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A dictionary of the Chinook jargon, or, trade language of Oregon Gibbs, George, 1815-1873 1863

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LIBRARY OF AMERICAN LINGUISTICS.  
DICTIONARY
OF THE
CHINOOK JARGON,
OR,
TRADE LANGUAGE OF OREGON.

BY GEORGE GIBBS.
NEW YOEK:
CRAMOISY   PRESS
1863.  
PREFACE.
Some years ago the Smithsonian Institution printed a small vocabulary of the Chinook Jargon, furnished by Dr. B. R. Mitchell, of the
U. S. Navy, and prepared, as we afterwards learned, by Mr. Lionnet, a
Catholic priest, for his own use while studying the language at Chinook Point. It was submitted by the Institution, for revision and
preparation for the press, to the late Professor W. W. Turner. Although it received the critical examination of that distinguished
philologist, and was of use in directing attention to the language, it
was deficient in the number of words in use, contained many which
did not properly belong to the Jargon, and did not give the sources
from which the words were derived.
Mr. Hale had previously given a vocabulary and account of this
Jargon in his " Ethnography of the United States Exploring Expedition," which was noticed by Mr. Gallatin in the Transactions of the
American Ethnological Society, vol. ii. He, however, fell into some
errors in his derivation of the words, chiefly from ignoring the Chiha-
lis element of the Jargon, and the number of words given by him
amounted only to about two hundred and fifty.
A copy of Mr. Lionnet's vocabulary having been sent to me, with
a request to make such corrections as it might,require, I concluded
not merely to collate the words contained in this and other printed
and manuscript vocabularies, but to ascertain, so far as possible, the
languages which had contributed to it, with the original Indian words.
This had become the more important, as its extended use by different
tribes had led to ethnological errors in the classing together of essentially distinct families. Dr. Scouler, whose vocabularies were among
the earliest bases of comparison of the languages of the northwest
coast, assumed a number of words, which he found indiscriminately VI
PREFACE.
employed by the Nootkans of Vancouver Island, the Chinooks of the
Columbia, and the intermediate tribes, to belong alike to their several
languages, and exhibit analogies between them accordingly.* On
this idea, among other points of fancied resemblance, he founded his
family of Nootka-Columbians,—one which has been adopted by Drs.
Pritchard .and Latham, and has caused very great misconception.
Not only are those languages entirely distinct, but the Nootkans
differ greatly in physical and mental characteristics from the latter.
The analogies between the Chinook and the other native contributors to the Jargon are given hereafter.
The origin of this Jargon, a conventional language similar to the
Lingua Franca of the Mediterranean, the Negro-English-Dutch of
Surinam, the Pigeon English of China, and several other mixed
tongues, dates back to the fur droguers of the last century. Those
mariners whose enterprise in the fifteen years preceding 1800, explored
the intricacies of the northwest coast of America, picked up at their
general rendezvous, Nootka Sound, various native words useful in
barter, and thence transplanted them, with additions from the English, to the shores of Oregon. Even before their day, the coasting
trade and warlike expeditions of the northern tribes, themselves a seafaring race, had opened up a partial understanding of each other's
speech; for when, in 1792, Vancouver's officers visited Gray's Harbor,
they found that the natives, though speaking a different language,
understood many words of the Nootka.
On the arrival of Lewis and Clarke at the mouth of the Columbia,
in 1806, the new language, from the sentences given by them, had
evidently attained some form. It was with the arrival of Astor's
party, however, that the Jargon received its principal impulse.
Many more words of English were then brought in, and for the first-
time the French, or rather the Canadian and Missouri patois of the
French, was introduced. The principal seat of the company being at
Astoria, not only a large addition of Chinook words was made, but a
considerable number was taken from the Chihalis, who immedia'ely
bordered that tribe on the north,—each owning a portion of Shoal-
water Bay. The words adopted from the several languages were,
naturally enough, those most easily uttered by all, except, of course,
that objects new to the natives found their names in French or English, and such modifications were made in pronunciation as suited
tongues accustomed to different sounds.   Thus the gutturals of the
* Journal Royal Geographical Society of London, vol. xi., 1841.
I mMmMMm
wrsisr
PREFACE.
VU
Indians were softened or dropped; and the/and r of the English and
French, to them unpronounceable, were modified into p and I. Grammatical forms were reduced to their simplest expression, and variations
in mood and tense conveyed only by adverbs or by the context.
The language continued to receive additions, and assumed a more distinct and settled meaning, under the Northwest and Hudson's Bay
companies, who succeeded Astor's party, as well as through the
American settlers in Oregon. Its advantage was soon perceived by
the Indians, and the Jargon became to some extent a means df communication between natives of different speech, as well as between
them and the whites. It was .even used as such between Americans
and Canadians. It was at first most in vogue upon the lower Columbia and the "Willamette, whence it spread to Puget Sound, and with
the extension of trade, found its way far up the coast, as well as the
Columbia and Fraser rivers; and there are now few tribes between
the 42d and 57th parallels of latitude in which there are not to be
found interpreters through its medium. Its prevalence and easy acquisition, while of vast convenience to traders and settlers, has tended
greatly to hinder the acquirement of the original Indian languages;
so much so, that except by a few missionaries and pioneers, hardly
one of'them is spoken or understood by white men in all Oregon
and Washington Territory. Notwithstanding its apparent poverty
in number of words, and the absence of grammatical forms, it possesses much more flexibility and power of expression than might
be imagined, and really serves almost every purpose of ordinary intercourse.
The number of words constituting the Jargon proper has been variously stated. Many formerly employed have become in great measure obsolete, while others have been locally introduced. Thus, at
the Dalles of the Columbia, various terms are common which would
not be intelligible at Astoria or on Puget Sound. In making the following selection, I have included all those which, on reference to a
number of vocabularies, I have found current at any of these places,
rejecting, on the other hand, such as individuals, partially acquainted
with the native languages, have employed for their own convenience.
The total number falls a little short of five hundred words.
An analysis of their derivations gives the following result:
Chinook, including Clatsop   200
Chinook, having analogies with other languages..    21
Interjections common to several       8 £A
vm
preface:
Nootka, including dialects  24
Chihalis, 32; Nisqually, 7  39
Klikatat and Yakama  2
Cree ..."  2
Chippeway (Ojibwa)  1
"Wasco (probably)  4
Kalapuya (probably)  4
By direct onomatopoeia  6
Derivation unknown, or undetermined  18
French, 90; Canadian, 4  94
English  67
I had no opportunity of original investigation into the Nootka
proper, but from the few words in different published vocabularies,
and from some imperfect manuscript ones in my possession of the
Tokwaht, Nittinat, and Makah dialects, have ascertained the number
above given. Some of the unascertained words probably also belong
to that language. Neither was I able to collate the "Wasco or Kalapuya, but have assigned them on the opinion of others. The former,
also called Cathlasco, the dialect of the Dalles Indians, is a corrupted
form of the "Watlala or Upper Chinook. With the Chihalis, Yakama,.
and Klikatat, and the Nisqually, I had abundant means of comparison.
The introduction of the Cree and Chippeway words is of course due
to the Canadians. None have been derived from the Spanish, as
their intercourse with the Nootka and Makah Indians was too short
to leave an impression. Spanish words, especially those relating to
horses or mules and their equipments, have of late come into general
use in Oregon, owing to intercourse with California, but they form no
part of the Jargon. It might have been expected from the number
of Sandwich Islanders introduced by the Hudson's Bay company, and
long resident in the country, that the Kanaka element would have
found its way into the language, but their utterance is so foreign to
the Indian ear, that not a word has been adopted.
In the nouns derived from the French, the definite article le, la, has
almost in every instance been incorporated into the word, and the
same has in one or two instances been prefixed to nouns not of French
origin. Besides the words created by-direct onomatopoeia, there are
quite a number which are really Indian, but have their origin in the
similarity of sound to sense.
Dr. Scouler's analogy between the Nootkan and | Columbian," oi
Chinook, was founded on the following words: II.   Ill    III!   ^W-
PREFACE.
•
English'.
Tlaoquatch and JOfittka.
Columbian.
plenty,
fay.a,
*haya.
no,
^vvik,
*wake.
water,
tchaak,
chuck.
good,
*hooleish,
*closh,
bad,
*peishakeis,
*peshak.
man,
*tchuckoop,
tillicham.
woman,
*tlootsemin,
*clootchamen.
child,
*tanassis,
*tanass.
now,
tlahowieh,  ,
clahowiah.
come,
*tchooqua,
*sacko.
slave,
mischemas,
*mischemas.
what are you
doing,
what are you
1
*akoots-ka-*marnook,
ekta-*mammok
S
*au-kaak-* wawa,
ekta-*wawa.
sayingf,
|
let me see,
*nannanitch,
*nannanitch.
sun,
*opeth,
ootlach.
sky,
*sieya,
*saya.
fruit,
*chamas,
*camas.
to sell,
*makok,
*makok.
understand,
*commatax,
*commatax.
IX
But of these, none marked with an asterisk belong to the Chinook
or any of its dialects. The greater part of them are undoubtedly
Nootkan, though there are errors in the spelling and, in some instances, in the meaning. Of the rest, the Nootkan tchaak and the
Chinook tVtsuk alone presents an analogy. Klahowiah does not mean
"now," nor do I believe it is Nootkan, in any sense. It is, as explained in the dictionary, the Chinook salutation, " How do you,"
I Good-bye," and is supposed to be derived from the word for poor,
miserable, Mischemas is not Chinook, and is probably not Nootkan.
With the exception of Franchere, whose short vocabulary was published by Mr. Gallatin, and Mr. Hale, all the writers mentioned by
Ludwig who have given specimens of the Chinook language, have
presented it in its Jargon form, more or less mixed with the neighboring ones, and with corruptions, of French and English words. Mr.
Swan, among others, has been led into this error. The place of his
residence, Shoalwater Bay, is common ground of the Chinook and
Chihalis Indians, and the degraded remnants of the two tribes are
closely intermarried, and use both languages almost indifferently. PREFACE.
Setting aside interjections, common in a more' or less modified
form to several adjoining tribes, twenty-one words of those given in
this vocabulary present" noticeable analogies between the Chinook
and other native languages.    They are as follows :
English.
Chinook.     Hatttzuk and Belbella
sal
tnon berries,                  klalilli,                  olalli.
English.
water,
Chinook and Clatsop.
tl'tsuk    :   tl'chukw,
Nootka.
Jewitt and Cook.
chauk    :    chahak.
English.'
Chinook.
Cowlitz.
Kwantlen.            Selish.
six,
takhum,
tukh'um,
tuckhum',           tackan.
English.
Chinook.
Chihalis.            Nisqually.
deep,
glad,
kellippe,
kwan,
kluputl,            klep.
kwal {tame).
proud,
demon,
eyutl,
ichiatku,
jiiil.
tsiatko,             tsiatko.
black beai
j
eitchhut,
chetwut.
crow,
skaka,
skaka.
oyster,
klokhklokh,
chetlokh,          klokhklokh.
game of "
hands,"
itlokum,
setlokum. .
English.
Chinook.
Yakama and EMkatat.
certainly,'.
nawitka,
n'witka.
always,
kwanisum,
kwalisim.
youngc
r sister,
ats,
atse.
road,
barrel,
wehut,
tamulitsh,
wiet (far).
tamolitsh.
buffalo,
emusmus,
musmus.
coyote,
mouse,
italipus,
kholkhol, .
telipa (gray fox).
khpilkhoil.
bread,
needle,
tsapelil,
okwepowa,
saplil.
kapus (a pin).
The Clatsop (Klatsop) is merely a dialect of the Chinook (Tchi-
niik); the Cowlitz (Kaualitsk), Kwantlen, Chihalis (Tsihelis), and
Nisqually (N'skwali), are severally languages belonging to the
Selish family.    The Yakama ^ind Klikatat are dialects of one of the j a--sav»». ■;'•■»:■«
PREFACE.
XI
Sahaptin languages; and the Tokwaht (Tokwat), Nittinat, and Makah
(Maka), quoted in the dictionary, are dialects of the Nootka (Nutka),
of which the Hailtzuk or Belbella (variously spelled Haeeltzuk and
Hailtsa) is probably the northern type. It thus appears that, with
two or three exceptions, the analogies of the Chinook, as contained
in this vocabulary, are to be sought in the immediately adjoining
tongues, or those of languages belonging to the same families with
them; that these analogies, with perhaps one or two exceptions, can
by no means be considered radical, and that their correspondence, or
rather adoption, is easily accounted for by neighborhood and habits
of intermarriage. A much more remarkable coincidence is the fact
that two words included in this Jargon,—one from the Nootkan, viz.,
Mawitch, a deer, venison; and the other Chinook, Mooluk, an elk,—
are also to be found in the Kowilth, the language of Humboldt
Bay, in California. As this bay was first discovered in the winter
of 1849-50, the words could n6t have been introduced by the fur
trappers.
With regard to the form into which this dictionary has been
thrown, an explanation is necessary. The Jargon must in some
degree be regarded as a written language, the orthography of which
is English. In Mr. Hale's vocabulary'alone has .one more scientific
been attempted, and of several other printed, and numerous manuscript dictionaries in circulation, M. Lionnet's alone, that I have met
with, is according to the French. Although no fixed system of spelling exists among them,,I have therefore deemed it best to preserve
for the Jargon words that which most distinctly represents the common English pronunciation; while for the Indian derivations, I have
adopted that recommended by the Smithsonian Institution in collecting Indian vocabularies, using the Italian sounds of the vowels, and
representing the guttural of the German ich by kh.. This seemed the
more proper, as the work would thereby be rendered of practical use,
independent of what philological value it may possess.
In collating the words of the present work and obtaining their
derivations, I have been assisted by a number of friends; among
whom I should \ specially mention Mr. Alexander C. Anderson, of
Victoria, V. I., and Mr. Solomon H. Smith, of Clatsop, Oregon.  -X^ftTt uMtllttA-
RW
ylwgg
Bibliography of the Chinook Jargon,
\
-/      Journal of Travels over the Rocky Mountains.    By Revi Samuel
Parker.    12mo.    Ithaca, N.Y., 1838.
| Vocabulary of the Chenook language, as spoken about Fort Vancouver," pp. 336-338.
Ethnography and Philology of the United States Exploring Expedition. By Horatio Hale. 4to. Philadelphia: Lea & Blanchard,
1846.
A vocabulary of the " Jargon or Trade Language of Oregon," With
an essay thereon, and phrases, is given in this work, pp. 636-650.
Transactions of the American Ethnological Society. 2 vols., 8vo.
New York: Bartlett & Welford, 1845, 1848.
In vol. ii., pp. 62-70, under title of "Hale's Indians of Northwest
America," is a partial reprint of the above.
Rev. Z. B. Z. Bolduc, "Mission de la Cplombie." 8vo. Quebec,
1843.
