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The Vancouver Island pilot, containing sailing directions for the coasts of Vancouver Island, and part… Richards, G. H. (George Henry) 1864

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Array     VANCOUVER ISLAND PILOT
CONTAINING
SAILING DIRECTIONS
COASTS OF VANCOUVER ISLAND, AND
PART OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
COMPILED FROM THE SURVEYS MADE BY
CAPTAIN GEORGE HENRY RICHARDS, R.N., IN H.M. SHIPS PLUMPER
AND HECATE, BETWEEN THE YEARS 1858 AND 1864.
PUBLISHED  BY  ORDER OB1 THE LORDS COMMISSIONERS OP THE  ADMIRALTY.
LONDON:
PRINTED EOR THE HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICE, ADMIRALTY ;
AND SOLD BY
J. D. POTTER, Agent for the Admiralty Cliarts,
31 POULTRY, and 11 KING STREET, TOWER HILL.
1864.

Price 5s. Qd.  PREFACE.
The Vancouver Island Pilot contains Sailing Directions for the-
whole of tlie coasts of Vancouver Island, including Juan de Fuca.
Strait; and the shores of British Columbia as far north as the-
parallel of 51° N., with the exception of some ofthe deep inlets, th&
examination of which is not yet completed. That portion from the
entrance of Juan de Fuca Strait on the west, to Discovery Passage
on the east, is by Captain G. H. Richards, R.N., during his survey
of these coasts in H.M. Ships Plumper and Hecate, from 1858 to
1862 ; the remainder has been compiled from the journals of that
officer and other documents, up to 1864, by E. P. Bedwell, Master,
R.N., who assisted in the survey.
G. H. R.
Hydrographie Office, Admiralty, London,
October 1864.
9471.  
CONTENTS.
CHAPTER I.
JUAN DE FUCA AND HARO STRAITS.
Juan de Fuca strait.    Tides.   Winds.    Lights.    Soundings
Cape Flattery, or Classet.   Tatouch island light.    Duncan and Duntz
rocks    .....-.-.
The coast south of Cape Fla'ttery.    Destruction island.    Directions
Neeah bay.    Callam and Freshwater bays ....
Port Angelos, or False Dungeness. Directions.   New Dungeness. Light.
Fog-bell.   Tides - -"-."-
Port Discovery.    Admiralty inlet.    Light.    Port Townshend
Port San Juan.    Sooke inlet       ------
Becher bay.     Race islands.    Light.    Race passage.    Bentinck island.
Pedder" and Parry bay's.    Royal bay, 'or roads.    Esquimalt harbour;
winds; water; light     -------
Victoria harbour;   supplies;   anchorage.    Brotchy   ledge.    Enterprize
channel.    Trial island.    Directions     -----
Inner channel    Discovery and Chatham islands.    Directions.    Tides.
Constance bank.    Fronte bank -
Haro strait.   Middle bank.   Zero rock.   Kelp reefs.   Directions.    Cormorant bay.   Tides     ------.
Plumper sound.     Browning harbour.    Lyall harbour.    Winter cove.
- Water.    Navy channel.    Conconi and Enterprize reefs.    Directions -
Bedwell harbour.    Camp bay.    Stuart and Johns islands.     Spieden
island and channel, with reefs.    Directions      -
San Juan island.    Mosquito passage.   Roche harbour.   Waldron island,
and anchorages.   Danger rock -----
CHAPTER II.
THE WESTERN  CHANNELS. AND  ISLANDS T.O  GABRIOLA PASS.
The western channels of Haro strait.    Directions - - - 43
Cordova and Miners channels.    Shute passage.    Moresby passage and
dangers _.....-. 44-47
Prevost   passage,   and   dangers.     Satellite   channel.     Saanich  inlet;
Cowitchin harbour ....--- 47-51
Sansum narrows.    Burgoyne and Maple "bays   -           -           -           - 51
Page
1-6
6,7
7-9
9-11
11-13
13-15
15-17
17-22
22-2fr
26-30
30-34
34-36
37-40
40-42
| CONTENTS.
Page
Stuart channel.    Osborn  bay.    Horse-shoe  bay.     Oyster harbour.
Chemainos bay.   Escape reef.   Danger reef.  Vesuvius bay.   Telegraph
harbour.   Preedy harbour       ------     52-56
Swanson channel. Admiral island. Fulford, Ganges, and Long harbours.
Captain passage ....---     57-60
Prevost and Hawkins islands.   Active pass.   Tides       - . -     60-62
Trincomalie channel.   Montague harbour.   Atkins reef.   Governor and
Walker rocks.   Directions.   Houston passage ...     62-66
Portier pass.    Clam bay.   Centre reef.   Anchorage       - •    -     66-68
Dodd narrows.   Directions.   Tides.   Pylades channel.   Gabriola pass -     68-70
CHAPTER III.
MIDDLE CHANNEL.—LOPEZ SOUND.—ORCAS, WEST AND EAST SOUNDS.
The Middle channel. Directions. Griffin bay. Tides. Turn island,
and rock.    Friday harbour.    Reid rock.    Spring passage       - -     71-75
Douglas channel.   Tides.   Patos and Sucia islands.   Parker reef.   Matia
island.    Skipjack and Penguin'islands ....     75-79
Lopez island.   McKaye harbour.   Upright channel.   Shoal bay.   Lopez
sound - - -    .       . - - - - -     79-81
.Frost island.   Black and Crown islands.   Thatcher passage.   Lawson
rock.   Maury and Obstruction passages.   Tides.   Shaw island -     82-85
Wasp islands, and passages. North passage. Orcas island; its harbours and bays .......     85-90
CHAPTER IV
ROSARIO STRAIT.—BRITISH COLUMBIA; AND SOUTH SHORE   OF
STRAIT OF GEORGIA.
Rosario strait.    Smith or Blunt island.   Light.   Directions      - - 91
Cape Colville, with rocks.   Anchorage.   Burrows bay.   Dennis rock.
Deception pass -------93
Bird rock.    Belle rock.   James island.   White and Black rocks - 94
Cypress island.    Strawberry bay.    Cypress reef.    Sinclair island -     95-97
Peapod islets.    Tides.    Summi island.     Clark and Barnes islands.
Matia island.   Alden bank     ------     97-99
"Birch bay.    Semiahmoo or Boundary bays.    Drayton harbour.   Directions.   Tides.   Roberts point.    Roberts bank - - .   99-101
Strait of Georgia.   Tides             ...... 101-103
-Strait of Georgia, North shore.   Fraser river.   Directions.   New Westminster, Derby, or New Langley.   The North fork    - 104-108
Uuitard inlet.   English bay.   Directions.   Tides.    Coal harbour.   Port
Moody.    North arm    ------- 108-112
Strait of Georgia,  South shore.     Gabriola reefs.     Entrance  island.
Fairway channel.   Directions ----- 112-114
Nanaimo harbour. Coal. Departure bay. Middle channel. North-
umberland channel      ----... 114-117 LAW LI
IfTS^TE-NTS' '•;
KT.
STRAIT OF GEORGIA, FROM NANAIMO HARBOUR AND BURRARD
INLET, TO CAPE MUDGE AND BUTE INLET.
Nanoose harbour and islands off it.
Page
Strait of Georgia, South shore.
Directions        - |fe 118-120
Ballinac islands. - Ballinac channel.   North-west bay    ... 121
Qualicum river. Qualicum bay. Denman and Hornby islands. Baynes
sound. Directions. Deep bay. Fanny bay. Henry bay. Port
Augusta. Courtenay river. Lambert channel. Tribune bay. Cape
Lazo      - - - - 122-130
Mittlenatch island. Oyster bay. Cape Mudge. Directions. Tides.
Winds 130-132
Strait of Georgia, North shore. Howe sound. Queen Charlotte channel.
Anvil island. - Collingwood channel    ----- 132-136
Shoal channel. Plumper cove. Gambier island. Port Graves. Texhada
island.   Lasqueti island.   Sabine channel.   Tucker bay        - - 136-138
Malaspina strait. Jervis inlet. Agamemnon channel. Pender harbour.
Thunder bay. Dark cove. Princess Louisa inlet. See-chelt arm.
Tides   - 138-143
Harwood island. Savary island. Mystery rock. Sarah point. Directions,   Hernando island.   Stag bay    ----- 143-145
Baker passage.   Lewis channel.   Squirrel cove.   Kinghorn island        - 145-147
Sutil channel. Cortes island. Gorge harbour. Mary island. Carring-
ton bay.   Von Donop creek    ------ 147-149
Drew harbour.   Hoskyn inlet.    Read island.   Evans bay.    Directions - 150,151
Calm channel. Rendezvous islands. Bute inlet. Waddington harbour.
Homalko river ---.---- 152-154
CHAPTER VI.
FROM THE STRAIT   OF   GEORGIA   WESTWARD   TO   CAPE   SCOTT   AND
THE SCOTT ISLANDS.
Discovery  passage.    Tides.     Quathiasky   cove.     Gowlland harbour.
Duncan bay.   Menzies bay.   Seymour narrows ...
Plumper bay.   Nodales canal.   Elk bay.   Otter cove.   Chatham point.
Johnstone strait.   Knox bay.   Helmcken island.   Race, and Current
passages.    Hardwicke island   ------
Blinkinsop bay.     Port Neville.    Port Harvey.     Havannah channel.
Call creek.    Chatham channel. -
Escape reef.   Forward bay.   Boat harbour.
strait    . - - - -
Broughton strait.   Tides.    Nimpkish river
rant island.   Alert bay.   Malcolm island.
Queen Charlotte sound.    Beaver harbour.
Hardy bay.   Goletas channel.   Tides -
Directions "for Johnstone
Port McNeill.    Cormo-
Directions
Fort  Rupert.    Directions.
155-158
158-161
162-164
165
166-169
169-172 Vlll CONTENTS.
Page
Shushartie bay.  Directions.   Cape Commerell.   Gordon group.   Christie
passage.   Browning channel.   Galiano island.   Port Alexander* Shad-
well passage.   Directions.    Bull harbour.   Nahwitti bar.    Directions   172-176
New channel.   Walker group.    Directions.    Coast        ... 176-1/9
Cape Scott.    Scott channel.    Scott islands.   Tides.    Directions.    Remarks on the navigation of the-Inner waters between Gape Mudge and
■ the Pacific. Water.    Supplies 179,180
CHAPTER VII.
WEST   COAST OF VANCOUVER ISLAND,  FROM JUAN DE FUCA   STRAIT
TO  SYDNEY  INLET.
General description. Making the land. Winds. Tides. Outer
soundings.   Natives.    Supplies ..... 181-183
Bonilla point.    Nitinat lake.    Pachena bay        .... 183
Barclay sound. Eastern channel, its islands and anchorages. Alberni
canal. Uchuckesit harbour. Stamp harbour. Directions. Middle
channel and dangers. Satellite pass. Chain islands. Junction passage. Broken group. Island harbour. Directions. Seshart channel.
Effingham inlet. Directions. Western channel. Great bank. Directions. Peacock channel. Mayne bay. Toquart harbour. Directions.
Ship channel. Ugly channal. Ucluelet arm. Carolina channel.
Directions.   Wreck and Long bays.    Point Cox ... 184-202
Clayoquot sound. Templar and Broken channels. Vargas island. Ship
channel. Sea Otter rock. Hecate passage. Hecate bay. Cypress
bay. Ritchie bay. Bedwell sound. Fortune channel. Mosquito
harbour. Deception pass. Tofino inlet. Gunner harbour. Browning
passage. North channel. Flores island. Sydney inlet. Refuge cove.
Shelter and North arms.    Bowden bay.    Directions    ... 203-213
CHAPTER VIII.
VANCOUVER   ISLAND?   WEST   COAST;  FROM  REFUGE   COVE   TO   CAPE
SCOTT.
Hesquiat harbour.   Estevan point - 215
Nootka sound.    Bajo reef.   Friendly cove.    Plumper harbour.   Tah-sis
canal.   Guaquina or Muchalat arm.   Tlupana arm.    Deserted creek.
Head bay.   Directions - - - - . ! 215-220
Nootka island.    Nuchatlitz inlet, and dangers off entrance.    Mary basin.
Port Langford.    Directions     =----. 221-223
Esperanza inlet.     Middle channel.     North  channel.     Catala island.
Rolling roadstead.    Port Eliza.- Queens cove.   Espinoza and Zeballos
arms.    Directions ------- 224-228
Barrier  islands.   ■ Kyuquot sound.    Kyuquot channel.   Union island:
Narrowgut creek.   Tahsish arm.     Fair harbour.    Kok-shittle arm.
Easy creek.   Directions ----.. 229-233
Clan-ninick harbour.    Halibut channel.    Directions      - 234
Ou-Ou-kinsh inlet.    Sulivan reefs.    Battle bay.    Directions     - - 235 CONTENTS.
IX
Page
.Nasparti inlet.   Mile rock breaker.   Directions - - - - 237
Cape Cook. Brooks bay. Klaskish inlet. Directions. Ship rock.
Klaskino inlet.   Channel reefs.   Directions.   Lawn point     - - 238-241
Quatsino sound. Surf islands. Danger rocks. Forward inlet. North
harbour. Winter harbour. Pilley shoal. Koprino harbour. Limestone island. South-east arm. Hecate cove. Quatsino narrows.
Rupert and West arms.   Coal harbour..  Directions   ... 242-251
The coast. Ragged point. Raft cove. San Josef bay. Sea otter cove.
Cape Russell    ........        252
Table of Positions.   Table of Variation  ..... 254,255 IN THIS 'WORK THE BEARINGS, INCLUDING THE
DIRECTION  OF  WINDS   AJTD   CURRENTS,  ARE  ALL   MAGNETIC
EXCEPT WEERE MASKED AS TRUE.
TBS DISTANCES ARE EXPRESSED IN SEA MILES OF
60 TO A DEGREE OF LATITUDE.
A CABLE'S LENGTH IS THE TENTH PART
OF A MILE, OR 101-26 FATHOMS, BUT ASSUMED TO BE EQUAL
TO 100 FATHOMS. VANCOUVER ISLAND PILOT.
CHAPTER I.
JUAN DE FUCA AND HARO STRAITS.
Variation 22° 0' to 21° 30' East, in 1864.
tuan de fuca strait has its entrance between the parallels of
48° 23' and 48° 36' N., and on the meridian of 124° 45' W. ; from its
geographical position it is liable to all those sudden vicissitudes of
weather common to high northern latitudes; and in few parts of the
world is the caution and vigilance of the navigator more called into
action than in entering it.
The breadth of the strait between Cape Flattery,* its southern
point, and Bonilla point, Vancouver island, its northern, is 13 miles;
within these points it soon narrows to 11 miles, and carries this
breadth on an East course for 40 miles, or until Race islands bear
N.E. by E., distant 10 miles; it then takes an E.N.E. direction for a
farther distance of 14 miles to the shore of the continent, or more properly
Whidbey island.
Between Race islands and the southern shore the breadth of the strait is
8 miles, after which it immediately expands to 17 miles, leading northwards to the British possessions by various channels among the labyrinth
of islands known as the Haro archipelago, and southward to those of the
United States, by Admiralty inlet and Puget sound.
The coasts of Fuca strait are remarkably free from danger, and may be
approached safely .within half a mile ; there is one breaking rock which
lies nearly that distance off the west point of Crescent bay on the southern
store. The soundings in the centre are of great depth, but within
E§ miles of- either shore there is generally under 40 fathoms, and on the
northern side when 5 miles eastward of Port San Juan, 8 to 12 fathoms
will be found within a mile of the shore, and, if necessary, vessels may
anchor.   On both sides of the strait there are several anchorages or stopping
* Flattery 'was the name given to this cape by Cook in 1788; but Vancouver, in 1792,
says it was known to the natives by the name of Classet.
9471. A mm
2 JUAN  DE  FUCA  STRAIT. [chap. i.
places which may be taken advantage of by vessels, either inward or outward bound when meeting with adverse winds; those on the southern side
are Neeah and CaHam bays, Port Angelos, and New Dungeness bay, before
reaching the harbours of Admiralty inlet; on the northern Vide are Port San
Juan, Sooke inlet, and Becher bay before rounding the Race islands, after
which excellent anchorage may be always obtained with westerly winds.
On the northern or Vancouver island shore of the strait the hills rise
gradually and are densely wooded, but near the coast attain to no great
elevation; on the southern side the almost perpetually snow-clad
mountains known as the Olympian range, rise more abruptly and vary
in elevation from 4,000 to more than 7,000 feet; but though exceedingly
grand in ,heir rugged outline, present no very marked summits as seen
from the strait nor any great variety-in their features.*
tides.—It is high Water, full and change, at Cape Flattery at noon
and at midnight; the ebb stream there commences to run strong at
2h. a.m. and-p.m. and continues for about 6 hours.
In the outer part of Juan de Fuca strait there is no very great
strength of tide ; it varies from one to 4 knots, seldom so much as the
latter unless near Cape Flattery ; but when approaching the more contracted part in the neighbourhood of the Race islands, which receives
the first rush of the pent up waters of the strait of Georgia, strengthened
and diverted by the labyrinth of islands which choke up its southern
entrance, it is not surprising that eddies, races, and irregularities occur
which almost bafite any attempt at framing laws which may not rather
embarrass than assist the seaman ; the result, however, of observations
continued throughout an entire year at Esquimalt, and partially on other
parts of the coast during three seasons, appears to warrant the following
conclusions, viz. :—
The flood tide sets to the northward along the outer coast of the
continent and Vancouver island. It enters the strait of Fuca at Cape
Flattery, running with considerable velocity, sometimes 3 or 4 knots
over Duncan and Duntze rocks ; it then turns sharply into the strait,
passing through the various channels among the Haro archipelago into
the strait of Georgia, and within about 5 miles of Cape Mudge, where
it is met by a flood from the northward, which, sweeping the western
coast of Vancouver island, enters Goletas channel and Queen Charlotte
sound at its northern extreme, in lat. 51°, thence southerly down the
narrow waters of Johnstone strait and Discovery passage, meeting the
tide which enters by Fuca strait, and reaches about midway between the
* See Chart of Juan de Fuca Strait, with Admiralty Inlet and Puget Sound, No. 1911-
scale m «- 0'85 inches. chap. i.J TIDES. 3
northern and southern extremes of Vancouver island; or close to the spot
where the broad expanse of the strait of Georgia merges into the narrow
channels adjoining it.
On the western side of the: island the .tides were found to be regular-—
flood and ebb of six hours' duration, the times of high water on the.
full and change at Nootka sound, and at the entrance of Golet'as
channel varying very little, and occurring near noon, the greatest range
13 feet ; nor is any marked irregularity observable in Johnstone strait
and Discovery passage, except the not unusual circumstance j that the
ebb stream continues to run to the northward for two hours after it is
low water by the shore, the water rising at the same time, the ebb stream
being of seven hours' duration, the flood about five'hours.
The great and perplexing tidal irregularities may therefore be said to
be embraced between the strait of Fuca, near the Race islands, and Cape
Mudge, a distance of 150 miles ; and a careful investigation of the observations made at Esquimalt, and among the islands of the Haro archipelago,
shows that during the summer months, May, June, and July, there occurs
but one high and one low water during the 24 hours, high water at the
full and change of the moon happening about midnight, and varying
but slightly from that, hour during any day of the three months; the
springs range from 8 to 10 feet, the neaps from 4 to 5 feet. The tides
are almost stationary for two hours on either side of high or low water,
unless affected by strong winds outside.
During August, September, and October, there are two high and low
waters in the 24 hours ; a superior and an inferior tide, the high water
of the superior varying between lh. and 3h. a.m., the range during these
months from 3 to 5 feet, the night tide the highest.
During winter almost a reversal of these rules appears to take place ;•
thus, in November, December, and January, the 12-hour tides again
occur, but the time of high water is at or about noon instead of midnight.
In February, March, and April, there are two tides, the superior high
water occurring from lh. to 3h. p.m. Thus it may be said that in summer
months the water is low during the day, and in winter low during the night.
The ebb stream has always been found to run southward through the
Haro archipelago, and out of Fuca strait for 2^ hours after it is low water
by the shore, the water rising during that time ; the ebb is stronger than
the flood, and generally two hours' longer duration.
' The tides during those months when two high and two low waters occur
in the 24 hours, are far more irregular than when there is only one
12-hour tide, and another anomaly exists, viz., the greatest range not un-
frequently occurs at the first and last quarters, instead of at the full and
ehange of the moon.
a 2 JUAN DE FUCA STRAIT. [chap. i.
currents.—A southerly current has been found to prevail on the
western coast of Vancouver island more or less throughout the year,
particularly from August to November, probably in some measure caused
by the N.W. winds which blow constantly during the summer. This
current joining the ebb tide out of Fuca strait has been known to set
vessels between 4 and 5 miles an hour to the southward, and during fogs
there is great risk of being drifted on to Cape Flattery, or some of its off-
lying dangers ; extreme caution should therefore be observed in entering
the strait at such times, especially near the full and change of the moon,
when the tides are at their strongest.
'winds.—Within the strait of Juan de Fuca, in the winter season, the
winds usually assume its direction either up or down. During summer,
the prevailing winds from N.W. or S.W., take a westerly direction within
the strait; while the S.E. gales of winter blow fairly out.
Although a westerly wind may be blowing within the strait, it frequently during the change of the seasons blows heavily outside at the same
time from S.S.W., or sometimes suddenly changes to that direction, from
a light easterly wind on opening the entrance, which makes that part of
the coast of Vancouver island between Port San Juan and Bonilla point a
dangerous lee-shore to a ship without steam power.
The coast winds in summer prevail from S.W. and N.W., the former
during theearly months, and the latter blow fresh and with great regularity
during June, July, and August. In September and the early part of
October the winds are very uncertain and there is generally a great deal of
calm, gloomy weather.
The barometer usually stands above 30.00 inches during summer; should
it fall to 29.90 a south-easterly wind with thick rainy weather may be
expected, but of short duration and clearing up with a westerly wind as
soon as the barometer rises.
The winter winds are S.E. or S.W., more frequently the former; they
set in towards the end of October, and continue until the middle of April.
S.E. gales are generally preceded by a short interval of calm, cloudy
weather; they spring up gradually from East or E.S.E. veering to the
southward, accompanied by rain and thick weather, the barometer falling
rapidly; when the barometer becomes stationary the wind shifts suddenly
to S.W. and blows heavily with clear weather, but Sequent squalls of
rain ; the barometer begins to rise immediately the wind veers to S.W.
from which quarter it generally blows from 12 to 20 hours.
The violence and duration of these S.E. gales is always proportioned to
tbe fall of the mercury ; with the barometer at 29.50 a strong gale may be
looked for from this quarter ; it seldom falls below 29.20, when very bad CHAP. I.]
CURRENTS. WINDS. FOGS. LIGHTS.
weather is certain to follow. On two or three occasions in as many years
it has been known to fall to 28.90, and has been followed by S.E. gales of
great violence.
A S.E. gale sometimes springs up, though very seldom, with the barometer above 30.00 inches. On such occasions the wind has always been
preceded by calm, cloudy weather and rain, with a high but falling barometer ; such gales are not violent and of short duration
S.E. gales are% always accompanied by thick dirty weather, and rain ; they
seldom continue from that quarter for more than 12 or 18 hours, unless
the barometer falls very low, and almost always shift to S.W.
When the S.W. gale of winter is not preceded by the south-eastern,
the barometer seldom falls; it either remains stationary, when the gale may
be expected to continue longer, or rises slowly, when it will gradually
subside and fine weather follow. S.W. gales are accompanied by heavy
banks of clouds, and passing showers of rain, sometimes snow.
The barometer has been known to fall during winter as low as 29.45 arid
has been followed by no gale or bad weather, but on such occasions there
has been a heavy fall of snow on the hills, and a sudden fall of 15 degrees
in the temperature.
A fine northerly or N.E. wind frequently occurs at intervals during tbe
months of December, January, and February ; it is always accompanied
by a high barometor above 30.0, and at such times a continuance for several
days together of clear, cold, frosty weather may be looked for ; the barometer on these occasions will sometimes rise as high as 30.70, and the fine
weather will then probably last a fortnight or more.
fogs.—Although fogsin this region are not nearly of such frequent occurrence as on the neighbouring coast of California, where they prevail
almost uninterruptedly during summer and as late as the middle of October,
yet from August to November they occasionally occur in Juan de Fuca
strait, and are sometimes very dense over the entrance for several days
together. They are generally accompanied by calms or very light winds
from N.W., which renders them more dangerous to sailing vessels closing,
the land.
lights.—The strait of San Juan de Fuca is fairly lighted. On the
small island of Tatouch, close off Cape Flattery, is a fixed white light
of the first order, elevated 162 feet above the mean level of the sea, and
visible in clear weather from 18 to 20 miles.
At New Dungeness and Admiralty head on the southern shore, and
on Smith or Blunt island, at the eastern end of the strait, are also excels
lent lights ; while on the northern side is the flashing light on the Race
islands, and the harbour light at the entrance ofthe port of Esquimalt y.
thus after making the light of Cape Flattery, there will only be aa 6 JUAN  DE  FUCA  STRAIT. [chap. i.
interval of about 16 miles from losing sight of it, until sightihgrthat of
Race islands • and from the latter, New Duhgeness iund Esquimalt are
both visible.
soundings.—Between the parallels of 48° and 49° the 100 fathom
bank extends for 32 miles off shore, and for 5 or 6 miles on either side of
the parallel of 48° 30', which passes through the centre of Juan de Fuca
strait, no greater depth than 55 fathoms is found at the distance of 40 miles
from the entrance. Steering for the strait within these limits of latitude,
Viz. a few miles on either side of 48° 30', from 55 to 60 fathoms will be
carried for 20 miles, the bottom fine dark sand, sometimes varied by gravel
. and small stones, when it will deepen to 80 and 90 fathoms, generally
.muddy bottom,: for a farther distance of 10 miles ; a vessel will then be
within 8 or 10 miles of the-strait: if to the northward of 48° 30' the water
should shoal to 36 and 40 fathoms rocky or gravel bottom ; if to the southward it will continue deep and will increase to more than 100 fathoms,
when within 8 or 9 miles of Cape Flattery.
