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BC Historical Books

The richest section of Yale District, British Columbia : With up-to-date maps and illustrations : Nicola,… 1914

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Array NICOLA
SIMILKAMEEN
AND
TULAMEEN VALLEYS
The Richest Section
of
BRITISH COLUMBIA
With
Up-to-Date Maps and Illustrations
By
FRANK   BAILEY,   Mining Engineer
PRICE 35 CENTS
IfflOTMffllpMllllllllll Illllllll
WARD, ELLWOOD & POUND, Printers, 318 Homer St., Vancouver, B.C. A HOME FROM HOME
IVY HOUSE
1212 GRANVILLE ST.
Vancouver, B. C.
Proprietor,   L. P. BOWLER, Mining Engineer (from South Africa)
AN UP-TO-DATE homely Rooming House, with
Comfortable Lounges, Piano. Hot and Cold Water
in Every Room, Steam Heated. Rates from $3.00
to $6.00.    PHONES, SEYMOUR 47170 and 8441.
N. B.     The Proprietor Handles Platinum and Other
Propositions.
FOR A GOOD INVESTMENT
Buy Large Lots in
Princeton Heights
The First Addition to
Princeton, B. C.
Surrounded by Rich Natural Resources,  Payrolls   and
Splendid Climate
Apply to FRANK BAILEY
BOX 102 PRINCETON, B.C. IA o'
3333^
a AT
■
fl|i| as#f^
^THE TIMES was established in 1884 as a
VU Liberal Newspaper. It has grown in influence and popular favor ever since, and is today one of the most prosperous newspapers in
British Columbia.
The Daily Times by mail to any address in
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PREMIER OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  The Richest Section
of
Yale District
BRITISH COLUMBIA
With
Up-to-date Maps and Illustrations
NICOLA
SIMILKAMEEN and TULAMEEN VALLEYS
Compiled by
FRANK BAILEY, Mining Engineer 0
>>
u
U
.c i
INTRODUCTION
N the compilation of a reliable pamphlet on the natural resources of
a new rich mining section a great many difficulties present themselves.
These are enhanced many fold when the means of transportation are
uncompleted to the Pacific Coast, and the extensive mining development is of the most primitive nature.
The different reports, maps and illustrations in this pamphlet of the
many mining camps and districts on their arable and mineral resources can
be absolutely relied on, the mining map of Camp Hediey is the only up-to-
date map published and will make this pamphlet not only an asset, but a
reliable book of reference.
To successfully cope with these, a thorough acquaintance with the different sections treated of is absolutely essential.
This experience the author of this pamphlet has had, having spent
much time and money in repeatedly visiting every camp referred to herein.
The outside world knows but little of this vast region lying practically
at the doors of Vancouver and its rich natural resources, including gold,
platinum, silver, and silver-lead deposits, gold-copper deposits and native
copper, coal, gypsum, and other minerals.
It is the mission of this booklet, in connection with the illustrations
and maps, to make plain to the mining and investing public just where the
Similkameen, Tulameen and Nicola Valleys are, how they are reached as
well as what they contain.
In the scope of this publication it is manifestly impossible to describe
all of the mineral claims in detail. Great assistance has been rendered
in the help of this work by Mr. Charles Camsell and some of his associates
and members of the Canadian Geological Survey of Canada. Mr. John
Gladden, C.E., in his assistance on the Hediey Map and Mr. A. Megraw,
editor "Hediey Gazette," and Mr. J. M. Wright of the "Similkameen
Star," besides mining engineers.
The business people and others interested in the development of the
country required an illustrated descriptive pamphlet, and asked me to
get one up.
Many years before this publication is out of date the towns of the
Similkameen should be prosperous cities, being backed by the rich mining
industry which requires development and will in future become extensive
producers of new wealth.
FRANK BAILEY, M.C.M.I.
Mining Engineer.
Box 102, Princeton. V
t/5
O 0^r HE Nicola Valley embraces the water-shed of the Nicola and Cold-
/4 water Rivers and Nicola Lake lying between the water-shed of the
111 Thompson River to the west and north and the Okanagan Lake to
^■^ the east and the watersheds of the Tulameen River to the south.
