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Three years in Cariboo: being the experience and observations of a packer, what I saw and know of the… Lindley, Jo. 1862

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Array HODGE   &   WOOD*
Wholesale Stationers, and Dealers in Blank Books,
School Books and Cheap Publications,
418 and 420 Clay St., near Sansoi^^an Francisco.
•PRICE,   SO   OE1TTS.
GUIDE MiThISTORY
salmon mi k mm
MINIIVO   DISTRICTS,
Con taming valuable information, with correct
Tables of Modes and Prices of Traveling; also giving the Distances from
Point to Point, of all the Routes,
A. BOSENFIEID, Publisher,
SAN FRANCISCO.
I      ANTON ROHAN, FRANK D. CARLTON.
I    A. ROMAN & COM
Booksellers, Importers and Publishers,
417 & 419 Montgomery St., (Le Count's Building,)
Bet. Sacramento and California, SAN FRANCISCO. i{^
PI
GROVER & BAKER'S
sewim'iachines
For Manufacturing and Family Uses,
Are the only style adapted to all the requirements of the California Public.
Our Manufacturing Machines are
'£>
JUST THE THING
FOR  MAKING
Tents, Bags, Awnings, Ceilings
and Clothing.
An investment in one or more of these Machines Would ENTITLE THE PURCHASER
TO A SURE WELL-PAYING CLAIM
On every Miner who desired a Tent for
Shelter, Clothing, for Comfort, or
Bags for general purposes.
|   GROVER & BAKER'S SEWING MACHINES,
329 Montgomery St., San Francisco.
Si Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1862, by
i "' A. KOSENFIRLT).
A. E0SENF1ELDJ
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of California. THREE XEARS
I N
CARIBOO:
Br   JO.   LINDLEY,
BEING THE EXPERIENCE AND OBSERVATIONS OF A PACKER,
What I saw and kpow of the Country;  Its Traveled
Routes, Distances, Villages, Mines, Trade
.and Prospects.
WITH
Distances, Notes and Facts, Relative to the
Salmon River and Nez Perces Gold Fields,
By T. R.   OLNEY.
SAN FRANCISCO:
PUBLISHED- BY A.  ROSENFIELD.
TOWNE    &    BACON,    PRINTERS.
18 6 2. INTRODUCTION
The object of the following pages is, to furnish
reliable information to those who are determined to
help swell the great wave of adventure how flowing
towards the newly discovered— and if recent accounts
are reliable— fabulously rich gold fields of Washington Territory and British Columbia.
The publisher, for the sale of this work, does not
rely upon the size of his volume, its well rounded
sentences or its promises of wealth to the adventurous
gold seeker, so miich as upon its accuracy and reliability, as a guide to the traveler, in his progress towards
his enchanted, becausejfor off, El Dorado.
THE PUBLISHER.' ROUTE TO CARIBOO.
From San Francisco, by steamer, miles.
TO VICTORIA, V. I., about  800
From Victoria to New Westminster, the Capital of British Columbia, on the north bank
of Fraser River, by steamer v  100
From New Westminster, by steamer, to the
month of
HARRISON RIVER     45
Continue by steamer np Harrison River to
HARRISON LAKE     5
Continue by steamer to north end of Harrison Lake,
TO PORT DOUGLASS     45
Now over a fine road on foot or in wagon—
called a stage—with eating honses and whisky
shops at convenient distances,
TO LITTLE LILLOET LAKE     29
Here take steamer, sail or row-boat,
TO END OF LAKE       7
Now an easy portage on foot or wagon
TO PEMBERTON LAKE, nearly       2
Cross the Lake by steamer
TO PEMBERTON CITY     17
Almost anything in the line of provisions or
clothing can be obtained here, with good
hotel accommodations.
Now a good road
TO HALF WAY HOUSE     14
A good road again 4 ROUTE  TO   CARIBOO.
TO ANDERSON LAKE, AND VILLAGE..    15
Good accommodations here.
Now by steamer again
TO END OF LAKE     16
Now an easy portage on foot
TO SEATON LAKE, less than       2
Now by steamer
TO EAST END OF LAKE !     16
Again on foot or wagon
TO LILLOET VILLAGE, nearly       4
Here cross the Fraser river by ferry to Cay-
oosh Flat, or Parsonsville, and we are now
distant, by the route taken, from New Westminster, two hundred and seventeen miles;
from Victoria, three hundred and seventeen
miles. This is the grand rendezvous of the
Cariboo and Upper Fraser river packers; and
as we are now done with steamers, stages and
wagons, let the last one hundred and fifty
miles admonish the Cariboo adventurer of the
necessities requisite to enable him to perform
a journey of one hundred and ninety miles
entirely on foot, or at best on mule back but
a small part of the way ; for though the trip
thus far may have proved an easy one, you
may now expect to encounter hardship and
exposure, though you may escape real danger.
A sufficiency of good, warm clothing and
blankets is indispensable; and yet to carry a
single blanket or a pound weight of extra
boots or clothing of any description, lugs
down the physical man, and should be avoided by transferring all extra weight to the regular packer.. This enables you to get through
from six to eight days sooner than when you
pack your own animals, or, hiring it done,
accompany the packers; for no pack train
over this route can move as far by eight or
ten miles a -day, as men can unencumbered
by animals and all unnecessary weight. ROUTE  TO  CARIBOO.
The whole distance from Cayoosh Flat to
the Forks of the Quesnell, can be accomplished without carrying more than one day's food
at any time, if you have the means to procure
it at .the several stations named, along the
route; but the distances must be made daily,
or camping out on short allowance is inevitable.
Packers, carrying tents and provisions, do
not make the reaching of the stations a necessity, but camp where food and water can
be procured for their animals.
From Lilloet there is a trail leading up the
west bank of the Fraser river to Express Bar
eighteen miles, thence to Big Bar fifteen
miles, and crossing the Fraser unites with the
main trail on the east bank. From Cayoosh
Flat, opposite Lilloet, to William's Lake on
the Cariboo route, there are two trails: one
known as the River Trail, that for the greater
part of the way lies along or near the east
bank of Fraser river; the other the Brigade
Trail, that leads off from Fraser river in a
north-easterly direction till it strikes a tributary of Thompson's river, then north to La-
hache Lake, then west to William's Lake,
where it unites with the River Trail. The
Brigade Trail is the longest route by more
than thirty miles, but much the best for pack
animals, the River Trail being really dangerous for the transit of even the surest footed
mule.
DISTANCES BY THE BRIGABE TRAIL.
From  Cayoosh   Flat,   through a timbered
country,
TO THE FOUNTAIN       8
Now over a fine, rolling, timbered country,
TO THE PAVILION.... \..    12
Now a fine trail 6 ROUTE TO   CARIBOO.
TO GOOD CAMPING.....     14
Thence over a muddy trail
TO JOLIE PRAIRIE. j     12
Another muddy trail in part
TO LITTLE CREEK     12
Now a fair trail
TO GREEN LAKE     12
Then a low, muddv trail
TO BRIDGE |     22
A fair trail most of the way
TO LAHACHE LAKE     20
Now an excellent trail along the lake
TO LAKE SHORE CAMP.     18
Thence over a very good trail
TO WILLIAM'S LAKE     32
Whole distance, one hundred and sixty-two
miles.
DISTANCES BY THE EIVEK TRAIL.
From Cayoosh Flat
TO THE FOUNTAIN       8
TO THE PAVILION     12
Now a low, soft trail crossing Big Slide creek
and on
TO LEON'S STATION     15
Heavy timbered country
TO BIG BAR CREEK     19
Soft, bad trail
TO CANOE CREEK CROSSING     20
Now a very fair trail
TO DOG CREEK     10
Now near the river and then along Alkali
lake up
TO THE CROSSING     17
Now over a high trail, and more rolling country, crossing Chimney creek,
TO WILLIAM'S LAKE     27
Whole distance, one hundred and twenty-
eight miles. ROUTE TO   CARIBOO. 7
From William's lake
TO DAVISON'S RANCH....;       3
Here the Brigade trail leads off to the northwest, towards Fort Alexandria; the Cariboo
trail in a north-easterly direction through a
timbered country
TO DEEP CREEK     10
A more"mountainous country
TO ROUND TENT 1   12
A few deep, muddy sloughs, otherwise a fair
trail
TO BEAVER LAKE     16
Here is one of the best houses on the whole
route. It is now kept by James Sellers. The
country is level and well adapted to cultivation, producing fine vegetables in abnndance.
Now a bad, wet, low trail
TO LITTLE  LAKE   16
With very little improvement in the trail, you
reach
THE FORKS OF THE QUESNELL       8
Whole distance from Cayoosh Flat by the
River trail, one hundred and ninety miles.
Cross the south fork by ferry to the village
of Quesnell—(pronounced, canal).
Probably by this time the most hardy adventurer on the route is beginning to be well
satisfied that it is no easy matter to get to
Cariboo, for though on paper I have not represented the trails to be very difficult of passage, you have doubtless found the Brigade
trail bad enough, and the River trail, if you
passed that way, just the worst of all trails
that mortal man ever ought to think of getting over alive. Swamps and sloughs, hills,
mountains, and along precipices until your
head would swim ; but no matter, we are now
at Quesnell, another grand point on the route
to Cariboo, for we are not quite there yet.
