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A hand-book to British Columbia and Vancouver Island. With map Alston, Edward Graham, 1832-1873 1870

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Array OF
EDITION, 1870.1
^
tf&^fofa
BRITISH COLUMBIA
AND
VANCOUVER ISLAND.
BY
E.  GRAHAM ALSTON,  Esq., B.A.,
or Lincoln's zmr. barrister-at-law.
WITH     MAP
F.    ALGAR,
8, CLEMENT'S   LANE,   LOMBARD   ST.,   LONDON]
1870.
E.(|
dH
THE   AUTHOR   RKSERVES   THE   RIGHT   OP   TRANSLATION'. ADVERTISEMENTS,
BANK OF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA,
Incorporated by Royal Charter, 1862,/
5, EAST INDIA AVENUE, LEADENHALL ST., LONDON, E.C
CAPITAL,     £600,000
BRANCHES.
SAN FRANCISCO in CALIFORNIA.
PORTLAND  „ OREGON.
VICTORIA    „ BRITISH COLUMBIA.
This Bank grants Letters of Credit on its Branches as above, and
similar Credits are granted by the British Linen Company Bank in
Scotland, by the North and Sou*h Wales Bank in Liverpool, and by the
Bank of Liverpool.
(Tlu Canadian  JiUwB,
PUBLISHED IN  LONDON EVERY THURSDAY,
PRICE 2d.; POST FREE, 3d.
This Journal, established in 1856, gives a Weekly Summary of News from the
Dominion of Canada, also Newfoundland, Prince Edward's Island, Red River, and
British Columbia, with Special Correspondence from the principal towns.
The CANADIAN NEWS will be found useful to all persons interested in the affairs
of British North America, whether as intending Emigrant, Merchant, or Capitalist.
COLONIAL   NEWSPAPER   AGENCY.
Established 1846.
\ D VERTISEMENTS are received for Newspapers published in Australia, Tasma
j\. New Zealand, East and West Indies, Cape of Good Hope, British N<
America, Malta, Hong Kong, Singapore, &c, by
F. ALGAR, 8, Clement's Lane, Lombard Street, London. E.C.
[iiia,
orth
On Arrival of Mails from Australia and New Zealand.
THE     AUSTRALIAN     MAIL
Contains all the News from the Colonies.
Post Fuf.k
Axnu
ascription, 7s., Post Free.   EDITION   FOR   1870.]
Issued February, 1870.
A    HAND-BOOK
to
BRITISH   COLUMBIA
AND
VANCOUVER ISLAND.
BY
E.  GRAHAM ALSTON,  Esq., B.A.,
Or LINCOLN'S INN,  BA.RRISTEB-AT-LAW.
with   :m:a:p.
F. ALGAR, 8, CLEMENT'S LANE, LOMBARD STREET, E.C.
1870. -I
BRITTSH§COLUMBIA   AND   VANCOUVER
ISLAND.
GENERAL   DESCRIPTION.
British Columbia, with, which is now incorporated Vancouver Island,
is situated on the north-west coast of America, and extends from 49° to
57° north latitude. It comprises the territory lying between the Rocky
Mountains and the Pacific Ocean, and extends from the frontier line of
the United States on the south, to the Simpson and Findlay Rivers which
form its northern boundary. The average breadth of the territory is about
250 miles ; the length of its coast line about 450 miles ; and its area (including Queen Charlotte's Islands) is roughly estimated at 220,000 square
miles. The north-west, and interior portions of Vancouver Island are
mountainous—there are no very extensive plains—but a number of small
valleys, and through the whole of the south-eastern-portion the land is
excellent and very fertile. The middle portion of the Island is a sea of
mountains.
The author crossed over in 1868 from Nootka Sound, on the west
coast, to Johnstone's Strait, on the east coast, and found the dividing
ridge over; 6,000 feet above the level of the sea. On the mainland of
British Columbia, and between the Cascade Range and the coast, the
only available land is to be found on the delta of the Fraser River; but
between the Cascades and the Rocky Mountains there are extensive
prairies and level tracts, and the whole country between the Thompson
River and Nicolas Lake, and stretching away to the great Okauagan
Lake, affords splendid pasturage for innumerable herds of cattle.
HISTORY.
As is well known, Vancouver Island was discovered by Juan de Fuca,
a Greek, in 1592. Captain Cook coasted along the western shore in
1778, and supposed it to form part of the mainland. The first British
settlement was made at Nootka Sound in the year 1778, by some London merchants. Spain, however, laid claim to the west coast of America,
south of 60°, and her cruizers seized the British trading vessels. To
resent this, a large fleet was assembled at Spithead, but war was avoided
by the concession of Spain. In 1792 the Island was visited by Vancouver,
a Lieutenant in the British navy, who minutely surveyed the whole coast
line, and so accurately, that his charts are in use to the present day. Up
to the discussion of the Oregon boundary question it attracted little attention, when by the treaty of 1846, it was vested in Great Britain. In
1849 it was granted to the Hudson's Bay Company for the purposes of
colonisation, but their control ceased in 1859, when the Island became
again a British Colony, under a complete form of government.
The mainland of British Columbia, formerly called New Caledonia,
had been, up to 1859, also under the control, of the Hudson's Bav Com- 3
panv, who had from early times established forts in various parts for the
purpose of carrying on their trade in furs and peltries. Their exclusive
right of trading with the Indians, which they then possessed, was in that
year taken away, and British Columbia also became a British Colony.
The following sketch by the author has already appeared in print, and
may prove interesting:— ~ . ,\
HISTORICAL AND POLITICAL SUMMARY FOR TEN YEARS—1858-1868.*
The history of Vancouver Island and British Columbia may be said to commence
from the summer of 1858, when the discovery of gold on the Lower Fraser induced a
large influx of people from California, numbering at one time as many as 30,000.
These diggings not proving sufficiently extensive and rich to satisfy the extravagant
anticipations which had been formed, the greater portion of the immigrants returned
before the following spring—some of whom never reached the Fraser, and many left
the country without having so much as put a pick into the ground. In 1859, British
Columbia was erected into a separate colony, and also into a Bishop's See, under the
most favourable auspices, and with the valuable assistance of Lord Lytton, who
predicted for the youngest of the colonies of Great Britain a brilliant future. The
Governor, Sir James Douglas, with great foresight and prudence, devoted all the
available revenue towards the most important of all public works in a new colony—
the improvement of the means of communication by the construction of trunk roads.
The few miners that remained, averaging from 3,000 to 5,000, made good wages, and
gradually worked their way up the* Fraser towards richer diggings during the next
two years ; and their energy and endurance were rewarded, in 1862, by the discovery
of Cariboo. The almost fabulous reports of the wealth of this new district caused an
excitement which spread to all parts of the world, and a large immigration began to
pour in from Great Britain and other parts. Many miners made large fortunes ; but
the greater portion of the English settlers were unfitted for the hard work and great
endurance necessary to success ; and after spending their money in unprofitable
undertakings they gradually left the colony. In 1863, British Columbia, which had
hitherto shared with Vancouver Island the government of Sir James Douglas, now
agitated for a separate Governor, and the Colonial Office tao readily acceded to the
demand, for from that moment, and until united again into one government in 1866,
a constant rivalry existed and continuously opposing legislation ensued, which proved
most disastrous to the interests of both. Apparently the colonies were now on the
high road to prosperity—a great influx of money and population had taken place—
the value of land rose to an inordinate height, and speculations of all kinds were .
rife; but the yield of gold did not proportionably increase, and men's minds were so
bent upon the search after sudden wealth, that the more solid and enduring branches
of industry were neglected. Not a tithe of the new comers were content to settle
down on the land and work patiently on towards a certain competency; but if an
immediate success in mining did not at once crown their labours, the unlucky ones
blamed the country—not themselves. Over-trading and excessive speculation, not
warranted by the circumstances of the country, took place; large stocks of goods
were imported, in the belief that the population would rapidly increase. A hugel
system of credit was allowed to rule the market, and trade generally was established
on an insecure and false basis. Advances were made by the banks to the merchants,!!
not only for the purchase of goods, but also to defray their carriage to the mines, and
the market being overstocked, the banks were ojbliged to seize and sell at a ruinousa
sacrifice, in some cases for prices insufficient to cover the cost of freight. The*
natural result ensued, and, at the close of 1865, it was evident that a financial crisis I
was imminent. Traders and merchants on all sides became bankrupt, the value of '
land decreased by one-half its former price, and the population steadily diminished.