The Lord's Prayer in Jargon, " et quelques mots Tchinoucs et Sheo-
mus." The Snohomish is a tribe of Puget Sound. The Chinook words
are merely Jargon.
Journal of Travels over the Rocky Mountains, &c. By Joel Palmer.'
12mo.    Cincinnati, 1847, 1852.
" Words used in the Chinook Jargon," pp. 147-152.
Adventures of the First Settlers on the Oregon or Columbia River,
<fec.    By Alexander Ross.    12mo.    London, 1849.
Ross gives a "Chinook Vocabulary," pp. 342-348, and words of the
"mixed dialect," p. 349.    His Chinook is, however, also impure.
Ten Years in Oregon. By D. Lee and F. H. Frost. 12mo. New
York, 1844.
" "A short vocabulary of the Clatsop dialect."    This is likewise
Jargon. ^aeii
XIV
BIBI.roOKAPIiy  OF THE  CHINOOK  JARGON.
History, dec, of the Indian Tribes of the United States. Collected
by Henry R. Schoolcraft. 4to. Parts 1-5. Philadelphia, 1851,
1855. 1
Lieut. G. F. Emmons gives a brief "Klatsop Vocabulary" in Part
III., pp. 223, 224, which is of the same character.
Note 1 to article, " Philosophy of Utterance," Part V., pp. 548-551,
a " Vocabulary of the Chinook Jargon."
Vocabulary of the Jargon or Trade Language of Oregon. English,
French, and Jargon.    8vo.    Washington, 1853.    pp. 22.
Printed by the Smithsonian Institution, for private distribution.
Without title-page.    This is the one by M. Lionnet, before referred to.
^/       The Northwest Coast; or, Three Years' Residence in Washington
Territory.   By James G. Swan.   12mo.   New York: Harpers, 1857.
" A vocabulary of the Chehalis and Chenook or Jargon Languages,
with the derivation of the words used in the latter," pp. 412-422.
A Complete Dictionary of the Chinook Jargon. English—Chinook,
and Chinook—English. To which is added numerous conversations,
&c. 3d edition. 24mo, pp. 24. Portland, Oregon : published by S.
J. McCormick.
Several editions of this work have been published; the last which
I have seen, in 1862.
Guide-Book to the Gold Regions 'of Frazer River.    With a map of
the different routes, &c.    24mo, pp. 55.    New York, 1858.
A vocabulary of the Jargon, pp. 45-55.
The Chinook Jargon and English and French Equivalent Forms.
In "Steamer Bulletin," San Francisco, June 21, 1858.
Contains an unarranged vocabulary of 354 words and phrases.
The Canoe and the Saddle. By Theodore Winthrop. 12mo.
Boston : Ticknor & Fields.    1863.
a A partial vocabulary of the Chinook Jargon," pp. 299-302.
History of the Oregon Territory, &c. By John Dunn. 2d edition.
London, 1846.
IA few specimens of the language of the Millbank and Chinook
tribes." Chinook tribe: 50 words and phrasesj including digits.
These words, as usual, are in great part "Jargon," and belong to the
Nootkan, not to the Chinook.
Besides the above, one, of which I have not the title before me, has
been published by Mr. A. C. Anderson, and several in the newspapers
of Oregon and Washington Territory.
1 jzesx jjlm o uu:
-|.JJ-M1^.jju.^i ii, i in w|ii,i|.M^'i^tjSaw.4iiJ'iL^-e
PART I.
OH ISE 0 0 K- E N GLIS H.
.
1
I
f«
i Note.—The references, "Hale," "Cook," "Jewitt," are respectively to
Hale's " Ethnology of the United States Exploring Expedition," " Cook's Voyages," and " Jewitt's Narrative." The others, as "Anderson," "Pandosy,"
"Shaw," "Tolmie," are from manuscriot notes of those gentlemen in possession of the writer.
V, KSjgfejJCT^ I.I. J! I IKTftiifen'iESSg
A    DICTIONARY
OF  THE
CHINOOK JARGON.
PART I.  CHINOOK—ENGLISH.
Ah-ha, adv. Common to various tribes. Fes. Expression of
simple assent.    On Puget Sound-, • e-eh.
Ah'n-kut-te, or Ahn-kot-tie, adv. Chinook, Ankutti. . Formerly; before now. With the accent prolonged on the first syllable, a long time ago. Ex. Ahnkutte lakit sun, four days ago;
Tenas ahnkutte, a little while since.
Al-ah, interj. Expression of surprise. Ex. Alah mika chahko!
ah, you've come!
Al-kie, adv. Chinook, Alkekh. Presently; in a little while;
hold on;  not so fast.
Al'-ta, adv.    Chinook, Altakh.    Now ; at the present time.
A-mo'-te, n.  Chinook, Amtjte ; Clatsop, Klabote.   The strawberry.
An-ah, interj. An exclamation denoting pain, displeasure, or depreciation. Ex. Anah nawitka mika halo shem, ah, indeed you
are without shame.    On Puget Sound, Ad-de-dah.
Ats, n. Chinook, idem; Yakama, Atse (Pandosy). A sister
younger than the speaker. In the original, only when used by her
brother. '
A-yah-whul, v.    Chihalis, Ayahwul.    To lend; borrow.
Ay-keh-nam.   See Eh-kah-nam.
Be-be, n., v.   French.    A word used towards children ; probably a
repetition of the first syllable of Baiser.    A kiss; to kiss.
Bed, n.   English, idem.    A bed.
Bit, or IVEit, n.    English, Bit.    A dime or shilling.
Bloom, n.    English, Broom.    A broom.    Mamook bloom, to sweep. 2 DICTIONARY  OF THE  CHINOOK  JAEGON.
Boat, n.    English*idem.    A boat, as distinguished from a canoe.
Bos'-ton, n., adj. An American; American. A name derived
from the hailing-place of the .first trading-ships to the Pacific.
Boston illahie, the United States.
Bur-dash, n. Can. French, Berdache (Anderson). An hermaphrodite. The reputation of hermaphroditism is not uncommon
with Indians, and seems to attach to every malformation of the
oreans of generation.
The word is of very limited use.
C.
Cal'-li-peen, n.   French, Carabine.   A rifle.
Ca-nim, n.   Chinook, Ekanim.    A canoe.    Canim stick, the cedar,
or wood from which canoes are usually made.
Ca-po', n.    French, Capot.    A coat.
Chah'-ko, v.    Nootka, Clayoquot, Chako;  Tokwaht, Tchokwa.
To come;  to become.    Ex. Kansih mika chahko?  when did you
come ?   Chahko kloshe, to get well.
Chak-ehak, n.   Chinook, idem.    The bald eagle (by onoma.), from
its scream.    Of only local use on the lower Columbia.
Ch.ee, adv., adj.    Chinook, T'shi.    Lately; just now; new.    Chee
nika ko, / have just arrived.    Hyas chee, entirely nezo.
Chet'-lo, or Jet'-lo, n.    Chihalis, Chetloeh.    An oyster.   Used
on the lower Columbia.
Chet-woot, n.    Nisqually, idem.    A black bear.   Used only on
Puget Sound.
Chik'-a-min, n^ adj.   Tokwaht, Tsikamen ; Nootka, Sickaminny
(Jewitt);  Seekemaile (Cook).    Iron; metal; metallic.    T'kope
chikamin, silver;  pil chikamin, gold or copper.    Chikamin lope,
wire; a chain.
Chik-chik.    See Tsik-tsik.
Ohil-chil.    See Tsil-tsil.
Chitsh, n.   Chihalis, Tshitsh.    A grandmother.
Chope, n.   Chihalis, Tshup.    A grandfather.
Cho'-tub, n.   Nisqually, idem.    A flea.   Used on Puget Sound.
Chuck, n.' Nootka, Chatjk (Cook); Chahak, fresh water (Jewitt) ;
Chinook, Tltsuk (Shortess) ; Clatsop, Tl'chukw.    Water; a river
or stream.    Salt chuck, the sea; skookum chuck, a rapid; solleks
chuck, a rough sea; chuck chahko or kalipi, the tide rises or falls;
saghilli and keekwillie chuck, high and low tide.
Chuk-kin, n., v.   Chihalis, Tsukaen.    To.kick.   Of local use only.
I
jjprr- i.ii   -s?
Close.   See Klose.
Oly, v.    English.    To cry.
Cole, adj. English, Cold. Cole illahie, winter; icht cole, a year ;
cole sictwaum sick, the fever and ague.
Comb, n. English. A comb. Mamook comb, to comb; mamook
comb illahie, to harroio.
Coo'-ley, v. French, Courez, imp. of CouriR. To run. Cooley
kiuatan, a race-horse; yahka hyas kumtuks cooley, he can, i.e.,
knows how to run well.
Coop'-coop, n.    Chinook, idem.    The smaller sized dentalium or
. shell money.    See Hykwa.
Co'-sho, n. French, Cochon. A hog; pork. Siwash cosho, a seal;
literally, Indian pig.
Cul'-tus, adj. Chinook, Kaltas. Worthless; good for nothing;
without purpose. Ex. Cultus man, a worthless fellow; cultus pot-
latch, a present or free gift; cultus heehee, a jest; merely laughing; cultus nannitsh, to look around; cultus mitlite, to sit idle;
to do nothing; cultus klatawa, to stroll. Ques. What do you
want ?  Ans. Cultus, i. e., nothing.
,       D.
De-late, or De-lett, adj., adv.  French, Droite.   Straight; direct;
without equivocation.    Ex. Klatawa  delett, go straight;   delett
wauwau, tell the truth.
Di-aub, or Yaub, n.    French, Diable.    The devil.    Sometimes
used combined with the article, as Lejaub.
D'ly, or De-ly, adj.   English, Dry.   Chahko dely, to become dry;
mamook dely, to dry, v. a.
Doc-tin, n.   English.    A doctor.
Dol'-la, or Tah-la, n.    English.    A dollar; money.    Chikamin
dolla, silver; pil dolla, gold; dolla siaghost, spectacles.
E.
Eh-kah-nam, n. Chinook, Ekanam. A tale or story. Used only
on the Columbia river.   Often erroneously pronounced Ay-keh-nam.
Eh-ko-li, n.   Chinook, Ekoli.    A whale.
Ee'-na, n. Chinook, Iina. A beaver. Eena stick (literally, beaver
wood), the willow.
PART I.   CHINOOK—ENGLISH. 4 DICTIONARY  OF  THE  CHINOOK  JARGON.
Ee'-na-poo, or In-a-poo, | Chinook, Inapu. A louse. Sopen
inapoo, a flea.
Ek'-keh, n.    Chinook, Ekke.    A brother-in-law.
E'-la-han, or E-lann, n. Chihalis, Yelaan. Aid; assistance;
alms.    Mamook elann, to help.
E'-lip, or El'-ip, adv. Chihalis, Ilip. First; before. The superlative. Klatawa elip, go before; elip lolo chuck, in the first place
carry water; elip kloshe, best; elip tilikum, n. (literally, the first
people), a race of beings zvho inhabited the world before the Indians.
E-li'-te, n.   Chinook, Ilaitekh.    A slave.
E-salt'h, or Ye-salt'h, n. Probably Wasco. Indian corn or
maize.
G.
Get-up, or Ket-op, v.   English.    To .get up ; rise.
G-lease, n.   English, Grease.    Fat, grease, or oil.   Hyeu glease,
very fat; too-toosh glease, butter.   See, also, Lakles.
H.
Hah-lakl, adj. Chinook, Halakl. Wide; open. Ex. Mamook
hahlakl la pote, open the door; chahko hahlakl (as of the woods),
to open out; become less dense.
Haht-haht, n.    Nisqually, Hathat.    The mallard duck.
Hak-at-shum, n.    English.    A handkerchief.
Ha'-lo, adj. Quaere u. d. not Chinook. None; absent. Q. Halo
salmon mika? have you no fish? A. Halo, none. Q. Kah mika
papa? where is your father? A. Halo, he is out. Halo wind,
breathless; dead; halo glease, lean; halo ikta, poor; destitute.
Haul, v. English, idem. To haul or pull. Used with the active
verb mamook; as, mamook haul.
Hee'-hee, n. By onoma., Hihi (Hale). Laughter, amusement.
Cultus heehee, fun; mamook heehee, to amuse; heehee house,
any place of amusement, as a tavern, bowling-alley, &c.
Hoh-hoh, n., v.    Chinook (by onoma.), Hokhhokh.    To cough.
H6-ku-melh, v. Chihalis, idem. To gather; to glean, as grain.
Of local use.
Hool-hool, p Chinook, Kholkhol; Klikatat. Khoilkhoil. A
mouse.   Hyas hoolhool, a rat. tUJLUJUJUUCSM
^I'lll—!H4,~J-JJ
PART  I.   CHINOOK ENGLISH.
House, n. English. A house. Mahkook house, a store; Boston
house, an American-built house, as distinguished from a lodge.
Howh, interj.    Haukh.    Turn to; hurry.
How'-kwutl, adv. Chinook, Haukatlh. An expression of inability.    Ex. Howkwutl nika klatawa ? ^how could I go ?
Hul-lel', v. n. Chinook, idem. To shake. Used with the verb
mamook, as, mamook hullel, it becomes active.
Hul-6-i-ma, n., adj. Chinook, S'huxloyiba. Other; another;
different. Ex. Huloima tilikum, -a different tribe or people; hyas
huloima, very different.
Humm, n., v. Jargon. A stink or smell; to stink. An invented
word.    Humm opootsh, a skunk.
Hunl'-kih, adj. Chinook, Hunlkekh. .Curled or curly; knotted;
crooked.
Huy-huy, n., v. Canadian French, Hui-hui. A bargain or exchange; to barter or trade. Ex. Huyhuy la sille, change the saddle ;
huyhuy tumtum, to change one's mind. Mr. Anderson says this is
a cant word of the Canadians, signifying a hasty exchange. Its
. origin has been suggested in oui oui, yes yes.
Hwah, or Hwah-wa, interj. Denotes surprise or admiration; also
earnestness.
Hy'-ak, adv., also used as imperative. Chinook, Ai-ak. Swift;
fast; quickly; hurry; make haste.
Hy-as', adj., adv. Probably corrupted from the following. Large;
great; very. The general term for size. Hyas tyee, a great chief;
hyas mahcook, a great price; dear; hyas ahnkutte, a long time
ago ; hyas kloshe, very good.
Hy-iu, n., adj. Nootka, Iyahish (Jewitt); Tokwaht, Aiya. Jewitt
also gives Hyo as the name for ten. Much; many; plenty;
enough. Term of quantity or multitude. Hyiu tilikum, a crowd ;
many people; hyiu muckamuck, plenty to eat; tenas hyiu, some;
a few; wake hyiu, not many or not much.
Hy'-kwa, or Hy'-a-kwa, n. Nootka, Haihwa (i-whaw, Jewitt).
The dentalium; the shell money or wampum of the Pacific coast.
