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Vancouver's Island. Copies and extracts of despatches and other papers relating to Vancouver's Island;… Great Britain. Colonial Office 1849

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Array VANCOUVER'S  ISLAND.
RETURNS to Three Addresses of the Honourable The House of Commons,
dated respectively 16 August 1848, 6 February & 1 March 1849;—viz.
ADDRESS, 16 August 1848 ;—for,
" COPIES or EXTRACTS of a Despatch to the Admiralty, from Rear-Admiral
Sir George Seymour, dated Her Majesty's Ship ' Collingwood,' Valparaiso, the 8th day
of February 1847:"
" Of a Despatch from Commander Gordon, dated Her Majesty's Steam Sloop ' Cormorant/ Nesgually, the 7th day of October 1846, to Captain J. A. Duntze, of Her
Majesty's Ship ' Fisguard,' being an Enclosure in the last:"
"- Of a Letter, dated Fort Vancouver, the 7th day of September 1846, signed Peter
Keen Ogden and James Douglas, addressed to Captain Duntze, of Her Majesty's Ship
' Fisguard:'"
" COPIES or EXTRACTS of a Report by Lieutenants Warre and Vavasour, dated
the 1st day of November 1845, addressed to the Secretary of State for the Colonies,
relating to Soil, Climate, Minerals and Harbours :"
" COPIES or EXTRACTS of a Report by Lieutenant Vavasour, dated March 1846,
addressed to Colonel Holloway, of the Royal Engineers, Canada, to the same effect:"
" And of the Instructions sent by the Admiralty to the Commanding Officer or any
other Officer on the Pacific Station, relative to the Coals in Vancouver's Island; and
of the Correspondence between the Colonial Office and the Admiralty on the
same Subject."
{Mr. Christy.)
Colonial Office, Downing-street,") j>   H A W F S
14 February 1849. J
ADDRESS, 6 February 1849;—/or,
A " COPY of Charter of Grant of Vancouver's Island to the Hudson's Bay Company, and Copies of any Correspondence which has passed between the Colonial
Office and the Hudson's Bay Company on that Subject, since the last Papers were
laid upon the Table,"
(Earl of Lincoln.)
ADDRESS, 1 March 1849 ;-/or,
A " COPY of any Report from the Committee of Her Majesty's Privy Council
for Trade and Plantations, on the Grant of Vancouver's Island to the Hudson's
Bay Company."
(Mr, Hawes.)
Colonial Office, Downing-street,~l „   u a ur n a
6 March 1849. J B. HAWES.
Ordered, by The House of Commons, to be Printed,
7 March 1849.
103. [     2     ]
SCHEDULE.
No. 1.—Copy of a Letter from the Admiralty, dated 12 February 1849, enclosing Correspondence
required by Address of House of Commons of 16th August last     -       - p.  3
No. 2.'—Copy of a Despatch to the Admiralty from Rear-Admiral Sir George Seymour, dated
Her Majesty's Ship " Collingwood," Valparaiso, 8 February 1847 -       -       -     p.   3
No. 3.—Copy of a Despatch from Commander Gordon, dated Fler Majesty's Steam-sloop " Cormorant," Nesgually, 7 October 1846, to Captain J. A. Duntze, of Her Majesty's Ship
"Fisguard"        - p.   4
No. 4.—Extract of a Letter, dated Fort Vancouver, 7 September 1846, from Peter Keen
Ogden and James Douglas, addressed to Captain Duntze, of Her Majesty's Sloop
" Fisguard"        .-..-.. p.   5
No. 5.—Extract of a Report by Lieutenants Warre and Vavasour, dated 1 November 1845,
addressed to the Secretary of State for the Colonies, relating to Soil, Climate, Minerals
and Harbours     -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       --       -p.   7
No. 6.—Extract of a Report by Lieutenant Vavasour, dated March 1846, addressed to Colonel
Holloway, b. e., Canada, to same effect -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -p. 10
No. 7.—Copy of Instructions sent by the Admiralty to the Commanding Officers, or any Officer
on the Pacific Station, relative to the Coals in Vancouver's Island -       -       -     p. 11
No. 8.—Copies of Correspondence between the Colonial Office and the Admiralty on the same
subject        -------------p. 12
Correspondence referred to in No. 8; viz.:
Admiralty     -    5 February 1848     -    -    - Mr. Cunard suggests the reservation of Coal Mines
for Crown use, in event of Land being granted at
Vancouver's Island        -       -       - p. 12
Colonial Office, 18 February    „       ... The    suggested    reservation   will    be    borne    in
mind    -        -        -        -        -        -        -p. 12
Admiralty    -    19 October      „       -   -   - Two Vessels will be despatched for general Survey
and   careful   Examination   of  Vancouver's   Island     -        -        -        -        -        - p. 12
Colonial Office,   2 November    „       ... Acknowledgment of above -       -       -     p. 12
(A.)
Charter of Grant of Vancouver's Island to the Hudson's Bay Company, dated 13 January 1849,
and Correspondence between the Colonial Office and the Hudson's Bay Company thereon, since
date of last Papers laid before the House of Commons:
No. 1.—Charter of Grant of Vancouver's Island to the Hudson's Bay Company, dated 13 January 1849 -------------p. 13
No. 2.—Copy of a Letter from B. Hawes, Esq., m. p., to Sir John Pelly, Bart., dated Downing-
street, 4 September 1848       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -p. 16
No. 3.—Copy of a Letter from Sir John Pelly, Bart., to Earl Grey, dated Hudson's Bay House,
9 September 1848 p. 17
No. 4.—Copy of a Letter from Sir John Pelly, Bart., to Earl Grey, dated Hudson's Bay House,
13 September 1848 p. 18
No. 5.—Copy of a Letter from B. Hawes, Esq., m. p., to Sir John Pelly, Bart., dated Downing-
street, 27 September 1848     - -       -       -p. 18
No. 6.—Copy of a Letter from B. Hawes, Esq., m.p., to Sir John Pelly, Bart., dated Downing-
street, 25 October 1848 -        - p, 19
No. 7.—Copy of a Letter from A. Barclay, Esq., to B. Hawes, Esq., m. p., dated Hudson's Bay
House, 3 November 1848     -' p. 19
(B.)
Report from the Committee of Her Majesty's Privy Council for Trade and Plantations on the
Grant of Vancouver's Island to the Hudson's Bay Company, dated 31 October 1848 -      p. 19 [    3    1
COPIES of Despatches and other Papers relative to Vancouver's Island.
— No. l.~
Copy of a LETTER from H. G.   Ward, Esq.,   m.p., Secretary to the
Admiralty, to B. Hawes, Esq., m.p.
Sir, Admiralty, 12 February 1849.
"With reference to a precept of the House of Commons, dated the 16th August
last, that an humble address be presented to Her Majesty that She will be
graciously pleased to give directions that there be laid before the House copies or
extracts of certain despatches relative to Vancouver's Island, I am commanded
by my Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty to transmit to you, for the information of the Earl Grey, copies of the correspondence required, so far as this department can supply the same.
I am, &c.
B. Hawes, Esq. (signed)        H. G. Ward.
&c. &c. &c.
— No, 2.—
Copy of a DESPATCH to the Admiralty from Rear-Admiral
Sir George Seymour.
Her Majesty's Ship " Collingwood,"
Sir, Valparaiso, 8 February 1847.
I have the honour to enclose a letter from Commander Gordon, of the " Cormorant," transmitted to me through Captain Duntze, of the " Fisgard," who had,
in consequence of my orders to ascertain whether coals could be supplied in sufficient quantities for the use of steamers on Quadra or Vancouver's Island, sent
the "Cormorant" up the straits which separate Vancouver's Island from the
main land of North-west America, to examine the localities in which coal had
occasionally been obtained by the Hudson's Bay Company's vessel from the
Indians.