Notwithstanding all this seeming failure, the mining prospects were, strange to say,
evidently improving; fresh auriferous ground was from time to time opened up; a
new gold district on Leech River, in Vancouver Island, was discovered by an exploring party sent out by Governor (now Sir Arthur) Kennedy, and found to contain
r*wj>
«*-c
* " Columbia Mission Report."—Rivingtons, 1869. ■'
rich deposits; and greater attention was paid to the agricultural capabilities of the
colony, so that the great body of the people had an abiding faith in the future, and
all those who were able to stem the adverse tide remained, believing that the crisis
would gradually pass away. The revenue of British Columbia in 1865 amounted to
[£111,000, but the expenditure reached £136,000, mainly caused by the construction
I of the great waggon-road to the mines, which had already swallowed up. £100,000,
raised by a loan contracted in London. The revenue and expenditure of Vancouver
Island reached about half the sum above mentioned for the railroad. The mines were
now (1866) worked in a more complete and satisfactory manner, and by sinking deep
shafts, and a more systematic method of draining the ground, the miners were able to
work during the winter, whereas in former years mining was confined to about five
months during the summer season. It was now a permanent occupation. Farmers,
too, now settled along the whole line of road; agriculture rapidly improved, and
stock-raising was found to be a profitable business. Trade generally was established
on a firmer basis, though on a less extensive scale. In 1866 the revenue of British
Columbia declined to £86,000, but the expenditure was reduced to £91,000. The
| deficiency in this and the preceding years caused a large public debt to be incurred,
the interest on which will, for some years, prove a heavy drain on the finances of the
colony. Early in this year (1866) the Grand Trunk "Waggon Road was completed
from the head of navigation, on the Fraser, to the very centre of the mining district
of Cariboo, at a further cost of over £50,000. The whole length of the road is 375
miles, and running, as^it does, through aTTountry full of engineering difficulties, it is
a public work of which any country might be justly proud. This great undertaking
has had the effect, amongst other things, of reducing, by more than one-half, the cost
of food at the mines and the expense of carriage thereto.
The rivalry and antagonism between the two colonies had continued increasing to
such an extent (owing in part to their imposition by the mainland colony of a
differential customs duty and of a gold export tax), that a movement was made for
their union under one government. The legislature of the Island had passed a
resolution in its favour, and in August 1866, the union was accomplished by an Act
of the Imperial Parliament; but the capital of the colony was still established at New
Westminster, on the mainland. Mr. Frederick Seymour was appointed to be the first
Governor.
It was satisfactory to find that the number of mining licences taken out in 1866
exceeded by 1,200 the number of the preceding year. The yield of gold amounted
to more than half a million sterling, which would give to each miner (the whole
number averaging 3,000 men) the sum of £170 for the year's labour; a result
which is far in excess of the average obtained either in California or Australia. The
colony was still dependent on California and Oregon for cereals, meat, and farm produce. Over £100,000 worth of these articles were imported in 1866, and the whole
sum might have been saved if these things had been raised, as they might have been,
in the colony. The close of the year, however, saw grist mills, spar and lumber
mills and coal mines, in good and prosperous working order. The country which was
thought to be a howling waste, fit only for bears and beavers, now presented a
different aspect, and produced, in 1867* grain3lmnjtjii_vsu^cient quantities to supply
the home demand. As the protection to farmers amounts to nearly 20 per cent, as
against foreign produce, it is evident that the colony offers great inducement to
agricultural settlers. Spars and lumber to the value of £10,000 were exported in
1866, and this amount was greatly exceeded in 1867, and still further during this year
(1868). This branch of industry might be greatly extended, as the quality of the
spars and lumber cannot, as has been confessed, be excelled in any other country.
"Whale fishing has been commenced with good success ; but as yet the fisheries of our
coast are almost undeveloped, though salmon, herring, and cod abound in the utmost
profusion. The mine at Nanaimo is now turning out coal at the rate of 4,000 tons
per month, and two other mines will shortly be opened on the Island. This product
will eventually form the real source of the future wealth of the colony. The commerce between San Francisco and the east admits of infinite extension, and the day is
not far distant when all light goods will find their way from India and China across
the continent of America to the Atlantic. It is to be hoped that England will, ere
long, endeavour to obtain a share of this trade by means of a railroad through
British Columbia and Canada. The value of imports for 1868 will be nearly half a
million sterling, and the yield of gold will amount to about the same figure.    The revenue is steadily increasing—that derived from customs alone will reach this year
at least £80,000.
Enough has been said to show that this colony, with its latent wealth and splendid
climate, has a rich—though it may be distant—future before it. Everything points
to a more settled and improved state of things. The capital of the colony has been
this year removed to Victoria, where the largest population and the greatest wealth
are centred; and the step has given great satisfaction to the majority of the people,
who were constantly agitated on the subject. The population of the colony is about
10,000, besides more than 50,000 Indians, who earn a considerable amount of money
by the sale of skins and furs, and by manual labour; and as many of them dress and
live after the manner of the whites, they add largely to the revenue derived from
customs duties. A general system of Indian policy and government is much needed,
and some measures for the improvement of the temporal condition of these intelligent
but degraded people are urgently required to supplement and aid the labours of the
Missionary.
"We are content to progress slowly, if only surely; the colony is but now beginning
to emerge from the cloud of depression which has overhung it for nearly four years ;
but those who are best able to judge think that they can see the sunlight breaking
| through, and a brighter day approaching.    As a striking proof of the vitality which
\ exists, and of the confidence which has been inspired, it may be mentioned that, not-
I withstanding the recent calamitous fire which in September last destroyed in the town
of Barkerville, Cariboo, property to the value  of £120,000 in one short hour and a
I half, the place was almost entirely rebuilt within six weeks afterwards, and trade and
I mining operations resumed as vigorously as ever.
The colony has suffered, much from the constant agitation kept up by a certain class (
I of politicians, who are ever dissatisfied with the Government, and restlessly desirous of
| change : some even urging annexation to the United States ; but the great heart of the
people beats with that of England so fervently, that they have rejected the idea of confederation with% Canada, preferring the closer union and protection of the mother
\ country*
Since the last paragraph was written, a despatch has issued from the
Colonial Office, announcing the definite and decided opinion of the
Home Government in favour of the confederation of the colony with
the Dominion of Canada, so that in all probability (although there is a
strong feeling against the project) before the year 1870 expires, it will
be an accomplished fact.
If the British Parliament is prepared to assist Canada in the construction of a railway across the continent to the Pacific, and to continue
the protection now afforded by the naval squadron at Esquimalt; and if
the Canadian Government will establish a British line of steamers
between Victoria and San Francisco, and promote a scheme for immigration, then, and not otherwise, will confederation be a boon to the
colony. The tariff of Canada is so unsuited to the requirements of
British Columbia, that many persons advocate the establishment of a
free port at Victoria, apart from its important geographical position.