It is used in strings of a fathom long; shells of not more than forty
to the fathom being of full size, and the value increasing in proportion to their length. The smaller sizes are called coop-coop (q. v.).
These shells were formerly obtained by the Indians of the west
coast of Vancouver Island, and passed in barter as low down as
California, and eastward to the Blackfoot country. DICTIONARY OF THE CHINOOK JARGON.
it
I.
Ik'-kik, n.   Chinook, Ikkik.   A fish-hook.
Ik-poo'-ie, v.   Chinook, Ikhpot.    To shut.   Ikpooie la pote, shut
the door; mamook ikpooie, to surround; ikpooie kwillan, deaf.
Ikt, or Icht, adj.   Chinook, Ikht.    One; once.   Used also "as the
indefinite article.   Ikt man, a man; ikt-ikt man, some one or other;
here and there one; ikt nika klatawa kopa yakka house, I have been
once to his house..
Ik'-tah, pron.   Chinook, Ikta.    What.   Bitah okook, what is that ?
iktah mika tikegh, what do you want ? iktah, well, what now ?
Ik'-tah, n.   From the foregoing.    A thing; goods; merchandise;
clothing.    Hyiu tenas iktah, a great many trifles.   The use of the
same word for what and for things, has been noticed in some other
languages of this coast.
II'-la-hie, n.   Chinook, Ilahekh.    Tlie ground;  the earth; dirt.
Tipso illahie, prairie; saghallie illahie, mountains, or high land;
heaven; hyiu illahie kopa, dirty (literally, much dirt upon).
In'-a-ti, or Een-a-ti, prep., adv.   Chinook, Inatai.   Across; opposite to; on the other side of.   Inati chuck, on the other side of the
river; klatawa inati, to cross over.
Ip'-soot, v. a., v. n.   Chinook, Alhupso.    To hide one's self, or any
thing; to keep secret.   Ipsoo^ klatawa, to steal off; ipsoot wau-wau,
to whisper.
Is'-ick, n.   Chinook, Isik.    A paddle.   Mamook isick, to paddle.
Is'-ick stick, n.   Chinook and English.    The ash.   Literally, paddle-wood.
Is'-kum, v.    Chinook, idem.    To take;  take hold of; hold; get.
Iskum okook lope, hold on to that rope; mika na iskum ? did you
get it?
It'-lan, or It'h-lan, n.   Chinook, Ithlana.   A fathom ; the length
of the extended arms.
It'-lo-kum, n.   Chinook, idem; Chihalis, Setlokum.    The game of
11 hand,'"—a common amusement.   Mamook itlokum, to gamble.
Itl'-wil-lie, n.   Chinook, Etlwili.   The flesh; meat of any animal.
Konaway nika itlwillie sick, all my flesh is sore.
Its'-woot, or Its'-hoot, I    Chinook, Eitshhut.    A black bear.
Itshoot paseesie, thick dark cloth or blankets. mmsm^-mim*
Ml!   i   i . i ill.
PART I.   CHINOOK—ENGLISH.
|   K.        j    flp
Kah, adv.    Chinook, Kakh.    Where; whither; whence.    Kah mika
mitlite?  where do you live? konaway kah, everywhere;  kah-kah,
here and there.
Kah'-kah, n.   .Chinook' and Nisqually (by onoma.), Skaka.    A
crow.
Kahkwa, adv.    Nootka; Tokwaht, Achko.    Like; similar to;
equal with; as.   Kahkwa nika tumtum, so I think (literally, such
[is] my heart); kahkwa hyas nika, as large as I; kahkwa spose,
as if; kloshe kahkwa, that is right; good so.
Kah'-na-way, n.   Chinook, Tkanawe.   Acorns.   Kahnaway stick,
the oak.   Used only on the Columbia river.
Kahp-ho, n.    Chinook, idem.    An elder brother, sister, or cousin.
Kahta, adv.    Chinook, Kata.    How; why.    Kahta mika mamook
okook ? why do you do that ? kahta mika chahko ? how did you
come ? kahta mika ? what is the matter with you ? pe kahta ? and
why so ?
Kal-ak-a-lah-ma, n.   Chinook, Okalakai.ama.    A goose.   Used
on the lower Columbia river.
Kal-a-kwah-tie, n.   Cbinodfc, Kalakwati ; Clatsop, Kl'whelatl.
The inner bark of the cedar (thuja) ; the petticoat, or skirt, formerly
worn by women, and often made of strands of bark.   Kalakwahtie
stick, the cedar-tree.
Ea-li'-tan, n.    Chinook, Tklaitan.    An arrow;  shot;  a bullet.
Kalitan le sac, a quiver; a shot-pouch.
Kal-lak'-a-la, or Kul-luk'-ul-la, n.    Chinook, Kalakaxa.    A
bird.
Kam-asB, or La-kam-ass, n.   Nootka.    The Scilla esculenta,—a
bulbous root used for food by the Indians.   Jewitt gives Chamass
as the Nootka for fruit, also for sweet, or pleasant to the taste.
Kam-ooks, n.   Chinook, Klkabokes.    A dog.    Kahkwa kamooks,
like a dog ; beastly.
Ka-mo'-suk, n.     Chinook, idem.    Beads.    Tyee Kamosuk (chiet
beads), the large blue glass beads.
Kap-SU-al-la.    Quaere u. d.    To steal.   Kapsualla klatawa, to steal
away; kapsualla mamook, to do secretly.
Kat-suk, or Kot-suk, n.    Chinook, idem.    The middle or centre
of any thing.
Kau'-py, n.    English.    Coffee.
Am
ii
if
is
m VSt
8 DICTIONARY  OF  THE  CHINOOK JARGON.
■Ka-wak, 1   Chihalis, Kauak.    To fly.    Not in general use.
Kaw-ka-wak, adj.   Chinook, Kakawak.    Yellow, or pale green.
Kee-kwil-lie, prep. Chinook, Kik'hwili. Low; below; under;
beneath; down. Mamook keekwillie, to lower; *mitlite keekwillie,
to set down; pui under.   Not used in the sense of " down stream."
Keep'-wot, n. Chinook, Okwepowa ; Yakama, Kapus, a pin (Pan-
dosy). A needle; the sting of an insect;' a thorn. Shoes keepwot,
an awl.
Keh'-loke, n.   Chinook, idem.    A swan.    Of local use only.
Keh'-see, or Ki'-su, n:   Chinook, Ekeso.    An apron.
Keh-wa, adv.    Quaere u. d.    Because.    Not in common use.
Kel'-a-pi, or Ka-la-pi, v. Chinook, Kelapai. To turn; return;
overturn; upset. Kelapi canim, to upset a canoe; hyak kelapi,
come back quickly; kelapi kopa house, go back to the house/ mamook kelapi, to bring, send, or carry back; kelapi tumtum, to
cliajige one's mind.
Kes'-chi, or Keh-tsie. Chinook, Kukhtsi (Anderson). Notwithstanding; although. Keschi yakka mamook kahkwa, although he
did so.    Not in common use.
Kef-ling, or Kit'-ling, n.   English.   A kettle; can; basin, &c.
Kil-it'-Sut, n.   Chinook, Okwiuktshut.    Flint; a bottle; glass.
Kim'-ta, or Kim-tah', prep. Chfltaok, Kimta. Behind; after;
afterwards; last; since. Klatawa kimtah, go behind; nika elip, pe
yakka kimtah, I first, and he afterwards; okook kimtah, the one
behind; kimtah nika nannitsh mika, since I saw you.
King Chautsh, adj. English, King George. English. King
chautshman, an Englishman.
Ki'-nootl, or Ki'-noos, n.   Chinook, Ekaintjtl.    Tobacco.
Kish-kish, v.   Chinoo"k, idem.    To drive, as cattle or horses.
Kiu'-a-tan, n. Chinook, Ikiuatan. Cooley kiuatan, a race-horse;
stone kiuatan, a stallion.
Ki'-wa, adj.   Wasco, Kaiwa (Shaw).    Crooked.    Of only local use.
Ki'-yah, n.   Chihalis, Kaiyakh.    Entrails.
Klah, adj. Chinook, Klakh. Free or clear from; in sight. Ex.
Chee yakka klah, now he is in sight; klatawa klah, to escape, as a
prisoner; chahko klah (of seed), to come up; (of the woods), to
open out; (of the weather), to clear up; mamook klah, to uncover.
Mr. Anderson gives as the original meaning, to open out or appear.
Klah-hanie', or Klagh-anie', adv. Chinook, Klakhani. Out of
doors; out; without. Ex. Mamook klaghanie okook, put that
out; klatawa klaghanie, to go out. — n.ite^.
PART  I.    CHINOOK RNGLTSH.
9
Kla'-how-ya.    The  ordinary salutation  at meeting or parting.
Sow do you do? good-bye; as, klahowya sikhs, good.-bye, friend.
Kla-hdw-yum, adj., n.    Chinook, Klahauia.    Poor;  miserable;
wretched;   compassion.     Ex.   Hyas klahowyum nika, / am very
poor;  mamook klahowyum, to take pity on; give alms; be generous.
The salutation above given probably original^d.in some whining
reply to the first whites, and a distinction has since arisen between
the two modes of spelling, which is, however, purely arbitrary.
Klah-wa, adv.     Chinook, Klawakh.     Slow;  slowly.    Ex. Klatawa klahwa, go slowly.
Klak, adv.    Chinook, Klakw.    [To take] off.    Ex. Mamook klak
stone kiuatan, to castrate a horse; mamook klak 1'assiette, take off
the plates; klak kopa way hut, get oztt of the road.
Klak-sta, or Kluk'-sta, pron.   Chinook, T'kluksta.    Ex. Klak-
sta mamook okook ? who made or did that ? halo klaksta, no ohe,
Klak-wun, or Kleh-kwan, v.   Chihalis, Klakwun.    To wipe, or
lick.    Klakwun 1'assiette, to wipe a plate.
Klale, or T'klale, adj.    Chinook, Tlehl.    Black, or dark blue, or
green.
Klap, v.     Chinook, Klap.     To find.     Ex.   Mika na klap mika
kiuatan? did you find your horse? klap tenas, to be with child.
Kla'-pite, n.    Chinook, Klipait.    Thread; twine.
Klas-ka, or Klus'-ka, pron.    Chinook, Kluska.    They;  thine;
them.
Klat'-a-wa, v.    Nootka, Klatturwah (Jewitt);  Nittinat, Klat-
oukh.    To go.    Klatawa teahwit, to walk; go on foot; klatawa
kopa kiuatan, to ride; klatawa kopa boat, to sail; mamook klatawa,
to send.
Kla-whap, n.    Chinook, Klhuap.    A hole.    Mamook klawhap, to
dig a hole.
Klem'-a-hun, v.    Chihalis, idem.    To stab;  to wound;  to dart;
to cast as a spear;   to hook or gore as an ox.    Nika klemahun
samun, / spear salmon.
Klihl, or Klilt, adj.    Chinook, Klihl.    Bitter.    Not of universal
use.    Mr. Hale makes it Klitl, sour.  ■
Klik'-a-muks, n.    Chinook,* Klikabuks.    Blackberries, or more
properly dewberries.
Klik'-wal-lie, or Kloke'-wal-lie.    Chinook, Klikwalt.    Brass
wire; an armlet or bracelet of brass wire.    Mr. Anderson gives the
original meaning as simply brass.
■I
\':ti 10
DICTIONARY  OF  THE  CHINOOK JARGON.
Klim-in'-a-whit, n., v. Chinook, Kliminawhut. A lie; to* lie.
Hyas kumtuks kliminawhit, he is a great liar (literally, he knows
well how to lie).
Klim'min, or Klimmin-klimmin, adj. Chinook, Tklemin-
tklemin. Soft; fine in substance. The reduplication denotes the
diminutive, but in jargon it is generally used singly. ; Ex. Klimmin
sapoleel, flour; klimmin illahie, mud; marshy ground; mamook
klimmin, to sofUn as by dressing a skin.
Klip, adj. Chinook, Kelipe ; Chihalis, Exuputl ; Nisqually, Klep.
Deep; sunken.   Klip chuck, deep water; klip sun, sunset.
Klis'-kwiss, n.   Chinook, idem.   A mat.
Klogh-klogh, n. Chinook, Oklokhklo. Oysters. The word is
. common to the Puget Sound tribes, as well as to the Chinooks.
Klo-nass, adv. Chinook, idem. Expression of uncertainty or doubt.
Perhaps; I don't know; may be so; who knows? Equivalent to
the Spanish quien sabe. Ex. Klonass nika klatawa, perhaps I shall
go. Q. Kah mika kahpho ? where is your brotlier ? A. Klonass,
I don't know.
Klone, adj.    Chinook, Tklon.    Three.
Klook, adj.  English.   Crooked. \ Klook teahwit, broken legged; lame.
Klootch-man, n. Nootka and Tokwaht, Klutsma. A woman ; a
female of any animal. Tenas klootshman, a girl; klootchman kiuatan, a mare.
Klose, or Kloshe, adj., adv. Nootka; Tokwaht, Klohtl ; Makah,
Klotelo; Nisqually, Klob. Good; well; well enough. Kloshe
nannitsh, look out; take care; hyas kloshe, very well.
Klose-spose. Nootka, Klohtl ; English, Suppose. Shall or may
'I; let me. Ex. EHose-spose nika mamook pia okook ? shall I cook
that ? (literally, [is it] good tliat I make cook that ?).
Klugh, or Klugh-klugh. Chinook, Klukh. To tear. Mamook
Hugh illahie, to plough (literally, to tear the ground).
Kluk-ulh', or Klak-alh', adj. Chihalis, Txukutlh. Broad or
wide, as of a plank.
Ko, v. Chinook, idem. To reach; arrive at. Chee klaska ko, they
have just some; kansih nesika ko kopa Nisqually? when shall we
reach Nisqually.
Ko'-ko, v. Chinook (by onoma.). To knock. Koko stick, a woodpecker.
Kok'-shut, v.   Nootka, Kakhshetl ; Klaokwat, Kwachitl.   In tl
original, dead,
to pieces.
ie
To break; broken; to beat.    Hyas kokshut, broken PART  I.    CHINOOK—ENGLISH.
11
Kon'-a-way, adj. Chinook, Kan awe. All; every. Klaska konaway klatawa, they have all gone; konaway tilikum, everybody;
konaway kah, everywhere.
Koo'-sah, or K6-sah, n. Chinook, Ekosakh. The sky. Only
used on the Columbia.
Ko'-pa, adv.,prep. Chinook, idem. To; in; at; with; towards;
of; about; concerning; there or in that place. Ex. Kopa nika house,
-at my house; lolo okook kopa mika, take that home with you
(equivalent to the French chez vous) ; cultus kopa nika, it is nothing
to me. Q. Kah okook lope! where is that rope ? A. (motioning
with the chin towards the place) Kopah.
