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British Columbia. A digest of reliable information regarding its natural resources and industrial possibilities Gosnell, R. E. (R. Edward), 1860-1931 1890

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 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
A DIGEST
-OF-
RELIABLE-INFORMATION
-REGARDING-
Its Natural Resources and
Industrial Possibilities.
By E. E. GOSNELL,
Commissioner of the Provincial Exhibit Association.
" I think British Columbia a glorious Province- a province which Canada should be proud to
possess, and whose association with the Dominion she ought to regard as the crowning triumph of
Federation."—Lord Dupherin.
' 
VANCOUVER, B.C.:
NEWS-ADVERTISER PRINTING  AND PUBLISHING COMPANY.
1890.  BRITISH COLUMBIA
A DIGEST
-OF-
RELIABLE-INFORMATION
-REGARDED
Its Natural Resources and
Industrial Possibilities.
By R. E. GOSNELL,
Commissioner of the Provincial Exhibit Association.
" I think British Columbia a glorious Province—a province which Canada should be proud to
possess, and whose association with the Dominion she ought to regard as the crowning triumph of
Federation."—Lord Dufferin.
VANCOUVER, B.C.:
NEWS-ADVERTISER PRINTING  AND  PUBLISHING  COMPANY.
1890. This little volume is dedicated by the author to the interests of
British Columbia, the possibilities of which are not to be surpassed
by those of any cou?itry in the world; and of its population it
may be said, that a more loyal, contented and prosperous people
cannot be found—" a people without a grievance."
CONTENTS.
PAGES
Introductory   3— 4
Agricultural Resources  4— 8
General Characteristics  8—11
Needs of Development 11—12
Industrial Possibilities 12—14
Conditions 14—15
Bureau of Enquiry 15"—27
New Westminster District 27—29
Vancouver Island—Queen Charlotte Group 30—32
The Great Interior 33—35
Statistical and General Appendix 35—48 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
In order to inform himself thoroughly of the horticultural and agrieul- Reliable
tural capabilities of the Province, and the various conditions which affect the mformation.
husbandman's occupation, the writer prepared a series of questions, forty-
seven in all, in the form of a circular, which was sent through the valuable
medium of the Fruit Growers' Association, to representative men in every
part of British Columbia. These questions were so framed, as may be judged
Dy the nature of the replies, as to elicit information that would convey to the
mind of the practical man, as nearly as possible, a true idea of the actual
state of affairs, forming an almost absolutely safe guide to those whose actions
in regard to British Columbia as a farming country might be affected thereby.
Unfortunately, only a small proportion of those to whom these circulars were
sent, took the trouble to respond. However, as will be seen, a sufficient
number realised the importance of what was desired, and one reply at least
was received from each of nearly all the principal districts. Those who were
kind enough to respond did so, except in a few cases, very fully and satisfactorily, and in almost every instance they are representative farmers and fruitgrowers in the districts in which they reside, many of them occupying responsible positions, as members of Parliament, reeves, justices of the peace, etc.,
etc. Although the object at first was to write from the answers, using tbem
as data, it has been deemed advisable to compile them, using, as nearly as
possible, the exact language of the informants, without exaggeration or detraction, a course which will be found much more satisfactory to the person
desiring uncolored, reliable information, and productive of knowledge -not
altogether uninteresting, even in the lexiconic form presented. The aim has
been to give a fair, unvarnished impression of British Columbia, based on
actual results, and without any resort or approach to "booming," so much
and very often disastrously practised.
The facts, it is believed, will be found sufficiently eloquent in themselves,
and cannot be deceptive, inasmuch as they represent conditions as they exist.
The preface to the circular in question was as follows: " Below you will find
a number of questions, to which you are requested to reply in so far as they
relate to your district. The object of this circular is to obtain from practical, experienced men, a knowledge of I the resources of the various parts of
the Province, and suggestions as to the best means of development, with a
view to making these more widely known and aiding in the achievement of
these objects."
The information in regard to the Province, as a whole, which is lacking in
the reports received and printed herein, it has been the endeavor to
supply with the same adhesion to fidelity and reliability that characterises
them, and with the same end in view.
SOME NECESSARY  REMARKS.
To outsiders and to many new comers in the Province, there is much that        A
requires explanation, and many  things that seem strange from numerous Remarkable
points of view.    The conditions that exist here are somewhat different from
those to be found in what is known as the North West of Canada, the Eastern States and Western States.    In this respect the Pacific slope forms a distinct longitude, British Columbia peculiarly so.    Had Great Britain and Ireland remained in an undeveloped state up or nearly to the present time,
could we imagine it thus, s< A    I hing like a parallel would have been obtained.   An atmosphere humid with the vaporings of the ocean;   a climate
beautifully tempered by the sea currents; a vast extent of mountainous surface, intersected with numerous rivers and rich sheltered valleys;   a  vegetation necessarily rank under such conditions, producing enormous forests and
J prolific crops; a remoteness from the rest of America, and until recently a
commercial isolation; an undeveloped and almost inaccessible interior; a
rugged exterior, rendering communication difficult; a country of long distances and divides; a mining Province primarily inhabited by gold-seekers; a
new West; possibilities opened up for the over-populated East—all account for
many things, which people of old settled, level and developed communities are
unaccustomed to. It is the old and the new; the past and the present; the vast
and prodigal in nature and the ordinary and "uninteresting" meeting rather
unexpectedly on the shores of the Pacific.
AGRICULTURAL   RESOURCES.
The reason for taking the interrogatory course was that, owing to the extensive area of the Province and the difficulty of intercommunication, comparatively little was known, except in a general way, of the resources of the
Province, by the people of the Province, much less by those beyond its
limits. With large agricultural resources, owing to the lack of development,
there has been a lack of uniformity of methods, and comparatively little data
upon which to base-general or particular conclusions.
British Col- It must be remembered that prior to the Canadian Pacific Railway, which
Timbia as it was only completed to Vancouver in 1886, practically speaking, the whole of
the Interior was a sealed book, and so far as farming was concerned, it was
impracticable. Because of the lack of communication, there was no outlet
for the products of labor; hence no incentive. The population was limited
and principally confined to the cities of New Westminster and Victoria, the
supply for which came from the immediately adjoining country or by steamer
from the South. Therefore, although British Columbia was prominently
before the public of America thirty years ago, and because her agricultural
and horticultural capabilities are just beginning to be known, it must not be
concluded that her people are not progressive. Thirty years ago this Province had a large population, the result of the gold fever. Men flocked' in
over the Rocky Mountains, by boat from San Francisco, and along the slope
by way of Blaine, but in their mad race for gold, they did not take note of
the great wealth that industry alone would develop, the favorable conditions
for which had to be supplied by railway communication with the East, now
consummated. As a matter of fact, British Columbia is only five years old,
and, considering all the difficulties that surrounded pioneer development, her
development has been most remarkable.
Effect of It is true that before the Canadian Pacific Railway was  opened, which-
C.P.R. by the way, by its effects upon this Province, amply justified its undertaking
as a great national enterprise, there was a considerable export in gold and '
furs by the Hudson's Bay Company, seal skins from Victoria, canned salmoh
from the Fraser and lumber from Burrard Inlet; but in that sense, Britisn
Columbia was utilised in much the same way by capital as Alaska is; the rich
islands of the sea and portions of Africa; a depletion rather than a develop,
ment. And now that a railway has reached from ocean to ocean, from an
inter-provincial point of view, it has only rendered further development possible by the construction of other branch lines to tap the fertile portions of
. the Interior. The main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, like railways in
many other parts of the world, was built chiefly to reach objective points,
and runs through the most unproductive regions. Hence a traveller riding
over it is unfavorably impressed in his initial journey, westward to the Coast.
Many fertile sections are yet practically isolated and accessible still only by
the cayuse over pack trails, canoes, boats 01 small steamers and along wagon
Branch Line roads. However, the branch line policy of the C. P. R. has been vigorously
Railways, inaugurated, and soon, by this means and other railways which are seeking
ingress and proposed independent short lines, every part of the Province
will be reached and opened up.
This year the rich wheat and pasture lands of the Okanagan and Spall-
umcheen valleys Will be connected with the main line of the C. P. R. by a
railway from Okanagan Lake to Sicamous; and a railway in the mining region
of Kootenay, the trade of which the Americans are most anxious to capture, is under construction; a short line from Nelson to Sproat's Landing, will,
by utilising the Columbia River to Revelstoke, direct the mineral wealth
and the consequent trade of that country to the cities of the Coast. Another
railway is being projected from the far-famed Cariboo, the quartz mines of
which will far exceed in returns the palmy placer days of that district, to
Kamloops or Ashcroft, giving an outlet to an immense area of pasture, farming and fruit lands, as well as extensive mineral deposits.
The C. P. R. has also under contract a branch line from the Mission to More Rail-
the boundary line to connect with an important line of American railways. %vays*
This will pass through one of the best agricultural districts of the Province,
being the easterly part of the celebrated Fraser delta lands, probably not to
be surpassed in the world foi productiveness. Then, running from the
boundary this way to New Westminster, the New Westminster Southern,
which may have its ultimate terminus in Vancouver, opens up a large tract
south of the Fraser. There are various other lines for which charters have
been obtained for railways and electric tramways that will supply all the
facilities of communication only necessary to make this Province the garden
of Canada.
As a number of references is made in the replies to the want of rail- Market for
ways and other communication in order to secure a market, and as thatProduce-
accounts for many present conditions, the above explanation in regard to railways seems necessary. At present the market for produce from Kamloops to
Vancouver along the C. P. R. is produced by the latter. South of the Fraser
is what is known as the Lower Fraser Valley, the great fertility of which
has already been referred to. The farmers living within an easy distance of
the river, find a market at the various steamboat landings for their produce,
which is conveyed from there to Vancouver, New Westminster and Victoria.
The rich islands of the Fraser, Lulu and Sea, which are connected with the
Mainland by bridges, and the important North Arm settlement, find a market
in Vancouver by way of the North Arm road.
Apart from the Okanagan and Spallumcheen valleys, and the pasture British Col-
lands of the Interior, British Columbia is not a farming country in the same urabia as a
sense as other provinces are said to be;   that is, while the soil and climate are r0'rinJDg
capable of producing anything that can be grown in Canada, and in the temperate zones, and to a degree of perfection unsurpassed elsewhere, all other
conditions are not equal.    British Columbia is a country for gardens and small
farms, upon which will luxuriate all kinds of fruit and vegetables, large and
small, and such specialties as hops, sugar beet, sorghum, tobacco, mushrooms,
-cauliflower, mulberries, flowers and ornamental trees and shrubs, flax, etc.,
etc.
Cereals will everywhere, in good soil, surpass the product per acre in the
best parts of Canada, but the area of land is more limited for this than other
purposes, as the clearing of land must be taken into consideration. Land
once in a state of cultivation, however, is equal to anything to be found on
the continent for productiveness. In a few years the arable lands will be all
well cultivated. Trees of smaller growth for purposes of shade and ornamentation will take the place of the present giants. Farms will be smaller
and much better tilled, as a consequence, than in Ontario, though probably
two or three times higher in price. Improved farming land is already much
higher than in the Eastern Provinces, but relatively is no dearer. This fact
should not be lost sight of. A good farm of 100 acres in British Columbia is
worth two or three times a good farm of the same' size in any other part of
Canada. The farmer has a double protection for his products: (1) the more
limited area, and (2) the greater distance from competitors. With the tariff
considered, the British Columbia farmer has practically control of the home
market, which at present is not inconsiderable and rapidly expanding in its
demands. What that demand is and its probable future dimensions may be L'kmI
judged from the fact that by a statement prepared by the Secretary of the demand-
Vancouver Board of Trade, one million and a quarter dollars worth of goods,
products of the farm, garden and orchard, was imported into this Province in
1889 for home consumption. Advantages
of Farmers.
pects.
Wheat
Growing for
Milling- purposes.
The list includes animals, breadstuff's, provisions, trees, eggs, vegetables,,
etc., etc. From 25 to 50, and in many cases even 100 per cent, to Eastern
prices may be added for British Columbia. Therefore, any disadvantage in
the way of putting land into a similar state of cultivation to that found elsewhere, is more than compensated by the advantages obtained in placing products on the market and the fruitfulness of the soil. A man is, comparatively
speaking, in good circumstances with ten acres improved and well situated,
well off with fifty acres, and rich with 100 acres. A man with 500 acres
would be a lord of the country side. The remarks concerning the cost of
clearing land apply to timbered land and partly timbered land, but it is qualified by the fact that a large portion of the agricultural lands of the Province
is either prairie or partly prairie. A good deal of it is bottom land, lightly
timbered with alder, maple and cottonwood, etc. Some of it here and there
requires dyking and some draining, but much of it is still available at prices
varying from $15 to $50 an acre, unimproved, according to location. Nearly
all the Government lands situated at present within easy reach have been
taken up.
Up to the present there has been a prevailing impression ' that British
Columbia has no agricultural lands worth speaking about, and it is very difficult to convince otherwise even those who come to the Province themselves.
As stated previously, this is largely the result of the impression received by
coming through to the Coast for the first time. But it may be stated with
confidence, though, perhaps, surprising to many, that British Columbia has a
: larger fruit-growing area than any province in the Dominion. In British Columbia, wherever cultivation is possible, the soil and climate are capable
of excellent results. So true is this that it might be termed the home
of all the small fruits, pears, plum3 and cherries; peaches, grapes, nectarines, quinces, apricots, melons and tomatoes (the latter two sometimes
classed as fruits) vary in success according to local conditions. It is thought
possible that tea, rice, Mandarin oranges and persimmons and different kinds
of semi-tropical nuts can be cultivated with success, and already experiments
are under way.
The object of making the enquiries will be quite evident to practical fruit
growers. For instance, the success of peaches and grapes was problematical,
owing to the limited extent to which they had been cultivated. Hence probability of their success in many districts was inferred from the fact that melons
and tomatoes grow and/ripen, it being axiomatic in horticulture that when the
latter do well the former are almost sure to do well also. Cool nights are
usually unfavorable to their cultivation, but the absence of winds and
extreme colds act as a compensating advantage, and on southern slopes, and
especially in the interior, all doubts as to results have been practically abandoned. Another question, " Does wheat ripen hard?" has been considered
necessary as a consequence of an impression that has become prevalent in
some quarters that the wheat in British Columbia is too soft for milling purposes.
The answers are very explicit on this point, but as additional proof, we
have the testimony of the secretary of the Board of Trade, who in the beginning of the present year, obtained samples from all parts of the Province and
forwarded them to W. W. Ogilvie, Montreal. Mr. Ogilvie's reply, which was
received, is here given.
"1. Minnesota Fife—If this was for Minnesota Red Fife, your climate
must have,totally changed its nature, or was what is known as white Fife and
is not a desirable wheat to sow.
"2. From Australian seed, shows well, and must have improved in your
soil and climate, as it is much superior to the average sample of Australian
wheat.
"3. "Ladoga"—Originally a Russian wheat. If it has been sown in
your climate for some years it shows that it holds its own for strength, and is
most desirable for strong bakers' flour.
"4. White Fife—Shows well,- but is not so desirable as Red Fife, being-:
of a softer nature. " 5 and 6. Look as if they had been sown too long in the same sofl and
climate and got bleached, and of soft nature.
"7. Is a good wheat of medium strength and will show good results.
'  "8. Is an extra good sample of Fall wheat and will make good pastry
flour.
"9. Red Fife—is not very satisfactory, it has deteriorated into soft
wheat.
"10 and 11. Samples are very fine, this wheat will make splendid pastry
flour.
" 12. Is a superior sample of White Winter wheat, equal to any I have
ever seen.
" 13. Is much better than the average sample of Australian.
" 14. Spring Wheat—Is of a soft nature and very much tagged by smut.
" 15. Is Red Fall wheat, and will make a good medium bakers' flour.
" 16. Red China Wheat—Is a good sample and looks as if it had improved by being sown in your soil and climate. It will make a good strong
flour.
" 17. Australian—Looks well, but is of a flinty nature, resembling what
is known as " Goose Wheat," and will not make satisfactory flour.
"19. Is a good sample and will make good strong flour.
"Altogether, I notice that the samples you sent me grown from Australian, Chilian and China wheat, have improved by your soil and climate, as
they are certainly better than the average of the wheat grown in the above
countries. .Nos. 16, Red China, and 18, Spring wheat, I am of opinion are
the best samples for bread making. Your samples from Chilian wheat I am
satisfied will make splendid flour, and the yield of flour will be very large.
" Altogether, I am well satisfied with the samples and find they are much
better than I expected. I have also had the samples examined by our Government Inspector, who agrees with me in the above reports.
" I am glad to be able to say that the samples speak in the highest manner of your soil and climate for growing wheat. The only question remaining
now is the quantity, and I sincerely hope that within a very short time that
you will be able to show good results in this respect."
The samples referred to were received from the following wheat districts The Samples
of British Columbia:
1. "Minnesota Fife," by M. Lumby, Enderby, 40 acres yield 92,300 lbs.
2. "Australian," same, 31 bushels per acre.
3. "Ladoga," same, 80 pounds sown, yield 3,700 pounds.
4. "White Bue," J. Lyon, Vernon, 36 bushels per acre.
5. Not named,' W. Duteay, White Valley.
6. n A. L. Fortune, Enderby.
7. ii D. Mathison, Salmon River.
8. " A. B. Knox, Okanagan.
9. "Red Fife," H. Ferguson, Port Haney, 35 bushels per acre.
10. "White Chili Club."
11. "English Rough Chaff," J. T. Mcllmoyl, 22 bushes from one acre.
12. "White Winter."
13. "Australian," James Aird, Nicola, 2,000 pounds per acre.
14. "Spring Wheat," Walter Lee, Lulu Island, 40 bushels per acre.
15. "Fall Wheat," T. Thirkill, Lulu Island, 50 bushels per acre.
16. "China Wheat," J. J. Wilson, Maple Ridge, 35 bushels per acre.
