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Work in the colonies : some account of the missionary operations of the Church of England in connexion… 1865

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the Church of England 

1865. LONDON :
BREAD STREET HILL. The following pages have been written in the hope
of partly supplying the want which has been so much
felt, of a short and popular account of our Colonies, and
of the work which the Society for the Propagation of
the Gospel has been enabled to carry on in them during the hundred and sixty-four years of its existence.
A little book of this kind can possess few claims to
originality; it is chiefly compiled from the Eeports and
other publications of the Society, and from the pages
of the Colonial Church  Chronicle.
The Map and Illustrations, sixteen in number, which
adorn the volume, have been most kindly lent by the
Society. juni^tJL*   M/u//rt4C  CONTENTS.
work in America (continued) : Canadian dioceses.   Quebec —
—rupert's land—Columbia 64
[ VI
work in asia (concluded) : Colombo—labuan—victoria    .    .
map of the world (to face Title-page)
bishop seabury's parsonage  26
st. paul's church, st. Margaret's bay, nova scotia     .    . 32
the rice lake, toronto  48
a newfoundland tilt  66
codrington college  104
indian school-house, pomeroon  118
utimuni, a zulu chief  140
port louis, mauritius  190
bishop's college, calcutta  200
cathedral at colombo  226
trincomalie, ceylon  230
sarawak, from the court house  238
st. peter's collegiate school, Adelaide  282
port nicholson, new zealand n 318
st. Augustine's college, canterbury  360 'a*****«'*£3SmSmk - -      -   _.r    I- ~ ~j WORK IN THE COLONIES.
chaptee: i.
There are few people, at least among those making any profession of religion in this Christian land, who do not repeat
these words each day of their lives; and Sunday after Sunday
their sound is borne upwards, from the hearts, we trust, as well
as the lips of innumerable worshippers. But amongst the
thousands who unite in offering up this prayer, how small a
number ever reflect on the responsibility they thus incur !
Is it not generally acknowledged that when we pray for any
temporal or spiritual blessing it is our bounden duty to make
every exertion in our power towards the attainment of that
blessing 1 Should we not justly deem that person in error, who,
having prayed earnestly, " Give us this day our daily bread,"
should sit with folded hands' expecting his daily sustenance to
be brought to him without any corresponding effort on his part 1
How then can we beseech the Almighty to hasten the coming
of His visible kingdom here below,—that is, the extension of
the Christian religion throughout the world, as we do in this
B ri
petition,—how ean we venture to do this if we are not at the
same time doing everything in our power to advance that blessed
object %
Let each one of us then ask himself the question,—What
am I doing to spread the knowledge of our Blessed Lord and
His Gospel amongst those who sit in darkness and the shadow
of death ?
And to those who think that it is not in their "power to do
anything for so great a work, be it said, there are three methods
in which the propagation of the Gospel may be advanced, and
one or more of these is in the power of every living being.
- Firstly, by Personal Exertions. In all ages it has pleased
God to raise up men who have devoted themselves to this work
as missionaries—men, who have indeed "left houses and lands,
brethren and sisters, fathers and mothers, wives and children,,
for Christ's sake and the Gospel's." Erom the days of the
Apostles to the present time, there has never been wanting a
glorious succession of those who have thus
 " climbed the steep ascent of Heaven
Through peril, toil, and pain,"—
And let us never forget,—we,—who in Christian England
enjoy the full light of the Gospel,—that we owe that blessing
entirely to the exertions, to the self-denying labours of such as
these;—to whom, doubtless, has been, and ever will be fulfilled,
the gracious promise that they "shall receive an hundredfold
now in this time—and in the world to come eternal life."
And here we cannot forbear directing attention to an excellent paper which appeared some years ago in the Gospel
Missionary^, entitled, "A few Words to Mothers at Home
about Missions Abroad," which clearly points out to English
1 Vide Gospel, Missionary, vol. v. p. 60. WORK in the colonies." 3
mothers how much may be done by them in awalang and fostering a missionary spirit in their children.
But there are many who by reason of their age, or sex, or
other circumstances, are unable to give their own personal
assistance in this great work. The next method of advancing
the propagation of the Gospel, is one which is undoubtedly in
the power of all, and that is,—
Secondly, by Prayer. When our country is either threatened
by hostile armies, or engaged at a distance in all the horrors of
war, all are ready and anxious to join in fervent prayer for success to our arms, and comfort and support to the brave soldiers
who are freely laying down their Eves for their Queen and
country. And most clearly it is- our duty so to do. But, is it
not equally, or much mere our duty to intercede for those who
are engaged in a far higher, far nobler warfare,—for those devoted soldiers, who beneath the banner of the Cross, and led on
by the great Captain of our salvation, are fighting the fight of
faith in all parts of the world against sin and Satan, the unfailing adversaries of our souls ? The success we should pray for
in this case is no mere earthly victory, by which, at best, some
cities or provinces are added to our possessions (and with them
a heavier load of responsibility upon our rulers and governors),
or a few perishable honours are heaped upon our conquering
troops. No,—the victory we pray for is one in which thousands
of immortal souls are rescued from the dominion of the powers
of darkness; and the victorious soldiers in that battle need no
fading earthly garlands for their brows, for to- them it has been
said, 1 They that turn many to righteousness shall shine as the stars
for ever and ever;" and " Wlien the Chief Shepherd shall appear,
ye shall receive a crown of glory thatfadeth not away."
Let us not then be backward to fulfil this great duty: let
us not be satisfied with coldly joining once or twice a year in
B 2
the prayers which our Church offers up for all Jews, Turks,
infidels, or heretics, and for those labouring amongst them;
but let us earnestly and continually pray to the Lord of the
harvest that He would send forth labourers into His harvest,
and crown their labours with success.
There is yet another way in which most of us may assist
in the propagation of the Gospel, and that is—
Thirdly, by Almsgiving. Even the youngest and poorest
amongst us may do something in this way, as has been shown
by many interesting instances in the pages of the Gospel
Missionary: and to prove of how much value a trifling sum
may become, when contributed by many persons, it may suffice
to refer to the fact printed on the Missionary boxes of the
Society for the Propagation of the GospeL that " if every family
in our Church would subscribe only one halfpenny a week,
the whole sum would amount to 200,000?. a year, which would
-enable the Society to send out 2,000 missionaries to the British
To those who have a larger share of this world's goods, be it
said, " Freely ye have received, freely give.'' There are some
who think to excuse themselves by saying, "We have so many
claims nearer home, we must attend to them." Be it so,—
attend to home claims and duties,—but, at the same time,
beware of neglecting the claims of the heathen, the emigrant,
and the settler abroad, which appear distant only to our shortsighted vision, but are equally near and imperative in the sight
of the Omnipresent Euler of the world. Others will say that
they really cannot afford to give away so much in charity; but,
would this plea be often heard, if we all observed the ancient
law of the Jews, and custom of the earlier Christians, of setting
aside a tenth part of our incomes for religious and charitable
purposes?     Had this rule been observed in times past, we WORK  IN  THE  COLONIES. 5
should not now behold that vast, overwhelming mass of moral
and spiritual misery and destitution, which surrounds us even
in this favoured country. With the countless thousands thus
saved from luxury and self-indulgence, some more adequate
provision could have been made without difficulty for the wants
of our over-crowded population.
O ! if English Churchmen and Churchwomen instead of trying
(as is too often the case now) to give away the smallest possible
sum consistent with the world's notions of propriety and decency,
—if they would but revive the ancient spirit of self-sacrifice
which ainimated their forefathers—that spirit which adorned our
land with the beautiful churches and cathedrals which remain
to this day a witness of their piety and Hberality—that spirit
which founded and endowed schools and colleges, where unborn
generations might be reared in those holy principles which were
the guiding stars of ilieir lives, and the mainspring of their
actions—if this spirit were revived amongst us, we should no
longer hear of missions not undertaken, or abandoned for want
of funds, of countries yet untrodden by the foot of the missionary, of Bishops worn out in the almost impossible attempt to
rule, single-handed, over the spiritual destinies of dioceses as
large as or larger than the entire extent of Great Britain, and of
tribes eagerly demanding the blessings of salvation, and apparently demanding them in vain!
Let us then endeavour by a course of steady and consistent
self-denial to wipe away this reproach. Let us all " he ready to
give and glad to distribute: laying up in store for ourselves a good
foundation against the time to come, that we may attain eternal
H we wish to maintain in ourselves by association with
others, the spirit of persevering exertion and prayer, there is
the Missionary Union of St. Augustine's inviting us to join WORK IN THE COLONIES.
it. This union was formed originally in connexion with St.
Augustine's College,' Canterbury ; but it now includes upwards
of 1,000 members, residing in sixty-nine different dioceses of
the English communion. They make it their practice, unless
reasonably hindered, to communicate on Whit-Sunday, with
special prayer for the outpouring of the Holy Spirit on the
missions of the Church. They adopt particular subjects commended from time to time to their intercession by missionaries,
who have put themselves into communication with the Warden
of St. Augustine's. They receive also interesting missionary
correspondence from all parts of the world, and other papers
issuing from the St. Augustine's press. In fact they labour,
each according to his ability, for the extension of the kingdom
of Christ.
And if we seek for a channelby which to convey the fruits of
our zeal to these distant regions, we shall not have far or long
to seek. The venerable. Society for the Propagation of the
Gospel in Foreign* Parts is the appointed-organ of missionary
efforts in this the Anglican Branch -of the Holy Catholic
Church, presided over by her dhief pastors the Archbishops
and Bishops, and conducted (as far as human infirmity will
allow) in the firm, uncompromising, yet conciliatory spirit
which breathes in all her teaching and formularies.
Since there is reason to believe that there are many persons
only imperfectly acquainted with the past history and present
working of this Society, we shall endeavour in a few succeeding
chapters to give some information on these points ; and also to
bring forward some particulars not perhaps generally known or
remembered, about our Colonial Empire and the position of the
Church with respect to it. WORK IN THE  COLONIES.
We proceed in this chapter to give a short account of the first
foundation, and subsequent rise of our Colonial Empire and
the establishment of the Colonial Episcopate.
Sir Walter Ealeigh has been justly termed the father of
English colonization, though the attempt so enterprisingly made
by him in 1585 to colonize a tract of country in North America,
named Virginia in honour of Queen Elizabeth, was not attended
with permanent success until the year 1607, when the first
band of settlers landed and founded James Town.
Since then colonies and foreign possessions have been added to
the British Crown with wonderful rapidity. In 1605 Barbados,
our earliest West Indian colony, was acquired; in 1611 the
East India Company established their first settlements on the
coast of India; that of Madras followed in 1620, in which
year the colony of New England was founded; Massachusetts
in 1630, Maryland in 1632, and in the same year Antigua and
the adjoining islands were settled ; Jamaica was taken from the
Spaniards by Cromwell in 1655; Carolina was founded, and
Bombay was obtained from the Portuguese in 1662 ; "New
York was taken from the Dutch in 1664; that vast territory
in North America, now known by the name of Eupert's Land,
was granted to the Hudson's Bay Company by charter from
Charles II. in 1670 ; Pennsylvania and Delaware were colonized
by William Perm in 1681.
In 1704 Gibraltar was taken; in 1713 the treaty of Utrecht
put us finally in possession of Nova Scotia and Newfoundland;
Canada was conquered from the Erench in 1760; the colony
of Sierra Leone was established in 1787, that of New South
Wales in 1788; in 1795 Ceylon, and in 1806 the Cape of
Good Hope, were taken from the Dutch; the island of Mauritius was yielded to us by the Erench in 1810, and the possession of Guiana, our only important colony in South America,
was finally secured by the Treaty of Paris in 1814.
It will be seen that some of our minor colonies are not
mentioned in this list, but enough has been done to show how
vast was the increase of the British Empire in the comparatively
short space of about two hundred years. In Calais, England
lost her last continental possession, in the reign of Queen Mary,
and the dominions of Queen Elizabeth in the height of her
fame and glory never extended beyond the sea-girt coasts of
England and Ireland; but when Queen Victoria ascended the
throne of these realms, it was to rule over an empire more than
seven times as large as that of her illustrious predecessor—an
empire on which it is popularly said the sun never goes down,
and (what must be a far more gratifying reflection to a thoughtful mind), in which the voice of prayer and praise to the
Almighty Buler of the Universe—the Christian's God—is
never wholly silent.
Hour after hour that voice ascends to the throne of grace !
now from the magnificent cathedrals, or more humble but time-
honoured churches of our native isle—now from the log-built
shrines of Newfoundland, and those by the frozen waters of
the Canadian lakes. One after the other the congregations in
the deep forests of the Eed Eiver settlement, and those upon WORK  IN  THE  COLONIES.
the winding shores of furthest Oregon, gather themselves together
as the hour reaches each, into their simple sanctuaries; and as
the matin bell peals from the fresh-built churches of New
Zealand the last hymn of evensong is but just sinking into
silence round the hallowed temples of the mother country, to
rise again and again, as evening darkens into night, from " each
pure domestic shrine" in a thousand happy English homes.
When this too has ceased, and the busy, toil-worn multitude
has sunk to rest, then the sun has risen over Calcutta, the bells
from its beautiful cathedral tower are calling even then to
morning prayer—soon the churches of Ceylon and Tinnevelly
take up the sound, next those of the sea-girt Seychelles, and
of the South African colonies in their order, until the sacred
circle is complete, and England wakes again to Offer up her
morning song of praise.
Thus, in consequence of the dispersion of our countrymen, it
is given to England to fulfil, in one sense, the ancient word of
prophecy, "From the rising of the sun even unto the going
down of the same, my name shall be great among the Gentiles."
In all quarters of the globe may be heard the sound of Christian
worship, but oh ! how feeble is the sound—how scattered are
the worshippers in comparison with what they might become,
if we were to unite in one mighty effort to propagate the gospel
throughout the world, and especially throughout the length
and breadth of the British Empire.
As a further incentive to exertion, let us remember with
shame and* humility how backward we, as a nation, have
hitherto been in this good work. In many, perhaps in most,
of our colonies and dependencies, years elapsed before a clergyman was sent to minister to the spiritual necessities of our
settlers, and to labour for the conversion of the heathen, or
before a church was built in which these " few sheep in the 10
wilderness " might unite once more in worshipping the God of
their fathers. And yet in all those years how dihgent had our
countrymen been in "laying up for themselves treasures on
earth, where moth and rust doth corrupt, and where thieves
break through and steal," whilst they had thus fearfully neglected to lay up that "treasure in heaven which faileth not."
It seemed as if they had entirely forgotten the Divine injunction and promise, "Seek ye first the kingdom of God, and
His righteousness; and all these things shall be added unto you."
But if we look back with regret upon the fatal indifference
manifested by individuals in those things which concern their
eternal welfare, what shall be said of the successive governments
which,'nominally professing the established religion of these
realms, really intending to advance the material interests of England, could yet by obstinate neglect and by thwarting the efforts of
individuals, resist the extension of the Church, while encouragement was held out to its opponents, and even pecuniary assistance and legal sanction were afforded to the idolatrous rites of
the heathen ! To the same inadequate sense of the importance
of spiritual things, must be ascribed the fact that in spite of
many earnest petitions and remonstrances from all parts, enforced by settlers abroad and by Churchmen at home, it was not
till two hundred years after the first attempt at colonization
was made, that the Church was planted in any part of our
Colonial Empire, in the integrity of her threefold orders. In
a time of national humiliation and alarm, when the established
independence of the United States had shaken the confidence
of our government in mere secular power, and when the
Churchmen of those independent states had extorted from
England the long withheld privilege of consecrated bishops,
then it was that by a happy though tardy change of state
policy the same gift was conceded to the colonies whose loyalty WORK IN THE OOLOND3S.
remained stedfast, and in the year 1787 our first Colonial Bishop
was consecrated.
A brighter page in the annals of our colonies commences from
that date, and to this we most gladly turn, concluding this brief
sketch with a summary of the rapid progress of the Colonial
On the 12th August, 1787, Dr. Charles Inglis was consecrated
Bishop of Nova Scotia, and thus became our first Colonial
Bishop. His authority was supposed to extend oyer all the
colonies in North America which then remained in the possession
of the British Crown, those which separated from England in
1783, and now form the United States, having already obtained
the episcopate by the consecration of Dr. Seabury in 1784, and
Drs. White and Provoost in .February, 1787. The enormous
charge of the Bishop of Nova Scotia was reduced in 1793, by the
erection of the Bishopric of Quebec. La 1814 our first Bishop
in the eastern hemisphere was appointed to the See of Calcutta.
In 1824 the episcopate was extended to the West Indies by the
consecration of the Bishops of Barbados and Jamaica. The vast
diocese of the Bishop of Calcutta was gradually diminished by
the erection into separate bishoprics of Madras in 1835, Australia (which had indeed only been nominally within the diocese
of Calcutta) in 1836, and Bombay in 1837. In 1839 a similar
subdivision was effected in the North American dioceses by the
erection of the Bishoprics of Newfoundland and Toronto.
In 1840 a letter of Bishop Blomfield of London, gave a new
impulse to the.movement, and led to the formation of the Colonial
Bishoprics Fund, from which, in the first fourteen years of its
existence, 264,000£. were spent in the foundation and endowment
of Colonial Bishoprics. In 1841 the Bishop of New Zealand was
consecrated. In 1842 the Bishopric of Barbados was subdivided
into those of Barbados, Antigua, and Guiana.;  the Bishop of
1 12
Gibraltar was appointed for the British possessions in the
Mediterranean; and a Bishop for Van Diemen's Land was
consecrated with the title of Bishop of Tasmania. In 1845 the
Bishop of Madras was relieved of the charge of CeyloD, then
erected into a separate diocese with the title of the Bishopric of
Colombo; and the diocese of Nova Scotia was still further
reduced by the formation of the Bishopric of Fredericton. In
1846 a Bishop was appointed to minister to the Anglican congregation at Jerusalem. In 1847 the diocese of Australia was'
subdivided into those of Sydney, Melbourne, Newcastle, and
Adelaide; and the Cape of Good Hope was erected into a
diocese under the name of the Bishopric of Capetown. In 1849
a Bishop was consecrated for the vast territory of Eupert's Land ;
and at the same time our settlements in China were placed under
episcopal superintendence by the consecration of the Bishop of
Victoria. The diocese of Quebec was still further diminished by
the endowment of the diocese of Montreal in 1850. In 1852 a
Bishop was appointed to Sierra Leone. In 1853 the Bishoprics
of Grahamstown and Natal were separated from the immense
diocese of Capetown. In 1854 the island of Mauritius was taken
from the charge (almost nominal) of the Bishop of Colombo, and
erected into a separate diocese. In 1855 the often expressed
wish of the founders of the Borneo mission was at length com- -
plied with, the island of Labuan was erected into a Bishop's_See,
and the Bishop was invested with jurisdiction over the clergy
and congregations of the Church of England in Borneo. In
1856 the Bishopric of Christ Church, in the colony of Canterbury,
New Zealand, was founded. In 1857 a Bishop was consecrated
to the See of Perth, including the colony of West Australia; and
in the same year the diocese of Toronto was subdivided and a
Bishop elected to preside over the western portion of it with the
title of Bishop of Huron. In 1858 the charge of the Bishop of
New Zealand was further diminished by the establishment of the WORK  IN  THE  COLONIES.
Bishoprics of Wellington in the Northern, and Nelson in the
Middle Islands, and in the following yeax by that of Waiapu on
the eastern coast. The year 1859 also saw the consecration of
Bishops for the new colony of British Columbia (Vancouver's
Island), for the Island of St. Helena, and for Brisbane, or MoretoD
Bay, now called Queensland, in Australia. In 1861 a new step
was taken by the appointment of Bishops without any legal
jurisdiction, for the direction of missions beyond the bounds of
the British empire, and Missionary Bishops were consecrated for
the Zambesi or Central African Mission, for Melanesia or the
Islands of the Pacific Ocean, and for Honolulu in the Sandwich
Islands. In 1862 the Bahama Islands were separated from the
See of Jamaica and formed into the diocese of Nassau, and the
diocese of Toronto was again diminished by the establishment of
the Bishopric of Ontario. In 1863 a Missionary Bishop was
Consecrated for the Orange Eiver Free State, South Africa, and
the new diocese of Goulburn was formed by the subdivision of
the Bishopric of Sydney. In 1864 a Missionary Bishop for
the Niger Mission was consecrated, and in the present year
(1865) new Bishoprics will probably be formed in Australia,
New Zealand, India, and British Columbia.
Thus in less than eighty years as many as forty-seven Bishops
of the Church of England have been appointed to' preside over
the spiritual interests of our colonies and dependencies and
neighbouring countries. The large increase in that period in the
number of clergymen in those parts (now amounting to 1,741,
who have already under their pastoral care more than 1,000,000
members of our communion) sufficiently proves how much these
nursing fathers were needed by our infant colonial Church; and,
with the blessing of God, we may in future hope for a still larger
measure of success in winning souls to Christ, from their fostering
care and superintendence.
I 14
•     I
•: 1
Let us now turn to the history of that Society whose exertions
have, humanly speaking, been mainly instrumental in bringing
about the happy change in the state of our colonies which has
been already described.
Towards the close of the seventeenth century, many faithful
Christians, members of the British Church, being themselves in
possession of abundant spiritual privileges, were moved through
God's" mercy, to cast an eye of compassion upon the lamentable
state of religion among their countrymen abroad, to which allusion
was made in the preceding chapter. They "spake often to one
another" of this state of things; and, as private individuals,
made some unavailing attempts to improve it.
