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The new West : extending from the Great Lakes across plain and mountain to the golden shores of the Pacific.… Ham, George H. (George Henry), 1847-1926 1888

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       Extending from the Great Lakes
across Plain and Mountain to the
Golden Shores of the Pacific.
Canadian   Historical   Publishing  Co.
1888  PREFACE.
On the northern part of the New World—stretching away across the
continent from the Atlantic to the Pacific—lies the Dominion of Canada.
Its confines include more than one-half of North America, reaching from
the great lakes of the east and centre and the 49th parallel to the inhospitable shores of the trackless polar seas, whose long sought mysteries have
yet to be revealed to man. In this vast domain—an empire in itself—are
contained all the diversified elements which, upon development, are the
factors of a progressive, prosperous and powerful nation, and although the
strides in the march of progress, keeping pace with the advancement of
nineteenth century civilization, have been marvelously rapid in this fair
land, there aTe countless thousands of leagues of territory on which the
foot of man has never trod, lying tenantless and silent, only awaiting the
advent of the Anglo-Saxon race to be transformed into a prosperous and
thriving country. The wealth of commerce, agriculture, mining, lumbering and fishing, latently exists in untold measure. The virgin soil, the
primeval forest, and the teeming seas and lakes and rivers all possess
undeveloped riches. Man alone is apparently the missing quantity, and
his energy, industry and capital are the required elements in develop*
ing this young, but sturdy Dominion into the Greater.Britain of the "West
—the worthy scion of the grand old Motherland across the seas, whose
pride is in the colonial gems which adorn the imperial diadem, of which
Canada is one of the brightest and most valued jewels.
To give briefly and succinctly a sketch of this New "Wonderland—not
aspiring to the pretensions of a history—is the object of this work, presenting, beside an historical review, authentic statistics of its present condition, the remarkable advancement of the western portion, and pointing out
its great advantages, its boundless resources, its wonderful development,
and its manifest destiny in occupying, in the near future, a foremost ulace
amongst the great nations of the world.  CONTENTS.
Algom a House, Merrill & Hodder, Props.. 26
Bishop & Co., Wm, Wholesale and Retail
Groceries  26
Clarke, W. J., Druggist  26
Cooke, J. F., Photographer    30
Daunais, Oliver, Miner.  30
Fortune, W. F., Groceries  ? 29
Hasking, W. J., Groceries   29
Ishester & Co., M., Wholesale and Retail
Groceries, Provisions, Boots and Shoes, etc. 26-
Johnson, W. G.," Bodega Hotel"  27
Lalonde, C. 0., Boots and Shoes  28
Labby & Co., P., Groceries  28
Mathews & Fraser, Dry Goods  27
Meikle, J. L.,"Bazaar"  27
Mooring, Geo., Furniture  30
Nicholson, H., Merchant Tailor   28
Ray, Street & Co., Bankers  29
Smith, W. G, Butcher  29
Squier, A., Insurance   29
Vivian, J. C, Clothing |  28
Wells & Dawson, Hardware  29
Western Hotel, Chas. Hayne, Prop  30
Witherspoone Francis, Harnessmaker  27
Bethune & Co-, J. T., General Merchant.... 31
Hammond, J., Queen's Hotel      31
King, John, General Merchant  32
McDougall, Allen, General Merchant  31
McLaren, A., General Merchant  31
Rutledge Bros  32
Baker & Co., General Merchants   34
Campbell, A., Books -and Stationery   34
CoateyW. D., Druggist  34
Gardner & Co., John, General Merchants •. 35
Hillard House, Louis Hillard, Prop  36
Holmes, H. F., Hardware  34
Hose, Jacob, Hardware   35
Hub Hotel, George Drewry, Prop  35
Humble, John W., Wholesale Liquors .... 35
Kobold & Co., Butcher and Cattle Dealer • • 34
McKinnon & Bro., Wm., General Merchant 35
Nicholson M., Merchant Tailor  35
Queen's Hotel, P. Rigney & Co., Prop  35
Bullock R., General Merchant   62
Bullock Wm.,' Merchants' Hotel  • 62
Gilhuly, R. H., Druggist  62
Pearson, G. F., Livery and Butcher  62
Penner & Co., E., General Merchants  63
Queen's Hotel, John N. Braun, Prop   63
Dunsford & Co., Bankers  65
Haley & Sutten, General Merchants   65
McLaren, G. W., Druggist  65
Penner & Co-, E, General Merchants  65
Queen's Hotel, G. F. Lundy, Prop  65
Fullerton& Ross, General Merchants  66
Huston, James, General Merchant  66
Kerr & Magee, Furniture  66
McKenzie, R., Carriage Manufactory  66
Ruttan, W. D , General Merchant   66
Stewart House, W. C. Kennedy, Prop  66
Baird, Bros-, General Merchants  68
Gordon, J. T., Lumber, Grain and Stock .. 68
Hobbs, J. A., Druggist  68
McKay, Thos., General Merchant   68
Stuart, James, Carriage Manufactory  68
Tremont House, Geo. Wood, Prop   68 VI
Ashdown, A,, Hardware  70
Grand Central Hotel, M. Gouldie, Prop .... 70
Lawlor, T. J., General Merchant  69
Williams, C. W., General Merchant  70
McEwon, A C, General Merchant • 71
McKnight, Alex., General Merchant  71
Queen's Hotel, J. W. Knittel, Prop   71
Ryan House, Caleb Ryan, Prop  71
Wright, J. A, Druggist  71
Butchart & Bro., R. P., Hardware  74
Cavers & Stuart, General Merchants   73
Falconer, A J., Hardware  74
Freeman, K., General Merchant  75
Mallett, W. H., Jewellery   74
Manuel & Steele, Carriage Manufactory.... 74
Montgomery & Co., H. L., Gen'l Merchants. 7^
Revere House, W. H. Saults, Prop «  74
Smith & Balk will, General Merchants .... 73
AssiniboiaRoller Mill  79
Bell, G D, Groceries  78
Costigan, John, Confectionery •  79
Cassels, G. & D., Confectionery  80
Dodidmade, John, Furniture  78
Graban, Chas-, Boots and Shoes   80
Lyall, E, Merchant Tailor  79
McKenzie & Campbell, Harnessmakers ... 80
Mclntyre, A H., Jewellery.  79
Millar, T. & W., Hardware  78
Prest & Woolhouse, Books and Stationery.. 80
Ro we, J. F., Photographer r. 78
Williams & Goodsir, Furniture..  79
Woodside, H. J., Jewellery  79
Young & Urquhart, Carriage Manufactory. 80
Dickie, N., Real Estate, Loan and Insurance 82
Dufleri n House, A. McKenzie ............ 88
Henderson, M. A, General Merchant  82
Alexander & Co., Flooring Mill  98
Barclay, E. J., Lumber and Grain Buyer .. 95
Booth, Tom, Fruits and Confectionery .... 94
Brock, J. A, Photographer. • •• •  96
Burchill & Howey, Pork Packrs & Butchers 96
Cassels, G. & D., Fruits and Confectioners .. 97
Cameron, J. C, Carriage Manufactory  98
Central Hotel,F. A Tamblyn, Prop  96
Christie, E. L., Books and Stationery  96
Dickinson & Murray, Groceries   94
Durst, P. K, Jewellery  96
Eveans, W. Geo., Livery and Sale Stable... 98
Forbes & Stirrett, Planing Mill  93
Fraser Bros., Dry Goods and Gen. Merchants 93
Gibson & Fraser, Carriage and Sale Stable,
and dealers in horses  98
Gilchrist, G. N., Merchant Tailor  95
Grand View Hotel, A. F. Boisseau, Prop.... 92
Hooper, W. H., Groceries   94
Kelly, T. K, Livery and Sale Stable   94
Laplont, John, Barber  99
Lee, Thomas, Harnessmaker  97
May wood Bros., Transfer, Coal and Wood.. 97
Munroe & Co., Wholesale Liquors and Groceries  93
Munro, George, Hardware  95
McKe I vie, D., Groceries  93
McKenzie & Russell, Carriage Manufactory 97
Neumeyer & Pares, Brandon Brewery  98
Queen's Hotel, R. J. Dickinson, Prop  95
Ray & Curtis, Flour and Feed and Grain
Buyers  97
Rose & Co., Druggists  92
Reesor, D. A, Jewellery  98
Smith & Burton, Wholesale Groceries .... 94
Smith & Winder, Employment Agency.... 94
Smart, Stewart & Co., Wholesale Groceries. 95
Somerville & Co., General Merchants ....#• 92
Storey, E. R., Stoves and Tinware • 92
Stockton, L., Merchant Tailor  97
Trotter & Trotter, Livery and Sale Stable.. 99
Wilson & Co., Hardware •  96
Koester, Craig & Co., Flour Mill  100
Virden Hotel, Elliott & Trumbull, Prop.... 100
Cavanagh Hotel,T. D. Cavanagh, Prop ►..• 101
Cushing, Wm., General Merchant  101
Dixon, W. J., Livery   101
Hows well, G. H., General Merchant    101
Barton, W. H., Lumber  110
Carman, F. T, Druggist   110
Fletcher, T., Flooring Mill  109 CONTENTS.
