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The Kootenay valleys and the Kootenay district in British Columbia. With maps Baillie-Grohman, William A. (William Adolph), 1851-1921 1888

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Kootenay Valleys
Messrs. ALLSOP & MASON", Victoria, B.C.;
"agents -for
Of  46, Queen- Victoria  Street,
London, England. Witherhy & Co., Printers, London, England.  THE
Kootenay Valleys
With Jitaps.
Messrs. ALLSOP  & MASON,  Victoria, B.C.
Of 46, Queen Victoria Street,
London, England.  1 The! KOOTENAY VALLEYS.
Geographical Position.—The Kootenay District lies ia-the South-
Eastern cornered' British Columbia, and is separated from the
North-west Territories of Canada by the Rocky Mountains. In
shape the Kootenay District is not unlike a huge triangle, with a
base line of-some 150-miles resting on the49Q N. lat., -which forms
the international boundary line separating this pori$©n of British
Columbia from the three great western Territories of the United
States, i.e., Montana, Idaho, and Washington.
The centre of this triangular district is occupied by a sepajfj^
chain of inountains, i.e. the SeEkwks, now i asfa&ag&ing attent^Ji as
HJie scene of'»g:ceat engineering feats, by.iwhichtha^Bajiadijan Pacific
4$aiiway%a's completed its: teack from the Atlantic to thefj?ata$e
Ocean, br-fcaging the latter within an ele^teta or twelve days' journey
from Englat£Gsl#^
The'-SeiBSrks are a dsaage of mountains in shape not unlike a
horseshoe, with the opetanend towards the south. Insiffej/ifop
horseshoe we observ&one of the three gr&a^fcra&leys of the Kootenay
-Distpi@fcj namely, the Lower Kootenay Valley; while the two
T~emai$6ng ones, the Upper Ko'ofcetaay Valley and stihe Columbia
Valley, run round the outside of the horseshoe, isolating the .Set*
JJJfii&'ffroin the Rocky Meiintains and from the GroldsESInge.
^vllaeh of these Valleys is formed by-iiji^wiant stMat&.s^iand
^aclh of thesefstreams displayed most erratic coursesfftiie Columbia
thaking a ht(ge'-ben(30&.wthwards, 440 miles long/Hihe Kootenay
a similar loop towards the south. The 'iMnd ofilthe formeaftiS.
crossed from east to wes.tby the Canadian Pacific Eailway (C.P.B..)
the loop of the/Tatter by ^p. equally importatffcthough less tangible
line, i.e. the 49th parallel, which forms the International boundary
line, so that for a considerable porti®a of its Gourse the Kootenay
^.tJW&Mhrotibh the United States.
a2 A glance at the map shows that the source of the Columbia
River, the famous Upper Columbia Lake, is only a mile from the
Kootenay River, and we find that the river issues from it as a good
sized stream, navigable for river steamers, while the Kootenay
River, where it approaches the Columbia so close, is already a one
hundred mile long stream, equally navigable, at least during the
summer months, as is its near neighbour. The mile wide space
known^asfffe GanaLFlat tha^ sepaj^e^ itljempand whjch aots as
a wmer shed,lis! not, as might. ^Qkiti§gfeefl^jfj[high mpijutain
backbone, but a level gravel flat, raised only a foot or two
over high water, and sloping gently from the Kootenay River to
the Columbia, the • difference betwgen the two water levels being
less than 10 feet. There is no possible doubt that a few generations
ago this gravel bar was not in existence, the river occupying its
place, so that tyJK&M-JflQW the headwater of the Kootenay was then
the Columbia? W^aeColmn»bia was at that time, aiinundred miles
longer, and forked at this spot, the left or south flowing branch
f^riiJ^igOwhat is nowiathe Kootenay River^ whibjlthe right flowed
northw-aidsyja^ross the ^tcavel fla/fc/fand continued down.its (present
%ed. TaMfig-Miese faStssifiito consideration it is noVlur-pinisjftg to
find tliat the Columbia Valley and the Upper KooteSay VaJlgjk
however much theyldiffer in climate, vegefaffedn"and:generaiiftppear-
ance, are^rfaftftftoaily one andnthe same tratfghjnlying atx-fche foot of
the mainrtdhaaB. :of the Rockies for a total length | ofntwo h&gpdred
and fifty miles, an uniquerimlstance in the topographyfof the Rofiky
There atre three/sairtom'stances that will secure to the. Koojbenay
S^He'Js1'future Wealth, namely their .mineralgiafilJes^ipf) whi^bal^p
jiaitfphlet will subsequenJiiyjdeal more in de'tailjqfclreir ]?iBpi^rs^wM<jil
are ready^€i&ds"-'of commfon»fation^i^(37^heirxgeAgJ'aphi<^f^>Q>i(tio£b,
about half way between the two greatest railway system%i@d&ferj£b
America, and witfh each, of which these samo; rJTBrs Jaffei' meaas of
^hmuhaCationii;: and sfehusifwhile ofieringyi£heya!dvaintages. of Aw&
ha:airkets'ibo(lh@'jpr©dliiGeT;.also prevtenifjeither ofrtt&eforailways from
<e:£tt?r$ifctg "the arLiitaarfly" high fresghfeoratefs which in so inany in-
>8i"atttJefe/-wb€fee a localif|5ii8 ajr.the teiidaBimeJcy of on&ra&irft$f,fiJ#ys
we%hty shackles . uspbn thfe dfervelopnienio<$i thQu>WTmixtf'8l£W-
sources. The Kobtehay ValleysncansbeMajiproafch^, thejfef^Pej,
■§D<Gth from theim^wrth, vhtfthe Gahasldan Pacific Railway (C.P.R.)
GkBp&tbEd'tke Sou-thsoria the .^Northern PacificRadfeoad (X.P.R.R.).
We shall consider the .former first and in dc&ng so will begin by
introducing the reader tol:F
(JL1.0) 7;.^.;r.!;F jitrvf^.ffiSjfBBn.,  >■.■■.-.  •/-: r-rsr M fe.^ JSotf%&»&&.'
T1fib®iNfa li. £ nrf+ c '   . rirl
At'raie point'where the C.P.R., aifterbharaagjcMmbe^ithft grefcit
Rocky Mountain range and descended^fe decfivatie^-bF.ldHQwine: I
the torrent-lite KickingjHorse Stream, first s'$5Bes the Coluuftfe
Valley, formed on one side, as we haWheard by me RodKies, onlffie
otherfifey the more densely wooded Sellurfsf Golden Station is
Situated. This is the stafftrj*' point of alPfefaffic goin#£up stream
towards Kootena^Rafcd it is a typical western railway setffement
9raJtMTO couple of ggiferal stores, post office^two hotels, a dozen or
two of houses and''half-a-dozen saloons. The two steamers' tj/ax
ply up the Columbia start from here.
The surroundings of Golden and of the Columbia River till the
traveller'reaches the lakes at the source, are those common to a
great part of mountainous BrMsfoCBhrmhiaj, pictuj&smie peaks
clothed with dense forest up to the timber line, and above i£ rugged
rocks with snow fields on the more prominent elevations. The
valley' itself is narrow, and during the freshet season in eaSy
summer is one great lagoon, revealing, when the water subsides,
expansive meadows through which the not too rapid CiSnmxaa
winds, branching in many places into several channels. Thergjs
good land along this 100 mile long stretch of river, but thehannual
overflow will make a considerable part of it useless for all but hay
purposes till dyking is resorted to. The irmber on the. Selkudcsio^
is fairly good, and consistsi of spruce and fir of modesaf^sfzas; no
doubt it will soon feed large sawmills at Golden, the mosj^iagaui
able point from .where a paying export trade to the. treeless .North
West, can be established. At present, the wants of the jSeiflBKS
along the river in*jthe way of lumber wlu be supplied by ajsteam
saw mill, rgcenuy erected on the before mentipnejjLCanal Flat by
the Kootenay yauieys Company. .
j^EjjQjgaKabout the/m^dje. of M4y to th&isifeldle ofiSeptkfaberpjHae
Columbia cani;be nafvjga^ed to thjgffurthejggiud of therdower of'dsfap'
two lakegjj, point called the Head of Navigation; before and aftdr
<$&^t period the wateji} i&>i<l># low for steamergjcaffldsiiftiftinot uninteresting to note.tha,t one of the,chief obstacle's to navigatiear-are
the !salmpn-beds,' where the/ river leaves the lower lake, consisting
of gravel bars thrown up in riiiges by the action of jsp£Tpiipig\iSa3mori,
who after an adventuresome journey of 1400fl*Mifif jxpwthe Columbia
from the Pacific Ocean, used to seek this and otbarjspdts yet higher
up in great numbers during the months of August and September.
The wholesale manner in whichj§millions of tHis noble fish are
caught at the mouth of the Columbia has of late years -materially
■decreased the number of salmon (salmo qwfomt)) who have
.s&eceeded in evading the monster grill nets, ofjfeen !li*00 feet ld&g,
that span the Columbia at its mouth from side to side. The
journey performed by the sadly battered and totally exh&iisfced
fish that do reach the head lakes %$£ the Columbia, situated 2600
feet over the Pa&jfic Ocean, is indeed a wond&fed one, and by
far the longest thatjjfetokjrawn to the student of pisefttoirKr foare.    It ■73&
almost passes comprehension how fish, be they ever so lissom,
impelled by blind instinct, could succeed, in passing such objs&ej?8
as the "Dalles," where the vast Columbia apparently turned on
edge, rushes witbgiightning rapidity through a troughlike rift in
the basalt formation, which is less than a tenth of the ordinary
.width of the river ; how they can leap the famous Kettle Falls^jljhe
highest sheer leap performed by salmon in ang^-part of the world
(15-18 feet), or stem the current of gigantic whirlpools that«knock
into splinters the great monumental trunks of giant white pines
300 feet long, or breast the fierce rush of furious rapids many miles
in length.
Miitifig in the Columbia Valley.—There is but little " placejn'
gold mining in the neighbourhood of Golden, mining being con-
fined here to the more important and more enduring development
of quartz leads. Sixty-one new claims were discovered in 1887 in
this part of the Columbia Valley, and recorded with the local Gold
Commissioner, in addition to numerous other previously discovered
lodes. Most of them are situated on the SpiRamacheeii River,
which flows into the Columbia about half way between Canal Flat
and Golden. This Spillamacheen region promises to be an extremely rich field. Near the mouth of the Spillamacheen on a
prominent hill (Jubilee Mountain), which slopes down to the
bank& of the Columbia, is a verv large and well-defined lead which
has been prospected for the last tnree years: Mr. C. P. Law, of
Golden, being one of the principal owners. The ore on this vast
lead is mosfby' <of low grade, assaying from 16 to 30 ounces of
silver to the ton, but there is such an enormous quantity or it, that
it would last a smelter for generations. Quite recent" discoveries,
made wMlgsfeitking shafts on the lode, shoW^n important im-
ptovemea&dn the character- of the ore, and it looks as iJs%he whole
i®tie would fcton out to be grey copper, running*1 much higher in
-silver tham tliebciifoppiiags did from which the above assays were
taken. JBeingoqtate close to navigable water leadirijwto the C.P.R.,
and when through'navigation is established, also to the N.P.R.R.,
by which the best' markets in the States can most easily be reached,
this deposit "will probably be the first to be developed by Capital.