I am happy to find, from Captain Gordon's report, that there is every appearance of ample supplies of excellent coal being obtainable near a good anchorage,
which is accessible from the northward round Cape Scott by sailing vessels, and
through the more difficult channels by which the " Cormorant" passed from the
southward, by steam-vessels or small craft.
I have the satisfaction of hearing from that officer a favourable account of the
ports of Vancouver's Island, which he visited in the " Cormorant," on the southern
and eastern sides. They are in general thickly covered with pine timber, and
the soil appeared preferable to that near Paget's Sound.
I also enclose a copy of a letter which Captain Duntze received from the
board of management of the Hudson's Bay Company, with their opinions of
the mode of bringing the coal-mines into operation, under the direction of their
own officers, should supplies be required for the use of Her Majesty's steamers.
As I withdrew the " Cormorant" from the north-west coast, on hearing of the
arrangement of the Oregon question, I presume none will be required, under
present circumstances, for Her Majesty's service, as the freight of coals to other
parts of this station would be less expensive from England.
The coal-mines, however, will add very much to the future value of the
British possessions on the north-west coast, and contribute the means to extend
their commerce, and to facilitate their defence, as California and the neighbouring countries become of more consequence, and acquire additional population.
On these grounds it may, however, be worthy of the consideration of'Her
Majesty's Government whether any steps may with propriety be taken to secure
these mines for the public interests.
103. A3 I send 4 PAPERS RELATIVE TO
I send by the " Frolic " a box containing a specimen of the coals which Cap-
tain Gordon found to consume, on a trial of four hours, as compared with Scotch
and Welsh, in the following proportions; viz.—
Tons. Cwls.
Welsh 2        8
Scotch 2      14
Ellenborough and Hamilton -        -       -       -    2      18
And I also transmit plans of the parts of the coast to which his investigation
extended.
A steam-vessel arriving on the north-west coast in want of fuel might advantageously pass by the north-west end of Vancouver's Island (Cape Scott), complete
her coals in one of the bays described by Captain Gordon, and go on to the
settlements on the south side of Johnstone's Straits.
In transmitting this report from Captain George Gordon, I consider it my duty
to add, that during the service on which he has been employed, on the very distant parts of this station from which he is returned, he has continued to display
his merit as one of the best steam officers in Her Majesty's service.
I have, &c.
(signed)        G. F. Seymour,
Rear-Admiral and Commander-in-Chief.
To Henry George Ward, Esq.
Secretary of the Admiralty.
-No. 3.—
Copy of a DESPATCH from Commander Gordon to Captain J. A. Duntze.
Her Majesty's Steam Sloop " Cormorant,"
Sir, Nisqually, 7 October 1846.
With reference to that part of your letter of the 15th September last wherein
you direct me to ascertain whether the coals, which are said to abound on the
northern part of Vancouver Island, can be collected in sufficient quantity to afford
a supply for steam fuel, I have the honour to inform you that, having arrived at
M'Neil's Harbour for that purpose, I made known to the natives, through Mr.
Sangster, my wish to obtain a supply, and the next day several canoes came laden
with coal, and they continued to increase in number until our departure.
At the advice of Mr. Sangster, I slung a tub, holding about 6 cwt., from the
fore-yard, which was lowered into a canoe and quickly filled; in this manner we
received 62 tons from the 24th to the 26th, paying for each tub as it came up, by
articles of trifling value, which I procured at your suggestion from the officer in
charge of Fort Victoria. The whole of the expenses incurred, including a few
presents necessarily made to the chiefs, will make the coals average not more
than 4 s. per ton.
During our stay I proceeded on shore, accompanied by Mr. Sangster and the first
and second engineers. I found the north-west part of M'Neil's Harbour to be a
peninsula, and, in honour of the First Lord of the Admiralty, I called it Ellen-
borough. We found a seam of coal just below high-water mark, which appeared
to descend at an angle of about 30° towards the land ; we then ascended the hill,
and, very near the top, at about 60 feet above the level of the sea, in the bed of a
stream, we found a layer of freestone, at about 5 feet 6 inches below a surface of
peat, and below that a seam of coal, much resembling in appearance the English
Newcastle coal; this seam was 10 inches thick, with freestone below7; having
bored through and blasted this, we came to another seam, 18 inches in thickness,
both seams appearingto run parallel to each other, descending at an angle of 20° in
a north-west direction.
Being confident from these two trials that the seams thicken lower down, I did
not make any further experiments here, but proceeded the next day to a small
sheltered bay, about eight miles further down the coast to the north-west, which
we called Baillie Hamilton Bay, after Captain Baillie Hamilton, Secretary of the
Admiralty; here we observed another rich seam, extending along the beach
below high-water mark, and which we traced a quarter of a mile in an inland
direction.
The VANCOUVER'S ISLAND. 5
The seams we found were similar in appearance and thickness to those on Ellen-
borough Peninsula, which confirms me in an opinion I had formed, that they
were connected.
On trial, we found the coal of good quality; they flare much in the furnaces,
and do not appear to have any of the injurious effects on either the fire-bars or
furnaces that Welsh coal has. The proportionate expense for four hours, as
compared with Scotch and Welsh, is as follows; viz.—
Tons. Cwt.
Welsh  2      18
Scotch 2      14
Ellenborough and Hamilton     -        -        -        -        2      18
This difference may appear considerable in proportion, but the coal, having been
procured from the surface, where it has been exposed to the action of the atmosphere, and much of it to the injurious effects of salt water, will weigh considerably
in favour of the Ellenborough and Hamilton coal; had it been procured at several
feet from the surface, I have no hesitation in saying that the result would be at
least equal to the best Scotch coal. We have also tried it at the forge, and welded
several bars of 14 andlj inch, and the heats were as clean as if taken with the best
English coal.
It is my belief that the field does not extend further to the westward than the
eastern shore of Beaver Harbour, and to the eastward than the Minkish River,
marked in the accompanying plan by a dotted line; indeed the feature of the
country from Beaver Harbour to Shucharte is quite different, being covered with
hard blue whin rock, without any appearance of freestone whatever.
It is impossible to form any opinion of the extent of the field in an inland direction ; but, from the appearance of the country, I am of opinion that it is very
considerable.
On first going on shore, the natives appeared tenacious of our examining the
coals, and accused us of coming to steal them ; but, having made a few presents to
some of the chiefs, they entered into our views and became very active, and I am
only surprised that, with the rude implements they have for digging, viz., hatchets
and wooden wedges, they were able to procure so large a quantity in so short a
time; and I am persuaded that, with the means we have, assisted by the natives,
we could fill our coal bunkers in from 10 to 14 days.
The natives are a fine race of men, and appear industrious and friendly, but
much addicted to thieving.
In conclusion, I beg leave to remark that the coal district is, in my opinion,
admirably situated, possessing, as it does, excellent anchorage in its neighbourhood, and being so far north that vessels of almost any burthen can approach it by
way of Cape Scott, thus avoiding the difficult and dangerous navigation of Sir
George Seymour's Narrows and Johnston's Straits.
I have, &e.
(signed)        G. T. Gordon,
John A. Duntze, Esq. Commander.
Captain of Her Majesty's Ship " Fisgard,"
and Senior Officer.
— No. 4.—
Extract of a LETTER to J. A. Duntze, Esq., Captain of Her Majesty's
Ship "Fisgard."
Fort Vancouver, 7 September 1846.
In your communication to the officer in charge of Fort Victoria, you request
all the information in our power as to the coals on Vancouver's Island, and we will
now do ourselves the pleasure of detailing all that is known to us on the subject.
From the indications of the strata, which have been carefully examined, it
appears very probable that this mineral abounds over all the north-eastern part of
Vancouver's Island ; that is to say, from Choslakers, latitude 50° 36', to Cape Scott,
at its northern extremity, as traced by a dotted line in the accompanying
sketch.