The zealous Dr. Bray (who was sent to America as commissary
of Bishop Compton), on his return to England published information of a striking character as to the spiritual destitution of
the colonies, and made various proposals for relieving it. Stimulated by his perseverance and energy, and encouraged by the
Convocation of Clergy, several members of the Society for Promoting -Christian Knowledge, together with the most active
Bishops and lay Churchmen of the day, petitioned King William
III. and obtained from him on the 1.6th June, 1701, a Eoyal WORK  IN  THE  COLONIES'.
Charter, constituting them a Corporation, with the title of the
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts,
and appealed for subscriptions. Among these, its founders and
earliest supporters, we find the venerated names of Bishops
Beveridge and Wilson, of John Evelyn, and of Eobert Nelson,
author of the well-known " Fasts and Festivals."
Since that time its President's chair has been occupied by the
successive Archbishops of Canterbury, Tenison, Wake, Potter,
Herring, Hutton, Seeker, CornwaUis,, Moore, Sutton, Howley,
Sumner, and Dr. Longley the present Archbishop ; and all the
Bishops of the United Church of England and Ireland are Vice-
The first missionaries of the Society, the Eev. George Keith
and the Eev. Patrick Gordon, sailed from England on the 24th
April, 1702, and landed at Boston, in North America, on the
11th June. Other clergymen, schoolmasters, or presents of
books, were sent immediately afterwards to the British subjects abroad, Christians and heathens. Those American colonies
which separated from England in 1783, and now form the United
States, were the chief, though not the only scene of the Society's
labours up to that period. The Society then ceased to contribute,
save by its prayers and good wishes, towards the support of the
Church in those parts. But the seed, which through eighty
years it had been God's instrument for sowing, sprang up and
bore fruit; and the Church in the United States now numbers
about 1,000,000 souls under the pastoral care of thirty-six
Bishops, and 1,800 other clergy.
In 1710 the Society came into possession of an estate in the
island of Barbados, bequeathed by General Codrington. On
this estate a college was erected, which has been of essential
service in the advancement of the Christian faith in the West
1 16
From 1729 theSociety has continued to send missionaries to
Newfoundland. There were then only three clergymen, where
there are now a Bishop, forty-nine clergymen, and a college for
training clergymen.
In 1732 the Society began to send missionaries to the West
Indies,* where there are now five Bishops, 256 clergymen, and
three colleges.
In 1749 it commenced its labours in Nova Scotia by sending
thither the first two clergymen. Here there are now a Bishop,
seventy-nine clergymen, and a college.
In 1752 an itinerant missionary was sent to the negroes in
Guinea. A native African (after being educated and ordained
in England) was stationed on the Gold Coast in 1765 ; and a
catechist at Sierra Leone in 1787, at which settlement there are
now a Bishop and thirty-eight clergymen.
Shortly after the American Declaration of Independence, in
1783, the Society began to send the first missionaries to the
Canadas and New Brunswick. There are now six Bishops, 361
clergymen, and two colleges in these provinces.
In 1795 the Society's operations were extended to New South
Wales, and two years afterwards to Norfolk Island. The first
clergyman went to Australia in 1788, and that continent now
has seven Bishops and 217 clergymen.
The Society's connexion with India first began in 1818, soon
after the appointment of a Bishop of Calcutta ; and with Ceylon
jn 1843. The native converts and catechumens under the care
of the Society's missionaries have now reached the number of
28,227; and there are four Bishops and 406 clergymen here.
In 1820 the Society sent a clergyman to the Cape of Good
Hope, where there are now five Bishops and ninety-seven clergymen.
In 1839 the Society sent its first missionary to New Zealand, WORK IN THE COLONIES. 17
which is now under the care of five Bishops and fifty-four clergymen.
In 1849 the Society began to assist the Borneo Mission, now
wholly dependent on its funds. A Bishop has been appointed,
and there are eight other clergy here.
In the same year the attention of the Society was drawn to
the fact, that thousands of emigrants every year pass four or five
months on board ship without any one to nrinister the means of
grace amongst them, or even to turn this opportunity to good
account by enlarging their minds with general instruction. The
" Emigrants' Spiritual Aid and Employment Fund " was therefore opened at the Society's office. The Society undertook to
apply the subscriptions in the payment of chaplains, or lay
teachers, on board emigrant ships proceeding to colonies south
of the line ; also in providing books, and in purchasing materials
for the employment of the men, and for their instruction in
useful arts during the voyage. How much good has been
effected in this department of the Society's labours, may be estimated from the statement that in the first five years alone forty-
four emigrant ships were supplied by means of this fund with
clergymen or schoolmasters to accompany and instruct the emigrants during the voyage; allowances were paid to chaplains at
port-towns, who watched the arrival or departure of emigrants ;
emigrants were instructed and provided with materials for work
during the voyage; and liberal assistance was granted towards a
hospital for emigrants at New York. The average annual number of emigrants from the United Kingdom, during the last
fifty years, has been 109,563, of whom a large proportion_have_
gone to British colonies.
At the close of 1854 the attention of the whole country was
absorbed with the great events and first signal success of the
Crimean war, and the Society resolved to make additional pro-
i 18
vision for the spiritual instruction and consolation of the soldiers.
Six-and-twenty chaplains were selected and in part maintained
by the Society for this most urgent and arduous service.
In 1856 a considerable portion of the special fund, contributed
for this purpose, remained unexpended, and it was therefore determined to devote it to the estabhshment of a mission at Constantinople for the benefit more especially of the British sailors,
shipping-agents, and store-keepers at that port. Three chaplains
and a catechist are now maintained by the Society here, and a
mission school has been established with great success.
In 1857 the aid on which the Society had so long been
encouraged to depend from the periodical issue of the Queen's
Letter, was finally withdrawn; and with ever-increasing claims
upon its bounty, it was thus deprived of a large portion of its
estimated income. Little short of 10,000£ a year was thus
probably, lost—a loss which can only be made up, but which
can be abundantly made up, by the aid of the clergy, if each one
will consent to do his part by preaching (according to the almost
unanimous request of the Bishops) one annual sermon in behalf
of the Society. In 1861, out of 14,023 churches, 6,363 or
above 45 per cent, sent their contributions, a considerable increase on the number which contributed before the withdrawal
of the Queen's Letter. But, gratifying as is the increase, there
can be no satisfactory reason why still more than one-half of
the parishes of England should withhold their support, and the
Society confidently looks to its zealous staff of organizing secretaries to redress this unfavourable balance.
In 1862 the Society determined, in accordance with its ancient
practice, to extend its operations to English congregations on the
Continent, and appointed a Continental Chaplaincies Committee
to carry out that design. A special fund was raised and will be
applied towards the increase of the number of continental chap- WORK IN THE COLONIES.
lains, and of the inadequate stipends of those already employed
<—towards the erection of suitable churches, or the fitting up of
temporary places of worship—and in aid of various other plans
for the spiritual benefit of members of the Church of England
on the Continent.
In 1863 the Society extended its missionary operations to the
Sandwich Islands, the Orange Eiver Territory, and Madagascar.
Thus in all the extensive colonies and dependencies of Great
Britain, the Society has continued to the present time to build
up the Church, and to evangelize the heathen, according to the
ability given to it. For a hundred years it was the only Society
in connexion with our Church established for missionary purposes, but in the year 1799' the Church Missionary Society was
founded, at first more particularly to promote the evangelization
of Africa, but its objects have since become more general. We
thankfully acknowledge the good which has been, and is still
being effected by this Society in different parts of the world,
where its missionaries frequently labour side by side with
those of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. Whilst
doing so, however, it seems impossible to avoid regretting that
those good men who established it, did not rather, sinking all
minor differences, endeavour to strengthen the hands and infuse
new life and energy into the frame of that Society which had
so long been working faithfully, though perhaps at times languidly, in the same cause;—instead of thus building up a new
foundation-which has, we fear, been regarded (however erroneously) by many persons not well informed on these points, as
a rival to the elder Society, and which could not fail to add to
that apparent want of unity among the members of on. church
which has too often proved a stumbling-block in the way of
weaker brethren, and recent converts to the faith.
But, although we may perhaps be allowed thus to express a
'        c 2
"1 20
passing regret that these things are so,, we must yet never forget
that there is One who ordereth all things, and who has doubtless
permitted this apparent division for some wise purpose. Meanwhile our part is clear—to go on working steadily—doing whatsoever our handfindeth to do, and doing it with our might in our
own immediate portion of the Lord's harvest field, remembering
that it is a wide one, and that there is space in it for many
labourers besides ourselves.
For more than a century and a half, the operations of the
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel have been carried on
with more or less success, in humble dependence on, and patient
waiting for God's blessing, with steady faithful adherence to the
principles of the British Church, and with dutiful subjection
to its rulers. The Society has ever been quickened from the
spiritual life bestowed of God upon the Church When, for
the abundance of sins, He hid His face for a season, and faith
and prayer waxed cold in the Church, then also the hands of
the Society were enfeebled, and its efforts met with a scantier
measure of success. Still, through years of spiritual dulness,
the Society continued alone, and amidst many discouragements,
to urge on the minds of Englishmen the neglected missionary
duties of the Church. And when, as of late, a double blessing
seems to have rested upon the Society's multiplied labours, this
happy change has come in conjunction with a larger outpouring
of the spirit of zeal and supplication upon the Church.
Within 160 years, the sum of about 3,000,0002. has been devoted to its objects by the Society. Other labourers have come
into the field, and helped to bear the burden. The State also has
in various ways lent its assistance. Above all, members of the
Church abroad have been taught by degrees to value and to maintain the ministrations of Divine Grace among themselves. And
the result is, that in the lands which are or have been within the work in the colonies.
limits of the Society's Charter, where 160 years ago not a dozen
clergymen of the Church of England could be found, there are
now above 2,000,000 members of our communion, to whom the
Word of God and the sacraments are ministered by more than
4,000 clergymen, under the superintendence of more than eighty
Wot unto us, O Lord, not unto us, but unto Thy Name give the
praise: for Thy loving mercy, and for Thy truth's sake.
The following summary of the progressive extension of the
Society's operations in the first 150 years may perhaps be acceptable :
1701.—Total income 1,5372. including 1,3322. donations. The
first two missionaries arrived at Boston, June 11th, 1702. From
the first report (1704) it appears that the Society's attention was
then directed to Iroquois, New England, New York, New Jersey,
Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, Carolina, the Yammonsea
Indians, Newfoundland, Ehode Island, Long Island, Jamaica,
Antigua, Montserrat, Moscow, and Amsterdam. Some assistance
was given also to the Danish Mission at Tranquebar.
1751.—Total income, general and special, 3,7192. Missionaries and schoolmasters, maintained wholly or in part, eighty-
~two. Field of labour:—New England, New York, New Jersey,
Pennsylvania, Carolina, Georgia, Bahama, Newfoundland, Nova
1801.—Total income, general and special, 6,4572. Missionaries and schoolmasters, seventy-eight. Field of Labour:—Nova
Scotia, Newfoundland, Canada (1784), New Brunswick (1785),
Bahama, Guinea (1752), the Gold Coast (1766), Florida (1768),
Australia (1795). The Society also became trustee for Debritzen
College, Hungary; and for the Vaudois pastors in Piedmont.
The first two colonial bishoprics had been founded, and the
episcopate given to the United States. nHi:
1851.—Total income, general and special, including part of
Jubilee and Eoyal Letter Collections, and balance, 147,4762.
Number of missionaries, lay teachers, and students, 1,160. Field
of labour :—British North America, West Indies, Guiana, South
Africa, India, Ceylon, Borneo, Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand,
Seychelles, Tristan. These countries are now (1851) the seat of
twenty-three dioceses.
It will perhaps be advisable to give a somewhat more detailed
account of the operations of the Society in the different quarters
of the globe; and we will therefore commence with America,
this vast continent having been the first to receive the benefit of
the Society's labours.
It is well known that America was discovered in October,
1492, by Christopher Columbus, and within about a hundred
years of that period it became an object of great interest to
various European states, and the scene of the first English
attempt at colonization. It is a satisfaction to know that in this
first attempt, the duty of propagating the Gospel was not entirely
overlooked. Hariot, Sir Walter Ealeigh's mathematical preceptor, accompanied his unsuccessful expedition in 1585, and
may justly be regarded as the first missionary to the New
Virginia was from the first a Church of England colony, but
the other three great provinces were settled by colonists professed enemies to the Church : New England being colonized
by the Puritans, better known as the | Pilgrim Fathers," Mary- 24
land by Eoman Catholics, and Pennsylvania by Quakers. It is
therefore no wonder that America presents at this day such a
mixture of different religious bodies. Little or nothing was done
in England for many years to remedy this state of confusion.
The days of Charles I. and Cromwell were days of gloom and
distress for the Church at home, and she was unable to do anything abroad; and under Charles II. followed, it must be feared,
a time of slothfulness and self-indulgence. Not a single Church,
in communion with the Church of England, existed in the whole
New England settlement (containing at least 50,000 souls) within
the first seventy years of its history !
At length, however, the Society for the Propagation of the
Gospel was founded, and these things were gradually amended.
Inquiries were made, and missionaries appointed; but who can
estimate the trials of these servants of the Lord, who were thus
sent out, year after year, to stem the tide of wickedness, to wipe
off this stain from our country's history, and to keep alive
amongst her wandering children the fear of their Maker and the
knowledge of their Eedeemer? Their lives belong not to
history, their works and labours of love, their sufferings and
privations are recorded on a more enduring page ; but it may be
well for us who live in days of ease and safety, to dwell for a
moment on the example they have left us.
Amongst their numbers was one, Clement Hall, who writes
in 1725, that through God's gracious assistance, he had in about
seven or eight years, though frequently visited with sickness,
been enabled to travel 14,000 miles, preach 675 sermons, baptize
6,195 persons, white and blaek, children and adults, administering the Lord's Supper to two or three hundred in one journey,
besides visiting the sick, &c. And these journeys, be it remembered, were full of difficulty and danger, both from the rough UNITED  STATES. 25-
State of the ground, and from the liability to attacks of the
Indians. The celebrated John Wesley was also a missionary of
the Society for two years in Georgia, and like the rest, frequently
" slept on the ground, waded through swamps, or swam over
rivers, and then travelled till his clothes were dry."
Such were the labours of some of the early missionaries of the
Society ; but when the American War of Independence broke
out in 1775, these faithful pastors, seventy-three in number,
suffered most severely for their steady attachment to their Church
and king; many of them barely escaping with their lives to
England, or to the neighbouring provinces of Canada and Nova
Scotia> which still retained their allegiance to the mother country.
The peace of 1783 found the Church in America wasted and
almost destroyed. Virginia had 164 churches and ninety-one
clergymen at the beginning of the war; at the end of it very
many of her churches were in ruins (some of which remain to
this day*), and of her ninety-one clergymen only twenty-eight
Yet out of this very scene of death came life, and the Church
of America was now, by God's mercy, to arise out of her misery
in stronger, freer action than ever. The same stroke which had
severed the colonies from England, had set the Church also free
to obtain for herself at last that gift of the episcopate which had
been so long denied to her earnest and passionate longings. As
soon as the peace was made, Dr. Samuel Seabury, one of the
Society's missionaries, being elected Bishop by the clergy of
Connecticut, went to England for consecration, which he at
length obtained from the Bishops of the Church of Scotland, on
the 14th November, 1784. Three years afterwards, Bishop
White, of Pennsylvania, and Bishop Provoost, of New York, were
* Vide Gospel Missionary, Yol. iy. p. 109. 26
consecrated in Lambeth Chapel, on the 4th February, 1787, and
the Bishop of Virginia was also consecrated in England the following year.
By these four Bishops others were duly consecrated as occasion
called for it, and new bishoprics were created, until their number
has now increased to thirty-six, the number of clergy being as
we have before mentioned, more than 1,800; and the rapid progress of the Church may be gathered from the fact, that in eight
States of the Union (viz. Georgia, Tennessee, Indiana, Illinois,
Florida, Michigan, Missouri, and Arkansas) where only twenty
years ago there was but one Bishop (Georgia) and twenty-three
clergy, there are now twelve Bishops and 225 clergy. It is true
the population has nearly doubled in that time, but the number
of clergy has increased tenfold.
The best proof, however, of real progress is shown in the
growth of that which is the true life of a Church—a missionary
spirit. The American Missionary Society was founded in 1820,
for the twofold objects of maintaining Christian truth among the
many thousands of the outlying population in the far West, who
are beyond the reach of the regular ministrations of the Church,
and the spread of it among the heathen. In 1833 the contributions to this Society amounted to 12,0002. and there are now
four Missionary Bishops.
The following table of the Dioceses into which the United
States are divided, with the date of their erection, and the
name of the present occupant of each see, may perhaps be
interesting:— ~1
Connecticut .
New York. .
■Virginia . .
Maryland . .
South Carolina
New Jersey .
Ohio.    .    .    .
North Carolina
Vermont . .
Kentucky. .
Tennessee. .
Illinois . . .
Wisconsin. .
Michigan . .
Louisiana . .
Western New Y
Delaware .
Maine  .
New Hampshire
Alabama  .
Missouri   .
Arkansas .
Florida.    .
California .
Iowa    .   .
Rhode Island
Texas   .    .
Nebraska .
Anioy, China
Liberia, Africa
Date of
Name of Bishop.
Thomas Church Brownell, D.D. LL.D.
John Williams, D.D. (Assistant)  .   .
Alonzo Potter, D.D	
W. B. Stephens, D.D. (Assistant) .   .
Horatio Potter, D.D	
John Johns, D.D. (Coadjutor).    .    j
W. Robinson Whittingham, D.D.     .
Thomas P. Davies, D.D	
M Eastburn, D.D	
W. H. Odenheimer, D.D	
C. Pettit Mcllvaine, D.D	
G. T. Bedell, D.D. (Assistant) .   .   .
Thomas Atkinson, D.D	
John Henry Hopkins, D.D.     ...
B. Bosworth Smith, D.D	
H. J. Whitehouse, D.D	
Jackson Kemper	
Samuel Allen McCoskry, D.D. .    .    .
•W. Heathcote De Lancey, D.D.    .   .
A. C. Coxe, D.D. (Assistant)    .   .   .
Stephen Elliott, D.D l
Alfred Lee, D.D	
George Burgess, D.D	
Carlton Chase, D.D	
R. H. Wilmer, D.D	
Cicero Stephens Hawks, D.D. .   .    .
H. C. Lay, D.D	
George Dpfold, D.D	
W. M. Green, D.D	
F. H. Rutledge, D.D	
Ingraham Kip, D.D	
H. W. Lee, D.D	
T. Clark, D.D	
Date of
John Payne, D.D. .   .
Horatio Southgate, D.D.
Thomas Scott, D.D.   .
Such then is the Church of America, and so great has been
the blessing vouchsafed upon the first work of the Society for
the Propagation of   the   Gospel, whose labours  of love  in
4 28
bygone years were acknowledged as with one voice by the
whole bench of American bishops in their Jubilee letters to the
Society in 1851, and by the whole body of the Church in its
Jubilee commemorations. The Church stands now in America
as she does in England or in her colonies, a witness for the
pure truth of God's Word, against the divisions of the multitudinous sects on the one hand, and the corruption of Borne, on
the other. " Unconnected with the State, she confines herself
to her own calling. She has no ambition but to perform her
allotted task, and no object but the glorious one of being a
worthy servant of her Lord and Master."
Nova Scotia was discovered by the Cabots under our Henry VEL
in 1497, but was first regularly settled in 1604 by French
colonists, by whom (with the neighbouring territory of New
Brunswick) it was called Acadia. It was surrendered to England
by the Peace of Utreeht in 1713 ; but the population at that
time, about 20,000 in number, being, with the exception of an
English garrison at Annapolis, entirely composed of French
Eoman Catholics, well supplied with priests under the Eoman
Catholic Bishop of Quebec, no English missionaries were sent
until the year 1749.
In that year, although the Society's funds amounted to only
1,8002. altogether, and they already supported seventy missionaries in other quarters, the Eev. W. Tutty was sent out
(with the assistance of Government), and after ministering for
a time in the open air, preached his first sermon in the first
English church in Nova Scotia,—St. Paul's, Halifax,—on September 2d, 1750. NOVA SCOTIA.
In 1755 this country was the scene of that most painful event,
the expulsion of the Acadians, or native French inhabitants.
These harmless people, who usually led the most simple and
primitive lives, chiefly occupied in agricultural pursuits, being
suspected of favouring their old masters, the French, at that time
engaged in active warfare with the English in Canada, were
collected, and to the number of 7,000 in all, forcibly dispersed
to the different British colonies. Families were thus suddenly
separated, and the dearest ties rent asunder, as is so touchingly
depicted in the American poet Longfellow's beautiful story of
Evangeline ; and although the poor exiles petitioned King
George III. for redress and relief, their prayer was unheeded,
and a page of shame and sorrow is written indelibly in our
country's history for all concerned in this miserable transaction.
The islands of Cape Breton and St. John (now called Prince
Edward's Island) which form a part of the present diocese of
Nova Scotia, were yielded to the English in 1758.
Other missionaries were sent to this colony from time to
time, and suffered much from the severity of the climate, the
arduous .nature of their duties, and even from scarcity of
provisions, particularly when refugees from the war in the
United States began to pour in, which they did in great
numbers, as many as 30,000 having arrived by the end of
1783. The want of spiritual instruction for these was greatly
felt, but the Society was able to transfer hither many of the
missionaries who had been compelled to leave America, and
at length one of these, Dr. Charles Inglis, from New York,
was consecrated Bishop of Nova Scotia, on August 12th,
The diocese of Nova Scotia comprised at first the whole of
the British possessions in North America—an enormous extent 1
*' 1
m-      i|l
of country, though at that time but thinly peopled,
been since subdivided into eight dioceses, as follows :—
It has
Nova Scotia
„ i Nova Scotia.
Nova Scotia ^Frederict0I1 for New Brunswick (1845).
r i
Nova Scotia {"
(Newfoundland (1839).
(Quebec for East Canada {^trw! (i860).
(Toronto for West Canada (im)1^^1^
So that, including Euperf s Land and Columbia, there are
now ten Bishops of our Church and 540 clergy in those parts;
whereas, at the time of the peace in 1783, there was not a
single Bishop, and only eleven clergy in the whole of British
North America. The Society may justly lay claim with thankfulness to this, as almost entirely the result of God's merciful
blessing on its labours.