Were it in the United States, this inviting mining property would
-as^uKfedly have been long ago fully developed. Further up the
Spillamacheen there are much richer Claims, one esped&uy^
belonging to A. MacMurdo, assays as high as 500 ounces in silver,
besides goldi^aaaddt being free -milling ore it is consiltered a v&fy
valuable mine. Arrangements were made with an' English eoif£
pany last summer to purchase this property for $100,000, and
considerable money, it is said, was paid on account, the deal be&ilgf,
however, not completed at time of writing The only drawback to some
of these higher Spillamacheen mines is their elevation close to timber
line and the rough cha£ae*erof ttkeeountrv which bars ready access. 23£?W«,aHR>; ..-sww
East of Golden',tffai the Rodky Mountains^ and close to the
€KP;R., are the 'alaims owned) by the OtterpTail G&d and Sitbcer
Minify Company, who were fully pi&pared to commence workifcpst
season; they having erected a quaitz mill, saw milL-ahd intendled
to eJ«ct a smeMr,; having made roads aad tramways to tfaeif
minetpand had likeviK&e a quantity of ore on hand. Unfortn.tfWiifeJ$
both forSiie company and the dis^t&^theippfcepBTty was des$6yed
■ %& flagf in Jfone last—totally annihilating abc4#J; §60,000. Thfe
timber lindtMhe company fead: secured were bunflfriMfe Thifikcomi
pany ow&s'four or five claims, and in some of their leads 4t$^<ks
Mtpwn to ex&t^4a^#<quah{a!ty of ore (silver) assay&g from 3<M»
55 ounces to the ton, close to the raidwaly^ andft6&he*fpa¥tiesr own
five or sii£ffc>laims adjacent thereto, one ofthem'feaying 40 ounces
WHiie ton. • Th#leads vary in thrckness^from one to six fe^ofiully
justifying the erection of a smeKfe&iii that l^alfiy?*'
Scenic Attractions oiMlhe Gqlaihbia Valley;-1—To the tourist the
JwMeyup the Columbia presents many aJtfa^feons, particularly
when he'^e%t%r¥the Lower Lake;*8&d leav-eTs behind him the densely
forested baulks' of the rivlr, to behold a beautiShl sheet of water
10 mfies^dng^hat suddenly bursts upon his view' as ti& steainey
emerges into the lake. G(S*yby a wrealtli'eiE speaks, bolder in shafjbe}
higher in elevation, grander in Ouffisie than he has yet seen-, the
shores of the lake form a charming foregroiind',,*fo,:r they consist of
■preturesque gr#sslan$s?#?feh fine*trees scattered, over them in patrel
like fashion, while the whole scene^is mit¥6red M<the clear'water of
-tfee'-lake. Here the singularly abrupt! change from a wet to% dry
tftimate is'flrSt observable, a pleasant^hange flhat shows itselr*itithe
vegetation, as well as in the sparM&g'clearh^ss-Mthe atmosphere, a
difference that Meomes moM^swongly marked as the t#8veller
proceeds 'Southwards into*the Ko\f6enayltValley, wheMe* the constant
l*rightnessubf the sky is-almost a faiHt. The climate 'M the
Columbia Valley, ab$ut the 51st pajralMl, i.e., where the C.P.R.
Crosses the SelkrrMs^1® a rainy one'Jn%ummer, more'B&bie to early
frosts, and a very much more snowy one. in winter than that of the
Kootenay Valleys. This abrupt change in less than a hundred
miles is one of the most remarkable instances of local climate in
^British Colunibiaftfowever famous that province is for the vari#6$
of its climes, enabling every 'little mountain settlement to have and
to possess aHfitle climate of its own, of course the best of its kind
in the eyes ofHh'e residents.
Round the Lake are scattered the ranches of whites and GMffiaMs;
the Gentral point on the Lower Lake being Windermere, an exceedingly pretty spot; With .a wide expanse of almost level grassland
sloping gently up to the very feet of the grand tier of giant peaks that
hem in the spdft: There is a good hotel kept by a Mr. StaWe at
Windermere, a few steps^&bm the steamer landing, and touristy
who'do not expect too much from a pioneer hostMry in what a /
year or two ago was literally a howling though pJHufcesque wilderness, will find the quarters fairly comfortable anqb^Jeaift; and the
host very obliging, while at the store ^y)M^£^rp?:BradyL& Bacon,
which is also the post office^ the tou^t or Sportsman r-<^.u fit
himself out with prgiisiojfcs for expedj^iis into &be mQU»t§4n_&
Indian horses being generally obtain^te^j&he neigh&OEy^o$$0ju
The present head of steamer na^g4tSjn^gj:four^iB^Sj(beyon4.
Windermere, and from there axagood waggon road brings the
travels? in' sejyen miles to the Upper Columb|%fftake, which is
jgOHoiected with the Lower Lake lie has. >jg$k left by a,./narj|ftw
channel, which is at present •unnavigable.: for steaniers> but whjffli
iS^ be rendered navigable by cerfc&jnoirmprovements the Bog}j$i&&
Government aregaj^out to caijgy out. It wftl cheajpejfcjfe&nsj^baig^g.
of goodsl'jgto Kootejtay.. quite §dj) per.-|gn, and asjpt in opening
through navigation J$r: oveif |jWo hundr§djBpo^es. .
The $teanjiers, one. of whi&h haso^%a^^je^erja^^nmgda$ion,:
t$>Jse;.a.dajfrand a half to reach the head of navigation from Gohjen.
(fare$5), and f?ftm theBe/jthe ^^,yelleif -gan use the weekbjf gta^g^
y§bj$h fekes hhn_in less than a day to CanalfF^aj| .020 milj^)|,^ftd in
a^tfither day and a half to Fort Steele9jjthe new Moyg^edj^plice Bogjj,.
situated half waYgdown the Upper Koo^jay V^jiey.
{^Aft the foot of the Upper. Lake the waggon roadrggjojsses tl$&
unnajjgable chan&el, and close to ,ij$s spc^apcmt half a,m^eo8g
the slqpes of jtbe mountains, are somg ^ma^r^ble. hot S^fjgggjj^^
waters of which possess medicinal qualities which will make them
before loijgT^ hea$^ §&fort, particularly if th^pjggpe^ei^ere^^ii of
a^ujjs^jjlial hotel £cg£ summer gjyjgj^fris cairjjgd out^i^^gc^pmmoda-
tion:i^g^9j^v^,y of food and shjeJ^ek|or t^aygygrs, sujjgjied with
their own blanjjets, can be had a^O-gary's Ranch close by. From
the Sgrings a pajrj$cu^.gfrly fine view,< enjoyed, and to rcanv it
will jgove a very.^gqvel experienc$^to sit con^prtabLy|immersed up
to one'Sj^e^oin. a hath,$uh. P^fgjided by nature,, formed at the
apex of cone-like mounds of calcareous formation, enjoying with
luxuripjjgke^se an open air hot bath, while at one's fee-j^s spread
out one of the most glorious views imaginable, rang^ag far over
lake, river, forest, and glacier-clothed peaks. On these hoary-
giants of the main range a pair of field glasses will often enable
one to see Bighorn and the rare Rocky Mountain Goat, for here as
well as in the Kootenay Valley, may be-see^n what elsewhere, in the
writer's experience, is very rare, i.e., these two animals frequenting
thjB( same ground.
The Upper Columbia Lake is also about LO miles long, is even
P^e picturesque than its sister lake. The waggon roadjgaja&jilong
the foothjlls on its western shores, thtf^g&ja&gautif^fpa^-^jke 9
country. At$he soujjhjr%{§in4, of thg Uppejsakakjf %s thel£gbove-
•mentioned Qajnal Fijijb, thatjj^jema^able wa^gjjghed between the
Kooteaay and Colunj^g^^jAt high, water a^g^d^deal of KQft^nsjy
water per^g.tps thrptg^the gray^^f nwl^ich the flat q^^st^and
wells up in large springs close to-$j& shores of jyjela&e.    The flat
,c^n|^iilSjaJ®»1t^ft0fc1^?<8#wAfis leTe^ as ab^iamtaM?sJhe gentle
ffepe towards the lake being only perceptible by usiag a sj^git
level. F^g. groves of trees are sprinkled over»sthe fi^t,,for the
unde.glymg gravel ha%$a ^any pl^P613 m the course of time been
^^ered by three^r, four feet of rich alluvial soil, which will yield
good returns to the plough.. An English company (the Kootenay
Valleys Co., of 46, Queen^^c^iga* Street, London) are <npw con7
structing a navig^fle canal over this flat, to connect the Kootenay
yj$$i the Columbj^ a wejjka^ §emerjmagfiijtude, in c^apsidgration of
which-^he Companyjregeive from the Provincial Government a grant
of 30^000 ac^es. of laud, selecijej^jfoy • the CompajMftin the Upper
Kootenay Valley, mostly bottom ;%n'd available fpr-^ricultu^ral
^pj^ggjPqSjjjSJ^uaited on the banks of the Kootenay Ri$er. Hismanal
will')(|pen over 200nfilgs of rive^navigation as soon as the c^a^^
between the jt?Np lakes already refegjjedjto i^pi^elnasi^bjfe+Qy the
Dominion Government. The canj^&nd steanier^n^vj^lflon of the
Upper Kootenay will coirj^ibute mojj§j;than anything^s^to develop
the very pron^gng; mineral, tim^jjgCpal. agrjg^ta^r|l. aM-,grazing
resoujses of j^^^pg^; Kootenay country.
