Open Collections

BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

Vancouver Island, the settlers and investor's opportunity : fruit growing, poultry raising, mixed farming,… Vancouver Island Development League. Victoria Branch 1909

Item Metadata


JSON: bcbooks-1.0222105.json
JSON-LD: bcbooks-1.0222105-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): bcbooks-1.0222105-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: bcbooks-1.0222105-rdf.json
Turtle: bcbooks-1.0222105-turtle.txt
N-Triples: bcbooks-1.0222105-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: bcbooks-1.0222105-source.json
Full Text

Full Text

Building Stone
Sea Harbors
Ship Building
That Section of Canada Richest in Natural Resources
THE SETTLERS AND INVESTORS' OPPORTUNITY The University of British Columbia Library
The gr«
to acre:
The mo
The monu
kJUlUWUH,   own
eas of
le best
,' in the
entire Dominion.
The finest fisheries extant, abounding in salmon,  halibut,
herring, cod, prawns, etc.
The most attractive field for the huntsman or fisherman.
The most suitable centres for poultry raising in Western
The most favorable areas for mixed farming and dairying.
The only extensive deposits of iron on the Pacific  Coast.
The most extensive unprospected copper and other mineralized areas in British Columbia.
The congregated essentials of a great shipbuilding industry.
The finest marble and building stones in Western America.
The best roads ; the grandest and most varied scenery.
The most abundant water power.
The most important whale fisheries of the world.
The hop and flax growing land par excellence.
The geographical command of trans-Pacific commerce.
The most liberal and progressive educational system.
The best cement deposits.
The sealing industry.
The social and political capital.
The assembled essentials of manufacturing greatness.
All of the above combine to make Victoria, Vancouver
Island's Chief City and the Capital of British Columbia,
the Greatest Centre of the Last Great West. Cs.
Vancouver Island
The Land of Opportunity
VANCOUVER   ISLAND   has   an   estimated   area   of
15,000 square miles.    Nothing conveys a better idea of
magnitude than comparison with other countries, so a
few are appended:
The   Island   is   substantially   of   the   same   area   as   the
Province of Nova Scotia, exclusive of Cape Breton.
It is twice as large as Wales.
It is 30 per cent, larger than Belgium. ,
It is nearly twice as large as Massachusetts and larger
than Massachusetts, Connecticut and Rhode Island combined.
In acres the Island is not much under 10,000,000, including
the adjacent smaller islands.
The climate of Vancouver Island approximates closely to
that of great Britain, modified by its geographical situation.
The proximity of the snow-capped Olympian mountains has
a marked effect on the summer temperature, which is never
intensely hot, while the Japan current, striking the west coast,
brings with it moisture and heat, which temper the severity
of the winter. The remarkable advantages Victoria enjoys
over all other coast points, the small amount of rainfall and
moderate temperature, are strikingly illustrated in the
meteorological returns for the years 1907 and 1908. The
absence of any high ranges of mountains in the immediate
vicinity, the influence of the Japan current and other factors
all combine to produce a result which is perhaps best shown,
by the fact that the isothermal lines showing the highest
temperature in the winter and the lowest temperature in the
//W • "<V
?3 Victoria.        Vancouver.
Average    temperature 1907.. 50.5" 48.4°
1908.. 50.0° 48.5°
Rainfall     1907.. 22.0" 55.28"
 1908.. 26.70" 62.37"
Days   when   rain   fell. 1907.. 137 153
.1908.. 133 181
Yearly    snow-fall    ...1907.. 4.70" 23.10"
"    " " ...1908.. 0.80" 3.25"
summer, intersect at Victoria, thus demonstrating that it
enjoys the double advantage of both the ideal summer and
ideal winter temperature. The following is a condensation
of the returns in question:
Pt. Simpson.
Prince Rupert.
Average highest temperature at Victoria during last 20 years... .84.2°
Average lowest temperature at Victoria during last 20 years 17.3°
Unlike many mild climates, that of Vancouver Island is
healthful. There is no malaria, and no endemic disease. The
health department takes every possible precaution to prevent
epidemics. Children thrive wonderfully well in this favored
land, and the aged and feeble find new life in its balmy and
invigorating air.
No portion of Canada affords better inducements to
farmers than British Columbia, and no section of the province
presents more favorable conditions than Vancouver Island.
True, the farming land is confined to comparatively small
areas and much of it is heavily timbered, but as an offset it is
of remarkable fertility, so that a few acres cleared and systematically tilled will yield a comfortable living.
All the cereals grow to perfection, leguminous plants,
roots and vegetables of all kinds, produced in the temperate
zone, grow to large size and of excellent quality. Apples,
pears, plums, prunes, cherries, and all kinds of small fruits,
attain great perfection, while peaches, apricots, nectarines and
grapes, if given special care, can be produced successfully.
Many varieties of nuts, almonds, filberts, walnuts, hazelnuts,
cobnuts and chestnuts do well wherever cultivated.
Flax of fine quality is grown, but so far has only been
used as cattle food, although the fibre produced is long, fine
and silky, yielding from two to three tons per acre. Hops
grow luxuriantly and yield from seven and one-half to nine
tons per acre. Cattle, sheep, hogs and poultry do remarkably well on the
Island, the climate being particularly favorable to them, the
mild winters permitting them to roam at large and pick up an
abundance of green food practically the year round.
Dairying is a profitable and growing industry, Vancouver
Island affording exceptionally favorable opportunities for that
branch of agriculture. The local market absorbs the whole
present output and is still far from being fully supplied, while
the progress of- mining, lumbering and fishing is constantly
creating new demands, and the Oriental trade, as yet in its
infancy, assures a continuance of good prices for very many
years. The average price of butter, at first hand, is twenty-
five cents per pound.
To the man who is conducting a mixed farm, as well as to
the dairy farmer, the keeping and breeding of hogs is an important and profitable item. A dairy farm milking from 5 to
12 or more cows has an enormous quantity of skim milk to
dispose of, and this can be rapidly turned into fine dairy-fed
pork. Many dairy farmers do not breed any pigs, but buy
them from the mixed farmer as their cows come into milk.