In 1788 the Bishop, in his first Visitation tour, travelled 700
miles, and confirmed above 500 persons of all ages, preaching
the Word of Life, and setting the affairs of the Church in
order wherever he went. King's College, at Windsor, founded
by George ILT. in 1770, was a special object of his care; and
here, in 1809, the Society founded four Divinity Studentships,
which were afterwards increased to twelve, and twelve exhibitions of the same amount were granted by it to deserving
youths of the Windsor Grammar SchooL For many years the
English Government allowed 1,000^. a year to this College,
the well-spring of loyalty as well as of sound religion for the
whole province.
In 1810 the Bishop died; and was succeeded by Dr. Stanser,
the Society's missionary at Halifax, whose health was so bad
that after trying vainly to restore it in England, he resigned the
see in 1824; and Dr. John Inglis, son of the first Bishop, who
had acted for several years as commissary, was consecrated third
Bishop of Nova Scotia. NOVA SCOTIA.
In 1833 great distress was experienced by the missionaries in
this diocese, in consequence of the reduction of their already
scanty income. This step was rendered necessary by the
withdrawal of the assistance hitherto rendered by the State
for their maintenance, and this too at a time when the Society
in its exertions for the propagation of the Gospel had exceeded
its income by 8,000£. After earnest remonstrance with the
Home Government, the grant was continued during the lifetime of the existing missionaries ; but the support of missions
in these provinces for the future was thus cast entirely either
upon the settlers themselves, or upon the already exhausted
means of the Society.
In 1837 the Bishop established in Halifax a Diocesan Church
Society, embracing all the objects of our different home
Societies, not excepting that of Missions to the Heathen, the
sums raised for which purpose were to be forwarded to the
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. In 1846 this Society
sent forth two travelling missionaries along the east and west
shores of Nova Scotia.
Amidst the deep regrets of his people, Bishop Inghs died
October 27th, 1850, in the seventy-third year of his age,
the fiftieth of his ministry, and the twenty-fifth of his episcopacy.
The Eev. Hibbert Binney was consecrated to the vacant
bishopric on the 25th of March, 1851.
In 1854 the necessity felt by members of our Church (in
common with Christians of every denomination) for synodical
meetings to regulate their own affairs and to confer together on
the important interests of the Church, induced the Bishop to
summon an assembly of the Clergy of his diocese, and of the
representatives of the Laity chosen by election in each district
forming a cure of souls,    This assembly was held at Halifax,
! *
after the Visitation in October, and notwithstanding some slight
opposition, has since merged into a regular Diocesan Synod,
held annually, which has already been productive of much
benefit to the diocese.
It is of course impossible for the Society, however much it
may sympathize with the Colonial Clergy in their difficulties
and hardships, to make any permanent provision for their
support. This can only come from the people themselves, and
Nova Scotia is justly entitled to the honour of having been
the first of the colonies to secure the independence of its
Church by the voluntary contributions of its own people. A
noble scheme was projected for raising an Endowment Fund
to the amount of 40,000?.; and, after having been delayed for
a time by the distress occasioned by the failure of the fisheries
in 1852, and the two or three following years, and the suspension
of the ordinary trade of the colony in consequence of the deplorable civil war in America, in 1862 a sufficient sum (about
20,000?.) was raised to enable the Society to meet the efforts
of the colony by a grant of 1,000?. for this purpose.
The diocese now consists of the province of Nova Scotia, and
the two large adjoining islands of Cape Breton and Prince
Edward, with the islets on their coasts. It is very nearly as
large as Scotland, containing altogether 22,435 square miles, and
its population is 347,613, comprising persons of English, Scotch,
Irish, French, and German descent, with a few hundreds of
Mic-mac Indians, and some thousands of another coloured race,
the descendants of runaway slaves from the United States.
Nova Scotia may be regarded as the great mining district of
the New World, and though small, is a very important colony
from its vast coal-fields, magnificent harbours (unequalled,
perhaps, for number, size, and safety, in the whole world), and
most abundant fisheries.    A great deal of the country is still  fill
covered with primeval forests, and in other parts apple-orchards
line the road-side for thirty miles together, apples and cyder being
"exported extensively. But the chief traffic is in coals. Some
gold mines have recently (1861) been discovered near the town
of Lunenburg, in a district called the Ovens, from the nunie-
■ rous and extensive circular excavations in the cliffs facing the
Atlantic Ocean. An interesting account of these gold diggings
appeared in the Mission Field (vol. vii. p. 43), and the writer,
the Eev. H. L. Owen, Eector of Lunenburg, goes on to say,
"the whole country abounds in excellent land and beautiful
scenery; food is abundant, varied, and cheap, and the markets
are well supplied with meat and vegetables, and with apples,
plums, and the smaller wild fruits in their season."
The climate is subject to sudden changes of temperature—
sometimes as much as 52° in twenty-four hours. The.cold of
winter is more severe than in England, and fogs are common
on the South coast in May and June. The soil and climate of
Cape Breton much resemble those of Nova Scotia, and it is
ven more healthy. The cold is much more severe in Prince
Edward's Island, the winter lasting for seven months together,
while the summer is West Indian. But the sky is clear from
fogs, and the air is uncommonly dry and bracing.
Some idea of the hardships and dangers to which missionaries
are exposed in this severe climate, may be gathered from the following narrative which appeared some time ago in the Gospel
Missionary (vol. vii. p. 17). The Eev. H. de Blois, of Bridge-
water, writing to the Society, thus describes the difficulties encountered in the course of a single journey :—| During the first
week in January (1856), having been called from home a distance
of above thirty miles to administer the Sacrament to an aged and
sick member of our Church, I thought, to save time, that I would
go across the country in order to reach Caledonia (one of my
( +m
► i
stations) by the first Sunday in the month. Accordingly, on
Saturday, the 5th, I started from Albany for the above-named
place, a distance of thirty miles. It was a clear cold day (the
thermometer about 10° below zero) and for the first few miles I
made good progress, but after that found only a single track on
the road. About 10 a.m. I reached the first stopping-place. On
going into the house the landlady said ' Why, the side of your
face is frozen !' and, without more .ado, procured a large handful
of snow and began rubbing the part affected. At this house the
track ceased altogether, and I had to go nearly fifteen miles over
a vast barren before I could expect to reach another dwelling.
In many places the snow was over four feet deep, and to get
through the drifts I had several times to unharness the horse to
keep him from suffocating. I had only certain landmarks to go
by, for the road could not be distinguished from the surrounding
plain. About 2 p.m. I judged myself nearly at Brookfield; but
to my surprise came to a tree indicating that I was hardly halfway. My horse here exhibited signs of fatigue, and everything
depended on him, for to walk in such a deep snow was impossible.
For another weary mile he went on plunging and staggering in
the snow, when I came to an immense hemlock-tree which had
fallen directly across the natural ravine and effectually barred
farther progress. Luckily I had an axe in the sleigh, but my
hands were too numb even to hold it, and I was beginning well
nigh to despair when I remembered that about a quarter of a
mile back I had passed an old camp. Leaving the horse before
the tree I succeeded in reaching it, found there a pile of dry
bark, which I kindled with some matches I discovered in my
pocket, and ere long a merry blaze cheered my drooping spirits.
As soon as I was sufficiently thawed I returned to the horse, and
at length succeeded in clearing a passage through the immense
trunk of the tree. It was quite dark before I reached my destined NOVA  SCOTIA.
shelter, where a good fire and supper made me remember my
past fatigue and danger with emotions of thankfulness to that
Great Being who had upheld and preserved me ! The next
morning I found that a violent storm had arisen (one of the
greatest that had been known in the province for twenty
years) and throughout the whole day not a vestige of the sky
could be seen. The following morning as soon as I deemed it
prudent, I started for home, but I was four entire days going
thirty-four miles. My harness was broken several times, and a
man immediately in front of me had a fine young horse suffocated
in a drift. On reaching home I found that during my absence,
one of my people, in attempting to go a distance of six miles, had
perished in the snow. The perils I myself underwent are but
samples of what some of our missionaries have to undergo in
this trying climate."
These are some of the difficulties of a missionary's career,—the
encouragements which he sometimes meets with in the hearty
co-operation of the members of his flock, and the amount of good
which may be effected by a single lay member of the Church in
humble circumstances, may be seen by the following extract from
the journal of the Eev. E. Elliott, of Pictou. I On the 19th of
March, 1833, while making my winter visit along the shores of
the Gulf I learnt that there was an Englishman living at
Barraswa, who called himself a Churchman, and I at once
directed my course to his humble dwelling, where I received a
cordial welcome. His name was William Buckler, from Poole,
in Dorsetshire, a shoemaker by trade, one among the few who
in early life had emigrated to Nova Scotia. He had married a
Presbyterian, and the privileges of that community were at his
door; but so strong was his attachment to the religion of his
fathers that he had kept his five children without the sacrament
of Baptism, hoping almost against hope that possibly one of our
D 2
I 36
clergy might visit that part of the province, or that he would
be able to take them to Halifax.    I spent the day at his house,
preached to about sixty persons, and baptized eighteen children,
among whom his own five were included.    No language can
describe poor Buckler's joy and emotion when the ritual of his
Church once more sounded in his ears.    I left his hospitable
dwelling with mingled feelings of joy and sorrow, of hope and
gratitude, and since then have paid him two or three visits every
year.    On these occasions, with one or two exceptions, I always
met a large and attentive congregation, and I find, on reference
to the Baptismal Eegister, that in the last twenty-six years, no
less than 374 have been admitted to baptism within the walls of
his house.    For this large number the Church is less indebted
to my exertions than to the labours of William Buckler.    It was
he who travelled from house to house to collect the people for
divine service; and it was he who sought out the children for
baptism, and conducted the minister through the intricacies of
the forest and the perils of the ice.    But I must come to the
conclusion of this  good man's   career.; He who had waited
twelve years before his children were baptized, had to wait
twenty-six years longer before himself could receive the rite of
confirmation, which he did in August last.    On the 9th of
February, in the present year (1859), I paid my usual visit to
Barraswa, and was greeted by the old man who had come out to
meet me and pilot me across the ice.    A congregation of nearly
seventy people waited my arrival    I was much fatigued, and
used only the Litany, and in an extemporaneous discourse, commented on its beauties, and stated with what propriety amon°-
other things, we prayed to be delivered 'from sudden death;'
and I mentioned a case which had occurred the day before almost
under my own eyes, concluding with the Saviour's solemn warning.    < And what I say unto you I say unto all, Watch.'    I had NOVA SCOTIA. 37
finished my address, the last hymn was given out by Buckler,
and sung with his accustomed spirit, when down he .dropped,
.under what is supposed to have been an attack of paralysis, and
his spirit was in a short time an inhabitant of the unseen
" The last two verses of the hymn were as follows :—
' Soon shall ye hear Him say,
God's blessed children, come ;
Soon will He call you hence away,
And take His wanderer home ;
j Then shall each rapturous tongue
Their endless praise proclaim,
And sweeter voices tune the song
Of Moses and the Lamb.''
" May the Society never want such a person to vindicate its
claims, nor the Church of England such a man to stand before
God for ever as William Buckler, the shoemaker, from Dorsetshire."
Besides the Bishop and the Archdeacons of Halifax and Prince
Edward Island, there are seventy-nine clergymen here, of whom
forty-two are missionaries of the Society, settled at different
mission stations (with the exception of one travelling missionary),
and having under their pastoral care about 47,744 members of
our Church.
Under the vigorous administration of the present Bishop, this
diocese is rapidly acquiring a character of energy and independence. King's College, Windsor, as we have already mentioned, was maintained for more than sixty years by grants from
the imperial and provincial legislatures, and from the Society.
All these have been discontinued, except a precarious annual
allowance from the Society, for the maintenance of six divinity
students; and the resources of the College, once superabundant,
1 «li
were for several years adequate only to the support of a single
professor. During the last few years, however, the Churchmen
of Nova Scotia have raised a large sum for the endowment of the
College, and it is once more in a flourishing condition. Through
the Diocesan Church Society large sums are annually raised for
the support of clergymen, the building of churches and schools,
and other purposes, and for some time past this has been done
in a much more satisfactory manner by the introduction in several
of the missions of the offertory, a measure which has been attended with considerable success. Nova Scotia is thus learning
gradually to develop its own -resources and to lean less and less
upon England for assistance in spiritual matters;—the great lesson
which the Society is ever seeking to inculcate. It has now committed to the Church Society of the diocese the administration
of its annual grant, and has been enabled to apply to Nova
Scotia the general principle of gradually reducing its votes to the
North American dioceses. These grants have for many years
amounted to very large sums, but they have been gradually
reduced. The grant for 1863 was 3,100?. and there has been
a farther reduction in the grant for 1864, to 3,000?. so that we
may hope the day is not far distant when the Church in Nova
Scotia shall stand alone, self-supporting, and independent of her
English mother in all but sympathy and love.
II 1
work in America—(continued).
Canada was first discovered by John and Sebastian Cabot in
1497. In 1525 it was visited by Verazani, a Florentine, who
took possession of it for the King of France, and ten years later
it was explored by Jacques Cartier, who bore a commission from
Francis the First, and penetrated as far up the river St. Lawrence as the present city of Montreal, then called Hochelaga.
Several voyages hither were afterwards made by Cartier, and
others; but it was not till the year 1608 that the city of Quebec
was founded by Champlain.
In 1612 four Eecollet priests were brought from France to
convert the Indians, a college of Jesuits was established in 1635,
and other religious institutions from time to time, and in 1670
the Eoman Catholic Bishopric of Quebec was founded. These
facts show a zeal for the propagation of the faith which may well
shame the indifference and neglect of our own government and
The war which broke out between the French and English in
1759 was terminated by the capture of Quebec, under General
Wolfe, and at the treaty ©f peace in 1763, Canada was ceded
to the English.    The towns of Quebec and Montreal contained 40
at that time 14,700 inhabitants, of which nineteen families were
Protes'tant; the remainder of the province was divided into 110
parishes, containing 54,575 Christian souls.
The first English clergyman who officiated in Quebec was the
Eev. Mr. Brooke, who is supposed to have arrived directly after
the conquest; but little is known of him except the fact that
his wife was the authoress of the novel called " Emily Montague," the scene of which is laid in Canada. Three other
clergymen, of Swiss extraction, were afterwards appointed by
government to minister here. The first mission of the Society
for the Propagation of the Gospel was established in 1784, at
Sorel on the river Eichelieu (now in the diocese of Montreal),
which contained about seventy Protestant families; and here
the first English church was erected. In 1789 the Bishop of
Nova Scotia called the Canadian Clergy to the first Visitation
held by a Bishop of our Church in Canada
In 1793 Canada was erected into a separate diocese, and JDr.
Jacob Mountain, Prebendary of Lincoln, was consecrated Bishop
of Quebec, at Lambeth, on the 7th July. At this time there
was neither church nor parsonage at Quebec, and in the whole
province of Lower Canada only six clergymen, whilst the total
number in Upper Canada (Toronto) was three, and of these nine,
five were missionaries of the Society, and the remaining four
were maintained by government.
In 1794 Bishop Mountain made his first Visitation, and held
Confirmations along a bine of country extending from Quebec
to Lake Erie, 800 miles, and in another direction to Gaspe, 450
more. In 1802 the Bishop, unable to meet with a sufficient
number of properly qualified clergymen from England, selected
for ordination such young men of good promise as he might
find in tbe diocese. The cathedral of Quebec was built in 1804,
by King George III, and the Bishop introduced the choral QUEBEC.
service, and imported from England the first organ ever heard
in Canada. Bishop Mountain died at Quebec, on the 16th of
June, 1825, in the seventy-fifth year of his age, and the thirty-
second of his episcopate.
At the time of his death there were from twenty to twenty-
five churches in each province, and twelve more had been com-
.menced. The number of clergymen in the two provinces was
fifty-three, forty-eight of whom were missionaries of the Society.
Besides these there were two military chaplains, and one visiting missionary,—the devoted Charles Stewart, who eighteen
years before had left behind him all the manifold advantages
of his lot in England,—aristocratic connexions (he was a younger
son of the seventh Earl of Galloway) and independent means,
in order to give himself up to the self-denying labours of a
missionary amid a rude and untaught people. The Mission of
St. Armand was for many years the scene of this rare instance
of self-devotion; afterwards he was, as we have seen, visiting
missionary to the diocese, and onthe death of Bishop Mountain,
he was consecrated second Bishop of Quebec at Lambeth, on
the 1st January, 1826.
The vast influx of emigrants into Canada began now to be
sensibly felt in the altered state of the population, and. the
increased want of spiritual ministrations in all parts. As early
as the year 1819*, 12,000 emigrants had arrived, but from 1825
to the end of 1848 as many as 767,373 persons went out to our
North American Colonies, of whom all but a very inconsiderable
portion proceeded to Canada.
Bishop Stewart was unwearied in visiting his immense diocese, consecrating churches, and holding confirmations wherever
he went. But after a few years, his health, never strong, failed
altogether; and at his earnest request, Dr. G. J. Mountain, the
son of his predecessor, who had for fifteen years held. the. Arch- 1
■. ■■ ji
deaconry of Quebec, was appointed his coadjutor, with the title
of Bishop of Montreal, and consecrated at Lambeth on the 14th
of February, 1836.
Directly after this, Bishop Stewart went to England in the
hope of repairing his shattered health; but he never rallied, and
after some months of gradual sinking and exhaustion, this good
Bishop fell asleep in the Lord, on the 13th July, 1837. His
last days were spent in the house of his nephew, the Earl of
Galloway, free from intrusion, and affectionately tended, and he
was buried in the family vault at Kensal Green.
In the rebellion of 1837 it is worthy of remark that the
members of the Church of England to a man stood true to their
Sovereign, not one of those taken with arms in their hands being
of that communion;—a significant fact^ surely, and when viewed
in connexion with the loyalty of the native Christians in the
Indian Mutiny in 1857, one most eloquent to prove that churches
and clergymen are a better safeguard to a country than military
forts and garrisons.
In 1839 the division of the diocese, so long and urgently
recommended, took plaee, and the province of Upper Canada
was formed into the diocese of Toronto.
A Diocesan Cbureh Society, similar to that established in
Nova Scotia, was first organized in 1842. Various endowments
in land have been conveyed to it, and in the year 1861 its
annual income amounted to $5,920.
In 1844 Bishop's College, Lennoxville, was established by
charter from the Provincial Government, for the education of
candidates for the ministry; the Society granted the sum of
1,000?. towards the endowment, and in 1851 the further sum
of 1,000?. for the endowment of Scholarships for poor students
to be afterwards employed as missionaries.
In 1847 a dreadful fever broke out amongst the emigrants, QUEBEC.
who in this year thronged the shores of Canada to the enormous
number of 109,680 persons. Five clergymen, three of them
missionaries of the Society, fell victims to their active sympathy
for the sick emigrants, and seven other missionaries took the fever,
but recovered. Grosse Isle, the quarantine station, thirty miles
below Quebec, was the principal scene of this visitation. In the
course of three months there died not less than 5,424 persons,
who all He buried in the small burial-ground on the island. A
recent traveller says, | Now the island is like a little paradise,
and it is hard to believe that it was once the scene of such a
dreadful visitation."
In 1850 this diocese was still farther diminished by the
erection of Montreal into a separate see, and Bishop Mountain
resigned the title of Bishop of Montreal, which he had hitherto
borne, to the new bishop, Dr. Fulford, and resumed that of his
predecessors, the Bishops of Quebec.
At the close of 1854 the alienation of the Clergy Eeserves of
Canada (of which more full particulars will be given in the
account of Toronto) threw considerable gloom over the prospects
of this diocese. About the same time the Society was compelled,
by reason of pressing claims elsewhere, to commence the gradual
withdrawal of the assistance which it had so largely and for so
long a time afforded, and great efforts were made to provide
from local sources for the wants of the Church in Quebec.
On the 6th of January, 1863, the venerable and beloved
Bishop Mountain, who for a period of twenty-seven years had
presided over the diocese, and during the early portion of his
episcopate over the whole province of Canada, was called to his
rest, full of years and honours. Never was there a Bishop of a
more saintly life, of a gentler spirit, or more self-denying habits,
and he bore with him to the grave the esteem, the affection,
and the regret of all members of the community.    The Eev.
at 44
J. W. Williams, Professor of Bishop's College, Lennoxville, was
duly elected by the Synod to this important see, and on the 19th
of June was consecrated at Quebec by the Bishop of Montreal as
Metropolitan, assisted by all the other Canadian Bishops, the
American Bishop of Vermont also taking part in the services.
In January, 1864, the Society granted the sum of 1,000?. out
of its General Endowment Fund, towards the endowment of
parishes in this diocese.
Before the division of the see took place the diocese of Quebec
comprised a territorial area equal to the whole of France, with
a population of above 782,767. Its extent now is 153,432
square miles ; there are sixty-eight churches and chapels, and
the total number of clergy is fifty-two, of whom twenty-six are
missionaries of the Society, which in the year 1862 expended
the sum of 3,041?. in this diocese.
There is perhaps hardly any diocese in which the Church has
greater difficulties to contend with It contains about 27,000
Church people, thinly scattered over a vast territory, mainly
occupied by French Eoman Catholics, and the roads during
certain seasons are almost impassable, and all this necessitates
the maintenance of a body of clergy somewhat large in proportion to the mere numbers of the people. These are aU formidable obstacles in the way of the Church becoming independent of foreign aid and able to support itself Much
however has of late years been done to elicit local resources.