Here almost anything really required by i
ROUTE TO  CARIBOO,
the miner can be obtained at fair prices, which
means, five or six times as much as the same
articles can be had for at Victoria; for though
a packer and interested in the sale of merchandise, I- state this as true, and therefore
that every man that can should obtain his
outfit, provisions and tools, at Victoria, if
able to pack them through ; it may cause him
a deal of trouble and delay on the way, but
he will save money by the operation.
Now for Cariboo, and if early in the season
or before the first of June, every man must
pack on his back, not only his " grub," but
the necessary mining tools. Later in the season, say by first of July, animals are able to
traverse most of the routes among the principal mining localities, and this is as soon as it
will be found profitable to reach the mines;
before this very little can be done on account
of the depth of the snow.
If, however, you possess ample means to
buy your meals on the way, they can be procured at the several stations along the route,
but at prices that will set you thinking of your
" bottom dollar," unless your purse reaches
to your boots.
Well, here we go From Quesnell follow
up the east bank of the north fork, cross Spanish creek, and over a very bad and difficult
trail,
TO TOLL BRIDGE	
Cross, and follow up the west bank to Keith-
ley's creek, which flows into Little Cariboo
lake. Here is another village of considerable
pretensions, and a point from which radiate
several routes. In a south-easterly direction,
distant four miles, is Goose creek, that will
pay from fifteen to twenty dollars a day to the
man, and yet abandoned for better. Northeasterly from Keithley's, distant seven miles, ROUTE  TO  CARIBOO.
is Harney's creek, along which for miles are
diggings that in any other country than Cariboo would be called rich.
Keith ley's may be said to be the beginning
of the Cariboo mines, or the southern limit of
the same.
From this point we take a mountain trail,
and a hard one it is, till you make a descent
TO LITTLE  CREEK       6
There is good camping here. Now on to
Snow Shoes creek, which we follow up
TO THE CROSSING       8
We now cr6ss over Snow Shoes mountain,
difficult only on account of the depth of the
snow, in the early part of the season, it being
very deep till quite the first of June; you
now pass down
TO FAIR CAMPING GROUND       8
Another hard tramp and vou reach
ANTLER  CITY "     12
Whole distance from Quesnell to Antler City
and creek, forty-two miles, and we are in
Cariboo. But now "comes the tug of war,"
or rather mining, in the most inhospitable,
rugged, rainy and snowy country that gold
was ever found in I am sure ; but as the advice of " only a packer " would be little heeded by old California miners, I shall content
myself with finishing up my oft traveled
routes, with their distances, and then with a
few general remarks, leave the Cariboo miner
to make a princely fortune in about the shortest time that a fortune was ever made; or,
after a few, very few, brief months of disappointment, see him on his weary way back to
the abodes of civilization, a wiser man in all
that relates to Cariboo.
From Antler City
TO MOUNTAIN LAKE HOUSE     10
From the Lake House to and down Lightning
creek 10
ROUTE  TO  CARIBOO.
TO END OF CANON     1
There are rich diggings on this creek for
many miles below this point. From Lightning cafion, north and west,
TO VAN WINKLE CREEK?     1
This is a tributary of Lightning creek, and
lower down is
LAST  CHANCE	
There is a mountain trail and more direct,
from the Lake House to Last Chance, that
leaves Lightning cafion and Van Winkle
creek to the right and shortens the distance
five or six miles.
JACK  OF  CLUBS  CREEK heads near the
Lake House.   From Jack of Clubs
TO BURNS' CREEK	
From thence pass over the Three Ridges
TO NELSON'S   CREEK	
From Nelson's
TO WILLOWS  CREEK	
So little is known of the country directly to the north
of the present Cariboo mines, that to this day it is a
matter of doubt whether Antler creek is tributary to
Bear river or Willows creek, and the same is true of
Grouse creek. Both run northwardly and discharge
their waters into almost impenetrable—because densely
timbered— swamps. i^>
William's, Jack of Clubs, Burns'- and Nelson's
creeks, all of which have proved, rich, with several
others not yet prospected, are all tributaries of Willows creek; whilst Van Winkle, Chisolm, Last Chance,
Davis, Peters, Louhie and other creeks lower down
and never yet prospected, are tributaries of Lightning
creek..
And now, after nearly a three years' experience in
Cariboo, sometimes wielding the pick and shovel, but
for the most part guiding the sometimes stubborn, but
always patient mule, over mountain snows and deep
morass, you would like perhaps to know just what I ROUTE  TO  CARIBOO. 11
think of it, as a gold producing country, and the
chances for securing a fortune in it, from mining.
The extent of the mining country known even now
as Cariboo, has been greatly underrated; very many
have limited it to forty or fifty square miles. The fact
is, it is over forty miles in extent from north to south,
and as many miles, or more, from east to west, and
this alone gives an area of one hundred and sixty
square miles, instead of only forty. No one can deny
the probability that equally rich diggings to any yet
discovered, will be opened out as soon as the remaining, as well as 'adjoining, untouched ravines, creeks
and rivers' beds shall have been prospected. I believe
it to be a vastly rich gold field; but with one of the
most inhospitable and rigorous climates in which man
ever dug for gold, with about five chances against, to
one in favor, of making a fortune.
Too many persons go to Cariboo with entirely mistaken notions of the difficulties to be encountered;
they will not believe one-half that is told them of the
fatigues of the journey or the labor necessary to open
out successfully a paying claim ; they base their calculations too much upon previous experience in California or elsewhere, which will not apply to the gold
fields of Cariboo. No man going there should expect
to make much more than expenses the first season,
unless he is able to buy into a good paying claim at
once. The cost of prospecting for a claim is oftentimes enormous, on account of the high price of provisions and supplies of every kind. You cannot take
a mule, pack him with "grub," tools and blankets, and
start off on a two or three weeks' prospecting tour, as
in California. The extreme roughness of the hill
lands, and quagmire condition of the low country, absolutely forbid it. A great deal of the country is so
densely timbered that even grass cannot grow in sufficient abundance to maintain animals, at the same
time that it presents almost an impenetrable barrier to
progress.
But even these obstacles might be in a measure 12 ROUTE TO  CARIBOO.
overcome, and the mines more rapidly developed, but
for the extreme shortness of the season. Four months
is the longest term of surface mining that can be hoped
for, and during that short period a great deal of the
time drenching rains are falling and flooding everything around you—mining claim, camping grounds,
tents—nothing escapes the constant soaking; so that
if you succeed against all these drawbacks, in hunting
up, prospecting and fairly opening out a good claim,
ready for the second season's successful operations, you
may consider yourself fortunate.
That mining will be more generally successful in the
Cariboo country after better roads shall have been
opened up and living becomes cheaper, there is no
doubt, because the gold is there and will never be let
alone. My opinion is, that extremely rich hill or deep
diggings will soon be found all through the Cariboo
country, and many of these will doubtless give winter
as well as summer employment to thousands.
I have seen the steady progress of the gold seeker
northward, and yet further north, from the lowermost
bar on Fraser river to the extreme of Cariboo. I have
visited again and again nearly every gulch and ravine
where a camp of miners have located, from Fort Yale
on the south to the present northern limit of exploration where pack animals could be got through, and
without animals, have penetrated more than seventy
miles-still further north and east, and my opinion is,
that Bear river and its hundreds of tributaries will be
found another Cariboo, in the extent and richness of
its gold deposits; but only to be developed by the
same slow progress that has characterized the movements of the mining adventurer northward from the
gold producing bars of the lower Fraser, for the past
four years. The country and climate together are so
forbidding, that the progress of the prospector onward
must necessarily be slow.
In regard to the proper time for starting for Cariboo, no advice that I can give will avail anything, because advice will not be heeded.   Everv man seems ROUTE TO   CARIBOO.
13
determined to be a little ahead of his fellow adventurer, and so rushes on, regardless of real facts and
truthful evidence that ought to be sufficient to teach
sensible men better.
Even now, March second, there are hundreds here
at Victoria, and along the route between here and
Cayoosh Flat, who are now satisfied that they are all
of two months too early, the first of May being soon
enough to leave Victoria. The past winter has been
one of unusual severity throughout the entire Fraser
river country. A greater depth of snow than for years
before, now covers the ground, and renders transit, except upon snow shoes, next to impossible ; and unless
we get unusually early, warm rains, the opening of the
mining season promises to be all of a month later
than usual.
I do not propose to tell the California miner what
he needs to make himself comfortable on the way, or
after he gets there ; he is presumed to know, or thinks
he knows, better than any one else can tell him. I
will only say, that he had better make his calculations
for a decidedly rainy time throughout the whole of the
summer and mining season, instead of the almost total
absence of rain as in the mining regions of California.
I have often been asked, "Did you ever see a Cariboo %" and, " What kind of an animal is it V During
the three years that I have traversed the Cariboo country, as well as the adjoining country for sixty or seventy miles to the west, north and east, I have never
seen a Cariboo, though I have often seen the "Elephant " of that country. The best evidence to be obtained in the country, from those who have often seen
the animal, and apart from the opinion of naturalists
who have made mention of it, is that it is a kind of
mongrel Reindeer; the form of its antlers, which are
often found, are certain evidence that it is neither the
Elk or Stag.