The farmer who breeds young pigs can sell them at about six
weeks old for $3.00 each. The live weight price for dairy-fed
pork and hogs is from 6 to 9 cents per lb., and the mixed farmer
who keeps a few brood sows will be able to utilize all his
waste products in the shape of culled fruit, potatoes and all
kinds of farm and garden refuse. The pigs can be given free
range over any wild land and in the summer will practically
make their own living by rooting and eating all kinds of roots
and grass. They do an immense amount of good in cleaning
land of bracken, turning it up deep and taking it out. Roots can
be grown plentifully with advantage to help feed the pigs
through the winter, but when getting ready for sale meal is
fed in conjunction with other food.
Horse-breeding, even in a small way, pays well. The
farmer whose working team consists of a couple of useful
Clyde mares should be able to raise two foals yearly without
the working capacity of the mothers being seriously interfered
with. These foals are saleable as yearlings at from $100 to
$125 each, or if the farmer has plenty of pasture, kept until
they are rising four, when they are ready for breaking and
3  Strong, heavy four-year-old Clydes are worth from $300
to $400. There is a good demand for heavy draught horses.
Hackney breeding is also worthy of attention, as these are fit
for road or light work; and a good stamp of "general purpose"
horse that can plough and draw a good load, and yet trot in
harness, is always in demand.
Another important and profitable occupation for any land
owner residing within reasonable distance of the railway is
that of growing garden truck for the town market and sawmills and logging and mining camps. All kinds of vegetables
can be raised and heavy crops produced, providing a suitable
soil is chosen. In some instances irrigation is resorted to with
highly beneficial results. Amongst the most profitable crops'
to grow are early peas, beans, cabbages, cauliflowers, onions,
and young potatoes, while in the autumn, celery, tomatoes,
carrots and winter cabbages all fetch good prices.
The cost of clearing land ready for breaking up runs from
$45 to $250 per acre, the quality of the soil varying, the rule
being the heavier the timber the better the land, but cleared
and cultivated land is valued at from $100 to $600 per acre.
By adding to the actual cost of clearing a nominal price per
acre and spreading the cost over the whole acreage, a farm of
40 acres will cost- approximately $3,000, and long terms of
payment at a low rate of interest will be given.
To take up one of these farms a man should have, in addition to the first payment required on the land, from one to two
thousand dollars to expend on the following lines:
Compiled from four estimates, two of them being from
old reliable settlers who have cut out homes for themselves in
the bush.
House     $ 575 00
Barns and Outbuildings    240 00
Furniture      150 00
Wagon and Implements    150 00
Horses      220 00
Cattle      100 00
Pigs and Chickens    25 00
Fruit Trees  and  Seed     125 00
Fencing and  Gates     50 00
Sundries      50 00
$1,685 00
5 This estimate may be cut down slightly in some respects,
while the cost of a house and furniture is open to the widest
variation according to a person's means and inclinations.
It will thus be seen that persons who desire a mild and
beautiful climate free from the rigors of winter, and who have
a small capital to give them a start, can in a few years have
a comfortable home, and by proper cultivation of fruit
orchards, root crops, poultry raising, dairying, etc., produce a
revenue varying only with the individual efforts.
Crown land, of which there are yet thousands of acres to
be obtained, may be taken by bona fide settlers on the following conditions: Each settler may pre-empt 160 acres. After
two years' occupation and having improved his land to the
extent of $2.50 per acre, a Crown grant may be obtained by
paying $1.00 an acre, which payment may extend over a period
of five years from the date of the record. A number of
settlers may pre-empt together and put the improvements for
all the land on one-quarter section. A settler is entitled to be
absent from his land two months during each year, and may
obtain leave of absence for six months at a time by applying
to the Land Office.
Agricultural lands will be sold in tracts of not less than
one hundred and sixty (160) acres, except where blocks of
land have been cleared by the Company, and are offered in
smaller parcels, or in case of smaller areas lying between
parcels of land actually surveyed or sold.
Agricultural Lands—Purchase price $5.00 per acre for the
land and an additional sum of $1.00 per thousand feet, board
measure, for all timber on the land in excess of 5,000 feet per
acre, which is capable of being manufactured into lumber,
ties, poles or shingle bolts. The report of the Company's
cruiser as to the quantity of lumber on the land applied for
shall be accepted by and binding on the Company and the
purchasers. The purchase price will be payable one-third
Timber land will be sold in blocks of any area not less
than six hundred and forty (640) acres, with increases above
that area in blocks of 160 acres or multiples thereof, except in
6 the case of smaller areas lying between parcels of land actually
surveyed or sold.
Timber Lands.—Purchase price not less than $26.00 per
acre, in three equal annual instalments, with interest at six per
cent, per annum.
For further particulars as to E. & N. lands, or application
for such lands, address communications to:
L. H. Solly, Land Agent,
E. & N. Railway, Victoria, B. C.
A Pre-emption—160 acres—costs $1.00 per acre after two
years' residence.
First-class agricultural land, uncleared, $5.00 per acre.
Fruit lands return from $100 to $500 per acre.
For further particulars address:—
Bureau of Provincial Information, Victoria, B. C.
Fruit  Growing  and  Horticulture
WHEN the old, improperly cultivated orchards of Vancouver Island began to be replaced by newer and better
stock and methods of fruit growing, very few realized
the importance the industry would reach in a short time.
The new orchards and fruit gardens have a high commercial value that is rapidly increasing. They are planted with
the best varieties; cultivated and cared for by men who know
the business, and accordingly bring large profits to their fortunate owners. It may here be said that there is ample opportunity for hundreds more to engage in this profitable industry.
Within a radius of ten miles of Victoria there are splendid
locations available. It is only a question of a few years before
nearly all the suburbs of Victoria will be planted with
orchards, making it the fruit growing centre of the coast.
Generally speaking, the best varieties to plant are as
follows, given by a recognized authority. For apples,
Duchess, Wealthy, King, and Alexandra; for pears, Bartletts
and Louise Bonnee; for plums, Pond's seedling, and the
Italian variety ,of prunes.
7 ' ^'^mf^mm-ki^r'mt
GLEN LEA FARM, G. HEATHERBELL, COLWOOD, B. C, VANCOUVER ISLAND Strawberries are almost in a class by themselves. Gordon
Head and Cadboro Bay make a speciality of early varieties,
the crop being on the market before the middle of May, and
reaching profusion about a month later. Bonnie Brae is also
coming to the front as a strawberry growing centre, and has
some fine orchards.
per acre to bring an orchard to bearing is about $150.00, outside the value of the land, but it must not be forgotten that
previous to an orchard coming to full fruition some part of the
income, at least, may be derived from its cultivation. The
majority of capable horticulturists grow small fruits between
the rows for the first three or four years, and realize a considerable sum thereby, but this crop must cease as soon as its
growth endangers the adequate nourishment of the orchard.