In the address presented to Bishop Mountain by the clergy and
laity of Quebec, in August, 1862, on the interesting occasion of
the completion of his fiftieth year in the ministry, some of the
principal benefits are specified which had been secured to the
diocese during his episcopate of twenty-six years. Amongst
others the following are named :—A permanent endowment of
the see; the foundation of the University of Bishop's College, QUEBEC.
from which forty-five clergymen had already been sent forth;
the establishment of the Incorporated Church Society ; and the
institution of the Diocesan Synod. In the same period the
number of churches had been increased from twenty-one to
sixty-eight (completed or in course of erection), and that of the
clergy from seventeen to fifty.
The following testimony of Bishop Mountain to the useful
exertions of the clergy, gives a striking picture of missionary
life in Canada :—11 could mention," he says in one of his early
letters, " such occurrences as, that a clergyman upon a circuit of
duty, has passed twelve nights in the open air, six in boats upon
the water, and six in the depths of the trackless forest with
Indian guides; and a Deacon has performed journeys of 129
miles in the midst of winter upon snow shoes. I could tell
. how some of these poor ill-paid servants of the Gospel have
been worn down in strength before their time at remote and
laborious stations. I could give many a history of persevering
travels in the ordinary exercise of ministerial duty, in defiance
of difficulties "and accidents, through woods and roads almost
impracticable, and in all the severities of weather; or of rivers
traversed amid masses of floating ice, when the experienced
canoe-men would not have proceeded without being urged. I
have known one minister sleep all night abroad, when there
was snow upon the ground. I have known others answer calls
to a sick-bed at the distance of fifteen or twenty miles in the
wintry woods; and others who have travelled all night to keep
a Sunday appointment after a call of this nature on the Saturday.
These are things which have been done by the clergy of Lower
Canada, and in almost every single instance which has here been
given, by missionaries of the Society for the Propagation of the
Of the services rendered to his diocese by the Society itself
J 46
the same devoted Bishop made a grateful acknowledgment in
these words, with which the account of Quebec may be not
inappropriately concluded:—" I am also led to reflect more
and more every day upon the incalculable blessings which by the
providence of God, have been procured to the Protestant inhabitants of these colonies by means of the Society's operations ;
and if there be persons in England who hold back their hands
from the support of the Society, under the idea that it is not
an effectual instrument in promoting the cause of the GospeL I
fervently pray God that their minds may be disabused. Those
have much to answer for, who from defect of information (since
that is the most charitable construction to put upon their pror
ceedings), propagate or adopt such a notion : it is very easy for
' gentlemen of England who live at home at ease,' to pass a
sweeping judgment upon poor soldiers of Jesus Christ, who are
enduring hardships in the obscurity of Canadian woods; these
however, stand or fall to their own Master; but if the means of
the Society (which God avert!) should be really impaired by
such representations, many sheep will be left without a shepherd,
and many souls will have to charge upon unkind brethren in the
land of their fathers, their spiritual destitution and advancing
The history of Upper Canada is so closely connected with
that of the Lower Province (Quebec), that but little remains to
be told of it previous to its erection into the separate Diocese of
Toronto in the year 1839.
The Society's connexion with it firstc ommenced in 1785,
with the appointment of the Eev. John Stuart as missionary at
Cataraqui (Kingston), at which time the total population of the TORONTO.
province was under 10,000. The two next missionaries were
the Eev. J. Langhorn (1787) and the Eev. E. Addison (1792),
both of them men of remarkable character; the latter in addition to his own more immediate mission (Niagara, in which he
laboured faithfully for forty years), was diligent in ministering
to the Mohawks settled on the Grand Eiver, above 500 of whom
were members of the Church of England.
In 1793 Governor Simcoe founded the town of Toronto, which
was at first called York : two Indian families were before then
in quiet possession, and myriads of wild fowl crowded the waters
of the bay. It is now an important capital, containing 30,775
inhabitants, and amongst other public buildings a cathedral, five
churches, and two colleges.
The fourth clergyman in this province was the Eev. G. O.
Stuart, ordained in 1800, the late Archdeacon of Kingston;
the fifth, ordained in 1803, to the mission of Cornwall, was the
Eev. John Strachan, the present venerable Bishop of Toronto.
In 1816 a Bible and Prayer-book Society was established at
Toronto, for the more especial benefit of the many thousand
British in the wilderness, beyond the reach of the regular
ministrations of the Church.
La 1820 Bishop Mountain delivered his last charge to the
clergy of the province assembled at Toronto : and when he died,
in 1825, their numbers had increased to twenty-six.
His successor, Dr. Stewart, as visiting missionary had made
himself well acquainted with most of the different mission
stations. In his visitations to this part of his immense diocese
in the years 1826 and 1827, he confirmed altogether 783 persons : and on his return to Toronto in the latter year he admitted
three clergymen to the order of priests, and collated the Eev.
G. O. Stuart to the Archdeaconry of Kingston, and the Eev. Dr.
Strachan to that of York (Toronto). i\S
In 1830 the "Society for Converting and Civilizing the
Indians of Upper Canada" was formed, and soon afterwards
enlarged so as to comprise the case of the emigrants from Europe
In 1833 the Canadian Clergy suffered like those of Nova
Scotia from the diminution of the grant hitherto made by
government to the Society for their support; and at a fixed
date it was announced that it would cease altogether.
Soon after assuming the jurisdiction of his see in 1836,1
Dr. G. J. Mountain made a most urgent representation to the
Governor of Canada of its spiritual necessities, and in 1839 he
was relieved of the charge of the Upper Province by the consecration of Dr. Strachan as first Bishop of Toronto on the 7th
August in that year. At this time the number of members of
the Church of England was estimated at 150,000, under the
pastoral care of seventy-three clergymen; and the number of
churches they possessed was about ninety.
In 1842 the Diocesan Church Society was founded (according
to the terms of its charter) for the support' of missionaries, the
education of the poor, the assistance of theological students, the
circulation of the Bible and Prayer-book, and the erection and
endowment of churches, &c. This Society has already been
enabled to do much good throughout the. diocese, and in the
year 1851 its income amounted to 4,517?.
The Diocesan Theological. College at Coburg, was opened
in 1842 for the training and education of candidates for holy
orders. Ten exhibitions of the annual value of 40?. were granted
by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, and four
by the Diocesan Church Society. This institution is now incorporated in Trinity College.
In 1843 the University of King's College was opened at
Toronto, and continued for six years to increase in public esti-   TORONTO.
matron and usefulness, till it numbered as many as a hundred
students. But in 1849 an Act passed the Colonial Legislature,
by which all religious instruction was excluded from the University, all religious observances virtually abolished, and the
faculty of Theology suppressed. Notwithstanding every protest
against it this Act received the royal assent, and the Bishop,
though advanced in years, immediately exerted himself in the
most energetic manner to raise funds for a new University to
be conducted in strict accordance with the teaching of the
Church. This has been most happily accomplished; 10,000?.
were raised in England for the purpose, and more than 25,000?.
in Canada, and Trinity College, Toronto, was inaugurated on the
25th January, 1852, when there were already more than sixty
students in the different departments. The Society, in addition
to a grant of 2,000?. towards the endowment, and a valuable
section of land for" a site, gave from the Jubilee Fund 1,000?.
as an endowment of scholarships for poor students who shall
afterwards become missionaries. An engraving of the building,
with a full account, was published in the Society's Quarterly
Paper for July, 1852.
The Clergy Reserves of Canada (of which so much has been
heard of late years) were lands set apart in the province, by an
Act of Parliament passed in 1791, "for the maintenance and
support of a Protestant Clergy;" and were always considered
by members of the Church in Canada to have been designed by
the piety of George III. as an endowment for the ministers of
their own communion. At first these lands were mere waste
tracts of snow and forest; but as soon as they became at all
valuable, other claimants arose, and after several years' agitation on the subject, the Legislature in 1840 divided the property
in certain portions between the Churches of England and Scotland, leaving a considerable remainder to b& disposed of among
E 50
I 111
M 111
the various Protestant sects, at the discretion of the Governor
in Council.
In this settlement the Church acquiesced for the sake of
peace, and because it was considered a settlement once for alL
In 1850, however, an attempt was made to repeal this Act,
former discussions were revived ; and in December, 1854,
another Act passed the Colonial Legislature, by which this property was" entirely alienated from the sacred purposes to which
it had been hitherto devoted, and applied to the promotion of
education, and other secular objects. The life interests of the
existing clergy it was enacted should be secured, and the Canadian clergy, with one consent, have determined to look beyond
their own temporary interests to the permanent welfare of the
Church. Instead, therefore, of resting satisfied with the security
of their own incomes, they bravely determined to commute
the aggregate of their Hfe interests for a capital fund, which
should be invested for the permanent endowment of the Church.
Great exertions were made for this object, and in answer to an
urgent appeal from the Bishop, the Society promised in aid of
the commutation, the following payments for three years; that
is to say, for the year 1856, 3,000?.; for 1857, 2,500?.; and
for 1858, 2,000?.; after which all liabilities for the Diocese of
Toronto were to cease. The gradual withdrawal of the Society's
support was rendered necessary by the increasing claims from
new dioceses, and the serious diminution of income which was
anticipated from the refusal of the Queen's letter.
In 1857 the diocese, deprived to a great extent of its possessions, claimed and obtained the right to manage its own ecclesiastical affairs through its own formally constituted Synod.
And the first use to which the clergy and laity applied their
new freedom was the election of a Bishop to preside over a
subdivision of their diocese, comprehending the western districts, TORONTO.
for which an adequate endowment had been provided by the
liberality of the people. On the 9th of July the Eev. Benjamin
Cronyn, D.D. was elected Bishop of Huron.
. In 1858 the names on the missionary Est of this diocese were
reduced from 100 to 2. The Society having made a final gift
of 9,000?. to aid the great endowment scheme, was from this
time relieved from the large annual payments which it had for
many years contributed towards the support of the clergy of
Western Canada.
In 1861 a farther subdivision of the diocese took place, and
the eastern districts were formed into the Bishopric of Ontario.
The diocese of Toronto, before the formation of the sees of
Huron and Ontario, was 100,000 square miles in extent (considerably larger than Great Britain and Ireland); its present
size is not exactly known. The present population of the
diocese is 544,699, of whom 134,680 profess to be members
of the Church of England. The number of clergymen is 138.
The sole connexion now of the Society with this diocese—
upon which but a few years ago it expended several thousands
annually—is the contribution which it makes to the support
of a missionary to the native Indians on Lake Huron. And
most thankful is the Society to know that so rapidly has the
diocese grown in wealth and prosperity that it no longer needs
the help which was freely rendered during the earlier period of
the settlement. Not only are the clergy of Toronto no longer
assisted by the Society, but few comparatively of them are now
trained in England. The Church, therefore, which is already
independent, is fast becoming indigenous, and a large number
of the clergy are educated at Trinity College, Toronto, which
was founded mainly by the exertions of the Bishop, and is
authorized to confer degrees. Within the first ten years of its
existence no fewer than forty-seven of its students were ordained.
E 2 1
How much the Society has done for this country was fully acknowledged by the excellent Bishop when he observed, "Seventy
years ago the Society found Canada a wilderness; it is now a
prosperous and fertile region,- sprinkled throughout with congregations, churches, and clergymen, fostered by her incessant
care, and carrying the blessings of the Gospel across this immense
continent to millions yet unborn." Judging, therefore, by the
fruits it would appear that the seed which was sown in the early
days of the Colony, fell upon good ground, and the Society has
been enabled confidently to commit the ingathering of the harvest
to native husbandmen, whilst its own labours are transferred to
other fields until such time as they, too, may be able to dispense
with its assistance.
The present diocese of Montreal, like Toronto, has been so
long and so closely connected with that of Quebec that it will
be unnecessary to dwell at any length upon its past history.
The Society's connexion with it commenced, as we have
already seen, at a very early period; the mission of Sorel, the
first established in all Canada, being in this diocese. This was
in the year 1784, and since that time Montreal, like the oth#r
Canadian dioceses, has owed much to the fostering care of the
The number of clergymen and churches gradually increased
until the year 1850, when the immense see of Quebec was
divided, and Montreal erected into a separate diocese. The
Eev. Francis Fulford, D.D. Incumbent of Curzon Chapel
London, was appointed Bishop, and consecrated on St. James's
day (July 25th), in Westminster Abbey.
In 1853 the Bishop availed himself of the" powers given to MONTREAL.
him in his letters patent to appoint and instal a Dean and
Chapter, the first organization of a cathedral body on the continent of North America,
In December, 1856, the Cathedral Church of Montreal was
totally destroyed by fire; but so resolutely did the people set
to work to restore it that by Advent Sunday, 1859, the new
Cathedral (with which there is said to be no building to be
compared on the continent of North America) Was opened for
service. In the course of his visit to Canada in 1860, the
Prince of Wales attended Divine service here on the 26th of
August, and afterwards presented a very handsome folio Bible
to the Cathedral in memory of the circumstance, with an in-
scription in his own handwriting to that effect.
In 1859 a Diocesan Synod was formally organized.
In 1860 the Bishop of Montreal was appointed Metropolitan
of the Church of England in Canada.
In 1864 the Society granted 1^000?. towards the Endowment
Fund in this diocese, which has just fulfilled the Society's condition of raising not less than 5,000?. to
The diocese of Montreal is 56,258 square miles in extent,
somewhat larger than England; but the gross population amounts
only to 472,405-: of these 385,787 are Roman Catholics, principally of French origin. The members of the Church of England
are returned in the census of 1861' as being 35,170, but a much
larger number occasionally attend her ministrations. The number
of communicants, according to the last returns, was 3,312 : the
scholars in the Sunday schools were 2,920.
The present state of the diocese may be best gathered from
the following extracts from the Bishop's addresses to the Diocesan
Synods of 1862 and 1863. " In 1850, when Montreal was first
formed into a separate diocese, there were forty-nine clergymen
and one licensed catechist officiating here.   We have now sixty- 54
five clergymen and five licensed catechists; and whereas there
were in 1850 only seven out of fifty who were not receiving
some considerable part of their income from England, there are
now thirty-five out of seventy who are wholly supported from
funds raised in Canada, while most of the others receive considerable portions of their salaries from the same source." The
Society contributes towards the maintenance of twenty-six missionaries, and the annual sum expended by it in the diocese
has been now reduced to 2,920?. "We have now sixty-four
consecrated churches, thirteen others in use, but for various
reasons not yet consecrated, making seventy-seven; and five
still in course of erection. Thirty of the above churches have
been consecrated since 1850. There are thirty-six parsonage
houses, of which nineteen have been built or purchased since
1850, and two others are in course of erection." On the occasion
of the alienation of the Clergy Eeserves, the clergy of Montreal,
like their brethren in Toronto, consented to a commutation of
their life interests, and so some portion of that property, though
altogether inadequate to the urgent needs of the Church, is preserved as a permanent endowment. For the rest, the diocese
must depend mainly upon its own independent resources. A
separate Diocesan Church Society from that in Quebec has been
organized, and is now in active operation; and the general funds
raised for all Church purposes during the year 1862 amounted
to nearly 14,000?.
The city of Montreal was founded in 1640 on the site of
an Indian city called Hochelaga, which had been visited by
Jacques Cartier in 1535, and named by him Mont Eoyal from
the mountain adjoining it. It is now a place of considerable
importance; and amongst the public buildings are a Roman
Catholic cathedral, convent, and other religious institutions, two
The English cathedral has been already
hospitals, and a college HURON.
mentioned. Of this city the Bishop says : | The Church of
England population at the census of 1861 was only 10,072 out
of 91,006 ; a large increase, however, over the returns of the
previous census. During that interval the cathedral and every
other church in the city has been rebuilt after fire, or enlarged,
or new ones built at a very heavy expense. But it has been
in consequence of this increasing accommodation, and the free
services given at the cathedral and elsewhere, that our numbers
are thus increased,—few as we still are in comparison with the
Roman Catholics especially, and the whole population. I believe, however, that by God's blessing, whether we look at the
condition and service of individual churches, or at the gradual
organization of our government and discipline, through the
operation of our diocesan and provincial synods, that 'the
Canadian branch of the Church is becoming naturalized in this
diocese, and taking a sure root in the soil. I hope that with
the progress thus made, it is also really advancing the work of
the Gospel, and promoting the glory of God, and the salvation
of souls."
It has been already stated that in the year 1857 the immense
diocese of Toronto was subdivided, and the western districts
were formed into the separate diocese of Huron. The appointment of the Rev. Benjamin Cronyn, rector of London, West
Canada (the future cathedral city of the new see) as first Bishop,
was attended with circumstances of unusual interest. It was
the first instance in which, in the words of an interesting article
in the Colonial Church Chronicle (vol. xi. p. 321), | a Bishop of
our Church was elected by the free suffrages of the clergy and.
aity of the diocese to which he belongs.   The principle of elecr- *
tion from below instead of nomination from above, of election by
Churchmen, clerical and lay, instead of nomination by an officer
of State, has been established. We regard this as the most important step in the onward progress of the Church which has
been made for years ; we regard it as an era in our ecclesiastical
The Society determined to grant an annual sum of 400?. toward
the support of at least five missionaries in the newly-formed
In 1858 the Bishop made his first visitation of all the settled
parts of the diocese, confirming over 1,500 candidates, and
travelling above 2,200 miles. A separate Church Society from
that of Toronto was formed.
In 1860, the Society granted an additional sum of 400?. a year
towards the maintenance of clergymen in the outlying parts of
the diocese. Eight missionaries were thus in part supported:
and the total number of the Society's missionaries became in
the following year twenty, one of whom is employed for the
religious instruction of the Indians on Walpole Island.
The diocese of Huron contains a population of 473,000 scattered over an area as large as or probably a little larger than.
Ireland. Of this large number about 93,000 are Church people,
and there are now 80 clergymen (31 of whom are missionaries
of the Society) and 92 churches. In the year 1863 the Society
expended 1,280?. in this diocese. The flourishing city of London is the principal or cathedral city of the diocese : it is situated
on the river Thames, about 120 miles southward of Toronto, and
occupies nearly a central position in the peninsula formed by
lakes Huron, Erie, and Ontario.
The progress of the Church in this diocese since its formation
has been most encouraging; the general funds of the Church
Society are increasing, many additional churches have been built, HURON.
the number of the clergy has been doubled, and the people in
most parts appear to be doing their utmost to support their
clergymen. Of their willingness to assist others out of then
limited means a pleasing proof was afforded in the subscriptions
which were raised during the winter of 1862-3 amongst the
Church people throughout the diocese, for the relief of their
brethren in England, then suffering from the effects of the
American war. Eather more than 356?. were thus raised and
remitted to the Manchester Central Relief Committee, one
among the many instances of the kindly Christian sympathy
which was exhibited in almost every colony and dependency of
the British empire towards the suffering artisans of our manufacturing districts.
The following extracts from the Bishop's letters to the Society
will convey a correct notion of the character which it is desirable
that missionaries in this country should possess, and of the
nature of the work in which they will be employed :—" Young
men strong in body will alone answer in so new and rough a
country, and yet those who are sent upon these missions must
have a knowledge of human nature, such as few young men
possess in the commencement of their ministerial life. There
are peculiar difficulties attendant upon a mission to a new settlement, arising from the nature of the population. Generally the
people are strangers to each other, having no social bond to unite
them. The missionary has therefore to bring them together
and bind them to each other by the cords of Christian love and
Church membership, before he can effect any permanent good
amongst them, i This requires much patience and tact on the
part of the missionary, and therefore it is not easy to find men
well suited for such a work. Our friends in England can form
no adequate idea of the destitute state of their countrymen in
this new country, or the difficulties with which travelling mis-
I 58
sionaries have to contend. For eight or ten years after a settler
takes possession of his land in a remote district, he may truly be
said to struggle for the existence of himself and family, without
roads, often without neighbours, without money, he has to build
his house and barn, and to clear his land; and he must wait
each year until the snow falls to enable him to carry to market
such produce as he can raise and spare from the support of his
family, in order that he may be able to pay his taxes, and meet
the annual instalments on his land, which press heavily upon
him, and keep him poor for many years." "This country promises to be one of the finest parts of Canada, and when the
settlers have overcome the first difficulties which have to be en-,
countered by all who undertake to reclaim farms from the native
forest, they will be well able to support their own elergy. The
danger is that if neglected their affections may be weaned from
the Church, and great efforts will be required to undo the evil
which a few years of neglect may now produce." " I have just
returned from a tour of a month through the counties of Huron,
Bruce, Grey, and Perth, in which the missionaries assisted by
your Society labour; and I am truly thankful to be able to
report that I everywhere found them diligent and devoted, and
the congregations large and devout. Part of this large tract of
country has only lately been surrendered by the Indians, and
surveyed by the government; settlers in large numbers have
already taken up their abode in it, still there remain some
millions of acres which will furnish a home to emigrants from
the mother country for many years to come. There is before the
Church in this country a long and arduous work, but I trust
through the Divine blessing upon the labours of our missionaries, the day will come when every part of the land shall enjoy
the privilege of having the Gospel preached, and the Sacrament
adnrinistered by ministers of our Church." ONTARIO.
This new Bishopric was divided from Toronto in 1861; and
at a meeting of the Synod of the Diocese held at Kingston on
the 13th of June, the Eev. James Lewis, rector of Brockville,
was elected the first Bishop. His consecration on the 25th of
March in the following year was an important event for the
Canadian Church, it being the first occasion on which a Bishop
of our Church was consecrated in Canada or British America.
The ceremony took place in St. George's Cathedral, Kingston,
the Bishop of Montreal, Metropolitan, the Bishops of Toronto,
Quebec, and Huron, and the American Bishop of Michigan, all
taking part in the service.
The Society voted the sum of 1,000?. from its Jubilee Fund
towards the endowment of the new Bishopric; and promised an
annual grant for three years towards the maintenance of missionaries in new districts.
In 1863 the Society made a further grant in aid of the stipends
of two travelling missionaries who should take spiritual charge
of the settlers along the principal government roads.
