannot make a living here,
who should go; and married people with families can
usually do better at home than there. I have always
been greatly opposed to shipping off people wholesale
from the old country, if they have any chance of getting
employment here.   It is hardly fair to English employers n8
of labour to persuade young men to quit the country,
and so raise the price of wages, nor is it a kindness
to the young fellows themselves to induce them (by
dangling the I almighty dollar" before their eyes) to
face the uncertainties of a new country; and it should
always be remembered that a dollar (45.) only goes
about as far in America as a shilling does here in
So far as my experience of the Colonies and America
is concerned, I may say I have never come across such,
an equitable and healthy climate (take it all round) as:
our much-abused  English one;   and to  send out old
people to be frizzled one  month and   half-frozen the
next, is hardly the sort of action to bring down the
blessings of the unfortunate emigrant on one's head.   But
those who have got acclimatized while still fairly young
become contented  and   happy, and in time   condemn
the dampness of our English climate as much perhaps
as we do the peculiarities of the one to which they have
accustomed themselves.    The usual answer one meets
with from  settlers  in  Manitoba, and  especially from
Ontario people (who are the most numerous there), is
that they are getting on "first-rate."    English people
undoubtedly like the climate better at the end of three
years than they do at the end of the first, and, provided
good water is procurable, the population usually enjoy SUITABLE EMIGRANTS.
good health. I consider Manitoba a good poor man's
land, but not one in which wealth can be rapidly accumulated. The whole system of cutting up the country
into such small sections is uninviting to capitalists, but
is an admirable way of peopling it with small freeholders, and these latter can get on well enough (so far
as making a bare living goes) after the first start, provided they have good seasons and no drawbacks. I
fancy that as a rule no one over forty years of age is
likely to settle down comfortably; and for a married
couple of the labouring class over that age, and not
especially fitted for any particular industry, to go out
with no settled object is simply to court disappointment. Young folks going out may save money, settle,
marry, and eventually have large families—the larger
the better, as every extra child is looked upon with
satisfaction as causing in some way an increase in value
of the stock on the farm, and also as a saving in the
future in the labour bill!
It sometimes happens that persons connected with
the agricultural lands of the Far West, although anxious
and willing to give bond fide information and help, are
not themselves practical farmers, and this the following
little anecdote will exemplify, for the truth of which I
can vouch:—A person writing from England inquired
whether  everything was  in readiness for him on his THE NEW FAR   WEST.
arrival on the other side, and especially if the oxen to
break up the land had been purchased. The reply ran
as follows (and I have seen the letter myself): " The
oxen will supply milk and butter, as well as be useful
to cultivate the land." RETURN TO   VICTORIA.
Highly-rented Land—Yalue of Cleared Farms—Chinaman v. English
Labourer—High Prices of Fuel and Provisions—Sharp Practice
on a Chinaman—A Prosperous Town—Terminus of Canadian
Pacific Railway—A Disappointment that turned into a Benefit—
Victorian Industries—Iron-works—Chinese Bootmakers—Magnifi-
cent Harbour—Need of Fortifications—A Hint to Young Ladies in
Having now completed my chapters on the "parklike lands of the fertile belt," and given what information I can about the land near the Canadian Pacific
Railway and its branches generally, I must resume
the thread of my narrative at Victoria, Vancouver
Island. Once back there, I felt myself as thoroughly
at home as in many places in England, although almost
six thousand miles away from the old country. During
my stay I enjoyed the hospitality of my friend Mr.
Justice Crease, at whose house I took up my quarters.
While staying at Victoria I was taken by a friend
to  look at several farms in the neighbourhood, which 122
the owners professed to be willing to sell. One of these
was near Gordon Head, to which we drove out past
Mount Tolmie and the Bishop's lands. There were
some nice little farms along the road before reaching
these, but rock protruded very much in places, and
from the prices quoted to me of the value of the land,
it appears to me that much cannot be bought about
here; or, in fact, farm land at all, except in very
small parcels. The Bishop's property seemed one of
the largest estates lying together, as far as I could see.
One farm consisted of about 130 acres, and I was told
it was let at 23s. per acre, and the taxes came to about
£5 a year more; but this was an old take, and if relet it would command a higher price. At Mount
Tolmie a nice house was being erected, and I wTas told
that the person who was putting it up had purchased
the land a short time previously, paying for it at the
rate of 115 dollars (£23) per acre. It appeared to
consist for the most part of arable land, which is the
case almost universally here, for the old grass is broken
up. This is a pity, because, lying near to Victoria,
one would think grass lands would have been valuable
for dairy purposes. On reaching Gordon Head we
found the owner at home. His farm consisted of about
140 acres, 50 of which were cleared, and the remainder
were rock and timber;  there was a wooden house on HIGH PRICE  OF LAND.
it. The price asked for the land was 50 dollars I e.
£10) per acre. Of course such a price as this was
quite a prohibitive one, for the cleared land was still
very rough indeed ; but my companion told me that
had the whole farm been cleared, £20 per acre would
have been asked. But even had it all been cleared
(i. e. cleared of trees), half of it would probably have
been rock, for it is only the swampy or bottom lands
amongst the rocks—hollows, in fact, holding soil—
which are capable of cultivation here. These prices
show that it is useless for the ordinary emigrant
farmer to come here to take up land anywhere near
Victoria, for none that is free is now to be obtained,
though some Government holdings untaken up are
still to be found in remote parts of the island, with
which communication is slowly being opened up.
As regards the prospects of an agricultural labourer
coming here, a good man would probably find employment, but the settlers cannot generally afford to
pay for extra labour, and, when they do, can perhaps
get a Chinaman cheaper than a white man. In fact,
as the holdings are, as a rule, small, and wages high,
an extra man all the year round is out of the question.
From the enormous quantity of timber, it is evident
that the farmer in these parts must follow the J lumberer," for it takes a man's lifetime to only partially 124
clear a small farm; so holdings of any size must yet
be in the far distance. With some exceptions on the
Delta, &c, the present race of farmers appear only
to scratch over the soil; and as the quantity of land
available for tillage is of very small area, only a bare
living can be made out of it. Many of these small
farmers were formerly miners, and having made some
money by that employment, invested it in partially
improved land, and some of them appear to thrive
fairly well upon what they get from it.
Another day I was taken to look at some other
lands, part of which is considered as a probable site
for a fort to be erected in due time by either the
Dominion or the Imperial Government. These lands
were situated in the Esquimalt district, about twelve
miles from Victoria, on Sangster's Plain, not far from
Albert Head. We started from Victoria, skirting the
sea-shore, and drove along past the Four-mile House,
by Parson's Bridge and Millstream, and then turned off
the road to the left to Goldstream, and passed through
a very park-like district, with which I was much struck.
Many trees stood out singly, and there were large open
patches of grass, which might do well for sheep, if
there is enough of it. The land, however, is very
light and gravelly. The section ran right to the seashore, falling there with a considerable drop, and would AN ISLAND FARM. I25
make an excellent site for a house, or indeed for a
suburb of Victoria; the latter can be seen in the
distance, and on the opposite side of the straits we
had a beautiful view of the Olympian range of mountains in Washington Territory. It is a nice row from
here to Esquimalt Harbour. At Albert Head is the
Quarantine Station, supported by the Dominion Government. My friend and I took a long walk, in the course
of which I saw some beautiful specimens of Douglas
Returning to our buggy, we were driven on to a
farm of 270 acres, about nine miles from Victoria;
it is in private hands, and the owner said he wished
to sell at the rate of 14 dollars per acre. I was told
it was a good specimen of an island farm. A Scotchman had been the original settler, and after twenty
years' hard work timber felling, he had succeeded in
clearing about 60 or 70 acres. I found the cleared
land had been freely cropped with wheat, and looked
much out of order; the house was uninhabited and
tumbling down; the timber had been cut only with
a view to selecting large sticks, leaving the stumps
standing about six feet above the ground. It would
be possible to clear some more of the land, but the
remainder (say about 100 out of the 270 acres) was
merely rock.    The price was £2 165. per acre all round, 126
but after deducting for the rock, it would really bring
it up to £5 per acre, with all the best timber gone.
I also suspect that this land (which may be taken as
a good specimen of a Vancouver Island farm), situated
as it is in hollows and surrounded by rocks, would
serve as a catch pit for rain, and would prove very
wet indeed at certain times of the year. Some of the
lands round Victoria—such as that on the Church farm,
for instance—would not hold water: but as a general
rule I think they would all require a good system of
drainage after the 1 amber-man had done his work;
and all lands are held at an absurdly high value by
'their present proprietors.
I think such farms as the one just described might,
if he could purchase it at a reasonable price, be worked
to advantage by a small settler by establishing a poultry
farm, and combining this with a small dairy for butter-
making, and a little market gardening ; spending any
spare time cutting down surplus timber, the sale of
which would assist his income. Timber at Victoria
now fetches 16s. per cord of 8 feet long by 4 feet high,
and wood is still the universal fuel for cooking stoves,
though coal is now much used for the house grates ;
the price of the latter is 3 6s. to 40s. per ton in the
town, and 16s. per ton at the pit's mouth. Chickens
fetch 6s. per couple ;   butter 2s. a pound all the year DEFRAUDING  THE  CHINAMAN. 127
round; milk 10g£ per gallon; eggs Is. a dozen in
summer, and 35. a dozen in winter. Horses in this
country appear to 'bear fatigue much better than with
us, and will go long distances without a rest; the drive
to see the farms described had been altogether about
30 miles, and our horses did not seem at all the worse.
To give other instances of the value of land here,
I may mention that I was shown another farm near
Victoria, for which (uncleared) the owner was asking 60
dollars an acre, and for which he had refused an offer
of 50 dollars (£10) per acre. Though this appeared
to be good land, with fine timber, yet I cannot but
think it was a high price.
On going to see the little piece of land we had
bought during our previous visit in 1883, situated on
Cordova Bay, now called New Longworth, I found that
a short time previously the owner of the land just behind it had sold his lot to some Chinese, and in doing
so had pointed out the bottom land on our lot as his
own. Fortunately for us, the Chinaman found this out
in time, and a lawsuit was the result, the purchaser
naturally declining to complete his purchase. It was
said that our neighbour had given 900 dollars for his lot,
and had sold it (with some of ours) to the Chinese for
1500 dollars. Happily the bargain, was repudiated before
the timber was cut.    I have since taken precaution to 01
prevent a repetition of such mistakes as regards our land.
Thinking to improve our boundary towards the sea,
I offered to purchase three acres from my neighbour
on that side; the slip was worth about 60 dollars, and I
should have been willing to give 90 ; but as he wanted
the accommodation price of between 400 and 500 dollars,
it was useless trying to negotiate.
It should be borne in mind that the above relates
to lands in the vicinity of Victoria, and that the high
prices asked are attributable to that fact, the scarcity
of any extent of good lands near the town mainly
contributing to support values.
In several of the country districts farming is making
progress, and the railway constructed between Victoria
and Nanaimo has assisted materially the settlement of
the district through which it runs. The greater part
of the land is, however, heavily timbered, and the
settler has to make up his mind that persistence in
hard work is the only way by which he can make his
property of value. Further north on the island the
district of Com ox is promising well, aided by coalmining developments now being extensively prosecuted,
and there are still some lands, though none of large
extent, to be obtained from the Government in the
surrounding districts.
Since  my last   visit  Victoria  has  made   decided SUBSTANTIAL PROGRESS.
progress, though not of the rapid and assertive character
shown by the neighbouring towns in Washington
Territory. The population has increased, and is now
quoted at 13,000 or 14,000, including 2000 Chinese.
The place covers a large area, and the suburbs have
extended greatly in every direction; comfortable dwellings, with occasionally a more pretentious house, having
been spread over a good deal of space during the last
three or four years. The buildings in the business
part of the city have been much improved, notably
the new Law Courts and the Bank of British Columbia
building ; and the general appearance of the principal
streets gives evidence of substantial progress. The
establishment of Vancouver City as the terminus of
the Canadian Pacific Railway appears to have been a
disappointment to many Victorians, who had hoped for
the terminus at Esquimalt, as originally settled by
" Order in Council" of the Dominion Government; but
in reality the new city has been of much benefit to the
trade of Victoria, as attracting a population, and thereby
increasing the importance and business of the province.
Many Victorians are large owners of property in
Vancouver, and are greatly interested in other ways
in the advancement of the new town. My impression
is that the prosperity of Victoria will be assisted by
the  growth  of the  terminal  town, and   she  has  the 13°
control of all the trade of the North-West coast, which
is increasing in importance and value every year. The
capital employed in the industries of the province is
chiefly owned by Victorians, and such manufacturing
enterprises as exist are chiefly established in Victoria.
The Albion Iron Works, with a capital of about 300,000
dollars employed, does an active business, and engages
about 100 hands at high wages regularly. The boot
and shoe manufacturing employs Chinese labour almost
entirely, and turns out a large amount of work. The
collieries of the province are largely owned in Victoria.
The lumber-mills and salmon fisheries are to a great
extent owned or controlled in Victoria, where also the
steamship lines doing the inter-provincial carrying trade
of the province have their headquarters. The people
for the most part are well-to-do, with a very few who
could be termed wealthy; and having attained comfortable circumstances are disposed to take things easily
as far as possible, and show a good deal of Conservative
tendency. There are very few poor, and the sober,
industrious, intelligent artisan is bound to thrive, and
finds the place congenial in every way. Wages in
1888 for bricklayers and masons, five and six dollars
per day; carpenters, three dollars fifty cents, for good
workmen. The public schools are free, but religious
teaching prohibited.    They are well attended by children ESQUIMALT HARBOUR.
of all classes, and the teaching power is good, and well
remunerated. Religious sects are fully represented.
Church of England and Roman Catholics • have both a
prominent influence, but every sect has a meetinghouse, including a Freethought Hall and Salvation Army
Barracks. The tone of the place is still thoroughly
British, though perhaps, on account of the more recent
accessions of population coming from Eastern Canadian
cities, there has been some falling off in that respect
since my last visit, and the " old country" is not so
much talked about. The natural beauties of the city's
surroundings are so attractive, that they alone must
command admiration, and secure for Victoria an ever-
increasing importance as a city; and as to the advantages
of climate I have already spoken my praises.
Besides my inquiries as to different farms and lots
near Victoria, I made an expedition by railway to
Nanaimo and Wellington, a distance of 76 miles. The
line passes Esquimalt harbour, where I visited the
dockyard and the dry dock; the latter is 431 feet long
by 65 broad, and 28 feet deep, and must of course be
of great service to the Pacific naval station. The
harbour is a beautiful one in every sense of the word,
with perfectly safe anchorage, and surrounded by finely
timbered slopes. So much has been said and written
about new fortifications along this coast, that a word
K 2 132
here may not be out of place.    In my opinion, whatever
may be decided as to Victoria and Vancouver City,
Esquimalt   Harbour  at  any rate should not  remain
unfortified.     To leave such a magnificent position as
this (the finest harbour on the Pacific excepting San
Francisco) at the, mercy  of an  enemy would be  an
error such as  I  can hardly believe any Government
could be short-sighted enough to allow.    The rail then
proceeds through the forest, running high up alongside
Saanwich  Arm (a salt-water inlet), and  for the first
20 miles or so the country is interesting, and the views
very fine;  but after that the forest becomes so dense
that there is  not much to be  seen.     As we passed
Cowitchan Station I noticed that two small hotels were
being run up there; and the town of Nanaimo has certainly
considerably increased since my last visit.    Just before
reaching the station there I saw the Vancouver Colliery,
where the lamentable accident had occurred the previous
year by which 150 men had lost their lives.    Six miles
beyond Nanaimo we came to the Wellington Colliery,
belonging to Mr. Dunsmuir; here a quantity of labourers'
houses and one central house were being run up, but
there is otherwise no actual town.    The coal is loaded
close by at Departure Bay.
Although very much pleased with British Columbia,
i fear it is not a farming country, and in the winter SCARCITY OF SERVANTS. 133
the western coast is a decidedly wet climate (though
not so wet on Vancouver Island, where the rainfall is
25|- inches, as on the west coast of the mainland, where
it reaches 60 inches). Land here is also held at an
unreasonably high value, whether wood or cleared, and
town lots at Vancouver are as high as a person intending to start there in business would find it prudent to
give. Nevertheless, had I to reside in the Colonies I
should choose Victoria, for everything is purely English,
and the upper classes are as entirely so in manners and
speech as anybody residing in England itself. The
scarcity of servants is a drawback. Chinese are mostly
employed, but I expect the ladies of the establishment
do a great deal beyond mere supervision, both in housework and cooking ; and especially as regards the latter,
when there is to be a dinner-party ; an example which
might be followed by many young ladies in England
with some advantage, at any rate to themselves. Twmm
A New Town—An Opening for Farming Enterprise—A Fruit-raising
District—Maize v. Wheat—A Coach-drive—"Shell out"—Headquarters for Tourists—Cable-cars—A Beautiful Park—Rocks and
Seals—Effects of Irrigation—The Chinese Quarter—The Failure
of an expected | Boom "—A | Header "—Grapes at <£2 a Ton—
Eight Months without Rain—Re-importing Native Wine—A
Great Future for San Francisco—A Desirable Loan for English
I left Victoria, Vancouver Island, with feelings of great
regret, starting on the s. s. Tacoma for the town of that
name in the United States—a run of 110 miles. We
touched at Port Townsend, and then at Seattle, which
latter place has made prodigious strides in the last four
years, and is a thoroughly American town. Tacoma is
also very much altered and improved, and where but
four years ago only a few houses stood, a large new
town has sprung up in a wonderful manner. This is
due to the Northern Pacific Railway Company having
declared it the  Pacific terminus  of their line.     The A  FRUIT-RAISING DISTRICT.
company has also built a fine large hotel (as good a
one as I have ever stayed in in America) to supersede
the wretched accommodation I remembered so well
experiencing four- years before.
We left Tacoma early the following morning by
rail, bound for Portland, Oregon, and passed through a
thickly-wooded country, very little cleared, where the
farming was very primitive ; but still what little arable
we saw appeared to be of good quality, and therefore
probably extensive farms might by dint of clearing be
formed here. Presently the forest became very dense,
but the trees were inferior in girth to those of British
We followed the windings of the Cowlitz River for
some distance, noticing clearings in different places,
showing that settlers were making the best use of their
time ; fruit-trees had been planted in many places, and
were bearing heavy and abundant crops. Near Kelso
Station the improvements were especially remarkable,
and it appeared to be a very thriving settlement. At
Kalama we quitted Washington Territory, and were
ferried, train and all, over the Columbia River into
Oregon, through which State we continued our journey.
Here the soil appeared very good, and fruit-trees grew
luxuriantly. We passed many large open homesteads,
and the nearer we approached to Portland the better «aa
77/2 /VTifF i^4ie   WEST.
the land became; in fact, I was very much pleased
with what I saw of Oregon State. From Portland the
line followed the valley of the Willamette (100 miles
long by 40 broad), passing Oregon City and Aurora.
After about 20 miles the valley widened out, and I
could see that the farms here were of a first-class sort,
Very different from anything I had noticed for a long
time. The information as to prices varied, one man
saying they ranged between 15 and 50 dollars an acre,
and another putting them at from 30 to 250 dollars;
but, anyway, it is clear that this land can be bought
at almost the same price as land in British Columbia,
and that it is of very superior quality. Some 15 miles
from the line, under the Cascade Mountains (I suspect
a spur of the Sierra Nevadas), land is still open for
settlement at about one and a half dollars an acre,—but
it is uncleared. There was a good deal of timbered land
near the railway which could be turned to account for
farming purposes, and I fancy there is an opening here
for an enterprising man. It is said that the rainfall
in Oregon is very heavy, but, whether this is so or not,
I cannot help thinking the Willamette valley a most
desirable place for farming operations, judging by the
rich look of the soil and the surrounding prosperity.
Night closed in, however, before I could see the valley
thoroughly.    February is, I am told, the worst month SHELL  OUT:'
in Oregon State, and it is cold here then for a short
The next morning we passed through Rogue Valley,
a famous fruit-raising district; land here, though not
looking very good, is pronounced excellent for this
purpose, and commands high prices,—from 100 to 300
dollars an acre. Maize is also grown to a large extent,
and is said to pay better than wheat; indeed there were
complaints that quantities of wheat were lying idle at
the stations, the owners being unable to sell at a profit.
At the time of my journey the railway from Portland
to San Francisco was not completed throughout;l there
was a gap of about 20 miles over the range of
mountains called Siskiyous which had to be performed
by stage; but the line when finished will supersede the
sea route. At a place called Ashland we were accordingly transferred to three waggons and a couple of
coaches of the "Buffalo Bill" description. Pretty
tightly packed, we commenced our journey over at first
a fairly smooth road; but at the approach to the
mountain " divide," a cry came from the driver on the
box, "Shell out;" so accordingly out we all crawled,
and the remaining portion of our journey to the summit
had to be performed on foot. Before reaching the
summit we saw the new tunnel just finished; the first
1 Opened throughout in 1887. 138
engine had passed through it on the previous day—so
probably I have been one of the last English travellers
by the old stage route over the mountain. I had a
splendid view from the summit, and walked on altogether about ten miles before the first stage caught
me up. This Siskiyous range of mountains form a link
between the Cascade Mountains (joining the Sierra
Nevadas further south) and the Coast range.
After crossing the mountains we were in California,
and the change was very remarkable as we descended
the slopes; everything was parched up and as dry as
a desert; but although so dry it was not dusty, and
there was a certain amount of cultivation apparent.
We frequently noticed large herds of pigs and cattle
which appeared to be thriving, especially some of the
latter near Montague. Close to Montague we obtained
a capital view of Mount Shasta, 14,442 feet high, in
the Sierra Nevada range; and the scenery continued
to improve, till from a place called Sessions the view
was magnificent. Sessions is situated in Strawberry
Valley, and would make good headquarters for tourists ;
but any one wishing to see this beautiful route from San
Francisco thoroughly, should go on beyond to Montague
—351 miles distant from San Francisco. Strawberry
Valley is well-wooded, the sugar-pine being the
principal tree, but there are also many spruce.    Con- IN THE SACRAMENTO   VALLEY. 139
tinuing our journey, we descended the canon of the
Sacramento at a tremendous pace,—faster indeed than
I should think was really prudent on a new line which
had only been completed six months before.
Night came on quickly, and I fear caused me to
miss much of the beautiful  scenery;   but  early  the
following morning I found we were still in the fertile
Sacramento Valley.    Everything looked most prosperous;   we passed fine villages and several towns, and
saw large herds of cattle grazing in the fields ; but the
stubble-fields and the hills were all of a uniform brown
tint, for the country was parched and burnt up, as of
course must happen when there has been no rain for
six months, as had been the case here.    The villages
looked very pleasant, and the  fields around were all
fenced   in.     Everything  in   the  State  of   California
appeared most prosperous, and I believe that such is
really the case.    We passed Benicia by its huge ferryboat, which conveys the trains over bodily, and soon
reached Oaklands, from whence  a ferry-boat took us
across to San Francisco.     Here I went to the Palace
Hotel, where  I arrived about  8  a.m., having  safely
accomplished my journey of 1030 miles from Victoria
(British Columbia) in three days two hours.
San Francisco is certainly a  wonderful place; its
growth is perfectly extraordinary, and it is impossible 14°
to realize thoroughly the fact that thirty-seven years
ago there was absolutely nothing here, where now there
is a city with 300,000 inhabitants, and houses and shops
to rival anything in London or Paris. The "cable-
cars I form a simply perfect means of locomotion, so
rapid and so smooth; the ease with which they travel
onwards as the conductor affixes a catch to the underground rope, makes one pity, the poor tram-car horses,
that one sees labouring along with the ordinary cars.
I made a little excursion by cable-car to the Golden
Gate Park, a few miles out of San Francisco, at the
entrance to the harbour ; it is formed out of desert by
dint of irrigation. There is a large conservatory and
some excellent carpet-bedding; the trees and shrubs
were all doing well, and the grass was most beautiful,
its bright green contrasting strongly with the brown
vegetation around. Leaving the park I went on by
train a few miles further to Cliff House to see the view
again over the Pacific Ocean, and the rocks crowded
with seals. Our little train consisted only of four or
five open cars, and the line wound its way through the
hills, landing us at about five minutes' walk from the
hotel. Part of the return journey I performed by one
of the cable-cars, which are great features in San
Francisco; indeed, they are almost a necessity of the
place, for the city is built on a tier of hills, and without CABLE-CARS.
these cars communication between the different parts
would be very difficult. The eable-cars are maintained
by the Californian Improvement Company, and, as is
now pretty generally known, are worked by an endless
rope without horses, and go up and down hill with the
greatest ease, at a pace of from six to eight miles an
hour. The officials connected with them are all of a
superior class, and are most civil to both the citizens and
strangers ; contrasting in this respect very favourably
with most of the railway officials on the different
American railway lines.
Another day I drove out with a friend to the
Presidio—the military barracks, near the Golden Gate ;
there are pretty detached houses for the officers, and
capital barracks for the men, all in excellent order.
The prison (which is situated on an island) was in full
sight, and a beautiful view of the harbour of San
Francisco was obtainable. We proceeded past the
Golden Gate towards Cliff House, but before descending
to it, drove round Mr. Sutio's grounds, which are
admirably laid out, and will well repay a visit. The view
from thence of the Pacific Ocean and of the territory
around was splendid. Trees, shrubs, flowers and grass
are all most luxuriant in growth in this garden; yet a
short time ago it was only a sandbank, and this charm
ing  result  is  due  to constant  irrigation.
We  drove 142
home past the Golden Gate Park—where gardeners
were watering the grass • in all directions—along a road
as level as a billiard-table, and quite 150 feet broad.
The roads about here were made by an American
General named McDowell, and certainly they do him
credit, being most beautifully smooth and broad.
The Chinese quarter of San Francisco called " China
Town I is quite distinct and well worth a visit. I went
to see two | Joss-houses " there (their places of worship);
also a Chinese school for girls, kept by some benevolent
ladies as a kind of refuge; a gambling-house, and some
of the more respectable of the opium smokers' dens.
We also visited the theatre, in the upstair part of which
the actors reside*; it was filthily dirty, and as dry as
tinder, so that if once ignited a terrible blaze would
quickly ensue, and the passages are so narrow that I
cannot see how it would be possible for the inmates
to escape.
Another day I made an expedition with my friend Mr.
Gwin to Bay Point, to see the ranch there which had
formerly belonged to his family, and which I had visited
in 1883. We went by rail 34 miles to Martinez, where
a I boom" was expected, which every one was talking
about, and in consequence of which an excursion train
had been run from San Francisco, and a free luncheon
(of which of course we availed ourselves) was given at AN EXPECTED "BOOM." i43
the Martinez Hotel. In the window there we saw displayed a capital show of flowers, and of apples, pears,
and black and white grapes, all grown in the open air.
The " boom," in town lots and land in the neighbour-
hood, was being discussed with much laughter, and to
judge by the number of passengers by the excursion
train, it must have been a failure. Martinez seemed
rather an Italian-looking place, with shade-trees linino-
the streets and foot-hills rising on one side of the town.
We drove from here to Bay Point, passing numerous
holdings of from 15 to 30 acres with excellent houses.
Great improvements had evidently taken place during
the years which had elapsed since my previous' visit, for
the country was covered with orchards, vineyards, and
pumpkin grounds. The people here make a good living
by their own labour, without employing many (if any)
extra hands. Land here which 25 or 30 years ago was
sold by Government at 1\ dollars an acre, now commands from 50 to 200 dollars an acre; the rise in
value has, of late especially, been very great, and the
district I recommended in 1883—Passadora in Southern
California—has gone up to an immense price, and is
now sold by the foot. Arrived at Bay Point we went
over the ranch which in 1883 had belonged to Mr.
Gwin, now sold, and called Government ranch; it is
worth about 50 to 60  dollars an acre,  and with the 144
adjoining ranch embraces an extent of 3000 acres.
Since I was last here apricot, apple, and pear orchards
and vineyards have been planted, and all are doing
well. I saw an excellent crop of lucerne, which was
being cut for the fourth time that season, and bears
four tons to the acre. Some artesian wells afford a
good supply of water, and the place is only two miles
from Bay Point Station and the southern shore of San
Francisco harbour. By road it is 25 miles from that
city, by rail about 40. I should have liked to have
seen a "header" in operation—i. e. a machine used in
these parts, worked by. 25 horses, which heads and
thrashes the grain, and leaves it ready packed in bags
by the side of the track as it passes along. During our
return route we saw immense stores of wheat at some of
the stations, ready to be shipped off to England and
elsewhere, and my companion said nearly all the carrying
trade was undertaken by English vessels.
Another expedition I made was to Santa Cruz, going
by the narrow-gauge line and returning by the other,
and thus seeing two different parts of the country.