103. A3 The 6 PAPERS RELATIVE TO
The spot, however, familiarly known to us as the coal-mine, and where the coal-
bed rises above the surface, is situated in M'Neil's Harbour, on the line of coast
designated ; its position being about latitude 50° 39', longitude 127° 10' west, and
is marked Coal-mine on the sketch. The coal-beds, to the partial extent they have
been explored, appear to be divided by intermediate layers of sandstone, and are
seen most distinctly on the open beach, extending over a space of about one mile
m length, generally, within the line of high-water ; the mineral having evidently
been laid bare by the wash of the sea, which has, in course of time, frittered and
worn away the incumbent mould and sandstone.
A fresh-water rivulet, which runs across the bed in a direction perpendicular
to the beach, has also laid bare a transverse section of the coal, to the distance of
three-quarters of a mile from the sea, showing that the bed runs in nearly a horizontal direction as far as that point, beyond which the depth of the strata has
not been ascertained.
_ It is, however, important to know that the coal can be worked with comparatively small expense over a field of such extent.
We have not ascertained to what depth the surface bed extends, but we know
it exceeds three feet, having explored to that depth without finding any interposing
stratum of mould.
A large quantity of coal may at any time be got there by employing the Indians,
■who are numerous and active, to dig and transport them to the ship.
They are by no means averse to such employment, and ask a very moderate
remuneration for their labour.
On one occasion, when we employed them for that purpose, they brought in
upwards of 90 tons in a few days, which they dug with hatchets and other inconvenient implements, and there is no doubt that with proper excavating tools they
would have done the work much more expeditiously.
Besides the loss of time, the want of tools is attended with another disadvantage,
as it confines the workmen to the mere surface lumps, which is deprived of Its
bitumen by exposure to the weather, and does not burn so freely as the substrata.
In consequence, perhaps, of that circumstance, we have not succeeded in rendering the coals serviceable in our forges, but they burn remarkably well when
exposed to a strong blast in the furnace of the steam-vessel. Externally the coal
is hard and brittle, interspersed with sulphuret of iron, and contains but little
earthy or incombustible matter.
It requires rather a higher temperature to burn than the better kind of Newcastle coals, but is superior in this respect to some of the kinds sold in the London
market; it contains sulphur, a pretty large proportion of bituminous matter, and
yields coke in the proportion of 52 per cent.
If the British Government has any intention of making this coal available for
the use of their steam navy, it will be necessary, in order to keep a constant supply
on hand, to form an establishment on the spot of sufficient force to protect it against
the natives, who are numerous, bold and treacherous ; and also to carry on the
mining operations. We would, in such case, recommend that an application on
the. subject be made to the Directors of the Hudson's Bay Company in London,
who could in a short time take measures to get the necessary means collected^
under the management of experienced persons acquainted with Indian character',
and capable of drawing the greatest possible advantage from their presence.
We shall be most happy to do anything in our power to forward this object,
but it will in the first place be necessary to enter into arrangements with the
Directors of the Company in London, as we have not the means in the country,
and we do not feel at liberty to undertake a measure of such importance without
their sanction.
We take the liberty of making this suggestion as to the proper mode of proceeding, in order that no time may be lost hereafter in carrying out the ulterior
arrangements, should Government deem it an object of importance to form an
establishment at M'Neil's Harbour, or at some other point, for the purpose of collecting coals for the regular supply of the steam navy in the Pacific.
We remain, &c.
(signed)        Peter Keen Ogden,
James Douglas.
—No. 5.— VANCOUVER'S ISLAND.
— No. 5.
Extract from a REPORT by Lieutenants Warre and Vavasour,
dated* 26 October 1845.
From Port Discovery we crossed the Straits to Vancouver's Island, commencing
in the 48th parallel of latitude, and extending 260 miles north, and about 50 miles
in breadth.
This island is somewhat intersected by high mountain ranges, but the soil is
said to be fertile, and well adapted for cultivation.
We visited the Hudson's Bay Company's post, Fort Victoria, in 48° 26' north
latitude, and 123° 9' west longitude, on the south shore of the island, near the
head of the narrow inlet (of which we forward a sketch), where they have established a fort similar to those already described, a farm of several hundred acres,
on which they raise wheat and potatoes, and a depot of provisions, supplies, &c.
for the different trading posts further to the north.
The position has been chosen solely for its agricultural advantages, and is ill
adapted either as a place of refuge for shipping, or as a position of defence.
The country to the south of the Straits of De Fuca, between Puget's Sound and
the coast, is overrun by high rugged mountains, presenting great difficulty in
traversing, and but few inducements to the farmer.
Between the above-mentioned points there are some fine harbours, among which
we may mention Port Discovery and Dungeness, on the south shore, and a bay
within three miles of Fort Victoria, called the " Squirnal " by the Indians, which
from superficial observation, appear to afford anchorage and protection for ships of
any tonnage.
The above-mentioned harbours contain an abundant supply of fresh water, in
which the rest of the coast is very deficient. Large rivers are formed in the
winter season which become perfectly dry during the summer.
There is coal in the neighbourhood of Puget's Sound, and on the Cowlitz
River; the specimens used by the Hudson's Bay Company were obtained from the
surface, and were probably on that account not found good.
The specimens of lead found in the mountains on the coast are apparently very
fine.
The fisheries (salmon and sturgeon) are inexhaustible, and game of all descriptions is said to abound.
The timber is extremely luxuriant, and increases in value as you reach a
more northern latitude; that in 50° to 54° being considered the best: pine,
spruce, red and white, oak, ash, cedar, arbutus, poplar, maple, willow and yew
grow in this section of country, north of the Columbia River. The cedar and
pine become of an immense size.
At Nas-qually, near the head of Puget's Sound, is the farm of the Puget's
Sound Company, commenced in 1839, and supported chiefly by the gentlemen of
the Hudson's Bay Company. They here cultivate wheat and potatoes, &c, but
the magnificent ranges of rich prairie country between the shores of Puget's
Sound and the Cascade Mountains to the east, are chiefly used as pasturage for
the immense herds of cattle and sheep ; the greater number of which were brought
from California in 1840-41.
From Nas-qually we crossed the head waters of several large streams, among
others the Nas-qually and Cheheels Rivers, arising in the Cascade Mountains,
extending along the coast to latitude 49°.
These rivers have their channels sunk in some places upwards of 100 feet
below the level of the country, rendering them extremely dangerous and difficult
to traverse at the seasons of high water.
The Cheheels flows into Grey's Bay on the Pacific, is navigable for small boats
and canoes, and forms a barred harbour for vessels of small tonnage.
The country is easy of access from Nas-qually to the Cheheels River, when the
soil changes from a gravelly loam to a stiff clay, and numerous little rivers which
overflow
* The Report is dated 26th October 1845, not 1st November 1845, as stated in the Address for
the Papers.
103. A 4 8 PAPERS RELATIVE TO
overflow their banks and flood the country for an immense distance during the
winter and spring freshets render the land journey to the Cowlitz River difficult,
and during the season almost impracticable.
There are a few families settled on plains on this route, and the Americans are
forcing themselves as far north as Puget's Sound. During our travels we met
five families on their route to the prairies in that vicinity.
There is a settlement of about 90 Canadian families on the Cowlitz River, where
the Puget's Sound Company have about 1,000 acres of ground under cultivation.
This farm is situated about 35 miles from the Columbia.
The course of the Cowlitz is rapid, and in high water dangerous, but presenting
no obstacles that are not overcome by the energy and perseverance of the Canadian
boatmen.
A small establishment has been formed at the mouth of the Cowlitz River as a
store for wheat, &c, which the Hudson's Bay Company export in large quantities
to the Russian settlement at Silka and to the Sandwich Islands.
The accompanying account of the population of the Indian tribes has been
compiled with great care from the best authorities we could obtain, and from the
trading lists lent us by the kindness of the gentlemen in charge of the Hudson's
Bay Company.