17. "Royal Australian," Donald Graham, Spallumcheen.
18. "Russian Lodi," H. T.- Thrift. Surrey, 25 to 60 bushels per acre.
19. Not named, J. C. Calhoun, Ladner's Landing, 1 to 1^ tons per acre
The names are those given by the grower.
The samples which the report deals with are not picked ones but are
exactly as they came from the threshers.
CLIMATE.
As soil and climate are the two essentials upon which the success of
agriculture must be depend, some general remarks may be advisable.     It is 8
Influences generally conceded that British Columbia has a climate superior to that of
on Climate. any 0ther part of the Dominion, and might also be said that of any part of
the United States, possessing however in a modified way, the general characteristics of the Pacific Coast. It is essentially mild and free from extremes and
comparing it with the Pacific slope generally, though a humid atmosphere, it
has not the rainfall of western Oregon or the dryness and heat of California
plains. The wet season in winter, though disagreeable to strangers, is preferable to the cold winds, snow or ice, while the summers are delightful. It
must be understood that no remarks of a general nature will apply to the
whole of the Province possessing such an immense area as it does and such a
variety of physical conditions. Mountain ranges have, it is unnecessary to
state, a marked effect on climate and produce local effects, and as a consequence from its extreme southern boundary to its extreme north, and from,
the ocean eastward, there are several distinct zones of climate. At the Coast,
general mildness and humidity prevails ; as you approach the high lands of
the interior, the atmosphere is more and more stripped of its humidity, and
becomes drier, until a point is reached where little rain falls and the winters
are cold and the summers hot. The one great factor in British Columbia climate, is the ocean currents Behring Straits are so narrow and shallow that
not much of the icy Arctic Current flows along the British Columbia coast; on
the other hand the effect of the Japan Currents is felt even in the remotest
interior. The Rocky Mountains running north westerly keep of the cold
north winds. Along this coast there is very little snow, which rarely ex-
Meteorologi- ceeds a few inches. At Victoria, Vancouver Island, in 1889, the minimum
returns. temperature by months was:—24, 25, 30, 32, 37, 37, 40, 41, 34, 36, 30, 27.
The total rain fall was 18.56 inches, rain fell ninety-nine days, snow fell on
three days; the record of maximum temperature was 52, 57, 64, 66, 79, 80,.
85, 77, 73, 67, 58, 51.
At Westminster, on the mainland, the maximum and minimum temperature for the year, seven months, showed as follows, respectively :—84,46 ;
90,51 ; 84,48; 79,44; 71,39; 60,31; 46,20; mean temperature for year 51.;.
rain fall 46.16 inches ; days rain fell, oue hundred and fifty-nine; snow fall
16.5 inches; days snow fell, fourteen.   •
In this connection it may be stated that the winter of 1889, was the most
remarkable experienced for some years, in regard to the amount of snow that
fell; it was in other words, an unusual winter.    In other respects it was an
Health average year.    Everywhere the climate is  salubrious  and the Province is
resort. justly enjoying a reputation as a health resort.    The interior is  especially
healthful, and invalids in search of a mild and at the same tnie invigorating
climate, can find no better place to go.
There are also numerous Hot Springs from Banff west, which will ultimately enjoy a popularity greater than many now celebrated in other parts:
of America.
Vancouver
Island.
SOIL AND GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS.
As to the soil and general characteristics, a good general, accurate and care-
folly written description is contained in the handbook of information recently
published by the Dominion Government and it is transferred to these pages as
being as comprehensive, consistent with brevity, as the writer could possibly
hope to make it.    It is compiled from the best sources of official information.
"On the west coast of Vancouver island little arable land is found. The-
principal settlements are upon the south and east coasts, where the soil is exceedingly fertile and the climate enjoyable and favorable to agriculture and
fruit growing. A margin of comparatively low land, varying from two to ten
miles in breadth, stretches between the foot of the mountain slopes and the
southern and eastern coast lines. The northern end of the island also is low.
The streams are bordered, in some instance, for considerable distances farther
inland, by narrow flats, The above low land, which is chiefly along the eastern coast, south from Seymour Narrows, has a rolling surface, with no elevations rising to a greater height than 800 or 1,000 feet.    In many parts it is. comparatively level. The hills are craggy, but often present small areas of
thin soil, covered with fine, short but thick grass, excellent for pasturage.
The country is wooden, but with many grassy swamps of from a few perches
in extent to many acres ; and fern patches studded with clumps of trees, or
with single trees, and frequently adorned with bosses of rock.
" The soil varies considerably. The land capable of cultivation is chiefly that Sou1; etc.
which is coveredwith drift deposits of clay and sand, and lies at no great elevation above the sea. The sandy gravels prevail on the higher levels, and
produce large timber and coarse grass. The clay occurs generally as a retentive subsoil on the open undulating grounds, and in hollows and swampy bottoms. Over these sands, gravels and clays, sometimes graduating downwards
to them, elsewhere separated by a rather sharp line from them, there is found,
for the most part a brownish black surface soil two feet to four feet in thickness, apparently containing a large proportion of vegetable matter. Rich
loams occur in many places, particularly in the Cowichan. Comox, Alberni
and Salmon river districts, in the neighborhood of the limestone rocks. Alluvial deposits are not extensive in Vancouver island, the streams being short
water-courses.
"The rich valley of the lower Fraser, or New Westminster district, is the The Fraser
largest compact agricultural district in the Province.    It is on the mainland    Valley,
shore, opposite the south-eastern portion of Vancouver Island.    The surface
of the lower part of the valley is little above the sea level.
'' Westminster district is the only large mass of choice agricultural land,
anywhere on the mainland of the North Pacific slope, that lies actually upon
the ocean, with a shipping port in its .midst. A navigable river cuts it
through, which is sheltered at its mouth. Some parts of the district are
heavily wooded -with Douglas fir, Menzies fir, giant cedar, western hemlock,
red alder, balsam, poplar, birch, and large-leafed maple; but there are large
areas of open land in different places, caused, perhaps, partly by the action of
fires and the occurrence of floods in the past.
" The New Westminster district probably rests over nearly its whole ex- Its forma-
tent on soft tertiary formations. The soil in general, in the sea-shore muniei-
palities, is composed of very modern delta deposit—deep black earth, with
for the most part a clay subsoil. There are large tracts of alluvial soil farther
up the Fraser, and along some of its most important tributaries, such as Pitt
river, Sumas river, etc. Clay loams occur in parts, and also light sandy
loams—the latter chiefly up river. These soils are almost uniformly fertile,
though some of them, no doubt, would be more easily exhausted than others.
The finest crops may be seen in all parts of the district.
"The delta lands and the clay loams can hardly be equalled for strength and Delta Land,
richness.    Very great yields are realised with comparatively careless  cultivation.    Fruit grows well.
"The surface of the bunch-grass region of the interior is a combination of Bunch grass
long narrow river-valleys, with terraces, knolls, hills and slopes rising to region,
mountains of considerable altitude. The undulating surface and the rolling,
lightly wooded hills, crossing and recrossing, making it a picturesque region.
"The valleys are in general narrow, with here and there low-flats. Back
from the rivers are the benches or terraces, and numerous hills of all sizes rising above the extensive slopes. Scattered over these here and there, loving
apparently the gravelly opens, and so far apart as in no way to interfere with
the free travel in all directions, is the peculiar tree of the district, commonly
called yellow pine—(Pinus contorta)—a tree well known to botanists, and
which it is needless here to describe.
" Over very considerable areas, far exceeding in the aggregate the arable The Interior
areas of the coast region, the interior is, in parts, a farming country up to
2,500 to 3,000 feet, so far as the soil is concerned, and the soil has proved to
be as fertile as the best on the coast. The climate, however, is so dry in the
summer that irrigation is necessary, except in a few favored localities. Cultivation is restricted, as a rule, to the valleys and terraces. The soils consist
commonly of mixtures of clay and sand, varying with the character of the
local formation, and of white silty deposits.    They everywhere yield most 10
r
extraordinary crops of all the cereals, vegetables and roots, when favorably
situated. The climate is much hotter in summer than the climate of the coast
region. Tomatoes, melons, cucumbers, peaches, grapes and all hardy and
semi-hardy fruits thrive in the open air in many parts. Fruit growing, no
doubt, as soon as there is an external market, will be one of the principal industries both in this and other parts of the Province. The Higher plateaux of
the interior are cultivated in some districts, but there is danger of summer
frosts, owing to their height.
Pasture area "As regards pasture, the interior, as a whole, is, in the opinion of experi
enced stock raisers, not only the most remarkable grass region on che Pacific
slope, but probably is unequalled on the continent. Even the alpine pasturage is very nutritive in the summer months. The grass-fed beef and mutton
are of the finest quality. Horses and all animals not only thrive, but have a
peculiar vigor.
"The portion of the southern interior in the Columbia and Kootenay region resembles' in climate, and in many other respects, the portion of
the more westerly southern interior between the Columbia and Fraser rh ers.
'' In the northern part of the interior plateau of British Columbia there is
an extensive low country, which, from the resemblance of much of it to parts
New Caledo- °^ Scotland, was called, formerly, N ew Caledonia by the Scotch officers of the
nia. Hudson's Bay company.    It lies chiefly north of the 51st parallel and west of
the Fraser river, in the basin of the Nechahoo and other tributaries. The soil
is almost uniformly good, but it is generally densely wooded with western
scrub pine and other trees. Until much of the timber is cleared off, the climate may not be found entirely suitable for arable purposes. Owing co its
distance at present from communications, this region is not likely to be occupied for these purposes soon. The prevailing grasses are not of the bunch
grass species, but chiefly red top and blue joint, with pea-vine on the slopes
of hills having a' southern aspect.
An import- "East of the Rocky mountains, butwithin the Province, in its north-east
ant district, angle, there is.a valuable agricultural region, its general surface about 2,000
feet above the sea; the climate good; soil of rich, silty character. The characteristics are those of the Peace river country in general, with a more undulating surface than the portion of that region lying east of the British Columbia boundary. The valleys are wide depressions, with gentle slopes, and the
plateau usually is a widely extended terrace level. , The district is well-watered. As a rule, the surface is wooded for the most part with second growth
wood, which consists of poplar, birch and spruce, but much of the district can
be easily cleared, and there are open spaces.
" This considerable portion of what may be termed the agricultural land of
British Columbia, lying east of the Rocky mountains, is described with force
and clearness in the evidence of Dr. Dawson, of the Geological Survey, whose
words are quoted : " The eastern boundary of British Columbia follows on
the 120th meridian from the 60th parallel southward till that meridian strikes
the Rocky mountains, and a large triangular portion of British Columbia thus
lies east of the Rocky mountains. The part of the Peace river basin that is of
considerable agricultural value, and,is included in British Columbia, I estimated at between 5,000 and 6,000 square miles."
The areas of strictly agricultural land in any one district are not extensive, yet sufficient to support a very large population, but each possesses conditions most favorable to success, soil, climate, absence of insect pests and
blights, etc. Such a thing as a failure of crops from auy of the causes producing loss elsewhere, is very rare, and one of the chief recommendations of
the country is the almost absolute dependence that may be placed on obtaining good returns from any crop for which a particular district is adapted.
All the Coast country is subject to moss, the result of the excessive humidity
of the atmosphere, but in regard to fruit growing, is easily guarded against
by the careful orchardist. As will be seen by the replies published elsewhere,
there are few complaints of mildew, blights or insects, or other pests. Yellows
in peaches, or black knot and curculio in plums, which grow here in immense
perfection, are yet unknown.    Apple borers have been reported but not witbC
The Peace
River
Country. 11
•absolute certainty. Caterpillars, cut worms and vegetable vermin are noted
occasionally, but speaking generally, the Province so far is in an approximate
degree free from those insect pests and diseases, against which the farmer,
•fruiter, and gardener has so determinedly to fight in older settled countries.
Whether they will come with horticultural development or not, remains
to be seen.
One thing which points to the natural direction in which a large propor- 5?**ve
tion of energy may be profitably lent, is the great luxuriance and vigor with    or '
which wild flowers and fruits and grasses grow, wherever the ground is clear
of forest.    Professor Macoun and  other naturalists who  have collected in
British Columbia, testify in glowing terms to the rich fields for exploration it
affords.
Vegetation of all kinds and varieties found in the temperate zone,
thrives here. Ferns grow to an enormous size in great profusion and
beauty, and wherever the locality favors, arbutus, spirea, roses,
clematis, lupins, syringa, honeysuckle, lilies, buttercups, violets,
daisies, etc., etc., are found flourishing and beautiful. Salmon berries,
blackberries, blueberries, raspberries, cranberries, wild plums, wild cherries,
and many other native fruits grow everywhere and to a remarkable degree of
perfection, and on bushes and trees astonishing for growth. The richness of the
native flora suggests better than the most learned thesis, the possibilities of the
Province in the cultivation of their respective allies in domestic kinds and varieties. As a nursery, a flower and vegetable garden, or an orchard, it has the
elements of as great a success as probably any known part of the world. All
experiments and results so far go to verify this conclusion.
NEEDS OF DEVELOPMENT.
By irrigation in the interior; by the dyking and draining of the overflowed lands of the Fraser and ocean tide flats; by the extension of good roads,
the building of branch railways, improvement and increase in navigation and
the systematisation of methods in handling produce, and the other benefits incident to internal expansion of industry, all of which are naturally gradual and
the result of the expenditure of capital and intelligent effort, the Province has
prospects, agriculturally speaking, equal to any part of the Dominion or even
the famed California. The pioneer farmer, as it is in every other country, what to'
has no royal road to success. No man, whether he^>e a farmer, mechanic, expect,
laborer or capitalist, should come to'this Province deluded by the false hope
of finding bonanzas and enjoying an Eldorado. It is true there are chances of
making riches quickly and easily not found in older places, but industry, intelligence and application here, as elsewhere,- are about the only patents for j
obtaining wealth. This much, however, can be promised with confidence to
all good common-sense persons, that in no new country is the return for the
judicious investment of capital and honest industry more assured. Such
would be the verdict of nine-tenths of the population, than whom a more contented and prosperous people, man for man, cannot be found.
The double protection already referred to, which they enjoy in their home Protection
market, is also enhanced by the geographical situation of their sea-ports lying to tnetarmer
as they are in the line of the new.short route of the world's trade and commerce and in touch with markets east, west and south.
The Province, too, possesses in contiguity the elements which enter into Elements of
great manufacturing enterprises, which have made England rich and re- success,
nowned—iron, timber, coal and other minerals-—and has, too, unlimited food
resources in her fish, farm, fruit and grazing lands. She has structural material to no end. Most of these are still undeveloped, but point to a future
which requires but two things to be achieved—capital and industry. And
above all she has the advantages, which add zest to the acquirement of wealth
and pleasure to its enjoyment, healthful and agreeable climate, the finest and
grandest scenery Under the canopy of ethereal blue, unlimited opportunities for
diversified enjoyment, advanced educational, social and political institutions
and the asgis of the British flag and supremacy. 12
Scaling.
Pacific Coast
Fish.
Deep Sea
Fiahinjr.
Sardines
Oysters.
Lobsters.
Fish Oils.
Dairying.
Condensed
..SElk.
Sheep and
Wool. ,
Canning,
Pickling,
etc.
INDUSTRIAL POSSIBILITIES.
Apart from agriculture, diversified industry is the greatest factor of
greatness in a nation. The resources of the Province suggest many things of
an industrial nature towards which capital is turning. The two great industries, in which the field is already pretty well occupied, are timber and salmon
canning. Statistics of these are given elsewhere, and they show a remarkable-
expansion.
The sealing industry is a large and lucrative one and could be made still
more so if the dressing were done at home instead of sending the .skins to
London to be shipped back in a manufactured state.
Other than salmon, the fishing is practically undeveloped, and here a
great field of possibilities lies. The coast of British Columbia is an extended
one, which a glance at the map will verify, and its waters are rich with halibut, skil (black cod), our substitute for the eastern mackerel, cod, salmon, herring, bass, skate, soles, sardines, smelts, oolachan, immense sturgeon, dogfish, clams, cray fish, crabs and numerous other shell fish, while in the interior waters are white fish, trout, pike, perch, etc. Whales, hair seals, porpoise also abound, all of which are of great commercial value when utilised,
but at present have a local consumption principally.
Attention is being directed to the deep sea fishing, and several fishing
companies have been organised. The drying, curing and exporting of fish on
a large scale, will yet be an important industry. The great abundance of
sardines, large-sized and richly flavored, should create an industry equal to
that of France.
The oysters in the coast waters are small and poor compared with their
cultivated eastern cousins at Baltimore, but by cultivation and the importation of eastern stock, the beds, properly protected from star fish, and located
so as to be affected as little as possible by the mineral deposits, there appears
to be no reason why success should not crown an experiment in oyster farming.
Lobsters are not indigenous to the Pacific coast; if their transportation
across the continent could be accomplished, the Inspector of Fisheries says
that favorable locations for their propagation could be found. By means of
artificial hatcheries, such as are at present located at New Westminster and
other parts of Canada no doubt many new varieties of valuable fish of commerce-
could be added to the present rich stock.
Valuable oils extracted from whales, seals, dog fish, salmon offal, etc.,
offer a rich return for ain industry with this special object in view.
An industry which, when railways have penetrated to the extensive-
grazing areas of the interior, will grow to immense proportions, and for
which the country is admirably adapted, is that of dairying. The rich bunch
grass and the numerous pure mountain streams, lakes and rivers which contain a never-failing supply of food and drink, meet the exact requirements.
Allied with this are condensed milks and dressed meats, the possibilities:
of which are equally promising.
Sheep raising and wool growing lie along the same line. All of these
form material for a future export trade, as well as supplying an ever-increasing home consumption.
Already steps have been taken in Vancouver and New Westminster to
utilise the vegetable and fruit resources of the adjacent districts. There is.
an abundant scope for using up the surplus and intermediate and poorer
grades for canning, evapdrating, jellies, pickles, sauces, vinegar, cider, etc.