In the suburbs of Victoria the following resuks are authenticated : Four acres of strawberries produced 28,126 pounds
of fruit, which sold for $2,598 net, or $650 per acre; half an
acre produced 2,826 pounds, giving a net return of $301;
another grower raised 12,556 pounds of berries on one and one-
half acres, which sold for $1,228.60 net, or over $800 per acre.
Rockside Orchard, Victoria, produced marketable plums and
cherries from ten-year-old trees as follows: Plums—35 trees
Grand Duke, 442 crates, averaging 22 pounds; 18 Hungarian
prunes, 216 crates; 27 Engelbert, 290 crates; 10 Tragedy, 142
crates—1,070 crates, a total of 20,416 pounds from 90 trees.
Cherries—Twenty-five Olivet trees yielded 230 crates of 24
pounds, or a total of 5,520 pounds.
These cases are by no means exceptional or confined to
any single district; similar ones could be cited from almost
any part of the Island. Apples and pears produce from 8 to 15
tons of fruit per acre, according to variety, and the average
price is $26 to $30 per ton, respectively. Plums, prunes,
cherries and peaches invariably bear largely, and the prices
are always satisfactory, if the fruit has been properly picked
and packed.
Fruit-packing has been brought to a fine art on Vancouver
Island, the methods used being considered perfect by experts,
9 and other countries are following her lead in this most important matter. Careless or dishonest packing is not tolerated,
offenders being severely punished.
The following figures show the net profits to fruit growers
during the years 1907 and 1908 for fruit handled in Victoria:
Apples,  per  40-lb.   box      $1 50
Plums, per 20-lb.  box     0 60
Prunes,   per  20-lb.   box     0 60
Peaches, per 20-lb. box    1 50
Quinces,  per  40-lb.  box      1 50
Pears,  per  30-lb.  box     1 25
Cherries  (sweet), per 10-lb. box    1 00
Cherries   (sour),  per  24-lb.  box     2 50
Apples, per 40-lb.  box     $1.75
Plums,   per  20-lb.   box     0 70
Prunes, per 20-lb. box    0 70
Peaches,  per 20-lb.  box  1  50
Quinces, per 40-lb. ox  1 50
Pears, per 30-lb. box   1 25
Cherries   (sweet),  per  10-lb.  box  1 00
Cherries  (sour), per 24-lb. box    2 50
Strawberries, per crate of 24 lbs    $2 25
Since the district tributary to Victoria has fruit growing
among its most important assets, the Victoria Fruit Growers'
Exchange, Ltd., the aim of which is to make the fruit growing
industry produce the best results for both the producers of
Vancouver Island and the consumers in British Columbia and
the Northwest, is one of the institutions of prime importance
That is distinctly the aim of the Fruit Growers' Exchange
—to make fruit-growing a leading industry, and to help the
farmers of Vancouver Island to reap a fair return for their
labor and their investment. The efforts of the Exchange have
resulted in the past in doing much good in this direction, but
it may safely be said that no more than a start has yet been
made. Plans are on foot to enlarge the scope and usefulness
of the organization, and it would be impossible to predict here
10 how great an influence the Victoria Fruit Growers' Exchange
will in the future yield to one of the greatest and richest fruitgrowing areas on the Continent.
To define the scope and meaning of the movement, the
Victoria Fruit Growers' Exchange is an organization of fruit
growers residing in Vancouver Island districts tributary to the
city of Victoria. The membership at present writing consists
of about two hundred and fifty active shippers, and from time
to time other influential fruit growers are casting in their lot
with the organization.
Some idea of the work done in the past season by the
Association may be gleaned from the following list of the fruit
handled by it.   It includes:
Strawberries—20,000 crates. (24 Loganberries—1,000 crates. (24
boxes per crate—480,000 boxes).        boxes per crate—24,000 boxes).
Currants—1,000 crates.     (24  boxes Gooseberries—600      crates. (24
per   crate—24,000   boxes). boxes   per   crate—14,400   boxes).
Cherries—2,000 crates. Plums—3,000   crates.
Prunes—4,500   crates. Apples—20,000  boxes.
Tomatoes—1,000  boxes. Rhubarb—1,000 crates.
Peas—200 boxes. Potatoes—1,000  sacks.
Local  Fresh  Eggs—100 cases. Pears—1,000 boxes.
In addition to these the Association handled large quantities of asparagus, carrots, squash, corn, turnips, citrons,
cucumbers, beans, radish, lettuce, onions, etc.
The Cultivation of Bulbs and Flowers
THE very large average of daily sunshine, the small yearly
average rainfall and the almost total absence of frost
have made Victoria an ideal location for the cultivation
of bulbs and flowers. During the past few years this business
has grown very rapidly, although it is undoubtedly true that
even these successes can only be looked upon as preliminary
experiments, so large and important will the future achievements be in this delightful industry.
The same success has been met with in the cultivation and
sale of cut flowers under glass. Last year almost all florists
in the city, notwithstanding that they have been steadily
enlarging their premises in every way, were sold out entirely,
and  found  it  impossible  to keep  up  with  their orders  that
Vancouver Island
The Victori
!iA Branch of Vancouver Island
Development League
victoria. B.C. poured in from all parts of the Pacific Coast and Western
Canada. Tomatoes and lettuce grown under glass for winter
consumption are also important factors in the success achieved
in this business. Tomatoes, cucumbers and lettuce are sent
from Victoria as far north as Fairbanks, in Alaska, and
Dawson, in the Yukon. The prairies also provide a market as
far east as Winnipeg.
Although several of the growers measure their glass
houses by the acre, it is true that this year all the local lettuce
was sold out by the beginning of May, and that the Southern
product had to be imported at prohibitive prices.
There is no question that the phenomenal success of this
industry is due to the fact that so much more sunshine is
experienced in Victoria than in any other part of the North
Pacific Coast.
Bee-keeping and the raising of honey on the Island is an
industry which has been successful in different localities, some
districts having made a high reputation for their products in
that line. There is always a good local market for honey,
wherever it is obtained. The mild and open winters prevent
the possibility of loss by freezing, and the steady spread of
agriculture and cleared fields makes this branch of farming
one of solid promise. Clover grows luxuriously all over the
island farming country, wherever planted, and apiculture will
come to be a recognized phase of agriculture on the Island.
