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Final report of the Royal Commission of Inquiry on Timber and Forestry, 1909-1910 British Columbia. Royal Commission of Inquiry on Timber and Forestry 1910

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 FINAL REPORT
Royal Commission of Inquiry
ON
Timber and Forestry
1909-1910
APPOINTED ON THE 9th DAY OF JULY, 1909, UNDER CHAPTER 99,
OF THE REVISED STATUTES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1897,
INTITULED  "AN  ACT  RESPECTING INQUIRIES
CONCERNING PUBLIC MATTERS."
PRINTED BY AUTHORITY OF
THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
VICTORIA, B. C.
Printed by Richard Wolfenden, I.S. O., V. D., Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majosty.
1910. ROYAL COMMISSION OF INQUIRY
-ON-
TIMBER AND FORESTRY
To His Honour THOMAS WILSON PATERSON,
Lieutenant-Governor   of  the   Province   of   British   Columbia.
MAY IT PLEASE YOUR HONOUR:
We, your Commissioners, appointed on the ninth day of July, 1909, for the
purpose of making inquiry into and concerning the timber resources of the Province,
the preservation of forests, the prevention of forest fires, the utilization of timber areas,
afforestation, the diversification of tree-growing, and generally all matters connected
with the timber resources of the Province, have the honour to submit the following
Final Report.
FRED. J. FULTON, Chairman.
A. S. GOODEVE, Commissioner.
A. C. FLUMERFELT, Commissioner. 1 Geo. 5 Report of The Forestry Commission. D 3
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page.
i.    Timber Map of British Columbia Frontispiece
2. Copy of Commission   7
3. The Sittings of the Commission  9
4. Forest Legislation in the Province   11
5. The Forest Areas of British Columbia  14
6. Western Forests and the Timber Supply  18
7. Forest   Statistics      22
8. Synopsis   of  Recommendations  43
9. Recommendations Concerning Tenure:
Crown   Grant     45
Leaseholds     46
Special   Licenses     48
Pulp   Leases  50
Unalienated Timber Lands   54
Fractional  Areas     55
Agricultural   Land      55
Handloggers'   Licenses      56
The Transfer of Licenses   57
The Renewal Dates of Licenses   57
10. Recommendations Concerning Regulations:
The  Regulation of Cutting     58
The Protection of Forests from Fire    59
Surveys of Licensed Timber Lands  '.  62
The Furnishing of Returns     63
11. Recommendations Concerning Administration:
Re-Afforestation in British Columbia    6s
A  Department of Forests     66
Forestry and the University    70
Forest   Finance     71
Tariff Changes and Forest Waste    73
The Export of Logs   ■. 73 D 4 Report of The Forestry Commission. •        1910
INDEX
Page.
Absence of Provision for Lease Renewal   26
Agriculture, Lands Suitable for  '.  55
Alienation of Timber Lands, Synopsis of History of   14
Canada, Forest Revenues in     31
"         Lumber   Cut   of  32
Commission     7
County Cruises in Washington   35
Crown  Grant Timber  Lands    11, 22, 45
Cruising in Western Forests, Cost of Official  35
Cut of B. C. Lumber  31
Cutting,  Regulation  of     58
Debris,   Compulsory  Disposal   of  60
Department   of   Forests  66
Depletion  of Timber Supplies  18
Erosion, Soil   66
European   Stumpage     39
Expenditure,  Forest in  B.  C  31
Experimental   Park      71
Export of Logs   33, 73
Finance,   Forest     71
Fire Protection in B.   C  34
"          "   Idaho     33
"     .     "   Ontario      34
"   Railway   Belt     35
"          "   Washington     34
"             "          Recommendations Concerning  59
Fire, Sharing Cost of Protection    61
Fire  and   Railways     61
Forest Expenditure  in  B.  C  31
"      Revenue of B. C  30
Forests, Department of   66
Fractional Areas   55
Handloggers'   Licenses     13, 29, 56
Hemlock Leases    25, 54
Idaho, Fire Patrol in  33
Leasehold Timber  Lands    11, 15, 23, 46
Legislation,  History of  11
Licensed Timber  Lands, Survey of 27, 62
Licenses, Handloggers, Legislation Affecting  13
"        Renewal of    57
"        Special    12, 16, 27, 48
Logged  Off Lands, Care  of  66
Logging Restrictions     59
Lumber Cut of B. C  31
Mill Capacity of B. C  32
Officials, Personal Interests of  70
Ontario,   Fire   Patrol   in  34
Ontario,   Stumpage  39 1 Geo. 5- Report of The Forestry Commission. D
Page.
Park, Experimental    71
Pre-emptions,   Inspection   of  69
Prices, Rise in   20/ 36
Privately Owned Timber Lands     i5> 22
Public Opinion and Forest Fires  62
Pulp Leases   25, 50
Railway Belt, Fire Patrol in   35
"    Statistics     29
Railway Grants     23
Railways   and   Fire  61
Re-afforestation in B.  C  65
Recommendations,   Synopsis   of ,  43
Regulations, Cutting   59
Renewal Date of Special License  57
Reserve Timber 16, 54
Returns, Furnishing of  63
Revenue, Forest, of B. C  30
Service, a B. C. Forest   66
Sinking  Fund,  a  Forest  72
Sittings  of  Commission     9
Stand of B. C, Estimate of  17
Stands, Comparative, of U. S. and Canada  18
Statistics     22
Need of   63, 70
Stumpage, Crown, in B. C  37
"           European  39
"           In  Ontario     39
"          Western,   Rise   in  36
Survey of Licensed   Lands     62
"       "    Special  Licenses,  Result  of  27
Synopsis of Recommendations  43
Tanbark Leases (see Hemlock Leases).
Tariff Changes and the Prevention of Waste  73
Tenure of Crown   Grant  45
"         " Leaseholds      46
" Pulp  Leases     50
"         " Special  Licenses     48
"         " Unalienated Timber Lands    54
Timber   Tax     33
Transfers of Licenses  28, 57
Unalienated Timber Lands (see Reserve Timber).
University, the Provincial and Forestry  70
Washington,   Fire   Patrol in •  34
Waste,  Royalty Levied  on     59
Western Forests and the Timber Supply    18
Witnesses   Examined     10 D 6 Report of The Forestry Commission. 1010
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
i.    Forest  Regions  of  Canada   Page 23
2. Forest Regions of the United States    Page 24
3. The Rise in Price of  Canadian Lumber    Page 42
4. Comparative Areas of Alienated Timber Lands    Faces Page 45
5. The Increase in Area under Special License    Faces Page 48
6. The Increase in the Forest Revenue of British Columbia    Faces Page 49
7. The Price of Standing Timber per  1,000 Feet    Faces Page 55
8. Forest  Expenditure  in  British  Columbia Faces Page 60
9. Proportion of the Provincial Revenue derived from Forests    Faces Page 71
10. Composition of the Forest Revenue   Faces Page 72
11. The National Forests of the United States   Appendix
12. The Distribution of the Douglas Fir  "
13. Schedules of County Cruises  in Washington  " 1 Geo. 5 Report of The Forestry Commission. D 7
JAMES DUNSMUIR,
Lieutenant-Governor.
CANADA.
PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
EDWARD THE SEVENTH, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Ireland, and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, KING,
Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India.
In the Matter of the "Public Inquiries Act."
Commission.
To the Honourable FREDERICK JOHN  FULTON,  K.C.,
Chief Commissioner of Lands;
ARTHUR SAMUEL GOODEVE,
of the City of Rossland, M.P., and
ALFRED CORNELIUS FLUMERFELT,
of the City of Victoria, J.P.
FRED. J. FULTON WHEREAS in and by Chapter 99 of the Revised Statutes
(Acting of     British     Columbia,     1897,     intituled   "An   Act   respecting
Attorney-General). Inquiries Concerning Public Matters," it is enacted that whenever the Lieutenant-Governor in Council deems it expedient to
cause inquiry to be made into and concerning any matter connected with the good
government of this Province, or the conduct of any part of the public business thereof,
and such inquiry is not regulated by any special law, the Lieutenant-Governor in
Council may by Commission intituled in the matter of this Act, and issued under the
Great Seal of the Province appoint Commissioners or a sole Commissioner to inquire
into such matter, and
WHEREAS it is deemed expedient to cause inquiry to be made into and concerning the timber resources of the Province, the preservation of forests, the prevention
of forest fires, the utilization of timber areas, afforestation, and the diversification of
tree-growing, and generally all matters connected with the timber resources of the
Province, and
WHEREAS it is expedient that for the purposes aforesaid a Commission be
issued to competent persons who shall have jointly and severally vested in them all the
duties, rights and powers by the said Act conferred upon and vested in Commissioners
appointed thereunder.
NOW KNOW YE that under and by virtue of the powers contained in and conferred by the said recited Act, and of all and every powers and power vested in us in
that behalf, and by and with the advice of Our Executive Council for the Province of
British Columbia. We, reposing trust and confidence in your loyalty, integrity and
ability, do hereby nominate, constitute and appoint you the said FREDERICK JOHN
FULTON, you the said ARTHUR SAMUEL GOODEVE, and you the said ALFRED
CORNELIUS FLUMERFELT jointly, and each of you severally, to be our Commissioners for the purpose of holding inquiry into and obtaining the desired data
respecting the matters aforesaid.
And We empower and direct you the said Commissioners to report in writing
the facts found by you to Our Lieutenant-Governor of Our said Province of British
Columbia, immediately, or as soon as conveniently may be after you have concluded
such inquiry together with the evidence taken before you, and the opinions which you D 8 Report of The Forestry Commission. 1910
may have formed in relation of the matters aforesaid, as the result of such inquiry and
that you do and perform all these matters and things in and about the conduct of the
said inquiry as by law in that behalf you are authorized to do.
IN TESTIMONY WHEREOF WE have caused these Our
Letters to be made Patent and the Great Seal of Our
said Province to be hereunto affixed;
WITNESS, His Honour JAMES DUNSMUIR, Lieutenant-
Governor of Our said Province of British Columbia,
in Our City of Victoria, in Our said Province, this
ninth day of July, in the year of Our Lord, one
thousand nine hundred and nine, and in the ninth year
of Our Reign.
By Command,
HENRY ESSON YOUNG,
Provincial Secretary. 1 Geo. 5 Report of The Forestry Commission. D 9
PRELIMINARY REMARKS
Upon appointment your Commissioners entered into correspondence with various
authorities in order to inform themselves concerning the forest policy and practice of
the older.Provinces of Canada, and of the States of the Union. They collected in this
manner many official Reports and a mass of general literature dealing with matters of
forestry upon the continent of America.
Meanwhile they caused to be published a notification to all persons interested,
that sittings would be held at various lumbering centres in the Province fbr the purpose
of taking evidence upon the subjects of their inquiry. In August and September, 1909,
these sittings were duly held.    A list of the witnesses examined will be found below.
On the 26th, 27th and 28th days of August your Commissioners attended the
National Congress on Conservation of Natural Resources in Seattle; at which they met
Mr. Gifford Pinchot, the Chief Forester of the United States, and held discussion upon
forest matters.
On the 25th, 26th and 27th of November your Commissioners consulted with the
Dominion officials at Ottawa and drafted their Interim Report which in due course was
submitted to the Lieutenant-Governor in Council and laid before the Legislature at the
(Session of 1910; and on the 29th and 30th of November Mr. Fulton and Mr. Goodeve
interviewed at Toronto Dr. Fernow and Mr. Aubrey White, the Deputy Minister of
Lands, Forests and Mines for Ontario. Mr. Fulton then proceeded to Washington,
D.C., where, on 1st and 2nd of December, he saw Mr. Pinchot and several officials of
the Forest Service of the United States.
The Commission held supplementary sittings for the taking of evidence at
Victoria on 30th and 31st of May, 1910; and on 15th and 16th of August.
From the 15th to 30th August, inclusive, your Commissioners were engaged in
making a first draft of their Report. After allowing a period for reconsideration the
construction of the Final Report was begun the 24th day of October and was completed
and signed on the 15th day of November, 1910. D 10 Report of The Forestry Commission. 1910
LIST OF DATES AND WITNESSES
FORESTRY COMMISSION
Victoria—August 16th, 17th and 18th, 1909:
W. A. Anstie, A. T. Frampton, Professor Craig, Michael Carlin, L. H. Solly,
Wm. Blakemore, M. J. Scanlon, E. E. Billinghurst, Jos. Ducrest, R. H.
Campbell, J. A. Sayward, Ernest McGaffey.
Nanaimo—August 19th,  1909:
Wm. Regan, John W. Coburn, Thos. A. Smith.
Vancouver—August 23rd, 24th and 25th, 1909:
Fred. L. Ward, R. J. Skinner, Thos. Wilson, D. C. Cameron, Wm. Murray,
Alfred McMillan, Thos. F. Patterson, J. S. Emerson, John O'Brien, W. T.
Cox, W. Innes Paterson, Edward H. Heaps, Wm. Tytler.
Kamloops—September 7th, 1909: .
J. H. Latremouille, J. A. Magee, A. J. Lammers, A. J. McDonald, R. Trinder.
Vernon—September 8th and 9th, 1909:
A. McL. Hawkes, Mayor M. V. Allen, Reeve Daykin, Coun. Brett, Aid.
Swift, Price Ellison, M.P.P., C. J. Becker, S. C. Smith, Hamilton Lang.
Revelstoke—September 10th and nth, 1909:
O. L. Boynton, W. C. Brewer, S. H. Bowman, C. F. Lindmark, C. R. Skene,
J. M. Kellie.
Nelson—September 13th, 1909:
A. G. Lang, F. S. Stephens, A. N. Wolverton, J. M. Lay, G. O. Buchannan,
A. A. Carney, W. S. Drewery, R. J. Long, H. Anderson.
Cranbrcok—September 14th and 15th, 1909:
A. Leitch, J. F. Armstrong, A. E. Watts, Mayor Fink, Otis Staples, Peter
Lund, C. M. Edwardes, E. C. Chudleigh, A. T. Short, E. Mallandaine, W.
Pearce.
Fernie—September 16th, 1909:
G. F. Stephenson, A. F. Krapfel, D. V. Mott, D. McDougall, D. H. Telford,
R. H. McCoy, J. W. Murphy, A. DeWolf, Dr. W. S. Bell, A. McDougall, F,
K. DuBois, J. W. Lawry.
Grand Forks—September 18th, 1909:
J. Genelle, A. Robinson, F. W. McLaine, C. Mix.
New Westminster—September 27th, 1909:
James Leamy, E. H. Bucklin, E. J. Fader, A. L. Lewis, Thos. Turnbull, W.
Dodd, H. A. Stoney.
Vancouver—September 28th,  29th  and 30th,  1909:
Dr. J. Clark, A. D. McRae, John Oliver, M.P.P., P. D. Roe, A. Hamilton,
Neil McKinnon, W. H. Higgins, F. H. Parks, Andrew Haslam, W. C.
Gladwin.
Victoria (supplementary sitting)—May 30th and 31st, 1910:
R. H. Chapman, John O'Brien, N. J. McArthur, J. H. Demsey, H.
H. McDougall, Theo. Magnusson, E. P. Bremner, John Moravec, W. J.
Whiting,  W.  J.   Sutton.
Victoria—August 15th and 16th, 1910:
E. J. Palmer, J. J. Shallcross, Theo. Elford, Delbert Hankin, Erich Ulin,
Stanley McB. Smith, W. A. Anstie. 1 Geo. 5 Report of The Forestry Commission. D 11
FOREST LEGISLATION
Crown Grants. In the early days of the Province timber lands seem to have had
little or no value in the public estimation. They could be acquired by
purchase and Crown Grant from the Crown in the ordinary way and at the same
rates as any other land. Crown Grants carried all timber without any reservation of
royalty, and valuable tracts of timber were acquired for what would now be considered
nominal prices.
In 1888 the attention of the Government of the Province appears to have been
aroused to the importance of the timber question and several amendments were made
to the legislation on the subject. In that year it was first provided that a royalty, fixed
at fifty cents per thousand feet, should be reserved on all timber cut upon lands thereafter granted. There was still no restriction, however, placed upon the right to acquire
timber lands by purchase from the Crown by the ordinary methods of purchasing lands,
the only difference made being the reservation of the 50c. royalty, and it was not until
1896 that timber lands were defined. In that year a provision was inserted by which
lands carrying 8,000 feet to the acre west of the Cascade Range and 5,000 feet to the
acre east of the Cascades were defined as timber lands and reserved from sale.
Leases. The issuance of leases of timber goes back at least as far as 1870.
By Land Ordinance of that year leases were authorized of any extent
of unpre-empted Crown lands to any person, persons or corporations duly authorized
in that behalf for the purpose of cutting spars, timber or lumber and actually engaged
in those pursuits, subject to such rents, terms and provisions as should seem expedient
to the Lieutenant-Governor in Council. The provision for leasing timber was
re-enacted in the consolidation of 1875 and again in the consolidation of 1884 and seems
to have remained practically unchanged until 1888, when the terms were specified'by
Chapter 16, passed on the 28th of April, 1888. By section (8) leases of unpre-empted
Crown lands could be granted for a term not to exceed thirty years; the annual rental
was fixed at ten cents per acre and a royalty was reserved of fifty cents per thousand
feet on the scale of measurement of the logs cut on the leased premises: the lease to
contain provisions binding the lessee to erect in such part of the Province as might be
approved by the Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works, a lumber mill capable of
cutting not less than 1,000 feet per day of twelve hours for each and every four hundred
acres included in such lease. A ground rent of five cents per acre was imposed on
every timber lease granted since 31st December, 1879, and prior to the passage of the
Act. Every lessee was required to keep books of account of logs and to make monthly
returns.
In 1891 a deposit equivalent to ten cents per acre was required and other conditions could be imposed by the Executive. Timber land that had been surveyed by
the Government itself could be put up to tender. In this year also, the Executive was
empowered to issue leases for the purpose of stripping hemlock bark, under any conditions that it should see fit to impose.
In 1892 it was provided that leases should be put up to competition and a certified
cheque for an amount equivalent to ten cents per acre was required as a guarantee that
a saw mill would be erected.    The term was reduced from thirty to twenty-one years.
In 1895 further changes were made in the law regarding the issuing of leases.
It was enacted that thereafter leases could only be obtained of surveyed and unpre-
empted Crown timber lands which had been previously offered to public competition. D 12 Report of The Forestry Commission. 1910
The rental was increased to fifteen cents per acre subject to reduction to ten cents on
acquisition of a saw mill appurtenant to the leasehold.
In 1899 it was provided that rental should be fifteen cents per acre and that if
the royalty and rental paid on timber cut from a lease should amount together to less
than fifty cents per acre then an additional rental per acre should be paid, making the
total revenue (including the rental of fifteen cents per acre and the royalty) equivalent
to fifty cents per acre. It was laid down emphatically as an essential condition of the
lease that a saw mill with a capacity of 1,000 feet per day of twelve hours for every
hundred acres of the lease should be erected and operated at least six months in every
year.
In 1901 provision was made for renewal of leases. It was provided that leases
of unsurveyed unpre-empted Crown lands could be renewed for consecutive and successive periods of twenty-one years on such terms, conditions, royalties and ground rents
as might be in force by statute at the time of expiration of the same provided they were
surrendered within one year before the expiration of lease. Existing leases of Crown
timber which had been granted previous to the passage of this section and then in force
might be renewed for consecutive and successive periods of twenty-one years if such
leases were surrendered within one year from the date of enactment of the section.
Renewal for the unexpired portion of the term mentioned in leases to be surrendered
was to be on the same terms, conditions, rents and royalties as were specified in the
leases to be surrendered and the remainder of the term of twenty-one years was to be
subject to such terms, conditions, royalties and ground rents as might be in force at the
time existing leases would have expired.   Pulp leases were provided for in this year.
In 1903-4 the provisions for the granting of pulp leases were repealed. In the
case of timber leases there was imposed, henceforth, a rental of 25 cents. Should the
lessee keep in operation a mill of a certain prescribed capacity the rental would be
reduced to 15 cents. In this latter case, apparently as a check upon the fraudulent
enjoyment of this reduction, failure to maintain operation would render the lease liable
to cancellation.
In 1905 the provision for granting timber leases was abolished. Since then 110
statutory terms for the granting of timber leases have been in existence, though a
question might be raised as to whether section 47, sub-section (1), clause (b), which
provides for the granting of leases for any purpose whatsoever (except the cutting of
hay) would not permit of timber being leased thereunder.
The rights and privileges of persons who in good faith had complied with the
provisions of the Land Act in respect to leasing timber were preserved, but it is
nowhere stated that the "rights and privileges," of the lessees referred to include the
renewal of old leases, at dates subsequent to the Act of 1905, at their original rental and
royalty. This practice seems to have been forced on the Department because no terms
of renewal had been provided, and a financial loss had been caused to the Government;
for 5 or 10 cents an acre has long since ceased to represent the rental value of these
leaseholds.
Licenses. The right to cut timber under  license was  first  provided  for  by
the Act of 1888. Chapter 16 of the Statutes of that year authorized
the granting of special licenses to cut timber on Crown lands and patented lands
(meaning lands Crown granted between 7th April, 1887, and 28th April, 1888), at the
rates by such Act imposed and subject to such conditions, regulations and restrictions
as might from time to time be established by Lieutenant-Governor in Council. The
area was limited to 1,000 acres and the period to one year. The license was not transferable and not more than one special license could be held by one person at the same
time. The fee was fixed at $50.00. The license might be renewed at the discretion of the
Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works. The same royalty of fifty cents per thousand
was fixed that was paid on leases. 1 Geo. 5 Report of The Forestry Commission.       . D 13
In 1894 the first provision was made for the staking of lands for licenses.
In 1901 the area was reduced to six hundred and forty acres and the license fee
increased to $100.00.
In December, 1903, the license fees were increased to $140.00 west and $115.00
east of the Cascades and a license could be taken out for any period not exceeding
five years, upon payment of rental for the number of years desired as a lump sum in
advance.
In 1905 a radical change was made in the special license system. In that year it
was enacted that all special timber licenses which might thereafter be issued would be
transferable and renewable each year for twenty-one successive years. It was also
provided that all special licenses which were then in force, or might have been applied
for, should be transferable and renewable each year for sixteen successive years and
the fee for each renewal of any such license should be the same amount as was then
payable for such license. The royalty on timber cut upon these sixteen-year licenses
was to be that payable upon other licenses, plus ten cents a thousand feet. These
provisions remained practically unchanged until 1910, when following an interim report
made by your Commissioners these special licenses were allowed to be renewed as long
as there is merchantable timber on the land, subject, however, to payment of such
renewal or license fee and such tax or royalty and under such terms and conditions,
regulations and restrictions as are fixed or imposed by any statute or Order-in-Council
in force at the time renewal is made or at any time thereafter.
On the 24th day of December, 1907, an Order-in-Council was passed by the Government reserving all unalienated timber in the Province, thus keeping in the possession
of the Government all timber lands not already taken up by Crown Grant, lease or
license.
Handloggers' This form  of license  was  first  authorized in  the year  1888.    By
Licenses.       the Act passed in that year a license could be issued to an individual
to log anywhere on  Crown lands in the Province for an annual fee
of $10.00.
In 1906 the use of steam power, or machinery operated by steam power, by hand-
loggers, was prohibited.
In 1908 an amendment was passed allowing these licenses to be issued only in
certain parts of the Province and the fee was increased to $25.00.
In 1909 the license was made issuable in any part of the Province upon Crown
lands, but only within such area as might be specified or designated in the license and
after inspection by the forest ranger or one of the assistant timber inspectors or such
other person as might be authorized by the Chief Commissioner for that purpose, and
the license was restricted to persons on the voters' list and to Indians. D 14 Report of The Forestry Commission. 1910
FORESTS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Until recently, upon the continent of America, men gave little thought to the
extent of the forests and were contented with the vague idea that, like the water that ran
to waste in every stream, the timber supply was inexhaustible. The first crude attempt
to obtain statistics on the subject dates no further back than the United States census
of 1870. (1)
As settlement proceeded, however, and the boundaries of the forest areas in the
United States became roughly known, it became evident to the few students of the
subject that the stand of timber on the continent was not as abundant as had been
supposed. The uneasy feeling caused by this discovery led to the formation of Forestry
Associations. These in their turn stirred phlegmatic legislatures to appoint commissions of enquiry, whose reports prompted the establishment of permanent State Boards
of Forestry, supported by minute grants of public money. Results of value were
produced by the movement when the Federal Government was led to develop a forest
policy that caused the reservation of 168 million acres of national forests and brought
into being a vigorous forest service. Systematic study of the timber resources of the
country thence-forward became both necessary and possible, and the information
already obtained enables us to-day to draw a fairly definite picture of United States
forest conditions.
In Canada, unfortunately, conjecture has not yet become tinged with the same
hues of certainty. Forest statistics have been, in the immediate past, the wildest
guesswork, and even recent revision by the small forest services that have struggled
into existence is based upon very little information. It is plain that we do not, as yet.
possess the means of making a sound estimate of the resources of the country, as may
be seen from the conflicting statements that are published. For years, for example,
the forests of Canada were supposed to cover 800 million acres. (2) This positive assertion has been reduced to the hesitating statement that there may be 500 or 600 million
acres (3) and Dr. Fernow puts the "truly merchantable" area at 300 million acres.  (4)
For years, again, a legend passed from writer to writer that the Province of
British Columbia had 182 million acres of forest. This was replaced in 1908 by Dr.
Fernow's conjecture that the true figure was somewhere between 30 and 50 million, as
far as "merchantable forest" was concerned; and in 1910 the official acreage of alienated
timber lands—blended with conjectures made to the Forest Commission concerning
the reserved areas—suggest a further alteration to the figures that will be found below.
Confusion in these matters is partly due to the difficulty of deciding where to
draw the line between forest that has, or is about to have, commercial value, and forest
that has not; for tree growth of one kind or another covers the greater part of the
country, and the standard of timber that can be profitably cut is being lowered every
year. Both the public and the press become bewildered between estimates of more
woodland area and those of merchantable forest.
It is evident, however, that the lack of reliable statistics has a serious bearing
on forestry problems. Inflated estimates of the present supply of timber cause people
to be careless of the waste of it; distorted theories of annual destruction, by fire and
(1) Fernow; History of Forestry, page 408.
(2) " 1.657 million acres, more than all the other timber countries combined," is still the nowspaper estimate.
See London Daily Mail. 6th June, 1910.
(S)    Dominion Report. 1909.    (Assist the imagination by taking this as double the area of the Province of B.C.)
(4)    History of Forestry, page 353. 1 Geo. 5 Report of The Forestry Commission. D 15
by lumbering, enable alarmists to harm the common-sense campaign for conservation
by their exaggerations; uncertainty is created in business conditions; and in general,
from every point of view, the task of the governments that are labouring to construct
sound forest policies is made extremely difficult.
B. C. Forest In British Columbia, up to the year 1896, merchantable forest could
in Private      be  bought from  the  Government at  the  ordinary  rate  for  first-class
Ownership,     land, and in this manner certain areas passed into private ownership.
Various other timber lands were included among the 8,000,000 acres of
the Province granted to railway companies in aid of construction.   To-day we find that
Ihere are in private hands some 870,000 acres, and in the possession of the E. &. N.
Railway  Company some 375,000 acres, while the  Canadian Pacific  Railway  Company
controls a very large area, the acreage of which we have been unableto ascertain.  (1)
Belonging to The abandonment of the practice of Crown Granting timber land
the Crown, and the adoption of a leasing system marked an important step forward
in the Provincial policy. That the change originated in the desire of
the Legislature to encourage the establishment of saw mills is made very evident by
the Act of 1888 that made the building of a mill an essential condition of every lease.
Though the avoidance of this requirement was made possible by subsequent legislation,
the same object was kept steadily in view by granting great reductions of rental to
lessees who became operators. Apart from this, attempts were made to hasten the
local development of both the pulp and tanning industries by concessions of large leasehold areas at nominal rates. In the present year we therefore find that there are
1,005,676 acres held under timber, pulp and hemlock leases at rentals varying from two
to twenty-five cents.  (2)
Besides the leasehold system that was primarily designed to provide saw mill
owners with definite sources of supply, at cheap rates, there existed a method of dealing
with the needs of the small operating loggers by the granting of. licenses to cut timber
at chosen places. For a long time such licenses were annual. Not until 1903 did it
become possible to secure them for a five-year period. Soon after this, an agitation
among licensees for further extensions brought about the revolution in the whole
forest policy of the Government that took place in 1905.
By that year it was becoming obvious that the old leasehold system had served
its turn in helping to establish the lumber industry firmly in the Province. The future
of that industry would evidently be dictated by market requirements and business laws,
and the provision of cheap Crown stumpage as a/bonus upon operation had ceased to
be necessary.
Moreover, the old method was an extremely wasteful means of disposing of
Crown forests. A single lease of say 4,000 acres might comprise in itself ten or more
separate areas scattered throughout a large forest district, some of them perhaps no
larger than 150 acres. The system thus lent itself to the culling of the choicest patches
of a forest whose intervening areas—large fractions of irregular outline—were left
unproductive in  the hands of the Crown.
Apart from the timber lands granted to mill-owners, the Crown had obtained a
small revenue from standing timber by leasing areas at higher rentals, to non-operators.
This was evidently an unsatisfactory means of anticipating the future. Little was
known concerning the timber supply of the continent and probable developments in the
lumbering industries. Because great changes might be at hand that would cause stumpage
prices to rise beyond all normal expectation, it was felt that to part with timber at the
low existing prices and upon the fixed conditions of 21-year leases was a poor way of
drawing immediate profit from the immense idle area of Crown forests.
(1) See Timber Lands in Private Ownership, page 22.
(2) For full particulars see Leasehold Timber Lands,
page 23. D 16 Report of The Forestry Commission. 1910
The legislative problem was solved in a most ingenious manner by the abolition
not only of the leasing method but also of the limited, non-transferable licenses, and by
the adoption of an entirely new principle in forest policy. That principle was the
reservation of a share in the increment of value of standing timber as it should accrue.
It is true that other Provinces in Canada had attempted something of the kind by
leaving uncertain the amount of royalty that they would levy in future years upon the
timber sold by them under their auction-license systems. But tardy recovery of some
of the public's share in the risen value of the licensed timber bears no comparison, as a
policy, with the effective and subtle control that the British Columbia Government
retained in 1905 over future alienations of Crown timber. This power was secured by
the issue of transferable licenses, options to cut timber during a 21-year period on
specified square miles of forest, and the essence of the idea lay in the fact that it was
left entirely to the Government to fix, from year to year, what annual payments should
be made for the renewal of these options.
Although the new licenses were thus subject to any alteration in either rental or
royalty that the Government might at any time impose, they were taken up with great
confidence both by operators and investors. In fact the opportunity to acquire standing
limber in British Columbia caused recognition of its value to burst with suddenness
upon the lumber interests of the continent. From less than fifteen hundred (1) the
number of licenses sprang rapidly within three years to over fifteen thousand.
Though the effect upon the public revenue was most gratifying (2) the insatiable
nature of the continental demand for standing timber aroused a certain uneasiness, and
the Government, at the end of 1907, decided to impose a reserve upon all remaining
Crown timber. The fifteen thousand licenses continued, however, to exist, and to-day
we estimate that 9,000,000 acres of merchantable forest are covered by them. (3)
Railway Belt Under the terms of Union, the Province  ceded  twenty miles  on
Timber  Land, either  side  of  the  roadbed  of  the  Canadian   Pacific   Railway  to  the
Dominion   Government,   an   area   that   may   be   roughly   estimated   at
11,000,000 acres.    The extent of the timber land included in this territory has not yet
been estimated. Some 1,280,000 acres of it were under timber license or permit at March,
1910.  (4)
The Reserve. Witnesses  before  the  Forestry   Commission   expressed  the   most
varied and conflicting opinions concerning the proportion of the timber
of the Province that still remains in reserve in the hands of the Government. Maps
show large districts such as the northern portion of Vancouver Island that are completely covered by the leases and licenses already issued. Again, they leave blank
unalienated areas that may or may not contain merchantable forest. From neither of
these sources of information is it possible to gauge with any certainty the area, stand,
or value, of the ungranted timber lands. To complete any estimate of our forest
resources we are obliged, therefore, to adopt arbitrary figures for the reserve, and this
we do by acting on the more or less popular belief that about one-quarter of the
timber under Provincial control remains unalienated. This gives us 3,750,000 acres of
reserve timber lands; a pure conjecture.
The Stand in Although in many cases we know with some approach to certainty
B. C. Forests, the  areas  of the forest  lands  held  under  various  tenures  in   British
Columbia, we are obliged, in the absence of statistics based upon cruise
and   survey,  to  depend   very  largely  upon   guesswork  in   estimating  the   amount   of
merchantable standing timber.
Upon Vancouver Island large tracts of forest are known to average as much as
50,000 feet per acre, and a trustworthy estimate places the average stand of Crown
0)   The exact number is unknown; it was probably about 1,100.
(2) License revenue, calendar year 1904, $ 179,814.
"   1907,   1,339,351.
(3) For full figures, see Licensed Timber Lands, p. 27.
(4) For further information, see the Railway Belt of British Columbia, p. 29. 1 Geo. 5 Report of The Forestry Commission. D 17
Grant timber at 35,000 feet. Using these figures and allowing for recent transfers, of
acreage (i) from the E. & N. Railway to private buyers, we obtain a total stand of ii
billion feet.
In dealing with the Crown Grant acreage upon the mainland we are confronted,
however, with the fact that as certain of the holdings are timber lands in name only (2),
the difficulty of guessing the average stand is greatly increased. We may assume 5,000
feet per acre; we may assume 10,000 feet. In either case the error will not bulkjlarge in the
total estimate of standing timber for the Province, since the whole stand referred to
would, on these assumptions, be only between 2J4 billion and 6 billion feet. (3)
The Operators' Associations state that experience shows that not much more
than 12,000 feet, board measure, of merchantable timber is actually cut and removed
on an average from each acre of licensed territory; whereas they consider that 20,000
feet would be a fair average for ordinary timber leaseholds. (4) Upon licensed territory
this would indicate a stand of 108 billion feet; upon leaseholds over 12 billion; upon
pulp and tanbark leases mill timber amounting to over 4j^ billion feet.
Merchantable Upon  the  above  assumptions  the  estimate  for  the  total  stand of
Timber of B.C. merchantable timber in the Province would work out as follows:
Average Stand
Tenure. Acreage. per acre, ft. B. M.       Total Stand.