A few extracts from a letter which appeared in the Colonial
Church Chronicle (vol xvi. p. 298), written by the Archdeacon
of Ottawa (who had laboured for thirty years within the bounds
of the present diocese of Ontario), will convey the clearest impression of the present state and urgent wants of this new
'.'The diocese of Ontario comprises the most eastern portion
of what was formerly called Upper Canada, but which is now
more familiarly known as Canada West. It is bounded on the
east by Lower Canada, on the north'by the river Ottawa, on the
south by the St. Lawrence, and on the west by the river Trent
and a line stretching thence to the Ottawa. In length it is about 60
200. miles; and being of a triangular shape, its breadth varies
from fifty to 250 miles. It comprises fifteen counties, and 150
surveyed townships; most of which contain 100 square miles.
Besides these there is an extensive tract of country in the northwest of the diocese not yet surveyed, but which is-being partially
settled by squatters, and filled during the winter season, with
lumbermen, where a travelling missionary might be usefully
employed. The population of the diocese in 1861 numbered
371,541, of whom 81,000 were returned as members of the
Church. To minister to this population, scattered over such an
extensive area, we have only fifty-five clergymen; and as the
country is year by year becoming more settled, and the members
of the Church more numerous, the numbers of the clergy
will require to be proportionately increased. The establishment of the city of Ottawa as the seat of government, will
naturally cause the tide of emigration to flow up the course
of the river Ottawa into the newly surveyed portions of our
diocese, thus materially increasing our numbers, and at the same
time increasing our responsibility to minister to them the Gospel
of the grace of God. It may serve to illustrate the rapid growth
of the Church in Canada, to refer "to the changes which have
occurred during the ministerial lifetime of one individual, the
present vigorous-minded, devoted, and venerated Bishop of
Toronto. When that venerable man of God was ordained in
1803, there was but one Bishop, with seven clergymen, and a
small body of laymen in the whole of Canada, which then constituted the sjngle diocese of Quebec. It now comprises the five
sees of Quebec, Montreal, Ontario, Toronto, and Huron, with
364 clergymen, and 375,000 members of our Church. In Upper
Canada where the youthful deacon saw but four clergymen, and
a small but devoted band of laymen in 1803, the aged prelate,
now in his eighty-fifth year, beholds three Bishops, 246 clergy- .mtm
men, and according to the census of 1861, a Church population
of 311,565. Beholding this wonderful increase, effected by God's
great blessing within one ministerial lifetime, well may that
venerable servant of Christ exclaim, ' What hath God wrought!'
Much of this growth and prosperity is due, under God, to the
fostering care of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel,
which during the  earlier period of our history, was truly a
nursing mother unto the Church struggling into life.    A debt
of gratitude is also due to that kindred institution, the Society
for Promoting Christian Knowledge, which aided us by liberal
grants of books and assistance towards building our churches.
The praise of these two most useful and charitable Societies is
in all the colonial churches of the British empire, and the infant
Diocese of Ontario will be greatly cheered and encouraged, and
its Bishop's hands will be greatly strengthened by the liberal aid
promised by these benevolent Societies to forward our missionary
operations within the diocese.  But timely and invaluable as this
assistance will prove in extending the ministrations of the Church
into the interior of the land, still more is required in order to
meet our urgent necessities.    We have whole counties as large
as any in England with not a single clergyman resident within
their bounds. " Cases of extreme spiritual destitution are to be
met with in every direction.    From every quarter is heard the
Macedonian cry, s Come over and help us.'    From personal experience and an intimate knowledge of the country, acquired
during thirty years of ministerial labours there, I can truly testify
that the harvest indeed is great, but the labourers are few—very
few indeed compared with the extent of the field.    My own
isolated position there may serve, to illustrate and confirm the
truth of the statement.    My nearest clerical neighbour in any
direction Eves fourteen miles to the west of me; the nearest
towards the north is fifty-five miles distant; the nearest to the 62
east is in the diocese of Montreal, upwards of thirty miles
distant; and the nearest to the south is somewhere in the
United States, but where, and how far distant, I know not.
Now, my position is only the counterpart of many. Some
indeed are still more isolated." "As a specimen of what
some Canadian clergymen have to undergo in the discharge of
their sacred but laborious duties, a clergyman writes to me thus :—
' I have always had four stations, one twenty-five miles from
home. Fifty miles is no uncommon distance for me to travel on
a Sunday. I leave home at- 7 a.m. ; travel 12 miles; stop for
Sunday school and Divine service; rush Off, dinnerless, 13 miles
farther, generally on horseback in summer, the thermometer,
perhaps, 120° in the sun; the roads so bad as to necessitate
caution, and oftentimes to dispirit the horse; yet I have to
travel against time. I frequently dine on horseback, going at
the rate of eight or ten miles an hour. After evening service I
return home (if no sick visits detain me), where I arrive generally
at 11 p.m.' " "In thus appeaHng to our Christian brethren, we
wish it distinctly to be understood that the Churchmen in the
diocese of Ontario do not ask aid from abroad before they have
put their own shoulders to the wheel. We have parochial subscriptions, and at' least two sermons and special collections in all
our churches on behalf of our missions, every year. Last year "
(this letter was written in 1862) " we completed the great effort to
raise 10,000?. for the endowment of our episcopate ; and we are
now endeavouring to raise amongst ourselves 2,000?. more to
build a See-house, in order that our Bishop, whose income is only
750?. per annum, may not have to rent a house. It must also be
borne in mind that every parish has to aid in supporting its own
clergyman, as well as to minister to their more destitute brethren,
as we have no State endowment, no church-rates and no tithes.<'
I We most earnestly appeal then to our Christian brethren in ONTARIO.
the mother country to aid us in our efforts to relieve this spiritual
destitution. Our Bishop has issued a brief but stirring appeal
on behalf of the Missionary wants of his new diocese, and some
kind friends have already responded to it in a liberal spirit.
May God bless them for their generous sympathy, and may He
who has the hearts of all men in His holy keeping be graciously
pleased to cause many J to go and do likewise 64
work in America (continued).
This island, the nearest to the mother country of aU the colonies
of Great Britain, was discovered in 1497 by the celebrated Venetian navigator, Sebastian Cabot. For a long period the possession of it was disputed by the French, but at the Peace of
Utrecht, in 1713, it was finally ceded to the English. It is
occupied only along the coast, and almost exclusively by persons
engaged in the cod and seal fisheries. The last of the aboriginal
inhabitants,, died at St. John's in 1829.
The first English clergyman here, the Eev. Mr. Jackson, who
had been maintained with difficulty for a short time at St. John's
by private subscriptions, was adopted as a missionary by the
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, in May, 1703. The
Eev. Jacob Rice was sent out to St. John's, in 1705 ; and in
1729 the Rev. R. Killpatrick was stationed at Trinity Bay. In
1766 the Rev. Lawrence Coughlan, having for some time resided at Harbour Grace, was, at the request of the inhabitants,
appointed missionary there by the Society. In 1787 a missionary-
was appointed at Placentia, and a church built, to which King
William IV. then in command of the Pegasus on that station, NEWFOUNDLAND.
subscribed fifty guineas, and also presented a handsome set of
communion-plate, still in use.
On the appointment of our first colonial Bishop, Dr. Inglis, of
Nova Scotia, in 1787, Newfoundland was nominally placed
under his episcopal superintendence ; but so extensive was his
diocese, and so numerous and pressing the claims upon his time
and strength, that he was never able to visit this island.
When Dr. Stanser succeeded to the Episcopate of Nova Scotia
in 1816, there were five missionaries and seven schoolmasters in
Newfoundland, maintained in part by the Society.
On the appointment of the third Bishop of Nova Scotia,
Dr. J. Inglis, in 1824, his diocese was sub-divided into four
Archdeaconries, of which Newfoundland was one and Bermuda
another; and there were at that time five other missionaries
and twenty-five schoolmasters and catechists.
In 1826 Bishop Inglis visited the Bermuda Islands, which
contained then a population of above 10,000, about one-half of
whom were slaves. There were nine parishes, each provided
with a church. The zeal of the clergy, and the excellent disposition of the people, who had never seen a bishop before on these
islands, excited his Lordship's admiration. He confirmed more
than 1,200 persons in the whole, of whom above 100 were blacks.
In 1828 the Bishop made his first visitation of Newfoundland, in the course of which he traversed nearly 5,000 miles;
consecrated eighteen churches and twenty burial-grounds ; confirmed, in all, 2,365 persons, and preached thirty-two times. In
his report to the Society the Bishop says :—| There are peculiar
circumstances at Newfoundland which increase the difficulties
of providing for the instruction of the people. Their settlements are greatly scattered, always difficult of access, and often
inaccessible. During the short fishing season every one is
wholly engaged in the fishery, on which they depend for sup-
F 66
port; and in the winter it is a frequent practice to remove to
the forest for shelter, fuel, and employment in preparing lumber.
These difficulties, however, maybe successfully met by becoming
earnestness arid zeal. Sometimes it will be desirable for the
schoolmasters to move with the people and tilt (as it is called1)
in the woods. The clergyman, also must be ready, in a pure
missionary spirit, to visit occasionally these temporary lodgments
in the forests ; and, during the busiest seasons, he will always
find the general inclination of the people leaning towards the
Church. Pressed, as they often are, by the hurry of the fishing
season, they will always be ready for instruction, even then, on
the Sabbath, which is seldom violated by Protestants here. . A
missionary without missionary zeal can do nothing here. He
will often have formidable difficulties to contend with ; but if
he be earnest in the great cause in which he is embarked he will
not be left without much comfort and encouragement in his
arduous course."
In 1839, Newfoundland was erected into a separate diocese,
and the Rev. A. G. Spencer, who had for many years been Archdeacon of the Bermuda Islands (which were now included in
the diocese) was consecrated the Bishop. At this time the
Society supported ten clergymen and three lay teachers in New-,
foundland, all of whom were stationed on the coast between
Twillingate and Ferryland ; and three clergymen in Bermuda.
The immediate and beneficial results of this measure are
manifest from the Bishop's Charge in 1841, in which he says :—
I The first results of my visitation and endeavours to promote
the great objects contemplated by my appointment, during the
last two years, are, I trust, obvious and satisfactory. The full
information which I possess respecting the condition and wants
of my diocese; the subdivision of its more extensive missionary
1 See Gospel Missionary, yol. v. p. 135.
\i  1
stations; the encouragement of the old, and the organization of
new schools; the consecration of twelve churches, and the commenced erection of twenty-two more; the confirmation of 2,258
persons ; the number of the clergy more than doubled; the improvement and sustainment of a diocesan society to aid us in
the propagation of the Gospel, and the institution of a seminary
in which a Kmited number of lay readers and students in theology are to be prepared for missionary labour; these auspicious
consequences of the establishment of the Episcopate in Newfoundland, are calculated to send me on my way rejoicing, and
to inspire me with an humble confidence that I ' have not run
in vain, neither laboured in vain.'"
In 1844, Bishop Spencer having been translated to the vacant
see of Jamaica, the Eev. Edward Feild, late FeUow of Queen's
CoUege, Oxford, was cahed to the Bishopric of Newfoundland,
and consecrated at Lambeth on the 28th April. The Church
ship, the Hawk, which was presented to the Bishop by an English
clergyman, enabled his Lordship to extend his periodical visitations all round the island and beyond it, and graduaEy to establish new missions in places which no clergyman had visited
previously. Consequently new churches have been built and
clergymen settled all along the south coast of the island, and up
to St. George's Bay; and on the opposite side of the island, as
far north as White Bay.
In 1846 Bishop Feild commenced making a systematic yearly
collection throughout the island for the support of the Church 1
and though during its first year of trial the people were subjected to a series of losses and calamities in the failure of the
fishery, the destruction by fire of a great part of the capital and
the hurricanes which devastated their coasts, the scheme, based
as it is on a sound and just principle, bids fair to realize the expectations of those who formed it.
i 68
In 1847 the Bishop visited England, to obtain assistance in
rebuilding the Cathedral Church (destroyed in the disastrous
fire of the previous year), and in estabHshing a coUege at
St. John's for the education of theological students; also for
the purpose of selecting additional clergymen or candidates for
holy orders.    In aU these objects he was very successful.
Of his second visitation of his diocese in 1849, the Bishop
thus speaks :—" In this year of journeys what a variety of place
and people has been presented to me! First to Bermuda" (a
voyage of a thousand miles), | with its fruits and flowers in the
month of January, after being detained a fortnight at Halifax, in
Nova Scotia, the ground there all covered with snow, and the
thermometer below zero. In Bermuda I ministered to the
mixed population of whites and blacks, gave confirmation and
celebrated the Lord's Supper in every church in the colony, and
consecrated two churches and churchyards. Then my return to
Newfoundland by way of Halifax, and that strange encounter
with the ice in the month of May, which prevented our reaching
in the steamer within fifty miles of St. John's. My wabk that
distance, and, after a short rest in St. John's, my voyage of
visitation to the Straits of BeUe Isle and Labrador, and round
the whole island of Newfoundland, which kept me afloat in the
Church ship1 very nearly four months, and brought me to the
Esquimaux Indians (on the Seal Islands), among icebergs, in the
month of August, and lastly, my journey round Conception Bay,
partly on foot, partly by ponies, partly in boats, and all this long
and varied travel without any serious loss, accident, or hindrance.
to myself or any of my belongings. WeE may schooner Hawk
exclaim in the words of a true poet:—
i account and sketch of this ship, see Gospel Missionary, vol.
p. 168.
IP* ^tt.
I Mother, some Hand, through sky, o'er sea,
Leads wandering birds protectingly,
'Mid floating piles and ocean dark.' "
Thus, by God's goodness and grace, this truly Missionary
Bishop has been enabled to offer the ministrations of the Church
in many a remote settlement, where no service had ever before
been held, and scatter the seed of the Word in many secluded
coves, where haply, by the Divine blessing, it may spring up
and bear fruit abundantly.
In 1851 the Society granted the sum of 1,000?. from the
Jubilee Fund for the endowment of scholarships in connexion
with the Theological CoUege at St. John's.
In 1853 the first church was consecrated in Labrador, in a
part of the coast which is beEeved to have been untrodden by
the foot of any messenger of the Gospel until the period of
Bishop Feild's visit to it in 1849. There are now five churches
and two parsonages.
An Orphan's Home was established at St. John's in 1855 for
eight orphans, under the charge of a widow, and has since been
enlarged. It is much indebted to the fostering care of Mrs.
Johnson, a benevolent EngEsh lady, who resides in Newfoundland.
This diocese^ besides the island of Newfoundland, which is
40,200 square miles in extent, and contains a population of
122,638 persons, of whom about 50,000 are members of our
Church, comprises part of the opposite coast of Labrador, with a
few adjoining islets, and the more distant Bermudas, or Somer
Islands, containing a population of 11,041 persons on an area of
twenty-four square miles. The total number of clergymen is
forty-nine; of these thirty-five are missionaries of the Society,
which in 1863 expended 5,264?. in this diocese, and has been
induced to prolong its assistance by the urgent representations
i L]Mft
of the Bishop of the increasing poverty and distress which,- from
a variety of causes, have prevailed here for the last few years.
From Bermuda, where there is a legalized provision for the clergy,
the Society has now withdrawn.    In Newfoundland itseE four
clergymen are supported entirely by local contributions, two by
tuition, and one requires no assistance.  The number of churches
consecrated, or ready for consecration, was eighty-seven, besides
eight in progress, in 1863.    The Cathedral at St. John's was
consecrated in  1850,  and opened for  daily service;   and  a
cathedral on a smaE scale has also been erected on the largest of
the Bermuda islands.    The CoEege at St. John's now numbers
eight students.    The income of the Diocesan Church Society,
remitted to St. John's, in 1863 was 1,003?. besides about 910?.
retained in the several Missions.    There is no Synod in Newfoundland, the  Efflculty of communication with the  capital,
occasioned by the want of roads, and the poverty of the clergy
and people, being very great;  and, to use the words of the
Bishop, " There are no endowments, no rates, no glebes, no kindly
fruits of the earth; nothing but seals and fish, and of these an
uncertain supply."
At the Annual Meeting of the Diocesan Society in 1850, an
address was adopted, in which they tender 1 a renewed expression of their sincere gratitude for the many invaluable benefits
which have been conferred by the Society for the Propagation of
the Gospel during nearly a century and a haE upon the Church
in Newfoundland. It is believed," the address goes on to say,
I that there is hardly a church or parsonage-house in the colony,
towards the erection of which the venerable Society has not contributed. The clergy, whose ranks have been from time to time
reinforced and augmented have been mainly supported by the
Society's liberality, and we and our brethren supplied thereby
with the means of grace and ordinances of reEgion, in the purity FREDERICTON.
which distinguishes the faith and discipline of the Church of our
Of the trials and difficulties to be met with in this scene of
his labours the Bishop thus speaks :—| This diocese is perhaps, of
aE'ni our colonial empire, the most uninviting in respect of aE
worldly comforts and advantages. The length and rigour of the
winters, the bleak and barren nature of the soE, with the .peculiar
habits and occupations of the people, are easily understood and
appreciated; but the want of society, and the long separation
from relations and friends, are much greater trials, and bring
difficulties and temptations not lightly to be encountered, and
never to be conquered but by the prevailing influence of God's
Holy Spnit, shedding abroad in the heart the love of Christ and
of His Church and people."
No diocese has been more fortunate than Newfoundland in
he number of self-denying, laborious clergymen who have left
England to brave the discouragements of a severe cEmate, a
barren land, and extreme poverty. It would be invidious to
select instances from those now working there : but our readers
wiE be glad to have then attention directed (in addition to the
Bishop's numerous Journals of Visitation) to the late Eev. J. G.
Mountain's Sowing-Time in Newfoundland, and to the Eev. Julian
Moreton's Life and Work in Newfoundland, recently published
by Messrs. Eivingtons.
The province of Fredericton, or New Brunswick as it was
formerly caEed, was discovered, Eke most of our other North
American possessions, by John Cabot and his sons in 1497.
It shared the fate of the adjoining province of Nova Scotia,
with which it was associated by the French under the name of
Acadia, but did not come into the undisputed possession of the
7 *
English until the peace of 1763. At this time the country was
covered with an almost continuous forest; a few families who
had emigrated from New England the year before and settled at
MaugerviEe constituted the entire population, and there was not
a single clergyman in the province.
In 1785, when the colony was separated from Nova Scotia and
formed into a separate government, the number of inhabitants
had increased to 800.
The first clergymen here were the Eev. Samuel Andrews, the
Eev. James ScovE, and the Rev. Samuel Cooke, who were com-
peEed by political troubles to leave their former missions in
New England in 1785, and were transferred by the Society for
the Propagation of the Gospel to the Missions of St. Andrew's,
Kingston, and St. John's respectively. These were the men who
first made the sound of the Gospel to be heard amid the snows
and forests of New Brunswick; and future generations of Churchmen will look back to them with a feeEng akin to that with
which we regard those apostolic and seE-denying men who first
preached the doctrine of the Cross to our own rude forefathers.
How few were the opportunities enjoyed by the early settlers
of participating in the ordinances of the Church may be inferred
from a fact mentioned by Mr. Andrews hi his journal. When
visiting one of the remoter parts of his mission (which extended
over sixty miles) he reached a lonely house where he found a
large famfly waiting for him; and, after due examination, he
: baptized the ancient matron of the family of eighty-two years,
her son of sk;ty years, two grandsons,
and seven great grand
As settlements increased more missions were opened and
additional clergymen sent out; but the work of aE was much of
the same character. They had all great distances to travel, and
much hardness to endure from the severity of the climate, and FREDERICTON.
the nature of the country. With wives and families for the most
part, their stipend from the Society was but 50?. a year; and
what they received from their congregations must have been
exceedingly scanty and uncertain. Assuredly, therefore, their
reward was not here : and when we add to these material privations the perfect isolation of their position, the want of a friend
to comfort or advise, the coldness or worldliness of their own
people, the steady opposition of traditional dissent (many of the
early settlers were Presbyterians and Independents), and the
frequent intrusion of the "New Lights," we must be thankful
that men were found ready to do and suffer so much for their
Master's sake. Such were the early missionaries of New Brunswick. As the country began to be opened and cleared the
physical difficulties with which they had to contend gradually,
of course, grew less; and the Efe and occupations of a missionary
became more Eke that of a laborious curate in the wdd and
thinly-peopled districts of England.
This province was included in the diocese of Nova Scotia, and
the Bishop in the course of his first visitation of it in 1792,
confirmed 777 persons, and consecrated four churches : there
were then only six clergymen here.
From that time the Church appears to have made steady progress, though certainly not adequate to the increase of the
population, which in 1825 numbered 80,000 souls, whflst there
were only fifteen clergymen besides the recently appointed
Archdeacon of Fredericton, and twenty-six churches in all.
Hitherto the province had done little for the support of the
clergy, or the general designs of the Church, but in 1836, at the
suggestion of Bishop IngEs, a Church Society was formed which
was to embrace the various objects contemplated by the two
great church societies in England. The sum raised during the
first year was 415?.   The total receipts of this society amounted *■
to 1,166?. in 1853, in which year E received a charter of incorporation from the Colonial Legislature.
In the same year (1836), by the influence and exertions of
the Governor, Sir Edward. Douglas, a coEege was erected at
Fredericton and endowed with 6,000 acres of land, and about
2,000?. a year from the provincial revenues. With a view of
encouraging candidates for Holy Orders, the Society for the
Propagation of the Gospel endowed six scholarships in the new
At this time it appears there were eighty parishes in New
Brunswick, and forty-three churches or chapels contained hi,
thirty-six of them; so that there were stiE forty-four parishes—
more than haE of the whole number—without churches; the
number of clergymen was twenty-eight.
Bishop Inglis (the third Bishop of Nova Scotia) made several
visitations to this part of his diocese, for during the long period
of his episcopate it could not be said that he spared any exertion
in the discharge of his onerous duties; but the duties of such
a diocese, even after the separation of Newfoundland, were more
than any one person could perform, and the claim of New
Brunswick to have a Bishop of its own could not be denied.