The Engljsh Coiggiyiyf Jbas ejrj|gtep. a steam s|OTrnmE on Canal
Flat, which can supply ttfye Koqtenay an^ ColumbmjtjiraHeys vota
lumber at §>2p5(per 1000 ft., by floating ,tjb/e lumber down, the
two^vers. A post office, a large store, butAer's. shop wudi
ice houses, and a good hotel are now being pstab||sheftftaand,w,nj;
$grnj, t§^tyacleusj9|c^^p^^nent, the geographical portion of whjym
cannot fail to majje it an important, one and certainly; the^een^ay.;
one in the distr^gj. The sp^j. is ©-yershadowed^py the noble pjjgy
portions of Mount Warreandof Mount De Smefycalled so after the
eminent general and the equally well-known m|sjsionary whjOv.first
visited this spot in 1845. Behind Mount De Smet.rises the sharp
and much higher,j(piunacle of Mount Grohman, from which a very
fine view of the four valleys, radiating from the Canal Flat, can be
gamed|j.- They[ are the ,i^dumbia -rY^lley t^ajfls the north, the
Upper Kootenay Valley towards the south, towards the east the
Headwater Valley of the latter river, with its valuable timber
areas (yellow pine, larch, and spruce) and promising mineral and
coal deposits, while towards the west.; radiates the Findlay Creek
Valley, where important gold mining developments are now progressing under a charter of the House of Legislature. The
intention of the Company to lay out part of the Canal Flat as a
town site would appear a wise one,.and has received the approval
of the Government.    All travel, as well as .aji JWads and railways,
J /
"ifflio the Upper Kooleriay Valley from the defection of the Canadian
pacific Railway mus^'from the nature of the ground/pass over
• «^3ifi& spot, whrchi foriSs; as it were, a natural defile, with precipitously ris'fhg mountains on two flaShkS and a river and a lake on
the dwier two sides of the square.
Concerning the geographical importance of the " Canal Flafo*'
the welBfchowii world-wide trafteHSr Dg**S3met, wrote as far
back as' 1845 : UcThe advantages Ncffifflflz? seems to have bestowed
on the iov/rce of the Colfarffyia w^mJ¥S^^s%^'geogrdipk«Ml fosvX&k
'if&fy: impbrmftt,'and'&ften en^riittffa*sntffl>n(J$$penetffitted, flm^3^e
of the Oolumbia will prove a very important point. The blWrtaS^^s
T$MkjMful, th% ty$&r&nies of heat and cold a$&:seldom hntiwn. The
hand offyuiv,*w&u!GH, trtitisform it'Vnto a teWiSiid4Wdradik^^
Physical Features of the Upper Kootenay Valley.—Thetyl&fey
commences at the Canal Flat?where the Ujflpfer Kootenay River
first emerges1 from the Rocky Mountains, in the recesses of which,
100 miles away, it has its source. The valley, as we have heard,
lies at the Very foot of the abruptly rismjf main chain of the
Rocky Moutftaiins, which run parallel with the Koote&ay RrVfeY,
while the latter is on British soil. This great range is of very bold
and grand appearance; its pinnacles rise sharply'aVnti to great
altitudes from the st&ny, beautifully-wooded valley at'its feet,
where wide, parK-iKke stretches of meadow-'l'ato.d, small lakes, and
grand forests combine in producing an atfcctive pastoral picture?,
unlike, I may say, anything I have ever seen elsewhere^nNorth
America. The valley is lower than the plains east%f the Rbofiies^
ifs elevation a^Bbve me-sea varyi&t between 2230' and f3700 feew.
.       ,Xrt 4-.   f rj_ " "
As it ife^perhaps hardly necessary topSint out, this great w%Il of
niountsftns, tovreirSg\ 6000 or 7000 feetf'bver thef¥a!Hey, forms not
onryv'an incomparable shelter agaSlst the freeziri^bast and'nT^rth
winds which make the bleak elevatbff^plSihs on the other si&GMof
the Rqclfy:*Mountains their playground, but also acts as a most
desirable " catch," arresting the warm Pacific Oce%ftf%reezes, also
known as the Chinook Wma.'^which, on strislhg thf$'formidable
wall, are deflected downwards into the valley to play havoc with the
snow. The absence of deep snow is explained by this favourable
The Climate in the Upper Kootenay Valley is bracirig^MMS
healthy: early springs, warm summers free of frosts, fairly short
and fairly cold winters with little snow. Cattle aritPnorses winter
out without shelter or hay, but with the introduction of better
stock some provision will have to be made, for it apfte&rs that
every seven or eight years a severe winter occurs. It is^eneraliy
acknowWdgea'thatMarch^S^The most trviw'month for catfMwinter-
ing without shelter or fodder. From an English gentleman, Colonel
James Baker (brother of Sir Samuel Baker), who settled in the
Upper Kootenay Valley'^hree years ago, I obtaSiied the following aft
^efttljytjkept recflpd^ <g|i%Baperatures for the latter part of the
winter 1884-85, a season whjich was a severe one in many partsrt#
the West. Thus in the cattle country of Wyomiii% i«n4he firs&jweek
in Ma$ch, 1885, the thermometer was down to the fof$es below
zero and a fierce wind blovpfiggqwhile in the Upper Kootenay,
wherein a^gcrant of its sheltej^d posjtjton, no high win^'Pifi-
if§|l§d, as well as owing to its,[|[pwer elevation and to itsrfcom-
|ra,^ti^yi^iose -neighbourhood to the warm-currents of the Pacific;
the coldest at the same peglod was. only 14 Fajir., a difference of
some sixty decrees, and yet Kootenay is>^uite 300 . miles,:jnorth of
...«.„, (mthe (half tour
' shaatp»&amrSga«Seftp
Jan.  7
„ 28
Feb. i
„ 12
„ 19
„ 26
Mar. 5
Fahr. Deg. Fahr,
50  ...,;.„... 33
18  :J.fW..... 14
EH2?.r::: 8
48  .&J..XU.. 31
*&T,  31
50   28
41  L.3Ti,.l22 s.
(in the
Deg. Fahr.
Mar. 12   54 ..:...
.„    26 .........
Apr.    2 ..,„/.„
K   mm*
„  30 :..
Deg. Fahr.
+r-:..,,...I28f.f. ,
S7!l..'.^fS.V.... 28   ;
65  f.««i«'l^.
67 ......;.^n<$i'9
47 .................. 30
67   30
Last night frost/May 10.   Hottest pay np to Aug. 12,90° in the shade.
The frostless, warm sumnjers and good soil produce very fine
crops of wheat, oatsypeas, aid garden produced-such as tomatoes,
cucumber^ and otherl delicate growths, while hops, as yet only
planted a&t(S8ee$£r<s. onsyjewees, thrive luEurJa^dAyj. • Witiaaiftfiffi
exception of occasional thunderstorms, there are! no high WaMldsdsi
the Kootenay Valleya>ji
The presentjS^B^g;(188^ihas againoproved that the* Kootenay
Valleys are efepaticaHy. mostlfavoufebdnspots. January twasinieolA
month, bujfc! in the :lafet daysVtbf it a wamn "ChinSok" came arid
cleared off the snow, whaA had been lyinguto a deptfefof 12 to
18 inches^t^nd on the 12fii of February!plhstfghirig wasaalready in
full swing round the Cojiimbialakes.
Farming and Cattle Ranching.—It may as welSiat once be
j^itttioned thsit for the feJlowirig topografphicalv'cidmatic, and local
reasons, arable land in British Columbia generally, = fanld in the
Kootenay valleys in particular, possesses a considerably greafei*
value than is' similar land east of the Rocky Mouritafife
in Manitoba or the U. Si territories; firstly, owing to •«&$£
presej^e of good local markets/i*consequence ofithe flousMiing
condition of such industries as mining and lumbering^ which have
no existence in the .great wheat-rraising country of MamtoiSaiaaaxi
the North-W^t, a circuJftBita«.«e cl&fly illustrated by the fact tfaaTt
British Columbia imports from the United States; nbtwathlstanding
the high Custom tariff, a very, considerable portion of its ibm.
supplies; and, secondly, because British Columbia, which is a
mountainous and wooded eofcfcrfrr^ in -many respects  not  unMfee IB
'Switeriand, poSBbsSffs" in coiSparfson td*i$s gfb&t area only a very
limited quantity of- arable land; What there is,, however, consists
'usually of very rich'-alluvial soil/ the- value of; which is further
enhanced by the milder'cliiriate making" it available" forj the more
remunerative GrdpS]-r'such as biopsy vegetables, arid fruit, which do
not thrive east of the Rocky Mountains. For the cattle arid horse
-rancher the Upper Kootenay Valley affords advantages the writer,
who ^has^travelled extensively through'' every : territory of the U.S.,
'has nowfkbre else discovered. The quality of the muich grasi^TS
exeellerit,:the iranges have natural boundaries, such as the main
Kootenay River in front, any two of the larger tributarSesV*W^icii
are all deep enough to " hold" cattle, on two sides, and eitheiMrf
the main chains of mountains (Rockies or Selkirks) forming the
back boundary, so that straying is next to1 impxlfesible. While the
coldjin winter is often very severe, though nothing like that of the
North-West, it is not augmented by tflM cattleman's worst enemy,
the blizzard, for high winds are unknown in the valley, on account
of i|| ^sheltered position. Cattle raised in the valjpy have for the
last year or two been fetcfimg the following prices on the spot:—
yearlings, 630, two-year-olds, §40 to,|45, beef steers, ? 60, white
the demand for beef at from 11 to 125 cents, was this year so considerable that two little bandse'Of beeve§rawere*s&riven in From
Montana and Idaho. ThereEQsa gofe&Btjft&l over the RoekySMtffffii
tains, by the Crow's N>es;MPass£whie-laJis lower and ealfieT*'tfh&n
either of the passes used by the two railways to the north or tbi$he
(Sbutfoiof it. It leads taktthe centre of the(i8famou80ci^tle country
round Fort McLeod, while the approaches to the N. P. R.!®31o%$r
the climatically famous Tobacco Plains and -through the FiaJratead
Country, are eqmiflly.favourable and easy. The horse and cattle
fraiser in> the Upper Kowtesnay Valley^fi, therefofce^ithe Option of
two (markets, and what is still mof«:Hnp6ftatrt7fifche cholee %f two
great trans-continental railways''1 for the transportation of his
animals. The bottom land in the valley is not very" extensive, and
is mostlytiakbn tip. Those portions heffi. by the KooteSa'v Valley's
Company are for sale at reasonable rdfces: from $&!$($&& 'wfiJUfi
they contracted to sell 6000 acres, to $5 and SlO p. a;,-according to
location, the Government price for all agricultural land being also
$2.50. Iinmediately contiguous to the bottom lands, are the burich
grass Foot Hills, and here lies the chief value of the former land,
for stock raising on a large scale cannot be carried on here as
elsewhere without- an adequate amount of bottom land to produce
feed- for winter use. The summer range on the Foot Hills is of
vast area, extending in places for ten miles back frorn the main
river. Towards the southern end the valley widens,:and the Foot
Hills, where the best grazing is obtained, stretch back along way.