The outer edge of the bank is rather steep, falling from 90 to 150 fathoms
and then no bottom with the ordinary line. There is onepeculiarity which
should not pass unnoticed ; the deep channel of over 100 fathoms; which
runs through the centre of the strait, on entering the ocean is deflected to
the southward, probably owing to the superior strength of the ebb' Stream
and the southerly current, and a zone of deep water about 3 miles in width,
with from 140 to 150 fathoms, extends in that direction to the 48° parallel;
between it and the shore, a distance of about 8 miles, the depth decreases
suddenly to 30 fathoms -fine dark sand, and immediately outside it from 67
to 80 fathoms will be found.
cape fiattebt or Classet is a remarkable point of land, and
•distinctly seen at a distance of 35 miles, rising gradually from the sea to
a thickly wooded mountain neariy 2,000 feet high, with an irregular
shaped summit, and falling again at the distance of 3 or 4 miles to
the eastward. When seen from the southward or south-west, it has the
appearance of an island, being separated by a stretch of low land from
hills of the same or greater elevation, which rise again immediately
southward of it.
On a nearer view, the headland itself, with its wild off-lying rocks over
f which the sea is almost constantly breaking, presents no inviting appearance ; it is a rugged sea-worn cliff of no great elevation, and rising
gradually to its more prominent feature, a densely wooded mountain.
From the cape the coast trends E.N.E. for 4 miles to Neeah bay, and
though no positive dangers exist half-a-mile from the shore eastward of
: the cape, there is generally a heavy swell with irregular tides, and vessels
are by no means recommended to approach it within a mile.
V, CHAP. !•]
CAPE  FLATTERY. TATOUCH  ISLAND.
tatouch island, lying W.N.W. half a mile from Cape Flattery, is
a steep,,almost perpendicular.rocky islet, bare of trees,.and 100 feet high,
with some reefs .extending a .short distance off its western side ; the lighthouse,! known among seamen as Cape- Flattery light, stands on the summit
of the island,, which with its outlying reef is the most western portion of
the United States.*
light.—The above lighthouse consists of a keeper's dwelling of stone,
with a tower of brick, whvEefa'ash.ed, rising above it, and surmounted by an
iron lantern painted red, its 'height being 66 feet above the summit of the
island. It shows every night from sunset to sunrise & fixed white light
of the first order, which is elevated 162 feet above the mean level of the
sea, and in clear weather should be seen from a distance of 18 miles, so
that a vessel from the southward will make it before being up with the
Flattery rocks. Its position, as determined by the American coast survey,
is in lat. 48° 23' 15" N., and long 124° 43' 50" W.
duncan rock lies N.W. by N. a mile from Tatouch island ; it is a
few feet above water, but the sea always breaks over it. There is deep
water between it and the island, but vessels are recommended not to take
the passage unless carried by the tide into a position when they may be
compelled to do so, or incur greater hazard by trying to avoid it.*  .
duntze rock, with 3 fathoms water on it, lies! about a quarter of a
mile N.W. by N. from Duncan rock, and frequently breaks. The cross
sea which is created in this neighbourhood during bad weather strongly
resembles heavy breakers extending a considerable distance across the
strait. Sailing, vessels are recommended not to approach the lighthouse
on Tatouch island nearer than 3 miles. In the immediate neighbourhood of Cape Flattery, and among these rocks, the tides are strong and
irregular.
Tbe coast southward of Cape Flattery trends S.S.E. for 25 miles,
the land being mountainous and thickly wooded. At the distance of
11 miles are the Flattery rocks, a group of remarkable bare rugged
islets, the outer rock lying 2\ miles from the shore. At 12 miles from
them in the same direction is a remarkable square white rock, nearly a
mile from the shore, which, when the sun's rays are reflected on it, is particularly conspicuous. From this rock the direction of the coast is S.E.
for 21 miles to Destruction island, and is fronted by numerous wooded
islets and rocks extending about half a mile from the shore. Destruction
island  is   1^ miles   long, and narrow, lying  nearly  parallel  with  the
* See Plans of Tatouch island, Duntze and Duncan Rocks and Neeah Bay, on Plan of
Port San Juan, No. 1,910 ; scale, m = 4 inches, and views on Chart, No. 1,911. ._
8 JUAN DE FUCA  STRAIT. [chap.
coast and distant a mile from it. It has steep white cliffy shores, is
over 100 feet high, and covered with grass, but no trees; a channel
is shown within it of 12 fathoms. Between Destruction island and
Cape Flattery, a distance of 45 miles, the soundings vary from 15 to 20
fathoms at 2 miles off shore, until northward of Flattery rocks, when
the depth somewhat increases.
directions.—Vessels from the southward or westward bound for
Fuca strait, except the coasting steamers which all carry pilots, should
make Cape Flattery; there is no inducement to hug the coast, on which a
long rolling swell frequently sets, and this swell meeting the southeasterly gales of winter, causes a confused sea. The Cape and its off-lying
rocks should not be approached within a distance of at least 3 miles, as
the tide occasionally sets over Duncan and Duntze rock with great
velocity (page 7), an additional reason why these dangers should not
be too closely approached. It is equally necessary either in entering or
leaving the strait to avoid the coast of Vancouver island between Port
San Juan and Bonilla point, when there is any appearance of bad weather.
It is recommended to pass at the distance of at least 10 miles from
the coast, unless working to windward against a fine northerly wind,
which is frequently found during summer, when it may be safely
approached within 3 miles or less.
To vessels making the strait in bad weather it will be more desirable
to run in and seek shelter than to remain outside. If the land has been
made either to the southward of Cape Flattery or on the Vancouver
island shore within a moderate distance of the entrance, or if the latitude
can be relied upon within 2 or 3 miles, it will be advisable to run for the
strait. The powerful light of Cape Flattery will, unless in very thick
weather, or fog, be seen at the distance of 5 miles, and as soon as a
vessel is actually within the strait she will have comparatively smooth
water, with sufficient sea room, and may run boldly up the centre for the
Race light, or by the assistance of that on Cape Flattery, maintain her
position in the strait if preferred. It is to be remarked, that when Cape
Flattery light is brought to bear to the westward of W.S.W., it becomes
shut in by the land about Neeah bay, and that the Race island light from
a similar cause becomes obscured by Beechey head when brought to bear
eastward of E. by N. \ N. ; therefore, when either of these lights are
obscured, the distance from either coast will be accurately judged, and in
the latter case a ship will be getting too close to the northern shore.
Coming from the westward with a heavy westerly or north-west gale,
thick weather, and uncertain of the latitude, it would be prudent to lay
by at not less than 30 miles from the entrance of the strait, or on the
V chap, i.] DIRECTIONS. NEEAH BAY. 9
edge of the bank of soundings. These gales seldom last more than 12
hours, and if they veer towards the S.W. the weather will clear, and a
vessel may immediately bear tfp for the strait.
With a S.E. gale it is recommended to close the land, smoother water
will be obtained, and the bank of soundings off the Vancouver island shore
will give a vessel pretty accurately her distance from the land. Gales
from this quarter sometimes continue in the winter season for 30 hours,
and when a vessel strikes soundings on the edge of the bank in 90
fathoms, and carries them in to 60 she may put her head to the S.W., and
will have plenty of room for drift.
It is of great importance in making the strait during bad weather to
strike the outer edge of the bank of soundings, as the ship's distance
from the land will then be accurately known. It has been already
observed (page 6) that after running 20 miles eastward the depth increases from 55 to 80 and 90 fathoms, which latter depths, if the lead
has not been previously kept going, might be mistaken for the outer edge.
Should a sailing vessel be overtaken by one of those dense fogs .
which sometimes hang over the entrance of the strait (page 5) she
should not close the land but stand off sufficiently far to avoid being
set by the southerly current too near Cape Flattery. If a steamer
has made the land or light, and is certain of her position, she should get
the northern or Vancouver island shore aboard, when, with the assistance
of the chart and lead, she may feel her way in. When 8 or 10 miles eastward of Port San Juan there is anchoring ground in, 12 fathoms a mile
from the shore, and if the fog is very dense a stranger should anchor ; it
must be remarked, however, that not unfrequently the weather is clear a
few miles within the strait while the entrance is totally obscured.
XTEEAH bay is between Koikla point and Wyadda island; the latter,
half a mile long in a N.W. and S.E. direction, is narrow and covered with .
pine trees. Koikla point is 4 miles E.N.E. from the lighthouse on
Tatouch island. The bay offers a safe and convenient anchorage to
vessels meeting S.W. or S.E. gales at the entrance of the strait, and is
sheltered from W. by S. round by south to NE. The western shore is
steep and clifiy, a reef-extends for more than a cable off Koikla point,
and within the point a sand-bank which dries extends off a quarter of a
mile at low water. The head of the bay is a low sandy beach, on which
there is generally some surf rolling. On the eastern side of the bay off
the south-west side of Wyadda island, a rocky ledge and shoal water
extend for 3 cables, and the holding ground is not so good on the island
side.
A good berth will be found in Neeah bay, in 6 fathoms sandy bottom,
with the outer point of Wyadda island N.E. by N., and Koikla point mm
10 JUAN  DE   FUCA  STRAIT. [0HAP- f
W. by N. ; a short distance within this position kelp grows in large patches
all over the bay, and some care is necessary in selecting a berth. Large
sailing vessels may anchor in 7 or 8 fathoms a little outside the above bearings, in the centre of the bay; with the outer point of the island N.E. by E.
A vessel should leave, this bay on any indication of a north-east wind,
and if too late, and unable to weather Wyadda island, she may, with the
assistance of the chart, run between it and the main ; the passage is
2 cables in breadth, and the least water 21 feet; she must, however,
be careful to avoid the ledge off the south-west end of Wyadda, and in
hauling out should give the eastern side of the island a berth of at
least a quarter of a mile. Vessels have ridden out north-west gales
close to the south-east end of Wyadda in 6 fathoms, but it is more
prudent to get out into the strait at the commencement of the gale.
During strong westerly or south-west gales, or after they have been
blowing outside, a considerable swell rolls into the bay, which renders it at
such times a somewhat disagreeable though not unsafe anchorage ; small
vessels may go close in and get smooth water, even among the kelp which
grows in 4 and 5 fathoms.
callarx bay.—From Neeah to Callam bay the distance is 15 miles.
The intervening coast, which trends in an E. -J- S. direction, is nearly
straight, and the shore bold, the only remarkable feature being Klaholoh
(Seal rock), 150 feet high, which lies a short distance off the shore, 2 miles
eastward of Wyadda island. If a vessel reaches as high as Callam bay,
and meets an easterly or south-east wind, she may obtain anchorage and
shelter in the centre of the bay in from 8 to 10 fathoms, but this can only
be considered as a stopping place ; it is easily recognized by Slip point,
its eastern bluff, which is the western termination of a bold coast ridge,
about 1,000 feet in elevation.
The coast from Callam bay continues in the same direction for
8 miles to Pillar point, so called from its terminating in a bare columnar-
shaped rock, a little remarkable where, from the character of the country,
generally thickly wooded from summit to water line, few objects present
themselves by which vessels may accurately fix their positions. The coast
on the east side of this point forms a small bight, in which there is a considerable stream and an Indian village, and then trends E. by N. with
a gentle curve to Striped peak ; a small river, the Lyre, emptying itself
just eastward of a low point 7 miles westward of the peak.
Striped peak is rather remarkable from a landslip occurring down its
face, and from which it received its name; at 1^ miles westward of the
peak, and a third of a mile off the west point of Crescent bay, which is
merely an indentation, lies a rock, which breaks at low water : this is the ."■CHAP.JjJ
CALLAM  BAY. PORT  ANGELOS.
11
etaily danger which occurs on the southern side of the strait. Westward
of this, some kelp grows a short distance from the beach on the somewhat
sheltered part between Striped peak and Pillar point, and here the depth
of water at a mile from the shore varies from 8 to 16 fathoms ; westward
of Pillar point it deepens to 40 fathoms- at that distance.
\ freshwater bay, at 3 miles eastward of Striped peak, between
Observatory and Angelos points, is nearly a mile deep, and more than
2 miles wide in an east and west direction. The two entrance points are
E. by N., and W. by S. of each other, and within- this line the depth
[varies from 6 to 12 fathoms. Observatory point has several rocks
lying a short distance off it; the western side of the bay is a high bold
shore. Angelos point, the eastern entrance point, is low ; the river Elwha
■ emptying itself through it, forms a delta, and has caused a bank- with a
-depth of water on it varying from 2 fathoms close in shore to 10 fathoms
at the distance of a mile. Vessels may anchor within the line of the points
in from 6 to 9 fathoms.
post angelos or False Dungeness is 7 miles eastward of the
east point of Freshwater bay, the intervening coast forming rather a deep
indentation to the southward, off which as little as 3 fathoms water is
found nearly a mile from the shore. The north side of the port is bounded
by one of those low narrow sand or shingle spits which are a charactertsffic
feature of the country ; this spit, which is named Ediz hook, curves from
a high bluff in an E.N.E. direction for nearly 3 miles, and forms a
large and. good harbour. On the north or spit side the water is deep,
varying from 15 to 30 fathoms ; but southward of a line drawn through
the centre there is excellent anchorage in from 7 to 10 fathoms in any
part of the port. The outer part of the spit is steep-to, and may be
rounded close to, after which the port extends for 2-J- miles in a westerly
direction, by more than a mile in breadth. Although open to easterly
winds, they do not blow home. A large spar beacon painted white has
recently been erected on Ediz hook, which is a good guide to the entrance
during day time.
•Water.—Fresh water is to be obtained from streams on the south
side of the port.
directions.—The spit is so low that at times the sea washes over it,
and as it is impossible to see it at any distance, vessels would be apt at
night to run on it if passing close to the southern shore of the strait ;
Dungeness light therefore should not be brought to bear to the northward
of E. by N. ^ N., which will lead more than 2 miles off, but as the spit is
nearly 13 miles from the light, the latter would not in all states of the
weather be visible.    At a distance of more than 2 miles from the shore 12 JUAN  DE  FUCA STRAIT. [chap. I.
14 fathoms will be found N.N.W. from that part of the spit which joins
the mainland ; and at night vessels should not go within this depth.
new dungeness bay.*—The shore from False Dungeness gradually
curves to the N.E., and about 8 or 9 miles from Ediz hook, another long
low narrow sand spit covered with grass stretches from the bluff shore in
a general N.N.E. direction for 3| miles, forming the ^north-western side of
the roadstead of New Dungeness. A shoal with 2\ fathoms extends
N.N.E. for half a mile from the end of the point, and a heavy tide rip runs
over it at the change of the currents. On the inside, one mile from the
eastern extremity, another narrow sand spit stretches \\ miles southward
towards the main shore, forming a large inner shoal bay with a narrow
opening, through which the water passes as over a rapid; at low tide
abreast this point is a small stream, on the western side of which is a bluff
60 feet high, and upon it is a large village of the Clalums. The shore
eastward of the stream is low, swampy, and covered with trees and brush ;
it forms the southern or main shore of the roadstead, and off it are extensive mud flats, which are bare at low water for five-eighths of a mile, and
run as far as Washington or Budds harbour ; shoal water exists for some
distance outside these flats. About 20 fathoms are found a quarter of a
mile south of the lighthouse point, the depth regularly decreasing across
the bay with a soft tenacious muddy bottom.
Water. —- Fresh water may be obtained in abundance at the above
stream, but boats must obtain their supply at low tide, and come out when
the tide has sufficiently risen.
light—At about a sixth of a mile within the outer end of the point
is a structure consisting of a keeper's dwelling, of stone, with a tower of
brick ; the upper half being a dark lead colour, the lower half white. The
tower is surmounted by an iron lantern painted red, the entire height
being 92 feet, and its elevation above the mean sea level 100 feet. It
exhibits every night, from sunset to sunrise, a fixed white light of the
third order, which should be seen from a distance of 15 miles. Its
position, as determined by the United States coast survey, is lat.
48° 10' 59" N., and long. 123° 6' 7" W.
a fog BES.L of 1,100 pounds weight has been placed upon the outer
extremity of the lighthouse point at New Dungeness, and it will be
sounded every ten seconds during foggy or thick weather day or night.
The striking machinery is in a frame building with the front open to
receive the bell, painted black, raised 30 feet above the ground on an open
structure, whitewashed.
Report, United States Coast Surrey.
_ CHAP. I.]
NEW DUNGENESS BAY.—PORT DISCOVERY.
13
anchorage.—The usual and best anchorage in New Dungeness bay
is to bring the lighthouse to bear about N. by E. A E. half a mile distant,
where 10 fathoms are found a third of a mile off the beach. With the
lighthouse bearing N.W. by N. three-quarters of a mile distant, the same
depth and bottom are found, the nearest shore will bear South 1£ miles,
and the.mud flat three-quarters of a mile in the same direction ; from this
position a vessel can readily get under weigh and clear the point. A
south-east wind drawing out of the strait blows directly into this harbour,
but the bottom will hold any vessel with good ground tackle ; the only
difficulty will be to get the anchors out of the mud after riding a couple
of days to a gale.
tides It is high water, full and change, at New Dungeness, at 3h.,
and the rise is 5 feet.
The coast from New Dungeness trends to the S.S.E. for nearly
7 miles, and forms a deep indentation, in the western corner of which is
Washington harbour, and in the eastern Port Discovery. The entrance of
the former is almost closed by a long sand spit extending from the eastern
side, leaving a narrow channel with only 2 fathoms water, which deepens
within to 13 fathoms ; therefore, as a harbour, it is of little importance
when there are so many good ones in the neighboui'hood.
port discovery, the harbour where Vancouver anchored and refitted his ships, and from whence he commenced his exploration of these
regions in May 1792, is an extensive inlet running in a southerly and
south-east direction for 6 miles, with an average breadth of 1A miles ; the
general depth of water is from 20 to 30 fathoms, but an anchorage may be
had on the west side 1^ miles within the entrance in 15 fathoms, close to
the shore. At the head of the port there are 10 fathoms, but a mud flat
extends for a mile from the shore ; this, indeed, is the general feature of
all the deep water inlets on these coasts, unless the rivers or streams which
empty themselves into them are of sufficient magnitude to cause an
adequate scouring power, and more equally distribute the deposit which
they bring down with them.
Protection island lies immediately off the entrance of the port,' and
shelters it from north-west winds. The north side of the island is shoal
for half a mile off, and there is a 3 fathom patch bearing N.W. 2 miles from
its north point; reefs extend also off the east and west points for half a
mile, but there is a clear deep channel in on either side ; that to the westward a mile in breadth, and the eastern one 1^ miles. A spit extends a
short distance off Clallam point, the western point of entrance; and in
working up some of the prominent points should not be closely approached
as the soil breaking away from the neighbouring cliffs has formed a bank
off most of them. 14 JUAN   DE  FUCA   STRAIT. [chap. i.
admiralty inlet At 14 miles E.N.E. from New Dungeness
light, is the entrance to Admiralty inlet, between Wilson point on the
west and Partridge point on the east, the latter a remarkable sloping cliff
of a whitish colour ; and here commences that extensive and singular
series of inland navigation, which penetrates the continent in a general
southerly direction for nearly 90 miles. These waters were first explored
by Vancouver, and have since undergone and are still undergoing a more
detailed examination by the United Sfat§s' Government.
light.—On Admiralty head, which forms the inner eastern entrance
point of the inlet, and bears N.E. by E. 3£ miles from Wilson point, is a
fixed white light of the fourth order, elevated 119 feet above the mean
level of the sea, and visible in clear weather at a distance of 17 miles.
This light is of the greatest benefit to the numerous vessels entering .Port
Townshend and the inlet, particularly to the United States mail steamers,
which run bi-monthly between San Francisco,. Olympia at the head of
Puget sound, and Esquimalt.
port townshend lies at the threshold of Admiralty inlet, and is
the port of entry for Washington territory. Vessels leaving Fuca strait
have frequently, when overtaken by a westerly gale, been compelled to
bear up and seek shelter in it. Although a safe harbour, from its great
extent it is subject to a disagreeable sea during strong winds, and with a
strong south-easter landing is frequently impracticable, and a dangerous
sea for boats gets up.
The entrance is between Wilson and Marrowstone points, the latter,
bearing from the former E.S.E. Z\ mile.    At If miles inside Wilson point,
and on the same side is Hudson point, the distance between which and
Marrowstone point is also If miles ; and between these two points is more
properly the true entrance ofthe port, which now runs in a S.S.W. direction for 2 miles, and then S.E. for about the .same distance, the average •
breadth being nearly 2 miles ; the general depth of water is from 9 to 15
fathoms  good  holding   ground,   soft mud when within  Hudson  point.
Wilson point is low, with sand hillocks on its extreme; a shoal spit
extends for nearly half a mile off it, and vessels are recommended to <nve .
it a berth of nearly a mile in rounding ; the tides are strong, and when
blowing fresh a heavy ripple occurs in the neighbourhood.    Hudson point
should be rounded within half a mile or less.
At half a mile within Hudson point there is good anchorage in the
westoim side of the port; off the houses, in 10 fathoms, half a mile from
the shore. During winter S.E. gales are not infrequent, and ships are
recommended at this season to anchor at a greater distance ; the low sand
I
I, ch. I.]   ADMIRALTY INLET.—PORT TOWNSHEND.—PORT SAN JUAN.  15
hummock on the extreme of Wilson point, just on or shut in by the high
part of Hudson point, bearing N. by W. ^ W., is a good berth in 12
or 14 fathoms, about a mile from the shore.
port san juan is the first anchorage on the north shore withiffi the'
entrance of Fuca strait. The opening, which is remarkable from seaward,
is seen for a considerable distance, and makes as a deep gap between- two :
mountain ranges ; the centre of the entrance bears N.N.E. 1 E. from
Cape Flattery lighthouse, and as the light is visible from the anchorage it
is not difficult to enter or leave during night time. Owen point is the
western entrance" point, and Observatory rocks the eastern ; off the former,
at something more than a cable's length, is a low flat rock named Owen
island, awash at high water.*
Observatory rocks are high pinnacles with two or three trees growing ■
on them, and some smaller rocks off, the outermost of which lies
1-| cables from the shore. At 4 cables within these rocks and 1-g- cables
from the shore is another reef partly out of water, named Hammond
rocks. On the north side of the port some rocks and broken ground
extend for a mile within Owen point, and nearly 2 cables from the
shore ; one rock, awash, lies N.E. J E. from Owen island, distant
4 cables, and is 2f cables from the shore. The entrance points lie E. ^ N.
and W. J S. of each other, distant nearly 1^ miles ; the port runs nearly
straight for 3J miles in a N.E. by N. direction, and carries its breadth
almost to the head, which terminates in a round beach composed of muddy
sand. Gordon river empties itself through the north end of this beach,
and Cooper inlet penetrates its southern ; very small coasters may enter
them towards high water, and find depth and shelter within.
The port is entirely open to south-west winds, during which a heavy
sea rolls in if blowing a moderate gale ; and though it is probable that a
vessel with good ground tackle would ride out a gale if anchored in the
most sheltered part, it is by no means recommended to remain with any
indication ofsuch weather, butto weigh immediately, and if outward bound
seek shelter in Neeah bay, the entrance of which bears from San Juan
S. by W. 10^- miles. There is a convenient depth of water all over Port
San Juan, from 6 to 9 fathoms, the bottom fine muddy sand : when
within three-quarters of a mile of the head it shoals to 4 fathoms, and
here in heavy gales the sea breaks ; a flat runs off 3 cables from the head.
In the outer part of the port there is generally a swell. Good anchorage
will be found about 1^ miles from the head, with Owen island bearing
S.W., and Adze head E.S.E., in 7 fathoms.
The hill named Pandora peak does not show as a peak within the
port.
See Plan of Port San Juan, No. 1,910 ; scale, m = 4 inches.
V 16 JUAN DE  FUCA STRAIT. [chap. i.
The  coast From Port San Juan the shore of Vancouver island
trends East to Sherringham point, distant 24 miles, and presents no very
remarkable features ; the country is thickly wooded, and the land rises
to a considerable elevation. Providence cove, fit for boats, lies 3 miles
eastward of San Juan; at the distance of 7 miles farther east, in a small
bight, is a stream named Sombrio river. The river Jordan, a considerable
stream, is a\ miles westward of Sherringham point; between the latter
and Sombrio river, from 7 to 10 fathoms water will be found a mile from
the shore, and off the river Jordan the latter depth extends for more than
2 miles.
Eastward of Sherringham point the shore curves a little to the northward, and at the distance of 4J miles is Otter point; the points on this side
the strait are not remarkable nor easily distinguished unless close in shore,
some of their extremes are partially bare of trees. Vessels running or
working up the strait at night should be careful not to get so near the
north shore as to shut in Race island light by Beechey head. From
Otter point the entrance to Sooke inlet is E. by N. •§ N. 3| miles, the
intervening coast forming rather a deep indentation named Sooke bay, in
which vessels may anchor in fine weather something more than half a mile
from the shore in 8 fathoms.
Sooke inlet is a remarkable sheet of water ; its entrance is
little over half a mile in breadth, and leads by a narrow and tortuous
channel 3 miles in length, and in a general north direction to a beautiful
land-locked basin, nearly 2 miles in extent, in an east and west direction,
and one mile north and south, with a depth of from 8 to 16 fathoms all over
it. It is not likely, however, to become a harbour of much importance, for,
independently of strong tides and several sharp turns which vessels would
have to make in entering, the breadth of the deep channel seldom exceeds
half a cable, and is consequently only adapted for coasting vessels or
small steamers, unless at considerable inconvenience and loss of time.
It would be useless to offer any farther description of this beautiful
though almost valueless sheet of water to ocean shipping ; the chart, or
the assistance of a pilot, will alone enable large vessels to enter the basin.*
Vessels may anchor in 10 fathoms half a mile off the entrance, and, if
necessary for shelter, may with a fair wind run inside Whiffin island,
where there is sufficient space to anchor.
Whiffin island is low, gravelly, and always connected with the western
entrance ; its eastern point bears N.N.E. three-quarters of a mile from
the centre, between the two entrance points ; it must be rounded close
leaving it on the port hand, as a reef lies only half a cable eastward of it.
.
See Plan of Sooke Inlet, No. 1,907 ; scale, m = 4 inches. ohap. i.]     SOOKE  INLET. BECHER  BAY. RACE  ISLANDS.
On rounding the point drop the anchor at a cable's length within in 8
fathoms ; here there is a space of deep water 2 cables in extent.
secretary xsland, small and wooded, lies 1J cables off Possession point, a mile south-eastward of Sooke inlet. There is a depth
of 16 fathoms between it and the main shore, and from it Beechey head
bears E. ^ S. 2\ miles, .with a bold steep shore between, and deep water
close-to.