Vancouver Island Crown Grant Timber  318,000 (5)            35,000 11,130,600,000
Mainland Crown Grant Timber  552,000 say 10,000 5,520,000,000
E. & N., Ry. Co  375,ooo 14,300 5,380,000,000
C. P. R., unpublished.
Timber Leaseholds  619,000 20,000 12,380,000,000
Special License Timber    9,000,000 12,000 108,000,000,000
Mill Timber on Pulp, etc., Leaseholds  387,000 at least 12,000 4,640,000,000
Total    11,251,000 ac. with a stand of 147,050,000,000
Reserved   Timber   Land,   conjectured   to   be
%   total   forest   area,   under   Provincial
jurisdiction,  say,  roughly       3,750,000     say same as on       45,000,000,000
  licenses. 	
Total  15,001,000 192,050,000,000
Under the control of the Dominion Government in the railway belt, the merchantable stand of timber is supposed to be between 40 and 50 billion, nearly half of
which would appear to have been alienated.  (6)
Summary. As far as our limited knowledge extends at present we may there
fore conjecture that a forest area of 15 million acres within the jurisdiction of the Provincial Government is capable of yielding, under the present methods
of logging, nearly 200 billion feet of merchantable timber, and that restrictions placed
upon the present liberty to destroy and waste may increase this amount appreciably.
The grand total of some 240 billion feet for all British Columbia, half the probable
stand of Canada, may thus be increased by wise legislation.  (7)
(1) The area given for Crown Grant timber on Vancouver Island on p. 22, has since increased to about
818,000 acres.
(2) See Timber Lands in Private Ownership, p. 22.
(3) The higher figure gives the same total for the Crown Grant timber of the Province as the average of 20,000
feet per acre estimated by the Operators' Associations.
(4) It will be noticed how unreliable is any comparison of stands. In one country the estimate may be of the
merchantable timber standing in the forest: in another It may refer to such portion of that timber as the lumbermen expect to remove—two very different things.
(5) At September, 1910 (approx.).
(6) Area under license and permit 1,280,000 acres, which the Operators' Associations average at 15,000 feet per
acre. The estimate of the Railway Belt stand is that of the Dominion Forester, who ascribes an average stand of
10,000 feet per acre to the inland timber lands and 20,000 feet to those in the Coast district.
(7) .Dr. Fernow's estimate made in 1908 was 800 billion feet. D IS Report of The Forestry Commission. 1910
WESTERN FORESTS AND THE TIMBER SUPPLY
The Supply. A rough, preliminary picture of the three great groups of forest
areas that have the chief interest for us  may be obtained from the
following statements:
Forest   Areas. In   the   United   States   500   million   acres—apart   from   scrubby
woodland.    (U.  S. Forest Service figures).
In Canada, 500 to 600 million acres, much of it lightly timbered. (Dominion
Report).
In Siberia 500 million acres; by no means so densely wooded as the forests of
North America.    (British Consular Reports).
Less than two-fifths of the area given for the United States bears mature forest;
most of the remainder is under growing timber, and 80 million acres have lost their
value "and show no promise of a second crop." Little is known about the Canadian
and Siberian lands. Dr. Fernow's opinion is that 300 million acres would cover the
merchantable forest of the former.
The Stands. The stands of timber have, however, a more direct importance.
The United States (1) is credited with 2,500 billion feet. Canada(2)
is credited with 500 to 600 billion feet, half of it in the Province of British Columbia.
The proportion of this standing timber that will ultimately become sawn lumber,
after waste due to lumbering, fire and other causes has been deducted, is a matter of
further conjecture.
Western Stands.        Confining our attention to the West, we find:
U. S. Pacific forest    1,100 billion feet
U. S. Rocky Mt. forest      300      "        "
British Columbia  240 (3) to 300(4) "        "
To this we should add the stand of the spruce forest east of the Canadian Rockies.
The Demand. In   Europe,   Great   Britain,   Germany,   France   and   many   of   the
smaller  countries  need  to import  large  quantities  of wood.    Russia,
Sweden,  Austria  and   others   have  been   supplying  this   demand.     We  have   now  the
official statement that Sweden has been overcutting, while Russia is already reducing
her exports.    The situation is far from re-assuring.
Europe draws also upon North America, and yet the eastern half of this continent is ceasing to possess surplus material for export. We have no clear statistical
picture of present conditions in the east of Canada, though wei know that serious over-
cutting has continued there for many years and that the signs of exhaustion are plain.
On the other hand, the most depressing information has been gleaned concerning forest
depletion in the United States, where the present stand is estimated to be less than
half the original quantity.
United   States Of the Northern U. S. forest only 30% is left.
Forest Depletion.     Of the Central U. S. forest only 21% is left.
The cut from many of the States has been decreasing with startling rapidity.
Michigan, for example, after sawing 96 billion feet of lumber in 27 years, reached its
smallest output for four decades in 1907. Such swift exhaustion of supply has shifted
the centre of production to the South, where settlement and operation combined have
waged war on standing timber with the present result that of the Southern U. S.
forest only 50% is left.
(1) 1909, U. S. Forest Circular, 166.
(2) 1909. Dominion Report.
(3) Probable minimum estimate.
(4) Dr. Fernow's estimate. 1 Geo. o
Report of The Forestry Commission.
D 19
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Pacific Forests To-day nearly half the virgin stumpage of the United States is in
Still Remain, the Pacific forest. As overcutting produces its inevitable effects upon
the South, the inroads upon this last great stand of timber will become
more serious not only on account of the increasing needs of the centre of the continent
and of the Pacific trade, but also because the opening of Panama is about to let loose
upon the West the demands of the wood-hungry countries on both sides of the Atlantic.
Even as it is, the annual cut of the State of Washington is far in excess of that of any
other state in the Union.
Reproduction There is no hope at present that reproduction may offset the in-
Insufficient,    roads of fire and lumbering upon the forests of the States.  The portion
of annual growth suitable for their saw milling operations is estimated
at less than 20 billion feet; their mill output may be placed at 40 billion feet.    For all
purposes their consumption and waste of wood, apart from fires, is estimated at more
than 20 billion cubic feet a year—three times the growth.
Rising Prices. The effect upon prices has been remarkable.   The cost of stumpage
in the States represents one-quarter of the mill price of lumber, and we
find that between 1900 and 1907 (1) the average mill price of all lumber rose 49%; the
average price of all stumpage rose 93%. Canadian statistics (2) show us that in comparison with the average for the decade 1890-1900, and in spite of the after effects of
the great financial depression—1909 prices for Eastern lumber showed a rise of 55%.
Eastern lumber (3), in fact, has risen faster than any other important commodity, with
the single exception of furs. (4)
The Position All these facts bear directly on   the forest   problems   of   British
of British Columbia. With its 240 billion feet or more of merchantable timber,
Columbia. probably half the stand of Canada, the Province faces a rising market,
east, west and south—for exhaustion of local supply will cause the
southern tariff barriers to crumble gradually away. The bulk of this timber is Crown
property; most of it is under Government control; and the rate of growth upon the
Pacific coast is twice the average for the United States. To cap the climax, the Provincial policy has made the Government a sleeping partner in forest exploitation—a
sharer in the profits of the lumbering industry.
Two things are therefore plain; one, that the value of standing timber in British
Columbia is destined to rise to heights that general opinion would consider incredible
to-day; the other, that under careful management heavy taxation need never fall upon
the population of the Province.
The profits from a permanent Crown timber business should make British
Columbia that phenomenon of state craft and good fortune—a country of "semi-
independent means."
For further figures concerning cut, revenue, rise in prices, stumpage values, etc., etc., see the following Section.
(1) U.S.]
(2) Can. I
. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Circular 166, p. 19.
...     . Dept. of Labour.   Special report on wholesale prices, p. 16.
(3) Little is known concerning B. C. prices.
(4) See diagram, p. 42. 1 Geo. 5
Report of The Forestry Commission.
D 21 D 22 Report of The Forestry Commission. 1910
FOREST STATISTICS
TIMBER LANDS IN PRIVATE OWNERSHIP
For purposes of taxation timber lands were formerly included in the general
class of "wild lands" and as such their assessed value was very low. For example,
under a decision of the Court of Revision in 1901 the valuation of certain Vancouver
Island timber lands was reduced from $6.00 to $4.00 per acre.
Under the new Assessment Act that came into force in 1906 separation was made,
for the first time, between "wild" and "timber" lands. The rate of taxation upon the
former was raised to 4% on value; the rate on the latter was reduced to 2%. From
year to year the following changes have occurred:
CROWN GRANT TIMBER.
Assessed Value.(1) Taxation
'9o6    $1,907,546 $ 38,150
1907    2,316,298 46,325
1908      4,041,121 80,822
!909      5,317,335 106,346
1910  (2)
VANCOUVER ISLAND.
Assessment of Crown Granted Timber Lands (3) for 1909.
Average
Assessed Assessed Value
District. Acreage. Value. per Acre.
Cowichan     47,961 $ 498,266 $10.39
South  Nanaimo     31,375 319,907 10.19
North Nanaimo     5,382 67,629 12.57
Alberni     44,096 420,462 9.53
Comox      149,349 1,389,286 9.30
Total       278,163 $2,695,550 $9.69
Upon the mainland there arc holdings that cover mountain tops and barren
areas the valuation of which per acre may be but a few cents. It appears that there is
a tendency among owners to pay 2% instead of 4% by dignifying such property with
the title of timber land. Hence from the point of view of forest statistics and finance
the average valuations in some districts are meaningless. Moreover, the average valuation for the entire Province is made too low.
(0   At the beginning of each year.
(2) Figures for 1910 not obtainable, but from information secured at the Department, the assessment is very
materially increased.
(3) As at 31st December, 1908. 1 Geo. 5 Report of The Forestry Commission. D 23
MAINLAND.
Assessment of Crown Grant Timber (i) for 1909.
Average Assessed
District.                                                           Acreage. Assessed Value. Value per Acre.
Revelstoke       49,124 $  652,193 $13-27
Kettle River      3,120 13,200 4-23
Kamloops        2,420 12,100 500
Golden      67,680 293,945 4-34
Vernon         5,129 16,580 3-23
Vancouver         7,368 80,158 10.88
Rossland       17,595 98,160 5-58
Slocan       47,365 190,600 4.03
Nelson    172,222 828,232 4-80
Fort Steele    179.7M 436,617 2.43
1                                         	
Total     551,737 $2,621,785 $4-75
Total for the Province    829,900 $5,317,335 $641
Apart from the territory ceded to the Dominion in the railway belt, the following
land grants have been made by the Province in aid of railway construction:
Name of Company. No. of Acres Granted.
Columbia & Kootenay Ry       188,593
Nelson & Fort Sheppard Ry      550,720
Kaslo  &  Slocan   Ry      252,168
Columbia   &  Western     1,348,145
B.  C.  Southern     3,755,733
Esquimalt & Nanaimo Ry    2,000,000 approx.
Total       8,095,359
Railway Included in these areas were certain timber lands many of which
Timber Lands, have now been sold by the companies concerned. As, upon sale, all such
lands become subject to assessment and taxation by the Province, a
considerable part of the original area of railway timber land is included in the acreage
given above for Crown Grant timber. Concerning such as remain in possession of the
companies, our information is very incomplete. From returns furnished by some of
the companies we find:
Name of Company. Remaining Timber Land,        Total Stand,        Stand per Acre,
Acres. Feet. Feet.
Esquimalt  &  Nanaimo       375,131 5,381,587,000 14,300
Kaslo & Slocan     None.
Nelson & Ft. Sheppard       Very small area.
Concerning  the three  other  grants  the  officials  of  the  C.  P.  R.  are  not in   a
position to furnish information.
LEASEHOLD TIMBER LANDS.
Area at 31st December, 1910:
Acreage. Rental.                Rental per Acre.
Timber   leases    619,025 $78,218.45 12 3-5C. on an average
Pulp leases    354,399 7,087.98         2c.
Tanbark  leases      32,252 1,206.90         2c. or 5c.
(1)   Valuation as at December, 1908. D 24 Report of The Forestry Commission. 1910
Cost of Leasehold Stumpage.
For a short discussion of this see Crown Stumpage values, p. 37.
Summary:
354,399 acres of pulp lease at 2c.
32,252        "    tanbark lease at   2c. (ultimately 5c.)
70,493        "     timber "       5c.
296,822        "        " "     ioc.
179,210        "       " "      15c.
72,600        "        " "     25c.
Compulsory     Held under obligation to operate saw mills     478,049 acres
Saw Mills.      Leasehold not under obligation to operate saw mills ....   140,976     "
Tenure. With right of renewal  for an indefinite period   386,458acres
Unrenewable 232,567     "
As will be seen from the full list of leases given in the Appendix, the
actual date of issue of a lease does not always indicate the law under which all its
conditions were imposed. For example, application for a 15c. lease—dated January,
1904—might have been made previous to the Act of December, 1903, and the rental—
instead of being the reduced rental provided for in that Act—would really be the minimum fixed by the Act of 1899.
To obtain a return exact in every detail a prolonged search of Departmental
records would be necessary. For our present inquiry there is no need for this, since
any small percentage of overlapping that may possibly occur does not affect the soundness of the conclusions drawn from the figures given here.
Renewed Amendment to the Land Act in 1901 made possible the renewal of
Leases. every  lease  then  existing in  a  succession  of  21   year  periods.     The
renewed leases mentioned below must therefore be understood as
leases whose present term will expire in 1922 or 1923; though at the moment at which
they would have expired in their original unrenewed condition their terms and conditions become subject to such change as the provisions of the Land Act in existence
at that moment may impose.
CLASSIFICATION.
First Period—Previous to 28th April, 1888.
Acres          Rental paid                Original tenure                                 Present conditions Remarks
67,733    5C 30 or 21 years    Renewable  indefinitely    Must operate.
Second Period—28th April, 1888, to 21st February, 1895.
270,383    ioc    Between 30 and 15 years Renewable indefinitely Must operate.
20,785    ioc 30 or 21 years Unrenewable Must operate.
48,153    15c Originally ioc (1) Renewable indefinitely Need not operate.
4,898    15c Originally ioc (1) Unrenewable Need not operate.
Third Period—21st February, 1895, to 27th February, 1899.
189 ioc 21 years Renewable indefinitely   Must operate.
2,880    ioc   15 or 21 years Unrenewable Must operate.
12,994 15c 21 years Unrenewable Need not operate.
Fourth Period—27th February, 1899, to 12th December, 1903.
70,023    15c R't'l plus royalty must equal 50c. Unrenewable    Must   operate  or
pay 50c. rental.
(1)   Certain lessees of this period took advantage of subsequent legislation, placing themselves under the Act
of 1895 and escaping the obligation to operate. 1 Geo. 5 Report of The Forestry Commission. D 25
Fifth Period—12th December, 1903, to 8th April, 1905.
Acres Rental paid Original tenure Present conditions Remarks
42,818 15c 21 years Unrenewable Must operale.
72,600 25c 21 years Unrenewable Need not operate.
2,760 ..
2,585..
224    15c
MISCELLANEOUS LEASES.
5c ~i
[Of which  3,238 acres are under obligation to operate, and 2,331 acres are not
I under obligation to operate.
PULP LEASES.
Year. Acreage. Company.
1903  60,960 Oriental P. & P. Co.
1904  46,628 Quatsino P. & P. Co.
1905  23,220 Oriental P. & P. Co.
1906       9,041 Quatsino P. & P. Co.
.. ?  134,551 Canadian Industrial Co.
1907  79,999 Bella Coola Dev.  Co.
Total area     354,399 acres at 2c. per acre.
Total rental $7,087.98
Condition—Operation of a pulp mill.
<HEMLOCK leases.
Year. Acreage. Company.
1905 18,730 Fraser  River  Tannery.
1906... 13,522      " " "
Total Area, 32,252 acres.
Annual Rental—2 cents per acre during the first 5 years; 5 cents per acre thereafter. This increased rate thus applies to 18,730 acres in 1910.
Condition—Operation of a tannery.
Timber cut from        Returns  made  to the  Chief Timber  Inspector show that  the  cut
Leaseholds,    from leaseholds has been:
1900    61,140,883 feet 1905   49,218,180 feet
1901    55,746,060    " 1906   34,886,500    "
1902    56,368,662    " 1907   52,890,033    "'
1903    45,338,680    " 1908   16,586,780    "
1904   41,758,411    " 1909   87,610,544    "
Unfortunately it would appear these figures have no claim to accuracy.
Areas Under Lease. Obliged Not Obliged
Total. to Operate. to Operate.
End of 1908      626,883 485,907               140,976
End of  1909      622,501 481,525                    "
End of  1910       619,025 478,049                    "
Cut per Acre. In 1909 the above figures would indicate a cut of 140 feet.    If we
were to credit the whole cut to the area held under leases that make
milling compulsory, this would be increased to 180 feet. D 26 Report of The Forestry Commission. 1910
Absence of Upon the expiry of their original term the following 56,450 acres
Authorized      of leases  (1) have been continued from year to year at their former
Rates. rentals and under their former conditions, the Land Act having made
no   provisions   for   imposing   such   rentals   and   conditions   since   the
year 1905:
At the former rate of 5c. (2)
5 payments have been made on    1,380 acres
4       "              "        " " " 16,792 "
3        "              "         " "        " 12,220 "
2        "              "        " " " 14,394 "            (A)
At the former rate of ioc.
2 payments have been made on    4,800 acres
1        " "        " "        "    6,864    " (B)
By the enforced continuance of these former rates, rental payments up  to the
end of 1910 have been accepted as follows:
At     5c $6,975.80
At   ioc    1,646.40
Interim levy as now made, at 31st December, 1910:
On 44,786 acres  of  (A)  at    5c $2,239.30
On  11,664 acres of  (B)   at  ioc.C.   1,166.40
Total Expiry of Leases.
1908   4,586 acres
1909   4,382    "
1910    3,476    "
1911     5,925     "
1912 	
1913    2,637    "
Total, 1911 to 1920, 26,076 acres.
I9M     2,465     "
1915        655     "
1916-20   14,394     "
Expiry of Present Terms of Perpetual Leases.
In  1911       on   12,268 acres
1912  1,488
1913    27,204
1914             22,639
1915   1,949
1916-20   89,427
Total       154,975 acres
Summary. At 31st December, 1910, 56,450 acres are awaiting fresh terms;  (3)
within ten years 154,975 acres will require fresh terms; within 10 years
26,076 acres will revert to the Crown.
These three classes comprise about two-fifths of the present acreage.
(!)    Apart from the 5,569 acres of miscellaneous and special cases (see full list of leases in Appendix).
(2) The figures given arc as at 31st December, 1910.
(3) Apart from a few special cases. 1 Geo. 5 Report of The Forestry Commission. D 27
LICENSED TIMBER LANDS
Number in igio.
West   of   the   Cascades       8,6oo licenses
East   of   the   Cascades       6,400       "
Total    (1)     15,000 licenses
Cost of Licensed Stumpage.
For a short discussion of this see Crown Stumpage values, p. 37.
Present Rental.
Per nominal mile:
$140 west of the Cascades;
$115 east of the Cascades;
$129.33 average for the Province.
Per nominal acre:
Nearly 22c. west of the Cascades;
Nearly 18c. east of the Cascades;
Nearly 20 1-5 average for the Province.
Total Rental, Calendar Year 1909:   $1,983,015.    (2)
Total Nominal Area:   9,600,000 acres.   (3)
Total Estimated Area: Assuming that the average shortage on survey will continue to be as at present, the true licensed area would be about 9,000,000 acres.
Single Holdings: The largest number of licenses known to be in the possession
of a single holder is 375; there are a number of holdings in the neighbourhood of 100
and 200 licenses.
The Results Under the law of 1905, survey must precede any cutting of timber
of Survey.     upon either 16-year or 21-year licenses.    A Departmental return made
24th August, 1909, shows that at that date 842, or less than 6% of the
licenses, had been surveyed.    The total acreage had amounted to 497,327 acres, giving
an average of 591 acres, or a shortage of nearly 8%.
Within the twelve months, August, 1909, to August, 1910, surveys of 624 licenses
with an average acreage of 596.6 have been placed on file with the Department.
The shortage on these has thus been nearly 7%.
On the  18th  of August,  1910,  we  therefore  find:
less than 10% of the special licenses have been surveyed:
average acreage on survey, 593 acres
average shortage of area, 7.3%.
Surveyed Licenses.
Approx. Number         Total Average
District.                                                           Number. Surveyed. Acreage. Acreage.
New Westminster       1,540 239 141,608.4 592.5
Coast       3,060 341 196,550.8 576.4
Skeena         200 ... ........ ....
Queen Charlotte       800 53            31,588.2 596
O)   These numbers are all approximate; the exact number is supposed to be in the neighbourhood of 15,160.
(2) Including penalties.
(3) Approximate; there are a few old 1,000 acre licenses that pay pro rata on their acreage. D 28
Report of The Forestry Commission.
1910
Approx.
District. Number.
Cassiar      390
Cariboo    1,800
Lillooet     450
Yale, inc. Osoyoos and Similkameen  670
East Kootenay    1,120
West Kootenay   1,660
Renfrew     400
Barclay     310
Nootka      350
Clayoquot    760
Sayward     360
Rupert    1,130
O 	
Total    15,000
Number
Total
Average
Surveyed.
Acreage.
Acreage.
8
3,867.6
4834
41
25,362
618.6
41
25,460
621
26
14,442.6
555-5
389
232,911.8
598.7
17
10,521
618.8
9
5,141-3
571-2
151
89,9974
596
37
21,061
569.2
114
71,0734
623.4
1,466
869,585.5
593-2
1,000 Acre In  addition  to  the  above,  the  following  old   1,000  acre licenses,
Licenses.       issued previous to the law of 1901, have been placed under survey within
the last twelve months:
District. Acreage.
East Kootenay     981.5
  889
"   960
 '.  641
Coast     660
New Westminster    641
Clayoquot  641
Increase in The present number of licenses may be placed with some certainty
Licensed Area, between 15,000 and 15,160, and with equal assurance it may be stated
that the number has never exceeded 15,400 at any time. Owing to the
fact that upon each annual renewal each license was designated—until recently—by
a fresh number, it has become impossible to trace in detail from year to year the
increase in the actual area under license.
Attempts to calculate area from the amount of rental paid are baffled by the
circumstance that two payments upon the same square mile might occur within the
same twelve months. Ignorance of this fact caused the popular misconception that
17,700 square miles were at one time taken up.
Taking the Chief Timber Inspector's reports as being roughly correct for years
previous to 1905, we obtain:
Year. No. of Licenses. Nominal Area.
1900           143 143,000 acres
1902          526 336,640     "
1904        1,451 928,640     "
1907    over   15,000       over 9,600,000      "
License Transfers.
The fee for transfer was
total receipts we find:
!.oo until April, 1910, when it became $5.00.    From the 1 Geo. 5 Report of The Forestry Commission. D 29
Number of
Year,  (i) Transfers.
1907       2,426
1908       5,512
1909       4,011
6 mos. of (2) 1910       1,690
Thus the activity of the market for licenses is shown by the fact that within
:hree years, either on account, or in spite, of the severe financial depression prevailing,
nearly 12,000 licenses passed from hand to hand.
Handloggers' In past years one official permit often covered the operations of
Licenses.       several men, and in consequence both the number of handloggers and
the work they did were greater than might be imagined upon a perusal
of the figures below.
No. of
Year. Handloggers' Licenses.
1900      158
1901      163
1902      190
1903     259
1904     183
1905      420
1906  • 408
1907     573
1908       30
1909     65
c THE RAILWAY BELT OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (3)
Forest Revenue. Total From Percentage
Fiscal Year. Dominion.      Railway Belt.      of Total.
1909     $269,837 $ 55,736 over 20%
1910       378,010 126,351 "     33%
Forest Expenditure on Railway Belt.
Fiscal Year.
1909     $33,260    or 60% of the revenue
1910      43,756    nearly 35% of the revenue
These figures include salaries and expenses of Crown timber agents, office
assistants' salaries and expense of fire ranging.
Alienated Area.
At March 31st, 1909      1,336,960 acres under license
1910       1,264,665
In addition to these areas, about 15,000 acres were under "permit."
Lumber Cut of Railway Belt:
Feet B. M.
1909        53,923,157    or 33% of the total cut from Dominion forests
1910       87,702,075    or 41%   "
it       it      41
(1) The figures for 1905 and 1906 are not available.
(2) Omitting April and including July on account of change of fees.
(3) Figures supplied by courtesy of the Department of the Interior. D 30
Report of The Forestry Commission.
l'JIO
These figures include the cut from the Reserves, which in 1908 was over 8,000,000
feet.
Average Mill Price of Lumber (1) 1909. 1910.
In Railway Belt   $14.20 $1415
Calgary        14.91 14.81
Edmonton, Alta    1370 16.00
Prince Albert, Sask    17-54 18.47
Winnipeg,  Man    14-55 14-63
THE FOREST REVENUE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
As the sums derived from the taxation of Crown Grant timber are included—in
the Public Accounts—in the general item for "Wild, Coal and Timber Lands," we have
no means of ascertaining the actual amount received in each year from this source.
From the tax rolls, however, we know the total sums that should in theory have been
paid upon Crown Grant timber. The actual payments are doubtless somewhat less
than these amounts, on account of unpaid arrears; and moreover, upon prompt payment a discount of 10% is allowed. If we deduct 10% from the whole sums due for
each year, we probably arrive at a close approximation to the true receipts.
By Fiscal years—
Crown
Timber
Scaling
Grant
Year.
Leases.
Royalty.
Licenses.
Fees.
Taxation.
1900
.$ 38,812
$    97,517
1901
.    28,981
86,613
1902
-    45,86i
115,210
1903
.    84,111
214,106
1904
.   116,382
289,366
1905
.    76,228
410,288
1906
.   100,449
509,043
$34,335
1907
■    95,219
1,155,346
$13,069
41,693
1908
•    74,043
$232,696
$2,025,869
19,320
72,740
(9 mos.) 1909
■ •    59,o85
233,963
1,614,291
13,010
1910
(2)-
-    85,875
304,614
1,940,251
21,698
95-712
By Calendar Years—
Grown Grant Scaling
Year.                     Licenses.          Leases.   Taxation.   Royalty. Cordwood.   Fees.     Transfers.        Handloggers.
1900  $  7,150 $37,231      $ 89,362 $ 7,117            $i,530 (approx.)
1901     12,708   45,6o8        81,047 14,342             1,630   "
1902    57,9i8   39,213        91,648 7,987             1,900   "
1903    135,552  124,635       137,702 5,347             2,590
1904    177,984   92,761       178,730 4,061             1,830
1905    271,935  100,007       196,187 2,138            4,200   "
1906    513,497   87,954 $34,355 213,860 2,205 $ 4,018 $  778 3,230
1907   1,339,351   77,66i 41,693 206,751 1,717 18,729  4,848 5,730
1908   2,290,473(3)88,869 72,740 304,235 1,041 17,553 10,211  658
1909   1,983,015   77,473 95,712 264,544 494 19,115  7,982 1,625
(1) Section 17, Clause j, Dominion Government Regulations, provides that ollicials shall have access to the
books of tho shipping companies.
(2) From the records of the Department of Lands.
(3) Two payments on one license occurring to some extent within the 365 days of this year. 1 Geo.
Report of The Forestry Commission.
D 31
By Calendar Years.
Forest Revenue
1900     $   142,390
1901   155,335
1902   198,666
1903   405,826
1904   455,366
1905   574,467
1906   859,877
1907        1,696,480
1908        2,785,807
1909       2,449,960
TOTAL FOREST REVENUE.
Ferest Revenue.
1901 $ H5,594
1902  161,071
1903  298,217
1904  405,748
1905  486,516
1906  643,827
1907  1,305,327
1908  2,424,668
1909(9 mos.) 1,920,349
1910  2,448,150
By Fiscal Years.
.Total
From Forest
Prov'l Revenue
Sources.
$1,605,920
7.2%
1,807,925
8.9%
2,044,630
14.6%
2,638,260
15-4%
2,920,461
16.7%
3,044,442
21.1%
4,444,593
29.4%
5,979,054
40.6%
4,664,500
41.2%
8,000,000 approx. 30.6%
FOREST REVENUES OF CANADA.
1908
British Columbia (1) $2,786,000
Ontario        1,224,000(2)
Quebec (4)         978,000
Dominion Forests, inc. Railway Belt (5) .. ..      270,000
New Brunswick (6)         343,000
Total   $5,601,000
1909
$2,450,000
886,000(3)
906,000
378,000
395,000
$5,015,000
In the revenue of the Dominion forests there is included $55,736 from the Rail
way Belt for the fiscal year 1909, and $126,351 for 1910.
FOREST EXPENDITURE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA.
1906-7 1907-8 1908-9 1909-10
Year to Year to 9 mos. 12 mos.
June 30. June 30. to March.        to March.-
Timber Inspectors' salaries $ 4,860 $ 5,100 $ 4,095            $ 6,519.18
Temporary  assistance     2,050 1,401 1,990.17
Temporary   expenses     1,762.25 1,714.80 1,833-04 2,841.30
Log  Scalers'  salaries     14,715-83 15,642.76 12,020.57 19,597-50
Log Scalers'expenses  '  1,58449 2,667.12 3,401-35  (7)  13,173-66'
Services guarding booms, rivers, etc.,
miscellaneous    4,018.28 1,256.45 328.12 961.10
Fighting forest fires     7,631.25 16,416.50 35,707.62 45,988.77
Purchase  "Volga"     4,900.00
Total     $34,572.10       $49,747.63       $58,786.70       $91,071.68
t
LUMBER CUT OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Little  is known  concerning the  extent  of  logging  operations  in  the   Province.
The records of official scaling on the Coast show that:
(1) Calendar years.
(2) Being the collection proper for that year (calendar).   Including arrears allowed to accumulate on account
of the financial depression, the total receipts were $1,786,000.
(3) Period of 10 months only; the fiscal year being changed from calendar year to year ending October 31st.
(4) Year ending Juno 30th.
(5) Years ending March 3lst. 1909 and 1910.
(ti)   Year ending October 31st.
(7)   Log scalers' expenses for 1909—to include expenses of upkeep and provisions for launches. D 32 Report of The Forestry Commission. 1910
In 1907       407,065,223 feet B.M. were scaled.
"1908       397,312,425    "        "    .    "
" 1909       481,260,174    "
and   in  the   opinion   of  the   Chief  Timber   Inspector, the   total   cut   of   the   Province,
including the Railway Belt, has probably been about double these figures in each year.
The Secretary of the B. C. Lumber Logging and Forestry Association considers
that during the past four years the cut has varied between 650 million feet and 850
million feet, the latter figure being approximately correct for 1909.
The results of operations that chiefly concern the Government are roughly
shown by the royalty returns. Deducting the tax on Crown Grant timber, manufactured or exported, and taking each 50c. of royalty to represent roughly 1,000 feet of
timber cut we find that such; royalty was paid upon the following amounts:
APPROXIMATE CUT ON WHICH 50c. ROYALTY WAS RECEIVED.
Feet B.M.
1900    v    178,724,000
1901       162,094,000
1902       183,296,000
1903       275,404,000
1904       338,818,000
1905       380,758,000
1906       426,714,000
1907       408,760,000
1908       607,518,000
1909       520,486,000
The amount of royalty-paying timber actually cut in each twelve months is not,
however, shown with accuracy by these figures, on account of the intervals of time
between cutting and payments. In 1909, for example, official scalings were made of
607,612,943 feet.
Lumber The  first serious  attempt to  collect annual  statistics  concerning
Production of  the forests of Canada has recently been made by the Department of
Canada, 1908.   the  Interior.    For the year  1908 returns made by 143 lumbermen in
British Columbia showed a cut of 647,977,000 feet.
The figures thus obtained are far from complete.    For all Canada the following
cut of lumber was reported to the Department:
Bd. Ft.
Ontario       1,294,794,000
Quebec           690,135,000
British Columbia        647,977,000
New Brunswick        308,400,000
Nova Scotia      216,875,000
Saskatchewan           91,166,000
Manitoba            56,447,000
Alberta    '        42,382,000
Total      3,348,176,000
Mill Capacity of British Columbia.
At the end of 1909 a return from the Chief Timber Inspector shows that there
were:
215 lumber mills with an approximate daily capacity of 4,500,000 feet;
59 shingle mills with an approximate daily capacity of 3,385,000 shingles. 1 Geo. 5 Report of The Forestry Commission. D 33
EXPORT.
In past years no figures are obtainable concerning the total export of logs from
Crown Grant timber lands.
The  annual  reports show  that  the timber tax  on  export  was  levied upon  the
following small amounts:
Timber Tax on Export.
Calendar Year. Amount of Timber.    Tax Levied.
1904      7,8i5,747 feet paying $ 8,755
1905      5,118,050    " " 5,381
1906            Nil
1907          1,881,400    " " 1,881
1908           Nil
1909         3,785,750    " " 3,785
,   Total        18,600,000 feet $19,802
Export in 1910.
During the present year records have been kept.    In a period of eight months
there were exported:
45,417,478 feet paying 50c. per M. royalty
14,843,917 feet paying $1.00 per  M.  royalty
Total 60,261,395 feet
In  September 36 camps were at work on exportable timber,  and  most of the
timber cut by them was exported.
TAX ON TIMBER MANUFACTURED.
at ic. per M.
1904      56,600,000 feet paid   $   566.00
1905      42,700,000 " " 427.00
1906      50,300,000 " " 503.00
1907      49,000,000 " " 490.00
1908      47,600,000 " " 476.00
1909      51,600,000 " " 516.00
Total    297,800,000 feet $2,978.00
FIRE PATROL
In Idaho. (1) The  formation  of voluntary associations  of  lumbermen  for  pro
tective purposes dates from 1906. Through the efforts of these bodies
there was enacted in 1907 the Fallon Fire Law, (2) under which patrolmen nominated
by owners of timber lands were given power, as constables, to enforce the forest
regulations.
Over a three-year period the work of the four associations may be summarized
as follows:
Average membership area under patrol      1,170,000 acres
Average annual cost     $30,000
Average cost per acre      2j^c. per annum
(1) Information Bupplied by the associations.
(2) See Appendix. D 34 Report oe The Forestry Commission. 1910
Taking the Pend d'Oreille Association, we find that in 1909:
Membership   area   403,446 acres
Wardens on patrol    30
Average membership area patrolled by each warden   under    14,000     "
Both the State of Idaho and the railway companies contribute to the funds of
these associations.
In Washington. In the season of 1910 some 22 wardens were employed by the State
authorities, whose expenditure for previous years had been $9,454 in
1907 and $13,617 in 1908. National forests within the State are patrolled by the U. S.
Forest Service. In the year 1908 the Washington Forest Fire Association was formed
by owners of timber lands for mutual protection.
Owned by Members. Levy per Acre. Total Levy.
1908      2,525,000 acres 1      cent $25,252
1909      2,662,830     " 1 V-i     " 39,932
1910       2,760,000     " 2^     " 69,000 (approx.)