CLIMATE.
The author has lived for more than ten years in Vancouver Island,
and he unhesitatingly declares the climate to be unsurpassed by any with
which he is acquainted. The winter, as a rule, is not so cold, but more
wet than in the midland counties of England, while the summer is drier,
with heat equal to that at home in the day time, but cooler from the
evening to early morning. It is never so hot at night that a blanket
becomes uncomfortable; the snow rarely remains on the ground for more IV
"1
than two or three days ; the author has never seen it more than a foot
deep in and around Victoria.*
The rainfall at Esquimalt, Vancouver Island, for the year 1868, was
only 22.88 inches; the average would be about 25 inches. On the
mainland, however, the rainfall is much greater. In 1865, at New
Westminster, it amounted to 40.84 inches, and often exceeds this. At
New Westminster, in 1865, the greatest heat was 108.5, the minimum
temperature 15°, on grass 1.8.f The climate varies considerably,
according to the heights from the level of the sea. On the western and
eastern side of the Cascade range the climate also is very different. The
western side is heavily timbered, and subject to heavy rains in spring
and autumn, while on the eastern side the country consists of rolling
grassy plains, lightly timbered, the summer heat more intense, the rain
light. In Cariboo, again, the winter is severe, lasting from October to
April, the thermometer varying from 10° above to 20° below zero, snow
falling to a depth of 7 to 10 feet; but the altitude is considerable, being
4,200 feet above the sea. In a word, the general health and climate
enjoyed in this* colony compares most favourably with other colonies, and
more particularly with those on the Atlantic side of the American continent in similar latitudes.
AGRICULTURE.
It may be stated generally that this colony is too mountainous and
rugged in the greater part ever to become a great agricultural country,
such as New Zealand, California, or Australia. On the other hand, it is
perfectly able to maintain an agricultural population of large extent, and
grow sufficient grain, and raise sufficient food for the support of a community one hundred times more numerous that at present exists. There
are many thousands of acres in the valleys and prairies of the colony
(even in the parts at present explored), of excellent soil, and with
advantages of easy communication, and good markets, and as a pastoral
and grazing country, the colony possesses great capabilities. The
cereals and vegetables will bear favourable comparison with those of
any country. J Potatoes have been known to reach the weight of 3 lbs.,
onions 2 lbs., turnips and cabbages 20 lbs., beet-root 10 lbs., carrots 4 lbs.,
and a sample of apples was exhibited at the last agricultural show in
Victoria, one of which weighed 20 ozs., none being under 1 lb. Hops
thrive remarkably well on Vancouver Island, sell readily, and fetch a
large price; and for brewing purposes, the barley is superior to that
grown in California. An acre of good ground will give from three-
quarters to a ton of hops, and will fetch 40 cents = Is. 8d. per lb.
Tobacco has been cultivated successfully, and tomatoes and melons ripen
in protected spots. The mutton and beef is of excellent quality; in
Victoria families are supplied all the year round at 9d. a lb. The principal
agricultural settlements are Victoria, Saanich, Cowichen, Comox, Esqui-
* "Vancouver Island," by Dr. Forbes, 1862.
f See " Colonisation Circular of Emigration Commissioners," No. 28, 1869; also
" British Columbia," by M. McFie.—Longmans, 1864.
t ''British Columbia," by Rev. R. C. L. Brown, 1862. malt, Metebosin, Sooke, and Salt Spring Island in Vancouver; and on
the mainland we have New Westminster district, Langley, Sumass,
Hope, Lilloet, Lytton, Kamloops, and O'Kanagan Lake, together with a
number of isolated farms on the road to Cariboo. On the banks of the
Lower Fraser, and its tributaries, there is a large extent of excellent
grazing land, and the whole of the extensive open district between the
Thompson River, Nicola Lake, and the great O'Kanagan Lake affords
splendid pasturage. Large quantities of grain are raised now, and the
importation of cattle much diminished, so much so that the price of meat
at the mines, nearly 500 miles distant, is very little higher than, and of
as good a quality, as in Victoria. For a new country the roads are
excellent, and superior to those in many older colonies.
The average yield and selling price, on Vancouver Island, of the
undermentioned produce, are as follows :
Wheat
Barley
Oats   .
Maize or     )
Indian Corn J
Hay   ..     ..
Turnips
Potatoes    ..
Carrots
25 to 35 bushels per acre, 2 cents per lb., or §40 (£8. 5s.) per ton.
85 to 43      „            „                    „ ,,         >j »
45 to 50      „            „                    „ „         » j>
50 to 60
1 § tons
6 to 8 -tons
5 to 7 tons
6 to 8 tons
1 cent per lb., or $20 (£4. 2s. 6d.) per ton.
         $15 (£3. 2s.)        „
1 cent per lb., (£4. 2s. 6d.)       „
It is not uncommon to get as much as seventy bushels of oats, and
sixty of barley to the acre.
The price above mentioned for wheat is somewhat low, but it must be
remembered that even these prices for grain would be reduced if the
tariff were lowered, as it will be under Confederation.
MONEY.
It will be convenient to state in this place that American coin, and the
notes of the Banks of British North America and of British Columbia,
form almost the only currency in the Colony. English money (with
the exception of sovereigns and shillings) is rarely seen. The American
dollar = 4s. 2d.; and the pound sterling = 4 dollars and 85 cents; but
for the sake of convenience in this pamphlet, the dollar will be reckoned
at 4s., and the pound at 5 dollars, and the shilling at 25 cents.
LAND   LAWS.
Unoccupied crown lands are obtained under what is termed the preemption system. A man selects his claim, and records it for a small fee;
if a single man, 100 acres; if married, 150 acres, with 10 acres additional for each child. On the mainland the quantity pre-empted must
not exceed 160 acres. If the land be surveyed, he becomes liable to
pay for it at the rate of 4s. 2d. per acre, by two instalments. If not
surveyed, then the occupier becomes entitled, after having made improvements thereon to the extent of 10s. per acre, to dispose of his claim, or
to purchase the fee from the Government at the above rate of 4s. 2d. per ,-
acre, whenever the survey is completed. Any quantity of contiguous
land may also be purchased at the like price. The system is a liberal
one, and free from any complicated conditions.
The title to land is rendered safe by an excellent system of registration, and by means of the Homestead Law, every man can, with exertion,
secure to himself and family independence and comfort against thetime
of old age or adversity. Under this law (a modified form of which is
in use in the United States) the working man can, on affidavit of solvency, register his cottage and land up to the value of £500, and secure
them against seizure or sale for debt. It is in fact the poor man's
marriage settlement.
MINES   AND   MINERALS.
Gold is found throughout the Colony, on the banks of the Fraser 100
miles from its mouth upwards, in the hills of the Cariboo district, on the
Thompson and Bridge Rivers, on the Columbia and Kootenay Rivers
down to the extreme southern boundary of the Colony, and last year,
reliable information was received of its discovery, in conjunction with
silver, on the Findlay branch of the Peace River, at the extreme northern
boundary. Fabulous amounts of money were taken out from Cariboo in
1862-3, but from that time the number of miners has steadily decreased.