Inglis & Smith, Butchers and Cattle Dealers 109
Lake House, W. R. Hamilton, Prop....
McAlpine, T. B., Groceries, Fruits, etc
McCurdy, John, Machine Shops	
McNaughton, R. D., General Merchant
Maulson & Co., W. H., "
Tees, Richard, I
Clementson, Joe, General Merchant  Ill
Thorburn, A. G, 1   110
C^Nail, John, Groceries and Hardware .... 110
Beauchamp, J. P., General Merchant  112
Johnston, R., Livery and Stage Line  112
Leland House, Love & Raymond   112
Marwood, Frank, Carriage Manufactory.. 113
Whiting Bros., Bakery and Confectionery.. 113
Black, C. H., Books and Stationery  117
Child, Wm. M., Butcher and Cattle Dealer. 117
Dawson, Bole & Co., Wholesale Druggists.. 116
Fergusson, R. B., Furniture   116
Howson, G, Livery and Sale Stable  118
Hunt, W., Merchant Tailor  116
Lamont. P., Books and Stationery   116
McCaul, J. A., Lumber  117
Mowat Bros., Wholesale Groceries ....  ... 116
Mowatt, J. F., Gents' Furnishings, Boots and
Shoes   116
Sibbald & Co., J. D., General Commission
Merchants  117
Steel, R. J., Cigars and Tobacco  118
Sweet & McDonald, Harnessmakers   117
Windsor House, Mrs. A. A. Doig  118
Baker & Co., E. A., General Merchants.... 120
Bogue, R., Hardware   119
Gordon, J. G  119
McLean, J. J., General Merchant  120
American House, J. C. A. McRae, Prop  122
Cochran, L. B., General Merchant  122
Leonard, M., Bakery and Confectionery.... 122
Mclnnis, J. R., Boots and Shoes  122
McCuaig & Co., Geo., General Merchants.. 121
Medicine Hat Times  122
Tweed & Ewart, General Merchants  121
Walton, E, Druggist  122
Yuill, S. B., Jewellery  122
Baker & Co., I. G., General Merchants .... 129
Boorne & May, Photographers  137
Carroll, Wm., Merchant Tailor  135
Carson & Riley, Harness and Saddle Makers 136
Claxton, F. J., Bakery and Confectionery.. 138
Collins, H., Dry Goods  131
Cockle, J. W., Taxidermist 138
Cushing, W. H., Planing Mill  135
Davidson Bros., Jewellery  132
Douglas & Co., J. S., Fruits and Groceries.. 137
Duncan, G. T., Saddlemaker  136
Eau Claire Lumber Co., P. A. Prince, Manager   131
Ferland & Co., A., General Merchants  134
Field, John, Wholesale Druggist  129
Ferguson & McMurtry, Groceries  137
Ford, W. H., Livery and Sale Stable  135
Freeze & Co., I. S., General Merchants .... 133
Glanville & Co., J. F., Clothing  136
Grant, A., Hardware   132
Holbrook, E. C, Dentist  136
Hull, Trounce & Co., Cattle Dealers   129
Jacques, G. E., Jewellery   137
Kinnisten, W. H., Fruits and Confectionery 132
King & Co., G. C, General Merchants  130
Lafferty & Smith, Bankers  131
Linton Bros., Books and Stationery   134
Mackie, J. S., Gunsmith  137
Marsh & Geddes, Real Estate   135
Moody, R. H., Real Estate  130
Murdoch, Geo., Wholesale Harness and Saddles   129
McTavish Bros., Carriage Manufactory .... 135
Power & Bro., T. C, General Merchants.... 134
Ramsay, W. T., Real Estate  133
Rankin & Allen. Dry Goods  133
Rogers, E. R, Hardware   130
Riley & Co., G. H., General Merchants — 132
Ross, A. J., Photographer  137
Royal Hotel, Reilly & Martin, Props  131
Sharpies, John, General Commission Merchant   133
Shelton. A E, Furniture  131
Soules & York, Cattle Dealers  134
Thomson Bros.. Books and Stationery...... 133
Windsor House, J. Donohue, Prop  136 CONTENTS.
Cosmopolitan Hotel, J. T. Edwards  170
Grand Pacific Hotel, G. W. Jones  170
Jones, E. H., Books and Stationery  171
McCartney, W. E, Druggist  171
Renier, P. S., Merchant Tailor  170
Robson & Lee, Groceries   171
Saucier, J. E, Jewellery  170
Smith, R. E, General Merchant ...  170
The Inland Sentinel    171
Allan, G. L., Boots and Shoes  .-. 181
Bailey, C. S., Photographer  180
Dunn, Thomas, Wholesale and Retail Hardware   179
Evans, D., Merchant. Tailor   180
Gilmore & Clark,. Clothing -. 179
Hart, F. W., Furniture, Undertaking and
Opera House  180
Kirschberg & Landsburg, Clothing 178
Leland House, Prout & Ensley     179
Martin, F. X., Groceries  180
Nelson, C, Druggist   180
Oppenheimer Bros., Wholesale and Commission Merchants   178
O'Toole & Ralph, Stoves and Tinware  179
Ponsford Page, General Merchant    18
Rand Bros., Real Estate   17
Taylor, George, Japanese Bazaar  17
The Vancouver Drug House . • *   18
Thicke, A.C., Dry Goods   17
Tilley, S. T., Books and Stationery  18
Albion Iron Works   19
Brown & White, Dry Goods  19
British Cohimbia Land Co  20
British Columbia Blank Book Manufactory 20
Boucherafr & Co., Wholesale Groceries .... 19
Bowman, W, G.. Livery   191
Carne & Munsie, Groceries  19
Clarence Hotel, F. G. Richards, Jr., Prop.. 19:
Colbert & Warner, Plumbers  19'
C. P. Navigation Co  20'
Croft & Angus, Lumber   19'
Devlin, J. C, Gen. Commission Merchant. 19
Driard House, Redon & Hartnagel, Props.. 18!