There is no reliance to be placed upon game in Cariboo as a means of subsistence. Grouse are, in a few
places, abundant, and fish are quite plentiful in the' r-
14
ROUTE TO  CARIBOO.
lakes that are not alkaline; wild fowls are to some extent procurable along the swamps, marshy and lake
lands, but as a whole, the game of the country is hardly worth the time required to capture it. There are
no venomous reptiles in Cariboo.
Commending the^oregoing to the careful consideration of the adventurer, as my honest opinion of the
country and its approachable routes, their advantages
and disadvantages, I leave him to form his own opinion of his chances for a fortune, or a return with
nothing more than having obtained a tolerably fair
view of the " Elephant" of Cariboo. THE NEZ PEEOES
AND
SALMON RIVER GOLD FIELDS.
The publisher of this hand-book takes pleasure in
laying before its readers a portion of a letter, which
explains itself, as the only introduction necessary to
this part of the work.
Wallula City, Jan. 18th, 1862.
A. Rosenfield—Dear Sir: Yours of December
4th came to hand a few days since. You desire my
opinion of the success likely to attend a well conducted
branch of your San Francisco establishment in some
part of the Nez Perces mining country, and connecting;
the same with a Letter and perhaps general Express
business. Also, my candid judgment in reference to
the Nez Perces gold mines, their probable extent, richness, accessibility, &c, &c.
=* # # * # =fc
I believe at Lewiston, a new city of that name, at
the forks of the Snake and Clearwater rivers, and the
head of navigation, would be an excellent point to
establish your business; I mean a general News, Book
and Stationery Store, to which I think you might add
with profit, the buying of gold dust for shipment. I
think Lewiston would be preferable to this place.
There are already as many Express companies here,
and Express agents, as are needed to do the present r
I
16
NEZ PERCES  AND  SALMON RIVER MINES.
business of the country. Between Portland and Lewiston, Messrs. Tracy & Co. are running a regular Express, with facilities fully equal to the present as well
as prospective wants of the country for some time to
come.
From Lewiston to Oro Fino, Elk City and the Salmon river mines, Mossman & Miller and Cady & Co.
send their Express agents regularly, for the conveyance
of letters and treasure. It would require experience
and time and some acquaintance with the country, to
compete successfully with these already well known
and reliable companies.
Two years in the -mining districts of this region, will
enable me to give you a reliable, if not an interesting
account of them, which I will now endeavor to do.
Truly yours,
T. R. OLNEY. ROUTES AND DISTANCES
TO   THE
SALMON RIVER GOLD MIXES
The best route by which to reach the Nez Perces
and Salmon river gold fields, depends entirely upon
the point of departure, or where a man is, when ready
to start. Thus, your humble servant, instead of starting from San Francisco and taking the usual route
from thence, via Portland and up the Columbia river,
has never yet seen the city of Portland, or, indeed, the
Columbia river, except so far as the Snake makes one
of the main branches of that river. My starting point
for the mines was Salt Lake City, thence by the way of
Raft river to Snake river, and down the Snake to the
Nez Perces country ; and not only was it a very direct
route, but an inexpensive one, in all except time, as
compared with the route from San Francisco. I propose to give you a short description of the trip, and
then take up the points you desire me more particularly
to enlarge upon.
As one of a company of eight men, I left Salt Lake
City on the third of June, 1860, for a prospecting tour
to jjhc Salmon river country, having heard marvelous
stories of gold deposits on the upper tributaries of that
river. We took with us twelve mules, well packed
with provisions, mining implements and camp equipage, and started for Snake river, the great southern
tributarv of the Columbia. 18
ROUTES AND  DISTANCES.
BOUTE  EROM   SALT  liAHLE  CITY.
From Salt Lake City, along the old California emigrant road to its junction with Subt-
lett's cut-off, near City rocks, to a branch of
MILES.
RAFT RIVER   160
This distance we made in eight and a half
-days.    Thence down Raft river and valley
TO SNAKE RIVER     32
Down Snake river along the west bank
TO CROSSING £....    66
From thence along the eastern bank and valley
TO FORT BOISE     45
Here we made head-quarters for more than a
month, prospecting on Reid's, Payette's,
Owyhee and Malheur rivers, on all of which
we found gold, and in several places could
have made big wages, but for the mean,
thieving and decidedly hostile bands of Snake
Indians, which we found altogether too numerous for the safety of ourselves on all the
principal tributaries of the main Snake river.
Crossing the river to the west bank near
Fort Boise, and keeping near the river along
the Oregon emigrant uoad to where it
LEAVES THE RIVER     40
Here the road makes off in a north-westerly
course, more directly towards Walla Walla.
We kept down the valley of the Snake to the
month of
SALMON RIVER ,   110
Here we intended to prospect for the remain- j
derof the season, but were most emphatically
forbidden and really deterred from either
ascending the river or prospecting its bars;
and such were the constant annoyaraces from
the Indians, we were glad to get out of their
countrv. with no other loss than ncarlv half ROUTES  AND DISTANCES.
19
oar males.   From the mouth of the Salmon
to Lewiston, at the month of
CLEAR WATER RIVER     55
Whole distance from Salt Lake City to Lewiston, five hundred and eight miles.
ROUTE FRO 31  SAN   rKA\('lS('0,vijiP«KT-
e.a.\ bj> am) coi^s/mbia river.
The distances on this route from Portland to
Walla Walla city, I take from published
tables of distances, and not from any knowledge I have of the route.
From San Francisco, by ocean steamer, to
Portland; thence by river steamer
TO THE DALLES   100
Over the Dalles portage
BY  STAGE     15
Now by steamer again
TO OLD FORT WALLA WALLA  120
During seasons of high water, steamers make
regular trips from Walla Walla around up
TO LEWISTON    150
From Old Fort Walla Walla there is a good
road and regular stage route to New Fort
Walla Walla; this place is here more commonly called
WALLA WALLA CITY     30
From Walla Walla City a good stage road
and stages
TO LEWISTON     84
All along between Walla Walla City and Lewiston are numerous houses of entertainment,
making it easy of transit for men or pack animals. Lewiston is at the head of steam navigation on Snake river, and its nearness to the
different mining localities on Clearwater, Salmon and Powder rivers, will continue it what •
it now is, a place of growing importance; for
already it is quite a thriving city, the headquarters of traders, miners and packers. 20
ROUTES AND  DISTANCES.
Before I start out for the mines, let me speak a moment of the country we are in, and its native inhabitants. Lewiston and vicinity is part of a Nez Perces
Indian reservation. Indians and half-breeds are numerous, but friendly, or would be if properly treated
by their white visitors. Some of the Nez Perces tribe
having mixed with the Snake Indians, are the occupants of a kind of middle ground on the north bank
of the Salmon river; these are not as kindly disposed
towards the whites as are the more northerly Nez Perces ; nor are they as hostile as the Snakes, who occupy
the whole upper Snake river country, on both sides of
the river and on all its tributaries, down to and including both banks of the Salmon river.
These Indians are quite numerous, own considerable
bands of cattle and horses, and cultivate the soil to
some extent in a few localities. There is every evidence that they know of the existence of rich gold deposits on the upper Salmon; for though their own
people are forbidden to expose its locality, or even to
procure it in any considerable quantity, for fear of exciting the cupidity of the whites, yet not unfrequently
an indiscreet one or more among them will offer gold
in surprising quantity, always insisting that it is to be
had with but little more trouble than the picking up
and separating from about the same quantity of sand
or gravel.
As a people, the Snakes are always in bad humor
with the whites. They say— and with a good deal of
truth—" When the white man comes into Indian
country to dig gold, Indians all die off." No serious
disturbance has as yet occurred, as a consequence of
the encroachment of the Salmon river miners thus far
upon the lands of the Snakes; but I should not be
surprised were an outbreak to occur at any moment.
I do not speak thus to deter any one from coming here,
but only as my opinion of what I believe will result
from causes that are operating surely, and which cannot be prevented or long delayed; because, as certainly
as there is gold there, the miner is bound to have it, ROUTES AND DISTANCES.
and will— it being only a matter of time; and therefore the more there are come, and the sooner, the
easier and quicker the conquest; for, call it what you
will— fate, or destiny— they must give way before the
superior race.
THE  ROUTES  TO   OR©   FIX©.
TO
TO
TO
TO
There arc two roads leading from Lewiston
to tho Oro Fino diggings; both are good
wagon roads for the greater part of the way
at the proper season, and good pack roads at
all seasons when there is not too great a depth
of snow. The route along the north bank of
Clearwater is a few miles the shortest, but on
no other account is to be preferred to the south
route. From Lewiston, by the north route,
which lies along the north bank of Clearwater river, the distance to Oro Fino City is but
seventy-nine miles. The road is good for
wagons with the exception of the last twenty
miles, which is mountainous. There is plenty
of timber and water along the route, and
grass for animals at the proper season. There
are a few way stations and good places to
camp all the way. I will note the most important points.
From Lewiston cross to the north bank,
then eastwardlv, over a good road,
BASKET CREEK     12
Thence along the river again, fine road
CAMP CREEK       9
Now a fine road again -
NORTH FORK OF CLEARWATER...    12
Ford the Fork, and thence along the river and
foothills
FORD'S STATION     12
From Ford's there are two trails to Oro
Fino City. By the south route, cross Oro
Fino creek and follow up the Clearwater 22
ROUTES  AND  DISTANCES.
