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British Columbia. Further papers relative to the affairs of British Columbia. Part IV. Copies of despatches… 1862

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Copies of Despatches from the Governor of British Columbia to the Secretary 
of State for the Colonies, and from the Secretary of State to the 
Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of Her Majesty, 
March 1862. 
23 April 1860 (No. 42.)
23 May 1860(Separate.)
i31Mayl860 (Separate.)
correspondence between the Rev. Edw. Cridge and Mr. Wm
Duncan relative to the foundation of a Missionary Settlemen
for Indian Converts, and proposing the reservation of severa
hundred acres of land to enable Mr. Duncan to carry this objec
into effect        .-.-..
Water and road communication. Proposed road from Yale to
Lytton.    State of Mining Districts.    Influx of Chinese
GENERAL REPORT   ON  THE CITY OF NEW WESTMINSTER.    The inhabitants desire the incorporation of tl
town, the right of taxing themselves, and applying the procee
to grading the streets, and to the general improvement of tne i
town.    Observations on the Land system  - . - !
Visit to Pitt Lake. Growing attachment of the alien population
to the institutions of the country. Map illustrating route enclosed ......
Return exhibiting the average number of miners employed on
the several bars  of the Hope  District,  with   their   average
:e.)   GENERAL REPORT ON YALE.    States that he had conferred
with the inhabitants, with a view to the improvement of
trail leading from Yale to Lytton, with the object of reducing the
4. Aug. 1860 (No. 72.) FREE GRANTS OF LAND TO THE CLERGY, relative
to. Requests authority to substitute a money equivalent out of
the Colonial Revenue, or to make some other provision for th
support of the clergy of the English, Roman, Presbyterian, an
Methodist churches       - - Bm
4 Aug. 1860 (No.
SILVER AT UNION BAR NEAR FORT HOPE. Appointment of Mr. Kind as Assistant Gold Commissioner
8 Oct. 1860 (No. 86.)
reported.   Peace and order existed throughout the Colony.  Ap-
,    pointinent of Gold Commissioner at Rock Creek 9 Oct. 1860 (Separate.)
25 Oct.1860 (Separate.)
9 Nov. 1860 (No. 95.)
28 Nov. 1860 (No. 100.)
26 Jan. 1861 (No. 7.)
2 May 1861 (No. 33.)
4June 1861 (Separate.)
16 July 1861 (Separate.)
11 Sept. 1861 (No. 55.)
!4 Oct. 1861 (Separate
14 Not. 1861 (No. 6"
30 Nov. 1861 (No. 74.)
Elucidating the present state of the country, its natural capabilities, and the effect of its institutions on the development of
its resources.    Encloses report  of	
train by the Snake Indians
CHARACTER, enclosed. The -whole region he beli
be metalliferous, and the greater portion argentiferous. Map of
geological sections enclosed
DECEMBER 1860, transmitted. Revenue, 53,011/. 10s. Id.
Expenditure, 44,124/. 10s. 3d. ....
Encloses prices of provisions at Hope, Shimilkomeen District,
Yale, and Roek Creek respectively
ANTLER CREEK reported. Also transmitting Reports by
Mr. Cox of Messrs. Beam & Co.'s tour to the Okanagan Lake,
and Mr. Nind's report of the discoveries at Antler Creek, wi
sketch of the new Gold Field
1     OF THE COLONY.   Transmits accounts of the extraordi
[    yield of gold in the Cariboo District
CURRENCY.    Reporting the want of a circulating medium,
stating the means he had adopted for the issue of gold pi
19 May 1860 (No. 26.)
25 May 1860 (No. 27.)
!6 June 1860 (No. 36.)
19 July 1860 (No. 42.)
States reasons for not sanctioning the grants of land proposed
in Governor's Despatch, No. 24, of 17th Feb.  -
reservation of land in the neighbourhood of Fort Simpson for
the formation of a settlement for Indian Converts to Christianity
Acknowledging Governor's Despatch, No. 42,' of 23rd April     - Date
26 Oct. 1860 (No. 56.)
1 Feb. 1861 (No. 66.)
13 April 1861 (No. 74.)
9 May 1861 (No. 77.)
pecuniary assistance to the Clergy from Colonial funds on cer
specified stipulations ....
Acknowledging with satisfaction the Governor's Despatches o:
the 9th and 25th October, and 9th November, exhibiting the
agricultural and mineral resources of the country
DECEMBER 1860. Acknowledging -with satisfaction
Governor's Despatch No. 7, transmitting a statement of Revenue
and Expenditure       -
Despatches from the Governor.
Copy of DESPATCH from Governor Douglas, C.B., to his Grace the Duke of        Colombia.
Newcastle. jq-0> j
(No. 24.) Victoria, Vancouver Island, February 17, I860.
(Received April 12, I860.)
MY LORD DUKE, (Answered, No. 26, May 19, 1860, page 66.)
In my Despatch, No. 224,* of the 18th October last, reporting to your Grace * VidePa-
on the state of British Columbia, I took occasion, while adverting to the existing means pers pre-
of moral and religious instruction in the Colony, to inform your Grace that Divine VS1^m
Service was regularly held in the several towns of Lower British Columbia by resident part'Hx
clergymen, and that the almost total absence of crime went far to show how usefully and page 65.'
extensively the influence of their teaching is felt.
2. It did not, however, occur to me to inform your Grace at the same time that I
had, on the part of this Government, done everything in my power to promote the good
cause, by encouraging the residence of an ordained and educated clergy in British
3. Having no authority to apply any part of the public revenue to the aid and
support of churches, there was little in my power to bestow beyond the sincerest
sympathy and advice in aid, of the zealous clergy of the Church of England and the
Methodist Episcopal Church, who first entered the field of missionary labour in British
4. I did not, however, hesitate to assign to the clergy of those persuasions respectively, on their application, a church, school, and dwelling-house site, forming a block
of four building lots, or about one acre of land in extent, in all towns where they resided.
Thus free grants to that extent, viz., one acre, have been made for the use and benefit
of the Church of England and of the Methodist Episcopal Church respectively in the
towns of Yule, Hope, Derby, Douglas, and New Westminster, as a small return for the
valuable services rendered to the country by the clergy of those churches, who have
hitherto received no other compensation from the Government.
5. I have to request your Grace's sanction for those grants, and authority to continue
the same practice in all other towns of British Columbia where ordained Ministers of the
Gospel may think proper to take up their residence; and further, seeing that one of
the duties most deserving the attention of Government is to provide means for the moral
and religious training of the people, I would take the liberty of recommending to Her
Majesty's Government that free grants of 100 acres of rural land should be made in
aid of every cure formed in British Columbia, provided they be not otherwise supported at the public expense, and there be a resident clergyman, and a place of Chris '
worship erected.
6. A grant of land to that extent would not be burdensome to the Colony, and would
nevertheless form an attractive  inducement for Christian churches  to  devote   their
attention to  the country until  population increases, and other provision is made for
the maintenance  of  a  Christian  clergy  and   the  erection   of  places  of   Christian
7. It is not my intention to advocate the establishment of a dominant and endowed
church, as that object could not be accomplished without injustice in a country to which
persons of all religious persuasions are invited to resort, but I conceive it would be
advisable to extend, in the manner before indicated, the protection and support of Government to the four grand denominations of Christians, viz., the Church of England, the
Presbyterian, Methodist, and Roman Catholic Churches, which are all represented by
classes of the population in this Colony.
8. I shall be glad to receive the instructions of Her Majesty's Government on this
I have, &c.
His Grace the Duke of Newcastle, (Signed)       JAMES DOUGLAS.
&c. &c. &c.
No. 2.
Copy of DESPATCH from Governor Douglas, C.B., to his Grace the Duke of
(No. 25.) Victoria, Vancouver Island, February 18, I860.
(Received April 12, 1860.)
My LORD Duke, ,      (Answered, No. 27, May 25,1860, page 66.)
The desire manifested on the part of Her Majesty's Government for the improvement and well-being of the aboriginal races of British Columbia induces me to lay before
your Grace the enclosed interesting correspondence between the Reverend Edward
Cridge, district minister of Victoria, and Mr. William Duncan, an exemplary and truly
worthy gentleman, who has, for some years past, been devotedly labouring with a wonderful degree of energy and perseverance as a Christian missionary among the Indian
population at and about Fort Simpson
2. The facility with which Mr. Duncan has acquired the native language, and
succeeded in winning the confidence and attachment of the natives, is a proof of the
good sense, kindness of heart, and talent which he has brought to the task; while the
very marked success of his efforts as a religious teacher gives rise to the gratifying hope
that the natives will yet, through God's blessing, be rescued from ignorance, and assume
a respectable position in British Columbia.
3. Mr. Duncan proposes to found a missionary settlement for Indian converts in an
eligible situation, about 20 miles south of Fort Simpson (probably Port Essington), a
plan which meets with my entire approval.
4. I therefore, with your Grace's sanction, intend to reserve several hundred acres of
land in that neighbourhood to enable Mr. Duncan to carry this useful and benevolent
plan into effect.
5. I would submit, with respect to all land reserved for Indians, the advisability of
withholding from them the power to sell or otherwise alienate the title, as they are yet so
ignorant and improvident that they cannot safely be trusted with the management or
control of landed estate, which, if fully conveyed to them, would soon pass into other
6. I would, therefore, recommend, as a safe and preferable course, that such reserves of
land should be conveyed to the Governor of the Colony for the time being in trust for
the use and benefit of the Indians, leaving no power whatever in them to sell or alienate
the estate.
7. Should those measures meet with your Grace's approval, I have to request the
sanction of Her Majesty's Government for carrying them into effect.
I have, &c.
His Grace the Duke of Newcastle, (Signed)        JAMES DOUGLAS.
&c. &c. &c.
Enclosure 1 in No. 2.
To his Excellency JaMes Douglas, C.B., Governor of British Columbia, &c. &c. &c.
The Parsonage, Victoria, V. I.,
My Deah Sir, February 18, 1860.
I beg to lay before you a letter which I have just received from Mr. W. Duncan, Church of
England Missionary at Fort SimpsoD, in reply to one which, in conformity with your Excellency's PAPERS RELATING TO BRITISH COLUMBIA.
instructions a short time ago, I wrote to him expressive of the interest
your desire to aid him in his work.   A copy of which I subjoin.
you felt in his
I remain
(Signed)       Ed
Columbia.      j
The Parsonage
u the great grab
, Victoria,
y, 1860.
ification he has
Dear Mr. Duncan,
I am requested by his Excellency the Governor to expi	
received from conversing with several of the Indians who have been under your instruction at
Simpson, and who are now at Victoria, and his pleasure at witnessing the great improvement in mar
learning, and religion which you have succeeded in effecting in their condition.
His Excellency trusts you will continue to show the same energy and perseverance which he is
you must already have applied to the work, and that your labour will be rewarded by a still 1
His Excellency also wishes me to say that he will feel obliged by your reporting to him from
to time on the progress of your mission. Any suggestions you may make with regard to i
which may occur to you as likely to prove beneficial to the Indians under your care, such as settling
them in any pai-ticular locality, or setting apart a reserve of land for their use, will receive his Excellency's best attention, who will also, if necessary, represent such measures with his favourable recommendation to Her Majesty's Government
Praying that the Divine blessing may rest abundantly on your mission,
Believe me, fee.
(Signed)       Edwd. Cridge,
District Minister of Victoria and Colonial Chaplain.
Enclosure 2 in No. 2.
Mr. Duncan to Rev. E. Chidge.
Rev. and Dear Sir, Fort Simpson, British Columbia, February 7, 1860.
I duly received, by the favour of Captain Dodd of the Honourable Hudson's Bay Company,
your kind letter of the 11th ult., tendering me the sympathy and good wishes of his Excellency the
Governor of British Columbia in reference to my work as a Missionary among the Chimsyan Indians
of this place. Also expressing his Excellency's desire that I would report to him from time to time
the progress of the mission, and make suggestions of any measures which I deem would be likely to
prove beneficial to the Indians under my care, such as settling them in any particular locality, or setting
apart a reserve of land for their use.
I feel indeed truly thankful to his Excellency for the very kind interest he manifests in the mission,
and I shall rejoicingly avail myself of the privilege he extends to me, in making such communications
to him from time to time as circumstances may suggest and opportunities afford.
For his Excellency's information I would now mention that I began a school here in November
1858, which I still continue to carry on. My pupils number about 200, of whom only about 30 are adults.
The daily attendance varies from 80 to 130 souls, excepting the times when they go away in great
numbers to procure fish, which occupies about four months in the year, and at such times our daily
attendance is from 40 to 80 souls.
The instruction I give them is in reading, writing, counting, singing, and religious knowledge. The
latter I teach in their own tongue, but everything else in English.
Another prominent part of my daily work is visiting the Indians in their own houses; the visits I
make are mostly in answer to calls for help and medicine in sickness ; but I have thereby many opportunities of speaking to all the inmates of a house. I usually address them on the evil of their doings,
and point out the inevitable consequences of sin, both in time and in eternity. I then tell them of the
sinner's friend, and set the blessed Gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ before them, illustrating from their
own customs our need of such a Saviour.
As to the result of my labours among them, speaking generally, I may say that many remain
infatuated, utterly regardless of the future, while others, caring not for themselves, yet seem anxious
for their children "to learn and walk in the good way; the remainder are those who are anxious for
themselves as well as their children to learn and practise what is good.
It is to the case of this latter class that I would wish his Excellency's attention was drawn; and, in
reference to their case, permit me humbly to suggest the propriety of a place being founded in which
such Indians may find a home, and where there may be no lack of remunerative labour put into their
hands. I confess my only hope of seeing the Indian races of this coast diverted from the destructive
courses to which they are now so strongly tempted lies in the carrying out of some such plan as the
above for their benefit
However small and insignificant at first such a place might be, I have no doubt of its ultimate
growth and prosperity. Some time ago I hinted to a few of the better disposed Indians here the
idea of their separating from the rest, and thus avoiding the ruin which threatened them all, and they
embraced the subject heartily.
One old chief urged me much to write to the people at home about the matter. He very properly
told me that he saw no chance of benefiting even the rising generation unless they were removed from
the evil influence around them at this place.
And I now see from instances which have already occurred, that the children I am teaching will be
drifted from me as they grow up and become victims to the same vices which enslave their parents.
This makes me feel a growing anxiety for a, safe retreat
There is no lack, I am happy to state, of suitable spots of land. One place the Indians frequently
speak of as offering many advantages for a future home. It is about 30 miles south of this place, so.
far as I can ascertain. They have often wanted me to go and see it, but I never went, for I was not
anxious to raise up hopes among the Indians which I might afterwards disappoint
However, as his Excellency the Governor has kindly alluded to the matter of settlement, I shall now
make it my duty in my addresses to the Indians to bring the subject prominently before them.
By the time that another opportunity occurs of communicating with Victoria, I hope to be able to
speak more definitely regarding the subject as the Indian views it
Thanking you for your kind letter, and praying that the Governor may ever be moved and guided
in his efforts for the public good by that wisdom which is from above,
(Signed)       W. Duncan.
Copy of DESPATCH from Governor Douglas, C.B., to his Grace the Duke of
(No. 42.) Victoria, Vancouver Island, April 23, I860.
(Received June 11, I860.)
My LORD DUKE, (Answered, No. 36, June 26, 1860, page 67.)
I have the honour to inform your Grace that the winter has passed away without
the occurrence of any extraordinary event in British Columbia.
2. The season has been comparatively.. mild, and the miners residing in the various
inland districts have been abundantly provided with food and with home-grown vegetables
in small quantities, which have had the effect of checking the ravages of scurvy, by
which the health of many of those laborious men was seriously impaired in the winter
of 1858.
3. Very satisfactory reports have been lately received from all the mining districts of
the country; on these, -however, strict reliance cannot always be placed, though in the
present instance they are corroborated by heavy arrivals of gold dust, both in the hands
of miners and of the exporting companies.
4. The roads leading into the country from Hope and Yale have, in consequence of
the great depth of snow in the mountain passes, been impassable since the beginning of
winter to any other mode of transport than by Indian packers, who, with singular force
and power of endurance,, toil through the mountain trails at that trying season with loads
of 100 lbs. each; but that mode of transport is not even attempted in winter by the
Hope trail, which is hermetically sealed to travel from the interior, between the months
of October and June; yet these two trails may, I believe, be made available for winter
travel, by evading the precipitous hills over which they pass, and carrying the line of
road by easy grades through the deep valleys. The transport might then be carried on
during the winter by means of sleighs drawn by horses, as it is evident that the depth of
snow would not form in itself an insuperable obstacle, provided the precipitous ascents,
which constitute the real difficulty of the road, could be avoided.
5. Much attention has been directed to the exploration of those ^difficult routes, and
we have ascertained the feasibility of running an easy graded line of road from Yale to
Lytton ; and I am daily expecting a report from a surveying party employed at Hope, in
examining, with a similar object in view, the passes leading from that place to the
" Shimilkomeen " Valley. These routes may, without exaggeration, be severally compared to the passage of the Alps. It is, however, a great satisfaction to know that the
country beyond the mountains is generally level and of easy access.
6. The great outlet of British Columbia continues to be by the Harrison River trail,
and that fortunately has been uninterruptedly open during the whole winter, and large
stocks of food have been accumulated at its further terminus near Cayoosh, in anticipation of the influx of miners for the Upper Fraser. The price of food is in consequence
of that abundance comparatively low, the last quotations being 8d. per lb. for flour and
beans at Lytton, and lie?, at Cayoosh, and at both places bacon is quoted at 14rf. per lb.
The improvement in the condition' of the miner is very great, as he can live substantially
for 1 \ dollars per diem, instead of 3 or 4 dollars; and many claims are now workable at
\ a profit which could not afford the miner any support last year.
7. A detachment of 80 Royal Engineers, under the command of Captain Grant, has
been employed since the beginning of March embanking the shoals near the mouth of
the Harrison River, for the purpose of deepening the channel, which is now impassable in PAPERS RELATING TO BRITISH COLUMBIA. 5
winter for the lightest steamer, and there is every reason to believe that the work will be
brought to a successful termination. ^
8. The same detachment of Royal Engineers will shortly proceed to resume work on
the waggon road from Douglas, which it is expected they will complete in a few weeks
as far as the 10-mile house; from that point a party of civilian labourers have undertaken a section of six miles of the road, for which they are to receive the sum of 550/.
per mile. This will carry the road to the 16-mile house, where the Royal Engineers
will recommence operations, and probably complete the next 12 miles, that is, to the
28-mile house, situated on the smaller Lilloett Lake, before the end of summer.
9- We propose to use that and the larger Lilloett Lake as a water communication,
connecting them by means of a good waggon road 1 \ miles in length, which is already
made and in use. The application of some enterprising settlers to run a steamer, without
any special privilege, on the larger Lilloett Lake has been granted, which will greatly
facilitate transport. An excellent mule trail, 30 miles in length, with substantial
bridges over all the rivers, connects the larger Lilloett Lake with Lake Anderson,
beyond which the route to Cayoosh offers no very serious difficulties to engineering
10. Two stern-wheel steamers, intended to ply on Lakes Anderson and Seaton, are
nearly completed by an association of settlers, who at much labour and expense packed
the engines and boilers from Douglas over the Harrison road. To give an idea of the
difficulty of the undertaking, I may mention that the boilers, being too heavy to carry
on mules, were rolled over the trail, as far as the 28-mile house, in five sections.
Serious difficulties of that kind will not be felt when the waggon road is made, and the
facility of communication will, I have no doubt, give a prodigious impulse to industry
and to the rapid development of the resources of the country, as all kinds of machinery
required to assist the operations of the gold miner may then be imported.
11. I have received advices from Lytton up to the 6th of this month (April). Commissioner Ball reports that the mining'season had commenced, and that the miners who
had migrated to the lower country for the winter were fast returning to their old claims
on the benches of Fraser River, but the great majority of those hardy wanderers were
making their way towards Quesnel River, where it is confidently expected rich hill
diggings will be found.
12. A great number of Chinese miners were also arriving and taking up mining claims
on the River Bars, in the Lytton district, who are reputed to be remarkably quiet and
orderly.    Mr. Ball's report refers to no other subject of general interest.
13. The prevailing impression respecting the great auriferous wealth of the district
about Alexandria and the Quesnel River will have the effect of attracting a large population to that distant quarter, and I shall consequently be under the necessity of appointing a magistrate and a small body of police to remain there for the purpose of maintaining
the peace of the country, and preventing conflicts among the miners and with the Indian
14. The last intelligence from the Shimilkomeen River is not so favourable as before
reported. I perceive by the Oregon papers that many persons who had gone there for
the purpose of mining had been unsuccessful. It is stated in those papers that 20 or
30 miners only were making from 8 to 10 dollars per day, while the others engaged in
the same occupation were not paying expenses. That is, I conceive, but the usual and
silly outcry of the idler and the visionary, and does not in the least shake my opinion in
regard to the auriferous nature of the country, founded on its geological character, and
further strengthened by the report of Lieut. Park, a highly scientific member of the
American Boundary Commission, who entertains a similar belief in the auriferous character of that district, and in the existence of extensive placer diggings. Should a large
population assemble there, the attention of Government will have to be directed towards
it, and a police force employed to maintain the peace. I shall use every exertion to
connect the Shimilkomeen with Fort Hope by means of a convenient road, with the
important object in view of making Fraser River, instead of the Columbia, the outlet of
its trade.
15. British Columbia is becoming highly attractive to the Chinese, who are arriving
in great numbers, about 2,000 having entered Fraser River since the beginning of the
year, and many more are expected from California and China. They are certainly not
a desirable class of people, as a permanent population, but are for the present useful as
labourers, and, as consumers, of a revenue-paying character. I have therefore protected
them from the payment of differential duties not equally borne by other classes of the
16. I have received advices from Commissioner Sanders of Yale district up to the
14th instant (April). He describes the migration of miners for the upper country as
being very general, and expresses a fear that the feeling in favour of Quesnel River may
lead to the depopulation of the Yale district.
17- In a previous passage of this report I stated that we had ascertained the feasibility
of running a line of road by easy grades the whole way from Yale to Lytton, which
would avoid the lofty passes, and be accessible in winter for pack mules, and not like the
present trail, rendered valueless for five months in the year by an impassable depth of
With reference to that enterprise which I proposed to undertake, Mr. Sanders complains of the character of the population. His remarks on the subject are as follows :—
" There is very little probability of any person in Yale or its neighbourhood tendering
" for the construction of the projected mule trail; the proposed part payment in land is
" very far from being an inducement; in fact, it is generally objected to ; an arrange-
" ment of that nature might possibly be acceptable to British subjects, but would naturally
" be objectionable to aliens, and unfortunately the population of this Colony is almost
" without exception foreign."
We shall, nevertheless, commence that undertaking as soon as a small body of the
Royal Engineers can be spared without detriment to other important work.
I have, &c.
His Grace the Duke of Newcastle, (Signed)        JAMES DOUGLAS.
&c. &c. &c.
Copy of DESPATCH from Governor Douglas, C.B., to his Grace the Duke of
(Separate.) New Westminster, British Columbia, May 23, I860.
My LORD Duke, (Received July 14, I860.)
I have the honour to inform your Grace that I left Victoria on the 15th instant on
a visit to British Columbia, and arrived at this place on the evening of the same day, and
I have since been engaged with business of great public importance.
2. I was glad to observe that this city had greatly improved in appearance since my
last visit, and that many new buildings have been erected, and the surface in many parts
cleared of the gigantic stumps and fallen trees that obstructed the thoroughfares and
incumbered the ground.
The erection of a court house and buildings for the Assay offices have also greatly
added to the appearance of the place and increased the bustle and activity which pervades the town. Trade is also on the increase. Two steamers, of from 200 to 300
tons burthen, are plying with goods and passengers between Victoria and New Westminster, where their cargoes are discharged, and the inland transport is carried on from
thence to Douglas and Yale by four stern-wheel river steamboats, varying in burthen
from 50 to 200 tons, which now make two trips a week to those places.
3. The Custom house receipts having for the last two weeks somewhat exceeded the
sum of 1,000/. of weekly return, corroborate the opinion I have expressed with respect
to the state of trade, and indicate the spirited manner in which supplies are being sent
into the mining districts, and the confidence entertained by business men in the auriferous
resources of the country.
4. The effect of the pre-emption law is already observable in the forest clearings made
by settlers in the densely wooded land on the banks of Fraser River. The cost of
clearing such land by means of hired labour ranges from 15/. to 30/. an acre, and it will
consequently never prove an attractive investment for capital; such land cannot be
cleared to advantage otherwise than by the actual settler investing his own labour in the
formation of a permanent home and property for himself and family.
5. I have given much anxious thought to the subject of settling British Columbia, and
the conclusion is more than ever forced upon me that it cannot be successfully accomplished
without adopting a very liberal land system. I am strongly induced to view the public
land simply as a source of revenue, and, provided an income of equal or greater value can
be realized by other means, it does not appear wise or expedient to lock up the public
land under a system which practically places it beyond the reach of purchase by ordinary
settlers.    It is evident that without population a revenue for the support of government PAPERS RELATING TO BRITISH COLUMBIA. 7
is unattainable, and unproductive land is next to valueless both to the country and to the
Crown. The sale of land affords a temporary revenue, but the settler indirectly, by the '
payment of duties on the foreign articles he consumes, and by means of a small direct
tax which could be levied on the land he occupies, will become a permanent contributor to
the revenue, and, therefore, although the land may have been acquired for nothing, and
brought no revenue in the first instance, yet, in such case, the Crown in the end would
become the gainer by his presence. If the public land could be sold at a high upset
price, and the country at the same time filled with people, there would be an advantage
in continuing the present sale price of land; but if one or other of those objects must be
sacrificed, it is evidently preferable to have the population, and to grant the land without
purchase or at a much lower price than at present.
6. These observations are thrown out merely for the purpose of acquainting your
Grace with the impressions made upon me by the present circumstances of this country,
as I propose to bring the subject under the consideration of Her Majesty's Government in a more formal manner when I have arrived at clearer and better-supported
7. The inhabitants of New Westminster having expressed a great desire for the incorporation of their town and the appointment of municipal officers to manage its revenues,
I consulted their select committee as to their views, and as to the best means of carrying
out their wishes. Their propositions are extremely moderate, embracing chiefly two
points, viz., the right of taxing themselves, and of applying the proceeds of such taxes to
grading the streets and to the general improvement of the town. After several interviews, and obtaining the sense of the people at a public meeting with respect to the
amount of taxes they wished to raise, and as to whether such taxes should be levied on
an arbitrary valuation or on an actual assessment of property, the draft of an Act was
made containing the following provisions:—
(1st.) That all persons subject to the payment of rates according to the Act shall be
entitled to vote at elections for members of the town council.
(2nd.) That the town council shall consist of seven members, who are to hold office
without remuneration, and for one year only.
(3rd.) That none but British subjects or foreigners who have become naturalized British
subjects shall be eligible for councillors, and, in addition, they must be possessed of
property valued at not less than 50/. sterling, and shall have resided at least six
months in New Westminster.
(4th.) That the town of New Westminster shall be divided into four wards, each
returning a certain number of councillors.
(5th.) That the council shall be empowered to levy rates on property within the town,
as may be determined and authorized by the majority of the rate-payers, and to cause
the proceeds of such rates to be expended under the direction of the Chief Commissioner
of Lands and Works.
(6th.) That the council shall be authorized to levy a tax not exceeding two per cent, on
the assessed value of all town lots and property within the town for the year I860 and
1861, and to enforce payment thereof.
(7th.) That the said council shall be empowered to levy a further rate over and above
the said two per cent, for the said two years, provided the majority of the rate-payers
deem it necessary and require them so to do.
(8th.) That the said council shall be further authorized to compel town lot holders to
cut down all trees on their respective town lots, except such, as may be reserved for
ornament, and in default to cause the trees to be cut down, and the cost thereof, not
exceeding 71. sterling on each town lot, to be levied on the property.
Such is the substance of the proposed Act, which will be immediately put into the
hands of the Attorney General for proper drafting.
8. Your Grace will observe that the powers of the council are so limited by the supervision of the Commissioner of Lands and Works on the one hand, and the rate-payers on
the other, as almost to remove the danger of abuse, and I am of opinion that the city
will be greatly benefited by its exertions and by the expenditures on substantial and
much-needed improvements.
Trusting that this measure may meet with your Grace's approval,
I have, &c.
His Grace the Duke of Newcastle, (Signed)       JAMES DOUGLAS.
Copy of DESPATCH from Governor Douglas, C.B., to his Grace the Duke of
(Separate.) Campj Fraser Rjverj Chilwayhook District, May 31, I860.
My LORD DUKE, (Received August 6, I860.)
In continuation ot my last report, marked Separate, and dated New Westminster,
23rd May, I have to communicate for your Grace's information, that the 24th of May
was spent not unprofitably in making a tour in one of the river steamers to Pitt Lake,
distant about 40 miles from New Westminster, accompanied by the colonel in command,
the civil and military colonial officers, the local magistrates, the Lord Bishop of British
Columbia, his chaplain, and many of the citizens of New Westminster, who were invited
to celebrate with me the auspicious natal day of our most Gracious Queen, amidst the
wild romantic scenery of that mountain lake, and never, I believe, has any part of Her
Majesty's dominions resounded to more hearty acclamations of loyalty and attachment
than were heard on that occasion.
2. The other towns in British Columbia vied in loyal demonstrations with the inhabitants of New Westminster, a fact which I record with pleasure as a proof of the growing
attachment of the alien population of the Colony to our Sovereign, and to the institutions
of our country.
3. On the 25th of May I proceeded from New Westminster, with my party, in one of
the revenue boats towards Derby; in our progress up the Fraser we passed a number of
tributary streams flowing into it from the north. The " Pitt" is the most considerable
of these tributaries, being navigable for vessels of 300 or 400 tons to its source in
Pitt Lake, a distance of 35 miles, including the lake, beyond which it is accessible for
Indian canoes a few miles further, but not for any larger craft.
4. The banks of Pitt River are exceedingly beautiful; extensive meadows sweep
gracefully from the very edge of the river towards the distant line of forest and mountain.
The rich alluvial soil produces a thick growth of grass interspersed with the Michaelmas
daisy, the wild rose, and scattered groups of willows. This fine district contains an area
of 20,000 acres of good arable land, requiring no clearing from timber, and ready for the
immediate operations of the plough. Many parts of it are however exposed to overflow,
through the periodical inundations of the Fraser, which commence about the first week in
June, and generally subside before the middle of July. Owing to this circumstance the
Pitt River meadows are not adapted for raising wheat and other cereals which require the
entire season to mature, but may be turned to good account in growing hay and every
kind of root crop, and may also be used extensively for pasturing cattle, and for the
purposes of the dairy.
5. The Brunette, Coquitlum, and Whytus, the latter opposite the site of Derby,
are streams accessible by boat or canoe for some distance from their debouche into
Fraser River; their importance to the district, as an easy and inexpensive means of
communication, is very great, seeing that they form a series of natural canals, intersecting
the country in all directions, and admirably adapted for the transport of goods and
produce to and from the navigable waters of the Fraser.
6. The banks of Fraser River are almost everywhere covered with woods. Varieties
of pine and firs of prodigious size, and large poplar trees, predominate. The vine
and soft maple, the wild apple tree, the white and black thorn, and deciduous bushes
in great variety, form the massive undergrowth. The vegetation is luxuriant almost
beyond conception, and at this season of the year presents a peculiarly beautiful appearance. The eye never tires of ranging over the varied shades of the fresh green foliage,
mingling with the clustering white flowers of the wild apple tree, now in full blossom,
and filling the air with delicious fragrance. As our boat, gliding swiftly over the surface
of the smooth waters, occasionally swept beneath the overhanging boughs which form a
canopy of leaves, impervious to the sun's scorching rays, the effect was enchanting;
yet amidst all this wealth and luxuriance of nature, I could not repress the wish that
those gorgeous forests might soon be swept away by the efforts of human industry, and
give place to cultivated fields and the other accessaries of civilization. This, however,
will be a work of time, though there is no doubt that the facilities and inducements now
held out to settlers in this Colony by the pre-emptive law and other enactments, might
enable thousands of the destitute poor of Britain, by a few years of steady industry, to
secure for themselves happy homes and a comfortable independence for life. of a, portion of
yiled from the Surveys   & Explorations
of the
RavalNaw & Royal Engineers  1
7. Leaving the boat at Derby we travelled two miles by the bridlepath which skirts the    Bbitish
Fraser to Langley.    In my Despatch No. 224,* of the 18th October last, I communicated   Columbia.
to your Grace the intention I then entertained of opening up leading roads in the districts , vjJjTpa-
bordering on Fraser River from Derby to Hope, to connect those places, and for the pers pre-
relief of settlers exploring the country; as they cannot otherwise make their way through sented in
the woods, which are blocked up in every direction by thick brash and immense quantities I860' -_
of fallen timber. s£e6°"
8. A portion of that road from Langley to Smess, which completes the line of communication between Derby and Hope, having been lately finished, I proceeded on horseback from Langley with the intention of riding the whole way to Hope ; that intention
could not however be fully carried into effect, as Fraser River had overflowed its banks,
and inundated the low plains through which the road has been injudiciously led. After
a ride of 13 miles our progress was arrested by a flooded plain, impassable in its present
state for horses, and we were therefore compelled to seek the river and to proceed by
9. The tract through which we rode is well adapted for settlement, the soil being a
deep rich loam, and the woods which once evidently covered the whole face of the country,
having been in parts so completely destroyed by fire as to leave large patches of ground
almost clear of timber. The tract alluded to and that extending to Smess River contains
about 150,000 acres of land, easily cleared and generally well adapted for tillage; its
advantageous position on the banks of a navigable river further recommend it as an
eligible place of settlement.
10. Captain Parsons with a party of Royal Engineers is now engaged in a reconnaissance of the country on the Smess and Chilwayhook Rivers. I will therefore defer the
notice of that district until I receive that officer's report on its capabilities.
I will now close this communication, as a steamer is in sight, and I will proceed by
her from this point towards Douglas or Hope, with the intention of continuing this
I have, &c.
His Grace the Duke of Newcastle, (Signed)       JAMES DOUGLAS.
&c. &c. &c.
No. 6.
Copy of DESPATCH from Governor Douglas, C.B., to his Grace the Duke of
( Separate.)
My Lord Duke,
My last communication to your Grace was dated " Camp, Chilwayhook District,
31st May."
2. During the few hours I remained at Douglas, whither the river steamer which
conveyed my party from Chilwayhook was bound, I had merely time to observe the
increasing size of the town, the improved style of the newer buildings, and the evident
attention paid to comfort and stability in their arrangement and construction, indicating
the growing wealth of the inhabitants, and their confidence in the progress of the town.
Its business facilities have lately been much improved by the construction of two
substantial wharves which afford ample accommodation for all shipping which visit
the port.
3. I met Captain Grant, R.E., at Douglas, who reports very favourably of the progress
of the detachment of Royal Engineers and civilian labourers employed under his command
in forming the waggon road from Douglas to the lesser Lilooett Lake, which he expects
to finish before the close of summer.
4. Our steamer having a full cargo on board was detained at Douglas in landing
goods from the hour of her arrival at six o'clock in the evening, till four the following
morning, when she was again under weigh steaming full power in the direction of Hope,
and arrived there at nine o'clock the same evening, the distance being 90 miles, during
40 miles of which she had. to stem the current of Fraser River, now almost at its
greatest force and height.
5. At a public meeting of the inhabitants of Hope, held soon after my arrival there,
I entered into an exposition of the state and prospects of the country, and more particularly directed the attention of the meeting to the importance of opening lines of road
without delay, into various parts of the country, but especially a line leading into the
valley of the Shimilkomeen, and showing that the immediate and direct effect to the
IV. B 10
country would be a vast reduction in the cost of transport, and a great accession of
trade to the town and district of Hope.
6. The valley of the Shimilkomeen has many attractive features, no part of British
Columbia being more beautiful as a country, or offering greater inducements to settlers.