Ko-pet', v., adv. Chinook, idem. To stop; leave off; enough.
Kopet wau-wau, stop talking; kopet ikt, only one; kopet okook,
that's all; wake siah kopet, nearly finished; kopet tomalla, day
after to-rrtorrow.
Kow, v. Chinook, Kau-kau. To tie; to fasten. Kow mika kiuatan, tie your horse; ikt kow, a bundle.
Kull, adj. Chinook, K'hul-k'hul. Sard in substance; difficult.
Chahko kull, to become hard; mamook kull, to harden; to cause to
become hard; hyas kull spose mamook, it is very hard to do so;
kull stick, oak or any hard wood.
Kul-lagh', or Kul-lagh'-an, n. Chihalis, Kullakh ; Lummi, Kux-
lt/khan. A fence; a corral, or inclosure. Kullagh stick, fence
rails. In the original, it meant the stockade with which Indian
houses are often surrounded.
Kum'-tuks, or Kame-taks, v. Nootka, Kommetak (Jewitt);
Tokwaht, Kumituks ; Clayoquot, Kemitak. To know ; understand;
be acquainted with; imagine; believe. Mamook kumtuks, to explain; teach; hyas kumtuks solleks (literally, well to understand
anger), to be passionate ; kopet kumtuks, to forget; halo kumtuks,
stupid; without understanding; (of a horse) hyas yakka kumtuks
cooley, he can run fast (literally, he knows well to run); kumtuks
kliminawhit, to be a liar; to understand lying; nika kumtuks okook
tyee, I know that chief; nika kumtuks Klikatat wau-wau, / understand the Klikatat language.
Kun'-a-moxt, adj. Chinook, Konaway moxt. Both; together
(literally, all two).   Kunamoxt kahkwa, both alike.
Kun'-sih, Kan'-sih, Kun'-juk, Kun'-jie, adv. Chinook, Kun-
seukh. Sow many; when; ever. Kunsih tilikum mitlite? how
many people are there ? kunsih mika klatawa ? when do you go ?
wake kunsih, never; mamook kunsih, to count.
i.m *^%>   . jtS'So-.-si
12
DICTIONARY  OF THE  CHLNOOK JARGON.
Kush'-is, 1    Chihalis, Koshis.    Stockings.    In the original, any
elastic article of dress.   Not in general use.
Kwah'-ne-sum, adv.    Chinook, Kwanisum ; Yakama, Kwalisim.
Always; forever. s
Kwah-nice, n.   Klikatat, Kwaddis.   A whale.
Kwahta, n.    English.    The quarter of a dollar.   The quarter of
any number is usually expressed in Jargon by tenas sitkum, i. e., a
small half.
Kwah'-tin.   See Yakwahtin.
Kwaist, or Kweest, adj.   Chinook, Kwattst.   Nine.
Kwa-laT-kwa-laT, v.   Chinook, Kwullil-kwullil.    To gallop.
Kwal'h, n.   Chihalis, Kwatlh.   An aunt.
Kwann, adj.    Chinook, Kwan-kwan.    Glad.   According to Mr.
Anderson, it means a custom or habit.    It is used by some in this
sense as tamed or broken, as of a horse (McCormick).    Kwal is
Nisqually for tame.
Kwass, n., adj.   Chinook, idem.   Fear; afraid; tame.   Mamook
kwass, to frighten; to tame.
Kwates, or Kwehts, adj.    Chihalis, Kwets.    Sour.
Kweh-kweh, n.    Chinook, Okwekwe (by onoma.).    A mallard
duck.   Used chiefly at mouth of the Columbia.
Kwek-wi-ens, n.   Chihalis, idem.    A pin.    Of limited use.
Kweo-kweo, n.    Chinook, T'kweo-kweo.    A ring; a circle.
Kwetlh, adj.    Chihalis, idem.    (Anderson.)    Proud.    Not in general use.
Kwin'-num, adj.    Chinook, Kwenem.   Five.
Kwish, or Kweesh, interj.   Refusing any thing contemptuously.
Equivalent to "No you don't."    Used on the lower Columbia.
Kwit'-shad-ie, n.    Nisqually,  Kwutshdie.    The hare or rabbit.
Confined to Puget Sound.
Kwo-lann', or Kwo-lah'-nie, n.   Chihalis, Kwolan ; Nisqually,
Kwilani.    The- ear.    Halo kwolann, or, ikpooie kwolann, deaf.
Kwulh, or Kwult, v.    Chinook, Kwtjlt'h.     To'hit;   to wound
with an arrow or gun;   to strike with a stick or stone;  or in any
manner without cutting; to hit.
Kwun'-nun, n.   Chihalis, idem.   A count; numbers.   Ex. Mamook
kwunnun, to count.    Of merely local use.
Kwutl, adj.    Chinook, idem.    Literally, fast.    To push or squeeze,
as in packing ; hyas mamook kwutl, haul tight. PART  I.   CHINOOK—ENGLISH.
13
L. |      -':     J.      '
La-bleed', n.   French, La bride.    A bridle.
La-boos', n.   French, La bouohe.    The mouth; mouth of a river
Moxt laboos, the forks of a river.
La-boo-ti', n.   French, La bouteille.    A bottle.
La-ca-lat', n.    French, La carotte.   A carrot.
La-ca-set', n.   French, La casette.   A box, trunk, or chest.
La-clo-a, n.    French, La croix.   A cross.
Lagh, v.    Chinook, Lakh.    To lean; to tip, as a boat; to sloop; to
bend over, as a tree.   Wake mika lagh kopa okook house, dodt lean
against that house. »
La-gome, n.   French, La gomme.   Pitch; glue.   La gome stick,
light-wood; the pitch-pine.
La-gwin', or La-kween', n.    Quaere u. d.    A saw.
La-hal.    See Slahal.
Lahb, n.    French, L'herbe.    The arbutus uva ursi, the leaves of
which are used in smoking, alone or mixed with tobacco.
La-hash, n.    French, La hache.    An axe or hatchet.
La-kam-mas'.   See Kamass.
Lak'-it, or Lok'-it, adj.    Chinook, Lakt.    Four; four times.
Lakit taht-lelum, forty.
La'-kles, n.1  French, La graisse.    Fat; oil.    See, also, Glease.
La-lah, v.   Chinook, Lakhwhola.   To cheat; fool; to practise jokes.
Mamook lalah, to make fun.
La-lahm', or La-lum', n.   French, La rame.    An oar.   Mamook
lalahm, to row.  .
La-lang, n.   French, La langue.    The tongue; a Idnguage.
La-leem', n.    French, La lime.    A file.
La-messe', n.    French, idem.    The ceremony of the mass.
La-mes-tin, or La-mo-tchin, n.   French, La medecine.   Medecine, not including magic.
Lam'-mi-eh, or Lam-mi-i, n.    French, La vieille.    An old
woman.
La-mon-ti, or La-mo-ti, n.   French, La montagne.   A riiountain.
La-peep', n.   French, La pipe.   A tobacco-pipe.   Lapeep kullakala
(literally, the "pipe-bird"), the band-tailed eagle, as its feathers
were used to ornament the pipe stems.
La-pehsh, n.   French, La perche.   A pole; the setting-pole of a
boat or canoe. /"»«».
1
14
DICTIONARY  OF  THE  CHINOOK JARGON.
La-pel-lah, I    Quaere if from the French, Le foyer.
lapellah, to roast before the fire.
La-pelle', i   French, La pelle.    A shovel or spade.
French, La pioche. • A mattock; a hoe.
Mamook
La-pe-osh', n.
French, La piece.    A  trap.    Eena la piege, a
French, La flanche.   A board.
French, La poele.    A frying-pan.   Mamook lapoel,
French, La pomme.   An apple.
French, La poule.   A fowl; poultry.
Siwash lapool,
A plough.
La-piege, n.
beaver-trap.
La-plash, n.
Lapoel', n.
to fry.
La-pome, n.
La-pool', n.
the grouse.
La-poo-shet', n.   French, La fodrchette.   A fork.
La-p6te, n.   French, La porte.   A door.
La-sanjelj n.   French, La cingle.    A girth; a sash; a belt.
La-see, n.   French, La scie.   A saio.
La-sell', n.   French, La selle.    A saddle.
La-shal-loo, or La-shal-lee, n.  French, La charrue.
La-shan-del, n.   French, La chandelle.    A candle.
La-shase, n.   French, La chaise.   A chair.
La-shen', n.   French, La chaine.    A chain.
Las-siet', n.   French, L'assiette.   A plate.
La-sway, n., adj.   Fren<5h, La soie.    Silk; silken.
La-tahb, n.   French, La table.    A table.
La-tet', n.   French, La tete.    The head.   Pil latet, red-headed.
La-tlah', n.   French, Train ; as, | ne faites pas de train."    (Anderson).   A noise.   Mamook latlah, to make a noise.
La-wen', n.   French, L'avoine.    Oats.
La-west', n.    French, La veste.   A waistcoat.
Lazy, adj.   English, idem.   Lazy.
Le-bah-do (often pronounced lab'-a-do), n.   French, Le bardeau.
A shingle.
Le-bal', n.   French, idem.   A ball; bullet.   Tenas lebal, shot.
Le-bis'-kwie, n.   French, Le biscuit.   Biscuit; crackers;  hard
bread.
French, Le blond.
Le-blau', n.* adj.
colored.-
Le-clem', n., adj.
colored or light dun horse
Le-cock', n.   French, Le coq.
French, Le creme.
.A sorrel horse;  chestnut
Cream-colored; a cream-
Le-doo',
French, Le doigt.
A cock; a fowl.
A finger. PART  I.   CHINOOK—ENGLISH.
15
Le-gley, n., adj.   French, Le gris, or English Gray, with French
article.    A gray horse; gray.
Le-jaub'.   See Diaub.
Le-kleh, n.   French, Le clef.   A key.   Majnook le kleh, lock the
door.
Le-kloo', n.   French, Le clou.    A nail; nails.
Le-koo', n.   French, Le cou.    The neck.
Le-ky'e, n., adj.   Mr. Anderson derives this from a Canadian word
caille, meaning a piebald horse.    In its jargon use, it means, also, a
spot, spotted, or speckled; as, lekye salmon, the spotted or winter
salmon (salmo canis, Suckley).
Le-lo'-ba, n.   French, Le ruban.    A ribbon.
Le-loo', n.   French, Le loup.    A wolf (the large wolf).
Le-mah, or Leh-ma, n.    French, La main.    The hand; the arm.
Kloshe lemah, the right (literally, the good hand) ; potlatch lemah,
shake hands.
Le-mah-to, n.   French, Le marteau.    A hammer.
Le-mel', n. . French, Le mulet.    A mule.
Le-mo'-lo, n., adj.   French Canadian, Le moron ; undoubtedly a
corruption of marron, a runaway negro.    Wild; untamed.    It applies to men as well as animals, as, for instance, to the tribes which
have had no intercourse with the settlements.
Le-moo'-to, or Lam'-mu-to, n.   French, Les moutons.    Sheep.
Le-pan', n.    French, Le pain.   Bread ; raised or light bread.
Le-pee', n.   French, Le pied.    The feet.
Le-pish'-e-mo, n.   Quaere u. d.    The saddle-blanket and housings
of a horse.
Le-plet, n.   French, Le pretre.    A priest.
Le-pwau', n.   French, Les pois.   Peas.
Le-sak', n.    French, Le sac.    A bag; a pocket.
Le-sap', or Le-zep', n.    French, Les osufs.    An egg; eggs.
Le-see-blo, n.   French, Les eperons.    Spurs.
Le-see-ZO, n.    French, Le ciseau.    Scissors.
Le-sook, n.   French, Le sucre.    Sugar.
Le-tah, n.    French, Le dent.    The teeth.
Le-whet', n.    French, Le fouet.    A whip.    Mamook lewhet, to
whip.
Lice, n.    English.    Rice.
Lik-pu'-hu, or Lik'-po, n.    (Hale.)    An elder sister.    Mr. Hale
gives this as a Chinook word.    If so, it is probably a corruption of
Kup'ho.   It is not used in Jargon.
if r
16
DICTIONARY  OF  THE  CHINOOK  JARGON.
Lip'-lip, v.   By onoma. (Hale).    To boil.    Mamook liplip, to make,
or cause to boil.
Lo-lo, v.   Chinook, idem.    Originally, to Qarry a child on the back.
In Jargon, used in a more extended sense.    To carry;  to load.
Lolo kopa tsiktsik, to carry in a cart.   Mamook lolo kopa canim,
to load into a canoe.
Lo-lo', adj.   Chinook, Lowullo.    Round; whole; the entire of any
thing.   Lolo sapeleel, whole wheat; mamook lolo, to roll up (Shaw).
Lope, n.   English, Rope.   A rope.   Tenas lope, a cord; skin lope,
a raw hide, riata, or thong.
Luk'-ut-chee, or La-kwit-chee, n.   French, La coquille. (?)
Clams.   Used chiefly on Puget Sound.
Lum, n.   English, Rum.    Spirits of any sort.
W M.
Mahkook, v., n. Nootka, MAkuk ; Nittinat and Tokwaht, idem-
Makah, Bakwatl. To buy or sell; trade or exchange; a bargain.
As their buying and selling was merely barter, the same word always
answered for both operations.. Kah mika mahkook okook calipeen ?
where did you buy that rifle? hyas mahkook, dear; tenas mahkook,'
cheap.
Mah-kook-house.    A trading-house or a store.
Mah-lie, v.   Nisqually.    To forget.    Of local use on Puget Sound.
Mahsh, v. a. French, Marcher, To leave; to turn out; to throw
away; to part with; remove. Ex. Mahsh chuck kopa boat, bail
the boat out/ mahsh okook salmon, throw away that fish; mahsh
maika capo, take off your coat; mahsh! (to a dog) get out! mahsh
tenas, to have a child; to be delivered; yakka mahsh tum-tum kopa
nika, he has given me his orders, or told me his wishes; mahsh kow,
to untie; mahsh stone, to castrate.
Mah-sie, v.   French, Mercie.    Thank you.
Maht-lin-nie, adv. Chinook, Matlini. Off shore. (In boating),
keep off! (if on land), towards the water.
Maht-wil-lie, adv. Chinook, Mathwili. In shore; shoreward.
(As a command), keep in; (on land), towards the woods, or the
interior.
Ma-lah, n.   Chinook, Malagh.    Tinware; crockery; earthenware.
Mal-i-eh, v.   French, Marier.    To marry.
Ma'-ma, n.   English, Mamma.   A mother.
Mam'-ook, v. a.   Nootka, Mamuk,   To make; to do; to work.   It
U PART  I.    CHINOOK KNGLTSH.
IT
is the general active verb, and is used largely in combination with
nouns and other verbs; as, mamook chahko, make to come, fetch;
mamook kelipai, bring or send back; mamook isick, to paddle;
mamook illahee, to dig.
Man, n. English, idem. A man; the male of any animal. Ex.