We passed Alameda, and then steamed on through
marshy flats till reaching Santa Clara, a pretty place
with good soil, and the fields well fenced in with strong
high wooden fencing, as is universally the case in this
part of California.    Next we came to San Jose\ a very VINE CULTIVATION.
rising place, with avenues of trees planted along the
sides of the streets. The next place was a very Italian-
looking town called Los Gatos, where there is a large
new Jesuit College. The hill-sides here were all planted
with vines, for the cultivation of which all this part of
California is admirably adapted; but, unfortunately, too
many vineyards are being started, and the supply is
becoming greater than the demand, and grapes are sold
now at from 10 to 15 dollars per ton. Nearer the coast
is considered even better for vineyards than this district.
After leaving Los Gatos we commenced the ascent of
the Santa Cruz mountains; the line wound its way
upwards along a steep valley, where some very fine
timber was growing on the mountain slopes. Unhappily,
this is rapidly succumbing to the lumberman's axe.
The finest specimens were to be seen near the summit,
and at Big-tree Station, where we passed through the
midst of a beautiful grove. A great many of the
trees I saw closely resembled the Taxodium, but it is
impossible to gain any accurate information as to the
different species from the inhabitants, who class them all
as pine, fir, or spruce, without making any distinctions.
Santa Cruz is simply a typical American watering-
place, with a sandy beach, and a long/ broad, bright-
looking street, with the inevitable tram-car rails laid
down the centre.    In itself it would hardly be worth 146
the journey to an English traveller, but the country we
travelled over by both routes was well worth seeing.
The broad-gauge line took me back by the shore, past
Monterey Bay, and then right along the promontory on
which San Francisco is built.    The route was entirely
agricultural, with very large wheat-fields, orchards, and
vineyards;   nicely  timbered,   though   not   enough  to
interfere with farming operations, and there were several
towns dotted about.    A fellow-traveller told me that
when he first passed through the country between San
Jose and kSan Francisco in 1851, in the course of his
business as a drover, there was but one house in the
whole district.    The country is productive and flat, with
mountains bounding the distance.    For nearly the whole
of the way fine specimens of the American (evergreen)
oak were dotted about in the stubble-fields.    At Gilroy
there were very large herds of  cattle feeding in   the
stubbles.    It must be understood that as no rain falls
here for eight months of the year, and the country is
consequently very dry, meadow  lands  are not  much
studied; but all the land is cultivated as arable, fruit
orchard, and vineyard.    Even the steep hill-sides, which
formerly escaped the plough and remained as grass, are
now being utilized as vineyards.    Though excellence in
wine-making has not yet been achieved, there is a great
improvement in the last few years, and the Californians CALIFORNIA N  WINES. 147
themselves now drink their own wines much more than
was formerly the case. A red wine called Zinfandell,
and a light one Schramsberger, are both good and cheap
for ordinary drinking. The usual fault of the wine of
this country is that it is too strong and heady, but
there is no doubt that a large quantity is exported
annually and mixed with French wines. Californians
have been known actually to repurchase as French a
wine of which the greater portion has been grown in
their own State. For both Italians and Frenchmen
there is a great opening in.California for wine-growing,
and also for Englishmen in the industries of fruit and
vegetable raising, and corn-growing.
Comparing San Francisco for a moment with Vancouver City, we find that while the latter has practically
no agricultural district to support it, San Francisco, on
the contrary, has some of the best wheat-growing land
in the world to form a home trade. Its harbour is
about 60 miles long, and must be the finest in the
States, even surpassing that of New York. The cultivation of the vineyards and orchards,- which are now
rapidly supplanting the wheat-fields, will afford employment to a large population; the grapes are excellent,
quite as good as many grown in our English hot-houses,
and the pears are first-rate. In Southern California orange
groves are much in vogue and answer well; indeed, the
l a i48 THE NEW FAR   WEST.
whole of this State must have a great future before it.
Formerly it belonged to the Mexicans, who only used
it for breeding horses, and did not attempt to develop
its resources ; they sold it to the United States Government under the impression that its soil would not grow
anything, nor had they discovered its mineral wealth.
With respect to the climate here, the inhabitants
consider it perfect; there are eight months of dry
weather without any rainfall at all, and this is succeeded
by four months of wet. The north wind here is a
dry and scorching one, the south wind brings rain ;
and the west wind (which is as disagreeable as our east
and equivalent to it) blows for eight months of the year
without intermission, and makes the climate trying to
strangers; for in the sun it may be very hot, while this
cold wind is piercing in the shade. Fogs are very
prevalent during certain months ; the winter, I was
told, is beautiful, and the most enjoyable part of the
year; but I think the long drought in summer accompanied by this cold west wind must be trying until
one gets acclimatized. Still, it must be a great comfort to be certain that there  is  never any danger  of
outdoor operations being marred by rain during so
many months of the year ; and I am sure many of
our English agriculturists would in some seasons be
only too  glad to  borrow  two  months of Californian ^B*4& .#
_ , "KJ
-s# \ m~e..\.    ■ s.    woo*—   % 2
g    v
jostles i
Rr^JriKE^X-A   ...1  —^^^
Stanfords Geog^Isbo}y,Ionjdon Hii AN OPENING FOR FRUIT-GROWERS.
fine weather. Although at the time of my visit everything—both grass and stubble—looked parched and
burnt up, yet in the spring the mountains are as green
as possible, and the wild flowers are beautiful; many
of them are carefully cultivated in England as garden
and greenhouse flowers. With good bread and meat,
excellent vegetables, an abundance of grapes and other
fruits, and an equitable climate, life in California must
be very enjoyable. For a person with a little capital
and a knowledge of fruit-growing it is just the place to
come to; but he must not expect to buy land at the
same prices now as when I first recommended this
locality for small as well as large capitalists. California
has had its " boom " in various districts, and the State
generally has gone up considerably in value.  THE OLD FAE EAST. ■— BOUND FOR   YOKOHAMA.
The Oceanic — Chinese Fellow - passengers, Living and Dead —
American Immigration Laws — A Profitahle Food Contract —
Dollars v. Missionaries — 1 Fish-bones | — Sea-sick Pigs — A
Chinese Outbreak—How to quench a Mutiny—Typhoons—
First Glimpse of Japan — Sanpans and Jin-rikishas — Human
Ponies—Yokohama at Night — The Yoshiwara — A Japanese
Theatre — Making a Day of it — Picturesque Streets—Sache—
Rice Crops—A New Use for a Handkerchief—A Complimentary
Tea—A Warm Bath—Paper "Waterproof Coats and Umbrellas.
It was only after my arrival in San Francisco that I
decided to go on to Japan. Up to that time, if I
extended my tour at all, I had a visit to Australia and
New Zealand in view. But circumstances changed my
route, and I soon found myself bound for Yokohama,
the great seaport town of Japan, a distance of 4800
miles from San Francisco. My knowledge of Japan
was very meagre. I had no good guide-book, and the
only one I knew of (Murray's) was out of print; so I
had to make the most of what information I could glean HH
whilst on my passage to the " land of the rising sun."
I sailed in the Oceanic, 3808 tons burden, belonging to
the Oriental and Occidental Steamship Company; in
reality an old White Star Atlantic liner, which had
found its way to the Pacific after completing its time
on the Atlantic, i. e. being superseded there by vessels
of a more recent type. It was a good ship nevertheless,
and an excellent sea-boat.
To most readers an account of a sea voyage is now
so familiar that I shall not weary them by repeating
the old story. But there is a certain degree of novelty
connected with a Pacific voyage which is not to be
met with on the Atlantic. To commence with, I found
myself to be the only British passenger on board, with
the exception of one; the rest of the saloon passengers
were mostly Americans ; the steerage almost exclusively
Chinese, of whom there were no less than 900 on board.
Their manners and customs soon attracted my attention,
and for choice I would rather not sail again under the
same conditions, especially when we were to be fellow-
shipmates for 4800 miles, an 18 days' passage. These
Chinese were on their way home for their Christmas
holiday, which is held some time in February; they
have to start in good time on their journey, because on
arrival in harbour they have to travel many hundreds
of miles, often on foot, to reach their homes.    Their AMERICAN IMMIGRA TION LA WS.
port of disembarkation was Hong Kong, 1200 miles
farther than Yokohama, and 6000 miles from San
Francisco. They were going to China on pass, and
many of them would sell their passes to others; for
Chinese emigration to the States is stopped, and only
those are allowed to return who can prove they came
to America before the law prohibiting any further emigration to the States was put in force. The present
law in the States against Chinese emigration does not
allow any arrival except in the case of merchants or of
Chinese who were resident previous to 1881, but this
law is much evaded. The present race of Chinese in
America have all their food, clothing, &c. direct from
China, and send all their savings home; they also
under-bid the Americans in the labour market, so it is
not surprising that they are not looked upon with much
favour by the United States citizens.
Before starting on their homeward route they are all
measured, and upon their return have to go through a
strict examination to show that they are not impostors.
Each Chinaman pays 50 dollars (£10) for his passage
from San Francisco to Hong Kong, which includes food ;
the latter I was told cost the company about tenpence
per day for breakfast, dinner, and supper; this would
leave a profit of about £9 a head, say £8000 for the
present load.     The dinners seemed to be of various 156
descriptions—some of the ingredients I could not make
out, but the chop-sticks played their part with all,
and were most diligently and dexterously used. Rice
(instead of bread) formed a part of every meal, and
for dinner, tea, dried fish, potatoes, with a dash of meat
here and there. Every dish or bowl served the whole
party in common (in squads of eight or ten), and the
chop-sticks seized what was desired. Each of these
Chinamen had saved more or less money, and some,
I was told, as much as 2000 or 3000 dollars; and all
had as much as 1000 dollars a-piece. The Chinese are
all inveterate gamblers, so much so that when their
money is gone they will play for their food, their clothes
—everything they possess.
We passed three Sundays on board the Oceanic, and
amongst our American fellow-passengers there were a
certain number of missionaries going out to Japan. It
struck me as curious to see the latter conducting an
open-air service on the fore hatchway; when within a
few yards, really partly on the same tarpauling, and.
entirely oblivious of the performance of the service
(of the object of which they probably had no notion
whatever), a number of Chinamen would be playing
cards, or what resembled dominoes, conducting their
operations to the continual accompaniments of those
high-pitched voices so well known to any one who has THE "HEATHEN CHINEE."
once been in China, and in opposition as it were to
the missionaries. Query, would it not have been better
for the missionaries to have sought a quieter part of
the vessel for their meeting, instead of setting them-
o7 o
selves down in the centre of a kind of primitive
gambling saloon ? Or did they think by their
example they might possibly convert a "heathen
Chinee" by their proximity ? From what I have
heard, a dollar would go much further than any such
gathering as this, as a Chinaman will do anything for
o o I bH
The Chinese are very much afraid of water, and when
one morning I heard of the death of one on board, and
later on saw a coffin lashed to the upper deck by the
stern of the vessel, I inquired why the ordinary burial at
sea did not take place. The reply I received from one of
the ship's officers was as follows: | There would be no
more Chinese passengers for us if we did." We lost
three Chinamen by death between San Francisco and
Yokohama, so we had quite a line of coffins to meet our
view at each turn of our morning walk. The Chinese
are very particular about their bodies being taken back
to their native land, whether they are at sea or in a
foreign country. Hence the agents who used formerly
to import Chinese labour to the States had to guarantee
to re-convey them  home  alive  or  dead;   so  if they iS8
should die in America their bones have (after temporary
burial) to be taken back again, and are shipped off in
long wooden boxes under the designation of "fishbones I—and of these I believe we had a large number
in the ship.
There was one rather amusing incident on  board.
John  Chinaman  is   very   fond   of  pork, and   it was
the   custom   to   supply him  with   this   meat   for  his
Sunday's dinner.     Unfortunately we had a gale, and
nearly all the pigs died of sea-sickness.     The result
was that during our last Sunday at sea we were disturbed by a great commotion on the lower deck, and
by the sudden appearance of the cook, who rushed into
the saloon in a terrible fright, his pigtail flying in the
air, just  eluding  his pursuers, some  frantic  Chinese,
who had been deprived of their mess of pork by the
supply running short.    We rescued the cook, and saved
him from the fate which his enemies evidently had in
view;   their object  being, it appeared, to throw him
overboard.     The deck of the ship was crowded with
Celestials, and it took the officers some little time to
restore order once more.    The row was, however, quite
enough to make one feel how uncomfortable it would
be to  experience  a mutiny on board  amongst   these
people.    But their dread of water has a supreme effect
in such cases, and one valuable assistance to the en- STORMY WEATHER. 159
forcement of discipline is to turn a powerful water-hose
on the crowd, which is a sure, prompt, and effectual
means of restoring order!
The voyage from San Francisco to Yokohama is
across the widest part of the Pacific Ocean, and is too
long and monotonous to be interesting. It is one of the
longest sea voyages without sighting or touching land
in the world; for with the exception of a small island a
short distance outside San Francisco harbour, no land is
sighted during the whole run of 4800 miles; neither
was a single vessel to be seen during the whole time,
O O 7
and this is not the exception, but the rule. The Pacific
Ocean is by no means the calm sea it is often supposed
to be; on the contrary, it is sometimes exceedingly
rough, and we experienced three severe gales, one of
which lasted five days; and it was estimated that the
waves were at least thirty feet high, which may give
some slight conception of the seas we had to go through.
It afterwards transpired that we had been just on the
outskirts of one of those typhoons or cyclones which
are the terror of these latitudes; and on arriving at
Yokohama we found that the steamer preceding us
(the City of Sydney) had been nearly wrecked in the
typhoon we had but just missed, and had arrived in
harbour much damaged. During a part of the time the
passengers had to seek shelter in the smoking-room on i6o
deck, for the water was two feet deep in the saloon and
state cabins. In crossing the Pacific it should be
remembered that July, August, September, and October
are the months during which these typhoons are most
I was up by sunrise when nearing the Japanese
coast, in order to obtain the first sight of Japan; we
were off Point Oshima, about 40 miles from Yokohama.
It was a bright clear morning, and the extinct volcano,
Mount Fuji-ama, 60 miles away, was beautifully
distinct with the sunrise on it. This mountain is
13,080 feet high, and is clothed with snow to its
summit. The active volcano Oshima, on the volcanic
island of the same name, lay to our left, with its smoke
(which I had at first taken for a cloud) curling upwards
into the clear sky. Soon we dropped anchor in Yokohama harbour, and, after 18 days' voyage from San
Francisco, found ourselves safely in Japan at last, and
11,964 miles away from England by the P. and 0.
route. There were a dozen or more large merchant
steamers and some Japanese men-of-war in the harbour;
and the crowd of fishing-boats was quite a sight.
Directly we stopped, a number of I sanpans I or boats
crowded   round   our vessel,  seeking  engagements   to
7 o o   o
convey passengers ashore.   It was a very lively scene,
and  a curious one  in a foreigner's eyes, for many of z
1  A  "JIN-RIK1SHA." 161
the boatmen were almost nude, and the competition
between them was fast and furious.
Having passed the Custom-house I got into a
" Jin-rikisha," to have my first experience of one of
these conveyances. This is a carriage something like
a very comfortable but adapted Bath-chair, without the
leg room, to carry one or sometimes two persons, and
sat on high wheels, with a pair of shafts in front,
between which a man places himself, and sets off with
his load at a steady trot of from five to seven miles an
hour. It was very odd to be taken along in this way,
and reminded one rather of one's first impressions of
carriole driving in Norway, only with a human being
replacing the stout little Norwegian pony.
Yokohama is delightfully situated; I was much
struck with the whole of its surroundings, and everything showed activity and progress in the shipping
department. The Grand Hotel is a good one, and
stands well, overlooking the bay. The streets are broad,
and in the European town many of the houses are
detached villas surrounded by their own grounds. In
the Japanese quarter the houses are but slenderly built.
The population swarm ; many were nearly naked. Blue
was the prevailing colour in what costumes were worn.
I went with a friend for an evening drive through the
Japanese  quarter—a   sight  well  worth seeing.     The 162
streets were crowded with people, and the shops kept
open till eleven o'clock at night. The hand lanterns add
very much to the picturesqueness of the scene, being
always carried by pedestrians, by the jin-rikisha runners,
and also by the police when visiting the theatres. We
drove through the Yoshiwara—the quarter in which
the ladies of the locality sit behind wooden grills, all
dressed up in the most gorgeous costumes—the most
extraordinary sight I have ever seen. In front of each
lady is a little square box or table for tobacco and pipe.
We visited a Japanese theatre during our drive. One of
these is much the same as another; they open at eight
or ten in the morning and the performance continues
till eleven at night, the playgoers making a day of it,
and taking their food with them. A line of boxes runs
round the house, raised about twelve feet above the pit;
each box is about five feet square with a board a few
inches high all round on which you can sit—the natives
all squat on the floor of the pit (for there are no benches),
and hang up their clogs at the entrance. The music is
perhaps rather better than in a Chinese theatre; one or
two instruments are employed (but no tune is perceptible
to European ears), and a lad sits in a corner of the stage
with two wooden clappers, with which he keeps an
accompaniment to the music, beating them by turns
upon the floor.    Women do not act in the theatres; in JAPANESE STREETS. 163
the play I witnessed there were four men ballet-dancers
about six feet high, who went through all a ballet-girl's
movements in a very rough sort of way. We also saw
a children's performance, and some very clever juggling-.
All these places were of the most fragile description,
and the scenery corresponded. In front of a theatre
and opening on to the street, a curtain is hung, which
is drawn up or let down at the discretion of the rope-
holder, so as to try and induce the lookers-on in the
street to pay their cents and enter. Such attraction,
however, is scarcely needed, for the theatres are always
well filled.
The streets in a Japanese town are very picturesque,
both by day and night; but I noticed with regret
the advance made by oil-lamps, which are rapidly
superseding the old Japanese or Chinese lantern in the
various shops; most of these having now a petroleum
hanging lamp to show off their goods to the greatest
advantage. But in the streets lanterns are still univer-
sally used. On our way home we stopped at a restaurant
and tasted some hot Sadie"—the national liqueur, made
of rice;—possibly one might appreciate it better if more
used to it. Tea is the common drink in Japan ; and
this Sadie* is their only liqueur.
From Yokohama we made an expedition to Miyano-
shita and the Hatone Pass; going 30 miles by rail to
M 2 mm
Hodzu and then 10 miles by road in jin-rikishas. As
we passed along, the rice harvest was in full operation ;
and this was my first acquaintance with this form of
farming. Seen from a distance, it rather resembles any
other straw crop, though of a rush-like description,
growing in clusters with the ears dropping over. The
grain is of course enclosed in a husk as in our own ears
of corn; the rice ears measure about seven inches in
length. The plants were always profusely irrigated,
therefore the fields of it that I saw were invariably on
bottom land; but I am told there is another kind of
rice which does not require such constant inundation.
In some of the fields the crops were still growing, and
in this stage looked very much like some kind of fine
rush, natural to marshy land; where cut it was placed
in stooks like oats. The cultivated land we passed
was all bottom land, rather like an allotment ground ;
beautifully neat without a weed to be seen; all being
done by spade labour. The wet land looked dark and
loamy, probably saturated with manure, but the soil
where higher and dry had a very sandy appearance.
The low hills adjoining these bottom lands were mostly
uncultivated, and covered with some kind of brushwood,
or with pine. We passed several patches of cryptomerias,
bamboo, &c, and one large orangery. Many of the
people, both men and women, were out at work in the
fields; some of the men having no other clothing than
3 OO
a handkerchief. Babies were innumerable, carried about
on the backs of children but little bigger than them-
selves. Soil or manure was being conveyed in a netting
slung on to a pole and carried by two men; vehicular
transit seemed quite unthought of for the purpose, nor
indeed would it be feasible where the holdings are so
small and numerous, and so closely packed together as
is the case here.
On reaching Hodzu we procured three jin-rikishas
for ourselves and our guide; and the road being hilly
we had two men to each vehicle and started off at a
merry trot. Our coolies were all powerful men, with
splendid calves and loins, and ran famously ; they were
all more or less unclothed. For the first four miles our
route lay through one continuous village, swarming with
J <D O    7 O
grown people and numberless children. The younger
population were more warmly clad than their elders,
so I expect fashions in dress will speedily change with
the rising generation, and those who do not visit Japan
soon will miss seeing it in its primitive state. Even
already things are much altered, the better sort of
peasantry are as a rule very respectably clothed; the
rage for imitating all European manners and fashions
and ideas is very great, and at the present rate the
" Land of the Rising Sun" will shortly become quite i66
Europeanized. The houses we passed were all thatched
with rice straw; the windows were of rice or pith paper,
and the interiors showed the sleeping accommodation,
viz. : a straw mat on the floor, upon which a mattress
is laid. No Japanese ever enters a house with his shoes,
i.e. clogs on, and any European omitting to conform
to this universal custom is guilty of discourtesy and
gives mortal offence. How all the people we saw could
be accommodated at night must remain a mystery. The
whole sight was novel and strange and most impressive;
it made one almost fancy one had been transported
back to the manners and customs of some nation living
hundreds of years ago. Now and again a jin-rikisha
would dash past us with a quarter-clad coolie (or
runner) in the shafts, conveying a native lady lolling
back with head erect and features set with an air of
great importance, holding a large paper parasol. The
people when together, appeared always happy, content,
and friendly; and their civility to strangers is very
We halted at Odawara for our coolies to have some
refreshment (which consisted of boiled rice), and we
ourselves were put to sit on three mats outside a teahouse, when tea and some little cups and saucers and a
charcoal-burner were immediately placed before us;
this was called I complimentary tea," and  no charge  mWm
was made. Shortly afterwards we began the ascent
to Tamanau, and passed some hot springs, travelling
by an excellent new road only lately completed. The
valley was very pretty, a river running along the
bottom, and the sides covered with trees. Arrived at
Myanoshita, we dismissed our jin-rikisha men after their
ten-mile run (which only cost us four shillings each for
two men), and walked on up part of the Hatone Pass,
through several villages. It resembled a finely formed
shrubbery more than anything else ; there were
cryptomerias of all sizes in abundance, growing most
luxuriantly; also bamboos, orange trees, &c, &c. The
scenery was very soft and pleasant, the weather as fine
as possible—deliciously bright, and just warm enough;
so it was all the more disappointing to wake next
morning to a pouring wet day. After an excellent
warm bath, in water conveyed fresh from the hot
springs through bamboo pipes, and so hot that I had
to cool it, we soon started off for Hakone lake and
village, seven miles distant, where the Mikado is erecting a new summer cottage. Our path was only a
footway, winding up among the mountains, which were
here covered with weeds and a low-growing shrub; both
OO 7
most luxuriant, though these hill-sides are said  to be
7 O
unfit for cultivation. We were armed with umbrellas
made  of oiled paper, and  had  (beside  our  guide) a ■■PflBPiP"
second native to carry our "tiffin," or luncheon, and
the weather becoming very bad we halted for this meal
short of our destination, at a Japanese hotel. An open
verandah ran round the house, some sliding windows
with rice paper instead of glass opened on to it; passing
throuo-h one of these we came to a fair-sized room .all
matted over, and divided by movable sliding partitions
made of slender frame-work and glazed with rice paper,
by means of which the rooms can quickly be made
larger or smaller at will. A mattress thrown down
on the mats constitutes a bed here, and they are comparatively soft and comfortable. The natives usually
sit cross-legged on the matting at their meals; but in
honour of their I barbariani guests a frame table and
a couple of chairs were produced, amid some laughter.
The little run and continuous smile of our Japanese
waitresses reminded one most ludicrously of the English
play | The Mikado," but otherwise one could not but
feel comfortable and at ease, with these little smiling
3 O
creatures skipping about. On either, side of the room
is a slightly raised bench for hats and cloaks; a few
shelves and some lengths of paper with writing and
pictures, completed the entire furniture. Everything
was very clean, and neither in the passage nor the rooms
could one venture to wear boots, for, as I said before,
these always  have to be taken off before entering  a RE TURN JO URNE Y. 169
house. The weather continuing very bad we had to
give up our further trip, and with paper waterproof
cloaks and our oiled paper umbrellas started on our
return journey. Our jin-rikisha men took us the
ten miles to the station in splendid style, scarcely
stopping to walk during the whole distance; and yet
they never seemed to lose their breath or their tempers.
We traversed the same road as on the previous day,
passing through the straggling town or village of
Odawara. It was evening, and many of the inhabitants
had come in from their work; they appeared a very
fine set of men with splendid limbs and sinews ; several
of them wore no clothes beyond a loin girth. We
caught the train at Hodzu and reached Yokohama in
the course of the evening. 170
japan (continued).
The Dai Butsu—A Hollow Image—A Laughing Landlady—A Shinto
Temple—A Huge Bell^A Wooden Drum—Beautiful Carving
—The Tsuru—The Zen Sect—Irreverence in Temples—Japanese
Greetings—In Difficulties with Chopsticks—Shintoism and Buddhism—Divine Honours to Heroes and Scholars—A hrief Act of
Worship—European Dress—Japanese Ladies—A Japanese Dinner
—Singing Girls and Dancers—Music without a Tune—Sweet-
meats that please the Eye but grieve the Heart — Migratory
Foreigners in Japan are not allowed to travel outside
the treaty limits without express permission; so I had
to apply for a passport to enable me to visit the thirteen
provinces round Yokohama and to see Fuji. Armed
with this, an English friend and I set off (accompanied
bv our native guide) for Enoshima—a delightful summer
resort of the Japanese—intending afterwards to visit
the colossal bronze image of Buddha called "Dai Butsu,"
and the temples of Kamakura. We went by train
as far as Fujisawa, where we procured jin-rikishas to
take us on to Enoshima.    We had good runners, but A PICTURESQUE  VILLAGE.
the road was very bad indeed, and it was as much as
the men could do to pull and push our vehicles along
However, coolies or runners have an advantage over
horses in being able to talk to each other when necessary
or call out to anyone else in their road, and to pick
their own way with discrimination. About four miles
of this sort of work brought us to the coast, where we
had to cross by ferry to Enoshima, as this place is an
•island at spring-tide. It is beautifully covered with
trees, a great many of which are camellias and camphor
trees ; the village is. most picturesque, consisting almost
entirely of a single and very narrow street running
down to the shore; but the effect is very pleasing on
account of the pretty Japanese houses. The ferry boat
which took us across was a large one, with one man
punting, and another wherrying with a stern oar; their
clothing was of a very scanty description. As we could
not quite approach the landing-place one of the men
conveyed us there on his back—a back as strong to
ride upon and as easy to sit as a good horse. We
went to a tea-house for "tiffin" or luncheon, but before
entering of course had to take off our boots. We were
shown up a ladder (the usual staircase here) to an upper
floor; there was no furniture in the room, except the
usual matting on the floor, but being speedily recognized
as " barbarians," a couple of chairs, a table, and a small 172
charcoal stove were quickly brought for our accommodation. Having done this, the lady of the house and her
three assistants indulged in laughter to their hearts'
content while taking stock of us (all in the greatest
good nature), and then squatted down on the floor to
have another good look at us. The mistress then
produced her pipe, and commenced smoking, offering
us a draw.    After luncheon, we walked  through the
7 O
village up to the crest of the hill, where there is a
Buddhist temple ; and descending to the sea on the
other side, entered a large cave—the cave of Ana—said
to have been made when digging for gold.    It is about
bo     o o
124 yards in depth, and there is an altar at the entrance.
Returning to the village, we re-crossed the ferry, and
set off again in our jin-rikishas at a merry trot, over a
bad road, to a place called Hasemura, near which is the
great image Dai-butsu, or Great Buddha, said to have
been placed here between 600 and 700 years ago. It is
made of bronze, and is an immense piece of work,
standing nearly 50 feet high. It is out in the open air
with no shelter whatever, and has been thus for a
number of years ; but it is said to have formerly had
the protection of a temple roof which, however, was
washed away by a tidal wave about the year 1494.
Japan is celebrated for two such colossal images, the
other one (which I did not see) being at Nara, near A  SHINTO  TEMPLE. 173
Kioto. Dai-butsu is hollow, and the interior is decorated
like a temple.
From Dai-butsu our jin-rikisha men took us to
Kamakura, the ancient capital of Ja,pan, and while they
refreshed themselves with rice and tea, we went to see
the celebrated Shinto temple. It is very well situated
on a rising hill and is approached by a long flight of 58
steps, from the top of which there is a very fine view
of the avenue and of the town below. The latter stands
on flat ground, surrounded by hills well covered with
trees and  shrubs.    It was now evening, and  finding
O7 o
that there was a great deal to see at Kamakura, and
having been told that the country inns were (to our
English ideas) very bad, we decided to return that night
to Yokohama, but to take the earliest opportunity of
revisiting the place. It gets quite dark in Japan about
6 p.m. at this time of year (November), and there
is but little twilight. Our runners performed the
distance of five miles to Totsuka, the nearest station,
splendidly; but the road was very bad, and the leader
often had to call out and warn the others when
approaching some specially bad place. Perhaps the
bridges over the irrigation ditches were the worst;
these consisted generally of two and sometimes three
planks or stones, with often a gap two or three inches
between them—quite large enough to let a jin-rikisha ■I
wheel through, and requiring great care in the dark.
As usual in Japanese villages, Totsuka consists of one
long street of well-ordered cottages. Through this our
coolies went at a pace of about eight miles an hour,
shouting the whole time to keep the road clear. All
the refreshment our men had after this work, was a
little cup of tea; this we also were offered at the
various posting-houses we passed, always in little cups
on a tiny tray ; once it was made of cherry blossoms
instead of green tea.