The whole of that district is watered by running streams, possesses a great deal of
arable land, and is diversified by woodland and meadow.
The climate is pleasant and healthy, the winters mild, and the capabilities of the
district for raising and pasturing stock are very great.
There is, moreover, satisfactory evidence that the rivers and soil are auriferous,
and that gold will become a chief article of export and source of wealth.
The settlement of that fine district has been retarded by want of roads, and there is no
doubt that people will flock thither as soon as it is accessible to travel.
7. A cutting of 60 miles through the mountains will connect it with the town of Hope.
I entreated the meeting to give the subject their earnest attention, and [to recommend
such financial measures as might raise the funds requisite for carrying that great
work into effect.
The people cordially agreed with the views expressed, and promised their hearty aid
and support in providing money for the occasion.
8. The day following I called a meeting of the miners in the Hope district, and
in the course of a long interview ascertained that they had no grievances to lay before
me, and that they were satisfied with the existing " Gold Fields Act." I spoke to them
about the probable existence of gold in Shimilkomeen, and recommended that they should
at once form a party, selected by themselves, and composed of experienced miners, and
of men on whose energy and judgment they could rely, to prospect the Shimilkomeen
country, and I agreed on the part of the Government to furnish the party with food, and
to allow a bonus of 4/. sterling in money to each of the men employed in prospecting,
provided they succeeded in finding gold.
The proposal was received with evident marks of satisfaction by the whole company
of miners, and they proceeded at once to select a party of nine men, out of a large
number of those present who volunteered for the service; and this choice band
will start in a few days time, or as soon as the freshets, which now fill the rivers to overflowing, have somewhat abated, and travelling becomes a less dangerous undertaking.
9. The despatch of a party to reopen and improve the road leading direct from Hope
to Quayome, or Boston Bar, was at once undertaken and carried into effect, but the
improvement of the other routes is left for the present and cannot be undertaken until
my return from Yale, when I will report further.
10. I annex a return exhibiting the average number of miners employed on the several
bars of the Hope District, together with the average earnings of each man per diem,
which I have no doubt will be interesting to your Grace.
I have, &c.
His Grace the Duke of Newcastle, (Signed)       JAMES DOUGLAS.
Victoria to Hudso
a No. 6.
era! Bars in the Fort Hope Distri
Average No of
A              ^^ amin
ames of Bars.
Miner's employed.
of each Man.
Victoria Bar
3~to   5 dollars.
Puget Sound Bar  -          -
3 to   5       „
10 to 12       „
5 to   7 fP „
Maria Ville
„                 .
3 toj 4       „
4       „
Blue Nose
4       i,
8 to 10       „
Fort Hope, June 9,1860.
No. 7. British
Copy of DESPATCH from Governor Douglas, C.B., to his Grace the Duke of        CoL^B3U
Newcastle. No- m
I   T   (Separate.) Victoria, Vancouver Island, July 6, I860.
My Lord Duke, (Received August 22, 1860.)
Continuing our progress from Hope, from whence I last addressed your Grace,
on the morning of the 6th June, we arrived at Yale in the afternoon of the same day.
2. A deputation of the inhabitants, bearing a congratulatory Address, waited upon me
almost immediately after my arrival, and I took that opportunity of stating that I had
been induced to visit Yale on that occasion chiefly by the desire of conferring with them
on the highly important subject of improving, and, wherever necessary, altering the line
of the present trail leading from Yale to Lytton, with the view of reducing the expense
of transport, and rendering the country beyond the mountains accessible to intending
3. I drew their attention to the fact that the cost of transport by the existing mountain
trail between Yale and Lytton, a distance of 80 miles, exceeded 761. sterling a ton, a charge
which the gold miner, by reason of his large earnings and limited wants, might possibly
contrive to meet, but it was evident that until the cost of transport be greatly reduced,
settlers, with their multiform wants, would be involved in ruinous expenses, and in fact
virtually excluded from the interior of the country, which might, for want of such facilities of communication as I proposed to form, remain a desert for years to come.
I also remarked how nearly impossible it was, by any conveyance practicable on those
trails, for the settler to transport the implements indispensable for bringing the land into
4. I therefore recommended that the inhabitants of the town should forthwith hold a
meeting for the purpose of choosing a temporary council of five members to concert
measures with me for raising the funds requisite for carrying on that important enterprise,
which must necessarily confer the most signal benefits on the country at large, and so
greatly promote the individual interests of the people of Yale.
5. I then suggested that the money required for that service should be raised by means
of an inland duty of one farthing a pound, to be charged after the completion of the road
on the weight of all goods leaving Yale for any inland part above and beyond that place,
and that in the meantime the outlay should be met by an issue of Colonial Bonds, bearing
interest at six per cent, per annum, to be repaid at fixed periods frorn the revenues so
6. In continuation of that subject I may remark for your Grace's information, that a
Town Council of five members was subsequently chosen by the inhabitants of Yale, who,
on behalf of their fellow citizens, presented a petition recommending that the proposed
duty of one farthing a pound should be charged on all goods carried inland from Yale,
and that the revenues derived from that source should be applied to the redemption of
the bonds issued in payment of the work done on the roads, and also praying that a
uniform rate of duty should be levied on all goods carried inland from Hope and Douglas,
in order that no one route should have any preference or decided advantage over the
7. The inland exports from Yale are estimated at 50 tons a week, or 2,600 tons per
annum; the proposed duty, equivalent to 2/. 4s. 9d. a ton, should therefore yield an
annual revenue of 6,500/. sterling, without taking into account the progressive increase of
trade and population ; that sum will thus, at' the most moderate computation, form an
ample fund for the redemption of the bonds, and payment of the interest accruing
thereon; and the country will be largely repaid for the immediate outlay by a direct
saving of fivepence a pound weight, or 46/. 13s. Ad. sterling a ton, which it is estimated
will be effected in the cost of transport from Yale to Lytton by opening the new line of
road, as well as from many other sources of prosperity and wealth that the improvement of
roads will bring into play.
8. Having thus provided the means of executing our plans, the Chief Commissioner
of Lands and Works was authorized to proceed immediately in carrying them into
Two portions of the new line of road from Yale to Spuzzem are now in progress, and a
third portion between Chapman's and Boston Bar is about being surveyed in hopes of
discovering some line which may avoid the circuitous direction and the mountainous 12 PAPERS RELATING TO BRITISH COLUMBIA.
district through which the mule trail now passes, whereby the actual distance is greatly
increased, while the route is in winter rendered altogether impassable by the great depth
of snow.
9. I beg herewith to forward for your Grace's information the substance of a short
address,* which, previous to my departure, I delivered to the people of Yale, complimenting them for their public spirit, and thanking them for the cordial manner
in which they had responded to my proposals for promoting the improvement of the
10. The inhabitants of Hope, to which place I returned on the 15th June, were
equally liberal in their views, and also drew up a petition in favour of an inland duty
equivalent to that to be levied at Yale, on all goods carried overland from Hope, which
will provide funds for improving the road to " Quayome," or Boston Bar, and opening
a new route by the " Callomme " River into the " Shimilkomeen" valley, a distance of
60 miles, the expense of which on the scale proposed will not exceed four thousand
pounds sterling.
11. I herewith transmit for your Grace's information a sketch map* of part of British
Columbia, showing the proposed lines of road mentioned' in this report, together with
the roads before completed, and others strongly recommended by the Commissioner of
Lands and Works, and which will no doubt greatly facilitate and promote the settlement
of the country.
12. I am happy to inform your Grace that the reports from all the mining districts
continue to be of the most favourable character. Mining is no longer a speculation; it
is becoming a business yielding an appreciable and certain return, and every day is
extending our knowledge of the gold deposits.
13. Our latest accounts represent that 600 white miners were successfully employed
on Quesnelle river, earning from 10 to 25 dollars a day. The spring freshets had
driven them away from their claims in the beds of the rivers, and they had commenced
operations on the hills and ravines, which have turned out to be highly auriferous.
Several pieces of gold, varying from six to eight ounces, have been found in those new
diggings, and the gold produced has a rougher surface and is in larger pieces than that
found in the country west of Lytton.
14. About 1,000 white miners are working on Fraser river, between Alexandria and
Lytton, and about 4,000 Chinese miners are employed in the various districts of the
15. In my next excursion to British Columbia I propose to devote my attention to
the Harrison River district, where the land communications are being rapidly improved,
and two small steamers, soon to be increased by a third, are in full operation on the
16. I trust Her Majesty's Government will approve of the measures herein detailed
for removing the impediments of access to the country, and the issue of bonds as a means
of raising money for carrying on the work. The whole expense of those works will be
defrayed out of the revenues of the country, derived, as I have before stated, from the
duty on inland transport.
I feel assured that I have not overrated the resources of the country, and that they
are equal to the emergency, and I believe that those resources will be more or less
largely developed just in proportion to the degree in which those difficulties of access are
I have, &c.
His Grace the Duke of Newcastle, (Signed)       JAMES DOUGLAS. PAPERS RELATING TO BRITISH COLUMBIA. 13
No. 8.
Copy of DESPATCH from Governor Douglas, C.B., to his Grace the Duke of
(No. 70.)
.,   T        i$ Victoria, Vancouver Island, August 3, I860.
MY LORD Duke, (Received September 27, 1860.)
I have the honour of transmitting herewith, for your Grace's information, copy of
a letter from Mr. O'Reilly, the magistrate at Hope, with enclosure, being the first report
received from the party of gold miners sent out from that place, as stated to your Grace
in paragraph 8 of my Despatch of the 5th June, marked " Separate."*
2. This report, though not conclusive as to the general character of the country, yet
speaks very favourably of those parts examined.
3. The quality and value of the specimens of gold alluded to in the above report have
been estimated by a practical assayer here, as follows:—
f Weight - -   about 5 grains.
No. iy Quality       - -    860 thousandths fine.
L Value - -   9 pence,
f Quality        - -   860 thousandths fine.
No. 2. J Value - -   22 pence.
LWeight       - -   about 12 grains,
from which an inference may be drawn greatly in favour of the Shimilkameen as a mining
4. A new gold district is also said to have been discovered in the southern part of
British Columbia, at York Creek, a tributary falling into the Kettle-fall River near the
49 parallel, and 400 miners, chiefly from Oregon, were reported to be engaged in working
that field, and making wages from 15 or 20 up to as high as 100 dollars a day. It is
anticipated that there will be a great rush of miners to that part of the country, and, if so,
food will be required in large quantities, which will lead to a great increase of trade, and
to the formation of new settlements in that part of the Colony by reason of this additional
5. The importance of directing the supply of provisions for this region by way of Hope
is thus greatly increased, and an additional motive supplied for opening the road between
Hope and Shimilkameen, which is being at the present moment vigorously carried on, and
thus preventing the trade from taking the course of the Columbia River to Oregon.
I have, &c.
His Grace the Duke of Newcastle, (Signed)        JAMES DOUGLAS.
&c. &c. &c.
Enclosure in No. 8.
Sir, Fort Hope, July 31, 1860.
I have the honour to enclose, for His Excellency's information, a letter just received from
Mr. Allison, one of the party selected to proceed to the Shimilkomeen, for the purpose of exploring
that district
I shall endeavour to send them to-day a small quantity of provisions, to enable them to prosecute
further their exploration.
As the steamer is about to start, I have not time to write at greater length.
I have, &c.
W. A. G. Young, Esq. (Signed) P. O'Reilly, J. P.
Sir, Shimilkomeen River, July 27, 1860.
I send in the two Indians to-day, they have worked for us nineteen days, at one dollar per day.
I suppose they will expect to be paid for the time they are returning; my agreement with them was to
pay them one dollar per day or $30 per month.   We have prospected the country in this locality to the
best of our ability for the time we have been out, and have found diggings that will pay five or six
dollars a day with a rocker.    I think as the river falls, much richer deposits will be found.    I have not
the least doubt but we could find good bench diggings (if we had time), that would pay well tor sluicing;
we have prospected twelve miles up the south fork, which I think is the main source of the gold in 1
this locality.   The little package No. It was the result of the washing of two pansj of dirt taken from a *
point of bed rock that just projected above the water.    I also found dirt on the bank near the same \
locality that prospected three or four cents to the pan. ,
British        Package No. 2* was the result of the washing of a few buckets of dirt in a rocker we have made
. Columbia,   for prospecting (rather a rough machine, made with an axe, and this the first washing); this was taken
         out a little below the junction of the south forks on the main river.   All the surface of the country in
* Weight,        this locality is a gravel deposit, and I have got very good prospects in banks of from 50 to 75 feet high,
about 12grains. j tnmk some 0f tnem ^jR pay to work ^fa a hydraulic.
It is singular that in all my prospecting I have not yet seen a quartz vein, although gold is distributed all over the country; this is one reason why I should like to penetrate further into the mountains.
I think there must be quartz veins at the head of the streams, and that coarser gold will be found: the
Indians report coarse gold high in the mountains, but I do not place any dependence in their reports.
I think this fall, at low water, rich deposits will be- found in the bed of the streams; the rivers are
rapidly falling, and the chances of striking good deposits improving every day. "We shall be obliged to
break up our company in a few days if we do not receive supplies from Hope. If I can purchase a
horse at'a reasonable price I shall return to Hope immediately, and make fuller reports of our prospecting, if not, I shall probably go down the Shimilkomeen.
Your obedient servant,
P. O'Reilly, Esq. (Signed)       J. F. Allison.
No. 9-
Copy of DESPATCH from Governor Douglas, C.B., to his Grace the Duke of
(No. 72.) Victoria, Vancouver Island, August 4, I860.
(Received September 27, 1860.)
My Loud DUKE, (Answered, No. 56, October 26, 1860, page 67.)
I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your Grace's Despatch, No. 26, f
of the 19th of May I860, on the subject of the grants of endowments in land to the
clergy of the principal Christian communities established in British Columbia; and I
learn with satisfaction that your Grace has been pleased to sanction the grants already
made of about one acre each, and also to approve of a similar grant under similar circumstances in all towns in British Columbia; and I will take care that your Grace's suggestion as to the precautions necessary in the appropriation and conveyance of the land
is not disregarded.
I observe and admit the force of the reasons which have induced your Grace to
withhold the sanction of Her Majesty's Government to my furtheF proposal that free
grants of 100 acres of rural land should be made in aid of every cure established in
British Columbia, and not otherwise supported at the public expense.
Your Grace will perhaps permit me to remark with reference to my recommendation of that measure, that I was desirous by it of holding out inducements to educated
and respectable clergymen to take up their residence in the Colony, and of contributing
in a small degree towards their decent maintenance and support; I, in fact, regarded it
as an easy and inexpensive means of providing a fund which would materially and
increasingly tend to the advancement and support of religion, without putting the Colony
to any serious expense.
I did not view the proposed endowment as a sufficient or exclusive means of
support; it was considered in my scheme only as an attractive inducement and important
aid for religious bodies and clergymen, who perhaps, having a certain amount of private
means or of funds drawn from other sources at their disposal, might by the prospect of
that additional aid be induced to assume pastoral charge, and to found cures. When the
good work was well begun, I trusted to the effect of voluntary contributions to complete
the fund necessary for the support of the incumbent and for church extension throughout
the Colony.
The circumstances of British Columbia, as your Grace is aware, are very peculiar:
had the Colony been settled by a population drawn from the mother country, holding
the same religious views, and appreciating Christian privileges and instruction, there
would have been less cause for anxiety about the support of religion.
Bodies of Christian settlers, however poor, might reasonably be expected to unite
in contributing, according to their means, to secure the advantage of having a Christian
pastor resident among them.
But unfortunately the state of British Columbia is such as precludes the probability
of such a desideratum; its population is made up of drafts from many nations, dissimilar
in language, and totally disagreeing in their religious views ; and it will, I fear, be many
years before Christian congregations of any denomination will be found capable of
supporting their own pastors.
It is for that reason that the Colony so urgently needs the fostering care of Government, for without its aid the country may remain unprovided with churches and destitute
of Christian teachers for an indefinite period of time. PAPERS RELATING TO BRITISH COLUMBIA.
I hope it will not be supposed from anything herein stated that I am pressing this Bbitish
matter with an earnestness beyond its merits.    I have merely addressed your Grace Columbia;
under a profound sense of one of the wants felt by the Colony, and for which I have no ■
other means of providing.
I feel, in fact, that this is a subject demanding my closest attention, and to which
I am particularly directed by Her Majesty's instructions, which enjoin that I should take
especial care that Almighty God be devoutly served, and that orthodox churches be
built, and well and orderly kept.
Should it still appear to Her Majesty's Government that the peculiar circumstances
of the Colony do not warrant a reconsideration of your decision in respect to the
proposed endowment, I trust your Grace will authorize me to substitute a money equivalent out of the Colonial Revenues, or to make some other provision calculated to advance
and support the cause of religion.
I have, &c.
His Grace the Duke of Newcastle, (Signed)       JAMES DOUGLAS.
&c. &c. &c.
Copy of DESPATCH from Govt
• Douglas, C.B., to his Grao
the Duke of
(No. 7*0
Victoria, Vancouver Island, August 4, I860.
My LORD DUKE, (Received September 27, 1860.)
I have the honour of transmitting herewith, for Her Majesty's approval, the copy
of a Proclamation entitled "The New Westminster Municipal Council Act, i860."
2. This is the Act which I had the honour of reporting to your Grace in my Despatch
marked " separate," and dated New Westminster, the 23rd of May I860.* *
3. It provides for the election of a Municipal Council invested with power to raise
money by assessment on all town lots, and erections thereon, situated within the limits
of New Westminster, and authorizes them to expend that money in the formation of
streets, and in providing for the health, comfort, and security of the inhabitants.
4. The Municipal Council is to consist of seven members, being British subjects, and
each being possessed of a property qualification of fifty pounds; and all ratepayers are
entitled to vote in the election of Councillors.
5. The Council can levy such rates only as are approved of by the majority of all the
ratepayers and by the Governor for the time being. In the same manner all bye-laws
passed by the Council must be confirmed by the Governor for the time being, before
they have the force of law.
6. The compulsory clause requiring lot-holders to cut down the standing trees, except
such as may be reserved on any lot for ornament, was introduced into the Act at the
request of the people themselves, who represented that there was no security for their
property, which was in perpetual danger of being destroyed either by the falling of trees
or by their conflagration, as long as any part of the forest within the inhabited portion of
the town remains.
7. The clause has also merits of another kind; it will have the effect of inducing
holders of lots, whether resident or not, to improve their property, and thereby benefit
the town.
8. The Act has been prepared with much care and consideration by the Attorney-
General, and will, I trust, be productive of much good.
I have, &c.
His Grace the Duke of Newcastle, (Signed)       JAMES DOUGLA S.
Enclosure in No. 10.
IBKn     (No-20-)
By his Excellency James Douglas, Companion of the most Honourable Order of the Bath, Governor
and Commander-in-Chief of Her Majesty's Colony of British Columbia and its dependencies,
Vice-Admiral of the same.
Proclamation having the force of Law in Her Majesty's Colony of British Columbia.
Whereas, by virtue of an Act of Parliament made and passed in the 21st and 22nd years of the
reign of Her most Gracious Majesty the Queen, and by a Commission under the Great Seal of the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, in conformity therewith, I, James Douglas, Governor
of the Colony of British Columbia, have been authorized by proclamation issued under the Public
Seal of the said Colony, to make laws, institutions, and ordinances for the peace and good
government of the same; and
Whereas it is expedient to establish a Municipal Council in the city of New Westminster:
Now, therefore, I, James Douglas, Governor of British Columbia, by virtue of the authority
aforesaid, do proclaim, order, and enact,
1. That from and after the date of this proclamation the tract of land specified in the first part
of the Schedule hereto shall be deemed for the purposes of this proclamation the city of New
2. The said city shall be divided into four wards, called respectively: Number One Ward, Number
Two Ward, Number Three Ward, and Number Four Ward.
The Number One Ward shall include the tract of land specified in the second part of the said
Schedule. The Number Two Ward shall include the tract of land specified in the third part of the
said Schedule. The Number Three Ward shall include the tract of land specified in the fourth part
of the said Schedule, and the Number Four Ward shall include the tract of land specified in the fifth
part of the said Schedule.
The Municipal Council.
3. The Municipal Council shall consist of seven councillors possessed of the qualifications and
subject to none of the disqualifications herein-after specified.
4. Being a male British subject of full age.
Having resided in the city of New Westminster for a space of three calendar months previous
Being seised or possessed in his own right in fee simple of a town lot or part of a town lot in the city
of New Westminster of the market value of not less than fifty pounds sterling.
5. Being a minister of any religious denomination.
Being a sheriff or sheriff's officer, or returning officer under this proclamation.
Being a bankrupt, insolvent debtor,' or outlaw, or having been convicted of any felony.
Having taken the oath of allegiance to or having become the subject or citizen of any foreign state
or Her successors, unless he shall have taken the oath of allegiance to Her Majesty and^Her^uc-
cessors before the Judge of the Supreme Court of Civil Justice of British Columbia three months at
least before the time of election.
Having directly or indirectly any contract with the Municipal Council.
Election of Councillors.
6. The persons possessed of the qualifications and under none of the disqualifications herein-after
oncerning electors of the said Municipal Council shall have one vote a-piece in the election
of a counci
lor or councillors for the ward wherein he has a property qualification ; but he shall only
or vote for
one only; and if he shall vote for one only, his vote shall only count one.
7. There
shall be elected in Number One Ward one councillor, in  Number Two Ward three
in Number Three Ward two councillors, and in  Number Four Ward one  councillor
S. Thee
ndidate or candidates, as the case may be, in each ward (duly qualified) who shall obtain
the greatest
number of votes in the ward for which he or they may stand shall be councillors.
Open Voting.
9. The v
ting for councillors shall be open, and no person shall vote by proxy.
Duration of Office of Councillors.
10. The
councillors shall be elected for one year only.    Provided always, that if any of the
or any person on his or their behalf, or any person in partnership with him or them, shall
enter into
>r obtain any interest directly or indirectly in any contract entered into by or with the PAPERS RELATING TO BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Municipal Council, such com
that if any councillor shall '
aforesaid within the space of
obtained any interest in any such cor
Council a sum of 50/., which said sun
" Municipal Council of the city of Ni
jr shall
lediately resign h:'
;ing of the Counc
nth from the time
iforesaid, such cou
may be recovered by actii
! Westminster."
councillorsbip. Provided always,
, or shall not resign his office as
when he shall have entered into or
jillor shall forfeit to the Municipal
i to be brought in the name of the
11. The
7th day of Augi
or poll, as the c
n shall b<
may be, shall be holden
Time of Election of Councillors.
the 6th day of Augu
aid days i
i the next day.
Place of Voting.
i the Chief
12. The voting shall take place in such place in the city of New Westminster i
Inspector of Police for the time being of British Columbia shall appoint, and such pers<
absence, such person as the Governor shall appoint, shall for the purpose of this proclamation be the
13. The returning officer shall, on the 25th day of July in each year, make out a list of qualified
voters, and such list shall be final and conclusive.
The returning officer shall give at least seven days' public notice of the place of voting.
Qualification of Vote
. Being a male of full
■ins, at the time of tet
e first electi
be such
in New Wt
spector of Police of Bi
voters and to take such
te aforesaid, placed on
ion of councillors, which shall be holden
of full age as shall, being owners or lessees of a
id, be placed upon  the
h Columbia aforesaid,
asures for that purpose
3 hereby authorized t
may think proper.
voters.    Provided always,
estminster, the voters shall
n lot or part of a town lot
for that purpose by the Chief In-
it of
Disqualification of Voters.
15. Being a sheriff, or a sheriff's officer, or returning officer.
Being a bankrupt, insolvent debtor, or outlaw, or having been convi
16. Every person tendering his vote at any election of a councillor
of the following oaths as he may be required by some other dulv quali
I.—I, A. B., do hereby swear that I am the same A. B. who
voters, and that I am now in my own right possessed of or tenant of I
respect of which I have been entered on the (list of voters or assessme
II—I, A. B., do hereby solemnly swear that I have not receive
knowledge has any other person on my behalf or for my benefit w
money, gift, advantage, place, or consideration for or for the purpose i
ill, before voting, take such
mentioned on the list of
:ement of qualification), in
oil, as the case may be).
• been promised, or to my
fed or been promised, any
nfluencing the vote which I
s befon
i for
>e  office of o
reupon declare
aid Poll
of nomination, nominate such persons as shall present
in nomination in their behalf by some duly qualified
llor. A show of hands shall then take place, and the
ch of the candidates has or have been elected by the
returning officer sli
show of hands.
Any candidate may demand a poll, which shall be taken on the day of el<
officer shall immediately after the close of the poll declare who has or h
greatest number of votes.
18. The poll shall be kept open between the hours of eleven o'clock a.m. and four o'clock p.
i, and the returning
been elected by the
19. The co
meeting of the
absence of sue
President of the Council.
ho shall be elected by the majority of the Coun
mil in case of the death, bankruptcy, insolvency, i
t, another councillor shall be elected the president.
Vacancies in the Council.
20. In case
of the death, bankr
nsolvency, resignation,
yr permanent absence from the
of New Westminster, for the spac
of th
ee calendar months, of
any c
uncillor, the president o
Council shall,
by writing, call upo
n the r
eturning officer to cau
e duly qualified person
elected in the
stead of the vacatii
cillor, by some day not
r than 21 days from  the
of the said not
ce, and such electior
take place accordingly,
and s
ich councillor shall act fo
residue of the
term for which such
lor so dead, bankrupt,
ent, absent, or resigned w
have held the
British Custody of Poll Books.
;  21. The returning officer shall, within forty-eight hours after the declaration of the poll, deliver
over the poll books to the stipendiary magistrate of New Westminster.
22. Any person may obtain a certified copy of the poll books from the stipendiary magistrate
aforesaid upon payment of one shilling per folio.
Validity of Elections.
23. The validity of all elections shall be tried by the returning officer aforesaid for the time
being, and his decisions thereon shall be final.
Proceedings of the Council.
d by virtue of this proclamation to be done by the
iiers, that may come before the Council, may (save as
the majority of the members of the Council who shall
of voters ; and minutes of the proceedings of all such
ito a book to be kept for that purpose, and shall be
it such meeting; and the said minutes shall be open
3 make copies thereof and extracts therefrom, at all
one shilling.
~ ncil, a notice of the time and place of such intended
?ast before such meeting, by fixing a copy of the said
n the door of the magistrates' court, and on the door of
igned by the president of the Council, who shall have
a requisition for that purpose, signed by three members of
presented to him, it shall be lawful for the said three
members to call a meeting of the Council, by giving such notice as is herein-after declared in that
behalf, such notice to be signed by the said members, instead of the president, and stating therein
the business proposed to be transacted at such meeting; and in every case a summons to attend the
Council, specifying the business proposed to be transacted at such meeting, signed by the president
or members, as the case may be, shall be left at the usual place of abode of every member of the
Council, or at the premises in respect of which he is placed on the municipal assessment roll, three
clear Says at least before such meeting, and no business shall be transacted at that meeting other than
the business which is specified in the notice. Provided, however, that there shall be four quarterly
meetings in every year, at which the Council shall meet for the transaction of general business, and
no notice shall be required of the business on such quarterly days; and the said quarterly meetings
All acts whatsoeve
il, and all questions
-after excepted), be
en? si
g 1
11 be drawn up and
signed by th
able t.i
-nes, on paym
e*nt of
a fe
1 be given th
ree cle
the P
st Offi
ce, and such
be s
shall i
to cal
en  p
shall be holden at noon, on the 15th dav of August, or, if the 15th day of Au
gust shall fall on a
Sunday,  then on the 16th day of August, and upon such other three days a
s the Council at the
quarterly meeting on the 15th day of August shall decide.
26. The Council may, out of their own body, from time to time appoint sucl
and so many Com-
mittees, either of a general or special nafjure, and consisting of such members as
they may think fit,
for any purpose which, in the discretion of the Council, would be better regula
ed and managed by
means of such Committee.    Provided always, that the acts of every such Commute
e shall be submitted
to the Council for their approval.
27. The Council shall determine their own place of meeting.
Powers of the Council.
28. The Council shall have power to pass bye-laws for any of the following pu
I. To regulate the sanitary condition of the said city.
II. To regulate the markets situate within the said city.
III. To provide means for the preservation of the said city from fire
and to regulate all
matters affecting the liability of the said city to fire.
IV. To provide for the prevention and removal of nuisances.
V. To regulate the introduction of diseased and unhealthy meat, anr
to provide for the
inspection of the same.
29. The Council shall also have power, by a resolution passed as herein-after
mentioned, to devote
any portion of the monies raised by the assessments herein-after mentioned to
my of the following
A. The construction, erection maintenance, and repair of the streets,
ways, footpaths, and
bridges situate within the said c
B. The drainage and sewerage of the said city.
C. The improvement of the sanitary condition of the said city.
D. The clearing of the lots situate within the said city.
Ivery bye-law shall be passed by the vote of at least four members of the Council, and at a
where at least five members of the Council shall be present.    The bye-law passed by the said PAPERS RELATING TO BRITISH COLUMBIA. 19
Council shall, when confirmed by the Governor for the time being of British Columbia, have the
31. The penalty by which any bye-law may be sought to be enforced may be stated in the bye-law,
and if no penalty is therein mentioned, the breach of any bye-law shall be punished in a summary way
by a fine not exceeding 10?., or by imprisonment for any time not exceeding three months, at the
discretion of the magistrate before whom the offender may be brought. The magistrate before whom
any offender may be brought, may, in case of a fine, adjudge that such offender shall pay the same
fit; and in case such sum of money shall not be paid at the time so appointed, the same shall be
levied by distress or sale of the goods and chattels of the offender, and for want of a sufficient distress,
such offender may be imprisoned, with or without hard labour, in the common gaol, for any term not
exceeding three months, or for the period mentioned in the bye-law, as the case may be. The
imprisonment to cease, if for default, upon payment of the fine and costs.
32. The Council may, by a resolution passed in manner provided for the passage of a bye-law,
devote any portion of the municipal funds, not exceeding in the whole for any one year one-third of
the municipal revenue, towards defraying the ordinary expenditure of the Council, in the conduct of
its general business, and to any of the purposes in respect whereof the Council is empowered to pass
33. Provided always, that the Council shall have no power to incur any personal liability other
than a liability for the misapplication of the municipal levenue, or any liability against the
municipality, or the revenue thereof, beyond the municipal revenue of the city for the current
34. The Council may, by a bye-law passed and confirmed as aforesaid, direct that a tax be levied on
all town lots within the said city, and all erections thereon, other than the property of the Government,
not to exceed '21. in the 100/. on the value of such town lots and erections as aforesaid. Such value
to be assessed as herein-after mentioned.
Provided always, that such tax shall not extend over or be levied for a longer time than the
financial year in which the same is authorized to be levied by any bye-law aforesaid.
35. The Council may, if called on so to do as herein-after mentioned by a bye-law passed and confirmed as aforesaid, direct the levy of a further rate, not exceeding 51. in the 100Z. on the value aforesaid, in addition to the rate lastly herein-before mentioned, and to continue for the same period;
•provided always, that such further rate shall not be'levied until a requisition lo that effect shall have
be of the amount specified in such requisition.
Assessment Boll.
36. An assessment roll shall on such day in each year as the Council shall appoint be prepared by
or on behalf of the Council, and the freehold and leasehold property situate within the said city shall'
be therein specified, together with the names of the persons occupying the same and the names of the
An assessor shall be appointed for the purpose of making such assessment by the Council, and the
said assessor shall make such assessment according to the actual value of the property at the time of
such assessment, and lay the same before the Council within fourteen days from the said day of
assessment. The assessment shall be made as well on the leasehold interest of every lessee of
any portion of a lot as upon the freehold interest of the same lot. Any person so assessed may,
if he feels himself aggrieved by the assessment, appeal to the Council, who shall summarily decide
The decision of the Council shall be final. The Council may, in addition to the bye-laws which
they are authorized to make as aforesaid, make bye-laws providing for the manner in which such
appeal may be conducted. Such bye-law to be passed and confirmed, and to have the force
In the event of nonpayment by any person of any rate or tax duly imposed by the Council, the
same may be levied by "the magistrate of the said city, by distress on the goods and chattels of the
person liable to pay the same, and in default of a sufficient distress by sale of the lot, or portion of a
loti together with the erections aforesaid, in respect of which such rates or tax shall have been
imposed, within 30 days from the day on which such payment ought to have been made, and such
sale shall be made in manner provided for the sale of lots in clause 37, and such sale shall have exactly
the same effect as if made under such clause.
Clearing of Lots.
any persons, owners of
and local newspapersj
than 30 days from the
notice be not complied w
or persons do not, with
town lots v
ate of the i
ith, the Cou
se of the pel
nthin  the saic
lserliou of sue
with the conse
ncil shall have
son or persons
ter the timber
Council for ornament; and in case such notice be not complied with, the Council shall have powi
cause the said timber and other trees to be cut down at the expense of the person or persons on w
lot the same may be, and if such person or persons do not, within 60 days after the timber or other
trees shall have been cut down as aforesaid, defray such expense, the magistrate may adjudge that
such person or persons shallpay the same, either immediately or within such period as the said
magistrate shall'think fit; and in case such sum of money shall not be paid at the time so appointed,
C 2 r
shall be levied by sale of th
as aforesaid, in manner hen
,le so adjudged to be made ai
/riting, upon such day and i
aagistrate shall
; lot upon which such timber or other trees shall have been so
in-after mentioned.
aforesaid shall be made upon the simple order of the  magis-
i such manner as the said magistrate may specify in such order, '
:h lot to the purchaser at such sale, and the title of such purchaser
mple, notwithstanding any irregularity or informality
proceedings prior thereto or subsequent thereon.
The magistrate aforesaid shall defray the expenses of and attendant upon the said sale, a
expenses for cutting down as aforesaid, out of the purchase monies arising from such sale, a
pay the residue of such purchase monies into the Treasury of British Columbia, in trust
person or persons to whom as real estate it may belong.
Provided always, that in no case shall the expense of clearing any 1
exceed the sum of seven pounds sterling.
Provided, that unless the Council shall completely cut down the trees on any lot, no demand shall
be made on the owner, nor shall any sale of any such lot be made under the provisions of this
38. This Proclamation may on all occasions be cited as the " New Westminster Municipal Council
Act, 1860."
(i»s Issued under the Public Seal of the said Colony, at Victoria, Vancouver Island, this Sixteenth day of July, in the year of our Lord One thousand eight hundred and sixty, and in
the Twenty-fourth yearof Her Majesty's reign, by me,
(Signed)       James Douglas.
By his Excellency's command.
William A. G. Young,
Acting Colonial Secretary.
First Part.
;  on  the  Official Map  as  the city of  NeT
All that tract of land which includes the pieces of ground described on the Official Map of the
city as Blocks 1, 2, 8, 9, 10, 11, 22, 23, and 28.
All that tract of land which includes the pieces of ground described on the Official Map of the said
city as Blocks 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, and 17.
All that tract of land which includes the pieces of ground described on the Official Map of the
city as Blocks 24, 25, 26, 29, 30, and 31.
Fifth Part.
All that tract of land which includes the pieces of gi
city as Blocks 18, 19, 20, 21, 27, 32, and 33.
1 described on the Official Map of the said
Copy of DESPATCH froi
)vernor Douglas, C.B., to his Grace the Duke of
(No. 76.) Victoria, Vancouver Island, August 16, I860.
My LORD Duke, (Received October 8, 1860.)
The intelligence I had the honour to communicate to your Grace in my Despatch,
8 13-   No. 70,* of the 3rd instant, .respecting the discovery of rich and paying gold fields at
Rock Creek and in the Shimilkomeen country, have been confirmed by the arrival of
different persons with samples which they themselves have dug in those parts.