.. The little farming that has: hitherto'been: done irithe valley has
always paid well.   The reason wiry it hafe ^ot'been'^earried on to a greater Pltfj^^a^jp^T^te, recency the obstacles i%$e way of
conimun^agti^, haver.peen g#eat; .ploughs had to be,transported
frGm^j^a^-Walla^for 450 miles, over.^ngs^aMe mountain trjausr
on the^bj^fs of mules or horses, ^feis year, inconsequence of^tha
^fi^fifiAS^g^ influx of setters, mounted police^ aj^ jminers] prices
have not onlj^eengood, but the demand of ten exce^d^d the'jsnpply.
Potatoes fetched §4fe|p $5 per hundred pounds^jhay, to bei§,d for
the cutting, was sel^ni^g^$20 per ton ; oats; were worth 6 and 7
cents pejir,pound in the'jjalley, and$s flour casfekisoin 38 to(§0 per
hi^i^d.poup.^i^rhea^.^j^^ would pay renfajkabiywwell, w^e
f^hjere in Koej^nay a grist mill of larger capacity than the small
pioneer, mill at the Catholic Mission. The chief fafmingrin the
valley 4? carried on at Cranbrq^ Colonel Baker's finely-situated
^jtate, at the mission^and at Mr. Mother's farm, whjla Mr. ^llipsy
ranche on Tobacco Plains is well known for its splendid vegetables,
For the cultivation of the beet for sugar refineries the bottom-land
soil in Kootenay appears most suitable. Beets of the Silesian^ridi
ijysed by Colonel Baker without manure of any ,land, contained
as much as 10.5. per cent^of sugar, while the best European sugar
beet, with the.highest cultivation^exceeds thljs result by onry_^2
Timber Lands.—The opinion the visitor will form respecting
|§§ quality and quantity of timber in the Upper Kootenay Valley
will depend to a ceitain extent whejpier>*he;comes fnoih the Paeum
Coast, where an unrivalled fores£ growth thrives, or fr&m^ffie
Eastern part of Canada and the,,States, where the timber is of
but ordinary growth. If he hails ffcun the formeivdensely-turtbered
region he will declare the Kootgnay timber resources ^ only of
:p2g<fejr-ate impor^an^e in comparison^),- As^grgaing and farm laud*.
but if he is from the Eastern States^(wh^h'wiILMso be the marljei
of the Kootenay timber), he will raplargijand with P^rfeptkjighjL
that thesg:40rests of Yellow Pine, Ear;, and Tamarac^e exCf|%ttg|j[
fine, an.dJpi.orni a suKe0|Ource of future wealth, the faciMies^M
Cj^eaP V?^e^{fe3S^Por^a^iA^ °^ the lggs down the Kootenay to the
N.P.R.R , and(dowii the Columbia^toa the Canal) to the C.P.R.,
ensumng a, fjjture j^rf^t. The .chief tresis the Yellow. Pine
(Pinus yonderosa), the geographical dist$Lbujki,on of w.l^h is very
limited, (gnd in Jift^gftr^^i^^o^^t can it hj^-found i^j^oKjlarge
forests, and of sujhy.a£gf^r-pwth. This handsmne tr.e$,. witb_2®>
xef dish-brown bark oj^gj^a^fedf&efis (whujp. affords a considerate protection against forest, fires), girthing, often 20 -feet, and
|urai?^tog^H?0^ '"*lrT8ft3&lltty ^59^,^°^ to 9Qn® ^eet  PPS tree>
furnishes capital lumber-^] a$cl its gjeautjful gr,am makes it most
valu^jey|f^,xffianelj^g.   ThJpDoug$|.J5 Fir also.vhjF^ei^a^ootenay,
gfii '$Xh$^sJ9P n°t 8P9W to thelgxtraordinary size they^Jp^ni the
mor^umid Pacific^qast regions ;.3jftis, however, is n^ drawha^g:
«s'feftf^Jumogiaflg1 is  concerned.    The Tamarak  or  Western 14
Larfcfi? which is not to be confounded with the Eastern Tamarac,
which is an entirely different tree, is very li&e the European LarchV'
It gfcbws to a large size and in large forests, and for bri&getf
timber, foundations, railway-ties, it cannot be beaten. Besides'%H§,
steam sawmill on Canal Flat, there are two other water-milly^S1
the Valley, one of whSch, belonging to jfiri Hanson, on a tributary
of the Kootenay, cuts for the market.
Mimng in thd^Upper Kootenay VaHey*afen 1863 and 1.864
there occurred a great rush of miners into the^fihen perfectly
unknown wilds of Kootenay, and three streams, Wild Horse, Perry,
aapl Finlay were more or less extensively worked for pl&eer or
atnuvial gold by means of the rude and primitive methods to wMcftl
the miners had to resort in the absence of macHjhery of any kind.
Out of the first-mentioned creek over three nrillibn. dollars are
reported, on good authoirSfyj to have been taken. Of latfey^ars the
mines on this creek have fallen into the hands of Chinamen, who,
|rah rude implements, but great diligence, wash the ground
discarded by the white nSners, and are Satisfied by making' $>2£ or
§3 per day, y^bich is considered too little by the wh^'minepi! The
two other creeks are now in the hands of substantial compaif^;
who work them on more scientific principles than were enrpTftyefl!
in the old days, and the result so far has been most encouraging,
and no doubt their success will lead to other underxSSjngs of the
Saine nature, for wfftch there are numerous equaTIy promismg
lookJfi]*1 localities (Bull River, Gold Creek, Moojea Creek, ifcc;), the
risks attached to placer mining by hydraraEcs being1 infinjffie'simai
when, once the ground has been properly prospected.
For successful quartz mining, chiefly free-milling gold ores, the
Upper Kootenay Valley holds out much promise, and the fact that
air the gold found in the speams is coarse, delnfifiScrates better
than anything can that the mother lodes from which all the^pre^ciouS
metal sprung must be exceeding^^Sch^Snd that it requires oSrf
s&sfematic " traping up " to find them. No prospecffii§pf6r qualrra
has as yet been undertaken, for the c^ffiSry^was barely^fipe for it,
and capital, withpit wMch quartz mining is impossiHle,,*!h'ais not
yet found its way into this.inviting field. When it does'!it will
assuredly reap a rich harvest.
i^oal Mines in the Upper Kooteriay Valley.—An.^p^Kffii
economic feature of the valley is me presence of a! large deposit of
excellent steam cBSl in the Crows' Nest Pass>^ *?fteen seams—the
xarjgest 35 xeet, the smallest 5 feet wide—have been diScover^dl quitfe
close to the present trUil over the pasIr^aftHMSi orfflShnScoal HI#e
w4n thoroughly examined and tesfflft- by Professor Hoffmann, of
the Government Geological Survey, an eminent autficWty, an&Hil
reports the coal to be 'aaffir|.rably suited for 'Stisisam, colnrlg) gW,
domestic, inetallurgical purposes." In comparing its evapofjSftSVfe
^ bwer with tfifaTt of 'th$' best South Wales coal, he remark, 37 15
samples of tfiS^laAter gave a power of P-T^ifcs. (i.e., 1 lb. of coal
would evaporate 9'7 lbs. of water), while th^ Kootenay coal
returned 14*7 lbs. power. The aifeunt of sulphur in it is, he
declare^.J%ifinitesftnal, fte' amount of ash 3V7 |*er cent., and it
makes excellent haM^etSSe. TKW seams^lie onf-^b^side of aMH^.
and can be worked without jumping or hoisting.
Anthent&^fhformation upon^he Upper Kootenay Valley—As
rt^is* desirable, wheri*Qe8crfBirig a cattritry^to give opinions dterived
from offiemPaaid prestbMbly^rip^efiidiced source,' the writer has
with some trouble collected the following matter.
[ ^The mos#importaM^sbj&rce' is the PARLiAMliJBfTAiiY Blue Book
(3 volumes), presented to* both Houses of Parliament by command
of Her Majesty, ebfitawirig the. Repb^^cthe E^lbl&ti&n¥ifhy
oalptain Palliser, with the object of selecting the best pass over
the Rocky°Mountains for a BritislS'Transconttnental Railway.
Regarding the good pasturage^ahd snowlb&s winters in the
Upper Kootenay Valley;; we read: i<ifPhere ^s^fkffflrtfepibbturag&yrfl
some'^mvsof this vmlkyPh/im^^-s^iHmtHhere is hardly any srf&w
on these prairies in the winter, although the c6Z8N&i^»#re, so Wat the
Ttdrses do not lose the'i/^vhmHMbn evewiWsp^M^^l^^Ss^^g^An: "The
Kootenay Indians possesw^a wonderful IMmfi^ of hof%es, and tkvS®
very superior to the Indian horses on the east of the.WSouWa^^
And agaiff: " Th^Pp%0eW!i^e^Rbr^iis^uanmiy of verwffitfety&i'ses.''
And again*1'" Itinfflie Witte Valley^Dpper Kootendty *}Y8>W&8)><targe
bands of horses are kept witho%f the'^UghtMst^mMr from the snow
fflfiftHc'fifl'dut tm "whole umder." And again???1^^^ the1 Kbdi&nays
»ew endffiffii&baWtfsofhtfrl^f&wJmyyfa ambntytit
affldtH&r 'Xnfflmnfflfoe dry^sdil and nMr%tioWh^a^J^ri!^p'Mfdu^dg^S
breed''6f'>3upvMbr hardihood dUeL x$$6ifttibs%\" Awd• agaifc:'" These
Kootenhys d¥&i!)erty jflti&*I^%8ifls, being remarhtilm^ free ffffitn all the
iftgi&al ba&^uaMties of the race. TJiey^posh&s mor^^oi^M^&nmiy
ifymrii'nWbe seen or hedrffiof, d'eaftftfi'df WttffisWHeW$foUirikgs^6m
150," white of anoraief camp of 20 tents' ei$&1t&$fcerb&1,' by the
expedi0cljf"the report s'ay¥V'' " TMp%ad a band of tidfthM^SOO hor'sMj
many ofOfLSm bei^'beau'Si^WwnimdW.''^-
|,**W$13iVr,egard to the timb*erresOu%ces, the report makes frequent
men&o\ro:Pthe fine&^est^Sti the Upper Kootemy ^lley, of •^w&KB
tyftoble'tf&es, prbiffipMh) of^We^p^hw ^itt&ve mew^%e$^3Kn'tf&-pon-
dorosa), and of a gigantic!<fiJrcfe3(Larix oceldemSami■^,). / m8a®t&retl one
'ftfWe fofafter of average iWe^&^d)found it to be 120 fe&fiHn heiffl$&®&
11 fel&XiitWmiiat the h&igJtt of foWr feet. jFJfeS&Mk»«s a taWer and
$oreslen'dvr M$e,but some 1sM>%>&>¥*five feet'h^diMieter," w&He the
cedars to which refeldence is made in'aTfiother place grow "to a
uWiJmdr of ^^/ep^dfebnsioiis#tyaveseen very much exceeded.