As already stated, this Province is admirably adapted for the growth of suitable fruits, and in the required vegetables, such as onions, peppers, cauliflower, cucumbers, radishes,- and so on, it is equal to any country in which the-
industry has reached th;e highest degree of success. For this, not the extent
of the land, but the character of the soil, climate and cultivation is the sine
qua non. Therefore, the comparatively limited area of land in the Lower
Fraser Valley and the southern and southeastern portions of Vancouver
Island, is capable of being divided into innumerable small farms and gardens,
and of sustaining a very large population employed in this way; while the
more extensive area of land in the interior can produce all the cereals and 13
grosser foodstuffs, not only to sustain our own  population,  but to  form a
lucrative export trade.    It is not beyond the limits of the possible or probable
that there will, with these favorable conditions, be firms on the Pacific Coast-
that will rival in fame and the magnitude of their business, the celebrated
Crosse & BlackwelL
British Columbia has a peculiar advantage in her situation towards Our Markets
finding a market for her natural and manufactured products. She has
the largest, most fertile .and compact area of unbroken land in the
' world, the immense future population of which, mainly engaged in the cultivation of cereals, to supply, viz., Manitoba and the North West Territories.
On the other hand, the latter will find a compensating advantage in British
Columbia, which, in the near future, when she competes with Oregon in the
foreign export of flour and other products, will find here an outlet in the mills
built for that purpose in the cities of the coast. Turning westward and southward, there are the opening fields of Japan and China, India, South America,
Australia and the Pacific islands. Thitherward lumber, manufactures, flour,
canned goods, fruit, salmon, etc., will flow, finding an illimitable market.
In fruits, for instance, the developments in methods of cold storage will
make it possible to ship safely to any part of the world.
The probable success of hops and sugar beet in almost every part of the Hops.
Province reported from, seems to be undoubted. Here are the elements
among the varied elements of industrial wealth, that promise much. Apart
from the successful experiments with hops within the Province, what has been
accomplished in Washington,' a state almost similar to British Columbia in its
physical characteristics and resources, is sufficient indication of what is possible here. There hop raising is an industry of considerable magnitude, and
has had wonderful development.    The following quotation is apropos:
" Hops is the staple crop of Washington Territory; already their annual
production is 8,000,000 pounds.
"The crop of 1881 was 6,198 bales; of .1888, 40,000 bales, and last year
it was estimated that 4,000 acres produced value equal to $1,125,000, all
springing from beginnings of so late a date as 1875. The average yield is
1,600 pounds per acre."
Now, as to sugar beet, the success of which, if nothing else, proves the Sugar Beefc.
richness of the soil, a number of experiments were made a year or two ago
from seed distributed for that purpose, and the results were most gratifying.
The beets grown were tested for saccharine qualities by analytic experts in
Vancouver, Scotland and California, and the report of the Board of Trade of
1889 says: " According to these reliable authorities, our experimental beets
ha)Ve, in many instances, even without proper attendance, or treated by experienced hands, yielded a percentage of saccharine matter which is totally
unknown in the ' Old World.' When a sufficient area is under cultivation,
the success of a sugar beet refinery would seem beyond doubt." The same report places the gross yield at $100 to $120 per acre, and estimates the area of
land from Harrison River to the Pacific Coast (only a small corner of the
Province) that would be capable of producing beets at 400,000 acres. Flax can
also be grown in abundance.
The vast extent of timber land has created a lumber industry of large Manufactur-
proportions, which is developing rapidly. There is considerable export in *nS'
rough lumber to all parts of the world, and that in manufactured stuffs is on
the increase yearly. Furniture and woodenware manufactories are being inaugurated, having the home and foreign markets in view. There are several
flourishing tanneries, supplying local demand, and native barks are being
tested as to their tanning properties. Woollen mills, manufacturing homegrown wools, have been established for several years in New Westminster
with success, and are importing Australian wools. Paper and pulp mills are
talked of, with good prospects of being realised.
A flour mill at Enderby, in the Okanagan district, is doing a good busi- Flouring-
ness in all parts of the Province, and, as already intimated, it is only a matter Mills.
of a year or two at the outside when rolling mills equalling in  capacity any
in Canada, will be erected on this coast.    The attention of Messrs. Ogilvie & (t
Sugar Refineries and
■Jute Works.
Malting and
Brewing.
Smelting.
Iron.
Earthenw're
Quarries,
etc.
Shipb'lding.
National
concerns.
14
Co.   and other large mill owners has been favorably directed to such au I
enterprise.
A sugar refinery is being erected in Vancouver, the shareholders of the
concern being large capitalists in New York, Montrea and British Columbia.
Victoria has also voted a bonus in the same direction. The natural advantages for a sugar refinery situated at a Pacific port and the terminus of a
transcontinental railway are obvious, being in commercial contiguity with the
Sandwich Islands, Australia and other raw sugar sources. For similar reasons
direct trade connection with the Phillippine Islands has rendered the successful operation of a rope and bag factory, etc., most feasible. The idea has
taken practical shape, and the industry will be conducted on a large scale by
a combination of local capitalists and firms engaged in the same manufacture
in Eastern Canada.
British Columbia as is very evident from the crop returns is a fruitful
barley growing country. Malting is therefore a possible industry, the
breweries now doing business being supplied with imported malt.
A natural outcome of the immense mineral deposits of all kinds to be
found in every part of the Province is smelters for their production. Smelting, perhaps above all other industries, has a remarkable effect in attracting
population and stimulating other enterprises. Two smelters are already in
existence. One at Vancouver the other at Revelstoke, both waiting for
railways to tap the mineral lodes, and enable the miners to ship out at reasonable cost, their ores to start up with. Both are expected to be in operation
this summer. Two more are proposed, one at Golden and the other at
Nelson. These are for the purpose of smelting lead ores which preponderate.
The Government chlorinating works, the process of which had in view the
treatment of the refractory ores of Cariboo, promised great success, but were
burned down shortly after having been completed and tested. They will
be rebuilt.
Iron exists in large quantities on Texada Island, in New Westminster
district, at Spence's Bridge'and other places, and blast furnaces will follow
their development as soon as the conditions of the labor market are favorable.
Pottery works is another thing that is attracting attention and for which
there are clays in the District of New Westminster, wholly suitable. The
burning of lime on a large scale and brickyards are well established industries
with largely increasing output. There is excellent gray and red granite to be
had and quite accessible. Quarries are being worked on the North Arm of
Burrard Inlet with good results. Besides a good local demand, the quarried
granite is being shipped to Seattle and Portland. A quarry is also being
opened up on Nelson Island. Both of these will probably result in extensive
industries.
From its position on the sea board with an extended and important coast,
the Province of British Columbia naturally numbers ship-building among its
great enterprises of the future. The contiguity of iron and wood and the great
demand for crafts of all kinds and dimensions, will inevitably build up an industry equal to that or approaching that of the Clyde, and the time must
soon come when steamships will no longer be brought around the Horn to
supply the wants of navigation in these waters.
There are other concerns of a national and semi-political nature such as
the Pacific cable, dry docks, Australian steamship service, Imperial fortifications, etc., of the greatest importance which are sure of realisation, but
which do not come within the scope of a treatise of this kind. The foregoing
however suggests in a general way, the natural adaptabilities of the Canadian
Pacific Coast from an industrial point of view, and towards which most of the
economic conditions are favorable for success.
CONDITIONS.
There are two things now which may be said
velopment in these lines. One is the dearness of labor
comparatively speaking, limited population.
to interfere with de-
and the other  is the 15
Both of these will right themselves, the influx of eastern workingmen The essen-
equalising the ecXmomic conditions of production, and the population *' s-
increasing rapidly. Two things above all others will tend to rapidly bring
about the necessary change,—the development of the mines, which since the
railway era has begun, promise a boom, ere long, and that of the farming
resources which as already stated are capable of sustaininga very large farming population. One of the principal needs of the Province at present, from
an agricultural and horticultural point of view, is the systematic handling of
the produce of the fruit farms. A large amount is grown that never finds the
market, products which the market demands and is supplied by firms outside,
from the fact that business interests of grower and dealer have not so combined as to establish a definite ratio between supply and demand. In other
words, fruit growing and farming have not yet become a business industry as
well as an oecupation. This has been much discussed by the Fruit- Growers'
Association who have devoted much attention to it with prospects of a satisfactory solution. Like all commercial problems, however, it will find a
natural solution in the adjustment of supply and demand.
Sufficient has been shown in the above hurried enumeration of industries
present, prospective and possible, to answer the question conclusively, so
frequently asked by persons visiting coast cities, "what is at their back,
what is there to keep them up?" a superficial enquiry resulting from a lack of
knowledge of the' various resources possessed by the Province.
Bureau of Enquiry.
The information contained in the following was obtained by enquiries in
various parts of the Province as explained elsewhere and from most reliable
sources. The places from which *reports were received are fairly representative, and taken all together will give the reader a general idea of the conditions which exist.
AGASSIZ (Yale and N. W.)
Station on C P. B., 70 miles from Vancouver, in Harrison Valley, site of Dominion Govern
ment Experimental Farm.
Apples,  pears,  peaches,  plums,  cherries,   quinces  and grapes and all Fruits,
varieties of small fruits do well,   except a few tenderer varieties  of apples,
the great trouble being to keep the trees from breaking down with fruit.
All kinds of vegetables do well; e. g. 1,000 bushels of turnips have been Vegetables,
gathered on one acre.
Tomatoes ripen, musk melons do pretty well; peaches and grapes succeed,
peaches do remarkably well; all kinds of cereals are grown.
Wheat, 30 to 50 bushels to the acre; oats, 40 to 60 bushels; potatoes, 200 Crop Yields.
to 400 bushels; hay, 1 to 3 tons.    Wheat ripens fairly well.
Soil, sandy loam; cultivation, only settled within four or five years; land g0j] g^
still covered with stumps.
From Farr's Bluff, C. P. R., east about eleven miles to Sea Bird Bluff, on
C. P. R., about one or two miles wide (six miles of this is known as Maria
Island, as well as about 400 acres between Agassiz station and the river, is
reserved for Indians, who make no use of it and will always greatly retard
settlement as long as it remains in their hands.
Greatest depth of snow, 2 feet; greatest cold, 1 or 2 below; greatest heat climate.
90 above; cools nights; season pretty well mixed,  wet and dry;   early in
winter occasionally winds from the north.
Tent caterpillars and other kinds in fruit trees; no mold or moss.
Timothy, mixed with clover, is the principal grass; wild flowers include
tiger lilies, lupins, wild rose, etc. 16
Roads and abatement of Indian reserves.
About one-tenth is improved on each claim.
Hops Both hops and sugar beets do well; the trouble would be to get the hops
picked.
PriceofLand $20 an acre; add $30 to $50 for clearing.
ALBERNI (River Bend).
Country at the head of Barclay Sound, 54 miles from Nanaimo, Vancouver Island.
All kinds of fruits are grown.    Cherries, pears and  small fruits are the
Fruits.
Vegetables.
Yields.
Soil, Cultivation, etc.
Climate.
Needs.
Market.
Hops.
PriceofLand
Fruits.
Vegetables.
Crop Yields.
Soil, etc.
Pests.
best.
Vegetables of all kinds are raised to perfection, potatoes go 400 to 500
bushels to the acre, and carrots 900 bushels.
Tomatoes ripen; muskmelons were a splendid success last year. Both
peaches and grapes have been tried and have done exceedingly well.
Wheat, in good land, good; peas good; turnips extra; hay two to three
tons.
Wheat ripens better than in any part of Vancouver Island.
Soil chiefly clay; good alder bottom and sandy loam along the rivers;
adapted to everything except apples ; cultivation rather rough. Alberni has
a radius of about twenty-five miles; about 22,500 acres taken up, capable of
cultivation, with room for many more.
Climate: changeable in winter, greatest depth of snow three feet once in
five years; greatest cold, seldom zero; greatest heat, 90 to 100; nights warmer
than in Victoria; wet season, two to three months; dry season, nine to ten
months; winds do not prevail.
There are few if any insect pests that do harm; no blight except in peas;
no mold or moss.
Grasses: timothy and clover, one to three tons; there are a great many
wild flowers—lilies, larkspur, lupins, fern weed, etc., etc.
More industrious families, railroad and a good saw mill.
Victoria and Nanaimo; pork, 10 to 12 cents per lb; beef, 7 to 9 cents per
lb; potatoes, $20 to $30 per ton; eggs, 25 to 50 cents per doz. Market could
be improved by good and regular communication.
Some seventy to eighty are improving rftheir land, others are not.
Hops do excellently in suitable land; sugar beet good; flax could be cultivated to advantage.
Price of land, $10 to $50 per acre.
CACHE CREEK.
A Post Office District on Cariboo road, six miles from Ashcroft.
Apples, pears, cherries, grapes and all small fruits.
All kinds grown in the temperate zone and equal to those of any country
known.
Tomatoes ripen in the valleys, melons equal the full average of Ontario.
Grapes have been grown, peaches not tried.
Wheat, barley, oats, peas and a little corn. Wheat, 30 to 50 bushels to
the acre ; oats, 1500 lbs; barley, 1800 lbs ; peas, 2000 lbs: Potatoes, 300
bushels; turnips, 15 tons ; hay:—Alfafa, 5 tons; timothy, 2 tons. Wheat
ripens hard.
The soil is sandy loam, and is sections is adapted to all the fruits, vegetables and cereals grown in the temperate zone. The area of land cultivated
depends largely upon the supply of water that can be obtained. Cultivation
is fair.
Fair, dry, sometimes windy. Greatest depth of snow, twelve inches ;
greatest cold, 25 below ; greatest heat, 100 in shade, nights are cool; no wet
seasons ; wind prevails spring and fall.
Potato bugs, grasshoppers and wasps; no blights, vegetable mold or
moss.
The grasses grown are timothy, red clover, Alfafa and Sang foin. Cactus
is the most common wild flower. 17
Home consumption forms the principal market and produce is mostly all Market
fed.    Artesian wells are the need of the district,  towards  development  (irrigation); prices vary but generally low. The market, which is limited, could be
improved by the development of mines and consequent increase of population.
The land is generally cultivated.
Hops would succeed very well, have been tried for years ; sugar beet also Hops,
very good.    No land is cleared ; would be too expensive.
COWICHAN DISTRICT  (Pender Island.)
In Vancouver Island, 35 miles or so from Victoria.
Apples, pears, plums, cherries,  quinces,  peaches,   grapes and all small Cereals
fruits to perfection.    Average crop every year.
Turnips, potatoes, mangolds, carrots, cabbage onions, with good results.
Tomatoes ripen, melons can be grown, peaches and grapes can be grown
good.
Wheat, oats, barley and peas.
Wheat, 20 to 40 bush.; oats, 30 to 90 bush.; barley,'25 to 60 bush; peas, Yields.
30 to 50 bush; potatoes, 8 to 12 tons; turnips, 25 to 40 tons; hay 1J to 3 tons.
Wheat ripens well, especially "ninety-day" wheat.
Brown to black loam in valleys  and on  side  hills between rocks; well Sou, elc
^adapted for mixed farming.    The general state of cultivation is about average.
About 10,000 acres will produce if cleared.
Population,  16 settlers; hundreds if developed.
Climate, best in B. C.; greatest depth of snow, six inches to one foot; Climate,
greatest cold, 20 degrees of frost; greatest heat, 90 degrees in shade; nights
mild; wet season, three to four months; dry season, 8 months, varied by occasional rains and heavy dews in dry weather.    Valleys are well sheltered.
No insect pests, blights or vegetable mold; moss slightly.
Kentucky blue grass, red top, orchard, timothy and clover yield to
■perfection.
Land boomers,  energy,   capital and women;   there are lots of eligible Needs,
bachelors.
Victoria, Nanaimo, New Westminster and Vancouver reached by C.P.N. Market.
•Co.'s steamers and the steamer Rainbow.     The produce is mostly delivered
-and sold by the producer.    Could be improved by more population and steam-
Tx>at competition.
Probable success of hops and sugar beets, good.
Price of land, $15 per acre; to seed  down to grass, $30;   to thoroughly PriceofLand
cultivate, $100.
Easiest parts are chopped, seeded and cultivated by degrees.
The Island is of a sandstone nature (one quarry blue sandstone has
recently been opened up.) It is more adapted to sheep and game. At present
labor is too high for fruit raising.
CHILLIWHACK MUNICIPALITY N. W. D.
Apples, pears, plums, peaches, grapes, cherries, gooseberries, raspberries, Frults-
"blackberries and currants; apples, Russetts, Northern Spy, King of Tompkins,
Baldwins, Twenty ounce, Gloria Mundi, and all leading varieties of apples do
well, both early and late; pears, all kinds of plums, early peaches, cherries and
grapes all do well; small fruits do extra well. In twenty years' experience, with
•common care, results have always been good. The Russet apple, "my
pride," the writer says, has borne every year and every other year very heavy.
" My trees," it is added, "were taken up at three years old with extra good
Tesults." *
Vegetables of every kind are grown and to a very large size,  viz., pota- Vegetables,
toes, turnips, cabbage, carrots, parsnips, beets and onions, always with good
results.
Tomatoes ripen fairly well; musk melons do fairly well with common
•care; early and medium peaches do well; grapes, to judge from two years'
-experience, will be a success. Some persons have from two hundred to three
Ihundred vines out, and are well pleased with last year's success. Cereals
Yields.
Soil.
Area.
Climate.
Needs.
Market.
Land.
Fruits and
Vegetables.
Soil.
Area.
Climate.
Market.
Hops, etc.
18
Cereals:   Wheat, oats, barley, peas.
Wheat, 25 to 40 bushels per acre; oats, 50 to 100 bush.; barley, 50 to 80
bush.; corn does well, but not grown in large quantities; peas, 25 to 60 bush.,
and as high as 75 bush.; potatoes, 150 to 300 bush.; turnips average 10 to 30
tons; hay, 2 to 4 tons; five tons have been cut in two crops.
