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The Province of British Columbia, Canada. Its resources, commercial position and climate, and description… St. John, Molyneux, 1838-1904 1886

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Array British Columbia
Information For Miners       Agriculturists
Tourists
Sportsmen  
THE PROVINCE OF
BRITISH COLUMBIAI
Its Resources, Commercial Position and  Climate,
 AND DESCRIPTION OF THE NEW FIELD OPENED UP BT
THE CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY,
WITH INFORMATION FOR
INTENDING   SETTLERS,
Based on the Personal Investigations of the Writer, and upon
tho Reports of Scientific Explorers and Government Surveyors 
Compiled by
u A Province which. Canada should be proud to possess, and whose
association with the Dominion she ought to regard as the crowning
triumph of Federation."—Earl of Dufferin.  CONTENTS.
Page.
Introductory Remarks,	
Vancouver Island.
General description, size, position, harbours, ...
Its lithological character, soil, productiveness, -
Timber, climate, markets,    --------
Wholesale prices current, ---.....
Retail prices, -....
Rates of wages, .-...
Employment for women, -       -       -    '  -
ESQUIMALT.
Its harbours, graving dock, town, business, &c,       -
Victoria.
Its foundation, growth, present size, business establishments, schools,
institutions and societies, public buildings, surrounding neighbourhood, ----------
Nanaimo.
Position, harbours, coal mines, trade,   ------
Saanich, Cowichan, Chemainus, Maple Bay, Somenos, Sooke, -
Islands of the Straits, Taxada, -      -
The Queen Charlotte Islands.
Position, Indians of, fish oil manufacture,	
Mainland of British Columbia,      -------
Extent, boundaries,	
The   Rocky   Mountains,   Cascade    Mountains,   Earl    Dufferin's
description,       ----------
The   harbours,   English   Bay,    Coal    Harbour,   Port   Essington,
Waddington Harbour,      --------
The rivers.—The Fraser, Columbia, Pearl, Thompson, Chilicoten,
Lilloet and Nicola,	
Burrard Inlet,       -  '
Vancouver, the C. P. R. Terminus.
The terminal city, the harbours, commercial position, C. P. R. works,
Future Metropolis.    Comparative distances between European and
Western sea-ports.    Distances from Vancouver,       ...
Maury's calculations,	
On the Line of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
Yale, Lytton,   -----------
Country between Yale and Kamloops,	
Kamloops and Southern District.
Kamloops Lake, Okanagan and Spallumcheen valleys, the Shuswap
Lakes, timber, cereals, roots of the district,      -
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IO
II
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26 The Valley of the Columbia, -	
The Kootenay Lake and district.    The country and its resources,   -
The Big Bend of the Columbia.	
The gold range, height of peaks, timber,	
The Gold Fields.
Cariboo, Cassiar, superficial working of, -.
The waggon road, gold returns from Columbia, Yale, Lytton, Cariboo,
Stickeen river,       ---------
Gold bearing rocks, other minerals, ------
Coal.
New Westminster, Nicola,   --------
Nanaimo, Queen Charlotte Islands, -       -       -       -        - "     -
The Fisheries.
Canning on the Fraser.    Salmon, oolachans, cod, sturgeon, &c, -
The Forests.
Various descriptions of pine,   ----- -
Hard wood and deciduous trees, ------
The timber regions. ---------
The Trade of the Province.
Exports and imports,   ---------
Comparative statements and tables,       ------
British Columbia's markets, -------
The Climate.
The climate of the coast,	
The Southern Zone,	
The Middle Zone,   -       -       -       -	
The Northern Zone,     -       -       -       -       -
The Indians,	
The Game of the   Province,	
The Scenery of British Columbia,	
Land Regulations. - -      -
Pre-emptions, grazing, timber, and provincial lands,
Sale of and payment for land,	
General information for emigrants, -------
Page.
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55   BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
Its Position, Resources, and Climate,
INTRODUCTORY   REMARKS,
Concerning the Province of British Columbia, which the. Canadian Pacific
Railway has suddenly transformed from a remote and little cared for settlement
in the Pacific, into an easily accessible and interesting field for commercial
enterprise, the majority of people have only very indistinct ideas. This publication may perhaps supply the information that is required.
Its object is to impart to those entirely unacquainted with British Columbia-
such knowledge of the country as may enable them to realize the great extent
of that province, its present condition, its characteristics and capabilities, and
to understand the important position it now holds, and in the future will more
distinctly occupy, in its relations with the other provinces of the Dominion, the
trade of the Pacific coast, and the commerce of the world at large.
The completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway is the dawn of a new era
on the. North Pacific coasts. The province that has been lightly spoken of as
"A Sea of Mountains," deriving a certain majesty, from its isolation, its wilder
attributes, and undiscovered mysteries has been traversed by a railway, accurately
described as the highway between Liverpool and Hong Kong. The completion of this road dispels the mists of British Columbian solitude, and allows .
the current of trade to flow uninterruptedly between the Atlantic and the
Pacific.
The freight-car and the saloon carriage have displaced the pack-mule
and the canoe.
The trade of the- past has been mere dabbling on the shores of the
ocean of commerce ; undertaken in doubt and prosecuted with difficulty. It was
a handful of men essaying the work of a million, and that they achieved any . 4
BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
success at all in the then far-distant colony in the Pacific affords a suggestive
indication of what will now be accomplished under the new conditions.
The history of British Columbia may, for the present, be summed up in a
few sentences. After a number of years, during which British Columbia under
various names, was occupied only by Indians and Traders of the North-west
Company; afterwards amalgamated with the Hudsons Bay Company; Vancouver
Island, an important part of the Province, was made a colony in 1849. In 1858
the Mainland territory became a colony, with the name of British Columbia, and
in 1866 the two colonies were united, and so remained until July 20th, 1871,
when British Columbia, retaining its appellation, entered the Confederation of
Canada. During the first years of its colonial phase of existence it was governed
by Chief Factor James Douglas, afterwards Governor Sir James Douglas, with
great ability and unqualified success. To a just and kindly rule, the traditional
policy of the Hudsons Bay Company, he added a cpurage and firmness that
made his word respected amongst the Indians from the Columbia to the Skeena,
and when the discovery of gold brought a rush of white men into the country,
he displayed the same ability in governing them that he had exhibited in his
management of the Indians.
Until the discovery of gold on the Columbia and the Fraser in
4856, the trade of the country was almost exclusively in furs, which
were collected at Fort Victoria, on Vancouver Island, and shipped to England
via Cape Horn. The arrival of a trading schooner from California, the Hudsons
Bay ship from England, and an occasional British Man of War at Esquimalt,
afforded the only means of personal communication with the outside world.
The people of British Columbia/ walled out of communication with Canada by
four ranges of mountains, hampered in their intercourse with California by
national distinctions, and separated from their own nation by nearly twenty
thousand miles of sea, were without any immediate prospect of improvement,
when the confederaton of the British American colonies, with an invitation to
British Columbia to join, on terms of unexpected generosity, opened to them
a vista of possibilities that transformed their apathetic contentment into
sanguine expectation.
After the admission of the colony into the Dominion of Canada, considerable dissatisfaction arose from the inability of the Canadian Goverment to
construct a railway to the Pacific within the time specified in the conditions
upon which British Columbia had entered the confederation. Remonstrances
were followed by a re-arrangement of terms, which in their turn were not
eutirel'y&ifiHed, and fresh bickerings arose. BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
At last in 1881 the Canadian Government entered into a contract with a
syndicate of gentlemen to build a railway from Ontario to the Pacific ocean,
and to complete the distance by the year 1891. An Act of Parliament was
passed embodying the contract with the Syndicate, a company was organized,
and work was immediately commenced and prosecuted with such vigour that
the last rail in the gigantic railway that now binds British Columbia to the
Eastern provinces of Canada was laid in November, 1885, six years before the
time stipulated in the contract between the Government and the Company.
This road has" pierced the successive ranges of the Rocky and British
Columbian Mountains, it has penetrated the unknown country on the north of
Lake Superior and opened a way from ocean to ocean. British Columbia is
no longer an ultima thule. The busy life that teems on either side of the
Atlantic already surges towards the west, impatient to reach the latent wealth
of the western provinces, and waits only the opening of the way to seek on the
shores of the Pacific new fields for its enterprise and capital.
Pg
VQ^ BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
GEOGRAPHICAL   POSITION.
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND THE ISLANDS ADJOINING.
■ «•» ■
British Columbia is that portion of North America that lies between the
49th parallel of north latitude (the international boundary between Canada and
the United States) and latitude 6o° N. On the east it is bounded by the summit line of the Rocky Mountains and the meridian of 1200 W, and on the west
by the Pacific Ocean and the United States territory of Alaska, and it includes
Vancouver Island, Queen Charlotte Islands, and all the others in the Straits of
Georgia and on the coast north of it, as far as the 54th parallel of latitude, with
the exception of the Island of San Juan and the small group lying between it
and the United States, to which they belong.
VANCOUVER ISLAND.
Vancouver, which is the largest island on the west coast of America, is the
oblong crest of a submerged range running north west and south east between
theparallels of 480 20' and 51°, in latitude from 1230 W to 1380, and therefore
nearly in a parallel line with the Rocky Mountains and other ranges of the
mainland, from which it is separated by the Straits of Georgia, varying from 5 to
20 miles in width.   It is about 300 miles long, with an average breadth of about
fifty miles, and contains an estimated area of from 12,000 to 20,000 square miles.
The coast line, more particularly on the west side, is broken by numerous inlets
of the sea, some of which run up into the interior of the island for many miles,
between precipitous cliffs, backed by high and rugged mountains, which are
clothed in fir, hemlock and cedar.   At some points are sheltered bays which
receive small streams watering an open gladed country, having a growth of
.wild flowers and grasses, among which are found the white clover, sweet grass,
cowslip, wild timothy and a profusion of berries.   The two ends of Vancouver
Island are, comparatively speaking, flat, but there are mountains in the interior
ranging from 6,000 to 8,000 feet on the highest ridges.   The interior of the
island, still unsettled, and, practically speaking, little known at any distance
from the sea coast, is largely interspersed with lakes -and small streams, and
with waterfalls affording water power, the present inutility of which arises from
the fact of its all being at some distance from the coast.   The surface is
beautifully diversified by mountain precipice, hills and open prairies, and on
the east coast the open country is frequently so interspersed with small copses
and single trees, and its soil so good, that great encouragement is offered to
agricultural settlement. "^
BRITISH COLUMBIA. 7
In other parts, the soil is light and of little depth, but it is heavily wooded.
It is attractive in appearance everywhere; there is either the rugged mountains,
the wildness that gives picturesqueness, with undisturbed lakes lying in these
mountain valleys, or there is the park-like appearance of the openings, in many
places^margined by the sea and in perfect view of the mountains that back the
Straits of Georgia on the opposite side. The greater part of these arable tracts is
found in the south-eastern portion of the Island, in the strip of land lying
between the mountains and the eastern coast. At the extreme north there is
also some arable land, and a little on the west. In the inland lakes, and in
the indentations of the coast, there is a plentiful supply of fish, and a fair
variety of game on shore.
There are many harbors on both sides of the island in which large ships can
find anchorage, and very many more available to smaller coasting vessels. The
eastern coast has been well surveyed by British surveying vessels, and the
soundings accurately marked. The principal harbour is that at " Esquimalt,"
which has long been the rendezvous of the English squadron when in the North
Pacific. It is situated at the south end of the Island, on the eastern side, and
can be approached in foggy weather by means of soundings, which are marked
•on the admiralty charts, for a considerable distance seawards from the entrance
"to the harbour; an advantage possessed by very few anchorages, and with the
exception of Burrard inlet, at the terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway, by
no other large harbour on that coast.
esquimalt.
Esquimalt harbour is about three miles long, and something under two miles
"broad in the widest part; it has an average depth of 6 to 8 fathoms and affords
•excellent holding ground, the bottom being a tenacious blue clay. The Canadian
«Government is now (1886) building a dry-dock at Esquimalt, intended to
^accommodate vessels of large size. Its length is 450 feet, depth 26 feet, and
90 feet wide at the entrance. It is being built of concrete, faced with sandstone,
and will take two or three years in construction.
There is a small town at the northern corner of the harbour bearing the
same name, Esquimalt. The nucleus of it are some British Government buildings, consisting of a naval hospital, an arsenal and other dockyard buildings.
In the immediate vicinity of these the town has arisen. There are two churches,
-a public school, two hotels or inns, and a number of residences and business
buildings. In the territorial division of Esquimalt there are several farming
settlements and one or two manufactories, including a boot and shoe manufactory and a sawmill. Esquimalt will eventually be the terminus of the island
railway which is in course of construction from Nanaimo to Victoria, but at
present Victoria, the capital, being only three and a half miles from Esquimalt
by land, and connected with it by an excellent macadamized road, the principal
business is done at the larger place.
VICTORIA.
Victoria, the Capital of the Province of British Columbia, and the chief city
•on the island of Vancouver, has grown to its present size from its original 8
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
commencement as Fort Victoria, a stockaded post of the Hudsons Bay-
company. It is beautifully situated on a small arm of the sea, commands a
view of the Straits of Georgia, the snow-capped peak of Mount Baker, and the
mountains of the mainland, and though probably not destined to be a very
large city for some years to come, will always be attractive to visitors from its
salubrious position, the natural beauty of its surroundings, and the charms of
its neighbourhood. It is already regarded as a delightful holiday visiting spot
by the residents of other places on the British Columbian and United States
coasts and with the completion of the island railway it will be brought within
easy reach of many places, which, while serving to increase the volume of its
trade, will supply localities of a very inviting description for country residences-
and subsidiary villages.
The city's age may properly date from 1858. Before that time it was-
merely the H. B. Coy's post, with a few surrounding dwellings mainly belonging
to the company's employees. But the discovery of gold on the mainland brought
a rush of miners from the south, and at one time, during the winter of 1858, as-
these men returned from the mountains on their way to California, 30,000 men
were camped round the Fort. Thus the city began with wooden shanties,
canvas stores and a population that arrived and departed by thousands. The
population when the last census was taken, 1881, was 7,000. The Government
state that it is now 11,000.
For its size it has a very motley collection of inhabitants.   The principal
residents, and the majority of the inhabitants are from Great Britain, but there
are now a great number of Canadians besides Americans, Indians, Chinese, and
that variety of nationalities in seafaring men that appertains to a seaport.    The
city is well built, the main thoroughfares being rectangular, and though there
are still many wooden houses there are many solidly built structures in stone
and brick.    The two principal streets, Government street and Yates street,
contain handsomely fitted shops, at which anything and everything may be
obtained, from a miner's pick, to a lady's ball dress straight from London or
Paris.   And everything at fairly reasonable prices.    The residences are mainly
villas and semi-detached villas, in many cases' with surrounding gardens, in
which, even throughout the winter, flowers bloom luxuriantly.    There are a
great number of hotels, inns, and boarding houses, so that accommodation for
strangers is easily obtained.
Some indication of a city's business and prosperity may be derived from
the number of Banking houses, Insurance offices and professional men within
its limits. Victoria supports three banks, and the Dominion Government
Savings Bank, six Insurance agencies, eight physicians and surgeons, and
although it would at first sight appear to be a city of much brotherly love, seeing
that there is only one solicitor and one attorney mentioned in its directory, there
are ten gentlemen of the law who style themselves " barristers and notaries
public," who are equally dangerous to evil doers and others, as the solicitor and
the attorney. Victoria has a handsome theatre and one of the most complete
clubs in the Dominion.    There is a little disproportion in some callings.    For ^
BRITISH  COLUMBIA. 9
Instance, there are ten breweries and wholesale liquor establishments and forty-
five retail bars, besides twenty-two groceries where liquor can be sold, but there
are only two book stores. This plentitude of liquor however speaks well for the
climate, for in spite of these establishments and of four stores specially devoted
to the sale of firearms, there are only two undertakers. It takes twelve bakeries
to supply the city with its daily bread, and four butchers to supplement their efforts.
Cigars have one manufactory to themselves, and cigarettes another, and six
stores are exclusively devoted to their sale, with the auxiliary distribution of the
hotels and saloons. The women are cared for by two wholesale dry-goods -
houses, nine retail stores and eight dressmakers, and to meet seasons of difficulty
there is one pawnbroker. There is a telephone company, four brass-band associations, and a lunatic asylum. Three daily newpapers are published in the
city, besides which there are other printing establishments, a mechanics'institute
with a free library, a theatre and a number of churches of all denominations.
Victoria has a public school, a high school for the more advanced scholars,,
from which teachers for the Province are graduated, and several private seminaries.    The sisterhood of St. Ann have an institution for the education of girls,.
and in addition to these educational estabishments it is in contemplation to •
establish a college in connection with the Anglican church.    The Provincial
Government buildings are on the north side of James' Bay, a small arm of the
harbour which is crossed by a substantial bridge, and in the immediate vicinity
is Government House, occupying a very pretty and commanding site overlooking the straits.    Near this is the park at Beacon Hill, where the races,.
cricket matches and other sports are held, and in the neighbourhood of which
are some of the principal residences.    The city has a good water supply brought.
from a lake  about  seven miles distant.    It has an efficient fire brigade, a.
telegraphic service, and by means of a submarine cable connecting with the
mainland, has communication with the continental world.    Its mail service, by
tri-monthly steamer with San Francisco>and via Portland several times a week,
has been fairly good, but will now become more perfect and regular by way of
the Canadian Pacific Railway.
Victoria reveals the nationality to which its people belong in more than one
way. There are all the National and Benevolent "Societies" usually found.
where Britons congregate, and there are evidences of its being an old country
colony in the customs and idiosyncracies of its society. The people are hospitable, and their doors open readily to those accredited to them by their frfehds,
or to those whom they believe deserving of their confidence.