The Indians of Puget's Sound and the Straits of De Fuca, also those further
to the north, appear to be more numerous than those of the interior, and cultivate
large quantities of potatoes, &c. for their own use, and to barter with the vessels
frequenting the coast.
They are not so cleanly as the Indians of the prairies, nor are. they so brave or
warlike ; many of the latter tribes are a very fine race of men, and possess large
herds of cattle and immense numbers of horses.
In the neighbourhood of Walla-Walla individual Indians were pointed out to
us who owned more than 1,000 horses.
Slavery is common with all the tribes, and he who possesses most slaves and
the largest number of horses is considered the greatest chief.
The Indians of the North are sometimes troublesome, but those of the Columbia are a quiet, inoffensive, but very superstitious race. To this last cause
may be traced their quarrels with the white man and with one another.
They are well armed with rifles, muskets, &c, but, from policy, they are much
stinted by the Hudson's Bay Company in ammunition.
The Indian tribes do not remain upon the same ground during the whole year.
In the summer they resort to the principal rivers and the sea-coast, where they
take and lay by large quantities of salmon, &c, for their winter consumption,
retiring to the smaller rivers of the interior during the cold season.
Neither the Roman Catholic nor Methodist missionaries have done much
towards reclaiming the Indian population, who are an idle, dissolute race, and
very few of them can be induced to change their mode of life, or cultivate more
than will absolutely keep them from starvation.
The total abolition of the sale of intoxicating liquors has done much for the
good of the whole community, white population as well as Indian ; and so long as
this abstinence (which can hardly be called voluntary) continues, the country
will prosper. When this prohibition is withdrawn, and the intercourse with the
world thrown open, such is the character of the dissolute and only partially
reformed American and Canadian settlers, that every evil must be anticipated,
and the unfortunate Indian will be the first to suffer.
Enclosure VANCOUVER'S ISLAND.
Enclosure in No. 5.
CENSUS of the Indian Tribes in the Oregon Territory, from Latitude 42° to Latitude 54%
derived from the Trading Lists of the Hudson's Bay Company, and from the best obtainable
Information.
NAME OF THE TRIBE.
WHERE SITUATED.
Quacolt, Nuvette and 27
other tribes; speaking
generally the Quacolt
language.
Massetes and 13 tribes, not
included with the above,
and speaking different
languages.
Nass Indians, 4 tribes;
speaking the same language.
Chymsgans, 10 tribes, all
of whom speak the same
language with a different
idiom.
Skeena Indians, 2 tribes   -
Labassas Indians, 5 tribes -
Milbank Sound, 9 tribes   -
Challams Corvaitehims, 24
tribes, speaking the Chal-
lam and Corvaitzchim
languages.
New Caledonia Indians (8
tribes known).
Sanetch Indians, 3 tribes
- - from lat. 54° to lat. 50°,
including Queen Charlotte's
Island, north end of Vancouver's Island, Milbank Sound
and Island, and the main shore.
- - on Queen Charlotte's Island,
not included in the above.
Nass River, on the main land -
- - Chatham Sound, Portland
Canal, Port Essington, and the
neighbouring islands.
- - at the mouth of the Skeena
River.
- - Gardiner's Canal, Canal de
Principe, Canal de la Reida.
- - Millbank Sound, Cascade
Canal, Deane Canal, Salmon
River, and the Islands on the
coast.
- - from lat. 50° along the coast
south, to Whitby Island, in
lat. 48°, part of Vancouver's
Island and the mouth of Fram's
River.
- - M'Leod's Lake, Chileotnis,
Fort George, Alexandria, on
Fraser's River, Conally Lake,
Balrue Lake, Fraser's Lake,
Stuart Lake.
- - Straits of St. Juan de Fuca,
Vancouver's Island.
Children under 12 years ------
Hallams, 11 tribes    -       - I - - Straits of St. Juan de Fuca,
I Vancouver's Island.
Children under 12 years ------
Smahomith, 1 tribe -       - I - - Straits of St. Juan de Fuca,
| Vancouver's Island.
Children under 12 years
Skatcat, 1 tribe
Males.
Straits of St. Juan de Fuca,
Vancouver's Island.
Children under 12 years	
Cowitchici, 7 tribes -       - I - - Straits of St. Juan de Fuca,
I Vancouver's Island.
Children under 12 years
Soke Indians, 1 tribe
Straits of St. Juan de Fuca,
Vancouver's Island.
Children under 12 years -
Cowitchici, 3 tribes, not as
yet ascertained.
Cape   Flattery,   Gulf   of
Georgia,— Indians ; exact numbers not ascertained.
Nisqually, 13 tribes -
Two tribes on the Cowletz
River.
Cheenooks,  Clatsops,  and
several tribes   near  the
entrance of the Columbia
River.
Tribe Kalats, several tribes
103.
say
about
- - Nasqually River and Puget's
Sound, &c.
- about
- - mouth   of the   Columbia
River and the vicinity.
- - near Fort   Vancouver, on
the Columbia.
B
19,020
3,232
857
1,202
195
717
784
3,176
1,265
194
Females.
20,215
3,381
746
1,225
120
601
797
3,383
1,150
152
- 99
517  I        461
- 467
208  I 118
230
173
161
- 191
542 I        636
585
39
39
12
1,835
1,997
Slaves.
1,570
none
12
68
7
111
47
2,868
210
none
40
13
18
none
none
182
Total.
40,805
6,613
1,615
2,495
322
1,429
1,628
9,427
2,625
445
1,485
569
543
1,763
90
300
4,014
500
429
500
(continued) 10
PAPERS RELATIVE TO
Census of the Indian Tribes in the Oregon Territory—continued.
NAME OF THE TRIBE.
WHERE SITUATED.
Males.
Females.
Slaves.
Total.
Kile Pugas, several tribes -
Clakamus, several tribes   -
valley of the Willamata River
- - valley of the Clakamas and
i          i          i          i                    ii               i                    iii
1                 1                 ■                 1                                    II                           1                                   4                 11
iii                   i              ■■                   i         ■         i         i
iii                   i              ii                   iiii
300
200
Cheanooks   Kelussuyas, 4
tribes.
Killamooks, 3 tribes
Clamets, several tribes
Walla-Walla, They Persus,
Snakes, and several tribes.
Colville and Spokane
Ockanagan, several tribes -
Kullers Pal us, several tribes
Rootoonais, several tribes -
- - Pillar Rock,  Oak Point,
the    Dallas,    the   Cascades,
Cheate River, Takama River,
on the Columbia.
- - on the sea-coast, between
the River  Columbia and the
Umpqua.
- -  Roquas  River,   near the
South Boundary.
- - on the South   or Snakes
Branch of the Columbia, extending  to  near   the   Rocky
Mountains.
- - near Fort Colville, on the
Columbia.
- - on the Okanagan and Pis-
cour Rivers.
- - on the Flatchead or Clarke
River.
- - on M'Gillivray's River, the
Flat-bow Lake, &c.
Total Population   -   -   -
■         i         i         i                   ii              i                   *
1                    1                    1                   1                                         II                               ■                                         ■
800
1,500
800
3,000
450
300
300
450
33,956
35,182
5,146
86,947
Fort Vancouver, 1845.
Males
Females
Children    -
Slaves
Total     -
Great Total   -
RECAPITULATION.
33,956
35,182
1,584 of both sexes under 12 years of age.
5,146
75,868 of whom an accurate census has been made.
11,079 Estimate of tribes of whom no census has been taken.
86,947 Indian population from lat. 42° to lat. 54° north.
Remarks.—The gentlemen in charge of the Hudson Bay Company's posts, on the north of the
Columbia, have made very accurate estimates of the Indian population in the neighbourhood of
their several stations, and we have every reason to believe, from our own observations, in the
accuracy of these statements.
The Indian tribes on the Columbia and the interior of the country are a very migratory race,
and it is very difficult to arrive at their exact numbers. We believe the above statements to be
rather under their numerical strength.
We shall have the honour to submit in our Return in 1846 more detailed statements of all the
separate tribes.