Earle Thomas, General Commission  and
Wholesale Groceries  193
Fell, James, Groceries   198
Goodacre, L., Butcher and Cattle Dealer ... 201
Green, D., Clothing  198
Gregg. & Son, A., Merchant Tailors  195
Grimm, Wm., Carriage Manufactory  197
Hastings, O. C, Photographer    199
Hibben & Co.,T. N., Books and Stationery. 191
Houghton & Co., T., Dry Goods   195
Harding, T., Bakery  194
Harrison, H. A      191
Jeffree, W. J., Clothing   195
Lange & Co., Jewellery    196
Leask & Morrison, Merchant Tailors   193
Lowinberg, Harris & Co., Real Estate — 192
Lombard & Co., C. A., Music Store  194
Mann & Heron, Wholesale Harness   194
Marvin & Tilton, Wholesale Hardware and
Agricultural Implement s  196
Maynard, Geo. H., Boots and Shoes  191
Maynard, R., Photographer   199
Morley, C, Mineral Waters   198
O'Reilly, Wm., Dry Goods  202
Pendray & Co., B. C. Soap Works  200
Pitts, S. J., Wholesale Groceries   196
Pioneer Spice Mills  193
Portman, N., Groceries  193
Prior & Co., E. G., Wholesale Hardware.... 199
Redfern, C. E., Jewellery    200
Redgrave & Ella, Confectionery    201
Rudge, George, Marble Works  196
Saunders, H., Wholesale and Retail Groceries   197
Sears, J., Paints, Oils, and Wall Paper ....  197
Sehl, J., Furniture Manufactory   194
Smith & Clark, Contractors   199
Shotbolt, Thomas, Druggist   198
Short, Henry, Gun Manufactory   193
Turner, Beeton & Co., General Commission
Merchants   189
The Colonist  202
Victoria Transfer Co • • •  190
Victoria Times  202
Ward & Co., Robert, General Commission
Merchant  191
Weiler, John, Furniture Manufactory   200
Williams & Co., B., Clothing   197
Wilson, Wm., Dry Goods   201
Wilson, W. & J., Clothing  196   THE NEW WEST.
Larger than the United States, or the Australian Colonies—almost as large as
the continent of Europe, and occupying one-fourteenth of the entire surface of the
earth—Canada, with an area of 3,610,000 square miles, ranks amongst the most
extensive of existing nations. Extending 3,500 miles from east to west, 1,400 miles
from north to south, within this area is a population approximating five millions,
which by natural increase and immigration is rapidly augmenting; and this increase,
as years roll past, will be even greater and in a more marked degree, with the
extension of railway facilities and the clearing away of the prevailing misty
misapprehensions respecting its unoccupied portions. Large tracts of this vast
territory are cultivable, and those not cultivable, are rich in mineral wealth; but the
arable land in Canada is as large, if not larger than that in the United States.
Canada has, however, the largest extent of land yet open for free settlement adapted
to the growth of cereals and other productions of the temperate zone of any country
in the world. There are thousands of square miles of the finest forests in America,
and large areas of the most fertile and productive prairie lands. There are fisheries
of almost boundless extent, both on its Pacific and Atlantic Coasts, which are not
surpassed or surpassable. There are coal fields on the Atlantic and on the Pacific,,
and large deposits beneath the surface of the prairie lands east of the Rocky
Mountains. Canada has also iron, gold, silver, copper, lead, and other mines of great
richness, including petroleum and salt; together with almost every description of
stone and granite and other valuable building materials.
It enjoys great variety of climates, from the arctic to that of almost the most,
southern of the temperate zones. The climates of the settled portions of the
Dominion, and of the lands open for settlement are healthy and invigorating and
favorable to the highest development of human energy. The variations of the
climate, too, are less than in many countries of lesser extent; but throughout, it is
characterized by greater heat in summer and a lower temperature in winter than in
corresponding European latitudes. Degrees of latitude, however, are only a partial
guide to the actual nature of the climate of Canada, as compared with that of
European countries, and any comparison of the mean temperature of them is
subsequently misleading and deceptive. Even the severity of winter, as tested by the
thermometer, leads to a very exaggerated impression of Canadian experiences.
Owing to the dry, clear, bracing atmosphere which generally prevails, the sense of
discomfort produced by the raw easterly winds and damp fogs of an English spring
suggests an idea of cold such as is rarely thought of in a Canadian winter. There
are, indeed, every winter, days of intense cold, as in the summer there are brief
periods of equally intense heat, when the thermometer ascends, or descends, through
a scale unknown in the more equable English climate.   But throughout the greater 10
part of the winter season in Canada", the sky is bright and clear and the weather
thoroughly enjoyable.
As a matter of fact, the southern frontier of Manitoba and the North-West
Territory, if extended across the Atlantic Ocean, would strike the continent of
Europe a little below the latitude of Paris; while the southern point of the Province
of Ontario is as far south as the latitude of Rome. Canada is therefore the physical
equivalent on the continent of America of the great empires and kingdoms of Italy,
France, Belgium, Germany, Austria, the British Islands, Russia in Europe and
One of the remarkable physical features of Canada is its lakes and rivers. This
long line of water system furnishes important facilities for communication ; and the
course of the St. Lawrence is in the line of the shortest sailing circle across the
Atlantic. The same favorable condition prevails on the west coast, from the
terminus of the Pacific Railway across the Pacific Ocean to the markets of China,
Japan, and also to Australia. Coupled with these important commercial conditions,
there is the fact that the Canadian Pacitic Railway is the shortest of the many
transcontinental routes, and crosses the Rockies on immensely more favorable
conditions, both as respects grades and curves, than its rivals which reach the Pacific
at San Francisco.
From its earliest discovery, Canada has been esteemed for its valuable fur-bearing
animals, and for over two centuries has been the trapping and hunting ground for
the still-existing Hudson's Bay Co., and its rivals. Not only a vast tract of
unoccupied territory in which for decades the hunter and the trapper will find his
wealth-producing prey, still remains, but the regions around the Hudson's Bay, and
stretching westward to Alaska and northward to the pole, must ever remain a shelter
for fur-bearing animals and a resort of the hunter. All the furs collected for the
.great fur company are shipped to London; in part from their factories of York Fort
and Moose River, on the Hudson's Bay, which are visited by a ship from England
every year, and in part from Montreal, Victoria and Winnipeg.
As a country for the husbandman, however; Canada stands pre-eminent; but to
the lumberman, the miner, the fisherman, the manufacturer, and the artizan, there
.are openings offering, which if taken, lead on to independence and wealth. Canada
Is a land for the capitalist seeking investment, and for the energetic poor man—not
the poverty-stricken loiterer—seeking a home.
There is, amongst the many interesting legends of the ancient Norsemen, one
of the discovery by some of their intrepid voyagers, of a nameless land in the, to
them, western ocean. Nearly one thousand years have elapsed since the first European, Lief, son of the powerful Eric, the Red, first coasted along the rocky shores of
Labrador in his staunch Norse Galley, and the intervening years, witnessing the rise
and fall of potentates and empires the world over, have brought but little change to
the bleak dreary coast of this North Land, against whose rocks the restless waters
of the Atlantic fret and fume, or to the dense trackless forests of fir, stretching for
leagues inland, which are still the abiding-place of the unhunted wild animal.    Still IN THE EAELY DAYS.
better defined, the Icelanders have handed down from generation to generation well
authenticated tales of the landing, on what is now America, of their daring seafaring
forefathers, and in the little sea-girt isle — now being so rapidly depopulated — the
legend is accepted as authentic history to this day. Another theory is, that hordes
from Asia poured over the intervening narrow straits of Behring in the early days
of Mother Earth, and were the first occupants of the new world in the dim and
misty past. Then there were the Mound-builders of pre-historic times, traces of
whose existence are still to be found from the Gulf of Mexico to the shores of Lake
Winnipeg, but whose history is largely based on mere conjecture. The race has
vanished, leaving relics of its existence puzzling to the mind of those versed in ar-
chselogical lore. The earth works they left are overgrown with large trees, the
hieroglyphics obliterated by age, the places of defence or abode have crumbled away,
and only the outline of their original shape is traceable amidst the ruins of this
curious and mysterious something of ancient origin, which no living being can now
unravel or explain. The Indians have no traditions at all regarding this extinct and
almost forgotten race. The earliest visitors to the continent give no account of
them. But their sepulchral mounds, their skeletons, their pottery and their shells
tell the tale of their existence—and nothing more. Whence came these quiet sleepers,
who, with fleshless palms, crossed as in mute expectancy, might have slumbered on
till the morn of resurrection, but for the love of adventure of our ancestors, whose
descendants have rudely disturbed their rest ? What the fate of this great mound-
building race which from the shadow of the Andes to the far north have traversed
the continent ? Wrapped in a veil of mystery which may never he uplifted until
that supreme hour when all things shall be revealed.