And again: " The day's travel, haMch was iffWbfgJi mdgrif$8&m
open forests, with patches of pravrie, sometimes of consraerable
extent . . . The\f<fr%sWW^h the finWtx4C^idd beenm^^m^fdmiM /
t&gee. A spjimMd, species of pina,ja%d the larchpr^^ou^iy.s'B^k^.
of, with their bright .%$(&, bark,* <<rose from the gggjpnd at q!/$g)>8
distances. JVo brjiehwood enqujfnbered their fy^m" offered impedirggiafc
to ^b^pxogress of wQggfigis, wh%oj^f^(i^ght mpv^ in,<g$!^a&iwi$ion"
Again, when speaking of the upj>er portions of the valley, the
remark occurs : " The bunch,grass is more sparse than turf, but in
qb]^Tp8>pfcdt!s jfai^8)$$eig!tf$feig through the opegtjoglad^(:of a deer
park, and if we had only been supplied with a sufficiency of good food
.cjjJQlJhe time, tJ$fe are few spots inj&e country that would have left a
pleasanter impression."
As a rute-jthe slopes on both sides of the valley shelve off in
Iggrace-like,steps, dotted with good sized trees. Of these terraced
uplands thefmpbrt goes on to say : " On their level surface a yjidqfc,
can gallop in almost anytftjgftction, so$he forest from underwood.
Sometimes the trees are entir^y loant^Q, leay^ng great tracts of open
ptydn, en^osomed in the mountain" Here flourishes a remarkably
fine growth of. the bunch, or buff ate gra§& a vegejbation upon wbiefx
the considerable and enduring profits of the Cattle Ranching
industry is exclusively based.
Of i#npjgkj§. respecting the character of the soil I quote $*-" The
soil of the valleys was usually a deep dark mould, supporting^
luccjfa^nt vegetation."
Another Blue Book, this time an American one, in the shape of
" Reports and Explorations and Survey, made under the direcg$ji
of the Secretary of War, and preggjd^d to the Senate of the United
Spates in\ 1853-4,''-gives (vol. 1, page 522) . some corroborating
ds&ite,.: In Captain l&ullan's report, w^ieri speaking of his
arrival in the month of April at the Kootenay R%er, not far
from the interna^o/nal' boundary line, that afterwards celebrated
traye^ter, says : " Th%-y$fi£s here is exceedingly mch and luxuriant.
The cou,rdry on^#s left bank forms an irnqngnse low prairie
^QtfSW-xi^1 'iQfai$k'.\the grass grows ly^a^iantly; this extends to the
b,<%se of the,.mountains on the east. The SQJ^Mqng the Kootenay
Jjfaper isttygry fev&ilfa a.nd at the paisni where /y$ struck^ if^April 26th,
1854) it was carpeted'by a beautiful green .*sward, upon which
W>Sug%$!W*l wnnffl¥^4,ift!9ty great number of beat^yjfygffcoiired
#$$,varied jsfyfits. [^his plac.e is a,$reat ^^^Qfigp^the Kootqnau
J^M^^p^en not hunting in the nj$untai?e$l,.as here d^^o^nd-at
§W>"y season an ^abundance of excellent, nutr^Uouii gr$ss- The
wynfeffls^are represented as being mild, anlUihfc wafers of the Kootenay
Wtl&eV,5$!i8$rd them at all seasons a boimtif^sytppjfy of salmon trout."
l^n^S.'A.nq.xjis of Lorke, in his widely-read " Our Railway to
the Pa<?i£c," writes as follows of the Upjger Kootenay Valley,
quptjng from a letter to him^py an Eug^h offi^r (Lieut.-Colonel
Sanies Baker) already referred to :—
"We thus have a long valley of two hundred and fifty mUes,
wjtfo.the CohifibiOf and Kootenay^vers ^ptwing ^i&p^ppite directions 17
/ft«w&ni& gg$!iti&\ Both these riftgrs are navigable for^e above
distant and it \y% contemplated to put steamers upon them next
year, which will bring the whole valley into water communication
t&ijih the Canadian Pacific Railway. The width of the valley varies
from$fkeen to twenty^iles, and it is composed of foot-hills, benches,
or river terraces, and bottom-la^ds-, all (except the latter) covered
with bunch gra$s (an excellenf^^i^tious grass, making the best beef
ifyihe world), and a considerable quantity of magnificent pine and
" There afe parfyfwhich must originally have been lakes, where the
soil i^xdeep and exceedingly ricfa, forming a dark vegetable loam, and
I am fortunately located on such a spot. This year I had over ten
t&&sofpo$Qtoesfro< acre, and\without manure or irrigation.
" As to^imq4s, I have found it perfef^ly delightful. . . . Horses
do admirably on the wild grazings without any other food in the
winter, oyfidi^omeout]fi^the:s^rw^'jin admirable condition	
There is afa ayinost certf&n prospect of a very large mining population
growing tygfrdn the vatt&y, as gold is,Jgund in all the creeks, and one,
' Wildhorse Creek,' has gipe& out over three million dollars within the
Imkiwenty years. The country is yet in its infancy as far as mineral
prospecting is cgqte$rned, but valuable discoveries are constantly being
made. A clever mining enginefir^wf^g has lately visited us considers
this to be one of the riches^jn^a}ff,g digfiricts on the Americcut^fion^fn'ent.
There is no dou% that the lumber trade will also develop, as the
timber liesg&ngifyniently for suppj/yingthe north-west provinces. Cattle
ranching,fytrith orfUffiary care^^ast prove very^p-rofitabl^,-.and thffco, is
yet a field open for settlemsnt in that dvt;est>ion. There fy no doubt
that when commfflftjip.ation is easy the valley will become one of the
great tourist,routes, as the lake, rivery and mou<n,t@(in scenery could not
b&sffipassed. The district is admirably\spitfid for English gerttlgmen
immigrants, provided thefchave capital."
Sir Charles Wilson, K.C.M.G., C.B., one of the officers
attached to thocRoyal Bri&ish Boundary Commission, who* 25 years
ago, spent two seasons in the Kootenay country, says in his report
on the Iadian tribes: " The horses of the Upper Kootenays are
wintered on the Tobacco Plains; those of the Lower Kootenays near
the Kootejiay Lake, at neither of which places is there an^. depth of
'mo/W during the tointer, and thefeiffiGnnwfih, esteejned for th&T
hardiness andrpcu^rs of endure/ice."
Gee&ral Sir Henry Warre, K.C.B., traversed in 1845, the
North American Continent on a Government Mission of well-
known importance, and passed on his way west through both the
Kootenay^alteys. Frpn^. the Journals comprising, the d^dly notes
of this journey, placed at the writer's .disposal by the distinguished
General, the following passages relating to the Canal Flat and the
Upper, f&botenay Valisyohajse ibeen taken as t^.u^tratibg4he intpres-
isibnitejt on the early visitor's mind:—" We ascenjdeA aver a fine 18
open country . . :Wto the lake from whence the Columbia takes its
rise. ' We pitched our camp at the head of the lake (Canal Flat),
from 'whence we had a lovely view; a natural park in front gave
excellent pasture for our nearly exhausted aniMdls; water, wood and
mouriWins formed the picture, which is as perfect as Nature in her
happiest mood coWd make it." " There were innumerable tracks of
moose, bear and other animals. IndeedsHrtfffi&nk I am justified in
stiffing thav^we have seen more signs of dnWnal life in the two dafs
since we crossed the height of land (Rocky Mountains) to the warWer
wesMrwaspect of the moumains than we saw fdfirweekg together on
the eastern or colder side. The trees are (in some locaKfies) enormiruS
®wnite ' or rdther yellow pine, sornwhnes called the sugar pifti&t
. . . ^Ptand many of the red or N'orway pines were 20 and 30
feet in circumference. The aspect of the country is open and
The Bishop of Oregon writes thus of the Upper Kootenay
Valley:—" The country about the source of the Columbia River is of
great prospective importance. It is divided into forest and prairie
in proportions favourable for settlement* Wvning tesdWies undoubted;
eWftiate dWgmiful; snow goes generally as it fdus-, in fact, a ifv&si
desirable coUWtry. Stockowners now drwe cattle to wiftter in the
neighbourhood of'iike Columbia River lakes.
The well-known author, Mr. Molynetjx St. John, in his
"British Columbia," wrirfie&as follows of the Kootenay Valleys:
"This south-east corner of the province is remarkable for its pastuiixge
%aftUs. It is a hilly country with rich grass lands and good soil, An
excellent tract of farming country is a belt along the Kootenay RiiH&i^
WSrying from two to ten miles in width. The country produces some
of the best timber in the province, and is a good d^H'ct for large
game." And further, speaking of the same vallejys : " This dis&rm
is very attractive for various reasons. It is well timbered, yet a
splermid grazing country; it has a sufficient rainfall, yet is duW&f the
constant rainfall pe&iMar to the mountains further nortth; it is good
game country, produces cereals and roots in abundance, and is within
easy reach oj^the rail. Gold and silver have been found and mined,
and new discoveries m'ay at any moment be made."
The IWWstrated London News, in three of its numbers (March 5th,
12th and 19th), recently published some interesting illustrations of
the Kootenay Valleys with descriptive articles, from which we copy
the following telling description, the three accompanying full-page
illustrations being too large for this pamphlet.
"Home Huntin<
in the Kootenay Valleys of British
■ Columbia.
" Others besides the Eton boy who, as recent reformers tell us, can
only spare from  his classical labours one hour in the week for 19
•geography.and history, entertain somelwha^fh&dis&rrct ideas con-
jqgiping the whereabouts and general topographical features of
Britain's only possession on the Northern Pacific Ocea#, British
,©ofembia—which is one of the most beautiful and not least
valuable of all our Colonial possessions—a lack of knowledge
all the more to be regretted when we see how hundreds of
^bJMUsands of Englishmen annjially expatiate themselves by
riiigrating; -to the United States; and the, question of emigration
istalks like a ghost—worse in the prospective than in the reality—
^Sffough our ovejfcpopulated reaipi, knocking no longer only at
the doors of cottages or farmhouses, but also at the porches of the
suburban villa, or parsonage, and even at the massive poripls of
the country mangion.