Poultry  Raising  on Vancouver  Island
THE climate of Vancouver Island is, for the most part,
better suited to the successful carrying on of this
industry than almost any part of the United States or
Canada. Vancouver Island offering the exceptional advantage
of a continuous supply of green food out-of-doors all the year
round, places the Island at a great advantage when compared
with that famous poultry country, California, for it has all
California's advantages and has not the dry, intense heat to
contend with that is prevalent in the summer in that country.
It is then established that Vancouver Island is, in so far
as the climate is concerned, a suitable and desirable country
for poultry-raising.    Never have the prospects been brighter
14 for the poultry industry than at present. The high prices will,
no doubt, continue, and the man who uses common sense in
taking care of his stock will have a good investment on his
hens. We believe that the poultry industry is one of the best
fields for a young man to enter who is not afraid to work,
and who is willing to learn the business from the bottom up.
The man who starts from a small beginning, with one breed,
and works his way to the top, is the man who is bound to
The poultry industry has passed the point of being looked
down upon, and is now regarded with favour by even the
wealthier class, who have taken up the industry as a hobby.
We need never fear that the market for poultry will be glutted,
but, on the contrary, do not believe that the present generation
will see the supply meet the demand.
We are often asked by those unacquainted with poultry-
raising, or by the ambitious beginner, whether or not there is
money in poultry. To such our experience gives a direct yes,
but attaches one essential condition, namely, that poultry-
raising be managed with the same care and knowledge that is
needed to make a success of any other legitimate business.
The following reasons are given why poultry should be
taken up by farmers:—
ist—Because the farmer ought, by their means, to convert a
great deal of the waste of his farm into money in the
shape of eggs and chickens for market.
2nd—Because, with intelligent management, they ought to be
all-year revenue producers, with the exception of perhaps two months during the moulting season.
3rd—Because poultry will yield him a quicker return for the
capital invested than any of the other departments of
4th—Because the manure from the poultry house will make a
valuable compost for use in either vegetable garden or
orchard. The birds themselves, if allowed to run in plum
or apple orchards, will destroy all injurious insect life.
5th—Because, while cereals and fruit can only be successfully
grown in certain sections, poultry can be raised for table
use or layers of eggs in all parts of the country.
15  6th—Because poultry-raising is an employment in which the
farmer's wife and daughters can engage, and leave him
free to attend to other departments.
7th—Because it will bring him the best results in the shape of
new-laid eggs during the winter season, when the farmer
has the most time on his hands.
8th—Because to start poultry-raising on the farm requires
but little capital. By good management poultry can
be made, with little cost, a valuable adjunct to his farm.
It has been proven, after many experiments, the outside
cost for one hen per week when food is highest, and during
the most productive and energy-demanding period, to be 2%
cents per week of seven days. Supposing, then, a bird to only
lay three eggs per week for the year, which is a very low
average, and supposing the average market price to be 35
cents per dozen, which is also a low average, there is a clear
minimum profit of, say, 6 cents on each bird per week. Many
have estimated that there is good money in chickens if each
bird would return a profit of $2 per annum. According to the
above estimate, which is a most moderate one, over $3 per
annum would be realized from each hen.
A farmer who lives on Vancouver Island gives the following results from 150 hens for one year:
From   sale   of  eggs    $375  00
From  sale  of  chicks         50 00
From  increase  of  flock         25 00
 $450 00
100 bushels wheat at $1.05 per bushel   $105 00
50  bushels  barley at  60  cents per  bushel      30 00
Sundries          10 00
 $145 00
Net   profit    $305 00
This shows a net profit of $2 for each hen, not including
labor, which yields a handsome return for the money invested.
The home market is nowhere nearly supplied either with
eggs or poultry, large quantities being imported from Manitoba, Ontario, California, Washington and Oregon.    In 1904
17 the value of eggs and poultry imported amounted to over
$400,000, and good prices prevail at all seasons, the average
wholesale prices for eggs on the Coast being:—Fresh eggs,
30 cents per dozen; case eggs, 22 cents per dozen; while the
retail price for fresh eggs averaged 37>4 cents per dozen, ranging from 25 cents to 70 cents. Fowls bring from $9 to $12 per
dozen; chickens, $4 to $7; ducks, $5 to $11; geese, $1 to $1.50
each, and turkeys, from 22 to 30 cents per pound.
All the cereals grow to perfection. Apples, cherries, pears,
plums and prunes thrive especially well.
Berries of all kinds attain large size and excellent flavor.
Hops grow luxuriantly and yield from fY2 to 9 tons per
Flax of fine quality can be grown, of long, fine and silky
Cattle do well the year round on account of the mild
Sheep-raising is followed with substantial profits.
The raising of horses offers unusually good inducements.
Hogs do well and the market for them is always good.
Dairying is a leading industry on the Island.
Poultry raising is carried on with the greatest of success.
1   n   e   r   a
GOLD and silver are very generally distributed throughout
Vancouver Island. There are few places where colors
of gold cannot be found, and gold and silver quartz
veins are plentiful. Placer gold is found in nearly every
stream, notably in Leech river, China creek, Nanaimo river,
Bear river, Clayoquot, Shaw's creek and Cowichan lake. It is
also found in the black sand deposits at many places on the
Copper outcroppings may be said to be universal in the
form of yellow pyrites, and large deposits exist at many points.
Some of the principal places where the existence of copper ore
18 in paying quantities has been established, are: Sooke, Mount
Skirt, Mount Sicker, Mount Brenton, Malahat, Mount
Richards, Quatsino, Sidney Inlet, Barkley Sound, Alberni
Canal, Cameron Lake and San Juan.
Iron is very widely distributed. Extensive deposits of
magnetite and limonite exist in the San Juan district, and
magnetite in immense quantities is also found on Barkley
Sound, Quatsino, Quinsam lake and other points. The big
deposits on the San Juan river give assays of 62.92 per cent,
of metallic iron, 4.68 per cent, silica, no phosphorus, only
traces of sulphur, and no titanium.
The principal coal measures extend from Saanich to
Seymour Narrows, fringing the coast, and again from Fort
McNeil to Fort Rupert and extending through to Coal Harbor
on Quatsino Sound. Coal is also found in Alberni and San
Juan districts.