But whatever element of truth there may be in these traditions and theories
and speculations, the honor of discovering America is, amongst the masses, now
■commonly accorded to Christopher Columbus, who started out on his voyage of discovery nearly four centuries ago. A few years later, in 1497—two years after the
•discoveries of Columbus became known in England—two Italian navigators, John
and Sebastian Cabot, father and son, set sail for the little known west with a royal
•commission to discover a north-west passage to China or the Indies of the East.
Reaching the coast of Labrador, which they erroneously believe to be that of the
Indian continent, they took possession, in the name of King Henry VII, and returned home. From their excusable error, the name | Indian " was bestowed upon the
red race that inhabited the country, which appellation adheres to them to the present time. Although the Cabots first reached Canada, it was Jacques Cartier, the
descendants of whom afterwards became amongst the most illustrious of Canadian
statesmen, who first penetrated the interior of this country. Having sailed from
sunny France in 1534, he entered the G-ulf of St. Lawrence and landed at Gaspe* Bay
where the fleur-de-lis was floated to the breeze, and a huge cross, with a shield bearing the arms of France, erected. After eight years spent in exploring, Cartier
returned home, where he shortly afterwards died, and over half a century elapsed
before any further attention was paid to the vast terra incognita over which his
sovereign held undisputed sway. In 1603, Champlain, a noted discoverer, a knightly
soldier who fought under the white plumes of Navarre, set out on a fruitless expedition, returning the same year. In the following year, he accompanied a second
•expedition, under the command of Sieur de Monts, which reached the Bay of Fundy. 12
Misfortune besot the daring explorers, and the hardship of an eastern winter were
followed by dire disease, which led to an abandonment of the attempt to settle Acadia,
and proceeding up the Gulf of St. Lawrence, the decimated little band, twenty-eight
all told, landed at the rock which guards the portals to the western waters—Quebec.
This was on the 3rd July, 1608, from which date commences the foundation of the
city of Quebec, and the actual establishment of French rule in Canada. The infant
settlement progressed slowly, notwithstanding Champlain's wise administration,
until 1635, when death struck it a heavy blow in claiming the father of the colony.
During the four years following, the Jesuits and Ursuline Nuns, important factors
in the religion and education of the country, arrived and founded their institutions;
but it was not until 1665, that a Royal Government was established under Louis XIV.
Then commenced an area of marked progress. But that progress was attended and
hindered by the horrors of war. The French found bitter foes in the New Engenders, but they had faithful and powerful allies in the Indians. The Treaty of Utrecht,
Which ceded the Hudson's Bay Territories, New Foundland and Acadia to Great
Britain and retained Canada and Cape Breton for France, was signed in, 1*713. A
gradual progress in commerce, arts, agriculture and manufactures marked the ensuing years, although the settlements were more of a military than a colonizing characteristic. Under French domination, in brief, the settlements were merely links
in one long chain of barracks. The British, then the occupants of the United States,
were more progressive—the plough, the hoe and the axe, instead of the sword and
the bayonet, being the weapons utilized there in the battle of life. Casting envious
eyes on this fair northern land, English statesmen determined to obtain it in the
way possessions were obtained in these days—by conquest. Quebec was attacked,
and impregnable as its battlements apparently were, the gallant Wolfe, whose life
blood ebbed warm in the hour of triumph, added another to the long list of glorious
victories, of which, Englishmen the world over can pardonably boast. The white
emblem of la belle France, which for a century and a half had floated over the
Gibraltar of the western seas, was replaced by the blood-red cross of St. George.
Then commenced English rule in Canada.
It is not within the province of this unpretentious book to detail the many stirring incidents of ensuing years. As time rolled on, settlement, in obedience to the
irresistable law of nature, advanced westwardly. Montreal—the Hochelaga of the
red man—instead of being an outpost environed by hostile Indians, became, gradually, but surely, the centre of a group of provinces, which twenty-one years ago, were
formed into one Confederation. A memorable day—July 1st, 186*7—gave birth to
the Dominion of Canada—a Sisterhood of Provinces bound together by the ties of
blood, of common ancestry, of united interests, and mutual hopes and aspirations.
Y,ear by year, provinces were added to the Dominion, until row in 1888, the disunited struggling communities of two decades ago are gathered into one undivided and
undivisable Federation, stretching from ocean to ocean, all bearing their share in the
great work of building up a nation, and all happy and contented and prosperous
under the protecting segis of the mother-country.
Canadian statesmen, in preparing the scheme of confederation, had a warning
before them in the civil war, which, from 1861 to 1865 fiercely raged between the
Northern and Southern States of the American Union, and they eliminated, as far as
possible, all danger which might arise from weakness of the federal authority.  They    Views in Muskoka. IN THE EAKLY DAYS.
provided for a National government which would protect the rights of the weaker
provinces; but Home Rule was given the different provincial governments in a broad
sense.   Each province had full power to make laws for the education of the rising
generations, for the ownership of property, for the development of resources and for
the raising of revenue for local purposes.    But no individual province was permitted,
without federal authority, to  own   or maintain troops, control navigation, build
railways beyond its own boundaries, or levy export or import duties.   Representation
in the Senate and House of Commons was given each province on the basis of
population, Quebec being the pivotal province.    To that province is alloted sixty-five
members in the popular branch of parliament, and the others are given representation in the proportion their population bears to it.     There is constitutional
government in its widest and fullest meaning—government of the people, for the
people, by the people.   The Governor-General, usually of the brightest of British
noblemen, is a constitutional ruler, giving a loyal support to the Ministry representing
the majority in the House of Commons.   And these rulers, appointed by the imperial
government, are selected not merely to reward them for services to the state, but as .
an honor conferred upon those pre-eminently fitted for the high position, and who
can faithfully and loyally and wisely   represent   Her   Majesty   in   her western
dependency. The names of Dufferin, Lome and Lansdowne, especially, will be handed
down to future generations as able statesmen who ruled wisely and well, while the
present Governor-General, Lord Stanley of Preston, the descendant of one of the
most illustrious of England's oldest nobility, has entered upon a career which, it is
safe to assume, will place him on a plane with his honored and revered predecessors.
Although nearly three centuries have elapsed since the chivalrous Champlain
sailed up the broad waters of the St. Lawrence, the actual development of the
western portion of "the country east of Lake Huron did not commence until a comparatively recent period, while that westerly of Superior's pellucid waters lay dormant
and still until the troublous times of 1869-l70—of which the executed chieftain, Louis
Riel, was the central figure—brought it prominently to the notice of the outer world,
and revealed in all their richness and fertility the countless acres of virgin prairie
soil which reaches from the valley of the Red River of the North to the base of the
far-off Rocky Mountains.    Beyond this, an old colony of Britain had already sprung
up on the golden shores of the Pacific—and all this great domain to-day is happy
and prospering under the meteoric flag which for a thousand years has proclaimed
British supremacy.