Man moolock, a buck elk; tenas man, a young man or boy.
Mel-a-kwa, or Mal-a-kwa, n. French, Marangouin. (Anderson.)    A mosquito.
Mel-ass, n.   French, Melasse.    Molasses.
Mem'-a-loost,
v., n.
part.    Chinook, Memalust.    To die; dead.
Mamook memaloost, to kill.
Me sah-chie, adj.    Chinook, Masacbi. - Bad; wicked.
Me-si'-ka, pron.    Chinook, Mesaika.    You; your; yours.
Mi'-ka,pron.    Chinook, Maika.    Thou; thy; thine.
Mi'-mie, adv.    Chinook, Maiami.    Down stream.
Mist-chi'-mas, n. Quaere u. d. A slave. Dr. Scouler gives this
word as Nootka and Columbian. Mr. Hale makes it Chinook. It
is certainly, however, neither Chinook nor Chihalis; and Jewitt
gives kakoelth as Nootka, while I find the Makah word kotlo, and
the Nittinat kotl.
Mit-ass, n. Cree, Mitas. (Anderson.) Leggings. A word imported by the Canadian French.
Mit'-lite, v. Chinook, Mitlait. To sit; sit down; stay at; reside; remain. It is also used in place of to have and to be. Ex.
Mitlite kopa house, he is in the house; mitlite hyiu salmon kopa
mika? have you plenty of salmon? mitlite (imp.), sit down; cultus
mitlite, to stop anywhere without particular object; mitlite tenas, to
be with child; mitlite keekwillie, to put down.
Mit'-whit, v. Chinook, Ametwhet. To stand; stand up. Mit-
whit stick, a standing tree; a mast.
Mokst, adj.    Chinook, Makst.    Two; twice.
Moo'-la, n.    French, Moulin.    A mill.    Stick moola, a saw-mill.
Moo'-lock, n. Chinook, Emuluk. Ah elk. This word, strangely
enough, occurs also in the Koquilth of Humboldt Bay.
Moon, n. English, idem. The moon. Ikt moon, a month; sick
moon,, the wane or old moon.
Moos-moos, n. Klikatat, Musmus; Chinook, Emusmos. Buffalo,
horned cattle. The word, slightly varied, is common to several languages. Mr. Anderson derives it from the Cree word moostoos, a
buffalo, and supposes it to have been imported by the Canadians;
but Father Pandosy makes musmus Yakama.
: a 18
DICTIONARY  OF THE  CHINOOK JARGON.
Moo'-sum, v., n. Chihalis, Musam. ! To sleep; sleep. Tikegh moo-
sum, or olo moosum, to be sleepy (literally, to want, or be hungry for
sleep); nika hyas moosum, i" slept very sound.
Mow-itsh, or Mah'-witsh,
Nootka, Mauitsh (Hale); Nit-
tinat, Moitsh, a> deer; Nootka, Moowatsh, a bear (Jewitt). A
deer; venison. Frequently used to signify a wild animal; as, huloima mowitch, a strange or different kind of beast. The meaning
given in Jewitt's book is probably a misprint. Like moolock, an
elk, the word is found in the Koquilth of Humboldt Bay.
Muck-a-muck, n., v. Quaere u. d. Makamak (Hale). To eat; to
bite; food. Muckamuck chuck, &c, to drink water, or other liquid.
Neither Chinook nor Chihalis. Mr. Anderson considers it an invented word.
Mus'-ket, n.
bow.   .
English, idem.    A gun or musket.    Stick musket, a
N.
Na. The interrogative particle. Ex. Mika na klatawa okook sun ?
do you go to-day ? Interrogation is, however, often conveyed by
intonation only.
Na-ah, n. Chinook, TlkanAa. A mother. (Hale.) Peculiar to
the Columbia, and now in fact obsolete, the English Ma'ma being
used instead.
IT ah, interj. Common to several languages. Look here! I say!
Nah sikhs! halloo, friend ! Also nsed in common conversation to
call attention to some point not thoroughly understood. In the
Yakama language, it is the sign of the vocative; as, nah tehn! 0
man.
Nan'-itsh, v. Quaere u. d. To see; look; look for; seek. Nan-
itsh! look there ! kloshe nanitsh! look out! take care ! cultus nan-
itsh, to look round idly, or from curiosity only. Mamook nanitsh, to
show. The word is neither Chinook nor Chihalis. Dr. Scouler gives
nannanitch as Nootka and Columbian.   It is possibly the former.
Nau'-its, adv. Chihalis, Noitsh. Mr. Hale gives this for off shore;
on the stream. It means, according to Mr. Anderson, the sea-beach,
and is not properly a Jargon word.
Na wit'-ka, adv. Chinook, idem; Klikatat and Yakama, N'witka.
Yes; certainly; yes indeed; to be sure. Nawitka wake nika kumtuks, indeed I don't know. In answer to a negative question, many
Indians use it as affirming the negative. Ex. Wake mika nanitsh ?
did you not see [it] ?    Nawitka, / did not.
\ ,
PART  I.    CHLNOOK—ENGLISH.
19
Nem, n. English, Name. A name. Mamook nem, to name, or call
by name.
Ne-nam-ooks, n.    Chinook, Enanamuks.    The land otter.
Ne-si'-ka, pron.    Chinook, Nisaika.    We/ us; our.
Ne'-whah. Chinook, Niwha. It seems to be an adverb used,
as is often the case, as a verb, the meaning being hither, come, or
bring it hither.   Ex. Newhah nika nanitsh, here, let me see it.
Ni'-ka, pron.    Chinook, Naika.    /; me; my; mine.
Nose, n. English, idem. The nose; also, a promontory. Boat
nose, the bow of a boat,
0.
O'-koke, or O'-kook, pron.    Chinook, Okok.    This;  that;  it.
Iktah okook? what is that? okook sun, to-day; okook klaksta, he
who; okook klaska, they (being present).    It is often abbreviated
to oke; as, oke sun.
O'-la-pitS-ki, n.   Chinook, Oolpitski.    (Hale.)    Fire.   Not prop-.
erly a Jargon word.
O'-le-man, «., adj.   English, Old man.   An old man; old; worn
out.   Hyas oleman kiuatan, a very old horse.   As regards articles,
used in the sense of worn out.
Ol'-hy-iu, n.   Chinook, Olhaiyu.   A seal.
O'-lil-lie, or O'-lal-lie, n.   Belbella, idem.   (Tolmie.)   Originally
the salmon berry.   Chinook, Klalelli, berries in general.   Berries.
Shot olillie, huckleberries ; siahpult olillie, raspberries ; salmon olillie,
salmon berries, &c.   On Puget Sound, always called Olallie.
O'-lo, adj.    Chinook, idem.    Sungry.    Olo chuck, thirsty;   olo
moosum, sleepy.
O'-luk, n.    Chihalis, idem.    A snake.
O'-na, n.   Chinook, Eona.    The razor fish or solen; clams.   Used
only at mouth of the Columbia.
Oos'-kan, n.   Chinook.,  A cup; a bowl.
O'-pe-kwan, n.   Chinook, Opekwanh.   A basket; tin kettle.
O'-pitl-kegh, n.   Chinook, Optleke.    A. bow.
•O'-pit-sah, n.    Chinook, 6ptsakh.    A knife.    Opitsah yakka sikhs
(the knife's friend), a fork.   The word is also used to denote a
' sweetJieart.
O'-poots, or O'-pootsh, n.    Chinook, Obeputsh, the fundament.
' The posterior; the fundament; the tail of an animal.   Boat opoots,
the rudder; opoots-sill, a breech clout.
I
I 20
DICTIONARY  OF  THE CHINOOK JARGON.
1
Ote-lagh, n.    (Hale.)    Chinook, Ootlakh.    The sun.    Not prop-
erly a Jargon word.
Ow, n<   Chinook, Au.   A brother younger than the speaker.
■I        ' i      P.
Pahtl, adj. Chinook, Patl. Full. Pahtl lum or paht-lum, drunk;
pahtl chuck, wet; pahtl illahie, dirty; mamook pahtl, to fill.
Paint, or Pent, n., adj.    English, Paint.    Mamook pent, to paint.
Papa, n.   English, idem.   A father.
Pa'see-sie, «.    Chinook, PasIsi.   A blanket; woollen cloth.
Pa-si'-ooks, n., adj. Chinook, PAsisiuKS. French; a Frenchman. Mr. Hale supposed this to be a.corruption of the French
word Francois. It is, however, really derived from the foregoing
word, Pasisi, with the terminal uks, which is a plural form applied to living beings. Lewis and Clarke (vol. ii., p. 413) give
Pashisheooks, clothmen, as the Chinook name for the whites, and
this explanation was also furnished me by people of that tribe. It
has since been generally restricted to the French Canadians, though
among some of the tribes east of the Cascade Range, it is applied
indiscriminately to all the Hudson's Bay people.
Pchih, or Pit-chih, adj. Quaere u. d. Thin in dimension, as of a
board.    (Shaw.)    Not in common use.
Pe-chugh, adj.   Chinook, Ptsekh.    Green.
Pee, conj. French, Puis. (Anderson.) Then; besides; and; or;
but. Pee weght, and also; besides which; pee nika wauwau wake,
but I say, No.
Peh'-pah, n.    English, Paper.    Paper;   a letter;
Mamook pehpah, to write.
Pel'-ton, n., adj.    Jargon.    A fool; foolish; crazy.
ton, like a fool; hyas pel ton mika, you are very silly.
The Indians adopted this word from the name of a deranged
person, Archibald Pelton, or perhaps Felton, whom Mr. Wilson P.
Hunt found on his journey to Astoria, and carried there with him.
The circumstance is mentioned by FranchGre, in his " Narrative,"
trans, p. 149.
Pe-shak', or Pe-shuk', adj. Nootka, Peshuk; Nittinat, idem.
Bad.
Pe-what'-tie, adj.    Chinook, Pihwati.    Thin, like paper, &c.
L'-ah, n., adj.   English, Fire.   Fire; ripe; cooked.   Mamook piah,
any writing.
Kahkwa pel-
to cook; to burn; piah-ship, a steamer; piah olillie, ripe ber
ries PART  I.    CHINOOK—ENGLISH.
21
piah sapolill, baked bread; piah sick, the venereal disease; saghillie
piah, lightning.
Pil, adj. Chinook, Tlpelpel. Father Pandosy gives Pilpilp, as
signifying red, in the Nez Perce or Sahaptin, also. Red; of a reddish color. Pil illahie, red clay or vermilion; pil dolla, gold; pil
chickamin, copper; pil kiuatan, a bay or chestnut horse.
Pil'-pil, n. Jargon. Blood. Mahsh pilpil, to bleed; to menstruate.
Derived from the foregoing.
Pish, n.    English.    Fish.
Pit-lilh', or Pit-hlil', adj. Quaere u. d. Thick in consistence, as
molasses.
Piu-piu, n. French, Pder, to stink. Or from the sound often uttered expressive of disgust at a bad smell.    A skunk.
Poh, v. Chinook, idem. By onoma. Mamook poh, to blow out or
extinguish, as a candle.
Po'-lak-lie, n., adj. Chinook, Polakli. Night; darkness; dark.
Tenas polaklie, evening; hyas polaklie, late at night; very dark;
sit-kum polaklie, midnight (literally, the half night).
Po'-lal-lie, n. Quaere French, Poudre. Gunpowder; dust; sand.
Polallie illahie, sandy ground. The word is certainly neither Chinook nor Chihalis.
Poo, n. By onoma. (Hale.) The sound of a gun. Mamook poo,
to shoot; moxt poo, a double-barrelled gun; toll urn poo, a six-
shooter.    Nisqually, Opoo, to break wind.
Poo'-lie, adj.    French, Pourri.   Rotten.
Pot'-latch, or Paht'-latsh, n., v. Nootka, Paiichilt (Jewitt);
Pachaetl, or Pachatl (Cook). A gift; to give. Cultus pot-
latch, a present or free gift.
Pow'-itsh, n.    Chinook, Pauitsh.    A crab-apple.
Puk'-puk, n. Probably an invented word. A blow with the fist;
a fist-fight. Mamook pukpuk, to box; to fight with tlie fists; puk-
puk solleks, to fight in anger.
Puss'-puss, n. English. A cat. On Puget Sound, pronounced
pish-pish.    Hyas pusspuss, a cougar.
Sagh-a-lie, or Sah'-ha-lie, adj. Chinook, Sakhali; Clatsop,
Ukhshakhali. Up; above; high: Saghalie tyee (literally, the
chief above), God. A term invented by the missionaries for want
of a native one.
****L
*& 9,9
DIC IT
ONARY  OF  THE  CHINOOK  JARGON.
Sail, or Sill, n.    English, Sail.    A sail; any cotton or linen goods..
Mamook sail, to make sail; mamook keekwillie sail, to take in sail;
tzum sail, printed cloth or calico.
Sa-kol'-eks, or Se-kol'-uks, n.    Chinook, Tsakaluks, leggings.
Trowsers; pantaloons.   Keekwillie sakoleks, drawers.
Sal-lal',  n.    Chinook, Klkwushala.     (Shelwell of Lewis and
Clarke.)    The sallal berry ; fruit of gualtheria shallon.
Salmon, n.    English, idem.    The salmon; fish generally.    Tyee
salmon, i.e., chief salmon, the spring salmon (salmo kwinnat, Rich.);
masahchie salmon, a winter species (salmo canis, Suckley); tzum
salmon, salmon trout.
Salt, n., adj.   English, idem.    Salt, or a salt taste.   Salt chuck, the
sea.
San-de-lie, n., adj.    French, Cendre.    Ash-colwed.    (Anderson.)
A roan horse; roan-colored.
Sap'-o-lill, n.   Chinook, Tsapelil.    Wheat, flour, or meal.    Piah
sapolill, baked bread;  lolo sapolill, whole wheat.    The word has
been erroneously supposed to come from the French la farine.    It
is, however, a true Indian word, and seems common to various
Columbia river tribes.   Pandosy gives Saplil as Yakama for bread;
Lewis and Clarke write it Chapelell.
Se-ah-host, or Se-agh'-ost, n.   Chinook, Siakhost, the face.   The
face;   the eyes.    Halo seahhost, blind;  icht seahhost, one-eyed;
lakit seahhost (four eyes), or dolla seahhost, spectacles.
Se-ah-po, or Se-ah-pult, n.   French, Chapeau.   A hat or cap.
Seahpult olillie, the raspberry.
Shame, or Shem, n.   English, idem.    Shame.   Halo shem mika ?
arn't you ashamed of yourself?
Shan-tie, v.   French, Chanter.    To sing.
She-lok'-um, n.   Chinook, Tshailakumit.
ing-glass; glass.
Ship, n.   English, idem.    A ship or vessel.
vessel; piah ship, a steamer; shfep-man, a sailor.