. becher bay.—Beechey head is a bold wooded cliff forming the
west entrance point of Becher bay, Cape Church being the eastern one.
The breadth of the entrance is something over a mile, and off the eastern
side are several small wooded islands, named Bedford islands. The
depth of water at the entrance varies from 20 to 50 fathoms rocky
and irregular bottom ; at three quarters of a mile within in a northerly
direction are Wolf and Frazer islands, with some small islets off them ;
between these two islands, which lie East and West of each other,
Frazer being on the eastern side, is the channel 4 cables wide to
the anchorage ; it then takes a north-easterly direction for three-quarters
of a mile, where anchorage in 10 fathoms may be had, with the centre of
Frazer island bearing S.S.W. distant a quarter of a mile.
Becher bay cannot be recommended as a good anchorage; it affords no
great shelter with southerly or westerly winds, and vessels outward bound
had far better wait a fair wind in Parry bay to the northward of Race
islands.*
Vessels bound up the strait should pass the land about Beechey head
at the distance of 2 miles if intending to go outside the Race islands.
Steamers intending to take the Race passage may pass Cape Church
about half a mile distant, and keep the land aboard about that distance
until up with Bentinck island, when the latter should be closed and
kept within a quarter of a mile or just outside the kelp.
The passage between Bentinck island and the Vancouver shore is
choked with rocks, and strong tides run both inside and outside.
race islands are a cluster of low bare rocks, the outermost of
which lies a mile S.E. of Bentinck island at the south-east point of Vancouver island. They occupy more than half a mile in extent, north and
south, and the same east and west. The outermost and largest, or Great
Race, is \\ cables in extent and 25 feet high ; the others are smaller, a few
feet above high water or awash. The tides among them run from 3 to 6
knots, and during bad weather heavy and dangerous races occur. The outer
rock should be given a berth of a mile, at which distance from 40 to 50
fathoms of water will be found ; it may, if necessary, however be rounded
* See Plan of Becher and Pedder Bays, No. 1,906 ; scale, m = 4 inches.
9471. B    . 18 JUAN  DE  FUCA  STRAIT. [chap. i.
at a less distance, the most off lying danger being the Rosedale rock, with
5 feet on it, lying S.E. by E. from the Great Race distant 4 cables. In
light winds a sailing vessel should give these islands a good berth,
especially when eastward of them, as. the ebb. sets strongly towards them.
In 1860 a large vessel was drifted on them by the ebb tide in a calm,
and became a total loss.
light Race island lighthouse, on Great Race rock, consists of a
keeper's dwelling of stone with a tower of the same material, the latter
being painted with alternate horizontal black and white bands. It exhibits, at an elevation of 118 feet above the mean level of the sea, a
white light of the second order, which shows a flash every ten seconds,
visible in clear weather at a distance of 18 miles.
Its position is lat. 48° 17' 45" N., long. 123° 32' 15" W.
race passage is a clear channel 4 cables in breadth between
the Race rocks and Bentinck island, with a depth of not less than 14
fathoms. This passage may be taken by a steamer ; but it is not recommended for a sailing vessel under ordinary circumstances, on account
of the strength of the tides, and races caused by the irregular rocky
nature of the bottom. A case may arise, however, either inward or outward bound, when a vessel overtaken by a strong S.E. wind would do
better to run through than risk weathering the Great Race, by less than
a mile ; if so the Bentinck island shore should be kept aboard at a distance of 2 cables, or just outside the kelp, for the northernmost rock,
which forms the southern side of the passage, is covered at high water,
and the strongest tides and eddies are found in its neighbourhood. The
course through is N.N.E. and S.S.W.
race islands to esquimalt harbour After rounding Race
island lighthouse at the distance of a mile, the course for Esquimalt harbour is N. -^ W. 8^ miles. The lighthouse on Fisgard island, a white tower
elevated 70 feet above the sea, at the western entrance point of the
harbour is very conspicuous, and will be seen immediately on rounding
the Race islands ; a course direct for it will clear all dangers, but attention
must be paid to the set of the tides. The ebb runs almost directly from
the Haro and neighbouring straits towards the Race islands, and a
sailing vessel unless with a commanding wind should give them a
berth of more than a mile, and steer N.E. by N. for 3 or 4 miles, before
she bears up for the harbour ; the flood sets in the opposite direction to
the N.E., and with light winds vessels are liable to be carried to the
eastward, and if near to the Vancouver island shore, up Haro channel,,
where the water is generally too deep for anchorage ; therefore with the
flood the coast of Parry bay should be kept aboard if possible, where
good anchorage may be had in moderate weather and with all westerly
winds, less than a mile from the shore in 10 fathoms. RACE  ISLANDS. BENTINCK.  ISLAND.
19
By night, when Fisgard island light bears N. by W-, a vessel may .steer,
boldly for it. The only precaution necessary is to keep the white light in
full view ; if it becomes dim or shaded, she is getting too near the shore,
and should immediately haul out to the eastward until it is again distin^ly
seen ; the two lights by their bearings will immediately show a vessel how
she is being affected by the tides.
Entering Esquimalt harbour, the Fisgard island light should be left
from one to two cables on the port hand ; when it bears N.W. by W. A W.
the light changes from white to red, and shows the latter colour within the
harbour ; and when it bears S. by W. at a convenient distance, a vessel,
may anchor in 7 fathoms, or stand into Constance cove if preferred. The
SGroggs rocks on the eastern side of the entrance of the harbour must,
be avoided ; they bear E.S.E. from Fisgard island distant nearly 4 cables.
If not desiring to enter the harbour at night, good anchorage may be
had in Royal roads in 9 fathoms ; Fisgard island light bearing N. by W.
from half a mile to a mile.
The entrance of Victoria harbour being only 2 miles eastward of Esquimalt, the same precautions are necessary as regards the tides. The course
from a mile off the Race islands is N. -| E. ; during daytime Christ church,
a conspicuous white building with a spire, and standing on an eminence,
will be seen shortly after rounding these islands, bearing N. by E. ; it
should be kept just on the starboard bow. At night or during bad weather
it is strongly recommended not to run for this harbour, as it can only
be entered at certain stages of the tide, and the anchorage outside is at
such times exposed and unsafe, while Royal bay or Esquimalt harbour is
always available and safe ; but if it is decided to run for Victoria, it must
be borne in mind that when Fisgard island light changes from white to
red, a vessel will be very near the shore.*
bentinck island, lying close off the south-east poiniof Vancouver
island, is little, over half a mile in extent, and irregularly shaped, being
almost divided in the centre by a narrow neck. It is about 100 feet
high, and, like the adjacent land, covered with pine trees ; its southern
and eastern sides are fringed with kelp, outside which there are no
dangers beyond those described in the Race channel. Between it and the
main-land is a boat channel, and coasters acquainted with the locality
find shelter at its eastern entrance ; there are some settlers' houses in the
neighbourhood.
Between Bentinck island and Esquimalt harbour, a distance of 8 miles,
the coast is indented by several bays, and anchorage may be obtained in
* See Chart of Haro and Roeario Straits, No. 2,689, scale, m = 0- 5 inch; and Plan of
Haro Strait and Middle Channel, No. 2,840, scale, m = 1 inch.
B  2 i
20 JUAN  DE  FUCA  STRAIT. [chap. I.
8 to 10 fathoms anywhere within a mile of the shore, except immediately
off Albert head ; the only danger is a reef lying about a cable's length off
the head.
pedder bay, the first of these indentations, has its entrance immediately northward of Bentinck island, 2 miles N.N.W. of the Great
Race, between Cape Calver and William head, where its breadth is three-
quarters of a mile ; the inlet runs to the W.N.W. for 2 miles, narrowing
rapidly, and when half a mile within is only fit for small craft, which
may find good shelter at its head. Vessels of any size may anchor in the
entrance in 7 fathoms, with Cape ^Calver, its southern point, bearing
S.E. by S. distant about half a mile, but though the holding ground is
good, it is open to all winds from N.N.E. round east to S.S.E., and with
a S.E. gale would neither be a desirable nor safe anchorage.*
parry bay, immediately northward of William head, affords good
anchorage with all westerly winds. Vessels bound to sea and meeting with
a strong wind from this quarter are recommended to return here ; the
anchorage is in 9 fathoms, from half to three-quarters of a mile off the
sandy beach, with William head bearing S.W. by S. about the same
distance. With a south-east wind there is ample room to weighs which a
vessel should immediately do, and if not able to round the Race islands
and proceed to sea, run for Esquimalt harbour.
Albert head, the north point of the bay, is moderately high, sloping to
the sea, bare of trees at its extreme, but wooded immediately behind; a
reef lies a cable off it. William head somewhat resembles it, but is lower.
The water is too deep for anchorage immediately off these heads.
royal bay or roads, of which Albert head is the southern point,
and the entrance of Esquimalt harbour, the northern limit, is a fine sheet
of water 3 miles in extent, and affords good anchorage with all winds
which would prevent a vessel from entering that harbour ; a vessel may
anchor anywhere within three-quarters of a mile from the western shore.
A good berth is a mile South of Duntze head with the entrance open, or
Thetis cottage just open of Inskip rocks (in the harbour), which is the
leading mark for clearing the Scroggs rocks running in or out.
light.—A lighthouse is erected on Fisgard island, a srhall rocky islet
25 feet high, and almost connected with the shore, forming the western
entrance point of Esquimalt harbour ; the tower is of brick whitewashed,
and is elevated 70 feet above the mean level of the sea, with a red brick
dwelling-house adjoining. The light is fixed and of the 4th order ; it
shows white when bearing from N. £ W. to N.W. by W. ^ W. ; red from
N.W. by W. i W. to S. | E., and green from N. £ W. to N. by E. f E.
* See Plan of Pedder Bay, No. 1,906 ; scale, m = 4"0 inches.
I OHAP. I.]
PEDDER  BAY.—ESQUIMALT  HARBOUR.
21
The white light is intended to guide a vessel in from seaward, and while
visible clears alike the western coast between Race island and Esquimalt,
and the southern shore with its off-lying dangers, Scroggs rocks and
Brotchy ledge, between Duntze head and Trial island. The red light will
be found useful by vessels bound to Victoria or Esquimalt from the eastward, after rounding Trial island it will indicate a vessel's distance from
the shore, and if bound to Esquimalt, a W.S.W. course will lead a safe
distance outside Brotchy ledge, until the light changes from red to white,
when it may be steered for, and not before. A green ray of light is
thrown up the harbour between the Whale rock and the western shore,
and leads westward or inside the line of that rock.
esquimalt harbour is a safe and excellent anchorage.for ships of
any size, and with the aid of the light on Fisgard island may be entered at
all times with great facility. The entrance, which bears North 8^ miles
from the lighthouse on Great Race island, is between Fisgard island and
Duntze head, and is 3 cables in breadth, opening out immediately within.*
The only dangers are the Scroggs rocks which lie on the eastern side,
S.S.E. 3 cables from Duntze head, and cover at three-quarters flood.
Inskip islands kept well open of the head leads clear to the westward of
them, but the best mark for entering with a leading wind is Thetis
cottage, a conspicuous white building on Dyke point, just open or on
with the western Inskip rock, bearing N. by W. J W., which leads in
. mid channel.
Fisgard island should not be passed within less than a cable's length,
keeping just without the kelp, which extends about half a cable eastward
of it, for a rock with 7 feet water over it lies three quarters of a cable
north-east of the lighthouse.
Vessels entering the harbour at night with a strong wind after them
should take care to shorten sail in time, as the space for rounding to is
somewhat limited : and it is desirable to moor if any stay is intended, as
the winds are changeable.
The best time to leave the harbour is early in the morning, when
either a calm or light land wind may be expected ; theje is little
strength of tide in the harbour, or for some distance without, and it sets
fairly in and out.
The strongest and most frequent gales blow from S.W. and S.E.
which are leading winds in, but rarely from N.W. The S.W. is a summer wind, generally fresh, and brings 'fine weather, unless it blows a gale.
S.E. winds may be looked for during the winter months, or between
November and March, and generally a  strong   gale once in a month
* See Plan of Esquimalt Harbour, No. l,897a ; scale, w = 10 inches. 22
JUAN  DE  FUCA   STRAIT.
[chap.
with rain and thick weather. The N.E. wind'rarely blows with-much
strength, and always brings fine clear weather ; a direct South wind,
to which some parts of the harbour are open, seldom blows, and there
is never sufficient swell to render the anchorage-inconvenient.
• The "Whale Rock, with only 7 feet on it at low water, lies W. ^ N.
2- cables from Inskip islands, or nearly midway between them and the
western shore of the harbour. This rock is of small extent, and not
marked by kelp; it has a clear passage on either side, that to the
eastward being the widest. Yew and Rodd points, just-touching, point
to the rock ; Tew point, just touching the lighthouse on Fisgard
island, S. by E. f E., leads nearly.a cable's length westward ;. and when
Ashe head is well shut in by Inskip islands, a vessel will be clear to the
northward.
Anchorage The most convenient   anchorage is   in Constance cove,
on the eastern side of the harbour, immediately round Duntze head, the
general depth being 6 fathoms, and the holding ground good ; there is,
however, safe anchorage in any part of the harbour, in not less than 4^
fathoms, as far northward as Dyke point. A cable's length above this point
the water shoals to 3 fathoms, and from thence to the head of the harbour
is a flat with only a few feet on it at low water.
Thetis cove in Plumper bay, on the eastern side, immediately north of
Constance cove, is a snug anchorage, with the harbour entrance just shut
in by Inskip rocks in 4^ fathoms ; but vessels proceeding above these
rocks must take care to avoid the Whale rock.
■Water may be obtained during the winter months without difficulty
from the many streams that empty themselves into the different bays,
caused by the great quantity of rain which usually falls at that season ;
but in summer watering is a tedious process, and boats must be sent
either to Rowe stream, at the head of the harbour, or to the salt lagoon
just outside the entrance. Both offer difficulties, unless at or near high
water.
Water, however, might be conveyed at all seasons, and at a triflinc
expense, from the ehain of lakes just over the western side of the harbour,
near Colwood farm.
victoria harbour is a little more than 2 miles eastward of
Esquimalt, with its entrance between Ogden and MacLaughlin points.
Macaulay or Sailor point, a remarkable projection nearly midway between'
the two harbours, is a bare flat point about 30 feet high, showing as a
yellow clay cliff, worn by the action of the sea and weather into a rounded
nob at the extreme. The coast on either side of this point for a mile is
fringed with sunken rocks, and is dangerous for boats in bad weather
many fatal accidents having occurred. chap, i.] VICTORIA  HARBOUR. 23
The entrance to this harbour is shoal, narrow, and intricate, and
with S.W. or S.E. gales a heavy rolling swell sets on the coast, which
renders the anchorage outside unsafe, while vessels of burthen cannot
run in for shelter unless at or near high water. Vessels drawing 14
or 15 feet water may, under ordinary circumstances, enter at such times
of tide, and ships drawing 17 feet have entered, though only at the top of
spring tides. *
The channel is buoyed, but it is necessary to take a pilot, and the
space is so confined and tortuous that a long ship has considerable
difficulty in making the necessary turn ;, a large per-centage of vessels
entering the port, small as well as large, constantly run aground from
these causes, or from trying to enter at an improper time of tide, or
neglecting to take a pilot. Such accidents, however, are seldom attended
with more than delay and inconvenience, as the shoalest and most intricate
part of the passage is sheltered ; when within, the port is perfectly landlocked, and vessels may lie in from 14 to 18 feet at low water, but the
harbour accommodation is limited.
Doubtless Victoria harbour is susceptible of improvement by artificial
means, though it is improbable that it can ever be made a safe and convenient port of entry for vessels of even moderate tonnage, at all times of
tide and. weather, and it appears not a little remarkable that with the
excellent harbour of Esquimalt. within 2 miles, Victoria should have
been continued as the commercial port of a rising colony, whose interests
cannot but suffer materially from the risks and delays which shipping
must encounter in approaching the commercial capital.   .
Victoria was selected by the Hudson's bay company as the depot of
their establishments in consequence of the quantity of clear good land in
the immediate neighbourhood, and the harbour being sufficiently spacious
for the few small vessels in their employ, and as a site in these respects
was admirably chosen, but it has been a fatal mistake at a later date not
to have adopted Esquimault as the commercial port.
Victoria is a free port, the government site, and the largest and most
important town in these colonies. It enjoys a considerable foreign and
coasting trade, which is annually increasing. The resident population is
upwards of 4,000, and the town has made great progress since 1858, when it
may be said to have first sprung into existence ; it now covers a large
extent of ground, substantial and handsome stone and brick buildings
everywhere replacing the wooden structures first erected.
Along the eastern side of the harbour in front of the town there are
about 400 yards of fair wharfage, with a depth of from 10 to 16 feet at
low water spring tides.     Between Songhies and Limit points on the
* See Plan of Victoria Harbour, No. 1,89 7b ; scale, m = 10 inehes.
J 24
JUAN  DE  FUCA STRAIT.
[ohap. r.
opposite side of the harbour is a small slip capable of receiving vessels of
about 200 tons burthen ; larger vessels, however, may heave down alongside the wharves.
Supplies.—Provisions of all kinds, and of an excellent quality, may
be procured at nearly the same prices as in England, and water is to be
had from a floating tank capable of going outside the harbour, the charge
for it being about 4s. 2d. per ton. Supplies for refitting and repairing
vessels, except timber, are scarce and expensive, but of fair quality.
Coals are plentiful, varying in price from 25 to 40 shillings per ton.
Anchorage.—Vessels anchoring outside the harbour to wait for the
tide, or from other causes, -should not come within a line between Ogden
and Mac Laughlin points, the former bearing W. £ N., the latter E. -J S.,
midway between, or a quarter of a mile from either ; this is a good stopping
place with off-shore winds or fine weather, but is by no means recommended as -a safe anchorage for sailing vessels during the winter months,
when bad weather may be looked for with little warning.
pilots.—There are three or four pilots attached to the port, who keep
a good look out for vessels off the entrance. Pilotage is compulsory to all
merchant vessels, except coasters, but the charges are moderate.
brotchy ledge.—About 4 cables from Holland point, and right in
the fairway of vessels entering Victoria harbour from the eastward, lies
the Brotchy ledge with 5 feet on its shoalest part; it is covered with
kelp, and about a cable in extent within the 5 fathom hue. There are 9
fathoms between the ledge and the shore.
A spar buoy, painted white, marks this ledge. It lies in 12 feet water
with the beacons on Beacon hill in line, bearing N.E. by E. ; Ogden
point N. ^ W. distant 5 cables ; and Holland point N.E. 4 cables. The
buoy is occasionally washed away during the heavy winter gales.
Fisgard island lighthouse, north part of Brothers island, and Macaulay
point in line W. f N., leads a cable north of the ledge in 9 fathoms,
between it and the shore ; and the lighthouse, just open southward of
Brothers island W. by N. £ N., leads 2 cables south of the ledge in 21
fathoms.
In entering or leaving Victoria harbour keep either of the above marks
on, till past the line of the beacons on Beacon hill in line, when a vessel
will be clear of the ledge. Coasters, and those acquainted with the place,
usually go north of it.
The coast from Victoria harbour trends in an easterly direction for
2 miles to Clover point, and is for the most part faced by white sandy cliff's
varying in height from 10 to 80 feet; a sandy beach extends along the
whole way, and at a cable's distance off in many places are rocks and foul
ground.    Two cables east of Holland point, and a cable off shore, are the CHAP. I.J
BROTCHY  LEDGE. ENTERPRIZE  CHANNEL.
25
Glimpse reefs, which cover at three-quarters flood, and have 7 fathoms
just outside them.
Beacon hill, a gentle rise of the land, 2 cables from the water's edge
and a mile east of the harbour, is grassy and bare of trees ; its height is
140 feet, and there is a staff or beacon on the summit.
Clover point, at 2 miles eastward of the entrance to Victoria harbour,
is low, bare of trees, and projecting ; it is steep-to, and off it are some
strong tide rips, dangerous to boats in heavy weather. Ross bay to the
eastward of it is open, but sometimes used by small craft if waiting for
the tide ; there being from 4 to 5 fathoms at 2 cables distance off shore.
Foul bay, nearly a mile north-east of Clover point, is of small extent
and filled with rocks. Off its entrance are the Templar rocks, about 4 feet
under water, and marked by kelp.
Foul point on the east side of the bay is rocky, but has not less than
4 fathoms at a cable's distance ; the land at the back of the point rises to
a height of 230 feet, forming a rocky ridge or summit, known as Gonzales
hill.
TB.IAL islands, nearly If miles eastward from Clover point on the
south side of Enterprize channel, are two in number, bare and rocky,
' but generally appear as one. The south or largest island is 80 feet high,
and steep-to at its outer end; the northern one is low, and from it foul
ground exists some distance. Strong tide ripples prevail off the southern
island especially during the flood, which runs nearly 6 knots at springs
just outside it.
enterprize ckannel, between Trial islands and the Vancouver
shore, is a narrow, tortuous, but deep channel, much used by steamers and
coasters trading to Victoria harbour, as a slight saving of distance is
. effected, and less tide experienced than by going south of the Trial
islands ; its length is about a mile, its width in the narrowest place half a
cable, and there are not less than 24 feet in the shoalest part.
mtcNeii Bay, on the north side of the channel to the eastward of Foul
point, is upwards of 3 cables in extent, with from 2 to 6 fathoms water ;
it is open to the southward, and foul ground exists in its east part, but the
bay is much used by small vessels waiting for the tide.
aiouatt Reef, in the eastern part of the channel, 3 cables from
Trial island and nearly 2 cables off shore, is about a cable in extent, and
covers at a quarter flood ; this rock is dangerous for vessels using the
Enterprize channel, as it lies just north of the fairway.
McNeil farm, just open west of Kitty islet, a bare yellow rock 4 feet
high on the east side of McNeil bay, bearing W. £ N., leads half a cable
south of Mouatt reef; and Channel point in line with the west side of
the Great Chain islet N. by E. $ E., leads nearly 2 cables east of it.
J I
r i:i
26
JUAN   DE  FUCA  STRAIT.
iCHAE."
directions.—Bound through the Enterprize channel to the eastward, when past Foul bay, give Foul point a berth of 2 or 3 cables, and
steer for the west side of McNeil bay on a northerly course ; approach it
close to, after which steer direct for Kitty islet, and when within half a
cable of the latter, haul quickly to the eastward, keeping McNeil farm
just open west of Kitty islet, bearing W. ^ N. ; this will lead safe
through the narrowest part of the channel and south of Mouatt reef.
-When Channel point and the west side of Big Chain islet come in. line
N. by E. \ E. the vessel will be well east of the reef, and may 'round
Gonzales point close to, proceeding up through any of the inner channels.
gonzales point forms the south-east extremity of Vancouver island.
It is a low salient point, rocky, bare of trees, and steep-to on the feast side.
oak bay.—From Gonzales.point, the Vancouver shore trends to the
northward, and at a mile from the point forms a sandy bay which is somewhat less than a mile in extent, and affords fair anchorage near its north
part in from 3 to 4 fathoms.
The best anchorage is to the northward of Mary Todd islet in the south
part of the bay. This islet is bare, and about 30 feet high ; at 2 cables
east of it is Emily rock, 4 feet above high water, and the same distance
south from it the Robson reef, which uncovers at low water.
cadboro bay, 2^- miles to the northward of Gonzales point, is about
half a mile in extent, and open to the south-east; no sea, however, rises
within it, and there is good anchorage in from 3 to 4 fathoms near the
entrance.
The Vancouver shore from Gonzales point to this bay is low and lightly
timbered with dwarf oak and pine trees ; to the northward of Oak bay it
is clear of danger at a cable's distance.
mayor channel, to the northward of Gonzales point, and west of
Chain islets, is about 2 miles long in a winding direction to the northward,
its breadth in the narrowest part is 3 cables, and the soundings in it vary
from 9 to 13 fathoms. The channel is bounded on the west side by Thames
shoal and Fiddle reef, and abreast the latter on its opposite side lies the
Lewis reef. The tide seldom runs more than 3 knots through this channel,
and it is the one generally used.*
Thames shoal, of 2 fathoms water, is of small extent, and marked'by
kelp ; it lies nearly half a mile N. by E. from Gonzales point, at the southwest part of the Mayor channel. Channel point in line with the west
side of Great Chain islet, N. by E. \ E., leads a cable east of this shoal,
and the highest part of Trial island in line with Gonzales point S. £ W.
leads half a cable west.
1 See Plan of Inner Channels, No. 577; scale, m = 6 inches. CHAP. I.]
MAYOR  CHANNEL.—-CHAIN   ISLETS.
27
Lee Rock, which only uncovers at low water springs, lies 1^ cables
westward of Thames shoal; it is marked by kelp and steep-to on the east
side. Between this rock and Thames shoal is Mouatt channel, a cable
wide, with from 7 to 9 fathoms.
Sa&h'e highest part of Trial- island in line with Gonzales point, S. f W.,
leads midway between Thames shoal rand Lee rock ; also through the
fairway of the north part of Mayor channel between Fiddle and Lewis
reefs.
- Piddle. Reef, at the north-west extreirie of Mayor channel, and upwards of a mile from Gonzales point, is of small extent, and awash at
high wateb spring tides ; it may be approached close to on the east-side.
Todd E,ock, at 2 cables west of Fiddle reef, in the entrance to Oak bay,
covers at two-thirds flood, and is marked by kelp.
Lewis Reef, at the north-east part of Mayor channel, nearly 3 cables
south-east of Fiddle reef, and 2 cables -west of the Chain islets, Govers
at high water, and may be approached close to on the west side. The
passage between it and Chain islets is filled with kelp, but has not less
than 2 fathoms.
chain islets, midway between Discovery island and the Vancouver shore, are a bare rocky group, three quarters of a mile long in a
westerly direction, and half a mile wide. The largest, called Great Chain
islet, is about a cable in extent and 30 feet above high water ; it lies at
the south-west side of the group, and its south part may be approached to
a cable's distance.
Spencer ledge, off their east side, at a distance of 2 cables from
the easternmost high-water rock, is marked by kelp, and has 9 feet on
its shoalest part ; if going through Hecate passage it requires to be
guarded against. Cadboro point, open west of Channel point N.N.W. 1W.,
leads a cable east of this ledge through Hecate passage.