My second visit to Kamakura was made in the
company of my two Japanese friends (Viscount Fujinami
and Mr. Niiyama) and an Austrian gentleman. We
went by train to Totsuka, and thence by jin-rikishas;
the weather was very fine and warm, and we had a
most interesting day. The first of the Buddhist temples
(that of Chojuji) was approached by a fine avenue of
cryptomerias, each about 50 or 60 feet high. This tree
appears to grow to perfection in this part of Japan, and
whether young or old its beautiful foliage never fails
to attract one's attention. When near the temple we
ascended a good many steps and reached a smaller
building, in which is a huge bell 620 years old, the
largest in the Kamakura district. These temple bells
are hung in wooden belfries, and the striker, instead
of a tongue, is a large pole, which gives a very melodious BEAUTIFUL CARVING.
sound. Close by were heaps of straw sandals left here
by pilgrims who had come to pray for the cure of
their ailments. We next visited the Kenchoji temple,
belonging to the Buddhist sect, 823 years old, approached
also through an avenue of fine old trees of some species
of juniper, which smells like cedar-wood, and is burnt
for creating a sweet perfume. There is an immense
drum in this temple, the outside of which is made of
Japanese camphor-wood; it is swung up and struck
with wooden hammers in the same manner as one might
strike a gong. Close by is a large bell, about five feet
high, said to be 600 years old. The carving of the
ceiling is beautifully executed. Just behind this is a
large plain hall with some very fine wooden pillars.
On a porch adjoining is some beautiful open-work
wooden carving, representing the Japanese bird " Tsuru."
We were also taken over a Japanese monastery of the
"Zen" sect, where we found 50 priests, who all, both
voung and old, took the greatest interest in us, and
showed us everything they could; but they appeared
very inferior to the ordinary natives. The laxity prevailing was verv noticeable, and we were much struck
at seeing our half-naked coolies climb up on to the altars
and handle everything just as they pleased, if they
wanted to draw our attention to any particular object.
At one of the temples there were some floor boards of 176
camphor-wood, measuring 4ft. 6in. wide, by 30ft. long,
and 800 years old. The wood was very dark—probably
from age. By this temple we saw an avenue of young
cryptomerias growing most luxuriantly. The ascent of
the central gateway is well worth making, as from it
there is a very fine view of all the surroundings; but
I fancy this portion of the monastery is not usually
shown to strangers. This mass of temples is surrounded
on all sides by high hills, covered with the most
luxuriant growth of timber, many of the trees being
We next proceeded to the town of Kamakura, where
the head custodian—a friend of the Viscount's—was
unfortunately absent, but his wife, immediately on our
arrival, brought out the charcoal-burner from which to
7 O
light our pipes; tea followed as a matter of course, and
barley and coloured sugar cakes. There were many
bows, for the natives always prostrate themselves,
touching the ground with their foreheads. When
acquaintances meet in the street they bow to each
other in ordinary civility as low as they can, at least
three times, always finishing up with a grunt as if to
express their extreme satisfaction. I imagine that the
deeper the bow and the louder the grunt, the greater
the respect; but this I cannot say for certain. Having
ordered tiffin at the native inn,  we  went to see the SHINTOISM AND BUDDHISM.
temple of. Hachiman, belonging to the Shinto sect,
where we found many curiosities. Before reaching the
steps leading to this temple, I saw a very fine juniper
tree, and some splendid old willows, also some ponds
covered with lotus plants. This is a kind of lily, and
a great favourite with the Japanese. Our luncheon was
in the native style, with chop-sticks, which at first are
certainly very awkward things to manage. Subsequently
we went over the new Shinto temple, erected a few
years ago in honour of a personage called Oto-no-Miya.
In this Viscount Fujinami appeared much interested,
probably because, the Shinto sect is in connection with
the Government, he being the Mikado's (or Emperor's)
chamberlain. Everything here was perfectly plain,
which is the proper thing in true Shinto temples, which
should contain no idols, only looking-glasses, lanterns,
3 J O   O ' 7
and strips of white paper. Shintoism is the original,
and, as it were, the established religion. A remarkable
feature in it is the divine honours paid to the spirits of
famous heroes or scholars; notwithstanding which, it
inculcates (as far as I can make out) no belief in a
future state, or in the existence of the soul. Buddhism
is the popular religion, and its temples and services
have many more attractions and more show than those
belonging to the Shinto sect. The superintendents of
the various sects of both religions are either appointed i78
by Government, or elected subject to its approval.
When visiting a temple on a festival day, the native
worshipper, before commencing his devotional exercises,
first washes his hands in a stone cistern placed outside.
He next pulls a rope or bell to arouse the attention of
the idol invoked. Then throwing a small coin as an
offering into a receptacle kept for the purpose, he stands
erect, claps his hands and r,ubs them together; then
muttering inaudibly, bends his head till it touches his
hands; which completes his devotions, they having
scarcely  lasted  a  minute.
. Kamakura certainly is a most interesting place,
with its fine broad avenues and beautiful trees, and
its numerous temples. On leaving it I said goodbye to my companions and returned by road to
Yokohama through the rice-fields, passing several
villages on the way. My coolies ran as usual wonderfully; never stopping to take breath, one sometimes
pushing behind and sometimes acting as leader with
a rope. They usually wear no hats (though, occasionally, they twist a handkerchief round their heads),
and are content with but very little clothing; outside
the towns often with none at all. Many of the field
labourers I passed were naked except for their loin-
girth ;  but the children were, as before stated, much
more clothed than  their elders.    According to a h
enacted by the Mikado, European dress is now enforced
at Court, and from thence the fashion will probably
gradually extend; but the Japanese do not as a rule
look well in European costume, and it will be a pity
if the becoming and graceful dresses now worn by the
upper and middle classes become a thing of the past;
for it must be understood that it is only the coolies,
or labouring classes, who are not sufficiently clothed.
European dresses are not becoming to' the Japanese
ladies, who have a peculiar kind of little rickety,
knock-kneed trot when walking; swinging the body
from side to side—very pretty and taking in a native
dress, and especially so when associated with their
charming little smile.
The Viscount invited us all to a dinner in pure
Japanese style, at a country house near the river; and
I think an account of this may prove of interest, though
I fear I shall fail to do justice to it. On our arrival
we were received at the door by the servants, who
prostrated themselves before us. We took off our boots,
and were given woollen cases (rather like bathing-shoes)
to wear over our feet, being told that Europeans were
very liable to catch cold with no shoes on. We were
then escorted with the greatest ceremony to a little
room where we took our seats cross-legged on pretty
mats,  and  found  cups  of  tea  and  cakes   before  us,
N 2 i8o
with chop-sticks, as it is the custom to serve this
refreshment immediately before dinner. Next we adjourned to a much larger apartment where the floor
was, as usual, covered with straw mats. There
were a few ornaments about in the shape of pots
or vases with sprays of flowering trees, and rolls of
Japanese pictures hanging from the walls. On two
sides were rice-paper sliding partitions or doors ; the
rest of the walls were of woodwork constructed in
various patterns.
The dinner was set out on the floor on one side
of the room, with soft cushions for us to sit on; and
little lamps on pedestals all round, besides four or five
others in different parts of the room. We took our
seats cross-legged, and were first served with soup in
lacquer-work bowls. A little maid sat in the centre
cross-legged, dressed in Japanese costume, her duties
being to pour out the sadie* when required, and to
attend to our every want; she went out from time to
time to fetch in fresh dishes, and in this she was
assisted by an older woman, and sometimes by a third
person. The most courteous bows and prostrations
ensued whenever any order was given, or one of the
waitresses was addressed. I cannot describe all the
different varieties of dishes offered us; suffice it to
say that there was about twenty times more than any 181
person could eat; the maid pouring out sadie" in little
china cups the while. It all consisted of soup, fish,
and vegetables ; each guest had his course served to
him separately, on a tray placed on a stand about four
inches high, and I think there must  have  been cer-
O     7
tainly six of these courses. Tea and cakes came at the
commencement, then soup with fish in it, succeeded by
different sorts of fish piled up together, some cooked
and some (on another plate) raw ; then dressed fish, &c.
Then another course of hot fish, followed by various
kinds of raw vegetables, and pickles; more soup, and
rice; winding up with coffee, cakes, and pickles. These
latter I mistook for sweetmeats, and the result was not
satisfactory. The idea seems to be to put various
delicacies together before you so that you may take
a taste first of one, then of another, and so on; the
greater proportion of each dish being left untouched,
or with only a bite taken out of it.
On sitting down to dinner I had been horrified to
see that we were all expected to use chop-sticks. I
made a valiant attempt to do duty with mine, but it
was my first essay, and I failed, and therefore had to
use a knife and fork which were fetched for me. That
evening, however, I had a long practice with these
implements, so as to be up to the plan another time.
The art is not really difficult;   the lower stick must 182
be held firmly between the thumb and the third finger,
and the upper stick (which does all the work) ought
to be held something like a pen. I am glad to say
that on the following day when I was asked to luncheon
by another Japanese friend (conducted in most respects
like the dinner mentioned, except that we sat on chairs),
I was successful in eating with chop-sticks only—
which I looked upon as a great triumph.
At another Japanese dinner at which I was entertained by Mr. Masuda, at Shinagawa, a few miles
outside Tokio, the programme included singing-girls
and dancers, which is the height of fashion at these
native entertainments. The singers were four in
number, and were located in a corner of the room
behind a rice-paper window. They had some kind of
awful instruments like a banjo, and sang a terrible
dirge with no tune whatever so far as I could ascertain. I was told that they were reciting a tale, which
two other girls, got up in most gorgeous attire, were
supposed to be acting; these latter were dancing and
placing themselves in different postures, which entail
an immense amount of training to bring to perfection.
They changed their dresses on the stage from time to
time, as it is the custom to imagine the existence of
3 O
a curtain.    After this they appeared in ordinary native
costume, the musical instruments struck up again and JAPANESE  COOKERY. 183
they went through a performance called " bleach-
drying "; which consisted in holding a long piece of
muslin, which they threw about, keeping it off the
ground all the time, and which was really very well
After all this, dinner commenced, and the singing-
3 3 OO
girls turned themselves into waitresses. This, it appears, is the custom of the country, and as far as talking and laughing when they please with the diners is
concerned, they are supposed to be on a kind of
equality. This dinner was very much the same in
every particular as the one given by Viscount Fuji-
nami, with the exception that one course consisted of
a large lobster placed before each guest. I looked
at my lobster, and then at my chop-sticks, and wondered how I could succeed in tackling the former with
the latter, without disgracing myself in the eyes of
my friends. In the end I gave up attempting the
battle, and ate no lobster that day. The feast was
concluded by the placing of a box of sweetmeats before
each guest, with a parcel of coloured twine on the
top ; this was intended to signify that it was a present
for each to take home. I tasted some of the contents
of one box and did not appreciate them; in fact, all
Japanese cookery is wanting in flavour, and is mostly
prepared with a rather disagreeable sauce.    The soup 184
appeared to me to be simply the boiling water in which
the fish or some other mixture had been prepared.
Eice takes the place of bread, and is the best thing
in the menu; although all the dishes are exceedingly
elegant and pretty to the eye. The custom in drinking
a friend's health is to drink a saucerful of sac/ie, and
then pass it to him empty; he dips it into a bowl of
water for a moment and then refills it with sachS and
drinks in his turn.
The same room serves for dining-room and drawing-
room, so after dinner we turned round and witnessed
a variety of tricks played by a very good conjurer; a
man and woman indulging meanwhile in the most
discordant music by way of accompaniment. Unlimited
tea was going on the whole time; the singing-girls,
and I assume the rest of the establishment, took their
places amongst the spectators. All this is purely in
Japanese style ; but I fear as the country gets Europe-
anized, such scenes will become few and far between,
to the ordinary traveller in this charming and hospitable
country. These meals are interesting as a novelty,
but for a continuance I prefer European food and furniture. As to the latter, it is scanty enough; but what
there is of it is (so I am told) changed every day—
i.e., the hanging pictures, flowers, vases, &c. One of
my Japanese friends has a fire-proof house on purpose MIGRATORY FURNITURE.
for storing his goods and ornaments; and from this
a fresh supply is selected each day, so as to ensure
a constant change ; and this is the usual custom among
the well-to-do classes. The Japanese arrange their
pictures to contrast with the seasons, and in summer
will have a snowy subject, and in winter a summery
one. 186
japan (continued).
A Charming Tea-house—A Horse Bace—A Smart Equipage—Japanese
Substitute for Carriage Dogs—The Mikado—The Asakusa—
"Vultures in Honour—A Buddhist Service—Chrysanthemum Show
—Curious Plant Training—The Japan Gazette—The New Palace
at Tokio—Skilful Granite "Workers—Yasi-kumi Spirit Worship—
Mkko—Splendid Cryptomerias—A Cool Bedroom—A Native
Bed—Kagos—Bass's Beer—Insipid Fruit—The Temples—A Priest
in full Canonicals—The Kagura—A Buddhist Bible—A Mount
for a Spirit—An Eighteen Mile Stage.
I made several expeditions to Tokio from Yokohama,
one of which was by appointment with two Japanese
friends (Viscount Fujinami and Mr. Niiyama), when I
was first taken to see the Riyeno Park; and then to a
charming tea-house, where tea, biscuits, and barley and
sugar were served to us. Of course it was a case of
"boots off" again. I was shown round the tea-house;
each room had matting fastened down over the floor,
and in each was a china bowl with one, two, or three
sprays of flowering shrubs, so pretty and yet so simple
and well arranged, those colours being always selected CARRIAGE DRIVING.
which go well together. Viscount Fujinami afterwards
took me to witness the Shinobaza horse-race; to which
we drove off, a party of four, in his carriage—a large
landau drawn by a pair of good horses, the coachman in
livery, with a huge gold cockade, and a whip half red
and half black; with two grooms standing behind,
attired in the dress of the country, wearing neither hats
nor shoes. This was the first time I had been in a
carriage drawn by horses in Japan, for no one keeps
them, I am told, except the nobility and perhaps one or
two rich merchants and persons of position. Our two
grooms took a most active part in the proceedings:
when they were not shouting from their foot-board at
the top of their voices to the jin-rikishas and people to
clear the way, they were running ahead, level with and
often in front of the horses; and at every turn in the
streets they darted on forward to warn those who might
be coming from a contrary direction. They reminded
me more of good carriage dogs of the olden time than
anything else. Japan has a good many surprises in
store for the European traveller; but, in this case, what
with the jin-rikisha coolies and the crowds of people all
over the streets, these runners were quite a necessary
precaution for a carriage drawn by horses; and indeed
on traversing the same road the following day, I was
surprised at the rapid pace at which we had gone in 188
such crowded thoroughfares. Ordinary Japanese horses
are very sorry-looking brutes, ill-fed, and shod with
straw; but these were good horses from the Imperial
breeding establishment.
After a drive of about four miles, we came to the
Eiyeno or Park, where the races were to be held, and
drove up to the grand stand from whence to witness
them. The jockeys were got up in English colours and
everything was done in the ordinary way; but the
racing itself was primitive, and there is much room for
improvement in Japanese horses. But this may probably arrive amongst other benefits of European
civilization. The Mikado was present, and I had a very
good view of him as he sat on a chair with a table in
front of him, covered with a rich silk cloth. He is a
dark-complexioned man, with more stubby black hair
about his face than is usually worn by the Japanese;
his court was in attendance at a little distance. I was
very fortunate in thus seeing the Mikado, as he is not
often visible; but horse-racing is an amusement he is
very fond of, hence his appearance in public on this
occasion. No betting-ring is allowed in Japan, and the
crowd was very orderly and quiet. The racecourse runs
round a large piece of water covered with lotus plants,
which, when in flower, must make the place exceedingly pretty.    It is in  the immediate vicinity of the THE ASAKUSA   TEMPLE. l8g
Riyeno Park, to which we drove after the races were
We afterwards stopped at the Asakusa—a large
wooden temple much frequented by pilgrims. In front
of this temple was a wooden porch or gateway, of
peculiar architecture. These are called Torii, and are
often met with in Japan. They are said to have been
erected for the vultures to perch upon, who came to
feast upon the bodies of the dead, as those belonging to
a certain sect were formerly exposed in a temple yard
after death. There are still a great number of these
birds in Tokio. At the Asakusa is a large wooden box
to receive the alms, about 14 feet long by 6 feet wide,
guarded in front by horizontal wooden bars. Here the
people stand to say their prayers, throwing their offerings between the cross-bars into the case, and it is said
that 500 rin or dollars are received daily by the
Buddhist priests in this way. Close by we saw a priest
in the act of performing a service. Before him he had
a book from which he mumbled something, striking the
whole time on a sort of dull cupola gong. He had a
receptacle for cash similar to the one above-mentioned;
and was a dirty-looking old fellow, of harmless aspect
enough, it is true, but his appearance was certainly the
reverse of dignified. In a garden adjoining we saw
some  very  fine  chrysanthemums, grown in a fashion 190
very different from that which is the present rage in
England, with 60 or 70 blossoms on a single plant.
The effect was beautiful.
A friend in Tokio lent me his private jin-rikisha to
go to see the chrysanthemum show. - I found the place
very much crowded with natives, but there was no
noise. The only refreshment places were some small
tea-houses, and I only had to pay Id. entrance at each
garden; I was chaperoned the whole time by my
friend's coolie, who followed me everywhere and seemed
to enjoy everything very much. The flowers were a
wonderful display; I should fancy there were eighty to
a hundred blooms on a plant; but human art had also
been called into requisition in a curious way, for plants
had been trained so as to represent figures of men,
animals, and boats, the different forms and various
garments being depicted in colour by means of flowers
and buds. Instead of massing the whole in one large
display, the different nurserymen had their separate
shows in what appeared to be permanent gardens; and
besides the flowers—which were unlike any I had seen
before—there were a good many not very pretty
specimen plants placed about in china dishes and vases.
The smells of Tokio are something awful. Not only
are the streams most offensive, but the streets, as a
rule, are the same; and there can be no drainage what- NEW PALACE AT TOKIO.
ever beyond the open sewers (covered partially with
wood or stone), which appear to run in front of all the
houses, and from which 1 have seen the black slime
being dug out. Tokio has a population of over a
million, so the effect may perhaps be imagined, especially
towards evening. In the present state of the country,
any systematic drainage would be looked upon with
disfavour by the population, as every particle of manure
is collected for the cultivation of the land; and some
curious stories might be related as to the manner in
which the collections are made, and how an enterprising
merchant deals in the article.
We all went to Tokio on another occasion to see the
Mikado's new palace there; which event was duly
chronicled in the Japan Gazette as follows:—" On
Monday last, Lord Eustace Gascoigne Cecil, Mr. Cecil,
Mr. Barneby, Mr. and Mrs. Flint, Mr. and Mrs. Taka-
mine, Mr. Masuda, and Mrs. T. Masuda, by permission
of the Emperor, and at the invitation of Viscount Fuji-
nami, visited the New Palace and Imperial Gardens.
The party was furnished with Imperial carriages." The
Viscount met us at Tokio station with the above-
mentioned Imperial carriages, consisting of two open
pair-horse landaus and a single-horse brougham; and
we were driven first to the Shiba public gardens, and
then to the Rikiu Palace Gardens; the latter, I believe, 192
are kept private. In the centre of these grounds there
was a pretty house, approached on two sides by long
wooden bridges: in this General Grant resided during
his visit here. Both gardens were in thorough Japanese
style. Having had luncheon at one of the hotels, we
proceeded to the New Palace, which covers a large area,
and will be completed this year. It is built entirely of
Japanese woods and in the style of the country. It
contains some very handsome rooms—the throne-room
and dining-room being especially noticeable. A great
deal of lacquer-work is used; and the c'eilings are very
gorgeous and mostly in excellent taste, constructed of
wood-panels or groining with highly-coloured paper of
various styles and patterns let in between. Silk,
ornamented with painted or embroidered pictures, is
also being employed for these panellings on the walls,
and on some of the ceilings; this is obtained from
Kioto, which town is celebrated for the excellence of its
wall-papers, lacquer-work, silks, and pottery.
At the time of our visit, the sliding partitions of the
bedrooms were being highly decorated with paintings,
and it seemed curious to our ideas (accustomed as we in
England are to an uncertain climate) to find all this
decorative work being carried on before the open air
was excluded from the building, for the outside frames
were not in position.    The Japanese appear to be great nam
adepts at tree-planting, and specimens of a size that we
should not attempt to move are transplanted by them
quite easily.    The private gardens are usually formed
with these transplanted trees; but often many of them
have deformed trunks, so that they do not present a
very picturesque appearance.    I noticed some excellent
granite work which was being employed in the erection
of a sustaining wall round the approach to the front
entrance, huge blocks of granite being fitted together
to a  nicety.    The Mikado's  Palace  is  placed  in the
centre of three lines of moats  built with  very solid
masonry, and in olden times this position must have
been an exceedingly strong one, but of course now it
would soon succumb before Armstrong guns.    We went
to the outskirts of the highest moat, from whence there
is a fine view of the city below.
After leaving the Palace, we visited the Fukiage; this
is the Imperial private garden, and is said to be in the
best and purest Japanese style.   Of course it was too late
in the season for many flowers; but the whole style
seemed to me to be rather cold and wanting in colour,
and the grass appeared to be badly kept.   At one end was
a fine rockery, over which fell a stream of water brought
from a river ten miles distant.    Afterwards we went
to see a Shinto  temple called Yasi-kumi, situated  on
the platform above Ku-den-za-ka, built in 1869, for the
0 194
worship of the spirits of those who had fallen when
fighting for the Mikado in the civil war of 1868. Like
all other temples of this persuasion, it was very plain.
Behind it were some grounds laid out as a garden, but
apparently not much patronized by the public; and
Viscount Fujinami told us that all the better-class
people had gardens of their own, and did not use the
public ones much.
We slept at the British Legation at Tokio, having
been invited to stay there in order to be ready for an
.expedition to Nikko the following day, and were up
early and off by the 7 a.m. train to Utsu-no-miya (a
distance of about 60 miles), whence we were to take
jin-rikishas to our destination. At Tokio station we met
Viscount Fujinami, Mr. Niiyama, and Dr. Stein (an
Austrian gentleman), who had arranged to accompany
us. We steamed at first through a flat but highly
cultivated country, with crops of rice, barley, wheat,
cotton, millet, and daikon; and plantations of mulberry
trees and tea shrubs. Some parts were thickly wooded,
like English coppice land. On reaching Utsu-no-miya,
we ordered tiffin (which, as usual, took about two hours
to prepare and consume), and then proceeded on our
18 miles' drive to Nikko in seven jin-rikishas, over an
excellent road, recently stoned with pebbles in some
parts.    Excepting  when  we  passed through  villages, A   COOL BEDROOM.
there was a continuous avenue of pines and cryptomerias
almost the whole way. For the last ten miles of our
drive this avenue extended without a break, and consisted of magnificent cryptomerias, 80 to 100 feet high
—the finest specimens I have ever seen of this tree.
Viscount Fujinami said other country roads were planted
in a similar manner, the object being to afford the
traveller protection in winter from the prevailing high
winds. The roads are generally sunk to a depth of ten
or twelve feet, so that the high banks on each side may
also serve the same purpose.
On reaching Nikko we put up at the Suzuki
Hotel, where our rooms were in the Japanese style,
and had sliding rice-paper outside walls, and straw
matting on the floors. However, we had chairs, and
a European dinner; and were very comfortable, though
rather cold, for Nikko is 2000 feet above the sea-
level. In the evening we were besieged by an army
of natives anxious to display and sell their wares.
Thanks to our rice-paper windows (in which ventilation
was further assisted by a few holes) it was very cold all
night. When first we had arrived the furniture of my
room consisted of a table, two chairs, a looking-glass, a
bottle of water, and a tray—quite in European fashion !
A frame-bed was put in for me, but it was a good deal
too short; and a wrapper of quilts did not constitute a
0 2 196
very comfortable pillow; so altogether I passed an
uneasy night, and on the whole prefer the Japanese bed
to such a bad imitation of an English one ; so the next
night I slept on a native one—i.e. thick mats laid on
the floor—and found it very comfortable.
After breakfast we started for Lake Chiuzenji, ten
miles distant.    We had  expected to walk, but found
that we were to be conveyed in kagos.    This latter is
a conveyance used in mountainous districts in Japan;
and  is a very rough sort of palanquin; the seat is a
kind of basket open at both sides, with an inclined back,
and a cushion on which the traveller sits cross-legged if
possible (for he has no other means of disposing of his
legs).    Above is a straw shade or roof as a protection
from sun or rain, and the whole is swung by. strips of
bamboo on to a strong pole, which is carried at either
end on the shoulders of coolies.    A third man accompanied each of these kagos as a relay.    Each  bearer
carried a bamboo stick, and on this he rested the pole very
cleverly on coming to a halt.   As we were all active men,
we did not wish to use the kagos as much as perhaps
we ought to have done; but in Japan one must do as
the Japanese do, so accordingly we had our six kagos
J. ' O  J O
and sixteen coolies—quite a small army—to escort us.
Passing near  the Sacred Bridge, which may only
be used by the  Mikado, we ascended the  valley by !•«■
a good road, though one part was very steep. Up this
we were carried, though it was pain and grief to give so
much trouble when we could have walked up quite
easily ! The scenery was pretty but not grand, and we
gradually gained an elevation of 4365 feet above the
sea-level and reached the lake, which was also pretty
enough, and, like all Japanese scenery, its surroundings
were very soft and velvety; but there was nothing
particularly grand about it. The autumnal tints of the
foliage had been at their best only a fortnight previously,
when all the maples were blood-red,, and I much regretted having just missed seeing . them. We had
luncheon at the Shinto temple as privileged guests;
and, introduced by our escort, were waited on by the
priests, who sent us a present of a dozen bottles of
Bass's beer (evidently a high honour!) and some other
refreshments. We had brought our own food, but these
extras replenished our larder. Among the gifts were
some apples, of a very turnip-like flavour; and indeed,
though fruit arCd vegetables grow in this country with
great luxuriance, the general want of flavour in them is
very remarkable. We lunched, as I have said, in a
Shinto temple; but it much more resembled a dwelling
house, and after our meal we were taken up-stairs and
seated on mats to smoke our cigarettes, an honour
reserved only for distinguished strangers, but in any 198
case rather odd in a temple. The priests took us over
another Shinto temple adjoining, showing us every
part, including portions not usually seen by the public;
they told us the worshippers as a rule deposit an
offering, but that in most cases they give old coins of
an inferior value, instead of modern ones of the present
day. Some of these old coins we purchased from them.
During the return journey we gradually, one by one,
dismounted from our kagos, preferring to walk; indeed,
I walked nine out of the ten miles, so my coolies had
an easy time of it.
The next day, after the whole party (including the
16 coolies and the kagos) had been photographed,
we proceeded to see the renowned temples of Nikko.
Of these there are. three—(1) the Tashogin temple
(Shinto), with a Chinese pagoda outside it called the
Gujino-to; near this temple is the tomb, of the first
Shogun (i. e. chief). (2) The Futara-yama Jingka
(Buddhist), where the second Shogun is buried. (3) The
Binnoji temple, also of the Buddhist persuasion. On
leaving the hotel we crossed the river just below the
Sacred Bridge, and proceeded through a magnificent
avenue of cryptomerias, each about 100 feet high and
200 years old. This led us to the approach to the
Tashogin temple, which was up some steps. I was
very much struck with the great beauty and enormous SB*
size of the cryptomerias; I measured one, which at five
feet above ground was 22 feet in circumference, and
was about 150 feet high, and probably from 200 to
300 years old. The temples are situated in groves of
these beautiful trees, which abound in this country;
and though I was very much impressed with the
temples, tombs, and pagoda of Nikko, I think the
beauty of these trees impressed me still more. All were
fine straight-growing timber, and I have seen no trees
I have admired so much since I visited the Mariposa
Grove of Wellingtonias in the Sierra Nevadas of California,—not even excepting the Douglas pines and hemlock spruces of British Columbia; and this, I think, is
the highest praise I can possibly bestow on them. But
the Douglas pines near Vancouver City have more fern
and more vegetation at their base than these Japanese
trees, whose roots dive straight into the bare earth.
On ascending to the temple plateau, the first thing
we noticed was the very handsome five-storied pagoda
above-mentioned, erected in 1650, made of wood; it
has a very graceful appearance, and is beautifully
painted; the lower story is adorned with the signs of
the Japanese zodiac. This building was the gift of one
of the Daimios (or nobles) of Ohama. At the temple
doors we were met by the priests in full dress, who
took us over the whole of the building, including all 200
the private portions. The head priest (of the Shinto
sect) wore a high black gauze helmet, and a blue gauze
garment with open wide sleeves, under which was a
white jacket, and below it appeared, like a kind of
petticoat, a dark blue dress. White twill socks and
straw or string sandals completed his costume. Outside
a building, on a kind of platform or stage within the
temple precincts, a person was performing the Kagura,
or sacred dance; the actual dance itself was not worth
looking at, but the idea of a dance connected with a
religious place is curious to our Western notions, though
of course very ancient in the East, and we gave the
performer the usual donation in a piece of paper.