Accordingly, as soon as the necessary endowment fund had
been raised, the Eev. John Medley was consecrated Bishop of
Fredericton at Lambeth on the 4th May, 1845.
One of the Bishop's first acts was tojplan a cathedral, for
which large subscriptions were immediately promised; amongst
others several dissenters coming forward and subscribing handsomely towards it. By the exertions of the Bishop, who has
himseE expended upon it as much as three years' income, it was
finished and consecrated in 1853.
During a visit to England in 1848 the Bishop made the fol-
statement respecting his  diocese :—-" The number  of FREDERICTON.
missionaries has been augmented since the establishment of the
Bishopric, from thirty to forty-five : and I have confirmed above
1,200 persons altogether. I cannot begin to speak of the work
in my diocese without acknowledging our obligations to the
Society for. the Propagation of the Gospel. It is not too much to
say, that but for the fostering care of this Society, the Church
could, humanly speaking, have no existence in New Brunswick.
The State never did anything of importance to estabEsh it there;
and the only assistance now received from Government E« a grant
of 300?. a year, which is the salary of the present Archdeacon."
The diocese of Fredericton contains an area of 26,000 square
mEes, and is therefore almost as large as Scotland. It is a
country of rich soil and much natural beauty. The noble forests
with which by far the larger part of its surface is still covered
constitute the main source of its wealth; and the felEng of
timber, and conveyEig it to the coast for exportation, is a
principal occupation of the people. There are also extensive
fisheries. The climate is very dry and healthy; it is said to
be much finer than that of England, though undoubtedly hotter
and colder.
The population is now 200,000; of whom about 42,000 are
members of our Church. The number of clergymen is fifty-five;
of these thEty-nine are missionaries of the Society, which in
1862 expended as much as 4,147?. in this diocese. The number of churches and chapels in 1846 was seventy-six, and there
were also fifty-three other stations for service, and seventeen
parsonage houses; but there has probably been a considerable
increase in these numbers since that time.
The city of Fredericton, at the time the Rev. Samuel Cooke
removed there from his first mission of St. John's (in 1786), was
an inconsiderable settlement of about 400 people, though Eu-
portant as the seat of government.    There was then no church, to
divine service being performed in the king's provision store; the
congregation did not exceed 100, and the whole number of
communicants on Christmas Day was fourteen. It is now a
flourishing city with 4,458 inhabitants, and amongst other public
buEdings a noble cathedral, several churches and a college.
Thus in the course of eighty years we have seen the continuous forest of New Brunswick graduaEy give place to rising
townships and cities; and a population of 800 multiplied, by
natural causes, and the constant influx of new settlers (who in
one year alone (1846) amounted to 9,765), to 200,000. We
have seen too the Church, with but Ettle assistance from the
Government, gradually acquiring more strength and consistency.
From two or three missionaries in 1786, the number of the
clergy has grown to fifty-four, with a Bishop and Archdeacon at
theE head. But haE of the parishes are even now unsuppEed
with the ministrations of religion; and the tide of emigration is
stiE flowmg strongly. Asskitance from home wiE doubtless be
requEed in the more thinly peopled settlements for some years
to come; but it is to be hoped that the Churchmen of New
Brunswick, and of every other British colony wiE see, that to be
secure, their Church must, at the eariiest moment, be independent;
and that its noblest endowment wEl be found in the affection
and seE-denial of its members. In a charge delivered in 1862
to the clergy and laity of his diocese on the Enportant subjects
of endowment and seE-support, the Bishop calculates that from
the year 1795 the Society has expended upwards of 200,000?. on
the support of missions in New Brunswick, and he strongly
urges upon the colonists the duty of relieving the Society of the
annual charge—stiE amounting, E pensions be included, to Ettle
less than 4,000?. The clergy, many of whom are very poor,
most generously responded to this appeal, but no reaEy practical
response has yet been returned by the laity. w
Of the progress already made, and the many difficulties yet to
be overcome in this diocese, the Bishop thus speaks in one of
his reports to the Society :—11 think I can honestly say that
such advance as we have made has been in the right direction,
though I could wish it had been more rapid and vigorous. Great
aEowance, however, must be made for the very peculiar condition of the diocese, arising, in a great degree, from its physical
formation, and the unequal and unsatisfactory (Estribution of
Church people over vast tracts of land. As things are now, and
must, as far as man can see, continue to be, our Ettle band lies
scattered over the fringes of the forest, having but scanty communication with the clergyman, and with each other; cut off
from the great centres of Efe and knowledge, one haK of the
men gomg into the woods in whiter, and the sick often twelve,
fifteen, and even twenty miles from the pastor. In our winters,
a Sunday School in the remote districts is often utterly impracticable. How k? a Ettle gEl to walk three, four, or five
miles in deep snow, or in a blinding snow-storm, to school?
Again, our people are surrounded by sects of. every kind, continually subdividEig, rivalling eacE other, and keeping up their
cause by perpetual excitements of every kind." ... "I am
thankful to say that our Diocesan Church Society which is our
mainstay, has exhibited signs of undoubted vitaEty. Our income
tins year (1861), exceeded 1,600?. which wEl bear a favourable
comparison with the results of similar work in other colonies.
And tins E* after all only a smaE part of our contributions. The
whole of what is done in England by rates, is here raised by
voluntary subscriptions, or not raksed at all. StiE, I am far
from thinking that E you take the whole body coEectively we
do our duty, or anything Eke it. It is admitted by many very
inteEigent persons, and it is a matter of boast, E not of reproach,
among (Essenters,  that they  give much more Eberally than
■ 78
Churchmen, according to their means. And in some instances
it is, I fear, too true. We want sadly that spirit of generous
seE-sacrificing enterprise which comes forward of its own accord,
lays the foundation of a wEe and weE-considered plan, and
suppEes it with ample means. In our cathedral we have tried
the system of seats free and open to aE, for eight years, and the
congregation by offertory collections have always suppEed the
means for the maintenance of our necessarily expensive services.
In fact, I have no doubt that the offertory would provide for
aE the wants of the Church, E it were faithfully and dutifully
acted on, and a weekly offering given by rich and poor according
to theE abEity." . . . "You are aware that here we have no
Synod. Whenever there shaE exEt a general desEe for the
formation of such a body among the clergy and laity under my
charge, I shaE be ready to meet their wishes. But at present
no signs are visible that Synodieal action is desEed." ..." I
will close this report by once more gratefuEy thanking the
Society for the great Eberality which they have so long extended to us, with a hope that it may please God to put it into
the hearts of those among us whom He has blessed with abundant
means to ' sow bountifully, that they may reap also bountifully.'"
1 1
m   -IM
1   i
I   If
It seems probable that Sebastian Cabot entered and partly
surveyed Hudson's Bay in the year 1512. It was re-discovered
hi 1610 by Henry Hudson (an English navigator who was
endeavouring to find a north-west passage), and together with
the adjoinhig strait has been called after his name. Meanwhile
the French had colonized Canada, and from thence carried on
an active fur-trade with the Indians inhabiting the countries
west of Hudson's Bay.    But in 1668, Prince Rupert sent a Jta
Rupert's land.
vessel here, which erected Fort Charles on the bank of Rupert's
River, m James's Bay, and the whole country has since been
caEed Rupert's Land m honour of him.
In 1670, the Hudson's Bay Company, established with the
express object of procuring furs, was incorporated by Charles II.
and to them this vast territory, was granted. Although the
company must have realized enormous profits by theE fur-trade,
and employed a large number of people, who were in constant
Ertercourse with the native Indians, nothing appears to have
been done by them for nearly a hundred and fifty years to
promote the spEitual interests of these persons in some sort
committed to theE charge. -
When Governor Semple was sent out in 1815, he was speciaEy
requested to report to the company whether any trace was to be
found of either temple worship or idol, and whether it would be
practicable to gather the children together for education, and
for instruction in agriculture or other manual employment. In
his answer he said, that no place of worship of any sort was to
be seen, and most feeEngly expressed his anxiety for the immediate erection of a church.
At last, in 1820, the company sent out the Rev. J. West, as
chaplam to the settlers at the agricultural settlement which had
been formed by the Earl of Selkirk in 1811, on the banks of the
Red River; Mr. West was also accompanied by a schoolmaster.
Two years afterwards the Church Missionary Society was
induced by the representations of two of the directors of the
Hudson's Bay Company, to found a mission in theE settlement.
The Rev. D. T. Jones, was accordingly sent out in 1823, and
found on his arrival that a church had aEeady been built by the
exertions of Mr. West. A second church was completed in
1825, and in the same year the mission was greatly strengthened
by the accession of the Rev. W. Cockran, to whom, Eideed, it is
v 80
largely indebted for its success. He at once set hEnseK to
reclahn the Indians from theE roving and Eidolent Efe. He
taught them agriculture by practical lessons in ploughhig, sowing,
and reapEig. When theE corn had been harvested, he got a
■mill erected, and taught them how to grind it. He taught them
also how to buEd houses, and how to thatch the roofs with reeds.
In short, he was the OberEn of the settlement; and in proportion as he employed the natives in farm-works, he secured the
attendance of their chEdren Ei school. Under such zealous and
judicious management the mission made rapid progress. The
Rev. Messrs. Cowley, Smithurst, and Hunter, were successively
added to the missionary body; and Henry Budd, one of the first
native boys who had been entrusted to the care of Mr. West,
was appoEEed schoolmaster.
In 1844 the Bishop of Quebec, feeling that if tins extensive
territory Ed not properly come within the Emits of his own
diocese, it certainly was not in any other, and disregarding aE
considerations of personal convenience, undertook a journey and
voyage of 2,000 miles to visit it. The journey occupied between
five and six weeks, and lay, for the most part, through a wEd
country without inhabitants, or peopled only by heathens and
savages ; with the exception of here and there, one of the Company's "Posts" or "Forts," at which the BEhop stopped, and
coEected the few persons who could be brought together for
prayer and religious instruction; and these services were thank-
fuEy received. The Bishop travelled by canoe along a chain of
lakes and rivers endhig El Lake Wmnipeg, mto which the Red
River flows. The settlement, which extends for fifty mEes along
a strip of land on both sides of the Red River, contahied at
that time a population of 5,143 persons ; 2,345 of whom were
members of the Church of England,, the remainder Roman
CathoEcs.    The Bishop held frequent services during his short it»
stay, and confirmed altogether 846 persons: he also ordained
Mr. McAllum deacon, and on the foEowing Sunday, admitted
him and another deacon to the order of priests.
. In 1849, Letters Patent were issued for the erection of a
BEhopric in Prince Rupert's Land, and the Rev. David Anderson was consecrated Bishop in Canterbury Cathedral on the 29th
At this time there were only five clergymen, and four churches
Ei aE this immense diocese. Amongst the Bishop's first acts
after his arrival was the consecration of the new stone church of
St. Andrew's and the ordination of the native CatechEt Henry
Budd, who is now ministering to the Indians at Fort Cumberland.
Hitherto, as we have seen, the missionary cause, we might
perhaps say the cause of religion itseE in Rupert's Land, owed
almost everything to the Church Missionary Society; but in
1850, at the Bishop's request, the Society for the Propagation of
the Gospel granted a sum of 100?. per annum, towards the
stipend of a clergyman, to be stationed at Assiniboia, and Ei
1852 a further sum of 50?. for the same object at the mission of
York Fort. This latter grant has been since increased to 100?.
and transferred to the assEtant minister of the Bishop's own
church of St. John, at his Lordship's request.
In the summer of 1852 a disastrous flood caused the temporary
abandonment of some of the mission-stations, and did much
damage throughout the country.
In 1853 two churches were consecrated by the names of St.
Paul, and St. John : the latter is intended by the BEhop to be
used as the cathedral church until tEe erection of a more suitable
structure. At the close of that year the Rev. W. Cockran was
appointed first Archdeacon of Assiniboia, and the Rev. J. Hunter
Archdeacon of Cumberland.
m *
In 1860 the BEhop held a visitation of all the clergy who
could be brought together, and in the course of Iris charge mentioned that the ministrations of the Church were afforded to
the tribes of the Crees and Santeux, to a large body of the
Chippewyans, and a few of the Sioux, and occasionaEy to the
Esquimaux. The Norwegkns in the eastern district had also
been provided with the ministrations of the Church. To show
the prodigious extent of the diocese he says that of two of the
clergy who were prevented by dEtance from attending, one was
stationed at Fort Simpson, 2,500 mEes to the north-west, the
other at Moose, James Bay, 1,200 mEes to the east. The clergy
whom the Society assEts to maintaEi are aE stationed in the
Red River settlement.
In 1861 at the earnest entreaty of the Bishop the Society took
up the mission of Fort EEice or Beaver Creek, a station about
200 miles to the westward of the Assinibohae River and on the
Ene of communication of the 'Saskatchewan and the Rocky
Mountams. The missionary appointed to mEEster to both the
Indians and the EngEsh, the Rev. Thomas Cook, behrg native
born is equaEy familiar with both languages.
In -1862 the communication with England was for nine weeks
altogether suspended, owing to an outbreak of the Sioux Indians
in the adjoEdng state of MEmesota, and great fears were entertained of a general rising of the Indians, which would have been
most difficult to subdue as the country is so large. The Endowing year was also an anxious time, but this danger now appears
m some degree to have passed away, at least for the present.
The diocese of Rupert's Land comprises nominally the
almost boundless territory in the possession of the Hudson's
Bay Company, which is stated to be no less than 370,000
square mEes Ei extent. The country is for the most part a vast
plain, varied by a succession of lakes and rivers, and intersected Rupert's land.
by the great chaEa of the Rocky Mountains. Though a great
portion of the country is covered with wood, and at several
places Eon and other mineral productions have been discovered,
its present wealth consists in the fur-bearing anEnals Ei which
it abounds, and which are kEled on account of their skins.
The number of waterfowl E also very great, and fish E abundant
Ei the lakes.
In so large a space there must necessarily be some diversity of
soE and climate. At the Red River settlement the soil, which
is aEuvial, E remarkably fertile, and a particular farm is mentioned which had borne an abundant crop of wheat for eighteen
years in succession, without ever having been manured. The
blessing therefore of plenty is vouchsafed to the natives and
settlers; that is, abundance of produce for the satisfying of
theE own wants, but without any market, or means of export.
They have also horses, cattle, and sheep in fair proportion.
The popuktion of Rupert's Land E roughly estimated at
103,000, of whom by far the largest portion are Esquimaux and
Indians. There is however a considerable number of Europeans
among them, probably several thousands, who are either settled
Ei the Company's estabEshments to receive the furs and forward
them to the places of embarkation, or who travel through these
countries for the purpose of coEecting them. These travellers
are commonly French Canadians, and are called voyageurs. There
is only one principal settlement of Europeans, that on the Red
River, which has been aEeady described: but there are numerous
factories or " posts " connected with the fur trade, scattered over
the whole country, and in five of these there has been a successful commencement of missionary labour.
There E one peculiarity, favourable to missionary operations
in this country, which deserves special notice. Here the
Eiterests of aE the European settlers are closely identified with
G 2
/I 84
the preservation of the aboriginal race, and with the maintenance
of friendly intercourse with them, as the revenue of the company is derived from the traffic in furs with the native IncEan
hunters. To facilitate the art of reading El the Cree language
a syEabic system or kind of shorthand, representing syEables
instead of single letter-sounds, has been extensively and successfully introduced at Moose Fort and other stations where the
tribes are altogether normal. The usual Roman character E
employed in the schools.
In this wide field for nEssionary enterprise, there E now
labouring a devoted Ettle band of twenty-one clergymen, with a
BEhop and two Archdeacons at theE head. Of these, two are
missionaries of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel
(which in 1863 expended altogetEer 398?. Ea this diocese); three,
it is beEeved, are chaplahis of the Hudson's Bay Company, and
the remainder are supported by the Church MEsionary Society.
Besides these there are several schoolmasters and native cate-
' chists : and a native ministry is graduaEy springing up who
wEl, by God's help, carry the word of Efe, and extend our
branch of HE holy Church through this wide and dark land, too
long given up as it were to the rule of the Prince of Darkness.
There is no point hi which the Church of our day contrasts
so favourably with the Church at the time of the Society's Eicor--
poration as in the manner of planting itseE Ei a new colony.
For more than a century the settlements of New England appealed to the Mother Church for a Bishop in vain. Now a
colony is scarcely founded before it is formed Eito a diocese,
as, for example, New Zealand, Adelaide, or Melbourne. Perhaps, however, the most remarkable and gratifying Elustration COLUMBIA.
of tins better and wider system is that of British Columbia,
which was no sooner proclaimed Ei 1858 a British colony, than
it became a diocese of the English Church.
For the opportunity of acting upon its own principles by
providing at once for the spEitual wants of this new community,
the Church wiE be ever indebted to the smgular EberaEty of
Miss Burdett Coutts, who "gave 25,000?. for the endowment of
the Church in this colony, viz : 15,000?. for the Bishopric, and
10,000?. for other clergy. Speaking of this munificent gEt,
the Colonial Church Chronicle (vol. xii. p. 445) remarks :—
I ThE E the thEd Bishopric which this lady has endowed. We
caE on aE our readers to join with us Ei thanksgivEig to God
for this great service to the Church, this abundant offering of a
thankful heart to the Almighty, and in prayer that she who
thus sows bountifuEy may reap bountifully, that she may have
peace of mind, and health of body, and length of days here,
and that having made to herself friends of the mammon of
unrighteousness, and being rich in good works, she may at last
be received through the merits of her Saviour into everlasting
The Rev. George Hills, D.D. was appoEited first Bishop of
Columbia, and consecrated in Westminster Abbey, on the 24th
February, 1859.
The Society was first connected with thE diocese in 1857, by
the establishment of a mEsion to the native Indians of Vancouver's Island. Since then the number of missionaries has
been graduaEy increased, and considerable sums of money Eave
been annually granted by the Society.
The diocese of Columbia comprises the island which Vancouver in 1792 first discovered to be separated from the mainland of America by a long channel of the sea, and which has
smce been caEed after his name—the smaEer islands caEed
1 86
Princess Royal Island and Queen Charlotte Island,—and a
portion of the maEEand situated between the Rocky MountaEis
and the PacEic. The length of Vancouver's Island may be
estimated at 290 miles, and its average breadth at 55, but no
complete or accurate survey has been made either of thE or of
the other possessions of the Crown on these coasts. Of aE
these possessions Vancouver's Island is the largest, and by far
the most important to England, on account of its mineral and
agricultural wealth, of its proximity to China and the East, and
its consequent advantages as an emporium of trade, of its position at the termination of the United States' boundary Ene, and
the projected railway across the continent of America. In this
island is found the only safe harbour between the 49° of north
latitude and San Francisco, and there have lately been dEeovered
most extensive fields of coal, not inferior in quaEty to the best
Newcastle, and these are now partially worked by the Hudson's
Bay Company by Indian labour, and sold at a large profit in
CaEfornia. Granite, limestone, and slate of the finest descriptions, as well as lead and copper of the purest quaEty, are found.
Not less bountifuEy has this beautiful island been endowed
with agricultural wealth; it now produces with a more grateful return, aE the farm products of Great Britahi, and, as the
cEmate E as genial as some parts of France in which the vine
thrives, there is reason to expect it would flourish here, and
Ekewise many fruits and vegetables which have not yet been
introduced. A great portion of the land in the southern part
of the island consists of extensive praEie plains, covered with
the most luxuriant grass and beautiful wild flowers, and dotted
with oak, cedar, fir, and maple trees of the finest sort, renEnding
one of our EngEsh parks ; it is neither overgrown with brushwood nor so thickly interspersed with large trees as to prevent
the immediate upturning of the soE by the plough.    The view COLUMBIA.
from Cedar Mount' at the back of Fort Victoria is one of the
most commanding and beautiful that can be found anywhere,
not yielding, it is said, in these respects to the far-famed
harbour of Rio JaneEo. In the northern extremity of the
Eland, at Fort Rupert, the trees attain an immense sEe ; naval
officers have declared that the spars made from them are of the
finest description : they have been already tried in the Royal
Navy and highly approved of. Fish of «the greatest variety
and to an inexhaustible extent, abound in the waters of these
coasts, especiaEy sturgeon and sahnon; the curing and sale of
this latter to the people of the Sandwich Islands is a rich source
of profit; the whale, both bone arid sperm, are also kiEed. The
Princess Royal Island and Queen Charlotte's Island are very
little known, as they have scarcely ever been visited by any
other than the Hudson's Bay Company's traders. Gold was
discovered in the latter island in 1852, but the gold mining
district is chiefly confined to the mainland and extends along
some 400 mEes from the town of Hope on the lower Fraser
River to the Quesnel River, a branch of the Fraser in the
north. Thousands are engaged along this Ene, in parties varying from twelve to 200. Writing in 1860, the Bishop says,
"The population consists for the most part of emigrants from
CaEfornia, a strange mixture of aE nations, most difficult to
reach. A large proportion have been long unused to religious
opportunities, although amongst them are those who will welcome the minister of Christ. An idea of this mixture may be
afforded by one instance, that of the town of Douglas, in British
Columbia. Out of 200, thirty-five only are British subjects.
The rest are Germans, French, Italians, Africans, Chinese, Spaniards, Mexicans, and Americans. The agricultural settlers at
present are not numerous. I have visited some. They are
destitute entirely of the means of grace.    The native race in
i 11
both colonies is numerous." (One account estimates the number of native Indians at 80,000.) " I have visited various tribes:
some are more EiteEigent than others : there is desEe of improvement and ambition to be like the whites. There are
peculiar dEnculties Ei our work here. The population E of
such a kind as to requEe men of no ordinary abEity and tact."
There are fourteen clergymen, five of whom are mEsionaries of
the Society, which El 1863 expended .£1,175 in this diocese.