TO BELL'S FERRY       6
Now a good road till nearly reaching
ORO FINO CITY .'     28
There is not three miles difference between
the north and south routes from Ford's to Oro
Fino City ; but by the north route you cross
Quartz and Canal creeks and reach Pierce
City three miles before you get to Oro Fino.
Whole distance from Lewiston to Oro Fino
by river route, seventy-nine miles.
As there is much the largest amount of
wagon travel on the south route from Lewis-
ton to Oro Fino, I will give distances. From
Lewiston you take a south-easterly direction
TO CRAIG'S STATION .-.;.     15
From Craig's, a good road again eastwardly
TO BURNS' STATION *    16
From the vicinity of Burns', several routes
diverge to different points on Clearwater, as
well as Salmon river. Taking the Oro Fino
route, the distance is,
TO BELL'S FERRY     25
There is a shorter trail between Craig's and
Bell's ferry, crossing Canon creek to the north
of Burns', but it is only available to packers
and footmen carrying their own provisions.
I have already given the distance from Bell's
to Oro Fino. Whole distance from Lewiston
to Oro Fino by the south route, eighty-four
miles.
From Burns' station there is a good road
TO LAWYER'S  CROSSING     30
This is on the Clearwater, some seventeen
miles above Bell's ferry, and on the most direct route to, and distant from
ELK CITY     70 ROUTES AND  DISTANCES.
Elk City is at the forks of the American and Red
rivers, and these, with Buffalo, Rodney's and Blair's
creeks, help to form the South Fork of the Clearwater.
During the last summer rich diggings were struck
on Oro Grand, a tributary of the North Fork of the
Clearwater, and distant only fifteen miles north-east of
Oro Fino City. Good diggings, of such as would be
called good in any part of California, were also found
on Rabbit and Cedar creeks; these two, with numerous
other smaller creeks and gulches are the sources of the
North Fork, but abandoned because they would not
yield but an ounce to an ounce and a half a day to the
man.
From Cedar creek, it is twelve miles across the
White Cedar mountains to Lou Lou creek, a branch
of St. Mary's river, the latter tributary to* Bitter Root
river. Lou Lou creek must not be mistaken for Lolo
creek, which flows into the South Fork of Clearwater
above Bell's ferry. A prospecting party, in the early
part of August last, passed over to and down Lou Lou
creek, and found diggings that will pay from ten to
thirty dollars a day, and which, as soon as supplies
can be taken there, will be worked. Eight miles below
the mouth of the Lou Lou, at the forks of St. Mary's
and Hell Gate rivers, is a small village of Blackfoot
Indians. They are friendly, at least to traders, and
either to induce the latter to visit their country for the
purpose of traffic or because it is really so, they relate
great stories of the gold that lies in the beds of the
upper sources of the Hell Gate river; and as these
streams all take their rise in a spur of the Rocky
mountains, that in its continuation westwardly forms
the Salmon river group and chain, all of which are
known to be highly auriferous, leaves no reason to
doubt the existence of rich deposits on very many of
the sources of the Hell Gate river. This river derives
its name from an extremely dangerous whirl, or rapid,
eight miles above its confluence with the Bitter Root,
and six miles below the mouth of the Blackfoot fork.
All these rivers have their sources in what is judged 24
ROUTES  AND DISTANCES.
to be a gold producing country, and many portions of
it will undoubtedly be found to contain" it in abundance when the facilities for properly prospecting it
can be relied upon.
At present but little is known of the climate, no one
to my knowledge, except the natives, having yet wintered there. There are several points of interest to
the gold seeker in the Nez Perces country, that I have
never visited. I could instance almost the entire of
the North Fork of the Clearwater. There are numerous small creeks and streams tributary to this fork,
that show admirable prospects, if it were not that the
Salmon river diggings so greatly excel them. But if
the Nez Perces mines are not quite so rich as the Salmon river country, there is this in their favor: they are
nearer, easier of access, have not so great an altitude,
and the season consequently longer and milder than
the more elevated Salmon river mines, whilst all fear
of any disturbance from Indians can be laid entirely
aside, which is no small item oftentimes in the list of a
miner's anxieties and perplexities.
With the preceding fair and honest expression of
my views of the Nez Perces country, as a gold producing region, I will now point the way from a personal
knowledge of three different routes, to the already explored portion of the Salmon river country, and to do
this we will go once more back to the grand"rendezvous,
the citv of Lewiston.
LEWISTOIff TO SALMO\   RIVER.
There are three routes from Lewiston, or near
Lewiston, to the Salmon river gold fields. I
have been on all of them, and. will give distances as near correct as can be estimated by
the time required to travel over them; and
here let me say, don't try to take a wagon
over the whole distance, for it cannot be done.
Merchandise can be carried in wagons as far
as Craig's or Burns' station, and across the 1
1
ROUTES AND DISTANCES. 25
prairie when it is dry and hard, as far as the
heavy timber; but it must be packed the balance of the way.
From Lewiston, to take either of the three
trails, go on the south Oro Fino road
TO CRAIG'S     15
From here the old, Indian trail to Salmon
river crosses Cam-as prairie, the soil of which
resembles the adobe lands of California, and
is so flat that during the rainy season water
covers most of the surface, but only a few
inches deep ; the soil then perfectly saturated
is so soft and sticky that no wagon, or even
pack animal, can cross it; so that after the
fall rains set in, it is useless to attempt it, until in winter, when it is frozen solid. During
the summer it becomes so dry that the movement of animals over it raises a perfect cloud -
of fine black dust, which is anything but
agreeable. This prairie is thickly covered
with Cam-as, a bulbous plant, the top of
which resembles the leek or wild onion; the
bulb however is not like the leek in its properties, but more closely resembles a dry, hard
potato. It makes an important article of
food for the Indians, who gather it in considerable qantities, which, after drying, is pounded into flour. Distance from Craig!s, across
the prairie,
TO PRAIRIE SPRINGS     14
Now through an open, sparsely timbered
country, occasionally rough, with three or
four good camping places, and reach
SALMON RIVER     63
From here to the present mines you must follow up the narrow flats and through carious,
where, if the river happens to be high, it is
next to impossible to pass
TO MOUTH OF SLATE CREEK     25
Whole distance from Lewiston, one hundred 26
ROUTES AND DISTANCES.
and seventeen miles. Here yon strike the
present mining district of Salmon river.
We will now take the new, or middle trail,
from Lewiston
TO CRAIG'S     15
TO BURNS'     16
From Burns', the route leads across the
north-east border of Parharlawhan prairie
TO GOOD CAMPING     12
Now on again to another good camping
ground,
GRASS, WOOD AND WATER     20
From thence a good trail
TO HEAVY TIMBER     10
From this point the trail is a hard one to
travel; country thickly timbered, hilly, and
even very mountainous most of the way
TO SUMMIT, OR SALMON DIGGINGS... 25
Whole distance from Lewiston, ninety-eight
miles, and this route takes you directly to
Sunfmit diggings, whereas the first described
route with its distances leaves you at the
mouth of Slate creek, some twenty miles from
Florence, Nevada, Millersburg, and other of
the principal mining camps.
The old route from Lewiston to Salmon
river diggings is the longest, as it takes for a
considerable distance the Oro Fino and Elk
City trails. It is now seldom taken by miners
who desire to go direct to the Salmon river
mines, but papkers often go the route with
supplies for Elk City, and then take the trail
for Salmon.
Whole distance from Lewiston
TO ELK CITY     80
From Elk City to Summit diggings on Slate
creek, there are two routes : one known as the
mountain trail, a very difficult and laborious
one to travel, is by
MOUNTAIN TRAIL     65 ROUTES AND DISTANCES. 27
Making the whole distance from Lewiston,
one hundred and forty-five miles. By the
other trail from Elk City, which avoids the
worst part of the mountain, and the one always taken by the packers, the distance to
Summit diggings is called eighty-five miles.
I think it ten miles less, which would make
the whole distance from Lewiston, via Elk
City, to the Salmon river mines, one hundred
and fifty-five miles.
The principal mining district of Salmon river, at
present worked, is on Slate creek and its tributaries.
The richest portion of the district is known as the
Summit diggings, because situated upon an elevated
plateau, constituting almost the summit elevation of
the country around. As a plateau, it is comparatively
level, and yet intersected and cut up in every direction
by small ravines and gulches, some with, but very
many without water sufficient for sluicing; whilst a
great deal of very rich ground is entirely without
water upon the surface. The whole district is a decomposed quartz, resting upon a kind of grey granite
bed-rock, at varying depths from the surface, and as
all the gold is above this rock, the prospecting is simple and certain, requiring no sinking of shafts or holes
deeper than the surface of the rock.
A great difficulty found in working many of the
claims, is the presence of water upon the bed-rock,
with no chance to drain, on account of the general
level of the whole plateau.
The different mining camps that have taken names
in print, and figure as cities, upon paper, are just so
many localities on small gulches and ravines, where a
few miners' tents or cabins are erected, with perhaps
one or more of them designated as a store or trading
house. Their names are as follows: Nevada City,
Florence City, Millerstown, Meadow Creek, Baboon
Gulch, Pioneer Gulch, Mason's Gulch, Neal's Gulch,
Ureka, and others, constantly being added as further 28
ROUTES AND DISTANCES.
prospecting opens up new paying grounds. All these
places are in the immediate vicinity o^f each other, the
farthest but three or four miles apart, and all on the
head gulches and tributaries of Slate creek.