We then proceeded to the tomb of Iye-asu (a
renowned Shogun), which is a large bronze erection,
standing in the midst of a stoned courtyard, and
guarded by an immense bronze figure of a stork holding
a brass candlestick in his bill, a bronze incense-burner,
and a vase with artificial lotus-flowers and leaves worked
in brass. Next came the temple of Futara-yama, where
several divinities appeared to be worshipped. After
this we visited the mausoleum of another departed hero
called Iyemitsu, passing by two red-lacquered buildings
on the way, one of which is dedicated to the goddess
of children, and the other is the resting-place of the
bones of Yoritomo, the first Shogun, who flourished in ■w
the twelfth century—Iyemitsu. was the third Shogun, or
military ruler; two gigantic red figures in carved wood
occupy niches on either side of the portals of the
building. Here we were met by the Buddhist priests,
who showed us the shrine of the chief, which is similar
in style to that of Iye-asu; and took us all over the
temple, displaying, among other things, a Buddhist
bible, beautifully written on rolls of silk, and carefully
preserved in a lacquered box. A curious custom connected with this tomb deserves to be mentioned. A
"sacred" horse is kept here, well fed and carefully
tended in a stable near the tomb, so that the spirit
of the departed Shogun may come out and mount and
have a ride from time to time ! This is all the more
remarkable, for, as I have said before, horses are not in
ordinary use in Japan; so I assume keeping this one
is regarded as a great honour by the natives. Next in
turn came the Binnoji temple, where the priests again
were very polite, and showed us everything, even to
their private residences. This temple and its gardens
are very well situated; the grounds are all laid out in
the Japanese style, with several fountains and small
lakes. The beautiful cryptomeria trees are only seen
in the distance here, but the view from the priests'
residence is exceedingly pretty, and commands a fine
panorama of the Nikko mountains. *r^[
2 02
This completed the round of the temples, in which
we had been greatly interested. They are all built of
wood, lacquered over, and their designs and architecture
are quite unique, and belong to a past age;—they are
kept in repair at the expense of the Government.
Eound this quiet spot cryptomerias grow to perfection,
and they in themselves are worth the whole journey
to see. Ascending a long flight of steps, and passing
along a balustraded stone corridor, these trees make a
fitting accompaniment to the landscape, and I must say
that, much as I appreciated their quaint and curious
architecture, I yet preferred the natural loveliness of
these trees to the skilful and very beautiful temples
of this heathen land.
After tiffin we set off on our return journey to
Yokohama, taking jin-rikishas back to Utsu-no-miya
station; and. our coolies ran the whole distance of
18 miles with only one short halt for a light
refreshment of tea and rice. We again passed through
the avenue of cryptomeria and pine trees; and as the
weather was rainy we experienced the benefit of their
shelter. A journey of four hours and a half by rail
brought us safely back to Yokohama again, which place
we reached about 9 p.m., after a most enjoyable and
interesting expedition.     SHOPPING IN JAPAN.
japan {continued).
Shopping in Public—A Hospital Bazaar—Countesses as Stall Keepers
—European Fashions—A Gorgeous Mortuary Chapel—The TaJca-
sago Maro, Fuji-ama, and Oshima—An Active and an Extinct
Volcano—A Pleasant Voyage—Kobe—High Farming—A Variety
of Products—The Chi-on-su Temple—Candidates for Matrimony
—A new kind of Knots—The Mikado's Palace—Cedar Bark
Roofs—Cremation—Junks—The Bon Matsuri—Farewell to the
Dead—A Festive Ceremony.
Shopping in Japan is rather trying. The amiable
Japanese have no idea of the value of time; and
indeed seem to look upon the transaction more in
the light of an amusement to be prolonged as much
as possible than anything else. I did a little shopping
in Tokio, spending a great deal of time over the
purchase of a few articles : curios were all very dear,
but silks were cheap, and besides these I bought some
specimens of Japanese clogs, umbrellas and parasols,
dresses, paintings on silk and rice-paper, toys, &c, &c
The chief difficulty is to find a good shop, the contents 1 '
of which are not mainly intended for foreign exportation.
The shop fronts are all open to the street; a purchaser
sits down as it were on the counter, and does not
really enter the shop itself at all. The passers-by
immediately stop and congregate round, very much
interested in the proceeding, and attempting to assist
with remarks and advice, &c.; and very soon a little
fresh air becomes necessary, so the nearest policeman
has to be called to make the crowd stand back.
My guides took me from one -place to another, and
finally to a bazaar, on entering which one is not allowed
to retrace one's steps, but must make the circuit of all
the stalls before going out again. A fancy bazaar was
being held at the Japanese Club, in aid of a hospital ;
and here^the manner in which the Japanese imitate
European fashions and customs was strikingly exemplified. A band was playing European airs, the lady
stall-holders (nearly all of them countesses) were
dressed in European costumes, the stalls and the fancy
goods displayed on them were all in the same style;
and indeed, I think more Japanese articles would be
found in England at one of our fancy fairs than here!
What was still more remarkable was the fact that many
of the Japanese were talking English to one another.
At this rate, 10 years hence the country and its
inhabitants  will  have   lost  all  their   distinctive   and 2o;
charming characteristics, which seems a great pity;
but perhaps, from a commercial point of view, people
may think differently.
There are a great many temples in Tokio, and of
course I visited several of them; but I have described
so many already, that it is unnecessary to enlarge upon
these. At the Shinto temples in the Shiba quarter, the
remains of the seventh and ninth Shoguns are entombed.
The mortuary temple was most gorgeous. Round two
of the outer court-yards here stone lanterns are placed,
about 200 in number; these are offerings to the de-
ceased hero from some of his inferior vassals. There
are also about 300 handsome bronze lanterns, standing
seven or eight feet high, and having a place at the top
for an oil lamp; these have been presented by the
higher nobility—six of them, given by families of royal
rank, are especially handsome.
After a very pleasant stay at Yokohama, I left by
steamer for Kobe—a run of 350 miles—having decided
to go there by water rather than by land, so as to have
an opportunity of seeing the " Inland Sea " of Japan.
Our steamer, though now called by a native name (the
Takasago Maru) was formerly a P. and 0. boat, and
we found her a very comfortable vessel. The Government are the largest shareholders in this line of steamers,
and the boats are all well found, and can safely be 206 THE  OLD FAR EAST.
recommended. Outside the harbour a fresh breeze was
blowing, which made the sea somewhat rough; but the
sky was clear, and we had a most beautiful view of
Fuji-ama during the whole afternoon, and later on a
magnificent sunset lit up this snow-clad mountain with
a bright rose tint. Fuji-ama is a noble feature in the
Japanese landscape; although more than 60 miles
distant, it stood out distinct and bright in the clear
3 O
atmosphere, and even by moonlight was still distinguishable. Steaming along, we had this lovely snow-,
clothed mountain and its extinct volcano on our right,
with the uneven and mountainous coastline as a foreground ; while on our left lay the island of Oshima,
with its still smoking volcano—the two forming a
great contrast. We were within sight of land the whole
evening; the coast, though rough and rugged in shape,
has nevertheless always a soft and pretty appearance,
as trees and grass everywhere cover the uneven and
volcanic-looking formation. The soft appearance thus
given to the Japanese landscape is very noticeable ;
and it strikes one as being quite in keeping with the
gentleness and good-humour so characteristic of its
After a rough night the following day proved fine
and calm; and we continued to steam along about three
3 O
miles  from the  shore.     In  the  autumn  months  the THE INLAND SEA.
weather in this country is certainly delightful; but the
murky, hot atmosphere (with constant rain) prevalent
here in the summer must be a drawback for residential
purposes. During the afternoon we passed Egg Island,
which is very rugged and volcanic in appearance,
though partly covered with trees. It is situated at
the entrance to the Inland Sea; and opposite to it
(on the Southern Island of Japan) there is a strong
Japanese fortress. The Inland Sea was a perfect calm,
smooth as glass; covered in every direction with
innumerable -junks and fishing-boats; and dotted over
with many small islands. Sometimes the passage was
narrow and the islands appeared to close in on all
sides ; then again it broadened out into a wide expanse,
with distant mountains to form a background to the
picture; but, however otherwise varied, there was still
the same soft appearance before-mentioned combined
with the rugged outline; and for the whole of the
distance the scenery was extremely pretty. We reached
Kobe in the evening, a nice little settlement, with
beautifully-kept streets as smooth and level as a billiard-
From here I went by train to a place called Otsu,
a distance of nearly 60 miles. For the first 45 miles
the country was a dead flat, though with mountains in
the distance on the one side, rising to the height of 2o8
about 1000 feet. I could not see any trees on them,
nor was any pasture land visible—they appeared to be
covered with bamboo-grass; but as Kobe is noted for
its excellent beef, there must be pasture somewhere in
its vicinity. On the cultivated plain a great quantity
of rice was being grown; the fields were as usual
divided by little ridges of soil, and every scrap of
ground was turned to account. Indeed the land was
very highly cultivated, one might say it was gardened
rather than farmed; and of course nearly all was done
by hand and spade labour. Cotton, tea, bamboo, daikon
(the giant radish), beans, and mangolds are all grown
here ; also turnips, which attain to an immense size.
The fields were a little larger than those I had noticed
before ; but the soil seemed stiffer and more clayey than
that round either Yokohama or Tokio. The rice crop
was dotted about in small stacks placed pretty close
together, or else was being hung out on bamboo poles
to dry. Men clothed in blue with handkerchiefs tied
round their heads were busily engaged working in the
fields. Here and there ox-ploughs were being used—
the first I had noticed in Japan—but there was never
more than a single ox to each plough.
After passing Kioto the ascent is rapid to Mari, which
is situated among foot-hills covered with pine-trees. In
this district there were several tea plantations in full
lUztiLw* wm
bloom ; the tea-plant is a pleasant-looking shrub growing
here about three or four feet high, with a very dark-green
leaf and a pretty white flower. Japanese tea is green,
and this is the only sort the natives appreciate; it is
not liked in England, but meets with a very large sale
in America. The railway was very well laid, and for
neatness and general tidiness could hold its own against
any English line, but the gauge is narrower than ours.
The stations are excellent, built of stone or brick, with
good platforms and every convenience. The carriages
are imported from England, and altogether the English
railway system has been completely adopted ; but the
lines, with one or two exceptions, belong to the
Presently we came to Yamashina—a pretty place in
a broad valley, surrounded by well-wooded hills. Rice
and tea were here being extensively grown; and we
passed also some bamboo groves and large mulberry
trees, grown for the benefit of the silkworms,—for silk
7   O 3
is largely made in this district. The town of Otsu is
very prettily situated, nestled on the shore of Lake
Biwa, about 285 feet above the sea, with pine-covered
mountains all around. The water of the lake was
almost as blue as that of Geneva. Fishing seemed the
principal industry, and many different sorts of nets and
boats are employed in this trade.   Several small steamers 2IO
were also lying at the wharf, ready for a trip to the
other end of the lake, about 50 miles off.
On returning to Kioto, I invited a Japanese gentleman (who had very kindly come to meet me, at the
request of a mutual friend) to tiffin, or luncheon, at the
hotel; which meal we had to enjoy in solemn silence,
as he knew no more of the English language than I
o o      o
of the Japanese. But after luncheon he procured an
interpreter, and we set off in jin-rikishas to see various
temples which I found very interesting. First I was
taken to the Chi-on-su temple (Buddhist), which stood
by itself in a large inclosure. It is a plain and
massive-looking building. On each side of the approach were the priests' houses, apparently very
comfortable ones. About 70 priests are maintained
here. Adjoining the temple is a very nice garden,
with the tree-covered mountains rising immediately
behind, and the contrasts of the foliage afforded a
striking and most beautiful sight; the blood-red of
the maple combining effectively with the dark green
of the pine and the lighter green of the cryptomeria
and bamboo.
We next ascended the' hill by flights of stone steps,
following a well-paved path, and came to the Buddhist
temple of Hiyomidzu-dera, situated high up on the
steep mountain-side.    Part of the building is on piles, CANDIDATES FOR MATRIMONY.
so that one looks down about 150 feet; over here
ladies who were unfortunate in their matrimonial prospects used formerly to throw themselves ; but this
has now been stopped by a spiked fencing. Unmarried
people of both sexes, desirous of matrimony, visit a
small shrine dedicated to the patron saint of true
lovers, and tie pieces of paper to the grill "placed in
front. This grill was pointed out to me, covered with
little bits of paper tied in a knot; and I was told that
great perseverance and long practice were required for
the knot-tying, as, if the ceremony is to be effectual,
only the thumb and little finger of one hand must be.
used. Here was also an image of the " god of strength,"
covered with pellets of papers; for these Japanese have
a curious superstition, that if they can spit a bit of
paper in their devotions so that it remains upon the
image or painting, this is a sign that their prayers will
be heard! In this, as in other temples I visited,
priests were mumbling prayers which seemed to me to
consist of one word repeated over and over again,
sitting on their heels the while, and striking gongs from
time to time. From the temple plateau there was a
beautiful view of the city of Kioto, which lies on the
plain below; the Kamagawa river running through its
centre, spanned by numerous bridges. At the time
of my visit it was nearly dry; and this is usually the 1
case, except after heavy rains. We also saw the Shinto
temple of Gion, at which (as had been the case in the
other temples) there were a great number of pilgrims;
they were engaged in attempts to attract the attention
of the I god " within, by sounding a brass gong or kind
of clapper. It was painful to witness the evidently
sincere devotion of these people, and it seems very sad
that a nation apparently so free from vice, and so
amiable and gentle in disposition, should have their
eyes closed so long to better things and to a truer
Another day I was taken to see the Mikado's palace
here; this seems to have been by special, favour, for
a telegram had been received from the Government
with an order (unsolicited by me) for my admission.
As a Japanese palace it was very interesting, but there
was not a scrap of furniture anywhere about the place;
probably it was stored in some fireproof building near.
The panel paintings were very good indeed, especially
the life-size figures. Thick mats bound with red silk
covered the floor ; the roofs were of cedar bark, and
about 15 inches thick. One of these was undergoing
repairs, and the work was being wonderfully well and
neatly executed, each piece of bark being beaten flat
and welded into the preceding layer, water being used
to bind it well together.    I admired the palace garden AT KIOTO.
very much ; it was enlivened by having various coloured
foliage trees planted in close proximity; the contrast
thus afforded relieved the monotonous appearance
usually presented by landscape' gardening at this time
of the year.
I noticed a new Buddhist temple in course of
erection in Kioto; it was being built of the hardest
native wood, called Hiyaki, and will take another ten
years to complete. Perhaps funds come in but slowly,;
as Buddhism is said to be on the decline. There was
a great similarity between all the Buddhist temples ;
any amount of gorgeous gilding and lacquer work,
beautifully carved ceilings, curious roofing, odd-looking
priests, and a perpetual sounding of gongs or beating
of drums ; and always the inevitable " must" of " boots
off" before entering. Kioto is the manufacturing
centre of Japan, and is noted both for its silks and
china; I made several purchases of specimens of both,
and also of curios. Whilst here, I was very sorry not
to be able to visit the rapids of the Katsura-gawa, nor
the ancient town of Nara, with its shrines and gigantic
image of Dai Butsu; nor yet to make a trip to Osaka,
which is the trading centre of Japan, and where the
mint is established. The time at my disposal did not,
however, admit of these expeditions.
Before leaving Kioto I went to see the Shibutani !I4
or cremation premises belonging to the Buddhist sect,
situated near this town. It stands in a little valley
high up-among the hills, and is approached by a steep
path, wooded on both sides. Near the entrance are
some tea-houses and waiting-rooms; and also a kind of
resting-place or large porch beneath which the priest
performs what is called the ceremony. The custom here
is not to lay out the body straight, as in Europe; but
to double it up in a sitting or crouching position, and
to place it in a round box; this is conveyed to the
cremation building in a kind of covered kago (made of
wood instead of bamboo), rather resembling a small
sedan-chair, and which is ornamented or otherwise,
according to the wealth of the deceased. The kago and
its contents are deposited on a receptacle under the
large open porch for the funeral ceremony. The cremation premises are situated a little further on, and are
built entirely of brick, with a tall central chimney.
There are two separate cremation-rooms or houses, in
one of which there is space for 20 bodies to be cremated
simultaneously, viz. two first class, four second class, and
fourteen third class. In the other room only two first
class and eight second class cremations can be performed
at one time. A little further on is a third cremation
oven, for coloured people only, which would hold a good
many bodies at the same time; this one is not much CREMATION.
in use at present, as there are now very few coloured
people living in Kioto, though formerly there were a
good number. The prices for cremation were as
follows—First class, 3 yen (about 9s. 6d.); second class,
1 yen 50 sen (say 5s.); third class, 75 sen (2s. 6d.).
Each room contained several ovens or furnaces, the face
being made of iron, and resembling an ordinary oven-
opening or boiler face. The interior was lined with
brick; a movable shutter at one end covered an opening
made sufficiently large to admit the box or coffin, which
is placed on a pile of wood; this is then ignited, and
the furnace closed. The smoke communicates with the
tall chimney, and the body is gradually consumed, and
passes away with it; half-an-hour is the necessary time
for the cremation of a child's body, but with increased
age a longer time is necessary, one hour being required
for a person of twenty, and two hours for one of forty
years of age. Pine (matsu) wood is employed; the
quantity used for each body is about 110 lbs. The
ashes are then removed and placed in an ash-pit; and
the portions remaining of the deceased (usually only the
teeth and one or two harder parts of the body) are put
in a little round deal box, measuring about two inches
in diameter by three or four in height; and this the
relatives call for in a few hours, having previously left
the body for cremation.    The little box with its relics -*
is carefully preserved in the house of the deceased, or
by some member of his family, for a period of 50 days,
and then deposited in a cemetery. From 28 to 30
cremations take place in one day at this building, the
most fashionable hour being 3 P.M. I watched the
process; there was nothing whatever offensive about the
premises, everything was as clean and well kept as
could  be  desired;  but a slight odour of cooking  or
7 O O
roasting was perceptible when an oven was opened.
Cremation is favourably received by the Japanese, but
not universally adopted. Arguments may be used in
its favour from a sanitary point of view among a
crowded population such as that of Japan; and for
people in humble circumstances it may be a saving of
expense ; but as regards theory and sentiment it is quite
a different thing, and it seems to me the practice is
contrary to all the established customs, prejudices, and
ideas of modern western nations, and can never gain
ground in Europe to any extent.
On returning to Kobe I went into the town and
made a few purchases of silk umbrellas, bamboo sticks,
and Japanese fire-irons (which latter are only about eight
inches long, and were mistaken for chopsticks by friends
in England); and then went on board the P. and 0.
steamer Teheran, bound for Hong-Kong. There were
crowds of junks and fishing-boats  outside Kobe;   in JAPANESE JUNKS. 217
fact, one of the most noticeable things here on the coast
is the great number of picturesque little square-sail
boats dotted about in all directions. Notwithstanding
their propensity for adopting European ways, I should
fancy it will be a long time before the Japanese give up
their junks; though I am told they are by no means a
safe kind of craft, but are very liable to be overturned
by a sudden squall.
Our route lay again through the Inland Sea; I
had always heard so much in praise of its scenery,
and I found it very pretty, but by no means grand.
There were mountains on all sides, but none of them
bold in outline; no cliffs or rocks worthy of the name,
merely a continuous volcanic upheaval of the ground,
with a scanty vegetation useless for stock. Wherever
it was possible, the land was cultivated as arable,
and every little nook or sheltered corner was carefully
tilled; in many places it was laid out in ridge above
ridge of tiny fields resembling small gardens—all in
terraces, after the fashion of the vineyard grounds on
the Rhine. There are but few trees; those we saw
were mostly pine, or a kind of scrub. This almost total
absence of timber made the scenery a little monotonous,
and when here and there we passed a patch of dark pine
trees the effect was so good that it made one realize how
excessively pretty this Inland Sea would be were it only 2l8
more timbered. Of course in November the scenery is
not seen to advantage, and the mountains certainly
showed their backbones very visibly; but in spring
time or summer everything would be greener and
brighter. All the islands were of the conical shape so
characteristic of Japan; the heights of the mountains
varied from about 800 to 3000 feet; several villages
were dotted about here and there, but we saw no large
towns, though the population evidently was considerable,
judging from the innumerable junks and fishing-boats
which enlivened the scene throughout the day as we
steamed along. In the evening we passed through the
Straits of Shimonoseki, leaving the town of that name
on our right. It is comparatively a large town, and is
prettily situated; the land in its vicinity is better
timbered than the rest of the coast. As it is not one of
the Treaty ports, we could not touch here, but pursued
our way through the narrow strait (which is rather
difficult for navigation), and, bidding adieu to the
Inland Sea, passed out into the open. The scenery here
(on the western coast of Japan) is extremely picturesque,
with more vegetation and a greater number of trees
than I had noticed in the Inland Sea; there were still
a good many sailing boats and junks about, with sails
of a peculiar make, each divided into three strips.
Presently we   entered the land--locked harbour of THE BON MATSURI.
Nagasaki, which is certainly the prettiest harbour I
have seen in Japan, and the surrounding scenery is
quite beautiful. It is situated at the foot of a mountain,
with lofty hills towering all around; these, though
round-topped and grass-covered, are unfortunately valueless for stock. Just outside the entrance to the harbour
lies the rock of Papenburg, from which 1600 Christians
were precipitated into the sea by the natives about 300
years ago. The harbour had a very gay appearance ;
English, American, French, Russian, and Japanese ships
of war were there, and hosts of little san-pans were
gliding about everywhere;—these little boats reminded
me to a certain extent of the Venetian gondolas; the
men work their oars standing at the rear end and side
of the boat, but the little enclosed house is in the
bows instead of at the stern. Nagasaki is too much
Europeanized to be a good sample of a Japanese town,
and presents little of interest beyond its tortoiseshell
There is a curious custom at Nagasaki which may
interest my readers. Yearly, in August, the feast of
Bon Matsuri is kept in honour of the dead. On the
first night the tombs of those who have died during
the preceding year are lighted up with paper lanterns.
The following night the graves of all departed friends
are thus illuminated, and their surviving relatives repair 220
to the graveyard, there to pledge each other, and drink
to the health of their ancestors in copious libations—
great merriment ensues, and rockets are fired at intervals. The spectacle afforded by the universal illumin
ation is fairy-like when seen from a distance, and the
European inhabitants usually repair to the bay and
enjoy it to perfection from the decks of the various
ships. On the third night the natives come in procession with all their lighted lanterns down to the
shores of the bay, bringing with them thousands of
little plaited straw boats; in these they place some
fruit and coins and the lighted lanterns; and the spirits
of the dead are supposed to embark in these frail craft,
which are soon set fire to as they float before the breeze
over the waters of the bay. i Thus the entire flotilla
is consumed, tracing in all directions large trails of fire.
The dead depart rapidly. Soon the last ship has
foundered, the last light is extinguished, and the last
soul has taken its departure again from this earth."
(The above is quoted from an English translation of
a Japanese guide-book, bought in Japan).
On leaving Nagasaki my short visit to Japan was
brought to a conclusion; I very much regretted being
unable to stay longer, as I was extremely interested in
both the people and their country. AN INCREASING POPULATION.
japan (continued).
A Crowded Population—Frugal Living—Cheap Provisions—Extraterritorial Jurisdiction—American Cuteness—Warning to England
—A Constitutional Change—The Land Question Simplified—A
Contented People—Peaceful Villages—Straw Sandals—Blackened
Teeth — Hair-dressing — Shampooing — Japanese Pipes — Ladies
Fencing—The Hara Kjri—Religious Festivals—Missionary Efforts.
Japan is undoubtedly making rapid strides in modern
civilization, and will soon be recognized as a powerful
nation, if indeed it be not so already. It possesses
about thirty-five or thirty-six million inhabitants, and
the quantity of children to be seen everywhere afford
abundant proof of the fertility of the race, so the
population is probably continually on the increase.
Then the question arises as to the future of this
increased population.
Japan is about the size of the British Islands,
and has already about the same number of inhabitants, but it has no colonial outlet for the surplus
as    we    have.      The    Government    wish    to    start 222
emigration from the Southern to the more sparsely
populated Northern Island of Yezo; but the climate
there is colder, and the project does not gain ground
among the Southerners. Emigration to the Sandwich
Islands has also been tried, and a party of 2000 people
were shipped off there lately; but I am ignorant of
the result of this experiment. The country, however,
can at present support its own population; for the
people live in a very frugal manner—fish, rice, and
tea are the staple articles of food, and these three Japan
produces in abundance, and they are all very cheap.
Fish especially can be bought on the coast for next
to nothing—large lobsters fetching two or three sens
each (100 sens or cents are equal to 3*. 4c?.); a codfish large enough to last a family for a week can be
bought on the coast of Yezo for five sens. Herrings
and sardines are so plentiful as to be altogether beneath
consideration, and they are mostly used for manure.
Excellent beef is obtainable at B^d. to 4<a?. per lb.,
but mutton (being all imported, mostly from China) is
very dear—about 1*. 6d. per lb. ; chickens about 9d.
each. Fresh butter is either only made in very limited
quantities or else imported in tins; salt butter costs
about Is. 6d. per lb. Game is very plentiful, and
pheasants are sold at about 8 c?. each, hares at about
Is. 4<£.each; the soil is too damp for rabbits to thrive. EXTRA-TERRITORIAL JURISDICTION. 223
A European must not, however, think that he is at
liberty to shoot the game, plentiful though it may be;
for he is limited to the Treaty ports, and to a radius of
25 miles round them, and then only with leave; and
within these limits he will probably not meet with
much sport.
The Japanese are anxious to throw open their
country altogether to foreigners, but they wish in
return for the abolition of extra-territorial jurisdiction, and it is probable that no revision of the Treaty
will take place for a year or two, a recent attempt
having failed. I believe that about sixteen different
foreign powers entered into this Treaty. The effect of
"extra-territorial jurisdiction" is, that in the event of
a crime being committed by a foreign resident he can,
only be tried by his own consul, to the entire exclusion of the Japanese authorities. This arrangement the
latter naturally wish to alter, and the matter has
recently been engaging much attention, but at present
the negotiations have been suspended without any
satisfactory conclusion being arrived at. When recommenced, I hope there may be a successful solution
of the difficulty. However that may be, a nation with
such elements of strength cannot long remain in
The Americans are quite alive to the importance 224
of being on friendly terms with their Japanese neighbours, and the latter fully reciprocate the friendly
feeling. It behoves England to be careful, or the
Americans will have the preference in Japan, and their
customs and ideas will be adopted instead of ours.1 The
present policy of the Government appears to be to
Europeanize everything; the members of the Court are
in European dress; and the army, navy, police, and
officials generally all wear European uniforms. These
different; branches of the State are all most efficiently
managed; the police especially are a highly-intelligent,
superior class of men, and wherever you travel you may
be sure of receiving any needful assistance and constant
courtesy from them.
Japan is on the brink of a great change. At
present the Mikado and his Cabinet have supreme
and absolute power, with no appeal; but very soon
there is to be a representative assembly for the first
time, and the Houses of Parliament are now in course
of erection. (Since this was written it is announced
that on Monday, the 11th February, 1889, the
Mikado publicly promulgated the new Constitution,
in great state at Tokio.)2 The Mikado and his Government are the sole landowners in the country, and only
grant leases so long as the ground-rent or land-tax is
1 See Appendix C.
2 See Appendix D. A  CULTURED PEOPLE.
paid to them. Houses and buildings erected on the
land belong to the occupier, but if the ground-rent is
left unpaid they revert to the Mikado. Some little
clemency may be shown as regards arrears in the case
of valuable houses or premises, but if the lease is for
land only the rent must be paid punctually to the
day or the property is forfeited. One person is permitted to sell his holding to another, but it remains
always subject to the Mikado's taxes, and the tenure
would be forfeited in just the same way by any delay
in the payment of the ground-rent, for his Imperial
Majesty would at once step in, claim the property,
and resell it in order to obtain his due.
The Japanese appear a happy, contented, and
amiable people; most friendly and courteous to
strangers, and very simple in their ways. The great
rage for all European ways and customs, which now
pervades the upper classes, may possibly have the
unfortunate effect of introducing European vices as
well, and of spoiling the present simplicity of the
people. When the country is thrown open (which
it undoubtedly will be on the revision of the present
treaty), I question whether the Japanese nation will
be much improved by the change, so far as contentment and simplicity are concerned. Of course, more
capital will then be introduced into the country, and
in this respect the nation, as a whole, will benefit;
but I fear that much of their peculiar charm will
disappear. V At present they all seem so gentle in their
dealings with one another, always kind and helpful,
and never rough or rude. I did not once see anything
resembling a quarrel between either the grown-up people
or the children in the crowded towns and villages
through which I passed; they all wore smiling faces,
and talked to each other with laughter in every tone.
The number of children everywhere is perfectly marvellous ; women with children on their backs, and
young children with infants almost as big as themselves, abound at every turn; old men and women
being also made use of for this universal carrying.