Wheat ripens fairly hard; Fife wheat ripens hard.
Clay loam, some parts muck, and some sandy loam, but nearly all rich.
Chilliwhack Municipality contains about 102 square miles and is nearly
all capable of cultivation; commences at the mouth of the Sumas river and.
follows the Fraser river up stream about seventeen miles to Cheam Indian
Reservation, and runs back to the Mountains, averaging about six miles in
depth.
The general state of cultivation is good; population, 3,000.
Depth of snow, thirty inches; greatest cold, four below zero; greatest
heat, 90; nights, nearly always cool; wet season, four months ; no length of
dry season; occasionally showers through summer; winds do not prevail; once
in a while a squall from south-west in summer and a few days north-east
wind in winter.
Caterpillars affected the vegetables a little last season; no blights, mold
or moss.
Timothy, rye grass, and clover do well; not many wild flowers; rose the
principal.
Dyking and draining.
Good; produce handled by stores and wholesale and commission merchants; prices at landing: hay, $10 per ton; oats, $22; wheat, $28; peas, $22;
barley, $22; market could be improved by the establishment of a good
market place, as at present the farmer with good produce can get little more
than the farmer with inferior produce, whereas if he were brought into contact with the consumer he would get a price according to quality.
The land taken up is generally improved; not much held for speculation.
Hops and sugar beets would do well.
Price of land, improved, $30 to $100 an. acre ; unimproved, $10 to $25;
cost of clearing, $5 to $40.
HOPE.
In the Yale district, 91 miles from Vancouver on the C. P. R,
All common fruits are grown and all successfully.
Also all common vegetables with fair success.
Tomatoes do well, melons have indifferent success. Peaches do well,
cereals, all common kinds; hay yields from two to four tons; wheat ripens
hard.
Sandy loam; cultivation poor.
About five thousand acres by going five miles west, and one mile east of
the town, with the mountains forming natural boundaries on all sides.
Good for fruit; greatest depth of snow, five feet; greatest cold, five below; greatest heat, one hundred in shade; nights cool; wet season two months,
dry season six weeks; "skookum" (Indian for good) winds prevail.
Tree and cabbage worms, very little blight or vegetable mold; moss
exists.
Timothy and clover go three tons to the acre; abundance of wild flowers,
lilies and roses.
Home consumption; prices are: Grain, 2 cents per tt>; apples, 2J cents
per R>; potatoes, 1 cent per lb; could be improved by better cultivation and
more produce grown.    Land is being improved slowly.
Probable success of hops and sugar beets very good.
Five to ten dollars per acre for uncleared land, cost of clearing $50 to
$100 per acre.
There is very little farming or fruit growing in the  district in question,
no one making it his sole business; more attention is paid to stock-raising,
prospecting, etc.    " We are settlers clearing our land and growing a little of
almost everything for our own consumption." 19
JOHNSONS LANDING (N. W. D.)
A post settlement in the New Westminster District on the Fraser River.
All kinds of fruit, large and small, are grown, do well, are very prolific Fiuits.
and ripen successfully.    Orchards are all young, but bear so heavily that they
require to be propped up.
Vegetables of all kinds, including onions, garlic, parsnips, radish,  cauli- Vegetables,
flower, vegetable oyster, egg plant, pepper plant, celery, etc.', etc., do admirably; onions, one to six tons per acre; turnips, 10 tons; potatoes, 5 tons; ear-
rots, 8 tons, and so on.
Tomatoes ripen if planted early. Melons some seasons ripen well, and
always succeed if properly cultivated.    Some varieties of grapes ripen every
year- r      ,
Wheat, oats, barley, peas. Yields'
Wheat, 65 bushels to the acre; oats, 110; barley, 40 to50 bush.; peas, 40
to 50 bush.; potatoes, 200 to 300 bush'.; turnips, 1,200 bush.; hay, two and a
half to four tons.
Wheat will harden if sown in good season.
The soil is black sandy loam with clay bottom.    The land is not much   etc168''
under cultivation, farms are newly settled and farmers are just beginning to
make a living.    The district referred to extends from Hatzic slough to head
of Nicomen slough, about ten miles long' by about four to eight miles wide.
Number of settlers 150; population 600.
Climate generally mild and seldom too  dry   to raise crops.    GreatestCumate-
depth of snow, 0 to 1 foot; greatest cold, three below zero; greatest heat, 95
in shade, nights cool; length of wet season,  two months; drouths do not
prevail; when there is any wind it is from the north east in winter and south
west in summer.
A small blue insect, which jumps and flies, injures the plums and apples,
and the cabbage louse attack the cabbage and turnips some seasons; no
blights, vegetable mold or moss.
Timothy, clover, rye and blue grass, yield two to four tons. There is a
great variety of wild flowers.
Boads and bridges and a little dyking are the needs of the district.
The market is local and limited, being reached by rail or steamboat. Market j
Prices of produce are generally speaking as follows:—Wheat, Ifc. per
H>; oats, ljc.; peas, l^c ; barley, 1 Jc ; potatoes, lc; carrots,l^c ; turnips, |c.
per Tb. Market could be improved by establishing permanent market places
in the cities.
The land is taken up by men who intend to make it their homes and will
cultivate it as fast as cleared.
Hops grow well any place on the Coast, and sugar beets grown look well; H°PS> ete-
flax could also be grown.
The price of land is from $10 to $25 per acre, and $50 additional to clear Lands,
some of it.
LILLOOET.
Seventy-seven miles from Ashcroft Station, on the south side of the Fraser.
Apples, pears, plums and all small fruits, abundantly.     Winter apples, Fruits.
Ted and white plums and currants have the best results.
Tomatoes ripen with two crops yearly; melons grow to very large sizes, Vegetables,
last year weighing as high as thirty-two pounds; peaches have not been tried;
grapes do well; cereals, all kinds.
Wheat, 35 to 40 bushels; oats, 60 bushels;   barley,  40 bushels; peas, 50 Yields.
bushels ; potatoes and turnips, as good as anywhere;   hay, two tons.    Wheat
'" ripens hard.
Sandy loam; no failures ever occur in vegetables and cereals;   state of Soil, Area,
cultivation, medium.'    The cultivatable lands in Lillooet proper,  not theetc-
Lillooet district, consist of about 2,500 acres; population, about 300.
Dry and clear; greatest snow, 3 inches; greatest cold, 10 below; greatest Climate,
heat, 102 in the shade; nights, warm; winds prevail slightly in January and
February; no wet season. -~™
Cereals
Yields.
Soil, eti
Climate.
Needs.
Market.
Hops, etc.
Priceof Land
Fruits.
»egetables.
Yields.
Soil, etc.
20
Tomatoes were slightly affected last year by the tomato worm; no blights,,
mold or moss exist.
Timothy, red top, hay, yield good; wild flowers exist in great variety.
Needs of district, artesian wells.
Miners' consumption; produce generally disposed of for cash to miners;
prices, wheat, barley and oats, 2 cents per lb; hay, 1£ cents; potatoes, 1 cent;,
market could be improved by introduction of artesian wells, which would,
increase cultivatable land and thereby increase population.
Hops and sugar beets would both be successful; tobacco could also be
raised to advantage.
Price of land: Government price, $2.50 cost of clearing, from $5 to $10
per acre.
There are thousands of acres on the bencb.es of the Fraser which cannot
be cultivated for want of water, which could be very easily and profitably
cultivated by the aid of artesian wells.
LOWER NICOLA (Yale District.)
On the Nicola and Kamloops road, 35 miles from Spence's Bridge, reached by weekly stage.
Currants, gooseberries, Siberian crabs, hardy apples and all kinds of
small fruits; small fruits are very prolific; crabs, Russian apples and some
varieties of plums do well, wild plums fine.
All kinds of vegetables do well.
Early varieties of tomatoes ripen in favored localities; melons grow with
varying success; peaches not grown, grapes not tried.
Wheat, barley, oats, peas, rye and corn.
Wheat, 20 to 50 bush.; oats, 70 bush.; barley, 25 to 30 bush.; peas, 20 to
40 bush.; potatoes, 100 to 125 bush.; hay, If to 3 tons.
Wheat ripens moderately, depends on variety.
Generally gray loam, specially adapted to small fruits, vegetables and
grain. Small fields well cultivated; about 2,000 acres cultivatable, independent of Lower Nicola; population small.
Very heajthful, usually dry; greatest depth of snow, 18 inches; greatest
cold, 45 degrees; greatest heat, 95; cool nights; wet season, occasional showers
only; dry season, March to October, with occasional showers; light southwest
winds in summer; none in winter.
No insect pests except grasshoppers occasionally; no blights, mold or-
moss.
The grasses are principally timothy and clover; wild flowers are most.
numerous.
Better market and road improvements.
Local and limited. Produce disposed of through merchants. Wheat, 1J
to 2 cents per ft; peas, 1 to 2 cents per ft; oats, If cents per ft; rye, 5 cents
per ft; could be improved by railroad from Spence's Bridge to Similkameen.
Land is only partly cultivated on account of a limited market.
Hops, so far as tried, have done well; sugar beet does well and is of fine-
quality.
$2.50 to $50 an acre; clearing, $2 to 20, according to location.
NICOLA.
Tost settlement, principally grazing, in the Nicola valley, 50 miles from Spence's Bridge.
All small fruits do well, It is hoped that other fruits will yet succeed;-,
an occasional plum and cherry tree yields splendidly; several apples good.
Vegetables of all kinds excellent quality and large yields. Tomatoes in
most places ripen well if season early; melons do well.    A few grapes succeed.
Wheat, barley, oats, peas and rye and nearly all the artificial grasses
and clovers succeed.
Wheat, 40 to 60 bushels; oats average 60 bush; barley, heavy crops; peas-
extra enormous crops; potatoes, enormous yields; turnips, good; hay fair.
Wheat ripens hard, second to none.
Clay, sandy vegetable loams, etc., adapted to roots, cereals and small
fruits. The cultivation is very good; every one aims at keeping up the fertility of the soil by manuring, cultivation, etc. 21
Only about 20,000 acres is likely to be tilled unless a system of irrigation
be devised; population, about 300.
Dry in summer, as a rule; depth of snow, 12 to 18 inches; greatest cold, Climate.
35 below; greatest heat, 100 above; nights cool; no periodical rains; dry most
of the year; winds, southwest in summer.
Cabbage sometimes troubled with caterpillar; turnips by a fly; in 1887,
'88 and '89 the district was visited by locusts, which did much injury; no
blights, vegetable mold or moss.
Timothy, all clovers, orchard, blue grass, Alfafa, etc., yield well; several
varieties of wild flower are found.
Development of coal fields, artesian wells and a line to C. P. R. Needs.
Market, amongst ourselves; market wanted; wheat, two cents;   oats and Market,
barley, two cents; potatoes, $1 per bush.; hay, $20 per ton: market could be
improved by erection of a good flouring mill and a brewery.
Land is well improved, but cultivation limited to demand.
First class prospects for hops, and sugar beets are certain to succeed and Hops and
return largely.
Land is chiefly prairie; $10 to $15 an acre.
Fall weather is soft and charming; trees keep green and don't mature
their wood or cast their leaves until hard frost comes before the snow and
there is a danger of freezing the sap in the wood.
NORTH ARM.
A settlement on North Arm of Fraser, six miles from Vancouver.
Apples, pears,  plums,  peaches,  grapes,  prunes,   cherries,  gooseberries, Fruits.
currants, raspberries, blackberries, strawberries.
Asparagus,  beets,  beans,   cabbage,   carrots,   cauliflower,   celery,   corn, vegetables
cucumbers, onions, garlic, lettuce; parsnips, peas, potatoes, radish, rhubarb,
squash, turnips and all do exceptionally well.
Tomatoes ripen thoroughly. Ripened July 15th, '88; July 12th, '89;
variety, "Advance."
Peaches and grapes have been grown successfully for several years.
Wheat, barley, oats, peas, and rye. Cereals.
Wheat, 2000 to 4000 lbs. per acre ; wheat does not ripen hard.
Low lands, heavy clay; high lands, light sandy loam,  and is well ^ou-
adapted for all the vegetables named, and barley and oats.    All the land is
capable of producing fruit.    The cultivation generally speaking is indifferent
in character.
The climate is healthful and agreeable; greatest depth of snow, 18 inches; "!lmate-
greatest cold, zero coldest noted in 8 years; greatest heat,  106 ;  nights generally cool;   wet season five months including winter;  dry season seven
months ; winds in summer are from the west; in the winter from the east.       Pests.
The cabbage worm is the worst, no blights, vegetables mold slightly,
moss to a considerable extent.
Good roads are the principal need of the District.    Vancouver is the Market.
market,  farm products being  disposed of principally through commission
houses.    Prices, however, are uncertain, and could be improved by the establishment of a regular market place (now being provided for.)
Land is largely held unimproved.
Hops would do well. No knowledge of success of sugar beet. Fodder corn Hops, etc,
millet and more fruit of all kinds could be cultivated with advantage.
Price of land:—$50.00 per acre; $200 to clear. PriceofLand
PORT HAMMOND AND   PORT  HANEY.
Twenty-six miles from Vancouver, New Westminster District.
Apples, pears, plums, cherries, peaches, grapes and all varieties  of small Fruits.
fruit succeed so well as to induce people to go more extensively into fruit culture.
Anything from radishes to  pumpkins will produce a profitable crop. Vegetables.
Tomatoes ripen, but melons not successfully.    Peaches  and grapes are grown
with good success. r
22
Crop Yields. Wheat average 35 bushels; barley, little grown;  peas,  40 bushels;  corn,
not much grown; potatoes average 300 bushels; turnips, 20 tons average;  hay
is.    Wheat ripens hard.    Soil, all kinds.    Cultiva-
with about 20,000 acres meadow,
Climate.
Market.
Hops.
Priceof Land
Fruits.
-Soil, etc.
Climate.
'Market.
Hops.
Fruits.
Vegetables.
average, two and a half tons.
tion rather rough.    An area of 50,000 acres,
to be reclaimed.    Population, 2,000.
Greatest depth of snow, three feet; greatest cold, two below; greatest
heat 90; nights cool; length of wet season, three months; seldom winds.
Blights exist slightly; no vegetable mold, plenty of moss.
All varieties of grasses yield three to five tons; plenty of wild flowers,
especially wild rose.
Needs toward development: creamery and reclamation of meadow.
Vancouver and New Westminster; produce sold direct to dealers at variable prices; market could be improved by cheaper rates of freight and a trunk
road to principal markets with a bridge across Pitt river.
Land is generally cultivated.
Hops will do well; sugar beets have only been tried to a limited extent.
Price of land, $15 to $100 per acre, according to state of cultivation.
PORT MOODY.
Nine miles from Vancouver, former terminus of C.  P. Railway.
Apples, pears, peaches and plums, cherries, currants, raspberries, prunes,
gooseberries, blackberries and strawberries, all successful; raised 1,500 fts
strawberries from an acre, which sold for $756, only half a crop on account of
youth and shrubbery growing between the rows.
All vegetables do well.
Tomatoes ripen slowly; melons are not successful; peaches do well;
grapes not tried.    More adapted for fruits than cereals.
Twenty-six tons qf carrots are grown to the acre.
Soil, sandy loam, clay bottom, principally uncultivated, mostly unsettled
on account of being reserved by the Government.
Very temperate, salubrious and refreshing; greatest snow, one foot; never
below zero; greatest heat, 88; nights, cool; six months of dry season with.
occasional showers; very calm; no winds.
There are no insect pests, no blights, no molds, moss slightly.
Clover and timothy and all grasses do well; there are plenty of roses but
not many wild flowers.
Vancouver preferred ; produce disposed of chiefly by commission merchants, small fruits average ten cents per pound, and delivered express
charges one-half a cent per pound; can be improved by putting on heavy duty
on foreign fruits, and assisting a cannery whereby to utilise the surplus.
Hops would do extra well; sugar beet, medium. Not generally a farming district, costs about fifty dollars per acre to clear. It would be a very
important thing for the Fruit Growers' Association to press on the Dominion
Government to open up a reserve of fifty acre lots for the object of fruit raising.
SOMENOS.
A station on the E. & N. Ry., 40 miles from Victoria.
Apples, pears, plums, cherries and all small fruits, plums and cherries
giving the best results.
Vegetables do fairly well,
The earlier varieties of tomatoes ripen; melons not very well; peaches and
grapes do not do very well.
Mostteefeals grown in temperate zone.
Wheat, 15 to 20 bush, to the acre; oats, 25 to 65 bush; peas,   15  to 40
potatoes 150 to 200 bush; turnips,  15 to 30 tons ; hay, one to three
bush
tons.
Some varieties of wheat ripen hard.
Soil, alluvial deposit and clay. Area:—taking ten miles square, with the
Cowichan river as the southern boundary, about one third can be cultivated.
Climate is fairly good; greatest depth of snow, two feet; greatest cold,
about zero; greatest heat, about ninety, nights, cool; wet season, four to five 23
months;  dry season, seven to eight months; winds  do not prevail to any
extent.
Grasses)—Timothy, cockfoot, red top, white dutch and Alsike clover,
principally; a good many wild flowers, Buttercups the most numerous.
Needs of district, a remunerative market; unsatisfactory at present; pro- Market.
duce is disposed of mostly to the storekeeper and could be improved by consumers taking home instead of imported produce.
Land is mostly all cultivated after a fashion.
Hops do very well, and sugar beet in some places.
Good land is worth $100 an acre, costs that to clear.    The most valuable Lands,
thing to the general cultivator, as well as the fruit grower, would be a ready
sale for our produce at a price a little above the cost of production.
SOUTH THOMPSON, (Kamloops.)
District of which Kamloops, a town on the C P. R., 250 miles from Vancouver, at the confluence of the North and South Thompson Rivers, is the Post Office.
Fruits.
Vegetables.
Yields.
Soil, etc.
Climate.
Pests.