Although the gold mines are undoubtedly rich and extensive, and the
yield per man greater than even in Australia or California, the author
would not recommend gold mining as a profitable occupation for an intending settler—it being but a lottery at the best. He recommends rather
the cultivation of the soil, which affords a surer, though slower means of
wealth. Most of the claims in Cariboo and Kootenay, are worked by
companies of men, who in addition to their own labour employ others, at
the rate of from 5 to 8 dollars per day. Out of this the working man
might easily save one third, as meals can be had for 12 dollars per week.
The value of gold shipped during 1868 by the three Banks at Victoria,
amounted to $1,980,587, or.about £312,000; a decrease, as compared
with previous years. This return does not, however, include the amounts
taken away by private hands, which of   course are very considerable.
Silver is known to exist, but no lead has yet been worked sufficiently
to give any decided information.
Copper has been discovered in various parts of the colony, principally
on the coast, and of good quality, but no vein has yet been worked.
Ruby and peacock copper of superior quality is known to exist on Queen
Charlotte's Island, and at the head of Knight's Canal, on the mainland
coast. Specimens recently brought to Victoria have assayed over 60 per
cent., and if they exist in sufficient quantity, the mine will be very
valuable.    A Company has been formed to work it.
Salt springs are found near Nanaimo, and on Salt Spring Island, and
may hereafter become of great value.
There is excellent Limestone on Vancouver Island; and on Orcas
Island, one of the San Juan group, extensive works have been erected.
On many of the Islands in the Gulf of Georgia is to be found a very
superior  quality of Freestone;   a quarry   on  Newcastle   Island,   near I Nanaimo, has been leased to an American Company, who are engaged in
I shipping it to San Francisco, to be used there in the construction of
the new Government Mint.   It is easily worked, and hardens by exposure,
and a large demand for it is anticipated, there being nothing of the same
kind on the coast.
But that which forms the chief mineral wealth of the colony is its
coal, both anthracite and bituminous; the only good coal in fact on the
whole Pacific coast. The mines at Nanaimo formerly worked by the
Hudson's Bay Company, and now by the Vancouver Coal Company, are
most successfully managed. The shares are at a premium of over 20 per
cent. Although the price per ton is 25s. at the pit's mouth, and a duty
of 58. per ton imposed at San Francisco, the coal commands there a
ready sale at a good profit.
The Harewood Company possess a fine seam adjoining the Nanaimo
mine, but no attempt has yet been made to work it. There is also a very
extensive coal bed at Comox, 70 miles above Nanaimo. Already several
companies have taken up claims, and it is expected that one of them,
owned principally by San Francisco capitalists, will commence operations
in the spring of this year.
Excellent anthracite coal was discovered some years ago on Queen
Charlotte'8 Island, and great expectations have been formed of the results
of the labours of the company, who have for some time been engaged in
opening up the mine. They expect to commence shipping coal to San
Francisco in the spring of this year, where it commands the enormous
price of $16 = £3. 5s. per ton. This coal is stated to be superior to the
Pennsylvanian anthracite.
"The position of the various stores of coal in the Pacific," says
Mr. Dilke, in his ' Greater Britain,' " is of extreme importance as an index
to the future distribution of power in that portion of the world; but it is
not enough to know where coal is to be found, without looking also to
the quantity, quality, cheapness of labour, and facility of transport. In
China and in Borneo there are extensive coal fields, but they lie \ the
wrong way' for trade; on the other hand, the California coal, at Monte
Diabolo, San Diego, and Monterey, lies well, but is bad in quality.
Tasmania has good coal but in no great quantity, and the beds nearest to
the coast are formed of inferior anthracite. The three countries of the
Pacific, which must for a time at least rise to manufacturing greatness,
are Japan, Vancouver Island, and New South Wales; but which of these
will become wealthiest and most powerful depends mainly on the amount
of coal which they respectively possess, so situated as to be cheaply
raised. The dearness of labour under which Vancouver suffers will be
removed by the opening of the Pacific railroad; but for the present New
South Wales has the cheapest labour, and upon her shores at Newcastle
are abundant stores of coal of good quality for manufacturing purposes,
although for sea use it burns ' dirtily,' and too fast	
The future of the Pacific shores is inevitably brilliant, but it is not
New Zealand, the centre of the water hemisphere, which will occupy the
position that England has taken on the Atlantic, but some country such
as Japan or Vancouver, jutting out into the ocean from Asia or from
America, as England juts out from Europe.    If New South Wales usurps 10
the position it will not be from her geographical position, but from the
manufacturing advantages she gains by the possession of vast mineral
wealth."
MINING   REGULATIONS.
A very liberal mining law was passed by the Legislative Council
during the last session, allowing prospecting rights to Companies over
large tracts of land, to continue for two years, and followed by grants in
fee simple; in the case of coal 1,000 acres, to be selected out of the
larger area. The price fixed is £l per acre, or in lieu thereof, beneficial
expenditure, to an amount not less than £2,000. For mineral lands
other than coal and gold, the price is, for any quantity not exceeding
30 chains long by 6 chains wide, £50, to a company of ten persons.
This law however has not yet been extended to Vancouver Island.
The gold mining regulations are very simple. Any person may mine
where he pleases, on unoccupied ground, on payment of an annual sum
of £1 for a "Free Miner's Certificate," which is not transferable, and
must be recorded, and a fee of 10s. paid therefor. The size of each
claim is according to the nature and character of the ground: for " bar
diggings," 100 feet wide, extending to the river; for " dry diggings g
and I bank claims" respectively, 100 feet square ; for " creek claims,"
100 feet long, in the direction of the stream, and from vale to vale of a
hill on each side. For " hill claims," a frontage of 100 feet; for
" quartz claims," 150 feet in length. Any number of claims may be
held by purchase, and a discoverer is allowed to hold two claims without
purchase.
Mining leases are granted on deposit of £25 ; but the lease cannot be
assigned without the license of the Gold Commissioner, and is not in
general to be for a term of more than 10 years, nor for a larger area
than, in " dry diggings," 10 acres; in " bar diggings," unworked, half a
mile in length along the high water mark, or in worked and abandoned,
1 i miles ; in quartz reefs, unworked, half a mile in length, or in worked
and abandoned, 1£ miles.
Mining is now carried on all the year through, underground and
above, when there is sufficient water, and the cold not too great.
A branch of the Government Assay Office has been established in
Cariboo. In each mining district there is a Gold Commissioner, who
is the local magistrate, and determines all disputes in a " Mining Court."
TIMBER.
The coast line, both of the inland and mainland, is clothed with the
finest timber. The Douglas pine, with its straight uniform trunk, often
200 feet high, and exceedingly tough and flexible, furnishes the finest
masts and spars for the largest vessels. On Burrards' Inlet, near New
Westminster, are two large mills, one belonging to Messrs. Moody & Co.,
and the other to the British Columbia and Vancouver Island Spar, Timber,
and Saw Mill Company, of London, employing between them over 500
hands.    The lumber is of such excellent quality as to find a market 11
even in San Francisco, notwithstanding the heavy duty of 30 per cent.
ad valorem, and this too, while at a short distance are the extensive
lumbering establishments and American mills in Pugets' Sound. The
majority of the cargoes are despatched to China and South America,
Amongst other trees are to be found the Menzies pine, white pine,
silver fir, yew oak (on Vancouver Island only), hemlock, maple, spruce,
cypress, arbutus, juniper, poplar, alder, and gigantic cedar, often 8 feet
through and 200 feet in height.
Almost every known description of edible berry grows in profusion,
the cranberry forming a principal article of export.
FISHERIES.