Shoes, n.   English, idem.    Shoes; skin shoes;  moccasins.    Stick
N shoes, boots or shoes made of leather.
Shot, n.   English, idem:   Shot; lead.   Shot olillie, huckleberries.
Shu'-gah, or Shu'-kwa, ||    English.    Sugar.
Shugh, n.    Chinook, Shukhshukii.    A rattle.    An imitation doubtless of the sound.    (Anderson.)    Shugh-opoots, a rattlesnake.
i Shut, n.    English, Shirt.    A shirt.
Shwah-kuk, n.   Chihalis, Shwakeuk.    A frog.
(Anderson.)   A look-
Stick ship, a sailing PART  I.    CHINOOK—ENGLISH.
23
Si-ah, adj. Nootka, Saia. Far; far off. .Comparative distance is
expressed by intonation or repetition; as, $,\ah-s\&h,. very far ; wake
siah, near, not far. Jewitt gives Sieyah as the sky in Nootka,
which was perhaps the true meaning, or, more probably, they
called the sky | the afar."
Si-am, n.    Chinook, Ishaiem.    The grizzly bear.
Sick, adj. English, idem. |||| Cole sick, the ague; sick tum-
tum, grieved; sorry; jealous; unhappy.
Sikhs, or Shikhs, n. Chinook, Skasiks; Sahaptin, Shikstua.
(Pandosy.)    A friend.    Used only towards men.
Sin'-a-moxt, adj.    Chinook, Sinimakst.    Seven.
Si-pah, adj. Wasco. (Shaw.) Straight, like a ramrod. Of only
local use.
Sis'-ki-you, n.    Cree.    (Anderson.)    A bob-tailed horse*
This name, ludicrously enough, has been bestowed on the range
of mountains separating Oregon and California,' and also on a
county in the latter State. The origin of this designation, as related to me by Mr. Anderson, was as follows. Mr. Archibald R.
McLeod, a chief factor of the Hudson's Bay Company, in the year
1828, while crossing the mountains with a pack train, was overtaken by a snow storm, in which he lost most of his animals, including a noted bob-tailed race-horse. His Canadian followers, in
compliment to their chief, or "bourgeois," named the place the
Pass of the Siskiyou,—an appellation subsequently adopted as the
veritable Indian name of the locality, and which thence extended
to the whole range, and the adjoining district.
Sit'-kum, n., adj. Chinook, Sitkum (Anderson) ; Clatsop, Asjtko.
A half; apart. Sitkum dolla, half a dollar; sitkum sun, noon;
tenas sitkum, a quarter, or a small part.
Sit'-lay, or Sit'-li-ay, n. French, Les etriers. (Anderson.)
Stirrups.
Sit'-shum, v.    Chihalis, idem.    To swim.
Si'-wash, n., adj.    French, Sauvage.    An Indian; Indian.
Skin, n. English, idem. Skin. Skin shoes, moccasins; stick skin,
the bark of a tree.
Skoo'-kum, or Skoo-koom', n., adj. Chihalis, Skukum. A
ghost; an evil, spirit or demon ;. strong. Skookum tumtum, brave ;
skookum chuck, a rapid.
Skwak'-wal, n. Chinook, Skakulh (Anderson); Clatsop, Ska-
koli.    A lamprey eel. ' Of local use only.
Skwis'-kwiS, n.    Chinook, Cathlamet dialect.    A squirrel. m
24
DICTIONARY  OF THE  CHINOOK  JARGON.
.Sla-hal', |   Chinook, Etlaltlal.    A game played with ten small
disks, one of which is marked.
Smet'-ocks, n. Chihalis, Smettaks. The large clam (Lutraria).
Used only at the mouth of the Columbia river.
Smoke, n.   English, idem.    Smoke; clouds; fog; steam.
Snass, n. Quaere u. d. Rain. Cole snass, snow. The word is
neither Chinook nor Chihalis, and is perhaps manufactured.
Snown-   English, idem.    Snow.
Soap, n.   English, idem.    Soap.
So-le'-mie, n. Chinook, Sulamich (Anderson); Clatsop, Sholbe.
The cranberry.
Sol'^leks, or Sah'-leks, «., adj. Quaere u. d. Anger; angry.
Mamook solleks, to fight; tikegh solleks, to be hostile; kumtuks
solleks, to be passionate.
So'-pe-na, v.    Chinook, T'sopena.    To jump; to leap.
Spo'-oh, or Spo'-eh, adj. Chinook, idem. Faded; any light
color, as pale blue, drab, &c.    Chahko spoeh, to fade.
Spoon, n.   English, idem.    A spoon.
Spose, conj. English, Suppose. If; supposing; provided that; in
order that. Spose mika nanitsh nika canim, if you see my canoe;
spose nika klatawa kopa Chinook, if or when I go to Chinook;
kahkwa spose, as if.   See Kloshe spose.
Stick, n., adj. English, idem. A stick; a tree; wood; wooden.
Stick skin, bark; ship stick, a mast; mitwhit stick, a standing
tree; icht stick, a yard measure; stick shoes, leather shoes or boots,
as distinguished from skin shoes or moccasins; kull stick, oak (hard
wood) ; isick stick, the ash (paddle wood).
Stock'-en, n.   English.    Stockings or socks.
Stoh, adj. Chinook, idem. Loose. Mamook stoh, to untie; unloose; undo.   Metaphorically, to absolve.
Stone, n. English, idem. A rock or stone; bone; horn; the testicles.   Stone kiuatan, a stallion ; mahsh stone, to castrate.
Stote'-kin, adj.   Chinook, Stoktkin.    Eight.
Stutch'-un, n.    English, Sturgeon.    The sturgeon.
Suk-wal'-al, n.   Chinook (Hale); Clatsop, Shukwalala, a gun or
musket.   No longer used in Jargon.
Sun, n.   English, idem.    The sun; a day.   Tenas sun, early; sitkum sun, noon; klip sun, sunset.
Sun'-day, n.   English, idem.   Sunday.   Icht Sunday, a week; hyas
sunday, a holiday.    A flag hoisted on a particular occasion is
sometimes also called Sunday.   The other days of the week are PART  I.    CHINOOK ENGLISH.
25
usually counted from this; as, icht, mokst, klone sun kopet Sunday, one, two, or three days after Sunday. Saturday used to be
called at the Hudson's Bay Company's posts " muckamuck sun,"
food day, as the one on which the rations were issued.
T. %
Tagh'-um, To'-hum, or Tugh'-um, adj.    Chinook, Takhum;
Cowlitz, Tukhum ; Kwantlen, Tukhum' ; Selish, Takkan.    Six.
Tahl-kie,   or  Tahnl-kie,  adv.     Chinook,  Tanlki.     Yesterday.
.   Icht tahlkie, day before yesterday.
Tah-nim, v.    Chihalis, idem.    To measure.    Of only local use, and
not strictly Jargon.
Taht'-le-lum, or Tot'-le lum, adj.    Chinook, Tatlelum.    Ten.
The combinations from this are simple.    Moxt, klone, &c, tahtle-
lum, signifying twenty, thirty, &c.; tahtlelum pe icht, &c, eleven,
twelve, &c.
Tal-a-pus, n.    Chinook, Italipas; Yakama, Telipa.    (Pandosy.)
The coyote or prairie wolf.    A sort of deity or supernatural being,
prominent in Indian mythology.    A sneak.
I Ta-mah-no-us, n.    Chinook, Itamanawas.    A sort of guardian or
familiar spirit;  magic;  luck; fortune;  any thing supernatural.
One's particular forte is said to be his tamahnous.   Mamook ta-
mahnous, to conjure;   "make medecine;"   masahchie tamahnous,
witchcraft or necromancy.    Mr. Anderson restricts the true meaning
of the' word to conjuring.
Ta-mo'-litsh, or Ta-mow'-litsh, m    Chinook, Tamulitsh (Anderson) ; Yakama, Tamolitsh (Pandosy).   A tub; barrel; bucket.
Icht tamolitsh, a bushel measure.
Tanse, v., n.    English, Dance.    To dance.
T'chuk'-in, or Tsugh'-ken.   See Chuckin.
Tea, n.    English, idem.    Tea.
Te-ah-wit, n.    Chinook, Tiawi;  Clatsop, Klaawit.    The leg;
the foot.   Klatawa teahwit, to go on foot; to walk; klook teahwit,
lame.
Teh-teh, v.    Clatsop, Tetehaha.    To trot, as a horse.    Of local
use only.
Ten'-as, or Tan'-as, n., adj.   Nootka, Tanas;  Tokwaht, Tenes.
Small; few;   little; a child;  the young of any animal.    Mokst
nika tenas, I have two children; tenas hyiu, a few; tenas sun, early.
Jewitt gives Tanassis for a child in Nootka. 26
DICTIONARY  OF  THE  CHINOOK  JARGON.
Te-peh, n.   Chinook, Tepeeh. j Quills; the wings of a bird.
Tikegh, or Tu-kegh, v. Chinook, Tikekh. To want; wish;
love; like. Hyas tikegh, to long for; ikta mika tikegh? what do
you want?
Tik'-tik, n.   "By 6noma.   A watch.
Til'-i-kum, n. Chinook, Tilikhum. People. Applied generally,
it means those who are not chiefs. Cultus tilikum, common or insignificant persons; huloima tilikuni, strangers; nika tilikum, my
relations.   It is also used to signify a tribe or band.
Til'-i-kum-ma-ma, n. (Hale.) Chinook, Tlkamama. A father.
The word is not in use in Jargon.
Till, or Tull, adj., n. English, Tire. Tired; heavy; weight; a
weight. Hyas till nika, I am very tired; kansih till okook, how
much does that weigh; mamook till, to weigh.
Tin'-tin, n. By onoma. A bell; a musical instrument. Mamook
tintin, to ring a bell. Among the Indians round the Hudson Bay
Company's posts, the hours were thus known; as, mokst tintin
kopet sitkum sun, two hours, i. e., two bells after noon.
Tkope, adj.   Chinook, idem.    White; light-colored.
Tlehl.   See Klale.
Tl'kope, v.   Chinook, idem.
Toh, or Tooh.   By onoma.
tured word.
T6ke-tie, adj.   Kalapuya.   Pretty.   Not in common use.
To'-lo, v. Kalapuya. To earn; to win at a game; to gain. Kansih dolla nika tolo spose mamook ? how many dollars will I earn
if I work ?
To'-luks, n. Clallam, Toyuk. The mussel. Used on Puget Sound
only.
To-mol-la, adv.   English, To-morrow.   Ikt tomolla, or copet to-
molla, the day after.
Tot, n.   Chihalis, Tot, or Tat.   An uncle.
To'-to, v.   By onoma.    Chinook, Tokh-tokh.    To shake; sift any
thing; winnow.
To-toosh', or Ta-toosh', n. Chippeway, Totosh. (Schoolcraft.)
The breasts of a female; milk.    Totoosh lakles, butter.
To-wagh', adj.   Chinook, Towakh.    Bright; shining; light.
Tsee, adj.    Chinook, idem.    Sweet.
Tsee'-pie, v. Kalapuya. To miss a mark; to mistake one's road;
to make a blunder in speaking; to err or blunder. Tseepie wayhut,
to take the wrong road.
To cut; hew; chop.
Mamook toh, to spit.
A manufac-
1 Not Jargon
PART  I.   CHINOOK—ENGLISH,
Tshi'-ke, adv.   (Hale.)   Quaere u. d.   Directly; soon.
Tshis, adj.    Chinook, idem.    Cold.    Not in common use.
Tsi-at-ko, n. Chihalis, Nisqually, &c, idem;'Clatsop, Echiatku
A nocturnal demon, much feared by the Indians. The Skagits give
this name to the " Couteaux," a tribe of Indians on Frazer River,
of whom they stand in like awe.
Tsik'-tsik, or Tchik'-tchik, n. By onoma. A wagon; a cart;
a wheel.    Tsiktsik wayhut, a wagon-road.
Tsil'-tsil, or Chil'-chil, n. Chinook, Echilchil. (Anderson.)
Buttons; the stars.
Tsish, v. By onoma., in imitation of the sound of a grindstone.
(Shaw.)    Mamook tsish, to sharpen.    Of local use.
Ts61e-pat, n.   Klikatat.   A shot-pouch.   Of local use only.
Tso'-lo, n. Kalapuya. (Shaw.) To wander in the dark; to lose
one's way.   Used in the Willamette valley.
Tsugh, »., v. Chinook, idem: A crack or split. Mamook tsugh,
to split; chahko tsugh, to become split or cracked, as by the heat
of the- sun; mamook tsugh illahie, is by some used instead of Hugh,
for to plough.
Tsuk.    See Chuck.
Tuk-a-mo'-nuk, or Tak-a-mo'-nak, adj. Chinook, Itakamonak.
A hundred. It is, like ten, combined with the digits; as, icht, moxt,
klone takamonak, one hundred, two hundred, three hundred, &c.
Hyas takamonak, or tahtlelum takamonak, a thousand.
Tuk'-wil-la, or To'-kwil-la, n. Kalapuya. The hazel-nut; nuts
generally. ,
Tum'-tum, n. By onoma., from the pulsations of the heart. (Anderson.)    The heart; the will; opinion.   Mahsh tumtum, to give
' orders; mamook tumtum, to make up one's mind; mamook closhe
tumtum, to make fiends or peace; sick tumtum, grief; jealousy;
moxt tumtum nika, I am undecided, i. e., / have two wills. Q. Kah
nesika klatawa? where shall we go? A. Mika tumtum, wherever
you please; as you will. Ikta mika tumtum? what.do you think?
Halo tumtum, without a will of one's own, as a child. The heart
seems to be generally, regarded as the seat of the mind or will.
Tum-wa'-ta, n. Tum, by onoma.; English, Water. A waterfall,
cascade, or cataract. Lewis and Clarke give Timm as used by the
Indians above the Dalles of the Columbia in directing them to the
falls.
Tup'-shin, or Tip'-sin, v. Chihalis, Tupshin. A needle. Mamook
tipsin, to sew; to mend; to patch. iWPP^i
28
DICTIONARY  OF THE  CHINOOK JARGON.
Tup-SO, or Tip'-SO, n.    Chinook, Tepso, a leaf.    Grass; leaves,
fringe; feathers; fur.    Often but incorrectly employed for Yakso,
hair; tipso illahie, prairie; dely tipso, hay.
Ty'-ee, «., adj.    Nootka, Taiyi; Tyee (Jewitt).   A chief.   Any
thing of superior order.   Saghalie tyee, the Deity; tyee salmon,
the spring salmon.   Toyon is given by some of the northwestern
voyagers as the Eskimo appellation for chief.
Tzum, H adj.   Chinook, idem.    Mixed colors; spots or stripes; a
mark or figure; writing; paint; painted.    Tzum sill, printed calico;
tzum pehpa, writing; mamook tzum, to write; tzum illahie, blazed
or surveyed land.
W.