Caroline reef, at the north part of the group, and connected to it by a
rocky ledge, is of small extent, and covers at a quarter flood, but is well
out of the track of vessels using any of the channels. Foul ground with
from 3 to 4 fathom's, and marked by kelp, exists upwards of a cable west
of it.
discovery and Chatham islands.—Discovery island is 2 miles
north-east of Gonzales point, at the junction of the Haro and Fuca straits.
It is wooded, about three-quarters of a mile in extent, and its shores on
all sides are bordered by rocks, extending in some places more than 2
cables off. Rudlinbay on its south-east side is filled with rocks, and should
not be used by any vessel.
Chatham islands, to the north-west of Discovery islimd, and separated
from it by a narrow boat pass, are of small extent, forming an irregular 28
JUAN  DE  FUCA  STRAIT.
[CHAP. I.
group, low, wooded, and almost connected with each other at low water,
the tide rushing with great strength through the passages between them ;
their west side is steep-to.
Leading point, at the south extreme, is a bare rocky islet at high water;
to the eastward of it is a small boat cove. Channel point, their west
extreme, is also bare and steep-to ; the tide runs strong past it.
Strong Tide islet, the north-west of these islands, is rocky, about 50
feet high, and wooded ; its west side forms the eastern boundary of
Baynes channel, and is steep-to ; the ebb tide runs very strongly past it,
nearly 6 knots at springs.
Refuge cove, on the east side of the Chatham islands, is small, and has
1^ fathoms in the centre : coasters or small craft entangled among these
islets may find shelter in it. Alpha islet, the easternmost of the group,
is bare, and 10 feet above high water; it is steep-to on the east side, but
only a boat ought to go westward, or inside it.
fvlford keep, 3 cables north of the Chatham islands, is about a
cable in extent, and covers at three-quarters flood. Vessels using the
Baynes channel should keep well to the westward to avoid this reef, as the
tide sets irregularly in its vicinity.
hscate and plumper passages.—Discovery island is separated
from the Chain islets by a passage half a mile wide in the narrowest part,
forming an apparently clear and wide channel, but near the middle of the
south part lies Centre rock, which has only 3 feet over it, and though
marked by kelp, this, from the strength of the tides, is often run under, and
seldom seen. There is deep passage on either side of this danger, the one
to the westward being called Hecate, and the eastern one Plumper passage;
the latter is wider and best adapted for large steamers, but the tide sets
very strongly through both of them.
Cadboro point, open west of Channel point N.N. W. ^ W., leads through
Hecate passage in mid-channel, west of Centre rock.
Cadboro point, well shut in north of Leading point N.W. § N., leads
through Plumper passage in mid-channel, east of Centre rock.
baynes channel, between Cadboro point and the Chatham islands,
connecting these inner channels with Haro strait, is upwards of a mile
long and half a mile wide ; the soundings in it are irregular, varying from
4£ to 30 fathoms, and the tide at springs rushes through it with great
velocity, strongest along the eastern side.
The Five fathom shoal lying in the centre of the channel, is not marked
by kelp ; if wishing to avoid it a vessel has only to keep a little over on
either- side of mid-channel.
cadboro point, on the Vancouver shore, at the termination of the
inner  channels, is nearly 3 miles north of Gonzales point, and three- chap. I.] HECATE AND PLUMPER PASSAGES.—CONSTANCE BANK.     29
quarters of a mile west of the Chatham islands. It is about 50 feet high,
rocky and bare of trees. A small islet lies just off it, also a reef which
covers ; in passing do not approach the islet within 2 cables.
The coast west of Cadboro point to Cadboro bay, is low, very much
broken, and there are some off-lying rocks. Jemmy Jones islet, which
is bare and 15 feet above high water, lies 3 cables off shore, midway between the two points ; foul ground exists around it for upwards of a
cable in some parts, and though there is deep water between it and the
shore, none except small craft should go through that passage.
bisections.—None of these inner channels, though deep, should be
used except by steamers of moderate size or small craft, unless in cases of
necessity. Coasters and small steamers, when taking advantage of them,
generally proceed through the Mayor channel. If using this channel,
after passing Gonzales point keep the west side of Great Chain islet in
line with Channel point N. by E. \ E. till within 2 cables of the islet,
when the vessel will be clear of the Thames shoal, after which haul to
the north-west bringing the highest part of Trial island in line with
Gonzales point S. f W., and with that mark on astern steer N. f E., which
will lead between the Fiddle and Lewis reefs, and on through Baynes
channel, to Haro strait. When past Lewis and Fiddle reefs, a vessel
may, if necessary, haul a little to the eastward for the fairway-towards
Strong Tide islet.
Going through Mouatt channel, which is very narrow and seldom used,
after rounding Gonzales point at a cable's distance, bring the highest part
of Trial island in line with the point, S- f W., and keeping this mark on
astern, and steering N. f E., will lead through clear of danger.
The Hecate and Plumper passages are nearly straight, and better adapted
for large steamers than those west of the Chain islets. If using either of
them, after passing half a mile south of the islets on a north-easterly
course, bring the leading marks^(page 28) on, and keep them so till northward of the Centre rock, when steer up in mid-channel towards Cadboro
point and through Baynes channel into Haro strait.
tides.—The high water at full and change is irregular and much influenced by prevailing winds; the greatest rise and fall of tide at Discovery
island is 12 feet. During summer months in these channels, the flood
stream commences at 11. 15. a.m., running with great strength till nearly
3 p.m. after which but little tide is felt till 4 a.m. on the following day,
when the ebb commences and runs strong till nearly 11 a.m. the time of
low water by the shore.
Constance bank,lying in theFuca strait, nearly 6 miles S.E. b.E. -| E.
from Fisgard island lighthouse, 3 miles S. by W. from Trial island, and
7 miles N.E. from Race island lighthouse, is upwards of a mile in extent 30
HARO  STRAIT.
[CHAP. I.
with 9 to 14 fathoms, but a vessel should not anchor on it, as the bottom
is rocky.
fonts bank, about a mile in extent, with from 3^ to 5 fathoms-
and marked by kelp, lies nearly in the middle of Fuca strait, 6
miles S. \ W. from Cattle point San Juan island, 8 miles E. by S. from
Discovery island, and 8 miles W. ^ S. from Smith or Blunt island lighthouse.
This bank ought to be avoided, as there may be less water on it than,
shown in the chart.
haro strait, the westernmost of the three channels leading from
the strait of Fuca into the strait of Georgia, is bounded on tbe western
side by Vancouver island, and its off-lying smaller islands and reefs,
and on the eastern side by the islands of San Juan and Stuart, and runs
in a N.W. by N. direction for 18 miles ; it then turns sharply to the N.E.
round Turn point of Stuart island, for a farther distance of 12 miles,
leaving the Saturna island to the westward, and Waldron and Patos
islands to the eastward, when it enters the strait of Georgia between
Saturna and Patos islands.
It is for the most part a broad, and for its whole extent a deep navigable, ship channel; but on account of the reefs which exist in certain
parts, the general absence of steady winds, the scarcity of anchorages,
and, above all, the strength and varying direction of the tides, much care
and vigilance is necessary in its navigation, and it is far more adapted
to steam than to sailing vessels.
Besides the main stream of the Haro strait thus described, there are
several smaller channels and passages branching from it by which vessels
may enter the strait of Georgia ; thus the Swanson channel leads into
the strait by the Active pass,* and the Trincomalie and Stuart channels
by the Portier pass, or the Dodd narrows.
These channels may be again entered by smaller ones ; thus Sidney and
Cordova channels, on the western side of Haro strait, lead by Moresby and
Shute passages into the Swanson and Stuart channels, and finally into
the strait of Georgia. These channels are essentially adapted to steam
navigation, or to coasting vessels ; they afford smooth water, and many of
them anchorages.    They will be described in their proper order.
middle bank, lying in the southern entrance of Haro strait,
E. by N. 4 miles from Discovery island, and almost in mid-channel is
a rocky patch about 2 miles in extent each way, and the least water found
on it is 10 fathoms. In bad weather there are heavy tide ripplings on
and in the vicinity of this, bank, which are dangerous to boats or small
craft.
* Formerly the Plumper pass, by 'which name it is more generally known. CHAP. I.]
MIDDLE  BANK.
-KELP  REEFS.
zero rock.—The principal dangers in the southern part of Haro
strait are the Zero rock and the Kelp reefs ; the former lies on the west
side of the strait, is. about half a cable in extent, covers at three-quarters
flood, and its vicinity is marked by kelp ; it bears from the east point
of Discovery island N.W. 61 miles, and from the high white cliff of
Cowitchin head E. by S. 3^ miles.
The kelp reefs lie almost in the centre of Haro strait, N.N.W. £ W.,
7\ miles from the east point of Discovery island, E. by N. ^-N. 5 miles
from Cowitchin head, and East 2 miles from the south end of Darcy
island. They uncover at low springs, and are well marked by kelp,
which extends in detached patches to Darcy island.
The Unit rock lies E. by N. \ N. three-quarters of a mile from the
south-east point of Darcy island, and uncovers 2 feet at low tides.
Bare island well open north of the south-east point of Sidney island,
N.W. \ W. leads a third of a mile east of these reefs.
directions.—Vessels passing up Haro strait to avoid the above
dangers, after rounding Discovery island at the distance of a mile, should
steer N.N.W., or for Kellett bluff of Henry island, a remarkable steep
rocky headland. This course will clear the Kelp reefs by a mile. In
working up, when standing westward, a vessel should tack when Low
island is shut in with the south-east point of Sidney island, which,
will give the Zero rock a good berth ; but when approaching the Kelp
reefs, Bare island must be kept well open to the eastward of the same
point to avoid them.    The eastern or San Juan shore is steep close to.
When abreast Kellett bluff from half a mile to a mile, a N.W. by N.
course will pass the same distance from Turn point of Stuart island. There
are no dangers off this point; but whirling eddies and tide ripplings,
caused by the meetings of the streams from so many channels, are generally met with, particularly with the ebb. A vessel may reach this point
with a fresh southerly wind, but will almost invariably lose it here, until
having opened out the middle channel eastward of San Juan.
After rounding Turn point, a N.E. -j^N. course for 10 miles will lead to
the northern entrance of Haro strait, between the East point of Saturna and
Patos islands. This passage is 21 miles in breadth, but is subject to heavy
tide ripplings and eddies; it is recommended when possible to pass through
the centre of it- The flood from the Rosario strait, which is met with as
soon as the passage between Orcas and Sucia islands is open, is apt to set
a vessel towards the East point of Saturna, off which and Tumbo island
there is much uneven and broken ground with heavy races. This point
should be given a berth of a mile.
The ebb sets to the eastward even before the strait of Georgia is well
open, and a vessel finding herself not likely to weather Patos should pass
between it and Sucia ; where there is a good clear passage of above a mile :i
32
HARO  STRAIT.
[chap. I.
in breadth j if this passage is taken, the Patos island shore should be kept
rather aboard. Beware of the Plumper and Clements reefs ; the former
lies S.W. by S. l£ miles from the north-west bluff of Sucia island, and
has 10 feet water on it; the latter N.E. i N. the same distance from the
same bluff, and has 9 feet over it.
When in the strait of Georgia from W. by N. to W.N.W. is a fan- mid-
channel course. If bound for Fraser river a N.W. by W. course from the
centre of the channel between Patos island and East point will lead to the
sand heads, thedistance nearly 20 miles. Entering the strait and having
passed to the northward of Patos island, if the ebb is running a vessel is
extremely liable, unless with a commanding breeze, to be set to the eastward and down the Rosario channel.
The northern shore of Sucia island should by all means be avoided;
if Alden bank can be fetched it offers a good anchorage while waiting
for a tide. Alden point, the west point of Patos island, in one with
Monarch head, a bold cliffy bluff bearing S.W. -J W., leads over the
northern edge of this bank in from 6 to 9 fathoms.* When Mount Constitution is in one with the centre of Matia island 9 fathoms may be
expected, and a ship should not anchor in much less than this depth,
as in the shoaler parts rocky ground is found; the least water on the
bank is 2\ fathoms.
With a foul wind and ebb tide a vessel should always work up on the
eastern shore ; there are no dangers, little tide when eastward of a line
between Roberts point and Alden bank, and anchorage may always be
had within a mile of the shore if necessary. Birch and Semiahmoo bays
offer good anchorage, and are easy of access. In working up the Strait of
Georgia the western shore should never be approached within a mile ;
the tides sweep strongly along this shore, and there are several outlying
reefs between East point and Active pass.
As soon as the strait is entered from the southward, Roberts point will
show its eastern part as a bold white faced cliff, its western as a low shingle
point; its summit is covered with trees, and it would at first sight be
taken for an island in consequence of the land on its northern side
falling rapidly in elevation. After passing northward of this point, its
low water extreme, or the trees just within it, must not be brought
to bear southward of E. \ S. to avoid Roberts bank, which extends
5 miles off the Fraser river entrance, is steep-to, and shoals suddenly from
25 to 2 fathoms.
cormorant bay—Between Gordon and Cowitchin heads, on the
western side of Haro strait, is a good stopping place and easy of access
under most circumstances.    It may be entered either to the southward or
* See Views on Chart, No. 2,689.
v_ CHAP. I.]
CORMORANT  BAY. ANCHORAGES.
33
northward of Zero rock; the passage to the southward is 1-| miles in
breadth, with a depth of 20 fathoms.
Mount Douglas, a remarkable hill 700 feet high, with its summit bare
of trees, rises immediately over the coast at the head of the bay.
Johnstone reef lies three-quarters of a mile from the shore, midway
between Cadboro point and Gordon head, is marked by kelp, and of small
extent.
Three shoal patches, with from 6 to 12 feet on them, lie W. i S.
one to 1-^ miles distant from Zero rock, but there is a clear passage of
nearly a mile with 20 fathoms water between the rock and the nearest
shoal.
There is but little stream of tide in Cormorant bay when within the
Zero rock, and the holding ground is good.
directions.—To enter Cormorant bay, bring Mount Douglas to bear
S.W. 1 S., and steer for it; when the western points of Discovery and
Chatham islands are well shut in by Cadboro point, a vessel will be westward
of Zero rock, and can take up a berth a mile off shore, with Mount Douglas
bearing S. by W., and Gordon head just touching the outer extremes of
Chatham and Discovery islands S.E. by E. -^ E. in 9 or 10 fathoms.
To enter this bay northward of Zero rock, the Kelp reefs, which lie
N.E. by N. distant If miles from the rock, must be avoided ; the positions of both rock and reefs will generally be easily distinguished from
a vessel's deck a mile off, and either may be approached to a cable's
length. By steering for Cowitchin head, a very remarkable high white
cliff at the northern end of Cormorant bay, on a W. -J- S. bearing, will
lead in mid-channel, and good anchorage will be found from one to 2
miles offshore with the head on that bearing, in 8 to 10 fathoms.
This anchorage will be more exposed to S.E. winds than the one last
mentioned, but a vessel with good ground tackle will always be perfectly
safe.
anchorages.—Although there are many harbours among the archipelago of islands which form the Haro strait and its tributary channels,
yet the number eligible for sailing vessels overtaken by darkness or an
adverse tide is comparatively small.
Between Cormorant bay and the northern entrance of Haro strait,
Plumper sound and Cowlitz bay are the only eligible stopping places for
a sailing vessel seeking shelter.
Stuart island indeed affords two fair harbours, and Roche harbour at
the north-west end of San Juan island is a suitable anchorage for
steamers or small coasters, but no sailing vessel of moderate tonnage could
enter either under ordinary circumstances without great loss of time
as well as risk.
9471. C — -_=
31
HARO   STRAIT.
[chap. i.
-
tides.—The stream of tide runs fairly through the main channel of
Haro strait, outside the Kelp reefs, and inside them through the Cordova
and Sidney channels, passing outside the Kelp reefs, and eastward of
Sidney island a part of the flood stream will be found to branch off to
the eastward, between San Juan and Stuart islands, and there meeting
the flood from the Middle channel, cause heavy races and eddies, so that
although there are deep water channels between these islands, they
are not recommended for sailing vessels ; in like manner the flood runs to
the N.W. between the group of islands> northward of Sidney island, and
through Shute and Moresby passages, though the main stream will be
found to run fairly between Stuart and Moresby islands.
pltjjveper sound.—If from any cause it should be found necessary
to anchor in that bend of the Haro strait between Stuart island and the
East point of Saturna island, this sound is recommended as a safe and
convenient harbour, easy of access with the wind from any quarter. It
is formed between Pender and Saturna islands, and the entrance lies
N.N.E. ^ E. 5 miles from Turn point of Stuart island, and an equal distance from the East point of Saturna. Blunden island, about 2 cables in
length, and close to the shore, forms the western entrance point ; Monarch
head, a high bold rocky headland, the eastern. The sound runs in a
. W.N.W. direction for 6 miles, with an average breadth of 1-J- miles ; there
is anchorage in a moderate depth of water in most parts of it, as well as
several bays or harbours if preferred.
There are no dangers at the entrance, either shore may be approached
close, in working up, and but little tide is felt; for the first 2 miles the
sound is a mile in breadth, and for this distance the water is too deep for
convenient anchorage, being generally from 25 to 50 fathoms, except
: on the south side, where if necessary an anchor may be dropped a. quarter
of a mile from the shore, in from 10 to 12 fathoms.
When 2 miles within the entrance the depth decreases rather suddenly to 10 fathoms, and excellent anchorage may be had in almost any
•part; the most convenient is off the entrance of Browning' harbour on
the south side of the sound in 8 fathoms, half a mile from the shore, with
the east point of Blunden island just open of the land to the westward of
it, bearing E. -| S. Above Browning harbour, the only danger to be
avoided in working up the sound is Perry rock, with 6 feet on it, marked
by kelp ; it is 2 cables from the shore and N.W. by N, three-quarters of
a mile from Razor point, the north point of the harbour.
browning harbour is on the south side of Plumper sound, 3 miles
within the entrance ; it runs in a west direction for l|r miles, and is a third
of a mile wide, but rather less at the entrance. The depth of water decreases
gradually from 10 fathoms at the entrance to 4 fathoms at its head, with CHAP. I.]
PLUMPER   SOUND.—SAMUEL  ISLAND.
35
good holding ground. The best anchorage is in the centre just above
Shark cove, which is a convenient creek, with 4 fathoms in it, on the south
side of the harbour, three quarters of a-mile within the entrance; here
a ship might beach and repair on a sandy spit. The cove is separated
by a narrow neck of land of 150 yards from Bedwell harbour, on the
south coast of Pender island, across into which the natives launch their
canoes.
lyall harbour and winter cove lie in the south-east corner
of Plumper sound, and are indentations in the north-west end of Saturna
island.
Lyall harbour is the southernmost, and its southern entrance point, a
cliffy bluff, bears N. ^ E., 2 miles from the entrance of Browning, harbour.
King islets, 2 low rugged islets, with a reef extending nearly a cable off
their western end, form the northern entrance, which is half a mile in
breadth. The harbour runs east for 1^ miles, gradually narrowing and terminating in a sandy beach with a good stream of fresh water at its head ;
the. soundings decrease regularly from 8 to 4 fathoms, but the Crispin
rock, with 6 feet on it at low water, decreases its value as a harbour for
sailing vessels. This rock is a mere pinnacle, nearly half a mile within the
entrance ; there is no kelp to give warning of its position, and it lies
exactly in the middle of the harbour, bearing from the centre of the outer
King islet E. by S. £ S. half a mile, and from the south entrance point
of the harbour N.E. three-quarters of a mile ; there is, however, a clear
passage on either side of it of 11 cables, and a vessel anchoring within it
should drop her anchor in 5 fathoms, half a mile from the beach at the
head of the harbour. The anchorage outside the rock is with outer King
islet N.W. by N., and the south entrance point S.S.W. 1 W., about a
third of a mile from the former in 7 fathoms, muddy bottom.
Boot cove on the south side of the harbour, a third of a mile within the
south point, has 3 fathoms water, and is a convenient spot for repairing a
vessel; a small islet lies off its western entrance point.
samuel island, between Saturna and Mayne islands, is almost connected with either, but leaving two passages by which boats or even small
coasters may pass into the strait of Georgia at proper times of tide. This
island is indented on its southern side by several bays, among them
Winter cove, which is formed between its south-eastern side and the
north-west point of Saturna, and is only half a mile northward of Lyall
harbour. The depth of water in the cove being only from 2 to 3 fathoms,
it is only fit for small vessels, which must pass to the westward of King
islets, and on either side of the Minx reef. The outlet to the strait of
Georgia from its north-east corner is not above 90 feet in breadth, and the
c 2 36
HARO  STRAIT.
[chap. I.
tides rush through with great fury ; coasting vessels might pass into the
strait by taking the passage at slack water, or boats overtaken in the
strait by bad weather might take shelter under the lee of Belle chain, and
enter Plumper sound by this pass with the flood ; the south-easternmost
island of Belle chain is only two-thirds of a mile north of the pass.
'water is easily obtainable during the winter or rainy months from
streams in almost any part of Plumper sound. At the head of Lyall or
Browning harbours, constantly in the former, a certain quantity maybe
procured during the driest months of summer from June to August.
navy channel is a continuation of the western part of Plumper
Bound, and leads between Pender and Mayne islands into the Trmcomalie
channel.
Independently therefore of its value as an anchorage, Plumper sound
becomes a high road for vessels bound into the strait of Georgia or Fraser
river by the Active pass, or to Nanaimo; or any of the north-western ports
of Vancouver island. From the north-western end of the sound abreast
Fane island the channel runs west for 3 miles, when it enters Trincomalie
channel between Mayne and Prevost islands ; its average breadth is half
a mile.
Conconi and Enterprize reefs.—Conconi reef lies about midway through
Navy channel, If miles from Fane island, and nearly 2 cables off the
northern shore, and narrows the strait at that part to a third of a mile.
It is a ledge of rocks extending in the di "ection of the channel for more
than a cable's length, and covering at half tide ; its vicinity is marked
by kelp, and a patch of 2 fathoms extends nearly 2 cables westward of it.
The general depth of water in the channel is from 20 to 30 fathoms.
The Enterprize reefs are two rocky patches, the westernmost of which
dries at low water, and both are marked by kelp. The outermost of these
reefs lies W.N.W. one mile from Dinner point, the north-west entrance
point of Navy channel, and S. by E. two-thirds of a mile from Helen point,
the south point of Active pass.
directions.—-Vessels using Navy channel should keep rather southward of mid-channel. The shores of Pender island are bold. In passing
out of the western entrance, if bound through Trincomalee channel
or Active pass, steer over towards Prevost island until Pelorus point
the east point of Moresby island, is open of Mouatt point, the west
point of Pender island S.E. i S., then haul up N.W. ■£ N. keeping the
marks just open, which will lead clear to the westward of Enterprize
reefs.*
See View C, on Chart of Haro Strait and Middle Channel, No. 2,840.
li CHAP. I.]
NAVY  CHANNEL.—STUART  ISLAND.
37
When Helen point, which is a low bare yellow point, bears N. by E., a
vessel may steer for the entrance of Active pass, or shape her course up
the Trincomalie channel.
The flood tide from. the Swanson channel runs through Navy channel
to the eastward, and meets the flood in Plumper sound, causing a slight
ripple at the east entrance ; its strength is upwards of 3 knots.
bedwell harbour, the entrance to which bears North 3 miles
from Turn point of Stuart island, and is the same distance westward of
the southern 'entrance of Plumper sound, is, on account of its narrower
entrance, not so eligible a stopping place for vessels waiting the tide as
the latter ; but for steamers it is a good harbour. Its narrowest part,
which is at the entrance, is a quarter of a mile in breadth, but it soon opens
out to half a mile, and runs in a W.N.W. direction for 2 miles, the depth
of water being from 5 to 10 fathoms, mud bottom. The only danger
which does not show is the Drew rock, with 10 feet on it, in the centre of
the harbour a third of a mile from its head; there is, however, no necessity
for a vessel to go as high as this, the most convenient anchorage being in-
a bay on the north shore, two-thirds of a mile within the entrance in 8
fathoms, midway between Hay point and the Skull reef, which always
shows some feet above high water.
camp say, between Bedwell harbour and Plumper sound, and half a
mile westward of Blunden island, offers shelter as a stopping place to
small craft, when not convenient to work into either of these ports.
stuart island, lying 3 miles north-westward of^the northern part
of the island of San Juan, is 3 miles long in an east and west direction,
of an irregular shape and about 650 feet high, the summits of the hills
partially bare of trees ; Turn point, its north-west extreme, a bold cliffy
bluff, forms the salient angle of the Haro strait, where it changes its
direction suddenly from N.W. by N. to N.E. before entering the strait of
Georgia. There are two anchorages in Stuart island, Reid harbour on its
southern side, and Provost harbour on its northern, but both are small and
intricate for sailing vessels above the size of coasters.
To enter Reid harbour from the southward, beware of being drawn by
the flood into the channel between San Juan and Stuart islands, where
there are several dangers, and the tides most irregular in their direction.
The south-west side of Stuart island should therefore be first closed ; it is
bold and free from danger.
The harbour bears N.W. one mile from Spieden bluff, a remarkable
bare grassy point, generally of a yellow colour, the western extreme of
the island of the same name. Gossip island lies in the entrance : leave
it on the right hand in entering.   The breadth of the channel is 1^ cables,
n"
II; 38
HARO  STRAIT.
[chap. r.
the depth from 4 to 5 fathoms, and no dangers but what are visible.
When a short distance within, the harbour increases to a quarter of a
mile in breadth, and runs in a westerly direction for above a mile, the J
general depth of water being 4 fathoms ; the best anchorage is off an
Indian village on the south side, about half a mile within the entrance.
Prevost harbour, on' the northern side ofthe island, 1^ miles eastward 3
of Turn point, has James island lying in the centre of it. The entrance is
to the westward of this island, between it and Charles point, and is about
2 cables in breadth. The harbour runs south for a short distance, and then
takes an easterly direction ; anchor in 6 fathoms as soon as the eastern
arm opens out, or if desired, run up the arm into 41- fathoms ; here it is
narrow, but perfectly sheltered. The passage to the eastward of James
island is a blind one, but a vessel may anchor, if necessary, in its entrance
in 10 or 12 fathoms.
johns island, with its numerous off-lying reefs, lies to the eastward -
of Stuart island, and is separated from it by a navigable channel of 10
fathoms, but it is narrow and not recommended but for coasters acquainted
with the locality.
spieden island, lying between San Juan and Stuart islands, is
2\ miles long in an east and west direction, and very narrow; its
southern side grassy and bare of trees, its summit and northern side
thickly wooded ; Green point, its eastern extreme, is a sloping grassy
point.