The gold is nuggety ana of fine quality, being readily separated from the soil without
the use of quicksilver, and is found away from the watercourses as well as in the river
" e realizing from sis to 50 dollars a day to the mani
beds, and the miners are said to b PAPERS RELATING TO BRITISH COLUMBIA. 21
2. One instance of remarkable success is mentioned in the report of Mr. O'Reilly, the    Erith
Gold Commissioner at Fort Hope, it being of two miners, who realized in six weeks by   Columj
mining the sum of 1,300 dollars, and their  confidence in the  productiveness of the       	
country was so great that they soon after invested the whole sum in the purchase of
another claim.
3. In consequence of those reports there has been a great rush of people to the new
diggings, and all articles of consumption are scarce and selling there at a high price.
4. The same report mentions the very important discovery of a silver lead at Union
Bar near Fort Hope.
5. The specimens of the ore sent here appear rich and valuable, but it is impossible to
predict without a severer test the actual value of the discovery, and whether the lead
will be rich enough to pay the working expenses or not.
6. The discoverers, and upwards of 70 other persons who have recorded claims on
the lead appear, however, to be much elated, and fully satisfied of its value; and they
are said to be importing blasting tools and materials in large quantities, with the intention
of turning the discovery to immediate account.
7. Several tons of the ore having already been sent to New Westminster for assay,
and we will no doubt receive further reports of its value in the course of a few days.
8. Specimens of silver ore have also been found at the mouth of Harrison's River.
One of these yielded on assay, at the rate of 20/. worth of silver to the ton of ore.
9. 1 propose to despatch a party to investigate the mineral resources of that part of
the country, in hopes of making some valuable discovery, which may attract and afford
employment to a population, as the whole country about Harrison Lake is otherwise
valueless, being mountainous, rocky, and utterly unfit for tillage.
10. The tidings from Yale, Cayoosh, and Lytton are generally satisfactory.
11. The new roads are progressing apace, and the cost of transport is being gradually
reduced with the increasing facilities of communication.
12. The number of miners collected about Alexandria and Quesnel River rendered it
necessary for the maintenance of peace and order to form a police station at the former
place; and I have to announce to your Grace that I have lately appointed Mr. l'hilip
H. Nind, as Magistrate and Assistant Gold Commissioner for that district.
There being nothing further of an unusual nature to communicate,
I have, &c.
His Grace the Duke of Newcastle, (Signed)       JAMES DOUGLAS.
&c. &c. &c.
Copy of DESPATCH from Governor Douglas, C.B., to his Grace the Duke of
(No. 86.) Victoria, Vancouver Island, October 8, I860.
My LORD DUKE, (Received November 30, 1860.)
Having very recently completed a rather protracted journey, exceeding five weeks
of almost constant travelling, in British Columbia, I regret that there is not time to communicate to your Grace, by the mail of this day, now about leaving for San Francisco,
the result of my observations on the character and prospects of that Colony.
2. On leaving Vancouver Island I proceeded by the northern, or Harrison River road
to Douglas, and from thence successively visited Cayoosh, Lytton, Shimilkomeen, and
Rock Creek. On my return I followed the mountain road to Hope, and afterwards paid
a hasty visit to Yale and New Westminster..
3. The lately discovered gold district in Shimilkomeen is, for the time being, attached
to the Hope district, a course which I was compelled to adopt for want of an efficient
officer at that time to conduct the public business of the new district.
4. The fame of the rich diggings discovered at Rock Creek have drawn to that place,
chiefly from the State of Oregon, upwards of 500 miners, and persons engaged in other
pursuits. I therefore found it necessary to lose no time in making arrangements to maintain the peace and to protect the public revenue by the appointment of a Magistrate and
Gold Commissioner for that district, together with other officers to enforce the Customs
laws of the Colony, and that object was, 1 am happy to say, effected without creating any
dissatisfaction among the foreign population there present.
C 3
f r
a        5. I am further glad to report that peace and good order exist everywhere within the
^  Colony, and that a general and marked feeling of confidence is exhibited by the resident
population in the resources of the country.
6. I shall endeavour to prepare a report of my late proceedings for your Grace's
information, before the departure of the next mail.
I have, &c.
His Grace the Duke of Newcastle, (Signed)        JAMES DOUGLAS.
&c. &c. &c.
Copy of DESPATCH from Governor Douglas, C.B., to his Grace the Duke of
(Separate.) Victoria, Vancouver Island, October 9, I860.
(Received, December 18, 1860.)
My LoRd Duke, (Answered, No. 66, February 1, 1861, page 68.)
I have the honour to submit for your Grace's information the following particulars
relative to a recent journey in British Columbia, from whence I have just returned.
2. I left Victoria by the regular steam packet on the evening of 28th of August, and
early next day landed at New Westminster.
3. I heard with much concern on my arrival there, that the capital was suffering from
one of those fluctuations in commerce common to all countries, and that there was much
depression in business circles, and a marked decrease of trade, a fact which was indeed
corroborated by the Customs returns, it appearing from them that the imports for the
four previous weeks had fallen off about 25 per cent, as compared with the increasing
ratio of the preceding month; a casualty generally attributed by business men to the
growing overland trade with the possessions of the United States in Oregon and
Washington territory, which now supply, by the southern frontiers of the Colony, a large
proportion of the bulky articles, such as provisions and bread stuffs, consumed in the
eastern districts of British Columbia ; and those imports, it was supposed, had this year
been for the most part fraudulently introduced, to the great loss and detriment of the
home merchant and the fair trader.
4. It is, however, not easy to conceive how so extensive a contraband trade as this
would imply, could be carried on without the knowledgeof the, vigilant officer stationed
on the frontier for the protection of the revenue, whose official reports give no room for
such impressions. I am therefore led to believe that the present depression is traceable
to another cause, and may with more probability be regarded as the simple result of over-
importation, and I have no doubt a revival will take place, and trade resume its
accustomed tone as soon as the stocks of goods in the Colony have been reduced.
The officers of the Colony residing permanently at New Westminster, and employed in
the management of the several departments of the public administration, are as follows:—
Military - - Colonel R. C. Moody, R.E., commanding.
Lands and Works - Colonel R. C. Moody, R.E., Chief Commissioner.
Judiciary - - Matthew B. Begbie, Judge.
Police - - - Chartres Brew, Chief Inspector.
Treasury - - Captain W. D. Gosset, R.E., Treasurer.
„      Assay Office- F. G. Claudet, Assayer.
„ „        C. A. Bacon, Melter.
Customs - - Wymond Hamley, Collector.
Post Office      - - W. R. Spalding, Postmaster.
6. The Treasury was lately transferred from Victoria to New Westminster, where all
the financial business of the Colony is now transacted.
The Assay Office has been in operation since the beginning of the month of August,
and the last accounts of the 28th of that month give a return of 1,600 ounces of gold
dust which had been smelted and run into bars of various weights.
Those and the other departments are in a state of efficient organization.
The public offices are plain substantial buildings, devoid of ornament, and constructed
on a scale adapted to our limited means; they are nevertheless roomy and commodious,
and on the whole not unsuitable to the present business of the Colony.
7- There has not been much activity in building since my report transmitted to your
Grace in the month of May last, but town property nevertheless sustains its former price, 1
and the inhabitants of New Westminster appear to have unlimited confidence in the
ultimate progress of the place.
8. The run from New Westminster to Douglas was effected by one of the river
steamers in 16 hours, including brief stoppages at Langley and Carnarvon, and the
whole distance from Victoria to Douglas in 24 running hours, being little over half the
time occupied by the same journey last year. The charges on the transport of goods
have also proportionately decreased, freights being now generally taken at 2,1. 8s. a ton, or
25 per cent, less than the former rates.
9- While at Douglas I despatched an exploring party under the command of Dr.
Forbes, of Her Majesty's ship " Topaze," for whose assistance I am indebted to the
kindness of Rear Admiral Sir Robert L. Baynes, to examine the country bordering on
Harrison Lake and River, where many fragments of silver and copper ore have been
found. A specimen of the former, which was carefully assayed, gave a return of 50/.
worth of silver to the ton. The copper ore appears also to contain a large proportion of
that metal.
10. I am in hopes that Dr. Forbes's scientific researches will be productive of much
good to the Colony, as the district subjected to his examination has all the characteristics
of a mineral country, is almost destitute of arable land, and, except timber, possesses no
ascertained natural products capable of contributing to the support or giving remunerative
employment for labour. It is, therefore, especially desirable that no effort should be
wanting for the early development of the minerals supposed to be contained in the soil,
otherwise the district may, for years to come, remain a wilderness without inhabitants.
11. Douglas is still an inconsiderable town, much improved, however, since my former
visit in June last. A Stipendiary Magistrate is stationed here, Mr. J. B. Gaggin, who also
performs the duties of Gold- Commissioner within the district, which extends from Carnarvon to Port Anderson. A brisk trade is carried on from Douglas with the mining
districts of the interior, and the constant arrival and departure of trains of pack-mules
give to the place a lively and bustling appearance.
12. We pursued our journey by the newly formed waggon road, then nearly finished,
as far as the Lesser Lillooet Lake, 28 miles from Douglas, a work of magnitude and of the
utmost public utility, which, I think it only right to inform your Grace, has been laid
out and executed by Captain Grant and a detachment of Royal Engineers under his
command with a degree of care and professional ability reflecting the highest credit on
that active and indefatigable officer.
13. A number of waggons, imported by the enterprising merchants of Douglas, have
commenced running on the new road, and the cost of transport has already been greatly
reduced. I look forward with confidence to further important reductions in the rates of
transport, as the most experienced carriers are of opinion that goods of all kinds may and
will be carried the whole distance (100 miles) from Douglas to Cayoosh for 20/. a ton,
which would be a reduction of 250 per cent, en former rates. The effect of so large a
saving on the carriage of goods will be of vast importance to the country, and no doubt
give a prodigious impulse to trade and the settlement of the public lands.
14. A row-boat is still the only means of conveyance over the Lesser Lillooet Lake,
which is nearly five miles long, and one mile and a half distant from Lillooet Lake, with
which it is, however, connected by a narrow river, full of shoals and dangerous rapids,
perilous in their present state for any larger craft than Indian canoes. This circumstance
renders a transhipment and a resort to land carriage for a mile and a half on an excellent
road necessary before reaching Lillooet Lake. Various plans have been proposed for rendering the river between those lakes navigable, but, important as would be the improvement,
the cost is altogether beyond our present means, and the work must be left for a future
15. A very fine piece of gold-bearing quartz, which I received at this point of my
journey, determined me to instruct the District Gold Commissioner to cause the mountains west of Harrison River, where-the quartz was found, to be carefully examined, as
there is a possibility of discovering and turning to advantage the lead from whence it
16. There are many extensive quartz veins in the valley of the Harrison, but none
of those which have been inspected contain visible traces of gold. The bed of the
river, however, yields gold almost everywhere in small quantities; and at one place, 12
miles from Douglas, a party of French miners have brought in sluices, and are now
working to great advantage, making as much as 10 dollars a day to the man. The only
drawback is the shortness of the working season, which they represent as limited on the
one hand by the flooded state of the river in summer, and on the other by the severe cold
in winter, which is found to have the effect of preventing the amalgamation of the fine f
particles of gold, and much is therefore lost in the process of washing.    Their statements
•   are, no doubt, in part true, but I think it may, notwithstanding, be safely concluded that
all these difficulties will be overcome, and this part of the country be profitably worked,
whenever men of greater skill and application turn their attentiou to the subject.
17. Some of the tributaries of the Harrison also yield a fair return of gold, varying
from five to 10 dollars a day; hut that will not satisfy men whose excited imaginations
indulge in extravagant visions of wealth and fortune to be realized in remoter diggings.
These all with one accord rush off to the Quesnel and Cariboeuf countries, and neglect
the less'productive districts.
18. A number of fine specimens of coarse gold have lately been brought by Indians
from the Lillooet River beyond the lake, and I shall not fail to have its course carefully
searched, at the public expense, should no private adventurers in the meantime anticipate
that intention.
19. The paddle-wheel 25 horse-power steamer " Martzell," a small boat of 50 tons
burden, built by Mr. Decker, an enterprising American, conveyed my party in four
hours to Port Pemberton, at the further extremity of Lillooet Lake. There is nothing to
prevent vessels of a much larger class than the " Martzell" from running on this lake,
as it is deep enough to float a 500 ton ship, aud there are no rocks or concealed dangers
whatever. It is, in fact, a highland lake, surrounded by lofty mountains rising abruptly
from the water's edge. Port Pemberton is five miles distant from the Meadows, a fine
tract of several thousand acres of rich alluvial land, situated at the mouth of the Lillooet
River. A settlement is already formed at that attractive spot, and the soil is most
productive, the settlers having raised this year excellent crops of oats, Indian corn,
potatoes, and hay; the barley, however, was indifferent, in consequence it was supposed
of imperfect tillage, but I never saw better garden-stuffs of .all kinds, especially tomatoes
and cucumbers, which were exceedingly fine. Mr. Jones, the oldest and principal settler,
raised last year, as he assured me, a very fine crop of potatoes, for which he found a
ready sale at 5d. a pound, and thereby realized the large return of upwards of 240/. an
acre. Having this year a much larger crop, he expects to do better, though the price
of vegetables is now comparatively moderate, being 50 per cent, lower than last year.
20. Near the settlement is an Indian reserve of several hundred acres of land which is
retained for the benefit of and occupied by about 30 native families, who live on the
most amicable terms with their white neighbours, and look healthy, clean, and altogether
in very comfortable circumstances. They live by fishing, and on the produce of the
chase, and of the laud, which they cultivate, to some extent, with care and skill. They
appear happy and contented, and had no complaint whatever to make.
21. The Horse-way, formed in the year 1858, is still the only road from Port Pemberton to Anderson Lake, the distance being about 34 miles. It is a fair and passable
road of the kind, but must be improved into a cart-road without delay. The line of road
runs between parallel ranges of mountains, rising on both sides with the unbroken
regularity of a wall, into dark, rugged, and gloomy masses, thousands of feet above the
mountain stream that traverses the valley beneath, which is in places a mere defile, and
nowhere exceeds two miles in breadth.
The summit or half-way house is prettily situated on the mountain side overlooking a
rich expanse of arable land covered with a profusion of potatoes, beets, carrots, tomatoes,
cucumbers, and other vegetables ; a certain proof of the great capabilities of the soil and
climate.    A large stock of hay was also carefully put up by the provident owner for
22. The country from that point presents a more cheerful aspect. The river winds
along the mountain side towards Lake Anderson, affording lovely views of the
exceedingly beautiful valley beneath, with its gay covering of bright green woods.
23. We arrived at Port Anderson just in time to participate in the trial trip of the
" Lady of the Lake" steamer, and a most successful one it proved to be: the machinery
working well, and no casualty whatever occurring to cause delay. We had to boat over
Lake Seatou, as the steamer usually plying there was under repair. A walk of five miles
from Port Seaton brought us to the banks of Fraser River, and to the mining town of
24. The country between Douglas and Cayoosh probably contains a smaller proportion
of agricultural land than any other district in British Columbia. The whole district may
be truly described as a succession of valleys and mountains covered with woods almost
to their rocky summits, and abounding in rivers and streams of every size. Forests
of magnificent trees and great water-power constitute its natural advantages; its
metalliferous resources, though probably vast, having yet to be explored. PAPERS RELATING TO BRITISH COLUMBIA. 25
25.' Houses and fields begin, here and there, to break the cheerless solitude of the
valleys; and in no instance that has come under my notice, has the husbandman been   !
disappointed of his reward.    Its genial   climate, may be inferred from the fact  that
tomatoes ripen in the open air, and had come to full maturity at the end of August;
when melons raised in the same manner, were nearly fit for use.
26. The settlers, though few in number, were full of hope and confidence; pleased
with the country, and satisfied from experience that the climate is one of the healthiest
in the world. The winters are moderate, the minimum temperature being Zero,
Fahrenheit; but the cold is seldom so severe. The lakes have never been known to
freeze, nor the snow to lie so deep as to interrupt the ordinary traffic of the road.
27- The district is, in short, not wanting in any of those conditions which contribute
to the comfort and happiness of man ; and should the explorations now in progress add
the .precious metals to its known elements of wealth, there will be no want of inducements
to attract and retain an industrious population.
28. As the road advances from Port Seaton towards Fraser River, a marked change is
observed in the character of the country; the mountains are left behind, the massive
forests gradually.disappear and are succeeded by green hills and open plains, dotted with
fine old trees of the species " Pinus Ponderosa." The change is grateful, the contrast
bringing into bolder relief the charming scenery of Cayoosh, which is situated about
half a mile from Fraser River.
29. This being the centre of a flourishing trade, where all goods brought from Douglas
are necessarily deposited in their transit to the interior, and the chief town of a valuable
mining district, a Stipendiary Magistrate, Mr. Thomas Elwyn, who also acts as Gold
Commissioner, is stationed here. Successful attempts at cultivation have been made on
a small scale near the town, and streams of water from the neighbouring hills have been
skilfully diverted from their natural course and applied to the important purposes of
mining, and of irrigating the soil, which thereby acquires a degree of fertility and productiveness otherwise unattainable in a climate seldom visited by summer showers.
Cayoosh is thus a place of much real and prospective importance.
30. I found nothing defective in the state of the public administration. The people
are satisfied with the laws. The district accounts appear to be kept with order and
regularity, and returns of the local revenue have been duly made at proper intervals to
the Colonial Treasurer. The regular establishment consists of a magistrate and one
constable, who attend to all duties connected with the public service ; the former being
however, fully authorized to employ casual aid whenever emergencies arise.
31. An address which I received from the principal inhabitants of Cayoosh makes no
allusion to any local grievance affecting the interests of the town or district, nor suggests
any change in the mining or general laws of the country. The object of the address,
of which a copy is transmitted, was to urge the early sale of town lots at Cayoosh, protection for the Chinese miners, and the removal of stake nets and all obstructions having
the effect of preventing the ascent of salmon from the sea to the inland rivers.
32. I gave immediate attention to those matters, and addressed a communication to
the Commissioner of Lands and Works, expressing regret that early measures had not
been taken to meet the public demand for town land, as delay in such cases discourages
settlement, checks improvement, and is ruinous to the country.
33. I encouraged the inhabitants to build, and improve their lots, with the assurance
that the value of such improvements would be added to the upset price, and reserved for -
the benefit of the holder when the lots are sold.    They will, in that way be fully protected from loss.
34. The assizes were opened by the Judge of British Columbia during my stay at
Cayoosh, for the trial of two Indians charged with having murdered two Chinese miners.
The facts were established on the admission of the accused themselves ; but, it appearing
from the evidence that the deceased were the aggressors, and had been slain without
malice prepense, in a casual affray, arising out of an indecent assault committed on the
wife of one of the Indians, the jury returned a verdict of " manslaughter " against one of
the prisoners, and found the other " not guilty."
35. I had an opportunity of communicating personally with the native Indian tribes,
who assembled in great numbers at Cayoosh during my stay. I made them clearly
understand that Her Majesty's Government felt deeply interested in their welfare, and
had sent instructions that they should be treated in all respects as Her Majesty's other
subjects; and that the local magistrates would attend to their complaints, and guard
them from wrong, provided they abandoned their own barbarous modes of retaliation,
and appealed in all cases to the laws for relief and protection.   I also forcibly impressed 26 PAPERS RELATING TO BRITISH COLUMBIA.
upon their minds that the same laws would not fail to punish offences committed by them
•  against the persons or property of others.
I also explained to them that the magistrates had instructions to stake out, and reserve
for their use and benefit, all their occupied village sites and cultivated fields and as much
land in the vicinity of each as they could till, or was required for their support; and that
they might freely exercise and enjoy the rights of fishing the lakes and rivers, and of hunting over all unoccupied Crown lands in the colony; and that on their becoming registered
free miners they might dig and search for gold, and hold mining claims on the same terms
precisely as other miners: in short, I strove to make them conscious that they were recognized members of the commonwealth, and that by good conduct they would acquire a certain
status, and become respectable members of society. They were delighted with the idea,
and expressed their gratitude in the warmest terms, assuring me of their boundless devotion and attachment to Her Majesty's person and crown, and their readiness to take up
arms at any'moment in defence of Her Majesty's dominion and rights.
36. Three exploratory parties were dispatched, during my stay, from Cayoosh: the
first, under the charge of Sapper Duffie, had orders to examine a route by the Cayoosh
River from Port Seaton to Lilloet Lake, reported by the natives to be more direct, and
in many other respects more convenient than the present route by Anderson Lake; the
second, under Sapper Breckenridge, who is directed to examine the character and capabilities of the country between Cayoosh and Bridge River; and the third, composed
of Mr. Martin, an intelligent English miner, and two natives, was dispatched to
the mountains east of Port Anderson to inspect certain quartz veins, said to be
37. Lytton was the next stage in my progress. There is a good horse-way from
Cayoosh, but travelling by the river being more expeditious, I chose that alternative,
and made the run of 70 miles in five and a half hours. The stream is swift, and a
number of dangerous rapids render it in that part impracticable in high water and unsafe
at all seasons.
38. The mining bars were, with few exceptions, deserted, or occupied by Chinese and
Indians, who appear to form the great body of miners on this part of the river.
39. Mr. H. M. Ball is Stipendiary Magistrate and Gold Commissioner for the Lytton
district; and, with the exception of one regular constable, there is no other person 'on
the establishment; whenever circumstances render a larger force indispensable, it is
made up by means of casual assistants and special constables called out for the
40. I granted a sum of 100/., at the petition of the inhabitants, in aid of a horse-way
to facilitate the transport of goods to Alexandria and Quesnel River. Other small
sums were also granted for bridges, and to improve the communications with Quayome.
A party was also dispatched to examine the country between Van Winkle Bar on Fraser
River and Lilloet Lake, with the view of opening a horse-way between those places.
41. Proposals were lately made by a private company to throw a bridge, at their own
expense, over the Thompson at Lytton, to be repaid by a system of tolls; and the
negotiation will probably be concluded in a short time, as I am desirous of promoting so
useful a scheme.
42. The gardens about this town are highly productive, and furnish a profusion and
variety of vegetables; but, considering there is no want of good soil and clear land,
I was surprised to find that not a single farm had been opened in the district. The
want of roads and the enormous cost of transport may in some measure account for that
circumstance, but it also strongly marks the character of a population devoted to other
pursuits, and who probably look to other countries for a permanent home.
43. Complaints were made here, as at Cayoosh, of the non-sale of town lands ; and I
again addressed the Commissioner of Lands and Works on the subject, directing an
early sale on the spot, through the agency of the district magistrate.
44. The Indians mustered in great force during my stay at Lytton. My communications with them were to the same effect as to the native tribes who assembled at
Cayoosh, and their gratitude, loyalty, and devotion were expressed in terms equally
warm and earnest.
45. The further report of my journey to Shimilkomeen and Rock Creek I will take
the liberty of communicating to your Grace hereafter, as this Despatch has been drawn
out to a greater length than I had proposed.
I have, &c.
His Grace the Duke of Newcastle, (Signed)       JAMES DOUGLAS. It
Enclosure in No. 13.
Address of the Grand Jury at Cayoosh to Governor Douglas.
The Grand Jury beg to welcome your Excellency to Cayoosh, and to offer you their congratulations on the daily increasing prosperity of the Colony of British Columbia, and on the steady advance
of trade, mining operations, and settlement in and near Cayoosh.
The Grand Jury desire to call your Excellency's attention more particularly to the great number of
Chinamen now residing in and flocking to this Colony; that from our experience of them we find that
they are a steady source of profit to the trader and materially increase the revenue of the Colony, and
in addition greatly benefit the country by the extreme development of its mineral resources; they are also
a well-behaved and easily-governed class of population, and the Grand Jury desire that your Excellency will afford them every due protection to prevent their being driven away, either by attacks from
Indians or otherwise.
The Grand Jury representing the general feeling of the inhabitants of this town request that the
town and suburban lots be speedily offered for sale by public auction, as no security is felt in improving
property until it is bona fide purchased.
The Indian population of the Upper Fraser have been making great complaints of the scarcity of
salmon, which constitutes their winter food. They represent this scarcity to be owing to stake-nets
being fixed at Langley, which bar the ascent of the fish, and the Grand Jury therefore trust that your
Excellency will take measures to stop these proceedings, if really found to exist.
The Grand Jury would, in conclusion, draw your Excellency's attention to the inefficient state of the
law as relates to tie collection of small debts, and request that measures may be instituted to prevent,
by a summary process, parties who have contracted debts from leaying the Colony with their property.
(Signed)       Allan McDonald,
No. 14.
Copy of DESPATCH from Governor Douglas, C.B., to his Grace the Duke of
■ Newcastle.
(Separate.) Victoria, Vancouver Island, October 25, I860.
f|.    _ ^ (Received January 2, 1861.)
My LORD DUKE, (Answered, No. 66, February 1, 1861, page 68.)
Resuming the subject of my report on British Columbia, marked Separate, of the
9th of the present month, I proceed to inform your Grace that on leaving Lytton,
accompanied by Mr. Good, Private Secretary, and four mounted attendants, my course
was directed towards Shimilkomeen and Rock Creek, the latter being about 228 miles
from Lytton.
2. It is not my intention, neither does it appear necessary, that I should occupy your
Grace's time with a narrative of the incidents of the journey. I will, therefore, in
continuing this report, dwell on subjects only which serve to elucidate the present state
of the country, its natural capabilities as a Colony, and the effect of its institutions on the
development of its resources.
3. With the exception of the miners assembled on Thompson River at Rock Creek
and Shimilkomeen, the part of British Columbia through which my route lay, is still
exclusively occupied by the native Indian tribes, a race of bold and active hunters,
forming, when mustered in force on their hardy native horses, an imposing array. I fell
in with detachments at different points of the route, where they had assembled to offer a
rude but cordial welcome.
4. I received them with every mark of respect and kindness, entered freely into conversation with the chiefs, assuring them of the warm regard of Her Majesty's Government, and leading them into the discussion of their own affairs in order to discover if
they entertained any real or fancied grievance which might lead to disaffection, or induce
them to make reprisals on the white settlers.
5. There was one subject which especially pre-occupied their minds, as I discovered by
the frequent allusions they made to it, namely, the abject condition to which the cognate
native tribes of Oregon have been reduced by the American system of removing whole
tribes from their native homes into distant reserves, where they are compelled to stay,
and denied the enjoyment of that natural freedom and liberty of action without which
existence becomes intolerable. They evidently looked forward with dread to their own
future condition, fearing lest the same wretched fate awaited the natives of British
I succeeded in disabusing their minds of those false impressions by fully explaining the
views of Her Majesty's Government, and repeating in substance what I have in a former
part of this report informed your Grace was said on the same subject to the assembled
tribes at Cayoosh and Lytton.
6. Those communications had the effect of reassuring their minds and eliciting assu-
• ranees of their fidelity and attachment.
7. An appalling Indian outrage committed in the neighbouring State of Oregon, as
_ related with its attendant horrors in a slip enclosed herewith from the  " Vancouver
Chronicle," will show better than comment the impolicy of the American system, and
how careful we should be in guarding against the contagion of evil example, by treating ,.
the natives with justice, and removing when necessary, every cause of distrust as to the
ultimate views and policy of Her Majesty's Government with respect to them.
8. The country situated between Lytton and Rock Creek is highly attractive, and no
other part of British Columbia, nor of the United States territory north of Columbia
River, offers so many inducements in point of soil and climate to the enterprising
Its distance from the coast, and difficulties of access have hitherto almost excluded it
from intercourse; but as those impediments are removed by the formation of roads, now
in.rapid progress, from the navigable points of Fraser River, it will no doubt become a
centre of population and the seat of flourishing settlements.
9. I will not attempt to describe its physical aspect; but to give a general idea in few
words, I will observe that it forms an elevated table land of great extent, sometimes
rising into hills, and is traversed by many noble valleys, and watered by numberless
streams flowing into its great arteries the Thompson, Shimilkomeen, and Okanagon
Rivers. There are many varieties of soils, much arable land, and a great deal that is fit
only for pasture; but as a remark generally applicable, I may observe that the valleys
contain a large extent of good open land; while the steeply swelling hills are mostly
covered with trees formed into groups, or growing with park-like regularity, widely apart
and free from brush or underwood; but the peculiar feature of the country is the profusion of grass that covers both woodland and meadow, affording rich pastures for
domestic animals, a circumstance which gives to this district an extraordinary value, as
every part of the surface, whether hill or valley, may be turned to account and made
available either for tillage or stock farming.
10. The climate, like that of all other parts of the Colony, is perfectly healthy; and
there is much less humidity at all seasons than in the districts bordering on Fraser
River. Vegetation was nevertheless fresh and green to a degree that was hardly to be
expected at that time of the year. The seasons exhibit no extremes of temperature, the
summers being warm and the winters sharp but not severe.
The lakes, except the Okanagon, and all the rivers, freeze in winter; and there are
occasional falls of snow, but it seldom lies in the valleys more than a few weeks at a time.
The fact that horses and domestic cattle are left out all winter to shift for themselves,
and generally thrive without any care on the range of the country, is probably, however,
a better criterion of the temperature than any other circumstance that can be adduced.
It is in rshort, a very pleasant and desirable part of the Colony, possesses a healthy
climate and many other advantages, pastures being already formed where thousands of
cattle may find food; and the industrious colonist will find it much better and easier to
raise crops than in the woodland districts, where it takes much labour and expense to
clear a small space.
11. After five days' travel in a fine open country we reached the main branch of the
Shimilkomeen River, a few miles below the lately discovered gold diggings, where 80 or
100 miners were at work, all seemingly in high spirits, pleased with the country, and
elated with their prospects and earnings. Many of them were engaged in putting up log
huts, and making other preparations, as they intend to winter there if they succeed in
having supplies of flour and other necessaries brought from Hope before the mountains
become impassable from snow. As that was clearly impossible without greater facilities
of communication, it was evident they would have no alternative but to desert their
claims and leave the country, at a serious loss to themselves and to the Colony.
12. That circumstance brought the vital subject of roads again forcibly to mind. A
road party working out from Hope, had, I knew, nearly got the length of the summit
ridge, about 36 miles distant from our camp, and could means be found of cutting
through to that point, and connecting Hope with Shimilkomeen by a practicable trail
before the advent of winter, I felt assurred that an important object for the country
would be gained, and I resolved to make the attempt. Some Indian hunters were soon
found who undertook to conduct a party to the desired point, by a better and less
circuitous line than the present almost impassable trail; and the subject was immediately
brought before the miners, who, seeing the object of the measure, at once volunteered
in force sufficient for the work, and early the following morning a party properly equipped PAPERS RELATING TO BRITISH COLUMBIA. 29
with tools, provisions, and means of transport, was dispatched with instructions to open a    British
path which would connect with the horse-way from Hope. Columbia:
13. Leaving Mr. Good and one of my attendants at this point to urge on'the work,
and to inquire into the condition of the miners, I pushed on without further delay with
my three other attendants in light marching order, towards Rock Creek. On the way
I fell in with Mr. Cox, the Revenue Officer of the southern frontier, who joined my
party, and after three days travel we arrived at the town known as Rock Creek, situated
at the junction of that stream and Colvile River.
14. The town contains 15 houses, and several more in progress, chiefly shops and
buildings intended for the supply and entertainment of miners.
15. Nearly 500 miners are congregated about Rock Creek and another tributary
of the Colvile, about 10 miles below that point.
16. The Rock Creek diggings were discovered last October by Mr. Adam Beam, a
native of Canada, as he was travelling from Colvile to Shimilkomeen; he again visited
the spot in December, but did not begin to work till the 7th of May: the following is a
statement of his daily earnings with the cradle for the first few days.afterwards:—
First day's work produced 20 dollars,
Second       „ „       43     „
Third „ „       33      „
Fourth       „ „       27     „
Fifth „ „       32     „
Sixth „ „        17     „
Seventh      „ „       99     „
The subsequent record of his daily earnings could not be found, but on the 20th of
June, that is, six weeks from the day of commencement, he had made 977 dollars in
gold, valuing it at 16 dollars to the ounce.
17. Hugh McKay, another Canadian miner, said that on his claim, the bed-earth of>
the stream yielded nothing, but a drift into the bank produced 20 dollars a day. I
moreover ascertained from the testimony of the miners' generally, that none of those who
had succeeded in opening gold claims, were making anything less than 10 dollars a day.
18. Rock Creek is supposed to indicate the course of the gold lead, and to be everywhere auriferous; it is also believed that all the benches near the river will pay well;
and many of the miners propose running in tunnels without delay. There is much
uncertainty however, as to the real extent and value of the lead, nor can it be ascertained
until the country comes to be more extensively prospected.
19. I met the assembled population of the place the day after my arrival, and addressed
them on various subjects. I did not attempt to conceal that the object of my visit to
Rock Creek was to inquire into their conduct, and to suppress the disorders which
were reported to. be prevalent in that part of the country; and I assured them that I
was agreeably surprised to find that those reports were unfounded. After that merited
compliment, I proceeded to explain the views of Her Majesty's Government, the general
mining regulations of the Colony, especially directing their attention to that section of
the Act which provides for the establishment of mining boards, with powers to frame
byelaws adapted to the circumstances of each district; or in other words, investing the
miners themselves with full powers to amend their own laws. 1 further pointed out the
nature and object of the Pre-emption Law, passed expressly for the encouragement of
settlers; and demonstrated the fact that the whole policy of Her Majesty's Government
was considerate and liberal in the extreme. I then announced the appointment of Mr.
Cox as Justice of the Peace and Assistant Gold Commissioner for the district of Rock
Creek ; and that he was duly authorized to punish offences, to attend to the maintenance
of civil order, to the registration of mining claims, and to receive all dues payable to
Her Majesty's Government. I concluded by exhorting them, one and all, as they
valued and looked to the laws of the land for protection, to aid and assist him on all
occasions, not only as a duty incumbent on good subjects, but as being also their manifest
interest; for, I continued, if the laws are not enforced there can be no security, and
without security there can be no prosperity; therefore, I went on to say, as you hope
for redress yourselves when individually suffering wrong, you must be prepared to rally
round the magistrate charged with the execution of the laws.
The meeting ended pleasantly, and the measures announced appeared to give general
20. Mr. Cox then proceeded to the less pleasant task of levying the regular customs
charge on all goods found at Rock Creek which had not been entered for importation;
such goods being really contraband and legally forfeited, might have been seized for the
British    benefit of the Crown, had it not been considered inexpedient in the circumstances to
Columbia.   mfl;ct the extreme penalty of the law.
21. I left soon afterwards on my return to Fraser River, and have since then added
another officer to the revenue establishment at Rock Creek, and authorized the employment of any amount of force when necessary for restraining the illicit importation of
goods into British Columbia; and the cost of such extra establishment is to be superadded as a Treasury fine to the import duties. It is, however, impossible, I conceive,
altogether to prevent smuggling at places situated so immediately on the frontier as
Rock Creek, which is within two miles of the boundary. The simple and only certain
means of effecting the object is to under-sell the foreign merchant by supplying goods
at the cheapest rate, and much may be done towards that object by improving the
communications and lessening the cost of transport from Hope.
22. The total distance from that place to Rock Creek is about 160 miles. By improving the channel of the Shimilkomeen River and rendering it navigable in boats, we
may substitute 60 miles of water for land carriage at a great reduction of cost. The
improvement of the Shimilkomeen would not involve an outlay of more than 1,000/.,
while it would reduce the land carriage to 100 miles, by substituting a cheap water
conveyance for the remaining 60 miles. With that advantage the whole trade will flow
towards Fraser River.
23. The following mining statistics were collected by Mr. Good at Slmnilkomeen:—
Mr. Alison's claim produces 10 dollars a day for each man employed.
M'Dowell's claim, 12 dollars a day per man.
Merril and Eddy worked three days, and made from 10 dollars to 12 dollars daily
per man.
M'Dougal took out 26 dollars in the cradle the first day; in prospecting his claim
he found 1 dollar and upwards to the pan; anticipates earning 50 dollars per man;
when sluicing operations commence in about a week's time they will all begin to work.