In a coast line so indented by inlets, rivers and sounds, it may be
supposed that the fish are numerous. Salmon is so abundant, that in the
season they are commonly sold by the Indians for 6d. a piece, and of
excellent quality. Sturgeon of enormous size are found in the sand
banks at the mouths of the rivers, also a fine species of cod. The waters
abound with halibut, smelt, herring, dog fish, flounders, whiting and
oysters. Herring and smelt are so abundant that they are absolutely
raked into buckets by the Indians. The eulachon is a very valuable fish
from its extreme oily nature: the Indians express the oil from them,
and it has been recommended and used as a substitute for cod liver oil.
Whaling has been pursued with great success during the last season
in the Gulf of Georgia. In coal, lumber, and fish, there are inexhaustible fields of speculation for the capitalist.
The Naturalist and the Sportsman will find wide fields of interest
and amusement in their respective pursuits.* Away from the settlements,
the latter will enjoy himself to his heart's content; deer, elk, bear,
panther, wolf, together with abundance of grouse, duck, snipe, &c. The
elk, or rather " cerous canadensis" is a noble animal, with splendid
antlers, and beautifully formed, and as large in body as a cow. As
Indians can always be hired reasonably (capital cooks, active and faithful,
when treated well), travelling in the Colony is most delightful—over the
rolling praries, up the snow-clad mountains, and through the dense
forest. In Vancouver Island there are no noxious animals—no venomous
snakes to annoy the traveller. On the mainland, however, the mosquitos
are sometimes troublesome, and in the Kootenay district the snakes are
said to be poisonous.
POLITICAL AND   SOCIAL.
British Columbia is a
appointed bv the Queen.
Crown Colony, administered by a Governor
He is assisted by an Executive Council, consisting of the Colonial Secretary, Attorney-General, Treasurer, Surveyor-
General, and Collector of Customs. These officers, together with nine
Magistrates, nominated by the Governor, and nine Members, selected by
See " The Naturalist in British Columbia," by J. &. Lord.—Bentley, London- 12
the votes of the people of the respective districts, constitute the Legislative Council. The number of elected members will no doubt shortly
be increased, and when the population of the Colony shall be sufficiently
enlarged, complete responsible government, as adopted in other Colonies,
will follow.
The whole white population does not probably exceed, at the present
time (1870), 8,000, and the natives number about 40,000; these latter
require watchful management, for when injured, they proceed strictly on
the lex talionis, and difficulties occur occasionally, owing to the ease
with which they obtain intoxicating spirits.
The cities of Victoria and New Westminster enjoy municipal institutions, with full power of taxation, &c. The law is effectively administered
by two Supreme Courts, one for Vancouver Island, and the other for the
mainland. This anomaly is the result of the union of the two colonies,
as yet incomplete.
Magistrates (who are also County Court Judges) are appointed to
every town of any importance.
The Criminal Calendar is seldom a heavy one, and in its comparative
freedom from heinous offences the Colony will compare favourably (notwithstanding its heterogeneous elements) with most older countries.
Public Schools are established in almost all the principal towns
and settlements. They are free to all, and supported partly by the
Government and partly by self-imposed taxation—as in Canada.
There are two excellent schools in Victoria connected with the
Church of England, one for girls and one for boys; also many private
establishments.
Absolute freedom exists in all matters relating to Religion; no
Government aid is given to any church. Almost all denominations are
well represented. The Church of England possesses two churches in
Victoria (where the Bishop resides) ; and has established in almost all
the settlements Missionary Stations.
The Roman Catholic body have also a large staff of Clergy in Victoria
and New Westminster, and other parts of the colony; also Sisterhoods
and Educational Establishments.
There are Public Hospitals at Victoria, New Westminster, and
Cariboo; also several other benevolent institutions, Masonic Lodges, &c.
Victoria and New Westminster boast also a small Volunteer Rifle
Corps.
The Government established a Savings Bank in Victoria, in July,
1859, with branches in other places, and at the end of the year the
deposits amounted to over ten thousand pounds, and are steadily increasing. Interest is allowed at the rate of 5 per cent, per annum,
and the repayment of deposits is secured on the general revenue of the
Colony.
The Mechanic's Literary Institute at Victoria has over 200 members;
the rooms are well furnished with papers and periodicals, and a good
library. Lectures, and musical and other entertainments are given in
the winter. At New Westminster, Nanaimo, Burrard's Inlet, and
Cariboo, are also similar institutions.
The Telegraph runs up to Cariboo, and by a submarine cable is in 13
direct communication with the American lines. A message can be sent
direct from Victoria to London for £3 10s., and to San Francisco for
10s.
Victoria, the capital, is most pleasantly situated, about three miles
from Esquimalt Harbour, the head-quarters of the North Pacific squadron.
There are two daily papers published in Victoria, the | British
Colonist" and " Evening News," and two weekly papers on the mainland, viz., the " Mainland Guardian," and the " Sentinel."
ALIENS
may hold and transmit land as fully as British subjects; and after
three years' residence, and on taking the oath of allegiance; they possess
all the rights of a British subject, except the privilege of being elected
to a seat in the Legislature.
TAXATION.
Imported goods are somewhat heavily taxed, as will be seen by the
following tariff at present in force. When, however, the colony is incorporated with the Dominion of Canada, the tariff of that country will
rule. The customs' duties, produce three-fourths of the entire revenue
of the colony, but the cost of the necessaries of life are no higher, if so
high, as in England. Clothes, however, are 50 per cent, higher, likewise house rent and the wages of domestic servants; on the other hand,
fish, meat, bread, butter, and some other articles are cheaper. The
direct taxation in country districts is limited to a road tax of 8s. 4d. per
annum for all residents, and 2d. an acre for every acre owned above ten.
In towns there is, in addition, a small tax by way of license for the
various trades and callings. When the high rate of wages is considered,
the colony cannot be said to be heavily taxed, and in comparison with
the United States the taxation is light.
BRITISH COLUMBIA TARIFF.
The following Articles will be charged with Specific Duties, as follows
Ale and Porter, in wood
Do. in bottle
Bacon and Hams   ....
Barley,Oats,FieldPeas,
Malt    	
Beans, Split Peas ....
Bitters	
Butter     	
Candles  	
Cheese    	
Cider  	
Cigars     	
Coal	
Coffee, raw	
3)o. manufactured..
Eggs   	
15 cts. per gall.
30 cts. p. doz. qts.
4 cts. per lb.
30 cts. p. 100 lbs.
1 ct. per lb.
1 dol. 50 p. gall.
10 cts. per lb.
5 cts.  do.
5 cts.  do.
15 cts. per gall.
2 dols. p. 100 (2
cts. each)
1 dol. 25 per ton
3 cts. per lb.
6 cts.   do.
12| cts. per doz.
Flour         1 dol. 50 p. bbl.
Fresh Fruits, viz.: —
Apples,Pears,Plums,
Cherries, Currants,
Raspberries, Strawberries, and Gooseberries       1 ct. per lb.
Gunpowder, sporting..    6 cts.   do.
Do. blasting..    3 cts.   do.
Hay     4 dols. per ton.
Lard        5 cts. per lb.
Lime   50 cts. per bbl.
Lumber:—
Rough, Fir & Cedar
Dressed      do.
Shingles	
3dols.p.l,000ft.
5 dols.   do.
1 dol.    do. 14
Lumber—continued.
Fence Pickets    ....    2 dols. p.1,000 ft
Laths     1 dol.        do.
Live Stock :—
Horses and Mules ..    2 dols. per head
Beef Cattle     2 dols.   do.
Milch Cows         2 dols.   do.
Sheep and Goats   .. 75 cts. per head
Hogs        2 dols.     do.
Potatoes       i ct. per lb.
Rice         lj cts. per lb.