From what has been here said it will be seen that Victoria, though a small
city, has all the conveniences of a larger one. It possesses attractions of its own
that are rarely met with in towns, so much so that it has acquired a reputation
as a place in which strangers may spend a holiday with pleasure and reasonable
economy, and in consequence it is visited by people from many parts of the North .
Pacific coast.
Stretching away from the city for some miles is the district of Victoria,
which supports a scattered farming population, and from which tne town draws - JLO
BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
a portion of its supplies, but in comparison with some other districts on the line
of the Canadian Pacific, Vancouver can not be considered a farming country.
Near Victoria the eye is charmed rather by the picturesque beauty of the coast
line than by the crops on cattle, although those that are to be seen are excellent
of their kind. It is, however, a fruit country, and will in the future send large
•quantities eastward by the Canadian Pacific Railway. It is the garden of the
Dominion, to which nature has added those wilder surroundings that a cultivated taste usually demands from artificial resources.
NANAIMO.
Seventy miles north of Victoria, on the east coast of Vancouver Island, is the
town of Nanaimo. It is built on rising ground overlooking a fine harbour, which
is connected by a deep channel with another, harbour called Departure Bay,
^capable of taking the largest vessels. Nanaimo ranks next to Victoria in
importance, but it is mainly dependent on the coaling interest and the business
-arising from the ships in harbour loading or waiting to load. There are two
■companies, the Vancouver Coal Mining and Coke Co., and the Wellington
Co'y, working a number of coal mines in the neighbourhood, the coal from
vwhich is shipped either at Nanaimo or in Departure Bay, a few miles farther
north.   The coal is the best kind of bituminous coal found upon the coast and
,is very largely shipped to San Francisco, and also to the Sandwich Islands and
China.    It is of course the coaling station of the British  squadron in the
.Pacific.    San Francisco is the principal market.
Within the past few years the coal trade from British Columbia to California
'has assumed large proportions. In the twelve years, ending with 1873, the exports were 150,000 tons, or 12,500 tons per annum. In the last ten years these
^exports have been ipt8o,ooo tons, or 107,000 tons per annum. In the last five
years they have averaged 153,000 tons per annum, or as much in one year as
was received at San Francisco in the first twelve years of the above period.
The present indications point to a large increase of the coal trade of the
province.
In quality, the Vancouver Island bituminous coals are found to be superior,
for all practical purposes, to any coals on the Pacific coast. Nature has given
this advantage, exclusively, to Canada on the Pacific seaboard. These coals
are in large demand in the San Francisco market, notwithstanding the high
.adverse tariff They rank there with the West Hartley coals. On an average,
nearly two-thirds of the sea-borne Pacific coast coal, received annually at San
Francisco, are from Vancouver Island.   A test by the War Department of the
■ United States, in order to find the best steam-raising coal on the Pacific coast,
showed that to produce a given quantity of steam, it took 1,800 lbs. of Vancouver
■ coal to 2,400 lbs. of Seattle (Washington Territory) coal, 2,600 lbs. of Coos Bay
(Oregon) coal, and 2,600 lbs. of Monte Diablo (California) coal.     This proved
: that, as far as the Pacific coast is concerned, the coal of Vancouver Island has
.a marked superiority over all the others.
Nanaimo wharves, which are connected with the mines of the Vancouver
Coal Mining Co'y narrow guage railway, have a capacity of 1000 tons per day.
1 '-V t
HHhUmM'IMmi BR  BRITISH COLUMBIA.
11
The mine gives employment to about 800 men. The Wellington collieries,
which are a few miles from Nanaimo, connect with the wharves in Departure
Bay and employ nearly 1000 men. They can ship 1500 tons per day. A little
farther north are other large deposits, and coal has been found at several places
in the island. The discovery of coal at Nanaimo is attributed to the present
proprietor of the Wellington mines, Mr. Dunsmuir, having stumbled over the
root of a fallen tree which, on closer examination, he discovered had some
Jumps of coal sticking to it. It has proved a fortunate stumble, both to himself
and the island.
It is to connect Nanaimo with Victoria that the island railway is being
constructed, though it is projected to run north to a place called Discovery Pass.
In its first sections it will pass through several agricultural districts, and will
serve to develop other interests. It is not however easy to imagine that it can
•carry coal for ships, as its projectors hoped, since it must be cheaper for vessels
to load at Nanaimo, but it may be found possible to supply the city of Victoria,
and perhaps Esquimalt, as cheaply by rail as by water. The town, for its size,
is well supplied with the requirements of a growing population. There are
churches, schools, hotels and such industries as are adapted to the country.
In this respect Nanaimo shows some enterprise. There is a tannery
which looks forward to a speedy development into a manufactory of boots
-.and snoes, a saw mill, a brewery, a ship-building yard that has built and
launched   several  vessels, and   weekly   and   semi-weekly newspapers.     In
I the neighbourhood are a few farmers.*
While on the subject of Nanaimo and its coal fields, it may be well to say
■ that it has been determined that the rocks of the extensive coal areas on the
east coast of Vancouver Island are of cretaceous, not tertiary, age. They extend
from the vicinity of Cape Mudge to within 15 miles of Victoria, a length of about
130 miles. Rocks of the coal series also exist on the north-^east and north-west
coasts at the north end of the island, and there may be similar coal areas in
the interior. Tertiary rocks, holding lignite, occur at Sooke and various places
on the south-west coast. v
These three places, Victoria, Nanaimo and Esquimalt, all on the
south-eastern corner of Vancouver Island, are the principal centres. There
are smaller communities on the island, mainly on the south corner, and at
no great distances from the three principal places already spoken of. Such
Is Cowichan, a settlement on the east coast, about midway between Victoria
and Nanaimo, where the quality of the soil permits farming to be carried on to
some advantage. Saanich, another farming settlement at the extreme southeast. Maple Bay, Chemainus, Somenos, all in the neighbourhood of Cowichan;
Comox, some 60 miles north of Nanaimo, in the vicinity of which are some of
■the principal logging camps; Sooke, a short distance south-west of Esquimalt,
and a few scattered and sparsely inhabited spots. But they have been settled
even to their present limited extent by very gradual degrees. Distance from
Europe has told against them. Of immigration, as the word is used in other
western parts, there has been none since the gold fever abated, and these out- 12
BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
lying settlements have grown by the intermittent acquisitions of single families:
or solitary individuals. Vancouver was an island in the far off Pacific, and a
railway through the mountains was an enthusiast's dream.
ROCKS OF THE ISLAND.
The lithological character of Vancouver Island may be described as followsr
Amongst the metamorphic and erupted rocks are gneiss, killas or clay slate,
permeated by quartz veins, quartz and hornblende rocks, compact bituminous
slates, serpentine, highly crystalline felspathic traps and semi-crystalline concretionary limestone. Amongst the sedimentary rocks are sandstones and stratified limestones, fine and coarse grits, conglomerates andfossiliferous limestones,
shales, &c, associated with the seams of coal. The country is strewn with.
erratic boulders and other marks of the glacial period, granites and trappean
rocks of every kind ; mica schists with garnets, breccias and conglomerates are
to be met with. Some of these afford good building material, the grey granite
equalling in beauty and closeness of crystalline texture the Scotch and English,
granites.
THE SOIL OF VANCOUVER ISLAND.
The soil of Vancouver Island varies considerably. In some parts are
deposits of clay, sand and gravel, sometimes partially mixed, and frequently
with a thick topsoil of vegetable mould of varying depth. The soil is evidently
of marine origin, as it holds sea shells in quantities at depths from six inches
to a foot. At other places* towards the north of the island on the eastern shore
are some rich loams, due to the decomposition of the limestone rocks, and these
are immediately available for cultivation; The soil where it is mainly gravel,
being quickly drained, produces little but coarse grass and large timber. The
mixed soil with proper treatment bears heavy crops of wheat ; the sand and
gravelly loams do well for oats, rye, barley, buckwheat, roots, &c, and where
the soil is a deep loamy one, fruit grows well. The following average of the
yield of a properly cultivated farm in the Comox district is given by a member
of the Canadian Geological Survey. This is from the best land in Comox, but
there are other parts of the island not much inferior :
Wheat,
from 30 to 45
Bushels
per
Barley,
"     40 to 45
a
«
Oats,
"     50 to 60
«
u
Peas,
"     40 to 45
«
«
Potatoes,
*' 150 to 20b
it
(C
Turnips,
"     20 to 25
T
ans
((
In the midst of districts where good soils are found, rocky hills are sometimes
interspersed, having little soil upon them, but affording a pasturage for sheep
and cattle in summer. It is on the east coast that the arable land is found ;
there is little on the west^ or in the interior, though whep, in the course of time,
the1 inland marshes are drained, the land now covered with water will become
available. &'& :di ; BRITISH   COLUMBIA. 13
TIMBER.
The timber of Vancouver is one of its richest products. Throughout the
island the celebrated " Douglas Fir" is found, and a variety of coniferous trees,
■of which more precise mention will be made in speaking of the mainland, grow
•on all parts of the island. It is impossible to travel on the island without
marvelling at its forest growth, and sometimes stopping to wish that there had
been less of it. This exuberance is not confined to the mammoth fir trees, or
the enormous cedars ; trees of many of the deciduous varieties abound, so that
either for lumber and square timber, or for the settlers' immediate requirements,
for the use of cities, and as arboreous adornments to the homes that will now
"be sought by immigrants from Europe and elsewhere, who prefer the mild
•climate of the Pacific to the more bracing atmosphere of the mountain regions,
the forests of Vancouver Island have a value that every year will become more
-apparent.
CLIMATE OF VANCOUVER ISLAND.
The foregoing remarks have been made on subjects peculiar to Vancouver
Island; questions of trade, products of the province, and matters generally
appertaining to all parts, including the mainland, will presently be spoken of.
Concerning Vancouver Island, therefore, it only remains to say that in the
important matter of climate its inhabitants believe, and with some reason, that
they enjoy peculiar advantages. They have a mild and even winter, with rain;
the annual rainfall is estimated at 45 inches; and occasionally snow; an early
spring; a dry, warm summer, and a clear, bright and enjoyable autumn. Sometimes the frost is sufficiently hard to permit of skating, but th^ is exceptional.
As a rule flowers bloom in the gardens of Victoria throughout the year. It is
spoken of as England without its east winds; in reality it is Torquay in the
Pacific. Fruits of all kinds indigenous of the temperate climates ripen in the
open air, and amongst them, some that are in England brought to. perfection
•only under glass. Thunder storms seldom break over Vancouver. They can
be heard in the distance but are rarely experienced. Jt is this climate, combined
with the situation of Victoria, that makes that city such a pleasing contrast to
those who visit its shores from the hot valleys of California.
The adjoining seas, partially sheltered by islands, would seem to have been
intended for yachting; the island itself allures tourists and idlers to wander
•about its woods and bays, for every mile brings some change of scene, and the
summer and autumn days are without suspicion of storms, whether electrical or
•of dust. But this condition of things which bids fair to beget as an expression,
M the glorious climate of Vancouver," applies more particularly to the coast and
to the southern and central portion of it. The island is washed by the Pacific,
and the littoral, therefore, is not an exact criterion of the mountainous interior,
where the temperature is varied by local agencies.
MARKETS AND PRICES.
In a country where the large majority are consumers, prices must necessarily
be high. What, with the city of Victoria, the shipping demands, both there, at
-Esquimalt and Nanaimo, and the steady consumption of the mines, the propor- 1
14
BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
$450 (cb $850
MS
90 (cb
100
275 (d>
320
20 (ob
40
10(d)
35
no (8>
130
125 (cb
140
90 (cb
100
tron of farms has been small, and their produce in great demand. There is room
(or many more. So too, agricultural implements having hitherto been brought
from the United States, and duty paid upon them, have been higher in price
than the same things in the eastern parts of Canada, or even in the prairie
provinces. For instance, in the autumn of last year the following prices ruled
in Victoria:
Threshing Machines, ------
Reapers --------
Mowers     ---------
Self-binders, -   • -        -        -        -    *ijife
Ploughs,   -        -        -        -      ■ -
Harrows,      --------
Waggons, complete, with box and seat,    -
Do.      with brake, -
Do.      running gear only,    -----
Harness,  30 and upward
These prices, however, will now be largely reduced, owing to the completion of
the railway.
WHOLESALE PRICES CURRENT.
FARM PRODUCE (VICTORIA).
Wheat, W cwt. (100 lbs.)
Oats,        do.     -
Barley, rough, ^ cwt,
Peas, do.
Hay, ¥ ton,
Timothy Seed,   do
Potatoes, dp-
Butter. ^ lb.,
Cheese, Provincial, sk lb.,
Eggs, fresh Island, V* doz.,
Eggs, Oregon, do.
Beef, dressed, V cwt,
Beef, on foot,     do. gross.
Sheep,   " do.        ' -
Mutton, dressed do.
Lambs, each,
Pigs, dressed, $ cwt,    -
Pigs, on foot,     do.   -
Veal,    do.        do.
Hides, green,    do.   -
Hides, dry.        do.
Chickens-, # dozen,
Ducks, wild, V dozen,   -
August 2
5th,
1885.
$ 1 50 @ $ 1
62K
1 50
| 37%
2 00
11 00 @
14
00
14 00 @
16
00
1 00
28®
30
16
25 @
37lA
25
7 00 "
4 25
3 50 @
S
50
12 50
3 00 @
4
00
9 00 @
10
00
6 50 @
7
5o
7 00 @
8
00
6 00 @
8
00
11 op @
15
00
5 00 @
7
5o
5 OO (a)
6
00 BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
1S-
Ducks, tame,    do.  900® $12 bo
Turkeys, dressed, $* In.        ----- -to
Ji. Turkeys, live,         do.  17 @         20'
Geese, each,          -       -       -       -       -       -       - 1 50 @     3 00
The following prices show the cost of articles on the Victoria retail markets
BUTTER—Choice Island, 50 cents $ lb. ; Island roll, 75 cents ; New Grasss
Cal., 87^ cents I? roll ; White Clover, 50 cents.
Cheese—Canadian, 30 cents ^ lb. ; Cala., 25 cents ; Eastern Cream, 30
cents ; B.C., 25 cents.
EGGS—Fresh Island, 37^ cents $ doz. ; Puget Sound, 25 cents.
CoRNMEAL—50 cents $ sack of 10 lbs.
Oatmeal—62^ cents ¥ sack of 10 lbs.
FLOUR—Extra, $5.25 tf brl. ; Si.50 $ sack ; Super., $4.25 fy brl.
Wheat—2 cents $ lb.
BEANS—Lima, 8 cents tf lb. ; Small White and Bayou, 6 cents.
Split Peas—12^ cents $ lb.
VEGETABLES—Potatoes, 2 cents $ lb. ; Onions, 4 cents % lb. ; Celery, 50-
cents $ doz. ; Carrots, I cent $ lb. ; Rhubarb, 12^ cents $ lb. ;   Cauliflower,.
2 for 2>7% cents ; Asparagus, 20 cents W lb. ; Turnips, \% cents ¥ lb. ; Cucumbers, $1.50 $ doz. ; Cabbage, 12% cents $ lb.
HAMS—Home cured, 18 cents $lb. ; Chicago, 20 cents ; Oregon, 18 cents ;;
Shoulders, 18 cents.
BACON—Breakfast, 18 cents $ lb.
Lard—20 cents $ lb.
Fish—Cod, 6 cents ; Salmon, 5 cents ; Boneless Cod, 16 cents ; Soles,.
S cents ; Halibut, 8 cents $* lb. ; Yarmouth Bloaters, 25 cents W doz. ; Salmon,
bellies, 3 for 50 cents ; Herring, 3 cents ; Flounder, 8 cents ; Smoked Oolachan
and Salmon, iz% cents ; Smelt, 8 cents ; Whiting, 7 cents ; Shrimp, 25 cents £
Salt Oolachan, 6 cents $ lb. ; Crabs, 75 cents ffi doz. ; Smoked Herring, 12}£_
cents ; Salmon Trout, 8 cents w: lb. »
Canned Salmon—1 lb. tins, If doz., $2.
FRUIT—Lemons, 62^ cents $ doz. ;   Oranges (blood), $1 $ doz. ;   Limes,..
40 cents w doz. ; Apples, 4 cents W lb. ; Cranberries, 75 cents tf gal., Bananas,
62^ cents per doz. : Cocoanuts, 15 cents each.
Candied Fruits - Lemon, 50 cents $ lb.; Mixed, 50 cents $ lb.
Currants—Zante, 15 @ 16 cents ¥ lb.
Raisins—English Layers,
33/2
cents $ lb. ;   Cala., 25 cents;   Sultana,.
Valencia, and Eleme, 25 cents.
FlGS—New, 37X @ 5° cents $ lb.
Mixed Spices—25 cents $ tin.
Starch—$1 $ 6 lb. box.
Tea AND COFFEE—Coffee, ground, 40 cents # lb. ;   green, 16 @ 20 cents
I lb.    Tea, from 37^ cents to $1.25 $ lb.
Sugars—Crushed or cube, 7 lb. for $1;   Granulated or No. 1, 9 lbs. fbr~
$1 ; D. or No. 2, 8 lbs. for $ 1. 16
BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
15 cents ¥ lb.; Ox tongues, 75 cents each ;
10 cents ; soup
10 cents*
NUTS—English Walnuts, 20 cents 9 lb.; Cocoanuts, 20 cents each;
Almonds—Paper shell, yj% cents ; Jordan, 75 cents ; Brazil, 20 cents ; Chest'
nuts, 37%. cents.
Rolled Spiced Beef—12^
Smoked tongues, $1 each.
Beef—Choice cuts, 12^ @ 15 cents ¥ lb. ; other cuts, 7 @
meat 4 @ 6 cents.
Mutton—Choice joints, \2}i cents ¥ lb. ; stewing meat, 6
PORK—10 <Q> 12% cents ¥ lb.
Veal—12 ©15 cents ¥ lb.