Apples, plums, gooseberries, raspberries, cranberries, melons; pears are
grown with fair results ; after a few years bearing the trees begin to wither
and die.    Red Astrachans and other varieties of apples are grown.
Every kind of vegetable except celery is grown with good results.
Tomatoes ripen well and yield largely; melons have great success; cannot say as to peaches and grapes; think would do well in proper situation;
great success at Ashcroft.
Wheat, 50 bush; oats, 2250 lbs to acre; barley, 2000 lbs; peas, 2500 lbs
to 3000 lbs; hay, one to one and a quarter tons.    Wheat ripens hard.
Rich dark loam, with gravelly subsoil; anything will grow provided
there is water to irrigate with. The general state of cultivation is good. On
the South Thompson there is a great deal of excellent land, but scarcity of
water prevents it being cultivated.
Winters, cold and fine; summers, hot; greatest depth of snow, eight
inches; greatest cold, 22 below; greatest heat, 90; nights, warm ; wet season
varies as to length: no winds.
Currant wo'in and cut worms ; the green varieties of gooseberries are
subject to blights; red varieties are free; no vegetable mold or moss.
Timothy, sometimes mixed with clover, is the principal grass yielding
2000 to 2500 tons per acre; a great many wild flowers grow, such as lupins,
syringa, wild honeysuckles, violets, clematis, buttercups, etc.
Water for irrigation is needed to develop the Country.
Kamloops and stations along the C. P. R. by rail and sometimes by
steamers; hay, baled brings $15.00 per ton and grain about one cent per ft;
market could be improved by taxing imported produce, by assisting in procuring water and by cheaper transportation rates, j
Land fit for cultivation is generally cultivated.
Prospects for hops excellent, they grow luxuriantly; practical man could
do well, inducements offered.
The writer says that he feels satisfied that if the proper varieties of
apples were introduced, that this portion of the Province would compare
most favorably with any Eastern Province.
ST.  MARYS   MISSION.
45 miles east of Vancouver, main line C. P. R., on the Fraser River.
Apples, pears, plums, cherries, raspberries, gooseberries, currants, straw- Fruits.
berries, all grow to perfection.    Peaches, apricots and grapes do well.
Almost every kind the seed book names grow with results sufficient " to Vegetables,
make the melancholy face light up with a smile."
Tomatoes, especially small varieties, ripen well; the large varieties require to be trimmed out toward fall. Melons grow, but west of the Cascades
require sunny situations.    Peaches and grapes require situation and care.
Wheats barley, oats, buckwheat and peas, yield:  Wheat, 35 to 40 bushels Yields.
to the acre; oats, extremely well; peas, 60 bushels to the acre; potatoes, 9 to
Market.
Hops. f
"1
24
10 tons per acre; turnips, 25 to 30 tons per acre; hay, 1 \ to 2 tons. Corn is
not a safe crop.
Wheat, especially east of the Cascades, ripens hard, but west varies
according to season.
As great a variety of soil is found as in any place in the world, and is
adapted for all the products mentioned.
From Stave River to the Hatzic, a stretch of twelve miles on the north
side of the Fraser, extending back north three or four miles, there is com,
paratively little land that cannot be eventually cleared and cultivated. At
present the cultivation is not very thorough. Taking to wnship after township, there are very few vacant lots.
Climate. Greatest .depth of snow,  fourteen inches,   greatest in fourteen years;
greatest degree of cold, one below zero; greatest heat, 80 or 90 above; night
deliciously cool. Wet season, from 1st November to 15th February; dry
season, no marked dry season: sometimes six or seven weeks during July and
August. Winds sometimes in winter from the east, from five to ten days
cold, bracing wind; sea breeze from S. W. generally in summer.
Insect pests exist to no extent; green fruit and vegetables are comparatively free, blight to no extent, vegetable mold very little,  and moss to a
moderate degree on fruit trees.
Bees do well.
Market Markets:   Vancouver and New Westminster; fruits, vegetables, roots,
butter, eggs, poultry and game are the principal products. The market could
be improved by establishment of local mills to use up breadstuffs and stopping
importations of flour and cornmeal.
Settlers are improving as fast as means will permit.
Hops, etc. Hops do Well and sugar beet also, though not experimented with yet, but
" between.the cedars of Lebanon and the hyssop on the wall," the writer
says, " there are, no doubt, many things that could be introduced yet to advantage. §
PriceofLand        Price of land and cost of clearing: $5 to $50; from $30 to $100 per acre
to clear.
SUMAS.
In the Chilliwhaek municipality, 55 miles from Vancouver, on Fraser.
Apples, pears, plums, cherries, prunes, peaches and all kinds of berries
and small fruits, grow to perfection. No one has gone into the business extensively, but farmers are gradually awakening to the fact that fruit growing
will be one of the best paying pursuits, with proper management.
All kinds of vegetables that grow in the temperate zones succeed well.
Tomatoes do well in sandy soil; melons are not grown extensively; nights
are too cool.
Peaches and grapes are grown, but the climate is not warm enough to
give them the luscious flavor of the California fruit.
Wheat, Barley, oats, rye, peas and corn.
Wheat, 65 bushels per acre; oats, 50 bushels; barley, 40 to 90 bushels;
peas, 30 to 75 bushels; potatoes, 300 to 450 bushels; turnips, 60 to 70 tons;
hay, 2 to 5 tons.
Wheat ripens hard when sown early.
The soil is a loam with clay sub-soil.
This section is well adapted for all fruits, vegetables, roots and cereals.
The Sumas Valley is more or less subject to inundations annually from the
Fraser River, consequently there are very small sections that can be safely
cultivated, dairying and stock-raising being the principal business. It is
mostly open prairie, about 30,000 acres in extent, which, if dyked, would be
capable of producing unlimited crops of everything. Steps are already being
taken to inaugurate a scheme.
The population is about 1,500.
Climate. Greatest depth of snow, 2 feet; greatest cold, 2 above zero; greatest heat,
90; nights are cool; wet season, six months, including winter; winds, in fall
and winter.
Fruits.
Vegetables.
Cereals
Tields
SoU.
Area, etc. 25
Fruits of all kinds are affected,  some by insects,  vegetables a little,
cereals a little, no blights, vegetable mold or moss.
Timothy is the principal grass, yielding as high as five tons per acre. The
rose is the principal wild flower.
The needs of the district for development are dyking and drainings Needs.
Vancouver, Victoria, Westminster and Nanaimo; produce is disposed Market.
of principally through commission merchants, being sold principally at home
and delivered at the nearest landing place. Prices of late have been advancing all round. The present system of marketing has not been satisfactory
(and much attention is being paid by the Fruit Growers' Association to the
subject.)
Land generally is being taken up, but large quantities are being held unimproved.
Sugar beet would be a grand success if cheap labor could be secured. Sugar Beet_
The informant says that producers, as a rule, do not take that care in
grading and packing their products that they should in their own interests,
especially when competition is so sharp with the American neighbors, who take
greater care in packing their fruits in nice boxes, and so on with grain and
vegetables.
SURREY MUNICIPALITY, N. W. D.
Apples, pears, plums, peaches, grapes and all kinds of small fruits have Fruits
all been very successful.    On trees two and a half years  from planting, over
one bushel of apples  were gathered.    Vegetables grown elsewhere can be
grown with good success.
Tomatoes ripen, also melons; peaches and grapes have both been tried Vegetables.-.
with satisfactory results.
Wheat, barley, oats, rye, peas, millet, etc.
Wheat, average 40 bushels; oats, 100 to 140 bushels; barley,   75 bushels; 9rr,eals'
corn only grown for home use; peas, one and a half tons to the acre; potatoes,   le
250 to 800 bushels; turnips, 1,000 bushels; hay, two to three tons.
Wheat ripens hard.
High land, loam inclined to be sandy, and in some places gravelly. Soil, area,
The corporation of the district of Surrey contains one hundred and twenty   et0#
square miles and about one-half is adapted to cultivation,  the balance being
timber lands, but of good quality of soil.    In some settlements the land is in
a good state of cultivation; population about 1,400.
Very healtful;  greatest depth  of  snow,   one foot;  greatest cold,  zero; Climate,
greatest heat, ninety; nights cool and comfortable; length of wet season, two
months; with two months more showery, very seldom winds.
Except a few grasshoppers, no insect pests, no blights, mold or moss.
Grasses : all cultivated kinds, timothy, clover, red top, blue point, etc.;
a large number of varieties of wild flowers exist.
Construction of railroads projected; opening and clearing out of Serpen- Needs of de-
tine and Nicomen rivers; construction of Boundary Bay canal, and opening up velopment.
of wagon roads.
Vancouver, New Westminster and Victoria; it costs $2.50 to $3 per ton Market.
to carry produce to market.
About one-half of the land is occupied and the balance is held unim- Land.
proved and as timber lands.
Hops would succeed well, also sugar beet; tobacco does remarkably well.
Price of land, $5 to $100 per acre; the same for clearing.
The district is well adapted for fruit, especially small fruits, if it had the
- facilities for shipping.
VERNON.
A settlement in Okanagan Valley (Kootenay   District), on east side of Okanagan Lake, 49
miles from Sicamous, on the C. P. R.
All varieties of fruits, large and small, all do well when properly culti- Fruits.
vated. —"S
26
Vegetables.
Yields.
Soil, etc.
Climate
Market.
Lands.
Fruits and
Vegetables.
Climate.
Fruits.
i Vegetables.
Cereals
Yields
Soil, etc.
Vegetables of all kinds meet with good success and produce very large
crops.
Tomatoes ripen and melons grow very successfully. Grapes can be grown
and peaches if attended to, all Cereals successfully.
Wheat, 2100 lbs to the acre ; oats, 2100 lbs ; barley, 2100 lbs ; peas and
corn for household use ; potatoes, three tons and over ; turnips, unlimited ;
hay, two tons.    Wheat ripens hard.
Deep sandy loam, cultivation good; about 25,000 acres of land capable of
cultivation.
Climate, best in the world; greatest depth of snow, ten to eighteen
inches; greatest cold, ten to twenty below; greatest heat, 100; nights, cool;
two weeks of rain in spring and two in fall; eleven months of dry season,
varying at times.    Winds do not prevail.
There are no insects pests, blights, vegetable mold or moss.
brasses of different varieties yield heavily; there is a large variety of
wild flowers ; all cultivated flowers do well.
Needs of the district, railway communication (now being established)
with Coast cities.
Wheat,-Enderby flour mill; cattle, could be improved by competition.
Hops would do very good; sugar beets, good.
Land is principally cultivated. Price of land, $5 to $15 per acre; cost of
clearing depends on the amount of timber on the land.
The writer says: "I am convinced that this is the garden of the Province
of British Columbia. It is capable of anything that any other part of the
Province is.
VICTORIA.
On Island of Vancouver, 60 miles from Vancouver City.
Currants, gooseberries, strawberries, apples, pears, peaches, plums, etc.
All vegetables are grown.
Tomatoes ripen; melons not within ten miles, do well at Saanich; peaches
remarkably fine; grapes not tried.    Population, city and district, 30,000.
Very temperate; greatest depth of snow, three inches; greatest cold,
three below; greatest heat, 88; wet season, December to March; winds do not
greatly prevail.
Vegetables near Victoria suffer from a small slug, no blights, vegetable
mold or moss.
There are a great many wild flowers; Camassia, lupins, roses, buttercups, daisies.
Only requires population for development.
YALE.
On main line of C. P. R., 102 miles from Vancouver.
Apples, pears, plums, cherries and all small fruits ; principal varieties of
apples are Red Astrachan, Northern Spy and Blue Pearman ; small fruits
yield enormously ; the trees are a long time coming into bearing but afterwards produce magnificently.
Vegetables of every description found in temperate zones are grown with
great success, and the products of a high class.
Tomatoes ripen in the middle of August; musk and water melons are
grown with success; peaches have not been tried but grapes prove very satisfactory.
All ordinary cereals are grown.
Wheat, 25 to 50 bush ; oats, 40 to 80 bush ; barley, 25 to 40 bush; corn,
not much grown ; peas, a good average ; potatoes, far above average; turnips
good average ; hay, one to two and a half tons.    Wheat ripens hard.
The soil is a light sandy loom with disintegrated hock well adapted to common fruits, vegetables and grains. Cultivation is very insufficient. The
district is chiefly a stockraising one, and farmers confine their efforts to providing winter forage. There are many thousands of acres capable of cultivation if it could be
irrigated. The district includes the South Thompson River from Savonas to
Spence's Bridge.    There are few settlers and the population is scanty.
Bright and dry ; greatest depth of snow, eight inches in low  levels ;  great- Climate,
est cold, thirty below zero occasionally ; greatest heat,   100 in shade, nights
cool; wet season, uncertain; dry season interminable.; winds do not prevail.
Grasshoppers, cut worms, beetles, and other pests interfere with vege- Pests.
tables.    There are no blights, vegetable mold or moss.
Timothy, orchard grass, red top, clovers, Alfafa, etc., yield heavily under
irrigation.    There are many wild flowers.
The need of the district towards cultivation is irrigation by canals and
ditches for the utilisation of numerous running streams.
The market is local and limited, quantities of fruit and cereals can be dis- Market.
posed of at from one to one and a half cents per ft.
The greater part of the land is used for stock-raising purposes.     Hops do Land,
well.    Lands are generally open and improved, places with facilities for irrigation are held high in price, wild lands $5 an acre.     The chief draw-back
to fruit growing on the North Thompson are the sudden changes of temperature in the winter time.    These affect the trees considerably.
New'Westminster District.
The oldest and one of the most important settled portions of the West- gea island,
minster district is the municipality of Richmond, and is made up of Lulu and
Sea Islands at the mouth of the Fraser river. Sea Island is all settled with
prosperous farmers. The soil is first-class alluvial deposit and almost inexhaustible in its richness. The island contains about 4,000 acres all agricultural lands, upon which are raised excellent fruit, apples, pears, plums, the
latter being exceedingly prolific, and yielding enormously. The root crops
cannot be beaten; for grain, the soil is even yet too rich; even hay
meadows, after fifteen years' continuous cropping, yield three to four and.
half tons to the acre. Lulu island is not so thickly settled as Sea Island. The Lulu Island
water front on both sides is nearly all settled and brought under cultivation,
there being some large farms of two hundred to three hundred acres each.
About one-quarter of the island is under cultivation and used for stock purposes, the beef and dairying interests being comparatively important. A
great deal of dyking has been done on the water's edge, but as the overflow
rarely exceeds a few inches it has not been expensive or difficult. An
eiectric tramway is projected through this island from Vancouver.
The land lying between Vancouver and New Westminster and all that is An unorgan-
included in this tract of land may be termed an unorganized district contain- ised District
ing as it does outside of the two cities of which it can boast, few settlers and
no municipal government. It includes an area of probably 60,000 acres, most
of it heavily timbered, some lightly interspersed here and there with swamps
and beaver meadows, rich in soil and only requiring drainage to make it fit
for cultivation and nearly all adapted for fruit culture, principally apples and
pears and cherries.    A great portion of it is burned land and easily cleared.
This well-known health resort has given its name to a small but fertile Harrison
valley so valuable indeed that it was selected by the director of the experi- Hot Springs
mental farm, Prof. Saunders, for the location of the model or experimental
farm for British Columbia, after a great many parts of the Province had been
examined. The valley extends from Agassiz station to the foot of Harrison
lake, a distance of five miles. It is four miles wide at the base and gradually
tapers to a point on the lake. The soil is a rich alluvial deposit, part prairie
and part lightly timbered, but the whole of it has been taken up and is being The Expert
mental
Farm.
Kanaka
Prairie.
Sumas.
Chilliwhacli
Mt. Lehman
and
Aldergrove.
The Mission,
Burton's
Prairie.
Langley.
settled upon, at present containing about a dozen farms. Excellent fruit of
all kinds is grown in the valley. A small portion of it adjoining the Fraser is
subject to overflow.
Immediately adjoining Agassiz station are five hundred acres of reserve
selected by Prof. Saunders as an experimental station. Operations, ploughing and clearing up have already been started, and the construction of large
fine buildings will commence in the spring. The Harrison lake is a beautiful
expanse of water fifty miles long by seven miles wide, surrounded by heavily
timbered land. Large timber leases have been taken up here, and the lumber
industry promises to be an important one in the future. The salmon spawning grounds are all along the Harrison river between the lake and the Fraser
river.
Nicomen settlement of Kanaka is a long prairie and stretch of bottom
lands running up to Sumas, twelve miles long by about two to four miles
wide. It is all well settled and taken up. The principal occupation of the
farmers here, who come as a rule from Ontario and Quebec, are dairying and
general farming. All are starting out orchards. They grow oats, peas, potatoes, etc.
On the south side of the Fraser running east from 'Matsqui are the Sumas
mountains, at which a good many applications have been made for coal lands.
At the eastern extremity of the mountains begin the much talked of Sumas
Prairie, which extends fifteen miles southwest and about four miles east and
west. The southern end is principally occupied for dairying and stock purposes. At its northern point is the limit for net fishing. And here is reached
the far famed settlement of Chilliwhack, which for apples, vegetable
productions and general farming purposes, can scarcely be excelled anywhere.
The estimated population of the municipality, which covers an area of about
one hundred and eighty square miles, is 3,000. It is connected by daily
water communication with New Westminster some fifty miles distant. The
soil is very rich and grows crops of all kinds in great abundance, and is
particularly adapted for fruit and roots. It has held agricultural shows for
the last fifteen years. Game and fish are plentiful, gold is found in small
quantities on the bars of the Fraser river and several ledges have been located.
Extensive timber limits lie to the south of the settlement and have been
acquired by a large milling company whose logging camps will operate it in
the future. This is the' best farmed portion of the Province, and is thickly
settled with prosperous farmers.
Coming down the river on the south side of Matsqui is the Mount
Lehman settlement and Aldergrove on a high land. The land is well taken
up but not much improved so far. The settlers, however, are going in for
fruit and improving their land rapidly.