On examining the country, prospects were so good that they all immediately commenced
preparations for sluicing, wing-damming, and other costly works for mining on a large
24. The road party were far advanced with their task on my return to Shimilkomeen,
and I took that road to the summit or punch-bowl, where I fell upon the new road
from Hope, which is carried over an elevation of 4,000 feet without a single gradient
exceeding 1 foot in 12, a fact very creditable to Serjeant M'Call and the detachment of Royal Engineers employed in marking out the line; it moreover suggests the
possibility of converting it hereafter into a cart-way. It is even now a great boon to
the country, yet it will lose much of its value unless it be kept open for traffic in winter,
by sending out parties of men on snow-shoes to beat the roads after every fall of snow,
a course which I strongly recommended to the merchants at Hope.
25. The persons who hold the Union and Emory Bar silver leads near Hope are making
great exertions to open the works, with, I believe, every probability of a most profitable
26. Masses of nearly pure virgin copper have been found in the excavations made for
mining purposes above Yale, and valuable outcrops of coal occur on the Shimilkomeen
River, but the present value of those minerals is not sufficient to induce the investment
of capital.
27. The new horse-way from Yale to Spuzzem is now open for traffic. Unlike the
mountain trail which it supersedes, the new road is carried over the mountain side along
the course of Fraser River at a moderate elevation, and will be open for travel both in
summer and winter. In riding over the face of those frowning cliffs, which a twelvemonth ago seemed to defy all efforts at improvement, it was impossible to repress a
feeling of thankfulness and intense gratification at the successful issue of our labours,
and their probable influence on trade and the developement of the country. The
arduous part of this undertaking—excavating the mountain near Yale—was executed
entirely by a detachment of Royal Engineers, under Serjeant-major George Cann, and
it has been completed in a manner highly creditable to themselves and to the officers
who directed the operation,
28. The most favourable accounts continue to arrive from the Quesnel River and
Caribceuf diggings, confirming all the former reports of the vast auriferous wealth of
those districts.
'29. An opinion is gaining ground among persons who have closely inspected and
studied the phenomena of the gold fields, that there exists a zone or belt of country 50
or 60 miles in breadth, which is the matrix or depository of the gold found in British
Columbia.    Its course has been partially traced from the neighbourhood of Fort George, PAPERS RELATING TO BRITISH COLUMBIA. 31
at the forks of Fraser River, for nearly 60 miles in a south-south-east direction ; and
the theory derives a measure of support from the fact that the rich diggings at Cariboeuf,
Quesnel River, and Rock Creek,—the latter unknown when the theory was started,—
come within the limits which it prescribes. Mr. Nind, the Assistant Gold Commissioner
for Quesnel River district, may probably be able to throw light upon the subject, and •
I await his report with much anxiety, especially as I have had no official communication
from him since his appointment. I learn from other sources that the miners in that
quarter are making large profits, and that good order and tranquillity reign throughout
the district. The want of roads is, however, seriously felt, and has become a general
subject of complaint. As soon as those more important communications now in
progress are completed, we shall not fail to turn our attention to the remoter
. districts.
no!a! SteA&s. 30. Some specimens exhibiting the varieties of gold
Nol'l laSSSi^' found in British Columbia  are  forwarded with this
i of Newci
&c. &c.
I have, &c.  .
His Grace the Duke of Newcastle, (Signed)        JAMES DOUGLAS.
Enclosure 1 in No. 14.
Massacre of an Immigrant Train by the Snake T.NDiANs^-45 Persons But*
The following is an " extra" from the Vancouver Chronicle":-
Yreka, October 9, 1860.
Vancouver, October 3,—9 p.m.
Forty-five Immigrants murdered.
H. Schreiber has just arrived at the Dalles with news of the massacre by the Snake Indians of an
entire immigrant train, consisting of 46 persons, 19 of whom were men, the balance women and
children. The party were first attacked about 50 miles this side of Salmon Falls, on the 9th of
September. This attack lasted about one hour. The Indians then withdrew and allowed the train to
proceed five miles, when they again attacked them.    The fight lasted two days and one night.
On the afternoon of the 10th the Indians had possession, of the whole train, with the exception of
six men, who, being mounted escaped. After travelling through the woods for nine days these six were
again attacked, and five of the party killed. Schreiber alone escaping by hiding in the bushes. After
travelling seven days, without food, he was found in an exhausted condition by some persons who took
him to the Dalles.
Of the 19 males in the party, six were discharged soldiers from Fort Hall. Mr. Schreiber is the
only one who escaped. He says that the six men who left on horseback did not leave until the Indians
had complete possession of the train; and from the screams of the women and children he was led to
believe that the whole party were butchered.
Enclosure 2 in No. 14.
To his Excellency Governor Douglas, C.B., &e. &c. &c.
Your Excellency, . Hope, October 3, 1860.
We the undersigned inhabitants of Hope beg to congratulate you on the approaching termination of the new trail to the Shimilkameen, an object in which you expressed lively interest at the
commencement of the year, and on which you were pleased to express your views in a very satisfactory
manner on the occasion of your visit to Hope during the summer.
We trust that the plans originated by your Excellency for the formation of the Shimilkameen and
other routes of Colonial importance and advantage, may be fully realized by the traffic passing over
such routes, and by the continued prosperity of the country as evinced by the late Customs returns.
Large as such quarterly revenue appears, it is not unknown to your Excellency that the amount has
been considerably reduced by the absence of Customs duties on the frontier adjacent to the Shimilkameen country. Your personal observation has we doubt not confirmed the reports which are
unanimously made of the large amount of supplies introduced from America, the eager eyes turned by
all the inhabitants of Washington and Oregon to a gold field so near them, their determination to
compete with British Columbia for the supply of her own territories, and the plans in contemplation for
establishing a town or towns as near the line as possible.
The inhabitants of British Columbia are not wanting in enterprise and energy, but the different
circumstances under which they compete with foreign traders (backed by the sympathy of their
nation), both as to capital at command, the aggregate number of competitors, and the motives influencing
each, are not we think to be overlooked. We beg to state to your Excellency, that, as a community,
we hope not to be behindhand in taking advantage of the Shimilkameen trade, but also to convey our
unanimous opinion that the interests of the Colony, as well as our own, demand such arrangements for
the collection of revenue on goods entering British Columbia, otherwise than through its present port
of entry, as will ensure protection to British trade, and the augmentation of its revenue by means and
rates of import at present existing.
i share of the traffic to the
i recent grant will greatly
a which the nature of the
We beg to tender your Excellency our thanks for your liberal aid to  th
.   out noticing many interested motives to decry the trail, we can assert that
wishes in this respect has fully realized our expectations of benefit to Hope.
Your Excellency's first outlay was the means of our town obtaining
upper country, to which we considered ourselves entitled, and your more
• improve the road in placing it in a permanently efficient state, in a portion o
ground had made locomotion very difficult.
But the chief argument which will weigh with your Excellency in taking a colonial view of the
expenditure is the circumstance of packing having-been much reduced through the access afforded to
Lytton by this trail.
We have now availed ourselves of the occasion of your Excellency's visit to return y6u our thanks
for your attention to the wants and. welfare of the Colony in the matter of the trails above alluded to;
we trust it will not be deemed out of place if we conclude our remarks with the hope that the original
intention of your Excellency respecting the Shimilkameen trail may soon be carried out, in forming the
present trail, or any route considered best, into a waggon road ; we do not ask this as a local matter
We do not consider that scope will be given to that commercial energy and enterprise which your
Excellency is so desirous of encouraging locally unless your intention should be carried out as soon as
possible, and your Excellency has repeatedly, publicly and privately, expressed your opinion that the
route to the new gold fields and agricultural district of the Shimilkameen is through Hope. A waggon
road to this important country will not be looked upon otherwise than a colonial measure, and one
which has already received the sanction of public opinion at large.
We have, &c.
(Signed)       A. D. Pringle, M.A.
W. H. Sutton, and 50 others.
Copy of DESPATCH from Governor Douglas, C.B., to his Grace the Duke of
(No. 95.) Victoria, Vancouver's Island, November 9, I860.
(Eeceived January 2, 1861.)
My LORD Duke, (Answered, No. 66, February 1, 1861, page 68.)
In my report on British Columbia of the 9th of October last, marked " Separate,"*
I had the honour to inform your Grace of the dispatch of an exploratory party from
Douglas, under the charge of Dr. Forbes of Her Majesty's ship " Topaze^" to examine,
especially with reference to its mineral character, the country bordering on Harrison Lake
and River.
I have now the honour of forwarding the valuable and highly interesting report of that
gentleman, who lately returned to this place with his party, in good health.
His researches, carried on under many difficulties inseparable from the country, were
prosecuted with a very creditable degree of activity and vigour, and have been eminently
successful in elucidating the true mineral value of the district, the whole of which he
believes to be metalliferous, and the greater portion of it argentiferous.
He found and examined many argentiferous veins, and he observes that he has not the
least doubt that there is abundance of silver in those formations, but it can only be reached
by an outlay of capital and steady persevering mining operations.
He has also, from various indications, been led to believe that in many of the metalliferous veins described in his report, deep mining will develope gold.
Dr. Forbes recommends that encouragement should be given to companies for the
purpose of working silver mines, and thinks they cannot be worked advantageously by
individual enterprise or exertion, a suggestion which meets with my warmest approval.
I trust that Dr. Forbes's able report may have the effect of attracting public attention
in England to the mineral wealth of British Columbia, and to the facilities it presents
for the profitable investment of capital.
I have, &c.
His Grace the Duke of Newcastle, (Signed)       JAMES DOUGLAS.
Sir, ' H.M.S. « Topaze," Esquimalt, Vancouver Island, Oct. 22, 1860.
By letter dated 8th October, I had the honour to apprise your Excellency of my return to
Victoria on the 6th, with the exploring party under my command. It now becomes my duty to lay
before your Excellency a general summary of my proceedings, with.a detailed account of such explora
tions as time and
1. In compliance with your Excellency's instructions contained in letter dated 29th August, I took     British
charge of the exploring party at New Westminster, and there received from the Treasury and the Columbia,
Commissariat such supplies of money and provisions as appeared necessary for carrying on the explora-        	
tion of the district specified, viz., from the mouth of the Harrison River to the 28-mile house on the
Lilloet trail.
2. Unable to procure a canoe at the mouth of the Harrison River, as directed by my instructions, I
proceeded in the steamer " Colonel Moody " to Port Douglas, and at that place on the afternoon of the
30th, succeeded, after some difficulty, in procuring a canoe and Indians to take me down the Harrison
Lake. Finding on starting that my canoe was too heavily laden, I engaged another and smaller canoe,
and with a party consisting of three Spaniards, four Indians, self and servant, proceeded at 5 p.m. to
make the best of my way to the mouth of the Harrison River.
A.t 8£ p.m., having come by computation about eight miles, I camped on a sandy spit, near a mountain stream, known as the Douglas River, on the eastern side of the lake, opposite to a remarkable
double-peaked mountain, having on its northern and eastern aspect a glacier between the peaks.
Friday, 31st August.—At daylight, weather was much overcast and threatening. Nevertheless, 1
struck camp and got ready, being anxious to commence work at the place indicated in my instructions.
A thunder-storm, however, passed to the southward, followed by heavy rain, and a fresh breeze from
the S.W. causing a heavy swell on the lake and rendering it impossible to proceed. I therefore pitched
my camp again, and proceeded to prospect the neighbouring ravine and to examine the geological
formation around.
At the mouth of the stream, and extending on both sides along the shore of the lake, were water-
worn boulders of granitic and quartzose rocks, gneiss with garnets, mica schist with ditto, pieces of good
roofing slate, together with masses of a pure white quartz containing excellent indications of metal.
The mountain, the top of which is somewhat rounded in its outline, having a flat surface to the west-
' ward, and a remarkable pinnacle or finger-like rock at its immediate base, is composed of trap, having
resting upon it and tilted at a high angle, micaceous, talcose, and hornblendic schists, all highly charged
with iron, the oxidation of which has produced disintegration of these rocks.
At a point about 500 yards from the mouth of the stream on its proper right bank, a mass of trachytic
rock has been erupted, shattering the surrounding rocks, itself much shaken and shattered; great
masses dislodged by weathering and other causes having slipped and rolled to the bottom of the ravine.
In this rock, of volcanic origin, was found a mass of quartz, of a beautiful white colour, containing
good indications of silver and copper, which indications proved true, for on assaying a specimen, by the
reducing process, a globule of each of these metals showed itself. This mass or vein of quartz dips
northerly-beneath the overlying trachytic rock. It is wedge-shaped, the thickness increasing with the
depth. From it, in all directions, radiate veins of quartz, which, guarded on each side by a fissile rock
of a French grey colour, permeate the mass of trachyte in all directions. Those only, however, which
run north and south are metalliferous, the east and west veins or cross courses are barren.
Deeming it necessary to explore this formation thoroughly before proceeding farther, I determined
to blast the rock in order to see if the indications improved with the depth; but finding one of the
blasting tools in a very inefficient state, I was obliged to send it to Port Douglas for repair, and in
the meantime proceeded to examine the veins, seriatim, as they radiated from the great central mass.
Rising in a north-westerly direction is a quartz vein running through or along with the fissile rock
above alluded to containing ores of silver; and to the right, having the same N.W. and S.E. direction,
about 200 yards above the " mother vein," a quartz vein shows itself in the broken precipitous face of
the containing trachytic rock.
It runs between two great bands of the fissile French grey-coloured rock, separated from it by masses
of a partially decomposed pyrites, which besides, in a band of about three inches in thickness, accompanies the quartz vein throughout its course.
Besides these masses and bands of iron pyrites, masses of a dark green chlorite rock occur, and
nodules containing the sulphuret of silver are clearly discernible both in the vein itself and in the rock
through which it passes.
Following the ravine, and at the same time ascending, I found, at an elevation of about 600 or 700
feet, another quartz vein of the same character, dipping in the same direction, and belonging to the
same system; and from the numerous angular fragments of quartz and quartzose rocks everywhere
scattered about, I believe that there are numerous other veins, which I had not time to look for or
I worked into the quartz matrix and its ramifying veins, and satisfied myself of the existence of
silver at this spot, which, however, will require somewhat extensive mining operations to procure in
paying quantities.
The geological character of this locality affords a good type of the general formation of the whole
eastern side- of the lake, and may here be briefly described as a region of primary, metamorphic, and
volcanic rocks, crossed and recrossed by trappean dykes and veins and seams of metalliferous quartz
and quartzose rock. The primary or igneous rocks, which form the central axis of the mountain range,
have on their flanks transverse ridges and spurs of trappean rock, bedded and jointed, resting on which,
and tilted at various angles, lie the metamorphic schistose rocks, which, again broken through, disturbed, and shattered by successive intrusions of volcanic rock, have in many instances undergone a .
second metamorphosis, and show an amorphous crystalline structure, accompanied by segregation of
Thursday, 6th September.—I began here to have trouble with my Indians; though well cared for in
every way, they were becoming impatient, and I had to discharge one yesterday and another to-day.
Heavy rain during the night, but the morning promising well, I started with the three Spaniards and
one old Indian to examine the landslips.
Found that the great mass of the debris in all the slips was composed of plutonic, trappean, and
quartz rocks, all of them full of beautiful groups and strings of crystals of iron pyrites, both massive
and in cubes, and all possessing good indications of the proximity of valuable mineral.
and coloured by the oxide of iron, which metal in the form of pyrites abounds in the neighbouring ro'cks
The central mass on which this great mass of trappean rock reposes is a plutonic 6r igneous rock
of a granitic character, very dense, highly crystalline, crossed and permeated by bands and veins of
Saturday, September 1st—Heavy rain all day, impossible to do anything,fiirther than prospect the
shores of the. lake right and left.   The rocks everywhere indicating that they belonged to a metal-
The pebbles on the beach at the mouth of this river are chiefly of igneous rock, with n
mens of beautiful clay-stone porphyry. The trap rock I passed yesterday, here forms the right bank,
ascending in precipitous bluffs, tolerably thickly timbered. The left bank is formed by a series of terraces
of different elevations, made up of the rounded boulders and gravel of the great northern drift, which here,
)uld c
i this i
5 fou
:o the lak
I the
e soil ii
irggntifei-bus quartz
silver in all but one, the vein
Monday, 10th September.-
:r up to, and if
the shores of the lake at right angles,
having a good surface of alluvial anc
ere the timber to be removed, I fei
lust, which the antumn winds and win
g but naked terraces of boulder stones
i, possessing good indications of silvei
er rains and floods
and gravel. During
but could not trace
niles from the mouth of the
rile of
id first
of gold, sufficient
would eventually
my prospecting to-dayj I found a rock, in i
the vein, it being overlaid by the drift.
From where my camp is pitched, about
the falls, I carefully prospected for  gold, and in a ferruginous gravel on
to pay from 2 to 5 dollars per man per diem, if worked by a rocker or by sluices.
^Sunday; 9th September.—Gave the men a day of rest; being fine, were enabled to dry our clothes,
&c. &c, which were thoroughly saturated with moisture. In the afternoon assayed specimens of
?k, from the veins at the landslips and neighbourhood, and found
g near the rocky islets on the lake approaching 20-mile Point.
t daylight, packed one tent and provisions for two days. Left camp at
f possible, past the falls, in order to ascertain the geological formation,
i and other
and if possible, trace the origin of the gold, w'
been transported no great distance.   With two small
tracking up the rapids, and reached the falls at 9 a
considerable deposit of gravel and ferruginous sand, I
I believed the gold had come; I left it however to be
pitched, heavy rain set in ; it cleared up
the falls and the neighb(
difficult to pass over, th
explore it thoroughly; I \
walls of the gorge or ravi
rough crisp-looking s
moes and three Indians, pushed up the stream,
i., where I camped.    Coming up I had passed a
tending on both sides of the river, and from this
sxamined on my return.   Just as my tent was
i about an hour, and I was enabled td'^aujine
■ocks.    Found the country beyond the falls so much broken up, so
in such weather it would have taken more time than I could afford to
therefore obliged reluctantly to give it up, having. as8e5?^i.ined that the
composed of massiyeTrflut
i falls, a
which :
litic character, crossed by n
3ter of the rock described
tZyyeinsijwhich here cross
' transported blocks in the
s higher up the valley, wh
perpendicular cliffs, ci
y difficult, almost
: up by
ibs, the
ids of q
1 and red sand deposit passed
iugh the quartz veins which here cross the igneous and trappean
rocks, i show no  indications of metal, ye
and indicate the existence of metallifero
No trace of gold could be detected in the sand or alluvium at the f
set in, I therefore struck my tent and returned to
in the morning.
At 2 p.m., examined and found this deposit to consist of boulders (water-worn), sand, and gravel,
with angular boulders. The boulders are of igneous rocks of various kinds, granitic, porphyritic (felspar), and hornblende rocks; the sand of two kinds, a fine white quartzose sand, and a coarser ferruginous
sandor gravel, the whole mass running in a N.W. and S.E. direction, cut across by the river. On
the right bank of the river, this gravel rests on a trap rock, which has a slaty fracture, and extends
inland about 500 yards, forming terraces along the river bank for about half a mile.
. On the left, it rises into a conical shaped hill, some 200 to 300 feet in height, and runs on as -above
stated in a S.E. direction. The upper portion has about 3 in. in thickness of rolled and rounded.boulders
of igneous and trappean rock, then 3 to 5 feet of fine gravel, next, several feet of a fine quartzose sand ;
and below, to a depth which I could not distinctly ascertain, is the ferruginous gravel, containing
angular fragments of quartzose rocks, masses of metalliferous-looking quartz, and numerous blocks of a
dense black ironstone, the product of intense volcanic action. I tried the sand and gravel from every
part of this deposit, but could not find a trace of gold; from the surface to the river side, from 6 to 8
feet, to which depth I dug beneath the surface, all fruitless, not a speck to be seen, which surprised me
much, as immediately below, on the river banks, in this same ferruginous sand, I could wash out rough
gold, in small quantities certainly, with a common prospecting pan.
Much of this gravel is becoming consolidated into a conglomerate or pudding-stone, by the oxidation
of the volcanic ironstone alluded to above, which, with granitic, quartzose, and other hypogen?c!!roclc§,
terms the lithological character of the mass.
'   ' l this locality is a fact, and that its origin is to be referred t( " '
fully i
At the san
boulders a
xplain why, on prospecting, it |
jursory and superficial. This ferruginous aur
d gravel of the great northern drift, with whiet
lan that of accidental relation.   It extends, I
did n
tides red, and set free its contained gold.    Heavy rain
1 the river, shooting the rapids, and arrived at camp at
i to prospect the gold reported to exist.   I gave them all
Tuesday, 11th September.—Morning fine, but all our gear soaked with 3
tents and loaded canoe, found her too deep from the weight of the wet  '    '
left pork cask behind; endeavoured to procure another canoe, but did n
on the salmon fishery, which the Indians are carrying on vigorously.
Started at 8 a.m. and proceeded down the lake, prospecting and examining the various formations as
I went    A few miles beyond the valley of the Klatchka came to schistose rocks resting on trap, with
Pushed on to a camping place at the mouth of a small river or mountain torrent, which enters the
boulders of hypogenic and metamorphic rocks, masses of quartz with chlorite schist, having good
indications of silver; other rocks having the same of copper. About two miles up found traces of
gold in the black sand of river bank. It had been raining heavily all the afternoon, and darkness now
setting in, I returned to camp.
Wednesday, 12th September.—At daylight, weather having cleared up, and the day promising well,
roused all hands, and started to examine the metalliferous quartz veins found yesterday.
The formation is of the same character as prevails generally, so far as I have yet seen, and on
further examination I found the metamorphic schistose rock resting on and tilted by intruded masses
of trap, which is here regularly bedded and jointed. Trap dykes, containing veins and masses of
quartz run right and left, and at points where these masses of trap- intrude, and where the quartzose
veins enter and permeate the schists, they become metalliferous. An argentiferous vein, 16 to 18 feet
wide runs along the side of the lake and rises on the hill at an angle of 45° or thereabout, passing
beneath the mountain in its strike.
The silver, in the form of sulphuret, is containfed in a crystalline blueish-grey rock, having masses
and veins of quartz permeating it, and running along its centre a band of unctuous-feeling blue-black
rock, an excellent indication of good silver ore.
The character of the vein alters as it passes through the different strata of the containing rock,
becoming in places highly crystalline and very hard.
I was obliged to blast in two places to ascertain the character of the vein, and was glad to find all
the indications improve with the depth.
On the beach a prismatic trap which makes excellent sharpening stones, and good specimens of
roofing slate, were picked up. Having examined the coast line, and finding it coming on to blow, made
the best of my way to camp, found a heavy surf on the beach, and got capsized close to tent
Thursday, I3th September.—5.30 a.m., all off, morning overcast, slight drizzle, weather looks
threatening, light breeze from S.E. right up the lake, nasty jabble of a sea on. 7.30 a.m.—Passing
metamorphic and trappean rocks, overtopped by a rounded red-coloured mountain, which from the
form of its ravines and general aspect looks promising.
The wind now freshened so much, and the water became so rough, that it was dangerous to proceed,
and I therefore pitched camp on a sandy spit near a rocky ravine, opposite south end of Long Island
at 8.30 a.m. After breakfast prospected ravine, through which a mountain stream flows, found igneous
and metamorphic with trappean rocks abounding. Some of them with good indications, in mining
language, excellent shoad stones. Examined ravine by this same process of shoading, and found on
the right bank numerous angular fragments of rock assuming a prismatic structure, coated with the
red oxide of iron, and containing vestiges of silver ore. The specimens appeared to belong to a
metamorphic rock, semi-crystallized by intruded volcanic agencies, in the form of erupted trap and
intruded quartzose masses.
Heavy rain and a gale of wind prevented an extended examination of the locality at this time.
Friday, September 14th. — Very anxious to get on, but cannot; heavy rain during the night;
morning overcast, drizzly and squally. Can neither get on, nor go back. Half my time gone, and I
have stul the Lilloet district before me.
Unable to prospect, I proceeded to examine the specimens of yesterday, i
metallic sulphurets, chiefly of silver and antimony. At 4 p.m. the rain ci
follow up and discover the metalliferous rock, to which the specimens for.
to-day belong. The lode is 22 feet wide, close to the water in the ravine;
right in along a broken ravine, covered by a mass of angular fragments c
quantity of red earth which marks its course along the face of the mountai
twice to ascertain its true character, and found it to be a very hard crystall
and black-grey colour, enclosing masses of quartz and groups and strings of
The formation both north and south of this vein is' trappean, a dense ci
jointed, rising into mountain peaks.
Saturday, 15th September.—The weather having been for some days
altogether broken, being unable to procure more than one canoe, which was
heavily laden, I was completely cramped in my movements, for, unless when perfectly calin
dangerous to attempt navigating the lake. Fearing that if I delayed waiting for fine weather to
complete the exploration of the Harrison I might possibly altogether lose the Lilloet country, I
resolved to make the best of my way to Port Douglas, and if I should have time and a favourable
opportunity complete the Harrison Lake and River on my return.
id found th
e rock full of
ised, and I v
vas enabled to
d yesterday
and examined
and passes
of the sam
e rock, and a
liged to blast
a bluish-black
jTStalline roc
Accordingly at 4 a.m., finding the weather moderate, and promising well, I roused all hands, and     British
after a cup of coffee got under weigh, crossed the lake to Long Island, skirting it and proceeding by the    Columbl
The northern or Long Island I found to be composed chiefly of trap, with occasional patches of metamorphic rock, but no indications of metal were observable from the lake. On the western shore, at a
point opposite to north end of Long Island, a fine tract of level land commences, and runs north for
about 8 miles, having an average width of 1 mile, a stream flowing through it, and abundance of fine
timber upon it Like all the other flats and terraces in this district, the substratum is boulder drift
and gravel, the alluvium and vegetable mould of no great thickness, but should the silver leads on the
other side be worked this flat will be of the greatest use to the miners.
Where this terrace terminates and the bold precipitous bluffs again abut upon the lake, the formation
of the mountain ranges at the back can be well seen.
Rising from the water are rounded masses of a dense black trap rock, sparsely covered by stunted
pine trees, alternating with beautiful little coves, fringed by shingle beaches in which the vegetation is
more varied and growth more perfect.
At and near the point known as Whiskey Point the formation changes, and metamorphic argillaceous
schistose rocks resting on the trap begin to show themselves, and this, alternating with an erupted
trachytic rock, continues all the way to " Shay Point,'" where an image of that deity who presides over
the Indian meteorological department stands out, cut from the solid rock. From this point to Port
.Douglas, the whole western shore appears to be a mass of dead trap, no indications of mineral to be
seen. Nearly swamped crossing the lake, though only a light breeze from the S.E. Arrived at Port
Douglas at 6 p.m.
Sunday, 16th September.—Rested at Port Douglas.    Men employed drying clothes, bedding, &c.
Monday, 17th Seplember.—Making preparations for prospecting Lilloet district All our blasting
tools required repair, had to be fresh steeled. Twelve days' provisions to be packed, arrangements
made for conveyances; Indians to be paid for work and hire of canoes, &c, &c.
Tuesday, 18th September.—Made an agreement to have my baggage packed as far as 20-mile
house, at the rate of 2 cents per lb. Suffering from sprain and rheumatic affection of right knee,
I was obliged to hire a riding mule. At 2 p.m., having seen everything off, left Douglas for the
Lilloet, and camped that night at the 10-mile house.
Wednesday, 19th September.—Prospecting as I went, pushed on and camped at 20-mile house,
anxious to get on to commence work from 28-mile house downwards.
Thursday, 20th September.—Obliged to rest this day, suffering from rheumatism.
Friday, 21st September.—Tried to ride, but found myself unable, started on foot, pushed on, and
reached Creek Camp, 27^-mile from Douglas, where I pitched my tents close to the Royal Engineers'
Saturday, 22nd September.—Employed prospecting round camp, found good indications both on river
side and up the mountain.
Sunday, 23rd September.—A day of rest.
Monday, 24th September.—Left camp at 8 a.m. to examine and explore the indications on the river side.
At a point 28 miles from Douglas, struck down upon the river, and close to a native lodge found a vein of
argentiferous rock, running N. by W. along the river bank and rising at an angle of about 30° to the termination of the Muff at 29^-mile house. On the level beneath, a vein with excellent indications runs
along by and passes the 29^-mile house, to terminate at the summit of a round-topped mountain, about
6 or 8 miles to the northward, and which has on its side a remarkable cleft and ravine full of debris.
Time did not permit me to follow up the veins of this formation to this point, .but from reliable information I received, and' from the geological formation of the country there, I believe they terminate and
are possibly more fully developed, and to that point further exploration should be directed. Although
limited by my instructions to the 28, or more correctly speaking, to the 29-J-mile house, as the
limit of my exploration, I yet considered that a radius from that point was permissible, and being
anxious to see the formation of country through which the above-mentioned metalliferous veins ran, I
hired Indians, and setting the men to work to clear away the rocks and blast the vein on the river side,
1 proceeded in a boat, kindly lent to me, to prospect the shores of the Little Lilloet Lake. The whole
formation presents the very best indications of being rich in mineral wealth, and requires a prolonged
exploration. I was very anxious to examine a remarkable mountain known as the "Split Crag," but
when at its foot, to my mortification, it became enveloped in clouds, and I had no" time to wait till it
should clear up and I could make the ascent. It owes its remarkable form, whence its name, to the
passage of a metalliferous dyke or vein through its summit, to the degradation of which, by the oxidation of the metals, is due the cleft or " Split Crag."
Four p.m.—Returned to the vein where the men have been at work, found that they had exposed the
argentiferous vein, and prepared to blast; but the drills proved defective, and require repair.
This argentiferous rock is of a pale blue colour, with masses and strings of quartz running through it.
Sulphuret of silver, argentiferous pyrites, and some specks of gold were to be seen along with iron
pyrites in cubes and masses. The vein runs through trap, which, where in contact with the vein, is of
a trachytic character. Great volcanic disturbances have here taken place, numerous faults existing in
the trappean range which runs in parallel ridges north and south, slips and slides having taken place
in the planes of bedding; and this bluff, in which this metalliferous rock is found, appears to be the
result of a great slip from the boundary range of the valley on its eastern side.
Tuesday, 25th September.—Through the kindness of Lieut. Palmer of the Royal Engineers, I was enabled to get the drills and other tools put into good working order, and sent the men oft at an early hour
to complete the blasting operations. I myself proceeded along the trail, to examine the formation at
a point where a great? body of trap had been recently removed by blasting by the Royal Engineers. At
a precipitous bluff, about 27 miles from Douglas, round which the trail runs, and which was not more than
2 feet wide a few days before, I found an open road 6 feet wide, and the angular promontory removed.
A mass of trap, dense, highly crystalline, of a dark blue colour, bedded and jointed, had been cut
through, and in the operation an argentiferous vein permeating the rock on which metamorphic clay slate
rested, had been opened up. The argentiferous mass, or lode, is divisible into three distinct portions,
. the whole 20 feet in width, rising at a high angle, and running in a direction N. by W. The rock
is of a pale blue colour, dense and highly crystalline, with masses and strings of quartz, argentiferous
pyrites, and other excellent indications pervading it. The trap of this formation was the most highly i
crystalline rock of the kind that I had yet seen, when broken, assuming a pentagonal prismatic form,
each fragment having a pyramidal shape. I had on a previous occasion obtained specimens of an
argentiferous rock from the hill above, and was now enabled to identify them with this lode, which rising,
crosses the side of the mountain in the direction named, to terminate, I believe, in the round-topped
mountain described as being on the eastern side of the smaller Lilloet Lake, a member in fact of
the same argentiferous formation.
Having obtained specimens, though but outcrops, of this and of the 28 -mile vein, which on blasting,
fully bore out its indications, I submitted them to a hurried process of assay, and obtained a fair proportion of silver from all.
Wednesday, 26th September.—At an early hour sent on, by pack mules, all the baggage, with orders
to camp at 20-mile house and wait my arrival, and retaining one hand, with pick-axe, &c. &c, one
mule, and an Indian boy, I followed slowly, prospecting a: T
Shortly after leaving camp, where I had received the greatest assistance and experienced much kindness from Lieut. Palmer, R.E., and all his party, I came upon a metalliferous vein crossing the road,
rising from the river, at 26J miles from Douglas. It passes through the same formation as the one last
described, and which I named Royal Engineers' Mine, they having in that instance, as in the present,
been the means of opening it up.
Four p.m..—Passed the junction of the Amaqua River with the Lilloet; the valley through which the
former flows is said to possess the very best indications of mineral wealth and rich metalliferous
deposits. Rocks containing gold, silver, platina, and copper being found in abundance at its mouth,
and in its bed. These I have not myself seen, but I believe my information to be reliable, although it
must always be carefully borne in mind, that in this district of the Lilloet, where the transported rocks
and boulders of the great northern drift are so widely spread, mistakes are very apt to occur, metalliferous, along with other rocks, being often carried many hundred miles. From its geological formation
and mineralogical relations, I am inclined, however, to believe that up the valley these metalliferous
rocks will be found in situ, and the whole should be carefully explored.
The whole geological formation of this day's march to the Hot Springs, where I camped at 6 p.m., is
shown by the accompanying section to be trap of various characters, in reference to its crystallization
and bedding; in some cases both these characteristics very perfect, in others less so.    Metamorphic rock
metalliferous, in others not so, run through the whole formation. Near to the Hot Springs, an erupted
granitic rock, having a highly crystalline trap on both flanks, occurs, which extending eastward, has relation to the granitic, rock developed in the argentiferous formation of Fort Hope, if indeed it be not
the same.
Trap rises in lofty precipices on the western side of the river, and continues on the east, resting on a
rocky range of white-coloured stone, which on examination proved to be a siliceous rock, containing a
few indications of copper.
Passing the granitic mass above alluded to, the trail runs over the northern drift, which, continues to
and beyond the hot springs at the 20-mile house.
The hot springs which give their name to the locality, bubble out from three openings in the rock,
under a mass of concrete or conglomerate rock, and an angular block of trap which has slipped from
the rock above.
The water has a temperature of about 120" Fah., and at 62° Fah. a specific gravity of 1002-5, being
thus simply distilled water. Existing below and permeating fissures in the crust of the earth in the
form of watery vapour or steam, it loses its caloric as it approaches the surface, and becoming condensed, issues in the form of hot distilled water.
Around the spot where the water flows from the rock, the surface of the pebbles in the stream is
coated with a mass of reddish-brown conferva?, which, as the water flows and cools, becomes of a beautiful bright green colour. Where the stream crosses the road, it has cooled down to the temperature of
the surrounding atmosphere, and forms a favourite drinking-place for all animals on the trail. Horses
and mules, when free and having the opportunity, have been known to come back a couple of miles to
drink of the limpid refreshing water.
Thursday, 27 th September.—The weather has been and continues Very fine. Endeavoured to-day to
get a canoe, in which to cross the river, as excellent indications exist on the western side, which I was very
anxious to examine. No canoe to be had, all down at Port Douglas. While prospecting, one did come
up, and the Indians would have taken me across, but they would not wait till next day to bring me back,
and I could not risk detention. From information received to-day, I am led to believe that active volcanic forces exist up the valley of the Zoalchleen River. An Indian states that at the second lake, half
a day's journey from the mouth of river, a fire issues from the earth, which burns night and day; this
with the hot springs in the same neighbourhood, indicates volcanic action, existing at present in a semi-
quiescent state. The Indian also stated that the rocks in the neighbourhood abounded in a yellow
metal, and as from this locality the auriferous quartz was brought, which, by your. Excellency's "order,
Mr. Humphreys went to explore, the probability is, that valuable metalliferous deposits do exist,
especially since the best indications exist at the mouth of the ZqaliobXeen River, which flows from and is
fed by the two lakes at the head of the valley. This with the other valleys of the district should be
fully explored at an early date.