Suet—10 cents ¥ lb.
Sucking Pigs—§2.50 @ $3 eadh.
Ducks—Tame, $1.25 each.
Chickens—$1 @ 75 cents each.
Geese—Tame, 25 cents ¥ lb.
Coal Oil—$2 ¥ tin ; ¥ case, $3.75. .H-i
Oysters—75 cents ¥ quart ; canned, 37X cents ¥ can.
Hay—$12 @ $15 ¥ ton.
Oats—i % cents ¥ lb.
Middlings—\}i cents W lb.
Bran—1 cent ¥ lb.
Kippered Salmon—12X cents ¥ lb.
In this is encouragement to people to go in and raise the articles, for which
there is so steady a demand.
WAGES.
The wages earned at Victoria and other parts of the island are, of course,
-governed by the demand for labour, and the amounts paid on the mainland,
and these have of late been a little out of normal condition on account of the
construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway. But although that gigantic
employer of men has been finished in all its rougher work, it will still afford
• employment for many hands, and for some time yet the building of the Island
railway will continue. The restrictive laws against Chinese immigration tend
to sustain wages, and it is unlikely that they can for many years be reduced
even to the level of those paid in the more eastern parts of Canada. The
following figures give the rate of wages as ruling at the beginning of the
present year :—
1 Co'lieries :—
Carpenters and blacksmiths     -
Labourers   ----..-
Miners' earnings (contract work)
Fisheries:—
Fishermen r
'Other industries :—
Stonecutters,, stonemasons and bricklayers.
Their labourers:-     -       -       -       -       -        1 7; to     2 00
$2 50 to $3 75 per day.
1 50 to 2 00         "
3 00 to 4 00        "
50 00 to 60 00 per mo.
4 00 to 5 00 per day. BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
17
- $4 OO to
$4
5°
per
day.
2 50 to
6
00
«
-    4 00 to
4
5°
<•
3 °o
••
-    3  50 to
J
00
it
2 00 to
3
OQ
(i
-   2 50 to
3
OO
«
1 00 to
1
50
a
- 65 00
per mo
7 s 00 to
100
OO
u
75 00
2 50 to     4 00   per day.
2 00 to    5 00 per wk.
45 cents a 1000 ems.
3 50 to     4 00  per day.
3 50 to     4 00 "
4 00 to     4 50 "
50 cents  an hour.
3 00 per day.
^Plasterers   -..-..
•Carpenters and ioiners    »
Ship carpenters and caulkers
Oabinet-makers and upholsterers   •
Painters      ----.-
Shoemakers   ------
Tailors        -.---.
"Tailoresses     ------
Bakers (with board and lodging)
Butchers (cutters)   -       -       -       -       -
Slaughterers        -       -       -       -       -
Cigar makers   ------
Boys, as strippers, &c, from
Printers   -------
Waggon-makers -
Tinsmiths, plumbers and gasfitters  -
Machinists, moulders, pattern  and boiler
makers, and black-smiths
Lonshoremen     -       -       -       -       -
Wood-turners -       .       -       -       -
It of course happens, occasionally, that certain kinds of skilled labour are
;in full supply, both on the railway works and in the general industries of the
>country.
An ordinary unskilled labourer, such as one would employ to dig or cut
fire-wood, receives $1.50 a day; if he can lay claim to skill enough to qualify
him to attend to a garden or an orchard, he readily commands $2 a day.
Farm servants, engaged by the month, are paid.at wages from $20 to $40
per month, with .board and lodging, according to the kind of work required of
them, and the responsibility of their positions. A few Indians are employed in
the seaboard districts, at $15 to $20 per month, with board and lodging, by
farmers who understand their character. In the interior, Indians are largely
employed as herders and for farm work. In the interior, the rate of wages has
'seen a little higher than on the island.
employment for women. .
Women servants are well paid, in spite of the fact that much of the work
that ordinarily falls to them is here done by Chinamen.   Nurse girls receive $10
to $12 per month; genera\ house servants $20 a month with board, if they have
some little knowledge of cooking and can wash.    Chinawomen are not found in
.service, but a great many people employ Chinamen as cooks at $15 to $25 a
:month and board.   They cook, cut fire-wood, light the fires and clean the boots*
As in all backwoods settlements, the earlier work is done by men exclusively, but, we are told, it is not good for man to be alone, and a pioneer soon
.finds that his new home is not complete without a wife.     He leads but a
comfortless life without someone to share his anxieties and successes, and to
elieve him of some portion of the ever increasing responsibility that grows 18
BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
with the developing homestead. -The consequence is that young women coming to the colony, and prepared to take their share of the duties of life as the
wives of settlers in the back districts, do not long remain as servants or factory-
girls. They may at first miss some of the attractions of a city life, but in a.
very few years a settler and his wife, by industry, and orderly living, acquire a
position in their neighbourhood, and gather about, them so .much to occupy
their time'and give an interest to their, home, that the, more garish life, which
may at first have been relinquished with regret, ceases to be delightful even in
imagination, and as the years roll on positions of credit and responsibility
come to them, sometimes unsought, that in the early days did not even present
themselves in the day dreams of their idle moments.
THE ISLANDS OF THE" STRAITS.
On the east side of Vancouver, in the Straits of Georgia, that is between
the island and the mainland, are innumerable islands of smaller size. Generally
they are wooded, and some of them have spots well fitted for agriculture. They
are not much sought for by white men at present, as there is plenty of land in
places nearer the settlements. Here and there, however, will be found the hut
of a white man, who for one reason or another prefers an island to the mainland.
TAXADA.
In the vicinity of Vancouver is the island of Taxada, opposite the settlement at Comox, which, from its wealth of iron ore, is destined to be of
considerable value. It is largely owned by speculators. The ore is in a
mountainous mass that can be traced for miles, and it can be mined, smelted
and shipped without difficulty. It is a coarse granular magnetite, containing a
large percentage of iron, with only .003 per cent, of phosphorus. An American
company owning a bog iron area near Port Townsend, in Puget Sound—a
short distance south of British Columbia—have recently purchased a portion of
the Taxada iron field, and at first mixed the Puget Sound ore with that of
Taxada, to produce pig iron for the San Francisco market. This operation,
however, was discontinued for want of a sufficient market, which will now be
opened.
A little to the north of Taxada there is a small group of islands, and then
the island of Vancouver and the mainland approach one another to within two
or three miles. Here it was at one time intended to bring the Canadian Pacific
Railway across by way of Bute Inlet on the mainland, and Valdez Island
to Vancouver, and down to Victoria with the terminus at Esquimalt, but the*
project was relinquished by the government, in whose hands the railway then
was, and an inspection of Bute Inlet will satisfy most people that its abandonment was a wise proceeding.
THE QUEEN  CHARLOTTE  ISLANDS.
To the north of Vancouver Island, and close to the coast of the mainland,
there is a succession of islands continuing to the extreme limits of British
Columbia. Of these, the Queen Charlotte Islands are the largest and most
important.   These are a group of which there are three principal islands, Graham„ BRITISH COLUMBIA.
19
Moresby and Provost islands, situated between $2° and C40 north 'Ongitude, and
1310 25' and 134 west latitude. They are the home of the remnant of the Hydah
Indians, numbering about 800 people, who live in villages scattered about the
three islands, their principal place being at Massett and Skidegate, on Graham
Island. They are expert Canoemen and fishermen, and find occupation in extracting oil from the livers of the dog fish, which abound on that coast. Their usual
wayof doing this was by filling hollow logs with the fish livers .and piling hot
stones on them, but the oil thus obtained was dirty and sold for a low price. A
company has started a few years ago called the Skidegate Oil Company, which,
by introducing proper machinery for extracting the oil, obtains an excellent article, especially for lubricating. It manufactures about 40,000 gallons annually,
and gives employment to the Indians during the summer months.
These islands are heavily wooded, but not with the larger kinds of fir. The
interior is mountainous, and there are numerous small streams flowing into the
bays. Some of these bays afford good anchorage. The soil of the island is not
rich, and opinions differ as to the quantity of arable or grazing land in the interior,
though there is probably a large quantity now in marsh and wood land. It is
believed that there is gold on the islands, and in years past several attempts were
made to firid it; attempts that sometimes ended disastrously to the gold seekers.
The Hydah Indians, in those days, were physically the finest and the most
warlike on the coast. All others lived in dread of them. They were numerous,
brave, and as fond of war as all savages are that know themselves to be more
powerful than their neighbours. Manning a fleet of their war canoes, each of
. which held forty or fifty men, they were accustomed to cross the open sea and
unexpectedly descend upon any tribe that had incurred their anger or that offered
inducements for plundering. On arriving in an inlet the waters were black with
their canoes. An Indian village surprised by them was destroyed, only those
inhabitants surviving that had escaped to the woods before the first assault. To
resist them, some of the Indians of Vancouver Islarid lived within stockades,
and even the colony at Victoria were not a little anxious when parties of the
Hydahs paid them a visit. The result of these visits was ruinous to the Indians;
the men acquired a taste for spirits, the women became degraded, and in time
smallpox, a disease to which Indians are peculiarly susceptible, and other
maladies, reduced their numbers with startling rapidity. They will probably
soon be extinct.
THE MAINLAND OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
If there were no Island of Vancouver, and no harbour at Esquimalt,
British Columbia would still be one of the most important provinces of the
Dominion, as well from a political as from a commercial point of view. With
that island it is to a maritime nation invaluable, for the limits of British Columbian coal fields can only be guessed at, while enough coal has already been
discovered on Vancouver Island to cover the uses of a century. The harbours
of this province are unrivalled on the Pacific coast, taking number and
capacity into calculation, and are so situated that the Straits of Georgia
could, without difficulty, be made impassable at either end to hostile ships. 20
BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
Their possession gives command of the North Pacific, and that in its turn
gjes far towards dominating the China Sea and the coasts of Japan.    The
commercial position of British Columbia is not less commanding.    Besides its-
coaling facilities, it affords the shortest route between Europe and the East.    It
will soon be the highway to Australasia.    Its principal seaport must attract not
only a large portion of the China and Australian rapid transit trade, but must
necessarily secure'much of the commerce of the Pacific ocean.    In itself it will
be a large factor in the trade of the Dominion.    Its timber is unequalledin quantity, qualityor variety; its mines already discovered, and its great extent of
unexplored country, of which all that is known is that its geological conditions
speak of vast areas of rich mineral wealth* its waters containing the breeding
places of marvellous quantities of most valuable fish, combine to give Britis'h-
Columbia a value that has been little understood, and indeed hardly imagined,
except by those whose personal investigations had made them acquainted with
its resources.
The author of Greater Britain" says : "The position of the various stores
of coal in the Pacific is of extreme importance as an index to the
future distribution of power in that portion of the world; but it is
not enough to know where coal is to be found, without looking also to the
quantity, quality, cheapness of labour and facility of transport. In China and
Borneo there are extensive coal fields, but they lie ' the wrong way: for trade;
on the othernand, the California and Monte Diablo, San Diego and Monterey,
coal lies well, but is of bad quality. Tasmania has good coal, but in no
great quantity, and the beds nearest the coast are formed of inferior anthracite.
The three countries of the Pacific which must for a time at least rise to manufacturing greatness, are Japan, Vancouver Island and New South Wales; but
which of these will become wealthiest and most powerful depends mainly
on the amount of coal which they respectively possess, so situated as to be
cheaply raised. The dearness of labour under which Vancouver suffers will be
removed by the opening of the Pacific Railroad; but for the present New South
Wales has the cheapest labour, and upon her shores at Newcastle are abundant
stores of coal of good quality for manufacturing purposes, although for sea use
it burns 'dirtily' and too fast * * " The future of the Pacific shores is
inevitably brilliant, but it is not New Zealand, the centre of the water hemisphere,
which will occupy the position that England has taken on the Atlantic, but some
country such as Japan or Vancouver, jutting out into the ocean from Asia or
from America, as England juts out from Europe."
The mainland of British Columbia is about 760 miles long and 500 broad,
taking the extreme length and breadth of the parallelogram which it forms, and
it contains a superficial area variously estimated from 230,000 to 350,000square
miles. Of this a large portion is comprised in the mountains which in four
ranges traverse the greater length of the mainland of British Columbia.
The Rocky Mountains rise abruptly at their eastern base from the plain or
prairie region of Central Canada, and present often to the east almost perpendicular walls of rock.     They are composed not of a single upheaved ridge, but BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
2L
of a number of more or less nearly parallel ranges, which have a general
direction a little west of north, and a breadth of over sixty miles. The rivers
that flow into Hudson's Bay have their sources farther back among the sever. 1
ranges of the Rockies as we proceed northward. Between the 51st and
52nd parallels the ranges not only become more diffuse, but decrease rapidly
in height.
The surface of the country between the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific
Ocean may be divided into two subordinate mountain districts, flanking on
either side an irregular belt of high plateau country, which extends, with an
average width of about 100 miles, up the interior of the province to about 55.30
N. I.., and is, in fact, a northerly continuation of the great basin of Utah and
Nevada in the United States. On the eastern side of this high irregular
plateau are masses of mountains that run generally parallel to the Rocky Mountains, and are not well distinguished from them. This is one of the mountain
districts above-mentioned. The other is a mass of mountains on the western
side of the plateau. These latter are commonly called the coast range of British Columbia—a range uplifted later than the Cascade Mountains of Oregon,
and not of the same formation. The large Islands of Vancouver and Queen
Charlotte, which shelter the mainland coast, are above-water portions of a still
more westerly range of mountains now half submerged in the Pacific Ocean.
The Cascade Mountains of Oregon, though described in some accounts of the
province as running longitudinally through it, in fact merely enter the south-west
angle of British Columbia and disappear on the east side of the Fraser, about
150 miles up that river. In the extreme north of the province, as above said of
the Rocky Mountains, the mountains generally, except those of the coast range,
diminish in height, and the surface has a gentle northerly and north-easterly
slope.
The coast of British Columbia has been well described by the Earl of
Dufferin, who, while Governor-General of Canada, visited the Pacific province
in 1876, and in a speech at Victoria on his return from the north, said : " Such
" a spectacle as its coast line presents is not to be paralleled by any country in
" the world. Day after day for a whole week, in a vessel of nearly 2,000 tons,
ttwe threaded an interminable labyrinth of watery lanes and reaches that wound
" endlessly in and out of a network of islands, promontories, and peninsulas for
"thousands of miles, unruffled by the slightest swell from the adjoining ocean,
"and presenting at every turn an ever shifting combination of rock, verdure,
"forest, glacier, and snow-capped mountain-of unrivalled* grandeur andbeauty.
"When it is remembered that this wonderful system of navigation, equally well
" adapted to the largest line of battle-ship and the frailest canoe, fringes the
" entire seaboard of your province and communicates at points, sometimes more
"than a hundred miles from the coast, with a multitude of valleys • stretching
" eastward into the interior, while.at the same time it is furnished with innu-
"merable harbours on either hand, one is lost in admiration at the facilities for
" inter-communication which are thus provided for the future inhabitants of th£s
*' wonderful region." 22
BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
THE HARBOURS.
Of the niany harbours in this general description of the coast, the principal
are English Bay and Coal Harbour, at the entrance toBurrard Inlet a few miles
north of the Fraser River. Vancouver, the terminus of the Canadian Pacific
Railway, is situated between these harbours. Port Essington, at the
mouth of the Skeena, promises to be much used for the northern gold field
traffic, and Waddington Harbour, at the head of Bute Inlet, is said to be the
natural outlet for a large tract of valuable country in the interior. For stress of
weather there is a harbour anywhere on the coast, but there can be no stress of
weather in the placid waters of the Straits of Georgia. But numerous as are
the harbours along the coast their respective merits have all been duly weighed,
and all have been discarded in favor of the harbours in Burrard inlet, which
have been adopted by the railway. For the coast trade the others are all
valuable, but tides, islands and other considerations affecting mariners, are
against each of them for the ocean trade.
THE RIVERS.
Of the rivers of British Columbia the principal are the Fraser, the Columbia
and the Peace. The Fraser is the great water course of the province. It rises
in the northern part of the Rocky Mountains, runs for about 200 miles in two
branches, in a westerly direction, and then in one stream runs %lue south for
over 300 miles before turning to rush through the gorges of the coast range to
the Straits of Georgia. On its way it receives the waters of a number of other
streams, many of which would be rivers of some magnitude in other countries.
Amongst these are the northandsouth branches of the Thompson, the Chilicoten,
the Lilloet, the Nicola and numerous others, some of which are not yet named.
The Columbia is a large river rising in the southern part of the province,
in the neighbourhood of the Rocky Mountains, near the Kootenay Lake. It
runs due north beyond the 52nd degree of latitude, when it takes a sudden turn
and runs due south into Washington territory. It is this loop made by the
abrupt turn of the river that is known as the "great bend of the Columbia."
The Kootenay waters fall into the returning branch of this loop.
The Peace river rises some distance north of the north bend of the Fraser,
and flows eastwardly through the Rocky Mountains, draining the plains on the
other side. It more properly belongs to the district east of the mountains that
bears jts name. In the far north are the Skeena river and the Stikeen flowing
.into the Pacific, the latter being in the country of the latest gold mining
operations. .
The Fraser River is navigable for river boats to Yale, a small town 110
miles from the mouth ; and larger vessels, not drawing more than 18 feet, can
. ascend to New Westminster, situated about 15 miles from the mouth.
THE FRASER RIVER DISTRICT.
On either side of the river below New Westminster the country lying back
from the river is good arable land. It is subject to occasional overflow,but this
quickly subsides, and floods the land only for a short distance from the banks. BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
23
The whole of the lower Fraser country is much esteemed for farming. The
soil is rich and strong, and heavy yields are obtained without much labour.
Very large returns of wheat have; been got from land in this district—as much
as 62 bushels from a measured acre, 75 bushels of oats per acre, and hay that
yielded 3^ tons to the acre. Good prices are realized for all farm produce. In
some places near the river the land requires dyking. This part of British
Columbia is fairly well settled, but there is still ample room for new comers.