To the transcontinental traveller, passing through the thickly settled provinces
of the east, the dense pine wilderness and broad plains of the centre, and the snow-
crested mountains of the further west, the thought must naturally occur, as he gazes
on the varied elements of wealth, that the old Spaniards, to whom are attributed the
commonly-accepted origin of the name of Canada— " A Canada," signifying "Here
is nothing"—must have been sadly mistaken, and leads one to believe that
Charlevoix's derivation of the name—from the Indian word "Kannata" : a collection
of huts—is perhaps after all the more probable one. Even if the former is the
correct genesis of the country's name, how wonder-stricken would be those
adventurous sons of Spain were they to return from the unknown world and visit
the "A Canada" of which the Maritime provinces, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba,
Keewatin, the Northwest Territories and British Columbia are now component parts .■-
Instead of % A Canada," it may eaisly be conjectured, the departed Spaniards would
stare in amazed astonishment, as they beheld the wealth and prosperity of the land,
ejaculate "El Dorado," and seek to substitute that euphonious title for the one they,
according to Castilian tradition, unwittingly and erroneously bestowed upon it.
The development of Canada during the past twenty years has been remarkable.
The country's progress is clearly and intelligibly illustrated in % Graphic Statistics,"
and presented in such a comprehensive and comprehensible manner, that no apology is
needed for quoting from the excellent compilation. The author, Mr. George Johnson,
Dominion statistician, has collected a fund of information in diagrammatic form to
illustrate the changes and the developments which Canada has experienced since the
various Provinces joined hands, and it is not without reason that Mr. Johnson, in
presenting this first instalment, hopes " that, encouraged by the substantial progress
which marks the years of the childhood of the Dominion, the Canadian people will
be strengthened in their determination to make the manhood of their country even
better in fulfilment of its destiny than the early period has been bountiful in
The diagrams, eighty in number, deal with almost every imaginable phase of
the commercial life of Canada. First come the statistics relating to the federal debt,
and the exports and imports, taking the country as a whole, then taking the Provinces separately, and then considering each principal commodity, the whole occupying twenty-five diagrams. Perhaps the most instructive of these twenty-five diagrams are those which compare Canada's trade with Great Britain on the one hand,
and with the United States on the other. Great Britain's cattle purchases from
Canada, for instance, have continued, with the single exception of the years 1885-86,
to mount up from the paltry value of some $400,000, in 188*7, to the present value,
$5,400,000; while United States purchases have taken the most erratic of courses,
starting from $250,000 in 1887, reaching $2,000,000 in 1881, then falling to $500,000
in 1882, up again to $1,750,000 in 1885, and now down to $1,000,000. Or take the
wheat and flour trade. With the single exception again of 1886, Canada's exports to
Great Britain have mounted from 1,500,000 bushels in 1868 to 6,800,000 in 1887;
while the exports to the United States were 1,700,000 bushels in 1868, rose to
2,100,000 in 1872, and have since steadily declined, until they now stand at the paltry
total of 364,983 bushels. The cheese trade is no less remarkable. The exports to
Great Britain show a continued and unvarying increase year by year, from $600,000
in 1868 to $7,000,000 in 1887; whereas the exports to the United States were
$159,000 in 1868, and have ranged between $300,000 and $12,000 ever since. The
trade in green fruit, in peas, butter, and other natural products, tells the same tale;
and, bearing in mind that no preference is shown British over United States purchasers, it may be deduced from these records that the United Kingdom is a far-
better market for Canada's natural products than the United States is, or has ever
The next series of diagrams deals with Canada's banking record.    The proportion of overdue notes and debts to the total amount borrowed from the chartered CANADIAN   PROGRESS.
banks is now at its lowest point since Confederation, namely, 1*61 per cent. The
highest percentage in the last decade was 4*90 in 1879 ; and in this decade 4-24 in
1880. The bank notes in circulation show a steady growth during the last four years,.
though the record for 1887 is still somewhat behind that of the highest year, 1883,
The bank deposit diagrams are most gratifying. In each case the record for 1887 far
surpasses that of any previous year. The growth, indeed, in every instance is
remarkably steady and substantial. The same may be said of the record of the
operations of the money order system, of the use of letters and postcards, and of the
general postal system. In this group is also classed the record of business failures
since 1874. In 1887, Canada unhappily made a considerable advance upon 1886 and
1885 in this respect, but still the figures $16,300,000 are below those for 1884
($19,000,000), while it is noteworthy that in no year, under the present protective
tariff, has the total amount of failures reached that of any one of the revenue tariff
years, when from $24,000,000 to $29,000,000, was the range of the failure records.
The next series of diagrams is exceedingly curious. One act indicates the liquor
consumption of the Dominion, with the aid of a variety of gaudily-colored tankards
and glasses. It appears from this that Ontario drinks three times more beer than
spirits ; Quebec nearly as much spirits as beer ; and New Brunswick and Prince
Edward Island more spirits than beer. In 1874, the people of Canada drank two
gallons of spirits per head, but in 1887 they drank less than one gallon per head.
On the other hand, the consumption of beer has gone up from two to three gallons
per head since 1878. The next diagram relates to tobacco, and the smoking propensities of the people of each Province are shown by clouds of smoke rising from well-
filled pipes and cigars. British Columbians, it appears, are the most persistent
smokers, though the people of Manitoba and the North-West, and of Quebec, follow
them hard in the race. New Brunswickers come next, and Ontario, Nova Scotia, and
Prince Edward Island follow in order. As a whole, Canadians use on an average
three lbs, of tobacco per annum ; whether that is a good or a bad record depends
upon the point of view from which one regards the use of the fragrant weed.
There is next shown by a series of diagrams, the "advances which railways have
made in Canada during the past ten years. The number of miles has exactly
doubled. The number of passenger carried per inhabitants has increased 40 per
cent.; total number carried, nearly 60 per cent.; tons of freights carried per inhabitants, 97 per cent.; total number carried, 107 per cent; receipts from passengers,
86 per cent.; and from freights, over 87 per cent.; while the total receipts from all
sources have increased nearly 90 per cent., and the expenses nearly 72 per cent. The
comparisons made in this series of statistics are most instructive. The cost per mile
of railways in Canada is $61,000, and the population per mile is 491 persons. In the
United States the cost has been the same as in Canada, but the population per mile
is 417. In Great Britain the cost per mile is $206,500 (more than treble that of
Canada), and the population per mile 1,930. The number of train miles run by each
locomotive in Canada is 20,094, against 22,583 in the United States and 18,395 in
Great Britain. The average charge per ton mile is stated to be considerably less in
Canada than in any other country ; while the percentage of gross receipts expended
in working the railways is less in Canada than in France, but higher than in most
other countries—a state of things which is explained by the fact that the Intercolonial, being a Government work, is run, not for profit, but to develop the
country. 16
The extent of the shipping employed in the Canadian sea and lake trades is next
illustrated, and a sound progressive record is shown. It is a noteworthy feature of
this session that the trade in British bottoms has maintained its preponderance in
•each year during the last decade. In 1883, 1884, 1885, and 1886 the trade in United
States bottoms came second, but last year, the Canadian record forced its way ahead
to the position it held prior to 1883, next to the British record. The coasting trade
of Canada shows a healthy growth, especially that of Nova Scotia. Following these
shipping returns comes a series illustrative of Canada's export to the United States
of wheat, oats, barley, potatoes, provisions, fish, coal, furs, &c. Looked at as a whole,
they cannot be said to denote the same development as those relating to Canadian
trade with Britain. In most cases the present volume of trade is little more than
that of twenty years ago—in flour, rye, wheat, and provisions it is even less—
though in the treaty years, 1855-1867, there was, of course, a fillip in nearly all
cases. The wood, fur, and hide records are, however, ah exception to the general
rult; the volume of trade in each of these articles has, on the whole, shown a decided
tendency to increase since 1884, the date at which the whole of this series of statistics commences. Of the remaining diagrams, one of the most striking is perhaps
that illustrating the course of the Nova Scotia coal trade. The total sales have
gradually risen since 1868 from 450,000 to 1,550,000 tons. This remarkable increase
has been made up principally of sales to other Provinces, though the sales in Nova
Scotia itself have also shown a gradual growth. The exports to foreign countries
are as low now as ever they were—a fact not to be wondered at or deplored, in view
•of development in other directions.