The general direction of the Valley is in an easterly and westerly
course for some seventy miles in length.
The majority of the land in the Nicola Valley is good grazing land,
extending for miles over the Aspen Grove, rolling park-like prairie land.
The bottom lands grow excellent hay and oats and the bench lands grow
good crops when irrigated, or dry farmed. High above the benches are
rolling plateaus covered with bunch grass and peavine. This is in the Kam-
loops plateau, as the dry belt of the interior of British Columbia is known.
In the early days when cattle ranching was all the go, most of the
herds of cattle were shipped from the Okanagan, Similkameen and Nicola
Valleys over the Hope Mountains and down the Fraser River to the Pacific
Coast, before the advent of the Canadian Pacific railway into British
Columbia.
Market gardens flourish in the Valley, and some of the hardy apples,
Yellow Transparent, and all kinds of crabapples do very well.
The climate is mild and dry. Situated at an elevation from 1000 to
3000 feet, one can get any kind of a climate they wish. At Spence's Bridge
in the summer time it gets very hot, and not much winter to speak of. In the
city of Merritt they have a splendid climate, with summer and winter tern-
View of Merritt from the Water Tank.
5 perature neither excessively hot or cold, the duration of winter seldom
exceeding three months. The writer has seen it 30 degrees below zero,
but not often.
The climate is unexcelled for the curing of consumptives and other
lung  troubles.
Au kinds of soil can he obtained on the benches and bottom lands,
irrigation is the sufficient application of water to ensure crop production,
although not necessary in all cases, it is resorted to by1 the farmers to
ensure their crops, hence there is never any failure of crops such as one
hears  of in non-irrigated  sections of  Canada.
The mountain streams, and Nicola Lake, could supply the demand of
unlimited water supply which would bring under cultivation all the arable
lands in the Nicola Valley, but the expense would be too great in the construction of this big ditch for such a small community of bona fide farmers.
The two most important towns in the Nicola Valley are Merritt and
Nicola. Nicola Lake is situated about seven miles from Merritt. It is a
beautiful sheet of water about twelve miles long by about a mile in width.
Splendid skating can be had in the winter, and boating, fishing and bathing
can be obtained in the summer time. Nicola is the present government
headquarters for this district, but it is talked of being removed to Merritt,
as it is the commercial town for the district.
Tennis Party at Nicola Lake.
The writer's first visit to Nicola was in 1901, before Merritt was thought
of. The former place has not grown very much since then. In 1906 when
the C.P.R. started to build up the Nicola Valley to Nicola Lake, the new
town of Forksdale was subdivided into lots, but when the Nicola Valley
coal basin was opened up by the Nicola Valley Coal & Coke Company and
by the Diamond Vale Company, the town of Merritt sprang into existence.
About 1908 the writer opened up the first real estate and engineering office. Since that time a number of coal mines have been opened, and the
town has grown from a few hundred to between 2,000 and 3,000 souls.
The city of Merritt is now one of the largest cities between the
Pacific coast and the Nicola valley, a distance of about 120 miles. It is
the most prosperous, with all modern conveniences, two railways, Government telephone, city hall, sidewalks, graded streets, electric light and
water power, and park—all owned by the city. The Inland Coal and Coke
Company, Ltd.
Incorporated  Under the Laws of British  Columbia
The Inland Coal and Coke Company's Tipple Below Their Mine
The Inland Coal and Coke Company is one of the most important
producing mines in this district and is now turning out over 750 tons a day
of first-class  bituminous  coai.
The tipple, situate on their own spur, in direct connection with the
C. P. R., has a capacity of 1100 tons a day, and the present equipment is
capable of handling a large tonnage.
The Company has spent a large sum of money during the last few
years in development work and is at the present moment adding to their
equipment with a view to increasing their output and also handling it in
the   most  economic   manner.
The produce of this mine has most excellent coking qualities and it
is the intention of the Directors in the near future to erect coking ovens
or. their own property.