Wagh, v.   Chinook, Wakh.   To pour; to spill; to vomit.   Mamook
wagh chuck, pour out some water.
Wdik.e,adv.   Nootka, Wik (Jewitt); Tokwaht, Wek.   No; not.
Wa'-ki, adv.   (Hale.)   Chinook, Wakl    To-morrow.    Not? Jargon.
Wap'-pa-too, n.   Quaere u. d.    The root of the Sagitaria sagitti-
folia, which forms an article of food;   the potato.   The word is
neither Chinook nor Chihalis, but is everywhere in common use.
Wash, v.    English, idem.    Mamook wash, to dash.
Waiun, adj.    English, Warm.    Hyas waum, hot;  waum illahie,
summer; mamook waum, to heat; waum-sick-cole-sick, fever and
ague.
Wau'-wau, v., n.    Nootka;  Nittinat, Wawe.    To talk;  speak;
call; ask; tell; answer; talk or conversation.     Cultus wauwau,
idle talk; stuff; nonsense; hyas wauwau, to shout.
Way'-hut, Hweh'-kut, or Wee'-hut, n.   Chinook, Wehut, a
road; Yakama, Wiet, far.    A road or trail.    Tsik-tsik way hut, a
xvagon-road.    About Vancouver, on the Columbia, it is pronounced
Hwehkut; on Puget Sound, Weehut.
Weght, covj.   Chinook, idem.   Again; also; more.   Pe nika weght,'
and I too; pahtlatsh weght, give me some more; tenas weght, a
little more yet.
Whim, i'. Wasco. (Shaw.) To fell. Whim stick, a fallen tree;
mamook whim okook stick, fell that tree. Also, to throw, in wrestling.    Of local use only.
Win'-a-pie, adv. Nootka; Nittinat, Wilapi. By-and-bye; presently; wait. Of local use; the Chinook Alki being more common.
I, n*r^»- **.-
PART  I.    CHINOOK—ENGLISH.
29
Wind, or Win, n. English, idem. Wind. The winds are often
known by the country from which they blow; as, for instance, on
the Columbia, an easterly is a Walla-walla wind; at the mouth of
the river, a southerly is a Tilamooks wind, &c. Breath. Ex. Halo
wind, out of breath; dead.
J
Y.    -
Yah'-hul, n. Chinook, Yakhul ; Ebekhol. A name. Not in general use.
Yah-ka, or Yok'-ka, pron. Chinook, Yaka. Be; his; him;
she; it, &c.
Yah'-kis-ilt'h, adj. Chinook, Yakisilt'h. Sharp. Mr. Anderson
gives as the original, " cutting."
Yah'-wa, adv. Chinook, Yawakh. There; thither; thence; beyond.
Yah'-whul.   See Ayahwhul.
Yak'-SO, n.    Chinook, idem.    The hair of the head; liair generally.
Ya-kwah'-tin, or Kwah'-tin, n. Chinook and Clatsop, Yakwa-
tin.    The belly; the entrails.
Yaub.   See Lejaub.
Yel'-a-kwat.' See Kalakwahtie.
Yi'-em, v., n. Chihalis, Yaiem. To relate; to tell a story; to confess to a priest; a story or tale.
Youtl, adj. Quaere Chihalis, Eyutlh ; Nisqually, Juil, glad.
Pleased; proud; (of a horse), spirited. Hyas youtl yakka tumtum, his heart is very glad; he is much puffed up.
Youtl-kut, adj., n. Chinook, Yutlkut. Long (in dimension);
length.
Yout-skut, or Yutes'-kut, adj. Chinook, Yutskuta. Short (in
dimension).
Y-salt'h, or Ye-salt'h.   See Esalt'h.
Yuk'-wa, adv. Chinook, Yakwa. Sere; hither; this side of;
this way.    Yukwa kopa okook house, this side of that house.
1
I  PART
ENGLISH- I
- ^-"ir rsi^SK^^s >>■■*
■ J''4
re PAET II.   ENGLISH—CHINOOK.
Above, sdgh-a-lie.
Absolve, mam'-ook stoh.
Acorns, kdh-na-way.
Across, in'-a-ti.
Afraid, kwass.
After, Afterwards, kim'-ta.
Again, weght.
All, kon'-a-way.
Alms, e'-la-han, or e-lann'.
Also, weght.
Although, kegh-tchie.
Always, kwdh-ne-sum.
American, Boston.
Amusement, hee'-hee.
And, pee.
Anger, Angry, soV-leks.
Apple, le pome.
Apron, keh-su, or ki'-su.
Arbutus uva ursi, lahb.
Arrive at, ko.
Arrow ka-li'-tan.
As if, kdh-kwa spose.
At, ko'-pa.
Aunt, kwal'h.
Awl, shoes keep'-wot.
Axe, la-hash'.
Bad, me-sdh-chie ; pe-shuk'.
Bag, le sak.
Ball, le bdl.
Bargain, mdh-kook ; huy-huy.
Bark, stick-skin.
Barrel, ta-mo'-litsh.
Basket, o'-pe-kwan.
Beads, ka-mo'-suk.
Bear (black), chet'-woot;  its'-
woot; (grizzly), si-am'.
Beat, to, kok'-shut.
Beaver, ee'-na.
Because, keh-wa.
Become, to, chdh-ko.
Bed, bed.
Before, e'-lip, or el'-ip.
Behind, kim'-ta.
Bell, tih'-tin.
Belly, ya-kwdh-tin.
Below, kee'-kwil-lie.
Belt, la san-jel'.
Berries, o'-lil-Ue; o'-lal-lie.
Best, e'-lip closhe.
Bird, kal-lak'-a-la.
Biscuit, le bis'-kwee.
Bitter, klihl.
Black, Male.
Blackberries, klik'-a-muks.
Blanket, pa-see'-sie.
Blind, ha'-lo se-dh-host.
Blood, pil-pil.
Blow out, mam'-ook poh.
Blue (light), spo'-oh.
  (dark), Male.
Blunder, to, tsee'-pie.
Board, la plash.
Boat, boat.
Bob-tailed;     a  bob-tailed
horse, sis'-ki-you. PART  n.      ENGLISH—CHINOOK.
Boil, to, lip'-lip.
Bone, stone.
Borrow to, a-ydh-whul.
Bosom (female), tortoosh.
Both, kun'-a-moxt.
Bottle, la-boo-ti'.
Bow, o'-pitl-kegh.
Bowl, oos'-kan.
Box, la ca-sett'.
Bracelet, klik'-wdl-lie.
Brave, skoo'-kum tum'-tum.
Bread, le pan.
Break, to, kok'-shut.
Breasts, to-toosh'.
Breech clout, o'-poots sill.
Bridle, la bleed.
Bright, to-wdgh.
Broad, kluk-ulh'.
Broom, bloom.
Brother, kahp-ho, if elder than
the speaker;  ow, if younger.
Male cousins the same.
Brother-in-law, ek'-keh.
Bucket, ta-mo'-litsh.
Buffalo, moos'-moos.
Bullet, le bal; ka-li'-tan.
Bundle, kow.
But, :pe.
Butter, to-toosh' la-kles'.
Buttons, tsil'-tsil.
Buy, to, mdh-kook.
By-and-by, win'-a-pie.
Cat, puss'-puss.
Cataract, turn' wa-ter.
Cattle, moos'-moos.
Certainly, na-wit'-ka.
Chain, la shen; chik'a-min lope
Chair, la shase.
Cheat, to, la-ldh.
Chicken, la pool.
Chief, ty-ee'.
Child, ten'-as.
Clams,  o'-na;   luk'-ut-chee ; la~
kwii-chee.
Clams, the large kind, smet-ocks.
Clear up, to, chdh-ko klah.
Cloth (cotton), sail.
Clouds, smoke.
Coat, ca-po'.
Coffee, kau'-py.
Cold, cole; tshis.
Comb, comb.
Comb, to, mam'-ook comb.
Come, to, chdh-ko.
Confess, to, yi'-em.
Conjuring, ta-mdh-no-us.
Cook, to, mam'-ook pi'-ah.
Copper, pil chik'-a-min.
Cord, ten'-as lope.
Corn, e-salt'h', or ye-salt'h'.
Corral, kul-ldgh.
Cotton goods, sail.
Cough, hoh'-hoh.
Count, to, mam'-ook kwun'-nun.
Cousin, see brother and sister.
Coyote, tal'-a-pus.
Crab apple, pow'-itsh.
Cranberry, so'-le-mie.
Crazy, pel'-ton.
Cream-colored, le clem.
Crooked, ki'-wa.
Cross, la clo-a'.
Crow, kdh-kah.
^""■^-rnrniii 'I!
PART  H.      ENGLISH—OHINOOK.
35
Cry, to, cly.
Cup, oos'-kan.
Curly, hunl'-kih.
Cut, to, tl'ko'-pe.
D.
Dance, to, tanse.
Dark, darkness, po'-lak-lie.
Day, sun.
Dead, mem'-a-loost.
Deaf, ik-poo'-ie kwil-lan.
Dear, hy'-as mdh-kook.
Deep, klip.
Deer, mow'-itsh.
Demon, skoo'-kum.
Devil, di-aub'; yaub; le-jaub'.
Different, hul-o'-i-ma.
Difficult, kull.
Dig, to, mam'-ook il'-la-hie.
Dime, bit, or mit.
Do, to, mam'-ook.
Doctor, doc'-tin.
Dog, kam'-ooks.
Dollar, dol'-la, or tdh-la.
Door, la po'te.
Down stream,,.mi'-mie.
Drink, to, muck'-a-muck.
Drive, to, kish'-kish.
Drunk, pdht-lum.
Dry, de-ly'.
Duck   (Mallard),   kwih-kweh;
hdht-haht.
Dust, po'-lal-lie.
E.
Eagle, chak'-chak.
Ear, kwo-lann'.
Early, ten'-as sun.
Earn, to, to'-lo
king chautsh.
Earth, il'-la-hie.
Eat, to, muck'-a-muck.
Egg, le sap'; le zep'.
Eight, sto'-te-kin.
Elk, moo'-lock.
Enclosure, kul-ldgh.
English,
Englishman,
Enough, hi-yu'; ko-pet'.
Entrails, ki-ydgh.
Evening, ten'-as po'-lak-lie.
Every, kon'-a-way.
Exchange, hiiy-huy.
Eyes, se-dh-host.
F.
Pace, se-dh-host.
Faded, spo'-oh.
Falsehood, klim-in'-a-whit.
Far, si-dh.
Fast (quick), hy-ak'.
Fast (tight), kwutl.
Fasten, to, kow.
Fat, glease.
Father, pa!-pa.
Fathom, it'-lan.
Fear, kwass.
Fell, to (as a tree), Mam'-ook
whim.
Fence, kul-ldgh.
Fetch, to, mam'-ook chdh-ko.
Fever, waum sick.
Few, ten'-as!
Fight, to, mam'-ook sol'-leks.
Fight, with fists, mam'-ook
pukZ-puk.
Figured (as calico), tzum.
File, la leem.
Fill, to, mam'-ook pahtl.
Find, to, klap. TS
36
PART  H.      ENGLISH—CHINOOK.
Fingers, le doo.
Fire,. pi'-ah ; o-la-pits'-ki.
First, e'-lip, or el'-ip.
Fish, pish.
Fish-hook, ik'-kik."
Five, kwin'-num.
Flea, so'-pen e'-na-poo ; cho'-tub.
Flesh, itl'-wil-lie.
Flint, kil-it'-sut.
Flour, sap'-o-lill.
Fly, to, ka-wak/.
Fog, smoke.
Food, muck'-a-muck.
.Fool, pel'-ton.
Foolish, pel'-ton.
Foot, le-pee'.
Forever, kwdh-ne-sum.
Forget, to, mdh-lie.
Fork, la poo-shet'.
Formerly, dhn-kut-te, or dhn-
kot-tie.
Four, lak'-it, or lok'-it.
Fowl, la pool.
French, Frenchman, pa-si'-
ooks.
Friend, sikhs, or shikhs.
Frog, shwdh-kuk.
Fry, to, mam'-ook lapo-el'.
Frying-pan, la po-eV.
Full, pahtl.
Fundament, o'-poots.
Gallop, to, kwa-lal'-kwa-laV.
Gather, to, ho'-ku-melh.
Get, to, is'-kum.
Get out, mahsh.
Get up, get-up', or ket-op'.
Ghost, skoo'-kum.
Gift, cul'-tus pot'-latch.
Give, to, pot'-latch.
Glad, kwann.
Go, to, klat'-a-wa.
God, sdgh-a-lie ty-ee'.
Gold, pil chik'-a-min.
Good, klose,' or kloshe.
Good-bye, kla-how'-ya.
Goods, ik'-tah.
Goose,    whuy'-whuy;   kal-ak-a-
lah-ma.
Grandfather, chape.
Grandmother, chitsh.
Grease, la-kles'; glease.
Green, pe-chugh'.
Grey; a grey horse, le gky.
Grizzly bear, si-am'.
Ground, il'-la-hie.
Gun; musket, suk'-wa-lal.
H.
Hair, yak'-so.
Half, sit'-kum.
Hammer, le mdh-to.
Hand, le mdh.
Hand (game of), it'-lo-kum.
Handkerchief, hak'-at-shum.
Hard, kull.
Hare, kwit'-shad-ie.
Harrow, to, mam'-ook comb il'-
la-hie.
Hat, se-dh-po; se-dh-pult.
Haul, haul.
Hazel-nuts, tuk'-wil-la.
He, his, yah-ka.
Head, la tet.
Heart, turn'-turn.
Heaven, sdgh-il-Ue il'-la-hie.
Heavy, till.
Help, to, mam'-ook e-lann'.
Here, yuk'-wa. 	
PART  II.   ENGLISH—CHINOOK.
37
Hermaphrodite, bur'-dash.
Hide, to, ip'-soot.
High, sdgh-a-lie.
Hit, to, kwul'h.
Hoe, la pe-osh'.
Hog, co'-sho.
Hole, kla-iohap'.
Holiday, Sunday.
Horn, stone.
Horse, kiu'-a-tan.
House, house.
How, kdh-ta.
How are you, kla-how'-ya.
HOW many, kun'-sih; kun'-
juk.
Hundred, tuk-a-mo'-nuk.
Hungry, o'-lo.
Hurry, howh; hy-ak'.
I.
I, ni-ka.
If, spose.
In, ko'-pa.
Indian, si'-wash.
In shore, mdht-wil-lie.
Iron, chik'-a-min.
It, yah-ka.
J.
Jealous, sick turn'-turn.
Jump, to, so'-pe-na.
.    K.
Kam-ass root, la'-ka-mass.
Kettle, ket'-ling.
Kick, to, chuk'-kin.
Kiss, to kiss, be'-be.
Knife, o'-pit-sah.
Knock, to, ko'-ko.
Knotty, hunl'-kih.