The organization in 1910 included one chief warden, eight inspectors, eighty-four
patrols. The secretary estimates that altogether each patrol has to cover 70,000 acres,
and that for really efficient protection from fire one man should not be given more than
16,000 acres.
In Ontario. The fire ranging system in this Province was organized in 1885, but
until the year 1901 contributions from licensees were voluntary. In that
year power was taken to compel all licensees to pay half the cost of fire patrol upon their
holdings, and the number of wardens was increased to 253. More and more men were
placed upon patrol in each successive year, their numbers reaching 692 in 1908 and no
less than 822 last year. In 1909 as many as 187 wardens were placed upon the railway
lines, two men to every ten-mile beat, and the cost of this was refunded by the companies concerned.* In the spring of 1910 the Government decided that the full cost
of fire patrol on licensed territory must thenceforward be borne by the licensees
themselves.
EXPENDITURE.
Government.      Railways.      Licensees. Total.
1908, for 692 wardens   $109,824 $53,236 $46,621 $209,682
1909, for 822 wardens       132,106 66,712 43,805 242,624
Taking the collections proper for 1908 (the fiscal year 1909 being only 10 months
long), we find that Ontario spent about 9% of the public forest revenue upon forest
ranging and fire patrol.
Acreage 450  men  patrolled  an   area  of   18,524  square  miles  under  timber
per Warden,    licenses.
Average per Warden, less than 27,000 acres.
In British Expenditure of the public money for the protection of the forests
Columbia.      of the Province dates from the fiscal year 1906-7.   The gradual realization of the need for this is shown by the following figures:
(*) The transcontinental line alone refusing to refund the full amount.   It paid one-third of the assessment.   The
actual expenditure of the Government was, therefore, somewhat larger than the amount shown. 1 Geo. 5 Report of The Forestry Commission. D 35
Fiscal Wardens. Expenditure on Percentage of
Year. on Patrol. Fighting Fires. Forest Revenue.
1906-7                                   $7,631 3-5    of 1%
1907-8                                     16,416 7-10 of  1%
1908-9     27                         35,707 (9 months)   under 2%
1909-10     37                          45,988 under 2%
For the season 1910 the reports of the Chief Fire Wardens show:
Month. Expenditure. Wardens on Patrol.
April     $    1,407.12
May         11,554-00 53
June          12,722.00 57
July        65,150.00 70
August        65,619.61 70
September         29,349.27 70
Total     $185,802.00
Acreage Taking merely the alienated area, 11,251,000 acres of Crown Grant,
per Warden,    leasehold and licensed timber lands, we find that the average area of
merchantable    forest    to    one    Provincial    Fire    Warden    was    over
160,000 acres.
Expenditure, The expenditure per alienated acre, in the summer season of  1910,
per Acre, 1910. up to the end of September was nearly 1 7-10 cents.
These  figures  would  be  reduced were  we  to  include  the  protection
of the reserve timber among the duties of the fire wardens.
In the B. C. Railway Belt.
Fiscal Year Wardens Government Expenditure
to March. on Patrol. on Fire Protection.
1908  Under ic. per acre east of Yale; 234c. per acre west of Yale
1909       35 About y^c. per acre
1910       36
THE COST OF OFFICIAL CRUISING IN WESTERN FORESTS
The former system of assessment having been condemned by the Board of Tax
Commissioners of Washington as the "crudest kind of guesswork," many of the counties
of that State undertook complete cruises of the timber lands in private ownership
within their boundaries. In addition we have the financial results of various cruisings
by the U. S. Forest Service in the States adjacent to British Columbia.
Owing to the fact that a fresh body of men had to be selected, organized and
equipped to perform the work connected with each county cruise, in Washington both
office and field expenses were probably much greater than they would have been under
the routine methods of a permanent organization. Apart from such incidental waste (1)
it is of course obvious that the nature of the country and the method of cruising
employed determine the cost per acre.
Example 1.
ASSESSMENT CRUISE IN THE STATE OF WASHINGTON.
547,037 acres of Lewis County cruised for $57,762, or 10J/2C. per acre
367,827 acres of Pacific County cruised for $35,000, or   9^c. per acre
(1)   In one county, for example, $6,000 was thrown away on account of a single piece of work that had been
entrusted to incompetent men and that had to bo re-done. D 36 Report of The Forestry Commission. 1910
These are described as two of the most heavily timbered counties. The cost
includes all office expenses, mapping, etc.
The northern forest district of Mason County averaged 40,000 feet per acre, the
scattered timber in the southern part averaging 15,000 feet; the former district being
rough and broken country, the latter rolling and fairly level. $47,709 was spent on
cruising, but the average cost per acre has not been obtainable by us.
Snohomish County has cruised 320,680 acres, averaging 30,000 feet per acre.
42,840 acres cruised in 1909 cost 7 6-10 cents per acre.
According to statements of the county assessors the cruise of King County cost
about 17 cents per acre; that of Skamania County (timber averaging 24,000 feet per
acre) about 16 cents per acre.
Timber lands belonging to the Capitol Building grant have recently been
examined by the State authorities with the result that the cruise of 79,725 acres cost
$23,443, or 29 4-10 cents per acre; figures that include the cost of all printing, maps,
drafting, transportation, etc., as well as the salary of the superintendent of cruising at
$350 per month.
Example 2. In  the  Kaniksu  National  Forest, located  in  northern  Idaho  and
north-east Washington, the cruising of 22,000 acres in the summer of
1910 cost 5 cents per acre, which the District Forester considers a fair average figure
for a fairly detailed cruise, in the course of which each forty acres was crossed once.
This includes the cost of printing, topographical maps and office work. The country is
fairly level; the stand of timber is very dense, running from 50,000 to 100,000 feet per
acre; thick hemlock undergrowth makes cruising slow, and the work is done some
twenty miles from the railway and a few miles from the wagon road.
Example 3. The mapping and valuation of the holdings of the Northern Pacific
Railway Company and adjacent lands in the National Forests in the
northern Rocky Mountain region of Montana and the collection of much varied information, was performed by the U. S. Forest Service at a cost varying from 2}4 to 3 cents
per acre, over a total of 3,000,000 acres. Timber estimates were made by calipering the
trees on sample strips one chain wide, run every mile or half mile according to the
density of the timber.
In open timber in the southwest, ocular estimates by "forties" cost between 3 and
4 cents per acre. The latter figure was the average cost of a general timber survey in
the Riding Mountain district of Manitoba.
As for mjethods still more cursory we find that Ontario- explored its southern
forest area of sixty million acres in 1899 at a cost of $40,000 (1); while Nova Scotia
has recently completed a reconnaissance of forest conditions, organized by Dr. Fernow,
that may cost about $5,500 for 21,000 square miles.
THE RISE IN VALUE OF WESTERN STUMPAGE
A clear impression of the trend of events in the United States can be obtained
from the reports dealing with stumpage values secured by the Forest Service. As
Messrs. Kellogg and Zeigler point out, the slowness of the rise until recently can be
explained by the general failure to realize the approaching shortage of supply and by
the fact that the lumber industry has been continuously on the brink of over-production. Every little business depression has caused the lumber market to break, not
because standing timber was an unsafe investment, but because many lumbermen were
so involved, financially, that they were obliged to cut and sell, even at a sacrifice, to
meet fixed charges. This chronic trade condition has helped to keep down the price
of stumpage.
(1)   Dominion Forest Report, 1909, p. 5. 1 Geo. 5 Report of The Forestry Commission. D 37
"Although the value of white pine stumpage is seen to have increased 121% in
seven years, the cut of it decreased 46%. In fact, of the eastern species—with cuts of
one billion feet or more, white pine, oak and yellow poplar, cottonwood and elm all
show decreases in cut and even the long-despised eastern hemlock has passed its zenith.
The northern lumberman has turned his attention to maple, birch, basswood and chestnut and the southern lumberman to tupelo and red gum. Yet the increase in all these
together is less than half the decrease in white pine." (1)
Moreover, though Southern yellow pine has so far more than held its place in
the total output, the centre of production has moved to the most western region of the
Southern forest. The result of all this is that both the cut and the stumpage value of
Western timbers are increasing rapidly, and the Rocky Mountain and Pacific forests,
that together contain more than half the virgin stumpage, are destined to control the
lumber markets of the country. In the case of Douglas fir, the stand of which in the
United States is estimated at 525 billion feet, we find:
Million Average Average
Feet Cut. Mill Price. Stumpage Value.
1900        1,736 $ 8.67 $0.77
1907        4,748 14-12 1-44
Increase           17 Z% 63% 87%
The financial depression produced an arbitrary setback in production shown by a
reduction in the cut of Douglas fir to 3,675 million feet in 1908.
As for cedar in the United States, statistics show:
Average Average
Stumpage Value.    Mill Price.
1900       $i-32 $10.91
1907          4-63 19-14
Increase          251% 75%
The general rise has produced its inevitable effect upon values in the National
Forests of Washington and Oregon, that include a stand estimated at 180 billion feet.
The Federal Government sells timber in these forests by the thousand feet and not by
the acre; the contracts impose stringent regulations upon purchasers, and all sales call
for immediate operations covering a few years at most. At the present time the
standard prices for green timber in the States mentioned are:
Douglas  fir    $2.50
Western red cedar   3-°o
Western  hemlock     !-75
Sitka  spruce     2.50
Noble fir  '  2.50
White   fir     1.50
Western yellow pine    2.50
Western white pine    3.00
It must be understood that these are only standard prices. In other words, very
accessible timber is sold at higher rates and the more inaccessible timber is sold at
lower rates. (2)
CROWN STUMPAGE VALUES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA.
In the course of the evidence given before the Commission numerous comments
were made upon the prices charged by the Government for stumpage under the lease
and license systems.    Comparisons were drawn between the cost of holding timber in
(1) Kellogg and Zeigler, of the United States Forest Service.
(2) Figures supplied by the U. S. Forest Service. D 3S Report of The Forestry Commission. 1910
British Columbia under Provincial and Dominion lease, license, or Crown Grant tenure,
and the cost in other Provinces and States. The following reference to the subject is
therefore made:
There are two distinct ways of buying timber; it may be purchased outright from
private owners, or it may be obtained from the Crown and paid for in instalments that
take the forms of rental and royalty. The problem is to discover what immediate investments are equivalent to these strings of future payments of rental and royalty, and for
this the ordinary principle of discount may be used.
If we assume that private business is done at 7%, we find:
Present investment equivalent to License Rental: (1)
10 15 21
Years' Rental Years Years
Per mile  $1,052.00 $1,364.00 $1,623.00
Per  acre     1.64 2.13 2.54
Per 1,000 feet, at 12,000 feet per acre     .14 .18 .21
"      "       "       "    15,000     "     "       "        11 .14 .17
"      "       "      "    25,000     "     "       "        07 .09 .10
To vary the calculation, suppose that the Government needed to anticipate future
receipts of forest revenue by means of a public loan issue, and suppose that the money
were thus obtained at a net cost of 4%. Using this rate of interest the present value
of the special license rentals to the Government would then be:
10 is
Years' Rental. Years' Rental.
Per  mile    $1,181.00 $1,619.00
Per  acre             1.84 2.53
Per 1,000 feet, at  12,000 feet per acre                .15 .21
"   20,000     "     "       "                     .09 .12
Combined Rental and Royalty.
The present value to the Government of future rental and royalty combined
would be:
Timber Cut
At End 10 Years At End 15 Years (2)
At 12,000 feet per acre       49 cents 49 cents
At 20,000 feet per acre      43 cents 40 cents
Price of Rental  is levied per acre, royalty per  1,000 feet,  and therefore we
Licensed       must know how many thousand feet there are to the acre before we
Timber.        can say at what price the licensed Crown timber is actually sold, under
the present rates of rental and royalty.    In petitions of the Operators'
Associations calculations  of stand have been made upon a conjecture  of over  12,000
feet as the average per acre established by actual operation.    Upon such averages as
this, figures therefore show that the cash investment equivalent to the future payments
of rental and royalty on licensed timber is, at the most, about fifty cents.    The charges
upon leasehold timber may be capitalized in the same manner, allowing for rentals at
5, 10, 15 or 25 cents as the case may be.
Unfortunately this method of comparing investments in purchased, leased or
licensed timber leaves out of account a factor of considerable importance. With purchased timber the whole investment is subject to the risk of loss by fire; whereas under
the other tenures only past rental payments are thus exposed, destruction of leased or
(1) West of the Cascades.
(2) Postponement of the cut lessening the " present value "in spite of rental. 1 Geo. 5 Report of The Forestry' Commission. D 39
licensed timber merely ending the holder's option to cut it. Properly speaking, the
fifty-cent maximum investment calculated above should be reduced on this account
when comparing licensed with other stumpage.
On the other hand, the amount payable to the Government—something less than
fifty cents a thousand—does not measure the total investment that the purchaser of
licensed stumpage must make to-day. The original cost of discovery and staking, the
subsequent cost of selling, added to the profit of the vending license, increase the necessary investment by some variable amount that lies probably between fifty cents and
one dollar.
Though part of the price of Crown stumpage—that represented by royalty—has
remained unaltered for more than 22 years, recognition of the rise in the value of
standing timber during that period has been made by the Legislature. From time to
time increased rentals have been imposed. In 1895, for instance, alienation of stumpage
for holding purposes was made in return for an annual rent of 15 cents; in 1899 this
was changed to fifty cents; after 1903 to twenty-five cents, and since 1905 to twenty-two
cents or eighteen cents, according to locality. (1)
ONTARIO STUMPAGE.
The present range of stumpage values in Ontario may be gauged by the results
of a sale of seven berths containing pine and spruce timber damaged by fire in the
Mississauga Forest Reserve on September 15th, 1909. It was a condition of the sale
that the timber should be removed within six (6) years. The amounts tendered by the
successful purchasers as bonus per thousand feet, to be paid in addition to the royalty
of $2.00 when timber should be cut, were as follows:
Area
District.        Square Miles. Rates.
1. Algoma        18     White Pine $5.20, Red Pine $3.00.
2. "      21     White Pine $11.27, Red Pine. $8.55, Jack Pine $8.55,
Spruce $8.55.
3. "'              18     White Pine $11.37, Red Pine $8.55, Jack Pine $8.55,
Spruce $8.55-
4. "      18     White Pine $10.55, Red Pine $8.55, Jack Pine $8.55,
Spruce $8.55-
5. "       18     White  Pine $5.10,  Red  Pine $3.10, Jack  Pine $1.00,
Spruce $1.00.
6. "       18     White Pine $10.55, Red Pine $8.55, Jack Pine $8.55,
Spruce $8.55.
7. "       18     White  Pine $5.10,  Red  Pine  $2.10, Jack Pine $1.00,
Spruce $1.00.
EUROPEAN STUMPAGE.
Some of the more thickly populated countries of Europe after passing through
that primitive stage of forest exploitation in which commercial profit is frankly based
upon the wholesale waste of wood, have been forced to the extremity of applying
scientific methods to the cutting of timber. Germany, for example, has solved the
problem of forest preservation, and her increasing output has already been accompanied by increasing profits through a long series of years.
Within three-quarters of a century results such as these have been attained: (2)
(1) Approximate figures for east and west of Yale.
(2) Fernow; " Financial Results of Forest Management," Quoted in Forest Circular 140. D 40 Report of The Forestry Commission. 1910
Sustained Yield of Seven Million Acres of Prussian Forests.
Average Yield. Average Revenue.
1850    .28 per acre
1865   24 cubic feet      .72  "  "
1890   52  "   " 1.58 "  "
1904   65  "   " 2.50 "  "
Prussian forest management has trebled the rate of production in 75 years; the
improvement in quality is shown by the proportion of saw lumber which has risen
from 19 to 54%; and the financial results produce a revenue of over 17 million dollars.
In the Crown forests of Baden the cut has in the last 30 years been increased
from 61 to 93 cubic feet per acre (an increase of 53 per cent.) The gross returns have
doubled, and are now $8.99 per acre. Since the expenses have not increased proportionally the net revenue has risen more than 100%; namely, from $2.45 in 1878 to $5.23
in 1907. Though re-afforestation is, for the most part natural, nearly 23 cents an acre
is spent upon planting. (1)
The average net revenue per acre from over 15 million acres of good, bad and
indifferent forest in Germany was found to be $2.40 a year. Wurtemberg and Saxony
make $6.00 and $5.30 respectively, per average acre—about as much, each single year,
as the total capitalized sale value exacted by the British Columbian Government to-day
for its licensed timber. (2)
Large populations and markets readily accessible have enabled various European
countries to prove that the profit from forests may depend upon the expenditure on
forests.
(1) Forest Statistics of the Grand Duchy of Baden for 1907.    (Forestry Quarterly. Septembor, 1910.)
(2) At present rates of rental and royalty, assuming an average 42 year life for licenses; an averago stand of
12,000 ft. per acre; money at 4%.  D 42
Report of The Forestry Commission.
1910
THE RISE IN PRICE OF CANADIAN LUMBER.
i   9
» 9 # »
O - .4 -» *.        U .•
O O o O O o «
HIGHER    THAN
THE   AVCRAtE   PRICE
THOM    !»«•    TO   1900
BY
LEVCI,..Or....AVE1IA4 C._P It I C &.-I69O...TO..I90O.
A    GREATER     PERCENTAGE     OP     INCREASE
THAN    FOR    ANY    GROUP    OP    COMMODITIES
EXCEPT    TUR$ 1 Geo.  5 Report of The Forestry Commission. D 43
SYNOPSIS OF RECOMMENDATIONS
SYNOPSIS.
In the following section of this Report your Commissioners recommend:
Page 45. (i)   that  a  complete   cruise of  all   CROWN   GRANT  TIMBER
LANDS should be made by the Government; that in future the
Department of Forests should co-operate with the assessors; and that an annual return
should be made of the valuation of all such timber lands:
Page 47. (2)  that as far as possible TIMBER LEASEHOLDS should be
placed, upon renewal, upon a parity with licensed timber lands; and
that they should be subject to the same forest regulations:
Page 50. (3)   that   the   rates   of   rental   and   of   royalty   upon   SPECIAL
LICENSE should at no time be fixed in advance for more than one
calendar year:
Page 53. (4) that the Land Act be amended so as to empower the Govern
ment to grant the right of cutting saw mill timber to PULP lessees;
and that a new form of license be provided for this purpose in the manner described
by your Commissioners:
Page 54. (5)   that   the   same   form   of  license   as  that   provided   for  pulp
lessees be issued to holders of TAN3ARK LEASES who may desire
to cut mill timber upon their leaseholds.
Page 55. (6)   that  the  present  Reserve upon  UNALIENATED  TIMBER
LAND be continued indefinitely; and that when special circumstances
necessitate the opening of any portion of this Reserve for immediate operations, licenses
to cut timber thereon should be put up to public competition, upon a stumpage basis:
Page 55. (7)   that   licenses   to   cut   timber   upon   FRACTIONAL   AREAS
adjoining, or surrounding, leased or licensed timber lands, should be
put up to public competition and that a "fractional area" be defined wi,th great care in
the wording of the "Land Act":
Page 56. (8)   that  the   record   of   every   cruise   and   survey   made  by  the
Government in  timbered  areas  should  be  accompanied  by a  report
concerning the suitability of the land for AGRICULTURE; that the power to compel
licensees to cut and remove timber from good land be retained; and that at the time of
renewal the same provision be inserted in every timber lease:
Page 56. (9)  that the issue of HANDLOGGERS'  LICENSES be discon
tinued :
Page 57. (10)  that no  DIVIDED INTEREST in a special timber license
be recognized: D 44 Report of The Forestry Commission. 1910
Page 57. (n) that for the convenience of holders one day be fixed in each
month for the RENEWAL of all licenses expiring in that month:
Page 59. (12)   that  royalty  be  collected  upon  ALL   MERCHANTABLE
TIMBER NOT REMOVED from Crown lands in the course of
logging operations:
Page60. (13) that operators be required to dispose of DEBRIS:
Page6«. (14)  that the PROTECTION OF FORESTS FROM FIRE be
undertaken by the Government through the agency of a permanent
forest organization upon the lines of the Northwest Mounted Police; and that it be
compulsory for all able-bodied citizens to assist in this work when called upon:
Page 61. (15)   that   the   COST   OF   FIRE   PROTECTION   be   shared
between Government and stumpage holders in the manner proposed
by your Commissioners:
Page 61. (16) that the Provincial Government should co-operate with the
Dominion Railway Commission; that a vigilant patrol of all RAILWAY LINES and inspection of locomotives should be established; and that all railway
construction should be supervised by Provincial forestry officials:
Page 63. (17) that special licensees should be instructed to proceed with the
SURVEY of their holdings; and that all such surveys should be completed not later than the 31st day of December, 1915:
Page 63. (18)   that   all   operators   should   be   required   to   make   periodical
RETURNS concerning their operations, to the forestry officials in
their district; and that the collection of information should be undertaken upon much
wider lines than hitherto:
Page 66. (ig) that the Government should at once proceed with the estab
lishment of a DEPARTMENT OF FORESTS:
Page 72. (20)   that  royalties  upon  Crown  timber  should  be  paid  into  a
.FOREST SINKING FUND in the manner described by your Commissioners :
Page 73. (21)    that   by   suitable   changes   in   the    Customs   TARIFF   the
utilization of low-grade timber should be encouraged. COMPARATIVE AREAS OF ALIENATED TIMBER LANDS
VANCOUVEA.    ISl|.
CROWIV  6RANT
MAINtAND
CROWN &BANT .
TII^BURJUANASL
. «AM. P»t. Rj.
TIMQCR.1.AND
HCfUOCK J.£A»c4 I
POJ.P XEA»£«
TIMBER 1.EASES
SPgCIAi..
i.lCEA'JCC
RAILWAY   BEIT
=]     1       1       i        1       1       I       1       i       i
1    1         '         !          i         !         !         !         !         I
—'    !      !      !       !      1      i      i      1      i
JYot Pu&lishtd         ||                        1                       1                       1                       1                       1                       1
i      !      |      ;      ;      ||      !      !      !
zj   \      j      i      i      i      i      j      |      j
i   i         j         j         j         ]         |         j         |         |
iii         i         i         i         i         i         i
i         i         ii         i         i         i         i         i
iii         i         i         i         i         i         i
■         ii         i         i         t         i         i         i
i       I         I         I         I         I         i         1         i
iii         i         i         i         i         i         i
!!!!!!!!!
iii         i         i         i         i         i         i
iii         i         i         i         i         i        i
i         i         i         i         i         i         i         i        i
i          i          i.          iii!          i          i,
i    i    i    i    i    £    1    L    \
»    '■    \     \    \    \    'r    ?    i
1               1                \                 :                 :                 '                \                \              '!
j           j           j           i           '           !           i           1          i  1 Geo. 5 Report of The Forestry Commission. D 45
The preceding sections of this Report deal in detail with statistical and historical facts that have direct
bearing upon the problems of forest policy to which the attention of your Commissioners has been devoted. Wo
shall refer to these facts from time to time, in the course of the recommendations that we now proceed to make.
RECOMMENDATIONS
CONCERNING TENURE
Under the jurisdiction of the Provincial Government timber lands are held under
three main tenures:
t.    Crown  Grant,  including         829,900 acres  (1)
2. Leaseholds, including    1,005,676     "      (2)
3. Special Licenses, about     9,000,000     "      (3)
In addition there are in the Province certain timber lands that remain in the
possession of the railway companies. (4) Under the Dominion Government there are
the timber lands of the Railway Belt. (5)
CROWN GRANT TIMBER LANDS.
1909 Average valuation   $6.41 per acre (6)
Average taxation   13  (approxV)
Total assessed value    $5,317,335
Total taxation         106,346
Under the Assessment Act of 1903, the intention of the Legislature was to impose
taxation upon Crown Grant timber lands at the rate of 2% on their value. As no
provision was made for the collection, by cruise and expert inspection, of information
concerning either the quality or stand of the timber or its accessibility, the assessors
have consequently been obliged to make more or less conventional estimates in each
district, based upon such indirect knowledge as they might happen to possess of
occasional stumpage sales.
It is obvious that under this system there can be little hope of assessing timber
lands at their true, full value. The experience of the State of Washington is a case in
point. Partial cruising by various counties increased the valuation there by no less
than 113% in a single year; and the investigations of the Board of Tax Commissioners
caused them to state that although the average assessed value of timber lands had been
lifted to $12.91 per acre in 1908, they considered that this represented but 38%, or two-
fifths of the true amount. (7) We note that in a similar manner the average valuation
of timber lands in British Columbia represents but a fraction of their market price.
To remedy conditions that are plainly undesirable, your Commissioners strongly
recommend that complete and accurate information concerning Crown Grant timber
lands should be obtained by the Government, as speedily as possible, by cruise. As the
matter is one that will come, to some extent, under the purview of the proposed Department of Forests, it will be necessary to establish active co-operation between this
organization and the assessors, so that, thenceforward, the latter may be assisted by the
services of the Department's cruisers and the work of valuation be put upon a thorough,
intelligent basis.
■ Although there are strong reasons why timber lands should cease to be placed
upon the tax rolls at figures that do not represent their value, we consider  that the
(1) At the beginning of 1909; probably about 870,000 acres in October, 1910.
(2) At Slst December, 1910; this includes pulp and hemlock leases, p. 25.
(3) Probable; after allowing for the average shortage shown by survey.   See p. 27.
(4)   See p. 23.
...    Seep. 29.
(6) See remark concerning smallness of this average, p. 22.
(7) Biennial Report, p. 27. D 46 Eepokt of The 1?oekstky Commission. 1910
rate of taxation levied upon them should be subjected to careful investigation by the
proposed Department, and that the holding cost to owners who have invested capital
in the purchase of these lands, and who are thus exposed to the full risk of monetary
loss by fire, should be given due weight in all adjustments of forest finance.
We recommend that an annual return should be made showing the acreage and
the assessed value of each and every holding of Crown Grant timber land.
LEASEHOLD TIMBER LANDS.
Leaseholds with right of perpetual renewal     386,458 acres
Leaseholds without right of perpetual renewal     232,567
Total area under timber lease    619,025
Leaseholds held under obligation to operate saw mills   478,049
Leaseholds held without obligation to operate saw mills     140,976
In the section of this Report that deals with forest legislation it will be seen that
prior to the introduction of the licensing system in 1888 timber could only be obtained,
legally, by Crown Grant or by lease. The former method was abolished in 1896; the
latter continued until 1905 when the provision of the Land Act that authorized the
granting of timber leases was repealed. Timber leaseholds thus include land, the
leases of which were granted prior to 1905.
In 1901, however, the Legislature gave the right of renewal in successive periods
of 21 years to the holders of all leases then in existence, and the majority of holders
took advantage of this privilege.
It is in connection with this question of renewal that difficulties have now arisen,
for though the Act of 1901 sets forth that at the expiry of the original period of any
renewable lease the timber shall continue to be held by the lessee "subject to such
terms, conditions, royalties and ground rents as may be in force by Statute" at the time
of expiry, yet no provision for these has been "in force by Statute" since 1905. Leases
covering 56,450 acres are already awaiting the imposition of fresh rental, royalty and
conditions; the terms of others are about to expire; and the situation calls for immediate legislation. The framing of equitable conditions of renewal is, however, no easy
task.
In the opinion of your Commissioners it is important that holders of timber land
should receive, as far as possible, equal treatment at the hands of the Government; and
that every legitimate effort should be made to equalize the dues levied under the
different tenures, and to impose the same forest regulations. In the case of Crown Grant
lands, in all probability, little can be done to modify existing inequalities. The
periodical expiry of lease conditions, however, makes feasible an attempt to place
lessees and licensees upon a footing of equality without infringing any rights that have
been duly granted to lessees.
In this connection passing reference might be made to the claim sometimes
advanced that the holder of a lease who has paid an annual rental for a period of
twenty or thirty years is entitled to consideration upon that account at the time when
the terms of his lease need renewal; that in fact these past payments constitute an
investment in the timber that demands respect. It seems particularly clear to your
Commissioners that the answer to this argument is that during each year of the lease
the lessee has received full value for the rental paid by him; that this annual rental
must be viewed in the same light as the annual fee paid by the special licensee, namely,
as conferring a mere right or option to cut timber during that one year; and that the
fact that the lessee may have paid rentals for 30 years does not put him in any better
position or confer on him any higher rights than those he had after payment of the
first year's rental. Therefore when an expired lease is brought to the Government for
renewal the lessee's investment in that lease by way of rental is nil. 1 Geo. 5 Report oe The Fokestey Commission. D 47
Upon the other side it is equally clear that the Government has no right whatever to make the terms of renewal more severe because a lessee may have been carrying his timber for many years at a much cheaper rate than his competitors in the
lumbering industry.    For lease renewal purposes the past does not exist.
Your Commissioners consider that two principles must be respected in fixing
rental, royalty, terms and conditions for time-expired leases:
(i) There must be recognition of the fact that timber taken from leaseholds will come into competition with timber cut from licensed lands.
Therefore, at no time should there be placed upon lessees any burden or
impost greater than that borne by licensees;
(2) As far as the rights possessed by lessees under their contracts with
the Government permit, equality must be established between the two
classes of stumpage holders.
In the practical application of these principles we are confronted, however, by a question: Does the privilege of renewal carry with it the right
to demand that the rental, royalty, logging regulations, and other conditions
of a lease should be fixed at the time of renewal and should remain
unalterable for a long period of years until the next time of renewal should
occur? If not the difficulty of equalizing imposts disappears; but if so the
two principles we have laid down come into conflict. Rental and royalty
for licensees will in all probability increase within a ten or twelve-year
period from now; logging regulations will undoubtedly become more
rigorous. Therefore to fix for a lessee in 19TI (for example), for a long
period ahead, rental, royalty, and logging regulations identical with those
to which licensees in 1911 may happen to be subject is to give that lessee
an indisputable advantage in his future competition with licensees. On the
other hand to attempt a forecast of the future and to impose now, upon
such lessee, conditions that represent the probable average conditions of
special licenses during the next ten or twelve years is to place an immediate
handicap upon that lessee in his present competition with licensees.
Recommenda- Your  Commissioners  do  not feel  called upon   to  pronounce  upon
tion. the legal rights of shareholders with respect to renewal, but we recom
mend that, if it would not be any abrogation of rights presently existing, provision should be made for equalizing annually the payments of rentals and
royallies as between leaseholders and licensees.
Recommenda- We unhesitatingly recommend that timber leases should be made
fion. subject  to all  the  regulations  from  time  to  time  in  force  concerning
logging methods, the disposal of debris, protection from fire and other
matters of forestry, and we beg to emphasize  the importance  of securing uniformity
in this respect in order that a general forest policy may be successfully carried on.
Renewals. Your Commissioners recommend that as three-fifths of the lessees
have the  right of renewal  in 21-year  periods and  as the privilege  of
indefinite, renewal  was also given to holders of special  licenses at  the  last session  of
the Legislature, the remaining lessees should be given the same right under the same
conditions as the lessees aforesaid.
Obligation to While we are of the opinion that under existing leases holders who
Operate a      are  under  obligation   to   conduct   saw  mills   and  who  are   enjoying  a
Saw Mill.       reduction  of rental  upon  that account, should  either  be compelled  to
carry out their obligation or to pay the full amounts of rental, yet we D 48 Report of The Forestry Commission. 1910
consider that it would be undesirable to re-impose this obligation in any renewal
of expired leases, since the principle involved is contrary to a true policy of conservation. It would then be possible to subject the lessees who had been relieved from any
obligation to operate to the same treatment and to pay the same dues as other holders
of Crown stumpage.
Rental in Diligent investigation  of  the  books  of the   Department  discloses
Advance. the fact that very great laxity has been allowed in the payment
of rental upon timber leases. Payment of rental in advance is an
express condition of every lease, and your Commissioners recommend that no deviation
from this principle be allowed; that the preservation of the rights conveyed by lease be
contingent upon fulfillment of this condition; and that the penalties imposed upon
licensees for non-payment of fees in advance should apply, in every way, to leaseholders.
An Amendment        Your  Commissioners  further  recommend that sub-section   (b)  of
of the sub-section (i) of section 47 of the Land Act be amended by striking
Land Act.      out  the   words   "as  aforesaid"   and   by  inserting  in   lieu   thereof  "or
timber."
LICENSED TIMBER LAND.
Number of licenses           15,160
Number surveyed (1)     1,466
Average acreage on survey     593 acres
Percentage of shortage     7-3%
Probable total acreage    9,000,000 acres
The history of the license system has already been described in the sections of
our report that deal with forest statistics (2) and legislation. (3)
It will be remembered that the number of holdings that was probably less than
1,100 in the earlier part of 1905 began suddenly and rapidly to increase upon the passage
of the Act of that year that made the licenses transferable. The growth of population
in the West, the consequent awakening in the lumber trade and stimulus to speculation, were reasons on the surface that seemed to account for this eager staking of
Provincial timber; but looking deeper, as the time went on, it began to appear evident
that some more powerful cause was behind the movement.
In fact, realization of the limited extent of merchantable forest on the continent
of North America had begun to dawn upon the more far-sighted among lumbermen.
In certain regions of the United States the exhaustion of supply was already seen to
be inevitable and near, while elsewhere throughout that country the remaining stands
of timber had either passed into private ownership or had been included in the Federal
reserves. The value of stumpage in consequence was rising high in nearly every
portion of the continent. (4)
Hence the sudden opportunity of acquiring standing timber upon attractive
terms and at small initial outlay afforded by the Provincial Act of 1905 brought to a
head, as it were, the vague need for timber felt across the continent. As a result the
staking of forests in British Columbia ceased to be a mere matter of local expediency,
aroused vivid interest outside the Province, and soon assumed the proportions of a
boom. Within less than three years there were more than 15,000 licenses in existence,
covering by far the greater part of the Province's accessible timber land.
(1)   At 18th August, 1910.
2)
(2) See p. 22.
(3) Seep. 11.
(4) See p. 37 for some Instructive figures. THE  INCREASE  IN  AREA  UNDER   SPECIAL  TIMBER   LICENSE
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l<101 (90« I^O^j 1 Geo. 5 Report of The Forestry Commission. D 49
In December, 1907, the Government of the Province, after careful analysis of
the situation thus created, came to the conclusion that a sufficient quantity of timber
had been transferred to private individuals and corporations to supply the full market
demands of the lumbering industry for many years to come, and that until it should
become more possible to forecast the future it would be wise policy to put a stop to
further alienation. The decision of the Executive was made public in the following
Gazette notice:
RESERVE.
Notice is hereby given that from and after the date hereof all lands in
the Province of British Columbia not lawfully held by pre-emption,
purchase, lease or Crown Grant, are reserved from alienation under the
Land Act by way of timber license.
ROBERT A. RENWICK,
Deputy Commissioner of Lands and Works.