The younger men are mostly very upright and strongly
made; looking like pictures one has seen of the old
Eomans; their (as a rule) single garment is wrapped
loosely around them in a very picturesque fashion, and
when taking exercise is usually tucked up to their
thighs. Some of the men, however, wear a sort of
blouse, with tight-fitting trousers, either cut short below
the knee or extended over their ankles. They have
cloaks besides in cold weather. Those who wear no clogs
(or shoes) have a sole, or sandal, made of either string
or straw. I bought a pair of these latter to wear under
my boots when going on a mountain  expedition  and
L.<5» ^^^^M^MSSSWW
found them most comfortable, keeping the stones from
hurting my feet, and a safeguard besides in slippery
places; the price was equivalent to three-halfpence a pair.
With the exception of the smiling little maids at
the inns, whose manners are most taking, the women
are not, as a rule, so prepossessing as the men, especially
among the poorer classes. It has been the invariable
custom in Japan (though a custom happily now on
the decline) for the women to blacken their teeth on
marriage.    This  has  a most  unbecoming  effect,  and
O © 7
makes them look much older than they really are.
While they keep their mouths shut they are often quite
pretty and young-looking, but when laughing this dis^
figurement makes them appear old and hideous. Their
mode of hair-dressing is not a nice one to our notions—
the hair is well larded with grease, and when once in
position remains so for weeks; a roll of wood being
used instead of a pillow to support the neck at night,
in order to prevent the hair from being disarranged.
The Japanese are very fond of bathing; both sexes
often use the same bath, and at the same time. Until
quite recently there was an open bath for the public in
one of the thoroughfares of Yokohama, where ladies
and gentlemen indulged in a public wash quite regardless of the passers-by, some of whom would perhaps take
their  turn subsequently.    Occasionally  after bathing,
and very frequently after any severe exercise, the
Japanese have recourse to shampooing; the operators
being usually blind men and women who parade the
streets for this purpose, and attract attention by whistling on bamboo-sticks. One of them accosted me on one
occasion. At the time I had no notion what she wanted,
but afterwards I found that she had probably offered
me her services as shampooer. The fashion of smoking
is curious. The pipe-stem is long, with a very diminutive bowl at the end ; in this the tobacco is placed,
and when lighted but one whiff is usually taken, and
the remainder knocked out. Both sexes are fond of
smoking ; and every Japanese has his pipe and tobacco-
pouch, let his clothing be ever so scanty.
Wrestling is still much practised among the
Japanese; the champions appear to be selected for
their size, and are always very tall, fat men; so there
can be no training to get into condition, according to
the custom of western athletes. The wrestling matches
are usually held in the open air, the ground being railed
off with bamboo poles covered with mats. Fencing is
also a very favourite amusement with all classes, and
is indulged in by both sexes; the ladies use a lance
with a bent head, rather like a short scythe—this is
carried point downwards, and with it they perform a
series of evolutions and passes which are very pretty THE " HARA-KIRI."
to watch. With the other sex, the two-handled sword
is the usual weapon, and the head and body are protected by leather and bamboo armour, and across the
face by iron bars, from the somewhat severe blows often
inflicted. The Japanese are very dexterous performers
of all kinds of conjuring and jugglery; of this we have
often had proofs in England, and, as far as I could
judge, their performances are much the same whether
in London or Japan.
In speaking of the native customs, I must not
forget to mention the very curious one (now almost
extinct) of the " hara-kiri." When a noble was condemned to death for some crime, he had the privilege
of committing suicide by disembowelling himself, and
thereby saving his own honour and that of his family, and
often also the family possessions, instead of submitting
to the indignity of an ordinary felon's death. This
judicial suicide was performed with great ceremony
before officers, witnesses, and relations, an intimate
friend being in readiness with uplifted sword to cut off
the prisoner's head as soon as he should have made
the fatal stab. There were other forms of " hara-kiri,"
besides this judicial one, and it was often resorted to
voluntarily after reverses in battle or disappointments
in love affairs, and also after insults received. As
regards the latter, it is very curious to note that one 1%Q
Japanese having a grudge of spite against another
would purposely insult him, and the person so affronted
had no other remedy than to perform " hara-kiri " on
himself, instead of having recourse to legal proceedings
(as might be done in England), or calling his adversary
out in a duel (as in France).
Eeligious festivals are very frequent and great
features in Japan. They are held in honour of the
different gods—e.g., of the gods of happiness, mercy,
fire, sun, war, medicine, writing, &c, and of "the god
who hears prayers." There are also popular festivals,
partaking of a religious character, in honour of the
dead, of the stars, of girls, of boys, of spring, of
farmers, of wealth, of chrysanthemums, &c. Many
missionaries have been sent to Japan of late years, both
from Europe and America, and though probably the
adults will keep to their old faith, it is very likely the
rising generation will in time become Christians of
some kind or another; because a new religion is being
sought for as well as a new Constitution. The dis-
position to adopt all European habits will very possibly
be a help in this respect. Since my return to England
I have been told that, at the request of the Japanese
authorities, several English high-school teachers have
recently been sent out to undertake the education of
the daughters of some of the nobility;  and with full MISSIONARY EFFORTS. 23r
liberty to instruct them in religious as well as secular
knowledge. At present the more educated classes are
" indifferentists" (if I may use the word) rather than
anything else. Among the lower classes, however, there
is much really sincere devotion, and it seems sad it
should be so misdirected. 2^2
japan (continued).
Low "Wages—A Cheap Working Suit—Courteous Officials—A Shortlived Class—Grain Crops—Primitive Implements—An Evil-smelling Delicacy—Wretched Horses—Haya and Hagi—Green Tea
and Sache—A Possible Field for Settlers—The Five Treaty Ports
—Passports—Farewell to Japan.
For foreigners without means, such as artisans and
labourers, Japan is simply a blank, owing to the very
low scale of wages. The natives are extremely neat-
handed, skilful and clever, and quite capable of performing all sorts of artisan's work, as well as the ordinary
field labour: but carpenters, masons, and blacksmiths,
only make from Is. Sd. to 2s. per day; painters and
coolies from Is. to Is. 6d.; and ordinary workmen in
the towns.from 10c?. to Is. 6d. In the country districts
the pay is even less, field-labourers only receive from
5d. to Is. a day (the latter is considered very good pay),
and women in the fields earn from 2\d. to 4c?. a day.
Indeed, people often work simply for their food and A  CHEAP  WORKING SUIT.
clothing; but the former is very cheap, and they are
very frugal livers; and as I saw a good many field-
labourers with no clothes on at all, the latter item
cannot cost much either—and a Sunday suit cannot
be needed in a country where no Sunday is kept, so
clothes can only be required for grand occasions and
cold weather. Maid-servants in private establishments
earn about Is. 8d. to 2s.; good men-servants about
6s. 8a. a, month; and of course food is provided. To
anyone accustomed to hear about American wages, these
figures will seem surprising; and it must be understood that the service rendered is really excellent;
indeed, I think the Japanese would make good European
servants. On account, probably, of the low scale of
wages, every establishment has an astonishing number
of inmates.
The lines of railway and the steamboat undertakings
belong (as I have said before) almost exclusively to
the Imperial Government, which is highly to be praised
for the good management everywhere visible. Com-
munication between the different ports on the Japanese
coast is admirably maintained by a constant line of
steam-packets; many of which are of English build.
As regards the railways, the work has been solidly
done, with due regard to permanence, and the best
models have been selected for the rolling stock.    The 234
guards, porters, engine-drivers, &c, are all dressed in
European fashion; many of them can talk a little
English, and there is no difficulty in making oneself
understood at the ticket-office; indeed all the station
notices, such as "Ticket-office," "Waiting-room," &c,
are put up in English, with an occasional Japanese
translation. The officials are all models of courtesy and
efficiency, and both on the steamers and on the railways
every attention is shown to all classes of travellers
alike. The railway stations are of stone or brick; the
carriages  are  of English  make, and  consist  of first,
O O 7 7
second, and third class coaches, all communicating with
each other. The first class are in three compartments,
with sliding-doors, the red leather seats are fixed sideways, like those of a waggonette; the second class
are the same, except that the seats are of straw; the
third class face the engine, and are uncovered. But
these latter are filled to overflowing, whereas the others
are comparatively empty. Each train is crowded, the
passengers being almost all natives (for they have
readily adopted rail way-travelling), and the clatter of
their wooden shoes or clogs at a station makes quite
a din.
Although there are hardly any horse-carriages in
Tokio, and locomotion is carried on by means of jin-
rikishas, yet there are some horse-tramcars which look A  SHORTLIVED CLASS.
sadly out of place amid their picturesque surroundings.
•They seem, however, to pay well, for I noticed some
in which even standing-room was not to be had. Jin-
rikishas are almost equivalent to our hansom cabs in
speed, and in the dexterity with which they make their
way through a crowd. A good runner is a sight worth
seeing, as he steps well out and throws his whole body
into every movement, and one's attention is as speedily
attracted to such a one as it would be in England to a
good horse. The pace at which these men can run,
their staying power, and the distances they can go, are
all equally subjects of wonder to the foreigner; but it
was painful to hear that they rarely live longer than
two or three years after taking to this work, but fall
a prey to consumption. Nevertheless, the higher pay
obtainable attracts them to this vocation in great
During my stay in Japan, I had an opportunity
of gaining some information respecting the people
and country from an Englishman residing there, connected with one of the railways, who was also doing a
little farming. As to rice cultivation, he told me the
seed was first sown in a patch, the small plants being
afterwards drawn, tied in bundles, and deposited in a
field—which field is divided among many owners, each
possessing only a very small piece of ground indeed. 236
Each individual plant is then put in by hand, about
eight inches apart, and throws up five or six stems,
bearing an ear apiece. Wet land can only grow one
crop, but on irrigated land, a previous crop of some
other kind can be taken off before the rice is put in.
In harvesting it is cut with a hook, and bound up in
sheaves; sometimes being put in small stacks, or round
a tree, &c, but often laid by the roadside on straw
mats and threshed as soon as dry. The threshing is
done by hand in a very primitive way. An upright
piece of iron, with long iron teeth like an enlarged
comb, is fixed into the ground; between these teeth
the straw is pulled in handfuls, and each ear sheds its
grain as it passes through. The operation is often
performed by a woman, and the rice is afterwards
placed to dry in the sun on straw mats. Everything
in this country is done by manual labour, for the
people have no idea of machinery, and labour is so
cheap that the length of time required for such an
operation as that described above, is a matter of no
importance. My informant said that oats will not grow
in Japan, except in the northern island; where sown it
develops a thick stem, but scanty ears; if cut green,
however, it makes good fodder for horses. Wheat and
barley both grow well. What I saw was all hand-
planted in little bunches as neatly and tidily as any GRAIN CROPS.
garden work, and looked very thriving—as indeed it
well might, for all the lands in Japan are heavily
manured, every particle being collected for this
Tea, cotton, Indian corn, rice, millet, buckwheat,
mangolds, and a kind of plant resembling a radish,
not unlike a long turnip—called "daikon" by the
Japanese—grow well. I have never seen the latter
plant in England, but it is a great favourite with the
natives here, who pickle it in salt. When ready for
food it has, to my mind, about the most offensive
stench I have ever come across. Rice is the staple
food of the country, occupying the same place with
the Japanese as bread does with us. Oranges and
grapes, and the national fruit persimmon do very
well; the climate and soil vary very much in the
different localities, and I do not know any country in
the world where such a variety of fruits and vegetables
can be grown to such perfection.
Hay and grass are, however, very poor. The vegetation on the hills is of no use for stock, for they and
the mountains are mostly covered with a kind of reed
called Haya; and with a low-growing shrub called Hagi,
also a kind of bamboo grass like some of our pampas
grass. The consequence is that hay is very dear, for
what is wanted has to be imported from America, as 2 V
i  \
is also the case with oats—they are both sold at about
2d. a lb.; the hay being pressed. Horse keep is therefore very dear, and what horses there are are mostly
wretched-looking animals (the country ones generally
shod with straw), and worth only from £2 to £4 each,
and no wonder, for when not wanted they are turned
out loose on the mountains, and must have a bad time
of it there. When well kept, horses are fed on boiled
or crushed barley, bran, rice-straw, and carrots; oats
and hay being a great delicacy. . Sheep do not thrive
well at all, and there are hardly any in Japan; most
of the mutton is imported from China, and is very dear.
Pigs do well, and it is said when they were first
imported about fifteen years ago, there was such a
rush for them that they commanded high prices. Oxen
also do well, especially about Kobe, and Japanese beef
is very cheap, and of first-rate quality; but the cows
give very little milk, hardly enough to rear their calves.
However, the short supply does not so much signify to
the natives as they never themselves use milk. The
national drink is green tea and sache; the latter is a
spirit distilled from rice or Indian corn, and is very
The following places are especially noticeable :—
Kobe, for its beef; Kishu, for its oranges; Kooshu, for
its grapes; Ogi, for tea ; Kioto, for silks and china. A POSSIBLE FIELD FOR SETTLERS.
It is a pity that the long ranges of mountains
(covered as they are with a sort of vegetation) should
be so worthless for stock; but I cannot help thinking
that in course of time they will be brought into use,
and where suitable, very possibly cultivated as vineyards, At present they form a striking contrast to the
garden-like agriculture of the valleys.
The Northern island of Yezo is not nearly so highly
cultivated as the Middle and Southern islands of Japan ;
indeed, I believe it contains large tracts of land as yet
only partially developed. The climate .there is colder,
but very suitable for Europeans ; it is said to produce
very good crops, and I am told that English pasture
grasses will grow there, after the existing bamboo grass,
&c, has been ploughed up and destroyed. The central
island owes its luxuriant crops in a great measure to
the very high state of excellence to which the soil is
brought by the constant application of human manure ;
but Yezo (so I am told) possesses naturally a fine virgin
soil, and that in larger patches than on the Middle
Island. As yet, with the exception of a radius of 25
miles round the treaty port of Hakodate, foreigners are
altogether excluded from the island; but if on the
revision of the treaty it should be thrown open for settlement, I am not sure but that it might be worth prospecting by a man possessed of a little capital and with 240
a knowledge of farming. From what I have said before,
it will, however, easily be seen that Japan offers no
inducement to any of the labouring classes in search of
employment: wages are far too low, and the population
is already too great to admit of any such influx.
October is considered the best month for travelling
in Japan ; November and December are always bright
and fine, but the days are short and sometimes rather
cold. April and May are rainy, but they are the best
months for seeing the cherry blossoms in their full
beauty (and these and the azaleas and other flowers of
Japan are well worth seeing) ; June, July, and August
are all hot, with more or less rain ; January is cold
and windy, with a little snow.. Of course the climate
varies considerably in the different parts of Japan, the
northern part being colder.
As I have previously stated, there are only five
treaty ports open to foreigners for trading purposes. A
radius of 25 miles round each of these ports is called
the I treaty limits," and is open for travelling or
trading, but not for residence. Outside these treaty
limits every traveller must be provided with a passport, ■
which he can easily procure through his Consul; but
until this passport is returned no second one will be
issued by the Japanese Government under any circumstances whatever.    The following are the names of the treaty ports, within a limit of 25 miles, round which no
passport is required—
O 7
Hakodate (in the Northern island of Yezo),
The two latter are called supplementary treaty ports,
and have been opened since the original treaty was
made. As I have said, anywhere beyond these limits
a passport is a necessity; but for ordinary travellers
one for the thirteen provinces round Fujisan will be
found sufficient.
The following directions are copied from my passport. I insert them, thinking they may perhaps prove
of interest—-
The bearer of this passport is expressly warned that
he is to conduct himself in an orderly and conciliatory
manner towards the Japanese authorities and people.
He is to produce this passport to any Japanese officer
who may demand it, and he is to be careful to give
it up to Her Majesty's Consul at the port at which 242
his journey terminates  immediately upon his arrival
This passport conveys no right to shoot, and the
bearer is therefore warned that he should carefully
conform to any directions that may be given to him on
this subject \yj the local Japanese authorities.
I.—The local regulations noted at foot must be
observed by the bearer of this passport, while in the
II.—If bearer does not commence his journey within
thirty days from the date of this passport, he must
return it.
III.—If the bearer, while in the interior, finds that
he cannot complete his journey within the time named
in the passport, he must inform Her Majesty's Minister
by post of the reasons which prevent his doing so.
IV.—Refusal to produce this passport to any local
officials, such as "Kucho" or "Kocho," or to any policeman demanding it, renders the bearer liable to arrest.
He should also show his passport to the landlord of any
Inn at which he may lodge.
V.—The bearer must surrender this passport on
returning   to   the   port  or   place  from which  he  set A PASSPORT.
out, even if he have not visited all the places named
in it. A new passport is required for every fresh
•VI.—The bearer, while in the interior, is forbidden
to shoot, to trade, to conclude mercantile contracts with
Japanese, and to rent houses or rooms for a longer
period than his journey requires.
VII.—This passport is not transferable.
VIII.—Any breach of these directions will be
reported by the Japanese Government to Her Majesty's
Minister, and the person so offending renders himself
liable to be refused a passport at a future time.
Note.—The local regulations referred to above forbid
the following and similar offences—
1.—Travelling at night in a horse carriage without
a lantern.
2.—Attending a fire on horseback.
3.—Disregarding notices of 1 No thoroughfare."
4.—Driving quickly on a narrow road.
5.—Neglect or refusal to pay ferry or bridge toll.
6.—Destruction or defacement of notice-boards,
house-signs, or mile-posts.
7.—Scribbling on temples, shrines, or walls.
8.—Injury to crops, land, or other property, or to
trees or shrubs on the high roads, or in public gardens.
9.—Trespassing on fields, plantations, enclosures, or
game preserves.
10.—Lighting fires in woods, or on hills or moors.
o o 7
Many of the articles and curios collected by me in
Japan and elsewhere during my travels have since been
exhibited in my Herefordshire home; and I trust that
those who saw them there may have taken all the more
interest in the account I have tried to give in these
chapters of Japan, and the manners and customs of its
I left the country with great regret, having been
extremely interested in everything I had seen. It
formed a complete contrast to any of my previous
travelling experiences; and I shall always look back
with great pleasure to my stay there, and to my
acquaintance with its gentle, amiable, smiling people. CHINESE JUNKS.
24 C
A Land-locked Harbour—Effect of Trees on Climate—Dangerous
Fellow-passengers—A Risky Visit—Narrow streets—A Cat and
Dog Restaurant—A Chinese Temple—Watchers on the House-tops
—Place of Execution—A Chamber of Horrors—Fortune-tellers—
A Clock that has gone for 500 years—Graves with a Prospect—
Law Courts—The Kang—Shopping—Jade.
My passage from Japan to Hong Kong was an uneventful one—very calm the whole way, with beautiful warm
weather. There were not many passengers on board
our steamer (the Teheran), only two Englishmen besides
myself; but the officers were all English. The crew
was principally composed of Malays. On nearing Hong
Kong the weather was very hazy, and we could not at
first see the Chinese coast. We passed several junks,
which differ very much in shape from the Japanese
ones, and I should think are probably better sea-boats.
The rig of a Chinese junk is a main-sail and a jib well
forward M- the Japanese, as a rule, has only a square
sail, which is sometimes divided into three strips.    The H6
approach to Hong Kong was very pretty; the trees
planted thickly on the island by the British Government
were a most refreshing sight to the eye after the long
ridges of barren mountains which here form the Chinese
coast. I am told that these trees have a very beneficial
effect on the Hong Kong climate; they consist mostly
of China pines. The harbour is completely land-locked.
A great many ships were lying at anchor there, and
among them about forty or fifty large merchant
steamers. The town rises steeply tier upon tier above
the harbour, Victoria Peak forming the summit, at the
foot of which are the better class of houses, among
which Government House stands out as a conspicuous
object. The commercial and Chinese part of the town
lies on the flat below, and must be very hot in summer,
entirely shut in as it is by hills.
I did not make any stay at Hong Kong on this
occasion, but went on at once with an English friend
on an expedition up the Pearl River to Canton; a
distance of about 100 miles. We set off in the evening
on board a Chinese steamer, and caught a glimpse of
the surrounding scenery before dark. Later on there
was a bright moon, and we continued on deck. At first
the country was very mountainous, but higher up the
river it became more level. Our vessel was armed—
1 e., guns and revolvers were kept ready loaded in the SSSKS5&B5W
saloon in case of any emergency or riot with the Chinese
on board, who occupied the lower deck. On a former
occasion the Chinese had attacked the saloon passengers,
hence this precaution had become necessary. The gun-
rack is kept open, and a large notice, " Loaded," is
placed in front.
We reached Canton early in the morning. About
four miles below the town an impediment is placed
across the river in the shape of sunken junks and piles
driven in; only quite a narrow passage is left, just
sufficient to allow of one vessel passing through at a
time. This obstruction was placed here as a protection
some years ago, when we were at war with China.
Canton is situated on a plain, and contains about
2,000,000 inhabitants.
A given number of Chinese  appear to  have  the
faculty of making more noise than the same number
of people of any other nation; and as we approached
we heard a clacking of tongues and no end of comes o
motion. On nearing the landing stage we noticed the
hosts of house-boats for which Canton is so famous;
they were in rows of several boats deep, on the side of
the river adjoining the town, and the various little
creeks were full of them. Directly our vessel stopped,
a multitude of junks and sanpans came up to the side.
of the ship; for we had about 600 Chinamen on board, 248
and many of them wanted to go on further up the
river. The scene was an amusing and a very lively
one, accompanied as it was the whole time by a
tremendous jabbering and clattering of tongues. We
decided on taking a couple of guides to show us the
town, and having engaged an old man, by name "Ah
Cum," and his son, we sallied forth, each in a palanquin
(a kind of sedan chair), carried by three or four bearers,
our guides being accommodated in the same manner.
We were soon in the city; such curious narrow streets,
only six to eight feet wide, where the passers-by often
had to stand on one side to let our chairs through.
They were everywhere crowded with people, but we
went on at a quick trot, our bearers hallooing and
shouting the whole time so as to warn people to clear
a way. The Chinese are said not to be very amiably
disposed to the Britisher, nor indeed to any other
foreigner; so we were rather uncertain as to their
reception of us—we found, however, that our chairs
were carried along so fast that they had not time to
notice the inmates until we each individually came up
alongside them. They then evidently often made
remarks, and some of them gesticulated and did not
look at us in an over-friendly manner; but there was
no attempt at following us. A large crowd gathered
round directly we stopped anywhere; but they dispersed NARROW STREETS.
immediately we commenced to move on again. The
children, especially, seemed very curious, and crowded
round to have a good stare, at each opportunity. There
is said to be always a certain amount of risk in visiting
Canton; but we were told it was safest either to go
alone with a guide, or else only quite a small party;
for if there is a long string of chairs the people get
impatient at the obstruction, and sometimes try to
block the way—a very easy process in such narrow
streets. However, we got on very well throughout the
day, and were not at all molested. The streets themselves form the most curious sight in Canton ; their
extreme narrowness, and the immense population everywhere thronging them, impressed me in a way not to
be forgotten. Numbers of the houses almost touched
each other overhead in the upper stories, and in many
instances mats and bamboo trellis-work were thrown
across to effect a more complete union, and also to
shade the street below.
Canton is a very good specimen of a Chinese town,
and one is told that having seen it, one has seen all
Southern China. It must be remembered, however,
that the Chinese Empire is a very large country, with
an area of over 4,000,000 square miles, and a population
of more than 400,000,000; and Pekin, in the north,
is quite unlike Canton, the streets being of great width, 250
and it may also be taken as a fair sample of all those in
that part of China. The bustle and activity everywhere
displayed were very striking, and the offensive smells
were less than I had anticipated; indeed I must own
that I think in this respect a Japanese town has the
advantage (?).
Our guides took us first to see a kind of a corn
mill, where a number of oxen were at work grinding;
then past a cat and dog restaurant (delicacies much
appreciated by the Chinese coolie) to the temple of
the i Five hundred genii." Here what constituted their
morning service was going on, and seven or eight
Buddhist priests were chanting four or five words over
and over again, which seemed to be the whole ceremony.
One of the priests, however, was not above leaving his
place and his part in the service, to receive the customary fee of ten sens from us. We had seen so many
Buddhist temples in Japan that this one Chinese one
was quite sufficient to satisfy us. It is protected by
a guard of soldiers, and contains about 500 statues.
The most prominent building in Canton is a Roman
Catholic cathedral, which at the time of our visit was
in course of construction. The houses are all merely
wooden shanties, and if a fire occurred there must
infallibly be immense destruction. Large vessels of
water are placed on most of the roofs, and a sort of A  "CHAMBER OF HORRORS."
wooden platform is run from house to house for the
accommodation of the city watchmen when on the lookout nightly for thieves or alarms of fire. Here and
there among these wooden shanties were buildings of a
greater height, and more solidly built; these I was told
were pawnbrokers' establishments. We visited a silk-
weaving manufactory, and a stone-cutting establishment ; in both of which everything was done by hand,
—for the Chinese appear to have no more notion of
machinery than the Japanese.
Our guides also took us to the public execution
ground, which, when not required for its special purpose,
is used as a pottery. An execution had taken place
here only two days previously, and the criminal's head
was hanging by a piece of string to the wall, while his
blood was still drying on the ground. The man had
been a noted Chinese pirate, of whom there are great
numbers in these seas. We also saw what is called the
" Chamber of Horrors," in which are certain figures
representing various methods of torture either imaginary or real, which are shown here publicly, in order
(we were told) to awe the people into good behaviour,
by the sight of what they must otherwise expect. In
the space immediately adjoining about forty Chinese
were sitting, each at a small table; these were fortunetellers.    We noticed one young Chinaman having his 2 52
fortune told as we passed by, and so serious was his
face, and so earnest and absorbed his gaze, that I
imagine he fully believed everything he was being
told. At this place the crowd was greater than ever,
and we had some difficulty in making our way.
We of course saw the celebrated water-clock, which
is placed in a tower over a gateway, and consists of
three large tanks, very ancient and made of bronze, and
rather like reversed bells placed obliquely one above the
other. The time is calculated by the water, which
drops from the topmost tank into the second, and then
through the third into a fourth placed lower down, and
of rather a different shape. In this latter is an upright
piece of flat iron, marked with the hours, which is
fastened into a floating board. This board works
gradually up as the lowest tank fills, and in this way
the time is told. At certain intervals the person in
charge writes down the hour on a piece of board, and
exhibits it in a conspicuous place outside the tower; the
water is taken out of the fourth tank when full and
put back into the uppermost one. Thus the operation
continues from day to day, and this has been going on
for 500 or 600 years.
The city wall also was worthy of notice; doubtless
it was very strong in former days, but it would not be
of much use now against modern artillery.    The view GRA VES   WITH A PROSPECT.
of the city was very good from this point, and turning
the other way we saw the cemetery situated outside its
limits on the steep hill-sides. On the higher ground
there were thousands of little headstones marking the
Chinamen's graves; but the lower portions were unoccupied, for Celestials have the greatest horror of a wet
grave, therefore the higher the spot the greater the
value attached to it. The well-to-do classes have a
stone or brick-built tomb, the exterior being always
somewhat of horseshoe form. This horror of a wet
grave is not, however, the only reason why a high
situation is chosen; the idea also is to secure a good
view. In fact when a Chinaman has purchased his
burial-place he claims the whole prospect before him;
so much so that I know as a fact that at a place called
Foo-chow, where a line of telegraph-wires put up by a
private company ran in front of a Chinese cemetery, the
natives combined and destroyed the wires, and refused
to allow them to be re-erected; giving as their reason
that they had purchased a monopoly of the view, and
would tolerate no obstruction of it—not even a telegraph-wire ! rather a curious idea, especially as the
Chinese are buried in quicklime. It must, however, be
borne in mind that the Chinese are strongly opposed to
any innovations, such as telegraphs, railways, &c.; in
which respect (as indeed in almost every other) they 254
form a striking contrast to the Japanese. This dislike
to anything fresh may very possibly have had something to do with their anxiety for the comfort of their
deceased relatives.
We ascended the five-story Pagoda in order to see
the view, and noticed another Pagoda in the distance,
but had not time to visit it.    We returned through the
Tartar quarter, and went into the law courts, where
some prisoners were being tried.    The trial was quite
worth seeing; the court was an open space only partially
roofed over, the judge sat by a table at which was an
official taking notes; before him were the prisoners, five
in number.    They remained on their knees the whole
time, with their heads bowed  almost .to the ground;
and everything the judge said had to be repeated to
them  through   an interpreter,  for  although  all  were
Chinese, they spoke a different dialect from the judge.
Both they and the other prisoners awaiting their turn
for trial had chains on their arms and legs.    Next we
visited a prison, in which the poor men were undergoing
a punishment  called   "Kangs,"   or  "canques,"  which
consisted of a large board, about three feet square, with
a hole in the centre just large enough for a man's neck.