The BEhop was Ei England Ei 1864, making a fresE appeal to
the Church at home for- continued support, and he calculated an
addition of six clergy for the European population, of seven
clergy and five catechEts for the Indians, to be the least force
requEite, adequately to cope with the present exigencies of the
The Rev. W. Duncan, a missionary of the Church Missionary
Society, has been most zealous and Eidefatigable in his labours,
which he commenced in 1856 and carried on for a long time
smgle-handed : his sphere of labour E amongst the Chimsyans,
a tribe settled in the neighbourhood of Fort Simpson and on the
adjacent Elands.
The shEting nature j of the population El this new colony and
the consequent difficulty which a clergyman finds in dealing
witE them are well shown El tlie subjoined extract of a letter
from the Rev. J. Gammage :—" The work of a clergyman in the
upper towns of British Columbia, in which I Eiclude Douglas,
is essentiaEy of a missionary character, and must continue to be
so for some time, that is until we have a larger number of permanent settlers, who, being permanent, wiE probably take something more than a passmg interest Ei the place. At present it
is just the reverse of this. In the parish of Douglas I know of
but four persons who profess to adopt British Columbia as theE
home.   The consequence of this E that nearly everything assumes COLUMBIA.
a very temporary and unstable character. An ordinary house
for instance, is buEt El a few days, and, as might be expected,
what is so rapidly and easily constructed is with equal facility
thrown down. The. weight of superincumbent snow has just
brought six of them to the ground, fortunately without loss of
Efe. As with the houses so with everything else. That which
is considered the grand problem to solve is, to make the greatest
possible amount of money in the shortest possible time, and
when thE is practically solved, to go. ThE, independently of
other features, such as the almost total absence of domestic
influence, makes it exceedingly difficult to advance the cause of
the Church among the people of thE colony. We must for
some time, tEerefore, depend upon the pecuniary assEtance of
our friends in England for the prosecution of that great work,
the buEcEng up of Christ's Church in these colonies, which has
been so earnestly commenced. Many tiEngs are, doubtless, very
discouraging to those labourers in the Lord's vineyard who are
removed from the influences of settled society, not the least of
which is the constant flow of population. It is but seldom that
we can perceive anything like fruit to our labours. Occasion-
aEy, Eowever, an old acquaintance may be reeognised at the
service, and this E sufficient to strengthen our faith in the
promise, jj So shaE my word be that goeth forth out of my
mouth : it shaE not return unto me void, but it shaE accomplisE
that which I please, and it shaE prosper in the thing whereunto
I sent it.' " (Mission Field, vii. 115.)
A few more extracts wiE show the progress already made. In
one of his letters the Bishop says :—" We are, I feel thankful
to say, early and weE on the ground. By God's blessing we
may lay the foundation of our pure and holy religion with the
very first people, and estabEsE a lasting claim to love and
adherence by the promptitude and, we trust, the efficiency with
1 90
which the mother Church wiE have mEEstered to the spiritual
wants of this our youngest colony." The Archdeacon of
Columbia, the Rev. H. P. Wright, in December, 1863, thus
writes :—| The more I can grasp the state of things the more
do I feel the importance of a Bishop headEig nfissionary
labour in a new colony. Our dear friend Eas under God done
aEeady a great work. There is scarcely a single township
which has not its missionary, clergyman, and parsonage, and
attention is being turned to education. ... La Victoria there
are two crowded churches, with services conducted .as weE as
those of the best managed parishes at home; and in New
Westminster we are, thank God, equal to our brethren over the
water, as regards Church service, choE, and aE that is necessary
for decency and order." And in another letter the Archdeacon
bears the foEowing gratifyhig testimony to the rapidity with
which the diocese E becoming orgarozed under the able and
energetic administration of its Bishop :—" I am rejoiced to say
that God E blessing the Columbia Mission in a marked way.
The Church E dominant everywhere, and now its enemies are
compeEed to admit that she has been an immense support to
these young and growing colonies. Churches, schools, and
parsonages are rising in all (Erections, and our clergy, I am
happy to say, are, as a whole, a very superior body of men,
labouring zealously for their Master, who E largely blessing
theE work." JAMAICA.
work in America (concluded).
Hitherto our attention has been' exclusively fixed on those
cold and dreary countries of the north which offer so few attractions to the mere seeker of amusement or pleasure—where the
cEmate alone caEs for much patient endurance—and the landscape presents few beauties or varieties of scenery to divert the
mind, or raise the spEits, depressed and harassed by a long and
too often a seemingly unprofitable round of ministerial duties.
But the chief part of our colonial possessions lie in the sunny
regions of the south, amid the luxuriant vegetation of the tropics,
or in those beautiful islands, in which, as the Bishop of New
Zealand observes, | it is impossible to think of a residence as an
act of ministerial seE-sacrifice." To these attractive countries
we now turn, and we shaE perhaps see as we proceed that however great the variety of scenery or climate may be, the trials of
a missionary's lot—differing El land—are in aE equally severe,
and that if these be but encountered in a right spirit, the pecu-
Ear consolations and blessEigs attendant upon that lot, are
everywhere bestowed in equal abundance.
The Eland of Jamaica was discovered by Columbus in 1494,
and it was here, nine years afterwards, that he was subjected to *
the accumulated trials of shipwreck—the mutiny of hE crew—
and theE repeated but happEy unsuccessful attempts to assassinate hhn while confined to a bed of sickness.
The early hEtory of this island presents one long catalogue of
disasters and nEsfortunes. It was not formaEy occupied by the
Spaniards until the year 1509, after the death of Columbus; and
so barbarous was theE treatment of the Indians, by whom it
was then densely peopled, that by the year 1558 the whole
native population had entirely perished. Little however E
known of the internal history of Jamaica before the British conquest of it in the time of CromweE (1655). The first British
settlers were continuaEy dEturbed by the attacks of the Maroon
population (a large body of Spaniards, who with theE negroes
had taken refuge amongst the mountains); and it was not before
1795 that the last desperate struggle took place, when they were
removed by Government first to Nova Scotia, and subsequently
to Sierra Leone.
Jamaica became the head-quarters of the buccaneers or pEates
who infested those seas, and derived enormous wealth from the
plunder of the SpanEh colonies and of theE fleets laden with
the precious metals for Europe. In 1692 the town of Port
Royal into which the wealth of the buccaneers had been poured,
and on whose shores their crimes and wickedness had so proudly
triumphed, was suddenly destroyed by an awful earthquake, by
which 3,000 persons were instantly enguEed. Three thousand
more are said to have perished by a dreadful epidemic which
succeeded. In 1694 an invasion of the French did much
damage thoughout the island : and shortly afterwards Port
Royal, which had begun to rise again near its previous site, was
totally annihilated by the blowing up of some gunpowder. The
present capital of Kingston rose in prosperity as Port Royal
sunk under its repeated misfortunes. JAMAICA.
- For a considerable time after Jamaica came into the hands of the
EngEsh tEe Church appears to have made but slow progress there.
In 1664 seven parishes were estabEshed : at which time there
was only one church in the island, and five mEEsters, two of
whom were Swiss.
In 1675 we find fifteen parishes, six churches, and four
In the first Report of the Society (for the year 1704) mention
E made of a grant of 5?. to Jamaica, and the first mEsionary
sent by the Society to the West Indies was the Rev. Mr. Smith,
stationed in the Bahama Islands Ei 1732. From that time to
the year 1810 the Society continued to maintaEi missionaries on
those islands (which once formed a part of the diocese of Jamaica),
though the number at one time never exceeded five.
I In 1824 the Rev. Christopher Lipscombe was consecrated first
Bishop of Jamaica, and on his arrival found twenty-one parishes
with a rector and curate assigned to each, whose salaries were
provided by the island legislature.
The horrors and cruelties of the system of slavery so long
carried on in our West Indian colonies, are too weE known Ei
England to requEe a detaEed account here: and it would be
endless to relate the different insurrections which have disturbed
the peace of Jamaica, through the oppressions of this abominable
system. Suffice it to say, that no fewer than twenty-seven
distinct and very serious slave rebeEions are recorded between
the years 1678 and 1832. During thE last rebeEion of 1832,
200 slaves were kEled El the field, and about 500 executed : the
expense of putting it down (exclusive of the property destroyed
which was valued at 15,14,583?.) amounted to 161,596?.
But at length a period was put to this barbarous custom, so
utterly inconsistent with our profession as a Christian nation,
q,nd with the boasted enlightenment of the age Ei which we Eve.
i 94
The Emancipation Act came Eato operation in 1834, and converted the vast body of negroes, some at once into freemen, and
the rest into apprentices. Hitherto, although there was an
immense field of labour for the Society's nEssionaries among the
slave population, it had been quite inaccessible: for the education of the negro was carried forward in aE these colonies,.more
or less, under every disadvantage,—beEig the mere property of
his master, he was instructed, or not, in the blessed truths of
ChrEtianity, according to his arbitrary will and pleasure. Now,
however, a greatly increased desire for religious instruction was
manEested everywhere by the emancipated negroes, and the
Eland clergy were utterly unable to meet these growing demands.
For thE purpose a special sum was raEed, caEed the Negro
Education Fund, towards which the Society contributed at first
5,000?. and the Christian Knowledge Society 10,000?. Altogether
under thE head the Society had expended, up to the time of its
Jubilee in 1851, the sum of 172,000?.
The day originaEy fixed for the termination of apprenticeship,
was anticipated by the Enpatience of the EngEsh people, and
an Act of ParEament was passed which set the slave population
entirely free on the 1st of August, 1834^
How that first day of August, the day of emancipation, was
observed in these colonies we may learn from the BEhop of
Barbados :—| In one day—Ei one moment—was thE great
measure carried into execution. Eight hundred thousand
human beings lay down at night as slaves, and rose in the
morning as free as ourselves. It might have been expected
that, on such an occasion, there would have been some outbreak
of pubEc feeEng. I was present, but there was no gathering
that affected the pubEc peace. There was a gathering, but it
was a gathering of old and young together, in the house of the
common Father of aU.    It was" my peculiar happhiess, on that JAMAICA.
memorable day, to address a congregation of nearly 4,000
persons, of whom more than 3,000 were negroes, just emancipated. And such was the order, such the deep attention and
perfect sEence, that, to use a common expression, you might
have heard a pin drop. Among this mass of people, of aE
colours, were thousands of my African brethren, joining with
theE European brother, in offering up their prayers and thanksgivings to the Father, Redeemer, and Sanctifier of aE. To
prepare the minds of a mass of persons, so peculiarly situated,
for a change such as this, was a work requEEig the exercise of
great patience, and altogether of a most arduous nature. And
it was chiefly owing to the Society for the Propagation of the
Gospel that that day not only passed in peace, but was dE-
tinguished for the proper feeEng that prevailed, and its perfect
On the 4th April, 1843, Bishop Lipscombe died Ei Jamaica,
after nineteen years of labour in a tropical climate. Writing
only a few weeks before bis deatE on the state of hE diocese,
the Bishop says :—" The number of clergy has been Eicreased by
the ministers sent out by the Church Missionary Society, and
the appointments which I was enabled to make in consequence
of the Eberal grants made to this diocese by the Society for the
Propagation of the Gospel, to whose invaluable assistance, as
well Ei this respect as in the erection of churches and schools,
and the aid given to clergymen coming out from England,
thE diocese owes, under the divine blessEig, much of its
present prosperity. Early in 1840 the colonial legislature
doubled the number of EEmd curacies, and at the same time
Eicreased the stipends : this measure has been productive of the
greatest advantage. Since my first arrival in Jamaica twenty-
three churches have been consecrated, and ten others are nearly
completed." i
The Right Rev. Aubrey G. Spencer, who had been four years
Bishop of Newfoundland, was translated to the vacant see of
In 1846 after ten years of most important assistance to the
cause of reEgious education Ei the West Indies, the grants of
the Society for school purposes were graduaEy withdrawn.
In 1853 Bishop's CoEege was estabEshed for the training of
nEssionary and colonial clergymen: and for thE purpose the
Bishop voluntarily surrendered his own residence for the term
of hE incumbency of the see, and removed to a smaE cottage
in the vicEiity.
In the course of his last Visitation in 1854, the Bishop relates that he has "seen aE but one of 112 clergymen employed
in, 104 churches in the diocese, has confirmed 8,376 persons,
consecrated twelve churches' and burial-grounds, held three ordinations, and preached between seventy and eighty sermons, .
besides addressEig the congregations and candidates for confirmation on several occasions, and examining the pupEs El many
of the schools."
After upwards of thEty years' labour in two widely different
dioceses of the Colonial Church, Bishop Spencer felt hEnseE
constrained by the state of his health to withdraw from the
active admimstration of his see, and a coadjutor, the Right Rev.
Reginald Courtenay, was consecrated Bishop of KEigston, on
the 24th of March, 1856.
In 1850 the Society granted aEowances of 50?. annuaEy, for
each of the Missions of Manchioneal, Porus, and Bluefields, to
enable the BEhop to ckim. the assEtance offered by the Government, and to resume the services of the Church in these En-
portant places.
In 1861, at the earnest request of the Bishop, the Society
promEed an annual grant of 200?. towards the maintenance of JAMAICA.
two missionaries in the northern part of British Honduras, for
a native population of from 55,000 to 60,000.
With these exceptions the work of the Society in the West
Indies has been graduaEy diminishing since the emancipation
of the negroes, the dioceses having become settled Churches
with theE regular organization, dependent for theE support
on the EberaEty of the Colonial Government, and other local
In 1861 the Bahama Islands were separated from the diocese
of Jamaica, and formed into a distinct diocese, which takes
its name from Nassau, the capital city of the island of New
The diocese of Jamaica contains an area of 74,734 square
mEes, and a population of 450,000. A smaE territory on the
mainland of America, called British Honduras or BalEe, is included in this diocese.
Jamaica E subdivided Eito four Archdeaconries, and the
number of clergy has now Eicreased to 101, of whom seven
are missionaries of the Society, which in 1863 expended 400?.
Ei this diocese. There is a very extensive National School
estabEshment, numbering m 1838 as many as 16,224 pupils,
and a Diocesan Church Society has also been formed, which
greatly promotes the spiritual weEare of this diocese. There
are eighty-eight churches, and it is stated that out of the
135,000 members of our Church, 25,000 are communicants.
In 1863 and 1864 the reports from this diocese speak of
adverse seasons and faEure of crops, causing much distress and
sickness and a great mortaEty, with a feeEng of general discouragement and depression ; in consequence of which the usual
offerings for Church or charitable purposes had almost failed,
and coEections had to be postponed. But even under circumstances so  adverse, evidences of zeal and EberaEty were not
\ 98
wanting; the mission of Keynsham, besides raEing large sums
for local purposes, sent the Jamaica Home and Foreign Missionary Society no less than 127?. 10s. for the Pongas MEsion,
and from another mission, that of Bluefields, is reported a collection of above 9?. for the reEef of the distressed operatives in
Thus it E evident that the Church is making gradual progress
throughout the diocese, and it E hoped that the zeal and abEity
of its members wiE, through God's blessing, be so Eicreased as
to render them ere long independent of even the limited assEt-
ance which the Society now affords.
It has been aEeady mentioned that the Bahama, Turks, and
Caicos Islands were in 1861 divided from the see of Jamaica,
and formed into the separate diocese of Nassau. The Ven.
Archdeacon CaulfeEd was consecrated first Bishop on the 7th
of November, in that year, but after an interval of only a few
months, the sad tEEngs of his death, from an attack of yeUow
fever, reached England.
Some time elapsed before his successor was appointed, but
at length the Right Rev. A. R. P. Venables was consecrated at
Lambeth on the 30th of November, 1863.
In the account of Jamaica it has been stated that the first
missionary ever sent to the West Indies by the Society (the
Rev. Mr. Smith) was stationed at the Bahama Islands in 1732 ;
and from that time the Society has continued to maintaEi missionaries on these islands, though the number has never at any
time exceeded five.
The diocese of Nassau consiste of the Bahamas, Turks, and
Caicos Islands.   They are computed to be about 500 in number, ■NASSAU.
and form a chain or group of coral reefs, about 600 miles in
length, extending from the north-east portion of Cuba to the
coast of Florida. Many of these islands are very smaE, mere
uninhabited rocks and shoals ; but there are twelve of considerable sEe, over which, with many of the smaEer, the population
is spread. There E a vast extent of sea-coast, as several of the
large and most thickly inhabited are of a peculiar formation,
consisting of a ridge of hEls running through the length of the
island, El some Eistances one Eundred miles, while the average
breadth does not exceed three. The great Bahama Bank is a
vast shoal, and runs for 400 miles parallel with the coast of
Florida, from thence extending along a portion of the north
coast of Cuba, and separated from Florida by the channel
through which the GuE Stream passes into the Atlantic. From
the Bimini islands, the most western of the Bahama group, the
width of this channel is not more than forty miles. All vessels
bound to the GuE of Mexico, or the northern part of Cuba,
must pass this dangerous bank, either by the north route between the Bahamas and Florida, or the south route, between
the islands and the coast of Cuba. In both cases the navigation
E intricate and dangerous, and numbers of vessels are annually
lost on the great bank. -
The chief town is Nassau, situated on the north shore of the
Eland of New Providence, which derives its Enportance from
the safety and exceEence of its harbour, and it has always
been, both under the Spanish and EngEsh, the seat of government. The climate is very fine, and during the winter months
is unsurpassed by any in the world for its salubrity, the very
breathing of the clear, pure aE bemg a source of enjoyment.
The island has latterly become the resort of numbers of invalids
from America, who find its mild and equable temperature during
the winter months most beneficial to all diseases of the lungs
H 2
I '«
and throat. When the benefit of this climate E sought in tune,
before the terrible dEease of consumption has made too great
a progress, a certain and speedy recovery may in aE cases be
The whole of the original population of these islands, represented as very numerous when discovered by Columbus, has
totally disappeared, aE having perished under the Spanish rule,
and it is .now succeeded by Europeans and the white descendants of former settlers, with the negroes, consisting of the
emancipated slaves, their chEdren, and grandchEdren, and the
Africans Eberated from slave ships. The total number is estimated at 38,700.
The diocese E now divided into fifteen parishes, many of
them of great extent, and requiring continual and arduous labour
on the part of the clergyman to discharge even the ordinary
duties of his office, the population being scattered along the
shore, often in separate islands, with wide and dangerous chan-
neE between them. The Eland of New Providence contains
three parishes, with sEc churches, four being in the chief parish,
but in all the other islands (with the exception of Turks and
Salt Bay, the parishes of St. Thomas, and St. George), the
number of clergy is altogether inadequate to the work. There
are five missionaries in tEis diocese, Ei connexion with the
Society, and only two of these are in charge of single parishes
—one (the incumbent of St. Patrick's, island of Eleuthera) whose
parish is over eighty mEes Ei length, and contaEis three churches
and a school-house, in which divuie service is celebrated; the
other (the incumbent of St. Stephen and St. Peter), whose
parish of St. PEEip Magna, consists of an Eland of forty mEes
by twenty, with two considerable outlyEig islands, one ninety
mEes from the residence of the missionary. Another missionary
of the Society has three of the largest Elands under his charge; NASSAU.
one, Andros, 120 mEes in length, and in some places forty in
breadth; another, Abaco, eighty miles long, and the Grand
Bahama, sEd;y miles, each of them from eight to fifteen miles
Ei breadth; and two important groups of small islands, the
Berry and Bimini Islands ; and in these parishes there are
seven churches. The incumbent of St. Christopher, St. David,
and San Salvador, has three churches and two school-houses
open for divine service, and in these parishes there are six
large and important islands, extending nearly 200 mEes from
north to south, and having forty-one stations to be visited by
the missfonary; and there are large districts in thE charge
totaEy destitute of the means of grace. The fifth missionary
of the Society, the Eicumbent of St. Paul's and St. Andrew's,
has two large Elands with several smaEer, many very difficult
to visit; and tEe charge of either of these parishes would afford
ample occupation to any clergyman. One of them, that of St.
Andrew's, consists of Great and Little Exuma, with numerous
smaE Elands, contaEEng above 1,800 souls, and some of the
leading Eihabitants proposed to build a church if a clergyman
could be provided for them. They are comparatively poor; the
salt ponds on Little Exuma, once the source of considerable
wealth, having been abandoned by the company that worked
them, so that the proposal to build a church shows much
anxiety for spEitual Eistruction. The important parish of St.
John, Henbar Island, is situated on the north portion of the
Eland of Eleuthera, and contains four churches; but this is
not the residence of a nnssionary of the Society. The group
of the Turks and Caicos Islands consists at present of two
parishes, but provision has been made for the separation of the
Caicos Islands from St. George, and it E hoped that a clergyman may soon be appointed to this extensive group, containing
a scattered and fluctuating population.    It is of very great im-
l' 102
portance to the cause of true religion, that the number of the
clergy should be increased. The people are wEling to receive
instruction in divine things, and it wEl easily be perceived from
the extent of the parishes placed under the charge of indi-
viduaE, that a very large proportion of the people must for
very long periods be left destitute of the ordinary means of grace.
The Wesleyan Methodists form a large and influential body Ei
the north islands, and possess several chapels. The Baptists also
possess several chapeE through the different Elands, but the
generality of theE teachers have been very imperfectly educated.