There is a channel on either side of Spieden island ; New channel to
he northward, and Spieden channel to the southward. It may sometimes
oe convenient to take either of these channels in passing from the Middle
channel to Haro strait, or vice versd, as the distance round Stuart island
will be saved ; but from the strength and irregularity of the tides, and the
number of hidden dangers which exist in certain parts of them, they
-cannot be recommended for sailing vessels, nor indeed to any vessel
■without a pilot, or being thoroughly acquainted with the locality.
spieden channel, between the island of that name and San Juan,
has a general W. by S. direction. Its eastern entrance, between Green
point and the north-east point of San Juan, is two-thirds of a mile wide,
and for 2 miles the water is deep and clear of positive dangers ; the
meeting of the flood-tide, however, from Haro strait with that from the
Middle channel, causes heavy ripplings and irregular eddies, and these, j
together with the general absence of steady winds, render the navigation always tedious and dangerous for sailing vessels ; its western
entrance is encumbered with numerous reefs and shoals with irregular
soundings. CHAP. I.]
SPIEDEN  ISLAND  AND  CHANNEL.
39
Sentinel island stands in the western entrance of this channel. It is
small, bare on its southern side, about 150 feet high, bears E.S.E. two-
thirds of a mile from Spieden bluff, and the passage between it and
Spieden island is more than a cable wide, with a depth of 25 fathoms.
A vessel using the Spieden channel is recommended to keep the Spieden
island shore abroad, and to pass between it and Sentinel island. There
is much less tide here than in the centre of the channel, or on the San
Juan shore.
centre reef is a dangerous patch, awash at low water, and almost in
the centre of the channel. It bears from Sentinel island S.W. by S. nearly
half a mile ; from Spieden bluff, the western extreme of that island,
S.E. by S. more than two-thirds of a mile ; and from Morse island, off the
north point of Henry island, N.N.E. J E. one mile; the kelp will generally
be seen round the reef, but it is sometimes run under. There is a passage
2 cables wide between the reef and Sentinel island, with a depth of 17
fathoms. Both the flood from Haro strait, and the ebb through Spieden
channel set on to the reef; therefore, when nearing it, the San Juan
shore should be kept aboard, avoiding the shoal 2 cables off Bare islet.
Danger shoal is also at the western entrance ; it has 2 fathoms on it,
and is marked by kelp, though not always to be distinguished. It bears
from Spieden bluff S.S.W. f W. three-quarters of a mile ; from Morse
island N. by W. two-thirds of a mile ; and from Sentinel island W.S.W.,
a little more than a mile.
Bare islet is a rock about 15 feet high lying in the southern part of
the channel, E. by N. -^ N. one mile from Morse island. There is a shoal
patch of 15 feet nearly 2 cables N.W. by N. from it; this patch is always
covered with kelp, and is the last danger known in the channel.
directions.—Vessels bound from Haro strait to the eastward,
through the Spieden channel should pass about a quarter of a mile or
less northward of Morse island, and then steer for Green point, the
east extreme of Spieden island, until Sentinel island bears N.W.; the
dangers in the western entrance will then be passed, and a straight
course may be steered through, bearing in mind that the Spieden island
shore is the best to keep abroad, being free from danger, with but
little tide.
If bound westward through this channel, if the passage between
Spieden and Sentinel islands is not taken, the shore of Spieden island-
should still be kept aboard within a quarter of a mile to avoid the tide
races. If Centre reef is awash, or the kelp on it is seen, pass a quarter,
of a mile South of it, and steer to pass the same distance northward of
Morse island.    If Centre reef is not made out, take care not to bring Ill
i.
I
HARO   STRAIT.
[chap. I.
Morse island to bear to the southward of S.W., until Bare islet bears
S.E. by E.
new channel to the northward of Spieden island, though narrower
than the one just described,' is deep, more free from danger, and the
navigation of it more simple. The northern shore of Spieden island is
bold and steep, and should be kept aboard ; the narrowest part of the
channel is a quarter of a mile between Spieden and the Cactus islands.
By no means get entangled among the reefs to the northward of the
latter ; the flood tide sets to the north-eastward among them ; but it also
runs fairly through New Channel, and by keeping the Spieden shore
aboard, there will be no danger of being set to the northward ; the
ebb tide runs to the south-westward between Spieden and Johns islands.
SAN juaw island, the western coast of which forms for some distance the eastern boundary of Haro strait, is of considerable size, being
13 miles in length in a N.W. and S.E. direction, with an average breadth
of about 4 miles. Its western shores are steep and rocky, and afford no
anchorage, soundings from 100 to 150 fathoms being found within half a
mile of the coast. Mount Dallas rises abruptly to a height of 1,086 feet,
but the eastern side of the island falls in a more gentle slope, and affords
a considerable extent of good land available for agricultural or grazing
purposes. Towards the southern end, and visible from seaward, are some
white buildings, the farming establishment of the Hudson bay company ;
the south-eastern extreme, which forms one of the entrance points of the
Middle channel, terminates in a^white clay cliff, over which rises Mount
Finlayson to a height of 550 feet, remarkable as being entirely clear of
trees on its southern side, while it is thickly wooded on the northern.
There is a clean gravel beach under Mount Finlayson, where boats can
generally land.
Off the north-west end of San Juan lies Henry island, being only separated from it by a narrow channel called Mosquito passage. Henry island
would be taken as a part of San Juan, the passage appearing merely as
an indentation in the latter. Kellett bluff, the south-west point of the
island, makes as the most prominent headland on the eastern side of Haro
strait, when seen from the southward. Immediately eastward of it is
Open bay, which has more the appearance of a channel than the true one
Mosquito passage. There is no shelter either in the bay, or anchorage in
the passage, for anything beyond coasters^
mosquito passage runs in a northerly and N.N.W. direction for 3
miles, is something over half a mile in breadth, and is studded with numerous reefs, which are marked by kelp. When a mile within the passage,
Westcott creek, an indentation in San Juan, branches off to the N.E. CHAP. I.]
SAN  JUAN  ISLAND. ROCHE  HARBOUR.
41
and affords a haven for coasters. There is a 2-fathom channel through
the passage, and into this creek ; the only directions necessary are to
avoid the kelp patches ; the tide runs strongly through it.
soche harbour.—At the northern entrance of Mosquito passage,
the space between San Juan and Henry islands opens out considerably,
and the depth of water increases. This space forms Roche harbour,
which must be entered from the northward by vessels of burthen ; its
entrance is somewhat confined, but not uneasy of access, and it affords good
shelter when within.
Morse island, a small flat cliffy island, about 30 feet high, lies a quarter
of a mile westward of the north point of Henry island ; and the entrance
of Roche harbour is half a mile eastward of the former. To enter, pass
as near as convenient northward of Morse island, as there are no dangers
outside it, steering E. by S. for a little more than half a mile ; the
entrance will then open out between Henry island and the west point of
Pearl island, wooded, and lying in the centre of the passage ; off the
north side of Pearl is a small island connected to it at low water. The
breadth of the entrance is 2 cables ; the depth 7 fathoms in mid-channel;
the shores on either side may be approached tolerably close ; and immediately within Pearl island, the harbour opens out to a considerable
breadth.
A good anchorage is in 6 fathoms, with the west end of Pearl island
bearing N.W., distant about a quarter of a mile, and the north part of
Henry island just open of it. If working in, remember that a shoal of 15
feet lies 2 cables northward of Bare islet, and that fair anchorage may be
had in 9 fathoms at the entrance, if it should be found too narrow for
beating. But a vessel should get in far enough to be out of the tides
of Spieden channel. Small vessels leaving Roche harbour, and bound
southward, may take the Mosquito passage.
waldron island lies in the northern entrance of the Middle
channel, but as its anchorages are frequently available for vessels passing
to or from Haro strait, it seems desirable that it should be described
while treating of that neighbourhood.
The island is thickly wooded, moderately high, and cliffy on its southern
and eastern sides, but falling to the northward, where it terminates in
low sandy points. Disney point, its southern extreme, is a remarkable
high stratified bluff.
COWLST3 bay, on the western side of Waldron, between Disney and
Sandy points, affords good anchorage with all winds, the depth of
water from 5 to 8 fathoms, and the holding ground stiff mud ; it may be
sometimes more desirable to anchor here than to work 2 or 3 miles up into 42
HARO  STRAIT.
[chap. I.
Plumper sound, particularly for vessels coming up Middle channel. If
entering from the northward or westward, Sandy point may be passed at
a third of a mile, and standing into the bay, anchor on the line between it
and Disney point in 5 or 6 fathoms ; the latter point bearing S.E. by E.,
and the centre of White rock S. ^ W. If a south-easter is blowing, a
vessel may stand far enough in to get smooth water under shelter of
Disney point; no sea, however, to affect a vessel's safety gets up in this
bay with any wind. The only danger in the bay isMouatt reef, with 3 feet
-on it ; it bears from Disney point N.W. -^ N. half a mile, with deep water
between it and the shore.
If entering from the southward, Disney point should be kept aboard
within less than half a mile, particularly with the ebb, for as soon as
Douglas channel is opened out, which is the continuation of Middle
channel, and through which the tide runs sometimes 5 knots, a vessel is
apt to be set down on Danger rock.
north bay, on the north-west side of the island, affords anchorage
in 8 to  10 fathoms about a quarter of a mile off shore, but is not by
any means such a desirable place as Cowlitz bay, the bank being rather'
steep, and the tide felt more strongly.
dancer rock.—This dangerous reef, with only 5 feet on it,
and on which the kelp is rarely seen, lies S.E. by E. 1 E., a third of
a mile from White rock, which is 25 feet above high water, and has also
a covering rock extending 2 cables to the north-west of it.
It is particularly recommended to give these rocks a wide berth, as with
the strong tides the water is too deep for anchorage in case of getting
•entangled among them in light winds. 43
CHAPTER II.
THE WESTERN CHANNELS AND ISLANDS TO GABRIOLA PASS.
Variation 22° 0' to 22° 10' East, in 1864.
Tbe     WESTERN     CHANNELS     of    HARO    STRAIT    may   be   used
with advantage by steamers or coasters bound from the southern ports
of Vancouver island to the strait of Georgia, or to the districts ot-
Saanich, Cowitchin, Nanaimo, and the numerous intermediate harbours ;
their advantages over the Haro strait consist in a less strength of tide-
with sheltered anchorage in almost all parts, while in the latter strait the-
depth of water is so great that it is impossible to anchor, and sailing
vessels may frequently be set back into Fuca strait, thus entailing great
delay as well as risk ; on the other hand, the western channels are not free
from danger, yet, with the assistance of the chart, and a good look out
from aloft for kelp, a precaution which should never be neglected, they
may be navigated during daylight with ease and safety.
directions.—To vessels passing from the southward, and intending;
to take the western channels, the first danger to be avoided is the
Johnstone reef (page 33), lying nearly a mile from the shore, midway between Cadboro point and Gordon head ; if the Plumper passagei has been:
taken, steer when at its northern entrance, and abreast Cadboro point,
N.N.W., or keep the passage between that point and Chatham island
just open until Gordon head is in one with Mount Douglas, bearing.
W. by S. 1 S.
If passing outside Discovery and Chatham islands, steer from a berth;
about a mile off shore, N.W. by W., or keep the remarkable white cliff of
Cowitchin head half a point on the port bow until the same marks are on,
the Zero rock will then be distant 2^ miles, and in one with the south-:
west point of James island ; as this rock does not cover until threes
quarters flood, and is marked by kelp, it will generally be seen, and may
be passed on either side at a cable's length of the kelp.
If Zero rock is not seen, and it is intended to pass inside it, when in
the position before described, steer up the channel with the eastern point
PI 44
WESTERN  CHANNELS  AND  ISLANDS.
[ohap. II.
of Discovery island in one with the easternmost hill of the range on the
south side of Fuca strait over Port Townshend, bearing S.E. ^ E. until
the south end of Darcy island is on with the small island of Morse, or
with the north end of Henry island bearing N.N.E., when the rock will
be well cleared.
If passing outside Zero rock, and it is not seen, when about a mile
outside Discovery island, steer N.W. £ W., or for the centre of Sidney
channel between James and Sidney islands until the same marks are on,
viz., the south end of Darcy and north end of Henry islands in one ; from
this position, having passed either inside or outside Zero rock,, and
intending to take the Sidney channel, which is the best, the following
directions should be observed.
The southern face of James island is a moderately high and steep
white clay cliff, its summit covered with trees ; towards the eastern
part of this cliff are two remarkable notches on its summit. Steer to the
N.N.W. to bring Mount Tuam (on the southern point of Admiral island)
over the centre between these two notches bearing N.W. by W., and
this mark will lead westward of the 3 fathom patch off Darcy island, and
between it and the shoal of 9 feet extending south-eastward of James
island.*
When Morse island is just shut in by the south-east point of Sidney
island, the latter bearing N.E. f N., the 3 fathom patch is passed, and a
mid-channel course should be steered between James and Sidney islands.
The breadth of the channel is nearly a mile, with from 14 to 20 fathoms, until
near its northern end, where a patch with 3 fathoms, marked by kelp, lies
3 cables' lengths off the western point of Sidney island ; this is avoided by
not shutting in the passage between Darcy and Sidney islands, until
the north-west end of Sidney spit, a long sandy tongue with a few trees
on its extreme, bears North. There is good anchorage off this spit in
8 fathoms.
cordova channel, westward of James island, between it and
the main island of Vancouver, is a fair passage with anchorage along the
shore of the main island and little tide ; it is not, however, to be preferred
to the Sidney channel, as a sand-bank with 15 feet on it lies in the centre
of the southern entrance ; neither is any saving in distance gained
by taking it. From a little northward of Cowitchin head a low flat of
swampy land extends for 3 miles to the northward, and about half a mile
off the high land; between this flat and the south-west bluff of James
island is the southern entrance of the channel, and here it is two-thirds of
a mile wide.    The above sand-bank lies S.W. by W. from the bluff distant
* See View D, on Chart of Haro Strait and Middle Channel, No. 2,840.
-"^Sasi chap, ii.]     SIDNEY  AND  MINERS  CHANNELS. JONES  ISLAND
half a mile ; shoal water extends also for some distance both from the
bluff and the flat land, which forms the western side of the passage.
Vessels drawing under 15 feet may pass through mid-channel, otherwise
the south-west bluff of James island should be given a berth of a quarter
of a mile; when it bears E.N.E. the bank is cleared and'there are no other
dangers ; tack on either side immediately a 4 fathoms cast is obtained.
miners channel.—Low and Bare islands are two small islands
lying off the eastern side of Sidney island, and between them and the
latter there is a good passage, three-quarters of a mile in breadth, with
10 fathoms the least water. This channel may often prove convenient for
vessels having passed up Haro strait eastward of the Kelp reefs, and
desiring to take the inner channels to Saanich, Cowitchin, or through
Stuart channel; the eastern side of Sidney island is bold, and affords
good anchorage in 8 fathoms out of the tide in a bay S.S.W. from the
north end of Bare island.
Midway between Low and Bare islands, and on the line between their
north-west points, is a reef which uncovers. There is a rock above high
water N. by W. ■§ W., distant a third of a mile from the north-west end
of Bare island. After passing this island a course should be steered
between Sidney spit and Jones island.
Having passed to the northward of Sidney island, either by Cordova,
Sidney, or Miners channels, the Shute or Moresby passages may be taken
as convenient; if bound for Saanich, Cowitchin, or through Stuart
channel, the former is preferable, while the latter offers a more direct
course through the Swanson or Trincomalie channels, or to Fraser river
by Active pass.
shute passage.—To enter this passage, after leaving Sidney spit,
pass between Jones island and the Little group, then eastward of Coal
island, Knapp and Pym islands, and between Piers and Portland islands,
when the Satellite channel will be entered, which leads directly to
Saanich, Cowitchin, and the western ports of Vancouver island. This is
a good clear channel, and with the assistance of the chart may be used
with much facility.
Tones island lies north from Sidney spit two-thirds of a mile, with
a clear passage between, carrying from 15 to 20 fathoms ; shoal rocky
ground extends a cable's length westward of the north-west point of
Jones island, and the tides set with considerable strength, from 2 to 5
knots round this point.
Tbe Little croup lie W. by N. two-thirds of a mile from Jones
island.   They consist of four rocky islets, bare of trees, and connected by 46
WESTERN   CHANNELS   AND   ISLANDS.
[CHAP. II.
reefs; there is a good passage of 12 fathoms between them and Jones
island, and their eastern side may be passed at a cable's length.
Bird islet, lying on the eastern side of Shute passage, and N.N.W.
two-thirds of a mile from the north point of Jones island, is about
6 feet above high water, and has a cluster of reefs round it almost a
cable's length in extent, marked by kelp ; between it and Coal island
there is a clear passage one mile wide, with from 20 to 30 fathoms
water.
coal island, which helps to form the western side of Shute passage,
lies close off the north-east extreme of the Saanich peninsula, and immediately at the entrance of Shoal harbour; it is a mile in extent and thickly
wooded, and its eastern and northern shores are free from danger.  .
In working up the passage between Bird islet and Coal island, a vessel
should not stand to the westward of a line joining the east end of Little
group to the east point of Coal island, as a rock which covers at quarter
flood lies W.N.W. 4 cables from the east end of the group, and S.S.E.
nearly two-thirds of a mile from the east point of the island.
A small patch with 4 fathoms over it, and marked by kelp, lies N.E.
one mile from the east point of Coal island, N.N.W. -J W., more than
three-quarters of a mile from Bird islet, and one-third of a mile S.W.
from Yellow islet. When abreast the east point of Coal island, and
distant one-third of mile, a W.N.W. course will lead through Shute
passage in mid-channel, passing eastward of Pym island, off the eastern
side of which a reef which uncovers extends a little more than a cable.
Celia Reef must also be avoided. The least water found on it is
9 feet; it is marked by kelp, and lies North two-thirds of a mile from the
north point of Pym island.
Knapp and Pym islands are small and wooded, lying between Piers
and Coal islands. The passage between Piers and Portland islands
is above a mile in breadth, with a depth of 10 to 20 fathoms, and no
dangers which are not visible ; off the eastern side of the former, about
a cable's length, is a rock always uncovered. Having passed westward
between these islands a vessel is fairly in Satellite channel.
Moresby passage.—After leaving the northern end of Sidney
island, the directions for Moresby passage are the same as those already
given for Shute passage, until abreast the east point of Coal island.
From a berth about one-third of a-' mile off this point, the direct course
through the passage is N. by W. for 2 miles, or until near its northern
entrance, which lies between Portland and Moresby islands. This space
is wide, and free from danger ; it then becomes somewhat intricate, from
the Turnbull reef-and Canoe rocks, which extend off both these .islands, CHAP. II,]
SHUTE  PASSAGE. MORESBY  PASSAGE.
•naiirowing the channel at its northern entrance to little over one-third
of a mile.
Turntraii Reef.—Off the eastern point of Portland island are three
rocky islets, the Sisters, which extend to a distance of nearly 2 cables.
They are about 25 feet high, have a few stunted cedar trees on their
summits, are joined by reefs, and will be immediately recognized either
from the northward or southward.
Eastward from the Sisters, at a distance of more than one-third of a
mile, extends the Turnbull reef in a semicircular direction towards the
north-west point of Portland island, and almost joining it; 2 fathoms
is the least water found on its outer edge, and it is marked by a heavy
bank of kelp, which, however, is not always visible until close to it on
account of the tide.
canoe socks is a dangerous ledge, extending W. £ N., nearly half
a mile from Reef point, the north-west point of Moresby island ; the
outer rock of this ledge covers a little after half flood, and is not marked
by kelp, though kelp grows between the point and the rock.
When both or either of these dangers are visible, the passage is very
easy, as they may be passed as close as convenient, and there are 11
fathoms in mid-channel; but when neither are seen, which may sometimes happen, then it is desirable in coming from the southward to borrow
on the Moresby island shore, passing Seymour point, the western cliffy
point of the island, at the distance of 2 cables.
From this point the Canoe rock bears N.W. nearly a mile, and from a
berth 2 cables off it a N.W. ^ N. course, or direct for Beaver point, the
sloping bare south-east point of Admiral island, will lead almost in mid-
channel, or nearly 2 cables from Canoe rock. When Chads island, just
off the north-west point of Portland island, comes open of that point,
then a vessel will be well to the northward of both rock and reef.
If coming from the northward, and intending to take Moresby passage,
by steering S.E. -^ S., and keeping Beaver point astern with the easternmost Channel island in Ganges harbour touching it, or just shut in by it,
bearing N.W. i N., the Canoe rock will be cleared ; the western channel
island just touching Beaver point, leads on to the rock.
prevost passage lies between Moresby island and the group of
smaller islands to the southward of it, and leads by the Shute or Moresby
passages into Satellite channel.
To a vessel passing up the main stream of Haro strait and bound for the
Swanson channel, the easiest and most direct route is between Stuart and
Moresby islands ; but circumstances of wind or tide may render it convenient to take the Prevost passage ; for instance, with light winds she 48
WESTERN  CHANNELS  AND  ISLANDS.
[chap. II.
may be set into the passage by the flood, or, if near to Moresby island, the
ebb tide from the upper part of Haro strait, which runs here as it does in
all other parts of the channel, from 2\ to 3 hours after low water by the
shore, sets to the westward among the small islands, and down the Miners
and Sidney channels.
Arachne Reef.—The dangers to be avoided in Prevost passage are the
Arachne and Cooper reefs. The Arachne lies nearly in the centre of the
passage, in a direct line between Fairfax point, the south-east point of
Moresby island, and Tom point, the east point of Gooch island; from
the latter N.W. nearly 1-g- miles, from the former S.E., nearly one mile,
and from Turn point of Stuart island, S.W. by W. | W. 2\ miles. This
reef covers at quarter flood, and has a good deal of kelp on its north-west
edge, which, however, is frequently hidden by the tide.
cooper Reef, lying half a mile N. by W. of Tom point of Gooch
island, is marked by kelp, and uncovers at half ebb ; there is a passage of
a mile between it and Arachne reef, and almost the same distance between
the latter and Moresby island, with deep water channels. There are no
dangers off the south or west sides of Moresby island.
Tom point, in line with the south-east point of Sidney island, S.S.E. \ E.,
leads clear to the eastward of Cooper and Arachne reefs.
Yellow island, a small bare island S.W. by W. nearly one mile from
Fairfax point, may be passed on either side. The north side is recommended ; if passing on its south side, take care to avoid the small patch
of 4 fathoms marked with kelp, mentioned in page 46 as lying S.W., a
third of a mile from it ; having passed westward of this island, either the
Shute or Moresby passages may be taken as convenient.
satellite channel is formed by Admiral island on the north,
and Moresby, Portland, and Piers islands, and the northern shore of
Saanitch peninsula on the south. It leads to Saanitch inlet, Cowitchin
harbour, and by the Sansum narrows to Stuart channel. It is a fair deep
■, passage with but few dangers, which are not always visible ; among these
are Shute reef and Patey rock. The general breadth of the channel is a
mile, with a depth of from 30 to 40 fathoms, the strength of tide from
one to 2 knots, and sometimes 3 knots.
shute Reef js a ledge less than half a cable in extent, with two rocks
one of which dries 8 feet at low water, its vicinity being marked by kelp.
It lies W.S.W. two-thirds of a mile from Harry point, the north point of
Piers island, and N. f E. nearly 3 cables from Arbutus, a small islet with
two or three of the red stemmed arbutus growing on it, and lying half a
mile westward of Piers island. CHAP. II.]
PREVOST  PASSAGE.—SAANICH INLET.
49
Patey Rock, at the western end of Satellite channel, is a single
rock, uncovering at half tide with kelp round it, and is in the way of
vessels working into Saanich inlet or Cowitchin harbour. It bears from
Hatch point, the westernmost point of Saanich inlet, N.E. by N., two-thirds
of a mile, from Coal point, -a remarkable nob point the south extreme of
Deep cove, N.W. by W. ^ W. nearly 2 miles, and from Arbutus island,
S.W. by W. ^ W. 3^- miles. In standing to the westward, when working for
Saanich or Cowitchin, Harry point, the north extreme of Piers island just
open northward of Arbutus islet leads nearly half a mile southward
of the rock, and Arbutus island in one with the high round summit of
Moresby island barely clears it to the northward.
Cecil Rock, lying S.E. -^ S. a quarter of a mile from the south-west
point of Russell island at the entrance of Fulford harbour, must also be
avoided in working up Satellite channel. In standing to the northward,
when the west end of Russell island is near the bearing of N.W., a vessel
■should tack before the north point of Moresby island comes open of the
north end of Portland or Chads island.
Boatswain Bank, on the western side of the channel, affords good
anchorage in from 4 to 9 fathoms, sandy bottom. It extends three-
quarters of a mile from the Vancouver shore, between Cherry and
Hatch points ; 7 fathoms will be found with the former point bearing
W. hy N. two-thirds of a mile, and the latter S.E. by S. one mile, or steer
with Cape Keppel astern, bearing N.E. by E. \ E. until 8 fathoms is
.struck, when anchor immediately ; the edge of the bank is steep.
saanich inlet is a deep indentation running in a nearly S.S.E.
direction for 14 miles, carrying deep water to its head, which terminates
in a narrow creek within 4 miles of Esquimalt harbour. The inlet forms
a peninsula of the south-east portion of Vancouver island of about 20 miles
in a N.N.W. and S.S.E. direction, and varying in breadth from 8 miles
at its southern part to 3 at its northern.
On the southern coast of this peninsula are the harbours of Esquimalt
and Victoria, in the neighbourhood of which for some 5 miles the country-
is pretty thickly wooded, its prevailing features lake and mountain, with,
•however, some considerable tracts of clear and fertile land ; the northern
portion for about 10 miles contains some of the best agricultural land in
Vancouver island, the coast line is fringed with pine forests, but in the
centre it is clear prairie or oak land, and much of it under cultivation ;
.seams of coal have also been found.
Off the eastern or peninsula side of the inlet there are some good
.anchorages, the centre being for the most part deep. Immediately southward of James point, the north-western point of the peninsula, is Deep
cove, but no convenient anchorage.
9471. d 	
50
IWESTERN   CHANNELS  AND  ISLANDS.
[chap. it.