Friday, 28th September.—After an early breakfast, struck camp and sent on tents and baggage to
10-mile house. Followed, prospecting as I went, with Mr. Lopez, Indian, and mule. At 11 a.m.,
having passed the junctions of the Zoalchleen River with the Lilloet, came to a metalliferous vein rising
through the great bank of gravel from the bed of the river, and about 160 yards farther on, another and
more promising vein rising in the same way, and running north by west across the level formed by
boulder drift towards a remarkable cleft in the mountain range, which bounds the valley on its eastern PAPERS RELATING TO BRITISH COLUMBIA. 39
side. The formation on the western side of the river indicates that these veins pass along a ravine
which dips to the river bed, under which they pass, to rise again as above described. The latter and
most promising vein above mentioned, is a quartzose mass, six feet in-thickness, bedded in and running
along with a siliceous rock, having masses and fragments of talcose schist in the immediate vicinity.
The quartz contained strings of sulphuret of silver, and is I believe the outcrop of a valuable mine. I
very much regret that time did not permit me to follow it to the mountain range and explore it fully.
Passing over the flats and gravel beds on both sides of the 16-mile house, at 2 p.m. arrived at the
red earth hill near the 14-mile house, and proceeded to examine the locality. Found the prevailing
rock to be bedded trap, traversed by injected veins or dykes of trap containing masses of quartz, and
having good indications of metal. The cause of the red earth is the presence of a great quantity of
oxide of iron, which wells out from a chalybeate spring in a constant flow, at a slight dip in the hill, on
the old mule trail about 500 yards above the present road. At the top of the hill there is a cutting
through a mass of rounded pebbles of trappean rocks, concreted into a dense mass of solid rock by the
injection of carbonate of lime. The region is one in close proximity to extinct volcanic agencies,
and to these are no doubt due the presence of the ferruginous and calcareous matters which abound.
Dipping the crown of the hill, a mass of dense highly crystalline trap, regularly bedded and jointed,
full of iron pyrites and of argentiferous pyrites, occurs, rising in precipitous bluffs, and having resting,
upon it and tilted at a high angle a metamorphic clay slate, highly charged with oxide of iron.
At the foot of the hill, where the rock has been blasted and cut away to form the trail, an argentiferous vein rises at a high angle in a N.W. direction, of the same general character as the others
already described, as are two other veins which about 500 yards farther on show themselves on the
sides of the cliff. Circumstances prevented me from fully determining the character of these veins, but
T am certain of their indications, and feel sure of their value on mining.
At 5 p.m. camped at the 10-mile house.
Saturday, September 29th.—8 a-m., struck camp and sent on baggage to Port Douglas. Passed
over a level and undulating road, the only rock visible being a trap on the side of St. Helen's Lake.
Ascending Sebastopol Hill, at Jerry's well, came to a metamorphic clay slate resting on trap; and at
Spring Hill camp, about seven miles from Douglas, found a vein of good promise, running N.W,
having a beautiful quartz vein running at right angles to it; its intrusion has converted the clay slate
into a semi-crystalline, fissile blue rock, crossing about two miles of level, and at the 5-mile tree
ascending' a gentle rise to a bluff cut away by blasting, an argentiferous vein crosses the dense-bedded
trap of which the bluff is composed. Its direction and character agrees with all the others already
From this point, the bluff above the 5-mile tree, a good view of the remarkable flat-topped mountain known as Mount Richards may be obtained; it is an extinct volcano, the basaltiform trap which
now forms the summit is the consolidated lava of the old volcanic fires, the scoriaceous walls having
crumbled down to form the now sloping sides of the mountain. This, I have no doubt, was the centre
of the volcanic agencies developed in this quarter.
At 2 p.m. arrived at the 4-mile house, and was there shown by the discoverer, Mr. Hancock, a
specimen of quartz, containing such indications as induced me to examine the locality whence it had
been brought.    Found the vein of quartz running northerly through a mass of trap, much shattered
d disjointed; followed it in a southerly direction; traced it to where metamorphic rock joined the
'  it found no indications of metal, although I feel convinced that on a more extended survey it
be found in this formation.
Anxious to get into Port Douglas to take advantage of a fine day or two, should they offer, to enable
me to complete the Harrison Lake and River, I pushed on; and passing trappean and metamorphic
rocks at Gibraltar Hill, which continued on to the trappean mass above Port Douglas, at the foot
having a great bed of the northern drift, I arrived at that place at 6 p.m. and camped on plain above
the town.
Sunday, 30th September.—6 p.m., heavy rain set in last night, and continues; no steamer arrived,
and no certainty when she may arrive. If the weather clears shall endeavour to hire canoes and go
on to New Westminster.
Monday, 1st October.—Heavy rain all morning; cleared off about 2 p.m. No sign of steamer;
endeavoured to hire canoes and Indians to take me down the Harrison and on to New Westminster, but
could get neither the one nor the o,ther, every Indian able to travel having gone up the Lilloet to a
" blanket feast" At length, through the kind assistance of Mr. Humphreys, I obtained the promise
of a canoe on the following day; and Mr. Oliver Hare most kindly placed his boat at my disposal, and
offered to accompany me himself to afford me aid, an offer which I most gladly accepted. I was thus
enabled to start at 6 p.m., the canoe to follow me in the morning. About 10 p.m., when off 12-mile
Point, the steamer "Caledonia" hove in sight I boarded her, and arranged that she'should pick me
up on her return next day, and sent orders to stop canoe. Rounding Shay Point, I camped under a
red craggy hill opposite the landslips, which I was anxious to examine, as it showed good indications,
but which I had not time to test on my way up.-
In the morning of Tuesday, the 2nd October, proceeded to examine the formation, and found trap
alternating with metamorphic rock, altered in places to a semi-crystalline structure by the intrusion of
the trap; and at a place known as Smugglers' Caves, about 100 yards from the beach, discovered two
metalliferous veins, each 8 feet thick, separated by about the same thickness of the above-mentioned
altered rock, running N. and S., full of iron pyrites, argentiferous pyrites, and other indications of
silver. The veins run from a point known as Whisky Point in a northerly direction to Shay Point, a
locality already described. I blasted the rock, and found the indications improve. At 5 p.m. went on
board steamer, and arrived at New Westminster at noon of the 3rd October.
On the 6th of October I arrived at Victoria, and by letter dated the 8th of that month, had the
honour to report to your Excellency the return of the exploring party under my charge.
A period of 40 days was thus occupied in this exploration.    I did all I could to accomplish it in
the prescribed time,   "of about  30 days," but broken weather and unforeseen difficulties, having
reference to the hiring of canoes, &c, &c., prevented me.
E 4
In the foregoing report the particular features of the Lilloet and Harriso
briefly described, and a section of the country from the 29J-mile house o
termination of the Harrison Lake, has been prepared and accompanies this.
The section is on a scale of three inches to the mile, horizontal; the vertical section is merely approximate, or hypothetical, and the whole is intended merely as an illustration of the description given in
the report I may mention, however, that the distances in miles given on the Lilloet trail are correct,
those on the Harrison Lake merely approximate.
The elevation of all these ranges is due to the action of volcanic forces, causing, in the first place, in
this N.W. and S.E. line, a slow and gradual upheaval of, the primary and igneous rocks composing the
crust of the earth. Then, as these forces increased at intervals in intensity, upheavals and disturbances
of the mountain masses occurred, both generally and locally, until the geographical features of the
country assumed their present aspect, viz., great mountain chains running N.W. and S.E., having, at
right angles to their axis of elevation, trappean rocks running E. and W. in transverse spurs and ridges.
Resting on these spurs, tilted by them at various angles, are detached and broken masses of metamorphic rock of various kinds, such as clay slate, micaceous, hornblendic, talcose, and chlorite schists,
all permeated by dykes and veins of erupted rock, which in many instances have changed the metamorphic rocks, at the points of contact, into amorphous semi-crystalline masses.
I fully believe that the whole district is metalliferous; and I am happy in having been able to prove
With regard to the argentiferous veins which I have been fortunate enough to discover, I would beg
your Excellency to bear in mind that limited as I was to time, it was impossible for me to work into
the rock so as to determine their true and relative values; having found, examined, traced, and proved
their argentiferous nature, I was obliged to leave each in succession, its value undetermined, to explore
the formation and the district further. That there is abundance of silver in these formations I nave
not the least doubt, but it can only be reached by an outlay of capital and steady persevering mining
operations. From various indications, I am led' to believe that in many of the metalliferous veins
described, deep mining will develop gold.
,   The gold in the Klatchka River on the Harrison Lake will enable any steady hard-working man, who
te gains, to live well all the
year through, and
le Lilloet at the 20-mile hou
e; but in neither
jectfully to represent to you
r Excellency, that
nies formed for the purpose of
ed by individual enterprize or
P. of Port Douglas;
"Caledonia," who fii
ister to all the party.
Sections of the above
Copy of DESPATCH from Governor Douglas, C.B., to his Grace the Duke of
(No. 100.) Victoria, Vancouver Island, November 28, I860.
My Lord Duke, (Received January 31, 1861.)
I have the honour to inform your Grace that nothing of much importance, beyond
the usual course of events, has transpired in British- Columbia since the date of my last
2. The miners of Alexandria and Quesnel River, dreading the severity of the inland
winter, have for some weeks past been arriving in great numbers from those districts, and
settling themselves for the winter in the towns on the Lower Fraser, being attracted
thither by the genial climate and cheaper rate of living. Their labours have, I understand,
not been unrewarded, many of them having been eminently successful, while, contrary to
the general experience of mining countries, few or none have been entirely disappointed.
So much indeed is this the case that, as I am informed, they almost without exception
propose returning to Alexandria as soon as the snow disappears it spring, and surface
claims become accessible to the miner. The population of those remote districts will
probably for this winter be confined to persons who have invested their means in the
construction of sluices, and especially such miners as are employed in tunnelling, whose
operations are little effected by the external temperature, and may be carried on during
3. I have lately received a communication, dated Alexandria, 17th of October, from 1
Mr. Philip H. Nind, Magistrate and Gold Commissioner for Alexandria, from which it Cc
appears that he had, from various causes, encountered much detention on his route to
Alexandria. His arrival in the district was hailed with a general feeling of satisfaction,
and his services were immediately called into requisition by the complaints of the
inhabitants against a few notorious evil-doers who had taken refuge there, and become
the terror of the place. The most vigorous measures were at once set on foot to bring
them to justice, and one of the number was soon afterwards apprehended and committed
for trial; but the others could nowhere be found, and are supposed to have fled over the
frontier into Oregon. Mr. Nind had temporarily established his head-quarters at William's
Lake, on account of its central position, from whence diverge, as from a common focus,
all the routes leading to the upper and lower country.
4. The extract from Mr. Nind's valuable report, which I here subjoin, contains some
interesting statistical facts in addition to his own views of the auriferous and physical
character of parts of the Alexandria district which he has lately visited.
| The rate of wages to hired labourers is five and six dollars a day, and of provisions
and other necessaries about the same as at Alexandria, in some instances a little lower
from the greater amount of competition.
" I have the honour to enclose a list of the prices of various articles at Alexandria. ~~~
" Ferguson's or Rich Bar when first discovered proved highly auriferous, as much as
60 dollars a day to the hand having been made ; but after the pay-streak near the river
became exhausted, the flat in the rear had to be pierced, and the gravel wheeled over
plank roads for some hundreds of yards to be rocked out at the river; the profits, consequently, of the day's labour considerably decreased, so that when I was there the
average receipts were from seven to ten dollars a day to the hand. As soon, however, as
water can be brought on for sluicing there is no doubt but that high wages will be made.
Unlike the bars on the Lower Fraser, the ground is here unobstructed by heavy timber or
roots, and the miner finds that not only does the pay-streak yield gold, but also the sand
overlying it in sufficient quantities to pay for the washing. It is the general opinion that
there will be employment on this bar for more than a hundred men, and that it will not
be exhausted in less than two or three years. The introduction of water is an operation
requiring considerable capital and engineering skill. The ditch is cut from a lake situated
between four and five miles to the north-east, and has to be brought on by means of a
long tunnel; the expense of completing it is calculated at 12,000 dollars.
" Three miles below Ferguson's Bar is British Bar, where a company of six Cornishmen
are bringing in a ditch about five miles in length for their own use. The bar is but of
small size. I did not notice any miners between here and Alexandria, though there were
signs of work done in the spring. The Fraser between Alexandria and Quesnel River
is a swift but not turbulent river, averaging from 200 to 300 yards across; it has a
few small ripples, but none of the dangerous whirlpools so common in its lower course;
the navigation does pot appear difficult; Ferguson's Bar being supplied with necessaries
by boats from Alexandria, which make the trip of 60 miles in about two days and a
| Between Alexandria and Fort George I hear but of two impediments to steamboat
navigation which it would be difficult to surmount, viz., two passes or canons where the
river narrows and rushes violently through precipitous rocks.    The physical features on
the Upper Fraser, that attract the attention of the miner, are three:—
" 1st. Its benches, bars, and flats.
" 2nd. Its earth-slides, and high banks displaying several strata of wash gravel.
" 3rd. The water in its vicinity that can be made available for mining.
" The first are very extensive, and some have been worked with rockers ; but rockers
are really only an advanced kind of prospecting apparatus, and stand in the same relation
to sluicing and the hydraulic pipe as the Chilian arastra does to the California quartz
mill; in both cases the deposit of gold must be very large to yield remuneration to the
.employers of so limited and primitive a method of obtaining it.
"Respecting the second feature, the earth-slides and high banks yield the "colour" to
prospectors, and in many cases, two or three cents to the pan; were the hydraulic pipe
brought to bear upon them, ground that is now unemployed would be highly
" Respecting water, this great essential to extensive mining operations can be procured
without much difficulty, though not without labour and expense ; for if streams are less
frequently met with descending from these wooded hills than flow from the snow-topped
mountains of the Lower Fraser, yet the great number of lakes situated within accessible
Beitish    distances of either bank would afford a supply entirely independent of rain-fall or melting
1     Columbia.  snow    At present the' country is struggling against the high rate of provisions and
——      necessaries • the class of men that arrive in the spring have but enough money to purchase
a few weeks nrovisions they cannot afford to work for the future, but must make money
immediately or return   so that a thorough testing or development of the auriferous
resources of this particular section of country* till very considerable reduction takes place
in the mice of thmcs. is not to be looked for.    I have conversed with many men who
have beTn prospecting from Alexandria to the furthest point hitherto reached, and I find
even amongst the unsuccessful no disbelief in the richness of the mines, but a general
imnression to return next year and try their luck again.    Amongst the geological
nhenomena of this DOrtion of Fraser River there is much to attract attention, more
narticukrlv a dark brown substance which the people call coal; on Ferguson's Bar and
the adjacent banks many detached pieces lie scattered about, and I was informed by a
nerson on that bar that he had used it for blacksmithing purposes and found it to answer.
Some eieht or nine miles above Alexandria, where the river, from a north and south
course, makes an almost rectangular bend to the east, a high bank displays a complete
stratum of this singular formation.    I collected some specimens, 0f it, and found on
examination that its specific gravity was much lighter, than that of coal that rt did ^
soU the fingers, and that the grain of the wood was distmcfly visible.    I apprehended it
. to be lignite in a transition state, but whether it could be utilized lor commercial
purposes I am unable to judge.    The banks of the river here are ot considerable amtuae,
and are composed of a kind of indurated clay, called by the miners "soap-stone;    they
have been worn by the action of the water into cyhndncal:forms_ and assume the
appearance of buttresses and columns.    The trail between Alexandria and Fergusons
Bar passes through some exceedingly rich open land consisting of heavyl blackl0*m
with a subsoil of clay, apparently well adapted to the growth of wheat.    1 he land that
Mr. Davidson has pre-empted has produced excellent crops, a small patch ot less man
half an acre has returned 20 bushels of wheat, and the turnips and cabbages would be
considered fine in any country.   Mr. Davidson owns several head of cattle, a yoke of
oxen, waggon, and other agricultural implements.  Finding his experiments so successful,
he is preparing to farm next year more extensively, and is anxious to purchase land
in addition  tohis pre-emption' claim ;  several white men and Indians are ^present
in his employ.   A substantial and commodious log house has been bmlt   and^fem
buildings are in process of erection.     lhe price   ot vegetables on  me grouna uas
ranged from 20 cents  a lb. to 12*»  onions excepted, which have   never been sold
for less than 50 cents alb.    Several of the hills that enclose the valley of Williams
Lake are covered, with pasture of the finest description, and in the valley and on the
slopes are hundreds of acres of prairie that would repay the labor of the agriculturist.
• The timber on these hills principally consists of Douglas pme, larch, fir, and balsam; the
larger trees make useful lumber, free from knots.    Since I have resided in this district.
the weather, during the early part of September was unsettled, but from the middle ot
the month till the present time it has been exceedingly fine; latterly the frosts have been
sharp at night, but the thermometer in my tent ranges between 60 and 70  during the
middle of the day.    I have been enabled from the central position of this spot to transact
a good deal of business with miners and traders returning from the upper country.    1 he
Indians around here seem well disposed; some work well and readily, and are very
intelligent, and would be, I think, susceptible of the influences of civilization ; others, on
the contrary, are extremely indolent, and neglect providing against the wants of to
morrow if- supplied with food for to-day.    As there-has been a dearth of salmon this
summer, 'I very much fear they will suffer severely this winter; the greater number talk
of wintering-on the Thomson River and at Cayoosh."
5. I have received intelligence from Hope and Yale up to the 29th of November.
The Gold Commissioners report that the weather had been so far most favourable for
mining operations, and that nearly all the niiners in those districts had buil  comfortable
houses, where they intend to remain for the winter.    Some miners from the Canboeut
.country had lately arrived at Hone with very fine specimens of lump gold worth from
1Z. to 8/. a piece; their object being to remain at Hope until the winter is over, when
they propose returning to their distant mining claims.
6. The miners at Shimilkomeen were making fair wages, varying irom SOs. to Ws. a
day to the man ; and there was a sufficient stock of food in that part of the country to
last tm sprmg.   ^ ^ ^ ^^ ^ ^ steamboats which have been lately built
here and commenced running on Fraser River, the charge for frieghts from this place to ELS RELATING TO BRITISH COLUMBIA. I
s. a ton, being a reduction of 300 per cent, on the former rates <
British Columbia contain nothing further deserving of specii
His Grace the Duke of Newcastle,
, &c.
Shoes (common)      - -  per pair  0 14
Drilling       - - -   per yard 0    1
Duck  - - --,,03
Oregon blankets      - -     pair      2    0
No syrup or dried apples in the market.
t of DESPATCH froi
Governor Dodglas, C.B., to his Grace the Duke of
Newcastle, K.G.
My Lob
.) Victoria, Vancouver Island, January 26, 1861.
^ (Received March 25, 1861.)
) DOKE, (Answered, No. 74, April 13, 1861, page 68.)
I have much pleasure in transmitting herewith a synopsis of the revenue and
expenditure of the Colony of British Columbia for the year ending on the 31st day of ~
December I860, which I have caused to be compiled in the Audit Office from the public
accounts, for the purpose of laying approximately before your Grace at the earliest
moment such information as may be desirable, in anticipation of the formal estimates
which are in course of preparation, and will be forwarded by the next mail.
Although the December returns and some of the back accounts of the distant out-
stations have not been received, and are merely estimated in this account, yet it exhibits
very closely the actual revenue and expenditure, and may, for all practical purposes, be
assumed as a true statement of the financial position of the Colony.
The principal item.of revenue in that account will be found under the head of Customs,
classified as follows, viz., duties on imports, 29,702J.; harbour and tonnage dues, head
money, the roads tolls at Yale and Douglas for the month of November, and other minor
receipts, collectively 5,81?/.; making in all the sum of 35,519*.
The increase of revenue from duties on imports is about 70 per cent., as compared
with the revenue derived from the same source in 1859; and it may be fairly assumed,
considering the increase <a£ population and the progressive state of the Colony, that the
Customs returns of 1861 will be in excess of those of I860.
The amount of land.sales for the year I860 is 10,962/., which is less by 7,915/. than
the. sales of 1859; a difference explained by the large < sums received for building lots
at New Westminster and other towns where land was required for commercial purposes
and sold at high prices. A larger quantity of country land has been sold in I860, but
from the comparatively low price did not yield a proportionate revenue.
There is no prospect of a material increase in land sales for 1861, except through the
effect of emigration from Canada and Great Britain, as there is a very small farming
F 2
toisn    population in the Colony, the working classes being chiefly miners, accustomed tc» excite-
iluhbia. ^ePnt) fond of adventure, and entertaining generally a thorough contempt for the quiet
pursuits of life.
The minor items of revenue in tne synopsis will probably not vary much m 1861.from
the sums in the present return, and cannot in any case be expected greatly to affect the
amount of the general revenue.
On the other side of the account is the sum of 16,736/. expended for «estabhsh-
ments." The most rigid economy having been exercised in this department, the amount
is not susceptible of reduction, but might with advantage to the public service be
increased by some verv necessary additions to the emoluments of the principal executive
officers of the Colony, their present salaries being not only inadequate to the relative
importance and responsibility of the offices they hold but; literally "f^* ^ m-£gn
them in a respectable position; a subject which I will take the liberty of bringing before
your Grace in a separate Despatch.
The outlay on works and buddings amounts to the sum of 3,513/., and in the formation of roads and bridges there has been expended the sum of 18,935/.; a profitable
investment for the Colony, as is apparent from its increasing revenue, wrnch wi 1 no
doubt keep pace with the improvement of its internal communications and the laciMies
1    End, no. ■    afforded to trade and commerce.    A detail of those works is given in Statement No. 2,
II     and the outlay on each is approximately shown.    The other items of disbursement, being
separately of small amount, need no comment. The entire expenditure, amounting to
44,124/., has been defrayed out of the current revenue and there remaans a balance or
8,886/. in the treasury, which will be sufficient to meet the outstanding liabilities ot the
Colony for the unfinished contracts of the roads in progress.
The works we propose to execute this year are as follows :— -
A cart-road from Pemberton to Cayoosh, length about       - -    3b mdes.
Ditto from Hope to Shimilkomeen       - - -    /■*    »
Improvement of navigation of Shimilkomeen River - -   oO    „
Horse-road from Boston Bar to Lytton - - -       -    30    „
Ditto from Lytton to Alexandria - - -        " on    "
Ditto from Cayoosh to junction with Lytton Road   - - -   30    „    .
In progress.
Road from New Westminster to Langley       - - -    15    „
Ditto from New Westminster to Burrard's Inlet - ""-,?"
Ditto to boundary line at Semiahmoo Bay        "        " " ~    on     "
Ditto from Spuzzem to Boston Bar (nearly finished) - - - ^ ,,
For the execution of these highly necessary works, we may, I believe safely estimate
that the sum of 25,000/. can be provided out of the revenue of the Colony, without
at all impairing its capacity to defray the whole civd expenses of the Government.
Much more than that sum is, however, required to complete such extensive public works;
and I therefore addressed your Grace on the subject of a loan of 50,000/. in my Despatch,
No. 84, of the 28th of August last.
If that project can be carried out, we shall enter the field with larger means, and
the Colony will sooner experience the impulse thereby given to trade and industry ; it,
on the contrary, the loan is not procurable, the extent of those undertakings will be
regulated by the means actually at my disposal.
I see no probability, short of an almost absolute abandonment of all the essential
public works upon which we are engaged, of our being able this year to maintain out
of the Colonial Revenue the detachment of Royal Engineers stationed here; and I rely
with confidence upon the mother country again affording her assistance in our difficulties,
by providing for them, as heretofore, out of Imperial funds, so that I may be free to
apply the whole surplus revenue of the Colony, after paying all its own Governmental expenses, to the opening of roads and other public works indispensable to its
development. I have, &c.
His Grace the Duke of Newcastle, K.G. (Signed)       JAMES DOUGLAS. PAPERS RELATING TO BRITISH COLUMBIA. 45
Enclosure 1 in No. 17. Columbia
Statement of the Revenue and Expenditure of British Columbia for the year _.  ,~7-
ending 31st December 1860. No. 'n. ™
The above account, although only approximate in consequence of the whole of the
laving yet been received, is still not far from the actual receipts and expenditure, tl
terns being compiled from the actual accounts.
(Signed)       Wn
Audit Office, 15th January 1861.
i A. G. Young,
ting Colonial Secretary,
Acting as Auditc
Enclosure 2 in No. 17.
Statement of Expenditure during 1860.
Tale an<
ISpuzzemKoad   -
as Bar and Boston Bar:
" 1
d Shimilkameen Boad
and Sumas Trail -
at New Westminster, I
small works at Out-stat
Audit Office, 15th January 1861.
Ass ay Office and Officers' Quai
(Signed)       William A. G. Young,
Acting Colonial Secretary,
Acting as Auditor.
Copy of a DESPATCH froi
Governor Douglas, C.B., to his Grace the Duke of
Newcastle, K.G.
( Separate.) New -Westminster, February 28, 1861.
Mr LORD DUKE, (BeceivedMay 13, 1861.)
Since I last had the honour of reporting on the state of affairs in this Colony, I
have received various communications from the district Gold Commissioners, the substance
of which I will now lay before your Grace.
A report from the Gold Commissioner at Hope, dated 31st January, represents that
district as being in a perfectly tranquil state; that about 300 miners were then employed
in that vicinity, a large proportion of whom were Chinese; and that it was probable
there would be a considerable emigration of that class towards Rock Creek and Shimilkomeen in the course of the spring. The river communication from New Westminster had been closed by ice for 11 days, but was then open, and the steamer " Hope"
had arrived on the preceding day with some freight, which was carried at the reasonable
charge of 20*. a ton. Food was* abundant in the district and prices moderate, as will be
observed from the enclosed statement. _     ■. >^S
The miners at Shimilkomeen had not been able to do much work on their mining
claims in consequence of the coldness of the weather, and the river being covered with
drift ice. Bench diggings had however been discovered by several mining companies,
which were expected to yield from 20*. to 30*. a day to each man employed in washing.
Many new houses were being erected, and deals and other material prepared for the
operations of the coming season. Bread stuffs and other articles of food were not abundant, and the price of those articles much higher than at Hope. Great exertions _ were
being made to forward supplies by the mountain road opened last summer, which is
practicable even in winter notwithstanding the depth of snow. It is not therefore apprehended that the miners in that district will suffer from want of food.
Mr. Commissioner Sanders reports that the Yale district continues in a satisfactory
state. Mining is carried on to an equal extent, but he is of opinion with less remunerative
results than last year. The mining claims are with few exceptions in the hands of the
Chinese, there being about 2,000 of this people within the district. As a rule they have
been successful and many have returned to their homes the possessors of from 2,000
to 4,000 dollars. There are but few white miners, and the major part of the small
number still in this district intend to leave for Rock Creek or the Cariboeuf country in
spring. The total number of miners wintering in the district is about 3,000. There, are-
._ about 2,000 Chinese in Yale and its environs alone. The cold weather had put a stop to
all mining operations. The enclosed extract from Mr. Sanders' report contains some
interesting information respecting the state of trade, and the public works in progress,
especially the road leading from Yale to Lytton.
The enclosed extract from Mr. Cox's report _ of the 16th January to the Colonial
Secretary will convey in his own words the latest information from the mines on Rock
The last report from Mr. Elwyn, the Gold Commissioner of Cayoosh district, is dated
on the 16th of February. The melancholy fate of Mr. Price, a respectable tradesman,
who was barbarously murdered in his own house at Cayoosh, on the evening of the' 1st
of February, has excited an intense sensation. The authors and object of the crime are
unknown, it is supposed however to have been committed by Indians, and three of those
people have been taken into custody on suspicion, and duly committed for trial at the
next assizes. The weather was already warm and pleasant at Cayoosh, and the exodus
had commenced of miners and mule trains with supplies for the upper country ; their
departure being probably hastened by the arrival of several miners from Alexandria with
reports of some wonderfully rich discoveries on Bear River, a stream which discharges
into the south branch of Fraser River above Fort George. These men assured the Gold
Commissioner that 25s. worth of gold had been washed out of a single bucket of the
auriferous earth ; and though he freely admits that there may be some exaggeration in-
these statements, yet he seems to entertain no doubt of their general accuracy, nor of the
fact that very valuable discoveries have actually been made during the present winter in
that quarter. Mr. Elwyn also states that the bridge over Fraser River, which was in
course of erection by a private company near Cayoosh, was accidentally destroyed when
more than half the work was finished, and the enterprise is therefore abandoned for the
present, a circumstance which. I much regret, not only on account of the travelling public
who will be put to much inconvenience through the want of a bridge at that point; but
also of the spirited adventurers, who have' sustained a heavy pecuniary loss, and whose
enterprise merits a better fate.
There is no further intelligence of much importance from the mining districts.
The reduction from 10*. to 4*. 2d. per acre in the upset price of country land, will
no doubt give an impulse to the settlement of the country, but the change has been so
recently made that we are not yet able to judge of its practical effects ; we are however
at present engaged in opening roads through the forests, into the more fertile districts
around New Westminster, in order to render them accessible and to remove every serious
impediment to their early settlement, which by that means will be greatly promoted.
I have, &c.
His Grace the Duke of Newcastle, K.G. (Signed)        JAMES DOUGLAS.
Enclosure 1 in No. 18.
Price of Provisions at Hope, January 31, 1861.
Su^r I '-
Tea   -
Laid -
per barrel
8   0 to 1 12    0
per lb.
0 10  „  0    0 11-1
Hope, January 31, 1861.
(Signed)       P. O'Rei
Enclosure 2 in No. 18.
of Provisions, Shimilkomeen District, January 1861.
s.   d.
 per lb.    1    4£
Enclosure 3 in No. 18.
Mr. Sanders to the Colonial Secre
Trade is dull, the staples principally in demand are flour, bacon, ;
Rice - -     per lb. 0 0
Flour - - per 100 lb. 0 18
Bacon - - per lb. 0 0 1
Butter -                      „ 0 2
Beans - -         „ 0 0
TefP - '-        "„ o 3
Coffee -                      „ 0 1
Potatoes - -         „ 0 0
Fresh meat -                      „ 0 1
In 1859—Flour was per 100 lbs.     1
Butter      per lb.      -     0    .
Beans „ o    >
The rates of freight in consequence of excessive competition ar
only SI. a ton from Victoria to Yale; in the spring of this year as m
The miner and labouring man can live comfortably on 3s. a day.
The charge made at the restaurants for board and lodging is 21. a week.
The rates of wages is 10Z. a month and keep.
The population of the town of Yale, according to a recent census is in<; toWi-oo ori\ nu:„ j
200 natives, living in 110 dwelling houses. . '        Cnl"ese, and
The roads of the district have borne the severe test of the recent very heavy rains remarkablv well -
I went over the Yale and Spuzzem portion subsequent to the rains: with the exception of beino- furrowed
here and there by small mountain streams seeking an outlet, it had not suffered in the least °
Messrs. M.'Roberts and Power have completed the second section of their -contract The"" Colonel's
Retreat has ceased to be an obstacle m the way. A mile of rough boulders beyond the " Retreat"
has been reduced to the evenness of a billiard table. The bridge over~the ravine before reaclino-
Nicaragua Bluff is completed, so also that portion of the road known as the " Zi°- za6 " '
On the Boston Bar end too, three miles of road are finished, and the timbers for the bridge over the
river Anderson have been hauled from a considerable distance on to theground; finally" a party of
eight men are constantly employed on the bluff, a bench of 80 yards in length being Edv
accomplished. . s °  a,Lca"i
The ferry at Spuzzem has been leased to Mr. Yorke at a rental of 3051. per annum    The rites of
toll have been reduced from 6s. to 2s. -'        v J-neiatesot
For the better collection of the " roads tolls" a toll house and gate have been erected at a
101.   I estimate the probable yield of the road toll during the ensuing year at 5,300£
5,000 mules, 300 lbs. each, or 1,500 tons       - -   3,000
400 tons carried by boats      - - - -      800
750 tons carried by Indians  - 1,500
According to lists kept by me during the past sea
June 271, in July 603, in August 779, in September '
The revenue of the district has experienced a s
collected in 1859.
Mining licences
Mining receipts (general)
Tolls and ferries
Sales of lands   - - -
Spirit licences   -
Tracking licences
l, 2,723 mules packed from this towi
!, in October 328.
ht reduction as compared  with   the
The expenditure of 1860 a
1,3661. 2s. 4<?.
Enclosure 4 in No. 18.
Mr. Cox to the Colonial Secretary.   '
I beg leave to enclose for the information of his Excellency the Gov
respective British and American towns, Boundary Creek.
Mining was carried on here as late as the 28th December by sluicing and rocking; 28s. per day to
the hand being the average pay.
The weather still continues extremely mild; a continued frost, but not severe, and undisturbed by
A ditch that will cost time and money is being constructed by Messrs. Curry and Co., it will take
its course along the S.W. side of the creek, and terminate immediately, opposite the town; its length
one mile and a half; it is for the purpose of washing those benches which have been tunnelled about
20 feet into the gravel and 30 feet above the level of the creek, with fair results, viz., four colours to
the pan.
A bridge is also being erected over Colville River facing the town, which will be a great improvement; although I cannot at present see where the receipts are to come from, the river being fordable
during fully nine months of the year.
I purpose accompanying some miners to the gold fields reported to
Okanagan Lake, or rather on one of its tributary streams, as soon as
report to his Excellency what is to be seen there.
Active preparations for building are going on, and I, together, I may say,
wait for his Excellency's instructions respecting the survey of the town, i
proceeded with as soon as possible in order to meet the expected excitement.
The town now contains 23 good houses, some of which have been erected at a large outlay.
I shall feel obliged by being provided with the necessary authority for disposing of agricultural
land to aliens, as at present .1 have nothing to guide me in the matter, I require also to know the
conditions on which a saw mill privilege is to be granted.
Farms have been taken and houses built a few miles south of the line, which I dare say will be used
orehouses for spirits, &c, &c. until a favourable opportunity may present itself for smuggling such
tear the " Mission " on the
procure a horse; and shall
goods in here, so will require to be well a
banks for such manoeuvres unfortunately.
Labour now averages 12s. per day v *''
Bacon -
Lard   -
tched.    The creek affords every facility along both it
ithout board.
of Provisi
ons January 1861.
£   s. d.
0   0 10
Beans -
0    2    0
Rice   -
0   2    0
Candles (scarce)
0    18
Dried apples   -
0    5    0
Rock Creek, January 16, 1861. PAPERS RELATING TO BRITISH COLUMBIA. 49
No. 19. C(™
Copy of DESPATCH from Governor Douglas, C.B., to his Grace the Duke of        No-1S
Newcastle, K.G.
(No. 33.) Victoria, Vancouver Island, May 2, 1861.
My LORD Duke, (Received June 17, 1861.)
In my Despatch marked Separate,* of the 28th of February last, allusion was made * Page 4
in Mr. Cox's letter of the 16th of January, forming enclosure No. 4, to some reported
Gold Fields at Lake Okanagan, and the intention of the Gold Commissioner to accompany a body of miners to inspect that part of the country. The miners proceeded
on their proposed excursion, and returned to Rock Creek in the beginning of March,
when they communicated the very satisfactory intelligence that they had found grain
and scale gold of fine quality, in remunerative quantities, in all the streams flowing into
the western shore of Lake Okanagan, which is over 70 miles in length. This important
discovery had not been made public at Rock Creek, for the reasons stated in Mr. Cox's
interesting report on the  subject, which I herewith transmit, unabridged, for your 1
Grace's information-.
2. I have also just received a very satisfactory report from Mr. Commissioner Nind,
of Alexandria district, mentioning the great discoveries which have been made during
the winter at Antler Creek, a tributary of Bear River, which flows from the mountains
east of Quesnelle Lake into the south branch of Fraser River.
3. On the occasion of Mr. Nind's visit to Antler Creek, the whole face of the country
was still deeply covered with snow; but a great number of miners were nevertheless on
the ground anxiously awaiting the advent of spring to commence operations.