Victoria, December 24th, 1907.
About this time the ultimate effects of the great financial depression of America
were felt in British Columbia, the lumbering industry, in particular, suffering from the
general inertness of the markets. In view of the future, however, standing timber did
not cease to seem desirable, and we find that within three years no less than 12,000
transfers of timber licenses occurred.
It now appeared that the merchantable value of these licenses was diminished
by the fact that they gave holders possession of timber land for only 21 years at most.
The Operators' Associations, basing their opinion on actual experience, estimated that
no less than 140 billion feet of timber should be cut from the 17,700 licenses then supposed to exist, (1) while they placed the annual output of the Province at less than
one billion feet. Even allowing for all reasonable increase in cut it was therefore
evident that the marketing of that immense body of timber could not profitably be
attempted within the 21-year lifetime of the special licenses.
For these and other reasons, a vigorous agitation arose among holders for an
extension of the tenure, and upon our appointment as Commissioners to investigate all
problems of forest administration in the Province, the matter was one of the first of
those referred to us. As the Government at the previous session had announced its
intention of dealing with the subject by way of legislation early in 1910, we submitted
an interim report concerning it, at the request of the Honourable the Premier. The
full text of this is given in the Appendix.
The conclusion arrived at by your Commissioners was that extension of the
tenure of special licenses, under proper safeguards, would not work to the disadvantage of the Province. A strong argument in favour of the change, and one that
had considerable weight with us, was that it would tend to the conservation of the
Crown forests.
At the time of presenting the interim report we expressed an opinion that the
Government should not in any way attempt to fix for all time, or even for a number of.
years, either the amount of license fee or of royalty payable. We had in mind the fact
that great changes are at hand in western commerce and development, and that at the
present time there are special difficulties in making any just forecast of the conditions
that are about to obtain in the lumbering industry. One thing alone stands out from
the near future with grim certainty—the value of stumpage in the West will soon be
much higher than it is to-day; and therefore it seemed to us essential that the Government should preserve full freedom of action.
(1)   See remark, p. 28. D 50 Report of The Forestry Commission. 1910
In this, our final report, we desire to confirm, with no reservation, our interim
opinion. Your Commissioners recommend, definitely and emphatically, that the license
rentals, fees and royalty shall not be fixed for any period beyond one calendar year at
any time; that the present right of the Government to regulate and adjust rentals,
fees, royalties, or other charges on tintber property shall in no way be restricted or
limited; and that all conditions appertaining to the control of timber lands by the
Province of British Columbia shall remain forever distinctly subject to such enactment
of the Legislature or Order-in-Council as circumstances, at any time, may demand.
PULP LEASES.
In the year 1901 the Government of the Province decided to encourage the
establishment of pulp and paper industries in British Columbia by granting leases of
pulp wood lands upon very liberal terms. By an amendment to the Land Act (1) in
the session of that year, the Chief Commissioner was empowered to enter into agreements with companies incorporated for the purpose of manufacturing pulp and paper.
Under each agreement, districts of the Province could be reserved from preemption, sale, or other disposition for a period of two years, in order to enable the
company concerned to select and survey, in each reserved area, the lands suitable for
its purpose. When such selection and survey had been made, leases were to be granted
for a period of not more than 21 years. The annual rental to be paid under such leases
was placed at two cents per acre, and a royalty not greater than twenty-live cents per
cord was to be payable upon all pulp wood cut. Each company was to enter into a
contract to erect, equip and maintain in the Province a mill with a daily output capacity
of not less than one ton of pulp or half a ton of paper for each and every square mile
included in the lease. Other terms and conditions were provided that need not be
detailed here. (2)
A number of companies were at once formed to take advantage of the provisions
of the Act. By the end of 1902 several separate agreements had been made by the
Government and large districts of the Province had been placed under temporary
reserve to enable the selection and survey of pulp wood lands to be undertaken.
In 1903 the Government appears to have reached the conclusion that sufficient
land had been reserved for pulp purposes. (3) The legislation of two years before was
repealed (4) and the granting of pulp concessions brought to an end. Four of the
companies in possession of agreements proceeded, gradually, to locate their acreage,
and from 1903 to 1907 leases of many scattered areas covering altogether 354,399 acres
or 554 square miles, were issued to them.
All the companies appear to have experienced great difficulty in financing their
undertakings. They proved unable to comply with the literal requirements and conditions of the leases and inspection of the files shows that they made repeated applications to the Government for extensions of time within which to fulfill their contracts.
These requests were invariably granted, the Government being evidently very loath to
do anything that might prevent or retard the establishment of a new industry in the
Province. The result is that all the leases granted still exist, although we understand
that only one of the four companies has actually constructed and equipped a pulp mill.
Both the Act of 1901 and the terms of leases issued under its provisions show
conclusively that pulp wood concessions were granted by the Government with the sole
idea of encouraging the pulp industry. At the outset the companies themselves
disclosed no intention of utilizing their leaseholds for any purpose other than the
manufacture of pulp.    Yet examination of the files throws into forcible relief ihe fact
(1) Statutes 1901, Chap. 30. See. 6, amending See. 41 of Land Act.
(2) See copy of a lease in Appendix.
(3) Existing companies having contracted to produce over 80,000 tons of pulp a year.
(4) Statutes 1903, Chap. 30, Sec. 2. 1 Geo. 5 Report oe The Forestry Commission. D 51
that, sooner or later, each and every company became seized with the desirability of
carrying on a lumber and saw mill business, either as an adjunct to its obligatory
pulp mill operations, or as one of the main objects of its enterprise. Our attention has
been called to prospectuses issued by some of the companies, which lay great stress
On  this  as  being  the  more  profitable  business.
Now if the amount of saw milling timber on these leases were very small
compared with that suitable for pulp, the question would not be of much importance.
But the printed statements (and obvious expectations) of the companies themselves
afford proof that this is not the case. Moreover, witnesses have stated that the proportion of saw milling timber is very great and we even find, upon the files, assertions that
this timber is 85% of the total stand of certain of these areas. If this, or anything like
it, is correct the matter is exceedingly important and requires very careful consideration and investigation.
There is certain lack of uniformity in the wording of the leases. Some of them,
with extreme explicitness, demise the lands therein described "for the purpose only
of cutting and taking therefrom timber for conversion into pulp." (1) Others, issued at
the same time, read simply "for the purpose of cutting and taking." In every case the
express intention of the Government in making the grant is made plain and evident.
(See Appendix:   Phraseology of Pulp Leases.)
However, in the Act of 1901 there existed a proviso (2) that
"All timber cut on Crown timber limits (3) under such lease and not used
for the manufacture of wood pulp or paper will be subject to the provision
of the Land Act governing timber licenses or leases in respect to royalties
and returns,"
and placing their own interpretation upon this, the various companies proceeded to
claim the right to cut and manufacture saw mill timber from their concessions.
To some extent the Government recognized the existence of this implied right.
A letter written to one of the concessionaires in February, 1903, by the same Chief
Commissioner to whom, we understand, the legislation of 1901 was due, says:
"I was careful to inform you that by acquiring special timber licenses your
company would get the right to log which is not conveyed, or attempted
to be conveyed, by pulp lease."
Moreover, certain of the latter leases contain the condition that
"the lessee shall not be entitled to cut, carry away or use, for any other
purpose than for the manufacture of pulp, any of the timber on the lease
unless a special license has first been taken out in that behalf, paying
therefor the fees provided from time to time by the Land Act."
The situation then seems to be that these pulp lessees cannot cut and manufacture lumber withput taking out and paying for special timber licenses. We understand that the Government has recently made an explicit agreement with one company
at least, that these licenses shall be granted. We take it that all the lessees will obtain
the same treatment in this respect, and that therefore all will be given the opportunity
to take out special licenses on the area included in their leases. Assuming this to be
the case, the fair and proper method of granting these must be discovered, and the
Land Act must be amended to provide the Government with the necessary power to
grant licenses to pulp lessees.
Your Commissioners gather from the correspondence on file that the pulp lessees
nave conceived the idea that they should be allowed to take out licenses in any year
(1) " The very fact that your Company objects, shows that the word 'only' must be retained."   Letter of Chief
Commissioner, February, 1903.
(2) Statutes 1901, Chap. 30. Sec. 6, amending Sec. 41 of the Land Act.
(3) " Timber limit" is denned by Statute as " land specified and comprised in any timber license." D 52 Report of The Forestry Commission. 1910
upon such portions of their leaseholds as they may propose to log that year. The
granting of any such unusual privilege as this would plainly give those lessees an
extraordinary and most unfair advantage over their competitors in the lumbering
business, whose holding charges on mill timber until the time when operation shall take
place, are approximately eleven times those of the pulp lessees. A simple calculation
makes evident the serious financial results of the bonus upon lumbering operations
thus sought by the pulp companies.
Suppose, for example, that the mill timber on these 554 square miles of pulp
leaseholds were to be logged off within the 21-year lifetime of the present leases. . . .
Then the pulp concessionaires, by taking out licenses in each year to cover immediate
logging operations only, might find it possible to remove all the mill timber on
their lands at the following expenses:
21 years' pulp lease rental on 554 square miles at $12.80 per mile per annum.. ..$148,915
1 license to cover the logging of mill timber on each square mile of pulp lease,
a total of 554 licenses at $140.00     77,S6o
$226,475
The steady logging within 21 years of the same area of timber land in the hands
of special licensees of the Province would involve holding charges to the latter at an
average life of 11 years per license, of no less than $853,160; a difference in favour of
the pulp lessee of no less than $626,685—a sum that would be greatly increased should
a larger average holding period be found necessary.
Allowance, again, might be made for the fact that on account of the way in
which the various parcels of each lease are scattered in each district, and on account
of the irregularity of their boundaries, it would be impossible for the holders to make
an exact division of their leaseholds into 640 acres of the shapes that may be. held
under special license; and that, therefore, they would be put to the expense of paying
full license fees upon a number of fractional areas. We might go so far as to imagine
that the pulp lessees would be able, on an average, to stake no more than 320 acres in
the legal form, under each of the licenses they were obliged to use. Upon even this
generous assumption the pulp lessees would be paying $549,125 less than their competitors.
Had we compared the holding charges for a 42-year tenure the difference would
have been more crushing. Upon similar assumptions (1) the special licensees would be
at a disadvantage of over $1,170,000 in actual payments. We take no account in this
of the effect of interest, nor of the fact that any future increase in license rental would
accentuate the inequality.
Besides creating inequality between holders of mill timber the existing method
is most unprofitable to the Government. Instead of receiving an annual rental of $140
for each square mile of the mill timber comprised in the pulp leaseholds the Government receives but $12.80 from the present holder as payment for his option on the
timber; a further illustration of the need for legislation.
Your Commissioners do not wish to be understood as opposed in any way to
pulp concessions. We agree thoroughly with the idea that the Province would derive
great benefit from the establishment of the pulp and paper industries and we would
endorse the granting of liberal terms for their encouragement. But we take the position
that the liberality should be strictly confined to the pulp side of each enterprise.
Operations on pulp wood in any virgin forest must inevitably place in jeopardy
of fire the saw mill timber standing there, and there is no doubt that the cutting cf
the one must be accompanied by the logging of the other to avoid loss.    Hence there
(11   Taking average tenure at 21 years for the licenses. 1 Geo. 5 Report of The Forestry Commission. D 53
exists the greatest need for care lest well-meant efforts to encourage a new industry
should transform themselves, in practice, into the mere granting of an unintentional
bonus to lumbering and saw milling concerns. The danger of this has caused your
Commissioners to form the most decided opinion that the pulp lessees should not be
allowed logging privileges unless they pay holding charges that bear fair comparison
with those imposed upon the holders of special timber licenses.
It is a matter of some difficulty to reach a conclusion as to the proper basis upon
which licenses should be granted to pulp lessees. Moreover as the "Land Act" now
stands it is doubtful whether the power of issuing licenses upon pulp leaseholds exists.
Under section 54 special licenses can only be granted on "Crown lands" which are
defined to mean "ungranted Crown lands." Is not a pulp lease a grant, limited it is
true, but still a grant of Crown lands? If this were not so it is certain that the timber,
other than pulp wood, on these leases would have been open to other applicants for
special timber licenses, and would have been taken up by them before the imposition
of the Reserve in December, 1907.
In any case there are reasons why the ordinary special license method with its
rental cannot in fairness be applied to pulp leaseholds. For instance, the manner of
staking prescribed by the "Land Act" would make it impossible to hold irregularly
shaped areas such as these under special licenses unless the fees for full square miles
were paid upon innumerable fractions, nor would allowance be made for the fact that
the pulp lessee is already paying two cents per acre rental.
After full consideration of the difficulties involved in each possible solution your
Commissioners have come to a firm conclusion that a sound and equitable method of
granting licenses on pulp leaseholds would be the one recommended in the following
paragraphs to the careful consideration of the Government.
To begin with, a careful and thorough cruise of the leaseholds should be made
by the Government in order that the separate qualities of pulp wood and of saw milling
timber upon each area may be ascertained and compared. Apart from any other
reason this cruise should be made for the information and general guidance of the
Government in matters of pulp wood legislation.
For the particular purpose of granting lumbering rights to the holders of pulp
concessions examination of each leasehold should be accompanied by a cruise of
neighbouring licenses, so that the average stand of saw milling timber held under license
in that locality may become known. Each concessionaire should then obtain the right
to cut mill timber under a new form of license covering every portion of his acreage
in the district, whose rental per acre should bear the same proportion to a sum of two
cents lower (1) than the rental per acre payable that year by special licensees that the
average stand of saw mill timber on the lease bears to the average stand of saw mill
timber under license in that district.
For the sake of clearness we give an illustration of the method. Suppose the
stand of mill timber on a pulp leasehold was found to average 10,000 feet per acre,
while the stand on licenses in that locality was shown by cruise to average 15,000 feet.
Suppose further that the license rental in the year considered was 22 cents per acre.
Deduct two cents from this sum to balance the pulp lease rental, and twenty cents
remains.
Then the pulp lessee would pay for the right to lumber a rental per acre bearing
the same proportion to twenty cents that his stand of 10,000 feet bears to the local stand
of 15,000 feet. In other words he would pay two-thirds of twenty cents as rental; that
is, his license fee would be 13 1-3 cents per acre, apart from his pulp lease rental.
(1)   2 cents being the rental already paid by the pulp lessee. D 54 Report oe The Forestry Commission. 1910
Your Commissioners recommend that all pulp lessees should be required to make
application for license to cut mill timber upon their leaseholds within six (6) months
from the passage of the legislation that will empower the Government to grant such
licenses. The making of application within the time specified should be an essential
condition.
Upon receipt of an application for a license the Government should proceed
forthwith to ascertain by cruising, in the manner described above, the rental payable
therefor. As soon as this information has been obtained the fees from the date of
application should be paid at once and the license should issue.
Any pulp lessee who fails to make application or payment in the manner
prescribed above should forfeit all right to cut mill timber on his leasehold, and thereupon this timber should lapse into the Reserve.
Your Commissioners also strongly recommend that in enacting such legislation
the Government should make it perfectly clear that this particular form of license can
only be issued to holders of pulp leases, and the tenure of the same is dependent upon
the pulp lease itself, and that such special form of license shall cease and determine
with the termination or cancellation of the pulp lease with respect to which it is issued.
As the stand of saw mill timber on a pulp concession becomes reduced by logging
a corresponding reduction should take place in the rental of the license covering the
leasehold area; in order to place the lessee approximately upon an equality with
licensees who have the power of reducing their holdings, mile by mile, as logging is
completed. Your Commissioners suggest that this reduction should be adjusted
annually.
HEMLOCK LEASES.
Your Commissioners recommend that the holders of hemlock, or tanbark, leases
should be required to take out licenses to cut mill timber upon their leaseholds; and
that the procedure, in granting these licenses, should be identical with that laid down
for pulp lessees.
APPLICATION FOR LEASE RENEWALS.
The renewal of timber, pulp or hemlock leases before maturity should not be
allowed. Application for renewal should be made at least three (3) months before
the date of expiration.
UNALIENATED TIMBER LANDS.
As we have remarked elsewhere the most conflicting opinions exist concerning
the extent of the timber areas that remain unalienated. We may suppose that one-
quarter of the forest under Provincial control remains in the present reserve; we may
go further and place the figure at one-third. The unalienated timber land would thus
be estimated at 3,750,000 acres or at 5,625,000 acres. Were we to average the stand at
some arbitrary figure such as 12,000 feet per acre we should obtain 45 or 67 billion—
either figure being of course a pure conjecture. It is conceivable that the truth may
lie between the two.
Though vague guesses such as these are devoid of serious value they give
expression to a feeling that exists in the Province that the amount of merchantable
timber remaining in the hands of the Provincial Government is not unimportant, though
it may be less accessible than that transferred to private control. The formation of a
consistent and comprehensive policy for the management of this unalienated timber
therefore demands careful thought.
Your Commissioners venture to congratulate the Government upon their action
in   imposing  the   Reserve   by   Order-in-Council   of   December,   1907.     We   urge,   most 1 Geo.  5 Report of The Forestry Commission. D 55
strongly, that such reservation be continued indefinitely and that no further alienation
of timber lands take place, except under very special circumstances.
More or less authoritative statements were submitted to the Commission to the
effect that a very high percentage of alienated timber lands were held by non-operators.
Should such a circumstance, or should any combine among operators lead to monopoly
conditions in the Province, and should the financial control possessed by the Government over license rental and royalty fail in any way to subdue commercial symptoms
of this character, it might therefore, in that future time, be found expedient to throw
areas of Reserve timber into the market. A great increase of lumbering operations in
the Province followed by a need for increased supplies of standing timber might justify
the disposal of other areas. Again it might be proved that the opening of small portions
of the Reserve was needed, in some districts, to supply lumber for local requirements;
or it might become necessary to save fire-damaged timber from waste by immediate
logging operations. Valid reasons might thus come into existence, from time to time,
for the alienation of timber standing in the present Reserve.
In view of this your Commissioners recommend that all future sales of timber
from the Reserve should be conducted in the following manner:
Each berth, after exploration by the forest officers, should have its boundaries
fixed by actual survey. The timber should be cruised and an upset price fixed per
thousand feet for each important species. The license to cut timber on the berth should
then be sold by public auction, the bids being the amounts per thousand feet that
applicants would pay in addition to the royalty as and when the timber is cut. A cash
deposit of at least ten per cent. (io%) of the total bonus he had offered should be made
at once by the purchaser, as a guarantee that operations will be conducted in accordance
with the regulations. The annual renewal of the license should be subject to the same
rental per acre, and to the same conditions .and penalties, as those imposed, by the
provisions of the "Land Act" then in force, upon the special licensees of the Province.
In all such sales it should be made a condition of the license that the timber
should be removed within five years.
In order to avoid loss to the Province, reserved timber damaged by fire should
be sold by auction, in the manner described above, for removal within a three-year
period. Areas to be sold should be divided into natural logging berths and also into
square mile units.    Alternative tenders should be required from each applicant.
FRACTIONAL AREAS AT PRESENT RESERVED.
Your Commissioners recommend that all fractional areas of timber land adjoining
existing leaseholds or timber limits should be disposed of when the areas of such
fractions shall have been determined by survey, and when the forest officials shall have
cruised and reported upon the timber thereon. The licenses to cut timber upon these
fractional areas should be put up to public competition at an upset price per acre or
per thousand feet determined, in each case, by the Chief Commissioner. The annual
license fee payable on any fraction should bear the same proportion to the full license
that the fractional area bears to 640 acres.
For all such purposes the words "Fractional Area" should receive the most
careful definition in the Land Act; in order to prevent disguised enroachment upon
the legitimate areas of the Reserve.
AGRICULTURAL LAND.
Your Commissioners endeavoured to obtain evidence concerning the extent of
land at present held under timber lease or license that would, when cleared, be suitable
for agricultural purposes.    The opinions of witnesses were found to vary very greatly *i»o
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upon this point, and such agricultural land was estimated in different districts at any
amount between nothing at all and 50% of the timbered area.
There can be no doubt, however, that within the boundaries of the leasehold and
licensed lands there are tracts that would be eminently suitable for agricultural
purposes. Your Commissioners recommend strongly that full reports concerning the
nature of the land accompany every survey and cruise made by the Government in
both alienated and unalienated areas; that the power to compel licensees to cut and
remove the timber from any portions of their holdings contained in the amendment of
the "Land Act" made last session, should be retained; and that timber leaseholds whose
terms and conditions come before the Department of Forests for renewal should be
subjected to a similar provision. The power thus vested in the Chief Commissioner
would, of course, only be exercised after investigation had proved conclusively that the
need for opening any area for agricultural purposes was stronger than the reasons for
reserving it for the growing of timber.
HANDLOGGERS' LICENSES.
We have had considerable difficulty in coming to a definite conclusion with
regard to this form of license. As we have already mentioned in the history of legislation the issue of handloggers' licenses was first authorized in 1888. Under these
licenses, at the outset, no restriction was placed upon the method of logging and holders
were given the general right to cut ungranted timber of the Crown in any locality
whatsoever. The privilege, however, was personal to each licensee, and could not be
transferred.
These terms and conditions remained unchanged until the year 1906, when a
provision was' inserted in the "Land Act" to forbid the use of steam machinery by
handloggers. Two years later a further amendment restricted the cutting of timber
under these permits to certain districts of the Province. In 1909 this restriction was
removed, but the cutting of timber under each permit was limited to a certain definite
area specified in the document; only persons on the voters' list and Indians could
become licensees; and the fee was raised from $10 to $25.
In  1907 the number of these licenses issued was    572
"   1908 " " " "      30
"1909 " " " "      65
The only restriction upon logging methods imposed by the present form of hand-
logger's license is thus the prohibition of the use of steam power. Cutting is subject
to no control; debris can be left in any condition that suits the operator; and it is
obvious that it would be a matter of extreme difficulty and expense to enforce any
regulations that might be framed. In the past this particular form of license has given
rise to great abuses, since logs have been taken from lands held under lease and special
license as well as from ungranted Crown lands.
Therefore, it seems to us contrary to the principles of true forest conservation to
permit the cutting of timber under conditions that cannot be controlled. The
unrestricted culling of trees and the careless creation of conditions favourable to forest
fires must depreciate the value of Crown stumpage in the neighbourhood of such
operations.
In the past handlogging doubtless gave the means of livelihood to many men
who otherwise would have found it difficult to obtain employment. But the present
conditions of the lumbering industry make it very evident that handlogging licenses
could be abolished without serious inconvenience to the small number of men who now
possess them.
Your Commissioners have therefore reached the conclusion that it would be
advisable to discontinue the issuance of this form of license.   Should this step, however, 1 Geo. 5 Report of The Forestry Commission. D 57
be deemed inexpedient, we would urge strongly that the operations of handloggers
should be placed under strict supervision by the Department of Forests, and that
every attempt should be made to compel the proper disposition of debris and to enforce
logging regulations.
THE TRANSFER OF LICENSES.
Section 61 of the "Land Act" provides that every assignment of a special timber
license shall be filed in the Department of Lands; but the section does not indicate the
legal significance of this filing. We doubt whether any transfer other than that of the
whole license was contemplated by the Legislature in making this enactment.
Officials of the Department of Lands inform us, however, that transfers of
undivided interests have been filed frequently; and that various holders of undivided
interests have even claimed to be entitled to the renewal of their interest on payment of
the proportionate part of the license fee. Money thus tendered has invariably been
refused by the Department.
We recommend that the section be amended so as to provide that the filing of
a transfer should be full notice to all parties interested. It should also be made clear
that, while transfers of interests may be recognized, the license fee itself is indivisible
and that therefore no license, or any part thereof, can be renewed without payment of
the whole license fee.
ANNUAL RENEWAL OF LICENSES.
The fact that each license has its own date of renewal, and that a penalty is
imposed for any delay in rental payment, caused license-holding witnesses who appeared
before us to complain of the difficulty of remembering the many dates upon which
payment of rental fees should be made by them. To meet this complaint, however,
your Commissioners do not think that it would be advisable to mature all licenses at
the same day of the year. The holder of a large number of licenses, for example, might
find it inconvenient to provide at one time the whole amount for the renewal of all his
licenses. Again, from the point of view of the Government, as a matter of Departmental routine, it would be impracticable to receive rental payments and issue some
15,000 renewals at one fixed date; while, furthermore, it is advisable that this revenue
should reach the Treasury in monthly rather than annual amounts.
It occurs, however, to your Commissioners that a reasonable method of meeting
the complaint of licensees would be to fix a date, say the fifteenth of each month, for
the renewal of every license that expires within that month; and we would recommend
that this be done. In carrying out this recommendation the Department could be
instructed to adjust the fee payable, either by rebate or by addition; so that due account
should be taken of the days lost or gained upon each license. D 58 Report of The Forestry Commission. 1910
RECOMMENDATIONS
CONCERNING REGULATIONS
THE REGULATION OF CUTTING.
As one of the most important of all matters submitted to their consideration the
manner in which cutting operations are conducted in British Columbia was made the
subject of inquiry by your Commissioners, whose attention had been called to the
fact that in other forest countries and regions legislation has been found necessary to
prevent unnecessary destruction of standing timber.
At the outset your Commissioners were met by the argument that logging
operations in this Province were in the hands of practical business men engaged in
supplying a certain market demand for lumber; that the inference was that the forest
was receiving the best treatment that was commercially possible; that it was absurd to
suppose that any timber that could be profitably removed would be left to burn or rot
upon cut-over lands; and that any arbitrary regulation of cutting by the Government
would be improper interference with the natural trade conditions of the lumbering
industry.
Light was thrown upon this local view of local conditions by the experience of
countries in which forest exploitation has reached a more advanced stage than it has,
at present, in this Province. Everywhere, in the early developments of lumbering, cheap
stumpage is seen to have been accompanied by butchery of wood; for human nature is
careless of anything of low commercial value, especially when the supply seems inexhaustible and waste costs nothing to the waster. Where stumpage has risen high in
value this state of things has come to an end automatically. Elsewhere a simple legislative remedy has been applied. Operators have been asked to pay for the merchantable timber operated on; not merely for such portion of it as their workmen might
choose to cull.
As an example of modern cutting regulations we give in the Appendix a
sample of the contracts under which logging is done, now-a-days, upon the U. S.
National Forests in Washington and other Western States. Under conditions of great
stringency the price per thousand feet of timber has nevertheless risen higher, in many
cases, than the price obtained by the Federal Government per acre but a few years ago.
The commercial results of regulation are thus proving as gratifying in the West as
they have done in every important forest region of Eastern Canada where the waste of
timber in tops, high stumps, left logs, neglected trees, skidways and other construction,
is penalized.
Your Commissioners after most careful examination of the theory that
unrestricted liberty to allow workmen to cull, destroy, and place in jeopardy of fire,
the Crown timber of the Province is a fundamental element of profit in British
Columbian lumbering, have come to the unanimous conclusion that it is unsound. We
are of the opinion that the time is now opportune for the enactment of regulations
that will prevent the misuse of the public estate by operators, provide for the future
of the lumbering industry, secure to the Provincial Treasury revenue that now goes
needlessly to waste, and give protection from fire not only to the standing forest that
forms the present crop but also to the growing timber on cut-over lands upon which
our commercial existence as a forest Province will one day depend. Permission to use
the public forests must carry with it the obligation to cut clean. 1 Geo. 5 Report of The Forestry Commission. D 59
Your Commissioners are convinced that the unnecessary waste of wood and loss
of public revenue now caused by careless operation can be discouraged by levying
royalty upon the waste; and that an efficient means of enforcing regulations will be
provided by the establishment of a Department of Forests on the lines suggested in
another section of this Report.
Your Commissioners recommend that:
i. All live trees containing merchantable timber and having a diameter of not
less than 14 inches at a point 4*4 feet from the ground shall be cut;
2. Every tree cut shall be utilized to a diameter of 10 inches at the top and
lower when possible; and log lengths shall be so varied as to make this possible;
3. Stumps shall be so cut as to permit of the least possible waste. A standard
height for each district shall be fixed by the Department of Forests;
4. All dead timber sound enough for any merchantable grade, or for dimension
timber, shall be cut.
5. All cutting shall be done with a saw when possible;
6. All live trees containing merchantable timber; all merchantable timber left
uncut; all merchantable timber cut and not removed from the land; together with timber
wasted in tops, stumps, lodged trees, and partially sound logs shall be scaled and paid
for at the royalty price per thousand feet then in force.
Other regulations will, no doubt, suggest themselves from time to time to the
Department of Forests, but your Commissioners are of the opinion that the foregoing
are very important and should be established without delay, for the control of all
logging operations upon leasehold and licensed timber land, and upon Crown Granted
lands the timber on which is subject to royalty.
THE PROTECTION OF FORESTS FROM FIRE.
As settlement progresses in each thickly timbered country public opinion goes
through the same inevitable changes. At first forest fires are looked upon as a natural
accompaniment to the routine of progress and development; indeed they may even
seem desirable means of opening up new territory. Then, as the lumbering industry
obtains the control of small areas of timber land, these fires appear as a vague menace
to private interests; a menace, however, that arouses little anxiety since, when timber
is destroyed, there is no difficulty in obtaining elsewhere in the immense unused forest
the grant of fresh sources of supply. After this comes the time when men realize how
limited is the amount of merchantable timber and how valuable it must soon become.
The holding of timber lands becomes a profitable form of investment and in consequence
most of the accessible forest passes into private control. At this stage fires cause direct
injury to private interests by actual destruction of timber held; they damage a source of
public revenue; and their prevalence deters investment and acts as a drag upon the
rise in stumpage values. The attention they thus arouse soon causes the remarkable
discovery that it is often possible to minimise the damage they can do by spending
money upon fighting them. The lumbermen and government co-operate, money is
actually obtained, and the protection of the merchantable forest is begun. The final
stage is reached when both Government and people realise that the protection of
merchantable timber is but a part of the work that must be done; that the young growth
on cut-over lands needs equal care, since upon it depend the future of the lumbering
industry and much of the future commerce of the whole community; and that money
and effort niust.be invested in the prevention of forest fires as well as in the fighting
of those that have been allowed to spread.
Your Commission note with pleasure that in this Province the Government is
strongly impressed with the need for forest protection.    It began some four years ago D 60 Report of The Forestry Commission. 1910
by making an appropriation in the estimates for the purpose, and by placing men upon
patrol in different forest districts. This appropriation it has continued and increased
each year, (i) We note that the recommendation contained in our Interim Report
that a further substantial increase should be made, was adopted by the Government;
and that in consequence the amount voted for 1910 was almost double that for 1909.
Though a good beginning has thus been made, your Commissioners are strongly
of the opinion that much remains to be done in this Province. The magnitude both of
the public forest revenue and of the private lumbering interests justify a large expenditure in the insurance of the present forest crop. Moreover, to quote Dr. Fernow, "the
conditions in British Columbia are most favourable for natural re-afforestation," and the
consensus of opinion is that provided fire be kept out the growing timber on cut-over
lands will make the yield of lumber permanent. Protection from fire is thus the
supreme need of our forests; and to secure it the most thorough-going methods are
demanded.
Disposal Your Commissioners consider that more effort should be devoted to
of Debris. the prevention of conditions that cause unnecessary risk of standing
timber of the Crown, and that lead almost inevitably to the destruction
of young growth on cut-over lands. We are pleased to notice that the disposal of
debris has already been undertaken, as a matter of business, by various logging companies in the Province; and we are of the opinion that the practice should be extended.
That workmen, when removing logs from the forests, should be free to leave debris
in any manner that may suit their own convenience without the least regard for the
.safety either of the cut-over area or of the adjoining forests, is a condition of affairs
that calls for some restriction.
We recommend that the example set by other forest administrations on this continent should be followed in this Province, and that this regulation should be enacted:
In all logging operations upon timber lands in the Province of British Columbia
the persons responsible shall dispose of the tops, branches and other debris, in such a
way as to prevent, as far as possible, the danger of fire; such disposal being made to
the satisfaction of the officers of the Department of Forests.
No reason exists why operations upon Crown Grant and railway property
should not be subject to this regulation, as there can be no uncontrollable right to
conduct logging to the common jeopardy of surrounding forests of the Crown inherent
in the private ownership of timber lands.
Fire Patrol Your  Commissioners  recommend   that  the  general  protection   of
System. our forests from fire should be undertaken by the Government. That
the work may be performed in a thorough and systematic manner
its execution should be entrusted to a permanent forest organization such as that
proposed by us in the section of our Report dealing with the establishment of a Department of Forests. We suggest that the Province be divided into Forest Districts; that
in each district a superintendent should control a body of permanent rangers; and that
these rangers should act as foremen in charge of patrolling fire wardens enlisted
for the dangerous months of the year.
Our attention has been directed by several witnesses and especially by the Chief
Fire Warden of the Province, to the difficulty that often occurs in obtaining the necessary number of men to fight a forest fire, and to the fact that in many cases men have
refused to work unless they were given wages at an exorbitant rate. To obviate this
we would recommend that, following the example of Germany, and of various States
of the Union, the permanent forest officers should be given power and authority to
(1)   See figures given on page 35. FOREST EXPENDITURE IN BRITISH  COLUMBIA
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compel men to assist in fighting fires whenever necessary; that a penalty should be inflicted upon those who refuse their aid; and that the rate of wages paid should be the
current rate for labour in the district concerned.
Sharing Under the various tenures in this Province the holders of timber
the Cost.      lands and the Government share as partners, to some extent, the profits
of forest exploitation.    The  cost  of protecting the forests  from  fire
should therefore be shared as well.
We recommend that in addition to local expenditure each district should be
charged with its due proportion of office and departmental expense connected with this
work; and the total cost thus ascertained should be divided between the interests
concerned in the following manner: During the next few years, and in particular until
the survey of licensed timber lands has been completed, the Government should pay
half the total cost in each district and the holders of timber lands, each assessed in
proportion to his acreage, should contribute the other half. But as soon as the extent
of the unalienated timber lands in any district has been ascertained to the satisfaction
of the Department of Forests, the Government should bear the full expense of protecting this portion of the Reserve; such amount being taken to be the same fraction of the
total district expense that the unalienated acreage is of the total district acreage of
timber land. The remaining expense should be shared equally, between Government
and timber holders, as in the previous case.
In the State of Idaho, where more thorough attention than elsewhere in the
West seems to have been given to organized protection against fire, a system similar
to the one we have outlined is already in force, and the average cost per acre to the
timber holder is found to be small in comparison with the advantage he derives.
Ontario after a long successful experience with a kindred system has now obliged her
holders of timber land to pay the whole expense of their protection.
The Control It is a truism that railways are the most frequent cause of fire in
of Railways,    any timber  areas  through  which  they pass.    The  great  majority  of
witnesses examined by us were somewhat emphatic upon this point.