Those having a little money to use, and desirous of obtaining a ready made
farm, may find many to choose from. These settlements, many of which have
already adopted municipal government, are not all on the Fraser ; some are at
a distance from it on other streams.
The climate, already described in speaking of Vancouver Island, applies to all
districts west of the coast range of the mountains, and proves to be a great temptation to many who do not like the dry climate of California. The proximity of
the great river and the Canadian Pacific Railway are additional attractions. The
Thompson is navigable in parts ; that is from a point on the Canadian Pacific
Railway at Spences' Bridge, through Kamloops Lake to Clearwater on the North
Thompson, and through the South Thompson, and Shuswap Lake, to some distance up the Spallumcheen river. The Columbia is navigable between the point
at which the" Canadian^ Pacific Railway crosses the western side of the loop
which the"river makes—and Colville,  a town in the Washington Territory.
BURRARD  INLET,
VANCOUVER, THE CANADIAN   PACIFIC TERMINUS.
About two. or three miles from the delta formed by the double outfall of
the Fraser River, is Burrard Inlet, a land-loeked sheet of water accessible at
all times to vessels of all sizes, at the entrance to which are the harbours of Port
Moody, Coal Harbour and English Bay. It is 75 miles from Victoria and 35 from
Nanaimo on Vancouver Island. This, the most accessible and in several ways
best anchorage on the mainland, is the one selected by the Canadian Pacific
Railway at which to make their western terminus.
On a peninsula having Coal Harbour on the east and English ..Bay on the
west, the new city of Vancouver will arise. Rising gently from the sea to an
undulating plateau thickly wooded with evergreen giants-oftberconiferous tribe,
and withthemany tinted trees of deciduous growth, the site of the city of Vancouver
is surrounded by a country that cannot become commonplace, never monotonous
and of which the climate is milder and less varying than that of Devonshire and
more pleasant than that of Delaware. Backed in.the far distance by the
Olympian range, sheltered from the north by the mountains, of the coast, overlooked from the Southern sky by the glistening summit of Mount Baker, the
Titan of the Cascades, the single spot of snow eternal on that coast, and
sheltered from the ocean by the high lands of Vancouver island, it is protected
■on every side from nature's rougher moods, while enjoying a constant sea
"breeze and a view of the Straits of Georgia, whose tranquil waters
bound the city on two sides. The location is admirably suited for its
purpose.   The inlet affords unlimited space for sea-going ships, the land falls 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA,
gradually to the sea, rendering drainage easy, and the situation permits;
indefinite expansion of the city in two directions. The commencement
of the terminal city has already been made, and the Canadian Pacific
Railway Company are about to make large expenditures there in connection
with wharves, stations, workshops, and other adjuncts to their road. Business
will rapidly spring up now that the terminus has been definitely located, and
the railway opened. Building will be easy, for within the inlet there are already
two saw-ynills at work and timber in abundance ; within a few miles are hills
that may be quarried to an indefinite extent, and in the neighbourhood is clay
with which excellent bricks are made.
Concerning the future of the City of Vancouver there can be no question.
The superiority of Burrard Inlet as a port is very marked. The distance to,
the Atlantic and to England is much less by Vancouver than by San Francisco-
as the following figures will show:—
Miles.
Vancouver to Montreal       -------       2,905
Vancouver to N ew York via Brockville   -----   3,162
Vancouver to Boston, via Montreal      - 3,222
Vancouver to Liverpool, via Montreal     -----    5,713
San Francisco to New York -       - -       3,271
San Francisco to Boston ---..„.   3,471
Yokohama, Japan, to Liverpool, via San Francisco      «       -     11,281
Yokohama, Japan, to Liverpool, via Vancouver      ... 10,047
Adelaide, to Liverpool, via Vancouver ....     14,192
Adelaide, to Liverpool, via San Francisco       ...       - 14,696
Melbourne, to Liverpool, via Vancouver      - • I3»707
Melbourne, to Liverpool, via San Francisco    -       -       . I4>2II
Liverpool, to Hong Kong, via Vancouver I     11,649
"    t     via San Francisco   - 12,883
** Shanghai, via San Francisco  -       -       -       -     12,483
*' u via Vancouver   ----- 11,251
Yokohama, via San Francisco - 11,281
" "       via Vancouver   -       -       •       ••_..     - 10,047
DISTANCES FROM VANCOUVER.
Nautical M iles.
To Yokohama      --------- 4,334-
" Hiogo  4,680-
" Nagasaki  5,069.
" Shanghai  5,538
" Hong Kong     -   5,936
" Singapore  7,573,
" Calcutta -  8,987-
" Colombo     -----.-... 9,032
" Suez " 12,433,
" London, via Suez Canal       -----.. 15,735, BRITISH COLUMBIA.
25
It is, therefore, a shorter distance, by one thousand two hundred and thirty-
four miles, from Liverpool to Yokohama via Vancouver than by San Francisco.
It is 504 miles shorter from Liverpool to Adelaide by Vancouver than by San
Francisco, and one thousand two hundred and thirty-two miles shorter by the
Canadian Pacific Railway and Vancouver to Shanghai than to that port by the
Union Pacific and San Francisco. And so with the other ports of China, Australia
and the eastern seas. Nor is this the only consideration. The more advantageous course for ships sailing from China or Japan to San Francisco.is north
of the apparent direct route, so much so that seven or eight hundred miles are-
saved by using Vancouver instead of San Francisco.
Lieut. Maury, a celebrated hydrographer, formerly of the United States
Navy, says:—"The trade-winds place Vancouver Island on the way side of the
"road from China and Japan to San Francisco so completely that a trading
" vessel under canvas to the latter place would take the same route as if she was
"bound for Vancouver Island—so that all return cargoes would naturally come
" there in order to save two or three weeks, besides risks and expenses." I
must be understood that this advantage, equivalent to the distance between
Vancouver Island and San Francisco, viz., about 700 miles, is independent of
and in addition to the saving of direct distance. The advantage, too, that was
described as attaching to Esquimalt, viz., the practicability of a fogbound vessel
sounding her way into port from the open sea, is common to Burrard Inlet,
harbours, but not to San Francisco.
The saving of time and distance is the peremptory demand of the age; the
combined advantages of Vancouver necessitate its becoming the halfway house-
between Europe and the Antipodes.
It is not intended in this pamphlet to speak in detail of the vast and generally unknown interior of British Columbia; for the present it will be sufficient
to deal with that portion of the province in the vicinity of the great rivers and
the Canadian Pacific Railway, and such exceptional districts as may require
mention.
ALONG THE LINE OF THE CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY.
At Yale, a small town about 90 miles from the head of Burrard inlet, and
at" the entrance to the mountain gorges through which the Fraser river rushes
as if it had torn a passage to reach the sea, a change m the characteristics of
the country appears. From this point to the Gold Range, about 200 miles by
rail, the rainfall is slight and uncertain. Agriculture is carried on by means of
irrigation, a mode preferred by many as enabling the cultivator to regulate the
growth of his crops, and certainly possessing advantages after the first slight.
outlay has been incurred.
Fifty-seven miles north of Yale, on the line of the railway, is Lytton, a small
town, owing its existence to a now washed out gold bar in its vicinity. Here
the Thompson flows into the Fraser, and from this valley a large district of
•^able and pastoral land begins.     In fact over very considerable areas, far BRITISH COLUMBIA.
-exceeding in the aggregate the arable areas of the coast region, the interior is,
in parts, a farming country up to 2,500 or 3,000feet, so far as the soil is concerned,"
and the soil has been proved to be as fertile as the best on the coast.   Cultivation
is however restricted, as a rule, to the valleys and terraces.   The soils consist
-commonly of mixtures of clay and sand, varying with the character of the local
formation, and of white silty deposits.    They everywhere yield large crops of
.all the cereals, vegetables and roots, when favorably situated.    The climate is
much hotter in summer than the climate of the coast regions.   Tomatoes^!
melons and cucumbers thrive in the open air in most parts.     Very fine fruit I
can be grown.    Now that access to the markets on the Eastern side of the
mountains has been opened by the Canadian Pacific Railway, fruit growing will
become one of the principal industries both in this and other parts of thef
province.     There is an extensive and steadily increasing demand for those
kinds of fruits that can be raised in great abundance in British Columbia.
As a grazing country this wide sweep of territory is unrivalled.    Cattle-and I
sheep that feed on bunch-grass, which is the pasturage of this region, produce I
the best beef and mutton on-the continent.    When eaten down close byover-
.grazing the grass dies out for a time, and its place is taken by a peculiar kind
of sage which is excellent food though inferior to the bunch-grass.   Taken from
this pasturage cattle at first refuse to eat other fodder.    In the districts where
the heavier rainfall occurs, the bunch-grass is supplanted by red-top, blue-joint
and other more familiar grasses.   The bunch-grass country is equally valuable
for horses; it affords them excellent pasturage during the winter, for though J
the outside may be frost killed the heart is sweet, and the animals are kept in
good health.   There is a steady demand- for British Columbian horses in the
settlements on the east side of the Rocky Mountains,
UP THE FRASER.
There are numerous small settlements in this district, particularly up the
valley of the Fraser, on the Lillooet, and between the Fraser and Kamloops
Lake. In summer a steamer runs on the Fraser from Soda Creek, 150 miles
north of Lytton, to Quesnelle, sixty miles farther up the river, the surrounding
country, which is traversed by the government waggon road, producing heavy
crops of grain and fruit. Beyond this is the Cariboo country, from which a
great deal of gold has been taken, i860 and the following few years a number
■ of gold bearing creeks were discovered in the Cariboo district, great numbers of
men flocked to the place, and very large quantities of gold were taken out, but
'the difficulties of transport were so serious that but little machinery could be
taken in, and the work was mainly confined to placer mining. Rich veins exist,
and with the use of proper machinery, which can now be taken into the country,
large results will be obtained. Westward of the Fraser lies the Chilicoten
•country, where there are some fine rolling prairies of large extent, but they are
at present out of the path of travel, and are not likely to invite much settlement
while quantities of excellent land nearer the railway remain to be taken up.   BRITISH COLUMBIA.
27
KAMLOOPS AND THE SOUTHERN  DISTRICT
About 40 miles north of Lytton the Canadian Pacific Railway turns due
•east to Kamloops, a thriving town situated on the South Thompson, a few miles
above its junction with Kamloops Lake. Kamloops was originally a Hudsons
Bay Company's post, and round this a prosperous little town has grown up. It is
in a good grazing neighbourhood, and has been used by the H. B..C0. as a horse
breeding district. The country round is well settled, a large number of farmers
having established themselves in the neighbourhood of the lake, and on the
banks of the Thompson, within the last two or three years. This district has
many attractions, but in the lateral valleys, as yet mostly unoccupied, are tracts
of land equally advantageous for farming. The lake is 25 miles long, and a
steamer runs from Kamloops town to Savona's ferry at the other end. South
of this is a hilly, well-timbered country, in which large numbers of cattle are
raised. In parts it is well watered with lakes, marshes and small streams, and
in the Okanagan and Spallumcheen valleys, the soil is a deep, clayey loam,
producing good crops of cereals and roots without irrigation. The climate of
this southern part of the province is healthy, with moderate winters and with
plenty of timber for the use of settlers. A small steamer runs on the Spallumcheen river through the Shuswap lakes, lying between Kamloops and the
mountains, and down the South Thompson to Kamloops.
There is room for many settlers in this southern area, and locations are plenty
where good soil, excellent pasturage and an ample supply of timber are to be
found. This comprises Pine, Spruce, Cedar, Hemlock, Balsam and other kinds.
On the high lands that back the valleys forest succeeds forest, the trees of which
attain the enormous growth for which this province is so famous. These places
like many other desirable localities in British Columbia, have hitherto been
reached only by the adventurous who, facing hardships and difficulties
before which ordinary men shrink, have secured homesteads and founded
settlements that are now within a day's journey from the line of railway. In the
■ region that lies between the Shuswap Lakes and the coast range, there are two
distinct climates, the dry and the humid; the one to the north of the Thompson
and Fraser, and the other between the 49** and 50^ parallel, each possessing
itS distinctive attraction to settlers. A short distance east of the Shuswap lakes
the Canadian Pacific Railway enters the mountain passes of the Gold or Columbia
range. This is another region of magnificent timber. From the foot of the
mountains up to a great height the forest growth is remarkable for its luxuriance
and the size of its trees. The Fir and Cedar attain dimensions far exceeding
anything known in the east of America, and only equalled by those found on
the west side of the coast range. Their value is enhanced by proximity to the
prairies where there is an ever growing demand for this species of timber.
THE VALLEY OF THE COLUMBIA.
Passing east from Shuswap Lake along the line of the road, there is a sudden
•change of climate from the region where rain is seldom seen to that where it falls
frequently through all seasons of the year, except in the depth of winter, when
at times it becomes snow.   This is in the gold range and in the valley of the 28
BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
Columbia and its tributary streams, including Kootenay Lake and river.    This,
south-easf corner of the province is remarkable for its pasturage lands.    It is a.
hilly country with rich grass lands and good soil.    There is a great deal of
prairie land, and about an equal quantity of forest in which Pine, Cypress and
Cedar grow luxuriantly, as well as  Birch and  other deciduous trees.    An
excellent tract of farming country is a belt along the Kootenay river, varying
from two to ten miles m< width.    Here the soil is light and bunch-grass grows.
There is a series of lakes near the river where the valley, which is about fifteen
miles wide, has a heavy soil, producing grain and vegetables of the ordinary
kind in abundance.    Despite the falls that have to be passed, salmon from the
Columbia make their way in great numbers into the Kootenay.    The ordinary
brook trout are plentiful in the mountain streams.    The country produces some
of the best timber in the province, and is a good district for large game.
Considerable placer mining has been done in the Kootenay district, and
recently some rich quartz ledges have been discovered. Preparations are being
made for working these and for further explorations. Steamers run on the
Kootenay river and lake, and a company has been chartered to construct a
railway to connect these with the Columbia river, and so with the Canadian
Pacific Railway, which crosses that stream in two places, and with the towns in
Washington Territory.
An English company is engaged in a scheme for widening the outlet of the
Kootenay Lake, with a view to reclaiming about 40,000 acres of first-class
alluvial land, on which they intend to form a colony of ex-officers and other
selected persons. This colony will have many social charms, but is not necessary
to wait for the reclamation of land to procure a location for such a settlement.
This district is very attractive for various reasons. It is well timbered, yet a
splendid grazing country; it has a sufficient rainfall, yet is out of the constant
rainfall peculiar to the mountains further north; it is a good game country,
produces cereals and roots in abundance, and is within easy reach of rail.
Gold and silver have been found and mined in this southern as well as in the
northern parts of the province, and within certain defined but very extensive
areas, new discoveries may at any moment be made.
THE BIG BEND OF THE COLUMBIA.
Between ffieGoldRange and the Selkirksis the west side of the Columbia
river's great loop that extends north above the 52nd parallel of latitude, or two*
hundred miles from its rise. This bend drains a gold region that hitherto hay
been difficult of access, but which is to be further explored during the present
season. The Columbia is reached from the west at what is generally known
as the second crossing, and the railway then traverses the Selkirk range and'
again crosses the Columbia at Donald, about 80 miles from the western branch
to the loop.
This "Big Bend" country is one of the distinct peculiarites of British
Columbia. It is unsurpassed on the continent for its rugged grandeur, its
wealth of timber, inestimably valuable to the great prairie region of the East,,
its scenery, and its minerals, to which clues have been found in many places^ BRITISH COLUMBIA.
29
and which will yield millions of money. It comprises in its reach the two
great ranges, the Gold and the Selkirk, and on its eastern side the main chain
of the Rocky Mountains. The highest peaks of these chains rise to about
16,000 feet, the lower plateaus and the valleys of the streams that rush from
the mountains into the Columbia are filled with cedar of enormous size, fir,
spruce and white pine, and along the streams are Cottonwood, birch and
aspen. Within sight of the railway, or at least within easy reach of it, is timber
enough to supply the treeless portions of the Saskatchewan and Alberta plains
with lumber for ages.
Gold has been successfully worked to the north of the Bend, and many
routes into the mountains, hitherto practically inaccessible on account of the
difficulty of transport, have been opened by the Canadian Pacific Railway.
The Illecillewaet river, which comes roaring down from the Selkirks to the
second crossing of the Columbia, has been explored and gold indications discovered there, as also on the neighbouring Beaver Creek. This region is one
offrequent rains, and snow in winter, resulting in a luxuriant growth of vegeta-
tation in the valleys and up the mountain sides.
It is, to the traveller, the grandest day's travel between Quebec and Vancouver ; to the company building the road it has offered problems in engineering and construction that only fixed determination to succeed could have over-
•come. Difficulties that at times have brought 5,000 labourers to one place
.and entailed a fight with nature in which doubt, hesitation, or parsimony would
iiave produced failure, have been met and successfully overcome. It was an
appalling work to undertake, and the people who in the future may listlessly
regard the two modest looking lines of steel that run along the sides of the
;. hills, through the valleys and occasionally plunge into one side of a mountain"
to come out at the other, will not realize the cost in money and energy that has
been necessary to place them there.
if|»; THE GOLD  FIELDS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
It would be difficult to indicate any defined section of British Columbia in
which gold has not been, or will not be, found. The first mines discovered
were in the southern part of the Province, the next in the Cariboo district,
which is the centre of British Columbia, and at the present time the richest
diggings in work are the Cassiar mines in the far.north. Before the close of
the year new mines will have been opened elsewhere.
Gold has been found on the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains, the summits of which are the eastern limit of the Province; on Queen Charlotte islands, at
the extreme west, and on every range of mountains that intervene between these
two extreme points. Thus from Kootenay in the south to Cassiar in the north
and from the plains of the Saskatchewan in the east to the last ridge of land on
the west coast of America, the existence of the precious metals has been proved.