Through this the head was placed.    They stretched out
their hands to us, hoping for presents: to one I gave
a cigar, to another a few sens, and finally shook hands JADE. 255
with a third, or they would soon have had all my loose
cash. Another prison we were taken to see was more
crowded than the first-named, and numbers of hands
were held out to us through the wooden bars. I
divided all the change I had left among those poor
fellows, many of whom I was told were condemned to
death. My informant added that had I been in among
them they would not be at all particular what they did
to me as a stranger, and I should be just as likely to be
murdered as not.
During the whole of the day we were busy shopping
whenever we had the opportunity, and I invested, among
other things, in some nice ivory carving, some old
bronzes, and a couple of old gongs. The system of
bargaining is very bad and somewhat trying to the
patience; the tradesmen ask double, and even three
times the sum they are really prepared to take:—for
instance, I bought a bronze for five dollars for which
fifteen had at first been asked. The jade market was
crowded with people, and I saw there quantities of
ornaments made of this stone, which is rather transparent and of a whitish or greenish shade according to
value. It is a favourite ornament with the Chinese
and is much prized by them ; in fact it is looked upon
by them in the light of a charm, or a sacred stone. It
is very expensive, but I did not admire it much, and 256
thought the wonder was where the buyers were to come
from to get through all the stock exhibited. Our
steamer set off on her return journey to Hong Kong in
the evening, and we returned to the quay in time to
catch her. Canton is very interesting, and is well worth
a visit, but a short stay is quite sufficient, and we were
glad to get away without any mishap. As we had set
off on our sight-seeing before 7 a.m. we had had a good
long day of it. We reached Hong Kong the following
morning, when I went to Government House, to stay a
few days with the Governor, Sir William des Vceux. ^
A Pleasant December—An Unhealthy Settlement—A Generous Reason
for a Concession—A Lofty Peak and a Happy Valley—A Tasteful
Cemetery—An Ineffective Squadron—Chinese Manners and Customs—Curious Contrasts—Why the Fish at Hong Kong are unwholesome—A Serious Illness—Great Need of Trained Nurses
—A Champagne Consuming Settlement—A Compulsory Turkish
Bath—Increasing Illness—Ceylon—Tea and Cinchona—Coro-
mandels—Cinghalese, Coromandels, and Yeddahs—Remains cf
Ancient Race—A Hospitable Bungalow.
The climate of Hong Kong is warm and enervating;
at the time of my visit (December, which is considered
to be the pleasantest month of the year there,) the
weather was beautiful, quite cloudless, with a hot sun,
and always a gentle monsoon blowing. It must be
terribly hot and close in the summer, and I was told
that a kind of haze then hangs over the town for weeks
together, for there is no wind to blow it away.    The
O 7 J
place is, however, sometimes visited by typhoons, which
do immense damage to the shipping, and often unroof
many of the houses on the Peak.    A typhoon in Japan 258
and China is equivalent to a cyclone in India, and is
equally to be dreaded. Although much improved from
a sanitary point of view by judicious tree planting,
Hong Kong is still an unhealthy place ; this is attributed
in a great measure to the existence of a substratum of
decomposed granite, which becomes exposed whenever
works are commenced and soil and stones removed.
This infects the atmosphere and is almost sure to
produce fever.
All the mountains of Hong Kong island are covered
with plantations, and shade trees grow luxuriantly
along the streets. The roads and paths are kept up
by the Government, and are patterns of neatness, being
swept by coolies every morning. They are mostly
made of some sort of hard composition, and are apt to
become very slippery; but the downpour of rain is so
severe here at certain times of the year that unless
made in this manner they are liable to be washed away.
The harbour is a magnificent one, and often as many
O 7 J
as 40 or 45 large steamers are to be seen lying at anchor.
As I have said before, the town is situated on the side
of a hill, and the shade trees planted along its admirably-
'kept roads afford a charming shelter from the burning
rays of the sun, but somehow, beautiful as it is, the
whole place has an artificial appearance. It has been
called the Englishman's grave, and I fear still deserves VICTORIA  PEAK.
the'name in some measure, though now more healthy
than  formerly.    The Chinese  Government  handed  it
over to the English in 1843, having then to make some
concession or other, and deciding on this place (so it is
said) because  of its  unhealthiness, and  thinking  the
Britisher would be sure to die.
I went one day with a friend to the top of Victoria
Peak (1600 feet high).    We had four coolies each to
carry us up in palanquins, but after all we preferred
walking the greater part of the distance; a pretty stiff
climb, though the road was in beautiful order.    From
the summit a very fine view is obtainable of Hong Kong
harbour and of the surrounding country; the Governor's
summer-residence is situated near the highest peak.    A
tramway was in course of construction a part of the
way up the peak, but at the time of my visit it was not
in working order.
Another day a friend drove me out to see the " Happy
Valley" race-cour3e, which is well situated, quite flat,
and surrounded by low mountains thickly covered with
young plantations.   I am told that the races held here are
very good ones.    On our way home we went to look at
the cemetery, which is tastefully laid out, and planted
with a profusion of trees, shrubs, and flowers; altogether
one of the prettiest I  have  ever seen.    Numbers  of
British soldiers, and  also a  good  many sailors,  have
s 2 260
there been laid to rest,  having fallen victims to the
unhealthiness of the climate.
Another afternoon the Governor took me in his
steam-launch for a cruise in the harbour, when I was
much interested in seeing a Chinese squadron anchored
.there, consisting of four new ironclads and a steam
torpedo boat just arrived from England. Any one of
these new ships would be more than a match for half
a dozen of the antiquated vessels comprising our Chinese
fleet. As our vessels arrived in harbour during my
stay, I had an opportunity of seeing them all, and
I fear, if the Chinese were to have a blow at them,
they would be knocked to pieces in no time.
A great part of Hong Kong is, of course, thoroughly
English; but the Chinese quarter is a large one, and
a few words on their peculiarities (taken from an
American publication, Due West) may be amusing, contrasting directly as they do with our own manners and
I The Chinese mariners' compass does not point to
the North Pole, but to the South : that is, the index
is placed on the opposite side of the needle. When
Chinamen meet each other in the street, instead of
mutually grasping hands, they shake their own hands.
The men wear skirts and the women wear pants. The
men wear their hair as long as it will grow ; the women 1
bind theirs up as snug as possible. The dressmakers
are not women, but men. The spoken language is
never written, and the written language is never
spoken. In reading a book the Chinaman begins at the
end and reads backwards; all notes in the book appear
at the top of the page in place of the bottom, as with
us. White is the mourning colour, not black; surnames
precede the given names; vessels are launched sideways, not end-ways ; in mounting a horse the Chinese
do so from the off-side. At dinner we commence the
meal with soup and fish, they reverse the order and
begin with the dessert. Grown-up men fly kites, and
boys look on admiringly; our bridesmaids are young
and dressed in white, theirs are old women clad in
black; and so on."
Fish and vegetables in China are both very plentiful ; but, as in Japan, they are singularly flavourless.
The fish caught in Hong Kong harbour should be
avoided, as they are coarse feeders; and their feeding-
ground may possibly have been the receptacle for the dead
bodies of children and others, especially in one particular
locality. This is not peculiar to Hong Kong, but is the
case all over China; as among its teeming population
many surplus children are made away with yearly.
I cannot say that I have a pleasant recollection of
Hong  Kong,  notwithstanding   all  the   kindness  and
1 mmmm
hospitality shown me there. For some days I did not
feel at all well, and in the end I had to give in, and
was a prisoner to my room and bed for more than a
fortnight, suffering from what the doctor at first feared
might be typhoid fever, but which proved to be Chinese
malarial fever, probably caught going up the Pearl
River at night, or perhaps through this unhealthy
climate. No nurse was procurable ; the Governor and
his secretaries and aide-de-camp were most kind, but
of course they had their own duties to attend to. I
was waited on by Chinese coolies, who were certainly
attentive, and did all in their power for me; but they
could not in any way take the place of a nurse, and
had my illness taken a more serious turn, I do not
know what would have been done. In fact, some kind
of a nursing establishment is a serious need in Hong
Kong. In this large city of some 200,000 inhabitants,
not a single trained nurse to go out to private families
is to be had for love or money. Let those philan-
thropical ladies and other persons who devote their
lives to rendering valuable help in ameliorating the
condition of people in so many parts of the world,
give a passing thought to Hong Kong, and start an
institution for trained nurses 'there. It contains a
large mixed population, partly European and partly
Chinese ;   but so far as the European portion is con- GREAT NEED  OF  TRAINED  NURSES. 263
cerned, no assistance of a  trained  character or  home
nursing can be obtained  in  case of illness, although
the  place  is  recognized as  unhealthy,  and   cases   of
fever are very frequent.    It must be remembered that
Hong Kong is a wealthy place, well  able to support
such an institution; (in proof of which I may mention
that  its  merchants    are  reported   to   consume   more
champagne in the course of a year than is grown in
one season in the whole of France;)   so  the  undertaking I advocate need not be of a charitable nature
only, but fair wages could and ought to be earned if
a proper nursing establishment were founded,  and  I
am sure it would meet with hearty support from the
European  residents, from   the   Governor  downwards;
If   these   lines  should   meet   the   eye  of any  person
who   may  in   consequence   turn  his  or  her  energies
to supply this great want, I feel some good will have
been done by my thus drawing attention to the subject.
After three weeks the  doctor recommended a sea
voyage as the best chance of getting rid of the fever,
so I set off at last on board the German Lloyd steamer
Bay em, intending to   go  straight   back  to   England,
and heartily glad to leave Hong Kong.    The Bay em
was a fine  steamer  of about 4500  tons burden, and
very fast;   the passengers  mostly  Germans,  and the
food, I dare say, was well qualified to meet their wishes,
111 264
but it was hardly suited to an invalid. There was
also a band on board, which played usually twice a
day, and at meals besides; and this I found very trying. As we neared Singapore, the weather became
extremely hot, almost unbearable to me in my weak
state, and besides, the fever returned.
.We reached Singapore on; the fourth day after
leaving Hong Kong, having run 1268 miles in that time
—a very creditable performance. We lay in harbour all
day, and the heat was intense; such a steamy, hot
sort of an atmosphere, with rain at intervals ; just like
a vapour or Turkish bath. I was not well enough to
go ashore, but lay on deck watching the native boys
paddling about in their little canoes round the vessel,
waiting on the chance of a passenger throwing out
coins into the sea for them to dive after; when they
would plunge in and bring them up in their mouths.
There were also many boats filled with beautiful
shells collected in the neighbourhood. The country
round Singapore is well wooded, with high hills in the
background; the banks become flatter near the shore.
On leaving Singapore the weather was perfectly
still and very hot, but all the same a trifle cooler
than in harbour, and I felt the comfort of the deck
cabin to which I had been moved, thanks to the
civility of the captain.    We steamed along with the ARRIVAL AT COLOMBO.
Malay Peninsula to our right, and the island of Sumatra
(belonging to the Dutch) on our left; the latter appeared
mountainous and very well wooded.
Before leaving Singapore, the doctor on board told
me that in my weak state I could not stand the journey
home, and should not reach England alive; and acting
7 O ' O
on his very strongly expressed opinion and advice, I
reluctantly agreed to land at Colombo, to stay a month
in Ceylon at some sanatorium, to try and recruit my
strength before continuing my journey home. I therefore telegraphed from Singapore to a cousin of mine
in Ceylon 1 to announce my approach, and I believe it
to be due to him and his good wife that I ever returned
to England at all. The distance from Singapore to
Colombo (Ceylon) is 1570 miles. This we accomplished
in four days and a half. There I was met by my
cousin, and with his aid and that of the captain I was
assisted down the side of the vessel and ferried ashore.
I was very much surprised at Ceylon; its climate
varies very much in the different parts according to
the level above the sea. Colombo was intensely hot,
even early in January, and all the coast-line a few
miles inland is notorious for malarial fevers, as in fact
is the case more or less with the whole island. But
the higher one goes among the hills, the healthier it
1 Mr. G. A. Talbot, of Wallaha, Lindula. 266
is;  and inland the country is very mountainous, and
of so irregular and rugged  a  character that no on6
who   has  not  been  there  can  quite  picture it  from
description.    I  proceeded  by train up  the  valley to
Talawakells, my cousin's station, about 80 miles inland
from Colombo.    For the whole distance the scenery was
all much alike, consisting of a succession of valleys*
where  almost unclothed   natives  were  working  their
fields  of paddy  (i. e.  rice) under  a  broiling  sun  in
January; while every bank and hill-top was cultivated
by planters (mostly English) who had demolished the
ancient bush   and   planted   coffee   instead,  till   that
industry failed  a  few  years  ago, on  account  of the
shrub being attacked by some disease.    Tea and cinchona (quinine) are now being substituted for coffee,
and both are doing well, and proving a great success.
Tea seems to be an ever-growing crop, for the pickers
go over the same ground every ten days during the
season.    Those employed for this purpose are mostly
natives of the Coromandel coast, and their almost total
nudity is striking to a stranger;  yet they carry it off
with such perfect innocence as they stand with arms
akimbo, watching you with their bright eyes.     They
are lithe and straight-limbed, well-made people;   but
somehow you feel you are amongst a race who live,
as it were, like butterflies;  nothing to  be  afraid  of, NATIVES  OF  CEYLON.
nothing to hope for; with no anxiety for the morrow,
and requiring neither fuel nor clothes—nor (I had
almost added) food, a little rice being all they care
for. Yet such a life is not to be envied, and one cannot
but feel a kind of pity for a people who appear neither
to think nor care for anything beyond the passing
moment, and to be perfectly contented with such an
existence. These Coromandel people are fast supplanting the Cinghalese, who are the older race in Ceylon.
The pay they earn is about 9d. a day, but they are
more Industrious and energetic than the Cinghalese,
who belong to an ancient race now very much
degenerated, and are extremely indolent; and this
failing is encouraged by the fertility of the country,
which, in the lowlands, much resembles that of Japan.
Each native family has its own plot of ground, and
(what is most curious) often only one wife amongst
all the brothers, in order to keep the property from
being divided.
The Cinghalese are usually looked upon as the native
race of Ceylon; but they, like the Tamil coolies,
originally came from the mainland. In the low country
of Ceylon are the remains of vast cities, which must
have been built many years before Christ by a people
who have now entirely disappeared, leaving no other
trace of their existence  than  these ruins   of almost 268
unknown antiquity, which plainly show that they must
have been a race immeasurably superior to the present
inhabitants. In some parts of the island, also, are to
be found a few specimens of another race, called
Veddahs, who seem to approach as nearly as possible
to the genuine wild man; they are very small and
quite naked, with long matted hair reaching to the
ground; they have no houses, but live in hollow trees,
caves, and holes; their food consists of game, honey,
and wild fruits. Being, however, very shy, and also
very few in number, they are but rarely met with.
The bungalow where I was fortunate enough to find
a welcome, and where I received more kindness and
care than I can describe, is situated some 4000 or 5000
feet above the sea, built entirely of wood, surrounded
by tea, coffee, and cinchona plantations, and the garden
filled with all kinds of flowering shrubs and plants of
varieties only seen carefully tended under glass in
England. The house contained dining and drawing-
rooms, and some dozen bed-rooms; but the great
feature was the large and spacious verandah, comfortably
furnished with arm-chairs, sofas, and tables, and more
used by the inmates than any other room in the house.
Behind the bungalow was the stable, where the I horse-
keeper" also lives. The factory, where the tea-leaves
are dried and prepared, and packed previous to export- A  ROSE-WALK.
ation to England and elsewhere, was about a mile
distant. All through the estate surrounding a planter's
house continuous footpaths are to be found; one in
particular at the place at which I was staying was
called the rose-walk, and was planted on each side with
rose-trees, which here, I believe, grow to perfection. 27°
Life on a Planter's Estate—Quinine—Coffee Disease—Cinchona—
Gentlemen Settlers—Variation of Climate—Ceylon Tea to supersede Chinese—Increase of Fever—Neura Elyia—A Miserable
Journey—A Native Nurse—Convalescence.
Each planter's estate forms, as it were, a separate
community, for on a plantation of say 300 acres
about 150 hands will be required, and every morning
a man goes round sounding the "tom-tom" at 4.30
a.m. to awaken the settlement; this takes the place of
clocks or watches. One morning, however, during my
stay I heard the "tom-tom" at 3.30 instead of 4.30,
the watchman having made the mistake of an hour in
commencing his morning walk. The hours at a planter's
bungalow are different from ours in England; tea or
O O 7
some light refreshment is served at 6 a.m., breakfast
at 11 a.m., and dinner at 7.30 p.m. After his morning
tea, the planter goes to his mill or plantation, and
returns before 11 a.m. ; at that time the heat is very
great, and he spends a considerable portion of the rest MALARIAL FEVERS.
of the day in his house or in the verandah, and does
not go out again until 4.30 or 5 p.m. in the cool of the
evening. During my stay I used (when able to do so)
to go out for half an hour's walk at 7 a.m. ; but by 7.30
the sun would be at its zenith, and I always had to beat
a hasty retreat. This extreme heat is decidedly a great
drawback to enjoyment in Ceylon. Sitting all day
quietly in the verandah of a pleasant bungalow out of
the rainy season is delightful enough; but if one has
to go about in the heat and see after one's business,
there is always the risk of malaria; and, as I have said,
fevers are very prevalent, especially in the low-lying
lands about eight or ten miles away from the coast.
Those who have occasion to visit this or any other
country subject to malarial fevers should never be without quinine in their possession; and to travellers out
of reach of a doctor, and recovering from an attack, I
would say—when the fever leaves you, continue taking-
five grains of quinine a day for a fortnight, otherwise
the chances are it will return. I mention this because
I fancy this is not generally known to English travellers.
The majority of the estates in Ceylon are in the
hands of Englishmen, but many are non-resident on
account of the climate, and children have to be sent
home to England at the age of five or six, as is the
case in India, or they become unhealthy.    A few years 272 THE  OLD FAR EAST.
ago the value of the land was much greater than it is
at present. When first English planters settled here,
nothing but coffee was attempted; and until the
appearance of leaf-disease in this plant the colony was
very flourishing, and a good deal of money was made.
The disease is easily distinguishable, for if on turning up
a coffee leaf a yellow spot is visible underneath, it is a
sure sign that the plant is attacked.
Since it became so prevalent estates have gone down
rapidly in value, and many of the settlers have been
ruined.     Those,  however,  who  have  had the  pluck,
energy, and above all the means, to stick to their work
and adapt themselves to the altered circumstances, are
now meeting with their reward.    They substituted tea-
plants for the infected coffee-plants, and between these
shrubs  put in  cinchona  (quinine);   the  tall, upright
stems of which are allowed to grow to about 15 feet high
before being cut down.    This is done every seven years
—much as we might cut down ash-poles; during the
seven years' growth the bark (which constitutes  the
value of the plant) is stripped off yearly, and then the
cutting-down process  is  repeated.     There  is another
method of growing cinchona, by which they do not
cut the  tree down at  all, but  merely shave off the
outside bark which contains all the sulphates, &c, and
then cover it up with moss.    The bark then renews, GENTLEMEN SETTLERS.
and is ready to be scraped again in two or three years ;
but it will easily be understood that this continual
scraping gradually weakens the tree so much that in
the end it kills it altogether.
As I have said, the centre of Ceylon is all mountainous, converging as it were to a single high summit
(Adam's Peak) ; and over all this high ground tea and
cinchona planting is becoming universal. The ancient
jungle still remains, however, on some of the plains,
and I saw a considerable number of tree trunks (mostly
felled) still left in some of the plantations; but these
are quickly disappearing, for although firing is little
needed in this warm climate, the factory furnaces for
drying the tea-leaves have, of course, to be kept going.
I was much struck by the number of gentlemen
settled in Ceylon; and, besides this, an estate owner
often, if not always, employs an assistant; partly
because he really requires help with so many hands to
manage—say, perhaps, 150 men, women, and children
on a single estate of 300 acres (for wages are low and
the people not great workers); partly also for the sake
of the companionship in his bungalow, for the spending
so much time in the house as is necessitated by the
climate must be dull work for a man alone, and young
planters cannot afford to keep a wife. These assistants
often pay a premium, so as to get this training to the 274
tea plantation business; and in the course of a year or
two they are fit to take situations as managers or sub-
managers on the estates of absentee landlords, or perhaps
in the end acquire plantations of their own. In the
course of all my travels I have never come across a
country which offers similar advantages to gentlemen's
sons, so long as a man's health will stand the climate;
but the hot burning sun, the risk of malarial fever, and
the general unhealthiness of the climate (except in
certain favoured districts)  constitute grave drawbacks.
From what I have said, it will clearly be seen that
Ceylon is in no way suited to our English agricultural
labourer; the climate, the style of living, and the very
low rate of wages are all against it. It may seem
scarcely necessary to say this; but many people have
not travelled, and have, perhaps, had no opportunity of
hearing anything about this beautiful island—an island
which is well suited as a field of labour for Asiatic
coolies, but is perfectly unsuited to European workmen.
The climate appears to vary considerably, as will be
seen from the following table :—
Jan., Feb., and March .    .    .    Hot sun, and dry cold nights.
April and May Hot, showery, and often muggy.
June, July, and August   .    .    South-west wind and rain—often cold
in the day-time and windy.
September Same as above, but less wind and rain.
Oct., Nov., and December     .    N.E.   winds;   mornings bright   and
hot: rain usually in the afternoon. CEYLON TEA.
December and January are the best months for
enjoyment. The rainfall at Dimbula (near which place
I was staying) amounts to about 95 inches in the year;
this falls mainly in the months of June, July, October,
and November ; but without this heavy rainfall neither
7 J
the tea nor the  cinchona  crops would grow ;   coffee,
however, does not require so much moisture.
Now that tea is prospering there, Ceylon is looking
up from a commercial point of view ; and it is to be
hoped that those who risked their capital in the good
days and met with disappointment and failure on
account of the appearance of the coffee disease, may
now be able to recoup themselves, and be rewarded for
the many years of anxiety they have experienced.
Although said not to be so good as the best Darjeeling
tea in India, Ceylon tea is to my mind excellent; it is
making rapid strides in popularity, and is now much
appreciated in Europe, and finds a ready sale in the
London market. The exportation of Chinese tea is
falling off, partly from exhaustion of the soil, and want
of care in the preparation generally, and also because it
is loaded with an export duty of 2\d. per lb. As to
the Japanese teas, I have already alluded to them. At
present they are all green teas, and not liked in England;
but it must be remembered that black and green teas
both come from the same plant, the difference being
T  2 276
only in the age of the leaf, and in its preparation.
Japanese tea, however, has, besides, a peculiar flavour,
and I do not think it will ever be largely consumed in
Europe; but its proper market is America, for it can
easily be imported there, being considerably nearer than
either China, India, or Ceylon, and the countries being
connected by a direct line of steamers; besides that,
as I mentioned before, it suits the American palate.
For every reason, therefore, it may be safely said
that Indian and Ceylon teas have a great future before
them; and in my opinion it is probable that they
will speedily supersede Chinese tea in the European
Whilst staying at the bungalow above described, the
fever from which I had before been suffering returned
with great severity, and by the doctor's advice I was
taken to the rising sanatorium of Neura Elyia, situated
some 7000 feet above the sea-level, in the centre of'
Ceylon. But I cannot give any description of that part
of the island, for I was far too ill to take the slightest
interest in the place. In the end it was decided by the
doctors that the only chance of saving my life was to
try the effect of sea-air, and to start me off at once
on the voyage to England. Never shall I forget the
misery I suffered in being carried on a bed by twelve
coolies from Neura Elyia to the nearest railway station, A   NATIVE NURSE.
five miles off. They appeared to be all of different
heights, and to my fancy seemed almost purposely to
keep out of step. When they had to quicken their
various paces in order to catch the train, the way
I was rocked about on their shoulders was simply
dreadful, and by the time we reached the station,
and I was deposited on the platform (for I was too
weak- to walk or stand), I felt almost shaken to
At Colombo my cousin engaged a native nurse (the
head-attendant at Colombo Hospital) to accompany me
to England. I was carried on board the s.s. Brindisi,
and laid in a deck cabin, very kindly placed at my
disposal by an almost total stranger; a gentleman to
whom I cannot express too much gratitude, and who
was most friendly and helpful to me during the journey
home. The native engaged for me proved himself to
be a most attentive and efficient nurse, and the fever
from which I had been suffering intermittently for a
period of six weeks, most providentially suddenly left
me a couple of hours previous to the time of sailing,
although I had been delirious the night before with a
temperature up to 104°. I mention this to convey
some idea of the eccentricities of Chinese malarial fever,
of which I had had a very severe attack, reaching at
times a temperature of 105°, and losing over two stone 178
in weight in the course of my illness ; and I will merely
add that I am thankful to say after leaving Ceylon I
experienced no further return of it, but gradually somewhat regained strength during the voyage; though, of
course, it was weeks before I could walk or even stand
without assistance, and months before I was really
anything like myself again. FROM COLOMBO  TO ADEN
A Voyage of 7000 Miles—Aden—An Immense Cinder—Somali Boys
—The Yellow Flag—The Suez Canal—The Electric Light—Three
Acres without a Cow—Concluding Words—Advice to Intending
Emigrants — Need of Faster Steamers — The British Empire
" making heard its Drum-heat over all the World 1—A Warning
already Fulfilled.
From Colombo to London by sea, vid the Peninsular and
Oriental route, is 7058 miles. There is little to be said
about it which is not already known to the general
reader; and when one has to accomplish the journey
as an invalid unable to walk, there is still less to relate.
I will, however, just touch upon the outlines of the
journey, so as to make my description of my tour round
the world (a distance of about 25,000 miles) complete.
Our first run was one of 2093 miles from
Colombo to Aden, which occupied seven days. Aden
was visible from a great distance; upon approaching
it we found it a most barren, desolate-looking place;
it is on a bold promontory about 20-00 feet high, with 280
not a blade of grass to be seen anywhere, but all simply
one upheaval of lava. It seems strangely unconnected
with the surrounding country, and forms a complete
contrast to the flat lands of Arabia, which one can see
stretching far away into the distance. I did not notice
a vestige of grass, nor a single tree. The whole place
looked like an immense cinder; only a few houses
showed that it was inhabited, these being occupied
mostly by Jews, Parsees, and French, and a very few
The town of Aden is on the opposite side of the
promontory to the coaling-station. Contrary to my
expectations, a pleasant breeze was blowing all day in
harbour, but my friend told me that on land he had
been almost suffocated with the heat; and this was
early in February. A quantity of native boys (Somali
by birth), from the coast of Africa, came in their canoes
alongside our vessel; and, having clambered up her
sides, took headers into the sea for coins thrown in
by the passengers for them to dive after. Coaling
being completed, washing the decks commenced ; fifteen
or twenty Lascars handling each hose. For the moment
the upper deck had become deserted, my nurse had
disappeared, and I was alone in my deck-chair, from
which I was too weak to move. The Lascars approached
with their hose, and I was beginning to wonder what IN QUARANTINE.
would become of me under the circumstances, when
happily the first officer appeared, and taking me up
in his arms, deposited me, chair and all, on the top of
a neighbouring skylight, from which exalted position
I was able to witness the completion of | cleaning
decks," out of reach of the abundant supply of water
turned on in every direction.
The next run was from Aden to Suez, a distance
of 1308 miles. We passed the island of Perim, acquired
by England some years ago, and Sokotra, more recently
annexed ; and then steamed on up the Red Sea, which
(fortunately for me) was cool and pleasant, and very
different from what I had anticipated ; for the heat
in the Red Sea is usually nearly unbearable at almost
all seasons of the year.
We reached Suez after five days at sea, and were
immediately put in quarantine for 24 hours, on account
of our ship having touched at Madras, at which place
there was cholera. I was told that this was usually
the case there, more or less, but that Madras was
not worse in this respect than Calcutta or Bombay.
Anyhow, into quarantine we went, and the little yellow
flag was hoisted to prevent any strangers approaching
us until further orders.
Suez, viewed from a distance, has nothing to recommend it, but stands on the flat with desert all around. 282
The approach to the entrance to the canal is rendered
interesting by the fact that we have all heard so much
about it; otherwise it is not remarkable. The length of
the canal from end to end (i. e. from Suez to Port Said)
is 87 miles. Its width varies in different parts, but the
depth of channel is not sufficient to allow of vessels passing each other, so every few miles there are stations and
I tying-up I places. These are connected by telegraph,
and are broader places where ships can wait to allow
others to pass. It is a great nuisance to get stopped in
this way for an hour or more at a time, and I was glad
to learn that it is proposed to widen the canal, for the
traffic certainly seems to warrant this expenditure. The
pace usually averages from five to six miles an hour; and
thanks to the electric light, vessels provided with the
necessary apparatus can now travel by night, so in this
way much time can be saved.
The canal itself is not particularly interesting after
one has once realized the immensity of the work; it
is very much like a magnified open ditch, and passes
through nothing but desert. If any discontented
Englishman in search of three acres without a cow
should care to come so far, he will find plenty of land
to select from along the banks of the Suez Canal. In
some places the canal is very narrow with high banks,
in others it widens out into a lagoon, where the course ARRIVAL  AT PORT SAID. 283
is marked by buoys, or it passes through a large or
small lake, the Great Bitter Lake being the most
important. The charge for passing a vessel of 3553
• tons (such as the one I was travelling by) through the
canal is about £700 each way, every vessel being
charged according to tonnage.