The principal mines of the Island are those of the Wellington Colliery Company, Limited, situated at Extension,
near Ladysmith, and at Comox District, near Cumberland, and
those of the Western Fuel Company, Limited, of Nanaimo,
which have a large output from the coal measures at Nanaimo.
These mines are of the greatest importance to the Province,
and to Vancouver Island in particular, affording as they do
employment to a large population, and providing a market to
the farming community, who find a ready sale in the mining
towns for all their produce. A large smelter is in operation
at Ladysmith, treating ores from Alaska to Mexico, in conjunction with the ores of Vancouver Island.
Hunting    and    Fishing
THERE are few, if any, countries of its extent that offer
such a variety of attractions to the hunter and angler as
Vancouver Island.   Its game birds include blue and ruffed
grouse,   English   pheasant,   ptarmigan,   snipe,   plover,   swan,
brant, Carolina and Virginia rail, quail, sandhill crane, pelican,
and numerous varieties of ducks and geese.
Of beasts there are elk or wapiti, black tailed deer, black
bear, wolf, wolverine, panther, lynx, raccoon, beaver, otter,
mink, marten and other fur-bearing animals.
19 The numerous lakes and streams swarm with gamey
trout that run from a few ounces as high as eleven pounds,
Dolly Varden and silver char, while in the Straits and the
Pacific are found myriads of fish in endless variety, from the
300-pound halibut to the tiny smelt. All the salmonidae
afford good sport for trolling, and those generally known as
trout, differing in size and color according to locality, but
inhabiting both fresh and salt water, will rise to the fly and
exercise the skill of the most expert angler. In deep-sea
fishing the halibut, cod, sturgeon, skil and dog fish afford
good sport, which may be varied by a shot at a sea otter,
hair seal, porpoise, or even a sea lion if one goes far enough
1  m   b   e  r
ON VANCOUVER ISLAND and the islands immediately
adjacent to it there is standing today sufficient merchantable timber to supply one billion feet annually for
the next hundred years for shipment over railways.
One of the oldest, yet still one of the most progressive
industries on Vancouver Island and in British Columbia generally, is the manufacture of lumber. This island possesses
the most valuable and largest area of merchantable timber in
the world. The Douglas fir, sometimes called the Oregon pine,
is the staple of commerce, and it is here found of the largest
dimensions and in the greatest profusion.
It attains its greatest size on Vancouver Island. Trees
300 feet in height are not rare, the average height of those
felled for lumber being 150 feet. Trees of a greater diameter
than seven feet are rarely cut, those of eight, ten or even
eleven feet in diameter are not rare. The fact that the largest
trees are found near the coast greatly facilitates the transport
of logs from the woods to the mill, and as the majority of the
mills are so situated that the largest ships may load within
a few yards of the saws, the cost per 1,000 feet of handling
Douglas fir and other West coast lumber is small.
Next to the Douglas fir comes the giant arbor vitae, or
red cedar. This extremely valuable timber also attains its
greatest size on Vancouver Island. Its commercial importance
20 is accentuated by the fact that the forests on the other side of
the international boundary, that until recently contained large
bodies of red cedar, have been practically denuded, and from
now on Vancouver Island will have to be depended upon for
the chief, if not the sole, source of supply. The time is even
iiow approaching when it will be considered too valuable for
ftse in the manufacture of shingles and devoted exclusively for
the production of interior furnishings of the best class.
There least twenty varieties of merchantable timber
native to Vancouver Island. The two mentioned above, however, with spruce and hemlock, form the basis of present commercial exploitation, but others will come into the market in
the near future.
It cannot be denied that the field for Vancouver Island
timber as a merchantable proposition is only limited by
facilities for transportation. There is a constant and growing
demand from the prairie provinces, and it should not be forgotten that, as "New" British Columbia opens up, there will
be an increasing demand there. Overseas opportunities will
be dealt with later on. Millions of dollars have been recently
invested in timber and sawmill industries, and branch railroads are being built all over the Island connecting the timber
belts with the main railway lines of Canada.
Number of hours     Mean proportion     Average        Diff.
of Sunshine for month mean     from Ave.
% % %
January  05:00 0.24 0.20        +0.04
February  80:42 0.27 0.27.   j +°'°{j
March         128:48 0.35 0.35
+ 0.00
April '  165:48 0.40 0.41        -0.01
May..         159:48 0.34 0.41        -0.07
June         247:54 0.51 0.44        +0.07
July          320:54 0.66 0.50        +0.07
August         280:30 0.63 0.58        +0.05
September         201:00 0.53 0.46        +0.07
October    109:18 0.32 0.35        -0.03
November  66:48 0.24 0.20        +0.04
December  61:48 0.24 0.15        +.0.09
1888:18 4.73 4.41        +0.32
21  Important    to    Inquirers
The list of Branch Leagues on Vancouver Island, alphabetically arranged, is hereby given. Those wishing information about any one of these districts can obtain it by writing
direct to the Secretaries.
Namt. of District Address as Follows :
Alberni,   B.   C. : Secretary, Alberni Board of Trade, Alberni, B.C.
.   Secretary   Port   Alberni   Board   of   Trade,   Port
Alberni, B. C.
... Secretary     Clayoquot     Development     League,
Torino P. O., B. C.
Port   Alberni,   B.   C
Clayoquot, B. C. ...
Colwood,   B.  C	
Courtenay, B. C.  ...
Cumberland,   B.  C.
Duncan,   B.   C.   ..
... Secretary     Colwood    and    Metchosin    League,
Metchosin   P.O.,   B.   C.
..Secretary Comox Development Lea.gue, Sand-
wick P.O., B. C.
..Secretary Cumberland Development League,
Cumberland, B. C.
. .Secretary Duncan Board of Trade, Duncan, B. C.
East  Wellington,   B.C.. .Secretary The Millstone River Valley Development Society, East Wellington, B.  C.
Holberg,   B.  C Secretary   Settler's   Development   League,   Hol-
berg, B. C.
...Secretary Citizens' League,  Ladysmith,  B.  C.
...Secretary      Citizens'      League      of      Nanaimo,
Nanaimo, B.  C.
Ladysmith,  B. C.
Nanaimo,   B.  C.   .
Nootka,  B. C.   . .
. Secretary Nootka Development League, Nootka,
B.  C.
North Saanich, B. C.  . .Secretary Sidney & North Saanich Development
League, Sidney, B. C.