The last diagram in the remaining series deals with the prices of Canadian
securities in London. The record is most gratifying. Canada started in 1867 with
a credit in this market indicated by the fact that her 5 per cents, were at 86£. From
1867 to 1873 the rise was steady and sure, until the stock touched 108. Then for a
few years it remained practically at a standstill, until 1878 and 1879, when the
upward movement was resumed, and with minor depressions in the period between
1883 and 1887 these 5 per cents, have continued to increase in value, until in March,
1888—the date of the compilation—they stood at the unprecedented figure of 118.
The rise has been equally marked in the 4 per cents., which started at 92 in 1875,
and were placed in March at 116. The only depression in the 4 per cents, occurred
in the years 1882-83. With the 3^ per cents, the record of growth from 92 in 1885
to 110 is unbroken.
While this volume is more particularly intended to be devoted to the western
half of Canada, it would not be complete without paying notice of the eastern provinces, but no pretensions are made to more than brief descriptions.
This province, formerly known as Upper Canada or Canada West,  consists of
that region lying north of the great chain of lakes—the largest bodies of fresh water    OTTAWA—PARLIAMENT BUILDING.
•A.B.W rs
known—and extending to James' Bay, the southern extremity of the great Hudson's
Bay. It is divided from Quebec by the Ottawa River and a line running due north
from Lake Temiscaming,and extends westward to the Manitoba line near the Lake
of the Woods. Within these limits are an area of 197,000 square miles and a population of over 2,000,000, about one-third being urban and two-thirds rural. There
are 20,000,000 acres occupied, three-fifths of which are cultivated for grain, hay or
root crops, and another fifth is in gardens and orchards.. Wheat, barley, oats, peas,
corn, flax, tobacco, sugar and root crops are the principal agricultural products.
Dairy farming is extensively carried on and large quantities of cheese are made.
Beef cattle are reared and exported to England in great numbers, although there are
no large grazing areas, root crops being largely depended upon.
The educational system of Ontario is an excellent one and is the model upon
which those of other provinces are based. Its higher institutions are Upper Canada
College, University of Toronto, University College and Trinity College, at Toronto ;
Victoria College, Cobou'rg; Queen's College, Kingston, Western University, London.
There are also many private and denominational schools besides tho public schools,
and normal schools for the instruction of teachers exist at Toronto and Ottawa.
There are over 100 institutes and high schools, over 5000 public schools and about
200 separate Roman Catholic schools drawing revenue from the educational fund.
' The capital of the province is Toronto, on Lake Ontario, a city of about 120,000
people, and a very important interior seaport and railroad centre. The city is finely
laid out, the streets crossing each other at right angles, and contains several fine
parks and many handsome buildings. Toronto is the literary centre of the Dominion.
The city's commerce is considerable, reaching $25,000,000 annually in exports and
imports, and the annual value of manufactures is nearly as great. The second city
in size and importance is Hamilton, situated on Burlington Bay, at the head of Lake
Ontario. It contains a population of 40,000, has a considerable commerce and does
much manufacturing, especially in iron work. The streets are well laid out, lined
with shade trees, and are adorned with many handsome edifices. Ottawa, the seat of
government of the Dominion of Canada, is the third city in size in the Province of
Ontario, and has a population of 35,000. It is situated on the south bank of Ottawa
River, which forms the boundary between Ontario and Quebec, ninety miles above
its junction with the St. Lawrence, and 120 miles from Montreal. Besides being the
centre of the lumber trade, with saw mills and match factories, it manufactures
flour, ironware, etc. Boats ply down the river to Montreal and up the stream 200
miles, also through the Rideau Canal to Kingston. This canal was constructed in
1827, at a cost of $2,500,000, to afford a water-way for gunboats and shipping between
the lower river and the lakes without passing up the St. Lawrence above Montreal.
The site of Ottawa is picturesque, extending for two miles along the river from the
beautiful Chaudiere Falls to the Falls of the Rideau River. About midway, Parliament Hill and Major's Hill rise to a height of 160 feet and front the river in bold
bluffs, the canal passing between them. Beyond Rideau River is the village of New
Edinburgh, in which is Rideau, the official residence of the Governor General, and
across the Ottawa is the lumbering city of Hull, connected with the capital by a sus
pension bridge.
The national buildings
which rank amongst the finest specimens
of architecture on the continent, stand on Parliament Hill, on the banks of the
Ottawa.    They are of the Italian-Gothic style of the thirteenth century, the material 18
being cream-colored Potsdam stone. Their cost was $4,000,000. The corner-stone
was laid by the Prince of Wales, heir apparent to the British throne, in 1860, and
five years afterwards, the first session of Parliament was held in them. They consist
of a main building 473 feet long, with a tower 184 feet in height, and a nearly circular library building in rear, 90 feet in diameter, the depth from the front to the
rear of the library being 370 feet. The library building alone cost $350,000, and
contains over 120,000 volumes. There are also two departmental buildings, known
as the M*acdonald and Mackenzie blocks—after the leaders of the two great political
parties of the day—and sometimes styled the Western and Eastern blocks. Ottawa
is a city of modern growth, being of little importance when chosen by Her Majesty
—to whom the selection was referred—as the seat of Government, exactly thirty
years ago. There are several other large centres of poplation in this Province.
London, like the other and greater London, lies on the Thames, midway between
Lakes Erie and Huron, and its local nomenclature is freely copied from the city of
which it aims to be the prototype. Oil refining, wood and iron working, and other
manufacturing are carried on very extensively. It has a population of about 30,000.
Kingston, with a population of 15,000, is situated at the north-easterly extremity of
Lake Ontario, and is the the termination of the Rideau canal. It is an important
naval station, and is engaged largely in shipbuilding and manufacturing. From
1841 to 1844, it was the capital of Canada. Guelph, a railroad centre in Wellington
County; St. Catharines, on the Welland Canal; Brantford, Belleville, St. Thomas,
Sratford, Chatham, Brockville, Peterborough, Port Hope, Woodstock, Gait, Lindsay,
Whitby, Napanee, Oshawa, Cornwall, and Cobourg, are all important commercial
and manufacturing cities, with populations relatively from 5,000 to 20,000. On tho
river, dividing Ontario from the State of New-York are the celebrated Falls of Niagara, one of the natural wonders of the world.
The Province of Quebec—before Confederation known as Canada East or Lower
Canada—is the second in population of the provinces of the Dominion. It has an
area of about 210,000 square miles, and extends from Ontario on the east to Labrador
on the west, and lies on both sides of the St. Lawrence river, bordering on the States
of New York, Vermont, New Hampshire and Maine, and the Province of New
Brunswick. Three-fourths of this area consist of Crown lands, which are sold to
settlers on easy terms, or the timber on which can be purchased by lumbermen.
The province is divided into sixty-four counties, and contains the two large cities of
Montreal and Quebec. The climate is severe in the long winter and warm in summer, except on the Lower St. Lawrence, where the summers are cool. In a number
of localities, the climate is much more moderate, especially in the Saguenay Valley
and in south-eastern counties. Wheat, oats, barley, potatoes, buckwheat, fruit, wool
and dairy products are extensively raised, and great numbers of horses and cattle are
exported. In some sections, Indian corn does well. The exports are very great,
consisting of manufactured forest products," fish, oil, stock, wool, furs, grain, flour
and metals.    Shipbuilding is an important industry.