The Mission, on the north side of the Fraser, is a flourishing settlement,
with a school of twenty-five or thirty children in attendance. The high land
on the opposite side of the river has a settlement of forty or fifty, all settlers
within the past two or three years. This settlement extends two or three
miles back, forming a semi-circle of about three miles radius. This is a point
in addition to its agricultural importance, at which the new bridge of the C.
P. R. is built across the Fraser to connect with the new railway to
Seattle.    A new townsite has been laid out at the junction with the C. P. R.
Burton's Prairie settlement is farther up the river and farther back, and
extends back as far as Stave lake.    This is rapidly settling up.
Langley ranks among the oldest and most important of the municipalities.
It has a population of over 2,000, covering an area of one hundred square
miles, lying along the banks of the Fraser for about ten miles. It has a daily
steamboat communication with New Westminster, and extends to the Ocean
in a southwesterly direction, reaching within two miles of the American
boundary. Stock raising and dairying are the chief industries at present.
The soil is a very rich loam with a clay subsoil. Nearly all the land has
been taken up, but partially improved lands can be purchased at from $25 to
$30 per acre.    There are several good roads leading through the municipality 29
and new ones are opening out all the time. Langley is drained by the Serpentine and Nicomekl rivers, which contain delicious trout, The scenery in
parts is very fine, and Mount Baker in Washington Territory commands an
•easy view. All the products of the temperate and semi-tropical zones are
possible here.    To sportsmen the facilities for enjoyment are excellent.
Maple Ridge lies along the Fraser, directly opposite and north of Lang- Maple Ridge
ley, having a frontage of eighteen miles on the river and is intersected by the
Canadian Pacific Railway. It has an area of 50,000 acres, and a population
of 1,500 or 2,000, healthful climate, advantageous situation, and general
agricultural purposes it is a very desirable place of residence. Port Haney is
the principal point in the municipality. There are several large brick-yards
in its vicinity. Fruit does extremely well in this locality and as a sample of
its root products, 600 bushels of potatoes to the acre have been grown in the
vicinity of Port Hammond. On the Lilooet river a few miles from Port
Haney are some fine timber lands which will contribute largely to the
material interests of the locality for the carrying on of the lumber industry.
Pitt Meadows, containing about 35,000 acres of prairie,  as fine land as pitt Mea-
ever lay under the sun, but requiring dyking to bring it under cultivation. dows.
The Delta municipality has a name very suggestive .of its capabilities and The Delta,
its productiveness is a standard by which the fertility of all other parts of the
district is compared. All the land id this district has been taken up, but
farms may be purchased at from $30 to $100 per acre, according to improvement. The unimproved lands are free from timber and ready for cultivation.
A little dyking is necessary in some parts. Fruit grows luxuriantly, as also do
all grain and root crops. Some of the products of this municipality are
phenomenal; hay goes three to three and a half tons per acre; wheat, 30 to 75
bushels; oats, 75 to 90 bushels, and root crops from 400 to 800 bushels;
turnips weighing forty pounds were exhibited at the local fair at Ladner's
last year, and oats going 55 lbs to the bushel. The municipality fronts on the
Fraser river and on the Gulf of Georgia.. The settlement comprises about
40,000 acres of rich delta land of deep black earth with a clay bottom. There
is a good road through from east to west, .and the whole is one vast field of
prairie land. Wild fruit, in the form of the cranberry and blueberry, are
found in great abundance. Game, especially wild fowl, are to be found in
vast numbers in the fall. It is the chief salmon canning point on the Fraser
river, seven factories being situated thereon.
Surrey lies between the corporations of Langley, Fraser river and the Surrey.
Delta, extending from the Fraser river to the boundary and has within its
limits the important and prosperous settlements of Hall's Prairie, Clover
Valley and Mud Bay, and comprises 120 square miles of area. The municipality has a number of good roads and is drained by two navigable rivers
the Serpentine and the Nicomekl. About one half is prairie and the rest is
timbered. The soil is very rich and vegetables grow to an enormous size and
ground yields prodigiously. Fruit growing is a prominent industry. Much
of the land is known as the "Muck Land" noted for its great richness.
Game abounds and at one time oyster beds were talked of at Mud Bay.
y 30
Vancouver Island
Victoria
District.
Esquimalt.
Metchosin.
Saoke.
Otter Point.
Saanich.
Salt Spring
Island.
This is by far the largest island in British Columbia, and is about two
hundred and fifty miles long with a breadth of about fifty or sixty miles. The
southern part is the oldest settled district in the Province and possesses its
capital, Victoria, both historic and picturesque in situation. The general appearance of the coast is broken and rugged, and to the eye of the stranger
would appear rock-bound, though on nearer approach, numerous openings are
discovered, disclosing bays and inlets, most of which afford the best of anchorage. The harbors on the west coast are used by the different schooners
in the sealing fleet as the base of their operations, from which they sail out
with the Indian hunters, who return to their homes at the end of the season.
Victoria district contains about twenty-seven square miles and includes
Victoria City, the Gorge, Cadboro- Bay and several bays along the eastern
shore, Gordon Head, Mount Tolmie and Cedar Hill. From Victoria there
are many excellent drives, especially to Cadboro Bay, where the scenery, With
a view of the straits, is very beautiful. The largest farms are more particularly in the neighborhood of Cedar Hill and Cadboro Bay. The surrounding
country is picturesque in the extreme, abounding in hill and dale, valley and
lake.    The roads are noted for their excellence.
Esquimalt district embraces the settlements of Col wood, west of Esquimalt, Goldstieam, northeast, Aldermere and Highland, north. There are
many prosperous farmers in these districts.
This section of Vancouver Island is situated southwest from Victoria,
roached by stages and distant about fifteen miles. It is essentially a farming
district, there being extensive cattle and sheep ranges on the adjacent hills.
This section is particularly noted for its charming scenery and as a rural
suburb.
Sooke, situated about 23 miles southwest from Victoria, is a thriving
settlement. The soil is mostly black loam and clayey loam with clay sub-soil,
and is very productive. Cereals, fruit and vegetables thrive well; oats have
been sown as late as July 1st in some of the swamps, and hay taken off in
September, having attained a height of five feet. Apples, pears and plums
do exceedingly well. Turnips have weighed from twenty to thirty pounds
each.    Iron of good quality and copper are in the district.
Otter Point is situated on the southwest of Sooke, which it joins. All
the hemlock bark used in the Victoria tanneries is procured from this section.
There is a considerable extent of good land open for settlement. The soil is
principally a clay loam, producing splendid crops of clover, grasses, roots and
grains. The district is of coal formation and copper ore has been found.
Cattle and sheep thrive well.
The peninsula of Saanich comprises the districts of North and South
Saanich and Lake, in the Dominion electoral district of Vancouver, and Pro-
1 vincial of Victoria district. It is situated north of Victoria and comprises
about 40,000 acres, mostly all farming land. The soil, although varying considerably, is more particularly in the extensive valleys and prairies of a rich
black loam, having a depth of from eight inches to two feet, while that
bordering on the coast is chiefly comprised of shells and lime, the former
being a valuable fertiliser for the garden and orchard. In the northern part
of the peninsula coal has also been discovered. The Agricultural Society has
been established some twenty years and' annually holds an exhibition in its
hall.
Salt Spring island is the principal of the many islands lying in the Gulf
of Georgia, between Vancouver Island and the mainland.    It is well settled, 31
very little land remaining in the hands of the Government. As a fruit-growing district and also for sheep raising it stands unrivalled, whilst in its numerous valleys is found large quantities of first class agricultural land kept in a
state of fertility by the washings from the hills. Coal is found in small
seams and pockets, many instances shows that a vast field awaits development.
The salt springs more, particularly in the north end of the island, will probably be used some day in the manufacture of a household commodity. The
stone for constructing the Esquimalt dry dock was obtained from a quarry on
the island.
Plumper's Pass includes the islands of Mayne, Galiano, Pender, Provost, Plumper's
Reid, Satuirna, Samuel, Narrow and Tumbo, are situated on the waterway for Pass»
all vessels from Vancouver (35 miles), Victoria (35 miles), New Westminster
(35 miles) and the coaling port of Nanaimo (34 miles). There are many excellent farms in this district, producing abundant crops of grain and first-class
fruit. Cattle sheep and hogs are also raised in large numbers. Fish is very
plentiful in the passages and straits that divide the several islands. The
alder, maple, Douglas pine and cedar timber, the valley and hillsides.
Maple Bay is a snug harbor on the eastern side of Cowichan District. Maple Bay.
The excellent yearly agricultural shows are one attractive feature  of this
place.    Corfield is the largest tract of fertile land in Cowichan district  and
enormously productive.
Shawingan district is a station on the  E &  N railway, thirty-one miles Shawingan.
from Victoria, and has good roads leading to all parts of the seitlement,
which is principally agricultural.
Koksilah is a settlement situated about midway between Victoria andRoksilah.
Nanaimo, and is a station on the Esquimalt and  Nanaimo railway.    The
splendid farms and industrial enterprises of this district compare favorably
with other districts.
Quamichan, situated in the central portion of the valley,  is one of the Quamichan.
most attractive and best agricultural sections of Cowichan district.
Somenos is situated on the Esquimalt and Nanaimo railway, about Somenos.
twenty-five miles from Nanaimo and forty from Victoria. It is the largest
district in the municipality of North Cowichan. Its chief industry is agriculture. Butter is extensively made and is one of the chief products of the
place; grain, roots, vegetables and fruits are also extensively grown and are
unexcelled both for quantity and quality. Its scenery is both grand and picturesque.
Quadra, situate about forty miles from Nanaimo by steamer,  embraces Quadra,
the islands of Denman and Hornby and districts  of Nelson and Newcastle.
Sheep farming is carried on extensively and successfully on the islands.
Wellington, in the district of Nanaimo, comprises North, East and South Wellington.
Wellington, and is exclusively a mining  district.    Departure Bay is about
three miles north of Nanaimo, and is the  shipping point of the  Wellington
collieries, owned by Messrs. Dunsmuir & Sons.    These collieries are situated
in the Mountain and Wellington districts.
Cabriola Island, in the Gulf of Georgia, is about eight miles in length and Cabriola.
contains valuable coal measures, farming and mineral lands.
Nanoose Bay is situated about eight miles north of Nanaimo and  within NanooseBay
flve miles of the Wellington collieries; it is entirely a farming country.
Cedar, ten miles from Nanaimo, is quite a farming section and capable of Cedar;
affording homes for a few more.
No part of Vancouver Island offers more inducements than that of oomox:
Comox. The land may be described as prairie, alder bottom, open land,
swamps and heavy timber, yielding, when cleared, equal to the delta lands of
the Fraser. It is easily cleared, very productive and the stumps soon rot.
The soil is a clay loam, yields well. The swamps are the most desirable of
the unoccupied lands. They are mostly old beaver dams, varying in size from
a few acres to five hundred acres. They are covered with wild grasses, and
on the drier ones scrubby brush. Surrounding these swamps are acres of
aider and cedar, the latter being easily worked for building purposes. Alberni.
Graham
nd.
Coal.
Climate.
32
This is not a gold producing country, only small quantities having been:
found, but it is shown by the geological surveys to be a vast bed of coal. An.
attempt was made some years ago to open up the coal measures, but now the
company owning the lands has opened them in many places, and is building a
railway from the pits to the sea.
Alberni is situated in the centre of the west coast of Vancouver Island,
distant from Victoria, about 135 miles, and having a monthly service of
steamers between them. Alberni valley is about twenty miles long by six
miles wide. It is somewhat heavily timbered but easily cleared. The natural
resources are, besides agriculture, timber and fish; coal is known to exist,
also copper and gold.
Queen Charlotte Group.
These Islands^are situated to the north of Vancouver's Island, and are
distant about 60 miles from the mainland of British Columbia. The chief
island of this group is Graham Island, and it is by far the wealthiest in
natural resources. The eastern part is mostly level and contains a considerable area of good agricultural land, extending as far as sixty-.miles along the
coast. The western part is covered with low mountains and hills, intersected
by numerous lakes and valleys. The general character of the country is
prairie mixed with small brush and a light growth of timber. The soil is well
suited for agriculture and fruit raising, but adapted for a grazing country
especially. The Indians have cultivated patches, and large crops grown by
them prove the richness of the land. The hills, in many places, are covered
with short grass, which would make it a capital sheep grazing country. In
some of the mountain valleys spruce and fir are found in large quantities,
which will eventually be turned into good account for lumbering purposes.
Coal, both bituminous and anthracite, has been discovered on this island
in large quantities, the quality of which has been pronounced by experts to be
greatly superior to any found on the Pacific coast. The islands to the south
are more mountainous and rugged in appearance, though covered with a short
grass, which would be adapted to sheep grazing. However, there are several
valleys of good land, among'which may be named those of Shingle Bay and
Gold Harboi. The climate of these islands is the most equable in British
Columbia; although they are so far north the soft humid atmosphere of the
ocean, together with the warm Japanese gulf stream, prevent a marked difference at any season of the year, and renders them extremely mild. -The rainfall is considerably less than on the coast of the mainland, which is owing no
doubt to there being no lofty mountain ranges. Snow seldom falls and when
it does it soon disappears, on account of the general mildness of the temperature
Fishing stations are being erected along the coast, the waters of which are
teeming with fish. Among the various kinds is the black cod, which is considered a very great delicacy, which is caught here in large quantities and
shipped to the eastern market, where it finds a ready sale. Wild fowl abound
everywhere. THE GREAT INTERIOR.
The object of this pamphlet is not to deal minutely with British Columbia
as a whole, but simply to give a good general impression of the now accessible
and populated districts near the line of tne C. P. R., and on the Coast near
the centres of population. But a few remarks regarding the large areas as yet
unsettled, may enlighten the reader and suggest to him a possible future for
the country as influenced by these extensive areas.
This district extends from the Fraser river on the south-east to the Chilcotin.
Coast range of Mountains, about 10,000 square miles in area. It is principally
speaking undulating, beautifully picturesque, covered almost entirely with
.grass with little forest, well watered. The general altitude is about three
thousand feet, hence the climate is dry and clear ; the snow fall is light,
winter short but severer than on the Coast. The country abounds with large
game and is a rare sporting resort for sportsmen of leisure. Al hough the
valleys in the southern portions are suitable for agriculture, on the whole the
district is a pastoral one and admirably adapted for ranching, being a rich
grazing country and enjoying a fine climate. It will be tapped by a projected
railway from Ashcroft.
This takes its name from the Horse Fly lake, from which in the south-east, it Horse Fly
extends to the Cariboo road on the north-west, in area about sixty square Country,
miles. The general altitude is about 1500 to 2000 feet and possesses a more
modified climate than Chilcotin, though in most respects similar. The summers are delightful, autumns and winters dry and and clear, and the springs
tempered by the celebrated Chinook winds; rain fall light, but irrigation is
not necessary. The Horse Fly is essentially a grazing country, splendidly
watered lands, consisting of plateau and valleys. The valleys are prairie,
very rich in soil, and the hills are lightly timbered and covered with bunch
grass. The grasses are very rich and nutritious and grow luxuriantly. This
when opened up will be one of the finest stockraising and agricultural district
in British Columbia.    It is also rich in minerals.
Is about 600 miles away from the Canadian Pacific Railway and was first The Black
explored in 1865 for the construction of a telegraph line, to extend from San ?iver an<*
Francisco to Behring Strait, to connect there with the European system, which country,
was not proceeded with after the success-ful laying of the Atlantic cable. The
area of pastoral and farming land included is very extensive, though practically unsettled as yet. From Deeker lake to the Skeena river is considered
the finest belt of agricultural land in British Columbia, and the valley, which
is in places forty miles wide, contains, an area of three hundred square miles.
The climate is excellent and though the winters are cold, winds and blizzards
do not prevail, and altogether is as well adapted for agriculture as any part of
Manitoba. The soil is very rich, and grasses, wild fruits and vegecables of
all kinds grow luxuriantly. All through this country there are numerous
rich valleys, and game and minerals abound. No irrigation is necessary.
When this country will be opened by railroads depends upon the rate of progress in development achieved by the more southerly portions of the
Province.
Is well known and its merits have been much discussed politically and The Peace
by travellers. It is very extensive and largely suitable for stockraising „ T^L
when the conditions of the Province will justify it. Its adaptabilities as an
agricultural country are still in doubt. Quoting from a recent publication :
"This country might be called an immense rolling plateau, made up of hills,
valleys, prairies and woodlands, intersected by numerous lakes and streams,
embracing hundreds of thousands of acres of fertile lands,   which if it were
J 34
The Okanagan.
Kootenay.
The Main
Columbian
Valley.
not for the frequency of summer frosts, would become one of the largest agri
cultural districts  in  Canada."     It is regarded in any event as a territory of
great resources. ->
The district of greatest immediate promise in British Columbia is the
Okanagan and Spallumcheen valleys. These have already been referred to in
the answers given elsewhere. Speaking of it, Mr. Lumby, a prominent resident of that district, says: "A careful estimate of the quantity of-arable
land tributary to the Shuswap and Okanagan Railway has been made by Mr.
Farwell, C. E., who was sent by the Provincial Government and spent a
month exploring the country. His report places the arable land at 300,000
acres, and mentions that two large areas have been discovered which he was
unable to visit and are not included in this report. Mr. Perry, engineer,
roughly estimated the grazing land at 1,700,000 acres. A great part of this
country is open pra:rie, interspersed with belts of timber, giving all the
lumber required for building, fencing and firing. It is well watered by
springs, streams and numerous lakes. The soil is mostly a rich loam, with
subsoil of unknown depth of sedimentary clay deposit. The main crop suitable to most of the land is wheat, which, if properly ploughed and the wheat
sown in proper season, I have never known to be a failure."
Concerning several other most important parts of the Province, the
writer has taken the liberty of transferring to these pages some of the
remarks contained in Messrs. Shannon & McLachlan's pamphlet, which,
speaking of Kootenay, goes on to say :
"This country extends from the Rocky Mountains to the Columbia River.