Know, to, kum'-tuks.
I
Lame, klook te-dh-wit.
Lamprey eel, skwak'-wal,
Language, la lang.
Large, hy-as'.
Lately, chee.
Laughter, hee'-hee.
Lazy, lazy.
Leap, to, so'-pe-na.
Leaf, tup'-so, or tip'-so.
Lean, to, lagh.
Leave, to, mahsh.
Leave off, to, ko-pet'.
Leg, te-dh-wit.
Leggings, mi-tass'.
Lend, to, a-ydh-whul.
Lick, to, klak'-wun.
Lie, to, klim-in'-a-whit.
Like, kdh-kwa.
Like, to, tik-egh.
Little, ten'-as.
Long, youtl'-kut.
Long  ago,  dhn-kut-te,  or  dhn-
kot-tie.
Look, to, nan'-itsh.
Look here! nah.
Look out! klose nan'-itsh.
Looking-glass, she-lok'-um.
Loose, stoh.
Lose  the  way,   to,  tso'-lo;
tsee-pie' way-hut.
Louse, e'-na-poo, or in'-a-poo.
Love, to, tik-egh.
M.
Magic, ta-mdh-no-us. 38
PART  II.      ENGLISH—CHINOOK.
Make, to, mam'-ook.
Man, man.
Many, hy-iu'..
Marry, to, mal-i-eh.
Mass (Ceremony 6f), la messe.
Mast, ship stick. t
Mat, klis'-kwiss.
Mattock, la pe-osh'.
Measure, to, tah'-nim.
Meat, itV-wil-lie.
Medicine, la mes'-tin.
Mend, to, mam'-ook tip'-shin.
Menstruate, to, mahsh pil'-
pil.
Metal, metallic, chik'-a-min.
Middle, the, kat'-suk, or kot'-
suk.
Midnight, sit'-kum po'-lak-lie.
Milk, to-toosh'.
Mill, moo'-la.
Mind, the, tum'-tum.
Miss, to, tsee'-pie.
Mistake, to, tsee'-pie.
Moccasins, skin-shoes.
Molasses, mel-ass'.
Money, chik'-a-min.
Month, moon.
Moon, moon.
More, weght.
Mosquito, mel'-a-kwa.
Mother, 'mama ; na'-ah.
Mountain, la mon'-U.
Mouse, hool'-hool.
Mouth, la boos.
Much, hy-iu'.
Mule, le mel.
Musical Instrument, tin'-
tin.
Musket, musket.
Mussels, to'-luks.
My, mine, ni'-ka.
IS.
Nails, le cloo.
Name, nem; yah-hul.
Near, wake sv-dh.
Neck, le cou.
Needle, keep'-wot.
New, clue.
Night, po'-lak-lie.
Nine, kwaist, or kweest.
No, not, wake.
Noise, la tlah.
None, ha'-lo.
Nonsense, cul'-tus wau'-wau.
Noon, sit-kum sun.
Nose, nose.
Notwithstanding, kegh-tchie
Now, al'-ta.
Numerals—
1, ikt.
2, mokst.
3, klone.
4, lakit.
5, kwinnum.
6, taghum.
*l, sinnamokst.
8, stotekin.
9, kwaist.
10, tahtlelum.
11, tahtlelum pe ikt
20, mokst tahtlelum.
100, ikt takamonuk.
Nuts, tuk'-wil-la.
0.
Oak, kull stick.
Oar, la lahm; la lum.
Oats, la wen.
Off, klak.'
Off shore, mdht-lin-nie ft_i.n. ieO»   ii ■,.»! i ^
■»*».
PART II.      ENGLISH—CHINOOK.
39
Oil, glease.
Old, o'-le-man.
Old1 man, o'-le-man.
Old woman, lam'-mi-eh.
One, t£f.
One-eyed, ikt se-dh-host.
Open, hdh-lakl.
Opposite to, in'-a-ti.
Or, pe.
Order, to, mahsh tum'-tum.
Other, hul-o'-i-ma.
Otter (land), ne-mam'-ooks.
Our, ne-si'-ka.
Out doors, klagh-a-nie.
Ox, moos'-moos.
Posteriors, o'-pdots.
Potato, wap'-pa-too.
Pour, to, wa^A.
Powder, po'-lal-lie.
Prairie wolf, tal'-a-pus.
Presently, al'-kie; win'-af-pie
Pretty, to'ke-tie.
Priest, le plet.
Proud, youtl; kwetl'h.
Provided that, spose.
Full, haul.
Q.
Quarter, ten'-as sit'-kum.
Oyster,   chet'-lo,   or   jet'-lo;    Quarter (of a dollar), kwah-ta
kldgh-klogh.
P.
Quick, hy-ak'.
Quills, te-peh.
Paddle, a, is'-ick.
Paddle, to, mam'-ook is'-ick.
Paint, pent.
Paint, to, mam'-ook pent.
Paper, peh-pah.
Peas, le pwau. .
People, til'-i-kum.
Perhaps, klo-nas'.
Petticoat, kal-a-kwah'-tie.
Piebald, le kye.
Pin, kwek'-wi-ens.
Pipe, la peep.
Pitch, la gome.
Plate, la si-et'.
Pleased, youtl.
Plough, le shal-loo'.
Plough, to, klugh il'-la-hie.
Pole, la pehsh.
E.
Rabbit, kwit'-shad-ie.
Rain, snass.
Rattle, shugh.
Rattlesnake, shugho'-poots.
Razor fish, o'-na.
Reach, ko.
■ Red, pil.
Relate, to, yi'-em.
Return, to, kel'-i-pi.
Ribbon, le lo'-ba.
Rice, lice.
Rifle, cal'-li-peen.
Ring, a, kwSo-kweo.
Ripe, pi'-ah.
River, chuck.
Road, way'-hut.
Roan colored, san'-de-lie.
Poor,    kla-how'-yum;     ha'-lo    Roast, mam'-ook la pel-lah'.
ik'-la.
Pork, co'-sho.
Rock, stone.
Rope, lope. mmm-^m
40
PART  II.      ENGLISH—CHINOOK.
Rotten, poo'-lie.
Round, lo'-lo.
Rudder, boat o'-poots.
Rum, lum.
•    s. I
Sack, le sak.
Saddle, la sell.
Saddle housings, le pish'-e-
mo.
Sail, sail.
Sailor, ship'-man.
Salmon, salmon.
Salt, salt.
Sand, po'-lal-lie.
Sash, la san-jel'.
Saw, la gwin; la scie.
Say, to, wau'-wau.
Scissors, le see'-zo.
Sea, salt-chuck.
Seal, ol'-hi-yu si'-wash co'-sho.
See, to, nan'-itsh.
Sell, to, mdh-kook.
Seven, sin'-a-moxt.
Sew, to, mam'-ook tip'-shin.
Shake, to, to-to; hul'-lel.
Shame, shem.
Sharp, ydh-kis-ilt'h.
Sharpen, to, mam'-ook tsish.
She, her, yah-ka.
Sheep, le moo'-to.
Shell money (the small size),
coop-coop; (the large), hy-kwa.
Shingle, le-bdh-do.
Shining, to*wdgh.
Ship, ship.
Shirt, shut.
Shoes, shoes.
Shoot, to, mam'-ook poo.
Short, yiites-kut.
Shot, shot; ten'-as le bal.
Shot  pouch, ka-li-tan le-sac';
tsole'-pat.
Shout, to, hy'-as wau'-wau.
Shovel, la pell.
Shut, to, ik-poo'-ie.
Sick, sick.
Sift, to, to-to.
Silk, la sway.
Silver, t'kope chik'-a-min.
Similar, kdh-kioa.
Since, kim-ta.
Sing, to, shan'-tie.
Sister, kdhp-ho, if older than the
speaker; ats, if younger.
Sit, to, mit'-lite.
Six, t6gh-um.
Skin, skin.
Skunk, hum o'-poots; piu'-piu;
skub'-e-you.
Sky, koo'-sagh.
Slave, e-li'-te ; mist'-shi-mus.
Sleep, moo'-sum.
Slowly, kldh-wa.
Small, ten'-as.
Smell, a, humm.
Smoke, smoke.
Snake, o'-luk.
Snow, snow; cole snass.
Soap, soap.
Soft, klim'-min.
Sorrel colored, a sorrel horse,
le blau.
Sorry, sick tum'-tum.
Sour, kwates.
Spade, la pell.
Speak, to, wau'-wau.
Spill, to, wagh.
Spirits, lum.
Split, tsugh.
Split, to, mam'-ook tsugh. PART II.    ENGLISH—CHINOOK.
41
Spectacles, dol'-la se-dgh-ost,
or lak-it se-agh-ost.
Spit, to, mam'-ook toh.
Split, to  become, chdh-ko
tsugh.
Spoon, spoon.
Spotted, le kye; tzum.
Spurs, le see'-blo.
Squirrel, skwis'-kwk.
Stab, to, klem'-a-hun.
Stand, to, mit'-whit.
Stars, tsil'-tsil.
Stay, to, mit'-lite.
Steal, to, kap-su-al-la.
Steam smoke.
Steamer, pi'-ah ship.
Stick, a, stick.
Stink, a, piii-piu ; humm.
Stirrup, sit'-lay.
Stockings, stock'-en; kush-is'.
Stone, stone.  .
Stop, to, ko-pet'.
Store, mdh-kook house.
Story, eh-kdh-nam.
Straight, de-ldte, or de-let';
si'-pah.
Strawberries, a-mo'-te.
Strong, skoo'-kum.
Sturgeon, stutch'-un.
Sugar, le sook; shu'-gah ; shu'-
kwa.
Summer, waum il'-la-hie.
Sun, sun; bte-lagh.
Sunday, sunday.
Sunset, klip sitn.
Suppose, spose.
Swan, kdh-loke.
Sweep, to, mam'
Sweet, tsee.
Swim, sit'-shum.
T.
-ook bloom.
Table, la tahb.
Tail, o'-poots.
Take, to, is'-kum.
Take care! Hose nan'-itsh.
Take   off,   or   out,   mam'-ook
klak ; mahsh.
Tale, or story, yi'-em; eh-kdh-
nam.
Talk, to, wau'-wau.
Tame, kwass.
Tea, tea.
Teach, to, mam'-ook kum'-tuks.
Tear, to, klugh.
Teeth, le tdh.
Tell, to, wau'-wau.
Ten, tdht-le-lum.
Testicles, stone.
Thank you, mdh-sie.
That, o'-koke.
That way, ydh-wa.
There, ydh-wa; ko-pdh.
They, klas'-ka.
Thick (as molasses), pil'-lilh.
Thin  (as a board), p'chih; pe-
what'-tie.
Thing, ik'-tah.
This, o'-koke.
This way, yuk'-wa.
Thou, thy, thine, mi'-ka.
Thread, kla-pite.
Three, klone.
Throw away, mahsh:
Tide, see chuck.
Tie, to, kow.
Tight, kwutl.
Tinware, ma-ldh.
Tip, tb, lagh.
Tired, till.
To, towards, ko'-pa. 42
PART H.      ENGLISH—CHINOOK.
Tobacco, ki'-nootl; ki'-noos.
To-morrow to-mol'-la.
Tongue, la long.
Trail, way'-hut.
Trap, la piege.
Tree, stick.
Tree, fallen, whim stick.
Trot, to, teh-teh.
Trowsers, sa-kol'-eks.
True, de-ldte.
Truth, de-ldte wau'-wau.
Tub, ta-mo'-litsh.
Twine, ten'-as lope; kla-pite.
Two, twice, mokst.
U.
Uncle, tot.
Under, kee'-kwil-lie.
Understand, to, kum'-tuks.
Unhappy, sick turn'-turn.
Untamed, le-mo'-lo.
Untie,   to,    mam'-ook   stoh;
mahsh kow.
Up, sdgh-a-lie.
Upset, to, kel'-i-pi.
Us, ne-si'-ka.
V.
Venereal, the, pi'-ah sick.
Venison, mow'-itsh.
Very, hy-as'.
Vessel, ship.
Vest, la west.
Vomit, to, wagh.
'      W.
Wagon, tsik'-tsik; chik'-chik.
Wander, to, tso'-lo.
Want, to, tik-igh.
Warm, waum.
Wash, to, mam'-ook wash.
Watch, a, tik'-tik.
Water, chuck.
Waterfall, tum'-water.
We, ne-si'-ka.
Weigh, to, mam'-ook till.'
Wet, pahtl chuck.
Whale,    eh'-ko-lie;   kw&h-nice;
kwad'-dis.
What, ik'-tah.
Wheat, sap'-o-lill.
Wheel, tsik'-tsik; chik'-chik.
When, kan'-sih; kun-juk.
Where, kah.
Whip, le whet.
White, t'kope.
Who, klakZ-sta.
Whole, lo'-lo.
Why, kdh-ta.
Wicked, me-sah-chie.
Wide, kluk-ulh'.
Wild, le mo'-lo.
Will, the, tum'-tum.
Willow, ee'-nastick.
Win, to, to'-lo.
Wind, wind.
Winter, cole il'-la-hie.
Wipe, to, klak'-wun.
Wire, chik'-a-min lope.
Wish, to, tik-egh.
With, ko'-pa.
Without, ha'-lo.
Wolf, le-lod.
Woman, klootsh'-man,
Woman (old), lam'-mi-eh.
Wood, wooden, stick.
Work; to, mam'-ook.
Worn out, o'-le-man.
Worthless, cul'-tus. PART  n.      ENGLISH—.CHINOOK.
43
Wound, to, klem'-a-hun. Yellow, kaw'-ka-wak.
Write, to, mam'-ook peh-pah; Yes, dh-ha; e-eh.
mam'-ook tzum. Yes indeed, na-wit'-ka.
Writing, tzum. Yesterday,   tdhl-Me;  tdhl-kie
Y.
sun.
-Year, ikt cole.
You,   your,   yours,   me-si'-
ka.
Young, ten'-as. 
THE LORD'S PRAYER IN JARGON.
Nesika papa klaksta mitlite kopa   saghalie,   kloshe kopa nesika
Our     father      who      stayeth     in     the above,      good       in       our
tumtum   mika  nem; kloshe mjka tyee   kopa   konaway tilikum;
hearts (be)     thy •   name;    good     thou    chief  among all people;
kloshe mika tumtum kopa illahie, kahkwa kopa saghalie.    Potlatch
good     thy       will       upon    earth        as in      the above. Give
konaway sun nesika muckamuck.   Spose nesika mamook masahchie,
every     day    -our food. If we do ill,
wake   mika hyas   solleks,   pe   spose   klaksta.  masahchie    kopa .
(be) not    thou    very      angry,   'and      if       anyone evil towards
nesika, wake nesika solleks   kopa   klaska.      Mahsh     siah   kopa
us not        we        angry    towards    them.       Send away      far      from
nesaika konaway masahchie.
ns all evil.
Kloshe kahkwa.
I      

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