Sugar, raw     2   cts.   do.
Do. refined        2| cts.    do.
Spirits:— according to proof.
Brandy         2 dols. per gall.
Grin, Whiskey, Rum,
and all other kinds    2 dols.   do.
Tea  12£ dols. per lb.
Tobacco  25 cts.     do.
Vegetables, viz. :—
Onions     2 cts. per lb.
Other kinds, fresh..    1 ct.    do.
Wheat   35 cts. per 100 lbs.
"Wines, viz.:—
Champagne and Moselle ....   .......     3 dols.p.doz. qts.
China Medicated   ..    1 dol. 50 per gall.
California,  red   and
white       25 cts. per gall.
Claret   20 cts.     do.
Port, Sherry, and all
other descriptions . 75 cts. per gall.
Bran and Shorts      25 cts. p. 100 lbs.
Buckwheat     1 ct. per lb.
Oatmeal ..           1 ct.    do.
Cornmeal J ct.    do.
Hops      10 cts. per lb.
Shot      ..    2 cts.   do.
On the following Articles the several ad valorem duties set opposite eaeh Article w
charged :—
ill h
PER   CENT.
Axes  15
Beef, salt  10
Billiard and Bagatelle Tables   .... 12J
Blankets     20
Boots and Shoes  20
Bread     20
Cards, playing  50
Chocolate  20
Clothing, ready-made  15
Confectionery  30
Drugs, medicines      20
Dry Goods     12£
Earthenware      12j
Fish, preserved, dried, and salt.... 15
Fire-arms , 12J
Fruits, preserved and dried     12J
Furniture  15
Glass and Glassware   12*
Groceries  12s
Hardware and Ironmongery ...... 12J
Harness and Saddlery     20
Hemp, Canvas, &c  2J
Leather      15
Jewelry  20
Machinery     10
Matches     12|
Meat, preserved  12j
Do.   fresh    20
Molasses	
Nails    	
Nuts and Almonds	
Oils    ...
Opium   ,
Paints  	
Pork, salt	
Plants, Trees, and Shrubs	
Poultry, dead and alive	
Quicksilver	
Rope, Cordage, and Twine   ......
Soap ,
Stationery	
Tinware	
Vegetables, preserved and salt....
Waggons,- Carriages   	
Trunks	
Watches and Clocks.............
Window Sashes and Doors   ......
Ship Building Materials, viz :—
Manufactured Sails	
Cotton Canvas	
Woodenware	
Yeast Powders    	
All other articles not enumerated in
either of the abo^ c lists, nor in
the following list of free goods ..
2b
10
12'-
The following Articles will be admitted Free of Duty :—
Agricultural Implements, Books Printed and Manuscript, Bricks, all Fresh Fruits
not enumerated in Schedule of Specific Duties, Coin, Gunny Sacks, Iron and Steel,
all kinds of Woods not enumerated in Schedule of Specific Duties, Calves under 12
months old, Personal Effects, Salt, Garden Seeds, Grain for Seed, Tar and Pitch, Tin,
Copper and Zinc, Wire (iron and brass) Copper Sheets, Boiler-plates and Bolts and
Patent Metal for Ships, Iron Hoops, Sheet Iron, Rough and Partially Manufactured 15
Woods used in construction of Carriages and Waggons, and Steel Springs, Anchors,
Cables, Chains and Copper Bolts for Ship Building, Fresh Fish, Fish Oil, Whalebone,
Raw Hemp for Rope making, Tallow, Gas Retorts, Fire Clay, Furs, Hides, Lemon
and Lime Juice-, Guano, Wool, Oakum, Jute, Waggon Axles, Ship's Blocks and
Junk, and Blacksmith's Coal, Lead in pipe, sheets and bars.
REVENUE AND  EXPENDITURE.
The Revenue of the Colony for the year 1868, was $584,008.
,,   Expenditure ,, ,, „      $485,729.
thus showing that the sum of £18,000, or over $90,000 was saved and
unexpended. The customs' duties produced £75,000. While other
industries have languished of late, it is satisfactory to find that agriculture has made great strides during the past year ; the farmers are happy
and contented; more than half a million of dollars, or over £500,000
have been sent out of the colony during the past year, for farm produce,
which might have been raised at home. For this state of things population is the only remedy, and the great want under which the Colony
suffers, and it is abundantly clear that agriculture requires no protective
duties to support it.
THE  RATES   OF  POSTAGE
(including the Colonial charge of 5  cents) are:—
To Great Britain    .. Is. = 25 cents, for letters not over J-oz.
„   United States and) H
Canada ■ H G
„  Australia ..    Is. 3d. = 30      „ ,, „
„   Germany & Europe 35 to 40 cents I „
The mails are brought by American steamers from San Francisco,
irregularly, about every fortnight; a state of things which it is astonishing to find has lasted so long without being remedied.
EMIGRANTS.
The amount of good available land is not sufficiently large, nor has
the extent of the gold fields been sufficiently proved, to warrant a large
influx of population into the Colony at one time. But there is abundant
room for a small and gradually increasing immigration.^ The Government inaugurated, last year, a system of assisted immigration for domestic
servants, on a small scale, and it is to be hoped that the authorities will
see the vital necessity of gradually enlarging the system, so as to include
other classes; and also to give free grants of land to settlers, as is the
universal plan of other, and even more attractive colonies. Without
this combined inducement, it will be in vain for the Colony to bid successfully for immigration; and even when the railway through from
Canada is completed (which cannot be accomplished for many years),
British Columbia cannot expect a large share of attention until the Red
River country is settled up, and an overflow sets in from that extensive
and fertile region.
The classes most wanted are capitalists, small farmers, farm labourers,
and domestic servants.   The former would find many openings for profit- 16
able investment in the undeveloped resources of the Colony: the coal,
fisheries and lumber. Money readily commands from 12 to 15 per cent,
per annum, on good security. It is chiefly owing to this high rate of
interest which money at present commands, that the industries of the
Colony have so long lain dormant, and its great resources so little developed. Of the latter classes (together with such artisans as shoemakers and tailors) there is abundant room for a small annual emigration.
Domestic Servants get from £3 0 0 to £6    0 0 per month
Farm Labourers        ,,        3 0 0 „    5   0 0   ,,   (and found).
Gardeners and Day Labourers ....    0 6 0 ,,    0   8 0 per day.
Carpenters        0 14 0 „   0 18 0     „
Tinsmiths and Blacksmiths        0 14 0 „   0 16 0     „
Bricklayers         1 5 0            ..            ,,   (in summer).
Painters         0 6 0            ..            „           ,,
Stonemasons     1 0 0            ..            ,,
Tailors     3 0 0 „    8 15 0 per week.
• Shoemakers     3 0 0 „    4   0 0      „
Printers     0 12 0 „   0 16 0 per day, or by the
piece, 88. per 1,000
Lumber Mill hands     9 0 0 „ 10   0 0 p. month (and found).
Coal Miners,by piecework, average    16 0 0 „ 20    0 0       „
Bakers      6 0 0 „   7    0 0       „       (and found)
Fancy do     8 0 0„    9    0 0        „                ,,
A few farmers with families, and a small capital, would do well.
Many support themselves well on a farm of 100 acres, with a few head
of cattle. One man known to the author, lives with his wife and
children on such a farm, and sends every week to Victoria, 60 lbs. of
butter, for which he is paid 2s. per lb. A working man could build a
comfortable house to accommodate six persons for from £100 to £150.
A log cabin for a single man, would cost little more than the labour.