Oak   Bay,   B.   C Secretary   Oak  Bay  Development  League,   Oak
Bay, B. C.
Port  Renfrew,  B. C.   ...Secretary   Port   Renfrew   Development   League,
Port Renfrew, B. C.
Quatsino,    B.    C Secretary Quatsino Development League, Quatsino, B. C.
...Secretary Shawnigan Development League,
Shawnigan, B. C.
...Secretary Sooke & Otter Development Association,  Sooke, B.  C.
...Secretary TJcluelet Development League,
Ucluelet, B. C.
...Secretary Victoria Branch Vancouver Island
Development  League,  Victoria,  B.   C.
Shawnigan,   B.   C
Sooke, B. C	
Ucluelet,  B. C.
Victoria,  B.  C. . . VICTORIA AND
Vancouver Island
tflf Victoria, Vancouver Island, known everywhere as the
j* " City Beautiful," bids very soon to take high and
deserved rank as the " City Commercial" as well. The
whole world seems to have awakened to the vast possibilities
of Victoria and its sea-girt island country. Railroads,
manufactures, mills, mining interests, great timber corporations and business combinations from England, Canada and
the United States are sending in their representatives into
the City and through the Island.
What brings them here? Timber, coal, iron, copper,
marble, gold, cement, quicksilver, salmon, herring, cod
and halibut fisheries, granite, fire and brick clay, pulp
woods, manufactures, railroad building, steam and electricity,
cheap electric power and light—in a word, OPPORTUNITY.
tfjf Prom Canada and America's rural districts are also
jI coming to Vancouver Island, men and women who are
tired of battling through the long and dreary winters, on
prairies almost treeless, amid drifts and blizzards, and the
icy discomforts of interminable months. What brings
THEM here ? The fact that they can carry on farming,
fruit-growing, poultry-raising, sheep-breeding and mixed
farming generally on Vancouver Island, in a climate which
has neither the extremes of heat or cold, and where life is
really worth living; where markets are steady and prices
good, and where crops can be depended upon.
JTf From England and Canada are arriving year after year
jI in Victoria, families who have come to know that Victoria
is the ideal residence city of the North American Continent.
A city of sunshine and flowers; of a climate so ordered by
the decrees of nature that the rigors of winter and the
sweltering heat of summer have been eliminated from the
weather ; where the school systems, the churches, the parks,
the drives, suburbs and entire surroundings and social
system approach as near as possible to a community where
daily life is a joy and an inspiration. Victoria Chicken
Story of a Man's Success on Two  Acres of Land
Just Outside the City Limits of Victoria,
Vancouver Island.
THERE is much in the man respecting his
success in any vocation. Prosperity,
derived from the smallest things of
life, largely depends upon Lincoln's definition of genius—"Keeping eternally at it." It
is of such a man that this story is told, C. W.
Pettman, upon whose experience these facts
are founded. He came to Victoria, and
bought two acres of land on Quadra street,
just outside the city limits. His is no
method of rough calculation, but common
sense business bookkeeping, and he can
back up his statements by records.
A new chicken house was erected by Mr.
Pettman, ioo feet long, divided into five 20-
foot sections. They are 14 feet wide, and
the height to the centre of the doubled
gabled roof is 10 feet. Each of four of
these sections is intended to hold fifty
hens, the one on the northeast end, fronting on the next street, being used as a
granary. In it are wheat and earth bins,
while above is a commodious straw mow.
" Each of the four sections used for the
hens are of similar construction. The
southeast side is practically all light. In
the centre are two wire netted openings,
covered with wire netting, 3 by 8 feet each,
Canvas covered screens can be lowered to
cover them in cold or rainy weather. At
each side are glass windows, covering the
balance of the wall surface for a height of 3 feet. Both opening and windows having
their lower portions about 3 feet from the
floor. On the other side are the perches,
two in number and 16 inches apart. These
run entirely horizontally, of the same height
and are attached to a dropping board that
is also on a level. The latter is covered
with finely sifted dust, to the depth of
nearly half an inch, which prevents any
smell from the droppings, and are removed
when the houses are cleaned, forming a valuable manure for the berries in the garden.
The floor of each section is covered with
straw litter, which not only produces
warmth, but is also an admirable scratching ground. Mr. Pettman has tried many
varieties of food, and has come to the conclusion that wheat is the best, although
corn might be good in cold weather.
Broken shell, salt and charcoal are contained in automatic holders in each section. Most people feed salt to the hens
with their food, but Mr. Pettman thinks
the hens know more about their requirements than he does, and so permits them
to help themselves. The four runs to the
sections mentioned cover the whole side of
the building, and 28 feet besides. Each is
32 feet wide and 184 feet deep. All are
sowed down in clover and partitioned off
into two divisions. One is left in fallow
while the other is used, and the chickens
have an ample supply of green feed all the
time. A partitioned side pathway gives the
birds access to the farther division when it
is in use.
The trap system is in vogue at Mr. Pett-
man's chicken ranch. The nests for laying
or setting are so arranged that a hen can
enter, but must stay on the nest until released.   The bird pushes forward two pieces of i-l6th circular iron on entering the nest,
which by a trap attached automatically, permit a canvas blind to descend, keeping her
in semi-darkness. There is no danger of
a setting hen getting away from her nest
and spoiling a batch of eggs; she is practically a prisoner until someone comes and
lets her out. But this is not the only use
for.this automatic imprisonment. As soon
as a pullet commences to lay, she is given
a number. It is punched on a tin band
attached to her leg and she gets credit for
every egg she lays. There is a chart in
each section upon which, as soon as a hen
is released, a figure "i" in the proper date
column makes the necessary entry. Adding up the entries across the page gives,
at the end of the month, the total number
of eggs laid by each hen, while every day
addition of the perpendicular column shows
the number of the day's product.
Thus, at a glance, Mr. Pettman can see
which hens are the most prolific producers,
and he is careful to use the eggs from
these when selecting for hatching purposes.
By this method he is able to secure the
best young chickens for laying, if there is
any truth in heredity. The date on which
the hen started laying is also placed on
the chart, together with her previous product of eggs. One hen produced loo eggs
from June 19th to the end of October.
Considering the high price of hen fruit,
the returns were extremely successful.