"Situated in the south-eastern corner of America's Attic, as was
called untflr recent days Canada's Pacific province, there are
probably to English eyes as well as to English muscle few more
■$ttifa$tive teftking, sunny, mountain-sheltered spots than the
Kootenay Valleys, now brought within a twelve-days' journey
■from England by the recently completed ' Queen's highroad,' a
title not unmerited by the strategic and Q^mniereialj importance
of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
" Less than fourteen days' journey, four days of it by the well
appointed train service of this gjjeat national line, leads one into
these valleys, to their beautiful lakes,: park-like open forests of
magnificent trees, such as only the Pacific coast can- produce,
igrtat stretches of pastoral land, sk^rtjng the majestic Kootenay
;Riyer, bunch-rgrass covered foothills^ overtopped by towering
snowojad peafep, such as only Switzerland can rival—in fact, to
a land where Nature has provided for the wants of man in a way
no spot on the vast North American Continent visited by the
writer, who, in nine years of Amegean rambles, has traversed
some 150,000 miles,-can show the like. The much lower altitude
of the valleys than the windswept plains of the North-west, and
the famous m Chinook,' a warm Pacific breeze, make its winters
comparatively mild. Besides these natural advantages, the
country's resources in precious minerals, timber, and coal, are of
an exceedingly promising nature. Gold to the amount of
.£600,000 was washed from one of its river beds, while unusually
large deposits of galena (silver and lead) on the banks of the
Kootenay Lake—without doubt the most picturesque sheet of
water on the Continent, and a fit New World rival of the
Kbnigsee and Coino Lake—have induced some enterprising
Califorsdajb. fand Canadian capitalists to set about constructing
three railway lines, so tha^very shortly this naturally sequestege^d
nook will be connected with the two largest railway systems in
North    Amerjca—i.e., the Canadian  Pacific  and the    Northern
b2 20
" Now-afedays;, when the scions of good houses 'go West,' by
the dozen, when eldest as well as youngest sons, no tes&than sons
who have to be theiriown fathers, turn-cOwboys or cattle ranchispg,
or engage 4n other industrial occupations on the frontier, where,
as is oft^n 'the case in new eountrilSJ<l&rgd profits reward enterprise—the country that fills the requirements of the be%ter class of
these home-hunte&s is becoming more c-Jf^lIiiKfepib^d at a rapid rate
and the more or less extensive ' globe-trotting ' fthat ordinarily
precedes a final1 sett!lirig down make1! them by no means less -hard
to plbase when selecting a home. At leaiftj' such has b&en the
experience of many the write? has'met.
" Placing ourselves for a mOmfiM in the shoes of such a
hypercritical home-hunter, let us see what he requires. His new
TOraie h'aiM/6 be, he demands, in a country'where, without constant
iJferftfburning, he can forego, at least as^'teflg as youtMritasts the
comforts of a in^lre civilised 'exKHJenee ; where the memories j£
Englfflffi! lanes, Scotch moors, or Irish {lalkes will i®t' for ever be
brought out in haunting relief by the ugliness of his new
surroundiflgs 5 'where he can buckle to and make money to-provide for the old days of the rolling stone—for now and again-
moss of the right kind does accumulate, just as Wafer can* Bfe-
made to flow upbfflbif the force behind it is of the right kind;
wHere he caitv live ulader the old flag, which to defend he has,
perhaps',^ ofi more than one occasion staked his life; where there
•is a good climatbywaiHri, balmy summers, crisp, glorious autumns,
falMy short winters, with the dry healthful cold that sets his
blood tinglmgj; where there is good sport with rifle and rod ;
where the ba€k door of his modgst log-house operi^On a natural
pSrh, wifflh plea^rig stretches of levbP terrace*£ke ' benches '
covered witKTluteriant bunch-grass, and dotted with groups of
the gigantic tawny-batf"ked ■ yellow pine (Pinus pondorosa),
America's most pWfrfifresque forest tree, giving the Mndscafpe that
'classic t'oiieh of sunny ^BMlyithe curftSFed eye loves to dwell on,
'while in the babk-ground again a bit of the Wengern Alp with
1# towering peaks, vast sldpW of graind forests, is for ever re-
Jfhfflding him of day¥ devdlM to AlpMe prowess ; where, wieri.
sitting at his front door smoking his evening pipe, he can overlook a fine smooffi-flowing river, skirted by groves of grand old
.'elms, big^trbut rMng lazily, as -"Becomes well-conditioned fish, and
the butterfly-like h'dknming-bird goes stemming over the plStoia
-surface—a scene of such home-like softness and pealfe, fthat were
it not fofthe gr'bWt mountains rising in close proximity, he might
fancy'Thimself in one of his favourite 'riches on filftie Upper
'Thaines. And, to come to niore practical issues, where there»">are
ffields of rich alluvial ' bottom' soil that will yield forty' to ifi#b-
'U&shels of wheat; wKfere hofte and fruits of all kind' will ripen
and thrive under the benign influence of a Pacific coast  clim&'tfe 21
with its frostless summers ; where there is a good bunch-gl?as%
range for his cattle, confined by natural boundaries, rendering
unnecessary fences or a houseful of hungry cowboys ; Where
railways to the north and to the south are not too close, but yet
within ham'dy equi-distance for cattle drives, leaving him the
choice of two routes for the shipihent of his. produce :—a country
in one word, where a man with a little capital can live, make
money, and be passably happy! Is it much to asW?' Those who
know the far West, be it north or south of the forty^riinth degree
of latttude, that invisible frontier between a great Republic and
a great Empire—the former having, alas ! vastly outstripped the
latter—will know that such an j Ultima TWuMe is not to be found
very easily, if, indeed, at all; so that the doubting shrug and
' I know better' smile which will meet the assertion that the
above picture represents reality, an'd' is by no means an imaginary
picture, is but a natural outc'omef.of'Mieft^ap'poirited anticipation
of men who, bike Martin Chuzzlewit, found the West niade up of
very questionable Edens. Fortunately,- in this instance a good
dea)l of what has been stated about the country can be corroborated
by the testimony from official and other entirely authoritative
sources ; for one of the most interesting Blue-books ever laid
on the table of our Houses' of Parliament—i.e., Palliser^
voluminous report on his exploration of the Rocky Mountain^
instituted with a view of ascertaining the possibility of buildipg
a railway from the Atlantic to the Pacific* entirely on British
territory, an exploration that- occupied four years—coTOains very
numerous passages describing the excep&itmalry attractive natural
features of the then isolated KootenayJV&Iteys."
Approaches to the Upper Kootena^ Valley from the South,
■tfia'the Northern Pacific Railroad.—The nearer partfcuiterS of the
several, as yet only partMfy'developed routes, can best be gleaned
from some of the following remarks upon the Lower Kootena>¥
Valley. Before reversing to it a further route, interesBMig to the
sportsman and lover of fine scenery,'Should be mentioned. Leaving
the N.P.R.R. at Arlee, which is the'first^stktion west of the town of
Missoula (fit out at£ latter place$ a^S&Mfibtile' ride will take the
traveller through the famous Flathead Reservation; one of the
most picturesque couriMes imaginable, affd land him at the
Tobacco Plains at the southern end of the Upper Kootenay Valley,
over good roads and through splendid bunch-grass country, which
will soon be opened by the new Manitoba and Pacific Railway^
which has already reached the eastern slopes of the Rocky
Railways to Upper Kootenay.—A Charter has been granted- for
the construction of a railway from Golden, up the Columbia Valley,
across the Canal Flat and down the Upper Kootenay Valley. The
grades being very easy, and' the country generally very favourable, 22
there .feanuot be niugh doubt that this railway flpll be commenced before very long.
Another Charter has just been granted to a company desirous
of constructing a railway from the coal beds already alluded to,
situated in the Crow's Nest Pass, to the Kootenay Lake country
where coal will be much needed for smelting purposes. This line
will follow for over 150 miles the route which the bucklers of the
C.P.R. should have taken had they exercised more Gi^umspegtion
in the choice of passes, and;ihad been guided by the result of
Palliser's very thorough examination of all these northern passes^
After crossing the Upper Kootenay Valleyjrthe road wall be carried
over the perfectly easy Moojea Pass into the Lower Kootenay Valley.
The route of this line, it may be mentioned, was the one
Originally proposed for the? great "All British T,e$<wi%or!y" line
across, the Continejgt, upon vfchieh Palliser reported. The passes
are all easy, and of the .Moojea Pass the Blue Book has the
following to jsay:—
" Indeed, in#ihe event of the requirements of coyiumerce, as far as
fy/y experience of the mountains is concerned, I couldgnot point out so
exttf&sive a tract of country where a railway may be brought wiiU
conipargitively so small]expense. There is no place on the whole of
■ the traijjffibetween the Flatbow or Kootenay Lake, and the bord&rs of
the Kootfflriay (Upper) River, where a sudden ascent of 150 feet is
" The mounfrgins-here may be penetrated in mahvy directions . . .
their gently sloping sides, with wide valleys betu)e&n seem to offer
faciljijgs for roads in many ways."
From the terminus of the Crow's Nest and Kootenay Lake
Railway, on the Lower Kootenay River, a Steamboat Line, of
which more detailed mention wiMjjpreseutly be made, wjjfcleonnect
with the Northern Pacific Railroad, and nothing wouldy assist more
in developing the immense coal and mineral resources of Kootenay.
The N.P.R.R. have no coal of any kind along a great part of
their line, and the vast smelting works at Helena and Butte
City have to import^ their coal and coke from Pennsylvania,
while here, within a tenth of the distance, Nature has provided
vast stores of it, not to speak of the galena and copper ores of
Kootenay, most of which could be profitably shipped to these
* The Engineers of the C.P.R. Company never examined the Crow's Nest Pass*,
although Palliser's very thorough exploration of all the passesriincluding 'tfie EcSing
Horse,iihowB thatfthe Crow's Nest (4530 feet) was by far the e'asiest over the Rockies";
while over the Selkirks the Moojea Pass was also infinitely superior to, and at least 2.000
feet lower-than Roger's Pass, the present route across the Selkirks. This^CTo^rs Nest
and Moojea Pass$ne would have been quite-200 miles shorter thanH^d present OJ6.R.;
it would have traversed rich agricultural districts, and the snow difficulties in winter
would'have been infinitely less, for we have alreat$ pbinted out that the Kootenay Valleys
have much, less snow than the Columbia. If the snow blockades on the present C.P.B.
route continue, it Si by no means improbable that the route wuTbe changed l« this far
shorter and easier line. 23
And now to come to an important. point in connection with
the development of the Kootenay Valleys by railways and navigation. Everybody has heard of the law*passelfiby the Dominion
Government to protect the monopoly of the C.P.R. prohibiting
any Canadian Railways to approach the international boundary
line nearer than 15 miles. No where between the Red River of
Manitoba and the Kootenay River, a distance of 1100 or 1200
miles, does a navigable river cross the boundary line. But the
Kootenay River does so twice, i.e., the Upper River flows into the
U.S. and the Lower flows out of the U.S. back into Canada, and
both, but especially the lower one, are navigable for far more than
15 miles from the boundary line, and as the navigation of rivers
is free, the Kootenay River affords to capitalists desirous of
opening this rich country the only chance of connecting Canadian
railways with those of America so long as the C.P.R. Monopoly
Clause is enforced by the Dominion, which they have bound themselves to do for the next 15 or 20 years. Crow's Nest Pass is not
within the 15-mile " dead line," neither is that part of the Moojea
Pass which could not well be avoided by a railway crossing from
the Upper to the Lower Valley.