Though there seems to be considerable doubt as to the power of the Provincial
Government to enforce regulations against any railway company that is under Dominion jurisdiction, your Commissioners urge, neverthelesss, that every effort should be
made to minimise the dangerous conditions that exist at present. Stringent regulations
should provide during the dry months for a thorough patrolling of the railway track
after the passing of every train through a timbered district; the provisions of the
Railway Act concerning the clearing of the right of way should be embodied in regulations that should be enforced; wherever practicable oil should be substituted for other
locomotive fuel in timber sections during each summer, while elsewhere the use of the
most modern and efficient spark arresters, and their frequent renewal, should be insisted on. Fire Wardens should be empowered to inspect any locomotive at any stopping place should they have reason to suspect any failure to comply with this last
regulation. The aid of the Railway Commission should be invoked should the enforcement of these essential provisions for the safety of forests prove, in the case of any
Company, to be beyond the jurisdiction of the Provincial Government.
Your Commissioners are pleased to report that in an interview with the Railway
Commission they obtained an unqualified promise that Provincial Fire Wardens, whose
duties should include the examination of locomotives, the patrolling of the right-of-way
of any railway, or the supervision of new construction in timbered districts, and whose
names should be submitted to the Railway Commission, would immediately be given
power to act as officials of this Commission in all matters concerning the prevention
and the control of fires. 1) 62 Report ok The Forestry- Commission. 1910
on
We, therefore, urge that as soon as the formation of the Department of Forest
is undertaken the Government should take the matter up with the Railway Commissioi
so that even for the season of 1911 Provincial Fire Wardens may be clothed with full
authority.
Railway construction, on a large scale, is about to take place in the Province.
Unless an efficient patrol system is put in force by the Government, railway construction will spell forest destruction. For example, there is said to be heavy timber the
whole way from Tete Jaune Cache to Fort George, covering a very large area. In
evidence given before the Commission a witness who has cruised in that belt of timber
says "unless there are regulations as to the construction of the Grand Trunk Pacific
that country is going to be burnt up. It is virgin forest and very inflammable. There
should be special legislation." It is a matter of common knowledge that the blackened
record of railroad construction in the past justifies to the full forebodings such as
these.
Your Commissioners urge emphatically that the Provincial Government, in any
contracts it makes with the railway companies, should take care to insert the most
stringent conditions to provide for thorough patrolling during the time of construction
of all timber lands adjacent to the right-of-way, and to compel the proper disposal and
destruction of all debris caused by their operations or lying near the roadbed, to the
satisfaction of the Forest Officer in charge.
Any railway company that obtains permission to cut timber upon vacant Crown
lands for use upon its line should be subject to the general Provincial regulations
concerning the cutting of timber and the disposal of debris. Such permission should
only be granted on the express condition that the Company give formal notification
to the Department of Forests before commencing logging operations, so that due
supervision may be exercised by the Provincial officials. Heavy penalties should be
attached to the breaking or the non-observance of any of these regulations.
Public  Opinion. In conclusion your Commissioners wish to emphasize the necessity
of educating public opinion in British Columbia in order that our forests may be the better protected from stupidity and carelessness. In the words of a
member of the Washington State Commission: (1)
"The interest of the community in every foot of standing timber is five-fold
greater than that of the individual man. The railroad will set fire to its right-of-way
promiscuously and destroy millions of feet of standing timber and millions of dollars
of future traffic without an effort towards prevention. The logger will operate his
donkey equally as recklessly as long as he thinks his own property is safe. The farmer
will set a slashing fire that will destroy hundreds or thousands of acres of adjacent
timber, the development of which would bring railroads to his doors, build towns
and cities in his vicinity, increase his markets and enhance the value of his lands. The
camper will likewise leave, carelessly, a fire to destroy at its pleasure, property whose
loss will be felt by an entire State. We can do more good for fire protection by
educating any cross-road congregation, than the most august body of lumbermen that
ever met in session."
SURVEYS OF LICENSED TIMBER LAND.
Tn granting the privilege of annual renewal over a long period of years, the
amendment to the Land Act made in 1905 imposed the express condition that no holder
of a transferable license "shall be allowed to cut or carry away any timber from any
such timber limit until the said licensee has, at his own expense, had the land surveyed
by a duly qualified Provincial Land Surveyor." (2)
(I)   Prnnk- IT. Liimb.
(5)   Sub-section 5 of section 5T. 1 Geo.  5 Report or The Forestry Commission. D Go
It appears that in past years frequent violation of this condition has occurred.
We also note that not 10% of the special licenses have been surveyed, (i)
Power is given to the Chief Commissioner, by the sub-section of the Act to which
we have referred, to compel the survey of any licensed timber land at any time. It
was pointed out by several witnesses that the exercise of this power would lead to the
detection of overlapping in the staked areas and doubtless cause the abandonment of
various licenses and a consequent loss of public revenue. On the other hand a general
survey of timber limits would enable the Government to discover the boundaries of the
many fractional areas that lie between the alienated lands. By the sale of the licenses
to cut limber upon these fractions in the manner proposed by us elsewhere in this
Report, (2) a very considerable area of forest that is now unproductive would become
a new source of revenue.
Putting such considerations aside, your Commissioners consider that the interests
of the Province make it absolutely necessary to ascertain the boundaries of the
licensed timber lands so that disputes as to title may be brought to an end, the maps
of the Department may be made accurate, and the Government may obtain definite
information concerning the areas alienated and be enabled to deal intelligently with
the Reserve timber.
We therefore recommend that the Chief Commissioner should at once notify
each and every licensee that he must proceed forthwith with the survey of his timber
limits. The time allowed for the completion of such work should be at the discretion
of the Chief Commissioner and should depend upon the location and accessibility of the
limits concerned.    In no case should it be later than the 31st day of December, 1915.
As a matter of office routine we would suggest that, in addition to any other
notice that may be sent to licensees by the Department, there should be attached to
each license renewal a special slip printed in red, calling upon the holder to survey
the limit.
THE FURNISHING OF RETURNS.
From the very beginning it has been a nominal condition of every timber lease
that the holder should keep correct books of account and should make monthly returns
to the Chief Commissioner concerning all cuttings of logs. The Land Act places each
licensee under a similar obligation, while the timber tax provides a method of securing
returns from operators on private timber lands.
Up to the year 1910, however, the collection of information in the Province does
not seem to have received attention. Such statistics as have been published appear to
have been based more or less upon conjecture. The investigations of your Commissioners have been hampered by the lack of reliable data.
The forests have of late years assumed a position of very great importance to
the Treasury, over 40% of the entire public revenue being derived from them in the
fiscal year, 1909, and over 30% in 1910. (3) Moreover, from what has been already said
(,4) the present forest revenue may be expected to show a very great increase as
the general rise in stumpage produces its inevitable effect upon the value of standing
timber in British Columbia.
Your Commissioners are of opinion that, on account of the many complicated
problems connected with the administration of this important source of Provincial
prosperity, the systematic collection of a great variety of information is necessary. We
recommend in particular that the existing regulations requiring holders of timber lands
to furnish detailed information should be made more explicit, and should be enforced.
(1) At August I8U1, 1910.   Seepiige27.
(2) See Fractional Arcus. pitge 55.
(3) 30% for the period 1910-1911.
(4) See discussion, p. 20. D 64 Report of The Forestry Commission. 1910
Through sworn statements obtained at regular intervals the Province should obtain
knowledge of the exact site of all cutting operations, the quantity and destination of
timber cut, and other matters pertinent to its forest industries.
The exact form that these returns should take would be from time to time the
subject of regulations by the Department of Forests, whose officials would be able to
check information thus obtained by personal inspection of the ground. 1 Geo. 5 Report of The Forestry Commission. D 65
ADMINISTRATION
RE-AFFORESTATION.
Your Commissioners have come to the broad conclusion that upon two conditions natural re-afforestation will take place in British Columbia. Firstly, both the
young growth and the old must be protected from fire; secondly, there must be exercised a firm control over the methods under which the present crop is being removed.
In short, effective re-afforestation depends largely upon effective discouragement of
waste.
By protection from fire we do not mean the mere temporary employment, here
and there, of men to fight conflagrations that have been allowed to spread. We have in
mind the active prevention of fire by the systematic work of a well-knit organization
such as that described in the next section of our Report. This work would include, as
a matter of urgency, the task of evolving for each locality in the Province a sound
method of dealing with the reckless style of lumbering that leaves, in every cut-over
area, a fire-trap of debris. That the young timber, upon which our whole future as a
lumber-producing country depends, should be left at the pleasure of any thoughtless
workmen to grow up amid the tangled wreckage of lumbering, under the imminent
menace of fire so heavy that it may serve to destroy not only reproduction but even the
soil that makes the growth of valuable species possible, is so absurd, commercially,
that an attempt at regulation is imperative. Forest insurance by compulsory handling
of debris may cause some moderate expense to operators; the liberty to turn the
woods into one vast fire-trap causes infinitely more, in the long run, to all parties concerned, by increasing the cost of patrol in such dangerous localities, by causing damage
to mature timber and to general property, and by destruction of young growth. The
cheapening of logging methods is not the whole business duty of the individual
operator.   The permanent benefit of the lumbering industry must be considered.
We are convinced that experiment and investigation will prove, in the case of
our forests as in the case of city buildings, that wise regulation can do much to diminish
the risk of destructive fires. We consider also that the cost of handling the debris
of logging will be found much less than many operators fear, and that within a few
years the beneficial results of a firm policy will cause prejudice to die away, and enlist
the hearty co-operation of every stumpage holder in the Province.
Your Commissioners must leave to the future Department of Forests the task
of discovering what can be done by regulation to prevent inferior species from replacing our more valuable trees. But we have had no difficulty in deciding that certain
restrictions on the liberty of the operator to waste public timber must be imposed forthwith, and in foreseeing that the investigations of the Forest Service will suggest
methods of making these more thorough. Careful utilization of mature accessible
forest will help re-afforestation by delaying the day when the demand for lumber will
fall upon the growing crop.
In recommending that the Government should restrain the present wastage due
to forest fire and careless lumbering, your Commissioners have in view the bridging
over of a certain period of years. In the not distant future there will come the time
when the rise in stumpage values will cause forest preservation in expert hands to take
care of itself.   This was an obvious business reason for granting perpetuity to licenses. D CC Report of The Forestry Commission. 1910
The permanence of the merchantable forest is, however, not the only question
to be considered in the problem of re-afforestation. Much future development in the
Province will be directly due either to irrigation or to the ultilization of water power.
These in their turn will depend upon the maintenance of forest cover upon the mountain slopes,—the cover that holds up the snow and holds back the floods, sustaining a
spongy soil for the storage of the water supply and the regulation of the flow of rivers.
Your Commissioners are glad to observe that the dedication of permanent Forest
Reserves at headwaters is already receiving attention from the Government. The protection liom fire of these Reserves and also of all forest growth at high altitudes
should be a serious duty of the Department of Forests, not only for the sake of the
water supply but also for the prevention of soil erosion and of catastrophes, by land
and snow slides, such as those that marked the spring of 1910.
Though under certain conditions that have been discussed by your Commissioners,
natural re-afforestation will apparently take place upon the great majority of our
timber areas, still, the evidence submitted to us shows that on account of soil damage
and the lack of seed trees caused by repeated fires, a certain extent of forest land in
this Province may be described as 'probably not re-stocking.' Whether the percentage
of coast and mountain forest in this condition be more or less than the 3% and 12%
given, respectively, for the Pacific and Mountain States to the south of the Province
we have no means of knowing. But there is sufficient reason to suppose that though
no recommendations upon the subjects of- seeding and planting could profitably be
made by us at present the re-afforestation of barren areas may need study, expenditure
and work by the Department of Forests.
No data are available concerning the rate of tree growth in the Province. That
such growth is unusually rapid most witnesses before the Commission were agreed.
An interesting tabulation by the U. S. Forest Service brings out the fact that the rate
of growth in the Pacific forests is estimated to be exactly twice the average for the
United States. (1)
The Care of Your Commissioners consider that logged-off lands should revert to
Young Growth, the Government. To persuade holders to retain them by reducing
rental to a nominal figure does not appear to us to be a business-like
proposal. It would be simpler and more practicable for the Department of Forests
to take proper care of the young growth on these lands, than to enforce regulations
against the negligence on the part of private owners. We can see plainly that the time
must come to British Columbia, as it has come already to so many of the European
nations, when the growing of timber will be a feasible commercial operation. The
inevitable length of the investment makes it one peculiarly suitable for a Government.
A DEPARTMENT OF FORESTS.
We, your Commissioners, recommend the enactment of a Forestry Bill, to provide for the creation of a Department of Forests. The title of the Chief Commissioner
of Lands should be changed to Chief Commissioner of Lands and Forests, and the new
department placed under his control.
British Columbia occupies a position of great advantage among the forest countries of the world, for she can undertake the care of her timber resources before—
instead of after—fire and waste have squandered the bulk of them. It is within the
power of her Government to preserve the present forest crop from fire, to see that
proper use is made of it by lumbermen, and to safeguard the growing forests that will
provide the future crop.    Nature provides the most unusual rapidity of growth.
(t)   For some suggestive Quotations concerning re-afforestation in the United States and the reproduction of
Douglas Fir, see Appendix. 1 Geo. 5
Report of The Forestry Commission.
D 67
Since the care of our forests will be rewarded by great results, and since in any
case this work is absolutely essential to the prosperity of the Province, we see plainly
that it must be undertaken with the utmost thoroughness. The natural advantages
of our country must remain unimpaired, the public revenue and the lumbering industry
must both be protected; in other words, a sound policy of conservation must be established.
In doing this a difficulty arises from the changes that are inevitable in political
life—changes in the Governments and legislatures in which supreme control of these
matters is vested. One administration may have a wise and intelligent appreciation
of the benefits of conservation; the next may be careless of such considerations. Yet so
great is the time required to produce, or even to foresee, results in forest administration, that sustained effort over long periods of time is essential, and a policy that vacillates, not because fresh knowledge of forests has been obtained but simply because
changes have taken place in politics, can have no value.
Future stability, under the circumstances, can best be obtained by launching at
the present time a comprehensive and very definite plan of action. Large appropriations must be made and a well-manned, specialized Forest Service brought into being
in the Province, thoroughly equipped. This service—the Department of Forests already
mentioned above—would not only be executive. One of its chief functions would be
investigation, the results of which would build up an exact knowledge of our forests
that, inevitably, would mould and give real stability to future developments of poiicy
In short, we recommend that for the conservation of the natural resources of the
Province, a Department of Forests be established on the following lines:
A Chief Forester.
A Field Staff, consisting of:
(a) District Foresters or Superintendents (io)
(b) Forest Rangers or Foremen (permanent)
(c) Forest Wardens (temporary)
An Office Staff, consisting of:
(a) Chief Clerk and Statistician.
(b) Necessary Assistants.
DIAGRAM:
CHIEF COMMISSIONER OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Chief Forester
District Foresters
Chief Clerk and Statistician
Forest Rangers
Office Staff
Forest Wardens
The Chief It   is   essential   that   the   Chief   Forester   should   be   a   first-class,
Forester.       scientific man, thoroughly well  qualified,  who has  had  both  technical
and practical training and experience.    So much will depend upon the
wide knowledge and sound judgment of this official that the Province should spare no
pains in searching the continent for a man of exceptional ability. D 68 Report of The Forestry Commission. 1910
It should be the duty of the Chief Forester to advise with, and act under, the
Chief Commissioner of Lands and Forests in all matters affecting the forest interests
of the Province. Under that Minister he should direct the Forest Department in the
management of all Crown timber lands; in the control and development of methods of
protecting forests from fire and other damage; in the regulation of the cutting of timber
and the prevention of waste; in the care for, and maintenance of, forest cover and the
prevention of soil erosion; in the preservation of the young growth that is the future
timber supply; in the replenishing of depleted forest regions; in the maintenance of
limber areas permanently dedicated for park or other purposes, and in all other work
of the Department.
Under the Minister, the Chief Forester should have jurisdiction over the entire
Province. He should issue instructions to the District Foresters, inspect their work
and report upon it. He should cause to be carried out such cruising, survey, general
inspection and valuation of timber lands as the Department may be authorized to make.
As a technical man he should cause to be collected information concerning the
timber of the Province, re-afforestation, change of species, the utilization of waste products, cutting regulations and other matters of forestry. He should assist operators
by his advice and promote the spread of forestry and the adoption of sound working
plans. In this connection it is essential that he should be versed in all modern
developments of forest science.
Both as the man responsible for the efficiency of the service and as an expert,
it should be his duty to establish, or to collaborate with the Faculty of the Provincial
University in establishing, standard examinations that probationary District Foresters
should be obliged to pass before obtaining permanent appointment.
It should be a particular duty of the Chief Forester to instruct his officials to
collect in a systematic manner all possible information concerning the nature, quality
and value of timber lands, especially of those placed under license.
District District   Foresters   should   have   all   the   qualifications   of   Forest
Foresters.      Rangers, as outlined below, plus superior technical business and administrative ability.     The success of the  forest policy would depend so
largely upon  the type  of men  in  charge  of districts that the most painstaking care
should be taken to see that unusually good men are selected.
Each appointee should be six months on probation, to prove his general
efficiency. At the end of that period he should be eligible for the examination laid
down by the Chief Forester. Upon success in this he should receive appointment on
the permanent staff. The absence of practical experience in timber should be a disqualification.
Apart from thorough practical knowledge of the lumbering industry, the protection of forests from fire, cruising, and the elements of surveying, District Foresters
should possess sufficient education to enable them to execute the various technical investigations ordered by headquarters, to write intelligent reports of all the work committed to their charge and to accompany these reports with any necessary maps and
statistics.
District Foresters should have full charge of their districts; they should plan
and control all work, have entire disposition of Rangers, Wardens and other assistants,
have oversight over equipment and expenditure and be responsible for the efficiency
of the local service. They should cause to be executed all instructions from the Chief
Forester.
They should organize the men under them for fire patrol; the enforcement of
cutting regulations;  the collection of forest revenue;  the prevention of  trespass and 1 Geo. 5 Report of The Forestry Commission. D 69
the arrest of offenders against forest laws; the cruising of timber; the issuing of permits; the cutting and maintenance of forest trails; the establishment of look-out
stations, telephones and means of communication; and for other forest purposes. In
addition to their administrative work these officers should keep themselves in touch
with local forest conditions by personal inspection, should report thereon, and should
recommend changes for the better in both business and technical management.
District Foresters should be, ex-officio, Justices of the Peace, as in Germany. As
such they should deal with infringements of the forest laws. It should be their personal duty to make formal investigations into the origin of every serious forest fire.
District Foresters should detail special men to attend to the inspection of spark
arresters and other means of diminishing the danger of fire from locomotives.
Inspection of Our attention has been called to the fact that in many cases timber
Pre-Emptions. lands have been pre-empted ostensibly for the purpose of settlement,
but really for logging purposes, and that after the timber is taken off,
the pre-emption is abandoned. In order to prevent this, and to prevent also the
acquisition by purchase of any timber lands, it should be the duty of the District Foresters to have examined by the Rangers, all lands in their district for which applications
to pre-empt or purchase have been made, and to cause a report to be made thereon
before such applications are dealt with by the Department.
We would suggest, also, that the Rangers could be utilized for the purpose of inspecting and reporting on improvements made on pre-emptions before certificates of
improvements are granted for the same.
Forest Rangers        These men should be thorough woodsmen; they should be expert
or cruisers; they should be men with extensive practical experience of all
Foremen.       local   methods   of   logging   and milling;   they   should   be proficient in
scaling.
Physically, they should be sound, sober and able-bodied, capable of enduring-
hardships and of working under trying conditions in the open. As foremen they
should possess the ability of directing and controlling their assistants. They should
be able to make, in writing, reports of any work they may be called upon to do, to
construct ground sketches with compass readings, and to furnish simple calculations to
the statisfaction of the District Forester.
Rangers should be constables with power to arrest offenders against the forest
laws. They should also possess power to press men when necessary to fight forest
fires.
Rangers should direct the movements of the Wardens and other men placed upon
fire patrol or engaged in fighting fire; they should inspect logging operations; they
should enforce cutting and other regulations; inspect all engines and locomotives used
among timber; attend to the up-keep of all equipment used by the service in their
locality; cruise, scale, direct the cutting of trails and devote their time to the carrying
out of the orders of the District Forester.
Full record of the qualifications and service of every Ranger should be or. file
at the central office of the Department, and this branch of the Forest Service should be
on lines suggested by the excellent organization of the Northwest Mounted Police.
Rangers should serve for a probationary period of six months before rece:ving
permanent appointment.
Forest Wardens should be active, able-bodied men, thoroughly familiar with
Wardens.       life in the woods, with experience as practical loggers gained through
work in the camps.   They should be well acquainted with the districts
in which they apply for appointment and with the local means of transport. D 10 Rkl'ort of The Forestry Commission. 1910
Wardens should be under the orders of their foremen, the Rangers, for the purpose of giving assistance to the latter in the execution of the duties mentioned in the
preceding section. They should be employed each year for such periods as the District
Foresters (subject to approval of the Chief Forester) may direct. When so employed
they should be required to give their whole time and attention to their forest work.
Chief Clerk The systematic collection, by the field staff, of information concern-
and ing timber lands, the  logging and  saw  milling  industries,  the  forest
Statistician, revenue, lumbering operations, stumpage values, market conditions and
other matters would provide the Chief Forester with sound material
upon which to base his advice to the Minister. At the central office a new branch
would have to be created to deal with the receipt and classification of this very diversified information, with the regular reports of district officers, and with the routine
work connected with the new forest organization. In addition to these duties the
central office should take over the section of the present Department of Lands that
deals exclusively with Crown timber lands.
Management and finance of forest property belonging to the Province have
both become intricate problems. The complexities of tenure and systems of dues, the
importance of the revenue, the conflicting interests involved, all combine to make the
task of the Government extremely difficult, especially in view of the fact that great
changes and development in the lumlbering industry are imminent, as a result of the
increase in settlement on the continent and the exhaustion of supply in many regions.
Hence, we lay stress upon the necessity of providing for the study and the concentration of all information received. It should be the duty of the Chief Clerk, or of
a special official 'appointed to do this work, to provide for the Department concise
statements and calculations on all matters bearing upon the problems of forest policy
and administration.
It should be a further duty of the same official to keep himself informed concerning conditions in other timber-producing countries, their forest finance and any
progress they may make in conservation; to collect facts concerning foreign markets;
and to supply the Department with statistics.
. Effective forest protection depends, to a very serious degree, upon the sympathy
and co-operation of the public. To arouse proper sentiment publicity is essential. We
therefore consider that it should be a particular duty of the central office to provide
material, suitable for insertion in local newspapers and for the use of the public
schools, drawing attention to the great value of the forests to the Province, to the
foolish destruction of timber through waste and fire, and to the need of public spirit
and carefulness. Apart from this, the Department should try to assist the lumbering
industry by the dissemination of useful summaries of the information it may collect.
In the United States this function of publicity has been thought so valuable that no
less a sum than $55,665 was expended in 1908 by the Forest Service "for the diffusion
of information.''
Note Permanent  officials  should  give  their  entire  time  and  service  to
Concerning     the  Department.    Owing to the nature  of their work, it would seem
Permanent      desirable that none of them should be, or should become, interested in
Officials.        any standing timber, logging or milling operation, or any other private
forest business.
Forestry and Your Commissioners are gratified to know that the establishment
the Provincial of a Provincial University will soon be accomplished.   We foresee that
University,     a thoroughly equipped Faculty of Forestry should be one of the most
essential features of this University. 1 Geo. 5 Report of The Forestry Commission. D 71
The Forestry Service in this Province will become ultimately a very large
organization. There will be employed in it a considerable number of skilled men—
technical experts. Though the first set of these men may be brought in largely from
other regions of the Continent, this undesirable procedure cannot be continued. An
efficient forest school will enable the Province to give both scientific and practical
training in modern forestry to its own sons.
Your Commissioners recommend that success in the forestry examinations of
the University, when these shall be established, should be a necessary preliminary to
employment in the upper branches of the Department of Forests.
Apart from its higher work the Faculty, as in the University of Montana, should
provide plain courses of instruction, say of three months each, in elementary forest
subjects, in methods of simple calculation, and in the rudiments of simple surveying,
telephone work, and other matters directly useful to men emloyed in forest work.
These courses should be attended by the ordinary rangers in rotation. General ideas
of forest policy could thus be implanted among the rank and file; esprit de corps
developed; and on the practical side, methods of work could be standardized over the
Province as a result of the instruction given at this Head Quarter School. The success
of German forestry has been largely due to the thorough training given by the German
Forest Schools, not only to the higher officials, but also to the ordinary guards; and
we also note that the efficiency of the British Indian Service is ascribed, in great part,
to the course of training given to its Rangers.
Experimental In the recent Report   of   the   University   Site   Commission   it   is
Park. suggested that "at least 700 acres be set apart for experimental purposes
in agriculture and forestry" and  that this  should be "exclusive of a
Forest Reserve for forestry operations upon a large   scale."     We   give   our   hearty
support to these suggestions; and we would recommend that definite steps be taken
by the Government to set apart an Experimental Park.
It should be the duty of the Department of Forests to attend to the management
of this Park and to conduct therein demonstrations of improved methods of forest
management. The utilization of waste should be made the subject of careful experiment, and methods that are found commercially feasible should be displayed as an
object lesson to private operators.
Both the interests of the lumbering industry and of the Government could
receive considerable benefit from investigations carried on in such a Park.
Your Commissioners wish to draw attention to the suggestion, submitted to
them by Mr. Chapman of the Geological Survey,* that the Government of the Province
should co-operate with the Dominion Government and with the United States authorities in Montana and dedicate a large Park and Game Reserve.
FOREST FINANCE.
Your Commissioners have given much careful thought to the financial aspect
of the forestry problem. We have unanimously reached the conclusion that a very
definite policy must be adopted to preserve the integrity of the most valuable asset in
the hands of the Government—the Crown timber lands—by placing forest finance
upon a sound commercial footing. Only thus can a lumber supply and an increasing
forest revenue be maintained for the use of coming generations. Moreover, the
appropriations made available at once by decisive action can be justified by the
narrower view of business expediency. Large sums of money spent upon our forests
will yield a direct profit in the form of increased revenue, by causing the evasion of
duties to cease and by diminishing fire risk and damage.
(*)   See Evidence. PROPORTION OF THE PROVINCIAL  REVENUE
DRAWN FROM FORESTS
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FISCAt      YEAR4  D 72 Report of The Forestry Commission. 1910
It is a well established principle of success in modern business that the capital
of any undertaking should be adequate and should be maintained at whatever standard
the expansion of operations necessitates; and your Commissioners feel that it will
be wise to adopt the best business principles in dealing with the natural resources that
represent so large a percentage of the capital or assets of the Province.
Your Commissioners regard the income from royalty on timber as differing
essentially from any other form of revenue in the Province. Such receipts should be
regarded as capital—not as current revenue. We have no hesitation in recommending
that the amount so received, large as it may appear, should be expended by the
Government for the protection, conservation and restoration of our timber resources.
With our present knowledge regarding re-afforestation, to treat these receipts as
other than capital would be utterly unsound in principle and might produce disastrous
results in the ultimate impairment of the public estate.
Though it is obvious that continuous withdrawals of capital might be as fatal to
the forest assets of the Province as to those of any ordinary corporation, yet your
Commissioners are faced by two questions. Firstly: "Is it necessary to restore to
these British Columbian forests the capital that royalty represents?" Secondly: "Is it
possible to do so?" To illustrate, many of the witnesses who appeared before us
expressed a conviction that natural re-afforestation will take place in this Province.
If that be true, replacement of capital could be placed as low as the minimum expenditure necessary for effectual forest protection (though even in that case it would still
be feasible and desirable to spend money to improve the productivity of the forests
and to increase their yield of revenue); and there might be left in the hands of the
Government an excess of royalty that could not be put to any profitable use in
forestry.
The simple answer to both questions is that no special circumstances that would
justify departure from ordinary business principles have yet been proved to exist.
General natural re-afforestation, though probable, is not an established fact in this
Province and our uncertainty concerning it will not ue removed until a thorough
investigation of the subject has been made by the forest service. Until definite information has been obtained, your Commissioners consider it essential that no surplus of
royalty-capital that should accrue under the financial system described below should
pass into general revenue.
A Forest We recommend that the royalty of the present year be set apart
Sinking Fund, in its entirety for forest purposes and placed in a sinking fund, and
that the royalties of succeeding years be passed to the same account,
as long as they do not exceed the present figure.
As time goes on, however, both cut and rate of royalty may be expected to
increase.    Upon such increment levy for the same fund should be made as follows:
Schedule.
Upon any increase of annual royalty over the present sum of $264,544
40% of such increase
Upon any increase of annual royalty over $500,000
an additional 20% of such part as exceeds $   500,000
Upon any increase of annual royalty over $750,000
a further 10% of such part as exceeds $   750,000
Upon any increase of annual royalty over $1,000,000
a further 5% of such part as exceeds $1,000,000 COMPOSITION   OF THE   FOREST   REVENUE
CALENDAR YEAR 1909
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rlSCAL YEAR 1910  1 Geo. 5 Report of The Forestry Commission. D 73
Example. Imagine that the royalty in 1917 were $1,200,000; the contribution
to the sinking-fund for that year would be:
The whole of the   first  $264,544 or $264,544.00
40% of the next  235,456 " 94,182.40
20% of the next  250,000 " 50,000.00
10% of the next  250,000 " 25,000.00
5% of the next  200,000 " 10,000.00
Total $443,726.40
Your Commissioners consider that a period of at least five years will be very
fully occupied, firstly, by the organization of the Forest Service; secondly, by a great
variety of investigations carried out by the new Department; thirdly, by the evolution
of a constructive policy based on the data obtained. Not until the end of this formative
period will it be possible to ascertain the true need for expenditure upon the work of
the Department.
Therefore, it should be established as a rigid principle that no transferance of
money from the Forest Sinking Fund should take place for that period of time.
Should the facts then disclose that the proportion of royalty-capital retained for
forest purposes was too large, legislation should be enacted to transfer the idle surplus
from the sinking fund to the account of Public Works and to lower the schedule of
percentages. In the contrary case, appropriations should be increased. It should,
however, be made a condition that a full report from the Department of Forests—
giving the reasons for the proposed alteration—be laid before the Legislature; and
such publicity should be an essential preliminary.
It may be pointed out that in the Province of Ontario, the Government's annual
expenditure for forest protection is something like g% of the forest revenue, and apart
from this, railways and license holders contribute large amounts. Again, the last
Report of the Forest Service of the United States shows an expenditure of $3,439,000
for the year  1908.
There is a mass of evidence to show that stumpage appreciates in value at far
more than ordinary interest rates. This increase in value will be hastened still further
by the protection of the forests. It is reasonable to assume, therefore, that from both
the alienated and the present Reserve timber lands a vastly increased revenue will flow
into the Provincial Treasury.
TARIFF CHANGES AND THE PREVENTION OF FOREST WASTE.
Your Commissioners have had their attention drawn to the fact that the duty on
imported shingles was increased by the United States Government upon representations
made by the lumbermen of Washington, with the hearty endorsement of various
forestry associations and of prominent members of the Forest Service. It was held
by those familiar with conditions in the West that an increased levy on foreign
shingles would enable the people of Washington and other States to utilize much
timber that was being wasted in left tops, high stumps and low grade logs; a view of
the matter that has proven correct.
Your Commissioners recommend that the Government of British Columbia
should take such steps as may be within its power to secure similar legislation.
Export. Several   witnesses,  in   giving   evidence   before   the    Commission,
urged strongly that the  export of second and third-class cedar logs
should be allowed. D 74 Report of The Forestry Commission. 1910
Your Commissioners thoroughly endorse the general principle adopted by the
Government of prohibiting the export of logs, and are not prepared to recommend any
variations or departure from this policy at the present time. We would suggest,
however, that a careful investigation of the subject by the Department of Forests,
when established, is most advisable; and that when full information shall have been
obtained there should be a reconsideration of the whole question. Special cases of
hardship such as the one brought to the notice of your Commissioners by Mr. McCoy*
could then be examined.
In presenting our Report at the close of this most important Inquiry we desire
to acknowledge the courtesy extended to us by the Dominion Government officials both
in British Columbia and at Ottawa; the officials of the Department of Lands, Forests
and Mines for Ontario; the Departmental officials at Washington, D. C; the District
United States officials; the Fire Protective Associations of Idaho and Washington; the
officials of the Land Department of the Canadian Pacific Railway; and particularly
do we desire to place on record our appreciation of the valuable assistance rendered by
the various Departmental officers of the Province of British Columbia who placed
at our disposal every possible available data, and to thank the members and officials
of the various lumbering associations who most willingly attended the sessions. We
are also indebted to a number of others who are deeply interested in forestry problems.
The Commission feels that it is to be congratulated on having secured the
services of Mr. M. Allerdale Grainger, who has discharged the particularly arduous
duties of the position of Secretary with consistent and conspicuous ability.
We have given most careful and painstaking thought to the whole Inquiry, and
we venture the opinion that, if the recommendations contained in this Report are
given effect to, Forestry in the Province of British Columbia will be placed on a
thoroughly sound and businesslike footing.
We have the honour to be,
Your Honour's most obedient servants,
FREDERICK J. FULTON,
Chairman.
A. S. GOODEVE,
Commissioner.
A. C. FLUMERFELT,
M. ALLERDALE GRAINGER, Commissioner.
Secretary.
Victoria, B. C, 15th November, 1910.
(*)   See Evidence, page 949. APPENDIX. D 76 Report of The Forestry Commission. 1910
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Page.
i.    Interim Report of the Commission  77
2. Dominion   Forests,   Regulations   concerning  79
3. Ontario, Forest policy    82
4. Quebec,  Forest  policy     85
5. National Forests of the United States, management of  89
6. The Fallon Fire Law of Idaho  93
~.    Re-afforestation in the United States  95
8. The Management of Douglas Fir  97
9. Pulp Concessions:
Legislation, Orders in Council  99
Pulp   Leases,   phraseology  of  101
Copy of a pulp lease  101
10. Legislation Concerning the Indefinite Renewal of Timber Leases  104
11. Copy of Lease, Renewal Form  104
12. Existing Leases of Timber Lands  108
13. The Cruising of Timber, Schedules of County Cruises in Washington  113 1 Geo. 5 Report of The Forestry Commission. D 77
INTERIM REPORT
ROYAL COMMISSION OF INQUIRY ON TIMBER AND FORESTRY.