Mr. Pettman has now some 300 full grown
hens and 200 chickens. His success in the
spring hatching was remarkable, With 52
hens he hatched out 717 chickens that lived,
while, after birth, 17 were killed by the
hens in the nests. This is an average of
over   14,   showing   what   can   be   done   by careful and intelligent care. The fall hatchings were not quite as good, being about
13 to the nest. Most of the hatching is
done in the old building of one story. With
it are connected four covered runs. When
the chickens are old enough to go outside,
they are taken with their mother to one of
these sections. If the weather is at all
cold, so that the chickens might not be
"mothered" sufficiently, a most ingenious
system of triangular cooping is used. There
is an upper door to release, or part in the
middle, that cannot be opened from inside.
Underneath, there is another one, falling
latitudinally, just high enough for the small
chicks to enter at will. At night they are
closed up, wire netting at the apex of the
triangle affording ample ventilation. Mention must also be made of the fact that all
these coops have a moveable wooden floor,
that can be cleaned off and sprayed with
the   smallest   amount   of   trouble
Suppose, at any time, vermin should be
found on any of Mr. Pettman's chickens,
he has a method of removing them that is
very ingenious. It consists of a closed cylinder with a handle attached. Two or
three hens are put in, with the necessary
dust and insect powder, and a few revolutions does the business. Not pleased with
the darkness and dust, the hens try to
climb the revolving sides and ruffle their
feathers, which soon permits a thorough
dusting. As to varieties Mr. Pettman believes in White Wyandottes, although, as
mothers, the Buff Orpingtons come a very
good   second.
Tor further particulars -luriie
LEAGUE, Victoria, B. C., Canada. Prosperous Orchards
Surround Victoria
WHEN the old, improperly cultivated
orchards of Vancouver Island began
to be replaced by newer and better
stock and methods of fruit growing very
few realized the importance the industry
would reach in a short time.
The new orchards and fruit gardens have
a high commercial value that is rapidly increasing. They are planted with the best
varieties; cultivated and cared for by men
who know the business, and accordingly
bring large profits to their fortunate owners.
It may here be said there is ample opportunity for hundreds more to engage in this
profitable industry. Within a radius of ten
miles of Victoria there are splendid locations available. It is only a question of a
few years before nearly all the suburb's of
Victoria will be planted with orchards, making it the fruit growing centre of the Coast.
But the question of how to plant each
special location must be studied on the spot.
In the vicinity of this city there is a great
variety of soils.
Depth of cultivable land, facilities for
drainage and freedom from exposure to
direct sea air have to be carefully considered.
Not only this—outside strawberries, which
flourish everywhere — the actual suitable
varieties of fruit—must be carefully thought
out. Even strawberries do better on some
soils than others. Sandy loam generally
gives more  profitable  results,  but  any  cul- tivable land, if properly prepared, will yield
a good crop.
Generally speaking the best varieties to
plant are as follows, given by a recognized
authority. For apples, Duchess, Wealthy,
King, and Alexandra; for pears, Bartletts
and Louise Bonnee; for plums, Pond's
seedlings, and the Italian variety of prunes.
Strawberries are almost in a class by
themselves. Gordon Head and Cadboro
Bay make a specialty of early varieties, the
crop being on the market before the middle
of May and reaching profusion about a
month later. Bonnie Brae is also "coming
to the front as a strawberry growing centre,
and has some fine orchards.
But one thing that must be always emphasized is the importance of careful and
attractive packing. Honest packing need
not be insisted upon; Victoria had never
a name for the other kind. Properly graded
and packed this district can supply
Some of the Best Fruit
to be found in Canada and in neither of
these important respects has it fallen short
of late years. The local stores give evidence of this; no more attractive display
could be seen than the average collection
of fruit that might almost be labelled "made
in Victoria."
There is practically an unlimited market
available. As far as can be judged the
western provinces of Canada will take all
good fruit that can be made in British
Columbia for many years to come. The
population of Alberta, Saskatchewan and
Manitoba is growing faster than the
orchards that supply them. In addition,
the old time settlers of the western prairie are steadily improving in financial conditions, they have more money to spend than
in early days. The 250,000 people in the
new provinces must depend on this paradise of the west for products of the orchard,
and can utilize much more than can at present be supplied.
This brings up the question—who should
come here to engage in this industry and
what should he do when he does come?
First and foremost, the most indispensable
requirement is adaptability. If a proposed
settler is not a practical fruit grower; able
to pay for competent help; or willing to
bring ordinary application and industry to
the business of growing fruit, he should
not engage in it. But given this requirement a long step is made towards success.
Capital   is    also    an    absolute     necessity.
The Average Cost
per acre to bring an orchard to bearing
is about $150, outside the value of the land,
but it must not be forgotten that previous
to an orchard coming to full fruition some
part of the income, at least, may be derived
from its cultivation. The majority of
capable horticulturists grow small fruits
between the rows for the first three or four
years, and realize a considerable sum thereby, but this side crop must cease as soon
as its growth endangers the adequate nourishment of the  orchard.
Questions are often asked as to how
much land can be successfully looked after
by one man. This is hard to answer without entering into a large number of details
that cannot be included here. A few general suggestioins may not, however, be out
of place.    One man can make a good living off a five or ten- acre patch, but as a commercial proposition 30 to 40 acres is a much
better area. The latter can be handled
much more economically in proportion.
Labor is always a difficult matter to handle
on a small place, but much of the trouble
can be obliterated if the larger orchard is
cultivated. Comparatively small areas are
the best at present around Victoria, not
only because they are more suited to the
great variety of soils, but also because a
large variety of fruits can be successfully
grown in quantities to suit the requirements
of the Northwest markets'. As before em-,
phasifed that market
Requires Carload Lots
of mixed fruits that cannot be supplied
economically from large orchards that are
generally confined to a few varieties. All
the towns in the prairie provinces, with
very few exceptions, will, for many years,
be farm marketing centres, pure and simple,
that will not be able to utilize the large
consignment that meet the necessities of
large cities.
Adverting to the question of labor, it will
be seen that this requirement removes a
large amount of trouble. With a large
variety of fruits under crop, coming each
in its successive season, the orchard helper
will have almost, if not quite, continuous
employment either at cultivation, pruning
or picking.
With prospects like these there need be
no hesitation in claiming for Victoria and
vicinity the banner of productiveness and
quality against any other district in Canada.