At last we arrived at Port Said, a town which has
the reputation of being the largest coaling station, and
the unenviable notoriety of being one of the wickedest
places in the world. From here there are various
routes home. Some people take the shortest one, vid
Brindisi and through Italy to England, others land
at Naples, Genoa, or Marseilles, and some prefer the
long sea route by Gibraltar and the Bay of Biscay.
Whichever route is adopted, a journey round the world,
such as the one I have attempted to describe, does not
fall far short of 25,000 miles, and the route I adopted
came to about 30,000.
My narrative is now completed, and I trust that the
hopes expressed in the preface to this book may in some
measure be fulfilled, and that the portions referring to
the agricultural lands of Canada and the States may be
found useful to intending emigrants.
It was a disappointment to me, on account of my
illness, that I could not further extend my knowledge
of our colonies by a visit to Australia and New Zealand 2S4
the comparison between the Antipodes and North
America would, I am sure, have been interesting and
instructive—at least to myself; and from the introductions I had with me, and the many personal friends I
already have in those Colonies, I should have had every
opportunity of gaining useful information.
The tide of English emigration (so far as our Colonies
are concerned) is now flowing mostly in the direction of
Canada; but the more I see of that country, the more
convinced I am that it is not one in which an agricul-
turist can make anything resembling a large fortune ;
neither do I consider the prairie farmer's a suitable life
for our I young gentlemen 1—so many of whom are on
the look-out for a profession, and honestly wish for
employment. With a few exceptions here and there,
the general tendency of the gentleman's son settling in
Manitoba or the North-West is to affect the ordinary
emigrant in dress and manners ; and the task is easily
accomplished. The enforced isolation from people of
his own standing and education, caused by the circumstances of his life, also tends to a like result. The
country is, however, admirably adapted for the sons of
our yeomen farmers and labourers,—for those of them,
I mean, who cannot readily get employment in England,
but yet are good, industrious workmen. To them
Canada offers attractions in the form of constant em- ADVICE  TO  INTENDING EMIGRANTS. 285
ployment and possible independence in the near future,
in a healthy (though at certain seasons a very cold)
climate. With a little capital a man can make a fair
start at once ; if not possessed of this he can get certain
employment at good wages for six months of the year,
and for the other six he must take his chance, for
employment then cannot be reckoned on with any
certainty. A prudent man, however, will engage himself for the twelvemonth, and will be content to take
a lower rate of wages for the longer term, and the
certainty of winter work.
I would not recommend emigration to any man
over 40 years of age; nor do I advise it for any one
who can see his way to getting employment here. It
has, to my mind, been too much the fashion to
encourage good workmen to go, leaving the second-
rate man at home. This is a mistake; for we neither
do nor ought to wish to part with our best and most
energetic men, the backbone of our country ; rather
should we endeavour in every way to induce them to
remain here. A good workman will find England,
with its institutions, its comforts; and its climate, better
than any colony in the world. Let him, therefore,
remain contentedly at home. But when it becomes a
question of the next generation it is a different matter,
and I advise him then to make inquiries and start some $86
of his family elsewhere whilst young, for of course as
the population increases, and machinery is more and
more used, England cannot hold us all; and we do not
3 O *
want to reduce ourselves to the level of- Japan without
its contentment and (at present) happy innocence. To
young married men who are resolved to emigrate I
would say—Go out first by yourself early in the year,
leaving your wife at home, and return late in the
autumn and then decide, after having gained experience.
Enough money can be earned during the summer
months to maintain yourself and also to pay for your
return passage, and this plan may be the cheapest in
the end. The choice of a home for life is a serious
consideration, and, if possible, every one should see and
judge for himself. Many a man who goes out with his
wife and family, attracted by the too highly coloured
descriptions of the country, so often published by
interested writers, finds himself landed with but little
in his pocket, and with no possibility of returning to
England if he should meet with disappointment and
wish to do so.
Lastly, I am one of those who believe that it would
be well if some of our young English gentlemen would
turn their attention to practical English farming; and,
when thoroughly instructed in the art, would take to
some  of our vacant English  farms, now mainly de-
predated in value on account of the prevalent low
prices, and for want of competition.
If they would work there themselves as they would
have to do in the Colonies, they would, I believe, have
a better chance of getting on than in many of the out-
of-the-way secluded colonial districts in which they now
bury themselves, and in which they may perhaps aspire
to making themselves a sort of a home by entering
into the happy state of matrimony with some half-breed
lady (by no means an uncommon occurrence), and then
being doomed for ever to exile from the old country.
Young lady half-breeds and motherly squaws are quite
alive to the advantages of an English connection, and
although quite respectable in themselves (so far as I
know), might feel a little out of place in an English
drawing-room. Yet they look upon an English husband
as a great catch—and young fellows, I believe, sometimes find it difficult to elude their fascinations ! What
it may be with a half-breed I cannot say, but with an
Indian it is a well-known fact that the white-face always
descends to the level of the woman; she never rises to
the level of the man.
What is now required is fast steam communication
between the Mother Country and Canada, and on from
British Columbia to New Zealand and Australia, as well
as to Japan and China.   The iron link, 1 e. the Canadian 283
Pacific Railway, is already there, and is, in my opinion,
the best made and best managed line in America.
Admirable as the Allan Line of steamships between
Liverpool and Canada have always been (past services
are soon forgotten), it is hardly up to the requirements
of the present day. I should be extremely sorry to
see the Allan Line disappear, having received very
much kindness and civility from the Company, but
some reorganization and faster steamers are now wanted.
The great bulk of English travellers would then avail
themselves much more of this route, instead of, as at
present, travelling vid New York, which, while in point
of mileage a longer sea route, is actually shorter in point
of time; and so far as emigrants are concerned, many
who use the New York route get .enticed by the U.S.
agents to adopt the States for their home, and never
reach Canada at all.1
It is impossible to make a journey round the world
without being struck by two or three broad geographical
facts, one of which is the vast proportion of water in
comparison with the dry land; and, again, how small
the quantity of cultivated land is when compared with
the uncultivated or worthless tracts in existence. The
immense power of the British Empire and the tremendous responsibilities thereupon ensuing are also forcibly
1 See Appendix F.
brought to one's notice. For example, take the route I
followed. The English flag could have carried me the
whole way, and wherever a commanding situation was
to be found, that spot was always under the control of
England, or of those of English descent—excepting of
course the Japanese empire. The tendency to emigration is stronger and of older date with us than with
any other race, and English settlements are to be found
everywhere. Great as our responsibilities are, it is
satisfactory to find that wherever the Britisher is
located, there order is sure to follow; and no other
nation can thus far claim to compete with our commercial men. It has often been said that French is the
language of diplomacy; it may now with equal truth
be said that English is becoming the universal language
for commerce and telegraphy. It behoves us, however,
to bestir ourselves, or we shall lose this supremacy
among the nations. The Germans are increasing everywhere, and their numerous and heavily subsidized
merchant steamers, and the lower pay for which their
artisans and clerks will work, are alike becoming sources
of anxiety and loss to our interests, both in old England
and all over the civilized world.
It is a curious fact that while these chapters have
been in course of publication, the warning I gave in
Chapter XVI., to the effect that, specially friendly as 290
the Japanese were to the English, we must be on
our guard, or another Power would be beforehand with
us in that country, is about to be realized. News has
lately reached England that the Americans have on their
own account, and independently of the other signatory
Powers, signed a Supplementary Treaty of Commerce
with Japan, on February 20th last.1 Its terms have not
yet been announced; but' the result will prove to be
that Americans will be able to settle and trade in any
part of Japan, and will be allowed to travel anywhere
without passports; whereas the other treaty powers
(England included) have done nothing to revise the
original arrangement, and are therefore still confined to
the treaty ports and treaty limits.
1 See Appendix C. rntmrn
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BayofBiscay \]j$F
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Gulf of   J\ ".^Jfeiamai* !
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H i
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•luznl'vmucjdeT.'- SASTIAOflr.£5   r.
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Strait ofMafflalhaen*%£^&klFv£gp
CapeVerd^I^   j
^Georgia!. ■ ** ^3rH^" assaMM,-..   i   iiiiji
The last rebellion in the North-West Territory was in 1885.
General Sir F.. Middle ton commanded the forces that quelled it.
The ringleader was Louis E-iel, a French-Canadian half-breed.
The causes which led to the rebellion were disputes about
land. The half-breeds made claims to free grants of land, and
the time taken by the Government in dealing with their claims
exhausted their patience, and Riel took advantage of this to
incite them to rebel, his object being to terrorize the Government into giving him money to use his influence in keeping
them quiet.
E-iel had caused a previous rising in 1870, which was crushed
by the " Red River expedition," under Colonel Wolseley—now
Lord Wolseley—who made a rapid march to the scene of the
trouble. Riel was never tried for the first rebellion; he fled
the country, being assisted to do this by the Roman Catholic
authorities, who in 'turn received money from the Dominion
Government to aid its being accomplished to avoid political
Riel was executed at Regina for the second rebellion, but
there was no previous conviction, though in the first affair he
ordered a man (Scott) to be shot, and the poor man was
murdered in that way, under peculiarly brutal circumstances.
v 2 292
(From the Hereford Times, February 23rd, 1889.)
To the Editor of the Hereford Times.
Sir—The people who write of Manitoba resemble the birds
of that country in the respect that they are chiefly summer
visitors. Apparently a Manitoba winter, imagined, is sufficient
for them, and it may be subtle though very wise instinct.
Should he, however, have seen the present winter, he would be
apt to carry away the impression that the Arctic winter, as
generally conceived, is a myth, or as one of our most witless
papers has it, I Lost, stolen, or strayed, a Manitoba winter!"
The present weather—which, is an occasional exception—is very
mild, comparatively, although without such genialities as thawing. As usual the "freeze up" occurred in the beginning of
November, and since that time it has been, almost without
interruption, calm, bright, crisp weather. The old settlers,
whose word passes with more veneration than is sometimes due,
relate former eccentricities of this kind, generally ten or eleven
years apart, owing, some say, to the sun being most clear of
spots at those periods. Of course this would not hold if warm
weather were not universal. At all events the exception is
better than the rule.
Manitoba has suffered another blow in the last year's crop
being to a great extent frozen. To realize this calamity you
must be aware that grain raising is the mainstay of the province
for the long winters destroy much profit in cattle raising. The
worst of the matter is, that instead of becoming more settled,
these desirable "park lands" are becoming depopulated, and
upon a dreary journey of fifteen or twenty miles half of the APPENDIX B.
houses are uninhabited, or even they themselves have disappeared. Being portable structures, the remaining inhabitants
appropriate them, or the prairie fires consume every vestige of
improvement. But, as usual, hope has found another El Dorado
in a place called "Lake Dauphin." This place is upon the
eastern flank of the great ridge or | Riding Mountains," and
being a thousand feet below the surrounding country, enjoys an
immunity from summer frost. The only drawback is the want
of a railway, which here is a want indeed, for it is utterly useless to produce "stuff" without any means of getting rid of it,
and as railway companies are very cautious about always having
a good settlement ahead of them in their projects, the settlers
take the initiative. As a matter of fact, on an average, every
other year escapes damage in the grain-freezing line. This has
the effect of annihilating all ambition save in very speculative
and optimistic minds. When a year's labour is all destroyed in
one short night, grain growing becomes a lottery. Certain parts
of the province nearly always escape, but these have long ago
been appreciated, and form but a small proportion to the more
uncertain parts. Mr. Barneby's " Notes" are really very comprehensive and valuable. Referring to the frosts in one issue
of the Hereford Times, he mentioned a certain—now notorious
—wheat called " Kubauka." This variety was claimed by a
certain Mr. Field Johnson to have very early ripening qualities,
and was to be the saviour of Manitoba. Having " boomed " the
grain and otherwise advertised it, this person put upon it the
price of four times ordinary wheat, judiciously selling it in small
quantities to widely disseminate the goose which should lay the
golden eggs. But, alas! the product was not golden, it was
frozen, worse than the late variety—"red fyfe," which was
planted at the same time, and even in some cases it never even
formed the kernel. Mr. Johnson has in consequence fallen into
■ disrepute. America is the land of grain swindlers, grain
"corners," "rings," and other unholy alliances. If an early
variety of wheat be forthcoming Manitoba may yet be saved, 294
for there are many people still left who are too poor to go
anywhere else.
John Gwillim.
Clifford, Lydford, Manitoba,
February 4th, 1889.
(Leading Article in " The Times," March 7th, 1889—reprinted
by permission.)
The Reader is requested to bear in mind that this article was written
and published many months after the Author of this Volume had
written the account of his visit to Japan.
A fortnight ago our Philadelphia correspondent announced
that a supplementary treaty of commerce between the United
States and Japan had been signed in the latter country on
February 20. Its terms have not been made public, and
ratification by the Senate at Washington is requisite before
it can come into operation. But little doubt is felt, either in
Japan or in America, that the stipulations will be accounted
satisfactory, and be sanctioned. A correspondent writes to us
this morning on the subject, pointing out that the result was to
have been expected. He has little difficulty in filling in the
bare outline furnished to us from the other side of the Atlantic.
The United States Government, he is satisfied, will have consented to resign for its subjects in Japan their immunity from
Japanese municipal laws in consideration of admission to entire
commercial citizenship. Japan has promised foreigners within
its dominions the privileges allowed to strangers in the British
Empire and the American Republic, if the Mikado be permitted
to exercise over them the authority which is enjoyed by other APPENDIX C.
rulers in their territories. Under the new treaty it may be
taken for granted that Americans will be free to travel without
passports, and to reside, and dispose of their goods, where they
please. This, our correspondent of to-day believes, will be in
the circumstances an exclusive liberty. Traders of other nationalities, he assumes, will be confined, as now, to their treaty
ports. The only question is whether the favoured-nation clauses
of the older treaties do not prevent Japan from the enlargement
of American rights without an identical boon to States with
which those conventions were concluded. According to our
correspondent, the prevailing opinion of international jurists is
against the relevancy of the favoured-nation stipulations in such
a case. Of that we cannot but think there would be a grave
question. On the surface it is somewhat hard to perceive how
Japan is to make a surrender of restrictions of which any ally,
with a treaty in the usual form, will be debarred from claiming
the advantage. At the same time, the Department of State at
Washington may be trusted, as our correspondent says, to
support the contrary construction. It is unlikely that Japan in
its present mood will be deterred from insisting on its freedom.
There can be one issue alone to the controversy. The Powers,
to which unrestricted intercourse with Japan is of importance,
will have eventually to succumb to the demands of the Mikado's
advisers. That will be accomplished ungraciously, and in a way
to leave behind it a sense of soreness, which might have been
used as an occasion for manifesting international good-will and
Our correspondent is one of those friendly counsellors who
have no desire to sugar the pill of unpalatable admonition.
Japan, he contends, has been forced into this species of underhand compact with one Power, to the incidental detriment of
the rest. Very honestly it sought formerly by a candid arrangement with the whole to escape from a situation intolerable to its
proper national pride, and no less generally inconvenient than
unnecessary.    It had resort to a conference of representatives 296
of the troop of countries towards which it has diplomatic
obligations. When it was clearly impracticable to obtain a
reasonable and united agreement from the incohesive mass, the
Mikado's Ministers would have been content to procure the
assent of the four or five great Powers. No partial unanimity
of the sort could, it was discovered, be arrived at. The conference at Tokio resulted in a state of things not unfairly described
by our correspondent as one of hopeless and incomprehensible
entanglement. Its single practical effect was the political overthrow of the strongest and most cordial advocate in the Japanese
nation of unfettered intimacy between Japan and the whole
civilized world. It might have been supposed that England, at
all events, would have had nothing to regret in the catastrophe
but the invincible obstinacy of its fellow treaty Powers in
preferring the letter to the spirit. In our correspondent's
judgment, which unfortunately seems to rest on irrefutable
testimony, British diplomacy is principally liable for the miserable embarrassment. England is accused of having opposed as
long as it could all Japanese efforts to put the question in a
course of positive decision by the body of foreign States. At
last, when it could no longer withstand the pressure of the
Japanese Government, and acquiesced in a conference, it is
alleged to have been among the most reluctant and suspicious
instead of the willing and amiable members. It had and has
the largest interest in unreserved commercial intercourse with
Japan. Between the Japanese and British peoples exists a
peculiar warmth of kindliness and sympathy. There is no
exaggeration in asserting that Japan would have accepted
British aid towards securing the concession it craves with an
emotion of especial pleasure and gratitude. The opportunity
has been thrown away, and it has been sacrificed gratuitously.
Anybody without an invincible prejudice, and obstinacy of
assurance that nothing but his own likings is worth regarding,
must have recognized long since the futility of struggling against
the Japanese determination to be accorded the ordinary liberties APPENDIX C.
of a civilized Power. Though British diplomatists and Foreign
Secretaries had even with reason preferred a continuance of the
actual relations between Japanese authority and foreign residents
within its territorial confines, they ought to have understood
they would have to give way, and to have studied how to yield
with grace.
To most Englishmen who have watched the progress of
Japan, it will appear that the immunities of foreigners in the
Mikado's empire are of inconsiderable value. The Japanese
Government is animated by an earnestness of resolution to.
approve its conduct to civilized Western nations, which is ample
security against administrative and judicial violence. Japan
has always expressed its perfect readiness to introduce additional
safeguards to cover differences of sentiment and usages between
its own citizens and foreigners. Though there had been no
return for the abandonment of existing exceptions to the tenour
of Japanese municipal jurisdiction, Englishmen in Japan need
not have been greatly concerned if the capitulations had been
waived. Many of them would have gone on living in the
empire in blissful unconsciousness that their lights had been
changed. In fact, the Japanese have constantly professed their
willingness to pay for the modification of foreign franchises on
a liberal and generous scale. They ask nothing better than
liberty to treat foreign friends as equals and brethren. They
wish them to be able to think themselves at home. In return
they simply pray an abdication of securities which imply an
offensive doubt whether the hosts be not either ignorant savages
or oppressors and robbers. No Government is more jealous
than the American of the maintenance abroad of due respect
for its citizens. If it has gladly accepted the invitation of
Japan to give up extraterritoriality of persons in exchange for
the resignation by Japan of its title to insist on extraterritoriality
of merchandize, it doubtless is because the old privilege is
obsolete and worthless. Any step that American negotiators
have taken in that direction Great Britain may take too without 293
loss of self-esteem on account of the act itself. The regret will
only be for the time which will have to be chosen, and the
delay. As soon as the conditions of the American convention'
are promulgated there will be a general sauve qui pent among
the fifteen or sixteen remaining States. It is not honourable to
British diplomacy that it should have to join in a promiscuous"
(Reprinted from "The Times," March 22nd, 1889—by permission.)
The Reader is requested to bear in mind that this article was written
and published many months after the Author of this Volume had
written the account of his visit to Japan.
No.  I.
(From our Japan Correspondent.)
Tokio, Feb. 12.
Twenty-one years ago the young Emperor of Japan, restored
to temporal power from the seclusion, well-nigh amounting to
entombment, which had been endured for some eight centuries
by his ancient dynasty, swore solemnly before the nobles and
territorial princes of this Empire, that, as one of the leading
principles of his future sway, the "government should be
conducted in accordance with public opinion and popular
representation." Of the earnestness of this assurance ample
proof was afforded by the measures of the succeeding decade.
One Parliament, indeed, formed of some 276 members from
the samurai of the feudal clans, was actually convened in 1869,
though it soon proved a failure, as also did a second and
modified Assembly attempted shortly afterwards. A slight
leaven of the principle and practice of popular representation APPENDIX D.
was nevertheless introduced, gradually and circumspectly, by
such later steps as the creation, first, of a Council of Provincial
Authorities, and then of the existing system of City and
Provincial Assemblies, and of a Senate, a consultative body of
officials without any power to initiate laws. At length in 1881
the Emperor affirmed his original assurance by a rescript
proclaiming that a complete Parliamentary system should be
carried into effect in the year 1890.
During the interval that has passed since that declaration,
as in the period preceding it, the whole course of Japan's polity
and method of government has been directed to the new order
of things that is destined to arise next year under the terms
of the Sovereign's promise. In every step, every change, and
every novelty that has been adopted from time to time as
occasion required, the pilots of the Japanese ark of State have
kept steadily before them as their goal the sound establishment
of a constitutional Monarchy as understood in Europe. That
the task was no easy one none can doubt. It was, indeed,
surrounded with grave difficulties and perils, amid which rashness might be irreparable and error fatal. Only by vigilance
and foresight of the highest order could the knotty problem of
enfranchising a people that had emerged but yesterday, as it
were, from the shadow of feudalism be approached with any
hope of success. How far those qualities have been exhibited
in the successive measures of recent years will have been
gathered by the readers of this series of letters in the columns
of The Times. How far success is to be anticipated from the
final and most momentous step may be judged from what follows.
Yesterday was the anniversary of the birth of the Emperor
Jimmu Tenno, the Sovereign from whom sprang this oldest of
the world's dynasties, and who, according to the commonly
received chronology, began to reign in the year 660 B.C.
Yesterday, then, was chosen as an auspicious day, on which
the first monarch's descendant, the Emperor Mutsuhito, might
fitly ratify his Imperial vow and proclaim and give the new }oo
Constitution to his subjects. And accordingly on the morning
of yesterday, amid the splendours of the new Palace in the
ancient castle of this capital, in the presence of a great
assemblage representing all the power, wealth, intellect, and
high lineage of the country and all classes of the people, and
with the pomp and solemnity befitting so signal an occasion,
the reigning Sovereign wrought the deed by which the 11th
of February becomes henceforward in a double sense a red-
letter day among the festivals of the Japanese calendar. Space
forbids me to relate in this letter my experiences of the
delightful details of yesterday's pageant and the Imperial
entertainment which followed it, as well as of those general
public rejoicings and demonstrations for which the Japanese
people have a happy aptitude amounting to genius, combined
with an artistic taste so perfect that their cities, parks, and
gardens are turned as by magic on such occasions into very
fairy-lands of brightness and beauty. For the present at least,
therefore, I must confine myself to giving an outline of the
general features of the Constitution now brought to birth after
years of laborious preparation.
Prior to yesterday's ceremony of promulgation the Emperor
executed a solemn oath in the Palace Sanctuary, by which he
swore, in the names of the great founder of his House, and
of his other Imperial ancestors, that he would maintain and
secure from decline the ancient form of government, and would
never fail to be an example to his subjects in the observance
of the new laws. Then, after a short speech, couched in stately
and kingly language, and uttered with great dignity, His
Majesty publicly delivered the said laws to Count Kuroda, his
Minister President of State. These are five in number, and
are entitled respectively the Constitution of the Empire of
Japan, the Imperial Ordinance concerning the House of Peers,
the Law of the Houses, the Law of Election for the members
of the House of Representatives, and the Law of Finance. In
the first, one salient and interesting feature is the care taken APPENDIX D.
to affirm with emphatic brevity the time-honoured doctrines
of the sanctity of the Emperor's title, and the immutability of
his dynasty. Thus, while the first article declares that his
line shall run " for ages eternal," the second says simply, " The
Emperor is sacred and inviolable." Then follows a definition
Of the sovereign prerogatives, from which it appears that, while
the Emperor is to remain the source of all laws, in that without
Imperial approval no Parliamentary measures can become law,
the making of laws is to be the function of the Diet, and no
law can be put into force without its assent, the one exception
on the latter point being that the Emperor reserves the power
of issuing ordinances in urgent cases, on behalf of the public
safety or welfare, when the Diet is not sitting, but that such
ordinances to remain law must be approved at the next
Parliamentary Session.
In succeeding articles it is laid down that the Emperor
determines the organization of every branch of the administration, appoints and dismisses all civil and military officers, and
fixes their salaries; that he has the supreme command of the
army and navy, and determines their organizations and peace-
standing ; and that it is he who makes war or peace, concludes
treaties, confers titles of nobility, rank, orders, and other marks
of honour, and grants amnesties, pardons, and commutation of
punishment. The rights and duties of subjects are next set forth.
By these it is determined, among other things, that a Japanese
subject, while amenable to taxation and to service in the army
or navy, shall be free from all illegal arrest, detention, trial,
or punishment; that, subject in every case to the provisions
and limits of the laws, he shall have liberty of abode and of
change of abode; that his house shall not be entered or searched
O 7
against his will; that the secrecy of his letters and all his
rights of property shall be inviolate; and that he shall enjoy
freedom of religious belief, consistently with the duties of the
subject and the preservation of peace and order, as well as liberty
of speech, writing, publication, public meeting, and association. ?02
The Parliamentary system is to consist of a House of Peers
and a House of Representatives, called together the Imperial
Diet, and holding an ordinary annual Session of three months—
which, however, may be extended by Imperial order, and extraordinary Sessions in urgent cases.    The first Session is to take
place next year—rumour says in the autumn—and the new
Constitution is to come into force from the time of the Diet's
opening.     For the  Upper House there are four classes of
members.    First, members of the Imperial Family on reaching
their majority, and princes and marquises on attaining the age
of 25; these hold office for life.    Secondly, counts, viscounts,
and barons of not less than 25 years, and in numbers not
exceeding one-fifth of the whole number of those orders; these
are to be elected by their fellows for a term of seven years.
Thirdly, members  nominated for life  by the  Sovereign, for
meritorious services to the State, or for erudition, and above
the age of 30.    Fourthly, 45 commoners elected in the prefectures and urban districts—one for each—by the 15 largest
taxpayers in each electoral area, and appointed for a term of
seven years, if approved by the Emperor.   It is further laid
down that the number of members in the last two classes shall
not exceed that in the first two.    For the Lower House there
are  to be 300  members, elected by ballot in 258  electoral
districts as defined in an appendix.    The suffrage is limited to
males not less than 25 years old, who must have resided in
the district for at least a year before registration and be still
resident, and have paid in the district for a similar period, and
be still paying, direct national taxes to the amount of not less
than 15 Japanese dollars, and, besides, have paid income tax
for three years, and be still paying it.    Candidates for election
must be full 30 years old, and must possess similar qualifications
to the above as taxpayers, but without the condition of residence.
Several classes of officials are excepted, as well as Shinto priests
and  all teachers  of religion;   while, in  addition  to  obvious
disqualifications in the cases of public offenders and others, no APPENDIX D.
one serving in or temporarily retired or suspended from the
army or navy can either vote or be elected. Four years, which
is the House's limit of life, is also the limit of membership.
But the former may be dissolved at any time by Imperial order,
and a new Assembly convoked within a period of five months.
For each House there are to be, besides a Chief and other
Secretaries, a President and a Vice-President nominated by
the Emperor, with annual salaries of $4000 and S2000 respectively; while the commoners in the Upper House and all
members of the Lower House, those in the Government service
excepted, are to receive $800 per annum. Among a host of
other general provisions it is laid down, for both Houses, that,
except in special cases for which rules are provided, all debate
shall be public; that the President is to have a casting vote;
that the necessary quorum for any debate or vote is to be one-
third of the whole number of members; that Cabinet Ministers
and Government Delegates—the "Government" meaning the
Emperor and his Cabinet—may sit and speak in either House,
but not vote therein unless they are members of it; and,
further, that, whenever the Emperor may present to the Diet
any project for amendment of the Constitution, no debate
thereon can take place unless two-thirds at least of the members
are present, and no amendment can be carried by less than a
two-thirds majority.
As regards finance, the Diet is to discuss and vote the
Budget, and its approval is required in respect of any excesses
upon the appropriations, as well as of national loans or other
liabilities to the Treasury. Its powers are, nevertheless, a good
deal circumscribed. For example, the outlay of the Imperial
household, as well as the entire peace appropriations for the
army and navy, the salaries of officials, and all expenditures
that " may have arisen by the effect of law," or that " appertain
to the legal obligations of the Government," are practically
removed from Parliamentary control. It is also provided that,
in urgent cases arising out of the internal or external condition 3©4
of the country, and when the Diet cannot be convoked, the
necessary financial measures may be taken under Imperial
ordinances; and, again, that the Government may carry out
the Budget of a preceding year whenever a Budget has not
been voted or brought into existence. The Privy Council is,
as heretofore, to deliberate on important matters of State, at
the instance of the Emperor; and the ten Ministers of State
remain His Majesty's responsible advisers; and as to the
Judicature, there is a satisfactory provision that the Judges,
appointed by the Crown, can only be removed from their office
by law.
It will be seen from the above outline that, while the
Emperor's promise is being strictly fulfilled, the first plunge
into Parliamentary representation will be made with befitting
vigilance and caution. Looking to the average means of the
Japanese, the franchise is undoubtedly high—a piece of
prudence to be much commended, seeing that any precipitate
measure of enfranchisement at this epoch might result in a
popular despotism fraught with danger to the country. It is
evident also, not only from the broad outlines of the scheme,
but from abundant internal evidence running through the text
of the new laws, that, besides a careful avoidance of any
definition of the responsibility of the Cabinet vis-a-vis the Diet,
the whole intention is to follow the German principle of making
the former responsible to the Crown alone, and to render the
life of the Ministry independent, at least temporarily, of a
hostile Parliament. At present certainly these tactics are wise,
whatever Japan, like some other countries under constitutional
Monarchy, may come to in the future.