Hitherto the work has been practically placer mining, a mere scratching of the
-surface, yet nearly fifty millions of dollars have been scraped out of the rivers
and creeks. Bars )have been washed out and abandoned, without sufficient
effort being made to discover the quartz vein from which the streams received —
30
BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
their gold. Abandoned diggings have been visited after a lapse of years, and
new discoveries made in the neighbourhood. To the inaocessibleness of the
country this superficial working has been due. The Government at great cost-
built a wagon road from Yale to Lillooet and Cariboo, but this proved to be
only of moderate convenience. Along the path of the explorer no animals-
could pass ; that which he required he earned on his back.
The railway now pierces the auriferous ranges ; men and material can be
carried into the heart of the mountains and with each succeeding season fresh
gold deposits will be found, or the old ones traced to the qnartz rock, and
capital and adequate machinery be brought to bear upon them. There are
hundreds of miles open to the poor prospector, and there are, or shortly will be^
numerous openings for the capitalist. To the agricultural settler the existence
of gold is of double significance. He is certain of a market for his produce, lie
is not debarred from mining a little on his own account, and he is never
deprived of the hope that he will one day become the fortunate discoverer of a
vein that may place him " beyond the dreams of avarice."
In giving evidence before a committee of the House of Commons, a
member of the Government Geological Survey said,—" After having travelled
" over 1,000 miles through British Columbia, I can say with safety that there-
" will yet be taken out of her mines wealth enough to build the Pacific railway."
This means many millions. Another gentleman in the same service said that,.
" it may soon take its place as second to no other country in North America,'*'
which is even stronger language than the other.
In i860, Antler Creek (on the Fraser) yielded at one time not less than-
$10,000 per day.    On one claim §1,000 was obtained by a single day's work.
In 1862 a more scientific system of working was adopted ; some companies-
were formed, shafts were sunk and professional mining engineers employed^
The gold returns for 1870, for which year an official report was made, from the.
mines of Columbia, Yale, Silionet, Lytton, Cariboo and Lillooet were $1,333,745
in addition to large quantities of gold carried away by individual miners and
purchasers of gold dust. Altogether from 1862 to 1871 gold to the value of
$16,650,036 was shipped from British Columbia by the Banks, and it is estimated that at least $60,000 more was taken out by miners and others. For the
year 1874 the export in gold from the Province was $1,072,422.
Stickeen river, rising in the north-west of Alaska, has been worked
successfully since 1875, and continues to yield well.
It must be clear that a Province from which over fifty million dollars have
been taken mainly by scratching in the shallow places of the few rivers which
were accessible in the former unopened state of the country, will in the altered
condition of things yield very much larger amounts.     The era of scientific:
mining in British Columbia is yet to come.
GOLD-BEARING ROCKS.
\ The Geologist already quoted, describes the formations containing?
the gold of British Columbia as follows : " In British Columbia, a belt of
rocks probably corresponding to the gold rocks of California, has already been r
BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
31
proved to be richly auriferous, and it may reasonably be expected that the discovery and working    of rich metalliferous deposits of other kinds will follow.
Promising indications of many are already known.    With a general similarity
of topographical features in  the disturbed belt of the west coast,  a great
uniformity in the lithological character of the rocks is found to follow, so that
while a comparatively short distance from south-west to north-east may show
considerable lithological change, great distances may be traversed from southeast to north-avest and little difference noted.    In  British Columbia, so far as
geological explorations have yet gone, they have tended to show a general
resemblance of the rocks to those of the typical sections of California and the
Western States, and though metalliferous veins, individually, are very inconstant-,
as compared with rock formations, belts characterized by metalliferous deposits^,
and dependent on the continuance of some set of beds, are apt to be very much-
more constant"
"The general distribution of alluvial gold over the Province may indicate
that several different rock formations produce it in greater or less quantity,.
though it is only where \ coarse' or ' heavy' gold occurs that the original
auriferous veins must he supposed to exist in the immediate vicinity of the
deposit. Colours, as the finer particles of gold are called, travel far along the
beds of the rapid rivers of this country before they are reduced by attrition to-
invisible shreds ; and the northern and other systems of distribution of drift
material have, no doubt, also assisted in spreading the fine gold. The gold
formation proper, however, of the country, consists of a series of talcose and
chloritic, blackish or greenish-grey slates or schists, which occasionally become
micaceous, and generally show evidence of greater metamorphism than the
gold-bearing slates of California. Their precise geological horizon is not yet
determined."
Silver has been discovered in one or two places, and its further discovery
will probably show that it follows the same rules as in Nevada and Colorado.
The best known argentiferous locality is that about six miles from Hope, on the •
Fraser river. The lodes probably traverse an outlyer of the lower cretaceous
formation, which caps the Cascade crystalline rocks of the region. They occur
at an elevation of 5,000 feet.
Great iron deposits exist on Taxada island, off the east shore of Vancouver, and copper deposits have been found at several points on the oast of
the mainland, Howe Sound, Jarvis Inlets, the Queen Charlotte islands, and
other points. Mercury, Cinnabar and Platinum have been found in small
quantities during the process of washing gold.
COAL ON   THE   MAINLAND.
Several seams of bituminous coal have been discovered on the mainland
and some veins have been worked in the New Westminster and Nicola districts.
Although indications of coal have been found in several parts, but little has been
done towards development or further discovery. The large quantities on Vancouver Island of such excellent quality and so well situated for shipment have
probably discouraged the search for coal in the interior.    But very little doubt. 32
BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
exists as to the discovery and working of other beds in future years.    The same
formations exist on the mainland as on the island, and the New Westminster
and Nicola coal-beds are probably small portions only of large areas.    Nanaimo
may ere long find a rival on the mainland.
Anthracite coal, comparing favourably with that of Pennsylvania, has been
found in seams of six feet and three feet, in Queen Charlotte islands. Fragments
of Anthracite have been picked up on .several parts of Vancouver island, and this
taken with the fact that the island except on its eastern coast is almost a terra
incognita, would seem to indicate that in course of time the seams found in
Queen Charlotte islands will be traced to Vancouver.
And attention to the significance of British Columbian  coal discoveries
-cannot be drawn in a better manner than by quoting the remarks of Lord
Dufferin on the subject.    " When it is further remembered that inexhaustible I
'" supplies of iron are found in juxtaposition with your coal, no one can blame
" you for regarding the beautiful land in which you live as having been especially
" favoured by Providence in the distribution of its natural gifts."
THE FISHERIES   OF THE   WEST COAST.
An important part of the future trade of British Columbia will arise from
the wealth of fish in the waters of her coasts.    Of these the most  valuable at
present is the salmon.     It is difficult  to speak accurately of their appearance
"in the Fraser and Columbia rivers, and the smaller streams that flow into them I
without being suspected of exaggeration, and to quote the accounts given by "
travellers would make matters worse.     During the  season of 1885 the price
paid at the canneries on the Fraser was three cents (d i}4) per fish, and for
some short time, only  a halfpenny was given for each salmon.    They must "
•therefore have been fairly numerous.     The Delta cannery put up 6,600 cases ■
in six days ; each case containing 48 tins of 1 lb. each.    Another firm packed
5,000 cases or nearly a million and a quarter lbs. of salmon.     In  1876 there
were three canneries in British Columbia; there are now thirteen.
The greater number are on the Fraser river but there are some in the far
north. The salmon make their way for great distances up the rivers. The
.salmon of the Columbia fill the streams of the Kootenay ; those of the Fraser
arefound sbchundred miles in the interior. There are several kinds of this fish,
and they arrive from the sea at different dates. The silver salmon begin to arrive
in March, or early in April, and continue till the end of June Their weight
is from four to twenty-five pounds, but they have been caught weighing over
seventy. The second kind are caught from June to August, and are considered
the finest. The average size is only five to six pounds. The third, coming in
August, average seven pounds, and are an excellent fish. The humpback
salmon comes every second year, lasting from August till Winter, weighing from
six to fourteen pounds. The hookbill arrives in September and remains till
winter, its weight ranges from twelve to forty-five pounds.
The Government of Canada have taken some pains to acquire accurate
information concerning these fisheries, and a statement published by them gives
the names of several other classes of fish.    Amongst these is the oolachan, a BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
33
valuable delicate fish, about seven or eight inches long, which comes to the
shore in spring. It enters Fraser river in May in great numbers. Farther
north it is fatter. It is extremely oily and is caught by the natives in great
numbers, who extract the oil and use it for food grease, as some tribes do whale
oil. These fish are also dried and then burned for candles, being on that
account known as " candle-fish." The oil has been bottled and exported to
some extent, and is pronounced superior to cod-liver oil for medicinal purposes.
This fish is most abundant in British Columbia. It comes in spring in great
numbers to the Fraser.
The black cod, a superior food fish about which little has heretofore been
known, abounds from Cape Flattery northwards. The fish is very fat
and oily, some of the native tribes catching it for its oil in the place of oolachan.
Some experiments in salting the black cod and sending it to eastern markets
have been highly successful.
Cod banks, yielding fish considered to be the same as the Eastern cod, are
regularly fished by Americans off the coast of Alaska, and the same fish,
probably, is in British Columbian waters. Halibut are abundant, of fine quality,
and large size. They are found in the inner waters, on the banks off the west
coast of Vancouver island, and on many banks farther to the north. Sturgeon,
up to 1,000 lbs. in weight, are numerous in the Fraser and some of the larger
rivers. The surf smelt is almost as numerous as the oolachan, and about the
same size—an excellent table fish. The very common smaller smelt is prized
at table, but the flesh is softer than that of the surf smelt and oolachan.
In 1878 a few shad were planted in the Sacramento river, and now this fine
fish is occasionally caught in the waters of Puget Sound, British Columbia, and
Alaska.
A fish closely resembling the common herring is very abundant. In the
interior, besides the brook and lake trout, the whitefish, so justly esteemed in
the Eastern Provinces, is found in the central and northern parts of British
Columbia. Next, however, to the salmon the most valuable sea product is the
fur seal—not found on the Atlantic coast—which has yielded nearly $200,000 a
year.
The native oysters of the province are small, but the large eastern oyster
probably would thrive. The cultivation of the latter has already been undertaken in our waters on a considerable scale. The eastern lobster should be
introduced. Its food is much the same as that of the crabs, which are numerous
on the coasts of the province, and the lobster, like the oyster, would be of great
value commercially.
The fisheries, however, have been worked only for the salmon and for them
enly in a very limited manner. There was no railway to take the cured salmon
to the large cities of the East; men would not embark capital in fishing boats
and nets to work the waters on the west coast of Vancouver while all that
could be sold might be caught from canoes in the Fraser river. But
those qualified to form an opinion think that in the deeper waters of
the west coast there are banks where cod   will  be taken in quantities not 34
BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
less than those of the Atlantic. What these fisheries may prove to be it is
difficult to say; it may, however, be taken for granted that with the new and
speedy way to market now open, such a field for the profitable use of capital
will not be left idle. The country is too inviting as a place of residence to fail in
attracting men who have the means and the energy to make their own fortunes^
The combination of a few men each of small means secures that which in the
older East is reserved for millionaires. There are scores of men in the fishing
trade of England and Scotland who struggle year after year for an uncertain
percentage, who, in British Columbia, would find competency in a few yearsr
working, and hundreds who are no richer at the end of December than they
were at the beginning of January, who would experience a very different condition of life on the coast of British Columbia.
This coast is peculiarly a land for Englishmen. The climate of
Devonshire and .Cornwall, without the excessive rains, is reproduced along
the Straits of Georgia, and the west coast of Vancouver ; the colder climate of.
Scotland is repeated from Queen Charlotte Sound to Alaska. These coasts,
afford wide fields for occupation and dispense reward with less niggard hand
than in the older home where every loaf has many claimants. There is no rent
to pay, no leave to ask to run a boat ashore. The land is his who occupies it.
A man who in the British seas toils year in and year out for others may own
his own home, his piece of land and his boat, by no man's favour.
The chief consumer of British Columbia's salmon is Great Britain, but how
small does the quantity taken, some six million pounds per annum, appear to I
be when the vastness of the market, and the demand for cheap food is
remembered. With a properly ^organized system the waters of British
Columbia could feed the large cities of England with food that the poorer
classes never taste, and a good profit could be made in the business.
To the continent of Europe no British Columbian fish yet finds its way.
The markets of Europe, which take such enormous quantities of American fish,I
remain  untouched, and  though  competition  with  the  eastern coasts in the
coarser fish might not  be possible, in salmon the case would be   different.
THE  FOREST TREES.
It will be gathered from what has been already said that British Columbia
is rich in timber. In this respect 'there is no other province of Canada, no
country in Europe and no state in North America, that compares with it.
From the edge of the sea to the middle plateaus of the Rocky Mountains the
country abounds in timber. There are prairies here and there, valleys free
from wood, and many openings in the thickest country, which in the aggregate
make many hundred thousand acres of land on which no clearing is required.
But near each open spot is a luxurant growth of wood. A settler may be lavish
as he pleases ; there is enough and to spare.
The finest growth is on the coast, and in the Gold and Selkirk ranges.
Millions of millions of feet of lumber, locked up for centuries past in the
heart of the mountains, have now become available for commerce. The
Canadian Pacific Railway passes through a part of this, and crosses streams ARTOTYPE, PATENTED.
CANADA  BANK NOTE CO.,   L1M., MONTREAL.
DOUGLAS  FIR—" PRINCESS LOUISE."
AT PACIFIC  TERMINUS, CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY.
au*fcL_j j  BRITISH COLUMBIA.
35
that will bring untold quantities to the mills and railway stations. The
Government Department of Agriculture has published a catalogue and
authoritative deseriptiomof the trees of British Columbia/vim which/theseveral
species are ranked as follows:—
Douglas Spruce (otherwise called " Douglas Fir," " Douglas Pine," and,
commercially, "Oregon*Pine"). A well known tree. It is straight, though
coarse-grained, exceedingly tough, rigid, and bears great transverse strain.
For lumber of all sizes, and planks, it is in great demand. Few woods equal it
for frames, bridges, ties, and strong work generally, and for shipbuildings Its
length, straightness and strength especiaiiy*-frt-it for masts and spars. Masts*
specially ordered have been shipped, 130 feet long and 42 inches in diameter,
octagonally hewn. For butter and other boxes that require to be sweet and
•odourless, it is very useful. There is a large export of the Douglas spruce to
Australia, South America, China, etc. Woodmen distinguish this species into
two kinds—red and yellow—but these are not separated in manufacture or in
scientific nomenclature The one has a red, hard, knotty heart; the other is
less hard, and with a feeble tinge of yellow—the latter is supposed to be somewhat less lasting, though both are very durable. The Douglas spruce grows
best near the coast, close to the waters of the bays and inlets. There
it frequently exceeds eight feet in diameter, at a considerable height, and
reaches 200 to 250 feet in length, forming prodigious, dark forests. Abounds
on mainland coast, as far north as about the north end of Vancouver Island *.
also in Vancouver Island, but not on Queen Charlotte Island. In the arid
southern interior of the province, grows on the higher uplands, and here and
there, in groves, on low lands, where the temperature, rainfall, etc., are suitable.
Occurs abundantly on the Columbia, and is scattered irregularly in northern
portions of the interior.
The Western Hemlock occurs everywhere in the vicinity of coast, and up
the Fraser and other rivers to the limit of abundant rainfall; reappears on the
Selkirk and Gold ranges ; on the coast (particularly Queen Charlotte Islands),
reaches 200 feet in height. Yields a good wood; bark has been used in
tanning.    Is like the eastern hemlock, but larger.
Englemaniis Spruce (very like " white spruce "), probably will be of much
economic value,—tall, straight, often over three feet in diameter—wood good
and durable. Is in the eastern part of province, and interior plateau (except
dry southern portion), what the Douglas spruce is on coast. Forms dense
forests in the mountains ; believed to be the tree of the dense groves in upper
Alpine valleys of Rocky Mountains near 49th parallel. Also borders nearly all
the streams and swamps in northern interior, between about 2,500 and 3,500
feet in elevation.
Mensies" Spruce chiefly clings to coast—perhaps may exist in humid
Tegions of Gold and Selkirk ranges—a very large tree, wood white and free—
useful for general purposes, but not considered equal to Douglas spruce.
The Great Silver Fir, so far as known, is specially a coast tree, but may
reappear in south-east of the province It grows to a great size, but the wood
of the coast growth is said to be soft and liable to decay rapidly 36
BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
Balsam Spruce appears to take the place of the last-named in the region.
east of coast range, except in diy southern interior. Abounds on Gold and
Selkirk ranges and east of McLeod's Lake. Occurs in scattered groves in
northern portion of interior plateau. Often exceeds two feet in diameter ; has-
been used for mining and ordinary local purposes.
Williamson?s Alpine Hemlock and scattered trees of the Abies Amabilis
need not be mentioned, as probably they are too scarce and grow too high up-
to be of use.
Among the pines may be mentioned the familiar tree of the eternal dry
region of the mainland (where the Douglas spruce seldom occurs on the low
lands.) This is known locally as " red pine," " yellow pine," or " pitch pine,"
and is generally considered to be a variety of the heavy yellow pine (Pinus
Ponderosa) of California and Oregon. It grows in open groves in the valleys,
almost to the exclusion of other trees, and on the slopes up to about 3,000 feet,
where it is replaced by the Douglas spruce and Western Scrub pine. A very
handsome tree; half the shaft branchless; bark reddish brown; seldom
exceeds four feet in diameter. Is sawn into lumber, and used for building and
general purposes, locally. The lumber looks well, but is not equal to Douglas,
spruce lumber, being more brittle and less durable when exposed to the weather.