, .irrisT
j'f 8J35! > B'3'^OX/r £>0O rJ > 24
Me lower; kootenay valley.
To understand its position, we must first of all follow the
erratic course of the Kootenay River, when, after leaving the
Upper Kootenay Valley, and crossing the international boundary
line, and entering first Montana and then Idaho Territory, it temporarily expatriates its waters. Some time before the river regains
British Territory it enters the Lower Kootenay Valley, a broad
sunny valley terminating in the wonderfully picturesque Kootenay
Lake, a fine sheet of water 90 miles long.
From the time it enters this valley the river can be navigated,
by the largest steamers. It is a stately slow-flowing stream, of a
very considerable depth, averaging 45 feet, and about 600 to 700
feet in width, winding in immense loops through the broad, almost
perfectly level valley. The river banks are throughout lined with
a fringe of stately elm or Cottonwood trees, leaving ther rest of the
valley perfectly treeless, huge expanses of meadowland, with grass
that attains in September a height of four to eight feet. These
meadows merge on both sides of the valley into pine-clad hilfs and
mountains that rise from the level pastures in picturesque slopes
to a height of from 1500 to 5800 feet.
From Bonner's Ferry, which is a settlement at the beginning
of the valley, to the Kootenay Lake, the soil is apparently of
uniform composition, an amazing fertile silicated clay sandy loam,
mixed with the annual self-manuring deposits of its perennial
vegetation. During low water the annual layers can be easily
observed on the exposed and very steep river banks. Its composition ensures great and literally inexhaustible productiveness, and
the hastiest examination of the vegetation to be found, of course
at present, with few exceptions, in a perfectly wild state, oh this
land, shows an almost tropical luxuriance. The depth to which
this composition extends must be very great, for careful soundings
of the river prove that the bottom consists of precisely the same
There is ample evidence that the soil and climate is eminently
suited, not only for cereals, maize, and roots, but also for the more
delicate species of fruits and for hops. Under similar climatic
conditions, and on similar alluvial land, on the Lower Eraser River
(British Columbia), and on some other in the adjoining Washington
Territory, astonishing crops are raised, of which we have authentic
information : sugar beet, 240 bushels to the acre; hops, 2500 lbs.
per acre; potatoes, 10 tons per acre; wheat, from 50 to 80bushels;
turnips, 50 tons per acre, single bulbs frequently weighing up to
36 lbs., and occasionally as much as 52 lbs. each.
Good judges declare that for hops this alluvial bottom-land in
the sheltered and warm Lower Kootenay Valley is eminently suited, 25
even more so than is the celebrated hop-land in the adjoining
Washington Territory, of which, so I am told, at present none can
be bought under $60 to §75 per acre.
The highly-protective custom tariff of Canada would further
add to the value of this hop-land in the British Columbian portion
of the valley, for there is, as we know, but little land suited for
this crop in Canada, and a duty of six cents per pound on imported
hops protects home-grown supplies to an advantageous extent. In
the year ending 30th June, 1885,328,818 lbs. of hops were imported
into Canada, mostlyjrpm England and the United States. The
Lower Kootenay Valley could, when reclaimed, easily make Canada
a hop-exporting rather than a hop-importing country.
Overflow in the ."Lower Kootenay Valley.—It is needless to
point out that, notwithstanding the remoteness, up to recent days,
of the attractive Lower Kootenay Valley, it would long ago have
been settled, and the wonderfully fertile soil brought under cultivation, were it not for the heavy overflow which almost annually
occurs there (June and July), and which makes agriculture on
these lands at present impossible. It is caused by the rising of the
Kootenay Lake and River, which again is brought about by a
curious feature—namely, the narrowness of the single outlet the
Kootenay Lake possesses, and through which it sheds its water
through a narrow, gorge-like, unnavigable river some 25 miles
long (with a fall of 800 feet in that distance) into the Columbia
River. In the months of May and June the water in the lake
cannot flow off fast enough through this outlet, for it must be
remembered that during the spring the inflow into the lake is vastly
increased. The mountains round the lake shed their snow-water
first, then comes the water from the mountains of the valley, and
by the time the snow in the main chain of the Rockies begins to
melt, the lake has risem some six or eight feet; so that, by the
time the late snow-water comes pouring down the river, the lake is
full, and the incoming volume is,backed up and floods the level river
side valley land. While it would be quite possible to dyke the
valuable bottom-land in this valley, and thus prevent the overflow,
in a manner similar to the system by which the almost equally
fertile and valuable bottom-land, on the Fraser River in the western
part of British Columbia has been reclaimed and rendered highly
productive, a more radical, and under the circumstances more
economical, remedy against the overflow has suggested itself to the
Government and to the Directors of the Kootenay Valleys Company, who propose to., carry out the project first discovered by
Mr. W. A. Baillie-Grohman, who is also the initiator of the canal
in the Upper Kootenay Valley. It consists in widening the
Kootenay Lake outlet at two points ("Rapids and Narrows"),
where the channel of the outlet is unnaturally contracted by the
action of two side streams coming  in  at right angles.    These 26
turbulent mountain torrents have, at their mouths, in the course
of ages, accumulated fan-shaped bars of boulders and gravel,
washed from the impending heights, and these accumulations have
partially choked up this inipor&nt vent. The work, therefore,
consists practically in restoring the original condition of things by
removing a portion of these bars, an undertaking which, while
costly, even when once the necessary appliances can be got to the
spot, without unreasonable expense will, it is presumed, reclaim
one of the most inviting tracts of land in the Province and in the
North West of America.
Minerals on Kootenay Lake and in the Lower Kootenay Valley.
—The mineral outlook in the Lower Kootenay country is a very
promising one, though not in the same direction as in Upper
Kootenay. There are fewer gold mines, but. on Kootenay ttake
there are immense deposits of silver bearing leaa (galena), the ore
containing from 65 to 80 per cent, of lead, and on an average
from 20 to 40 ounces of silver to the ton, .jrhough some quite
recently discovered very extensive lodes, on the west side of the
lake, run up, it is reported, to 90 ounces of silver per ton.
The ore is iu many places so plentiful, and so easy of access,
right on the banks of the lake, that i\ re more like quarrying
than mining.
These argentiferous lead deposits on Kootenay Lake, experts
have pronounced to be of very unusual size and extent, though
the contents of silver in the ore is, in comparison to some other
mining regions in the States, not particularly great, makiqg cheap
transportation and rough smelting of the ore, iorL wh'ibn all the
essentials except coal are present on the spot, advisable. On
Kootenay Lake Outlet, or West Arm, as it is often called, exceedingly promising discoveries of peacock copper ore, running
very high in silver, have quite lately been discovered, local assays
rjihning as mglija^ £$1,600, in silver, per ton. An assay by Professor Hoffmann, of the Geological Department at Ottowa, of an
average specimen, returns 119ft-jfe8o ounces of silver, and specifies
the ore as cornite, a valuable copper ore.
The locality where these late discoveries have been made enjoys
the not very euphonious name of " Toad Mountain Mines." They
aj^e situated at ah estimated altitude of 4,500 feet over the level of
the Kootenay Lake Outlet, and at a distance of about 8 miles from
i±£ banks, the intervening Country being rough. On the other
hand the best of water communication from Bonner's Ferry to
within 8 miles of the mines will undoubtedly facilitate development very much. Like all other mines in the Kootenay Lake
region, all the supplies and ,all the output must inevitably come
fjjona and go to the United States, via Bonner's Ferry and tlffif
^P.R.R., till the plan of making a railway down the unnavigable
part of tiie Kootenay Lake Outlet to the Columbia RiVer   toF 27
which a charter and large land .gsant has been granted, has been
carried out.
Present Modes of Communication and Future Railways.—
Bonnier'* Ferry is about 26 miles from the NP.R.IL, and a waggon
road (32 miles long) connects jifiwith Kootenay and Sandpoint,
■v^ach are N.P.R.R. stations on the banks of Lake Pend d'Oreille,
where waggons and saddle horses can usually be hired, the drive
or ride occupying the best part of a«day.
From Bonner's Ferry down to the Kootenay Lake (80 miles)
the river affords magnificent navigation and there is not a single
place in it where two " Great Eastesris " could not get out of each
other's way, no spot where H.M.S. "Hercules," were she twice her
real draft, could not float as safely as the Indian's, pine bark canoe
drawingvjijwo inches of water.
At present two smtjll steamboats, which take passengers,
navigate the Lower Kootenay River and Lake, but the toMfist or
^p/njlgnaan can always obtain at Bonner's Ferry boats or canoes.:
The latter, although somewhat fraiUcraft, will, in the eyes of the
njgre adventurous, be preferable to the steamer or heavy rowboat.
Manned by two stout natif® paddlers the traveller can reach
Kootenay Lake in two days and enjoy one of the most picturesque
journeys imaginable, lying comfortably stretched out on his buffalo
robe or blankets in the centre of the canoe. The Lower Kootenay
Indians are capital canoe men, and will take their fraiLhark canoes
down rapids in the Kootenay Lake Outlet over which no white man
would dare to take a boat. Kootenay Lake is unquestionably the
most beautiful mountain lake on the continent; nothing that the
C.P.R. or the N.P.R.R. can offer to the sightseer in the way of
scenery approaches the sublime beauty of this mountain^girt sheet,
and it will not be long before this hitherto isolated spot will be
invaded by tourists, artists, and sportsmen. To the latter it holds
out great inducements, not only onaaecount of the good bigtganie
shooting (Rocky Mountain Goat, Cariboo, and Grizzly Bear), which
the snow-tipped peaks surrounding the lake affosi, but because in
its profound depths are found what only one other lake in North
America is known to contain, i.e., the true land-locked salmon.*
It was generally supposed that numerous falls and a series
of rapids rendered unnavigable that portion of the river lying
between the Upper Kootenay Valley and Bonner's, Ferry. Recent
exploration disproves this, and establishes *the fact thlt with a
fall of only about three feet to the mile, the entire river from
Canal Flat down, including the Middle River, with the exception
of two cascade-like obstacles which occur at the southernmost point
* Salmon ascend the Columbia in. millions, but none can get over the falls in tb.9
Kootenay Lake outlet, the only c&atteoliion between the Columbia and the Kootenay- I/Ake^1
so thatfbfi presence $|. landlocked salmon in the latter would be an ichthyological puzzle
were it not demonstratable that me Colombia and Kootersp.jrTa.veis we're once in direct
commwiieatton nearer their sources, as already shown when speaking of the Canal Xttttfb'-!^ &
of the big bend, is perfectly navigable for four or five months
of the year. At present, a short portage is necessary at the
cascades, but it is expected that tHlFU.S. Government who have
spent many millions in improving the American portion of the
Columbia, will do likewise at this important point, for improvements here will make the Upper Kootenay Valley almost entirely
tributary to their own railways.