(signed)       M. Vavasour, L4 Roy. Eng.
Henry J. War re, & & Adj.
— No. 6.—
Extract of a REPORT from Lieutenant Vavasour to Colonel Holloivay,
dated 1 March 1846.
Fort Victoria is situated on the southern end of Vancouver's Island, in the
small harbour of Camrnusan, the entrance to which is rather intricate. The fort
is a square inclosure of 100 yards, surrounded by cedar pickets, 20 feet in height,
having two octagonal bastions, containing each six 6-pounder iron guns at the
north-east and south-west angles ; the buildings are made of squared timber,
eight in number, forming three sides of an oblong.    This fort has lately been
established : VANCOUVER'S ISLAND. 11
established; it is badly situated with regard to water and position, which latter
has been chosen for its agricultural advantages only.
About three miles distant, and nearly connected by a small inlet, is the
Squimal Harbour, which is very commodious, and accessible at all times, offering
a much better position, and having also the advantage of a supply of water in
the vicinity.
This is the best built of the Company's forts; it requires loopholing, and a
platform or gallery, to enable men to fire over the pickets; a ditch might be cut
around it, but the rock appears on the surface in many places.
There is plenty of timber of every description on Vancouver's Island, as also
limestone, which could be transported to Nisqually, or other places in the
territory where it may be hereafter deemed necessary to form permanent works,
barracks, &c.
—No. 7.—
Copy of a LETTER from H. G. Ward, Esq., m. p., Secretary to the Admiralty,
to Rear-Admiral Sir George F. Seymour, k. c. h.
Sir, Admiralty, 5 February 1848.
I am commanded by my Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty to transmit to
you, for your information and guidance, the enclosed copy of a letter from Mr.
Cunard, recommending that, on grants of land being made on Vancouver's
Island, that the coal-mines should be reserved for the use of the Crown.
I have, &c.
Rear-Admiral Sir George F. Seymour, (signed)        H. G. Ward.
k.c. h., &c. &c. &c.
Enclosure in No. 7.
Sir, 1, Hyde Park Place West, 3 January 1848.
Observing in the public papers that coal is to be had at Vancouver's Island,
I hope I may not be considered as intruding by bringing the subject under the
notice of the Lords of the Admiralty. Individuals in the Oregon territory will
be alive to the advantages resulting from the possession of this valuable article,
and will endeavour to obtain the best situations, or acquire any right the natives
may have, or suppose they may have.
It may therefore be well, in granting lands on this island, to reserve the mines
for the use of the Crown, and to take such measures as may prevent the natives
or others from acquiring or ceding rights to these mines.
The subject will not long escape the vigilance of the Americans in that neighbourhood.
I have, &c>
H. G. Ward, Esq., m. p. (signed)       S. Cunard.
Sec. &c. &c.
103. B2 —No. 8, 12 PAPERS RELATIVE TO
— No. 8. —
CORRESPONDENCE with Admiralty relative to Coai. at Vancouver's
Island.
Enclosure 1, in No. 8.
Copy of a LETTER from H. G. Ward, Esq., m. p., Secretary to the Admiralty,
to B. Hawes, Esq., m. p.
Sir, Admiralty, 5 February 1848.
I am commanded by my Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty to transmit to
you, for the information of Earl Grey, the enclosed copy of a letter from Mr.
^ \&V>"   Cunard, suggesting that on land being granted on Vancouver's Island, that the
^e. ^°l^-—"" coal-mines there should be reserved for the use of the Crown.
I have, &c.
B. Hawes, Esq. (signed)        H. G. Ward.
Colonial Office.
Enclosure 2, in No. 8.
Copy of a LETTER from Herman Merivale, Esq., to the Secretary of the
Admiralty.
Sir, Downing-street, 18 February 1848.
I have laid your letter of the 5th instant and its enclosure before Earl Grey,
and I am directed by his Lordship to acquaint you, for the information of the
Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, that the suggestion made by Mr. Cunard,
that it would be advisable to reserve the coal at Vancouver's Island for the use
of the Crown, will be borne in mind whenever an opportunity arises for the
disposal of land in that portion of the British possessions.
I am, &c.
The Secretary, Admiralty. (signed)        Herman Merivale.
Enclosure 3, in No. 8.
Copy of a LETTER from Captain Hamilton, r.n., to B. Hawes, Esq., m.p.
Sir, Admiralty, 19 October 1848.
I am commanded by my Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty to state, for the
information of Earl Grey, that it is their Lordships' intention to send a steam-
vessel and a sloop of war, under an officer of scientific acquirements (to be placed
under the command of Rear-Admiral Hornby in the Pacific), to Vancouver's
Island, for the purpose of general survey and careful examination, and my Lords
request to be favoured with any suggestions or wishes that Lord Grey may
desire to make on the subject.
I have, &c.
Benjamin Hawes, Esq. (signed) W. A. B. Hamilton,
&c. &c. &c, Colonial Office.
Enclosure 4, in No. 8.
Copy of a LETTER from Herman Merivale, Esq., to Captain Hamilton, r.n.
Sir, Downing-street, 2 November 1848.
I am directed by Earl Grey to acknowledge your letter of the 19th instant,
conveying information that the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty intend to
despatch a steam-vessel and a sloop of war to Vancouver's Island, and I am
desired to acquaint you that should any suggestions occur to Lord Grey before
their departure, his Lordship will avail himself of the information conveyed in
your present letter, and will cause a communication to be made to the Admiralty
on the subject.
I have, &c.
Captain Hamilton, R. n. (signed)        //. Merivale.
&c. &c &c. VANCOUVER'S ISLAND. 13
(A.)
CHARTER of Grant of Vancouver's Island to the Hudson's Bay Company, dated
13 January 1849, and Correspondence between the Colonial Office and the
Hudson's Bay Company thereon, since Date of last Papers laid before the
House of Commons.
— No. i —
VANCOUVER'S ISLAND.
Royal Grant.