On Salmon river, eighteen miles above the mouth
of Slate creek, near the fork of the Salmon, new and
very rich ground has been struck upon Colby's gulch,
and good prospects are obtained from all the bars
along the Salmon in this vicinity, which unerringly
demonstrates the existence of coarser gold in increased
quantities higher up the country. The head waters of
the North Fork of Salmon river, and those of Bitter
Root or St. Mary's river, all take their rise in the same
group or chain of mountains as do those of the South
Fork of the Clearwater, upon which Elk City and
other mining camps are located; and the presumption
is, that the whole country is to a greater'or less extent
auriferous. That every gulch and ravine will be found
rich, no one believes; but that a vast extent of undeveloped country, much of it-possessing great mineral
wealth as compared with many other gold producing
countries, is almost equally certain. I am acquainted
with parties who, though possessing twenty dollars a
day claims in the Nez Perces mines, will spend the
next summer in prospecting the upper Salmon and
tributaries, even at the risk of losing their Nez Perces
claims. Those who know of the real richness of the
Summit mines, and there are very many who do, who
have not participated in them, are not going to be content with anything less than one hundred dollars a day
diggings, till they have spent at least one season looking for better paying claims.
WHAT I THINK OF THE CHANCES.
Already I hear of large numbers on their way to the
Clearwater and Salmon river mines; all of these, of
course every man, expects to strike a fortune, or, at
least, great pay, or he would not attempt so long and
laborious a trip, as he is sure to find it. Now it cannot
be otherwise than this, of the thousands who reach the "^
ROUTES AND DISTANCES. 29
mines, a large number, perhaps one-half, by practicing
industry and prudence can make good wages, a few of
these will strike big pay, and be more than satisfied
with their success, whilst a still lesser number will, by
mere luck, blunder upon fortunes. This leaves one-
half, or perhaps more, to grapple with the evils of misfortune and disappointment. Men ought not to come
here expecting to prospect new claims, open them out,
make a fortune and return home in a single season,
though many will do it. The mining season is at best
short, not more than five months in the most favorable
districts, and in many not more than four. The cost
of transportation to the mines is enormous, or if you
pay your board it will cost you from two to four dollars a day.
The present winter is being unusually severe, in all
this as well as the upper country, and large numbers of
animals are dying, and unless a considerable addition
is made to the packing force of last year, provisions
cannot be taken into the mines early enough, nor fast
enough, to meet the wants of the probable immigration ; so that all that can, should provide themselves
with pack animals before reaching Lewiston, or expect
to pay about three prices for what they will want, when
they reach the mines.
With plenty of money in pocket, there is no difficulty in reaching Lewiston, with very fair hotel and
steamboat accommodations all the way; but from
Lewiston every man should expect to keep his own
hotel; so that pack animals, with tent and camp
equipage, make a party perfectly comfortable that
without them might be certain to meet with inconvenience if not discomforts.
COST  OF TRIP.
The cost must depend entirely upon the habits or
inclination of the man; for whilst one would require
three hundred dollars, arfbther would get along just as
well, or well enough, for two hundred; even one hundred and fifty dollars will take a man through tolera-
4 30
ROUTES A3STD DISTANCES.
bly well, if he meets with no mishap or delay on the
way. So that three hundred dollars may be put down
as the very least that any one should think or starting
with, as this would barely enable him to get back
again, should he be unsuccessful, and even then he
would have to squeeze, both ways. If you have, four
hundred dollars, you are all right, whilst five hundred
makes a man feel strong and good, as though he was
proof against any ordinary ill luck that might befall
him, and gives him means to move about and prospect
for a claim, in case he strikes upon nothing soon after
reaching the mining country. And yet, after all, if
there is any one thing a man can safely do, after he
has procured his entire outfit for the trip, and do it
with entire satisfaction to himself, arid can do it, is, to
put another extra one or two hundred dollars in his
pdcket; it cannot come amiss, unless he happens to
''get robbed of it. §
WHERE TO PROCURE OUTFIT.
Although the miner can procure anything that he
may require of food, clothing or»mining tools, either
at Portland or Lewiston, or even in the mines, yet
every mile that he moves from Portland towards Lewiston or the mines, adds to the cost of everything, and
in a wonderfully increased ratio; I say this from
knowledge gained by experience; my occupation, that
of trader and packer, enables me. to judge correctly;
so that the sooner the miner can procure his supplies
and have them put into snug packages and pay a fair
freight upon them to Lewiston or through to the mines,
the more money he will save.
TIME FOR STARTING.
My remarks on this head are not intended for crazy
men, or those who, reckless of advice, rush on, thinking to gain much by being first in the field; but to
those who are willing to be advised, hoping to be profited by it. ROUTES AND  DISTANCES. 31
The last two winters were far more mild, with less
snow, than the present, and then the mining season
did not open in the Nez Perces mines till the middle
of June, and as the present is the most severe season
ever experienced here, and the Salmon river mines
even more elevated than the Oro Fino mines, there is
not a hope that profitable mining will commence there
before the first or middle of June; but even though
mining could be done to some extent before that, it
will be impossible sooner to get supplies through.
It is evident, therefore, that to start from San Fran-'*
cisco before the middle of May, is only time and
money thrown away.
And now, having given my real opinion of the Nez
Perces and Salmon river gold fields, with my best
judgment of distances from actual travel, I shall leave
it with you to publish or not as you may think best,"
hoping that if published, you will be careful to avoid
typographical errors, particularly in figures relating
to distances.
T. R. OLNEY.
To A. ROSENFIELD. VOCABULARY
OP THE
CHINOOK JARGON
Chi n ook—English.
Nika   I
Mika   You
Klasker   They
Mesiker   You (plural)
Tenass man   A boy
Chaco   Come
Momook   Work
Klaawa   Go
Kar   Where
Yawa   Here
Alta   At present
Alke   Afterwards
Illihe   Land
Ahyak   Quick
Siva   Distance
Klasker   Who
Klosh   Good
Laport   Door
Konaway   All
Sun   Day
Poolakly   Night
Tenas sun   Morning
Sitkum sun   Noon
Kakwa   The same
Yoolkhut   Long
Hy-you   Plenty
Sockallv   Hiffh
Pilton   Fool
Tekope   White
Pill   Ked
Klayl   Black
Letete   Head
Laposh   Mouth
Leeda   Teeth
Lelang   Tongue
Seca-hoose   Face
Lem#   The hand
Yaksoot   Hair
Lareh   Barley
Lepoah   Peas
Wapito   Potatoes
Ledowo   Turnips
Lekarrot   Carrots
Lesonion   Onions
Kabbage    Cabbage
RUapite   Thread
Moola   Saw mill
Percece   Blanket
Kamoosack   Beads
Poolally   Powder
Kula-kulla Birds
Musket   A gun
Ninamox   Otter
Ena   Beaver
Quanice   Whale ^
VOCABULARY OF THE  CHINOOK JARGON
33
Yniceco   Porpoise
Oluck   Snake
Soolee   Mouse
Skad   Mole
Lelo   Wolf
Pish-pish    Cat
Kuitan   A horse
Moos-moos   A cow
Lamuto   Sheep
Namox   A dog
Kushaw   A hog
Kimta   Behind
Shetsham   Swim
Seeapoose   Cap
Leshawl • A shawl
P   And
Wichat   AJso
Dly tupso   Hay
Dly   Dry
Tum-tum   Heart
Comb   Comb
Koory   Run
Pilpil   Blood
Lesap   Egg
People   Hen
Lecook   Rooster
Lapell   Spade
Lapiosge   Hoe
Leglow   Nail
Lake   Lake
Lachaise   Chair
Kettle   A pot
Oskan   A cup
Lope   Rope
Silux   Angry
Sharty   Sing
Mercie   Thanks
Kinoose   Tobacco
Chee   New
Sun day• Sunday
Pooh   Shoot
Lolo   To carry
Klawa   Slow
Wagh   To spill
Inti   Across
Leprate   Priest
Lejob   Devil
Kapo   A relation
Lepied   Foot
Tee-owitt   Leg
Yachoot   Belly
Spose   If
Delate   Straight
Seepy*   Crooked
Tolo   Win
Kow   Tie
Klack   Untie
Yaka   He
Nesika   We
Man   Man
Klootchman   Woman
Chuck   Water
Lum   Rum
Patle   Full
Datlamb   Drunk
Boston   American
Pesioux   French
Malo   None
Husatchy   Bad
Tyhee   Chief
Elitee   Slave
Ou   Brother
. Ats   Sister
Kapswalla   Steal
Ipsoot   Secret
Patlatch   Give
Iscum   Take
Wake   No
Nowitka   Yes
Seokurn   Strong
Six   Friend
Ikta   What
Pechuck   Green
Lemoro   Wild
Daselle    Saddle
Sitlii   Stirrup
Lesibro   Spurs
Kolan   Ear
Klapp   To find
Kull   Tougfh, hard 34      VOCABULARY  OF  THB  CHINOOK   JARGON.