Norris rock, awash at half tide, lies S.W. by S. 2 cables from James
point, with 12 fathoms between it and the point. Vessels rounding this
point shoukLgive it a berth of half a mile.
At 2 miles southward of James point is Union bay, which affords good
anchorage in 8 or 9 fathoms half a mile from the beach ; there are no
dangers, and a vessel has. only to take up her berth as convenient. There
is a stream of fresh water in the south-east corner of the bay.
Cole bay is 1^ miles southward of Union bay, and immediately under
Mount Newton ; it is smaller, but capable of affording shelter to a few
vessels of moderate size ; off its north point are two small bare islets, the
White rocks. Anchor in the centre of the bay in 8 fathoms, with White
rocks bearing W.S.W. These bays are somewhat open to S.W. winds,
but a gale rarely blows from this quarter, nor from the proximity of the
opposite shore, distant scarcely 3 miles, could much sea get up.
Tod creek is 2 miles southward of Cole bay. Senanus island, a small
wooded islet, 150 feet high, lies off its entrance with deep water on either
side of it. There is anchorage in the outer part of the creek in 15 fathoms ;
^lort distance within it narrows rapidly and winds to the southward and
south-east for three-quarters of a mile, with a breadth of less than a cable,
carrying 6 fathoms nearly to its head.
From Willis point, the western point of Tod creek, Squally reach trends
to the southward and south-west for 2J miles, the. breadth of the arm here
being three-quarters of a mile, with no bottom at 100 fathoms. Finlayson
arm then runs S. by E. ^ E. for 3 miles, and terminates Saanich inlet.
A small islet named Dinner, with deep water on either side, lies near
the head of this arm, southward of which there is good anchorage in
9 fathoms. At 3^ cables above the islet a flat extends off dry at low
water. Immediately over the head of the inlet, on the eastern side,
Leading peak rises to an elevation of 1,346 feet; it is the same mountain
which is seen approaching Esquimalt from the southward, and given as
a leading mark for clearing Brotchy ledge, off Victoria harbour.
The western side of Saanich inlet has only one anchorage, which is
Mill creek, immediately opposite or westward of Union bay ; a large
stream empties itself into this creek, which has been used to turn a mill.
There is good anchorage in the centre, but it is open to S.E. winds.
cowitchin harbour is 4 miles westward of Cape Keppel, the
southern extreme of Admiral island ; Separation point, the western point
of entrance of Sansum narrows, forms its northern entrance point, and
is somewhat remarkable, being the termination of a high stony ridge drop- <\P\
ping suddenly, and running off as a low sharp point to the southward. f\ 1
Cowitchin runs to the westward of this point for 2| miles, and the general
depth of water in it is 30 fathoms, which shoals suddenly as the flat, cSap. ii.] COWITCHIN HARBOUR SANSUM  NARROWS.
51
which dries off for more than half a mile from the head of the harbour,
is approached. But for the large tract of good land contained in the
valley of. Cowitchin,- the port would scarcely be deserving of notice'
and certainly the term of bay is more applicable to it than that of harbour.
In its north-west end is a considerable stream or river, the Quamitchanj
which runs through the fertile valley, and is navigable for small boats or
canoes for several miles.
The only convenient anchorage to be obtained is in Snug creek, on the
north side of the harbour, or off the outer village on the south side, a mile
within the entrance ; in the latter case a vessel must approach the shore
within little more than a cable's length, and anchor cautiously, when
12 fathoms are obtained.
Snug creek is a convenient anchorage for small craft or coasters, and one
or two vessels of moderate size might obtain anchorage and shelter in it;
it runs in a northerly direction for nearly a mile, and is a quarter of a mile
in breadth. Nearly in the middle of the entrance is a rock * which uncovers
at low water in the centre of the kelp ; it is about 20 feet in extent, and
has 1^ fathoms around it. The western point of entrance should be
passed close ; it is bold, and has 10 fathoms within half a cable of it;
when a quarter of a mile or less within the point, anchor in the centre
of the creek in 6 fathoms.
sansum narrows run in a general northerly direction between
Vancouver and Admiral islands for a distance of 6 miles, when they lead
into Stuart channel; their average breadth is about half a mile, but at their
narrowest part abreast Bold bluff on the Admiral island shore, 2-| miles
above Separation point, they are contracted to a third of a mile. The high
land on either side renders the wind generally very unsteady; from this
cause as well as the somewhat confined nature of the channel, and the
depth of water which prevents anchoring, they cannot be recommended
except for steamers or coasting vessels. There are but few dangers to be
avoided, and the strength of the tides has seldom been found to exceed
3 knots, generally much less.
In the lower part of the Narrows southward of Bold bluff, the depth of
water varies from 20 to 30 fathoms ; to the northward of this point it
increases immediately to 70 and 90 fathoms. Maple bay, on the Vancouver
shore near the northern entrance, affords fair anchorage.
Entering Sansum narrows from the southward a kelp patch, with 9 feet
on it, must be avoided on the Admiral island shore, It lies 2 cables S.S.W.
from a small islet close to the coast, nearly a mile E. by N. from Sepa-
* Jno. H. Tully, Master, R.N., H.M.S. Camelion, March 1863.
D  2 52
WESTERN   CHANNELS  AND  ISLANDS.
[chap. II.
ration point, and S.E. -| S. half a mile from Entrance point; there are 20
fathoms between it and the small islet.
Another rocky patch extends nearly a cable off shore from the eastern
side of the Narrows, three-quarters of a mile north-westward of Entrance
point. Burial islet, a small spot used as an Indian burying-plaee, lies
on the eastern side ofthe Narrows, 1-J miles above Separation point; pass
outside it as close as convenient to the kelp.
Burgoyne Bay.—Bold bluff, a smooth headland of bare rock, is steep-
to ; the channel here is scarcely a third of a mile across. Rocky ground
marked by kelp extends a cable off Kelp point on the western side
almost opposite to Bold bluff; northward of these points the narrows
increase in breadth to nearly a mile.
Burgoyne bay, the entrance to which is half a mile eastward of Bold
bluff, is a narrow and rather deep indentation terminating in a sandy
head; there is no bottom in the bay under 30 fathoms, until within 2
cables of its head, when the water shoals suddenly from 10 to 4 fathoms.
Anchorage may be had if necessary.
Maple Bay From Grave point the Narrows take a north-westerly
direction, and at a distance of a little more than a mile on the Vancouver
island shore is Maple bay. Boulder, the southern entrance point, is remarkable from a large boulder stone standing at its low water extreme.
Although an inviting looking bay, the water is too deep for comfortable
anchorage, being generally 40 fathoms, and 16 fathoms within a cable's
length of a smooth sandy beach at its western end.
Birds-eye cove, which runs in a southerly direction for nearly a mile
from Boulder point, affords fair anchorage in 8 to 10 fathoms, with the
boulder bearing N.E. by N. in about the centre of the cove, which at this
part is not above a quarter of a mile across ; coasters may go up into 4 or
5 fathoms near the head. A shoal patch with 2 fathoms extends nearly
a cable off the west side of the cove.
stuart channel.—Sansum Narrows extend 1^ miles northward
of Maple bay, when they lead into Stuart channel, the westernmost of
the ship passages which wash the eastern side of Vancouver island. The
western side of this channel is formed by the shores of that island ; its
eastern by the coasts of Admiral and Thetis islands ; it runs in a general
N.W. direction for nearly 20 miles, when it joins the Dodd narrows below
Nanaimo. The general breadth of the channel is about 2 miles ; the depth
varies in the southern part from 60 to 100 fathoms, in some parts more,
in the northern portion from 20 to 40 fathoms ; the principal dangers are
the North and Escape reefs, White rock, and Danger reef.
On the western or Vancouver island shore there are some good harbours,
viz., Osborn bay, Horse-shoe bay, Oyster harbour, and Chemainos bay ; on
the eastern side there are also some anchorages, Telegraph and Preedy
m  if   -"■ CHAP. II.]
STUART  CHANNEL.
53
harbours on the western, and Clam bay on the eastern side of Thetis
island.
osborn bay, the southernmost anchorage on the western side of
Stuart channel, may be known by the Shoal islands, a low wooded
group, connected at low water by reefs and mud banks, and.which form
the northern side of the bay ; these islands lie N.W. by W., a little over
2 miles from the north-west entrance point of Sansum narrows. The bay
affords good anchorage, sheltered from the prevailing winds, from the
westward and S.E. The best anchorage is with the south-easternmost
Shoal island, in one with Southey point, bearing North, and the southern
trend of the coast E. by S. ^ S. ; this will be in 10 fathoms mud bottom,
and half a mile from the southern head of the bay.*
The coast north-westward of Osborn bay, between it and Horse-shoe
bay, is shoal for some distance off, deepening suddenly when half a mile
from the shore, and vessels should.by no means approach it within that
distance. The northern point of the North Shoal island has a remarkable
flat sandy spit, on which is built an Indian village ; there are no passages
between the small islands northward of this, and the bank dries off 2
cables at low water.
horse-shoe bay, 4 miles north-westward of Osborn bay, will be
known by a rather remarkable sharp point (Bare point) bare at its extreme,
which forms its eastern entrance. The bay runs in a southerly direction for
two-thirds of a mile, and is a third of a mile in breadth; there is convenient
anchorage for small vessels within a quarter of a mile of its head in 8
fathoms ; the water is deep outside this, and within it shoals suddenly from
5 to 2 fathoms. The Bird reef, a rocky ledge uncovering at half tide,
extends^ a cable's length from the shore, north-westward of the western
point of entrance, and bears from Bare point W. by S. half a mile.
oyster haksour is 4 miles W.N.W. from Horse-shoe bay, the
intervening coast being free from danger ; the harbour runs in the same
direction for 4 miles, is nearly a mile wide at the entrance, narrowing
gradually within. Entering from the northward, Coffin islet should be
given a berth of 2 cables; there are no other dangers which are not
visible ; at low water the Oyster beds dry for 2 cables off the south
shore. A good anchorage for a large vessel is a mile within the entrance,
with the centre of Twins island in one with an Indian village, which will
be seen in the first bay on the north shore : here there are 8 fathoms, mud
bottom. A reef which covers extends a cable southward of the Twins ;
.half a mile above this the harbour narrows to a quarter of a mile ; the
northern shore is steep, and on the south side are oyster beds; small
if'
* See Chart, Strait of Georgia, Sheet 1, No. 579; scale, m = half ail inch.
■M 54
WESTERN   CHANNELS  AND   ISLANDS.
[chap. II.
vessels may go as high up as the west end of Long island, where 3 fathoms
will be found at low water.
tides.—It is high water at full and change in Oyster harbour at
6h. 30m. p.m., and the rise is 10 feet.
chemainos bay is 21 miles northward of the entrance of Oyster
harbour, and W. by S. the same distance from Reef point, the north-west
point of Thetis island. Anchorage may be had in 8 fathoms half a mile
from its head, but it is open and cannot be recommended, unless in fine
weather, or with off-shore winds. There are no dangers in working
into it.
Yellow point, bare and grassy at its extreme, is .the north point of
Chemainos bay ; from thence to Round island, at the southern entrance of
Dodd narrows, and bearing N.W. 5 miles, the coast is bold and free, from
danger. In working for the narrows, White rock and Danger reef must
be avoided. At 1J miles southward of Round island is a boat harbour, at
the entrance of which a vessel may drop an anchor in 8 to 10 fathoms if
waiting for the tide, though there is equally good anchorage nearer to the
narrows.
north keep.—From the northern entrance of Sansum narrows to
North reef, a distance of 4 miles, there are no dangers, and both shores may
be approached boldly in working up, except, as before observed, the coast
of Vancouver island from the Shoal islands to Bare point of Horse-shoe
bay, which should be given a berth of half a mile.
North reef is a sandstone ledge running in a north-westerly and southeasterly direction, as all the reefs in this channel do. It bears from the
south-east point of Tent island, S. \ E. half a mile, with a clear channel
between of 26 fathoms. Its summit is just awash at high water, and therefore easily avoided ; its shoal part extends in a W.N.W. direction for one-
third of a mile, steep on its north and south sides.
tent islanb, narrow and two-thirds of a mile long, lies off the south
extreme of Kuper island, and a cable's length off its south-east end are
two remarkable worn sandstone rocks 8 or 10 feet above water ; the
breadth of the passage between them and North reef is one-third of a
mile. N.E. \ E. nearly 2 cables from the south-east end of Tent, is a
rock which uncovers 2 feet. In passing eastward of Tent its eastern shore
should be given a berth of a quarter of a mile, as some rocky ledges extend
off it. There is no ship passage between Tent and Kuper islands, being
only one fathom deep at low water.
escape keep, at 2 miles N.W. by W. j W. from North reef, is a
dangerous patch, nearly one-third of a mile in extent, in a W.N.W. and
E.S.E. direction, which covers at quarter flood, and has no kelp to mark
its position.   It lies nearly half a mile from the west shore of Kuper CHAP. II.]
-STUART  CHANNEL.
island, with Josling point, its south rounding point, bearing E. \ N. 1£
miles, ahd a remarkable high cliff on the west side of the same island
North, a little more than half a mile ; there is a deep channel a third of
a mile wide between it[and Kuper island. The two entrance points of
Sansum narrows, kept just touching, lead to the westward of the reef; if
at all open they will lead on to it. The Sandstone rocks off the south-east
point of Tent island kept open of that point also lead to the westward
of it.
alarm rock is scarcely in the track of vessels working up Stuart
channel. It lies nearly 2 cables S. by W. from the south-east point of
Hudson island, the south-easterninost of the group of islands, which lie off
the western sides of Kuper and Thetis islands, facing Preedy and Telegraph harbours. It just covers at high water, and is connected by a
ledge with Hudson island.
false rock lies N.W. by W. J W. 4 cables from Scott island, the
north-westward of the group just mentioned, and S.E., a long half mile
from Crescent point, the north-east point of Preedy harbour, and covers
at half flood.
white rock, about 30 yards long, and 15 feet above high water,
lies N.N.W., one mile from Reef point, the north-west extreme of Thetis
island. This rock has a whitish appearance, and is readily distinguished
from a vessel's deck at 2 or 3 miles. It may be passed within 2 cables'
lengths, and there is a good passage between it and Thetis island, giving
Reef point a berth of more than a quarter of a mile to avoid a rocky ledge
extending a quarter of a mile north-westward of it.
haggis island, a low rocky.islet, with a few trees on it, lies a
third of a mile northward of the north end of Thetis island, with a passage
of 12 fathoms between them. There are no dangers within a cable's
length of the islet.
danger reef covers a space of 3 cables almost in the centre of
the channel. A small portion of it is generally awash at high water,
at which time it is difficult to make out until within a. short distance of
it.     White rock bears from it  S.E. by  S.  distant one mile ;  Yellow
.point, the north point of Chemainos bay, S.W. by S. \\ miles ; and Tree
islet N.E. ^ N., two-thirds of a mile.
In passing through Stuart channel, there is a clear passage of 1J miles
between Danger reef and the Vancouver island shore, and going either up
' or down the channel, White rock kept oh with the low neck (a gap between
the two summits of Thetis island) leads well to the westward of the reef.
Bound southward through Stuart channel from Dodd narrows, pass a
convenient distance, from 1 to 2 cables, eastward of Round island, and 56
WESTERN   CHANNELS  AND   ISLANDS.
[chap. II.
steer for the westernmost ragged tree summit of Thetis island, or S.E. 1E.
until White rock is seen a little on the port bow, when a course may be
shaped down the channel.
There is a clear passage of three-quarters of a mile between White rock
and Danger reef, and of more than half a mile between the reef and Tree
island, with a depth of over 30 fathoms. As White rock and Tree
island are always visible, and may be passed, if necessary, at a cable's
length, and Danger reef is generally above water, there can be no difficulty
in either of these passages to vessels coming up Trincomalie channel.
Vesuvius bay, on the western side of Admiral island, immediately
opposite Osborn bay, has deep water, but shoals suddenly at its head,
when, if necessary, a vessel might anchor in 9 fathoms within"1^ cables of
the shore ; but it is not recommended.
There is also anchorage inside Idol islet in Houston passage, This
islet is E. by N. one-third of a mile from the south end of Tent island,
and is 3 cables from Admiral island; with the islet bearing W. by N.
midway between it and the shore, there is anchorage in 6 fathoms.
grapples reef, on the eastern side of Houston passage, is a cable
in extent and uncovers at very low water. It lies a quarter of a mile off
the north-west end of Admiral island, with Southey point bearing N.N.E,
half a mile ; there are 5 fathoms between it and the shore of the island.
Passing through Houston passage, the eastern point of Sansum narrows
kept open of the points of Admiral island to the northward of it, leads
westward of the reef, and when the southern point of Secretary island
is open of Southey point, it is cleared'to the northward.
telegraph harbour, on the west side of Kuper island, is a
snug anchorage, and its entrance is between Hudson island and Active
point, which are half a mile apart. Entering from the southward,
Escape reef, (page 54,) must be avoided. If passing inside the reef,
the shore of the island should be kept aboard within a quarter of a
mile ; if outside or westward, then the Sandstone rocks should be kept
open of the south-east point of Tent .island, until Upright cliff of Kuper
island bears N.E. ; when a vessel will be well to the northward of it, and
may steer for the entrance of the harbour, which is free from danger, with
the exception of Alarm reef, extending from the south-east point of
Hudson island ; 20 fathoms will be found until half a mile within the
entrance, when it shoals to 12 and 8 fathoms.
There is good anchorage in the latter depth, with the centre of Minx reef
.hearing W.S.W., Active point S.S.E. 1 E.', the Escape reef, if above
-water, just open of the latter. Above this, the harbour runs in a harrow
"creek to the N.W. for a mile, where coasters "may find anchorage io 2 and CHAP. II.]
KUPER  ISLAND. ADMIRAL ISLAND.
57
3 fathoms : the continuation of this creek easterly separates Kuper from
Thetis island, which at low water are connected.
prbedy harbour is separated from the one just described by a
group of small islands and reefs ; its entrance is to the northward of them
between Scott island and Crescent point of Thetis island, and is a third
of a mile in breadth ; in entering the Thetis island shore should be kept
aboard to avoid False rock, a patch which covers at half tide, and lies
W.N.W. nearly 4 cables from the west end of Scott island, and
S.W. \ S. half a mile from Crescent point. Anchorage will be found in 7
fathoms, with Crescent point bearing W.N.W., distant half a mile ; shoal
water extends for 1^ cables off the northern sides of Scott and Dayman
islands.
swanson channel leads from the Haro strait to the northwestward between Admiral island on the west and Pender island on the
east; passing eastward of Prevost island it enters the Active pass between
Galiano and Mayne islands, thence into the strait of Georgia ; northward
of Active pass it connects with Trincomalie channel.
ADMIRAL island, separating the Stuart from the Trincomalie and
Swanson channels, is of considerable extent, being nearly 15 miles in
length N.W. and S.E., and varying in breadth from 2 miles at its northern
end to 6 at its southern. It has two good ports, Fulford harbour on its
south-east, and Ganges harbour on its eastern side. The southern portion
of the island (which is a peninsula formed by the indentations of Fulford
harbour and Burgoyne bay, a valley separating the heads of these ports)
is composed of a lofty ridge of mountains over 2,000 feet in height, rising
abruptly from all sides.
Immediately northward of the valley and over Burgoyne bay on its
western side Mount Baynes rises to an elevation of nearly 2,000 feet,
and is very remarkable ; its southern face being a perpendicular precipice
visible a long distance from the southward or eastward. The Otter
range of somewhat less elevation rises northward of Mount Baynes, from
whence the island slopes away in a wedge shape, its northern termination,
Southey point, being a sharp extreme. The island is for the most part
thickly wooded, but there is a considerable extent of partially clear land
both at the northern end and in the valley at the head of Fulford harbour,
which is now becoming peopled by settlers under the name of Salt spring
district, from the fact of several salt springs having been discovered.
fulford harbour penetrates the south-east side of Admiral
island in a W.N.W. direction for 2\ miles. At its entrance is Russell
■island, between which and Isabella point, the western point of the
harbour, is the best passage in. 58
WESTERN  CHANNELS  AND  ISLANDS.
[CHAIVII;
Cecil rock with 2 fathoms on it lies S.E. 1 S. a quarter of a mile from the
south-west point of the island. The breadth of the southern entrance is
two-thirds of a mile, with a depth of 20 fathoms until abreast North rock j
here the harbour narrows, and carries a general breadth almost to its head
of something less than half a mile.
North rock is a small rocky islet lying close off the north point of the
harbour ; a rock which covers at quarter flood lies west of it 2 cables
length, and more than 1^ cables from the shore, so that strangers entering
should keep rather to the southward of mid-channel until past it. Mount
Baynes appears very remarkable from the harbour, rising immediately
over its head almo'st as a perpendicular cliff. Immediately over the
north side of the harbour is Reginald hill, a stony elevation between
700 and 800 feet; with this hill bearing N.E. there is good anchorage
in 10 fathoms in the centre of the harbour ; at the head of the harbour
is a considerable fresh-water stream, from which shoal water extends for
3 cables.
The northern passage into the harbour between Russell island and
Eleanor point, though in places not more than one-third of a mile in
breadth, is a safe channel of 14 to 18 fathoms water. Louisa rock, with
only one fathom on it, is the only danger ; it lies 2 cables from the
northern or Admiral island shore, with the west end of Russell island
DBaf&g S.E. ■§■ S. 4 cables, and North rock W.S.W. the same distance ;
with a leading wind the Russell island shore should be kept rather aboard.
Ganges harbour is a safe and commodious port for vessels of any
description or size. Its southern entrance, which is in the Swanson
channel, lies between Admiral and Prevost islands, and has no dangers
which are not visible. In entering, the Channel islets may be passed on
either side, to the northward of them is by far the widest passage ; they
are two small wooded islands, 1J miles within Beaver point, and 2 cables
from the shore of Admiral island.
Liddell point, the south-west extreme of Prevost island, and tne
northern entrance point of the harbour, has an uncovering reef extending 1J cables eastward of it. The Acland islands, two in number,
lie to the westward of the point along the shore of Prevost island,
between which and them there is no ship channel. The fair channel
into the harbour is between the Channel and Acland islands, the breadth
between them is half a mile, the depth 30 fathoms ; having passed these
islands the harbour is nearly 11 miles wide, and the general depth
for 2 miles, 20 fathoms.
There are but few dangers in working into the harbour, and they are
easily avoided. A rocky patch with one fathom on it lies W. 1 N.
2 cables from the west point of the westernmost Acland island, and nearly CHAP. II.]
ADMIRAL  ISLAND.
59
the same distance off shore. The one fathom patch is more in the
track of vessels; it lies with the southernmost Channel islet bearing
E. by S. ^ S. nearly 2 miles, and Peile point, the north-west extreme of
Prevost island, North 2 miles, and is half a mile from the southern or
Admiral island side of the harbour ; there is a clear passage of half a mile
southward of the patch in 14 fathoms : to the northward of it the passage
is a mile wide.
A vessel may anchor as soon as 10 or 12 fathoms is found; a good
berth is with Peile point, and the two entrance points of Long harbour
nearly in one, bearing N.E. by N. and the easternmost Chain island
W.N.W., in 11 fathoms. If desirable she may anchor between the Chain
islands and the south shore, the easternmost island bearing N.E. by N.,
midway between it and Admiral island in 6 fathoms, or a still snugger
berth a mile above off the sandy spit on Admiral island in 4 or 5 fathoms.
This latter is recommended for vessels of moderate size intending to make
any stay.
The Chain islands are a group of 6 or 7 low narrow islets connected
by reefs, extending from the head of the harbour in an E.S.E. direction for 1^ miles. To the southward of these islands the ground is clear,
but to the northward of them are scattered reefs, and a vessel is not
recommended to anchor on that side within the outermost island.
captain passage also leads into Ganges harbour, to the northward
of Prevost island. It is a clear deep passage, nearly half a mile wide, with
depths from 30 to 40 fathoms, and vessels from the northward intending to
enter should always use it. There is only one danger, which is well inside
Ganges harbour, and is almost equally in the track of vessels working up
by the southern passage ; it is a small patch of 2 fathoms lying 31 cables
S.W. by W. from the western entrance point of Long harbour. Entering
by Captain passage, Peile point should not be shut in by the entrance
points of Long harbour until the opening between Prevost and Acland is
shut in, when this reef will be well cleared; if working up by the southern
channel, a vessel should not stand so, far to the eastward, when in the
neighbourhood of this patch, as to open out the passage between Acland
and Prevost islands.
long harbour may be almost considered as part of Ganges harbour.
It is a long, narrow creek, its general breadth being 2 to 3 cables, running
parallel with and eastward of the latter for 3 miles. Its entrance is
between two sloping, rocky points, similar to each other on the north side
of Captain passage. At a quarter of a mile within the entrance is a high,
bare islet, which must be passed on its south side ; one mile within is
another island, somewhat'similar, which may be passed on either side.
Outside these islets the depth is from 14 to 16 fathoms; within them, 4 aud 60
WESTERN  CHANNELS   AND  ISLANDS.
[chap. II.
5 fathoms. At the head of the creek is a snug place for a ship to repair,
&c, but as a harbour it is only adapted to steamers or coasters, and,
with the good and easy anchorage of Ganges harbour so close, there
would appear to be no reason to recommend this contracted and inconvenient one.
prevost island, lying in the centre of Swanson channel, is moderately high, thickly wooded, and of an irregular shape. It is 3 miles long,
in a N.W. and S.E. direction, lj miles in breadth, and on its southern and
western sides it is indented by several bays and creeks; its northern side
is almost a straight cliffy shore.
Eiien Bay, on the south-east side of Prevost, between Liddell and Red
islet points, is three-quarters of a mile deep, by one-third in breadth, and
affords fair anchorage with all but south-easterly winds in 10 fathoms
mud. The head of this bay is a grassy, swampy flat, the distance between
which and the creeks on the western shore is only a cable's length.
Annette and Glenthorne Creeks, on the western or Ganges harbour
side, are curious, narrow indentations, running into the island for a mile
, in an E. by S. direction, and only separated from each other by a narrow,
stony ridge. In the western one, Glenthorne, there are 3 fathoms, the
other has 1^ fathoms ; they are snug places for small craft, or for a veessl
to repair.
Tames Bay, in the north-west side of the island, and on south side of
Captain passage, offers anchorage in 10 fathoms for one or two vessels of
moderate size with southerly winds, but they must get well in, as there
are 18 to 20 fathoms in the outer part of the bay.