VICTORIA, by the grace of God of the United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Ireland Queen, Defender of the Faith, to all to whom these
Presents shall come, greeting:
Whereas by the Royal Charter or Letters Patent of his late Majesty King
Charles the Second, bearing date the 2d day of May, in the 22d year of his reign,
his said late Majesty did (amongst other things) ordain and declare that the
Governor and Company of Adventurers of England trading into Hudson's Bay,
thereby incorporated, and their successors by that name, should at all times
thereafter be personable and capable in law to have, purchase, receive, possess
and enjoy and retain lands, rents, privileges, liberties, jurisdictions, franchises
and hereditaments, of what nature or kind soever they were, to them or their
successors : And also to give, grant, demise, alien, assign and dispose lands,
tenements and hereditaments, and to do and execute all and singular other things
by the same name that to them should or might appertain to do :
And his said late Majesty did thereby for himself, his heirs and successors,
give, grant and confirm unto the said Governor and Company and their successors, the sole trade and commerce of all those seas, straits, bays, rivers, lakes,
c reeks and sounds, in whatsoever latitude they should be, that lay within the
entrance of the straits, commonly called Hudson's Straits, together with all the
lands and territories upon the countries, coasts and confines of the seas, bays,
lakes, rivers, creeks and sounds aforesaid, that were not already actually possessed
by or granted to any of his said late Majesty's subjects, or possessed by the subjects of any other Christian prince or state, with the fishing of all sorts of fish,
whales, sturgeons and all other royal fishes in the seas, bays, inlets and rivers
within the premises, and the fish therein taken; together with the royalty of the
seas upon the coasts within the limits aforesaid, and all mines royal, as well then
discovered as not then discovered, of gold, silver, gems and precious stones to be
found or discovered within the territories, limits and places aforesaid, and that
the said land should be from thenceforth reckoned and reputed as one of his said
late Majesty's plantations or colonies in America :
And further, his said late Majesty did thereby for himself, his heirs and successors, make, create and constitute the said Governor and Company for the time
being, and their successors, the true and absolute lords and proprietors of the same
territory, limits and places aforesaid, and of all other the premises (saving always
the faith, allegiance and sovereign dominion due to his said late Majesty, his
heirs and successors, for the same) ; to hold, possess and enjoy the said territory,
limits and places, and all and singular other the premises thereby granted as
aforesaid, with their and every of their rights, members, jurisdictions, prerogatives,
royalties and appurtenances whatsoever to them the said Governor and Company
and their successors for ever ; to be holden of his said late Majesty, his heirs and
successors, as of his manor of East Greenwich, in the county of Kent, in free and
common soccage, and not in capite or by knight's service ; yielding and paying
yearly to his said late Majesty, his heirs and successors, for the same, two elks
and two black beavers whensoever and as often as his said late Majesty, his heirs
and successors, should happen to enter into the said countries, territories and
regions thereby granted:
» And whereas by an Act passed in the Session of Parliament held in the 43d
year of the reign of his late Majesty King George the Third, intituled, " An Act
103. b 3 (or 14       PAPERS RELATIVE TO THE GRANT OF
for extending the Jurisdiction of the Courts of Justice in the Provinces of Lower
and Upper Canada, to the Trial and Punishment of Persons guilty of Crimes and
Offences within certain Parts of North America adjoining to the said Provinces,"
it was enacted, that from and after the passing of that Act all offences committed
within any of the Indian territories or parts of America not within the limits of
either of the said provinces of Lower or Upper Canada, or of any civil government of the United States of America, should be and be deemed to be offences of
the same nature, and should be tried in the same manner and subject to the same
punishment as if the same had been committed within the provinces of Upper or
Lower Canada, and provisions were contained in the said Act regulating the committal and trial of the offenders :
And whereas by an Act passed in the Session of Parliament holden in the first
and second years of the reign of his late Majesty King George the Fourth,
intituled, " An Act for regulating the Fur Trade, and establishing a Criminal
and Civil Jurisdiction within certain Parts of North America," after reciting,
among other things, that doubts had been entertained whether the provisions of
said Act of the 43d of George the Third, extended to the territories granted
by charter to the said Governor and Company, and that it was expedient that such
doubts should be removed, and that the said Act should be further extended; it
was enacted (amongst other things), that from and after the passing of said last-
mentioned Act, it should be lawful for his then Majesty, his heirs and successors,
to make grants, or give his royal license, under the hand and seal of one of his
Majesty's Principal Secretaries of State, to any body corporate or company, or
person or persons, of or for the exclusive privilege of trading with the Indians in
all such parts of North America as should be specified in any of such grants or
licenses respectively, not being part of the lands or territories theretofore granted
to the said Governor and Company of Adventurers of England trading into
Hudson's Bay, and not being part of any of his Majesty's provinces in North
America, or of any lands or territories belonging to the United States of America,
subject to the provisions and restrictions in the said Act mentioned :
And it was thereby further enacted, that the said Act of the 43d of George
the Third, and all the clauses and provisoes therein contained, should be deemed
and construed, and was and were thereby respectively declared to extend to and
over, and to be in full force in and through all the territories theretofore granted
to the said Company of Adventurers trading to Hudson's Bay:
And whereas by Our grant or royal license, bearing date the 13th day of May
1838, under the hand and seal of one of Our then Principal Secretaries of State,
We granted and gave Our license to the said Governor and Company and
their successors, for the exclusive privilege of trading with the Indians in all
such parts of North America to the northward and westward of the lands and
territories belonging to the United States of America as should not form part of
any of Our provinces in North America, or of any lands or territories belonging
to the United States of America, or to any European government, state or power,
subject nevertheless as therein mentioned :
And We did thereby give and grant and secure to the said Governor and Company and their successors, the sole and exclusive privilege, for the full period of
21 years from the date thereof, of trading with the Indians in all such parts of
North America as aforesaid, except as therein mentioned, at the rent therein
reserved, and upon the terms and subject to the qualification and power of revocation therein contained :
And whereas by a treaty between Ourselves and the United States of America,
for the settlement of the Oregon boundary, signed at Washington on the 15th
day of June 1846, it was agreed upon and concluded (amongst other things) as
follows:—That from the point of the 49th parallel of north latitude, where the
boundary laid down in existing treaties and conventions between Great Britain
and the said United States terminated, the line of boundary between Our territories and those of the United States should be continued westward along the
said parallel of north latitude to the middle of the channel which separates the
continent from Vancouver's Island, and thence southerly through the middle of
the said channel and of De Fuca's Straits to the Pacific Ocean : Provided, however, that the navigation of the whole of the said channel and straits south of
the 49th parallel of south latitude should remain free and open to both parties:
And whereas certain of Our lands and territories in North America lie to the
westward and also to the northward of the territory granted to the said Governor
and VANCOUVER'S ISLAND to the HUDSON'S BAY COMPANY.      15
and Company by the hereinbefore recited grant or letters patent of his said late
Majesty King Charles the Second, and which is, pursuant to the direction in that
behalf contained in such grant or letters patent, called or known as Rupert's Land,
and to the eastward of the territories the boundary line of which is defined by the
hereinbefore recited treaty with the United States of North America:
And whereas under the said last-mentioned grant or letters patent, and also under
our hereinbefore recited grant or license of the 13th day of May 1838, the said
Governor and Company have traded as well within as beyond the limits of the
lands and territories granted to them by the said grant or letters patent of his said
late Majesty King Charles the Second, and have, in connexion with and for the
protection of their trade beyond the said limits, been in the habit of erecting
forts and other isolated establishments without the said limits, and some of such
forts and establishments of the said Governor and Company are now existing
in that part of Our said territories in North America, including Vancouver's
Island, the boundary line between which and the territories of the said United
States is determined by the hereinbefore recited treaty between Ourselves and the
said United States :
And whereas it would conduce greatly to the maintenance of peace, justice and
good order, and the advancement of colonization and the promotion and encouragement of trade and commerce in, and also to the protection and welfare of the
native Indians residing within that portion of Our territories in North America,
called Vancouver's Island, if such island were colonized by settlers from the
British dominions, and if the property in the land of such island were vested for
the purpose of such colonization in the said Governor and Company of Adventurers of England trading- into Hudson's Bay ; but nevertheless, upon condition
that the said Governor and Company should form on the said island a settlement
or settlements, as hereinafter mentioned, for the purpose of colonizing the said
island, and also should defray the entire expense of any civil and military establishments which may be required for the protection and government of such
settlement or settlements (except, nevertheless, during the time of hostilities
between Great Britain and any foreign European or American power):
Now know ye, that We, being moved by the reasons before mentioned, do by
these presents, for us, Our heirs and successors, give, grant and confirm unto the
said Governor and Company of Adventurers of England trading into Hudson's
Bay, and their successors, all that the said island called Vancouver's Island,