To His Honour THOMAS WILSON PATERSON,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
MAY IT PLEASE YOUR HONOUR:
We, your Commissioners, appointed on the ninth day of July, 1909, for the
purpose of making inquiry into all matters connected with the timber resources of the
Province of British Columbia and to^report the facts found by us and the means that
should be adopted to conserve the present supply of timber, to guard against fire and
to utilise vacant lands suitable for afforestation, have the honour to submit the following Interim Report:
The Commission commenced its work on the 16th day of August, 1909, holding
its first session at Victoria, and from that time until the 30th day of September, sittings
were held in different parts of the Province, some ninety witnesses being heard, besides
receiving memorials and hearing deputations from various parties and municipalities
interested. In addition, the Commission attended the National Congress on Conservation of Natural Resources, held at Seattle on the 26th, 27th and 28th August.
The questions to be investigated by the Commission are many and of the utmost
importance; so important, in fact, that while the Commission has already obtained a
vast amount of evidence, covering considerably over one thousand typewritten pages,
it feels that it should continue its investigations still further and exhaust all possible
sources of information before venturing to submit a final Report.
At the outset, however, the attention of the Commission was called to the fact
that at the last session of the Legislature the Government announced that it had come
to the determination that the tenure of the special timber licences would, at the next
session of the Legislature, receive the attention of the administration in the way of
some provision that would make for the perpetuity of the licence until the timber is
removed, but on such terms and conditions as the Government then may deem prudent
in the best interests of the Province and people of British Columbia, and, in consequence, the Honourable the Premier has requested us, if possible, to make an Interim
Report dealing with this question of tenure.
In compliance with this request, we have given careful consideration to this
question, and in order to implement the decision of the Government we beg to submit
the following:
A majority of the witnesses who appeared before us strongly advocated that the
licences be made renewable in perpetuity, or at least for so long as there should be
merchantable timber on the lands covered by such licences. A great many of the
witnesses also strongly urged that the rentals or annual licence fees charged for such
renewals should be fixed unalterably at not more than the present rates, though, with
a few exceptions, they thought that the Government should retain control of the
royalties to be charged.
A careful consideration of the facts adduced in the evidence submitted, and of
the opinions of some of the best known authorities on timber and forestry matters,
have led us to the unanimous conclusion that the proposed extension of tenure of
these licences, under proper safeguards, will not work to the disadvantage of the
Province. D 78 Report of The Forestry Commission. 1910
While, as intimated above, we are not yet prepared to formulate in detail what
these safeguards should be, yet, having due regard to the best interests of the Province,
and giving due consideration to the difficult and fluctuating conditions surrounding the
timber industry and the necessity of protecting and encouraging the already large investments involved in the same, so as to aid and assist, in every legitimate way, the
development, conservation and perpetuation of this great Provincial asset, we suggest
that the existing rates, terms and conditions for the present, and pending our final
Report, be left undisturbed, and in particular we emphatically urge that the Government do not in any way restrict or limit its right and power to amend or adjust from
time to time the rentals or licence fees and the royalties to be charged, as well as the
conditions, regulations and restrictions under which timber may be cut.
We, therefore, recommend that the proposed amendment be so framed as to
provide that the special timber licences, other than those provided for in subsection (2) of section 57 of the Land Act, shall be renewable from year to year,
so long as there is on the land included in such licence merchantable timber
in sufficient quantity to make it commercially valuable (proof of which might be
required by the Chief Commissioner), but that such renewal shall be subject to the
payment of such rental or licence fee, and such tax or royalty, and to such terms,
conditions, regulations and restrictions as may be fixed or imposed by any Statute or
Order-in-Council in force at the time renewal is made; that power should be provided
or reserved for the Chief Commissioner or Government where, after inspection, it is
found the land is fit for tillage and settlement, and required for that purpose, that he
or they may require the licensee to remove the timber from such land within a fixed
reasonable time, at the end of which period the land shall be opened for settlement
upon such terms as the Government shall see fit.
Also, that if any holder of a licence, provided for in sub-section (2) of said
section 57, desires to take advantage of the privilege of renewal provided for in this
amendment, he shall, within six months after the passing of such amendment, surrender
the licence held by him and the privileges now appertaining thereto.
Your Commissioners are carefully investigating the constitution of Forestry
Departments in other Governments and countries, with the object of recommending
the establishing of such a Department in British Columbia, and, pending the securing
of the fullest data, we are of the opinion that the Government will be well advised
to provide in the next Estimates an increased amount (at least double that of 1909),
for the purpose of supplementing the system of forest fire protection already inaugurated, which, so far as the limited amounts appropriated in previous years would permit,
has been shown by the evidence to be most effective in reducing the number and
extent of fires.
We might add, in conclusion, that in our opinion, a carefully thought out policy
as to the best method of dealing with the present unalienated timber lands of the
Province should be decided upon before the same are dealt with. As it is our intention
to consider this question carefully and submit a recommendation in our final report,
we would respectfully suggest that the present Reserve be in the meantime continued.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
We have the honour to be,
Your Honour's obedient servants,
FREDERICK J. FULTON, Chairman.
A.   C.   FLUMERFELT,   Commissioner.
A. S. GOODEVE, Commissioner. 1 Geo. 5 Report of The Forestry Commission. D 79
DOMINION FORESTS.
At March, igog, 5,304,960 acres or nearly 8,300 square miles of the forests under
Dominion control were in private hands in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan
and Manitoba; and about 215,000,000 feet were cut therefrom in the fiscal year 1910.
Figures concerning the B. C. Railway Belt will be found in the statistical section of
this Report.
Dominion 1.    Licenses to cut timber on Dominion Lands shall be disposed
Licenses.      of by public auction at the office of the Dominion Timber Agent for
the districts in which the berths are situated.
2. Before any parcel of timber is offered for sale it shall be surveyed by a
duly qualified Dominion Land Surveyor into berths of an area not exceeding twenty-
five square miles, and each of such berths shall then be thoroughly cruised by a duly
qualified timber cruiser in the employ of the Dominion Government, who shall make
as exact an estimate as possible of the quantity of timber on the berth, ascertain its
general condition, its accessibility, and any other matters that may be necessary to
determine the value of the timber and to enable the Minister of the Interior to fix
an upset price, and shall furnish a report thereon under oath to the Minister. The
Minister shall then fix an upset price at which the berth shall be disposed of and
no berth shall be sold at less than the price so fixed.
3. No license shall be disposed of until notice of the sale has been given for
a period of not less than sixty days in a newspaper published in the district in which
the berth is located and also in a newspaper having a general circulation in the
Province.-
4. The purchaser must also pay the cost or the estimated cost of the survey of
the berth before a license is issued.
5. All timber licenses shall expire on the thirtieth day of April next after the
date from which they are granted.
Conditions 6.    This license is subject to the following conditions and restric-
of License,    tions in addition to such of the conditions and restrictions as are in
that behalf contained in the Dominion Lands Act and the amendments
thereto, and in the Regulations respecting timber passed by order of His Excellency
the Governor-General in Council.
(a) That the licensee shall not have the right thereunder to cut timber of a
less diameter than ten inches at the stump except such as may be actually necessary
for the construction of roads and other works to facilitate the taking out of merchantable timber, and shall not have the right to cut any trees that may be designated by
the proper officer of the Department of the Interior as required to provide a supply
of seed for the reproduction of the forest.
7. The licensee shall be entitled to a renewal of his license from year to year
while there is on the berth timber of the kind and dimensions described in the
license in sufficient quantity to be commercially valuable if the terms and conditions
of the license and the provisions of the Dominion Lands Act and of the regulations
affecting the same have been fulfilled: Provided that such renewal shall be subject
to the payment of such rental and dues and to such terms and conditions as are
fixed by the regulations in force at the time renewal is made.
8. Whenever any portion of the berth hereby licensed has not upon it timber of
the kind and dimension described in the license in sufficient quantity to make it com- D 80 Report of The Forestry Commission. 1910
mercially valuable, the Minister of the Interior may, after an inspection has been made,
declare such portion fit for settlement and withdraw it from the berth and from the
operation of the license covering it.
Agricultural 9.    If the  Minister of the Interior ascertains, after an inspection
land. has  been made, that any land within the berth hereby lice.nsed is  fit
for settlement and is required for that purpose, he may require the
licensee to carry on the cutting of timber provided for by Clause 32 of these regulations on the said land and on the expiration of the time within which the timber
which the licensee is entitled to cut should be removed therefrom, may withdraw such
land from the berth and from the operations of the license covering it, and upon such
withdrawal the ground rent shall be reduced in proportion to the area withdrawn.
Waste and 10.    That the licensee shall take from every tree he cuts down all
debris.        the timber fit for use and manufacture the same into sawn lumber or
some such saleable product, and shall dispose of the tops and branches
and other debris of lumbering operations in such a way as to prevent as far as possible
the danger of fire in accordance with the directions of the proper officers of the Department of the Interior.
11. That the licensee shall prevent all unnecessary destruction of growing timber
on the part of his men and exercise strict and constant supervision to prevent the
origin or spread of fires.
Returns. 12.  That the licensee shall furnish to the Dominion Timber Agent
having jurisdiction in the matter at such periods as may be required by
the Minister of the Interior or by regulations under the Dominion Lands Act, returns
sworn to by him or his agent or employee, cognizant of the facts, showing the
quantities manufactured, sold or disposed of, of all sawn lumber, timber or any other
product of timber from the berth with the exception of slabs and saw-dust, in whatever form the same may be sold or otherwise disposed of by him during such period,
and the price or value thereof.
Cost of fire 13.    That the  licensee  shall  pay,  in  addition  to  the  said  ground
protection,     rent, dues in the manner prescribed in Section 20 of the Timber Regulations, and also one-half of the cost incurred by the Crown in guarding the timber from fire, the Government paying the other half.    A statement will be
furnished the licensee showing his share of the cost incurred and payment thereof shall
be made to the Crown within thirty days thereafter.
Returns. 14.    That the licensee  shall keep a "lumber  sales book"  in  which
shall be entered all sales of the products of the berth, both cash and
credit sales, also a book accounting for the number of feet of sawn lumber manufactured each day at the mill, with the day and date; all books and memoranda kept
at the logging camps shall be carefully preserved and these and other books kept by
the licensee in connection with his lumbering business he shall submit for the inspection
of the Dominion Timber Agent or other officer of the Crown whenever required for the
purpose of verifying his returns aforesaid.
15. This license shall be subject to forfeiture on the order of the Minister for
violation of any of the conditions to which it is subject or for any fraudulent return.
16. This license cannot be assigned or transferred without the consent of the
Minister of the Interior.
Compulsory 17.    The  licensee  shall  have  in  operation  within  one  year  from
Sawmill.        a date when he is notified by the proper officer of the Department of
the Interior that the Minister of the Interior regards such a step necessary or expedient in the public interest, and keep in operation, for a least six months of 1 Geo. 5 Report of The Forestry Commission. D 81
each year of his holding, a sawmill in connection with the berth herein described,
capable of cutting in twenty-four hours a thousand feet board measure for every two
and one-half square miles of the area licensed.
18. The licensee shall pay an annual ground rent of five dollars per square mile
except for lands situated to the west of Yale in the Province of British Columbia,
in which case the yearly rent shall be five cents per acre.
19. The licensee shall pay the following dues on timber cut on his berth:
Sawn lumber, fifty cents per thousand feet board measure. Railway ties, eight
feet long, one and one-half cents each. Railway ties, nine feet long, one and three-
quarter cents each. Shingle bolts, twenty-five cents per cord, and five per cent on the
sale of all other products of the berth.
Manu- 20.    All  timber  taken  from berths acquired under the provisions
facture. of  these  regulations  shall  be  manufactured within  the  Dominion  of
Canada and all timber taken from a berth in Manitoba, Saskatchewan,
Alberta or the Northwest Territories must be manufactured at the sawmill of the
licensee to be operated in connection with the berth as prescribed by Section 32 of these
regulations unless permission otherwise is given by the Minister of the Interior as
provided by the said section.
21. Provided, however, that notwithstanding anything in these regulations, a
licensee may in lieu of erecting a mill, be permitted to have the timber cut from the
berth or berths held by him manufactured at a mill which is not his own property,
provided that he cuts from the said berth or berths at the rate of one hundred thousand
feet annually for each square mile held by him under license.
Forest Revenue.  (1)
Fiscal    year,    1909   $269,837
1910     378,010
Total revenue received from timber lands within the Railway Belt from 1st
October, 1885 to 31st March, 1909   $1,349,551.23
Total bonus received from timber berths within the Railway Belt from 1st
October, 1885   to 31st March, 1909        628,765.83
Total area covered by this amount   2,604.58 square miles
Total revenue received from timber lands within the Railway Belt from 1st
July, 1899 to 31st March, 1909        982,240.12
Total bonus received from timber berths within the Railway belt from 1st
July, 1899 to 3Ist March, 1909         565,684.56
Total area covered by this amount    1,368.58 square miles
In the period 1899 to 1909, over 57% of the forest revenue of the Railway Belt
was due to bonus.
DOMINION SALES OF TIMBER.
In British  Columbia, during the  fiscal  year  1909-1910, 2.2 miles  sold
for $24,000, or an average of $10,954 per   mile
In  1907 the  average  was     4,091     "       "
In 1906    " " "           444     "
In 1905     " " "             214     "
In Manitoba, Alberta and Saskatchewan, during the fiscal  year 1909-1910,
30.79 miles sold for $15,010, or an average of $487 per   mile
In   1907  the  average was    251     "       "
In 1906    " " "    v     197     "
In 1905    " " "         91     "
(1)   See also the Railway Belt of British Columbia Report, p. 39 D 82 Report of The Forestry Commission. 1910
ONTARIO.
The Sale of The  method  of  issuing  timber  licenses  adopted  in   1869  remains
Crown timber, in force to-day with but little modification.    A berth is first surveyed,
cruised, valued, and given an upset price; then the license to cut the
timber on it is  sold  by public auction.    The  Government thus  receives payment in
three forms—rental, royalty and bonus.
In the old days there was but one rate of dues and but one class of license.
Of recent years, however, different conditions have been attached at each sale. In 1903,
for example, the royalty was raised from $1.00 or $1.25 to $2 per thousand feet, board
measure, the rental was raised to $5 per square mile, and the time within which the
timber must be cut was fixed at 15 years. That year more than 800 square miles were
sold at an average bonus of $4,461 despite the increase in dues.  (1)
Of late, Ontario has adopted the principle of selling by the thousand feet instead
of by the mile. Under the old system faulty estimates of the values of berths sometimes caused loss to the Government while on the other side the purchaser was obliged
to risk the loss of the bonus he had paid in case of fire.
The Government now assumes the fire risk. Licensees must give substantial
guarantees, about 10% of the value of their timber, that operations will be conducted in
accordance with the regulations. The balance of the bonus on each thousand feet is
paid as the timber is cut. By means of the great rise that has taken place in stumpage
values the prices obtained under this system are very large. In bonus and royalty as
much as $10 or $12 per thousand feet has been obtained at recent sales.
Fire patrol on The Government insists that in the summer months there should
licensed lands, be fire rangers upon all licensed timber lands, no less than 450
men were thus employed in 1909. Up to the present year the Government not only controlled this force but also bore half the expense of it. In view of
"the increased value of stumpage and the small proportion that comes to the Crown"
the Government informed the licensees in the spring of 1910 that they themselves must
in future bear the whole expense of protecting their limits. As protective methods
are still controlled and made compulsory by the Government it is considered that the
effectiveness of the system is not changed in any way.
The policy and practice of the Ontario Government is given in the following
quotation:  (2)
Timber reserves        "When  we  find  considerable blocks  of timber  on lands that are
and their       not open for settlement, we create by authority of Order in  Council
protection.      what is called a Forest Reserve, and withdraw the area from sale or
settlement absolutely; and place a body of rangers under a chief ranger
to protect the timber from fire or trespass. If minerals are discovered in the Reserve, and
prospectors desire to go in, they must obtain permission here, and also a permit which
they have to show to the rangers when they are prospecting in the Reserve. If they discover  anything of value, and it is in such a locality that the forest will not be endangered
we may allow work; but if there is any quantity of timber near where the discovery
is made, while we will allow them to hold the discovery, we will not allow any work
IT"*(1)   Report of the Commissioner of Crown Lands, 1903.   Other information by courtesy of the Deputy Minister
of Lands and Forests.
(2)   From a letter of the Deputy Minister of Lands. Forests and Mines. 1 Geo. 5 Report of The Forestry Commission. D 83
until the timber has been cut away. We have several large reserves that have been
set apart under this system, and we have been successful in protecting the timber
in them.
Protection of "As to re-afforestation, where an area is unfitted for settlement, or
Young Growth, where the timber is being cut off a limit and it is not good agricultural
land,  we  withdraw  the  territory from  sale and  let it  stand,  so  that
the timber may grow up again; protecting it from fire by an adequate staff of rangers."
Logging The wasting of good  timber by licensees  is discouraged by the
Regulations,    levying of dues upon logs that have not been removed. As the trees are
cut with the saw very close to the ground there is no waste in high
stumps.    Tops are taken  out to a diameter of about five inches, and  the  levy upon
merchantable logs left in the woods is the same as that paid upon those utilized.   Trees
less than ten inches in diameter must not be cut.
Fire Patrol An Act of the Ontario Legislature authorizes the placing of fire
on   Railways,    rangers along the railway lines and the charging of the  expense of
this to the companies concerned.    No railway has raised any difficulty
except   the  Transcontinental   which   so   far   has   only  paid   one-third   of  the   amount
assessed  against  it.     Concerning  the   patrolling  of  railway  lines   the  report   of  the
Minister of Lands, Forests and Mines for 1909 says:
"On the lines of railway where rangers are employed the territory is divided
up into ten-mile beats and placed in charge of two rangers. They camp on the centre
of the ten mile beat and every day one goes five miles in one direction and back at
night; the other does the same in the other direction. They post up proclamations,
interview the foremen of the work and tell them what is required to be done and
request them to caution their men to be careful in the use of fire, etc. Passing
along the work every day they can soon judge whether proper precautions are
observed, and call the foreman's attention to any neglect, and if necessary put the law
in motion to punish the offender. Rangers have been put on the T. & N. O. in this
way, on the Canadian Pacific and the Canadian Northern where necessary, and on the
Port Arthur Junction Railway, and these railway companies have aided the rangers in
every way possible, and paid for them at the end of the season. Until quite recently
the great pulp wood forest lying on the height of land and extending on both sides has
been quite free from danger, there being no dangerous element there. Now the
region has been pierced by the Transcontinental Railway from one end to the other,
thousands of men being employed, a large proportion of whom are foreigners without
any knowledge of our laws or efforts to preserve the forest from destruction, and caring nothing whether it is burnt up so long as they can use fire to suit their object.
They have no interest in or care for public property. This makes the whole line of
construction a menace to the forests on each side of it. Not only so but tote roads
are built which are veritable lines of danger to the forests on each side. The Province
is not responsible for this danger, as the railroad builds under Dominion legislation,
and we cannot enforce our legislation with respect to efficient protection. It was hoped,
as the danger was caused by the construction under the Dominion Government, that in
common with other railways they would bear a share of the expense of fire protection,
but so far no contribution has been made. (1)
On Licensed "The fire ranging on licensed territory as heretofore has been con-
Lands, ducted by men selected by the Timber Licensees.   The work has been
efficiently performed and continues to give satisfaction to the limit
holders. The number of Rangers on Forest Reserves was 185 and the cost was
$65,992.22.    The number on railways was 187 and the cost was $66,712.49.    The num-
(1)   Apparently the Transcontinental has since aereed to pay one-third of the expense of patrolline its line. D 84
Report of The Forestry Commission.
1910
ber on licensed lands was 450, costing $87,610.71. The railways refund the expense,
except the Transcontinental which contributes nothing. (1) The licensees pay half
the expense of fire ranging on their limits." (2)
Recent Altera- "Notice is hereby given that by authority of Order in Council dated
tion of Fire   the  15th day of April, A.D.  1910 it is provided that for the  future
Patrol System fire rangers employed on licensed territory shall be paid in full by
the licensee on whose limits they are employed, the Department ceasing to bear any portion of the cost of fire rangers' services or expenses.
"Licensees will continue to send here the names of those they desire to have
appointed as fire rangers, and the Department will instruct them and clothe them with
authority. At the close of the season their diaries will be sent here and a report of
any fires that occurred, their origin, if possible, and all other information.
"All licensees will be required to place rangers on their limits. If they fail the
Department will place them on duty and charge the expense against the limit. The
Department will continue to select and appoint supervising rangers, and the licensees
will each pay their proportion of the cost of this supervision.
"If fire rangers are not nominated by the licensees prior to the 1st of May in
each year, the Department will select rangers and put them on and charge the licensees
with all expenses.
"F. COCHRANE, Minister.
"Department of Lands, Forests and Mines,
"Toronto, April  18th,  1910."
The Forest Revenue of Ontario.
Year Rental.       Royalty. Bonus. Total.
1900      $61,704       $  576,321       $  636,484       $1,276,376
1901   63,000 843,148 571,383 1,479,847
1902   61,039 1,038,273 227,667 i,33i,352
1903   63,057 9oi,744 1,340,696 2,307,356
1904   64,997 919,471 1,664,258 2,650,782
1905   61,194 1,480,910 520,070 2,064,663
1906   66,118 1,295,378 535,970 1,900,914
1907   65,084 998,863 152,223 1,219,051
1908   65,150 1,618,242 100,879 1,786,338
(10 mos.)  1909   68,528 529,422 285,571 885,892
Note. Owing to the financial stringency payments due in one year were
made in the next.    Thus nearly $500,000 was carried over into 1908, the
collections proper for that year being only $1,224,243.
Again, the true revenue for 1909 is larger than the sum shown.
Thus in a ten year period Ontario's forest revenue has been contributed in this
manner:
3-7% from rental.
60.3%      "     royalty,
35-7%      "     bonus.
(1) Apparently the Transcontinental has since agreed to pay one-third of the expense of patrolling its line.
(2) For the future the licensees are to pay all the expense. 1  Geo. 5 Report of The Forestry Commission. D Si
QUEBEC.
Regulations "It is forbidden, under penalty of $3 per stump to cut pine trees
for Lumbering less than  12 inches in diameter; spruce trees measuring less than  11
on Crown     inches in  diameter, and other trees  measuring less  than 9 inches in
Lands.        diameter at the stump, measured 3 feet above the ground.    It is permitted, however,  to cut swamp  spruce to a diameter of 7 inches, at
the   stump,  also  measured  3   feet  above   the   ground.    The   stumpage dues   shall   be
levied on:
"1. All stumps measuring more than one foot in height, above the beginning of
the roots.
"2. All timber above 6 inches in diameter, left in the tops.
"3. All merchantable timber used for skids and not hauled.
"4. All lodged trees.
"5.    All  merchantable  timber  used  for  building  bridges   or  making  'corduroy'
roads.
"6.    All logs left in the woods."
Present and past conditions in the forests of Quebec are reviewed in some detail
in the Report for the fiscal year 1909, from which we give the following quotations:
Forest "The lumbermen came here to cut white pine and a little red pine.
Depletion. The other timber was despised. The methods of cutting at that time
were very rudimentary; all the cutting and squaring was done with
the axe. The method of choosing the timber was very bad; only the best trees were
selected, and again only logs of the very best quality were selected; the slightest defect
caused a log to be rejected. How much timber was thus wasted? No one can tell,
but even now we come across such culled logs from which excellent timber can still
be obtained. Owing to the diameter of the pieces a sudden thaw would often stop the
teaming and the logs were left behind to rot.
"Fires were also very frequent, for the most elementary precautions were
neglected; timber was so plentiful that it may be said to have had no value.
"But white pine became scarce; it was necessary to go further and further, to
places more difficult of access, and to use spruce which was becoming to be better
known and appreciated, and the lumbermen began cutting it. The same system of
selection was continued but not for a long while, fortunately. Seeing that the timber
was disappearing both by lumbering and by fire, experienced men recommended that
a diameter limit be fixed and also that more timber be taken from the logs. Thus a
diameter of 12 inches at the smaller end was adopted. This, however, still left much
refuse, about 60% of the cut, but it was a great improvement. About 1890, the
minimum diameter was reduced to 10 inches, which was a marked improvement. This
limit has been continued to our day by saw-mill owners, and logs as small as eight
inches have been taken from the tops only in the past few years.
"With the rapid development of the pulp industry, lumbering about 1900
became a more extensive operation for some limit holders and sometimes more
disastrous than before. Thus, the pulp wood makers had all the timber taken as small
as 4 inches in the tops, but many also heedless of the future, cut down trees below
the lawful diameter, so much so that the Government had to adopt rigid measures and D S(J Report of The Forestry Commission. 1910
order,   that in   future,   swamp   spruce   should   not   be   cut   smaller   than   7   inches   at
the stump.
"At present, in 1909, the virgin forest no longer exists except at the sources of
rivers. Everywhere else lumbering, clearing and fire have modified the original type
of the forest. This territory which contained over 1,600 square miles of forest in
1820, the date of the first settlements in Kildare, Brandon and Rawdon, now barely
contains 800 miles, and at least 25% of this area has been burned over. On the 800
square miles given over to settlement we find a sparse population of 15,000 souls who
find it difficult to make a living. One-fifth of this portion is still wooded, but the
timber is of poor quality, of second or third growth one-third is burned, completely
ruined, while the remainder is cultivated as stated.
"This is pre-eminently a forest region at the gates of Montreal, that is to say,
close to an excellent market, which is for the most part ruined by fire and useless
deforestation. It is high time to adopt energetic measures to put an end to so pitiful
a state of affairs.
Waste "Until   recent  years  these  improvised   carpenters   were  not  very
Controlled, particular as to the choice of the timber they used for their buildings
and roads. They took the best pine or spruce, so that the camps,
which sometimes were used only for one season, were made of valuable wood which
was thus lost. Since 1908, the Government charges stumpage on all merchantable
timber used for making camps, etc. This has had a good effect and less valuable trees,
such as fir, poplar, etc., are now used.
"Formerly the axe alone was used for felling the trees and cutting them into
logs, whereby over a lineal foot of timber was lost at each section. Now the only
reproach we have is about the height of the stumps, because many still refuse to cut
as low as required by the circular, 16,761.08, namely, not more than 12 inches from the
ground. But through the penalties imposed by us and by the limit holders, we are
overcoming their obstinacy.
"We are trying to impress upon the choppers the necessity of not breaking too
many small trees while cutting down the larger ones, and when, owing to the inclination or slope of the ground they are obliged to make the tree fall on or among small
trees, to choose the least valuable ones. We are getting to agree very well with them
on this point because they are eager to show their skill. We also compel the jobbers
to leave no lodged trees under penalty of charging the stumpage, as if the trees had
been taken away. Such cases are rare for our lumbermen are skillful and their pride
is at stake.
High Stumps. "In the  case of hollow trees  or trees rotten  at the  stump—this
happens more frequently with tamarack and pine, but not so often
with spruce, the rot being generally caused by fungi, such as Trametes pini, etc.,—our
choppers were in the habit of cutting the tree above the regulation height (12 inches
from the ground). They call this 'butting' a tree. We insisted in each case that the
tree be cut at 12 inches from the ground, claiming rightly, that it is impossible for
them to know how high the rot extends while the tree is standing. It is easy, when
the tree is fallen, to sound it with the axe, and ascertain the point where the rot
ceases to be a serious defect in the log. By this means the butt will lie on the ground
and decay much more quickly than if left standing on the stump like a candle ready
to catch fire at the slightest opportunity. Many large fires have arisen through such
candles.
Disposal "This Jast consideration brings us to the question of waste.    What
of Debris.      is to be done with the   tops   and   branches?    When   one   is   near   a
market they can be profitably made into faggots and charcoal, but these
are useless in our forests.    Thus the refuse of the cutting is left on the ground, where 1 Geo. 5 Report of The Forestry Commission. D S7
it dries up slowly, litters the soil, impedes circulation, hinders reproduction, and above
all, is a constant source of danger from fire. If a match is thrown on it it blazes up.
When a small fire running merely on the surface of the ground reaches a lot of refuse
it becomes a gigantic fire which seizes the surrounding trees and becomes one of those
great conflagrations with which we are only too familiar. The problem of causing
such refuse to disappear is one of the most serious in our forest economy. If we
wish to protect properly what remains of our forests, steps must necessarily be
taken to do away with the branches and twigs as soon as possible. Lopping the
lops has been recommended, because it is alleged that by this means the branches will
lie on the ground, the weight of snow will crush them, and, as they will sooner be
permeated with the dampness of the soil, they will rot away in a short time. This
short time is still too long, and in my opinion this operation is a mere palliative of no
value. It seems to me that we have suffered enough from forest fires not to hesitate
before an expenditure of 20 cents per thousand feet to get the refuse burned, not
wherever lumbering operations have been carried on, but at least in the vicinity of
villages, streams and roads, that is to say, where real danger of fire exists. The best
plan would be to burn them everywhere so as to clean thoroughly the soil of the forest,
to remove all chances of fire spreading and to make access easy to the people who
have to fight it. Several lumbering companies are studying the question and we
should join with them in making some attempts in that direction during the course of
next winter to ascertain the exact cost of such an undertaking.
Change of "I  have  not  spoken  of the  selection  of the  trees  to be removed
Species. during  the  lumbering  operations:     the   regulations   merely  define   the
minimum diameters at which trees can be cut on territories under
license. Unfortunately the sylvical conditions vary so much that these diameter
limits are not sufficient to preserve the forest's primitive character, especially when
lumbering takes only timber from one kind of trees. Thus we have seen our fine pine
groves disappear; they have been replaced by spruce forests and from every part of
the Province now come complaints that "fir is overwhelming us." This is fatal and
unless lumbering is based on earnest study of the special conditions and needs of each
locality, this change will spread more and more and the day is not far off when our
valuable conifers will disappear wherever lumbering is carried on and will be replaced
by hard woods and balsam fir.
The Marking "Pending   such   reforms   several   license   holders   have   begun   to
of Trees.       have  their  trees   marked   by  special   gangs.    This   system  was practiced  last winter  on  the  limits  of the  St.  Gabriel  Lumber  Company
and gave so much satisfaction, both as regards that company and the jobbers, that it
will be continued this year and in all the other forest held by the Union Bag & Paper
Company the trees will be marked previous to cutting.
Saving Tops. "As   may   be   seen   this   year,   even   logs   measuring   5   inches   in
diameter were taken from the tops. Out of the above total 10 years
ago, all logs under 10 inches would have been left aside and thus 101,892 logs, or 64%
of the number cut this year would have been wasted. It is admitted by all, foremen
and limit holders, that the saving this year in this direction was about 20% of the
timber cut. As over 35,000,000 feet, board measure, were cut in our division we have
had a saving effected of 7,000,000 feet representing an increase in stumpage dues of at
least $4,550.
Railway "The danger of fire is very great in the construction of railways
Construction,   through the forests, as the timber cut in clearing the right of way is
burnt right on the spot, at all seasons.    Formerly few or no precautions were taken to prevent the flames spreading from these slashings, which extended D 88
Report of The Forestry Commission.
1910
right up to the green forest on each side, with the deplorable result, that all too often
a conflagration was started. This source of danger has fortunately been largely
reduced, as, where the construction is on Government lands, the contractors are
obliged to pile the brush in the middle of the right of way, to put men on to watch the
burning, and are not allowed to set fire to their brush without the consent of the
Government Ranger."
The Forest Revenue of Quebec.
Year.
Rental.
Royalty.
Bonus.
Total.
1900   ..
..    $170,508.71
$585,505.89
$339,748.06
$1,112,529.52
1901    ..
178,250.71
633,230.12
403,197.72
1,234,072.05
1902   ..
163,983.00
664,552.44
201,483.39
i,055,037-48
1903    ..
187,206.25
667,631.96
352,004.58
1,241,814.49
1904   ..
176,226.41
715,134-02
252,554.01
i,i67,477-53
1905    ■ •
208,712.00
750,340.85
389,576.12
1,380,186.55
1906   ..
206,809.20
776,901.37
253,545-00
1,266,114.04
1907    ..
214,452.00
773,130.29
1,018,385.40
1908   ..
215,053.00
721,784.45
16,080.00
978,077.58
1909   ..
206,940.00
650,458.33
906,360.64 1 Geo. 5 Report of The Forestry Commission. D 89
U. S. NATIONAL FORESTS.
From the "In    timber    sales    on    the    National    Forests    it    is    invariably
igo7 Report, required that the brush from the felled trees be disposed of so
as to reduce both the danger from fire and the damage to the
forests should fire occur. Experiments conducted during the past year show that
the best way to dispose of brush is not everywhere the same. Where the fire
danger is great it has proved most effective to pile all brush away from living-
trees and burn it during the wet season. Where the fire danger is slight, the brush is
lopped and left scattered on the ground where it soon decays and adds to the organic
constituents of the soil. In every timber sale, therefore, local conditions are carefully
studied to determine how best to dispose of the brush and debris after logging. Full
use of the merchantable portion of every tree cut is insisted upon. As a result,
lumbermen in the West have come to realize that the cutting of low stumps and the
using of all trees as far into the tops as they are merchantable is of actual financial
benefit to them, and the close utilization of all timber felled is spreading from the
National Forest to private holdings."
"When rights of way are granted within National Forests, payment is required
for the actual value of all timber necessarily cut or destroyed. The most important
case of this kind during the past year was that of the Chicago, Milwaukee and St.
Paul Railway Company. The right of way of this railroad, 200 feet wide, runs
through the Helena, Lolo, Coeur d'Alene, and Washington forests. The Company
agreed to clear and to keep clear, as a safeguard against fire, additional strips from
50 to 150 feet wide, according to the fire risk on each side of its right of way, and
to pay the market value of all merchantable timber cut."
From the "Since the composition and general character of the timber differ
igo8 Report, more or less in each locality, a separate set of marking rules was
prepared for each of the National Forests. ^By following these rules
the cutting of all National Forests will be brought into line with the strictly conservative policy now adopted. Lower stumps, more complete utilization, better disposal of
the debris from logging, and the sale of more low grade timber marked the decided
progress in timber sales on nearly every National Forest."
Contract Form        We a corporation organized and
Used In        existing  under   the   laws   of   the   State   of   Oregon,   hereby  apply   to
Timber Sales,   purchase all the merchantable dead timber standing and down, and all
the live timber designated for cutting by the Forest Officer, located on
an area defined as and which timber is estimated to be
 Million feet B. M. Douglas Fir.
 Million feet B. M. White Fir.
 Million feet B. M. Western Red Cedar.
a total of million feet B. M.
If this sale is awarded to us we do hereby, in consideration of the sale of this
timber to us, promise to pay to the Bank, to be placed to the
credit of the United States, the sum of dollars ($....) more
or less as may be determined by the actual sale, for the timber at the rate of	
dollars ($....) per thousand feet, of dollars for live and	 D 90
Report of The Forestry Commission.