Meantime, what a unique and interesting drama it is that
is being enacted before our eyes in this island Empire, so nigh
upon the end of the 19 th century ! Not only is the spectacle
that of a monarch presenting his 38 millions of subjects, released
barely two decades ago from, the bonds of feudalism, with a
well thought-out Constitution, founded on European lines and APPENDIX D.
conveying to them a substantial measure of political liberty,
it is also the spectacle of the reigning Sovereign of the world's
most ancient dynasty descending finally from the lofty realm
occupied for so many ages by the | Sons of Heaven," and, while
solemnly abdicating the supreme and autocratic power wielded
by his ancestors, in theory at least, for more than 2500 years,
offering to his people henceforward a large share in the functions
of government. That matters would sooner or later come to
this was, no doubt, in the nature of things inevitable, and foreseen. To what purpose, otherwise, the Restoration of 1868,
seeing that the military class, by whom it was brought about,
enjoyed under the feudal system a not unimportant share in
the functions of government, which was wholly lost to them
when, with the fall of feudalism, they became absorbed into the
masses of the people ? If, however, the scene witnessed yesterday at the Imperial Palace was but one act of a drama, every
part of which has followed in its anticipated order, it constituted,
nevertheless, a most memorable and stirring occasion in the
history of this interesting country—an occasion marked, moreover, by splendid ceremonial, intense popular joy and enthusiasm,
public demonstrations on a scale of remarkable beauty as well
as magnitude, and countless tender prayers for the beloved and
revered ruler of Japan, and for his illustrious Consort from all
classes of their subjects. Is not the present also an occasion
to call forth the earnest hopes and good wishes of all friendly
watchers of Japanese progress ?
x 306
(Reprinted from " The Times," August 5th, 1889.)
(From our Japan Correspondent).
Tokio, June 29.
On the 12th inst. intelligence reached this capital that Count
Bismarck had signed at Berlin on the previous day a revised
treaty between Germany and Japan, on the same lines as the
new covenant with the United States, the broad features of
which were described in my letter of the 11th of March. If,
then, any lingering doubts were felt as to the ultimate effect of
America's initiative, they have been dispelled by this latest and
highly important move. Now, at all events, it is beyond question that the policy of combination has received its certain
death-blow. America broke down the first barrier. Germany,
next, has cleared the way in Europe. Russia, Austria, and
France are understood to be on the eve of following in
Germany's wake. And, though Downing-street, apparently as
indifferent as ever to British interests and prestige in this
country, is meekly allowing other powers to give us the go-by,
it is impossible to doubt that the curtain has at length risen on
the last act of the drama, that England's yielding can at most
be a question of a few weeks or months, and that all the weary
years that have opened and closed on this thorny question are
about to end in a solution the only unsatisfactory feature of
which to' Englishmen in the Far East is the somewhat sorry
figure cut by their own country at the most critical epoch. In
view of the strong public feeling on the treaty question which
has prevailed in Japan for some years past, and specially since
the failure of the Conference of 1886-7, it is not surprising that
the recent news was greeted by the people and the newspapers APPENDIX D.
with unmixed approval, congratulation, and joy.    With a unanimity rarely observed on subjects of great national importance,
the whole vernacular Press joined in a chorus of gratitude on
behalf of the Japanese people for Germany's timely recognition
of Japan's claims.    Count Okuma at the same time comes in
for warm praise on account of his bold and sagacious statesman
ship ; while the terms of the new treaty, for the first time made
publicly known through  your columns by my letter already
referred  to, are generally  welcomed,  being   recognized as a
marked improvement on the former proposals, more consistent
with the country's dignity, and less submissive in spirit and fact.
Unalloyed satisfaction also prevails at the inevitable and happy
ending now to be anticipated from Germany's action.    Not only
are the hopes that were disappointed by the break-up of the last
Conference once more revived, but men know that there is no
reason on this occasion to dread another failure.    And it must
be added that, while the opening of the country is now seen to
be a reality of the near future, the general sentiment is most
friendly to the prospect of mixed residence, and very hopeful of
the wonderful things in the way of industrial and other development that   may  be looked for from foreign  association  and
It is, of course, impossible that wide discussion of the treaty
problem in its present phase should be unattended by comments
and contrasts more or less critical as to England's backwardness.
As far as the Japanese Press goes, these are happily marked by
praiseworthy moderation. In no newspaper of repute is there as
yet any evidence of resentment or angry feeling towards Great
Britain. Surprise and regret rather than bitterness, and friendly
hopes of her speedy acquiescence, characterize the utterances of
the leading journals and the leading men in the capital. Public
opinion, however, does not hesitate to remind us, albeit, for the
most part mildly, that it is England who has all along been the
body and soul of the confederation of Powers which for eighteen
years past, whether from unwillingness or from sheer unwieldiness,
x 2 308
has stood as an impassable barrier in the way of amending
treaties that it has been Japan's right to have amended ever since
1871. Pain and disappointment are evidently felt that Great
Britain, always friendly in spirit and intention to Japan, often
most helpful, and all along possessing interests in the country
far above those of any other of her associates, should, by hanging
back at the moment when the combination she has headed for
thirty years is doomed and crumbling to bits, not only embarrass
the full and speedy settlement of this dreary question, but run the
risk of creating a tide of popular feeling in her disfavour which
all her prestige, all her interests, and all efforts to the contrary
may be unable to stay. And to those who can read between the
lines it is plain enough that, notwithstanding the mildness and
patience of the remonstrances hitherto current, the risk of such
an issue is bound to increase with every week, nay every day,
that her concession is delayed. As for the foreign—that is to
say, English—newspapers at the treaty settlements, they are to
the full as congratulatory as their Japanese contemporaries
at Japan's forthcoming emancipation from her long-sustained
burden and struggles, while hardly less regretful and deprecatory
in respect of the secondary position into which Great Britain
has been allowed to drift at the close of the drama.
The long-standing local opposition in certain quarters to
Japan's efforts and aims has for some years past been gradually
dwindling. Events and facts have proved too strong for even
the most conservative and irreconcilable of the British residents
at the ports and of the journals which represent them; while
any reserve of antagonism that may have been still cherished
has within the last three weeks fairly melted away, in presence
of the spectacle of their country receding from the supremacy
that rightly belongs to it, and tamely taking a back seat in
the final scene. The bare possibility, moreover, that from the
11th of next February their American and German rivals may
have free access to the interior, and to the advantages and
opportunities which such access will furnish, while they them- APPENDIX D.
selves remain shut up helplessly in the settlements, is hardly
one to be viewed with complacency by English men of business
whose presence in Japan is for the sole purpose of making
money. Hence, while there is a general feeling of gladness that
the end of all the last ten years' uncertainty is at hand, there
are also signs of impatience at the delay of the Foreign Office,
and of fears lest that delay be perchance prolonged until Great
Britain is left altogether out of the running.
Meanwhile the position of Englishmen in Japan is not a very
agreeable one. None can help feeling that whatever valid
pleas may have existed for Great Britain's tardiness up till a
month ago, these can exist no longer. It is unpleasantly brought
home to us that, by allowing Germany to anticipate her in the
display of good will to Japan, England has laid herself open to
criticisms which are none the less unpalatable because they are
sometimes unjust, and has furnished her enemies with a very good
opportunity for making capital at her expense. It is, of course,
fully recognized that her feet may well have been hampered by
the commanding weight of her interests, and by the responsibilities of her position as the leading Western Power in the
Orient. It is also understood that, inasmuch as she alone of the
treaty Powers has made sacrifices in the past for the purpose of
maintaining the principle of combination, she may have felt
bound, when America broke away from the league six months
ago, to take counsel with her European colleagues before abandoning the policy that she had been chiefly instrumental in
maintaining. Judged, however, by the circumstances anterior to
Germany's recent action, England's sustained dilatoriness is unintelligible. Germany is the Power which, before all others, the
British Government must have desired to consult on this treaty
question, and in concert with which they would wish to act. It
is with Germany that England has acted for years past in her
treaty relations with Japan. It was with Germany's Envoy that
the last British Minister.was instructed to co-operate at the
Conference opened in 1886.    And it was Sir F. Plunkett and 3io
Baron Holleben who, at the crisis when negotiation had reached
an apparently hopeless deadlock, came to the rescue with a joint
note offering terms that at the time were deemed remarkably
liberal. Yet, despite these links and associations, it is now
seen that the business of conferring with the European States
has been managed in such a fashion that the very strongest of
them all, the very one with which we had the closest ties on the
subject, and which is at the same time our most formidable
commercial rival in the Orient, has been suffered to pass over
England's head, and to sign the amended treaty with Japan some
weeks at least—it may prove to be some months—before her.
That such an issue can only be due to the lethargy or perfunc-
toriness of Downing-street is the inevitable conclusion.    This,
© 3
at all events, is the way in which the situation is regarded by
Englishmen here on the spot. It seems probable that Lancashire and Yorkshire, and other centres interested in trade with
Japan, will take a similar view of the matter, and that they will
not fail to make themselves heard upon it unless something be
done, and quickly done, to retrieve our waning position in this
No. III.
(Reprinted from 1 The Standard" August 1st, 1889.)
(From our Japan Correspondent.)
I AM informed on good authority that the real reason for the
Japanese hesitation in consenting to a revision of the Treaties
regulating the status of foreigners is the fear that China would
at once claim equal privileges with the other Powers, with the
result that Japanese trade and commerce would fall into Chinese
hands. The opinion is general here that the United States and
Germany have been too precipitate in this matter, and that
England is wise to wait. APPENDIX E.
No. IV.
(Reprinted from 1 The Times," August 12th, 1889.)
Philadelphia, Aug. 10th.
The Japanese Legation in Washington has received a telegram
announcing that the Government of Japan signed a Treaty with
that of Russia on Thursday similar to the Treaties which Japan
recently made with the United States and Germany.
(Extract from " The Times," June 12th, 1889.)
The Canadian Government are notifying an important change
in the land regulations in Manitoba and the North-West territories which will come into operation on January 1, 1890.
From and after that date, in accordance with clause 46 of the
Dominion Land Acts (Revised Statutes of Canada, chap. 54),
the privilege of pre-emption in connection with a homestead
entry will be discontinued. Free grants of 160 acres will continue to be given to all male settlers of the age of 18 and
upwards, and to females who are the heads of families, and there
is still an immense area of land available for this purpose.
Hitherto, however such persons have had the right to pre-empt
the adjoining 160 acres, to be paid for at the end of three years,
and it is this concession that is to be terminated at the commencement of next year. Settlers will of course be able to
purchase public and other lands in the districts in question as
heretofore. 112
(Extract from " The Times," July 2nd, 1889.)
Messes. Anderson, the managers of the Orient Line of
Steamers to Australia, have entered into a contract with the
Canadian Government to provide a weekly service of express
steamers between England and Canada. The subsidy is £100,000
yearly, and the steamers are guaranteed to be of nineteen knots
speed and to complete the passage within six days. They will sail
from London for Cherbourg, making Plymouth the final port of
call before steaming away for Montreal or Halifax. The steaming time will be taken from or arriving at Plymouth, which will
be the first and final port of call. It will be fully twelve months
before the arrangements are sufficiently complete to permit of
the service being started. It is stated that this route has been
started in conjunction with the Canadian Pacific Railway. INDEX.
Adam's Peak, 273
Aden, 279, 280, 281
Agassiz, 61
Alameda, 144
Albert Head, 124, 125
Appendix A, 291
Appendix B, 292
Appendix C, 295
Appendix D, 300
Appendix E, 307
Appendix F, 308
Arabia, 280
Arden, 77
Ashcroft, 29, 38, 42, 45, 61, 62
Ashland, 137
Assiniboine river, 92, 93
Aurora, 136
Baker, Mount, 47, 72
Banff, 11, 16, 17,18, 19, 20, 21, 28, 37
Battleford, 93
Bay Point, 142, 143, 144
Beautiful Plains, the, 77, 112
Beaver river, 28, 29
Benicia river, 139
Binscarth, 74, 78, 80, 81, 83, 84, 86, 87,
90, 100, 103, 115
Bird-tail Creek, 95, 100
Birtle, 95, 96
Biwa, Lake, 209
Bow river, 18, 21
Brandon, 12, 13
Bredenbury, 105
British Columbia, 10, 23, 38, 40, 50, 59,
60,68,105, 121,132,135, 136,139,199
Bunch grass, disappearance of, 40, 62
Burnside, 12
Burrard's Inlet, 47, 48, 55, 56, 57, 58, 64
Caine's A trip round the World, 33
Calgary, 14, 15, 16
California, 138, 139, 144, 145, 147,149
Californian wine, 146, 147
Canada, 10, 13, 15, 48, 82, 99, 284, 286
Canada, coal-mines in, 15, 20, 21
Canada, emigration to, 284, 285, 286
Canton, 245, 246, 247, 249, 250, 256
Canton, old water-clock at, 252
Capilano, 48, 55, 57, 69, 71
Carberry, 12
Cariboo, 39, 42, 45
Carroll, Mount, 31
Cascade mountains, 17, 38, 43, 59, 60,
62, 136, 138
Castle mountain, 21
Ceylon, 265, 267, 270, 271, 273, 274
275, 276, 278
Ceylon, tea-plantations in, 270, 273
Chilliwack, 61
China, 245, -276
Chinese, the, 142, 154, 155, 156, 157,
158, 248, 249, 251, 260, 261
Chinese teas, 275
Chinzenji, Lake, 196
Churchbridge, 92, 94, 95
Cinghalese, the, 267
Coast mountains, 55, 56, 64
Colombo, 265, 266, 277, 279
Columbia river, 23, 116, 135
Comox district, 128
Cordova Bay, 127
Coromandel natives, 266, 267
Cowitchan, 132
Cowlitz river, 135
Dakota, 102
Dauphin, Lake, 293
Departure Bay, 132
Dimbula, 275
Donald, 11, 24, 26, 37
Dunmore, 15
Edmonton, 16
Egg Island, 207
Elkhorn, 13
Emigrants,  remarks about, 117, 118,
119, 120
Emigration to Canada, 284, 285, 286 314
English Bay, 56, 58, 71, 72
Enoshima, 170, 171
Esquimalt district, 124, 129
Esquimalt harbour, 125, 129, 131, 132
False Creek, 56, 64
Farms, price of, 126, 127
Field, 22, 23
Forest fires, 2, 5, 17, 23, 36
Forest scenery, 28,29, 32, 36, 43, 46, 47,
48, 56, 64, 65, 70, 145
Fort McLeod, 16
Fort "William, 6, 7
Fow-chow, 253
Fraser river, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 58, 61,
62, 63, 66, 68
Fruit-trees, 60, 137
Fuji, 170
Fuji-ama, Mount, 160, 206
Fujisawa, 170, 241
Garden produce, 60, 66, 68
Georgia, Gulf of, 62
Georgian Bay, Ontario, 6
German colony, 93
Gilroy, 146
Glacier, 31, 32
Gold mountains, 38
Golden City, 23
Golden Gate Park, 140, 141, 142
Gordon Head, 122
Granville, 50
Great Bitter Lake, 283
Hakodate, 239, 241
Hakone, Lake, 167
Hakone Pass, 163, 167
Hammond, 47, 61
Harrowby, 81
Hasemura, 172
Hector, 22
Hermit, Mount, 31
Heron Bay, 5
Hodzu, 164, 165, 169
Home  for   emigrant  boys,  Dr.   Bar-
nardo's, 81, 86, 87
Hong Kong, 245, 246, 256, 257, 258,
260, 261, 262, 263, 264
Hong Kong, no trained nurses in, 262
Hope, 47
Hot springs, 18, 19, 20
Huron, Lake, 3
Icelander settlement, 95
Illecillewaet valley, 32, 35, 36
Indian Mission, 57, 61
Indian teas, 276
Inland Sea, 205, 207, 217, 218
Jack-fish Bay, 5, 6
Japan, 153,160,170,186, 203, 221, 230,
232, 238, 240, 267
Japan and the United States, 295, 296,
297, 298, 299
Japan, Americans in, 224, 290
Japan, New Constitution at, 300
Japan, treaty ports in, 241
Japanese passports, 241, 242, 243, 244
Japanese teas, 209, 275, 276
Japanese temples, 174, 175, 177, 189,
193,  198, 199, 201, 202,  205,  210,
211, 212, 213
Japanese, the, 225, 227, 228, 229
"Kagos," 196
Kalama, 135
Kamagowa river, 211
Kamakura, 170, 173, 174, 176, 178
Kaministiquia river, 7
Kamloops, 37, 38, 41, 61, 62
Katsura-gawa rapids, 213
Keefers, 43
Kelso, 135
Kicking Horse Pass, 21, 23
Kioto, 173,192, 208, 210, 211, 213, 238
Kishu, 238
Kobe, 205, 207, 208, 216, 238, 241
Kooshu, 238
Kootenay district, 24, 116
Laggan, 22
Lands for cultivation, 61
Langenburg, 74, 92, 93, 95
Langley, 61
Little Bredenbury, 10
Little Saskatchewan river, 110
Little Saskatchewan valley, 110, 111
Los Gatos, 145
Lulu Island, 61, 62, 63, 66
Lytton, 42
Macdonald, 76
Macdonald, Mount, 22
Malay Peninsula, 265
Manitoba, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 49, 68, 74,
83, 84, 86, 89, 91, 92, 99, 101, 103,
105, 106,109, 112, 113,115,116,117,'
118, 119, 284, 292, 293, 294
Manitoba, grain in, 293
Manitoba, land regulations in, 308
Maple Creek, 15
Mari, 208
Martinez, 142, 143
i   Medicine Hat, 15
Mikado's Palaces, 191, 192, 193, 212
Mining district, 116, 128
Minnedosa, 106, 109, 110, 115
Mission, 47, 61
Miyanoshita, 163, 167
Montague, 138 INDEX.
Montana, 15
Monterey Bay, 146
Montreal, 1, 6, 7, 24
• Moodyville, 57
Moosejaw, 14
Nagasaki, harbour, 219, 220, 241
Nanaimo, 128, 131, 132
Nara, 172, 213
National Park, 18
Neepawa, 77, 78, 106, 112, 114, 115
Nepigon Bay, 5, 6
Nepigon, Lake, 5
Nepigon river, 5
Neura Elyia sanatorium, 276
New Longworth, 127
New Westminster, 46, 47, 50, 57, 59,
61, 62, 64
Nicola, 62
Niigata, 241
Nikko, 194, 195, 201
Nipissing, Lake, 1, 2
North Bay, 1, 4, 6, 7
Oak river, 103, 111, 115
Odawara, 166, 169
Ogi, 238
Ohama, 199
Okanagan, 62
Olympian mountains, 125
Onaping, 4
Ontario, 6, 114, 118
Open prairie, 86
Oregon, 135, 136, 137
Osaka, 213, 241
Oshima Island, 206
Oshima Point, 160
Osoyoos, 62
Otsn, 207, 209
Otterbourne, 9
Owen Sound, 6
Pacific Ocean, 153, 159, 160
Palliser, 23
Passadora, 143
Peace river, 16
Pearl river, 246, 262
Pekin, 249
Perim Island, 281
Pitt river, 61
Popcum, 61
Port Arthur, 6
Port Haney, 61
Port Moody, 42, 45, 47, 48, 52, 57
Port Said, 282, 283
Port Townsend, 134
Portage-la-Prairie, 12,74, 76, 77,78, 92,
95,109, 116
Portland, 135,136,137
Prairie fires, 12, 107
Prairie land, 12,15, 97
Prince Albert colony, 75, 93   ,
Quinine plants, 272, 273
Eapid City, 101, 102, 106, 110, 111
Reckoning time, new mode, 6
Red River Valley, 10, 115
Red Rock Bay, 5, 6
Red Sea, the, 281
Regina, 14, 291
Revelstoke, 26, 36, 37, 38
Rice-farming, 164, 235
Riding mountains, 77, 107, 293
Riel rebellion, the, 291
Rocky Mountains, the, 16, 17, 21, 22,
23, 24, 28, 43
Roger's Pass, 27, 29, 31
Rogue Valley, 137
Ross, Mount, 32
Rotation crops, 85
Russell, 81, 87, 107
Saanwich Arm, 132
Sacramento, 139
Sage-bush, 14, 41
Salt Plain, 93
Sangster's Plain, 124
San Francisco, 134, 137, 138, 139, 140,
San Jose, 144, 146
Santa Clara, 144
Santa Cruz, 144
Santa Cruz mountains, 145
Sault-St. -Marie Strait, 3
Schreiber, 5
Scottish Ontario and Manitoba Land
Company, 81, 91
Seattle, 134
Selkirk, 7
Selkirk mountains, 24, 26, 27, 28, 31,
34, 43
Sessions, 138
Shasta, Mount, 138
Shimonoseki, 218
Shinagawa, 182
Shoal Lake, 100, 106, 107, 108
Sierra Nevada range, 136, 138, 199
Silver City, 22
Silver Creek, 78, 81, 82, 87, 88, 89, 97
Singapore, 264, 265
Sir Donald, Mount, 32, 36
Siskiyous mountains, 137, 138
Sokotra Island, 281
Solsgirth, 92, 99, 100
Somali boys, 280
Spear-grass, 102
Stephen, 22
Stony Creek bridge, 29 OPMOi
Strathclair settlement, 107
Strawberry Valley, 138
Sudbury, 3
Suez, 281, 282
Suez Canal, 282
Sumatra Island, 265
Summer frosts, 98
Superior, Lake, 3, 5, 6, 43
Sushwap, Lake, 35, 38
Swift Current, 15
Syndicate Peak, 32, 36
Tacoma, 134,135
Tamanau, 167
Tamul coolies, 267
Thompson Canon, 42
Thompson river, 38, 39
Timber, price of, 126
Tokio, 186,189,190,191,194, 203, 205,
208, 224, 234, 241, 297, 300
Tokio, 182
Tolmie, Mount, 122
Toronto, 1
Totsuka, 173,174
Utstj-no-miya, 194, 202
Vancouver City, 1, 3, 8, 12, 24, 38,
42, 47, 48, 50, 51, 52, 53, 56, 57,
58, 60, 62, 63, 64, 68,  69, 70, 129,
132  133   147  199
Vancouver' Island, 63,  72,  121,  126,
133, 134
Vancouver Island, arable land at, 122
Veddahs, the, 268
Victoria, 39, 57, 62, 63, 72, 105, 121,
122,123, 124,125,126,127,128,129,
130, 132, 133, 134, 139
Victoria Peak, 246, 259
Virden, 13, 14
Wallaha, 265
Washington territory, 129, 135
Wellington, 131, 132
Westbourne, 77, 115
Wharnock, 47
Wheat land, 12
Willamette river, 136
Winnipeg, Lake, 1, 4, 7, 8, 11, 74, 90,
92, 109, 116
Wolves, 90
Yale, 41, 42, 43, 45, 46, 47
Yamashima, 209
Yezo Island, 222, 239
Yokohama, 153,  155, 157, 159, 160,
161, 163,169,170,173,178,186, 202,
205, 208, 227, 241
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Soc, Author of " Principles of Forecasting," " Weather," in the " International Scientific Series," &c. Demy 8vo, with 3 Maps, 9 Photographs,
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"The record of a pioneer. . . . All that he has to say is worth listening to."
H. Rose, M.A. Formerly Classical Scholar of Christ's College,
Cambridge. Crown 8vo, 420 pp., with three Maps, and five Plans of
Battles in the text, cloth, price 6s.
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author's intentions ; and we certainly know of no work in the same compass
which gives anything like as clear, concise, and well-arranged information
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TIME. By James Croll, LL.D., F.R.S., Author of " Climate and Time,"
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Tables and Notes. By Trelawney Saunders, F.R.G.S., Geographical
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bat on having produced the only work with which English cartography can
confront the masters of the art in Germany, Switzerland, and France."
Manchester Guardian.
LETTERS ON ARTILLERY. By Prince Kraft zu Hohenlohb
Ingelfingen. Translated by Major N. L. Walford, E.A. Crown
8vo, cloth, with six folding plates, price 7s. 6d.
" Major Walford has done a distinct service not only to artillery officers, but to
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stringent test of actual practice on European battlefields, these letters have a
deep interest for all who seek to study the military art in its highest and most
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Based, on Sellwald's Die Eedb usd Ihre Volker.   Translated by A.H. KEANE, M.A.1.
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" The six volumes contain, on the whole, a more convenient and instructive collection of facts in
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EUROPE. By F. W. Rtoler, F.G.S., and G. G. Chisholm, B.Sc
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| Open it where you will the attention is arrested, and you are irresistibly tempted to read on;
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far above the average, while it contains in itself the materials for any amount of romnnce."
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AUSTRALASIA.    Edited  and   Extended   by Alfred  R.   Wallace,
F.R.G.S., Author of "The Malay Archipelago," " Geographical Distribution
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London:  EDWARD STANFORD, 26 & 27,  COCKSPUR St., S.W. 
Imperial folio, half-morocco extra, price £12 ; full morocco, £15.
" Mr. Stanford's ' London Atlas,' which was known to be preparing for publication for many years
past, has at length seen the light, and is not likely to disappoint any reasonable expectations. Mr.
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and native competition, and of the indifference of the public, who can hardly as yet be said to discriminate between good and bad maps."—Athenceum.
" We are so apt to imagine that the Golden Age of Geography preceded this century that it is well
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Stanford lias just issued. Based to some extent on that prepared under the same title by the late
John Arrowsmith in the early days of Her Majesty's reign, it is in reality an almost entirely new
work. Mr. Stan lord's great Atlas may thus be regarded as a sort of milestone in the progress of
geography. It marks the stage to which, after twenty centuries of map-making, our knowledge of
the globe lias reached. In some respects also it is a record of the perfection to which the art of
engraving cartographical representations after Mercator's projection has attained. Compared with
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" One of the finest and completest works of cartography yet produced, and far surpassing any
other published in Great Britain, is ' Stanford's London Atlas of Universal Geography,' contained in
a noble volume of.imperial folio size, which Mr. Stanford has recently issued. . . . The cost of preparing entirely new general maps, from the special information contributed by those showing the
routes of the latest travellers, is almost prohibitory in the compilation of a cheap atlas for popular.'
acceptance, . . . for it contains the essence, in map form, of hundreds of other works, of special
surveys, route maps given in many books of travels, records of positions in the author's journals,
and much else that was stored up in volumes on library shelves, or in portfolios for occasional reference on particular subjects. . . . We may, therefore, say that, for the purpose of directly obtaining
a sound knowledge of modern geography, the purchase of such an atlas as Mr. Stanford's, instead of
many books, is a positive saving of expense, and it is a great saving of time."—Illustrated London
Imperial 4to, half-morocco, gilt edges, price 30s.
Consisting of FORTY-FOUR COLOURED MAPS, carefully Drawn and beautifully
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" We have already commented on the pains which appear to have been taken to work up the maps
to the latest dates; we mav add that they are excellent specimens of engraving and colouring, that
the great difficulty of marking mountain ranges, &c, without obscuring the names, has been excel-
lentlv surmounted, and that we have detected very few misprints. As what may be called a medium
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but rather costly and unwieldy library atlases, the ' London Atlas' deserves hearty recommendation.'
Saturday Review
London:   EDWARD STANFORD,  2T & 27, COCKSPUR St., S.W. By Arabella B. Buckley (Mrs. Fisher).
' The secret of Miss Buckley's success as a popular expounder of the abstruse
results of the highest scientific research is her own mastery of the processes
and results. She is content with no second-hand knowledge ; she has in all
cases gone to the fountain-head." — Times.
of Discovery from the Time of the Greeks to the Present Day.. For
the Use of Schools and Young Persons. Fourth Edition, Revised and
Re-arranged. Crown 8vo, cloth gilt, gilt edges, 8s. 6d.; calf extra, 12s. 6d.
In this edition the Author has, in addition to giving the work a general revision,
recast the last ten chapters. She has by this means been able to bring into
proper chronological order, under each branch of science, the most recent researches and discoveries, which in the Third Edition were added in a supplementary chapter. This will be found to give much additional coherence and
interest to the narrative, and to make thejbook still more worthy of the high
position it has attained among the best class of books for the young.
THE FAIRY LAND OF SCIENCE. Eighteenth Thousand. Post 8vo,
with Seventy-four Illustrations, cloth gilt, gilt edges, 6s.; calf extra, lis.
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of One Hundred Illustrations, cloth gilt, gilt edges, 6s.; calf extra, lis.
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philosophic glow which lights up its every page. . . . The work forms a
charming introduction to the study of zoology—the science of living things—
which, we trust, will find its way into many hands."—Nature.
Post 8vo, with numerous Illustrations
cloth, gilt
WINNERS IN LIFE'S RACE;  or, The Great Backboned Family
Fourth Thousand,
edges, 8s. 6d.; calf extra, 14s.
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WINNERS IN LIFE'S RACE; or, The Great Backboned Family.
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London:   EDWARD STANFORD, 26 & 27,  COCKSPUR St.,  S.W.
Nameby Showing tke Author's route 


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