together with all royalties of the seas upon the coasts within the limits aforesaid,
and all mines royal thereto belonging:
And further We do, by these presents, for Us, Our heirs and successors, make,
create and constitute the said Governor and Company for the time being, and
their successors, the true and absolute lords and proprietors of the same territories,
limits and places, and of all other the premises (saving always the faith, allegiance
and sovereign dominion due to Us, Our heirs and successors for the same); to have,
hold, possess and enjoy the said territory, limits and places, and all and singular
other the premises hereby granted as aforesaid, with their and every of their
rights, members, royalties and appurtenances whatsoever to them, the said
Governor and Company, and their successors for ever, to be holden of Us, Our
heirs and successors, in free and common soccage, at the yearly rent of Seven
shillings, payable to Us and Our successors for ever, on the First day of January
in every year:
Provided always, and We declare, that this present grant is made to the intent
that, the said Governor and Company shall establish upon the said island a
settlement or settlements of resident colonists, emigrants from Our United
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, or from other Our dominions, and shall
dispose of the land there as may be necessary for the purposes of colonization;
and to the intent that the said Company shall, with a view to the aforesaid
purposes, dispose of all lands hereby granted to them at a reasonable price, except
so much thereof as may be required for public purposes; and that all monies
which shall be received by the said Company for the purchase of such land, and
also from all payments which may be made to them for or in respect of the coal
or other minerals to be obtained in the said island, or the right of searching for
and getting the same, shall (after deduction of such sums by way of profit as
shall not exceed a deduction of 10 per cent, from the gross amount received by
the said Company from the sale of such land, and in respect of such coal or other
minerals as aforesaid) be applied towards the colonization and improvement of
103. B 4 the 16 PAPERS RELATIVE TO THE GRANT OF
the island; and that the Company shall reserve for the use of Us, Our heirs and
successors, all such land as may be required for the formation of naval establishments, We, Our heirs and successors, paying a reasonable price for the same ; and
that the said Company shall, once in every two years at the least, certify under
the seal of the said Governor and Company, to one of Our Principal Secretaries
of State, what colonists shall have been from time to time settled in the said
island, and what land shall be disposed of as aforesaid :
And We further declare, that this present grant is made upon this condition,
that if the said Governor and Company shall not, within the term of five years
from the date of these presents, have established upon the said island a settlement
of resident colonists, emigrants from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Ireland, or from other Our dominions ; and it shall at any time, after the expiration of such term of five years, be certified to Us, Our heirs or successors, by
any person who shall be appointed by Us, Our heirs or successors, to inquire
into the condition of such island, that such settlement has not been established
according to the intent of this Our grant, or that the provisions hereinbefore mentioned respecting the disposal of land, and the price of lands and minerals, have
not been respectively fulfilled, it shall be lawful for Us, Our heirs and successors,
to revoke this present grant, and to enter upon and resume the said island and
premises hereby granted, without prejudice, nevertheless, to such dispositions as
may have been made in the meantime by the said Governor and Company of any
land in the said island for the actual purpose of colonization and settlement, and
as shall have been certified as aforesaid to one of Our Principal Secretaries of
State:
And We hereby declare, that this present grant is and shall be deemed and
taken to be made upon this further condition, that We, Our heirs and successors,
shall have, and We accordingly reserve unto Us and them, full power, at the
expiration of the said Governor and Company's grant or license of or for the
exclusive privilege of trading with the Indians, to re-purchase and take of and
from the said Governor and Company the said Vancouver's Island and premises
hereby granted, in consideration of payment being made by Us, Our heirs and
successors, to the said Governor and Company, of the sum or sums of money
theretofore laid out and expended by them in and upon the said island and
premises, and of the value of their establishments, property and effects then being
thereon.
In witness whereof, We have caused these Our letters to be made patent.
Witness Ourselves, at Westminster, the 13th day of January 1849, in the twelfth
year of Our reign.
By Writ of Privy Seal.
— No. 2.—
Copy of a LETTER from B. Hawes, Esq., M. p., to Sir John Pelly, Bart.
Sir, Downing-street, 4 September 1848.
Referring to my letter of March 13th,* in which I expressed to you Lord
Grey's readiness to entertain any proposal for the grant of Vancouver's Island to
the Hudson's Bay Company, " proceeding on the principle which you have suggested, that the Company shall not derive any pecuniary profit from the undertaking, but shall apply all funds arising from the sale of lands or minerals towards
the colonization and improvement of the island," I am now directed by Earl
Grey to observe, that while he himself feels no doubt that, under the terms of
the grant already proposed, it would neither be the inclination of the Hudson's
Bay Company, nor in their power, even if so inclined, to depart from this understanding, as to the objects with which the grant to them of Vancouver's Island
was contemplated, it appears to his Lordship, that it might be for the interest of
the Company, in order not to leave any grounds for the jealousy of their intentions, which it appears, from recent Parliamentary discussions, is entertained in
other quarters, that there should be introduced into the grant a formal condition
that
* Page 13, Papers on Vancouver's Island, No. 619 ; 1848. VANCOUVER'S ISLAND to the HUDSON'S BAY COMPANY.
1
i
that the Hudson's Bay Company will be prepared to sell land to persons desiring
to settle in Vancouver's Island on reasonable terms, and that the whole price
received for the land so disposed of by them, together with any receipts on
account of coals or other minerals, should, after making a fair deduction for profit
to the Company on the capital invested in this undertaking, be- applied in the
colonization and improvement of Vancouver's Island. Lord Grey would suggest,
that a deduction of 10 per cent, from the gross receipts for land and minerals
might, be regarded as affording a fair remuneration to the Company for their
capital invested in this undertaking, and for the risk with which it will be
attended, and that the remainder should be expended either in sending out
emigrants or in providing for the cost of roads and buildings, and other necessary
charges for the settlement of the island. As the whole of these charges, and
every other expense connected with the occupation of the island, is to be provided
for by the Company, according to the original understanding that no pecuniary
demand of any kind was to be made upon Her Majesty's Government, it is
obvious that the Company could not expect, under any circumstances, to realize
as profit a larger proportion of the proceeds of the land sales than I have mentioned, and that therefore the introduction of an express stipulation to the above
effect into the grant would be attended with no real sacrifice of their interest.
It would, on the contrary, rather tend to promote it, since the success of the
present undertaking must greatly depend upon the ability of the Hudson's Bay
Company to inspire such confidence in the advantages they hold out to settlers
as to induce a considerable number of persons well qualified for such an undertaking to choose Vancouver's Island as the place of their settlement.
I have, &c.
Sir John Pelly, Bart. (signed)        B. Hawes.
&c. &c. &c.
— No. 3.—
Copy of a LETTER from Sir John Pelly, Bart., to Earl Grey.
My Lord, Hudson's Bay House, 9 September 1848.
I have to acknowledge the receipt of Mr. Secretary Hawes's letter of the 4th
instant, stating that it is your Lordship's opinion that there should be introduced
into the grant a formal condition that the Hudson's Bay Company will be prepared
to sell land to persons desiring to settle on Vancouver's Island on reasonable
terms, and that the whole price received for the land so disposed of by them,
together with any receipts on account of coals or other minerals, should, after
making a fair deduction for profit to the Company, be applied in the colonization
of Vancouver's Island, and that your Lordship would suggest (as you did when I
had the honour of an interview with your Lordship a few days ago) that a deduction of 10 percent, from the gross amount received for land and minerals might
be regarded as affording a fair remuneration to the Company ; and further, that a
stipulation to that effect should be inserted in the grant.
At the interview to which I have already alluded, your Lordship did not, as I
understand you, consider that an express stipulation to the above effect in the
grant would be necessary, but that a written acknowledgment of the understanding would be deemed sufficient. At the same time I beg to assure your Lordship,
that I have no objection to the introduction of the condition into the grant. I request, however, that you will send me a draft of the condition for my consideration and approval.
I have the honour to acquaint your Lordship, that on Wednesday last I laid
before a General Court the correspondence on the grant, printed by Order of the
House of Commons, and mentioned the additional condition, and that the Court
unanimously adopted the following resolution : " That upon the formal execution
of the grant, a copy of which has now been read to the Court, the Governor and
Committee be authorized to accept the same, and to make sub-grants on such
terms and conditions as they think fit." I therefore only now wait till I receive
the grant to commence operations.
* I have, &c.
The Right honourable the Earl Grey, (signed)        J. H. Pelly.
&c. &c. &c.
103. C — No. 4.— 18 PAPERS RELATIVE TO THE GRANT OF
— No. 4. —
Copy of a LETTER from Sir John Pelly, Bart., to Earl Grey.
My Lord, Hudson's Bay House, 13 September 1848.
In the letter which I had the honour to address to your Lordship under the
date of the 9th instant, I confined myself to answering your communication of
the 4th; I now beg leave to draw your Lordship's attention to your letter of *
31st July, in which you state that you would direct the draft of a commission
and instructions for the Governor of the proposed settlement in Vancouver's
Island to be prepared without delay and communicated to me; intimating, at the
same time, that you would be glad to receive from me an expression of my opinion
as to the person who may most properly be recommended to Her Majesty for the
office of Governor.