The population is. about 1,500,000, the great majority being of French descent THE PROVINCE OP QUEBEC.
and of the Roman Catholic religion. It was this fact which led to the original decision of Canada into two provinces, since Ontario is chiefly settled by people of
British origin. Public schools are maintained by tax, and small municipalities
receive Government aid. Separate schools are maintained for Protestant children
whenever desired by parents. Besides three normal schools supported by the
Government, there are a score of universities and colleges, some of them denominational, and chiefly Roman Catholic.
The capital of the province, Quebec, lies on the north bank of the St. Lawrence,
at its confluence with the St. Charles, 250 miles from the Gulf. It is the oldest city
in Canada, claiming an age of 280 years. The population is 65,000, of which four-
fifths are French-Canadians. Quebec is one of the very few walled cities of America,
and is perhaps the strongest fortress on the continent. The leading industry is shipbuilding, and it is an important seaport, the annual arrival of sea-going vessels
averaging over 1,500. Montreal is not only the largest city in the province, but the
metropolis of the Dominion—the principal port of entry and the chief centre of commerce. Located upon an island formed by the St. Lawrence and Ottawa, 160 miles
above Quebec and almost a thousand from the Atlantic, it is the point where ocean
navigation connects with the carrying trade of the great inland water system. The
city covers an area of eight square miles and is most substantially built of stone,
brick and wood. In rear, rises up majestically Mount Royal, from which the city
takes its name. The St. Lawrence at this point is nearly two miles wide, and
solidly-built wharves, basins, and locks extend for nearly the same distance along
the city front. Near the upper end, the stream narrows to about half-a-mile, and
the waters of Lake Ontario rushing through with fierce impetuosity form the celebrated Lachine Rapids, which can be descended but not ascended by steamers. To-
overcome this obstacle, a canal nine miles along was built around them. Just below
the rapids is the famous Victoria Bridge, at its construction supposed to be the
climax of engineering skill. It is an iron structure of twenty-four spans, resting on
abutments of stone masonry, is 9,184 feet in length, and cost $6,500,000. Montreal
is the chief seat of learning, as well as of commerce, in the Dominion, and possesses
a large number of denominational and secular educational institutions. Amongst
the many handsome edifices, is St. Peter's Cathedral, an exact reproduction on one-
fourth scale, of the great Cathedral in the Eternal city. The population is about
200,000.    There are other thriving places—Sherbrooke, Three Rivers, Hull, etc.
New Brunswick, with an area of 27,177 square miles, lies south of the province
of Quebec and.east of the State of Maine. On the east, it borders the Gulf of St.
Lawrence, and on the south is separated from Nova Scotia by the Bay of Fundy.
The country is undulating and hilly, the higher elevations being in the north, where
the hills are covered with thick forests. The soil is fertile on both sides of the St,
John River, and many lovely valleys, dotted with cornfields, are found in the eastern
part. The St. John is the main waterway; it rises in Maine and flows south-easterly
across the province to the Bay of Fundy, into which it empties. It is an important
highway for the lumber traffic and is navigable for about 150 miles.    The Resti- 20
gouche, on the north, the St. Croix and the Petitcodiac are also navigable streams.
The coast line, which abounds in magnificent bays and harhors, is bold, rocky and
picturesque.    The winters are severe, and there are heavy snowfalls in the north,
but in the southern portion the winters are milder.    The climate is healthy and
epidemics rarely appear.    Considerable portions of the country are admirably adapted
for agriculture, the soil being fertile and vegetation rapid.    Enormous quantities of
hay are grown on the extensive lowlands, and the other products are wheat, oats, .
rye, barley, buckwheat, flax, hemp, potatoes, etc.    Fruits and berries of the harder
varieties are largely produced and very profitably exported.    Agriculture is not
prosecuted to the extent it could or should be, there being but 900,000 acres under
crop and 400,000 in pasture.    Cattle, sheep, wool, dairy products and honey are important items of commerce.    The greatest resources are the wealth of fine timber
and the food fishes with which the adjacent waters teem.    Lumbering and fishing
are the leading occupations of the people, and products of these industries form the
greater portion of the $20,000,000 of annual manufactures.    Shipbuilding has always
been an important industry.
The chief commercial city is St. John, situated on the river of the same name,
where it flows into the Bay of Fundy. It has one of the finest harbors on the
Atlantic Coast, is engaged largely in fishing, shipbuilding and manufacturing of
ironware, paper, cotton goods, rope, hats, furniture, etc. Connected with St. John
by street cars is Providence, formerly considered a suburb, but now an incorporated
city of 20,000 people. Many steam saw mills are located there. Fredericton, the
capital, is located on St. John River, at the head of navigation for large steamers.
It has a population of 7,000. The other cities of importance are Moncton, Shediac,
Dorchester, Chatham, Sackville, Bathurst and Richibucto, with populations ranging
from 4,500 to 7,000.
The Acadia of the early French settlers—the land of the Blue Noses of the
present day—is the peninsula lying south of the Bay of Fundy and Gulf of St.
Lawrence, and between them, separated from New Brunswick by the Bay Verte
Canal, forms, with the adjacent large island of Cape Breton, the Province of Nova
Scotia. It has an extreme length of 350 miles and breadth of 120 miles, the total
area being 20,907 square miles. Its long sea coast is indented with a multitude of
bays and inlets, and there are numerous large and secure harbors. The highest
elevation is 1,100 feet, the general surface being undulating. There are extensive
tracts of arable land lying on either side of the ridge of highlands running across the
peninsula from east to west. Further to the southwest lies the Valley of the
Annapolis, the garden of the province. The climate is somewhat similar to that of
New Brunswick, though about 15 deg. milder in winter.
It is an agricultural country, the arable lands being extensive and rich. Wheat,
oats, rye, buck-wheat, barley, corn, potatoes, vegetables and fruits grow in abundance.
Grapes and peaches thrive in some localities. Live stock and dairy products are a
large element of wealth. The forests are extensive, and lumbering is an important
industry. Nova Scotia ranks second only to Newfoundland in the extent and value
of its fishing enterprises.    About 20,000 men are employed in the fisheries, and the THE PROVINCE OP NOVA SCOTIA.
exports of the industry amount to $5,000,000 annually. Other industries are sugar
refineries, cotton mills, woollen mills, carpet factories, tanneries, paper mills, and
factories for the production of paper, machinery, nails, shoes, flour, wooden ware, etc.
The province has a population of 450,000 and contains upwards of 600 miles of
railways. Commerce is also aided by two canals and numerous short rivers,
navigable for a number of miles by coasting vessels.
The capital, as well as the principal seaport and chief commercial city, is
Halifax, which lies on Halifax harbor, on the southern coast of the peninsula, and is
one of the important seaports of the Atlantic Coast of America. It has a population
of 40,000, and is the seat of an extensive fishing industry. It carries on a large
commerce with Great Britain and her colonies and the United States. It is the
winter port for the Dominion, since the Gulf of St. Lawrence is closed with ice at
that season, and is connected with the interior by the Intercolonial Railway.
Manufacturing is carried on quite extensively, and it is also a British military post.
The other chief towns of the province are Windsor, Pictou, Yarmouth, Liverpool,
Lunenburg, Sydney, North Sydney, New Glasgow and Annapolis.
The Island Province of Prince Edward is the smallest one in the union, it haviner
only a total area of 2,133 square miles and a population of about 125,000.    It lies
in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and immediately north of New Brunswick and Nova
Scotia, from which it is separated by Northumberland Strait.   The climate is much
milder than that of the adjacent provinces, being neither so cold in winter nor warm
in summer.   Vegetation develops rapidly, and agriculture is extensively prosecuted.