4. These discoveries were alluded to in my Despatch of the 28th of February last,
and are now satisfactorily confirmed by the present report from Mr. Nind, who, however,
refrains from giving currency to the perhaps exaggerated statements received from
miners, that as much as 70 dollars worth of gold has been extracted from a single pan
full (containing about one gallon) of earth.
5. The confirmed impression, however, is, that a gold field of extraordinary richness
has been now discovered, and I sincerely trust that those impressions may be fully
6. It is matter of sincere congratulation that the tranquillity of the country has been in
nowise disturbed by the excitements arising from those discoveries; and that, as a body,
the miners are well conducted and submissive to the laws.
7- A copy of Mr. Nind's report, and sketch of the new gold field, is also transmitted 	
for your Grace's information.
I have, &c.
His Grace the Duke of Newcastle, K.G. (Signed)       JAMES DOUGLAS.
&c. &c. &c.
Enclosure 1 in No. 19. *
Sir, Rock Creek, March 1, 1861.
I have the honour to report, for the information of his Excellency the Governor, the result of
Messrs. Beam and Company's prospecting tour to the Okanagan Lake, and at the same time enclose
for his Excellency's inspection some unchosen gold taken out of the river Sand Cove, " Anse de Sable."
I shall now repeat as nearly as possible what was expressed by the above party.
" We prospected nine streams, all tributaries of the lake, arid found gold in each, averaging from
three to 90 cents to the pan; the ground was much frozen and impeded our work. We are quite
satisfied of the richness of these mines, and shall as soon as feasible dispose of our claims on Rock
Creek and leave for that section of the country, where a miner can grow his potatoes and other
vegetables, besides keep his cow. We hand you some'gold taken from William Pion's claim; he makes
$4 per day with a rocker, and we as old and practical miners could realize much more by sluicing and
other methods.
| The Indians treated us moat hospitably, lending us canoes and horses free of charge ; the soil,
especially in the valleys, is well adapted for farming and stock raising. The snow, which did not exceed
one foot in depth, is fast disappearing. We only prospected the flats, the frost preventing our proceeding
up the creeks, where it is naturally to be believed the principal portion of the gold is deposited."
I have been particular in quoting the above, as Mr. Beam, the discoverer of " Rock Creek " gold
fields is universally acknowledged to be a good and sure prospector.
I have not made the above statement 'public, as it would only lead to bad results just at present
The miners in this neighbourhood would be easily coaxed off, and the mines now in a preparatory
condition for being properly worked, abandoned; improvements going forward on buildings and farms
would be checked; town lots would almost be unsaleable; in fact, the expected revenue receipt would
be seriously interfered with.
I have, &c
'     (Signed)       William George Cox.
The Colonial Secretary.
Enclosure 2 in No.
Sir, Williams Lake, March 27, 1861.
I have the honour to inform you that during the winter great excitement has prevailed respecting the discovery of rich diggings on Antler Creek. The secrecy observed by its discoverers, the large
prospects they were reputed to have found, together with the subsequent announcement of the situation
of the creek, tended so to inflame the minds of all, that a rush of people took place in the dead of
winter to this new El Dorado.
Many claims were recorded, and in several instances the same ground was taken up by different parties.
This led to contention, and almost to open violence, at one time deadly weapons being drawn, but
happily with no evil result
Shortly afterwards, an appeal having been made for my interference, I determined to proceed to the
forks of Quesnelle, and if necessary to Antler Creek. Accordingly on the 27th February I left
Williams Lake accompanied by a constable and two Indians carrying necessaries for the journey. In
consequence of the difficulty of travelling we did not reach the forks of Quesnelle until the 3rd March:
here 1 learnt that the majority of miners was on Keithley's and Antler Creek expecting my arrival; I
resolved therefore to visit these places. The route, which was a different one to that travelled by me
last autumn, led up the left bank of the north fork of Quesnelle River for about seven miles; it then
crossed the river at Mitchell's Bridge, and continued on the right bank to the Lesser Caribou Lake,
the entire distance from the Forks of Quesnelle being about 20 miles.
I can speak favourably of the enterprize and ingenuity displayed by Mr. Mitchell, who without
assistance has built the piers of this bridge, and has made blocks and a windlass from the materials
around him. I should judge that by this time the bridge must be nearly completed and fit for the
passage of foot travellers and animals.
On the north fork of Quesnelle mining is carried on with much spirit by some few companies' which
have been engaged nearly all the winter in constructing wing dams and water-wheels for working the
channel at a low-water stage. Success has attended the labour of most, and a large quantity of gold
has been extracted. I visited Messrs. Keithley's and Diller's claim, which is on the hill side, about
60 feet above the level of the water; it was discovered late last autumn, and at first proved of almost
unprecedented richness; a tunnel was bored into the bank, but owing to natural causes was obliged to
be abandoned; subsequently the hill was pierced in two other places, but the lode seemed to have been
lost, for no prospects were found. Mr. Diller has persevered in attempting to recover the lode, and
has informed me that he thinks he has at length succeeded.
Good prospects have been obtained on benches 100 and 200 feet above the present river level, and it
of the preliminary difficulties attached to the development of the country are removed.
That the rtwQha&once been a much larger stream, or has occupied a different chaiuiel^'is apparent
from the still perceptible traces of an old channel, and the alluvial.flats deposited by its action, on either
Above what is called the Falls, which are some five miles from Caribou Lake, scarcely any gold has
been found. Crossing the Lower Caribou Lake the trail leads to two houses intended for stores, at the
mouth of Keithley's Creek; it then passes up the creek to Mr. Davis' store, a distance of five or six
I observed here great preparations for fluming,' and many thousands of feet of lumber that had been
to had averaged abo
it two fe
t and a hal
aspect of unbroken
I was prev
g my journey imm
and during
3reek that render
tie prese
Antler Creek ascen
s a ravi
les until the summi
t of the
red hills intersected; bj
trasses of quartz rock a
of red top, the othei
miles the descent in British. Columbia  PAPERS RELATING TO BRITISH COLUMBIA. 51
and a kind of slate rock covered with red gravel, said to bear a close resemblance to the rich auriferous I
beds of the streams of the southern mines of California. I found one log cabin on Antler Creek built G<
by the discoverers Rose andM'Donald; the rest of the miners were living in holes dug out of the snow,
which was between six and seven feet deep. I remained here fully occupied for nearly six days in
settling mining disputes, and transacting other business. Matters passed off without any disturbance,
and if all were not satisfied the unsuccessful parties submitted quietly on finding their claims were
not supported by the law.
Although I do not wish to disparage the motives that actuated such extremely creditable and decorous
conduct as was displayed on Antler Creek, yet I am of opinion that the following reasons materially
tended to bring about such a desirable result. Every miner had an interest in the country, the value
of which in these new gold fields no one could truly estimate; but the prospect was more dazzling than
had ever been presented before: it was patent to all who were old residents that English law, if transgressed, was not to be evaded with the same impunity as California law; no one therefore cared to risk
the loss of what might be a fortune to him: besides this, there was an absence of every kind of
I intoxicating liquor. Prospecting was done during my slay, and in some cases proved most successful;
but the labour of shovelling away the snow and sinking holes at that season of the year was excessive.
The' creek winds through the centre of a narrow valley, and is surmounted by hills sloping down to
flats and benches of alluvial deposit; the bed rock on which the gold is found lies but a short distance
under the surface, and in many places crops out: there are several tributaries of the same general appearance as the main stream which offer facilities for the introduction of water; in addition, the absence of
high precipitous banks, and the abundance of good timber form some of the favourable features that
will render the working of mines on this creek more easy and comparatively less expensive than has
been the case on the other known creeks of the Caribou country. Setting the workable ground at a
low estimate, there is room here for at least 1,000 miners. Cunningham's Creek, discovered last
autumn, but not prospected until after the Antler Creek excitement, has lately obtained a high reputation, a number of claims have been taken up and recorded upon it since the middle of last month, and
it bids fair'to rival Antler Creek in popularity. I believe it is about the same size, and will accommodate the same number of men.
I have the honour to enclose a map drawn for me by Mr. J. Martin, an enterprizing prospector, and
a most intelligent person; it embraces a section of country known to but very few, and may, I think, be
relied upon. The question of a mining Board, as laid down by the Gold Fields Act, being mooted, I
encouraged the idea, as I believe that such an organization would be beneficial to the miner and the
Colony. A new description of mines has been discovered which promises a more lasting employment
of labour than has hitherto existed, and the features of the country being different to those of any other
gold country, and unknown at the passing of the Gold Fields' Act, or the subsequent rules and regulations, I respectfully submit that its peculiarities are best met and turned to account by those who are
most conversant with them. It is true that amongst individuals, and mining cliques which play into
one another's hands, there are frequent attempts at monopoly and overreaching; yet the mining
community at large, in the discussion of a question that affects its common interest, is just and impartial
in matters of fact, and clear-headed in abstract questions.
Respecting the gold resources of the Caribou country, a perfect unanimity exists; but it is probable
that many of those now so sanguine, particularly the new comers, who are unacquainted with the
numerous difficulties that must be overcome, will meet with reverses and disapointment: those, however,
who are fortunate in placer mining will turn their attention to the discovery of hill diggings and quartz
lodes; hitherto, no one has prospected on the hills, exploration having followed up the course of the
streams, from the necessity of obtaining immediate returns. One statistical proof of the general sentiment lies in the number of mining certificates that have been issued, and which I can safely assert
embraces nine-tenths of the population, and would exceed that proportion amongst the whites; but the
money^Treturned on the 23rd March to Williams Lake, having been absent 25 days, and travelled a
distance of about 230 miles. I found the snow had almost entirely disappeared from this valley, and
Mr. Davidson had commenced ploughing about a fortnight previously. One train of packed horses
arrived at Williams Lake before the end of February, but were compelled to wait some time before being
able to proceed to  Beaver Lake.    Since this,  30 or 40 head of cattle have been driven into the
conveyed into the forks  of Quesnelle by Indians, who received 10'dollars per 100 lbs.; and as many
the rate of from seven to nine dollars a day. Indians have been very highly paid for their labour all
though the winter, and the Antler Creek excitement has given them plenty of employment; their
manufactures too, have rated proportionately high; ordinary mocassins fetching from three to 10
dollars per pair, and snow shoes from 10 dollars to 25. Provisions rose during the winter, although
the supply was quite equal to the demand. Flour has been selling here at 37 cents, per lb.; beans and
rice about the same; and bacon at from 65 to 90; beef, 30 to 87$
At the forks of Quesnelle, prices have been higher. At Keithley's Creek, flour was at 75; and on
Antler Creek, provisions were one dollar a lb. all round. Pack-trains are arriving daily, and afford a
contrast to the proceedings of last year: the miners then came in before the provisions, but now the
provisions are coming before the miners: this is reducing prices, and will, no doubt, have a good effect
°nit wiifbe some^e^eLe animals can travel into the forks of Quesnelle; it is with much difficulty
•that they make'the journey from here to Beaver Lake, and they are obliged to carry provender with
them A new trail has been opened from the Little Lake into the forks of Quesnelle, it is better
graded than the old one, but I think is rather longer. I found Mr. Adler's new bridge over the south
'fork of Quesnelle completed on my return, and can speak in terms of high commendation of its workmanlike and substantial appearance. I was informed that its cost had been above 5,000 dollars, and
from the high rate of wages, and the labour expended upon it, I do not imagine that a similar structure 52 PAPERS RELATING TO BRITISH COLUMBIA.
British could be raised for a less sum. Mr. Adler has shown much enterprise in endeavouring to secure the
Columbia, traffic of the ensuing year to the forks of Quesnelle, as it is by no means certain that travellers will adopt
  this route to the northern mines.
The Colonial Secretary.
I have, fee.
d)       Philip Henr:
Copy of DESPATCH from Governor Douglas, C.B., to his Grace the Duke of
Newcastle, K.G.
(Separate.) Lytton, June 4, 1861.
My Lord Duke, (Received July 29, 1861.)
Since my departure from Victoria, on the 10th May I have visited in succession
the towns of New Westminster, Hope, Yale, and Lytton, from whence I have now the
honour of addressing your Grace.
2. It is not necessary to trouble your Grace with remarks on the condition of those
towns, which all exhibit a satisfactory degree of progress, yet nothing more than was
anticipated from the quiet and prosperous state of the Colony.
3. The most interesting feature about New Westminster is the newly formed lines
of road through the densely wooded country north of that town, which has induced
settlers to turn their attention that way, and will probably lead to the rapid extension of
settlement in the direction of Burrards Inlet. A similar result in promoting early
settlement is anticipated from another new line of road which- is being formed on the
left bank of the Fraser, commencing a little below New Westminster, and running in a
southerly direction towards the frontier. The forests opposite the town are beginning to
yield to the woodman's efforts; and one enterprising proprietor, Mr. Brown, has dis- '
covered on his ground a large tract of excellent land, which certainly cannot be surpassed
in point of fertility or quality of soil.
4. Many land claims have been taken by settlers along the Fraser, yet in m'y progress
from New Westminster to Hope there was scarcely a trace of improvement or any
observable inroad on the forest. The Pre-emption Act is, however, beginning to work
its effect, and will, as I confidently believe, ere long make a decided change on the face
of the country.
5. Several industrious settlers, probably about eighty in number, have taken land
around Hope and Yale, and are toiling assiduously in clearing and preparing the soil for
crops. The carriage road from Hope towards Shimilkomeen, of which about 12 miles
are now open to travel, is a great accommodation to settlers, who eagerly grasp at every
improvable piece of land to which it gives access.
6. Captain Grant, with a detachment of 80 Royal Engineers under his command, and
about 80 civilian labourers, is employed in the formation of that road, which we hope to
complete before the return of winter, providing always that the public revenue continues
in a prosperous state, and our funds do not in the meantime fall short.
7. I am especially anxious, for the completion of that highly important work, so
valuable as a military road, leading towards the frontier, and as an outlet for the trade of
the most fertile agricultural districts of the Colony, and, from discoveries which are being
continually made, probably the most auriferous. Every successive discovery indeed
tends to confirm the impression that the gold fields which have been struck at Rock
Creek and Quesnel River or Caribou, are but two points in a range of auriferous mountains containing incalculable wealth, which, commencing at Rock Creek 49° N. lat.,
118° 30' W. long., run almost due north between Great Okanagan Lake and the Columbia
River to lat. 51 , and from thence along the North River in a north by west direction,
through the Quesnel and Caribou country to the banks of Fraser River, at 54° N. lat.,
123° W. long., a total distance of nearly 330 miles, a theory, which, if correct, opens a
magnificent vista of future greatness for the Colony.
8. We saw very little mining between Hope and Yale, the miners having been generally
driven from their claims by the high state of the river.
9. Entering the passes of the Fraser beyond Yale we pursued our route over the new
road amidst scenery of the grandest description. Mountains rising to the skies on both
sides of the narrow pass, and immediately beneath the Fraser frantically tearing its wav PAPERS RELATING TO BRITISH COLUMBIA. 53
in foaming whirls convey a faint idea of the scene. Neither are softer features wanting, Beitish
every spot of the earth being prolific of vegetation, and the mountains' sides covered with Columbia.
the most beautiful flowers.
10. Settlers, true to their instincts, have followed the new road even into the passes,
and are bringing every spot of tillable land into cultivation. At the Great Falls two
adventurous Frenchmen have built a kiosk and laid out a pretty little garden for the
entertainment of visitors. The traveller has no reason to dread a journey 'through this
part of British Columbia, as at every few miles is to be found a wayside inn, with
refreshments of every kind.
11. The new road on Fraser River from " Spuzzem" to " Quayome" runs along the
face of frightful precipices, but! is, nevertheless, perfectly safe for horse and mule
12. These is a great deal of good mining ground between Yale and Lytton, and the
miners of the district have displayed an unusual degree of skill and enterprise, in
conducting water to their claims, by means of canals and viaducts, from the distant
13. One of these works, called the " Poor Man's Ditch," the property of Mr. Melodey
and three other natives of Ireland, who came to this Colony in the year 1858, entirely
without capital, and commenced their career as simple miners, is seven miles long, and
has cost them about 15,000 dollars. These persons have another expensive work of the
same kind on Van Winkle Flat, which now yields them a very handsome income.
This is not a solitary instance of successful enterprise, as almost all their contemporaries
who have remained in the Colony since the year 1858 are now possessed of wealth and
position, and considering the advantages offered to emigrants one only regrets that a
greater number of Her Majesty's subjects have not made British Columbia their home.
14. Much remains to be done for the improvement of this part of the Colony.
A carriage road from Quayome to Lytton, is the work that demands our more immediate
attention. Its importance is evident, and the people of Lytton have, almost to a man,
come forward with a petition praying that it be made without delay, and a further tax
levied on goods carried inland to defray its cost, which will probably not fall short o
15. I propose leaving this place to day for Cayoosh by the Buonaparte River, the
great stock range of the Colony, where I expect to meet with many settlers.
16. I would also inform your Grace, that we are daily receiving the most extraordinary
accounts of the almost fabulous wealth of the Antler Creek and Caribou diggings.
Mr. Palmer, a respectable merchant, who arrived the other day from that part of the
country with nearly 50 pounds weight of gold, which he kindly allowed me to examine,
assured me that these accounts are by no means exaggerated. As an example of the
extraordinary wealth of the country, he mentioned that four of his friends who are associated
in a mining company, were making regularly, from 16 ozs. to 37 ozs. of gold a day,
being 4 ozs. to 9f ozs. each; by " fluming " another company of four men washed out with
cradles, in his presence, 36 ozs. of gold in one day; and the yield of ordinary mining
claims is from 20 to 50 dollars a day for each man employed.
17- The gold in Caribou is not confined to the rivers. It is found in the gulches and
table land 300 and 400 yards from the rivers, and much beyond their highest levels.
About a foot of gravel overlies the bed rock of light coloured shale extremely soft, or in
mining phrase " rotten," where the gold is found in the rents of the shale. He says, there
are mountains of quartz, and he is of opinion, that some of the richest quartz leads in the
world will be found there.
18. Mr. Barnston, another respectable traveller from Caribou, corroborates Mr. Palmer's
testimony, and adds that he never before saw- a class of men' more elated with their
prospects than the miners of Quesnel; they look to a successful season, and expect to
leave the country in the autumn with their fortunes made. He feels assured of the almost
fabulous wealth of the country ; ordinary claims pay 50 dollars a day to the hand, and he
knows one company of four men working on Antler Creek, who each receive 1,000 dollars
a week from their mining claim.
19. The testimony of other persons is confirmatory of these extraordinary statements; a
private note dated 28th May 1861, from Mr. Nind, the Assistant Gold Commissioner for
Quesnel River Districts, has the following remarks:—"■ The news is still good from above;*  * Caribou.
" We have the right thing at Caribou."   So that all things considered, I see no reason for
British     doubting the correctness of the current reports,.and: I am sorry, indeed, that so small i
Columbia,   portion of that wealth should at present be reaped by Her Majesty's subjects.
His Grace the Duke of Newcastle, K.G.
&c &c. &c.
(Signed)       JAMES DOUGLAS.
Copy of DESPATCH from Governor Douglas, C.B., to his Grace the Duke of
I Newcastle, K.G.
(Separate.) Victoria, Vancouver Island, July 16, 1861.
My Lord Duke, (Received September 30, 1861.)
When addressing your Grace from Lytton in my Separate Despatch of the 4th of
June last,* I communicated the information and impressions of the state of the country
which I had received on my previous journey; I will now in this Despatch continue the
subject subsequently to my departure from Lytton.
2. Leaving that place I travelled for 35 miles along the banks of Thompson's River
by a good horse road lately made at a trifling cost, and successively visited the Buonaparte and Hat Rivers, and the Pavilion, where we fell upon the Fraser, and followed it
downwards to Cayoosh. The district comprehended within those limits is exceedingly
beautiful and picturesque, being composed of a succession of hills and vallej's, lakes and
rivers, exhibiting to the traveller accustomed to the endless forests of the coast districts,
the unusual and grateful spectacle of miles of green hills, curving slopes, and level
meadows, almost without a bush or tree to obstruct the view, and even to the very hill
tops producing an abundant growth of grass. It is of great value as a grazing district, a
circumstance which appears to be thoroughly understood and appreciated by the country
packers, who are in the habit of leaving their mules and horses here when the regular
work of packing goods to the mines is suspended for the winter.
The animals, even at that season, are said to improve in condition, though left to seek
their own food, and to roam at large over the country, a fact which speaks volumes in
favour of the climate and of the natural pastures. It has certainly never been my good
fortune to visit a country more pleasing to the eye, or possessing a more healthy and
agreeable climate, or a greater extent of fine pasture land; and there is no doubt that
with a smaller amount of labour and outlay than in almost any other colony, the energetic settler may soon surround himself with all the elements of affluence and comfort.
3. Notwithstanding these advantages.'such have hitherto been the difficulties of access,
that the course of regular settlement has hardly yet commenced.
4. A good deal of running stock has been brought in for sale ; but with the exception
of eight or ten persons, there are no farmers in the district. One of those, Mr. McLean,
a native of Scotland, and lately of the Hudson's Bay Company's service, has recently
settled on a beautiful spot, near the debouch of Hat River, and is rapidly bringing his
1 rad into cultivation.    He has a great number of horses and cattle of the finest Am
breeds ; and from the appearance of the crops th
outlay will be well rewarded. He is full of coura,
success. He entertains no doubt whatever of the c
will, under proper management, produce any kind c
he seriously apprehends i^ the want of rain and the c
has induced him to bring a supply of water from a i
at pleasure irrigate the whole of his fields.
5. I received an equally favourable report from IV
at the Pavilion in the year 1859, and he has con
years' experience. His last crop, besides a profus:
oats, barley, turnips, and potatoes, and the produce
potatoes yielded 375 bushels to the acre. The tur:
the roots weighed 26 lbs.; and swedes of 15lbs.
He could not give the yield of oats and barley, the
sheaf for the use of the mule trains passing to and f
Y prospect that his labour and
, by which he can
r. Reynolds, who co
sequently had the a
on of garden vegeta'
was most abundant.
i farm
f two
ted of
aip crop was no less
and 16 lbs. were con
greater part having
manifest from, the weight and length of the straw, which attained a height of fully four Beitisi
feet, was remarkably good. He generally allows his cattle to run at large, and they Columbj
seldom require to be housed or fed in winter.
6. The cold is never severe; the greatest depth of snow in 1859 was 12 inches, and
the following winter it did not exceed six inches. Ploughing commences about the middle
of March. The summers are generally dry, and Mr. Reynolds is of opinion that irrigation
will be found an indispensable application in the process of husbandry in this district. In
the dry summer of 1859 he kept water almost constantly running through his fields; but
applied it only twice during the summer of I860, when the moisture of the atmosphere
proved otherwise sufficient for the crops.
7. The numerous streams which permeate the valleys of this district afford admirable
facilities for inexpensive irrigation ; so bountiful indeed has nature been in this respect,
that it is hardly an exaggeration to say that there is a watercourse or rivulet for every
moderate sized farm that will be opened in the district.
S. A few successful experiments in husbandry will give confidence, and add to the
number of the farming class, which continues to be in a lamentable minority in every part
of the Colony, even in districts where one would suppose mining to be a less profitable
pursuit than the cultivation of the soil.
9. The mining districts of Thompson's River, and of the Fraser below the Pavilion, have
been almost abandoned by the white miners of the Colony, who have been generally carried
away by the prevailing excitement to the Caribou and Antler Creek mines; and their
claims are now occupied by Chinamen and native Indians, the latter especially exhibiting
an unwonted degree of activity in mining. Their daily earnings sometimes reach the large
sum of two pounds sterling, and never, as they assured me, fall short of eight shillings,
so that they are becoming exceedingly valuable to the Colony, both as producers and as a
tax-paying population. I, in fact, ascertained from the official returns of Yale, that 30 per
cent, of the amount of roads' tolls was levied directly on the goods of Indians leaving that
place ; and from their numbers and habits it may be fairly assumed that 40 per cent, of
the whole revenue collectively accruing from tolls and customs falls on them.
10. The mines on Tranquille River have lately attracted much attention, in consequence of quantities of coarse gold having been found in pieces weighing as much as
three quarters of an ounce; and the discovery of a stratum of auriferous earth, in
mining phrase " pay dirt," from three to four feet in thickness, at a much higher level
than the present bed of the river, which until then was suppposed to be the exclusive
depository of gold. This circumstance has given a new direction to the industry of the
place, the miners having less faith in surface diggings, and being generally impressed
with the advantage of deeper sinkings, which may probably reveal, as was the case in
the gold fields of Victoria, greater wealth than has yet been found; and this in my
opinion is simply a question of time.
11. There are extensive flats or holmes in the valley of the Thompson that give a
large return of gold; but being above the river, they cannot be worked to much
advantage until water from a higher level that can be applied to sluicing is brought into
play. Several smooth water-worn nuggets, weighing as much as two ounces, have been
found on the Thompson below Lake Kamloops; and diggings have been lately discovered on three of the affluents of North River (north branch of the Thompson). The
streams flowing from the eastward into Okanagan Lake are also reported to be highly productive of gold—facts, which all tend to support the theory alluded to in my Despatch
of the 4th of June last, regarding the existence of a vast auriferous ridge or watershed, extending from Rock Creek to Fort George, and dividing the Columbia from the
waters of Fraser River.
12. I feel a deep interest in the exploration and development of that valuable and
important division of the Colony, which is now so difficult of access as to be practically
closed to the ordinary settler; and there is, moreover, no convenient place where the
miner can replenish his exhausted stores. With the view of removing these drawbacks,
I propose to lay out a town site, as a mining depot and centre of trade on Thompson's
River, about 10 miles below Lake Kamloops, from whence the navigation is said to be
practicable for stern-wheel boats through Lake Kamloops to the distance of 100 miles
up North River; and also by the south branch of the Thompson to the further extremity
of" Shouswap Lake. As another part of the plan I propose that steam boats of the same
class should be employed on Okanagan-Lake, connecting with the caravans arriving by
the way of Hope and Shimilkomeen from Fraser River;   and finally, a good road
G 4 r
Bemish    between the two lakes Shouswap and Okana<
, and from the latter lake continued in a
southerly direction to the Columbia River, will complete a line of communication connecting the eastern districts with Fraser River, and affording facilities for transport that
will render Hope the channel of trade, and prevent it from seeking an outlet by the
Columbia River, and which in other respects will be of inestimable advantage to the
13. The latest accounts from Caribou confirm the former reports of its vast auriferous ,
wealth. About 1,500 men are supposed to be congregated in those mines, and the
number is continually augmented by the arrival of fresh bodies of miners. It will be a
work of difficulty to keep them supplied with food, a service which now gives employment
to about 1,200 transport horses and mules; and I am in hopes that the large profits made
in that business will lead to its extension.
14. To facilitate the transport to those mines I authorized a grant of 400/. to improve
the river frail from Cayoosh to Williams Lake ; and 400/. to open a trail from Quesnel
to Caribou Lake, the charge, in both cases, to be defrayed out of the district revenues.
15. The remoteness of the Caribou mines, and the large assemblage of people there,
have rendered it necessary to establish a gold escort for the conveyance of treasure from
Quesnel to New Westminster; and more especially with the view of strengthening the
hands of the magistrates in those distant localities by the periodical exhibition of a small
military force. This will put the colony to much expense, but I conceive it is an indispensable precaution that may prevent much future evil.
16. There is nothing of much importance to communicate respecting the towns of
Cayoosh and Douglas, except that they are both progressively improving. I authorised
the grant of allotments of land to the Bishop of British Columbia, at those places, as
-sites for churches, and 200/. at each, in aid of private contributions for the erection
thereof. The latter measure was adopted at the instance of the inhabitants generally,
who represented that they had no building where Divine service could be properly held;
that they had contributed liberally towards the fund; and that then- own means alone were
not adequate to the erection of Churches. In those circumstances, and as no other
denomination of Christians were in the field in that part of the colony, I most cordially
responded to the wishes of the public.
17. I returned to New Westminster on the 20th of June; and in conclusion it only
remains for me to add the gratifying intelligence that peace and good order prevail
throughout the Colony.
I have, &c.
His Grace the Duke of Newcastle, K.G, (Signed)       JAMES DOUGLAS.
P.S.—An explanatory map is transmitted with this Despatch.
Copy of DESPATCH from Governor Douglas, C.B., to his Grace the Duke of
Newcastle, K.G.
(No. 55.)
My Lord Duke,
Adverting to my Despatch, No. 50, of the 22nd ultimo, and to previous correspondence upon the subject of returns and accounts required from this Government, I
have the honour to forward herewith the return for the year 1860, as described on the
other side hereof, and I trust that the same may be found satisfactory.
His Grace the Duke of Newcastle, K.G., (Signed)      ' JAMES DOUGLAS.
Abstract of the actual Rev:
Abstract of the Revem
ue and Expenditure during the Year 1860, divided under the differe
established heads of service,
ived during the Tear     Abstracts of the Payments made during the Yea.
Copy of DESPATCH from Govern,
his Grace the Duke of
Jo. 23.
r Douglas, C.B.,
Newcastle, K.G.
(Separate.) Victoria, Vancouver Island, September 16, 1861.
My Lord Duke, (Received November 2, 1861.)
I have much satisfaction in reporting to your Grace that the Colony of British
Columbia continues in a tranquil and progressive state.
2. The Gold Commissioners, in their last monthly reports, represent the continued
exodus of the mining population from their respective districts towards the " Cariboo '*
country; in speaking of which I have adopted the popular and more convenient orthography
of the word, though properly it should be written " Caribceuf" or Rein Deer, the country
having been so named from its being a favourite haunt of that species of the deer kind.
3. The most extraordinary accounts of the wealth of that gold field are received by
every succeeding steamer from British Columbia; and those accounts are confirmed by
letters from the merchants and traders of the district, and by fortunate adventurers who
have realized, by a few weeks labour, their thousands of dollars. It would in fact appear
that Cariboo is at least equal, in point of auriferous wealth, to the best parts of California*
and, I believe, the gold deposits of British Columbia will be found to be distributed over
a far more extensive space.
4. I am unable to arrive at any satisfactory conclusion as to the average daily earnings
of miners in the Cariboo country, but some idea may be formed of the large sums realized,
from the fact that 195 ounces of gold were taken in one day out of a single mining claim'
while ordinary claims yield as much as forty and fifty dollars a-day to the man: but
perhaps the most telling circumstance is the high price of labour, which has attained to
the extraordinary sum of ten dollars a-day; and any number of men may find employment
at that rate of pay.
IV. H f
5. The Cariboo gold district was discovered by a fine athletic young man of the name
of McDonnell, a native of the island of Cape Breton, of mixed French and Scotch descent,
combining in his personal appearance and character the courage, activity, and remarkable
powers of endurance of both races. His health has suffered from three years constant
exposure and privation, which induced him to repair, with his well-earned wealth, to this
Colony for medical assistance.
6- His verbal report to me is interesting, and conveys the idea of an almost exhaustless
gold field, extending through the quartz and slate formations, in a northerly direction from
Cariboo Lake.
7. The following well attested instances of successful mining at Cariboo may prove
interesting, and will probably convey to Her Majesty's Government a more precise idea
of the value and real character of this gold field than any mere generalizations, and with
that object in view, I will lay the details, as received from the persons themselves, before
your Grace.
8. John McArthur and Thomas Phillips arrived here from- Cariboo -on the 17th of
August last, with nine thousand ($9,000) dollars worth of gold dust in their possession,
being the fruits of three months residence at the mines. They arrived there on the 1st
day of May, and left again on the 1st day of August, having previously sold their mining
claim at a high price to other persons. Their largest earnings for one day amounted to
five hundred and twenty-five dollars ($525) ; and no single day's work yielded less than,
twenty-five dollars (§25). Both those persons have been mining in California, and are
acquainted with its resources, yet they give k as their opinion that Cariboo, as a "generally
paying" country, surpasses the best days of California.   -
Mr. Patterson and brother arrived at New Westminster by the steamer of the 14th
instant, with ten thousand dollars worth of gold dust, the produce of five weeks work at
Cariboo. I personally inspected their treasure, of which they are justly proud, being the
well-earned reward of their skill and enterprise. Mr. Patterson's mining claim was on the
Lowhee, a tributary of Swift River, and about 16 miles distant from Antler Creek. The
o-round was composed of gravel and many quartz boulders, and the depth to the bed-rock
was from 4 to 6 feet, beyond which he did not attempt to penetrate, though the richest
deposit of gold was immediately over the bed-rock. The largest day's return from the
claim was 73 ounces of gold, worth about twelve hundred dollars ($1,200) • on another
occasion he received 70 ounces at the close of a day's work. The gold is in rough jagged
pieces, the largest found by Mr. Patterson was over six ounces; but on the next claim to
his, a piece often ounces was picked up by the lucky proprietor. Mr. Patterson sold his
mining claim before his departure from Cariboo, and is now returning to his native country, -
the United States, with the wealth he has so rapidly acquired in British Columbia, this
being one of the evils to which the Colony is exposed through the want of a fixed
10. The firm of Messrs. Levi and Boas, of New Westminster, have kindly permitted
me to communicate the following extract from a letter, dated 27th August 1861, which
they very lately received from Mr. Levi, the managing partner of the firm at Cariboo.
" Hamburger went to Abbott, who- used to be at Langley, and borrowed $2,000. I
must let you know that Abbott arid Jordon have one of the richest claims in the country.
The least they take out a-day, three of them, is 120 ounces. They have a flour sack of
"•old 14 inches high. They will make, till fall, 100,000 dollars a piece. Out of one little
crevice, while Hamburger was up there, he, Abbott, took 60 ounces out of it, and gold
makes your eyes water, and you will never see a greater excitement as there will be next
" If you can send up such goods as we want, do so: as I will explain to you it is only
5 or 6 weeks more that pack trains can come in here, and then we can get any price for
them ; besides which, spring, when there is a lot of people rushing in, and we the only
ones which have goods. You bet I would soak into them. The country is all right, there
is more gold in it as there was in California; don't say nothing to nobody."
11. I will not multiply these details, having said enough to show your Grace the opinion
entertained by the public of the newly discovered gold fields, and of the probable influx
of population from California and other countries which may be attracted by those
discoveries. I need not assure your Grace that every precaution will, in that event, be
taken to maintain the peace, order, and good government of the country, and to increase
its permanent population : but it is impossible to repress a feeling of profound regret that
so few of Her Majesty's British subjects have yet participated in the rich harvests reaped
in British Columbia, though there is certainly no country in the world that offers greater
inducements to the labouring classes, or for the employment of capital. The settler
enjoys the peculiar advantage iu British Columbia of an unfettered choice of the public
domain; and may, without expense, or official delay, select any part of the Colony he PAPERS RELATING TO BRITISH COLUMBIA. 59
pleases, as his future home; the ultimate price of country land being in no case over fou
shillings and twopence an acre, payable by instalments, spread over several years. In
fact the system of no country can offer greater inducements to the settler and miner than
the land regulations and mining laws of British Columbia.
12. The miners at Cariboo have, I am glad to inform your Grace, suffered no privation
whatever from the want of food. Besides the large importations of bread-stuffs and salt
meat packed in from Lillooet and Lytton, large droves of cattle have been sent to Antler
Creek, where the native grasses are nutritious and abundant; and fresh beef is now selling
by retail at 1*. 8d. a pound. A mining town of some note has sprung into existence at
Antler's Creek, and supplies of all kinds can be readily purchased.
The traveller who is prepared to encounter famine in its gauntest forms on his arrival
at Cariboo, is not a little astonished to find himself in the midst of luxury, sitting down
every morning to fresh milk and eggs for breakfast, and to as good a dinner as can be seen
in Victoria.
13. The great commercial thoroughfares, leading into the interior of the country, from
Hope, Yale and Douglas, are in rapid progress, and now exercise a most beneficial effect
on the internal commerce of the Colony. I have many other productive public works,
indispensable for the development of the Colony, in view, but I cannot undertake their
execution until I am made acquainted with your Grace's decision about the proposed loan
of money for British Columbia.