The social and religious state of these Elands deserves the
attention and prayerful regard of the Church at home. In consequence of the Act of Emancipation the value of aE landed
property was greatly dimEdshed, and El many cases estates once
highly cultivated have been abandoned and are now overgrown
with forest, and the possessors, formerly men of wealth and
influence, reduced to poverty. The exports of sugar, cotton, &c.
have ceased, and the people are not able (even when willing) to
assist Ei supporting among them ministers of the Church. They
are now in a transition state passing from former slavery to (it is
to be hoped) a future of industry and prosperity. The success of
the measure of emancipation was greatly retarded by the admE-
sion into England of slave-grown sugar on the same terms as that
produced by free labour. The slave-owner can command labour,
whereas he who must hue labourers, finds El some localities an,
absolute impossibility of obtauung hands to perform the labour
requEed. Experience has shown that it was a vain expectation
to suppose that the emancipated negro, who had been compelled
by force to accomplEh daily his stated task, would prove an
active and laborious servant when the compelEng power was
removed, or that he would voluntarily labour more than was
necessary for his comfort and sustenance, and E not afforded NASSAU.
education and religious instruction, the day must be far distant
when the emancipated negroes and theE children can become as
industrious and hard-working as the peasant at home. Indeed
without instruction this can never be reasonably expected. That
emancipation was a great boon, and attended with unspeakable
blessings to aE the negro population, is a fact that admits of no
question. The condition of the free negro with that of the slave
cannot for a moment bear comparison. This diocese affords an
example of thE. We have there a people, once slaves, now
forming a peaceable and orderly community, anxious to receive
both reEgious and secular Eistruction, among whom crime in
any high degree E rare, and among whom poverty is ahnost unknown.1
A clear idea of the difficulty of a clergyman's work here is
conveyed in the foEowEig report of one of the missionaries of the
Society:—" The character of the work here is a peculiar one.
Broken up into Ettle islands as the Bahama group is, with wide
passages between, through which the great Atlantic rolls, with
very poor communications from island to Eland, with a widely
scattered population, and with few labourers, clerical or lay, in
the vineyard, it is no Ettle dEficulty to itinerate among them :
with an extensive district but few visits can be made annuaEy,
and these so far between, that the missionary work seems, at
times, to be lost labour. Our visits from one island to another,
and from one- station to another, preaching and baptizing the
children, is somethmg like a shepherd setting hE mark upon his
sheep and then letting them go hi the wEderness. Yet, notwithstanding the dElculties attending the work, I beEeve that
some good E beEig done."
1 This interesting account of the Diocese of Nassau is taken from the
Mission Field, vol. vii. p. 28. 104
Barbados is the most ancient of aE the British colonies, the
crew of an EngEsh ship having taken possession of it in the
year 1605, in the name of James I. By him it was granted to
Lord Ley, who sent out a body of settlers in 1625 ; but El 1627
the Earl of Carlisle obtained from Charles I. a grant of aE the
Caribbee Islands, including Barbados, which proved a fruitful
source of dissension and misery to this Eland for many years.
From 1641 to 1650, Philip Bell, a person of great zeal, uprightness and wisdom, was governor. In his time the Eland was
divided into eleven parishes, and a church and clergyman provided for each In the unhappy reign of Charles I. many of the
royalists took refuge here, and amassed large fortunes; but it
was afterwards selected by CromweE as a place of punishment
for his Irish and EngEsh captives, who were sold for slaves. At
this time the state of reEgion Ei Barbados was very deplorable,
and the slaves were treated with great cruelty.
The connexion of the Society with Barbados commenced in
1710, when it became trustee, under the wiE of General Cod-
rington, for two estates in this Eland bequeathed by EEn for the
purpose of "maintaEEng professors and scholars" with the ultimate view of "doing good to men's souls." In discharge of this
trust the Rev. Joseph Holt was sent out as chaplaui and catechist
El 1712. A college was buEt and opened (at first as a grammar-
school) in 1743. Being nearly destroyed by a hurricane in 1780,
its operation was suspended for nine years. Indeed at this time
there was extreme danger of the property beuig utterly ruined
and the trust becoming bankrupt. By the judicious management
of Mr. Braithwaite, a settler on the island, who rented the
estates, and most EberaEy devoted the whole of the profits to the i  sssrr^m
restoration of the property, the affaus of Codrington College (of
which he may justly be regarded as the second founder) were
again placed in a situation not only of security, but of greatly
Eicreased efficiency.    The College having been rebuilt, was used
as a grammar school for many years.
But at length it was
determined, as the increased funds aEowed it, to make it a place
of higher education. Accordingly, in 1830, having been much
enlarged, it was opened for the reception of students of a more
advanced age, with scholarships and exhibitions which are free
without restriction to the youth of aE the islands. Since that
event more than a hundred of its students have been ordained
El the West Indian Church. Besides the CoEege which contains
twenty students, there is a seE-supporting grammar school with
fifty-nuie pupEs, and primary schools in which 600 chEdren of
the labourers on the estate are receiving education.
On the 25th July, 1824, the Rev. W. H. Coleridge was consecrated BEhop of Barbados, and on his arrival in his diocese
was received by the coloured population with expressions of
passionate rejoicing.
In 1831, the Society granted 2,000?. towards the restoration
of the churches which had been thrown down or injured by the
fearful hurricane which had visited these islands.
For some years previously to the general emancipation of
1834, and witEout any reference to the measures of Government,
the attention of the Society was Erected to the gradual preparation of the negroes for enfranchisement on the Codrington estate.,
Allotments of land were given to the most deserving of them,
on condition that they should provide for themselves and families
out of the produce of the aEotment, and labour on the estate
during four days in each week, by way of rent for the land.
This was in fact an anticipation of the system of apprenticeship
subsequently adopted by the Government; but the terms were
1 *
more favourable to the negroes than those which were settled by
In 1842, after eighteen years of unwearied devotion to his
episcopal duties, Bishop Coleridge found his health seriously
failing, and resigned his arduous charge. HE activity may be
judged of from the fact that during his epEcopacy, in the suigle
-Archdeaconry of Barbados, the number of clergy had increased
from twenty-four to fifty; of churches and chapels, from twenty-
two to eighty-one; of schools, from twelve to 196; and of
scholars, from 500 to upwards of 13,000. Friendly societies
had been formed to the number of fifty-seven, consEting of more
than 7,500 members ; while other religious and charitable institutions had either been caEed into beuig, or multipEed under
his care.
It was also by the advice of Bishop Coleridge that his huge
diocese was broken up into three, and he had the satisfaction of
himseE assisting in the consecration of hE three Archdeacons,
Thomas Parry for Barbados, Daniel Gateward Davis for Antigua,
and WEEam Piercy Austin for Guiana, on the 14th August,
The nussionary spuit of this diocese, encouraged and supported
by the fostering care of the Society, has exerted itseE Ei a
deeply interesting work, namely, sending a mEsion dEect from
the West Indian islands to the western coast of Africa. Barbados
is the most easterly of aE these islands, and the noble Eistitution
of Codrington CoEege E placed upon the most easterly side of
the island. The eye, therefore, looks from it far away over the
waves of the Atlantic, towards the shore of Africa, so many of
whose sons and theE descendants are now inhabitants of these
western isles. It seems to be the spot then from which should
first be heard, as it were, the cry of their distant brethren,
I Come over and help us," from which aEo that cry should be
answered, and a band of labourers go forth, under whose agency,
with the blessing of Almighty God "the Morians' land shall
soon" we trust "stretch out her hands unto God." In the
words of the Rev. R. Rawle, the principal of Codrington CoEege,
to whose Christian earnestness and ability this movement has
under God, been so greatly indebted : " We wEh to leaven the
West Indian dioceses with missionary feeEng. We wish to make
it a part of every one's religion—Ei a population derived mainly
from Africa, and when not so derived, deeply indebted to Africa,
by wrongs inflicted and benefits obtained—to help in Africa's
conversion. A great reaction is to be stirred up, opposite in
(Erection as El character to the traffic by which these colonies
were peopled, sending back to Africa as missionaries the descendants of those who were brought over here as slaves."
I The plan proposed is to form a weE-chosen and large mission,
with a variety of trades and handicrafts in it—effective schoolmasters, medical practitioners, mercantile clerks, carpenters, joiners,
blacksmiths, and other mechanics, every one of them qualified
to take his part in communicating both religious and industrial
habits to the natives. The whole to be under the superintendence of able white clergy, the 'rank and file' being negroes, the
officers Europeans."
In pursuance of this plan, on the 16th of June, 1851, the
day of the Society's jubEee, the " West Indian Church Society
for the Furtherance of the Gospel in Western Africa" was
founded in Barbados. England, too, assisted in this great
work. Out of the JubEee Fund the Society set apart 1,000?.
Ei aid of the mission, and made a further grant of 100?. per
annum for five years towards the training of students especially
for this purpose. In 1852, aEo, the students (present and
former) of WeEs Theological CoEege, desuuig to show theE
sense of the benefits which they have enjoyed from the instruc- \>m
;itkM i
! k  !
tion and pastoral superintendence of the Principal, the Rev. J.
H. PEider (formerly for many years Chaplain and Principal of
Codrington CoEege), subscribed more than 100?. yearly, for a
certain number of years, in order to provide for a time, and in
part to endow permanently two scholarships, bearing Mr.
Finder's name, of the value of 50?. each, in the African department of Codrington College. A mission Eouse was accordingly
opened, and in 1855 the first missionary, the Rev. H. J. Leacock,
went out to Western Africa, under the epEcopal superintendence
of the Bishop of Sierra Leone, and accompanied by Mr. J. H. A
Duporte, a young man of African extraction, from this house.
The district Ei which they ultimately determined to settle
themselves was the Pongas country, about 180 miles to the
north of Sierra Leone, and the subsequent history of this noble
undertaking with all its vicissitudes, and aU the encouragements
which have been from time to time vouchsafed to it, wiE best
be told Ei the account of the progress of the Church in Africa.
The Windward Islands (so called as lyuig Ei the eye of the
trade-winds) now constitute the entire diocese of Barbados.
The chief of these besides Barbados, are Trinidad, Grenada,
St. Vincent, St. Lucia, and Tobago : and though only comprising an area of 3,170 square mEes altogether, they contain a
population of 321,000. The total number of clergy E eighty-
eight, of whom four, are nEssionaries of the Society.
The number of churches and chapels is 100. Nearly the
whole, population of St. Lucia, and two-thEds of that of Grenada,
consists of French Roman CathoEcs. In Trinidad also the
majority of the population is Romanist, but there are more
than 22,000 heathen immigrants from Africa, China, and India,
who are brought over to labour in the cane-fields. To meet the
spEitual wants of these thousands of heathen immigrants, the
BEhop has estabEshed a Trinidad Missionary Association, and BARBADOS.
the Society to show its sympathy andgoodwEl in 1862 promised
an annual grant of 100?. to its funds.
With the exception of this grant the Society can no longer
claim any duect share in the work of the Church in Barbados,
with which it E now connected, mainly as trustee of the estates
of Codrington College; but it may not unreasonably connect
whatever of growth and progress now appears, with its exertions
in behaE of the population of the West Indies in years gone by.
And of the general labours of the Society, and the effects they
have aheady produced in this as weE as the other West Indian
dioceses, some idea may be formed from the foEowEig observations of the present Bishop :—" So far as the West Indian
Church is concerned, it would be almost impossible to overrate
the value of the assistance received from this exceEent Society,
either as to its amount, or as to the spEit El which it has been
given, suice the time, at which it came forward, on the abolition
of slavery Ei 1834, to assist us El providing churches, schools,
and clergy in number sufficient for the newly emancipated
population, aheady under partial Eistruction, but then needing
more than ever the guiding, and correcting, and ameEorating
Eifluences of true religion. The actual sum expended by the
Society El these objects, during the period aEuded to, was considerable—more than 150,000?. and as regards my own diocese
in particular, I might enlarge on many interesting particulars
connected with the EberaEty, yet prudent economy also, of the
Society's grants—their freedom from party influence in the
selection of Eidividuals for their missionaries, their consistent
regard to the constitution of our Church, as reformed yet
apostolic, and the entire absence of aE assumption to themselves
of ecclesiastical jurisdiction, so as not to embarrass the Churches
abroad, but to strengthen them for their arduous work.    This I
might do
but, even then, I should not give you any adequate
fl if 1 s
idea of the Society's usefulness, E I did not advert to the effect
produced, by the course which it has universaEy adopted, of so
aivins its assEtance in connexion with local efforts, as to call
forth by its aid—munificent as that aid has been—an expenditure by the colonists, both of money, and interest, and exertion,
exceeding, for the most part, in a manEold degree, that of the
Society itself. Thus it has given 200?. towards a church, which
has cost 2,000?., yet which, but for the Society's donation, would
never have been attempted: or by the partial support of a
niEsionary for a few years, it has led to the permanent endowment of a parish—and that, not in one case, but El many : so
that, El some of the West Indian Elands, we are beginnEig no
longer to requEe the Society's aid, but, Eistead, thankfully to
contribute our mite towards the extension, to less favoured
lands, of the same blessings of which we ourselves have, through
the Society's bounty, been made so largely to partake."
Like most of the other *West Indian Islands, Antigua was
discovered by Columbus; but the first settlement on it was
made by a few English families Ei 1632. In 1662 it was granted
to Lord WEloughby, and very soon after was attacked and
ravaged by a French force. Bemg restored to England by the
Treaty of Breda, it was again settled by Colonel Codrington
(father of General Christopher Codrington) and became the
residence of himseE and aE succeeding governors of the Leeward
In 1681 Antigua was divided into five parishes; a church
was erected in each, and provision made for theE support by
the Legislature. ANTIGUA.
'In the first Report of the Society (for 1704) mention E made
of a grant of 20?. to the clergy of this island.
To the honour of the people of Antigua, it should be recorded
that after having been long distinguished for theE endeavours
to mitigate the horrors of slavery, and to extend the blessuigs
of religion among theE coloured dependents, they were the first
to pass an Act for the emancipation of the slaves, six months
before the Emancipation Act was passed in England, and without any of the provisions of the British Act of Parliament for
a previous season of apprenticeship.
Antigua was included in the Bishopric of Barbados on its
first erection in 1824. But on the resignation of Bishop
Coleridge, in 1842, the Leeward and VEgEi Isles were formed
into a separate diocese and the Rev. D. G. DavE, who had for some
time been Archdeacon, was then consecrated Bishop of Antigua.
In 1843, the islands of Antigua, Montserrat, and Nevis, were
visited by a terrific earthquake, by which the cathedral and
almost aE the churches and chapels were either wholly thrown
down, or rendered unfit for use. These severe losses were by
degrees repaued, and a new cathedral was consecrated in 1848 :
almost immediately after which several churches in Antigua and
St. Christopher's were thrown down and much damaged by a
hurricane, the cathedral fortunately escaping.
Writing at the close of 1849, the Bishop observes,—11 regret
to say the sad depression of agricultural and commercial Eiterests
Ei these colonies, acts detrimentaEy Ei various ways, in the
restoration of ecclesiastical buEdEigs, and in the support of our
schooE,—to the cause of religion and the Church. But we strive
to do our best under aE cEcumstances."
In 1857, the diocese was deprived of its venerable and beloved
BEhop, who died in England on the 25th of October, hi his
seventieth year.  .
I /J
He was succeeded by the Right Rev. Stephen J. Rigaud, who
after a brief Episcopate (which was yet long enough to endear
him greatly to the people) fell a victim to yeEow fever after six
days' ilhiess, and died May 16th, 1859.
On Ascension Day, 1860, the Rev. W. W. Jackson, D.D.
formerly a student of Codrington CoEege and Chaplain to the
Bishop of Barbados, was consecrated BEhop of Antigua.
In 1861, in consequence of the urgent representations of the
Bishop of the large amount of spuitual need in the islands of
VEgEi Gorda, AnguEla, and Montserrat, the Society promised
grants to the amount of 225?. towards the maintenance of missionaries there. And in this same year a Church Society was
formed to caE forth local efforts in this diocese.
The diocese of Antigua is perhaps the smallest in extent of
aE our colonial dioceses, as it contauis only 751 square mEes;
but the population E large, amounting to 112,520 persons. The
Leeward Isles under British government, besides Antigua, are
Dominica, Barbuda, Montserrat, Nevis, St. ^Christopher's, and
AnguEla. Many of the West Indian islands are very beautiful,
though, of course, varying much both in the character of theE
beauty, and the healthiness of theE climate.
Antigua abounds with green pastures and grassy downs, and
the houses of the planters embosomed in trees Eave more the
appearance of country mansions in England, than almost any
others hi the West Indies. There E however a great deficiency
of fresh water in this island, which does not contain a single
river. St. John's, the capital, contains the beautiful new cathedral, which was buEt at a cost of 35,000?. to the Eihabitants.
Donunica is very rugged and mountainous, but it is well watered,
and especially famous for its coffee. Of its 20,000 inhabitants,
only 700 belong to the Church of England; some 16,000 are
reaEy or nominally Roman CathoEcs,  there are also many ANTIGUA.
Wesleyans ; the preponderance of Roman Catholics is to be accounted for from this having been so long a FrencE island—it
was only ceded by France to England in 1763. Some twenty
years ago the aboriginal Caribs numbered about 2,000 in this
island, now they do not exceed 400. They live in villages of
theE own Ei the Eiterior of the country and consequently among
the hiEs; the occupation of the men is stiE the chase, as of old,
and they are but Ettle given to agricultural pursuits. Nature
provides them with abundance of food, so there they Eve up Ei
the hiEs over which theE forefathers once reigned a free and
manly race—sadly degraded savages. It Is a miserable tiring to
think of a whole people passuig away from the face of the earth,
as these will do in a generation or two, unless something can be
done to redeem them in temporal matters. And what affords
so good a hope as making known to them the great offers of
spuitual redemption? Barbuda E the only one of the West
Indian islands which has a proprietary government, being the
exclusive property of the Codrington family, and held by them
under the Crown of England. It is fertile and healthy, and the
air so pure and mild that EivaEds from other islands resort to it
for the benefit of theE health. Montserrat, called from its deEcious
clEnate the MontpelEer of the West, E very mountainous, but
the mountains are richly clothed to the very summit with lofty
woods and profuse tropical vegetation. Nevis is mountainous,
but highly cultivated, and enlivened with many old planters'
houses of superior style, and churches peeping out in the most
picturesque situations imagmable, while a complete forest of
evergreen trees grows Eke a ruff round the neck of the high
land where cultivation ceases. Columbus E said to have been
so deEgEted with the beauty of St.. Christopher's (or St. Kitt's as
it is commonly caEed) that he gave it his own name. AnguEla
derives its name from its long twEted snake-Eke form.    It E a 114
poor miserable island,.with a sandy, unproductive soE, and in
the centre of it E a large salt lake yielding annuaEy 3,000,000
busheE of salt.    The cEmate however E very healthy.1
The VEgm Islands are a group of about a hundred Elands,
islets, and rocks, of which only about twenty-five are inhabited.
Those Ei the possession of Great Britain are about fifty in number,
but most of them are smaE, comprising El aE a surface of about
ninety square mEes—less than haE the size of RutlandshEe.
The islands of St. Croix and St. Thomas belong now to Denmark,
but the king has placed the EngEsh Church in these Elands
under the care of the BEhop of Antigua.
There are only thirty clergymen in this diocese, two of these
being missionaries of the Society. This appears a smaE number
for so large a population, but these islands have suffered a great
deal from the natural visitations of earthquakes and hurricanes,
and also from the same outward attacks and internal dEturb-
ances to which aE the West Indian Islands have, more or less,
been subjected, and which have been aEeady described in the
accounts of Jamaica and Barbados.
And writing El 1862, the Bishop describes the colony as
having " recently suffered much distress, both commercial and
agricultural—the former consequent principally on the blockade of the southern states of America, with which so much of
the trade of the islands was carried on; the latter on the low
prices to which West India produce has for some time been
But there seems reason to hope that the people of Antigua
•are exerting themselves actively and successfully El the cause
of religion.    Of theE past exertions we may find a pleasing
proof in the foEowing interesting (and instructive) account of
'■ Six Months in the "West Indies."   By H. N. Coleridge, Esq. GUIANA.
the buEding of All Saints' Church in the Danish island of St.
« Self-denying and unfaEihg were the efforts made, for a considerable period, to raise means for its erection. In 1847 the
congregation united in laying by each a sum, not less than a
halfpenny, and not exceeding a shilling, a week. In this way,
in a years fame, about 450?. was collected. A general appeal
was then made throughout the island,' which brought about
1,000?. more. With this, added to the former sum, the building
was commenced, and the foEowuig is the account, given by an
eyewitness, of the progress and completion of the good work.
One oi our vestrymen, a gentleman of taste, undertook the superintendence of the buHding, and gave very material assistance
throughout its progress. The stone was furnished at a cheap
rate by another gentleman, who was happEv buEcEng near us at
the time. It was brought down from the quarry, upon the heads
and shoulders of our own people, who to the number of three or
four hundred worked during the moonlight of the fine months.
The masons and carpenters gave up, as a donation, a certain
proportion of their weekly wages, while the women added their
mite in carrying stone and mortar. The planters also from the
country sent in gratuitously whatever stock was necessary for
the purposes of carting. On November 21st, 1848, the church
was finished, and set apart to the service of God by the Bishop
of Antigua.'"
Guiana is the name given to the north-east part of South
America, extending for nearly 1,000 miles between the mouths'
of the Orinoco and Amazon, being formed, in fact, by the deltas
of these two mighty rivers.
I 2
J It
ThE country was dEcovered towards the end of the fifteenth
century by the SpanEh adventurer, Vincent Pinzon ; but it
was first colonized by the Dutch in 1590. About the same
tune several unsuccessful attempts were made by EngEsh adventurers to settle a colony in Guiana. In 1617 SE Walter
Raleigh made a last expedition hither, but his enterprise was
baffled at every point, his son was slain, and he himseK worn
down with pain and sickness. He returned to his prison in
England, and thence, under the sentence passed so many years
before, he was led to the scaffold.
In 1633 the French took possession of that part now caEed
Cayenne or French Guiana, In 1634 a colony of EngEsE
settled on the banks of the Berbice, and in Surinam or Dutch
Guiana: but in 1664 these settlements were surrendered to the
Dutch, and remained in theE hands tiE the late war, when they
were recaptured by the EngEsh, and the present boundaries were
fixed by the Treaty of Paris -in 1814. In 1831 the three distinct colonies of Demerara, Essequibo, and Berbice, into which
the British territory had b