The White Pine ("Mountain Pine"), though loving elevations, and
occurring, so far as known, rather in groves than forests, probably will become
an article of export. The wood resembles that of the eastern white pine, and
may be used for the same purposes. It is found in the Columbia region—the
best trees being high up—also on the Gold range and about Shuswap and
Adams lakes, and scattered in all portions of the southern portion of the Coast
range where there is sufficient rainfall; also in the interior of Vancouver
Island, but not, so far as known, in Queen Charlotte Island. On the coast, the
white pine reaches 60 to 80 feet, and a diameter of 2 to 3 feet. It is said to be
larger on the Columbia.
The Black Pine (" Bull" or " Western Scrub " Pine) occurs everywhere in
the province, at varying heights, according to the local climate, but covers great
areas in the northern part of the interior. There are a "coast" variety and an
"interior" variety. The interior variety, which often forms dense groves,
reaches 60 or even 100 feet in height, but seldom exceeds a diameter of two-
feet. The wood is white and fairly durable. The coast variety is much less
valuable.
The White-barked Pine, so far as observed, grows in inaccessible situations,
and is small. '
The Western Cedar ("Giant Cedar," or " Red Cedar"), is a valuable forest
tree. The wood is of a yellowish or reddish colour, and very durable ; splits-
easily into plank ; has been used chiefly for shingles and rails. Abounds in the
Columbia river region ; on slopes of Selkirk and Gold ranges ; at northeastern part of Shuswap lake, and portion of North Thompson valley ; unknown
in dry interior plateau ; reappears abundantly along the coast and lower part;
of rivers of Coast range.    Occurs sparingly in northern interior.    On  coast, i» r
BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
&t
often found iooto 150 feet high and 15 feet thick,  but  the largest trees are
generally hollow.
Yellow Cypress (commonly known as " Yellow Cedar "). A strong, free,
fine-grained wood; pale golden yellow tint; slight resinous smell; very
durable ; has been used in boat-building and for ornamental purposes ; often
exceeds 6 feet in diameter. Occurs chiefly on coast. Generally a few hundred
feet above sea level on southern part of coast; farther north, descends.
Occurs on mainland coast, also in interior of Vancouver island, and abounds on
west coast of Queen Charlotte islands.
Western Larch (sometimes called " Tamarac"), occurs in Rocky Mountains
^and valleys of Selkirk and Gold ranges where there is sufficient rainfall.
.Stretches westward nearly to head of Okanagan lake. Not found on coast.
A large tree, yielding a strong, coarse, durable wood, probably good for ties, in
^absence of Douglas spruce. There is another species of larch, in the south-east
of the province, of which litde is known.
The Maple, a valuable hardwood, sometimes well adapted for cabinet-
making. Found on Vancouver and adjacent islands, also sparingly on mainland
•coast up to 550, and on Queen Charlotte islands. Occasionally attains a
•diameter of 4 feet The Vine Maple, seldom over a foot thick, yielding a very
tough, strong, white wood, suitable for helves, seems to be strictly confined to
coast, and does not go far north. The Yew is found in Vancouver island and
on opposite mainland shores. It goes up the Fraser above Yale. Few, if any,
in Queen Charlotte islands. Very tough, hard wood, of a beautiful rose colour.
Crab Apple occurs along all the coasts as a small tree or shrub. Wood very
hard, but liable to check ; takes a good polish and withstands great wear in
mill machinery. Alder is found two feet thick on the Lower Fraser, and
occurs as a small tree along the whole coasts. A good furniture wood ; easily
worked and takes a good polish. There are two birches—the Western Birch
and the Paper or Canoe Birch, but their range and value are not much known.
Both" occur in a number of localities. The "Western Birch" is a small tree,
found in the Columbia region, and belongs generally to the dry interior flora.
The " Canoe Birch" is found sparingly in Vancouver island and on the Lower
Fraser, but is common, and larger, on the Upper Fraser, and in the Peace
river district. The only Oak in the province, so far as known (except a few
trees above Yale), is on Vancouver island—chiefly the south-eastern portion of
it—and sparingly at places along the east coast ; a few at north end. Reaches
a diameter of 3 feet, and a height of about 70 feet, and yields a hard wood, but
mot very tough, which has been used for building purposes and in making kegs.
Many of the trees are scrubby. The Dogwood, on the mainland coast opposite
Vancouver island and on Vancouver island, reaches the dimensions of a small
tree. The wood is close-grained and hard. Another close-grained wood, heavy
^nd resembling box, is furnished by the handsome evergreen Arbutus, which
reaches 50 feet in height and about 20 inches in diameter, but occurs often as
a shrub. It is found on Vancouver island and neighbouring islands, never far
from the sea.    Not found north of Seymour Narrows. 38
BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
The Aspen Poplar abounds over the whole interior, and reaches a thickness-
of two feet. In the dry southern interior, occurs along borders of streams and
on the higher plateaux. In the north, grows everywhere, preferring the most'
fertile soil.
There are, it is considered, three other varieties of poplars in the province,,
all of which are commonly included under the name of " cottonwood." They
attain sometimes a diameter of 4 to 5 feet. The coast " Cottonwood ' may not-
extend above Yale on the Fraser. It is the same wood that has been largely
used in Puget Sound to make staves for sugar barrels required in San Francisco.
The other kinds occur in the valleys throughout the interior of the Province
The Mountain Ash, as a small tree or bush, has been noticed in th«±
interior ; and the Juniper, or " Red Cedar," commonly known as " Pencil
Cedar," has been observed on the east coast of Vancouver island, and, in a tree
form, with a diameter of about a foot, along the shores of Kamloops, Francois
and other lakes in the interior.
The following list comprises a general summary of the trees and shrubs
met with :—
Oak, red or swamp maple, elder, trailing arbutus, crab apple, hazel, red
elder, willow, balsam, poplar, various species of pine, balsam fir, cedar, barberry,
wild red cherry, wild blackberry, yellow plum, choke cherry, black and red
raspberry, white i*aspberry, prickly purple raspberry, prickly gooseberry, swamp'
gooseberry, several kinds of currants, bear berries, red elder, mooseberry, snow-
berry, blueberry, bilberry, cranberry, whortleberry, red and white mulberry,.
THE UMBER REGION.
Between the mountains and the sea the Canadian Pacific Railway passes
through many forests of these valuable woods, and brings within reach of
lumbering operations, vast additional quantities growing in the neighbourhood
of those streams that fall into the Columbia, the Thompson, and the Fraser.
"The treeless prairies"  is  a phrase that loses significance, other than the
facilities it suggests to agriculturists, when describing the plains in contiguity to-
British Columbia.    Timber on the western plains of Canada will now be
obtainable at considerably less prices than those paid in the Western States..
And such timber will be of a class, and in such variety of kinds, as are unobtainable in any other market of America.   What the Canadian Pacific Railway has-
done for the Manitoba lumber markets by its construction round the north
shore of Lake Superior, it will do for the centres west of Manitoba by its passage
through the mountains of British Columbia.     The distance from the Rocky
Mountains to the great farming and cattle raising districts of which Calgary,
MacLeod, Medicine Hat, Maple Creek, Swift Current, Moosejaw, and Regina,,
are the centres, is less than that from Winnipeg to Minneapolis, from which
market the earlier settlers  in Manitoba were supplied before the Canadian.
Pacific Railway was built eastward to the Lake of the Woods.    Cheap lumber,
so essential to the settler, is therefore secured by the opening up of British
Columbia, for the districts above described comprise so much of the Fertile
belt as lies north and south of the South Saskatchewan, as well as the country
on the Bow and Red Deer rivers. BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
39
THE TRADE OF THE PROVINCE.
The trade of British Columbia though largely increased si^ce the entry of
the province into the Dominion, is still unimportant in comparison with the
capabilities of the country, or the amount that will within a few years be
credited to it in the government tables of Trade and Navigation. Thus the
exports of British Columbia for the year 1872, (the year following the union
with Canada), were $1,912,107 ; the returns made in 1885 (for.the fiscal year
of 1884) shows them to be $3,100,404. For two years preceding that, and
probably for this year, the exports have been over three million dollars, and for
the eight years before that they were over two million.
A comparison with the exports of the older provinces for the last fiscal year
will give some indication of the small extent to which the capabilities of the
province have been worked.
EXPORTS FOR  1884.
Ontario. Quebec
$26,891,017. $42,029,878.
New Brunswick.
Prince Edward Island.
'Nova Scotia.
$9,599,356.
British Columbia.
$7,753,072* $I,3IO,039* $3,100,404.
These figures are slightly misleading so far as Quebec is concerned,
because the exports there shown belong partly to Ontario, Manitoba and
elsewhere, but appear in Quebec because in that province, Montreal and
Quebec, the great shipping ports of the Dominion, happen to be situated. The
figures show however that if Nova Scotia, which is hardly larger than Vancouver
Island, can export over nine million dollars worth annually, and if Prince Edward
Island—which is not as large as the Queen Charlotte Islands, and whose area
might be eliminated from British Columbia, figuratively speaking, without being
missed—exports more than one-third as much as the whole of the Canadian Pacific coast, the inevitable conclusion is that the coal fields, gold deposits, forests,
fisheries, and farming land of the vast and varied country that is comprised in
British Columbia can have been worked to a very slight degree, and that
innumerable openings for trade are merely waiting the advent of men to fill'
them.
The imports of British Columbia, owing to the lack of population, have
been very small. During the past three years the figures have run over two,
three and four millions respectively ; increase being mainly due to the number
of men employed in the construction of that end of the Canadian Pacific
Railway; but those amounts are small compared to the figures shown by the
other provinces.
IMPORTS  FOR  1884.
Quebec. Nova Scotia.
$49,122,472. $9,653,104.
.Prince Edward Island.
$822,766
It being remembered that British Columbia is as large as the combined area of
several of these Provisoes.    These figures indicate the sparse population yet
Ontario.
$41,967,215.
Manitoba.
$3,734,573*
New Brunswick.
$6,467,888.
British Columbia.
$4,142,286. 40 BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
in the country, and the room there must be for others. Of the duty paid on so
much of this $4,142,286 as was collected, $884,076, the greater part $790,675
was collected at Victoria, on Vancouver Island, and $95,401 at New.
Westminster, on the Fraser river. The imports for the year were in the proportion fo 11 owing:—
From Dutiable Goods. Free. Total. Duty.
United States    - -       - $2,060,710 $246,902 $2,307,612 $480,181 44
Great Britain -       -           886,601 409,957 1,296,558 277,002 73
China        ...       -      364,571 36,122 400,693 115,670 42
France           - 10,493 ll3 10,606 5,522 55
Germany    - 6,991 152 7,143 1,837 27
Holland         - 77 6,203 6,280 15 40
Central America -       -          3,788               3,788 2,235 IO
Spanish West Indies      - 2,787               2,787 It36° 80
Australia   -                                        1,800 1,800            	
Sandwich Islands -       -               i,57° .... I,57° 235 50
Society Islands -       -              54               54 15 00
Japan             -       -       -                  1,286 1,286             	
Belgium             - -       -            .... 158 158 ....
Grand Total    -        -    3,337,642        702,693        4,040,335        884,076 21
It will be seen from the above that by far the largest amount of imports is
from the United States, and the next from Great Britain. The same fact,
though not in the same proportion, is noticeable in the exports. These were
in the 1885 returns:—
T Produce of Not -Produce . ~     .
io Canada. of Canada. 1*taJ*
United  States       -       -       -       $1,691,767 + $20,054 $1,711,821
Great Britain    ...       - 878,883 " 1,165 880,048
Australia  257,262 " i,944 259,206
Chili           ..... 75,044 1 18 75,062
Peru  62,413 " 27 62,440
China  59,501 " i,379 60,880
Sandwich Islands .... 29,172 " — 29,172
British Africa    .... 10,667 " 50 10,717
British East Indies         -       -       - 10,468 " — 10,468
3,0994814
Besides coin and bullion       - 590
$3,100,404
It is not uninteresting to examine the composition of this export trade.
Salmon (canned) to Great Britain      -       -       6,193,968 lbs.
" " "   United States       -       -       903,216 "
" " "   Australia   - 226,800 "
7,323,984 lbs. ^
BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
The total export value of this was $798,351.
Salmon (pickled) to Australia
"    United States
? " '•    Sandwich Islands
41
677
"39
556
br:
1,872    brls.
The value of this barreled salmon was $15,304;   the export value of salmon
therefore for the year was $813,655.
Coal followed salmon in the volume of 1884 trade.    The shipments of ehis
were:—
To Tons. Value.'
United States
Sandwich Islands
211,901
6,955
$741,675
24,343
Tons       -        218,856 $766,018
Gold is third on the list. The whole of the gold produced was exported to
the United States, and amounted to $671,379.
The timber trade of British Columbia has in the past found its largest
customers in Australia and in the South American States. As purchasers of
planks, boards, joists and other sawn timber of the larger dimensions, they
rrnked in the following order:—
Australia
Chili
Peru
China
British East Indies
British Africa
Great Britain
United States
$209,104
75,o44
62,413
49,808
10,468
10,259
4,378
i,956
$ 423,630
l.i addition to the above the export of masts and spars amounted to $13,654
•uid of laths, staves, etc., to $20,967.
The trees which supplied this timber grew on the coast and in the vicinity
■*tf the outfall of the rivers. The volume of the trade is not a criterion of the
quantity of available timber except to those who realize the conditions that
have attended the lumbering business of that Province.
Furs derived from land animals, the greater part of which are collected
and exported by the Hudson's Bay Company, were exported to Great Britain
.and the United States in the following proportions:—
To Great Britain         - $106,498
To United States 102,665
$209,163
and furs  and skins from marine animals, mainly seal and  sea  otter, were
♦xported:— 42
BR]
LSI!   COLUMBIA.
To Great Britain
To China
To United States
$61,645
8,283
250
$70,178
Fish oil, the great bulk of which is obtained from the dog fish at the
Queen Charlotte Islands, amounted to 39,251 gallons, of which 37,168 went to
the United States and 2,083 to the Sandwich Islands. The value of this export
was $15,017. The easy development of this trade will at once occur to everyone who has realized the practically inexhaustible quantities of fish in these
waters.
While those industries, the material for which was more or less ready to-
hand, were worked only in a superficial manner, or at least within narrow
limits, it was improbable that others requiring the use of larger capital and
greater time for development would be prosecuted to any great extent. Nevertheless a beginning has been made in several, despite the difficulties of trans*-
port, for we find that 9,451 dollars worth of wool was exported, $1,615 was-
realized for hops, $4,041 for beef, and $1,150 for spirits. The success which
has attended hop-growing in British Columbia is remarkable, and the demand,
both for export and home use js steadily increasing. The agricultural popula-r
tions of the southern counties of England will readily understand the value for
farming purposes of a country where hops can be grown with-certainty, and for
which the market's of India and Australia, as well as Eastern Canada and the
United States, are open. The shipments of hops from the neighbouring districts in Washington Territory have already attained large proportions, and
they grow as well and better in quality in British Columbia. When trade facilities have 'been more fully provided, when lines of steamships run between
Vancouver and the ports of China and Japan and Australasia, and Canada by
means of the Canadian Pacific Railway begins her competition with the
United States for the Australian and Asiatic trade, the resources of the
Province will be exploited in more systematic manner than heretofore, and
with results altogether out of comparison with what has been done in the past.
In the past fiscal year the United States shipped at San Francisco over
sixty-five million pounds of flour for China, Japan, and adjoining ports ; there
should be room for Canada in this trade During the same time San Francisco-
shipped over eighty-three thousand packages of merchandise for the same
places, including various articles which Canada can produce as well and more
cheaply than they are made in the United States ; Vancouver's proper share of
this business cannot be small. There is cheaper material to work upon and a
shorter distance to travel, and a trade that has been only partially developed
even by the United States. British Columbia has but to stretch forth her hand
and it will be filled.
The fertile belt and the older provinces of Canada provide a market on the
east. The United States, Australasia, China, Japan, South America and, as we
see by the " Trade Returns,* the East Indies and Africa are her customers on BRITISH COLUMBIA.
43:
the west The inexhaustible and unrivalled timber, the wealth of fish, the
pasturage lands on which cattle, horses, and wool are raised with so much
success, the gold, the coal and other undeveloped minerals combine to make
British Columbia the most favored province of the Dominion, the richest:
territorial division of America. There is no other country on the globe that
possesses the various natural sources of wealth in the same number, and to a
like extent with British Columbia, and they are now open to those who choose
to avail themselves of this new field for enterprise.
THE CLIMATE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA ON THE COAST.
The climate of the Pacific Province is spoken of by all who visit that coast
as one of its great attractions ;  it can hardly fail to please since there are
several climates to choose from.     The person who cannot stand cold weather
and shudders at the sight of ice, can find ample space for enterprise or temptation to idleness in a land that might have suggested  "The Lotos Eaters."    On
reaching Vancouver Island or the coast line of the mainland, like them, he need.
I no longer roam," for there he will find a climate such as he desires, as we-
have to some degree explained in speaking of Victoria and its neighbourhcod,-
The man who discovered that Vancouver was an island, and thereupon gave it
his name, speaks in his report of the " serenity of the climate," and draws a^
most pleasing picture of what the island must be when civilization, with its.
adornments and appliances, reaches so far west
In i860, H.M.S. "Topaz" made meterological observations every day
with the following result, and further observations show those here given to
fairly indicate the ordinary conditions of the climate in Victoria, Esquimalt
and their neighbourhoods:—
I860.
April	
May -
June	
July	
August ...---.
September -
October	
November -
December -
1861.
January     .-----
February       -
March	
Mean heat of the year
In the record of another year it is stated that in February the gooseberry-
buds were opening ; at the beginning of March the native plants were coming
into leaf in sheltered places, native hemp was three inches high ; on the
jih March the catkins of the palm willow were in full bloom, on the 29th the
buttercups were in flower.     On the 13th April strawberries were coming into-
Mean Daily Heat.    Deg.