The principal officers of the Company are Mr. G. I. Wilson, President;
Mr. W. L. Nicol, Vice-President; Mr. Joseph Graham, General Manager at
the mine, and Mr. Andrew Bryden, Mine Superintendent. The Head Offices
are at 530 Seymour Street, Vancouver.    Mine Office, Merritt, B. C. H1
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• Nicola Valley Coal and Coke
Company, Ltd.
Incorporated under the laws of British Columbia.
®
HE above Company, operating at Middlesboro, about half a mile
from Merritt, was incorporated on November 27th, 1906, with a
capital of $1,500,000.00, of which $1,107,700.00 has been issued and
fully   paid.
The property of the company consists of 2661 acres of coal-
bearing lands in the Coldwater and Nicola Valleys, containing six seams
upon which considerable work has been done, besides other development.
The coal seams and associated strata are probably ot the Tertiary age,
resting upon igneous rocks of the Triassic age. Fossil specimens are
seldom found, the surface being covered with volcanic ash and glacial
drift and vegetation. The deposit of coal covers both the lower and upper
portions of the coal basin.
The length of the Nicola coal basin is about ten miles and its average
width about three miles.    The best natural section of the coal strata can
"Middlesboro," N. V. C.
C. Co. Mines, About One Mile South of
Merritt, B. C.
be seen in what is known as "Coal Gully," a rugged ravine which cuts
the formation near the boundary line between the Nicola Valley Coal &
Coke Co.'s property and The Pacific  Coast Colliery  Co.    Four  seams are
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Merritt Hotel, the First Hotel in Merritt.
11 here exposed, with interstratified beds of grey sandstone, clays and shale.
Between this gully and the igneous rocks that form the edge of the basin
is about 1000 feet. Other workings have been made by the Pacific Coast
Colliery on the flats below, but no attempt has been made to connect
them with the outcroppings in Coal Gully.
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The aggregated seams opened up on this property contain between
40 and 50 feet of high class bituminous and semi-bituminous coal. Four
of these seams outcrop in Coal Gully and two in what is known as Cold-
water Hill, about half a mile to the west, where the Inland Coal & Coke
12 The Building Boom in Merritt, 1912-19L
The First Postoffice in Nicola Valley.
13 Company have their mines.    The dip of the seams in Coal Gully is south,
while the dip of the seams in the Coldwater Hill is almost due east.
Steady development has been pursued from the commencement of
operations, so that the output of the mines has increased regularly each
year, shipments for 1911 amounting to 210,000 tons, which was greatly
increased in 1912 and 1913, and undoubtedly this company will soon be
paying dividends on their present rate of production. As the coal is not
only good for steam and domestic use, but it is also specially adapted for
coking, a large market will be available upon completion of the Copper
Mountain smelter with the Kettle Valley Railway giving direct access to
the Similkameen and Boundary smelters. The company intends to enter
this business when the Great Northern Railway can give direct transportation facilities, and will install a battery of most modern by-product retort
ovens, which will supply a coke of quality not hitherto produced in Western
America. This will mean the establishment of a considerable industry, as
large quantities of power gas will be produced as well as tar, pitch and
creosote oil.
Looking  Down Quilchana  Avenue.
The company have lately acquired an up-to-date "Draeger" plant. A
Draeger training station is maintained at the mine, where instruction is
given both to officials and miners in the use of the apparatus. An interesting feature in connection with these collieries is the "Draeger class" for
1913, organized for the purpose of rendering first aid and rescue work in
the mine, and may the good work go on.
The company has already provided for all the business now offering
to them, having installed a tipple equipment modern in every respect,
having a capacity of 1,000 tons of cleaned coal every ten hours. This
tipple, which is shown in the accompanying illustration, is fitted with a
Stewart jig washer, and a Cristy Box Car Loader receives the coal at the
chutes.
14 This company is the pioneer coal mining concern of Yale District,
British Columbia. Its position today is the result of well directed foresight
on the part of those in charge. The property is in charge of Mr. Charles
Graham, a man of considerable coal experience and ability.