1910 1 Geo. 5 Report of The Forestry Commission. D 91
dollars for dead Douglas Fir; dollars for Douglas Fir saw logs now on
the ground; dollars for Western Red Cedar, etc dollars
for White Fir, etc at least dollars to accompany bid,
and the balance in payments of not less than $2,000 in advance of cutting.
And we further promise and agree to cut and remove said timber in strict accordance with the following and all other regulations governing timber sales, prescribed
by the Department of Agriculture.
1. No timber will be cut or removed until it has been paid for.
2. No timber will be removed until it has been scaled, measured or counted by a
forest officer.
3. No timber will be cut except from the area specified by the forest officer. No
live timber will be cut except that marked or otherwise designated by the forest
officer.
4. All merchantable timber used in buildings, skidways, bridges, construction
of roads, or other improvements will be paid for at the contract price.
5. All cutting will be done with a saw when possible. No unnecessary damage
will be done to young growth or to trees left standing, and no trees shall be left
lodged in the process of felling. Unmarked trees that are badly damaged during the
process of logging will be cut if required by the forest officers and when such damage
is due to carelessness, the trees so injured will be paid for at twice the price fixed
by this agreement.
6. The approximate minimum diameter limit at a point 4^2 feet from the
ground to which living trees are to be cut is 13 inches for white fir, but trees of other
species will be cut as marked.
7. Stumps will not be cut higher than 18 inches—lower if possible—and will be
so cut as to cause the least possible waste.
8. All trees cut will be utilized to a diameter of 9 inches in the tops—lower
when possible—and the log lengths so varied as to make this possible.
9. Tops will be lopped and all brush piled compactly at a safe distance from
living trees, or otherwise disposed of, as directed by the forest officers.
10. Unless  extension  of time  is  granted,  all  timber  will  be  cut and  removed
on or before and none later than and at least
 feet will be paid for, cut and removed on or before	
and at least feet of the remainder of the estimated amount during each
year of the remaining period.
11. Timber will be scaled by Scribner rule, Decimal C. or counted or measured
as prescribed in "The Use Book" or specifically provided in the agreement, and, if
required by the forest officer, will be piled or skidded for scaling as directed by the
forest officer.
12. All marked trees and all dead timber sound enough for timber of any
merchantable grade or timbers or cordwood shall be cut. Unmarked living trees which
are cut, marked trees or merchantable dead timber left uncut, timber wasted in tops,
stumps, and partially sound logs, trees left lodged in the process of felling, and any
timber merchantable, according to the terms of this contract, which is cut and not
removed from any portion of the cutting area after logging on that portion of the
cutting area is completed, or is left within the National Forest after the expiration of
this agreement, shall be scaled and paid for at double the agreed contract price.
13. During the time that this agreement remains in force we and all our
employees, sub-contractors, and employees of sub-contractors will, without any charge
or expense whatever to the Forest Service, do all in our power, both independently and
upon the request of the forest officers, to prevent and suppress forest fires. D 92 Report of The Forestry Commission. 1910
14. So far as is reasonable all branches of the logging shall keep pace with one
another, and in no instance shall the brush disposal be allowed to fall behind the cutting>
except when the depth of the snow or other adequate reason makes proper disposal
impossible, when the disposal of the brush may, with the written consent of the Forester
or of the Forest Supervisor, be postponed until the conditions are more favourable.
15. Logs shall be decked or piled for scaling at places agreed upon with the
forest officer, with ends even on one side of the skidway or piled in a workmanlike
manner, and the length of the logs shall be marked on the small or scaling end of each
log by the purchaser.   Logs of different species or value shall be piled in separate piles.
16. Camps, roads, bridges, chutes, etc., required for temporary use shall be
located as agreed upon with the forest officer in charge and constructed with care for
the interests of the National Forests.
17. All dead trees and snags whether merchantable or not, which in the judgment of the forest officer, are a fire menace, shall be felled.
18. We agree, when called upon by the forest officer in charge, to furnish a
sufficient number of men, to be determined by the supervisor, to burn the brush and
debris resulting from the cutting, under the supervision of the forest officer.
The decision of the forester shall be final in the interpretation of the regulations
and provisions governing the sale, cutting and removing of the timber covered by this
contract. Work may be suspended by the forest officer in charge, if the regulations
contained in this agreement are disregarded, and the violation of any one of the said
regulations, if persisted in, shall be sufficient cause for the forester to revoke this agreement and to cancel all permits for other privileges.
And as a further guarantee of the faithful performance of the conditions of this
agreement, we agree to deliver a satisfactory bond in the sum of dollars
($....) which bond together with all monies paid or promised under this agreement
upon failure on our part to fulfill, all and singular, the conditions and requirements set
forth, or made a part hereof, shall become the property of the United States as
liquidated damages and not as penalty.
Signed in duplicate this day of 19....
Witnesses:
Approved under the above conditions,
 19
Signature of the approving officer. 1 Geo. 5 Report of The Forestry Commission. D 93
TEXT OF THE FALLON FIRE LAW
(igo7, as amended by Act of March, tgo9.   Political Code of Idaho.)
Section 1605 as amended. Each fire warden may arrest, without a warrant, any
person found violating any provision of this Act, and take him before a magistrate
and there make complaint and, when a warden shall have information that such violation has been committed, he shall make similar complaint. Wardens shall go to the
place of danger to control or prevent fires and, in emergencies, may employ or compel
assistance, and the compensation for such service compelled shall not exceed $2.50
per day, exclusive of subsistence and reasonable traveling expenses.
Section 3 of the Act of 1909. Any person, firm or corporation engaged in the
cutting and removing of timber, logs, ties, telegraph poles, wood or other forest
products from lands within the State of Idaho, shall pile and burn, or otherwise dispose
of the brush, limbs, tops and other waste material incident to such cutting, which are
four inches or under in diameter, and the times and methods of so doing shall be
prescribed by the warden of the fire district in which the said cutting shall be done.
Any person, firm or corporation violating the provisions of this Act or refusing to conform to any rules made by the fire warden of any district in the State of Idaho, relative
to the time, place and manner of burning or disposing of the brush, limbs, tops and
other waste material incident to the cutting of timber, logs, ties and telegraph poles,
wood or other products, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and upon conviction thereof
be subject to a fine of not less than $100.00 nor more than $500.00 or be imprisoned
in the county jail of the county in which the offense occurred, for not less than thirty
days, and not to exceed two months, or, to be subjected to both such fine and
imprisonment.
Section 1606. It shall be the duty of each fire warden in each fire district to
issue written or printed permits during permit season, to any and all persons named in
an application to set out fires. Said application shall state the general description of
the land upon which it is desired to set out fires, and the extent of the burning or
slashing desired to be burned. Said permit season shall be from June first to October
first of each year. Said permit shall fix the time for setting out fires on any three
consecutive days therein named, and not less than ten days from the date of such
permit, and such fires shall be set at no time when the wind is blowing to such an
extent as to cause danger of same getting beyond the control of the person setting out
the said fire, or without sufficient help present to control the same, and the said fire
shall be watched by the person setting the fire until the same is out.
Section 1606, continued. Upon granting said permit, the fire warden shall be
present at said proposed burning, or notify at the earliest possible moment some qualified and acting deputy fire warden in the vicinity of said proposed burning to be
present thereat, and upon good cause may revoke or postpone said permit upon notice
to said applicant.
Section 1607 as amended. From June first to October first each year it shall be
unlawful for any person, firm or corporation, to use any spark emitting locomotive,
logging engine, portable engine, traction engine or stationary engine located in a
timber district without the use of a good and efficient spark arrester. Any person,
firm or corporation who shall fail to provide and use such a spark arrester upon any
such engine, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof shall pay D 94 Report of The Forestry Commission. 1910
a fine of not less than twenty-five dollars ($25.00) nor more than one hundred dollars
($100.00) for each day such engine or locomotive is used.
Section 1608. Every warden or deputy warden, and every person lawfully commanded to assist in enforcing any of the provisions of this Act, who shall unjustifiably
refuse or neglect to perform his duty; every person who shall kindle a fire on or near
to forest or prairie land and leave it unextinguished, or be a party thereto; every person
who shall use other than incombustible wads for firearms, or carry a naked torch,
firebrand or exposed light in or near to forest land; and every person who shall deface,
destroy or remove any abstract or notice posted under this Act, shall be guilty of a
misdemeanor and upon conviction thereof shall be punished by a fine of not less than
ten dollars nor more than one hundred dollars.
Section 1610 as amended. Every person, firm or corporation operating a railroad
shall keep the ground for fifty feet on each side of the centre of the track, or such
portion thereof as may be owned or controlled by such person, firm or corporation
clear of combustible materials, except ties and other materials necessary for the
maintenance and operation of the road from June 1st to October 1st of each year.
No person, firm or corporation shall permit any of its or his employees to leave a
deposit of fire, live coals or ashes in the immediate vicinity of wood lands or lands
liable to be overrun by fire, and every engineer, conductor, trainman or section man
discovering fire adjacent to the track shall report the same promptly at the first
telegraph or telephone station reached by him. At the beginning of the close season
every such person, firm or corporation, shall give its or his employees particular
instructions for the prevention and extinguishing of fires, and shall cause warning
placards to be conspicuously posted at every station within this State, and when a fire
occurs near the line of its or his road, shall concentrate such help, and adopt such
measures as shall be available for its extinguishment. Any person, firm or corporation,
violating any provision of this section, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall be
subjected to a penalty of not more than one hundred dollars for each offence, and any
railroad employee violating the same shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be
punished by a fine of not less than five dollars nor more than fifty dollars.
Section 8 of Act of 1909. The State Board of Land Commissioners of the State
of Idaho shall in all things co-operate with the owners of land, timber or other property
in this State in carrying out the provisions and purposes of this Act and the State of
Idaho shall bear and pay its proper pro rata share of the cost and expense of protecting the lands and timber in the State against destruction by fire incurred under the
provisions of this Act according to the area and extent of its land and timber holdings
throughout the several fire districts of the State, and the State of Idaho shall be considered an owner of land or other property within the meaning of that term as used
in this Act, for the purposes of this Act. Such monies as the State shall thus become
liable for shall be paid as part of the general expenses of the State Board of Land
Commissioners and out of the appropriations which shall be made by the Legislature
for that purpose; and in all appropriations hereafter made for the general expenses of
said Board account shall be taken of, and provisions made for this item of expense.
Section 9 of Act of 1909. All fines collected for the violation of this Act, or any
provisions thereof, shall be disposed of and paid as follows, to wit: Half to the general
fund of the county where the conviction is had and half to the person or persons
furnishing the information leading to the arrest and conviction of the person, firm or
corporation convicted. I  Geo. 5 Report of The Forestry Commission. D 95
RE-AFFORESTATION.
Re-Afforestation There is as yet a general absence of data concerning our own
in the Provincial forests but suggestive material relating to the subject of re
united States, afforestation on this continent is contained in the following quotation
from an expert discussion by Messrs. Kellogg and Zeigler, concerning
the forest resources of the United States.
"In the very old mature forests growth is offset by decay, and our millions of
acres of this type of forest may for all practical purposes be regarded as non-
producing capital. Were all our forests of this class the production per acre would
be zero. Were all mature trees removed and the land all densely stocked with
thrifty growth, the yield would approximate from 30 to no cubic feet per acre per year
according to the species and locality. The actual forest represents all degrees of
production between these two extremes. There are large bodies of over-mature timber
that are not increasing. There are small areas of pure second growth producing the
maximum amount. There are culled-over areas containing mature defective trees or
undesirable species mixed with second growth, areas denuded by axe and fire with no
appreciable growth, and, the largest class of all, cut-over and burned-over lands with
some growing trees, but usually not nearly as dense as the virgin forest.
"To arrive at any approximation, then, of the total wood production of the
country some rough classification of the entire forest area is necessary.
Percentage Condition of Forests in Each Region.
Probably Probably
Mature            Growing Probably
Timber and Forest and not
Woods. Wood Land. Re-stockine.
Lake  States        4%               58% 38%
Northeastern  States   . .'.     4% 78% 18%
Central States       9% 76% 15%
Southern   States   	
(Pine land 60%)      33% 40% 27%
(Hardwood land 40%)     43% 50% 7%
Rocky Mountain States      70% 18% 12%
Pacific Coast States   80% 17% 3%
"In proportion to the cut-over land the Rocky Mountains show a large percentage of land not re-stocking, while on the Pacific Coast climatic conditions make
re-seeding better and safer. The areas of land not re-stocking are believed to be very
conservative, even though the total seems startling when placed at about 82,000,000
acres of forest land.
"For example, Minnesota is given 15,000,000 acres of forest land, only 7,500,000
of which is re-stocking to a degree indicative of a second crop. The other 7,500,000
while not utterly devoid of tree growth, will require many decades of efficient fire
protection and a large amount of artificial regneration to bring it into the producing
forest class."
Probable Growth Per Acre in Growing Forests.
Lake  States     38 Cubic feet
Northeastern  States    .♦  33      "        "
Central  States     25      "        "
Southern  States   	
Pine  land  21      "        "
Hardwood   land     29
Rocky Mountain States    9
Pacific Coast States     56      "        "
Average for the U. S   28     "        "
* From tho Forest Quarterly. D 96                       Report of The Forestry Commission.
1910
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(From a publication of the U. S. Forest Service
DISTRIBUTION OF THE DOUGLAS FIR.
) 1 Geo. 5 Report of The Forestry Commission. D 97
DOUGLAS FIR IN COAST DISTRICTS.*
The Management        No hard and  fast rules  can  be  formulated  for  the  management
Of Douglas     of  Douglas  fir  in  any of  its  silvical  regions.   A few broad rules can,
Fir. however, be outlined for each of these extended regions, which, though
lacking in detail, will suit the general conditions prevailing over the
whole region, and can, by modification, be used as a basis for more detailed silviculture
on limited areas.
The universal aim of silviculture is to get the most and the best timber per
unit area in the shortest possible time. On the humid mountain slopes of Washington
and Oregon no tree is better fitted to achieve this ideal than Douglas fir. Its rapid
growth, the density of its stands, and the high quality of its lumber gives it preference
in suitable situations over all other species. Besides this it reproduces itself abundantly,
and a second crop is relatively easy to secure. In the southern parts of its range,
however, other trees often excel it in value, and in such cases the object of management
must be to reduce the proportion of fir and encourage, a predominance of the more
valuable species.
The successful silvicultural management of a virgin forest should result in a
complete and even restocking of cut-over areas with young growth of the best species
which the situation is capable of producing. In practice this result is sought by rules
planned to secure a suitable seed bed for the desired species and an abundant supply
of the right kind of seed. Since Douglas fir needs mineral soil to germinate and requires
plenty of light afterwards, the first object is achieved for this tree by clean cutting or
by thinning heavily enough to admit an abundance of light, and by burning away the
humus layer which covers the mineral soil. To insure a sufficient seed supply enough
trees must be left on each acre of ground to scatter seed evenly over all parts of it.
The manner of thinning, disposal of brush, and the number and distribution of seed
trees are details which vary with the different silvical regions in the range of Douglas
fir and with local conditions in each.
North Coast In the forests of Western Washington and Oregon where Douglas
Regions. fir is by far the most abundant tree and often forms vast, nearly pure,
even-aged stands, its management is comparatively simple. The chief
problem connected with this forest is to prevent more tolerant species, especially
Western hemlock, from growing up under Douglas fir and gradually securing permanent
possession of the ground. The best solution to this problem will usually be to cut
clean and burn over the surface. Douglas fir reproduction will thus find abundant light
and a mineral soil, and by its prolific seed production and the density and rapid growth
of the young stand may reasonably be expected to exclude from the stand even the
more tolerant reproduction of hemlock, arborvitae, or spruce. Since at maturity such
even-aged stands of Douglas fir are apt to run quite uniformly above the minimum
merchantable diameter limit, clean cutting is justified from a commercial standpoint.
The mineral soil exposed by ground burning also affords an excellent seed bed for
noble fir and western white pine, desirable associates of Douglas fir, and in some
localities this encouragement may be advantageous.
Clean cutting to the lowest merchantable diameter limit should, then, be the
general plan for the greater part of this type of forest, except on steep slopes with
shallow  soil.     On  steep   slopes  and  ridges  the  forest  should  usually  be  held   intact,
* The Douglas Fir, U. S. Forest Circular 150. D 98 Report of The Forestry Commission. 1910
since the trees are apt to be shorter and knotty and, therefore, of inferior commercial
value, but they are of the greatest value as sources of seed for re-stocking the adjoining
cuttings. Great care must be exercised to leave only firmly rooted specimens for seed
trees after dense stands are logged, since isolated trees in such situations are particularly subject to windfall. In some situations they should be left in groups, to
afford each other mutual protection during the period necessary for establishing
reproduction. Trees growing in the more open parts of the stand are usually shorter,
knottier, and more wind-firm than those in the denser portions, and are therefore
more desirable for seed trees than^or logs.
Where the forest is not pure Douglas fir, but contains a considerable proportion of hemlock, cedar, spruce, or balsam, the cuttings should aim, in localities suitable
for Douglas fir, to remove all merchantable timber of each species except enough
Douglas fir seed trees to insure an abundant reproduction. The surface should then
be burned over to remove the forest litter and humus, and to expose the mineral soil.
In this type of forest, heavy cuttings are necessary for the successful reproduction of
Douglas fir on account of the great density of the stands and the heavy accumulations
of forest litter which are characteristic of them. Except in very heavy thinnings,
amounting practically to clean cutting, surface burning can not be practiced without
great danger to the remaining trees, but when the mature stand is removed the
surface may, with due precautions, be safely burned over. The reproduction of more
tolerant species which existed under the shade of the high forest will thus be removed
from competition, and at the same time a suitable seed bed will be prepared for the
desired Douglas fir reproduction. A few years ago the poor demand for hemlock, cedar,
and other less valuable associates of Douglas fir would have precluded such a method
of treatment, but with the increase in demand for these species, which is already
beginning to be felt, there is no doubt that it may be applied with commercial as well
as silvicultural success.
In the humid portions of this region, especially in the "fog belt" along the coast,
surface burning is impracticable during the wet season, when the heavy rains which fall
almost every day keep the brush soaked with water and practically fireproof. On the
other hand, burning should never be done in the dry season after the slash has had
time to dry out thoroughly. During this season the dead branches become tinder-like
and inflammable, and even the greatest care may be insufficient to prevent surface fires
from spreading to the adjacent stand and becoming destructive Crown fires. A time
should be chosen for the burning when the brush is dry enough to burn well, but not
so dry as to cause a hot fire which can be controlled only with difficulty.
The burning should be conducted by a force of men sufficiently large to prevent
all danger from the fire spreading to the adjacent uncut areas. It should be done by
blocks or compartments, varying in size with the character of the topography and the
dryness of the slash, and laid out so far as possible with ridges and streams for
boundaries. Where no natural boundaries exist the burning areas will often have to be
separated by fire lanes, 50 to 75 feet wide, from which the brush has been cleared and
piled back on the area to be burned. In the dense undergrowth to be found in the "fog
belt,-' where lanes of this width could ordinarily be constructed only at a prohibitive
cost, skid roads can often be utilized for fire lanes. By starting the fires\ along the
skid roads and allowing them to burn inward toward the centre of a burning area, the
slash fires can, with due precautions, be effectually controlled.
Each area should be burned separately, and fire on the second should not be
started until that on the first is thoroughly extinguished. The tops should be lopped
and scattered evenly over the surface, but not within 20 feet of remaining trees. A
trench should be dug around each tree left for seed, deep enough to prevent fire from
creeping through the humus and killing the tree. This trench should be at least 15
feet from the tree. 1 Geo. 5 Report of The Forestry Commission. D 99
PULP CONCESSIONS.
LEGISLATION,  ORDERS  IN  COUNCIL AND  CORRESPONDENCE,
i.    Land Act Amendment Act, 1901.    (See below.)
2. Repealing Act of 1903.
3. The Government defines its position in writing to the Bella Coola Company.
(1) "You have the right to all timber of whatsoever kind situated on the timber
areas after you have made your selection and obtained your lease so that
outsiders may not cut timber which is unsuitable for pulp purposes.
(2) "You will have the right to manufacture lumber from timber which is not
suitable for pulp, but to do this you must take out special licenses as per
Land Act."
4. Ultimatum of April 1908.    Fijrst Ultimatum:
Construction of mill must be commenced by 1st November, 1908; completed
by 1st November, 1909.
"The Government have concluded there must be finality in the matter."
5. Second Ultimatum of the Government.    September, 1909:
All holders of pulp leases will be granted extensions of time under the
following conditions:
(1) On or before November 1, 1909, each lessee shall enter into an agreement
with the Chief Commissioner of Lands to spend not less than $500,000 in
development . . . including the construction of a pulp mill of daily
capacity of not less than 100 tons of pulp (or 50 of paper) per day.
(2) Said mills to be in operation before November 30, 19:1.
(3) Agreement to be accompanied by $50,000 deposit which will be forfeited if
agreement be broken.
(4) No lumber to be manufactured or sold until mill is in operation.
(5) No logging until licenses have been taken out to cover area logged.
LAND ACT AMENDMENT ACT,  1901.
May  nth.    Chapter 30.
Section 6.    (1) Sub-sections (1) and (5) of the section which was substituted by
section 6 of the "Land Act Amendment Act, 1899" for Section 41 of the said Chapter
IJ3, are hereby repealed, and the following is substituted therefor:
Leases. . 41.    (1) Leases (containing such covenants and conditions as may
be thought advisable)  of Crown lands may be granted by the  Chiei
Commissioner of Lands and Works for the following purposes:
A. For the purpose of cutting hay thereon, for a term of not exceeding ten
years.
B. For any purpose whatsoever, except cutting hay as aforesaid, for a term
not exceeding twenty-one years. D 100 Report of The Forestry Commission. 1910
Pulp Leases. (5) The Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works may enter into
an agreement with any incorporated company empowered to manufacture pulp and paper, to grant leases of Crown timber limits, for a term not exceeding twenty-one years, for the purpose of cutting timber for the manufacture of wood
pulp or paper, subject to such conditions, regulations and restrictions, not provided for
in any agreement or lease, as may from time to time be established by the Lieutenant-
Governor in Council; such Crown lands to be selected in a manner to be determined
by such agreement before the execution of such lease or leases from the areas referred
to in such agreement. The said agreement may provide that any areas therein defined
shall be reserved from pre-emption, sale or other disposition for a period not exceeding
two years to enable such company to select therefrom such portion of the lands as
shall be commensurate with the output capacity of a pulp or paper mill to be erected:
Provided, however, that every such lease shall reserve to the Crown a rental
of not more than two cents per acre per annum and a royalty of not more than twenty-
five cents per cord of one hundred and twenty-eight cubic feet for spruce and other
woods suitable for the manufacture of pulp, or subject to an equivalent royalty based
on the tonnage output (either of these royalties to be collected in such manner and at
such periods as the Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works shall determine):
Provided that the holder of any such leased lands shall erect within the Province of
British Columbia, and equip a pulp or paper mill having a capacity for an output of not
less than one ton of pulp, or half a ton of paper, for each and every square mile of
timber limits included in the leasehold, and that such mill shall be kept in actual operation for at least six months in every year, unless the Chief Commissioner of Lands and
Works shall, for good and sufficient reason release the lessees from operating the said
mill for the whole or any part of the said period of six months in each and every year:
Provided also that the construction of such mill shall be completed within a period
to be determined by the Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works, as provided for in
the agreement.
A. The Lieutenant-Governor in Council may also grant a renewal of such
lease for pulp purposes for consecutive periods not exceeding twenty-one
years, and for such portion of the area covered by the existing lease at
the period of renewal as may be determined by the Chief Commissioner of
Lands and Works; Provided that in any renewal of a lease all rents and
royalties shall be subject to such conditions and regulations as may then
be in force, or determined by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council.
B. All timber cut on Crown Grant timber limits under such lease, and not
used for the manufacture of wood pulp or paper, will be subject to the
provisions of the "Land Act" governing timber leases or licenses in respect
to royalties and returns.
C. Lessees of timber leases or holders of timber licenses under section 53 of
Chapter 113 who sell timber to pulp mills for the manufacture of pulp,
shall where such pulp mills pay a royalty based on the tonnage of pulp
or paper manufactured, be exempt from the royalty upon the timber so sold
to such pulp mills.
D. All timber cut from lands leased in accordance with this section must be
manufactured within the confines of the Province of British Columbia;
otherwise the timber so cut may be seized and forfeited to the Crown
and the lease cancelled.
E. The lessee of a timber limit granted for pulp purposes shall have the right
to select out of such limit, or from Crown lands adjacent thereto, and
purchase at such price per acre as may be determined by the Lieutenant-
Governor in Council a parcel of land, not to. exceed forty acres in extent,
as a site for the erection of a pulp mill and its appurtenances. 1 Geo. 5 Report of The Forestry Commission. D 101
F. The Lieutenant-Governor in Council may grant (under certain conditions
and restrictions) exemption from taxation to the owners of a pulp mill
and its appurtenances for a period of not exceeding five years from the
completion of the mill.
G. Any such lease shall be liable to summary cancellation in case any person
is  employed  in  connection  with   operations  under  such  lease  who,  when
asked to do so by a duly authorized officer, shall fail to read in a language
of Europe this section.
PULP LEASES.
Variations in Certain leases show slight variations from the lease quoted above
Phraseology,   in extenso.    That such variation was devoid of meaning as far as the
intention of the  Executive was concerned is shown by the fact that
the various forms were used indiscriminately on the same day in the Department of
Lands:
Thus we find the following wording in a lease—9th January, 1907:
"For the purpose of cutting, etc., etc."
"Provided that the said lessee shall not be entitled to cut, carry away or
use for any other purpose than for the manufacture of pulp any of the
timber on any of the premises hereby demised, unless he shall first take out
a special timber license in that behalf, paying therefor the fees provided
from time to time by the Land Act."
"Subject to the Land Act and amendments thereof in force on the 5th day
of November, 1902."
Upon the very same day other leases were issued, reading:
"For the purpose only of cutting, etc."
"Provided that the said lessee, etc., etc.," as above.
"Subject to the Land Act and amendments in force on the 13th day of
June, 1901."
COPY OF A WOOD PULP LEASE.
Lieutenant-Governor.
Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works.
Deputy Commissioner of Lands and Works.
THIS INDENTURE, made the day of	
A. D  BETWEEN HIS MAJESTY THE KING (who with His heirs and successors is hereinbefore called "the said Lessor") of the one part, and	
  hereinafter called "the said Lessee" of the other part:
WITNESSETH that in consideration of the payments and stipulations to be
made and observed by and on the part of the said Lessee, the said Lessor, so far as the
Crown has power to grant the same but not further or otherwise, doth hereby demise
save as hereinafter expressed, unto the said Lessee 	
statute acres, be the same more or less, all which premises are on the tracing hereunto
annexed more particularly though approximately designated and thereon coloured red,
to have and to hold the premises hereby demised unto and to the use of the said
Lessee for the term of twenty-one years from the date hereof for the purpose only of
cutting and taking therefrom timber, wood and trees for conversion into pulp to be
used in the manufacture of paper, and of erecting on any portion of said land all mills, D 102 Report of The Forestry Commission. 1910
engines, buildings, and machinery necessary for carrying on the wood pulp and paper
business, rendering therefor yearly to His Majesty, His heirs and successors, in every
year during the said term, the annual rent of the first of such payments
to be made on the execution of these presents and the succeeding annual payments on
1 he  day of  in each year respectively during the said term at the
Land Office, Victoria, without any deduction or abatement whatever; and also rendering to His Majesty, His heirs and successors, a royalty of fifteen cents per cord of one
hundred and twenty-eight cubic feet for spruce or other woods cut on said lands
suitable for the manufacture of pulp for a period of ten years from the date of this
lease, and a royalty of twenty-five cents for each cord of one hundred and twenty-
eight cubic feet of pulp wood cut on said lands during the term of the unexpired
portion of this lease or an equivalent royalty based on the tonnage output (either of
these royalties to be collected in such manner and at such periods as the Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works shall determine) and the said party of the second part
hereby for successors and assigns covenant with the said Lessor in manner
following, that is to say:
That the said Lessee will pay the royalty and the rent hereinbefore reserved
at the times and in the manner hereinbefore appointed, and will not assign any part
of the premises, rights, powers or privileges hereby granted without the permission, in
writing, of the said Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works first had and obtained
and will at all times pay all rates, taxes and assessments whatsoever (if any) which
may be made, assessed or levied for or in respect of any of the premises-. And shall
erect, equip and maintain a pulp or paper mill having a capacity for a daily output of
  of paper for each and every square mile of timber limits included
in this lease, such mill to be kept in actual operation for at least six months in every
year, unless the Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works shall for good and sufficient
reason:, release the lessee from operating said mill for the whole or any part of the
said period of six months in each and  every year;  and shall keep  correct books of
account of all logs brought to   ■.  mill, stating from whom such logs
were acquired, where cut, the date received, and such other particulars as the
Lieutenant-Governor in Council may require, and shall also keep in such form as the
Department of Lands and Works may direct, an accurate account of all pulp wood used
and pulp manufactured, and shall at all times suffer and allow the agent of the
Department to inspect their books and also their premises and shall, if required, render
a full account, showing the number of cords from time'to time delivered at the mill
and the quantity of pulp and paper produced; and shall also make reasonable use within
reasonable periods of the whole of the premises hereby granted and apply the same to
the purposes hereinbefore mentioned and perform this covenant to the satisfaction of the
Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works for the time being.
PROVIDED, and it is hereby agreed, that if any rent, royalties or moneys falling
due hereunder shall be in default unpaid for the space of one calendar month after the
same shall have respectively become due, then, and upon every such default, whether
any previous one shall have been condoned or not, it shall be lawful for the said
Lessor by the Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works, his agent, or servant, into and
upon the said premises to enter and therefrom to distrain, seize, take and sell any goods
and chattels there found, and out of the proceeds of such sale or sales to repay himself and
themselves such rents or moneys so due, and all costs and expenses attendant on such
distress and sale and so nevertheless, that no exercise of this power shall be construed
to prejudice or affect any other powers, remedies or forfeitures accruing to the said
Lessor for the time being under these presents:
PROVIDED, always, and these presents are upon this express condition, that if
(he said Lessee shall fail to fulfill, keep and. observe all and singular the  payments,
covenants and stipulations hereinbefore contained, and on   part to be
paid, observe and performed or any of them, or any part thereof respectively, it shall 1 Geo. 5 Report of The Forestry Commission. D 103
De lawful for His Majesty, His heirs, successors and assigns, by the Chief Commissioner
of Lands and Works, his agent or servant, upon three calendar months' notice to that
effect from the  Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works or under the hand of any
person duly authorized by him in that behalf and delivered at 	
the house or office of the said Lessee or published in four consecutive numbers of
the British Columbia Gazette, absolutely to forfeit all the rights and privileges of entering said lands and cutting thereon timber, wood and trees for conversion into pulp, or
so much thereof as shall be specified in that behalf in any such notice, and thereupon
these presents and all the rights and privileges therein contained shall, as far as ».n
accordance with such notice, cease, determine and be of non-effect, and any rule or luw
of equity to the contrary, notwithstanding, without any action or re-entry on the pare of
the said Lessor, or inquisition, or office found or other proceeding whatever.
PROVIDED further, that the interest, rights and privileges of the Lessee in
the said hereditaments, tenements and premises shall be construed as subject always to
all the provisions of the "Land Act" and amendments thereof.
There are hereby specially reserved from the above mentioned demise but not so
as to be construed to extend in any way the scope of the said demise:
i.   All Indian grounds, plots, gardens, Crown and other reserves.
2. So much of the said land as the Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works
aforesaid from time to time may deem necessary for any roads, streets,
bridges, aqueducts, military, naval, municipal or public purposes.
3. All existing public and private rights, also the right of proprietors of
mines to cut timber for mining purposes.
4. Full control by the said Lessor over the water frontage of said premises.
5. The right of His Majesty, His successors and assigns freely to enter, cut
and take away any timber or trees, gravel, stone or other material required
for the construction of any bridge, road or public work as the Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works may from time to time think fit.
6. The right of His said Majesty, His heirs, successors and assigns to all
mines and minerals of every kind whatsoever, within, upon or under the
said lands, and power for him and them respectively, freely to enter upon
said lands, to work said mines and to carry away and dispose of such
minerals.
PROVIDED that the said Lessor by the Chief Commissioner of Lands and
Works, his servant or agent, shall be at liberty at any time during these presents,
to enter upon the premises hereinbefore described and survey the same and sell and
grant all or any part of the said premises in such manner as the said Lessor shall think
fit, subject nevertheless, to the rights and privileges conferred upon the said Lessee
by these presents for the term hereby demised, and reserving to the said Lessor the
right to collect the rents and royalty hereby reserved and the benefit of all the covenants
herein contained.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF the parties hereto have hereunto set their hands
and seals the day and year first above written.
WITNESS  His  Honour       the  Lieutenant-Governor  of  British
Columbia, acting on behalf of His Majesty, and the great seal of the Province of British
Columbia hereunto affixed.
Signed, sealed and delivered by the 'j
within-named     -
in the presence of J
By  Command.
Provincial Secretary. D 104 Report of The Forestry Commission. 1910
LEGISLATION CONCERNING THE INDEFINITE
RENEWAL OF TIMBER LEASES.
1901.  May  nth.    Chapter 30.
Section 7.    Section 42 of said Chapter 113, as enacted by Section 7 of Chapter 38
of the Statutes of 1899, is hereby amended by adding the following Sub-Section:
(3) All leases of unsurveyed and unpre-empted Crown timber lands, which have
been granted for a period of twenty-one years, may be renewed for consecutive and successive periods of twenty-one years, subject to such terms,
conditions, royalties and ground rents, as may be in force by Statute at
the time of the expiration of such respective leases:
Provided, that such renewal is applied for within one year previous to
the expiration of the then existing lease, and provided that all arrears of
royalties, ground rents, and other charges are first fully paid:
All existing leases of Crown timber limits which have been granted
previous to the passage of this section of the "Land Act" and now in force,
may be renewed for consecutive and successive periods of twenty-one years,
provided, that such existing leases shall be surrendered within one year
from the date of the enactment of this Section:
And it is further enacted that such leases may be renewed for the
unexpired portion of the term mentioned in the leases to be surrendered,
on the same terms, conditions, rents and royalties as so specified in the
said leases to be surrendered, the remainder of the term of twenty-one
years for which the said leases shall be renewed on surrender shall be
subject to such terms, conditions, royalties and ground rents as may be in
force by Statute at the time the existing leases surrendered under the conditions of this Section would expire. All timber cut from Provincial lands
must be manufactured within the confines of the Province of British
Columbia, otherwise the timber so cut may be seized and forfeited to
the Crown and the lease cancelled.