14. There is nothing in the condition of the other districts of the Colony with which I
need trouble your Grace at present; though it may be necessary soon to draw your
Grace's attention to a reported discovery of gold on Stickeen River, latitude 57° within
Her Majesty's territories, north of British Columbia, to which some adventurers, trusting
• to the faith of the native Indians, who brought the tidings, have inconsiderately repaired.
15. Should the report prove correct, it will be necessary to take steps for the government of the country, and to prevent the many disorders that will naturally arise from the
absence of any duly constituted authority.
16. I will not fail to exercise that power, should circumstances require it, until your
Grace's instructions are received.
I have, &c.
His Grace the Duke of Newcastle, K.G. (Signed)        JAMES   DOUGLAS.
&c. &c. &c.
Copy of DESPATCH from Governor Douglas, C.B., to  his Grace the  Duke of
Newcastle, K.G.
(Separate.) Victoria, Vancouver's Island, October 24, 1861,
My Lord Duke, (Received December 9, 1861.)
In my Despatch of the 16th of September last, marked " Separate," * it was
mentioned that a report had reached this place of deposits of gold having been found on
the banks and flats of the Stikeen River, north latitude 57°, to the eastward of the
Russian possessions, and within the limits of Her Majesty's territories on this coast;
I, therefore deem it proper on this occasion to inform your Grace, that we have had no
confirmation of those reports, nor any arrivals from that quarter.
2. I have also to communicate to your Grace that the accounts from Cariboo are more
than ever satisfactory ; and the numbers of returning miners with their rapidly acquired
stores of gold, and the extraordinary fact, unusual, I believe, in gold countries, that they
have all been eminently successful, offer the strongest confirmation of the almost fabulous
wealth of that gold-field. I have not, indeed, up to the present time, met with a single
unfortunate miner from that quarter. Of those whom I had occasion to interrogate
during my recent visit to British Columbia, I ascertained that none who held mining
. claims had less than 2,000, and that others had cleared as much as 10,000 dollars during
their summer's sojourn at the mines. It may, therefore, be fairly assumed, that their
individual earnings range at some point between those figures. I should, however,
apprise your Grace, that the large strikes of the season, such as the Jourdan and Abbott
claim on Lowhee Creek, and Ned Campbell's claim on Lightning Creek, the latter said
to have produced 900 ounces of gold in one day, are not included in this category, as I
have had no opportunity of seeing the owners of these claims, who are still in the upper
country; but I will inquire into and report upon these special cases hereafter.
3. The following extracts from my travelling note book may not be considered
irrelevant at this time, when everything connected with the gold-fields, or tending to
illustrate the true character of the colony, possesses an absorbing interest.
H 2 \
"Laurent Bijou, a native of France, left Cariboo on the 1st day of August. He
resided about one month at the mines, and has acquired 4,500 dollars worth of gold
dust;—says, he has not been so fortunate as many others, who are making as much as
1,000 dollars a day. He has mined in California, but never saw a gold-field so rich as
"Joseph Patterson and brother, natives of Maine, United States of America, have been
mining on Keithley's Creek, and left it about the 10th of September. They have cleared
the sum of 6,000 dollars between them, or .3,000 dollars each, in gold dust, which they
carry about with them on their persons. They report that as a general thing the miners
are making from two to three ounces a day. They are well.acquainted with Jourdan and
Abbott's claim, and have often seen them weighing out, at the close of their day's work ;
the yield on one occasion was within a few grains of 195 ounces, the number of working
hands being at the time four in all. That was their largest day's return; but 80, 90, and
100 ounces a day were ordinary returns."
" Richard Willoughby, a native of England, discovered a mining claim on Lowhee
Creek, and began to work it on the 27th of July last; he continued mining with from
four to seven hired men till the 8th of September, when he sold the claim to another
person, and returned safely to Yale, where he now resides, with the sum of 12,000 dollars
in gold dust. His largest day's return was 84 ounces, and the entire amount of gold
taken, during his tenure, from the claim, amounted to 3,037 ounces, valued at 48,600
dollars, and his own share to the sum of 12,000 dollars. His last week's work netted
2,032 dollars, and for two weeks previously he cleared 1,000 dollars a week for each
working hand on the claim; and what is extraordinary, is the fact that all this wealth was
found immediately at or within four feet of the surface, the extreme of Mr. Willoughby's
sinkings. At that depth he encountered the Bed Rock, composed of soft blue slate
yielding readily to the pick. He' also mentions the discovery of a highly auriferous
quartz reef; and he gave me a specimen of galena, containing, as per assay, 67 per cent,
of lead, and 37 ounces of silver to the ton. He also mentioned several rich veins of
silver ore, which he saw at Cariboo; but the inferior metals attract scarcely any attention
in countries where gold is easily acquired."
" Mr. Hodge, an American, settled near Yale, held a mining claim on Lowhee Creek
for about six weeks, and lately returned to Yale with a sum exceeding 2,100 dollars.
His reports corroborate and confirm in all respects the statements of Richard Willoughby."
" Thomas Brown, an American citizen, claims the honour of having discovered and
taken up the first mining claim on Williams' Creek, just one claim below the Jourdan
and Abbott claim. Mr. Brown has been fortunate, and has a heavy pouch of gold, but
I did not ascertain its money value. He says, that " Ned Campbell," a friend of his, with a
company of ten other miners, selected and recorded a claim on a newly discovered
stream, called Lightning Creek, a tributary of Swift River, which yielded about two"
ounces of gold to the panful of earth-; and that a report had reached Quesnelle previous
to his departure, that the company, almost as soon as they began to work, had realized
1,100 ounces in one day; and he places the greatest confidence in that report. Mr.
Brown's statement on all other points respecting Cariboo corroborates the statements of
Mr. Willoughby.
4. I am permitted to use the following letter from Major Downie, an old and successful
Californian miner, several of whose reports on mining subjects I have had the honour of
forwarding to your Grace ; it is addressed to— Macdonald, Esquire, banker and assayer,
Victoria, and is dated Antler Creek, 25th September 1861.
" I have just been talking to H. M. Steele; he says, he will do all he can for you with
his boys; they are taking it out by the mule-load, so you may depend upon getting lots
of dust when the boys come down.
" Your friend Mr. Norris is well, arid I am writing this in his house. I am prospecting
round to get claims for next season for Alex, and Jim Hood.
" California is nowhere in comparison to Williams Creek.
" Keep good courage, and order a mint for next year."
5. I will now quote a few passages from a private communication of the judge, Mr.
Begbie, dated Forks of Quesnelle, 25th September 1861, to the Colonial Secretary. In
allusion to the amount of gold dust in the hands ot the miners at Cariboo, and the quiet,
orderly state of the population, he observes :—" I have no doubt that there is little short
" of a ton lying at the different Creeks. I hear that Abbott's and Steele's claims are
" working better than ever—30 to 40 pounds a day each (they reckon rich claims as
" often by pounds as ounces now; it must be a poor claim that is measured by dollars."
« On many c
urns the gold is
£t perfect nuisance, as
they hav
e to carry it from their
laihis every mo
rnmg, and watch it w
lile they
work, and carry it back
as much as tw
0 men can lift) to th<
ir cabins
'at night, and watch it "^
while they sleep.    There is no mistake about the gold.    Steele is here; he says, they
took out 370 ounces one day.
" I was very glad to see the men so quiet and orderly; old Downie looked really
almost aghast. He said, f they told me it was like California in '49; why, you would
* have seen all these fellows roaring drunk, and pistols and bare knives in every hand.
' I never saw a mining town anything like this.' There were some hundreds in Antler,
all sober and quiet. It was Sunday afternoon, only a few of the claims were worked that
day.    It was as quiet as Victoria."
6. I will lastly submit for your Grace's information the monthly report of Mr. Ball,
assistant gold commissioner for the Lytton district, to the Colonial Secretary, dated
1st October 1861, which also bears upon the subject of gold mining, and is otherwise
illustrative of the industrial condition of the country :—
"I have the honour to forward for the information of his Excellency the Governor a
collectorate account of the revenue of the Lytton district for the month of September.
I The approach of the fall and the little mining going on at present has caused a
stagnation of business.
I There are many, however, who are only awaiting the commencement of the proposed
waggon roads to locate pre-emption claims, and to make permanent improvements on
those already located, with a view of making British Columbia their future home. The
rich discoveries made in the Cariboo district, and the proposed line of roads, have
established a confidence in the future prospects of the property holders of the Lower
Fraser; and all are well pleased with the prospect of the forthcoming season.
" It may be interesting to his Excellency to hear of the almost fabulous amount of gold .
which was taken out of a claim on Lightning Creek, belonging to a man named j Ned
" 1st day       ...   900 ounces
2nd day      -       -       -   500   „
3rd day       -       -       -   300   „
and other days proportionally rich."
7. The Gold Commissioner for the Hope district states in his last monthly report, that
there was a great deal of activity in the southern mining districts about Kamloops, and
that the miners there are doing remarkably well. He also mentions the great want of
mining supplies, especially flour, of which article not a single pound could, at the time, be
purchased ; a circumstance which he much regrets on account of its baneful effects on the
8. The reports of the other Gold Commissioners contain nothing of unusual interest.
9. The information which I have thus laid before your Grace leaves no room for
doubt as to the vast auriferous wealth, and extraordinary productive capabilities of British
Columbia; and with scarcely less probability it may be assumed as a natural consequence
resulting from the marvellous discoveries at Cariboo, that there will be a rush thither
and an enormous increase of population in spring.
10. To provide for the wants of that population becomes one of the paramount duties
of Government. I, therefore, propose to push on rapidly with the formation of roads
during the coming winter, in order to have the great thoroughfares leading to the
remotest mines, now upwards of 500 miles from the sea coast, so improved as to render
travel easy, and to reduce the cost of transport, thereby securing the whole trade of the
colony for Fraser's River, and defeating all attempts at competition from Oregon.
11. The only insuperable difficulty which I experience is the want of funds -.—The
revenues of the colony will doubtless, in course of the year, furnish the means, but
cannot supply the funds that are immediately wanted to carry on these works.
12. I propose, as soon as those roads are finished, and the cost of transport reduced,
to impose an additional road tax as a further means of revenue, a generally popular
measure and strongly recommended in the several petitions forwarded with my Despatch
"Separate" of the 8th of October instant. I, indeed, acknowledge with gratitude the
warm support which I have lately received from the people at large in carrying out
measures of development; a significant fact, showing that their feelings and interests are
becoming every day more identified with the progress of the colony.
13. I have in these circumstances come to the resolution of meeting the contingency,
and raising the necessary funds, by effecting a loan of 15,000/. or 20,000/. in this
country, which will probably be a sufficient sum to meet the demands upon the Treasury
on account of these works, until I receive the loan which your Grace gave me hopes of
effecting for the colony in England.
14. In taking this decided step, I feel that I am assuming an unusual degree of
responsibility; but I trust the urgency of the case will justify the means, and plead my
, apology with Her Majesty's Government, especially as it is so clearly for the honour and
advantage of Her Majesty's service; and the neglect of the measures, which by a stern
necessity are thus forced upon me, might prove in the highest degree disastrous to the
best interests of the colony.
15. Accustomed to exact obedience within my own official sphere, I know the importance of the rule ; but this is one of those exceptional cases which can hardly serve as
a precedent,—and as I have always paid implicit attention to instructions, and in no
case involved Her Majesty's Government in any dilemma, I trust your Grace will
continue to place that degree of confidence in my prudence and discretion which
heretofore it has always been my good fortune to experience.
16. I beg to enclose a rough sketch of the Cariboo country, showing its relative
position with reference to Arrowsmith's map of North America.*
His Grace the Duke of Newcastle, K.G., (Signed)*™' JAMES DOUGLAS.
&c. &c, &c. v   °      J
No. 25.
Copy of DESPATCH from Governor Douglas, C.B., to his Grace the Duke of
Newcastle, K.G.
(No. 67.) Victoria, Vancouver Island, November 14, 1861.
My LOHD DUKE, (Received January 13, 1862.)
Much inconvenience and loss have, ever since the formation of these Colonies,
been occasioned by the want of a circulating medium of fixed and recognized value,
equal to the business demands of the country. The scarcity of coin has been so great,
and gold dust not being received for duties, that importers of goods have found it difficult
at all times to make their Custom House payments, and, as is well known, are frequently
compelled to borrow money for that purpose at exorbitant rates of interest, varying
from two per cent, per month and upwards: Almost all the business of the country is
transacted in gold dust of uncertain yalue,- and it is easy to conceive the difficulty and
inconvenience of adjusting payments by such means, when the holder and receiver are
both alike subject to loss, and fearful of imposition.
2. The effects of an over restricted monetary circulation are now, however, operating
so fatally in both Colonies that it is indispensable to devise a remedy for an evil that is
sapping the very foundations of our prosperity. To illustrate this fact, I would inform
your Grace that at this moment there is an amount of gold dust in the hands of miners
from Cariboo, residing at Victoria, exceeding one quarter of a million sterling; and so
great is the present dearth of coin that it brings a premium of five per cent, and over
when procurable, which is not generally the case, as men may be seen hawking bars of
gold about the streets of Victoria, who cannot raise coin enough, even at the high rates
of discount just mentioned, to defray their current expenses. The miners and other
holders of gold dust are naturally incensed and refuse to submit to this depreciation on
the value of their property, when they know it can be converted into coin for the
moderate charge of one-half of one per cent, at the United States Branch Mint in San
Francisco ; making an important saving to them of 4-^ per cent. They are consequently
leaving Victoria by every opportunity; and it is most painful to witness a state of
things which is rapidly driving population and capital from the country.
3. It has been suggested that an issue of notes of varying values, guaranteed by the
Government and payable on demand at the public Treasury would, by providing a cheap
and simple medium of exchange, meet the evil; but independently of the general
objections to a paper currency, its effect in banishing the precious metals, in producing
unhealthy inflation and rash speculation, and the fluctuation in the value of the circulating
medium, it appears to me that the ramifications of business are not extensive enough to
retain the notes in circulation; they would therefore simply return to the Treasury, and
soon exceed our means of payment.
4. This I conceive would be the inevitable result of an issue oF paper in the present
condition of the Colony, unless the notes were made a legal tender, a measure which I
am not prepared to recommend.
5. As a safer remedy and one more suitable to the actual circumstances of the Colonies,
I propose to take immediate steps for the manufacture of gold pieces, equal in value to
the 10 and 20 dollar American coins, and to bring them into general use as a circulating
medium in both Colonies.
This plan does not contemplate refining the gold, as the expense wonld be greatly
increased by that process : it is merely proposed to bring it to a uniform standard of
fineness, without separating the natural alloy of silver which to some extent exists in all
the gold of British Columbia.
The pieces will be prepared at the Government Assay Office, and will bear the stamp PAPERS RELATING TO BRITISH COLUMBIA. 63
of unquestionable character; and I am of opinion that by making the gold contained in
them of the full current value of the piece, without taking the silver into account, which   <
I propose should go as a bonus, they will not only answer as a cheap and convenient
currency within the Colonies, but also have the same exchange value when exported to
other countries.
6. It appears from experiments made by Mr. Davidson, a gentleman of large business
experience, and agent for the Rothschilds at San Francisco, that the average fineness of
Californian gold in its natural state ranges: between 880 and 885, that is to say, in valuing
the samples brought to him for sale, his calculations have been always based on those
figures, and have never proved defective. This shows that some simple process for
roughly determining the value of Fraser River gold may also be arrived at; and that
knowledge will facilitate its reduction, within 10 or 20 thousandths, to a uniform degree
of fineness, in order that the pieces representing the same value may not vary in weight.
7- All the machinery required for this purpose may be procured at San Francisco for
the moderate sum of five hundred pounds,, and without materially adding to the expense
of the present Assay Establishment.    Mr.  Claudet thinks it will be in his power to '
manufacture all the pieces wanted for the circulation of the country.
8. I have submitted this plan for the consideration of the principal banking and
commercial houses of Victoria, with the object of obtaining their views as to the probable
effects of the proposed currency on the general business of the country, and more
especially as to its exchange value when exported to pay for supplies : the single point
which I think admits of any question, for in that case it would probably be treated
as simple bullion.
9- It was clearly proved by the statements of those gentlemen, that the actual cost of
importing coin from other countries is rather over 5 per cent., which they believe to be
the actual cost of our present metallic currency. Not having had sufficient time for
consideration they were not, however, prepared to give a decided opinion on the general
measure, but they admitted that it would establish the value of the gold produced in
British Columbia in the cheapest manner, and provide a metallic currency for the country
at a cost of 4 per cent, less than is paid for imported coin, and offered no objections either
to the plan or the basis of the proposed currency.
10. If the principal banking and mercantile houses agree among themselves to receive
this currency as a legal tender, no difficulty will be experienced in carrying the measure
into effect; and no reason exists why it should not receive their hearty support, as it will
surely tend to their advantage, not only by the saving, as before shown, of 4 per cent, on
the cost of importing coin, and the complete removal of the cause which is draining the
country of wealth and population, but also in the numberless other ways by which the
investment of capital serves to promote the general prosperity.
11. I will only further remark that considering the great importance of the object in
view, and the advantages expected from the operation of this simple and inexpensive plan
of providing a metallic currency of character unsuspected and intrinsically equivalent to its
stamped value, and therefore not subject to depreciation nor open to the objections
which may be urged against a paper currency, I can hardly doubt that Her Majesty's
Government will in these circumstances withhold their approval, or object to my declaring
it a legal tender, and causing it to be received at all the public offices within the'Colonies
in payment of duties and taxes ; especially as there is no prospect of thiscurrency being
replaced by any preferable circulating medium until the produce of gold, by its abundance, renders the establishment of a branch of the Royal Mint in British Columbia a
public necessity.
I have, &c.
His Grace the Duke of Newcastle, K.G., (Signed)       JAMES DOUGLAS.
&c. &c. &c.
No. 26.
Copy of DESPATCH from Governor Douglas, C.B., to his Grace the Duke of
Newcastle, K.G.
(No. 74.) Victoria, Vancouver Island, November 30, 1861.
My Lord Duke, (Received February 8, 1862.) •
I have the honour to forward herewith the estimates of the civil expenditure of
the Colony of British Columbia for the year ending Slst December 1862, framed as
closely in accordance with rule as is practicable under the existing circumstances of the
2. I have so fully placed before your Grace in other Despatches the exact present
condition of the Colony, the recent discoveries of immense auriferous wealth in the
newly opened district of Cariboo, the almost certain large increase to the population in
H 4 r
I     British
consequence, and the general confidence established in the richness and future of the
country, that it is not necessary I should revert to the subject here, further than to
remark that I trust these circumstances will have their weight with your Grace in leaving
me free, as heretofore, to devote the whole revenue of the Colony, after deducting the
ordinary expenditure, to the important object of opening up the communications with
the distant gold fields, so as to cheapen the transport of provisions—a matter which just
now demands all our energies, and absorbs all my attention.
3. The large tract of country embraced in these new gold fields will cause a heavy
increase in the civil expenditure in providing for adequate magisterial supervision. Such,
however, is indispensable to the order and good government of the country, and I have
consequently made provision for the same in the estimates.
4. In my Despatch of the 16th July last, " Separate," * I mentioned that I had found
it necessary to establish a gold escort. In the accompanying estimates provision is
consequently made for its maintenance during the year 1862; but as, from the great
distance it has to travel, and the nature of the country, it has proved very costly, I
propose to abandon the scheme for the present, if I can carry out one part of it, viz.,
that of periodically strengthening the hands of the magistrates in distant localities, in
some equally efficient but less expensive manner.
5. I have also, at the earnest solicitation of some of the subordinate officers in the
different departments, made a slight increase to their salaries. The additional charge
upon the revenue caused thereby will be comparatively insignificant, some 600/. only, and
in the end will, I believe, be fully repaid ; for the consideration thus shown may, I trust,
render the present incumbents contented with their position amidst the many instances
before them of suddenly acquired wealth, and will consequently secure to the Government the continuance of their services now that they have, as it were, become remunerative
by possessing a knowledge of their particular duties. With scarce an exception, none
had any previous experience of public business, and all had to be carefully trained;
and here we have no field to select from to fill vacancies with qualified men.
6. With the foregoing exceptions the estimates do not differ materially from those
submitted for the present year, and I trust that they may meet with your Grace's
concurrence and approval.
I have, &c.
His Grace the Duke of Newcastle, K.G., (Signed)        JAMES DOUGLAS.
Abstract of the probable Revenue of the Colonial
Government of British Columbia for the Tear
1862 ; showing also the Revenue (Approximate) for 1861.
Abstract of the probable Expenditure o
Colonial Government of British Coli
for the Tear 1862; showing also the Exi
tuee (Approximate) for 1861.
Acting Auditor.
Audit Office of British Columbia,
«    5
«    2
.'mririftmip "* § §g!. 1   ■','. '. °', I!     1,11! I
•sliuipiing ,,   8 ' g ' S '      gS'g'o '' ogggggoo '•'■' 3
puos^iOA^ 9. , " ,        ^, .   . "' "j ,   ,   ,   ,   , g
Despatches from the Secretary of State.
Copy of DESPATCH from his Grace the Duke of Newcastle to Governor
Douglas, C.B.
(No. 26.)
Sir, Downing Street; May 19, I860.
I have to acknowledge the receipt of your Despatch, No. 24,* of the 17th of
February last, on the subject of the grant of endowments in land to the clergymen of
the principal Christian communities established in British Columbia.
I approve of the grants of about one acre each which you have already made to the
clergjr of the Church of England and the Methodist Episcopal Church as sites for a
church, school, and dwelling-house, and you will also be at liberty to make similar grants
in all towns in the Colony where ordained ministers of the Gospel may take up their
residence, and where congregations may be established and require their assistance; but
care should be taken that the land shall be appropriated to the purposes for which it
was intended, and that it shall be so conveyed as to be secure against the possibility of
misapplication in future years.
Your further proposal, that free grants of 100 acres of rural land should be made in
aid of every cure established in British Columbia, and not otherwise supported at the
public expense, I consider to be open to serious objections.
The experience afforded by other Colonies tends to show that where a clergyman in a
new Colony has to depend on his land for his principal means of subsistence, he must, to
make it answer, devote to it so much of his time as seriously to interfere with his
usefulness; unless he does this, the endowment becomes only an apparent, not a real
provision for him. He cannot let it, because land in a new settlement is never, except
under very peculiar circumstances, taken on lease, and to employ hired labour would
generally be beyond the means of a clergyman so situated.
For these reasons I am unable to sanction the measure which you propose. The
practice of making grants of land as endowments to livings in the Colonies has been
generally discontinued for many years, and I much doubt whether it is not better for a
clergyman to depend entirely on the liberality of his congregation than to be provided"
with an endowment which, though no substantial assistance to him, may be an excuse to
such of his congregation as are disposed to withhold their aid.
I am, &c.
Governor Douglas, C.B. (Signed)       NEWCASTLE.
&c. &c.
No. 2.
Copy of DESPATCH from his Grace the Duke of Newcastle to Governor
Douglas, C.B.
(No. 27.)
Sie, Downing Street, May 25, 1860.
I have to acknowledge the receipt of your Despatch, No. 25,f of the 18th of
February last, enclosing copies of a correspondence between Mr. Cridge, the District
Minister of Victoria, and Mr. Duncan, relative to the formation of a settlement for Indian
converts to Christianity, and in order to carry this plan into effect you propose to reserve
several hundred acres of land in the neighbourhood of Fort Simpson.
Subject to the stipulations which you suggest, namely, that the land should be
conveyed to the Governor of the Colony for the time being, in trust for the use and
benefit of the Indians, leaving them no power to alienate or dispose of it, I have to
authorize you to take the necessary steps for the conveyance of the lands in question.
I have, &c.
Governor Douglas, C.B. (Signed)        NEWCASTLE.
No. 3. Bs™
Copy of DESPATCH from his Grace the Duke of Newcastle to Governor °tZ!
Douglas, C.B. No.
(No. 36.)
Sib, Downing Street, June 26, I860.
I have received and read with interest your Despatch, No. 42,* of the 23rd of * ?*& *
April, containing a general report on the Colony of British Columbia, and on the progress
which has been made in opening up the country.
I do not doubt that you cannot apply your attention to an object more important to
the Colony than the improvement of its internal communications.
I have, &c.
Governor Douglas, C.B. (Signed)       NEWCASTLE.
&c.       &c.
No. 4.
Copy of DESPATCH from the Secretary of State to Governor Douglas, C.B.
(No. 42.)
Sir, Downing Street, July 19, I860.
I have received, and have perused with much interest, your Despatch of the 23rd
May,f reporting the result of your observations during a late visit to British Columbia, t ^
There is no subject of greater importance to a new Colony than the establishment of well
considered regulations for the disposal of the public lands. I trust, therefore, that with
the aid of your personal examination of the country, and of the extensive correspondence
in which you have been engaged with Her Majesty's Government, you will soon be
enabled to communicate to me those full and matured views on this subject which your
Despatch encourages me to expeqt.
The sketch you have sent of the municipal institutions proposed for New Westminster
seem very promising, and I am glad to infer that the town is ready to accept them, which
is not always the case in a young Colony.
I have, &c.
Governor Douglas, C.B. (Signed)        G. C. LEWIS.
&c.       &c.
No. 5. No. 5.
Copy of DESPATCH from C. Fortescue, Esq., M.P., to Governor Douglas, C.B.
(No. 56.)
Sir, Downing Street, October 26, I860.
I am directed by the Secretary of State to acknowledge your Despatch, No. 72,f t Pageu.
of the 4th August last, respecting certain grants of land which you were desirous of
making  to  the clergy of the four  principal denominations  of   Christians   m  British
- Columbia, i.e., of the English, Roman, Presbyterian, and Methodist Churches.
For the reasons already communicated to you, the Secretary of State cannot sanction
the grants of rural land which you still apparently advocate, but he sees no objection
to your affording a temporary pecuniary assistance to Ministers of Religion in British
Columbia from Colonial funds, if those funds are adequate for the purpose, and if you
have sufficient reason for believing that such an appropriation of public money will not
be unacceptable to the colonists.
Charged as you are with the task of expending, on your own responsibility, the produce of the taxes, it is peculiarly necessary for you to avoid the appearance of individual
preference or partiality. I think therefore that the public aid given to Ministers of
Religion should not be confined to any specified denominations, but should, if possible,
be determined by a generally intelligible rule, which, while furnishing some security
against useless or improper appropriations, will not suggest any distinction between
ministers of different persuasions, who may be exerting themselves with equal earnestness
for the good of the community. It might be required, for example, as a condition to
any grant of money, that a memorial should be presented to the Governor, signed by a
certain number or proportion of persons resident within a certain district, and either
offering to meet the Government grant by certain immediate or annual contributions of
their own, or stating that from some source or other such contributions had been made.
This, however, is merely suggested by the Secretary of State as an illustration. He
is fully aware that your own knawledgcof-the-exigencies of the Colony, of the temper
and wishes of the population, and of the assistance to be derived there from religious
persons or societies, will enable you to choose your own course in a matter of detail
•  more appropriately than he can do. .
But in any case you will take care to make it clearly understood that any assistance
of this kind is temporary, and that if given in the form of an annual payment, all those
who receive it must not calculate on retaining it after it has ceased to be sanctioned
. by the public opinion of the Colony, and consistent with other demands on the
revenue. T *
I have, &c.
Governor Douglas, C.B. (Signed)       C. FORTESCUE.
&c. &c.
No. 6. No. 6.
Copy of DESPATCH from his Grace the Duke of Newcastle, K.G., to Governor
Douglas, C.B.
SlK ^N°'     '' Downing Street, February 1, 1861.
I have to acknowledge the receipt of your Despatches, marked " Separate," of the
Pages22&27  9th* and the 25th* of October last, giving an account of your recent journey through
Page 32.       British Columbia.   I have also received your Despatch, No. 95,f of the 9th of November,
inclosing a report by Dr. Forbes, of H.M. ship " Topaze," of the proceedings of the
exploring party under his charge. _ .      J .
I have perused these reports with much satisfaction, as containing interesting mlor-
mation on the advance the Colony has made, and as showing, so far as can at present be
ascertained, the agricultural and mineral resources of the country.
5 I have, &c.
Governor Douglas, C.B. (Signed)       NEWCASTLE.
&c. &c.
No. 7-
Copy of DESPATCH from his Grace the Duke of Newcastle, K.G , to Governor
Douglas, C.B.
Sir       °* ' Downing Street, April 13, 1861.
I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your Despatch, No. 7,% °f the
26th of January, transmitting an approximate statement of the revenue and expenditure
of British Columbia. I am glad to receive so favourable an account of the progress of
the revenue of the Colony.
I have, &c.
Governor Douglas, C.B. (Signed)       NEWCASTLE.
No. 8.
Copy of DESPATCH from his Grace the Duke of Newcastle, K.G., to Governor
Douglas, C.B.
gIR Downing Street, May 9, 1861..
I have the honour to transmit to you, herewith, the copy of a Memorandum on
the subject of the protection of the Salmon Fisheries of British Columbia, which has been
submitted to me by Mr. Ffennell, a member of a late Fishery Commission in this
: country. I also enclose copies of a subsequent correspondence with that gentleman, and
I have to.invite your attention to a subject which will probably, ere long, become one of
some importance -to the Colony. I have requested the Governor of Canada to forward
to you the official documents bearing upon the matter mentioned in Mr. Ffennell's letter
of the 19th April, and in the meantime I enclose a report of the British Commissioners,
which may probably afford you information that will be useful to you in legislating on
the Fisheries of British Columbia.
I have, &c.
Enclosure 1 in No. 8.
Memorandum on Salmon Fishery, British Columbia. !
It is suggested that the Salmon Fisheries should be placed under supervision as well as the land' E
to give security to private enterprise, and to prevent confusion of rights and waste, and that an area of M
water producing salmon is likely, as civilization progresses and commerce extends, to become more
valuable by one hundred fold and more, than the same area of land.
That the first step towards promoting the objects referred to should be the employment of a person
of practical knowledge to review the rivers to an extent sufficient to enable him to report upon then-
capabilities, and to point out the steps which should be taken to prevent abuses before they have set in, ,
and to suggest the modes by which a system of healthy enterprise may be promoted in the Colony.
By adopting this course many persons from this country might soon be induced to embark in the
salmon fishery of British Columbia, by receiving information which they would rely upon, if communicated
on the authority of a person of practical knowledge, while at present they can only obtain fragments of
information derived from persons in the Colony, whose attention has been attracted to the question by
the immense quantities of fish which they see exist, and which a few have communicated, but are
unable to offer any opinion upon the practicability of embarking in such an enterprise. The quantity
of salmon which at present exist in British Columbia, and the extent of rivers producing them, is so far
beyond anything which the waters of Great Britain and Ireland ever produced or could produce, that
no idea can be formed at present of their relative value.
The salmon fisheries of that Colony appear to be one of the resources of the country, which might
be most readily brought into commercial development if measures were taken to promote it.
Those fisheries are in their present state natural and unimpaired, but as population increases, abuses
are certain to follow, as in Canada for instance, where the Government are now obliged to take up the
question, and appoint officers to check the evil; whereas if timely measures be taken to prevent
encroachments and destruction, much ultimate loss to the country may be prevented.
The Government now possess those fisheries ; no real or assumed vested rights by individuals have
been established, and it is suggested that now is the proper time to place them under the protection of
the State, and that they may be soon profitably disposed of under judicious regulations to enterprising
individuals, and thus bring a large revenue into the country, affording increased capital for further and
eral operations of industry
(By W. J. Ffennell, Esq., Fishery Commissioner, Ireland.)
Enclosure 2 in No. 8. ,
Sir, Downing Street, March 27, 1861.      i
The Duke of Newcastle desires me to thank you for the Memorandum which you have been
good enough to furnish him on the subject of the protection of the salmon fisheries in the rivers of
British Columbia.
His Grace is fully aware of the importance of the object which you propose, and he is prepared to
instruct the Governor to take steps for the proper preservation of these fisheries, but before doing so
he would be glad to be furnished with the titles of any public documents with which it might be
desirable to supply him for his assistance in carrying put the object in view.
.    W. J. Ffennell, Esq. (Signed)   '   C. Fortescue.
Enclosure 3 in No. 8. E
Sir, 2, Craven Street, Strand, London, April 19, 1861.      »
Your letter of the 27th of March addressed to me here, with reference to the Fisheries of British
Columbia, was not duly forwarded, I have been back and forward to Ireland, and thus the delay in
replying to it has occurred.
I would beg to refer to the following documents for the information of his Grace the Duke of
Fishery Acts, Upper and Lower Canada, printed in Quebec by Queen's Printer.
Report of Commissioners of Crown Lands of Canada for 1857.
Report of Commissioners of Crown Lands of Canada for 1858.
Report of Commissioners of Crown Lands of Canada for 1859.
[I have not yet seen Report, i860.]
These reports contain much valuable information with respect to the laws enacted for the protection
of the fisheries of Canada, the state the fisheries had fallen into, and the means now in operation for
their regulation.
I believe the salmon fisheries of British Columbia far exceed in extent and capabilities those of
Canada, and that it would be highly expedient to place them under a system of State regulation before
abuses creep in, with the view of inducing private enterprise embarking in their commercial development, and at the same time guarding against the establishment of abuses and improvident practices,
which must tend ultimately to diminish materially if not totally to destroy a great natural source of
The state of the Canadian salmon fisheries appears to furnish an example fully supporting this view
of the question.
I am, &c.
C. Fortescue, Esq., M.P. (Signed)       William J. Ffennell. 70 PAPERS RELATING TO BRITISH COLUMBIA.
s Excellency James Douglas, Companio
r and Commander '
the same.
Whereas, under and by virtue of an Act of Parliament, made and passed in the session of Parliament held in the 21st and 2-2nd years of the reign of Her Majesty Queen Victoria, intituled "An
Act to provide for the Government of British Columbia," and by a commission under the Great
Seal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, I, James Douglas, have been appointed
Governor of the said colony, and have been authorized by proclamation under the public seal of the
said Colony, to make laws, institutions, and ordinances for the peace, order, and good government of
And whereas it is expedient in some respects to alter the rates of duties of customs now leviable
upon goods and other articles and things imported into British Columbia, and to make further provision for the levying thereof.
Now, therefore, I do hereby declare, proclaim, and enact as follows, viz.:—
1st. That so much of the proclamation dated the 2nd of June one thousand eight hundred and
fifty-nine as imposes a duty upon the several articles specified in the schedule hereto, shall as to the
duty thereby imposed be repealed from the 15th day of October next.
2nd. That the duties specified in the said schedule shali-be paid on the articles thereon specified
from the said 15th day of October next.
3rd.    This proclamation may on all occasions be cited as the " Customs Amendment Act, I860."
Issued under the public seal of the said Colony, at Victoria, Vancouver Island, this
(l.s.) twentieth day of August, one thousand eight hundred and sixty, in the twenty-
fourth year of Her Majesty's reign, by me,
By his Excellency's command, JAMES DOUGLAS.
William A. G. Young,  .-
Acting Colonial Secretary.
£ s.   d. £   s.    d.
Flour   -            -         per barrel     0 3    1£ Ale   and   Porter   in
Bacon, Salt and Dried Wood -           per gallon    0    0    7
Pork              -            per lb.        0 0    1 Wine  in   Wood  an
Beans   -            -         per 100 lb.    0 I    3 Bottle            -           per gallon    0    2    1
Barley -            -         per 100 lb.    0 13 Bitters-            -           per gallon    0    2    1
per lb.
per lb.        0    0    H Chinese   Medicated
per lb.        0    0    1 Wine - per gallon
Dried Vegetables
per dozen    0    18 (Chinese)       - per lb.
Salt Vegetables (do.)        per lb.
Appendix No. 2.
Proclamation by his Excellency James Douglas, Companion of the most Honourable Order
of  the   Bath,  Governor and Commander-in-Chief of Her Majesty's Colony of British
Columbia and its Dependencies.