The appearance of the country from here up the Kootenay River for a distance of about forty miles is very rough and mountainous. But from here to
the Columbia and Kootenay lakes, a distance of about two hundred miles, it
is principally prairie, and well adapted for stock-raising and agriculture, but
the choicest land is that around the Upper Lake. There is steamboat communication to these waters, which extends as far as Golden City, a small town on
the Canadian Pacific Railway. Gold and silver ledges of great value have
been found in its vicinity, and companies have been formed to work the same.
Should these be successful it will prove one of the richest districts in the
Province.
"This country embraces a large area of land suitable for cattle ranches,
some of which has already been utilised for this purpose, though there are
still large tracts waiting for settlement. One of the great advantages is its
position, lying as it does between the Canadian Pacific and Northern Pacific
railways. It can be easily reached from either side. The climate is dry and
particularly healthful. The winters are mild and the summers moderately
warm, making it a favorite resort for invalids.
" This valley has a length of between three and four hundred miles, and
follows the .Columbia River to the base of the Rockies. This river flows
through the First Arrow Lake, which is situated about thirty miles to the
north of the International Boundary Line. The two Lakes, namely the
Upper and Lower, form a beautiful sheet of water about 160 miles long.
Between these and connecting them is a river, on the banks of which and at
the head of the Upper Lake there is a large area of good farming land which
is lightly timbered.; from here, following the Columbia as far as Revelstoke,
the country is heavily timbered, most of which will prove very valuable for
lumbering; the soil is, however, not first-class, though well adapted for fruit-
raising. Prom-Revelstoke to St. Martin's Rapids the valleys spread out to a
I width, in some places, of 30 miles. The soil of these is similar to the previously
described, but the timber is not so good in quality. From St. Martin's Rapids
to the Rockies the land improves considerably, being lightly timbered in
places, though generally an open country possessing a rich soil. Here the
Canoe River enters the Columbia, which is navigable from the International
Boundary to the Rockies, with the exception of two rapids, namely the
Death and St. Martin's, and these could be improved with very little expense.
The climate differs somewhat from those mentioned before, as the snow and. rainfalls are considerably more, with a moist and humid atmosphere and
comparatively mild winters.
In addition to the foregoing districts, there is a number of agricultural
valleys recently opened for settlement, and which are attracting settlers, such
as thePemberton Meadows, Seymour Creek, Squamish, Lillooet, etc., and
doubtless many more will be opened up as the Province becomes explored.
These will be suitable for fruit growing, hop-raising, vegetables and general
agricultural purposes.
Other sec--
tions Statistical and General Appendix.
FISH,   SALMON PACK. CANS.
Traser river, 16 canneries J -  303,875
Skeena river, 6 canneries ;  58,165
Rivers inlet, 2 canneries  25,704
Naas river, 3 canneries  19,410
Alert bay, 1 cannery  7,140
Total pack  414,294
YIELD AND VALUE OF FISHERIES.
Kinds of Fish.
Salmon, in cans lbs
m        fresh lbs
ii        salted bbls
H        smoked lbs
Sturgeon, fresh	
Halibut,      ii      	
Herring,      |      	
n smoked	
Oolachans,    M       	
n fresh 	
n salted bbls
Trout, fresh lbs
Fish, assorted	
Smelts, fresh	
Rock Cod 	
Skil, salted bbls
Tooshqua, fresh	
Fur seal skins No
Hair n        n        |
Sea otter    ii        n
Fish oil gals
Oysters sacks
Clams     ii
Mussels     n
Crabs No
Abelones boxes
Isinglas lbs
Estimated fish consumed in the Province..,
Shrimps, Prawns, etc	
Estimated consumption by Indians:
Salmon	
Halibut	
Sturgeon and other fish	
Fish oils	
Quantity. I Price.
20,122,128
2,187,000
3,749
12,900
318,600
605,050
190,000
33,000
82,500
6,700
380
14,025
322,725
52,000
39,250
1,560
268,350
33,570
7,000
115
141,420
3,000
3,500
250
175,000
100
5,000
Approximate yield
$ 12
10
10 00
20
05
05
05
10
10
20
10 00
10
06
06
05
12 00
05
10 00
75
100 00
50
1 75
1 75
2 00
03
5 00
Value.
$2,414,655 36
218,700 00
37,490 000
2,580 00
15,930 00
30,152 50
9,500 00
3,300 00
8,250 00
1,340 00
3,800 00
1,402 50
16,136
3,126
1,962 50
zo
00
00
50
18,720
13,417
335,700 00
5,250 00
11,500 00
70,710 00
5,250 00
6,125 00
500 00
5,250 00
500 00
1,750 00
100,000,000
5,000 00
2,732,500 00
190,000 00
260,000 00
75,000 00
$6,605,467 61 37
The salmon hatchery at New Westminster has turned out the following
numbers of fry for distribution since beginning operations:
The year 1885 1,800,000
The year 1886 2,625,000
The year 1887 4,414,000
The year 1888 5,807,000
The year 1889 4,419,500
The year 1890, about 8,000,000
COAL   MINING.
By far the largest mining industry' in the Province is the production of
coal. Prospecting has been successful in locating beds in many widely separated parts of the Province. Those at present operated are in the Island of
Vancouver in the vicinity of ■ Nanaimo.    Following are the returns for 1889:
WELLINGTON   COLLIERIES.
TONS.
Foreign shipments 196,510
Home Consumption  70,524
Total 267,034
Number of men employed, 900.
UNION COLLIERIES,   (SIX MONTHS.)
TONS.
Foreign Shipments  27,551
Home Consumption        100
Total  27,651
Number of men employed, 450.
NEW VANCOUVER   COAL   CO.
TONS.
Foreign Shipments  179,953
Home Consumption     38,000
Total  217,593
Number of men employed, 845.
EAST   WELLINGTON   COLLIERIES.
TONS.
Foreign shipments (estimated)  35,000
Grand Total  548,503
The Government returns give the coal output for 1889 as 579,830 cons,
the estimated value of which is $2,5000,000.
^^^^^&a^^g|^^^afo —r.
1
38
SHIPPING.
The number of vessels employed in the coasting trade of British Columbia during 1889, and arriving at the various ports was as follows:
1888 1889
Victoria :  658 740
New Westminster  242 357
Nanaimo  314 442
Vancouver : 466 751
Total   1680 229f
Tonnage 698,511 1,072,670
The leturns of foreign vessels arriving are as follows:
1888 1889
Victoria  567 585
New Westminster       4 10
Nanaimo  229 373
Vancouver 271 283
TRADE   AND   COMMERCE.
A comparison of three years shows the returns of imports and exports as
Hollows:
1887                  1888 1889
Exports  $3,478,270         $3,928,077 $4,334,306
Imports     3,547,852           3,509,951 3,763,127
And 1888 the values of exports for the year  1889,  by  classification,   is
shown as follows-
1889 1888
The Mines $2,377,052 $1,889,721
Fisheries      993,623 1,163,014
Forest      449,026 441,765
Animals and their produce      390,369 315,191
Agricultural        14,670 37,324
Manufactures         36,761 19,294
Miscellaneous         22,358 1.309
$4,289,859 3,858,618 39
BRITISH COLUMBIA IMPORTS FOR YEAR ENDING 30th JUNE, 1889.
Of such articles as are in a great measure capable of being produced
in the Province.
ANIMALS.
Cattle	
Horses	
Sheep	
Swine	
BREADSTUFFS, ETC.
Beans Bus.
Bread and Biscuit.. lbs.
Oats and Product	
Wheat	
Bran	
Buckwheat Meal & Flour
Oatmeal	
Rye Flour lbs.
Wheat Flour lbs.
FRUIT, GREEN.
Apples, U.S Bis.
Cherries, U.S Qts.
Peaches, U. S lbs.
Plums, U.S Bus.
Berries, U. S Qts.
Grapes, U. S	
N. E. E., U. S	
n   China	
FRUIT, DRIED.
Apples, U. S	
Currants, G. B	
U. S	
Prunes and Plums, G.B.
„  U.S.
n        ii China
Sundries, U.S lbs.
ii   China	
Fruit, Canned	
Hops, U	
Lime Bis.
Malt.: Bus.
Quanti'y
551
241
33816
2819
4470
470527
152317
830
27990
5029
34149
134815
2333
35153
218367
74760
11760
7390
312
59479
4298
60735
19006
150363
11981
2251
38881
Value.
$
17906
17874
63067
21304
120121
6999
16515
2072
7561
25951
678
4815
3728
114078
182397
15627
4219
5461
4498
2185
8856
3156
268
44270
5246
649
278
72
10284
157
5638
694
7919
30937
1710
2251
28745
Duty.
Value and
Duty.
TOTAL.
*     C.
3581 90
3574 80
12607 35
4207 08
23971 13
670 49
3303 10
2560 00
1524 23
5190 30
46 13
754 49
419 25
13859 68
28327 58
4367 35
636 75
53 60
5057 70
1495 ,21
117 60
73 90
2 00
3874 83
42 98
607 35
190 06
3505 17|
c.
90
$
21487
21448 80
75644 35
25241 08
143822 13
7669 49
19818 10
2632 00
9085 23
31141 30
724 13
5569 40
' 4147 25
127937 58
208724 58
49327 70
6741 21
766 60
351 90
74 00
14158 83
199 98
6245 35
884 06
11424 17
9909 10 40856 10
718 00  2428 00
450 20  2701 20
5832 09 34577 09
144092 13
210724 70
49327 70
40846 10
2428 00
2701 20
34577 09
482426 80
_J 40
B
. C. IMPORTS—Continued.
Quanti'y
Value.
Duty.
Value and
Duty.
TOTAL.
PROVISIONS.
Butter, U. S	
224679
435
11982
3
341888
569
729023
527
19240
138J759
135986
9964
316
$
44726
133
1925
3
37303
101
. 78805
67
1132
10775
645
2469
1606
29
334
14187
1426
10
$    c
8987 24
13 50
359 48
09
6838 07
11 38
14421 07
10 54
192 40
1387 59
129 00
494 00
321 20
5 80
28 24
2719 72
199 00
6 20
$    c
53713 24
146 50
2284 48
3 09
44141 07
112 38
93226 07
77 54
1224 40
12162 40
774 00
2963 00
1927 20
34 80
362 24
16906 72
1625 00
16 20
$     c
482426 80
Cheese, G. B	
U. S	
ii  France	
Lard	
Pork, G. B	
„ u. S	
n China	
Beef, U. S	
Mutton, U. S	
Poultry, G. B	
U. S	
n   China	
n    France	
Meats c'nd &pre'r<
II         H
n     ii
ii      ti
1G.B.
U.S.
Chi.
Jap.
Sugar. G. B	
,,  TJ. S	
42093
1650047
17870
12240
124
276228
195676
1917
98770
592
800
22
8894
36124 52
1302 31
59321 13
474 95
503 25
7 87
5430 45
231800 52
3219 31
158091 31
1066 95
1303 25
29 87
14324 45
231800 52
H  China	
Svrup	
„ G. B	
.. TT. S	
TREES, FRUIT
A T>nl e	
12128
4681
329
3258
2798
912
60
563
81
110995
733
245
41
386
549
912
60
563
81
67039 97
178034 96
178034 96
Cherry	
Peach	
Pear	
Plum	
Other   .   	
Currants, etc., G.
B	
U.
Grape and vines .
S....
g.b;
U.S.
Clover & grass s'd
it     n
850
46724
3570
125
4083
3570 00
4208
4208 00
900040 28 41
B. C. IMPORTS—Continued.
Value.
Duty.
Tobacco unmanufact'ed.
Eggs Doz
vegetables.
Potatoes, U. S bus
Tomatoes, U. S   "
Tomatoes, c'nd, G.B. .lb
tl II U.o. .   II
n ii      Chi.. ii
n ii     Fr i,
Sundries, G. B	
„       U. S	
ii       China	
Sundries, including;
sweet potatoes, Jap.
Sundries, including
sweet potatoes, U. S.
" 58040
169800
14790
854
4896
52483
5261
50
.$
31875
34196
5180
1783
799
2210
136
35
42
842
4676
20
8066
23789
Add freight, say.
2218 43
434 45
97 92
1049 66
105 22
1 00
10 50
210 50
1168 40
Value and
Duty.
TOTAL.
c|$900040 28
31875 00
34196 00
5 00
2016 00
7317 08
7398 43
2217 45
896 92
, 3259 66
241 22
36 00
52 50
1052 50
5844 40
25 00
10082 00
31106 08
31106 08
97217 36
$ 50000 00
Added to this may be considered :
17000 bbls Manitoba flour @$5.50 $ 93500 00
200000 lbs Manitoba butter @ 20 cents  40000 00
150000'fts Eastern cheese  11000 00
150000 doz. Eastern eggs @ 25 cents  37500 00
$1229217 36
We also got between 4,000,000 and 5,000,000 pounds of sugar from eastern
Canada.
WAGES.
Wages in British Columbia is regulated mainly by unions, which are strong
numerically and in point of organisation. The supply of labor is usually equal
to the demand. As a rule here, as elsewhere, the applicants for clerkships
and soft situations are in excess of the vacancies, though, generally speaking,
few persons have any reason to be idle. The schedule of wages fo labor is
about as follows, the nine-hour system being generally in vogue:
Stonecutters, stonemasons and bricklayers $4 to $5
Their laborers $1.75 to $2 per day
Plasterers $4 to $4.50 per day
Carpenters and joiners $2.50 to $3.75    „      \
Ship carpenters and caulkers $5 to $5    |      |
Cabinet makers and upholsterers $3 to $4   a      M
Painters $3.50 to $4    ,.      „
Shoemakers $2 to $3     ,      „
Tailors $3.50 to $3    „      „
Tailoresses $1 to $1.50    „      „
Bakers, with board and lodging $65 per month
Butchers (cutters) $75 to $100 per month
Slaughterers $75 per month
Cigarmakers  ..$2.50 to 4 per day
Boys as strippers, etc $2.50 to $5 per week
m 42
Printers 45 cents to 50 cents per 1000 ems
Wagon-makers $3.50 to $4 per day
Tinsmiths, plumbers and gasfitters $3.50 to $4 per day
Machinists, moulders, pattern makers and
blacksmiths $3.50 to $4 per day
'Longshoremen 40 cents per hour
Female domestic servants $10 to $25 per month
Millmen $1.50 to $2 per day
Farm Hands $25 to $30 per month and board
PRICES OF PRODUCE.
The following price list of produce was obtained from dealers, and represents the average prices paid by commission men to farmers and other sources
of supply. To the wholesale prices from.25 10 50 per cent, or more, in some
instances may be added for the retail market. Prices are often much higher
and sometimes lower, varying with the season and demand, but a fair yearly
average has been endeavored to be arrived at.
Potatoes i $20 per ton
Oats $22    „     |
Barley $22    |     n
Wheat $30    „     „
Butter 25 cents per lb
Eggs 25 cents per doz
Peas $25 per ton
Hay $15 per ton
Cheese 12£ cents per lb
Nectarines (same as peaches
Pears $1.25 a box
Peaches $1.25 per 20-Ib box
Grapes 8 cents per lb
Strawberries 8      n        „    n
Raspberries 8      n        u    fj
Cherries 5      Ii        u    n
Plums 5      ii        n    ii
Prunes 5      u        |    u
Fish 8      „        „    I
Chickens $8 per dozen
Ducks $9  ii        ii
Apples $1.25 to $1.50 per 501b
Onions $65 per ton
Cabbage $35   |     ft
Peas and Beans     6 cents per ft
Tomatoes $1.50 per 25Tbs
Cauliflower $1 per dozen
Turkeys $3.50 per pair
Geese $2.50 per pair
PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM.
The public school system of British Columbia is equal, probably, to any
other in Canada, with an educational standard about the. same as that of
Ontario. The main difference consists in the fact that here the schools are
under the direct control of the Government, the maintenance of which is
provided for by a direct vote of the Provincial Legislature. They are free,
non-sectarian, with uniform text books. Trustees are elected by the people
and have a local control in the appointment of teachers and conduct of
schools, but all accounts are paid direct by the Department of Education,
which is under supervision of a Minister and Superintendent. School districts may be formed where there are fifteen pupils of school age, and trustees, three in rural and six in city districts. There are three grades of
teachers, first second and third class, requiring certificates of qualification
from the Department.    High schools may be formed in  any city upon  the . .        ... ^7
H\
43
passing successfully of a limited number of pupils in the entrance examination prescribed for admission to the same. One third of the cost of maintenance of high schools is borne by the cities in which they are located. Teachers' salaries, male and female, range from $50 to $100 per month, according to
grade.    Universal suffrage for the election .of trustees prevails.
MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT.
The municipal code is very much similar to that in vogue in other provinces, modified to suit local conditions. The cities are each governed by
independent charters, which vary somewhat in their provisions. The people
of a rural locality may, when there is a population of 30 males or over, be
formed into a municipality for the purpose of managing local affairs. The unorganised districts are directly under the control of the Government.
The Province has a Legislature controlling its own affairs with thirty-one
members (six new seats were recently created), a Lieutenant-Governor, and
an Executive Council of five members complete the Governmental paraphernalia. There are seventeen electoral districts. One year's residence in the
Province and registration are the qualifications for exercising the franchise.
PUBLIC   ORDER
Is most exemplary. In very few respects does British Columbia partake
of the character of the "Wild West." While legislation is not puritanically
restrictive, there is at the same time little disorder and less crime.
Outside of the crimes (mostly petty) incident to a large Indian and
Chinese population, no Province stands so well as this. There are excellent
facilities for enjoying all the social, educational, religous, political and other
advantages, peculiar to a high state of civilization.
COST OF LIVING.
Board varies from.$4.50 to $10.00 per week according to the class of
boarding house or hotel. The general cost of living is enhanced about twenty-
five per cent, as compared with that of the east.
PRICE OF LAND, LOTS, ETC.