In accordance with your Lordship's wish, I take the liberty of recommending
Mr. James Douglas, the gentleman whose report on Vancouver's Island appears
among the Papers relating to that Island laid before Parliament.
Mr. Douglas is a man of property, a chief factor of the Hudson's Bay Company,
and a member of the Board at Fort Vancouver, for managing the Company's
affairs in the country westward of the Rocky Mountains.
I do not propose this as a permanent appointment, but merely as a temporary
expedient, until the colony can afford to pay a Governor unconnected with the
Hudson's Bay Company.
I also beg leave to submit for your Lordship's consideration the names of the
following gentlemen whom I think well qualified to hold commissions of the
peace under the Act of 1 & 2 Geo. 4, c. 66 :
The Rev. Robert John Staines.      Alexander Caulfield Anderson.
Peter Skene Ogden.
James Douglas.
John Work.
Archibald M'Kinlay.
William Fraser Tohine.
James Murray Yale.
Right hon. the Earl Grey,
&c. &c. &c.
Richard Grant.
John Tod.
Donald Manson.
George Tiade Allan.
John Kennedy.
Dugald M'Tavish.
I have, &c.
(signed)        J. H. Pelly
- No. 5. —
Copy of a LETTER from B. Hawes, Esq., m. p., to Sir John Pelly, Bart.
Sir, Downing-street, 27 September 1848.
I am directed by Earl Grey to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the
13th instant, in which you recommend, as a temporary arrangement, that Mr.
James Douglas, the chief factor of the Hudson's Bay Company, resident at Vancouver's Island, should be appointed Governor of the proposed settlement there,
and also submit the names of 14 other gentlemen for commissions of the peace in
the said settlement.
I am to acquaint you, in reply, that Lord Grey sees no objection to the appointment of the chief factor of the Company as a temporary arrangement, although
his Lordship apprehends that the issuing of a temporary commission for that
purpose will be attended with some additional expense.
With regard to the list of gentlemen whom you recommend for commissions
of the peace, I am to acquaint you that the necessary steps will be taken for their
appointment as soon as the instruments can be prepared for that purpose.
I have, &c.
Sir John Pelly, Bart., &c. &c. &c. (signed)        B. Hawes.
Hudson's Bay House.
No. 6.-
* See page 16 of Pari. Papers, Vancouver's Island, No. 619, 1848. VANCOUVER'S ISLAND to the HUDSON'S BAY COMPANY.     19
— No. 6.—
Copy of a LETTER from B. Hawes, Esq., m. p., to Sir John Pelly, Bart.
Sir, Downing-street, 25 October 1848.
*I have received Earl Grey's directions to inform you that the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty intend to send a steam-vessel and a sloop of war under
an officer of scientific acquirements (to be placed under the command of Rear-
Admiral Hornby, in the Pacific) to Vancouver's Island, for the purpose of general
survey and examination.
I have, &c.
Sir J. Pelly, Bart. (signed)        B. Hawes.
&c. &c. &c.
— No. 7. —
Copy of a LETTER from A. Barclay, Esq., to B. Hawes, Esq., m. p.
Sir, Hudson's Bay House, 3 November 1848.
I am directed to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the  25th  ultimo
stating that the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty intend to send a steam-
vessel and a sloop of war to Vancouver's Island for the purpose of general survey
and careful examination.
I have, &c.
Benjamin Hawes, Esq., &e. &c. &c. (signed)        A. Barclay.
Colonial Office.
(B.)
REPORT from the Committee of Her Majesty's Privy Council for Trade
and Plantations on the Grant of Vancouver's Island to the Hudson's Bay
Company, dated 31st October 1848.
At the Court at Windsor, the 31st day   of October 1848.
Present:—The Queen's most Excellent Majesty.
His Royal Highness Prince Albert.
Lord Chancellor.
Lord President.
Duke of Norfolk.
Earl of Auckland.
Lord John Russell.
Viscount Palmerston.
Lord Campbell.
Sir George Grey, Bart.
Whereas there was this day read at the Board a Report of the Right honourable the Lords of the Committee of Council appointed for the consideration of all
matters relating to trade and foreign plantations, dated the 30th of this instant
October, in the words following; viz.—
Your Majesty having been pleased, by Your Order of Reference of the
4th September 1848, to refer unto this Committee a draft of a grant of the
island called Vancouver's Island, in North America, to the Hudson's Bay
Company, and copies of a correspondence relating thereto, to consider the
same, and to report to Your Majesty whether, in their opinion, any amendments should take place in the conditions contained in the said gram, or
whether any further conditions should be inserted therein, for the purpose of
binding the Hudson's Bay Company to use their best to effect the colonization of the said island : We, the Lords of this Committee, have taken the
same into consideration, and having fully inquired into the whole matter, do
this day agree humbly to report to Your Majesty that, in our opinion, it is
essential, in order to ensure the more effectual colonization of Vancouver's
103. D Island, 20 PAPERS RELATIVE TO VANCOUVER'S ISLAND.
Island, that certain amendments should be made to some of the conditions
inserted in the said draft grant, and that certain further conditions should
be inserted therein; and we, therefore, humbly recommend that Your
Majesty should cause amendments and further conditions to be inserted
in the said grant, to the following effect; viz.—That the grant of the
fishing of all sorts of fish in the seas, bays, inlets and rivers within
or surrounding the said island be omitted from the said draft grant.
That in that part of the said draft which sets forth the intent of the
Crown that the Company shall establish settlements of emigrants from the
United Kingdom, further conditions should be inserted, binding the said
Company to dispose of all lands thereby granted to them at a reasonable
price, except so much as may be required for public purposes ; and that all
monies which shall be received by the said Company for the purchase of
such land, and also from all payments which may be made to them for or in
respect of the coal or other minerals to be obtained in the said island, or the
right of searching for and getting the same, shall (after deduction of such
sums by way of profit as shall not exceed a deduction of 10 per cent, from
the gross amount received by the said Company from the sale of such land,
and in respect of such coal or other minerals as aforesaid) be applied towards
the colonization and improvement of the said island ; and that the Company
shall reserve for the use of Her Majesty, Her heirs and successors, all such
land as may be required for the formation of naval establishments, Her
Majesty, Her heirs and successors, paying a reasonable price for the same.
That the neglect on the part of the Hudson's Bay Company to observe the
hereinbefore-mentioned conditions respecting the sale of land and coal shall
be included among the conditions upon which it shall be lawful for Her
Majesty, Her heirs and successors, to revoke the said grant after the expiration of five years from the date thereof. And we accordingly submit an
amended draft of a grant embodying the foregoing stipulations. The Lords
of this Committee further humbly report to Your Majesty that, in their
opinion, the existing provisions for the trial of criminal offences, and also of
civil causes in Vancouver's Island, under 1 &2 Geo. 4, c. 66, are inadequate for the due administration of justice, inasmuch as that, under the 12th
section of that Act, it is provided that the courts shall not try any offender
for any felony made the subject of capital punishment or transportation, or
any civil action or suit in which the cause of such action or suit shall exceed
in value 2001.; and that in every case of any offence subjecting the person
committing the same to capital punishment or transportation, the offender
must be sent for trial to the court of the province of Upper Canada. The
Lords of this Committee, therefore, humbly submit to Your Majesty the
expediency of making further and more satisfactory provision for the trial of
offences and civil causes in Vancouver's Island, which, in their opinion, can
only be effected by an amendment by the Legislature of the provisions contained in the 1st & 2d Geo. 4, c. 66,
Her Majesty, having taken the said Report into consideration, was pleased, by
and with the advice of Her Privy Council, to approve thereof.
(signed)        W. L. Bathurst.  

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