Small houses for families can be rented in towns for from £2 to £3 per
month. Larger ones let for £5 and £6 per month. Board and lodging
at hotels vary from £1 to £2. 10s. per week, single meals 2s. to 4s.
PRICES.
Meat averages 9d. per lb.; bread 6d. a loaf; tea 2s. to 3s. per lb.;
sugar 6tl. per lb.: bacon Is. per lb.; butter 2s. per lb.; milk Is. 6d.
per gallon; flour £1. 12s. per barrel of 200 lbs., or 2d. per lb. : coal
£2. 5s. per ton retail; wood 16s. to £1 per cord, 8 ft. by 4 ft.; lumber
costs about £3 per 1,000 ft.; bricks £1. 10s. per 1,000. '
A horse can be bought at any price, from £10 to £50; sheep (South
Down) £1 to £1. 10s,; pigs 2£d. to 3Jd. per lb. live weight; cows £6
to £16; yoke of oxen £25 to £50.
Ironmongery, and in fact most necessary things (except clothing)
can be obtained in Victoria, at reasonable rates.
MAPS.
Mr. Arrowsmith has published a good map of British Columbia.
The best map of Vancouver Island, is that issued from the office of the
HydrogTapher of the Admiralty. 17
ROUTES.
There are three principal routes :—
1. By sailing vessel vid Cape Horn to Victoria direct, in about five
months.    Cost of passage is as follows :
1st Class   £50 to £70
2nd „     £30 „  £40
3rd   „      £20 „  £30
This route is recommended to persons of limited means, and who
desire to take a large amount of luggage. On account of the detention,
and expense attendant on taking ship to San Francisco, and thence to
Victoria by steamer, this deviation of route is to be avoided.
2. By steamer to New York from Liverpool, thence by rail across
the Isthmus of Panama, thence by steamer to San Francisco, and so on
to Victoria. This journey is now performed in about 45 days, and the
cost will be :—
To New York  Cabin      £15
„  Steerage   £5
Thence to San Francisco .. Cabin      £20 to £30
„ .. 2ndClass£10 1 £20 (no 3rd Class).
The steamship companies are continually changing their fares from
New York to San Francisco, but now that the railroad is completed,
it is probable that low fares will prevail.
(The route from Southampton to Panama is somewhat more expensive, and there is some risk of detention at Panama, but it is the most
comfortable.)
From San Francisco to Victoria the fares are :—
1st Cabin     £8
2nd    „         £4
So that the whole passage from Liverpool to Victoria may be made by
this route for about £25, and generally in about six weeks.
3. By steamer as before to New York, and thence by rail to San
Francisco, by the new line. The fares are from New York to San
Francisco—
1st Class about    £23 in gold.
Emigrant Trains „       £12 10s.
For meals at least £5 should be allowed. The time occupied in this
part of the journey is seven days, but the emigrant trains are often
delayed. The winter travel is dangerous, by reason of snow drifts; nor
is the line yet free from liability to incursions by Indians.
HINTS.
If you have more money than you can conveniently carry about you,
buy first a draft in London on New York sufficient to provide for the
expenses of the journey thence, with the remainder buy a draft on
Victoria, at either the Bank of British North America, or the Bank of
British Columbia in London. Exchange your draft on New York for
American Gold, and buy again a draft on San Francisco for the amount
which will be required for the remainder of the journey. 18
Travellers should never cumber themselves with much luggage; a
few good suits of English clothes, and a few pairs of boots, will repay
the trouble and outlay, but all else can be purchased more suitably at
the place of destination, and it must be remembered that the charge for
luggage over 100 lbs. across the Panama railway is 5d. per lb.
As a last hint, the author would recommend no one to imagine that
it is an easy thing to make money and keep it, even in a gold colony.
The prizes are few, and for the most part he is fortunate, who, after
some years of hard work and steady industry, is able to secure for himself and family a comfortable livelihood. So much he will be able to
do in the Colony of British Columbia; for which, from its varied and
great resources, may be safely predicted, at no distant date, a bright career
of prosperity. Forming as it will, the starting point of the nearest
route from China to England, it is no stretch of imagination to believe
that Victoria will become the rival.of San Francisco, as the great distributing town of the Pacific. The railway through Canada and across
the Rocky Mountains, from Halifax to New Westminster, is an imperial
necessity, and if from a blind parsimony England shall ever neglect her
Colonial possessions, from that day her prestige and pre-eminence among
the nations of the world will be a dream of the past.
It may be added to the above, that the project for the construction of an Overland
Railroad from Canada to the Pacific, proposed by Mr. Alfred Waddington, is every day
approaching nearer and nearer to a solution. A cloud, it is true, has come over the project
latterly, owing to the difficulties that have arisen at the Red River Settlement; but
those very difficulties, and the impediments they will have thrown in the way, will
hasten the accomplishment of the undertaking, by showing, more clearly than ever,
the necessity of a direct communication with the North-West Territory; so that the
Canadian Government will be more willing to favour and assist the scheme, by liberal
grants of land, or even otherwise. One thing is positive, namely, that an Overland
route which offers a shorter distance from Liverpool to Japan and the East by 1,500
miles than any other, is sure to be built; and that from that moment Victoria will
really and truly become the rival of San Francisco.—Ed.
Public Companies connected with British Columbia and Vancouver's Island having
offices in London :—
Bank of British North America ..
Bank of British Colombia
Vancouver Coal Mining and Land Co.
Hudson's Bay Company   ..
B. W. Bradford, See.
H. E. Ransom, Manager
8. M. Robins, Bee...
W. G. Smith, Sec...
124, BiahopsgRt. Street Within.
5, East India Avenue, E.C.
2, St. Mildred's Court, E.C.
19. Leadenhall Street, E.C.
POSTAL REGULATIONS.
The Mails for. Vancouver and British Columbia are despatched via New York
thrice a week. Rates for letters, Is. per half-an-ounce. Newspapers not exceeding
4 ozs. 2d. each. Books, printed matter and patterns, 1 oz. Id., 2 ozs. 2d., 4 ozs. 4d.;
every additional 4 ozs. id.
Brokers for sailing ships to Victoria and British Columbia; Messrs. Anderson,
Anderson & Co. 1, Billiter Court; Union Pacific Railway, through line from New York
to San Francisco, H. Starr & Co. Agents, 22, Moorgate Street; Royal Mail Steam
Packet Company (booking through to British Columbia), 55, Moorgate Street; Pacific
Mail Steamship Companv (for Panama and San Francisco), 22, Moorgate Street. ADVERTISEMENTS.
Notice to Colonists and Emigrants,
JIONNERY&SON,
CABIN FURNITURE MAKERS,
Clothiers    and   Genaral    Outfitters,
165, FENCHTJRCH ST., LONDON.
Lao in jdo.t.
Supply Outfits for all Classes at Wholesale Prices.
Cabins Jfifteir aitft $jerifrs Jmtr nt mxMam's Sftotrce.
Cabin Furniture,
Hosiery,
o
a
SzJ
-Gloves,
»«
Cravats,
CO
hi
>
2! ^5
Shirts,
3 H
Waterproofs,
rs
ffi ►-«
g Q
Flannel Shirts,
P->
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o H
0>
Tweed Suits,
f?^
5 <
Serge do.,
p  OB
O   p
P* £
Leather Gaiters
t**
Carpet and
W
cu
c*
P
Leather Bags,
P
P*
Q
P5
&c, &c.
P
9
OB
Passengers' Baggage Warehoused Free of Charge, and carefully Shipped if required,
Portable Furniture for Home and Colonial Use.
Illustrated Catalogues and Emigrants' Guide to Out
at Sea, free or by post for one stamp.