There are two bays northward of Ellen bay, but too small to afford any
shelter.
Hawkins Island is a small, rocky islet with a few bushes on it, lying
close off a remarkable white shell-beach, on the north-east side of
Prevost island. From 2 to 31 cables W. ^ N. of its north-western point
are the Charles rocks, three smooth-topped rocks, not marked by kelp,
and uncovering towards low water.
active pass.—From Discovery island in the southern entrance of
Haro channel, to the sand heads of Fraser river, by the Active pass, is
just 40 miles, and the line is almost a straight one. By adopting this
route, not only the most dangerous and inconvenient part of the Haro
strait is avoided, viz., its northern entrance abreast the East point of
Saturna island and Patos island, where the tides are strong and apt to
set a vessel down Rosario strait, or over on the eastern shore, but a
distance of nearly 10 miles is saved.
After entering Swanson channel (page 57) between Admiral and
Pender islands, steer to the eastward of Prevost island.   From Portlock
i^ta
_J CHAP. II.]
PREVOST ISLAND. ACTIVE PASS.
6!
point, the south-eastern bluff of Prevost, the entrance of the pass bears
N. by W. \ W. If miles. The southern point of entrance, Helen point,
is low, bare, and of a yellowish colour ; over its northern side rise the
high, stony hills, on the southern side of Galiano island; the entrance
itself does not become very apparent until it is approached within a mile.
If overtaken by night, or waiting for tide, Otter bay, on the west side
of Pender island, is a good stopping-place ; it is a mile north of Mouatt
point, and 2\ miles E.N.E. of the Channel islands in Ganges harbour ; a
very fair anchorage is to be had in the centre of the bay, in 8 fathoms,
and no dangers. Ellen bay in Prevost island might also be used, but the
former is preferred. There are few dangers to be avoided in passing
from Swanson channel through the pass ; the principal of them is the
Enterprise reef, two dangerous patches which lie off the west side of
Mayne island (p. 36).
In passing up Swanson channel, keep Pelorus point, the eastern extreme
of Moresby island, open of Mouatt point, the western extreme of Pender
island ; these two points, just touching, lead very close on to the reef, but
open they clear it \\ cables.* If coming out of Navy channel, a vessel.,
should keep over for Prevost island until these marks are open. When
Helen point bears N. by E., the reef is cleared, and the entrance may be
steered for. There is a passage inside Enterprise reef which may be
taken when both the kelp patches can be seen.
On the western side of Swanson channel, the uncovering rock, 1^ cables
eastward of Liddell point, must be avoided, and the points northward of it,
Red and Bright islands, should be given a berth of a cable.
Active pass runs in an E.N.E. direction for 1^ miles, and then turns
north for the same distance, fairly into the strait of Georgia. The
average breadth of the channel is about one-third of a mile, and its general
depth about 20 fathoms ; there are no hidden dangers, but the great
strength of the tides, together with the absence of steady winds, renders it
unfit for sailing vessels, unless, indeed, small coasters ; for steamers it is
an excellent channel, and a vessel commanding a speed of 8 knots may
take it at any time without fear."!-
A quarter of a mile within the southern entrance, and very close off the
* See View C on Chart of Haro Strait, No. 2,840.
+ H.M.S. Termagant passing through Active pass in July 1860, ran on to Laura point,
on the south side, from refusing to answer her helm in making the turn to the northward,
the tide at the time favourable, and running ahout 4 knots; H.M.S. Plumper and Alert
were ahead and astern of her at the time. The Termagants draught was 18 feet, and
she sat 5 feet by the stern ; an undercurrent striking her heel was probably the cause.
H.M. steam ships of equal size and greater length had passed through previously on
■several occasions. 62
WESTERN CHANNELS  AND  ISLANDS.
[CHAP. II,
northern shore, is a rock which uncovers at half tide. This is the only
danger, and cannot be said to be in the track of vessels ; in passing to the
westward, however, against the flood, a vessel should keep rather on- the'
southern side, as the tides set over towards this rock.
Miners bay, on the south side of Active pass, where it takes the sharp
turn to the northward, affords anchorage, if necessary; but a vessel must
go close in to get 12 fathoms, and then she is barely out of the whirl of
the tide.
In entering or passing out of the northern entrance, the point of Gossip
island, on the west, and also Georgina point, on the east, should be
given a good berth; indeed, the best directions which can be given are to
pass through in mid-channel. From thence the sand heads of Fraser
river bear N. by W. f W. distant 11 miles. The sand head buoys are
visible at 2 or 3 miles.
tides.—The flood-tide in Active pass sets from west to east, or from
the Swanson channel into the strait of Georgia ; and the ebb, in the
contrary direction.
The velocity during springs is sometimes 7 knots; at ordinary tides,
from 3 to 5. In the northern entrance there is sometimes a heavy tide
ripple, caused by a patch of 7 and 9 fathoms, and by the meeting of
the tide through the pass with that in the strait; it is recommended
to pass through in mid-channel; no favourable eddy, or less strength
of tide, will be found on either side, unless within the kelp which lines the
shores.
trincomalie channel commences at Active pass, from j the
southern entrance of which its general direction is W.N.W. for 24 miles,
when it enters the Dodd narrows.
Like aH the inner channels already described, this one must be classed
as essentially a channel for steamers or coasters ; it can only be used with
advantage by vessels bound to the eastern ports of Vancouver island below
•Nanaimo, or by such as choose to enter Nanaimo itself by that contracted
pass the Dodd narrows.
The eastern side of the channel is formed by the long narrow islands of
Galiano and Valdes, and the western by Admiral, Kuper, and Thetis
islands; some smaller islands are scattered over it, and there are also
several rocks which require to be known and avoided, nevertheless, with
the assistance of the chart, and these directions, it is a desirable and safe
channel for the class of vessels before mentioned ; the general depth of
water is not inconvenient for anchorage if necessary, as it rarely exceeds
30 fathoms, and from 12 to 18 fathoms can generally be found at a convenient distance from the shore.   Montague harbour on the western side of CHAP, II.]
TRINCOMALIE   CHANNEL.
63
Galiano island is a good stopping place, also Clam bay on the east side of
Thetis island.
Trincomalie channel contracts in breadth when abreast Narrow island
to something less than a mile, but the shores are bold on either side. On
the shore of Galiano island, N.E. one mile from the south-east point of
Narrow island, is Retreat cove, offering shelter for boats or anchorage for
coasters ; an island lies in the centre of it.
There are two passes leading into the strait of Georgia, viz., the Portier
and Gabriola ; both are intricate and dangerous unless to those perfectly
acquainted with them, and the tides are so strong, and varying in their set,
that they cannot be said to be applicable to the general purposes of
navigation, and few vessels would be justified in using them unless in
cases of emergency.
Montague harbour, is formed between the^ south-west side of
Galiano island, and Parker island, and its entrance, between Phillimore
point and the small island of Julia,- is If miles W.N.W. from the
west entrance of Active pass. The entrance is but little over a cable
in breadth, but has deep water, and is free from danger ; immediately
within the points it widens out to a quarter of a mile, and anchorage may be
obtained in 8 to 10 fathoms in the arm which leads to the harbour.
This arm runs in a W.N.W. direction for nearly a mile, with an average
breadth of 2 cables and a depth of 12 fathoms, when it turns to the
eastward and enters the harbour, which though small is a snug and secure
anchorage, with a general depth of 6 fathoms, good holding ground ;
several Indian lodges are built on the shores of the bay. There is a
narrow passage to the north-westward from this harbour into the
Trincomalie channel, and the least depth in it]at low water is 3 fathoms.
Several smaller islands extend W.N.W. of Parker island, viz. Sphinx,
Charles, Wise, and Twin islands, the latter two, rather remarkable rocky
islets about 30 feet high ; between this group and the shore of Galiano
island is a passage of over half a mile in breadth with good anchorage
in 10 fathoms.
atxins reef lies on the western side of Trincomalie channel, one-
third of a mile from the shore of Admiral island, and in the track of
vessels working up or down. It is a cable in extent, and covers at
4 feet flood, its neighbourhood being marked by kelp, which, however, is
rarely seen when there is any ripple on the water. The reef bears from
Peile point the north-west end of Prevost island W. by N. J N. 3jj- miles ;
from the Twin islands S. \ E. 1| miles ; and from the south-east end of
the peninSula which forms Walker hook, E. by S. one mile. There is a
-passage of 16 fathoms between theT:eef and AdmiraHsland, and it may be
'passed at a cable's length on the outside.   The south-west abrupt tangent 64
WESTERN  CHANNELS  AND  ISLANDS.
[CHAP. II.
of Galiano island in one with Mount Parke, a remarkable bare-topped
conical hill on the south side of Active pass, bearing E. J S., leads well
outside Atkins reef.*
walker hook is formed by a peninsula or tongue of land projecting
from Admiral island, 4 miles westward of the Captain passage. On
Its south-east side is fair anchorage for small vessels in 6 fathoms, but a
shoal patch marked by kelp lies 2 cables eastward of the south-east point
of the peninsula; small vessels may pass between it and the point in 5
fathoms, or between it and Atkins reef, which is better, and anchor in
6 fathoms, 2 cables southward of the neck of the peninsula. There is also
anchorage in 10 fathoms northward of the peninsula, but a vessel must not
go within the north point of the tongue of land forming the hook as it
dries a long way out.
governor ROCK is a dangerous rocky patch lying almost in the
centre of Trincomalie channel It has 4 feet on it at low water, is about
half a cable in extent, and though kelp grows on it, yet it is very difficult to
make out until quite close to. From Twin island it bears W. f S.
1-| miles ; from the south-east point of Walker hook N.W. by N.
1^- miles ; from the south-east point of Narrow island E. by S. f S.
1% miles ; and from Quadra hill S.S.W. This hill cannot be mistaken ; it
Tises from the centre of Galiano island to the height of 750 feet, and a
remarkable white basaltic cliff will be seen on the coast immediately
southward of it.
walker rock lies North two-thirds of a mile from Governor
rock, and is scarcely less dangerous, except that it uncovers at half
ebb. From Twin island it bears W. by N. ^ N. If miles, from Quadra
hill S.W. by S., and is distant two-thirds of a mile from the shore of
Galiano island.
These two rocks are the principal dangers to be avoided in the Trincomalie channel; they are both steep-to, and may be passed if necessary at
half a cable's length.
direction's.—In passing up or down Trincomalie channel, vessels may
either take the passage southward of Governor rock, or that between it and
Walker rock, or northward of the latter. If taking the southern passage,
after having cleared Atkins reef, Walker hook and the shore of Admiral
island, which is bold, should be kept aboard within half a mile, until
Quadra hill bears N.E., when they will be to the westward of both rocks,
and may steer over towards the south-east end of Narrow island, givin" it
a berth of at least a quarter of a mile, as a reef extends off it.    •
See View C, on Chut No. 2,689. CHAP. II.]
TRINCOMALIE  CHANNEL. HOUSTON  PASSAGE.
65
If passing between the two rocks, which are two-thirds of a mile apart,
the marks for a mid-channel course are, the north-east point of Thetis
island kept well open of the east side of Narrow island, the latter bearing
W. by N. | N.; steer up with these marks on until Quadra hill bears N.E.,
taking care not to open the north-east point of Thetis island so much of
Narrow island as to bring the former on with Hall island, as this would
lead right on to the Walker rock. The north-east point of Thetis island
■ should be kept just halfway between the east side of Narrow and Hall
islands ; * these marks are very clear and well defined, and are generally
seen from a long distance ; by keeping them on as shown in the sketch,
a vessel may steer boldly between the rocks, whether visible or not. In
passing to the eastward when the south-east point of Walker hook bears
S.S. W., a vessel will be well east of them.
If passing northward of Walker rock when bound westward up the
channel, keep Parker and Wise islands aboard within half a mile ; there
are no dangers off them. When abreast Twin island, which may be
passed within 2 cables, haul in to the northward until Mount Sutil on the
southern end of Galiano island is well open northward of Twin, or
until the mountain is on with Charles island; run up with these marks
on astern (which will lead well inside Walker rock) until Quadra hill
bears N.E. by E.
Coming down Trincomalie channel, and desiring to pass northward of
Walker rock, keep over on the Galiano island shore until the north-east
point of Thetis island is shut in by the south point of Hall island; as long
as these points are not opened a vessel will be northward of the rock, and
when Quadra hill bears North, she will be well eastward of both it and
the Governor rock.
Houston passage leads from the Trincomalie into Stuart channel.
Vessels intending to take it had better pass up southward or inside the
Governor rock. The entrance is between the north-east point of Admiral
island, and Narrow and Secretary islands ; there are no dangers, the general
depth of water is 20 fathoms, and anchorage within a moderate, distance
of the shore of Admiral island may be obtained in 10 or 12 fathoms.
Southey point is the sharp northern extreme of Admiral island, and
may be approached to a cable's length to the northward. At half a mile
S.S.W. of it is the Grappler reef described in page 56 ; round it Houston
passage turns abruptly to the southward, and Stuart channel may be
entered either by the main passage between North reef and Admiral
island, or if necessaiy, between North reef and Tent island.   Give North
* See View D. on Chart 2,689.
9471.
MM ■-
—
^•!-m^.}w§^^i^jmim^fii
66
WESTERN   CHANNELS  AND  ISLANDS.
[CHAP. II.
reef a moderate berth, as a shoal ridge of rocks extends one-third of a
mile off its north-west and south-west ends (page 54).
PORTIer pass separates Galiano from Valdes island, and is the first
outlet into the strait of Georgia, northward of Active pass, from which it
is distant 14 miles ; the pass, though short (not exceeding a mile from its
southern entrance until fairly in the strait) is narrow, and is rendered still
more so by sunken rocks on its western side ; the tides are very strong,
running from 4 to 7 knots, and overfalls and whirling eddies are always
to be met in the northern entrance. No vessel but a steamer commanding
a speed of 8 knots is recommended-to take it unless in a case of emergency.
The first danger in the southern entrance is Black rock, just awash at high
water ; it is on the western side ofthe pass E.S.E. 1^ cables from Native
point, the north-west entrance point, and is easily avoided.
The second and principal danger is the Virago rock, almost in the
centre of the channel, but rather on the western side ; it only uncovers
at low tides, and bears from Native point E. by N. -J N. 2 cables, and
from Race point, the centre projecting point on the east side of the pass
S.W. by W. a little over 2 cables, which is the least breadth of the passage.
The third danger is a 2-fathom rocky patch, extending from one of the
outer east points of the pass, bearing from Race point N.N.E. J E., a
third of a mile, and from Tongue point, the outer east point, W. by N. J N.
3 cables' lengths ; this patch is covered with kelp, which is generally
visible.
directions.—At any stage of the flood stream a steam vessel
acquainted with the channel might pass out into the strait of Georgia
with facility; the eastern shore should be always kept aboard within a
cable's length until beyond Race point, which should be passed close,
after which a vessel with the flood stream should make for Canoe islet, a
bare yellow rock about 20 feet high N.N.W. two-thirds of a mile distant,-
in order to clear the 2-fathom patch ; Canoe islet is clear of danger, on its
western side, but its eastern should not be approached within 3 cables'
lengths.
In passing out of the channel with the ebb-tide, the great danger to be
avoided is the violence of the stream setting against and round Race
point, which, if a vessel have not sufficient power to stem, will either take
her on the port bow and set her on the point, or, which is still more pro-
<£    „ bable, on the starboard, and set her on Virago rock, as was the case
V" \f    j*n one occasion with H.M. steam vessel of that name.
^3>  j. jA Entering Trincomalie channel from the strait of Georgia by this pass,
^ oKy^ vessel should keep a third of a mile eastward of Canoe islet, and then
J^^   steer ^or Race point, due allowance being made with the flood for the
fef CHAP. II.]
PORTIER  PASS. CLAM  BAY.
67
2-fathom patch; if with the ebb, Race point should be kept close aboard to
avoid being set on Virago rock, and having passed the point, hug the
eastern shore, which is clear of danger ; the rule on all occasions should
be to avoid the western shore ; the great strength of the tide ceases immediately on clearing the entrance points either way. From the strait of
Georgia the pass is always easily recognized at the distance of several
miles, by the gap formed by its sloping wooded entrance points terminating
in two low extremes from most .points of view overlapping each other ;
steer for the entrance on a bearing about S. by W.
tides.—The flood tide runs from Trincomalie channel to the northward
into the strait of Georgia and the ebb in the contrary direction. The
ebb stream commences from one hour to one hour and a half before it is
high water by the shore, and runs for one hour after low water, or from
7 to 8 hours ; the high water at the full and change of the moon occurs
about 6 p.m., but is not very regular.
class bay is on the eastern sides of Thetis and Kuper islands, opposite to Portier pass. The continuation of the bay separates these two
islands at high water, when there is a boat channel into Telegraph harbour
(page 56) on their western side. A remarkable White spit point of broken
clam shells seen from a long distance forms the southern entrance point
ofthe bay; immediately southward of it is a considerable native lodge;
Leech island off the northern point is a small wooded islet. Centre reef,
with 7 feet on it, and marked by kelp, lies almost in the centre of the
entrance, nearly 3 cables N.W. from White spit, and E. by S. a third of a
mile from Leech island.
The best passage into Clam bay from the eastward is northward of
Narrow, Secretary, and Indian islands, between them and Hall island ;
after passing Indian island steer in for White spit, giving it a berth of a
cable, and anchor in 6 fathoms in the centre of the bay, the spit bearing
East, and Leech island N.N.W.
If desired, vessels may enter southward of Narrow and Secretary
islands, between them and Kuper island, and there is fair anchorage in a
moderate depth of water anywhere in this passage. There are, however,
two rocks marked by kelp to be avoided with less than a fathom on them;
the southern one bears from the south end of Indian island S.W. £ W.
4 cables, and the northern one from the north end of the same island
S.W. l£ cables; therefore the west side of Indian island should be
kept aboard, and a vessel should not bear up round White spit until its
extreme bears S.W., as rocks extends off more than a cable to the eastward
of it.   This channel is not recommended unless for small vessels.
Entering from the northward there is a clear deep passage of two-thirds
of a mile between Thetis and Reid islands ; a vessel should pass westward
E 2 68
WESTERN  CHANNELS  AND  ISLANDS.
[chap. 11.
of the Rose islets, three small rocky islets, the northernmost one about
20 feet high with a few bushes on it, lying half a mile westward of the
north end of Reid island.
anckosage.—There is fair anchorage on the western side of
Valdes island, 2 miles above Portier pass, immediately off a yellow cliff ;
8 fathoms, sandy bottom, will be found with the cliff bearing N.W. by N.
distant a quarter of a mile.
It will also be known by Shingle point, a low projection, with a native
village on its extreme, one-third of a mile north-westward of the yellow
cliff.
dodd narrows may be said to commence above Round island,
(page 55) although the narrowest part is a mile distant from it. To small
vessels or steamers of sufficient power that obey their helm quickly, this
narrow pass offers no dangers. The strength of the tide at its greatest
rush is above 8 knots, the least depth of water 7 fathoms, and the narrowest part of the channel is 80 yards wide ; but this is for a short distance, and the pass being nearly straight, a vessel is carried through in a
few moments.
anchorage.—If bound through Dodd narrows, and having to wait
for tide, there is fair anchorage with but little tide, westward of Round
island in 6 fathoms, midway between it and the shore.
Percy anchorage is a good stopping place for the tide, immediately on
the north side of the Narrows between Gabriola and Mudge islands ; the
latter separates the False from Dodd narrows.
directions.—In proceeding for Dodd narrows from abreast Portier
pass, the mid-channel course is W.N.W. for about 3 miles, or until Ragged
island and Reef point of Thetis island are in one bearing S.W. by S.
The most direct course is northward of Danger reef, between it and
Tree island; the latter is a small round wooded islet lying off the south
end of De Courcy islands ; this passage is two-thirds of a mile wide, with a
depth of 25 to 30 fathoms.
Danger reef, page 55, consists of two rocky patches a cable's length
apart, the eastern one generally awash, and should not be approached
within a cable where there are 9 fathoms; if the reef should not be seen it
is recommended to pass Tree island at the distance of a quarter of a mile ;
there is deep water between it and De Courcy islands.
The passage between White rock and Danger reef is likewise a very
good one ; it is three-quarters of a mile wide, with a depth of 20 to 30
fathoms. White rock is 15 feet high, and may be passed if necessary on
either side at the distance of a cable. The southern side of Danger reef
should be given a berth of at least 2 cables ; when the passage between
J CHAP. II.]
DODD NARROWS.—PYLADES CHANNEL.
Tree island and the south point of De Courcy islands is open, the former
bearing E.N.E., a vessel will be northward of Danger reef, when a mid-
channel course for Dodd narrows is N.W. by W. and the distance 5 miles ;
Round island at their entrance will be shortly seen-ahead.
In passing up, keep on the starboard or eastern side of Round island at
a convenient distance; the only directions necessary after this are to
keep in mid-channel,' and to attend the steerage quickly and carefully.
Immediately through the Narrows the tide ceases, and a vessel will be
in Northumberland channel, a fine wide passage leading to, and only
5 miles from, the anchorage at Nanaimo.
In taking the Narrows from the northward, be careful not to mistake
the False Narrows, which are on the port or northern side of Northumberland channel (page 117), and are much wider than the real pass, but
nearly dry at low water. The Dodd narrows are not so easy to pass from
the north as from the south, as in the former case the slight bend that has
to be made must be made immediately on entering the narrow part. The
tides should be studied in passing either way. It is not recommended to
attempt it with the full rush of the stream ; an hour before or after low
water there is no difficulty to a steam vessel.
tides.—It is high water in the Narrows on full and change days at
3h. 30m. p.m., and low water at 9h. 30m. a.m., and on those days the
flood stream commences at low water and runs about 7 hours. The first
of the flood is the best time to pass the Narrows. Vessels leaving Na-
' naimo and intending to pass down, should be at the Narrows an hour
before high or low water, as the tides are nearly an hour earlier at the
Narrows.
pylades channel—The De Courcy islands are a group extending A\ miles in an E.S.E. direction from Mudge island, which separates
the False from Dodd narrows, and on their northern side, between them
and Valdes island, is Pylades channel, which leads by the Gabriola pass
into the strait of Georgia, as well as to the entrance of the False narrows.
The average breadth of the channel is a mile, with a depth of 35 fathoms,
and at its head near the entrance to the False narrows is good anchorage
in 9 fathoms, convenient for vessels intending to take the Gabriola pass
and waiting for tide.
False narrows are full of kelp, and shoal at low water, affording only
a boat passage into Northumberland channel. The passages between the
De Courcy islands are deep and navigable ; that between the north and
middle island is half a mile wide, and free from danger ; the narrow pass
between the middle and south island is scarcely a cable wide, but hag a
depth of 5 fathoms. WESTERN  CHANNELS  AND  ISLANDS.
[ohap. II.
gabriola pass, between the south end of Gabriola island and the
north end of Valdes island, is not recommended, unless for coasting vessels
knowing the locality, or steamers, if necessary, for it is a narrow and
intricate channel, something of the same character as Dodd narrows, except
that it is a much longer reach. Its direction is E.N.E. for little over
a mile, its narrowest part is not over 250 yards in breadth, and the shoalest
water is 6 fathoms; half a mile E.N.E. from this narrow, the course
changes to S.E. by E., leaving a narrow ridge of low wooded islands on
the starboard hand, off which a chain of covering rocks marked by kelp
extend for nearly 2 cables ; two-thirds of a mile on this course leads into
the strait of Georgia, when the Gabriola reefs must be avoided. These
latter are an extensive group of rocks, uncovering at low water, at 1J miles
eastward of the Flat Top islands; much broken ground exists in their*
neighbourhood, and it is desirable to give them a good berth. 71
CHAPTER III.
MIDDLE CHANNEL.—LOPEZ SOUND.—ORCAS WEST AND EAST
SOUNDS.
Vakiation from 21° 50' to 22° 0' East, in 1864.
The middle channel is the centre of the three passages leading
from the strait of Fuca into that of Georgia, and is bounded by San Juan
island on the west, and the islands of Lopez, Shaw, and Orcas on the east.
Although a deep navigable ship channel, and eligible for steamers of the
largest size, the southern entrance is somewhat confined, and subject to
strong tides, with a general absence of steady winds ; the wide straits of
Rosario and Haro, on either side of it, are therefore far to be preferred
for sailing vessels above the size of coasters.
The general direction of the channel is N.N.W. for 5 miles, when it
trends to the W.N.W. for 7 miles to its junction with Douglas channel.
The southern entrance lies between the south-east point of San Juan and
the south-west point of Lopez island ; for 1 \ miles its direction is N.N. W.,
and the breadth of the passage for this distance varies from two-thirds of
a mile to 4 cables' lengths ; abreast Goose island on the western side, it
does not exceed the latter breadth. In entering, the danger to be avoided
on the western side is the Salmon bank, extending southerly from San
Juan; and on the'eastern the Whale rocks, always out of water. The tides
in this entrance run from 3 to 7 knots, with eddies and confused ripplings;
when within the entrance, there is far less tide, and Griffin bay, offering
good anchorage, is easily reached.
salmon bank extends 1^- miles south from Cattle point, a bare
point about 50 feet high, the sloping termination of Mount Finlayson, and
the south-east extreme of San Juan island ; the least depth of water found
on it is 10 feet, with rocky patches, marked in summer by kelp.
whale rocks, on the eastern side of the entrance, are two black
rocks a cable's length apart, and 3 or 4 feet above high water; a patch,
on which kelp grows, with one fathom on it, extends 2 cables S.E. of them,
otherwise they are steep-to, but it is not recommended to pass them nearer
than a quarter of a mile, as the tides set strongly over them.
directions.—In entering Middle channel from the westward or
southward, Cattle point should be given a berth of at least 1^ miles.. Ill
72
MIDDLE   CHANNEL.
[chap. III.
Mount Erie a remarkable summit on Fidalgo island 1,250 feet high in
line with Jennis point N.E. by E. £ E. leads 1£ miles south of Salmon
bank in 13 fathoms; when the entrance of the channel is open, bearing
N.N.W., or when Goose island, a small islet on the western side of the
entrance, is in one with Turn island, and Orcas Nob bearing N.N.W. ^ W-,
a vessel will be well to the eastward of the bank, and may steer in for
the passage.* Orcas Nob is a remarkable conical hill, with ,a bare stony
summit, 1,100 feet above the sea, rising over the west side of Orcas island.