The replies elsewhere give and idea of the price of farm lands in the
Province generally. Acre property in the vicinity of Vancouver, Westminster
and Victoria, suitable for market gardens, can be obtained from $50 to $300.
per acre and is-steadily on the rise.
City lots, according to nearness to the business centres, range from $2.
to $500 per foot. Compared with the price of real estate along the Sound and
down the Coast, city property is still very low.
LAND RETURNS.
1882.      83.      84.      85.      86.      87.      88.      89.
Pre-emption records  72 200 308 345 311 303 548 496
Certificates of improvement.. 29 60 77 82 69 73 157
Certificates of purchase  201 328 604 305 369 351 355 587
Crown grants  129 374 406 306 374 320 332 481
Total acreage deeded :   23,609, 54,637, 146,197.
Acreage leased tor timber cutting:    128,811, 50.472.
Acreage covered by coal prospecting license.
TIMBER, LUMBER, ETC.
The trees of the forest are:—the Douglas fir, spruce, white pine, hemlock,
cottonwood, maple, yew, arbutus, cherry, cedar, tamarack and a few others,
but the principal are the Douglas fir and cedar which grow to an enormous
size.    There  is between 50,000,000,000  and  100,000,000,000 feet of choice 44
timber already in sight in the explored regions.    The following is the latest
Government returns regarding this industry.
GOVERNMENT TIMBER RETURNS.
MILLS. LOCALITY. DAILY  CAPACITY.
Moodyville Saw Mill Co (Burrard Inlet.) 105,000 feet.
Hastings Saw Mill Co Vancouver   65,000 „
Royal City Planing Mills  „           30,000 „
Royal City Mills (New Westminster.).. 110,000 ,,
Leamy & Kyle Vancouver   50,000 „
W. H. Sayward Victoria  40,000 „
Wm. Sutton Cowichan   35,000 „
J. Martin & Son New Westminster Dis.. 25,000 „
Haslam & Lees Nanaimo  70,000 „
Ross & McLaren Lumber Co.. New Westminster... 200,000 „
Knight Bros     „ ' „• ... 25,000 „
Shuswap Milling Co Yale   32,000 „
Muir Bros Sooke   12,000 „
Brunette Saw Mill Co New Westminster   30,000 „
Fader Bros Vancouver   70,000 n
Port Moody Saw Mill Co Port Moody   15,000 „
W. A. Johnston Cariboo   20,000 „
J. B. Nason       „      7,000 „
Indians Alert Bay     5,000 M
Cunningham & Co Port Essington   80,000 i,
G. Williscroft Georgeton   12,000 „
Indians, Kincalith     3,000 n
Vancouver Lumber Co Vancouver   35,000 3
Victoria Lumber Co Chemainus , 50,000 S
North Pacific Lumber Co Vancouver 100,000 n
G. F. Slater Vancouver 30,000 „
Aggregate daily capacity   1,284,000 feet.
TIDAL  RANGES.
, Rise of high water ,
Annual, spring. Average rise.
Victoria     8.7 feet 7.5     8.1 feet
Port Simpson   17.9 14.5    16.2
Nanaimo    12.3 10.7    11.5
Vancouver   10.68 9.74 10.1
PortTownsend     8.6 .   7.6     8.1
San Francisco     5.2 4.4     4.8
MINING RETURNS.
The output of gold for forty years amounts to $52,236,753. The greatest
yield was in 1864, when $3,735,850 vorth was mined, and about 4,500 miners
employed.
About 4,500,000 tons of coal nave been mined since the year 1874.
SEALING.
Following canned salmon, the important item in the exports for 1889
under the head of fisheries, was the export of 35,000 seal skins, valued at
$245,000. The sealing industry is centered at Victoria, where a large number
of ships annually market their catch of seal. Victoria had twenty-four
schooners engaged in sealing last season. This year the fleet has been increased to about thirty vessels. Between 600 and 700 men were engaged in
th industry last year, over half of whom were Indians. In addition to the
schooners owned in Victoria, quite a number of United States ships market
their catch there.    There are both fur and hair seals. ' 40
♦MINING IN BRITISH COLUMBIA.
By Andrew C. Lawson, Ph. D.       Hjjfe.i"-'
As a mining country, British Columbia is known to commerce and the Success in
eastern world chiefly for its placer gold and for the coal of Vancouver Island.    tne V^st
The success which has attended these two kinds of mining in the thinly populated and undeveloped condition of the country in the past, is but an earnest
of the greater success which awaits the future exploitation not only of gold
and coal but of the majority of the mineral substances of value to man.    The
history of the Province, since attention was first drawn to it by the gold excitement of thirty years ago, shews that nearly all the exploration to which
the country has been subjected, up to within very recent years, has had for
its object the finding of placer gold.    Other mineral deposits have been
ignored and passed by as of little account, and it is only within the past five
years, since the realization in fact of the vigorous railway policy of the Dominion Government that there has come into existence in the Province a class
of prospectors and explorers  who appreciate the value and importance of
minerals other than the gold of the placers.    This new movement in the ex- The new
ploration of the country has very naturally set in from the south, and may   movement
properly be regarded as the advance guard of the army of hardy pioneers which   ln mimns
has already won its tribute from the Cordilleran ranges of Nevada, Idaho and
Montana, and now pushes northward into Kootenay, Okanagan and Nicola,
eager for fresh conquests.
Placer mining as it has been carried on in the past, chiefly by the cradle Decline in
and the shovel, is steadily shrinking in importance not only relatively  to   pl?<*'
other kinds of mining, but absolutely.    This fact .conies out clearly from  a s
review of the figures for the yield for any series of years. The placers of the
Province have yielded in all gold to the amount of $54,697,727 since they
were first worked in 1858 to the close of 1889. The maximum yield was in
the feverish days of '63, for which year it approximated four millions of
dollars. Since that date the annual winnings from the gravels have steadily
diminished.    The yield by decades for the last 30 years is as follows:—
Yield, 1859-69   $27,983,106
1869-79     16,332,731
. „ '     1879-89       8,061,818
The yield for the last year was only about half a million of dollars and is Openings for
the lowest yield yet recorded. To those unacquainted with the condition of J^"a^
the country these figures would seem to indicate an exhaustion of the placer
deposits., But this is far from being the case. The mining of the last 30
years has been almost entirely the manual labor of individual miners, whose
only capital was their " grub-stake " and whose plant consisted of a shovel
and a cradle or half a dozen of sluice boxes. This method of working is only
applicable to an extremely limited portion of the auriferous gravels which form
the banks of the Fraser and other gold-yielding streams of the Province.
The ground which has been actually mined forms but a small fraction of a
per cent, of the gravel which it would probably pay to move by modern
hydraulic appliances. It is noteworthy of the times that concomitant "with the
decline in the importance of placer mining in the small way by individuals and
the increasing interest which is being manifested in other kinds of mining,
there is considerable inquiry being made as to the possibilities of working auriferous bench lands on the large scale by hydraulic processes. There
can be little doubt that there is a large and safe field for the investment of
capital in this direction, and once this class of mining is fairly inaugurated it
is entirely probable that the yield from the placers will far outweigh the
results which have been achieved by the enterprising but slow and costly process of the past.
Another feature of the wane of the placers as   hitherto worked,  is that Search for
the attention of prospectors  is being  drawn more and more to the sources    origin of
*For detailed and more extended information, the Annual Reports of the Minister of    m>ning
Mines for the Province and the vaaious publications of the Dominion Geological Survey should
be consulted.   Much of the information contained in the present brief sketch is drawn from
these sources.
r S Placer Min-
njr Districts
Silver Mining in Koo
tenay.
Iron.
46
from which the gold now found in the gravel, was originally mined. At
present the enquiry is directed chiefly to quartz veins and is characteristic of
the well known placer mining districts of Cariboo and Lillooet. It is not at
all improbable, however, that this is only one of the sources of the gold of the
placers and that the conglomerates of the older geological formations will,
when carefully prospected be found in places to be sufficiently rich in gold to
pay for stamping as is the case in the Black Hills of Dakota.
The principal districts of the Province where placer mining is at present
carried on are:—
Cariboo. yield eor 1889.
Barkerville Division  $78,542
Lightening Creek Division     41,150
Quesnelle mouth Division     37,000
Keithley Creek Division     61,200
Cassiar     54,910
Kootenay.
Western Division  12,700
Eastern        „   36,300
Lillooet  60,364
Yale. '
Osoyoos Division     10,500
Similkameen Division     35,800
$ 428,466
The new prospecting and mining movement which has been referred to
as setting in from the South of the Province is at present most active in the
Kootenay district and has already resulted in the discovery of a great number of veins of lead-silver or copper-silver ores, many of which are undoubtedly rich and will yield large profits when mined. Mining properly speaking
can scarcely be said to have begun yet in the district except in a few cases
owing to 'the difficulties of transport which have hitherto existed.
Prospecting, however, has been very active and many of the leads
are well stripped and opened into: so that with the increased shipping facilities which have been established this year on the Arrow Lakes
and the stretch of railway now under construction between Sproat's
Landing and Nelson, it is confidently anticipated that next year will
see extensive mining operations and heavy shipments of ore. The principal mining camps in the Kootenay district are Toad Mountain where
copper-silver ores prevail ; Hot Springs on Kootenay lake where the
dominant ore is argentiferous galena, with native silver; Hendryx, also on
Kootenay lake,- and IUecileviaet on the Canadian Pacific Railway, the
ore at the last named camp being also chiefly a galena ore. All
these camps are with the new transport facilities tributary to Revel-
stoke on the Canadian Pacific Railway. This fact is generally recognized and has resulted in the establishment of a well equipped Smelting Works at this centre, at which a thriving young town is being built
up, andds already commanding considerable attention as being prospectively
one of the largest distributing, trading and manufacttring points of the interior. Nelson on Kootenay lake is another mining town which has sprung into
existence on Kootenay lake and bids fair with the development of the mines
to grow to a place of importance.
The most important deposits of iron ore at present known in British Columbia are on the coast. Good qualities of magnette occur at various places
on Texada Island, and at one of these, on the southwest side of the islands
the ore has been mined and shipped to Irondale, on Puget Sound, where on
being mixed with a local bog ore, it is smelted by the Puget Sound Iron Co..
The close proximity of these deposits to the coal of Vancouver Island affords
an inviting opening for the establishment of smelting works at Nanaimo or
Comox.    Other considerable deposits of iron ore on the coast are at Sooke on 47
Vancouver Island, the Queen Charlotte Islands, while, it is reported, in undermined quantities from the Walker groupe of islands, and from Rivers Inlet.
In the interior of the Province iron ores are reported to have been found in
the vicinity of Hope and Nicoamen on the C. P. R'y, in the Nicola and Simil-
kamen valleys, Kamloops Lake, and on the Fraser, half way between Lytton
and Lillooet. Copper ores are known to occur at a number of localities, both CoPPer
on the coast and at the interior. On the coast the chief occurences are on
Howe Sound, Texada Island, Queen Charlotte Islands and at Sooke on Vancouver Island. In the interior the chief yield of copper will probably be from
ores which are worked primarily for the precious metals which are contained
in them.
Lead will probably be produced in considerable quantities in connection Lead
with the silver mining in various parts of the province, particularly at Field,
nieeilewaet and Kootenay Lake.
Zinc is reported to occur in considerable deposits  in  the mountains be- Zinc
tween Howe Sound and Burrard Inlet.
Antimony ore occurs on the Fraser, between Lytton and Lillooet and other Antimony,
deposits are said to occur in the southern part of the Province. etc
British Columbia is at present probably  the most important source  of Platinum
platinum in North America.    The yield for 1889 was about  1,000 ozs., taken
chiefly from the Tulameen and Upper Similkameen, where it occurs in association with the placer gold.
Mercury is reported as occuring as Cinnabar on Homathco  and Kicking Mercury
Horse Rivers, and in the native state at Silver Peak, near Hope.    It is . also
vaguely reported to have been found in the Lillooet district.
Among the other minerals and metals of economic interest that are known Other Min-
to exist in different parts of the Province may be mentioned: arsenic, molyb- era^s
denum, bismuth, iron-pyrites, plumbago, nickel, asbestos, mica, nitre, bitumen, amber, and various kinds of precious stones and mineral waters. Building and ornamental materials in the shape of granite, marble, sandstone,
limestone slate, and clays are abundant, especially on the coast, and both granite
and sandstone are exported to United States ports.
In East Kootenay the localities of greatest promise as yielders of the East Koote-
precious metals,  are in  the vicinity of Field on the C.   P.   R'y;  Carbon-   nav
ate Mountain, on the Columbia;  Ottertail, on the  C.  P.   R'y;  Spilimichene
and Jubilee Mountains ; and  Spilimichene river.    The  centre for the treatment and smelting of ores from these localities will be, for the most part, the
town of Golden, where a smelter is now being erected.
The history of coal mining as a steady industry in British Columbia Coal Mining
began about the same time as the placer mining. While, however,
gold was mined in greatest quantity in the early days of the development of the Province and has been gradually dwindling in importance ever since, coal mining, on the other hand, began in small things
and has steadily grown in importance, till to-day it is an industry of
considerable proportions and a source of much wealth to the Province.
Coal mining is confined entirely at present to the east side of Vancouver Island, the measures from which the coal is won being a formation of
the Cretaceous which forms a narrow strip along the coast lying in a little
disturbed condition on the older rocks. The coal is ut a depth from the surface of 400 or 500 feet on an average and has a general dip at low angles
under the waters of the Strait of Georgia so that probably much of the mining of the future will be sub-marine, as is now the case with portions of the
New Vancouver colliery at Nanaimo. The principal collieries are at Nanaimo, Wellington and Comox, but coal will undoubtedly be found in paying
quantity and quality in many other portions of this coast and the search for
areas of coal-bearing rocks is at present one of the most inviting line of prospecting that could be engaged in. The exact extent and distribution of the
Cretaceous rocks of this coast has not yet been ascertained; and a systematic
search for coal measures, conducted on geological principles would probably
be well rewarded.
mM Alphabetical Index.

Agricultural Resources 3
Agassiz Kg
Alberni 16-82
Aldergrove 28
Areas 15-26-00
Assessment 00
n
British Columbia, as it was... 4
Brewing 14
Bees £ 00
Burton's Prairie W. 28
Black River District 33
C
Cache Creek    16
C.P.R., its effects 4
"    time table .. back cover
Climate, influences 8
"     record    15-26
Condensed Milk 12
Canning 12
Conditions 14
Crop Yields 15-26
Cowichan 17
Cereals 5,15-26
Chilliwhack 17-28
Cedar   31
Comox  31
Coal  31, 37, 47
Chilcotin  33
Columbia Valley 34
Cost of living 43
ID
Development, needs of.. 11,15-26
Dairying 12
Delta, land 9
"     municipality 29
33
Experimental Farm 28
Esquimalt 30
Earthenware 14
Farming, B .C. as a country f or.. 5
"      advantages 6, 11
"      imports  39-41
Fraser valley 9, 27-29
Fish, kinds 12
"   oils 12
"   hatchery., 12
"   deep sea 12
"   catch 36
"   returns 36-37
Flour, Valley Mills 13
"     imports 41
Flax 00
Flora, native 11, 15-26
Fruit, prospects 6
"      kinds 15-26
<3r
Grass, Bunch 9
"       kinds     15-26
Graham Island .._ 32
Gabriola .' 31
Government kind 43
" Returns 44
m
Health Resort, asa 8
Hops 13, 15-23
Hope .m 18
Harrison Hot Springs ." 27
Horse Fly County 33
X-X
Industrial possibilities. 12-14-15-26
Jute Works 14
Indians 00
Interior, The.. .9,16,17,19, 20, 23.
25, 26, 33.
Iron - 14,00
Imports 38-40
XC
Kanaka Prairie    28
Koksilah 31
Kootenay  34,46
X,
Lobsters 12
Labor, price 41
Lillooet 19
Lulu Island 27
Langley 28
Laud, price of 15-26, 43
"    laws 00
"    returns 43
||1
Market 13, 14, 15-26
Manufacturing 13
Malting 14
Maple Bay 31
Mining, laws 00
"       returns 44, 00
inB#C 00
Melons 15-26
Mt. Lehman 28
Mission 28
Maple Ridge 29
Metchosin.. 30
IT
New Caledonia 10
Natiortal concerns 14
Nicola 20
':   Lower 20
North Arm 21
Nanoose Bay 31
Nanaimo  37
O
Oysters 12
Otterpoint 30
Produce, prices 15, 26-00
Pasturas-e 10
Peace River 10,33
Pickling 12
Pulp Mills 00
Pests 11
Port Hamm.o-.td  20
"    Haney 21
"    Moody 22
Pitt Meadows 29
Plumpers' Pass 31
Public Order  43
Q
Quarries  14
Quamichan 31
Quadra      gl
Queen Charlotte Islands 32
it
Railways, branch lines 4
"        new lines 5
S
Soil 9,15,26
Sealing 12, 44
Sardines 12
Salmon 12,36, 00
Sheep and Wool 12
Sugar, beet  13,15, 26
|     Refinery 14
Smelting 14
Shipbuilding 14
Somenos 22, 31
South Thompson % 23
Sumas  24
Surrey >.25, 29
Sea Island 27
Sooke ...30
Saanich 30
Salt Spring Island 30
Shawnigan 31
Skeena 33
Shipping 38
Tobacco 00
Trade and Commerce:    .  . -... 3S
Timber, gov't returns 44
Tidal Ranges 44
Tomatoes 15-26
Vancouver. City 00
•'   Island. 8, 9, 16,17, 22, 30-32
Vernon 25
Vegetables 15-26
Wheat, yields, etc.
"     Milling.....
Wool	
Wellington
Wages	
.15-26
 6
....12
...31
...41
Tale.
.26
J&  I    TIME TABLES.  
Transcontinental Route—East Sound;
CANADIAN PACIFIC R'Y CONDENSED TIME TABLE. 
STATIONS.
VANCOUVER, B.C.
TIME. DAYS OF WEEK

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