Lapulla   The back
Sapled   Wheat
Pire sapled   Bread
Labiscuit   Biscuit
Laween   Oats
Lice   Rice
Sagwa   Sugar
Soap   Soap
Molass   Molasses
Stick shoes   Shoes
Skin shoes   Moccasins
Gleece Pire   Candle
Skullapeen   A rifle
Meinoloose    Kill
Aetshoot   Bear
Mow itch   Deer
Cuitchaddy   Rabbit
Skubbyyou   Skunk
Olikhiybu  Seal
Yakolla   Eagle
Waugh-waugh   Owl
Skakairk   Hawk
Mauk   Duck
Sraockmock   Grouse
Malaekua   Musquito
Swaawa   Panther
Skudzo   A squirrel
Enpooy   Lice
Lesway   Silk
Lalopa   Ribbons
Kapo   Coat
Sickilox   Pantaloons
Shirt    Shirt
Aekik   A fish hook
Tootosh   Milk
Snass   Rain
Pithick   Thick
Snow   Snow
Lehash   An axe
Laleeni    Kile
O psu   A knife
Leklee   Keys
Pillom   A Broom
Lakutchee   Clams
Lacassett   A trunk
Tumolitch   A barrel
Opkan   A basket
Lepla A plate
Latuble   A table
Laqueen   A saw
Moosum   Sleep
Coldlllihe   Winter
Warm Illihe   Summer
Cold .A year
Ke waap   A hole
Zum   Write
Klemenwhit   False
Klonass   Don't know
Quass   Fear, afraid
Olally   Berries
Tzae   Sweet
Tumalla   To-morrow
Hee-hee   Laugh
Moon   Moon
Klakeece   Stars
How   Listen, attend
Sil-sil   Buttons
Lapeep   Pipe
Akaepooit   Needle
Tin-tin   Music.
Tance   Dance
Opootch   Tail
Etlinwill   Ribs
Ikt stick   A yard
Elp   First
Claystone   Coal
Lesack   A bag
Newha   How is it
Tenass Klootchman   A girl
Tenass A child, and anything small
Wawa Language, to speak
Mainook Chaco   Bring
Muck-muck Anything good
to eat
P
•hack.   Ardent
spirits
iish
of any kind
King George.   Enw
Scotch or Irish
Laplosh A shingle or plank —-
VOCABULARY  OF THE  CHINOOK JARGON
Wake nika huntux    I do
not understand
Oibes    Sandwich Islander
Hyass    Large or very
Till   Heavy or tired
Lazy   Slow or lazy
Mamookipsoot   To conceal
Halluck Laport   Open the
door
Ikpooy Laport.    Shut the
door
Klakany   Out of doors
Midlight    Sit   down, put
down, or stay
Mid whit   Stanol up, get up,
or move
Sitkum   Middle or half
Tenas Poolakly   Sunset or
dusk
Cookshut     Fight,   break,
injure, etc.
Wakeskokum   Weak
Wakekonsick   Never
Kumtux   Understand
Tikke    Want, desire, etc.
Ikta mika tikke   What do
you want
Okoah   This or that
Wake ikta nika tikke   I do
not want anything
Sow wash   Indian, Savage
Ankuty   Long ago
Lay-lay   A long time
Konsick   How much
Mokook   Buy or sell
Kultis   Nothing gratis
Kapitt Finish, Stop
Kapitt wawa    Hold your
tongue
Nanitch   Look, to see
Sockally Tyhee   The  Almighty
Keekwully Deep, beneath
Quonisnm   Always
Sick   Unwell, ill, sick, etc.
Lecreme   Cream color
Leky    Spotted, or piebald
Olo   Hungry or thirsty
Lapushmo   Saddle Blanket
Chick chick   A wagon or
cart
Kull-kull stick   Oak
Laplash stick   Cedar
Legum stick   Pine
Klemansa pel   Flour
Sale   Cotton or calico
Kanim    Conoe or boat
Klackan   A fence, field
Kali don   Lead or shot
Chickaman    Metals of all
kinds
Chickaman  shoes    Horse
shoes
Tanass  Musket    A pistol
Moolack or Moos   Elk
Salmon or sallo-week   Salmon
Tanass Salmon   Trout
Lemule or Hyaskolon Mule
Man Moos-moos    An ox
Tanass Moos-moos   A calf
Henkerchim Handkerchief
Coat   A woman's gown
Keekwully coat    A petticoat
Keekwully Sickilox Drawers
Hachr on House    A house
Kata   Why, or what is the
matter
Whaah    (Exclamation of
astonishment) Indeed
Abba    Well  then,  or,  if
that is the case
Luckwulla   A nut
Tupsu   Grass or straw
Hoey-hoey   Exchange
Tootosh gleece    Butter
Kquttilt   To collapse
Glass   A loking glass or T
56      VOCABULARY  OF  THE  CHINOOK JARGON,
window
Koory knitan A race horse
Tanass Lakutchee Mussels
Koppa  From toward, &c.
Chitch   Grandmother
Kia-howya   How are you,
or poor, pitiful
Lapooelle   Frying pan
Appola    A roast of anything
Quis-quis   A straw mat
Makook house   A store
Katsuck  Midday, between
Oloman   *An old man, or
worn out
Lemaci   An old woman
Hyass Sunday   Christmas
day and the 4th of July
Pisheck   Bad, exhausted
Paper   Paper, books, &c.
Zum seeahhoose   Paint de
face.
Pire Olally   Ripe berries
Cold olally   Cranberries
Fiil olally   Strawberries
Lapiaege   A trap or snare
Miami   "Down tne stream,
below
Machlay  Towards the land
Staetijay   Island
Aalloyma   Another or different
Hee-lee-lema   Gamble
Ivillapie  Return or capsize
Kloeh-klock    Ovsters
Lawoolitch   A bottle
Annah Exclamation of astonishment
Sick turn turn Regret, sorrow
Kooy-kooy   Finger rings
Hrowlkult Stubborn, determined
Tickaerchy   Although
Tamanawas   Witchcraft
Owaykeet   A road
Ikt  "I
Mox   2
Klone   3
Locket   4
Quinum   5
Tahum   6
Sinimox   7
Sotkin   8
Quies   9
Tatilum    10
Tatilum pi ikt    11
Tatilum pi mox   12
Tatilum tatilum ou ikt
Takamonak   100
Ikt hyass Takamonak 1,000
Stowebelow   North
Stegwaak   South
Sun chako   East
Sun midligrht   A Vest '
"Wells, Fargo & Go's L
EXPRESS,
FOR THE
Salmon River Mines.
WE  ARE PREPARED  TO
Eeceive and Forward Letters, Packages,
Parcels and Treasure,
To and from all points in the Salmon River
. and Nez Perces Mining Districts.-
"WE    HAVE
ESTABLISHED AGENCIES
At all the Principal Points and will have
responsible Messengers on all the routes.
WELLS, FAEaO & 00,
San Francisco, March, 1862.
—:—-— r f-
f
MUSIC! MUSIC! MUSIC!
MUSICAL II
S. S. S. ROMAN VIOLIN
AND   GUITAR   STRINGS,       1
"Warranted the Best, and sold in quan-1
tities to suit, at
Kohler's Great Music Importing House,
SAN FRANCISCO, CAL.
MAPS, CHARTS, ATLASES, &c.
A  FULL   SUPPLY  OF
MAPS AND ATLASES
IS   CONSTANTLY  KEPT   ON  HAND
NEW MAPS arriving by each Steamer of
the most recent date* Have Maps, showing
the Position of the Army, constantly arriving.
School Apparatus and School Merchandise
for^le.
Also, a GENERAL AOESfCX FOR SCHOOLS.
SOSjHoDtgomery St., Boom No. 9, San Pranciseo.
W. HOLT, Agent for J. H. COLTOH  I 5 th Augusts   1941.
R. L. ^ead, -&sq.r K.C.,
G/o Messrs, Read, WgJL lbridge,Gibson & Sutton,
Barristers,
Yorkshire Bldg.,
Vancouver, "B.C.
My dear Mr. Read:
I enclose herewith a little "booklet
dealing with the Salmon River and Cariboo Mining District that
*as published in 1862, -which I thought possibly you might be
interested in. My grandfather, I understand, went to British
Columbia about that time looking for a fortune for his grandson,
the writer of this letter, but unfortunately did not succeed in
finding one. I assume that he obtained this little booklet when he
was making the trip.
I trust that you are quite well,and believe
me with kindest regards,
Yours very faithfully,
LU/IA' THE GOVERNMENT OF
THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
provincial library and archives
victoria, b.c.
September 4, 1941
R. L. Reid, K.C,, L.L.D.,
1736 Wesbrook Orescent,
Vancouver, B. G.
Dear Dr. Reid:-
Many thanks for your letter of August 25th, regarding Guide and nistory of Salmon
River and Cariboo i.-iining Districts.  I have been
unable to find any reference to it whatever, having
checked all our bibliographies, so, consequently,
the item interests me a great deal and 1 should
certainly like to see it when next time in Vancouver, which, by the way, should be some time about
the middle of this month.  To save you the trouble,
1 am writing to Mr. Smith of the university of
Washington .Library to see if any of the cooperating
libraries have reported this item in connection with
his bibliography of Northwest Americana now being
collected at the bibliographical Center of the
university Library.  Should I hear anything from him
l shall certainly pass the word on to you.
Thanking you once again for your
courtesy in this connection, 1 remain,
Yours sincerely,
Provincial Archivist.
WEI:MG
c^j THE GOVERNMENT OF
THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
PROVINCIAL LIBRARY AND ARCHIVES
VICTORIA, B.C.
September 10, 1941
Dr. k. L. Reid, &.C.,
1736 Wesbrook crescent,
Vancouver, B. C.