For further, particulars write
Victoria, B. C, -       -       - Canada. House Domestics
Vancouver Island needs a large number of House
Domestics. They will get good homes, and receive wages
according to their experience and skill. Housekeepers are
very seldom in demand. The average wage paid is as
General  Domestics  from. . .$15 to $25 per month and board.
Housemaids from   $20 to $25 per month and board.
Plain Cooks from   $20 to $25 per month and board.
Good Nurses from   $20 to $25 per month and board.
Extra good Cooks from. . . .$25 to $30 per month and board.
Girls of sixteen $15 per month and board.
Domestics get one evening and one afternoon off,
each week, and every other Sunday afternoon and evening
off.    Domestics are expected to wear caps and aprons.
All applicants must have references as to competency
and good character.
To girls wishing an opportunity to better themselves
in a new country, Vancouver Island offers special opportunities in the line of domestic service. The climate is
delightful, very similar to England, but with more sunshine.
The population is almost exclusively English, Canadian,
Scotch and Irish. The only drawback Domestics will find
is that it will be difficult for them to keep from getting
married, especially if they are competent, cooks and house
Farm Help
Average wage $25 a month and board in the winter.
$30 to $35 a month and board in the summer.
Good chances in this way for young men to learn mixed
farming, poultry-raising, fruit-growing, and vegetable-growing,   and   at  the   same  time  be  self-supporting  and   save
The above figures and conditions as to Domestic and
Farm Help have been furnished The Vancouver Island
League from the best sources obtainable, and are considered
accurate and trustworthy. A MANUFACTURING CENTRE
What are the requisites for a successful manufacturing centre? Doubtless there are some that may not occur to us, but among them those, which
seem to be necessary, are: Proximity
to the sources of supply of raw materials, abundance of power, efficient
means of transportation, mildness ot
climate, proximity of markets, the supply of labor. Many manufacturing
centres have become rich and prosperous without having all or even the majority of these advantages, and undoubtedly the possession of some of
them will counterbalance the absence
of others. How does Victoria stand in
respect to them? And first as to the
matter of raw materials.
The essential factors In a great variety of manufactures, perhaps in very
much the greater number of them, are
wood and iron. Of certain woods we
have abundance here, from structural
wood, such as fir, spruce and the like,
to finishing woods, such as the yellow
cedar, tbe imaples and others. We have
regular steamship communications with
parts of the world from which woods
of various kinds can be obtained, and
perhaps we are not extravagant in saying that no place can be named where
woods of all kinds, whether for structural purposes, cabinet-making and
general finishing or the 'manufacture of
implements, can be assembled more
readily and at less cost than in Victoria. As for iron, we think the evidence
warrants the statement that there is
an abundance of good ore and that
it can ibe assembled together with fuel
and fluxes, as cheaply in the vicinity of
Victoria as In any place that can be
named. Such other raw materials of
manufacture as are 'produced in the
lands around the Pacific Ocean can be
brought here as cheaply and as conveniently as to any other point. Therefore, in regard to raw materials, we
think the city is exceptionally well
At present there is no great abundance of power available, but in the
course of the next year the British
Columbia Electric Railway company
will be able to sell power in large
quantities.   There are several good small
rivers that can 'he utilized in this vicinity for power purposes, and although
we may not be able to claim that Victoria is exceptionally well provided
with water powers, it is, or shortly will
be, sufficiently well equipped in this
line to meet any requirements likely to
be made upon it for some time to
come. An abundance of coal and the
available waste of lumber mills afford
the means of developing any desired
amount of steam power. Hence on this
point we feel we may speak with confidence and say that the question of
cheap power cam be satisfactorily answered here.
Efficiency of transportation is already
very well met by existing facilities, and
with the early coming of the Canadian
Northern it will be yet further supplied,
so far as traffic with the American
Continent is concerned. Water transportation is already excellent and new
facilities in this line are being constantly provided. On this score Victoria
stands on a par with any possible rival
on the Coast.
The climate is exceedingly favorable
to the operation of manufacturing
plants, for the absence of extreme heat
in the summer and extreme cold in the
winter makes the carrying on of any
manufacturing business substantially
the same from a climatic point of
view the whole year round. This to a
certain degree offsets any increased
wages that might have to be paid to
operatives here.
The markets of all the world are just
as accessible from Victoria as from any
other seaport in the world, and our
existing and projected railway connections will place the city on a par with
any other in respect to the markets of
For the reasons above very briefly
set out, we hold that there is not only
no reason why Victoria may not become a manufacturing point of much
importance, but that there is every
reason why it should, and that among
the factors that will go to make this a
great and prosperous city, manufacturing may be expected to take a very
important place. A TREMENDOUS FACT
(From Daily  Colonist, Saturday, August 7th, 1909.J
On Vancouver Island and the islands
immediately adjacent to it there is
standing today sufficient merchantable
timber to supply one billion feet annually
for the next hundred years for shipment
over railways.
Get that tremendous fact well into
your mind. Remember that this enormous mass of potential freight has not
to be created. It stands ready to be
used. In the estimate no account is
taken of the timber growth of the next
Having fully mastered what this
means, and to help you to do so we
will say that it provides for an annual
cut for a century of more than three
times what is cut at Vancouver by the
mills, which are the foundation of that
city's growth and prosperity, think over
the following statement:
There is no area of twenty thousand
square miles (that is about the area of
Vancouver Island and the adjacent
islands) whereon there is today such an
amount of potential freight in sight.
You need not be afraid to make this
assertion. Remember again that the
freight has not to be created. You can
take a man and show it to him.
Now think of what it will cost to get
this timber ready to  put on the cars.
Suppose we say $15 a thousand superficial feet. This gives us $1,500,000,000.
Divide this by 100, which is necessary if
we are going to spread the production
over a century, and we get $15,000,000 a
Probably the price is low even for the
present; it certainly is low looking to
the future.
You can study out for yourself what we
will have here besides timber. Certainly
as the timber is cut away we will have
great fruit districts. Certainly our
mines and our fisheries will furnish
freights; but we only wish to speak
today of what is in sight in this year of
our Lord, 1909.
Just one other idea:
Where will the market for this timber
Principally in the great wheat-growing area,
Here we have return freights for the
cars that take the timber East. We
have the best ports in the world from
which to ship the wheat.
Is there any more inviting field than
this for railway enterprise, and if so,
where is it ?
Is there any part of the world with a
better outlook, and if so, where is it ?


Citation Scheme:


Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics



Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            async >
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:


Related Items