51.50 Fahrenheit
55-25
61.00
60.50
ii
63.25
57-25
it
u
53.00
a-
50.50
it
42.00
u
38.00
It
44.50
ti
46.00
lt
ci.81
u BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
"bloom ; on the zst of May the plains were covered with wildflowers, spring
wheat and peas rising, potatoes above ground, the strawberries ripening, the
wild gooseberries also, and the wild roses coming into bloom.
It is on Vancouver Island and in the extensive districts west of the coast
range as well as in those in the southern strip of the Province between the
parallels of 490 and 500 that the great fruit-raising farms of Canada will be
located. Apples, pears, plums, peaches, apricots, nectarines, the finer class of
grapes, berries of every description, fruits not common to the eastern coasts, a,
profusion of flowers, and all the more delicate vegetables will grow luxuriantly.
The strawberry grows wild on the prairie lands, nearly of the same size as the
garden fruit The demand for these is limited only by price, the market for
them begins" at the eastern door of the Province and extends for a thousand
.miles, radiating as the distance increases.
The species and varieties of plants growing in this rich and fertile district
are exceedingly numerous.    Growing on the meadow lands are the following:—
White pea (five to six seeded), wild bean, ground nuts, a species of white
--clover, reed meadow grass, bent spear grass, wild oat, wild timothy, sweet grass,
cowslip, crowsfoot, winter cress, partridge berry, wild sunflower, marigold, wild
Jettuce, nettles, wild angelica, wild lily, brown leaved rush.
The fern attains the enormous height of from six to eight feet, and the
jrasses have all a most vigorous growth.
This shows the climate of the country to be far removed from a tropical
■one, where summer is eternal and proportionately enervating to man and beast
It is, on the contrary, though drier and steadier than England, in ordinary
seasons not unlike the western counties, more particularly Devon and Cornwall.
One who has had experience of it says:—"What strikes an Englishman most
about the climate is its serenity, the absence of the biting east winds, and the
less need than in England of an umbrella during the spring, summer, and the
prolonged autumn. He notices, also, with surprise and pleasure, that rainy
weather here does not tend to depress the spirits as it does in England. The
invigorating quality of the climate remains throughout the year.
"The cool nights in Vancouver Island, atad in all parts of the Province,
freshens the heat-worn denizens of California and the Atlantic States.
Such visitors linger before leaving the Province, and long to return."
These remarks apply more particularly to the mainland coast and the
eastern side of Vancouver Island. The peculiarity of the climate of the coast
arises in this way:—It is influenced indirectly by the existence of a great body
of warm sea water off the coast, with a mean temperature of 52. i° (early in
August). The prevailing south-westerly winds, sweeping over the warm surface,
are raised to the temperature of the sea, and become saturated with moisture,
abstracting from it, and rendering " latent," in conformity with well-known
physical laws, a still greater quantity of heat When, on reaching the mountainous coast, this moisture is condensed and discharged, the latent heat
becomes again apparent, and greatly raises the temperature of the atmosphere
In which the reaction occurs.   Hence the coast climate of the whole north-west BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
45-
coast of North America is warm. For instance, the mean annual temperature
of Sitka (570 3' N.L.) is in fact nearly the same as that of Montreal, 10 degrees
of latitude further south.
That the climate is wet as well as warm, is owing to the effect of the height
of the coasts. The heaviest rainfall occurs in exact correspondence with the
height to which the moist air is forced into the higher regions of the atmosphere, and cooled there by its expansion and loss of heat by radiation. The
outlying islands have somewhat less rainfall than the mainland coast, because
they are less elevated. In proportion to the elevation of the islands, and the
degrees in which they shelter the mainland coast from the rain-bearing winds,
the rainfall on the opposite mainland coast is more or less. The comparatively
less rainfall of the coast of the south-western section of the mainland (New
Westminster district) than farther north, is owing to the abstraction of part of
the moisture of the rain-bearing winds by the effect of their striking the mountains on the west coast of Vancouver Island (where it is very wet), and to the.
lowness of the land about the mouth of the Fraser river.
North along the coast of the mainland, which generally is mountainous,
the case is different. There is a great rainfall—greater than on the west coasts
of the British Isles—on that part of the coast of the mainland lying open to the
westerly winds between Vancouver and Queen Charlotte Islands. This also is
the case further north, because the coast about Fort Simpson and the mouth of
the Skeena is very imperfectly sheltered from the rain-bearing winds by the
Queen Charlotte Islands and the islands of the coast archipelago—these, for
the most part, being of moderate elevation, much lower than a considerable
portion of Vancouver Island.
The rainfall on that northern portion of the coast, considered in conjunction
with the fact that the sky, throughout the year, is essentially cloudy, preventing
rapid evaporation and keeping the dew point near the actual temperature of the
air, accounts for the peculiar character of the vegetatipn there, and for the fact
that ordinary cereals cannot be grown in the districts exposed to these conditions. At Fort Simpson, and on the west coast of the Queen Charlotte
Islands and elsewhere, many of the hills are but partially covered with forest,
the remainder of the surface being occupied by sphagneous moss several feet
in depth, and saturated with water even on steep slopes. This excessive
humidity is of less consequence, as the agricultural areas are limited in that
region. The low north-eastern part of the Queen Charlotte Islands, which is
in great measure sheltered from the rain-bearing winds, probably is the only
extensive area of land which the climate would permit to be profitably cultivated
on the northern part of the coast.
The coast farther south including Burrard Inlet, the south of the Fraser
river and in fact all those parts sheltered by Vancouver Island, and without any
high coast line to precipitate excessive moisture, resembles the east coast of
Vancouver; although the settlers on the mainland assert that theirs is the finer*
climate of the two. No general description frill serve the purpose in speaking:
of the climate of the mainland of British Columbia.    On the coast as above ■46
BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
shown it has all important variations ; in the interior the differences are stiff '
greater.    It may be divided into the southern, middle and northern zone.
THE  SOUTHERN   ZONE.
The southern zone, taking that to be between the International boundary
•fine, (490) and 51 ° north latitude, and east of the coast range beginning at Yale;
• comprises much but not all of that country in which irrigation is essential to the
; growth of cereals. This arises of course from the air losing moisture in crossing
the range.
It is in this zone that so much bunch-grass country exists, which offers so
many advantages for cattle and sheep raising. The mean annual temperature
•of this zone differs little from that of the coast region ; a greater difference is
•observed, however, between the mean summer and winter temperature and a
still greater, contrast when the extremes of heat and cold are compared. The
rainfall at a point on the Thompson, 760 feet above the sea, was measured in the
year 1875 and showed 7.99 inches together with melted snow making 11.84
while at Esquimalt it was 35.87. The winter is shorter and milder than the
districts further north, and though snow falls the wind-swept slopes are usually
very thinly covered. Cattle as well as horses winter out, and as the former
unlike the latter, will not scrape for their food this circumstance serves in some,
-degree as a guide to the nature of the climate. In Dakota and Minnesota for
instance, though horses sometimes winter out, cattle can not do so. In British
Columbia they do so as a matter of course. The settlers houses in this part of
the interior are not built with that caution to guard against cold which is found
in Montana, Dakota, and some of the regions to the south-east
The report of the Geological Survey of Canada, says of it: " The whole
of British Columbia south of latitude 520 and east of the cascades is really a
grazing country up to an altitude of 3,500 and a farming country up to 2,500
feet, where water can be conveyed for irrigating purposes. The question of
-water in this district must ever be kept in sight. Some years ago General
Moody, R.E., formerly Lieut-Governor of the Colony in speaking of the interior
and its advantages for settlement said : "It will demand not a little faith by
those living in the same parallels of latitude in Europe to believe that wheat
will ripen anywhere at all, at altitudes from 2,500 to 3,500 feet, and other grain
at even more. * * * Nevertheless such is the fact. In other countries
besides British Columbia, it has been found, at first, difficult indeed to reconcile
such facts with previous experiences elsewhere."
THE MIDDLE ZONE.
This  comprises   the   region between   510   and   530 north latitude   and
contains much of the mountainous parts of the province including the Cariboo
Mountains, the locality of the most celebrated gold-fields yet discovered in British
Columbia.   The rainfall is heavier here than in the southern zone and the forest
'growth therefore becomes mere dense.    The altitude of the settlements in this
division varies from 1,900 to 2,500 feet above the level of the sea ;   3,000 feet
being about the maximum height for wheat, though other grains ripen at a
greater altitude.      From longitude 1220 the land falls toward the valley of the r
BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
47
Fraser, the climate becomes milder than in the mountains and bunch-grass
grows in the valleys and on the benches. The climate, if less attractive than
that of the two great divisions east and west of the coast range, is particularly
healthy.
THE NORTHERN ZONE.
A consideration of this country hardly falls within the scope of this pamphlet
It is necessarily remote from the line of the Canadian Pacific Railway and
except for its gold mines and the fish in its waters will not by reason of its
distance attract immediate settlement. Of its climate, however, an authentic
record states that from July 17th to August 5th, the mean of the observed
minima in this part of the country is 39.70. The mean of the early morning
and evening readings of the thermometer, 49.4". This must be much below the
actual mean temperature, for the thermometer seldom rises much above
its minimum when observed at 6 a.m. The heat is sometimes great in the
middle of the day.
It will be seen from the foregoing that British Columbia possesses a greater
variety of climate than any country of its size, and that the lines of demarkation
between one and the other are singularly abrupt and well defined. There is
the equable genial climate of Vancouver Island and the mainland coast, in
jvhich every fruit, from the wild strawberry to the finer kinds of grape, grows
luxuriantly, in which every flower, from the wild crocus to the orchid, blossoms in
profusion, and the enormous Douglas fir grows side by side with the mountain
ash. Within a few miles of the border of this land is a territory in Which
rain seldom falls, where the sky is ever clear and the air bracing, with sharper
differences between the winter and summer temperatures, but with a mean
differing but little from the adjoining region. Close on the edge of this is a
climate of almost constant rain where timber grows so thickly as to induce the
belief that the valleys are impenetrable, and where the trees attain the stupendous
size that makes them a marvel of the forest world.' North of all these are
further variations of climate intermingling to a certain extent from local causes
and each adapted for the development of one or other of the many resources of
that bounteously endowed country.
THE  INDIANS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Some reference has been made to the Indians of British Columbia, and
there remains little to be added. Whatever romance may have at one time
attached to these tribes, and in this respect they bore no resemblance to the
red men of the plains and eastern lakes, it has departed. They have entered
upon the days of their decadence as nations, the two most warlike tribes of the
northern coast taking separate paths; the Hydahs adopting the vices of
civilization, tempered with dog-fish catching, and the Timpseans becoming sons
of the Church and packers of salmon. They are peaceable and, like the
Indians of the interior, quite willing to work for the white man. They have
entirely abandoned their predatory habits and have quietly resigned themselves
to the process of gradual disappearance that seems to be the fate of the red
man throughout the continent of America.    There is a gradation of intelligence m
48
BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
amongst them which is in some measure indicated by the degree of cleanliness,
or the reverse, in which they exist but taken as a whole they are an uninteresting though perfectly harmless and sometimes very useful people.
The Indians of the interior are in some respects a superior division of the
race. Physically they are finer men than those of the coast, owing to the
different methods of habitual locomotion, and they are serviceable as herders
and shepherds. As settlers arrive and occupy the country the presence of
Indians in their neighbourhood, when that occurs, may be regarded as a boon.
Skilful axemen, learned in the ways of the country, familiar with the care of*
animals and anxious to earn money, they constitute a class which, when understood, is always valuable in a newly opened territory. They are under the
control of agents appointed by the Government of Canada, and are found to be
quiet tractable and harmless people.
The foregoing pages will enable a reader to form some opinion of Canada1 e
newly opened Province    By contrasting the conditions governing its earlie>
trading efforts with those under which future operations will be undertaken, if
becomes possible to estimate its position in the trade relations of the Dominion.
The results that have been achieved are more than creditable ; they tell of
magnificent resources, and of enterprise and perseverance in the midst of many
discouraging circumstances.    The British Columbians have always maintained
the excellence of their country, but their voices were drowned by the echo of"
those stories that told of oceans to be traversed or mountains to be crossed
The promises were alluring, but the inaccessibility of the prize deprived them*
of practical value.     The small permanent population  were thus driven by
necessity to exploit the resources of the land with limited assistance from
British or Canadian capital.   Of*gthe active life that keen competition gives,
there was none.    The Government constructed a wagon-road into the interior
in their desire to get some portion of their wealth to the sea.    The more enterprising worked a corner of their fisheries where the rudest appliances only were
necessary, and they cut timber chiefly in the vicinity of their mills ; for in their
operations the " drive " of several hundred miles so familiar to Canadian and
American lumbermen was little known, and yet the export tables that have-
been quoted disclose an amount of trade achieved by these necessarily halting
efforts that must come to many people like the revelation of an oracle    Their-
pioneers of trade found markets in the remotest corners of the world; their
wares required only to be seen to attract purchasers who understood their
worth; they realized from the limited transactions of the present what they could
do with the assistance so essential to the youth of commerce, and they appealed
to those whom they thought might most readily share in the advantages to be
obtained.    But until now it has been left for themselves alone to work their
own mercantile salvation, and in doing it they have shown the world the prizes
that are within reach of the adventurous.    The old stories of Spanish prizes, of
gold-laden galleons, of cities of untold wealth along the Pacific shore, which
attracted the curious idlers of the English coasts and gave Drake a hundred
volunteers for every one he wanted, proved to be true, and their truth has BRITISH COLUMBIA.
49
invested the Pacific with a halo of romance that still lingers over its name;
to-day stories may be told of equal truth but of more striking proportions
concerning the gold and other, in its way, equally precious material that wails
the hand of the explorer and the adventurer. The gold brought home by
Drake and Frobisher and their West-of-England shipmates, was scratched
from the earth by unaided hands and was nothing as compared with the results
obtained by the use of the machinery of the nineteenth century. The
mountains that Vancouver looked upon but never reached still hold their
only partially discovered treasures, destined directly and indirectly to enrich
thousands on whose ears the words, British Columbia, have fallen
unheeded, and tens of thousands yet unborn. The timber of British
Columbia that in impenetrable forests clothes the mountains of the Rocky, the
Selkirk and the Columbian ranges, and fringes the waters of the Straits, is
a fund of wealth for traders in the eastern and southern seas, no less than for
those who make these forests marketable. And who will venture to accurately
determine the results of adequate and systematic working in the prolific waters
of British Columbia ? If manufactories can flourish on such appliances for
taking fish and from such limited ranges as have been deemed sufficient, what
expansion of the trade may not be looked for when the methods of the older
world are introduced, and the banks beyond Vancouver Island and the waters
of the northern islands are worked by fleets of fishing boats.
And in manufacturing, which usually follows with tardy steps upon the
heels of other branches of commerce, British Columbia has made a beginning.
In this division of trade capital is an essential element, and that has been
wanting, and competition, which is hardly less necessary, has been wanting
also. With unlimited iron ore side by side with unmeasured coal, the two great
factors of England's wealth, are reproduced in Vancouver Island. With the
introduction of capital and the presence of workmen in great numbers the
industries of the iron and coal districts of England may be reproduced in this
Province.    Taxeda is a future Swansea in the Pacific.
It is to be considered, moreover, that while these and other fountains of
profit are in course of development, a new and nearer market is daily increasing
in size and absorbing powers. Every settler that places foot west of Lake
Superior, though he may establish himself a thousand miles from the Pacific,
becomes a customer of British Columbia. Distance will limit his custom but
not prevent it, and beyond him are the prairie territories of Alberta, Assiniboia
and the Saskatchewan reaching to the doors of British Columbia, all consumers of lumber, coal, fish, fruit and manufactured articles to the extent of
many millions dollars.
THE GAME OF THE PROVINCE.
British Columbia has, perhaps, a greater variety of game than any other
part of America. There are several distinct kinds of grouse, and a great
variety of wild fowl, some of them being peculiar to the region. Quail and
snipe are killed both on the islands and mainland, and the common deer of the
country (the Virginia deer) abounds.    The so-called elk (the Wapiti) is found 50
BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
principally on the mainland, as well as the cariboo, and the mountain sheep and
mountain goat are in all of the ranges. The Rocky Mountains are the home
of the grizzly bear, but he too is killed throughout the mainland, as are the
common black and cinnamon bears. The mountain sheep and goats afford
excellent sport, and the flesh of all these mentioned, excepting the grizzly bear,
is excellent food. The country must always remain in parts a rich fur hunting
ground. Trapping is still a favourite way with some men of making a living,
and it pays good wages. On the mainland there is excellent trout-fishing
and every bay and shallow of the coast is stocked with those fish which have
already been enumerated. To the sportsman, as to the settler, it is essential
that he should see the country before determining where he will work. Having
made his choice he can then acquire the information necessary to govern his
movements.