COPY OF THE RENEWAL OF A TIMBER LEASE.
(Sec. 7, "Land Act Amendment Act,  1901.")
Lieutenant-Governor.
Deputy Commissioner.
Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works.
THIS INDENTURE made the day of
A.D. 19       , BETWEEN His Majesty the King (who, with His heirs and successors,
hereinafter called "the said lessor") of the one part, AND
and who, together with executors, administrators, and assigns, 1 Geo. 5 Report of The Forestry Commission. D 105
hereinafter called "the said lessee ," of the other-part. WITNESSSETH that in
consideration of the payments and stipulations to be made and observed by and on the
part of the said lessee , the said lessor, so far as the Crown hath power to grant the
same, but not further or otherwise, doth hereby lease, save as hereinafter expressed,
unto the said lessee    , ALL that land in the District of
statute acres, be the same more or less, all which premises are on the tracing hereunto
annexed more particularly though approximately designated, and thereon coloured
red; with full power to enter upon and therefrom and from any part of the said
premises at pleasure to cut down any trees whatever, and the same to carry away and
freely to manufacture into, sell, and dispose of as spars, timber, or lumber, or otherwise for own sole use and behoof, WITH full power to erect all mills,
engines, buildings, and machinery necessary in opinion for carrying
on any part of the spar, timber, and lumber business, but for no other purpose whatsoever; AND generally such rights and privileges which may be necessary and
advisable for more conveniently carrying on the said spar, timber and lumber business;
EXCEPT and always reserved thereout all Indian grounds, plots, gardens, Crown and
other Reserves; EXCEPT also thereout so much of the said land as the Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works aforesaid, from time to time may deem necessary for
any roads, streets, bridges, aqueducts, Military, Naval, Municipal or public purposes;
EXCEPT and also reserved thereout all existing private and public rights, also the
right of proprietors of mines to cut timber for mining purposes; EXCEPT and also
reserved thereout to the said lessor full control over the water frontage of the said
premises; EXCEPT and also reserved thereout to His Majesty, His heirs, successors,
and assigns, the right freely to enter, cut, and take away any timber or trees, gravel,
sand, stone or other material required for the construction of any bridge, road, or public
work, as the Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works may from time to time think
fit; EXCEPT and also reserved thereout to His said Majesty, His heirs, successors and
assigns, all mines and minerals within, upon, or under the said limits, and power, for
Him and them respectively, freely to work, carry away and dispose of the same; PROVIDED that the said lessor, by the Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works, his
servant or agent, shall be at liberty at any time during these presents to enter upon
the premises hereinbefore described, and survey the same and sell and grant all or any
part of the said premises, in such manner as the said lessor shall think fit, subject
nevertheless, to the rights and privileges conferred upon the said lessee by these presents for the term hereby demised; and reserving to the said lessor the right to collect
the rents and royalty hereby reserved, and the benfit of all the covenants herein contained; TO HOLD the said premises hereby leased unto and to the use of the said
lessee, for the term of twenty-one years from the date hereof, for the purposes aforesaid, RENDERING therefor yearly to His Majesty, His heirs and successors, in every
year during the said term an annual rent in the following manner: FROM the date
of  these  presents  until   the the  annual   rent  of
dollars, the first of such payments to oe.
made on the date of these presents, and the succeeding annual payments on the anniversary of that date in each year. For the remainder of said term of twenty-one years
an annual rent, at such rate per acre yearly, payable on the anniversary of the date of
these presents, as may be prescribed by the terms of any statute of the Province of
British Columbia, in such case made and provided, in force on the
day of . , all such payments to be made at the
Land Office, Victoria, without any deduction or abatement whatever, AND ALSO
rendering to His Majesty, His heirs and successors, a royalty of fifty cents per thousand
feet, board measure, upon and in respect of all timber suitable for spars, piles, saw
logs or railroad ties, cut on the premises hereby demised, during the said term from
the day of , to the
day   of ,   A.D. ,   and   thereafter   such   royalty   as   may
at that  date  be  prescribed  by the  terms  of any  statute  of  the  Province  of  British D 106 Report of The Forestry Commission. 1910
Columbia, in such case made and provided, in force on the day of
: Provided, nevertheless, that the said lessee
shall be entitled to a renewal of said lease for a further term of twenty-one years, on
such terms, conditions, royalties and ground rents as may be in force by any statute of
the Province of British Columbia at the time of the expiration hereof, and so likewise
from time to time and as often as may be necessary for consecutive and succeeding
periods of twenty-one years: Provided that the said lessee shall make application to
the Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works for such renewals within one year previous to the expiration of the then existing lease, and provided that all arrears of royalties,
ground rents and other charges are first fully paid; AND the said part of the
second  part  hereby,  for executors,  administrators  and  assigns,
covenant with the said lessor in manner following, that is to say: THAT the said
lessee will pay the royalty and the rent hereinbefore reserved, at the times and in the
manner hereinbefore appointed, and will not assign any part of the premises, rights,
powers or privileges hereby granted, without the permission in writing of the said
Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works first had and obtained; AND will at all times
pay all rates, taxes and assessments whatsoever (if any) which may be made, assessed,
or levied for or in respect of any of the premises; AND shall erect, and during the
said term maintain and keep in regular and continuous working and repair (save
when prevented by inevitable accidents)
lumber mill capable of cutting not less than
thousand feet of lumber per day of twelve hours, in such part of the Province of British
Columbia as the Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works may approve of in writing;
AND shall keep correct books of account of all logs brought to
Mill, stating from whom such logs were acquired, where cut, the date received, and the
scale measurement thereof, and shall make monthly returns to the Chief Commissioner
of Lands and Works showing the measurement of such logs, and such other particulars
as the Lieutenant-Governor in Council may require; AND shall also make reasonable
use within reasonable periods of the whole of the premises hereby granted, and apply
the same to the purposes hereinbefore mentioned, and perform this covenant to the
satisfaction of the said Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works for the time being.
PROVIDED that this lease shall, on and after the day of
, be subject to such taxes and conditions as
may be in force by statute at said last-mentioned date.
PROVIDED, and it is hereby agreed, that if any rent, royalties, or moneys falling
due hereunder shall be in default or unpaid for the space of one calendar month after
the same shall have respectively become due, then, and upon every such default, whether
any previous one shall have been previously condoned or not, it shall be lawful for the
said lessor, by the Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works, his agent or servant, into
and upon the said premises to enter, and therefrom to distrain, seize, take, and sell any
goods and chattels there found, and out of the proceeds of all such sale or sales to repay
himself and themselves such rents or moneys so due, AND all costs and expenses
attendant on such distress and sale, and so nevertheless that no exercise of this power
shall be construed to prejudice or affect any other powers, remedies or forfeiture accruing to the said lessor for the time being under these presents. PROVIDED, always
and these presents are upon this express condition, that if the said lessee shall fail to
fulfil, keep and observe all and singular the payments, covenants and stipulations hereinbefore contained, and on part to be paid, observed and performed, or
any of them, or any part thereof, respectively, it shall be lawful for His Majesty, His
heirs, successors or assigns, by the said Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works, his
agent or servant, upon three calendar months' notice to that effect from the Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works, or under the hand of any person duly authorized by
him in that behalf, and delivered at
the house or office of the said lessee    , or published in four 1 Geo. 5 Report of The Forestry Commission. D 101
consecutive, numbers of the British Columbia Gazette, absolutely to forfeit all the
rights and privileges of entering, cutting spars, timber or lumber, or otherwise, hereby
conveyed, or so much thereof as shall be specified in that behalf in any such notice, and
thereupon these presents and all the rights and privileges therein contained shall, so
far as in accordance with such notice, cease, determine, and be of none effect, any rule
of law or equity to the contrary notwithstanding, without any actual re-entry on the
part of the said lessor, or inquisition, or office found, or other proceeding whatever:
PROVIDED further, that the interest, rights, and privileges of the lessee in the said
hereditaments, tenements, and premises, shall be construed as subject always to all the
provisions of the "Land Act," and amendments thereof.
PROVIDED, further, that all timber cut from the said land must be manufactured
within the confines of the Province of British Columbia, otherwise the timber so cut
may be seized and forfeited to the Crown and the lease cancelled.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF the parties hereto have hereunto set their hands
and seals, the day and year first above written.
WITNESS, His Honour
the Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia, acting on
behalf of His Majesty, and the great seal of the Province of
British  Columbia, hereunto affixed.
Signed, sealed, and delivered by the
within-named in the
presence of
Signed, sealed, and delivered by the   1
within-named in the    r
presence of J
Signed, sealed, and delivered by the   1
within-named in the    V
oresence of J
By  Command.
Provincial   Secretary. D 108
Report of The Forestry Commission.
1910
EXISTING LEASES OF TIMBER LANDS
31st DECEMBER, 1910
' NOTE   \  P-PerPetui
j  U.—TJnrenei
illy renewable in 21-
year periods
vable
Holder                                      Acreage
Rental
Per Acre
Year
of Issue
Original
Term of
Years
Original
Date of
Expiry
B. C. M. T. & T. Co            826
.10
1892
21
25 Jan.      1913
U.
( (
851
.10
1892
30
14 March 1922
U.
t (
1996
.05
1886
21
15 March  1907
P.
( 1
883
.05
1887
21
10 June     1908
P.
t i
1360
.05
1888
21
8 Feb.      1909
P.
It
1635
.10
1889
21
7 Oct.      1910
P.
I <
6971
.05
1886
21
6 Feb.      1907
P.
U
2813
.05
1887
21
10 June     1908
P.
"
6024
.05
1887
21
10 Nov.     1908
P.
a
18210
.10
1889
30
2 May      1919
P.
a
1690
.10
1889
21
27 Nov.     1910
P.
< t
27600
.10
1890
30
22 Aug.     1920
P.
11
3041
.10
1892
30
14 March 1922
P.
ft
7825
.05
1886
21
6 Feb.      1907
P.
(t
800
.05
1888
21
16 March  1909
P.
(<
9R0
.10
1891
21
5 Feb.      1912
P.
"
1657
.10
1889
21
7 Oct.      1910
P.
<(
840
.10
1892
21
27 July      1913
P.
tt
6608
.15
1894
30
20 Sept.    1924
P.
B- C. Land & Inv. Agency  ..
2500
.05
1887
21
18 June     1908
P.
"                	
3749
.05
1888
21
3 Feb.      1909
P.
a
1882
.10
1889
21
16 Jan.      1910
P.
J. A. Sayward   	
500
.10
1890
10
Spl.
<i
160
.10
1891
10
Spl.
* i
1380
.05
1885
21
18 June     1906
p.
n
528
.10
1891
21
1 April    1912
p.
it
3453
.10
1892
21
25 Jan.      1913
p.
Harrison R. M. T. & T. Co..
587
.10
1892
21
25 Jan.       1913
u.
A. Haslam	
410
.10
1890
21
22 Aug.      1911
p-
H. Whittaker	
582
.10
1890
21
24 March  1911
TJ.
Victoria L. & Mfg. Co	
653
.05
1888
21
16 March 1909
Spl.
"
785
.10
1890
21
18 March  1911
Spl.
K
684
.10
1892
30
25 Jan.       1922
u.
Brunette S. M. Co 	
11845
.10
1892
21
25 Jan.      1913
p.
< i
620
.10
1890
21
23 June     1911
u.
tt
210
.10
1891
30
1 April    1921
p.
it
2908
.15
1904
21
23 Aug.     1925
u.
Nor. Pac. Lumber Co	
10150
.10
1889
30
13 May     1919
p.
«(
4800
.10
1890
19
3 Feb.      1909
p.
<(
474
.05
1888
21
16 March 1909
p.
"
2560
.05
1888
21
16 March 1909
p.
tt
963
.05
1888
21
16 March  1909
p.
it
23600
.05
1888
30
3 Feb.      1918
p.
11
\
8740
.10
1889
30
10 Aug.     1919
p. 1 Geo. 5
Report of The Forestry' Commission.
D 109
Holder
Nor. Pac. Lumber Co.
Paterson Timber Co.
Wm. Caldwell	
R. H. Wood 	
G. 0. Bucbannan.
Davies, Say ward M. & L. Co.
Frank Seaman	
Toronto & B. C. L. Co	
Samuel Luff man.
tt
C. F. Caldwell   ..
Pac. Coast L. Co
Sutton L
& T. Co.
M. M. Boyd	
11
Land, Log & L. Co.
A. & W. Hill . ..
A. H. Campbell.
C. P. R	
A. L. Clarke
A. L. Clarke
Original
Original
Acreage
Per Acre
of Issue
Term of
Years
Date of
Expiry
9169
.10
1891
30
1 April
1921
P-
3696
.10
1891
30
1 April
1921
P.
5445
.10
1892
30
25 Jan.
1922
P.
393
.10
1891
30
5 Feb.
1921
TJ.
4243
.15
1890
21
18 March
1911
U.
655
.15
1894
21
22 March
1915
U.
1089
.15
1905
21
20 June
1926
U.
1215
.10
1891
30
5 Feb.
1921
u.
915
.10
1892
30
25 Jan.
1922
TJ.
6017
.10
1892
21
10 March
1913
P.
3862
.10
1893
21
1 April
1914
P.
1400
.10
1896
21
4 March
1.917
TJ.
4251
.10
1893
30
1 Aug.
1923
P.
5296
.10
1892
30
28 March
1922
P.
13797
.10
1893
30
1 Mav
1923
P.
5210
.15
1904
21
10 May
1925
TJ.
2696
.15
1904
21
23 Aug.
1925
TJ.
1280
.15
1904
21
10 May
1925
TJ.
8945
.10
1893
30
1 April
1923
TJ.
3838
.10
1893
21
1 April
1914
P.
862
.10
1893
21
3 July
1914
P.
1637
.10
1893
21
3 July
1914
P.
3504
.10
1893
21
3 July
1914
P.
2833
.10
1893
21
3 July
1914
P.
2465
.10
1893
21
1 April
1914
V.
14728
.25
1904
21
7 March
1925
U.
11434
.25
1904
21
16 June
1925
TJ.
18614
.25
1905
21
15 March
1926
U.
11143
.25
1905
21
1 Nov.
1926
TJ.
1702
■    .25
1905
21
1 Nov.
1926
TJ.
9443
.25
1905
21
1 Nov.
1926
TJ.
12R0
.10
1893
2]
16 Oct.
1914
P
9480
.10
1892
30
25 Jan.
1922
P.
30622
.10
1892
30
28 March
1922
P.
1360
.10
1893
28
5 Feb.
1921
P.
11690
.10
1893
18
18 March
1911
P.
976
.10
1893
21
1 April
1914
P.
5353
.15
1893
30
1 May
1923
P.
2680
.15
1897
21
2 March
1918
U.
403
.10
1892
30
25 May
1922
P.
240
.10
1892
30
25 May
1922
P.
225
.10
1892
30
25 May
1922
P.
360
.10
1892
30
25 May
1922
P.
148
.10
1892
30
25 May
1922
P.
965
.10
1892
30
25 May
1922
P.
861
.10
1892
30
25 May
1922
P.
425
.10
1892
30
25 Mav
1922
P.
320
.10
1892
30
25 May
1922
P.
1928
.10
1892
30
25 May
1922
P.
363
.10
1892
30
25 May
1922
P.
1200
.10
1892
30
25 May
1922
P.
1000
.10
1892
30
25 May
1922
P.
1265
.10
1892
30
25 May
1922
P.
621
.10
1892
21
25 May
1913
P.
748
.10
1892
30
25 May
1922
P. D 110                    Report
of The Forestry- Commission.
1910
Holder
Acreage
Rental
Per Acre
Year
of Issue
Original
Term of
Y/ears
Original
Date of
Expiry
McKinnon & Robertson	
10314
.15
1897
21
1 March
1918
TJ.
1028
.25
1905
21
13 July
1926
U.
tt
368
480
.25
.10
1906
1896
21
15
6 March
22 Aug.
1927
1911
TJ.
Wm. Godfrev 	
TJ.
tt
200
.10
1896
24
22 Aug.
1920
P.
11
168
738
.10
.10
1896
1896
15
24
22 A ug.
22 Aug.
1911
1920
P.
11
P.
••             	
280
.10
1897
24
5 Feb.
1921
P.
tt
1277
.10
1897
24
1 April
1921
P.
t I
920
.10
1897
24
1 April
1921
P.
tt
1036
.10
1897
24
1 April
1921
P.
a
249
.10
1897
24
1 April
1921
P.
n
520
.10
1847
24
1 April
1921
P.
il                               	
2391
.10
1897
24
1 April
1921
P.
n
2880
358
.10
.10
1897
1897
24
24
1 April
1 April
1921
1921
P.
(i
P.
"                                	
465
.10
1897
24
1 April
1921
P.
it
554
743
630
.10
.10
.10
1897
1897
1897
24
24
24
1 April
1 April
1 April
1921
1921
1921
P.
tt
P.
tt
P.
tt
178
.10
1897
24
1 April
1921
P.
it
1140
1000
.10
.10
1902
1898
10
15
1 April
14 March
1912
1913
U.
C. 9. Battle	
189
.10
1897
21
5 Feb.
1918
P.
Yorkshire G. & S. Corp'n. . . .
788
.10
1892
30
25 May
1922
P.
tt                  it
280
.10
1892
30
25 May
1922
P.
tt                   ft
153
.10
1892
30
25 May
1922
P.
tt                   tt
360
.10
1892
30
25 May
1922
P.
tt                  tt
280
.10
1892
30
25 May
1922
P.
tt                   tt
675
.10
1892
30
25 May
1922
P.
tt                   tt
198
.10
1892
30
25 May
1922
P.
tt                   tt
554
.10
1892
30
25 May
1922
P.
it                  11
161
.10
1892
30
25 May
1922
P.
tt                   tt
313
.10
1892
30
25 May
1922
P.
t f                   tt
1966
.10
1892
30
25 May
1922
P.
tt                   tt
600
.10
1892
30
25 May
1922
P.
it                   tt
3H0
.10
1892
30
25 May
1922
P.
ft                   tt
1822
.10
1892
30
25 May
1922
P.
Red Cedar Lumber Co	
538
.10
1892
30
25 May
1922
P.
H. L. Jenkins 	
301
308
.10
.10
1892
1892
80
30
25 May
25 May
1922
1922
u.
A. J. Keith	
■P.
tt
660
.10
1892
30
25 May
1922
p.
tt
620
H00
.10
.10
1892
1892
30
30
25 May
25 May
1922
1922
p.
tt
p.
Royal Bank of Canada	
300
.10
1892
21
25 May
1913
p.
G. G. King	
8758
.15
1903
21
30 July
1924
u.
Qtiinn & Whitney  	
35360
.15
1893
30
1 Aug.
1923
p.
2107
t
1902
21
22 Feb.
1923
p.
Kate Scott	
327
.15
1903
21
17 March
1924
u.
7040
.15
1903
21
20 May
1924
u.
2865
.15
1903
21
20 Sept.
1.924
u.
832
.15
1894
21
20 Sept.
1915
p.
Thos. H. Shevlin	
7830
4930
21956
.10
.15
.15
1891
1903
1904
30
21
21
1 April
16 April
24 Jan.
1921
1924
1925
p.
McLean & Webster	
TJ.
tt               t,
TJ.
t Approximately 5c. 1 Geo. 5
Report of The Forestry- Commission.
D 111
Holder Acreage
Elk L. &Mfg. Co."  9380
P. Lund  25868
J. Breekenridge  10855
F. It. Greer   3535
Small & Bucklin  4144
J. S. Deschamps  2220
W. Allan  1920
Nanaimo L. Co  3045
  512
  835
  3000
Merrill & King Co   1083
  2065
"   1117
Toronto & B. C. L. Co  1920
R. D. Merrill     1290
Nor. Pac. L. Co  481
Hastings S. Mfg. Co  224
TOTAL ACREAGE .
TOTAL RENTAL
Rental
Per Acre
.15
.15
.15
.15
.15
.25
.25
.10
.10
.05
.05
.10
.10
.10
.10
.10
.10
.15
Yrear
of Issue
1903
1903
1903
1904
1905
1905
1905
1892
1893
1888
1888
1892
1893
1894
1893
1893
1891
1887
Original
Term of
Y'ears
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
30
21
30
21
Original
Date of
Expiry
15 May
1 Aug.
29 Oct.
8 April
21 Feb.
12 Dec.
12 Dec.
25 Jan.
1 April
16 March
16 March
25 Jan.
1 April
16 March
1 Aug.
1 April
5 Feb.
10 Nov.
1924
1924
1924
1925
1926
1926
1926
1913
1914
1909
1909
1913
1914
1915
1923
1914
1921
1908
TJ.
U.
U.
TJ.
TJ.
U.
U.
P.
P.
P.
P.
P.
P.
P.
TJ.
P.
TJ.
Spl.
619,025
. $78,218.45
PULP LEASES
II OLDER
Acreage
Rental
Per Acre
Y'ear of Issue
Original
Term of
Y'ears
Bella Coola
Dev. Co	
     20327
.02
9 Jan.
1907
21
< <
     59672
.02
.02
30 Nov.
,1906(0
21
Can. Indust
Co	
       2398
21
11
       9426
.02
.02
.02
.02
.02.
ft
tt
tt
tl
21
tt
       4473
       8023
21
4 (
21
((
       5879
21
It
       2652
21
ii
       2923
.02
.02
.02
.02
tt
t i
tt
21
t i
       2715
21
it
        561
21
It
21
11
t(
       1950
         538
.02
.02
tt
tt
21
21
u
       1762
10246
.02
.02
.02
.02
.02
ft
(t
((
21
a
21
11
            1657
21
tt
       1864
21
t t
21
tt
     10167
.02
.02
*'
21
11
       3043
21
it
       2244
.02
((
21
t c
     35707
.02
.02
.02
It
t t
I t
21
t t
     13200
21
tt
       2928
21
it
5440
.02
(t
21
(0 Date (Irst payment- D 112
Report of The Forestry' Commission.
1910
Holder Acreage       PerAcre Y'ear of Issue
Quatsino P. & P. Co  46628 .02 12 Dec., 1904
  9041 .02 22 Jan., 1906
Oriental P. & P. Co   ... 28355 .02 12 Nov., 1903
  24157 .02 12 Nov.,1903
  8448 .02 12 Nov., 1903
  23220 .02 6 Feb., 1905
Total Acreage  354399
Original
Term of
Y'ears
21
21
21
21
21
21
HEMLOCK LEASES
Holder Acreage       p«^o
Fraser R. Tannery  2732 .02
  885 .02
  688 .02
  660 .02
  1560 .02
  498 .02
  4321 .02
  562 .02
  6085 .02
  739 .02
  2823 .02
  775 .02
  760 .02
'*                  4160 .02
  1078 .02
  1313 .02
  1263 .02
"                 488 .02
  293 .02
  569 .02
Total Acreage  32252
Y'ear of Issue
7 Nov
20 Jan
,1905
1906
Original
Term of
Y'ears
30
30
30
30
30
30
• 30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30 1 Geo. 5
Report of The Forestry' Commission.
D 113
SAMPLE SCHEDULES OF COUNTY CRUISES IN THE
STATE OF WASHINGTON.
No. 1.
PIERCE   COUNTY, "WASHINGTON
H. V. RAILSBACK, County Assessor.
Township 19 North.   Range 3 East, Willamette Mbhidian.
/Vote - Zoyyed  Off Z«r.J cetf-aj /.W „ I I
/fo /r'ntier or Value o» /?i-ea C9?orrtt /Aug        I I D 114
Report of The Forestry- Commission.
1910
No. 2.
PIERCE  COUNTY  WASHINGTON
H. V. RAILSBACK, County Alltjier
Suction.../.?. Township../&- N. RANGB..iX'.fE'...W. M.
TIMBER ESTIMATE BV THN ACRE TRACTS
TS0 ©  -5*     F 409  J      F  /J"©   S     F/OOQ *f-
F          9            F          0            F©            F©
F *OQ   £     F /J-Q   f     F SO 9   8     P   CoO    ?
F©            F©            F©            F©
TOTAL ESTIMATE
8JO ©   2     S^oO J"    S /£■ © J"    S /■/? © J-
C/T0& />\ C/coQ /Sb C SJ~Q>  2    c 75® /'>s
H        0           HJT9©   ^   HSO®   ys   UZS® /
S   /O ®  M     S /Z  ©   e      S    J ©   p      S/tf©^
C CO 0 ^ C «5£) © J     C *tf 0  J     C  goQ  J
H        ©           H JO © /&   H /o © ->£ H         0
MERCHANTABLE TIMBER
STANDING                FEET B. H.
Fir                            /3   /V? 0-O O
FJ3 4P *     F_?i3©^3     F ^.T©   v>-   F    7j-©  ^
F   j? @ /o   F „?,r© J"  PJWtf  ^    v/eoQ /0
F          ©            F          0            F          ©t         F          0
F©           F©           F©           F©
Spruce                         „? 3" / 0  0 0 0
s er® &■  s /j-(? ^   s   <5©^.sjcj©^>fe
S^  0   {   SJ^O   4    s ^?o j-   S        0
C ^3 O   '/*   C/CV@   /     C /J-®    /    C ^j@   /
C^'<J©j^C^-<?©1i     C  joQ   /     C ^.^0 ^?A.
Cedar                       /0  S*f * J~0 0
H          ©            If  ea@  /       H         ©             H J77©   f't
H          ©            H©            HO            H©
Hemlock                      / / J f JTO 6
F   ff®   J     F ^jt? .J      F ^> © j-     F  <^J©   £
F          ©            F©            F©             F©
S   /<? ©   J- S   ^<3©   #■    S   SO&  cT   S   /£@  J~
C  /i*<9   /JiC,r<7©   <3    C/W0©   •    C /JV  J
F     ^©C      F     ^-©f     F      79   7      F /^y 0   (»
F©            F©            F'©            FO
s   „? © tf   s      0       s /a© ^-   s      o
C 70O   dfiC   4o9 J~?2 C 4t?0   -f    C   d>0©   ^
H         0            H          ©            HO            H  >0©  /-
TOTAL                  J * <?4*2. 000
'
\l ZO€>    /     H  J-0©   J^  H  <?^©    •     H */"<?©   •
Down
&F rot*    £>rjon
Fir         Z?ead             4>2 0  0O0
F jy © J      F ,/JJ © J/^ F /J"©   -j*    F J#" © ^
V /S9 /o   Fj-0f»     F    ?0J*    T/#0Q   >
F          ©            F©            F©             F©
F©            F©            F©            FO
Spruce
S/f?©-*'    S/^Q^i-S 2S~®   4    S ^j-© J
S          O            SjOoStO^S          ©
C /At? © /JiC   /jT®   <•    C /,££@   •# C /■£><) © „?;*,
C ?o@ S~  C <y.r© j-   C ju© ^.^ c ^4,0 ^
Cedar
II   -?/ig>    /     H Jo®   /      H  2S®    s'/xW         ©
H        ©           HO          H©           HO
J-^>  _*»
&r to *t    2>r so m     jpr _r<9 m
Total
GRAND TOTAL   A? 3 6J.G0O
F *?<?© J     F   /.J©   J     F JO®   (J      F   Ja® S
F   SX9   7      F   •<>©   ^     F     49   7      F >fr*?©  J~
F©            FO            F0(F©
F          *J            F©            F©            F©
No.
At.
At.
S         ©           S    /»©    •**   S ^JT9   J    S   Jo 9 2.
S     JQ S    S         ©           SO           S         ©
Uoctk
DUlMtR
c /&<$  t     C   7^5   y>i C toe ©   •",# c   f JTo> .?
c ^bj^c ^0© j    c 4^9 jftC/saO g
It         ©            H         O            H©            H0
[{       ©          H ,r<3Q   •/•* H -ZS®   •    H        ©
Fir Pilea
Fir Spars
F -f-0® Jft.^ .-H?©   .*<   F ^X© S    F Jo® #■
F     * ©   *•     F/-^©^     F^ff^"    F /o^O  £
Cedar Phone Pole*
F          ©            F          *.B            F          9            F          ©
S     <?©J     S   A? *?   J"   S    A? ©   J-   S   /jT©  .J"
F©            F©            FO            FO
S©            3          0            SO            SO
Cedar Tel. Pole*
S'tf
C SO®    2     C /£%>©  ,**;*'* C ^fSJ^B    ■'^•C /•?<?©   e
C h0 9  S    C j09 £    C Ze>9 «?#C fo#   ^
GRADES
HJ»9   >i   H _Ti?©    Ji   H        ©           11   ^y-©   /
f /$•& s   f /s<a z   f 2o® j>    f /o9 s
F            0              F           ©              F           ©              F©
H .?«*©   /    H        ©           HO           HO
F 4>0@   P     F ja®    7    F   J» O /(3   F s#9   ,
F@              F©F©              F           O^
Pcrcentagea ol Clear lumber, n>dt ol loti
aod  value* of itumpage  per tbouaand  feet
Cum*
LOGft
».«.
t   ct».
S            ft             S            ©              S©              S0
S©S   ^o@   £      s          ©            S          ©
JO%
*oX
*.%
C /S<3   '/a.   C   6r©  /'/'j C   rf<3©    '     C ^^"©   /^i
C  JG>©  -^/iC   ^o0   «?     C  ^-J©   ^*    C   tffe©  ^
Fir
%
s
H  JOQ   '/*.   If          rT)            H   -^0   ^i     H          ©
H          ©            H  ■f'o©    z'     H po9    S    H          O
Spruce
%
%
loX
toX
2
r/3 6o        r/*js-                         rp*r
Cedar
X
2r%
+o%
JS-X
2
SO
F /*3C © />a   F ^,9 ra ^     f JJ~® *J     f 3f@   f
F     7©   ^      F   ^0   ^»     F     ^,©   f>     F    ^-0   ^J
F'0            F          ©             F^0            F          ©
Hemlock
X
X
tcX
toX
/
F©             F«             Fff?             F©
X
%
X
X
s    7 <? «^    s        ©          s        ©          s        ©
C/<?t?fr?  /"^i. c /-Z<?©   '/JC /'■^J'  ^   Ctf<9©   ?i
S          0            S©            S          0            SO
X
X
X
X
X
X
c po9 J ft C   ?o © ^ C  ^,70  -#<   c Jo © *Vi
iI  JV©   /^   H J^©   ^     H   "**"©   y*   11 ^J"©   -*
H   >T<?©    •     H   JO©   /     H   j*«S©(  /^ H   ftfO   •
%
X
J*/' JO/V      ^>/- j-o/^    ^>^ 30 fl
1
-*                                                  CHARACTER    OP    TIMBER
Clve Full aod Complete lotormmon witb Refereoce to E«ch Kind ol Timber. Miking Mention of AU It* Peculiirttle*. etc.'
FIR
SPRUCE
&/&y/-0tvfA yt/?ourS/'f   exee/of 0/? sea/fr
?*'**{y fde/-   #6 ?o +f/rToofA    Str/ance    /»
j/'tJe   csAer-e   AAere /$ some smc,?? rect'/"//-
r-ovfh
T/rriSer'  sa   ■^rrfcc/'A    <?sicJ S/~ee from C<?r*/(s
4/,// rc^frorr,   /30   /5   /#<?/?
HEMLOCK
ffe/nfecfi- £S secosie/ at*e7//y     /»t*^  6c/?f~
CEDAR
/00   /S &OO0?      00'/a^7C-&-   /&    s~ot*a£.
draocf Qt*a??'fy.     Some   /^ ArdC    ^7rroof/i  as**S
PILING, SPARS, ETC.
SotsrteJ asic/ a/t//cesS &t/f yooa?   c/e&f* /afS
1 1 Geo. 5
Report of The Forestry Commission.
D 115
No. 3.
PIERCE   COUNTY,  WASHINGTON
H. V. RAILSBAClt. County Aitntor
Section.££. Township../&'. N. Range..iJ.Zr....W. M.
TRAI
GENERAL
6DBPACH
DESCRIPTION
SOIL                                CLEARING
Land valdh
1mfts     classification     per acrb
NS* NE,,
$
NW4NE<
S W« NE*
SB*   NE.
NE* NW4
NWl   NW4
SW4 NW*
SB*    NW4
NE*   SW,
NW4  SW«
sw< sw,
SE4    SW4
NE*   SE4
NW* SE*
SW*   SE*
SE4    SE*
TIMBER    ESTIMATE
[By Forty Acre Tract*)
IMPROVEMENTS                                   VALUE
*Z?/<7 /■  /Yov>e    /f * £4   0W6/SfS                  JFO
* J. ffot+s* /?>3& °\j9*ry>   Fa        /Pa
2SO jn            *^°
* /■  //ooje  /6*&      CZtSSZc/as          JtfO
too -             /&**
* # ■ //ousc  ?0?e6     Ov/6l0y*          £63~
Genera?  0fejcr//z>/?on
^/o 6 /.eye/ c/oy prove? /r0t. C/«»rt£
JO                  ' ' 2*~,
SO
2?/£L ■&    /7eer?y  fevel   Jo»t/  «-■*£
fra-y&Z    freary.
2?/'a <?. lere?, ec7c £/ac% loom 'A
/to                              sr
<2c cleared    /5o/ sow/ c jravel
C/<.&*-/no   Acayjr-
J?/a / /?eor/y /t»+'. Cce/if /Co ft
fane*   ??U/-5£4r&i.6?ac%/o«»i
STOc c/oy &f>J 0rore/ Jfof. grovel
rtv   '           J                  so
JFQc c/earea.  /0 0c 3/a.c^ foam
so
J?/a 9 level &/% /ea»t    &ec*y.
* *J   Z<£*W  except- ^fr /bereft
/YW-SF.   C/ey 0/>t/arove?.    6 Oo.
cSsA-rc?   j??o?   Ae-t>*r
-Z?/a ? /eve/ e^cep/ S0/r  £e.r>c?>
7?l~-3Ur.  C/<ty *na' froreS   //<#c
/^S                     J0
C/fiaf/>(J    So/ &C.0 vy D 116
Report of The Forestry Commission.
1910
No. 4.
PIERCE  COUNTY,  WASHINGTON
H. V. RA1LSBACK. County Alitiior
Section .££4?. Township. V*^.
N. Range. *5,^?..W. M.
LOGGING    CONDITIONS
<Vr-e pooe/    sScr-foce   'J neo<*/y /ere/   /}'~tj&r cot
3c- 6o**c//gc/    *»VM    Aorj*i   Or  c/onrfrCy  arro/rte^   /b  fS>c
ly   Qrrotr$
easr /a  T. £??.??.
GENERAL    REMARKS
SPECIAL.    REMARKS
Indicate on Topographical Flat Location ol Mineral*, Cool Outcropplne*. Water Powen, Railway Pauet, and any Information tiat may aficct tbe Section,
GiHbf Pull Information Regarding Same In the Following Line* fa
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