Whereas, under and by virtue of an Act of Parliament, made and passed in the session of Parliament held in the 21st and 22nd years of the reign of-Her Majesty-Queen Victoria, entitled " An
Act to provide for the Government of British Columbia," and by a ci PAPERS RELATING TO BRITISH COLUMBIA. 71
Seal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, I, James Douglas, have been appointed
Governor of the said Colony, and have been authorized by proclamation, under the public seal of the
said Colony, to make laws, institutions, and ordinances for the peace, order, and good g
the only port of entry for goods in British Columbia—
imported goods  into  British Columbia across  the southern
expensive by the
to impose a fine
li officer shall
y of June, one
eight hundred
And whereas the port of New W<
And whereas many persons ha^
boundary thereof, contrary to law :
And whereas it is expedient that all persons importing goods i
said boundary should be notified that such importation is contrary t<
pending the completion of the communications in British Columbia
And whereas the collection of the customs duties is rendered vet
of goods across the southern boundary aforesaid, and it is expedie
portation, to meet the additional cost of collection :
1. That no goods, wares, animals, or merchandize shall be imported into
shall not have been entered at New Westminster aforesaid, unless the duties, t
specified shall have been first paid to some duly-qualified officer of custoi
have first granted to the importer a permit on behalf of such goods.
2. The duties and tolls aforesaid shall be as follows :—
A. The duties at present imposed by virtue of the proclamations of the
thousand eight hundred and fifty-nine, and the twentieth day of August, one
and sixty.
B. For every fifty pounds weight avoirdupois of such goods, wares, or merchandize (and so in
proportion for a greater or less quantity than fifty pounds weight of goods), one shilling; miners'
packs, carried by the owners and not exceeding thirty pounds weight avoirdupois, for each man's
load, being exempt from such duty as aforesaid.
C. For every ton of such goods, wares, or merchandize, twelve shillings.
3. In addition to the aforesaid duties and tolls, a fine equivalent to three per cent, on the market
value of such goods, wares, animals, or merchandize shall be paid to such officer of customs—such
market value to be calculated upon the market value of the goods, wares, animals, or merchandize at
the place of collection.
4. Any person wilfully evading or attempting to evade the payment of any of the duties, tolls, or
fines, aforesaid, shall be fined treble the amount of the duties, tolls, or fines, or any sum not exceeding
one hundred pounds, at the discretion of the magistrate.
5. Any penalty under this Act may be recovered and enforced before any magistrate in British
Columbia in a summary way.
6. This proclamation may be cited as the " South
Issued under the public seal of the
(l.s.) twenty-second day of December,
n Boundary Act, 1860."
aid Colony at Victoria, Van<
r of Her Majesty's
Island, this
usand eight
gn, by me,
y his Excelh
ncy's command,
.ia'm A. G. You
Acting Colon
lal Secretary.
God save
Appendix No. 3.
Whereas, under and by virtue of an Act of Parliament made and passed in the session of Parliament, held in the 21st and 22nd years of the reign of Her Majesty Queen Victoria, intituled "An
" Act to provide for the Government of British Columbia," and by a commission under the Great
Seal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, I, James Douglas, have been appointed
Governor of the said Colony, and have been authorized by Proclamation under the public seal of
the said Colony to make laws, institutions, and ordinances for the peace, order, and good government
of the same.
And whereas, by a Proclamation issued under the public seal of the said Colony, on the 4th day
of January 1860, the price of unsurveyed land acquired by purchase or pre-emption under the
provisions of the said Proclamation, was stated to be at such rate as might for the time bein°- be
fixed by the Government of British Columbia, not exceeding the sum of ten shillings per acre.
And whereas, by a Proclamation issued under the public seal of the said Colony, on the 20th day '
of January 1860, the price of agricultural land, surveyed by the Government surveyor, which may
or shall have been offered for sale at public auction and remain unsold, was fixed at ten shillings per
acre, payable one-half in cash at the time of sale, and the other half at the expiration of two years
from the time of sale.
And whereas I have been empowered by Her Majesty's Government to lower the price of country
lands in British Columbia, in all cases, to the sum of four shillings and twopence (4s. 2rf.) per acre.
Now, therefore,! do hereby declare, proclaim, and enact as follows:— j
ISo much of the said Proclamation of the 20th day of January 1860, as fixed the price of
^I^^SiS^^^^'i^^^ whether acquired by preemption or purchase under the Proclamation dated the 4th day of January I860, shall be four
ShinLg^PrPVTce(4of aKunt^iands in British Columbia exposed for sale at public auction,
shall be four shillings and twopence (4s. 2d) per acre. JA.1oel>,
IV. This Proclamation may be cited for all purposes as the " Country Land Act, ISbl.
Issued under the public seal of the said Colony at Victoria, Vancouver Island, the nineteenth
day of January, in the year of our Lord One thousand eight hundred and sixty-one, and in
the twenty-fourth year of Her Majesty's reign, by r»-
App. No. 4.
J   J
5 >   -
By commanc
of hi
Acting Colo
nial Secretary.
God save th
No. 31.—" The Pre-emption Amendment Act, 1861."
[Repealed by subsequent Proclamation, No. 38, page 77.]
Appendix No. 5.
Proclamation.—No. 3, A.n. 1S61.    By his Excellency James Douglas, Companion of the most
Honourable Order of the Bath, Governor and Commander-in-Chief of British Columbia and its
Dependencies, Vice-Admiral of the same, &c, &c.
Whereas, by virtue of an Act of Parliament, made and passed in the session of Parliament held
in the 21st and 22nd years of the reign of Her Majesty Queen Victoria, entitled « An Act to provide
for the Government of British Columbia," and by a Commission under the Great Seal of the United
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, I, James Douglas, have been appointed Governor of the said
Colony, and have been authorized by Proclamation issued under the public seal of the said Colony,
to make laws, institutions, and ordinances for the peace, order, and good government of the same :
And whereas it is expedient to afford remissions in the purchase money of country lands purchased
for actual settlement .to certain officers of Her Majesty's Royai Army and Navy in certain cases:  _
Now, therefore, I, James Douglas, Governor of British Columbia, by virtue of the authority
aforesaid, do proclaim, order, and enact as follows, viz. :—
That from and after the date hereof Military and Naval officers m Her Majesty's service, of the
rank herein-after specified, who shall purchase country land in British Columbia, shall, subject as
herein-after mentioned, and upon production of the certificate herein-after also mentioned, be
entitled in paying for such country lands to the remissions following :—
Field officers, of 25 years'service, in the whole ^600
Field officers of 20 years' service and upwards, in the whole 500
Field officers of 15 or less years in the service, in the whole -        -        -        -       400
Captains of 20 years' service and upwards, in the whole       ...        -        -       400
Captains of 15 years' service or less, in the whole        - 300
Subalterns of 20 years'" service and upwards, in the whole - 300
chaplains, Commissariat officers, officers of any of the
midshipmen, warrant officers of every description,
civil departi
nents of the Army,
pursers, chaplains,
nd officers o
f any of the civil
epartments of the
Navy, shall not be entitled to the remissions aforesa.
foresaid, shall, bef
ore obtaining the
sioner of La
nds and Works for
British Columbia,
a certificate from the office of the General. Comm
ef in England, .or
Colony hLs bren duly^nction'ed, aiTshomng^d
o thera'nk!
nd length of servi
e of such person,
but nothing herein contained shall entitle any pers
person shall at the time of purchasing, be either or
shall have  quitted  the service for the purpose
half-pay or
full-pav, unless the
person purchasing
if settling it
a British  Colon
y,   as herein-after
Every person who shall have so quitted the se
rvice for the
purpose of settling
as aforesaid, shall,
before obtaining such remission as aforesaid, obtaii
hority, to be made
in one of the offices aforesaid, upon his certificate
foresaid, of
the date of his re
tirement from the
army or navy, for the purpose aforesaid. PAPERS RELATING TO BRITISH COLUMBIA.
obtained from the Governor for the time being of British Columbia, a certificate that he has been
respect of which such location ticket shall have been granted within twelve months from the expiratio
of the said term of two years, the land in respect of which such location ticket shall have bee
granted, shall absolutely revert to the Crown, and be capable of being sold, pre-empted or grante
de novo.
Provided, that no location ticket shall be granted, and no i
shall be claimed in respect of some specific land within two y
from the offices aforesaid.
Provided, that the land in respect of which such remission shall have-been claimed, shall not be
transferable until a grant thereof as aforesaid shall have been made thereof.
Provided, that the Governor for the time being of British Columbia may, in case of the death of
the person entitled to the remission aforesaid, before a grant of the land aforesaid, by any writing
under his hand, confer the benefit of the remission aforesaid to such child or children or other relative
Provided, that such child, children, or other relative shall enjoy the right to such remission to the
same extent, and subject to the same conditions as the person so dying would have done had he lived.
Issued  under the public seal of  the said Colony, at Victoria, Vancouver Island,   this
( L.s. ) eighteenth day of March, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and
sixty-one, and in the twenty-fourth year of Her Majesty's reign, by me,
William A. G. Young,
I   Colonial Secretary.
God save the Queen.
No. 35.—« The* Pre-emption Purchase Act, 1861."
[Repealed by subsequent Proclamation, No. 38, page 77.]
Proclamation.—No. 8, a.d. 1861.    By his Excellency James Douglas, Companion of the most
• Honourable Order of the Bath, Governor and Commander-in-Chief of British Columbia and its
Dependencies, Vice-Admiral of the same, &c, &c.
Whereas, under and by virtue of an Act of Parliament made and passed in the Session of Parliament held in the 21st and 22nd years of the reign of Her Majesty Queen Victoria, entitled " An
Act to provide for the Government of British Columbia," and by a commission under the Great Seal of
the United Kingom of Great Britain and Ireland, I, James Douglas, have been appointed Governor
of the said Colony, and have been authorized by Proclamation under the public seal of the said Colony
to make laws, institutions, and ordinances for the peace, order, and good government of the same.
And whereas, for the more effectually securing the title to and facilitating the transfer of real
property in the Colony of British Columbia, it is expedient to provide the means of registering
matters affecting the same.
Now, therefore, I do hereby declare, proclaim, and enact as follows :
1. There shall be established in New Westminster and in such other districts in British Columbia Offic
as may from time to time be nominated by the Governor by proclamation under his hand and the ^s
public seal of the Colony, offices for the registration of instruments, in writing, affecting real estate u-icb
in the Colony, and the office at New Westminster shall be styled " The Land Registry Office," and Colu
the other offices shall be styled the " District Land Registry Offices," with the addition of the names
of the districts wherein the same are established.
2. It shall be lawful for his Excellency the Governor to appoint by Commission under the public App
seal of the Colony, proper persons to perform the duties of the said offices, who shall be styled the ^
manner other proper persons to be the registrars. DiS r
The registrar appointed at New  Westminster shall be styled " Registrar General of   British
Columbia.   Columbia," and shall have the superintendence of all the said offices.
  3. The magistrates in British Columbia may be appointed registrars pro tempore.
'S£&dBi« 4. There shall be provided at the public expense, houses or other places convenient for carrying on
rfegutrr,. th{? busjness of the said offices, wilb an proper means for making and preserving the records and
to™ Serfs"!* registers herein-after directed to be made and kept, and also seals of offices with suitable devices,
Office to be whereon shall be inscribed " Land Registry Office," with the addition of the name of the district
kept arid im- therein the same is situate; the said seals shall be in the custody of the registrars for the time being,
'rf^bTtakm" to be used in their official capacity only, and they shall be responsible for the safety and the use thereof,
judicial notice and judicial notice shall be. taken in all courts of the impressions thereof without any evidence of
of- such seal having been impressed, or any other evidence in relation thereto.
Deputy Regis- 5. The " registrar general" shall from time to time by writing under his hand and official seal appoint
*"»•■ a deputy who may perform the duties of the office, but all the official acts of the said deputy shall be
in the name of the registrar-general, who shall be responsible for the same. The instrument under
which such deputy shall be appointed shall be deposited among the records of the office for public
reference And in case of a vacancy in the office of registrar-general, the deputy shall during
such  vacancy perform  the duties of the office as the registrar-general and until a  successor  be
'•Registrar's 6. Before entering upon the duties of their offices,  the registrars and deputy-registrar shall find
bonds and _00(j and sufficient bonds conditioried.for the faithful performance of their duties, and shall take the
°,lbs' oaths of allegiance and supremacy, and shall be sworn to the faithful performance of their duties
Salaries. 7. There shtdbbe paid to the " registrar general" an annual salary not to exceed the sum of 5007.,
to the deputy and registrars an annual salary not to exceed 3001, and an adequate remuneration to
Date of open-        a The office at New Westminster shall be opened o
ing office at offi(jes sball be opened on tbe 28th day next after the
|S«andin until the opening of the district offices,  the registrati
•ho other dis- British Columbia shall be effected at the Land Registj
tricte- 9. From and after the nomination of a district and 1
rift<*!gr,S.inU instruments affecting any real estate in the said distrk
pK tore's"" district, and in none other.
!ri«nuL'c»i^        10. The place of business of the said offices sh«
laminated. Saturdays, Sundays, Good Friday, Christmas Day, 1
Office hours. and fest days ag axe of may by |aw or proc]amation fn
the hour of 10 o'clock in the morning to the hour of
pEegisirationof       U. It shall be the duty of the registrars, when r<
instruments       fees, to register or cause to be registered all instruments in. any manner affecting real estate situate
jS,ingrea1'    within their respective districts or the title thereto which shall be certified as hereinafter required by
correctly transcribing or copying the same with the certificates endorsed thereon or attached thereto,
word for word, letter for letter, figure for figure, sign for sign, and erasure for erasure, in books
appropriate to the titles respectively endorsed on such instruments.
|lff.altric°Pofflcc      12. Upon the opening of a district office, a transcript of the registrations affecting real estate in
^SSSnooutatiiat such district prior to such opening shall be sent to the registrar of such district from the registrar
1 to'tMdiuriM""' general's office, and shall be kept in such district office as part of the records of such office.
|BegiitrH. jg   rp|ie registrars shall have the custody of and shall safely keep and preserve all the records, the
I ^"Svatioifof furniture and seal of their offices, but shall not be responsible if the same are lost, or destroyed by fire
IJirecordT ° °    or other inevitable accident.
I To entitle in- 14. Before any instrument other than a decree, judgment, or order of a Court of Civil Jurisdiction,
struments to be js registered, and to entitle the same to be registered in the said office, the execution thereof shall
registered.        grg(. bave been acknowledged or proved in the manner hereinafter provided, such fact of acknowledgment or proof shall appear by a certificate under the hand and seal of the proper officer or other
person authorized to take such acknowledgments endorsed upon or attached to such conveyance,
deed, or other instrument.
•  Acknowledg- is. The acknowledgment or proof of execution of all instruments hereby authorized to be regis-
Tn«c°utu)n>'to tered, if acknowledged or proved within the Colony, may be made to any registrar or to any person
whom'tobe commissioned in that behalf by the Judge of the Supreme Court of Civil Justice of British Columbia,
made within ancj jf acknowledged or proved without the Colony and within the British dominions, may be made
wHWn°he Bri- t0 an>' judge of a court, or clerk or registrar of any court having a seal, or to any notary public, or
tisb dominions, to any magistrate of any town or district within the said dominions, and if acknowledged or proved
I if a^no^" without the British dominions may be made to any British ambassador, chargd d'affaires, or minister,
I- tbeSBriUshh0Ut consul, or consular agent appointed to reside in the country where such acknowledgment or proof is
dominions.        made, or to any judge of any Court of Record having a seal, or to any notary public practising in
such country.
Judge of Su- 16. The Judge of the Supreme Court of Civil Justice for the time being may appoint by commis-
preme Court to sion such and as many competent persons other than the persons before mentioned as may be
I appoint officers necegsary for the accommodation of the public, to take the acknowledgment and proof of the execution
Mgments-.n°W" of all instruments in writing within the Colony which may by law be registered.
Party acknow- 17- No acknowledgment of the execution of any instrument affecting any real estate within this
ledging must Colony shall be taken unless the party offering to make such acknowledgment shall appear before the
either be known officer taking the same, and unless such party shall either be personally known to the officer, or his
I acknowiedg-'"8 identity be proven by the oath or affirmation of a competent witness, and no certificate of acknow-
n the 1st c
ion of all
ry Office a
rict, shall
t'New V
be regi
ivember 1861, and the other
nomination respectively, and
ffice therein as aforesaid, all
tered in the office of such
11 be kept
few Year's
Day, an
time be
*red in
er public, holid
the Colonv, f
quested, a
M upor
ledgment shall be valid unless it recites in substance and legal effect the facts required by this '
18. Acknowledgments and proofs of the execution of instruments entitled to be registered may '
for the purposes of this Act be made by— °
1. The party executing in person such instrument. f
2. The attorney in fact when such instrument is executed by an attorney in fact. l
3. The secretary of any corporation when such instrument is executed by such secretary. „
4. A subscribing witness to such instrument. c
Provided always, that no acknowledgment of any party executing in person such conveyance, deed,
or other instrument shall be taken, unless in addition to what is required by Section 17 of this Act,
such party acknowledge that he is the person mentioned in such instrument as the maker thereof, and
whose name is subscribed thereto as a party, that he knows the contents thereof, and that he executed
the same voluntarily, and no certificate of acknowledgment shall be valid unless in addition to what
is required by Section 17 to be recited, it recites in substance and legal effect the facts required by
this proviso. And provided also, that no acknowledgment by an attorney in fact shall be taken unless
in addition to what is required by Section 17 of this Act, such attorney in fact shall acknowledge
that he is the person who subscribed the name of (naming the maker) to the instrument, that said
(naming the maker) is the same person mentioned in the instrument as the maker thereof, that
(naming the attorney in fact) knows the contents of the instrument and subscribed the name of
(naming the maker) thereto voluntarily as the free act and deed of the said (naming the maker), and
no certificate of such acknowledgment shall be valid unless in addition to what is required by
Section 17 to be recited, it shall recite in substance and legal effect the facts required by this proviso.
And provided also, that no acknowledgment by the secretary of any corporation shall be taken
unless in addition to what is required by Section 17 of this Act, such secretary acknowledge that he
such instrument, and that he was first duly authorized to subscribe and to affix the said seal to the
same, and no certificate of such acknowledgment shall be valid unless in addition to what is required
And provided also, that no'acknowledgment by a married woman shall be taken unless in addition to
what is required by Section 17, such married woman shall be first made acquainted with the contents
of the instrument and  the nature and effect thereof, and shall acknowledge on examination apart
from and out of hearing of her husband that she knows the contents of the instrument and understands
the nature and effect thereof, that she executed the same voluntarily without fear or compulsion or
undue influence of her husband,' that she is of full age and competent understanding, and does not
wish to retract the execution of the same, and no certificate of such acknowledgment shall be valid
unless in addition to what is required by Section 17 to be recited, it recites in substance and legal
effect the facts required by this proviso.    And provided also, that no acknowledgment or proof by a
subscribing  witness shall be taken unless in addition to what is required by Section 17 of this Act,
such subscribing witness shall acknowledge that he is the person whose name is subscribed to the
instrument as a witness, and shall prove that (namii     ■
as the .maker did execute the same, and no certificate
unless in addition to what is required by Section 1
effect the facts required by this proviso.
19. That upon the application of any person taking
by virtue of any instrument entitled under this Act t,
such last mentioned person, verified under the oat
such instrument residing or being within twenty m
ledge or testify touching the execution thereof, and tl
such acknowledgment or testimony, the registrar m
or witness to appear before him, and to acknowledge
20. That every person who, after having been ser
neglect to appear without reasonable cause assign*
answer upon oath or affirmation touching the mat
exceeding 20/. sterling, which may be recovered before any justice of the peace in a summary way, testify,
and for such damages as may be sustained by such party on account of such neglect or refusal; but Jjjj' °|
no person shall be required to attend unlesB his reasonable expenses shall have been first tendered to
him, together with a reasonable sum for his loss of time.
21. That it shall be competent for the Supreme Court of Civil Justice aforesaid to issue a com- Commi
mission for taking the deposition of any subscribing witness to any instrument entitled under this Act jjjjjy^
before itT and that all the costs of such commission, and all directions for executing the same, shall
be at the discretion of the said Court, regard being had to the general provisions of this Act.
22. When any instrument authorized by law to be registered shall be deposited in the registrar's Registi
office for registration, the registrar, or in the case of the Registrar General, the Registrar General or d"tjyi°"
his deputy shall endorse upon the same the exact time when it was so deposited, noting the year,
month, day, hour and minute of its reception, which shall be considered the date of registration, and
when tbe same shall have been registered, shall also note at tbe foot of the register or record thereof;
the year, month, day, hour, and minute when it was deposited for registration, and shall sign the
record thereof, and shall also note under his signature and seal upon each instrument registered the
book and pages of the book in which, and the time when, it is registered, before it is returned to
the party entitled to the same.
•23. From the time any instrument affecting real estate, acknowledged and certified as required by P^S"*
K 2 'mP
the maker) whc
f such acknowle
to be recited, it
se name is subscribed t
dgment or proof shall be
recites in substance and
any grant, lease,
es of any office
r testify^
d with such noti
, or appearing s
r aforesaid, shs
q writing requiring such
ler or
ce as aforesaid, shall ref
nail refuse to acknowlec
11 be liable to a penalt
ttion, all persons shall be deemed to have notice of the contents and legal effect
ther than the actual parties thereto, shall be deemed to have notice of any instru-
Mtate in the said Colonv executed after the said 1st day of November 186), unless
ledged or proved and certified, and registered pursuant to this Act, and every
r made which shall not be acknowledged or proved, certified and registered pur-
iiJl be void as against any subsequent purchaser or incumbrance of the same real
ve registered the instrument under which his title as purchaser or incumbrance
; herein contained shall be construed to impair the
'fraud or conspiracy.
y real estate shall be
f the person from whom such release, satis-
jse favour the same is made an instrument in
id such instrument shall be acknowledged or
•, satisfaction, or discharge, refuses or neglects
by the party entitled to the same to execute
i like penalty of £20 as aforesaid to be levied
isioned by such neglect or refusal.
I by this Act, shall be deemed to be revoked
containing such revocation acknowledged or
shall be delivered for registration,
of any maker of a power of attorney, or the
deputy, and the Registrar of each district in which such real estate is situate.
28. It shall be the duty of every registrar or deputy registrar served with such affidav
aforesaid, immediately to register the same in an affidavit book to be kept for that purpot
• write on the pages of the register on which such power of attorney is registered, a note to
following " alleged to be revoked by" (death, insanity, &c, &c), see registered affidavit (pa-
certified by the registrar, or in case of the Registrar-General's office by him or the Registrar-General's
deputy to be full, true, and correct copies, may, in the absence of the original, and if produced by a
party not having the control of the original, be read in evidence in all courts of law and equity
31. The certificate of any officer authorized to take acknowledgments pursuant to this Act shall be
primfi facie evidence of the facts therein recited, but shall not be conclusive.
32. Each registrar shall form and keep indices in separate volumes, in such manner as to afford
correct and easy reference to the several records of his office.
33. It shall be the duty of registrars, upon the application of any person set forth in distinct and
specific terms in writing, to make searches for all instruments deposited and registered in his office,
touching or affecting the real estate specified in such application, and to furnish a certificate of every
such search, stating the names of the parties to such instruments, tlie dates thereof, the year, month,
day, hour, and minute they were deposited or registered, and the book and page where they are
34. For the official services rendered by the registrars they are hereby authorized and empowered
to charge the following fees, viz. :—
For taking tbe acknowledgment or proof of any instrument which may by law be registered, for
each signature of a party if more than one, four shillings, if onlv one signature ei<rht shillings,
including a certificate of acknowledgment of execution in both cases"; for administering an oath, four
shillings; for endorsing the time of depositing any instrument, and for noting the same in the record
and for endorsing the registration thereof upon every such instrument, two shillings; for registering
any instrument, for every folio of one hundred words and figures therein, each and every figure to
count as a word, three shillings', fractions of a folio to count as a folio; for making in the indices the
several entries of instruments registered, required by law to be'indiced, for every such instrument,
two shillings and sixpence; for the use of the records for inspection and examination by persons
desiring to inspect the same, for every such inspection and examination at one time, one shilling; for
making certified copies of all instruments, matters, and things deposited, and of record in the office,
the same fees as for registering instruments; for every subpoena, four shillings; for every official
certificate, four shillings; for registering plans, maps, charts, surveys, diagrams, schedules, drawings,
and other writings, matters, and things not herein enumerated and mentioned, and for makinn- certified copies of any such, and for making searches, and for all other services not herein specified to
be rendered by the registrars, such fees to be charged as may be agreed upon between them end the
party requiring the performance of the same, and in case of difference the fees to be determined under
the direction of the Judge of the Supreme Court, whose decision shall be. final; for persons not con-'
nected with the office making for themselves transcripts or extracts from the records, no charo-e, but PAPERS RELATING TO BRITISH COLUMBIA.
the making of such transi
established by the Registr
information of the public.
35. It shall be lawful for
of the Supreme Court of
stablish such other and re«
all such chai „
fortnight; and provided also that a
General's office for one calendar rr
period it shall be lawful for the rej
36. The registrars shall not be
or make any search, or render an;
prescribed by law, are
tcts to be allowed only subject to such rules as shall be
>resaid, and which shall be suspended in the office for the
ieneral from time to time as he shall see fit, with the sanction {
i change the amount of any of the aforesaid fees, and to a
lal fees as may be deemed expedient, provided that a list of \
made and sanctioned, be laid before the Governor within a
st shall be suspended in a conspicuous place in the Registration, after which
o cha.
account of all fees rece
usurer, whose receipt
over such altered
ister any instrum
their offices until
red in their office
And such fees when si
shall include Ian.
shall include eve
of Civil Jurisdici
38. Nothi
ruction of this Act the follo\
ere be something repugnant o
tenements, and hereditaments,
irer shall form part of the public monies belonging
trig words used therein shall have the following r
contradictory in the context, viz.: "real estate" c
vhether corporeal or incorporeal.    "Instrument" ,,
rid every judgment, decree, or order of any Court i
'ore contained shall be deemed to apply to any instrument of whatever
e before the said 1st day of November 1861, but any instrument made prior to the said
1st of November 1861, although not acknowledged or proved and certified as provided in this Act,
may be registered in the offices of the said registrars, and all such last-mentioned records shall be
made and kept in a manner as nearly as may be the same as herein appointed for instruments of a
like nature dated subsequently to the said first day of November 1861.
And indices shall also be kept thereof as nearly as may be similar to those herein appointed for
instruments dated subsequently to the said 1st day of November 1861, but all such records and indices
shall be kept separate and distinct from the records and indii
quently to the said first day of November 1861.
■ And all persons shall be deemed to have notice of any inst
day of November 1861, which shall be registered pursuant
shall be delivered to the Registrar-General for registration.
39. This Act may he cited as the " British Columbia Land Registry Act, 1861."
Issued under the "public seal of the -said Colony at Victoria, Vancoi
( l.s. ) twenty-sixth day of August, in the year of our Lord one thousand
and sixty-one, and in the twenty-fifth y
By his Excellency's command,
William A. G. Young.
God save the Quee*
made subse-
the said 1st
of Her Majesty's reign, by'n
Appendix No. 8.
Proclamation.—No. 9, a.d., 1861. By his Excellency Jamei
Honourable Order of the Bath, Governor and Commander
Dependencies, Vice-Admiral of the same, &c, &c.
Whereas, under and by virtue of an Act of Parliament made and passed in the Session of Parliament held in the 21st and 22nd years of the reign of Her Majesty Queen Victoria, entitled
"An Act to provide for the Government of British Columbia," and by a Commission under the
Great Seal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, I James Douglas, have been
appointed Governor of the said Colony, and have been authorized by proclamation under the public
And whereas it is expedient  to amend anc
.veyed crown lands in British Columbia :
Now, therefore, I do hereby declare, procl
I. The proclamation issued by me, under
January 1860, and the Pre-emption Amendm
are hereby repealed.
II. All purchasers of unsurveyed land in
subsequently to the 20th day of June 1861,
hold the land purchased under precisely the s
s for the peace
affecting the se
e public seal of the said Colony, dated t
it Act, 1861, and the Pre-emption Purch
British  Columbia,
o shall have made their purchases p 20ST'1
27 th day of August 1861, shall £w^
ins of occupation and improvement pre^£pti<£! 78 PAPERS RELATING TO BRITISH QE&'UMBIA.
ks are mentioned in the said proclamation of the 4th day of January 1860, with regard to lands pre-
' empted without purchase.
| III. That from and after the date hereof, British subjects and aliens who shall take the oath of
oath allegiance to Her Majesty and her successors, may acquire the right to hold and purchase in fee
™t7 simple, unoccupied and unsurveyed and unreserved crown lands in British Columbia, not being the i
'e site of an existent or proposed town, or auriferous land available for mining purposes, or an Indian
Sn reserve or settlement, under the following conditions.
an        jv_ The person desiring to acquire any particular plot of land of the character aforesaid, shall,
«- thereof, with the magistrate residing nearest thereto; paying to the said magistrate the sum of eight
les' shillings for recording such claim.
JE?       V. Any person in possession of 160 acres of land as aforesaid may acquire the right to hold and
:™-0 purchase any further tract of unsurveyed and unoccupied land aforesaid, over and above the quantity of
"e 160 acres aforesaid, and contiguous thereto, upon payment to the nearest  magistrate of the sum of-
paid to the Government upon the survey of the same land,
r- VI. Any person so paying such deposit shall enter into possession and record his claim to such last-
rthe       VII. The claimant shall in all cases give the best possible description of the land to the magistrate
*     with whom his claim is recorded, together with a rough plan thereof, and identify the plot in question
by placing at the corners of the land four posts, and by stating in his description any  other land
enl       VIII. Every piece of land sought to be acquired under the provisions of this proclamation, shall,
>-     save as herein-after mentioned, be of a rectangular shape, and the shortest line thereof shall be at least
two-thirds the length of the longest line.
IX. Where the land sought to be acquired is in whole or in part bounded by mountains, rocks,
rtam lakes, swamps, or the margin of a river, or by other natural boundaries, then such natural boundaries
may be adopted as the boundaries of the land sought to be acquired, and in such case it shall be
sufficient for the claimant to show to the satisfaction of the magistrate that the said form conforms as
nearly as circumstances permit to the provisions of this proclamation.
Jfi' •     X. If the land sought to be acquired be bounded by  a claim, the line of such claim may be
adopted by the person so seeking to acquire, notwithstanding any irregularity in such line which
may have been occasioned by the adoption of a natural boundary by the claimant of the "adjacent
™        XI. Where a piece of land is partially or entirely enclosed between two or  more claims, tbe
jjs    claimant may acquire such enclosed piece notwithstanding any irregularity of form, or disproportion
in length of any of the sides.
IdiBg      XII. The boundaries shall run as nearly as possible by the cardinal points of the compass.
XIII. When, the Government survey shall extend to the land claimed, the claimant who has
recorded his claim as aforesaid, or his heirs or devisees, or in_thfi_case of the grant of a certificate of
improvement herein-after mentioned, the assigns of such claimant shall, if he or they shall have been
'. in continuous occupation of the same land from the date of the record aforesaid, be entitled to pur-
" chase the land so  acquired, or in respect of which such deposit shall have been paid as aforesaid, at .
such rate as may for the time being be fixed by the Government of British Columbia, not exceeding
the sum of 4s. '2d. per acre.
{£-       XIV. When the claimant, his heirs or devisees, shall prove to the nearest magistrate by the evidence j
™-e   of himself and of third parties, that he or they has or have continued in permanent occupation of
'*o   the claim from the date of record, and has or have made permanent improvements thereon to the
pcr   value of 10s. per acre, the said magistrate shall grant to the said claimant, his heirs or devisees, a
certificate of improvement in the form marked A., in the Schedule hereto.
j^f       XV. Upon,the grant of the   cetificate of improvement aforesaid, the person to whom the same is '
^.    issued may, subject to any unpaid instalments, sell, mortgage, or lease the land in respect of which
"h    such certificate has been issued, but no interest in any plot of land acquired in either of the methods
aforesaid, shall, before payment of the purchase money, be capable of passing to a purchaser, unless
the vendor shall have obtained such certificate of improvement as aforesaid.
. XVI. Upon payment of the purchase money a conveyance of the land purchased shall be executed
'ey/  in favour of the purchaser, reserving the precious minerals, with a right to enter and work the same in
.   favour of the Crown, its assignees, and licensees.
XVII. In the event of the Crown, its assignees, or licensees-availing itself or themselves of the
' * shall be paid to, l
le of dispute the sai
wn, its ass
of land l
eq aired
the 1
md taken,
r da
maged as
ned by the
mil b
e obtained
by the S^P8™
XIX. Whenever any person shall permanently cease to occupy land acquired in either of the     British
I methods aforesaid, the magistrate resident nearest to the land in question may, in a summary way, on    Columbia-.
being satisfied of such permanent cessation, cancel the claim of the person so permanently ceasing to 
occupy the same, and record the claim thereto of any other person satisfying the requisition afore- dS"™''^™-
XX. All deposits paid in respect of such forfeited claims, and all improvements, buildings, and ?^°m1m!!fo™"
erections thereon,  shall, (subject to the appeal herein-after mentioned,) on such cancellation, be fe?j[on conceU
absolutely forfeited ; and such claims, improvements, building and erections shall, subject to the appeal
herein-after mentioned, be open to settlement by any other person.
XXI. The decision of the magistrate may be appealed by either party to the decision of the Judge Appeal,
No. 40.
mes Douglas, Companion of the most
nder-in-Chief of British Columbia and
mation.—No. 11, a.d. 1861.   By 1
mourable Order of the Bath, Gov.
Dependencies, Vice-Admiral of the same, &c, &c.
reas, under and bv virtue of an Act of Parliament made and passed
eld in the 21st and 22nd years of the reign of Her Majesty Queen
I Act to provide for the Government of British Columbia," and by a Corr.
Seal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, I, James Dougk-, ...
Governor of the said Colony, and have been authorized by proclamation under the public seal atro
said Colony to make laws, institutions, and ordinances for the peace, order, and good governm
the same. ,   , ,       f
And whereas it is expedient to increase the limits of the municipality, and the number of
cillors of New Westminster, and to extend the operation of the New Westminster Municipal Council
Act, 1860, accordingly:
a of Parli
e Great
> been appointed
I extend the operation of the Nev
1. All that tract of land, which includes the pi
city as Block XXXVI. shall be included in the
deemed and taken for all the purposes of this Ac
2. All that tract of land, which includes the pit
city as Block XXXV. shall be included in th
deemed and taken for all the purposes of th
I enact as follows:—
of land described on the official maps of the s
3nd part of the schedule of the said Act, and
an integral portion of number One Ward,
of land described on the official maps of the f
iecond part of the schedule of the said Act, and
as an integral portion of number Three Ward.
. All that tract of land which includes the piece of land described on the official maps of th
city as Block XXXIV. shall be included in the fifth part of the schedule to the said. Act, and- be
deemed and be taken for all the purposes of this Act as an integral portion of number Four Ward, ^i
( 4. In addition to the councillors already provided by the said Act, there shall be elected, in the
same manner and with the same qualifications as at present, one additional councillor for number
One Ward, and one additional councillor for number Four Ward.
5. The " New Westminster Municipal Council Act, 1860," shall be deemed and taken,
,  hereby declared to extend and apply in all respects to the additional limits and councillors hereby
created for the said city, as if the same had been originally included in the said Act.
6. This Act shall be cited as the " New Westminster Municipal Council Extension Act, 1861."
Issued under the public seal of the said Colony at Victoria, Vancouver Island, this Twenty-
( l.s. )       second day of October, in the year of our Lord One thousand eight hundred and sixw
one, and in the twenty-fifth year of Her Majesty's reign, by me,
By his Excellency's command,
William A. G. Young.


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