All Goods Delivered Free on Board Ship.
Drawers in Two Parts.
MONNERY & SON, 165, FENCHURCH ST., LONDON. Cbe Australian ant 3Ufco Sealant) (Sajettt,
A Weekly Summary of News from New South Wales, Victoria   South
and West Australia, Queensland, Tasmania, and New Zealand.
Post Free Gd., per An hum, £1. 6s.
A Supplement containing full particulars of the Cargo and names of
Shippers in ships clearing from London for the Ports of Australia and
New Zealand, is issued with the above. Price, with Paper, Is.; per
annum, £2. 12s.
Office, 8, Clement's Lane, Lombard Street, E.C.
New Edition, with Map.
CANADA, THE NEW DOMINION
HANDBOOK   FOR   1889.
Prick 6d., Post F*
EE    tD
" This is a useful pamphlet, and will be of great value to those who are thinking
of emigrating, because it supplies just that sort of information which is wanted and
which it is so difficult to get."—Illustrated Weekly Nm&s.
"A new edition of a capital handbook, which supplies intending emigrants and
others with a large amount of practical information in a cheap form." -- (Sty Press.
8, CLEMENT'S   LANE,   LOMBARD   STREET,  E.C.
COLONIAL   NEWSPAPER   AGENCY
Established 1846.
k 1) VERT IS E M E NT S received for the Journals of Canada, New Brunswick, Nova
***• Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Australia, Ta mania, New Zealand, Cape of Good
Hope, Malta, Gibraltar, Hong Kong, Shanghai, Singapore, West India Islands, and
British India; also for Continental Newspapers and those of the United States of
America.
F. ALGAR, 8, Clement s Lane, Lombard Street. A I > v EKXISEMENTS.
COLONIAL     HANDBOOKS
NEW   SERIES,   1870.
Price. Post Free
NEW SOUTH WALES       3d. 4d
SOUTH AUST&ALIA            3d. 4d.
AUCKLAND (New Zealand)   ..                3d. 4d.
OTAGO               ditto                                 3d. 4d.
BRITISH COLUMBIA & VANCOUVER
ISLAND (with Map)       6d. 7d.
EDITIONS   FOR   1SG9.
('AN A DA (with Map)
VICTORIA (Australia)
QUEENSLAND
WESTERN AUSTRALIA
WELLINGTON (New Zealand)
Price.    Post Free.
(id.
7d.
3d.
4d.
3d.
4d.
3d.
4d.
3d.
4d.
BRITISH NORTH AMERICA, by Munro; History, Geography, and Statistics-
Price 28. Gel., post free 2s. 9d.
NATAL, 1865, 60 pages—Price Is., post free Is. Id.
ATLAS OF THE COLONY OF QUEENSLAND, according to the most recent
Surveys. With 14 Sheets. Compiled at the Office of the Surveyor-General. By
Authority.    Price 12s. 6d.
V. S. RAILROADS, Manual of the Railroads of the United States, 1869-70, 471
pages.    By Henry V. Poor, New York.    Price 20s., post free 21s.
THE GREAT WEST. Guide and Handbook for Travellers, Miners, and
Emigrants to the Western and Pacific States of America. By Edward II. Hall.
With a new Map.    Price Is., post free Is. 2d.
NEW   MAP  OF CANADA.      (In Two Parts.)-
No. 1.—Quebec   Province.
No. 2.—Ontario Province.
These Maps are entirely new, and executed in a superior style (by Dower, from
plates costing £100 for production), showing Townships, Divisions, Rivers, Lakes,
Railways, &c, corrected up to the present time. Price Is. each, or the two for Is. 6d.,
post free Is. 7d. *
TASMANIA.—Official Handbook on Tasmania. By F. Buck, Esq., Agent for the
Tasmanian Board of Emigration, containing Description of the Country, Climate,
Statistics of the Colony, Mode of Acquiring Land, Gold and Mining Regulations,
Labour, "Wages, Price of Provisions, a Few Hints to Emigrants, &c, &c. Price 6d.,
post free 7d.
These Publications may be had on remitting Postage Stamps for the Amount, or may be
ordered through any Bookseller or News Agent.
OFFICE:—8, CLEMENT'S LANE, LOMBARD STREET, LONDON. BANK OF BRITISH NORTH AMERICA,
ESTABLISHED   IN   1836.
INCORPORATED BY ROYAL CHARTER IN 1840.
PAID   UP   CAPITAL   ONE   MILLION   STERLING.
Court of Bircctors.
HENRY BOGGS, Esq,
HENRY R. FARRER, Eeq.
ALEX. GILLESPIE, Esq.
j RICHARD H. GLYN, Esq.      { FREDERIC LUBBOCK, Esq,
W. BURNLEY HUME, Esq.     A. H. PHILLPOTTS, Esq.
j J. J. KINGSFORD, Esq. I JOHN RANKING, Esq.
J. MURRAY ROBERTSON, Esq.
jankers.
THE BANK OF ENGLAND.    v~'        | Messrs. GLYN, MILLS, CURRIE & Co.
(Establishments in tbc Colonics.
General   Manager —CHARLES   McNAB,   Esq.
CANADA-
BRANTFORD
LONDON
MONTREAL QUEBEC KINGSTON
OTTAWA TORONTO HAMILTON
NEW BRUNSWICK-ST. JOHN.
NOVA SCOTIA-halifax. | VANCOUVER ISLAND-victoria.
BRITISH COLUMBIA—barkerville.
Agencies in cfliutcb States.
NEW" YORK — 17,   NASSAU   STREET.
SAN   FRANCISCO — CALIFORNIA   STREET.
The BANK GRANTS CREDITS on its Branches and Agents, payable on presentation, free of charge. Also purchases or forwards for Collection BILLS on AMERICA
and COUPONS for Dividends on AMERICAN STOCKS, and undertakes the Purchase and Sale of STOCK, and other Money Business in the BRITISH PROVINCES
and the UNITED STATES.
3ltttrrts.
ENGLAND.
BANK OF LIVERPOOL.
MANCHESTER AND SALFORD BANK.
UNION BANK OF MANCHESTER (LIMITED).
BIRMINGHAM BANKING COMPANY (LIMITED).
BIRMINGHAM TOWN AND DISTRICT BANKING COMPANY.
LLOYD'S BANKING CO. (LIMITED), BIRMINGHAM.
WOLVERHAMPTON AND STAFFORDSHIRE BANKING COMPANY.
NORWICH AND NORFOLK BANK (Messrs. Gurney & Co.)
WEST CORNWALL BANK (Messrs. John Michael Williams & Co.)
WEST OF ENGLAND AND SOUTH WALES DISTRICT BANK.
SCOTLAND.
BANK OF SCOTLAND.
CLYDESDALE BANKING CO.
COMMERCIAL BANK of SCOTLAND
NATIONAL BANK OF SCOTLAND.
NORTH OF SCOTLAND BANKING CO.
ROYAL BANK OF SCOTLAND.
IRELAND.
BANK OF IRELAND. 1 PROVINCIAL BANK OF IRELAND.
NATIONAL BANK. j ROYAL BANK OF IRELAND.
PARIS—Messrs. MARCUARD, ANDR& & Co.
AUSTRALIA—union bank of Australia.
NEW ZEALAND—bank of new Zealand.
INDIA AND CHINA.
THE CHARTERED MERCANTILE BANK   OF INDIA, LONDON & CHINA.
WEST INDIES—colonial bank.
R. W. BRADFORD, Secretary.
124, Bishopsgate Street Within, Lonpon, E.C. 

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