The bottom in the channel is rocky and irregular, varying in depth from
18 to 60 fathoms, causing overfalls and eddies which are apt to turn a ship
off her course unless tbe helm be given quickly to meet them ; but there
are no positive dangers after passing the Salmon bank : between this bank
and Cattle point there is a passage carrying 3J fathoms, one-third of a
mile in breadth ; 5 fathoms will be found within a cable of the point. The
westernmost Whale rock in one with the centre of the channel between
Charles island and the north side of McKaye harbour leads through the
middle of this narrow channel.
griffin -bay is an extensive indentation on the eastern side of San
Juan, immediately within the southern entrance of Middle channel.
Although so spacious, yet from the great depth of water there is but a
limited portion of the bay available for anchorage, and this is in the
southern angle, immediately off the remarkable prairie land between two
forests of pine trees. • Half-tide rock, just awash at high water, lies
W. £ N., distant 1^ miles' from Harbour rock, and 4 cables' lengths from
the western shore of the bay. There is another rock which only uncovers
at or near low water, lying S.E. \ S. 4J cables from Half-tide rock, and
N. -|- W. a third of a mile from the pier on the beach.
With all westerly or southerly winds Griffin bay affords good shelter ;
but with those from North or N.E. it is considerably exposed, and landing
difficult in consequence of the long flat which extends off the beach.
These winds, however, are not of frequent occurrence.
In entering by the southern passage, Harbour rock on the western side
nearly a mile within Goose island, may be passed at a cable's length
keeping outside the kelp, which extends some distance off it; from a
cable's length off Harbour rock to the anchorage is W.S.W., two-thirds of
a mile. The best marks for the anchorage are the southernmost of the
white cliffs on Lopez island on the eastern side of the channel kept well
open of Harbour rock, bearing E. by N. IN. and the black rocky extreme
* See Views A. and B. on Chart No. 2,840.
j. s;i.O-     : I ! . CHAP. HI.]
GRIFFIN. BAY. FRIDAY  HARBOUR.
of Low point just open northward of Half-tide rock, bearing W.N.W.,
the rock distant half a mile, in 9 fathoms, mud bottom; from this the
water shoals rapidly, and 1^ cables within there are 3 fathoms ; indeed,
a stranger should drop, an anchor directly 12 fathoms is struck.
north bay, in the north-west angle of Griffin bay, immediately
under Park hill, a bare gr.assy eminence about 180 feet high, affords
good anchorage in 4 to 10 fathoms, with all winds but those from S.E.,
to which it is somewhat exposed. The bottom here is more regular than
in Griffin bay, and altogether it is perhaps a snugger anchorage, though
less convenient to shipping, being 3 miles from the settlement ; with the
eastern point of Dinner island bearing S.S.E., distant one-third, of a mile,
there are 9 fathoms.
tides. — The greatest rise and fall at the southern entrance of
Middle channel on full and change is 12 feet; but little stream is felt
at the anchorages. With the flood an eddy, of about one knot an hour,
sets to the southward in Griffin bay, and with the ebb in the opposite
direction.
turn island and rock.— Turn island lies N.W. by N., nearly
5 miles from the south entrance of the Middle channel. Its eastern
point, a cliffy bluff, makes as the extreme of the peninsula which forms
the north side of Griffin bay, Park hill rising immediately over its narrow
neck. The island should be passed at a long half mile, particularly
going northward with the flood ; there is a channel for boats or small
craft between it and the peninsula.
Turn rock lies nearly a quarter of a mile N.E. of the island, and covers
at three-quarters flood. The tide runs with great strength over this
rock, and vessels passing up or down the channel are recommended to
give it a good berth.
Friday harbour is on the north side of the peninsula, immediately opposite to North bay ; it is rather confined, but offers good
anchorage and is easily accessible to steamers or small vessels. Brown
island lies in the entrance, and there is a passage on either side of
it; that to the eastward is narrow, less than a cable's length, but with
a depth of 14 fathoms. Vessels entering by this passage will find anchorage in 7 fathoms in the bight immediately south of it, and distant a
quarter of a mile. There is a clear channel through inside the island of
more than a cable in breadth, and a depth of 6 or 7 fathoms.
The passage in, westward of Brown island, is the widest and best,
being 3 cables across. In the centre of the entrance there is a rocky
patch, with 3J- fathoms at low water, which bears from the cliffy point If
74
MIDDLE  CHANNEL.
[chap. in.
ofthe island W.S.W., distant 11 cables. Vessels desiring to avoid it had
better pass between it and Brown island ; the latter is steep-to.
' Anchor with the passage between the island and main open, and the
west cliffy point of the former bearing N.E. in 9 fathoms.
' reid rock.—After rounding Turn island, the Middle channel trends
to the westward, and Reid rock lies right in the fairway, the least water
on it is 12 feet, and it is surrounded by thick kelp, which, however, is
sometimes run under by the tide. The rock bears from the north point
of Turn island W.N.W. l-^ miles, and from the north-west cliff point of
Brown island N.N.E. ^ E. three-quarters of a mile ; there is a clear deep
channel en either side of it. It is 4 cables from the nearest part of Shaw
island, with a depth of 50 fathoms between ; and this passage on the
north side of the rock is recommended for vessels bound up or down
Middle channel, because having to give the Turn rock a good berth it
is the more direct one.
After passing Reid rock, there are no dangers which are not visible.
From Caution point, a mile above the rock, on the western side, the
channel gradually increases in breadth, and Varies but little from a W.N.W.
direction, the depth of water increasing to 60 and 70 fathoms.
On its eastern side are the group known as the Wasp islands, between
and among which are several passages leading between Shaw and Orcas
islands, and communicating with the magnificent harbours and sounds
which deeply indent the southern coasts of the latter.
rocky bay—On the western side of Middle channel, 4 miles from
Caution point, is Rocky bay, with the small island of O'Neal lying in
the centre of it. There is a depth of 14 fathoms between the island and
San Juan, but the bottom is rocky, and as the bay does not afford much
shelter vessels are not recommended to use it unless in case of necessity.
A reef of rocks, on which the sea generally breaks, extends 1J cables
off the shore of San Juan, S.W. by S. from O'Neal island.
jones island lies in the northern entrance of the channel, on
the eastern side nearly half a mile from Orcas, being separated from the
latter island by Spring passage. The island is generally wooded, but its
western points are bare and grassy.
spring passage, between Jones island and the west side of Orcas
is a safe deep water channel, and saves some distance to a steamer
passing up or down Middle channel, by the Douglas channel. It is a
mile in length, 4 cables in breadth at its narrowest part, and the general
depth'in it is 15 fathoms.
Some rocky patches extend a cable off the south-eastern side of Jones
island; and a rock which covers at 2 feet flood lies the same distance
■fife CHA*.in.] REID   ROCK.—DOUGfLAS   CHANNEL.
north of a small cove on the north-east side of the island; so it is
desirable to pass through in mid-channel; the western side of Orcas has,
however, no dangers off it.
In passing up or down Middle channel, the north-east end of San Juan
should be avoided, as the tides are strong, and a sailing vessel is apt to
be drawn into the strong ripplings and overfalls in the eastern entrance
of Spieden channel.
flattop island is in the northern entrance of Middle channel,
N.W. by W. 2 miles from Jones island ; it is a third of a mile in
length, wooded, and about 100 feet high. Off its western side, distant 2
cables, is a rock nearly a cable in extent and 15 feet above high water.
Between it and the island is a deep passage.  •
douglas channel may be said to be the continuation of Middle
channel, and leads into Haro strait, between Orcas and Waldron islands.
There are other passages leading into the Haro, viz., westward of
Flattop island, between it and Spieden and Stuart islands ; and eastward of Flattop, between it and Waldron island. In the former, the
confused tides and eddies are liable to entangle a sailing vessel among
Spieden and the neighbouring groups of small islands and rocks ; in
the latter, the White rock with its off-lying dangers offers serious impediments to the safe navigation of the same class of vessels.
Douglas channel commences to the southward between Jones and Flattop islands, runs in a N. by E. ^ E. direction for 4^ miles, and then
turns N.N.W., crosses Haro strait, and at the distance of 6 miles enters
the strait of Georgia, between East point of Saturna and Patos island, or
between the latter and Sucia island. The least breadth of the channel
between Waldron and Orcas is 1^ miles ; the depth varies from 90 to
108 fathoms, and both shores are free from danger. If necessary, vessels
will find a stopping place in the bay southward of the Bill of Orcas in
12 fathoms.
The channel westward of Flattop island is less than a mile in breadth at
its narrowest part. Flattop island has no dangers, nor the Flattop rock,
25 feet high, which lies off its north-west side. Green point of Spieden
island is also steep-to ; a tide rippling is generally met with off it. After
passing Flattop island, the channel course is N.W. by N. until Skipjack
island opens of Sandy point of Waldron island, when a course may be
shaped either up or down Haro strait; with the ebb, be careful not to
get set into the channel between Spieden and Stuart islands.
The channel eastward of Flattop island, between it and White rock, is
about the same breadth as the one just described, but the Danger rock,
with 5 feet on it, which lies a quarter of a mile S.E. by E. from the
centre of White rock, must be carefully avoided. Ml
I (S
76
MIDDLE  CHANNEL.
[CHAP. III.
After passing Flattop island, keep its eastern side just touching the
western point of Jones island, and it will lead nearly three-quarters of a
mile westward of Danger rock ; when Skipjack island opens out northward of Sandy point, all the dangers are cleared.
If passing between White rock and Disney point (the high stratified
cliff of Waldron island), the latter should be kept well aboard if the ebb
is running, or a stranger is liable to be set on the rock. The west bluff of
Sucia should by no means be shut in by the southern part of Waldron ;
these two points touching lead three-quarters of a mile eastward of Danger
rock, but it must be remembered the ebb sets strongly down on it. When
the White rock is in one with the high summit of Stuart island, or when
Disney and Sandy points are nearly on with each other, a vessel may
steer for the entrance of Plumper sound, giving Sandy point a berth of a
quarter of a mile.
tides. Sailing   vessels  working through Douglas  channel  should
beware of getting too close over on the Waldron island shore, near Disney
point, as with calm or light winds they would run the risk of being set
by the ebb on to the Danger rock, on which the kelp is seldom seen. Both
flood and ebb set fairly through Middle and Douglas channels, and run
from 3 to 5 knots.
The ebb tide, coming down between East point and Patos island, strikes
the north point of Waldron island, and one part of it, together with the
stream between Patos and Sucia islands, passes down Douglas and Middle
channels. The other part sweeps between the Skipjack islands and
Waldron; thence southerly through the groups in the neighbourhood of
Stuart island into Haro strait, as well as down Middle channel. It should
be observed that the ebb stream continues to run down through the whole
of the passages in the Archipelago, for 2 hours after it is low water by
the shore, and the water has begun to rise.
patos island lies 2f miles E.N.E. from East point of Saturna ; the
passage between them being the widest, and at present most frequented,
though not always the best channel from Haro or Middle channels into
the strait of Georgia. Patos is 1^ miles in an east and west direction,
narrow, wedge shaped, sloping towards its western end, and covered
with trees. Active cove at its western end is formed by a small islet connected at low water, and affords anchorage for one or two small vessels in
11 fathoms, but a strong tide ripple at the point renders it difficult for a
sailing vessel to enter.
The passage into the strait of Georgia between Patos and Sucia
islands, although considerably narrower than the one just mentioned is for
several reasons at times to be preferred, especially for vessels passing
through Middle channel, or for sailing vessels with a N.W. wind.    The CHAP. III.]
PATOS ISLAND. SUCIA  ISLAND.
77
tides are not so strong, more regular, and set more fairly through ; the
passage is 1£ miles wide, and is almost free from tide ripplings.
directions.-—If intending to take the passage between Patos and
Sucia, either up or down, an excellent mark for clearing the Plumper
and Clements reefs, which are dangerous patches lying southward and
northward of Sucia, is to keep the remarkable round summit of Stuart
island, 650 feet high, just open westward of Skipjack island, the westernmost wooded island north of Waldron ; this leads well clear of both the
reefs, and the same course, N.E. f N., continued would cross Alden bank
in 5 fathoms.
If taking the passage from the Middle or Douglas channels, keep the
white faced cliffs of Roberts point well open westward of Patos island, or
keep the west end of Patos island on the starboard bow until the marks
before described are on, when steer through the passage. If the ebb
stream is running, it is better to keep the Patos island shore aboard ;
16 fathoms will be found on the Sucia shore, but it is not recommended
to anchor unless positively necessary.
In standing to the north-eastward, when Clark island is open of the
east end of Matia, or Puffin islet, a vessel will be eastward of Clements
reef.
sucia island is of a horse-shoe shape, remarkably indented on its
eastern side by bays and fissures, running in an east and west direction ;
the largest of these, Sucia harbour, affords fair anchorage. The island is
from 200 to 300 feet high, thickly covered with pines, and its western
side a series of steep wooded bluffs. The dangers lying off it are
Plumper and Clements reefs ; the former has 10 feet water on it, and lies
S.W. by S. 1£ miles from Lawson bluff, the highest north-west point of
the island ; N.N.W. 21 miles from the Bill of Orcas, a remarkable bare
knob point on the island of that name ; and S. by E. nearly 2 miles from
the east point of Patos island. There is a deep passage between Plumper
reef and Sucia, but it is not recommended.
Clements reef has 9 feet on it, and lies N.E. ^ N. 1^ miles from
Lawson bluff; N.W. ^ W. one mile from Ewing island, the north-east point
of Sucia ; and E. ^ N., 2 miles from the east end of Patos. Some rocky
patches covering at high water, and marked by kelp, lie between Clements
reef and Ewing island, and it is not safe to pass between them. There is
a deep channel of more than a mile in breadth between Sucia and Matia,
the island to the eastward of it.
directions.—In entering Sucia harbour from the northward, run
down with the west point of Clark island in one with Puffin islet, about
S.E. by E., which leads between Alden bank and Clements reef; when
Ewing island bears S.W. by S., steer about South, giving the point of the
If
I 78
MIDDLE  CHANNEL.
[chap, iii-
island a berth of at least 3 cables, to avoid some rocky patches which
extend 2 cables S.E. of it. When the harbour is well open steer up
the centre W. 1 S. ; it is better to keep the southern or Wall island
shore rather aboard, as it is quite steep, and there are some reefs extending a cable's length off the north shore. When the west point of
Ewing is just shut in by the east point of Sucia bearing N.E. by N.
anchor in the centre in 7 or 8 fathoms, mud bottom. If intending to
make any stay it is desirable to moor, as the harbour is small for a large
vessel; it affords good shelter with all westerly winds ; with those from S.E.
some swell sets in, but never sufficient to render the anchorage unsafe."
If entering from Douglas channel, keep Orcas bill just touching the
south bluff of Waldron island, bearing S.W. by S.; this leads well clear
westward of Parker reef. The south-east points of Sucia may be passed
at a cable's length ; they are a series of wall-shaped islands, with narrow
deep passages between them ; steer in, keeping the northernmost of these
islands aboard, to avoid the reefs on the north side of the harbour. For
a steamer it is recommended to pass in between the north and middle
Wall islands, as . it gives more room to pick up a berth ; this passage,
though less than a cable, has 12 and 15 fathoms, and the wall sides of the
islands are steep.
If bound to Sucia harbour from Rosario strait, pass on either side of
Barnes, Clark, and Matia islands as convenient; if northward of the latter,
as soon as the harbour is open, steer for it, keeping the southern side
aboard as before directed, or passing between north and middle Wall
islands ; if southward of Matia island, then do not stand so far to the
westward as to shut in the north part of Sinclair island with Lawrence
point, in order to avoid Parker reef.
parxer reef is a considerable patch lying in the passage between
Sucia and Orcas islands, and at low water uncovers a quarter of a mile of
rock and sand ; its eastern end always shows its rocky summit above water,
and bears from Nob point or Orcas bill N.E. ^ E. 2\ miles, and from the
east point of Sucia S. ■§• E. 1 \ miles. There is a passage on either side of
the reef; that to the northward between it and Sucia is a mile wide, with
a depth of from 35 to 55 fathoms ; that to the southward, between it and
Orcas, is half a mile wide, with a depth of 6 and 8 fathoms, but a
stranger is recommended not to use it, as the points of Orcas at this part
run off shoal. If the northern passage is used, the north part of Skipjack
island kept in one with the south extreme of Pender island, leads well
cllar of Parker reef. A part of the ebb stream setting down between
Sucia and Matia islands, runs to the westward strongly over Parker
reef, and through the channels on either side of it, and the flood in the
contrary direction. CHAP. HI.]
PARKER  REEF. MCKAYE  HARBOUR.
79
matia island, a little more than a mile eastward of Sucia, has no
dangers off it; on its southern side are. several boat coves. Immediately
off its eastern extreme is Puffin islet, off which, a flat rock extends 1-|
cables.
skipjack and penguin islands lie immediately off the north
Side of Waldron island; the former is considerably the largest, and is
wooded ; the latter is small, grassy, and bare of trees. A reef which
covers, and is marked by kelp, lies between the two ; between this reef and
Skipjack island there is a narrow passage of 8 fathoms, but as the tides
set strongly between the islands it is not recommended, neither is the
passage between them and Waldron island for the same reason, unless to
those acquainted with the navigation.
lopez island.—We now return to the islands and passages on the
eastern side of Middle channel. Lopez is the southernmost of the islands,
and helps to form the western side of Rosario strait, as it does the eastern
of the Middle channel. It is long, 9 miles north and south, 3 miles east
and west, and thickly wooded, but differs from all the other islands of the
Archipelago in being much lower and. almost flat, except at its northern
and southern extremes, where elevations occur of a few hundred feet-
Its southern side is a good deal indented by bays and creeks, which,
however, from their exposed position and rocky nature, cannot be reckoned
on as anchorages ; on its western side, in Middle channel, is a creek
terminating in an extensive lagoon, the former offering great facilities for
beaching and repairing ships. On the north shore, is Shoal bay affording
anchorage ; and on the east is the spacious and excellent sound of Lopez,,
which has" an entrance from Middle channel, as well as three distinct
passages from Rosario strait.
' MeKAYE harbour is on the south coast of Lopez island, 2 miles
eastward of the entrance to Middle channel. It is entered between Jennis
point on the south, and Long and Charles islands on the north ; from the
latter it runs easterly for a mile, and then trends to the southward for a
short distance, terminating in a low sandy beach. In the entrance there
are from 8 to 12 fathoms, muddy bottom, but with the prevailing southwesterly winds the anchorage is a good deal exposed. Coasters or small
vessels drawing 12 feet may get shelter in the south bight; with northerly
or easterly winds there would be fair anchorage ; Jennis point should be
passed at a convenient distance, about 3 cables ; the anchorage is 1J miles
from it.
With south-westerly winds the coast and islands on the eastern side of.
Middle channel entrance, between Whale rocks and Jennis point, should
be avoided, as a considerable sea sets in at these times; and in passing,
1 MIDDLE CHANNEL.
[chap. hi.
the coast between Jennis point and Cape Colville, it is desirable to keep
a mile off shore, as some straggling rocks exist, which will be treated of
under the head of Rosario strait.
shark reef on the western side of Lopez island, immediately within
Middle channel, and half a mile northward of White cliff, consists of two
rocks generally awash, extending something more than a cable offshore, and
which must be avoided by vessels working up the channel. There are no
dangers on the coast of the island above this reef, but large vessels working
up are not recommended to approach nearer than a quarter of a mile.
careen creek, on the west side of Lopez island, is 4 miles within
the entrance of Middle channel, and its entrance bears from Turn island
E. |r N. 2 miles. The western entrance point is a low sandy spit, close
round which there are 3 fathoms, and on it a vessel might be beached and
repaired with much facility, and perfectly sheltered ; the creek terminates
in a large salt lagoon.
£~ upright channel, separating Lopez from Shaw islands, is a
deep steep passage leading from the Middle channel to the sounds of Orcas
and Lopez, and by several passages into Rosario strait. The narrowest
part of the entrance is between Flat point and Canoe island ; here for a
short distance it is scarcely 2 cables in breadth ; the depth from 20 to 28
fathoms. Flat point is a low shingle or sandy point, with grass and small
bushes on it; it is steep-to, and may be passed at less than a cable's
length. The shore of Canoe island is fringed by kelp, close outside of which
a vessel may pass ; a rock lies a cable South of its south point, marked
by kelp. The tides are not considerable in the channel, seldom over 3 knots,
and it is in all respects a safe passage.
Anchorage may be had in 6 or 7 fathoms in Indian cove, westward of
Canoe island; the only precaution necessary is to avoid the kelp off the
south point of the island ; with Flat point in one with the south point of
Canoe island, 6 fathoms will be found.
After passing Flat point, the channel opens out to three-quarters of a
mile, in a N.N.E. direction, with a depth of from 20 to 30 fathoms. At
If miles from Flat point on the south side of the channel is Upright hill,
the steep cliffy north extreme of Lopez island ; it is covered with timber,
and from 200 to 300 feet high.
shoal bay lies immediately eastward of Upright hill, and runs in a
S.S.E. direction for a mile to its head, which is separated from False bay in
Lopez sound, by a low neck a cable's length across. Although apparently
a considerable sheet of water, the anchorage for large vessels is much
limited by a shoal which extends from just within the point of Upright
hill towards the eastern point of the bay, and more than half way across ;
m CHAP.  III.]
UPRIGHT   CHANNEL. LOPEZ   SOUND.
the shoal then runs up the bay to its head, leaving the greater half on the
western side, with no more than from 2 to 3 fathoms at low water.
The best anchorage for large vessels is Upright point, the west point of
the,bay, in one with the east point [of Shaw island, bearing W. f N., and.
the east point of Shoal bay S.E. by E., in 8 fathoms ; a cable inside this
there are 4 fathoms ; the holding ground is good. Vessels desiring to
proceed up the bay after rounding Upright point, which may be passed
close, must steer for the east point of the bay until within a cable's
length of it, and then keep along the eastern cliffy shore at the same,
distance, when not less than 5 fathoms will be found until a quarter of a
mile from the head, where there is anchorage in 4 fathoms ; the space
between the eastern side of the shoal and the eastern shore of the bay is
nearly 2 cables.
lopez sound, on the eastern side of the island of that name, runs in
a S.S.E. direction for 7-g- miles, or nearly the whole length of the island,
its head reaching within half a mile of the waters of Fuca strait. Its
eastern side is formed partly by Lopez and partly by Decatur and Blakely
islands, lying parallel with it; and between these islands, as well as northward of the latter, are passages leading into Rosario strait. The average
breadth of the sound is nearly 1^ miles, and there is a convenient depth
of water for anchorage in almost every part of it.
The sound may be entered from the westward through Middle and
Upright channels, and from the  eastward by  the  Obstruction passage, ,
or by Thatcher and Maury passages.
To enter from the westward, directions have been already given as far
as Upright point, the western point of Shoal bay; from this point to the
shore of Blakely island opposite, the breadth of the entrance is 2 miles.
Until as far south as Frost island, which is nearly 2 miles within the
entrance of the sound, the general depth of water is from 20 to 30 fathoms.
Thatcher passage leading into Rosario strait, between Blakely and
Decatur islands, now opens out, and in proceeding up the sound the depth
soon decreases to 9 fathoms, varying between that and 5 fathoms for a
distance of 2\ miles, or as high as Houston island, the breadth being about
1| miles.
The only impediment between Frost and Houston islands is the Middle
bank, on which, however, there are not less than 3 fathoms at low water.
It is half a mile in extent north and south, 2 cables east and west,
and lies almost in the centre ofthe sound, its north end bearing S.S.E. a
. quarter of a mile from the south end of Frost islaflid, and S.W. by W. £ W.
1^ miles from the north entrance point of Thatcher passage, or south
point of Blakely island. Between Frost island and the bank there are
from 9 to 14 fathoms, and between the south end of the bank and the
9471. *■ LOPEZ  SOUND.
[chap. III.
west shore of Decatur island there is a channel a third of a mile wide, with
a depth from 6 to 20 fathoms ; close off this part of Blakely island is a
ledge of rocks always awash at high water. Between Middle bank and
Houston island there is anchorage in any part of the sound in from 5 to 7
fathoms, mud bottom.
Just above Houston island, and abreast the Maury passage, which is
between the south end of Decatur and the north-east point of Lopez,
the water deepens to 13 and 15 fathoms, and this depth is carried for 1-J?
miles, or as high as Crown islet, a small steep rocky islet on the eastern
side, and within a mile of the head of the sound.
There is but little stream of tide felt in Lopez sound, unless in the
immediate neighbourhood of the narrow passages from Rosario strait.
entrance shoal, with 2 fathoms on it, and marked by kelp, must
be avoided by vessels working in; it lies E. by N. -^ N. 1^ miles from
Upright point, and half a mile from the shore of Blakely island ; there is
deep water on either side of it.
false bay is on the west side of the sound, a mile from Shoal bay,
their heads being only separated by a low narrow neck, a cable's length
across, the cliffy extreme of the peninsula being Separation point. A
shoal extending from the centre of False bay, and connecting with the
small island of Arbutus, lying in its entrance, renders it unfit for anchorage except for small vessels ; the least water on the shoal is 2 fathoms,
but vessels may anchor in 8 fathoms southward of Arbutus, between it and
Frost island.
half tide rock, covering at half flood, and not marked by kelp, is
in the track of vessels entering. It lies S.E. by E. ^ E. three-quarters
of a mile from Separation point, and N.N.W. ^ W. 4 cables from
Arbutus island. It is better to pass eastward of it, and when not visible,
by keeping the point of Upright hill just open of Separation point, until
the clay cliff of Gravel spit is in one with the east point of Arbutus island,
will lead clear of it. The end of the gravel spit in line with Arbutus
island leads on to the rock.
frost island lies close off Gravel spit on the west side of the sound ;
it is wooded, and its western side a steep cliff, between which and the spit
end there is a narrow channel of 5 fathoms.
black and CROWN islets.—The Black islets are a ridge of steep
rocky islets, lying within and across the entrance of Maury passage ; at
2 cables S. by W. from the southernmost of these islets is a rock which
covers at quarter flood. There is a passage of 8 and 9 fathoms on either
side of Crown islet, and anchorage above it in 5 or 6 fathoms, but vessels
should not proceed far above, as at the distance of a third of a mile it chap, in.]     THATCHER  PASSAGE. OBSTRUCTION  PASSAGES.
83
hrt