The cereals, vegetables  and hardier fruits and berries produce prolifically.     Beef
cattle, mutton, wool, honey, dairy products and maple sugar are among the chief
productions.    The once extensive forests have. become thinned by the lumbermen
and forest fires, although lumbering still remains an important industry.     Shipbuilding is carried on, though not with the activity of former years.   Manufactured
products include woollen goods, tools, saddlery goods, lumber and building material,
starch, leather and many others, chiefly for domestic use.    The fisheries are exceedingly valuable.    Trade is facilitated by good roads and two hundred miles of railway,
traversing the island from end to end and branching off to every town of importance.
The capital and chief commercial city is Charlottetown, which has a population
of 12,000, and is settled on the north bank of Hillsborough River, at its junction with
River. The river is navigable by large vessels, and the city possesses a good harbor.
Grain, potatoes, fish and pork are exported. Considerable manufacturing and shipbuilding are carried on. Summerside, Georgetown, Princeton, Rustico, Tignish,
Alberton, Souris, Mount Stewart, Kensington, Montague, Breadalbane and Crepaud
are also prosperous places.
With this brief outline of the Canada of the East, the reader is asked to accompany the writer on the western trail which leads
" To the doorways of the West-wind,
" To the portals of the sunset." ..-»...•-■:- .-■■•.
Following the course of the hardy voyageurs of a century ago, on the great
waterways, one passes through the tortuous channels of the north shore of Lake
Huron, and entering the river and smaller lake of George, finds himself at-Sault Ste.
Marie, where the Dominion and the Republic are on'y separated by the beautiful
rapids, whose white-capped waters do not rush so fiercely and impetuously as those
of the Lachine or the far-away grand rapids of the Saskatchewan. They are an
oasy " shoot" for the Indian's birch-bark—and murmur like the lullaby of a child
rather than with the roar and tumult of a mad torrent. The rapids are crossed—
the two great nations are joined, as at Niagara—by a handsome Cantilever bridge,
over which the Canadian Pacific Railway carries long wheat-laden trains from the
Northwestern States to the seaboard, successfully competing with rival American
roads. Above are aptly-named Superior's broad waters, stretching 400 miles
westerly. Sailing over this great inland sea towards the setting sun, which leaves
on the glistening waters a "golden trail as if leading to the place of the gods, the
traveller is entranced with the pleasures of the voyage; and the enchantment gives
way to awe when Thunder Cape, standing out boldly at the rocky entrance to the
same named bay, safely guarded by islands, is reached. On Thunder Cape lies the
huge Sleeping Giant, who for ages has been gazed upon with wonder-stricken eyes
by the untutored red man, and around whom the romance of tradition still lingers.
•Cycles ago the old giant, becoming drowsy with the nectar which gods imbibe, fell
prone and helpless in a drunken stupor, and to this day he remains, silent and undisturbed, a warning to the wine-drinker. Nestling at the foot of the bay, on
natural terraces sloping down to the waters' edge, lies Port Arthur, which has been
named the half-way house between the old and the new Canada. The bay itself is
a magnificent sheet of water, thirty miles in length and sixteen wide, and it is
•claimed for it that it resembles the famed Bay of Naples. The entrance to this
natural harbor, as stated, is guarded by Thunder Cape and Pie Island, so called from
its similarity in shape to an enormous pork pie, six miles distant, midway between
which, two leagues from the mainland, lie the group of Welcome Islands—so named
from the welcome sight they were to the dusky pioneers who were the freighters of
Hudson's Bay furs in the early days. This entrance is, in the poetic language of
the Highland Laddie when Governor-General, " the silver gateway to a northern
inland San Francisco." The bay itself is usually calm and placid, with no squally
tendencies, and forms one of the finest and safest harbors imaginable. Near at hand
-on the mainland, is Mount McKay, which rises to a height of nine hundred and fifty
feet above the level of the Kaministiquia River, which winds its way to the lake
along its base. Its almost perpendicular sides can be scaled with comparative ease
in one or two places. Isle Royale, at one time a part of the British American pro-"
winces, latterly ceded to the United States, and now included in the State of Michigan,
lies across the mouth of Thunder Bay in a north-easterly and south-westerly direction, thirty-five miles distant from Port Arthur. It is about forty miles in extreme
length, with an average breadth of eight miles. It is noted for its scenery, its many
islands and beautiful harbors, it splendid trout streams, its ancient miners' diggings
•and its abandoned modern mines. The extinct race—perchance the mound-builders—
Jiave left here quaint and curious and interesting specimens of the tools and implements NORTH-WESTERN ONTARIO. 23
they used in forgotten ages.    Here also are found—the only place in the world—small
beautiful green stones called chlorastrolytes.    The island is uninhabited, save temporarily by American fishermen, and, being out of the regular course of travel, is not
generally visited, as it would otherwise be.    Forty miles from Port Arthur, on the
Pigeon river, which forms the dividing line between Canada and the United States,
are Pigeon Falls, which tumble over a ledge of rock ninety feet high, into a stone
basin below.    Ten miles further along the coast is located the Grand Portage, over
which in the fur-trading days the supplies of the traders were taken to the interior
ports, and it is the only place in the United States where British goods can be taken
through without bonding or customs regulations, the river and the portage being
common to the people of both countries.    Fifteen miles from Port Arthur, up the
tortuous Kaministiquia, are the Kakabeka Falls, one hundred and thirty feet high
and two hundred feet wide—one of the most magnificent pieces of natural scenery the
eye of poet or painter ever dwelt upon.     The Kaministiquia River empties into
Thunder Bay three miles from Port Arthur.    Its rich sounding Indian name, interpreted, signifies the River of Many Mouths, as there is \ delta formed at its mouth
which divides its dark, quiet waters into two streams.    The river is navigable for
nine miles—the latter five for light draught steamers only—to Point de Meuron,
which still retains the name of the German soldier whose career was so intimately
identified with the Northwest.    On the verdure-clad banks of this noble river are
Fort William, Neebing—of political fame—and the curious old Jesuit Mission.    The
village of Fort William, now a hustling, thriving place, was originally the principal
post of the Hudson's Bay Company on Lake Superior, and, although the post has
been abandoned and deserted for some years, the quaint old houses remain a landmark tinged with the romance of primitive greatness, of old-time gatherings, of days
of royal feastings, of profitable ventures from which the west contributed to the
coffers of the east, and of cruel strife and bloodshed.    The bustling days of primitive
commerce have passed away, add  another era of commercial greatness has set in.
The great I Company," whose operations extended over the continent from ocean to
ocean, and from the Missouri to the ramparts on the Arctic seas, has been succeeded
by an equally gigantic, but not so exclusive, corporation—the Canadian Pacific Railway, the shrill whistles of whose fast-speeding locomotives rudely disturb the solitude
of the forests and rocks, as, years ago, did the blood-curdling war cry of the red man
and the merry French song of the passing voyageur.   Fort William is now a " smart"
town with a rapidly increasing population.     Here are located the mammoth coal
docks and the huge elevators of the Canadian Pacific, with a capacity of several
millions of bushels—one of the elevators being the largest on the continent.
Recently known to Canadians as Prince Arthur's Landing, from the fact
that a son of Her Majesty landed here—is a rapidly growing and progressive town,
with a population of between 5,000 and 6,000.   Although until  the
the great transcontinental road, it was entirely cut off during the winter months
from the outside world, it now lias communication all the year round.   It possesses 24
all- the facilities and social advantages of a much larger place, having Episcopal,
Roman Catholic, Methodist, Presbyterian and Baptist Churches, good public schools,
Roman Catholic separate school, a Convent, and a general hospital. It is the
terminus of.both the Eastern, or Lake Superior Division, and the Western, or Prairie
Division of the Canadian Pacific Railway. It is the head-quarters of the grain
elevator and grain inspection system of the Canadian North-West, having, in
addition to its elevator, large and commodious railway and private wharves, and a
Government br