Dear Dr. Keid:-
Just a very short note to let
you know that 1 have had word from the university of Washington Library and they report
that the salmon Kiver item is not included
in the union uatalogue of Pacific northwest
Americana, nor in the union uatalogue of the
bibliographic uentre.  The only similar item
they do report is the jviap of the i\iez Perces and
Salmon Kiver Gold Mines in Washington Territory,
compiled from the most recent surveys by Daniel
./. Lowell & Co., San Francisco, printed by
Whitton, waters cc Co., corner of Clay and San-
some streets, 1862, which item consists of 23
pages of texts with a map appended.
oorry that 1 have not been any
more successful in this in helping you trace
your interesting new find.
1 remain,
xours sincerely,
C dl*su/   ^^/^i^^lJ^
Provincial archivist.
wEl:MG THREE YEARS
IN
CARIBOO:
By  JO.   LINDLEY,
BEING THE EXPERIENCE AND OBSERVATIONS OP A PACKER,
What I saw and know of the Country; Its Traveled
Routes, Distances, Villages, Mines, Trade
and Prospects.
WITH
Distances, Notes and Facts, Relative to the
SALMON RIVER AND NEZ PERCES GOLD FIELDS.
By T. R.-pLNEY.
SAN FRANCISCO:
PUBLISHED BY A. ROSENFIELD
TOWNE & BACOfc, PRINTERS.
1862. HODCE  & WOOD,
WHOLESALE STATIONERS, AND DEALERS IN BLANK BOOKS,
SCHOOL BOOKS AND CHEAP PUBLICATIONS,
418 and 420 Clay St., near Sansom, San Francisco
PRICE, 50 CENTS.
GUIDE AND HISTORY
OF
SALMON RIVER & CARIBOO
MINING DISTRICTS,
Containing valuable information, with correct
Tables of Modes and Prices of Traveling; also giving the Distances from
Point to Point, of all the Routes.
A. ROSENFIELD, Publisher,
SAN FRANCISCO.
ANTON ROMAN. FRANK D. CARLTON.
A. ROMAN & CO.
booksellers; IMPORTERS and PUBLISHERS,
417 & 419 Montgomery St., (Le Countfs Building,)
Bet. Sacramento and California, SAN FRANCISCO.
Size App. 5^* X 3 3/8* Wraps. THREE YEARS
IN
CARIBOO:
BY JO.   LINDLEY,
ROUTE  TO  CARIBOO,
From San Francisco,  by  steamer, MILES
TO VICTORIA,   V.   I.,   about    800
From Victoria to New Westminster,   the  Capital  of
British Columbia,   on the north bank of Fraser River
by  steamer 100
From New Westminster,   by  steamer,   to the mouth of
HARRISON RIVER      45
Continue  by  steamer up Harrison River  to
HARRISON LAKE      5
Continue by steamer  to nc*th end  of Harrison Lake,
TO PORT DOUGLASS.      45
Now over a fine road on  foot or  in wagon--called
a stage--with eating houses and whisky  shops at
convenient distances,
TO LITTLE LILLOET LAKE  .      29
Here  take steamer,  sail or row-boat,
TO END OF LAKE        7
Now an easy portage on foot or wagon
TO PEMBERTON LAKE, nearly   2
Cross the Lake by steamer
TO PEMBERTON CITY   17
Almost anything in the line of provisions or
clothing can be obtained here, with good hotel
accommodat ions•
Now a good road
TO HALF WAY HOUSE.   14
A good road again
TO ANDERSON LAKE, AND VILLAGE   15
Good accommodations here.
Now by steamer again
TO END OF LAKE.   16
Now an easy portage on foot
TO SEATON LAKE, less than    2
Now by steamer
TO EAST END OF LAKE   16
Again on foot or wagon
TO LILLOET VILLAGE, nearly   4
Here cross the Fraser river by ferry to Cayoosh
Flat, or Parsonsville, and we are now distant, by
the route taken, from New Westminister, two hundred and seventeen miles; from Victoria, three
hundred and seventeen miles.  This is the grand 2. ROUTE TO CARIBOO.
rendezvous of the Cariboo and Upper Fraser river
packers; and as we are now done with steamers,
stages and wagons, let the last one hundred and
fifty miles admonish the Cariboo adventurer of
the necessities requisite to enable him to perform a journey of one hundred and ninety miles
entirely on foot, or at best on mule back but
a small part of the way; for though the trip
thus far may have proved an easy one, you may
now expect to encounter hardship and exposure,
though you may escape real danger.
A sufficnicy of good, warm clothing and
blankets is indispensable; and yet to carry a
single blanket or a pound weight of extra boots
or clothing of any description, lugs down the
physical man, and should be avoided by transferring all extra weight to the regular packer.
This enables you to get through from six to
eight days sooner than when you pack your own
animals, or, hiring it done, accompany the packers; for no pack train over this route can
move as far by eight or ten miles a day, as men
can unencumbered by animals and all unneccessary
we ight•
The whole distance from Cayoosh Flat to the
Forks of the Quesnell, can be accomplished without carrying more than one day's food at any
time, if you have the means to procure it at
the several stations named, along the route;
but the distances must be made daily, or camping
out on short allowance is inevitable.
Packers, carrying tents and provisions, do
not make the reaching of the stations a necessity, but camp where food and water can be
procured for their animals.
From Lilloet there is a trail leading up
the west bank of the Fraser river to Express
Bar eighteen miles, thence to Big Bar fifteen
miles, and crossing the Fraser unites with the
main trail on the east bank. From Cayoosh Flat,
opposite Lilloet, to William's Lake on the
Cariboo route, there are two trails: One known
as the River Trail, that for the greater part
of the way lies along or near the east bank of
Fraser river; the other the Brigade Trail, that
leads off from Fraser river in a north-easterly
direction till it strikes a tributary of Thompson's river, then north to Lahache Lake, then
west to William's Lake, where it unites with
the River Trail. The Brigade Trail is the
longest route by more than thirty miles, but
much the best for pack animals, the River Trail
being really dangerous for the transit of even
the surest footed mule.
DISTANCES BY THE BRIGADE TRAIL.
From Cayoosh Flat, through a timbered country
TO THE FOUNTAIN     8
Now over a fine, rolling, timbered country,
TO THE PAVILION    12
Now a fine trail
TO GOOD CAMPING    14
Thence over a muddy trail
TO ^BLIE PRAIRIE   12
Another muddy trail in part
TO LITTLE CREEK    12
Now a fair trail
TO GREEN LAKE   12
Then a low, muddy trail
T 0 BR IDGE '    22 3. ROUTE TO CARIBOO.
A fair trail most of the way
TO LAHACHE LAKE   20
Now an excellent trail along the lake
TO LAKE SHORE CAMP   18
Thence over a very good trail
TO WILLIAM'S LAKE   32
Whole distance, one hundred and sixty-two miles.
DISTANCES BY THE RIVER TRAIL.
From Cayoosh Flat
TO THE FOUNTAIN    8
TO THE PAVILION   12
Now a low, soft trail crossing Big Slide creek
and on
TO LEON'S STATION   15
Heavy timbered country
TO BIG BAR CREEK.   19
Soft, bad trail
TO CANOE CREEK CROSSING.   20
Now a very fair trail
TO DOG CREEK   10
Now near the river and then along Alkali lake up
TO THE CROSSING   17
Now over a high trail, and more rolling country,
crossing Chimney creek,
TO WILLIAM'S LAKE   27
Whole distance, one hundred and twenty-eight miles.
From William's Lake
TO DAVISON'S RANCH    3
Here the Brigade trail leads off to the northwest,
towards Fort Alexandria; the Cariboo trail in a
north-easterly direction through a timbered country
TO DEEP CREEK   10
A more mountainous country
TO ROUND TENT   12
A few deep, muddy sloughs, otherwise a fair trail
TO BEAVER LAKE   16
Here is one of the best houses on the whole route.
It is now kept by James Sellers.  The country is
level and well adapted to cultivation, producing
the fine vegetables in abundance.
Now a bad, wet low trail
TO LITTLE LAKE   16
With very little improvement in the trail, you
reach
THE FORKS OF THE: QUESNELL    8
Whole distance from Cayoosh Flat by the River
trail, one hundred and ninety miles.
Cross the south fork by ferrv to the village
of Quesnell--(pronounced, canal).
Probably by this time the most hardy adventurer
on the route is beginning to be well satisfied
that it is no easy matter to get to Cariboo, for
though on paper I have not represented the trails
to be very difficult of passage, you have doubtless found the Brigade trail bad enough, and the
River trail, if you passed that way, just the worst
of all trails that mortal man ever ought to think
of getting over alive. Swamps and sloughs, hills,
mountains, and along precipices until your head
would swim; but no matter, we are now at Quesnell,
another grand point on the route to Cariboo, for
we are'not quite there yet.
Here almost anything really required by the miner
can be obtained at fair prices, which means, five
or six times as much as the same articles can be
had for at victoria; for though a packer and
interested in the sale of merchandise, I state this
as true, and therefore that every man that can should
obtain his outfit, provisions and tools, at Victoria,
if able to pack 4. ROUTE TO CARIBOO.
them through; it may cause him a deal of trouble
and delay on the way, but he will save money by
the operation.