The Lower Kootenay Valley is partly in American Territory,
and the Canadian portion of it is, as a glance at the map and some
subsequent remarks will show, also entirely tributary to the U.S.,
and will remain so until Kootenay Lake is connected bv rail with
From late news it appeals very probable that the Directors of
the N.P.R.R. will soon carry out the intention entertained since
1883, when a preliminary survey for the future railroad was made,
of building a branch line to the Kootenay River, following mainly
the present waggon road route to Bonner's Ferry. The nature of
the grotifid is very favourable, the greater part- being an
almost level forest with an imperceptible watershed, and with an
easy grade to the Kootenay River. The following altitudes were
obtained by the preliminary survey, Sfake Pend d'Oreille, 2050 feet;
the highest poini 'on the new road 2090 feet; Kootenay River,
where the road strikes it, 1760 feet. Only one stream, Pack
River, has to be crossed, from which the Pass receives its name.
From the future  terminus at Bonner's Ferry  an  unrivalled
stretch of navigable waters extends down the river to the lake,
where the largest steamers, as already mentioned, cahr ply ; while,
up the river, smaller steamers of light draugSt can navigate to the
Cascade, and by a short portage connect with steamers on the
iSp'per river, thus securing the entire trade of the Upper Kootenay-'1
Valley.    This is an opening for inland water navigation unrivalled
on the Pacific Coast.     The enterprising San Francisco capitalists^
Messrs. Ainsworth, the pioneer steamboat-men of the ColUnibiai,'5
have applied for, and are about to have granted to them, a charter
for the establishment of-a line of steamer¥>io navigate the Kootenay
River to the outlet  of the Kootenay Lake,   where it  become^
unnavigable, and remains so for a distance of 25 or 30 miles, till
its junction with the Columbia River, from where again there is
good, navigation down the Columbia to Colville, in the United States,
and up the Columbia to ReVelstoke, on the C.P.R.    To connect
these long stretches of fine inland navigation on the Kootenay and'
Columbia,  they propose to construct  a railway  (their  Charter>
obliges them to complete it in two years) along this tmaavigable
outlet, and to run a short branch line up to the newly-discovered
and most promising Toad Mountain Mines.
Some Canadian capitalists are the owners of a charter and land
grant for the construction of a railway from the C.P.R. at Revel- —^
stoke or Farwell down the Lardo^i River to the north end of
Kootenay Lake, a very feasible project indeed of connecting this
•important section of country with theiriNational line. There is one
low watershed to cross, where an easy pass only 16 miles long affords
good access, while the valley of the Lardo, famous for its gold-
bearing tributaries, and quartz ledges of free gold, holds out every
inducement.    The grade is easy.
Climate.—The Lower Kootenay Valley, being 500 or 600 feet
lower than the Upper Valley (its elevation is only 1750 feet over
the sea), has, as it is equally well sheltered, a warmer summer
climate. Indian corn, tobacco, melons, and other delicate plants
ripen fully.
Heavy dews are a feature of the valley, and one of vital importance when the temporary overflow of the land is stopped.
Mosquitoes are for about six weeks (end of June to middle of
August) very bad on the river lands in the Lower Kootenay Valley,
but there are none On the lake, and none to speak of in the Upper
Kootenay Valley. The drainage of the land would, as experience
in other places has shown, do away^yith these pests. The winters
are short, and not much snow falls. Kootenay Lake has never
been known to freeze, but the sluggish-flowing river is usually
partly closed by ice for three or four months, with frequent intervals
of thaw.
Authentic information respecting the Lower Kootenay Valley.
—Sir George Simpson, the veteran traveller, gives space to warm
admiration of the Lower Kootenay Valley, " a little paradise," as
he calls it, in his " Narrative of a Journey round the World."
Looking down from a promontory overlooking a part of the valley,
he writes : " At our feet lay a valley .... bounded on the western
side by lofty mountains, and on the eastern by a lower range of the
same kind, while the verdant bottom, unbroken by a single mound or
hillock, was threaded by a meandering stream and studded on either
side with lakes, diminishing in the distance to mere specks or stars.
In the immediate neighbourhood was a standing camp of the Kootenays,
beautifully situated within a furlong of the river. An amphitheatre
of mountains, with a small lake in the centre, was skirted by a rich
sward, of about half-a-mile in depth, on which were clumps of as noble
elms as any part of the world could produce. Beneath the shade of
these magnificent trees the white tents were pitched, while large bands
of horses were quietly grazing on the open glade. The spot was so soft
and lovely, that a traveller, fresh from the rugged sublimities of the
mountains, might almost be tempted here to spend the remainder of
his days amid the surrounding beauties of nature."
Palliser's Blue Book report contains, amongst other favourable references to the Lower Kootenay Valley, the following:—■
" We were off before sunrise, and followed up the stream through a
most beautiful valley (Lower Kootenay), offering no obstacles whatever 30
to our progress, water id/nd fitii grass everywhere, and kompdised the best
camping places that I have seen to the west of the RoeMj.Moy/ntaiwS^
The "Field" of 26th December^ 1885, contains a letter upon
Kootenay, from an Englishman who has settled in the counfoyL
The-waiter says:—I
" Siskin a letter aboufrBritish Columbia in your paper of Nov. 21;[lBh»uld
like to make a few remarks, as I am very well acquainted with a part of the countrjyitp
which it refers, having travelled and hunted all overTtt; both summer and winter1. The
JdistayOkto which I refe-it roore.p»rt{cjS6rly are the Upper and Lower Kootenay Valleys.
_ii'I passed the whole of last winter in the Kootenay Valley, and can fully testify to the
wrrebiSeVs-orMft^W. A. Bafllie-Grrohman's observatioirsyaobut the climate, as I had a
thermpsmeter hanging just o&fcfide iny{dpor, and looked at it every morning just as day was
breaking, thatljeing the coldest time in the twenty-four hours. I do not/think we had ten
days ot dtlll or snowy weather the whole wiiiter, The snow nearly iaU feU between
Christmas Day and the new year, and after that time no snow fell to amount to anything,
on two or three occasions enough fell during the night to make the old snow look fresh
aadJblesCniillAtTlouOnoelfalling twerinches in depth at any one time. In the valley the
snow was nearly aUmeJ.tediih.reej days after it feilly the Chinook winds; and most of the
■tofem landiTon ttievfifiotenay BfverTfflre bare during the winter fiii
"Prom the opinion ' Countryman' gives of the winters in Bri^feA^fMaiiiibia, IthinkjjTe
must have heard about theiniEOm some old Garriboo orCassear miner, in which places the
iwjSreers are undoiibWdly prefcby severe? ?but he shctald have borne mJmind that there is a
great tjfeal of Brijbi$hC$umbia, SGuijhjafthose, two above-mentioned places.
" As to the advantages of Briiasn'dJMiniibia, I consider it as rich as most of the districts
in North America, although not in "She same way, for 'it has notthose enormous tracts of
rich arable land, like .Manitoba and the. JfTorth-West, bufcjt has gold to compensate for it ;
'alstyavfee-TOeraent*i5ime there are numtsers of small creeks being worked, and good pay
taken out of them.
'' From what I have seen of the. Upper Kootenay Valley, I thint/for many reasons, it is
the beslPpart of Brrtash Columbia. Firstly, it isnowivSiy easy to getafc, as the Canadian
Pacific .Bjail way (is completed. A traveller leaving, the .track at Kicking- Horse (Golden City)
can'travel by boat to tne^olunib'ialakes, adistaiiceof a^out paeTrundred miles, after which
there is only a narrow strip of land (one mile wide) to be crossed, and you are on ijhe
Kp.9tenayJ8jY«r,4ind at .th^heatl <2JLihe valley. .Secpndlx, a TeV^rtQQJ^<?^kbls3rffl9rtton of
the land flrer^ls^ntlotrDtedly very1 fine for agrroUtural purposes. ' iQsaw some capital
crops /there this fall—oats, peas, andfpptatoes were especially fine. I never heatd_xjf
summer frost to hmrtAByEhjng jn tha&jpart of British Columbia. What adds so much to
-the value of the bottom lands along the Kootenay Biver is the splendidTgraziaiig lands
between\j!/the bottoms and the mountains. The bunch gzMSvon pre foot of the hills is. ap
fine as any I ever saw in Montana or any other terntdry. These bottom la-rids are most Sf
them entirely feetfrom bush	
'' The, Ladians of the countoy are, Lthink, the best I have ever met with, and I have
seen a great deal of the pikurl&ibes. The Kootenay Indians aie willing to work for a white
gj$i&n,'\and they work well. I'h%ve known some of them work steadily for three moa'ths,
never going near their camp, and never missing a day the whole time	
" -The sport to be had inthis country is exceptionally good, big game being very plentiful,
but reoujring plenty of hard work to get it."
Henry Seton-Kabb, Esq., M.P., Director of the Capitol
Freehold Land Investment Company (Lim.), 21, Onslow
Square, S.W.,and Kippilaw, St. Boswell's, N.B., Chairman.
General Sir Henbt J. Wabbe, K.C.B., 35, Cadogan Place, S.W.
Sir John Colomb, K.C.M.G., M.P.
Thomas Bate, Esq, J.P., High Sheriff for Flintshire,
Kelsterton Hall, Flint, North Wales.
John Bae, Esq., LL.D., F.B.S., 4, Addison Gardens, Kensington, W., Director of the Manitoba Mortgage and Investment Company (Limited), late of the Hudson's Bay
B. H. Venables Kyrke, Esq., J.P., Nantyffrith, Wrexham,
Wm. A. BAILLIE-GEOHMAN, Esq., Belgrave Mansions,
S.W., Managing Director.
Usion Bank of Scotland (Limited), 62, Cornhill, London, E.C.,
Glasgow, Edinburgh, and Branches.
Aethub Fell, Esq., 46, Queen Victoria Street, E.C
Geobge Steachan, Esq., 2, Copthall Buildings, E.C.
J. A. Sinclair Maclaoan, Esq., 135, Buchanan Street, Glasgow.
46, Queen Victoria Street, E.C.
Local Office: Grohman P.O., via Golden, B.C.    MAP of BRITISH COLUMBIA andthe KOOTENAY DISTRICT.


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