THE SCENERY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Ever present in the mind of him who speaks or writes of British Columbia
is a vision of some spot in its unequalled scenery.    The most richly endowed
with gifts of material advantage of all provinces, British Columbia excels them
all in beauty.    In the magnificence of her rugged mountains, the charm of her
land-locked waters, the lonely grandeur of her forests and the quiet beauty of
her prairies,  she possesses   a wonderful variety - a combination  of   scenic
beauty.     Whether a traveller approaches from the east after crossing the
apparently  illimitable prairies,  or from   the   west at  the  conclusion  of an
ocean  voyage,  he is  filled with  a  sense of  relief,  mingled with   curiosity
and  pleased  expectancy.    The features  that may be found most beautiful
must    depend   on   the   temperament   of   each   spectator,   but   it   happens
that 'nature has   so   arranged   the   forms   and   attributes   of  this   country
that whether coming from the east or west the traveller finds a striking contrast
to that which he is leaving oehind him, and as contrast is a primary condition
of excellence in that which is to delight the eye, his aesthetic sense is sure of
gratification.    The historic calm of the Pacific Ocean is sometimes disturbed
by Atlantic-like tumult, from which the smooth waters of the straits of Fucaand
Georgia are a pleasant change.   And even if the Pacific has deserved its name
from China to Vancouver, and has preserved that proverbial demeanour which
justifies the stories of lengthened voyages in a whale-boat, a voyager of so
many miles,  sees with   delight the green shores of Vancouver Island, the
timbered islands that seem to be floating where they rest, and the majestic
range of the Olympic mountains that attract and hold the admiration of weary
travellers.    Or coming from the east when day after day the eye has rested on
the unbrokefV horizon of the prairie-line, when it has seemed   hat the earth ]
must be one vast meadow with half hidden streams and copses only diversifying
its appearance, the traveller sees, piercing the clouds before him, the great
rocky barrier through which he is about to find a way, he experiences an
exhilaration, and a sensation of having discovered something, that appears to
him to have been waiting his coming during forgotten centuries.   And as he
approaches he feels  a  little  of the  delight and  sense of victory that was BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
51
experienced in its fullness at the first discovery of these mighty freaks of nature
by those who in the infancy of European civilization had been sent to wander'
through dangers and difficulties in search of imaginary routes.
The joy of discovery, whether in the world of science or geography, is
Heaven's rarest and most delightful gift to man, and this in a moderated
degree is thv reward c» thos who wander from the beaten paths in British
■^Columbia. For the mighty upheavals of the west are not of uniform character
to tire the eye. There are ranges of mountains and inaccessible peaks that
speak of eternal solitude ; valleys that suggest haymaking and the lazy movements of well-fed cattle, and others that are dark with the foliage of pines and
cedars of gigantic growth. Entering the pass of the Rocky Mountains and
continuing through the Selkirks and the Columbian ranges, the eye wanders
from peak to peak, gorge to gorge, and valley to valley as they open out in
endless succession for nearly three hundred miles before the branches of the
Fraser are reached. In some places the wear of ages has produced fantastic
forms ; in other places the mountains look as if they were newly created. On-
the coast there is a rare and beautiful combination of mountain and ocean. The
natural canals of these tranquil waters and the deep inlets of the coast are in
some places flanked on either side by precipitous mountains rising sheer out of
unfathomable water, and they look like strips of pale green riband curling about
between mounds of a darker hue. The summits of these mountains are at one
moment visible and at the next hidden in some passing cloud, and down their
sides, from points far towards the summit, long lines of silver streaks of foaming
water fall into the sea. Between the ocean and these inlets are islands which
shield them from the force of any storm, so that a boat may travel for a thousand
miles with the safety of an ocean steamer.    It is a paradise for yachtsmen.
LANDS.
For the information of intending settlers a few words concerning the
acquirement of land in the Province of British Columbia may be useful. Along
the Canadian Pacific Railway and within twenty miles on each side of the line
is a tract of land known as the Railway Belt, the regulations concerning which
differ slightly from those governing other portions of the country. This belt is
vested in the Government of the Dominion as distinguished from the Government of the Province of British Columbia, whose regulations are in force for all
other parts. The country is laid out in townships of six miles square, and each
of the thirty-six enclosed square miles (called sections, and numbered i to 36)
is divided into four quarter-sections, containing 160 acres each. These
quarter-sections may be purchased at a price now fixed at §2.50 (10s.) per acre,
subject to change by order-in-council. They may be " homesteaded" by
settlers who intern, to reside on them, in which case no money is paid for the
land, the only charge being a fee of $10 (^2) at the time of application. Six
months is allowed in which to take possession, and at the end of three years if
the settler can show to the local agent that he has cultivated the land, he
acquires a patent on easy terms and becomes owner of the homestead in fee
simple.    In case of illness, or of necessary absence from the homestead during 52
BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
the three years, additional time will be granted to the settler to conform to the
Government regulations.    These conditions apply to agricultural lands.
GRAZING LANDS.
Persons desiring to engage in cattle raising can acquire leases from the
Government on easy terms, subject to a termination of their lease by two years'
notice from the Government.
Stock raising is a pleasant as well as a profitable occupation in British
Columbia. A settler pre-empts 320 acres of land, for which he pays one dollar
an acre, in four equal instalments. He can put up a small lodge at little
expense, and use the balance of his money in purchasing cattle. These he will
brand and turn loose to graze where they will. In due course, the calves must
be branded, and the steers sold, and with little care or anxiety a man grows rich.
TIMBER LANDS.
The timber lands within the Railway Belt may be acquired from the
Dominion Government on payment of an annual fee of $50 0£io), and thirty
cents (is. 3d.) for each tree felled. This refers to the large timber-making
trees cut for sale, and not to the smaller deciduous trees that may be required
for use. These terms apply to licenses granted for " timber limits " east of the
1200 parallel of longitude, all timber west of that to the sea being governed by
the regulations of the Provincial Government. Mining and mineral lands
within the Railway Belt are disposed of by the Dominion Government on
special terms governed by the circumstances of the case.
The following are the regulations of the Provincial Government of British
Columbia governing lands not in the Railway Belt.
PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT LANDS.
Crown lands in British Columbia are classified as either surveyed oi
unsurveyed lands, and may be acquired either by record and pre-emption, or
purchase.
PRE-EMPTIONS.
The following persons may record or pre-empt Crown lands, viz :—Any
person, being the head of a family, a widow, or a single man over 18 years of
age, being a British subject, may record surveyed or unsurveyed Crown lands
which are unoccupied, or unreserved, and unrecorded.
Aliens may also record such surveyed or unsurveyed lands, on making a
declaration of intention to become a British subject.
The quantity of land which may be recorded or pre-empted is not to
exceed 320 acres northward and eastward of the Cascade or Coast Mountains,
or 160 acres in the rest of the Province.
No person can hold more than one pre-emption claim at a time. Prior
record or pre-emption of one claim, and all rights under it, are forfeited by
subsequent record or pre-emption of another claim.
Land recorded or pre-empted cannot be transferred or conveyed till after a
Crown, grant has been issued. BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
53
Such land, until the Crown grant is issued, is held by occupation. Such
occupation must be a bona fide personal residence of the settler or homestead
settler, or his family or agent.    Indians or Chinese cannot be agents.
The settler must enter into occupation of the land within thirty days aft*, r
recording, and must continue to occupy it.
Continuous absence for a longer period than two months consecutively, -.4
the settler or homestead settler, and his agent or family, is deemed cessation c f
occupation ; but leave of absence may be granted not exceeding four months in
any one year, inclusive of the two months' absence.
Land is considered abandoned if unoccupied for more than four months in
the aggregate in one year, or for more than two months consecutively.
If so abandoned, the land becomes waste lands of the Crown, without any
cancellation of the record.
The fee on recording is two dollars, (8s.)
The settler may either have the land surveyed at his own instance (subject
to rectification of boundaries), or wait till the Chief Commissioner causes it to
be surveyed.
After survey has been made, upon proof, by declaration in writing of
himself and two other persons, of occupation from date of pre-emption, and of
having made permanent improvements on the land to the value of two dollars
and fifty cents per acre, the settler, on producing the pre-emption certificate,
obtains a certificate* of improvement
After obtaining the certificate of improvement and paying for the land, the
settler is entitled to a Crown grant in fee simple.    He pays five dollars therefor.
PAYMENT FOR LAND AND CROWN GRANT.
The price of Crown lands pre-empted, is one dollar per acre, which must
:be paid in four equal instalments, as follows—First installment, two years from
date of record or pre-emption, and each other instalment yearly thereafter, until
the full amount is paid. But the last instalment is not payable till after the
survey.
The Crown grant excludes gold and silver ore, and reserves to the Crown
I a royalty of five cents per ton on every ton of merchantable coal raised or
gotten from the land, not including dross or fine slack.
No Crown grant can be issued to an alien who may have recorded or pre-
l empted by virtue of his declaring his intention to become a British subject,
\ unless he has become naturalized.
The heirs or devisees of the homestead settler are, if resident in the
Province, entitled to the Crown grant, on his decease.
SALE OF SURVEYED LANDS.
Vacant surveyed lands, which are not the sites of towns or the suburbs
thereof "and not Indian settlements, may be purchased at the rate of two dollars •
and fifty cents per acre.    Surveyed lands purchased under the provisions of this
section must be paid for in full at the time of the purchase thereof 54
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
SALE OF  UNSURVEYED LANDS.
The application to purchase unsurveyed Crown lands,- after staking, posting,
etc., must give two months' notice of his intended application in the " Government Gazette," and in any newspaper circulating in the district where the land
is situated.
He must also have the land surveyed at his own expense, by a surveyor
approved of and acting nnder the instructions of the Chief Commissioner.
The price is two dollars and fifty cents per acre, to be paid as follows :—10
per cent, at the time of  application, and 90 per cent on completion and!
acceptance of survey.
The quantity of land must be not less than 160 acres, nor more than 640
acres.     The purchase must be  completed within six months  from date of
application.
WATER RIGHTS.
Landholders may divert, for agricultural or other purposes, the required
quantity of unrecorded and unappropriated water from the natural channel of
any stream, lake, etc., adjacent to or passing through their land, upon obtaining
the written authority of the Commissioner.
HOMESTEAD ACT.
The farm and buildings, when registered, cannot be taken for debt incurred
after the registration ; it is free from seizure up to a value not greater than
82,500 (^500 English); goods and chattels are also free up to §500 G£ioo
English); cattle " farmed on shares " are also protected by an Exemption Act
TITLES.
The " Daily News," an Oregon newspaper, said lately :—" Emigrants that
'v come here are extremely wary in looking after the titles of the property they
" desire to purchase. This vigilance and caution are probably owing more or
Mess to the fact that the Territorial laws yet obtain on our borders."
In British Columbia no difficulty of this kind exists.    Titles are secure.
GOVERNMENT.
The Canadian Government regulates all matters connected with trade and
navigation, the customs and excise, the administration of justice, militia and
defence, and the postal service ; but the Provincial Government of British
Columbia has control of all local matters. The Province is at present represented in the Canadian Parliament by three Senators and six members of the
House of Commons. Its own Legislature consists of a Lieutenant-Governor,
appointed by the Governor-General of Canada, an Executive Council of four
members and a Legislative Assembly of twenty-five members, elected by the
people for a term of four years. In practice the Executive Council holds office
at the will of the Assembly, precisely as the English Ministry does at the will
of the House of Commons. There are thirteen districts for electoral purposes.
A short period of residence, with registration, qualifies voters, and every settler
who shows an aptitude for public business, and enjoys the confidence of his
neighbours has as good a chance as another of representing his locality in the
Provincial Legislature or the House of Commons at Ottawa. T
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
55
INFORMATION  FOR EMIGRANTS—HOW TO REACH BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Passengers from Europe may go round Cape Horn by sailing vessel; but
the ordinary route, which is the shortest, quickest and best, is as follows:—
By steamer across the Atlantic to Canada (Quebec in summer ; Halifax,
Nova Scotia, in winter). Thence by the Canadian Pacific Railway across the
continent to Vancouver.
The Atlantic passage takes from eight to ten days, and the railway trip
from Quebec across the continent five days. A first class passenger can go
through to British Columbia from England in fourteen days, by crossing the
continent on the Canadian Pacific line.
It is best to take " Through Tickets" to Vancouver, or as far as possible.
Efforts may be made to induce passengers to take tickets by some roundaboul
route, which oftentimes necessitates expensive stoppages by the way. A
passenger should insist upon having a ticket by the Canadian Pacific Railway,
which is the ONLY direct route. Passengers should avoid all dealers in
tickets, called " scalpers," who offer tickets at prices lower than schedule rates.
Purchase tickets only from regularly authorized ticket agents.
Third class passengers should provide at least part of the necessary food
for themselves for the railway trip across America, as provisions at the way-side
stations are expensive, and the "through" ticket price does not include
provisions, except in the steamers.    Emigrant's meals are 50 to 75 cents each.
Surplus money should be sent through the Post Office, or a Bank, to avoid
risk from loss, or theft, on the way.
It is the practice in North America, on the part of interested or dishonest
persons, to fill the ears of passing emigrants with stories about the places they
are going to.    No attention should be given to these men.
While passing through Eastern Canada, emigrants for British Columbia
will apply, in case of need, to the local immigration officers of the Dominion of
Canada, who will give honest advice and information. The coin and paper
money of Canada is of a uniform standard and is current throughout the
Dominion.
Intending passengers can obtain tickets through to all points in British
Columbia, together with the fullest information relative to the most desirable
places of location for farming, cattle growing, mining, and trading, by applying
to the Agents of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company in London, Liverpool
and Amsterdam.
A. BEGG, ARCHER BAKER, R. R. H. TOELAER,
88 Cannon Street, 31 James Street, Amsterdam.
London. Liverpool,
how to send money to british columbia.
The emigrant is recommended not to take English coin to British
Columbia. In Great Britain, he should pay that portion of his money not
wanted on the passage to the Post Office, and get a money order for it payable
in Victoria ; or he may pay his money either to the Bank of British Columbia,.
wmm BRITISH COLUMBIA.
London (the bankers for the Government of British Columbia), or to the Bank!
of British North America, London, and get from the bank, n exchange for his
money, an order payable on demand from its branch bank in Victoria, British
Columbia, for the equivalent of his money in dollars and cents.
The emigrant, on paying his money to the Bank, must sign his name on a. \
separate piece of paper, and ask the Bank to send the signature to their Branch
Bank in Victoria, so that the person who applies for the money in Victoria may\
be known to be the proper person.   If this is neglected, the emigrant may not be
able to get his money in Victoria readily.
The above banks have agents in England, Scotland, and Ireland. The
Bank of British North America has its own branches in the Dominion of
Canada, New York, and San Francisco. The Bank of Montreal is the agent
of the Bank of British Columbia throughout Canada and New York. The
Bank of British Columbia has a branch in San Francisco.
ON ARRIVING IN BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
It is sometimes better for an intending farmer of moderate means to place
his money, on first arrival, in the Government Savings Bank (which allows
interest), to take lodgings, and to work for wages for some time, in order to
gain a knowledge of colonial life and modes of management
Emigrants are recommended not to linger about the towns at which they
may arrive, but to proceed, with as little delay as possible, either to their friends,
if they have any in the Province, or to the localities where they are likely to
meet with employment
The Immigration Agent, at port of arrival, will furnish information as to
lands open for settlement in the respective districts, farms for sale, demand for
/abour, rates of wages, routes of travel, distances, expense of conveyance, etc.
The emigrants should be careful of his cash capital, and not put it into
investments hastily. There are Canadian Government Sailings Banks in the
Province.
PRICE OF BOARD AND LODGING.
The   Government   will  endeavour  to   make  special   arrangements for
immigrants ; at present ordinary advertised rates in Victoria in good second-
lass hotels (meat at every meal), are as follows: —
Board and lodging $5 to $6.50 (20s. to 26s. English) per week.
Board and lodging. $1 (4s English) per day.
Single meals, 25 cent (is. English).
Beds, 50 cents and 25 cents (2s. and is. English). THE WADIAN PAGIFI6 RAILWAY
c-3
Is the Most Substantial and Perfectly Built Railway on the Continent of
America.    It is Equipped with the Most Elegant and Luxurious
COACHES, DINING AND   SLEEPING   CARS,
[Surpassing in Accommodation and Finish any in the world.    It now offers
Ito the travelling public a New Route, far exceeding all others in  its
[Grandeur of Scenery, and being under the control and management of
one Company from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, it can give to all
trans-continental travellers advantages that cannot be procured elsewhere.
XT
ISTS
[will find this a most enjoyable route.   The journey is one of uninterrupted
{magnificence from start to finish.    The scenery on the  north  shore  of
Lake Superior must be seen to be appreciated, as pen fails to do justice
[to its beauty.    The Sublime Grandeur and Dizzy Heights of the Rocky
Mountains, the Selkirks and the Gold Range, rival and eclipse the wonders
I of Switzerland.
' The Company have spared no expense in providing for the wants
land comfort of their patrons, as their line of Dining Cars will at all times
testify, being supplied with all that the most fastidious can desire.    Their
TRANS-CONTINENTAL LINE OF SLEEPING CARS
Are provided with Sofa Sections and Bathing Accommodation, and offer
all the comfort and convenience of First-class Hotels. They are specially
constructed to admit of the Scenery being viewed in all directions.
[PASSENGER FARES AS LOW AS ANY OTHER LINE.
Through Tickets from Halifax, Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa, Prescott,
iBrockville, Toronto, Hamilton, London and all points in Canada; also
prom Boston, New York and all the principal points in New England
[States, to Vancouver, Victoria and other points in. British Columbia, and
jto Portland, Ore., Puget Sound Ports, San Francisco, &c.
Colonists receive special attention by this route, Free Colonist Sleep-
ling Cars being supplied from Ocean to Ocean.
Freight Shippers can  have  their goods   transported without   the
Ivexatious delays and damage incidental to the frequent transfers necessary
by other routes, and without the expense and annoyance of Customs
requirements.
Rates as L,ow as the Lowest.
Business Correspondence is invited, and will meet with prompt and
[courteous attention if addressed to any of the undermentioned Officers or
I Agents.
a. M, BOSWORTH, E. TIFFIN, ROBT. EERR,
jAsst. Freight Traffic Manager.     Gcn'l Freight Agent, Toronto.     Gen'l Frt. & Pass. Agt., Winnipeg.
D. McNICOLL, ARCHER BAKER, R. R. H. TOELAER,
|Gen. Pass. Agt. Montreal. Gen. European Frt. Agent, Emigration Agt. Amsterdam.
St Jas. St., Liverpool.
ALEX. BEGG, HARRY ABBOTT,
|Gen. Etnign. Agt., S8 Cannon St.. London. General Supt. Pacific Div., Vancouver, B. C.
GEORGE OLDS, W. C. VAN HORNE,
I(3en'l Traffic Manager, Montreal. Vice-President, Montreal.   

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