Now for Cariboo, and if early in the season
or before the first of June, every man must
pack on his back, not only his "grub," but the
necessary mining tools. Later in the season,
say by first of July, animals are able to traverse most of the routes among the principal
minging localities, £,nd this is as soon as it
will be found profitable to reach the mines;
before this very little can be done on account
of the depth of the snow*
If, however, you possess ample means to buy
your meals on the way, they can be procured at
the several stations along the route, but at
prices that will set you thinking of your "bottom dollar," unless your purse reaches to your
boots.
Well, here we go. From Quesnell follow up
the east bank of the north fork, cross Spanish
creek, and over a very bad and difficult trail,
TO TOLL BRIDGE   8
Cross, and follow up the west bank to Keith-
ley's creek, which flows into Little Cariboo
lake. Here is another village of considerable
pretensions, and a point from which radiate
several routes. In a south-easterly direction,
distant four miles, is Goose creek, that will
pay from fifteen to twenty dollars a day to the
man, and yet abandoned for better. Northeasterly
from Keithleyfs, distant seven miles, is Harney's
creek, along which for miles are diggings that in
any other country than Cariboo would be called
rich.
Keithleyfs may be said to be the beginning of
the Cariboo mines, or the southern limit of the
same.
prom this point we take a mountain trail,
and a hard one it is, till you make a descent
TO LITTLE CREEK   6
There is good camping here. Now on to Snow
Shoes creek, which we follow up
TO THE CROSSING   8
We now cross over Snow Shoes mountain, difficult
only on account of the depth of the snow, in the
early part of the season, it being very deep
till quite the first of June; you now pass down
TO PAIR CAMPING GROUND.  8
Another hard tramp and you reach
ANTLER CITY  .12
Whole distance from quesnell to Antler City and
creek, forty-two miles, and we are in Cariboo.
But now "comes the tug of war," or rather mining,
in the most inhospitable, rugged, rainy and snowy
country that gold was ever found in I am sure;
but as the advice of "only a packer" would be
little heeded by old California miners, I shall
content myself with finishing up my oft traveled
routes, with their distances, ajad then with a
few general remarks, leave the Cariboo miner to
make a princely fortune in about the shortest
time that a fortune was ever made; or, after a
few, very few, brief months of disappointment,
see him on his weary way back to the abodes of
civilization, a wiser man in all that relates
to Cariboo.
Prom Antler City
TO MOUNTAIN LAKE HOUSE  10 5. ROUTE TO CARIBOO.
Prom the Lake House to and down Lightning creek
TO END OP CA#DN ♦ 10
There are rich diggings on this creek for many
miles below this point. Prom Lightning canon,
north and west,
TO VAN WINKLE CREEK 12
This is a tributary of Lightning creek, and
lower down is
LAST CHANCE   5
There is a mountain trail and more direct, from
the Lake House to Last Chance, that leaves Lightning canon and Van Winkle creek to the right
and shortens the distance five or six miles.
JACK OP CLUBS CREEK heads near the Lake House. Prom
Jack of Clubs
TO BURNS' CREEK   9
Prom thence pass over the Three Ridges
TO NELSON'S Creek   6
Prom Nelson's
TO WILLOWS CREEK   4
So little is known of the country directly to the
north of the present Cariboo mines, that to this day
it is a matter of doubt whether Antler creek is tributary to Bear river or Willows creek, and the same is
true of Grouse creek. Both run northwardly and discharge their waters into almost impenetrable—because
densely timbered--swamps.
William's Jack of Clubs, Burns' and Nelson's
creeks, all of which have proved rich, with several
other not yet prospected, are all tributaries of
Willows creek; whilst Van winkle, Chisolm, Last
Chance, Davis, Peters, Louhie and other creeks lower
down and never yet prospected, are tributaries of
Lightning creek.
And now, after nearly a three years' experience
in Cariboo, sometimes wielding the pick and shovel,
but for the most part guiding the sometimes stubborn,
but always patient mulAr over mountain snows and deep
morass, you would like perhaps to know just what I
think of it, as a gold producing country, s,nd the
chances for securring a fortune in it, from mining.
The extent of the mining country known even now
as Cariboo, has been greatly underrated; very many have
limited it to forty or fifty square miles;  The fact
is, it is over forty miles in extent from north to south,
and as many miles, or more, from east to west, and this
alone gives an area of one hundred and sixty square
miles, instead of only forty. No one can deny the
probability that equally rich diggings to any yet discovered, will be opened out as soon as the remaining,
as well as adjoining, untouched ravines, creeks and
rivers' beds shall have been prospected.  I believe it
to be a vastly rich gold field; but with one of the
ijiost inhospitable and rigorous climates in which man
ever dug for gold, with about five chances against, to
one in favor, of making a fortune.
Too many persons go to Cariboo with entirely mistaken notions of the difficulties to be encountered;
they will not believe one-half that is told them of
the fatigues of the journey or the labor necessary to
open out successfully a paying claim; they base their
calculations too much upon previous experience in California or elsewhere, which will not apply to the gold
fields of Cariboo. No man going there should expect
to make much more than expenses the first season, unless
he is able to buy into a good paying claim at once. The
cost of prospecting for a claim is offentimes enormous,
on account of the high price of provisions and supplies
of every kind. You cannot take a mule, pack him with
"grub," tools and blankets, and start off on a two or
three weeks' prospecting tour, as in California. The
extreme roughness of the hill lands, and quagmire condition of the low country is so densely timbered that 6. ROUTE TO CARIBOO.
even grass cannot grow in sufficient abundance to maintain animals, at the same time that it presents almost
an impenetrable barrier to progress.
But even these obstacles might be in a measure
overcome, and the mines more rapidly developed, but
for the extreme shortness of the season. Pour months
is the longest term of surface mining that can be hoped
for, and during that short period a great deal of the
time drenching rains are falling and flooding everything around you—min|ing claim, camping grounds, tents-
nothing escapes the constant soaking; so that if you
succeed against all these drawbacks, in hunting up,
prospecting and fairly opening out a good claim, ready
for the second season's successful operations, you may
consider yourself ffcrtuhate.
That mining will be more generally successful in the
Cariboo country after better roaas shall have been opened
up, and living becomes cheaper, there is no doubt,
because the gold is there and will never be let alone.
My oprSti is, that extremely rich hill or deep diggings
will abon be found all through the Cariboo country,
and many of these will doubtless give winter as well
as summer employment to thousands.
I have seen the steady progress of the gold seeker
northward, s,nd yet further north, from the lowermost
bar on Praser river to the extreme of Cariboo.  I have
visited again and again nearly every gulch and ravine
on the south to the present northern limit of exploration where pack animals could be got through, and without animals, have penetrated more than seventy miles
still further north and east, and my opinion is, that
Bear river and its hundreds of tributaries will be
found another Cariboo, in the extent and richness of its
gold deposits; but only to be developed by the same
slow progress that has characterized the movements of
the mining adventurer northward from the gold producing
bars of the lower Praser, for the past four years.  The
country and climate together are so forbidding, that
the progress of the prospector onward must necessarily
be slow.
In regard to the proper time for starting for
Cariboo, no advice that I can give will avail anything,
because advice will not be heeded. Every man seems
determined to be a little ahead of his fellow adventurer, and so rushes on, regardless of real facts and
truthful evidence tha,t ought to be sufficient to teach
sensible men better♦
Even now, March second, there are hundreds here at
Victoria, and along the route between here and Cayoosh
Plat, who are now satisfied that they are all of two
months too early, the first of May being soon enough to
leave Victoria. The past winter has been one of unusual
sevtrity throughout the entire Praser river country.
A greater depth of snow than for years before, now
covers the ground, and renders transit, except upon
snow shoes, next to impossible; and unless we get un-
tousually early, warm rains, the opening of the mining
season promises to be all of a month later than usual.
I do not propose to tell the California miner what
he needs to make himself comfortable on the way, or
after he gets there; he is presumed to know, or thinks
he knows, better than any one else can tell him.  I
will only say, that he had better make his calculations
for a decidedly rainy time throughout the whole of the
summer and mining season, instead of the almost total
absence of rain as in the mining regions of California.
.  IJiave often been asked, "Didnyou ever see a Cariboo?* ana, what kma of an*animal' is ItT* 7. ROUTE TO CARIBOO.
During the three years that I have traversed the Cariboo
country, as well as the adjoining country for sixty or
seventy miles to the west, north and east, I have never
seen a Cariboo, though I have often seen the "Elephant" of that country.  The best evidence to be obtained in the country, from those who have often seen
the animal, and apart from the opinion of naturalists
who have made mention of it, is that it is a kind of
mongrel Reindeer; the form of its antlers, which are
often found, are certain evidence that it is neither the
Elk or Stag.
There is no reliance to be placed upon game in
Cariboo as a means of subsistence. Grouse are, in a few
places, aboundant, and fish are quite plentiful in the
lakes that are not alkaline; wild fowls are to some
extent procurable along the swamps, marshy and lake
lands, but as a whole, the game of the country is hardly
worth the time required to capture it. There are no
venomous reptiles in Cariboo.
Commending the foregoing to the careful consideration of the adventurer, as my honest opinion of the
country and its approachable routes, their advantages
and disadvantages, I leave him to form his own opinion
of his chances for a fortune, or a return with nothing
more than having obtained a tolerably fair view of the
"Elephant" of Cariboo.

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