The head office and sales department of the company is in Vancouver,
B. C, and most of the directors are business men of that city.
Mr. John Hendry is President, Mr. Alexander Maclaren vice-president,
Mr. W. H. Armstrong is managing director, and Mr. J. J. Plommer is the
secretary-treasurer.
A Nicola Coal Mine
By Charles Graham
Supt. of the Nicola Valley Coal and Coke Co.
(From "Coal Age.")
^mr HE Nicola Valley Coal & Coke Company's mines are situated at
/■J Middlesboro, near Merritt, B. C, Canada, in the Nicola Valley.
\.f)j The Nicola Valley lies south and east of the main line of the Cana-
^^ dian Pacific Railway, which goes west, makes a sharp bent to the
south, at Ashcroft. As shown, on the accompanying map, Fig. 1,
a branch line of the railroad extends from Spences Bridge, up the Nicola
Valley, 47 miles to Nicola Lake.
The  coal  basin  lies in  the  Nicola  and  Coldwater valleys.    The  coal
Map of Nicola District.
seams and associated strata are of the Tertiary age and rest upon volcanics
of the Triassic age. Fossil specimens are rare. The surface of the
country is heavily covered with a drift, consisting chiefly of clay, with
areas of sand and gravel in many places. The deposit of coal covers not
only the level portion of the basin, but reaches well up to the higher elevations on the surrounding hills. The denudation in the valleys and on the
slopes has been heavy.
The junction of the Nicola and Coldwater valleys is a broad, fertile
plain. The length of the Nicola coal basin is about 10 miles and
its average width about 3 miles. As previously stated, the sedimentary
rocks composing the coal basin rest directly upon the volcanics and present
no  indication  of  overflow.    The  best  natural  section  of  the  coal-bearing
IS strata is seen in what is known as Coal Gully—a rugged ravine that cuts
the face of the hills to the west of Coldwater Valley, and about 1 mile
south of the forks "of the Nicola and Coldwater rivers. Four coal seams
are here exposed, with interstratified beds of gray sandstone, clays and
shale.    Between this gully and the contact with the volcanoes mentioned.
Fig. 3.—Tipple and Camp in Coldwater Valley.
a distance of about 1200 ft., other outcroppings have been discovered:
but no attempt has been made to correlate them with the outcroppings m
the gully.
The  Nicola Valley  Coal  &   Coke  Company,  Ltd.,  owns  2660  acres  of
coal land, extending south, from Nicola Valley, up Coldwater Valley.    With
Fig. 4.—Near View of Xo. 1 Tipple.
the present knowledge of the country, there are six seams of coal on the
property, four of which outcrop in Coal Gully and two in what is known
as Coldwater Hill, about half a mile east of Coal Gully. The dip of the
seams in Coal Gully is south, while the dip of the seams in the Coldwater
Hill is almost east.
On the Coal Gully side the seam being worked at present is the top
seam. This seam- is about 10 ft. in thickness, with a soft shale roof and
a sandstone floor, and has an average dip of about 25 deg. to the south.
16 Nicola Valley Hospital, Merritt, B. C. There are several dirt bands in this seam. The other seams in this hill are
12, 5^ and 5 ft. thick respectively. Development work is being confined
to one seam only, in order to thoroughly prove the ground before any
extensive operations are undertaken in any of the other seams.
In Coldwater Hill, the seam that is being worked is about 5% ft. thick
and has a hard-shale roof and a shale floor. This seam is pitching about
22 deg., into the hill to the west. The other seam in this hill is but 30 in.
thick and is not being worked. Several diamond-drill holes have been put
down which prove the continuity of the seams.
In Figs. 3 and 4, are shown two views of the main No. 1 tipple, located
in Coldwater Valley. The output of the company, at the present time, is
about 500 tons a day, about 300 tons being taken from mine No. 1, on
Coldwater Hill, and 200 tons from mine No. 2, in Coal Gully Hill. An
extensive scheme of development is being carried out, which, in time, will
make this property a heavy producer. The seams are all coking coals and
yield a firm, coherent coke. No coking is being done, at the present time,
owing to the distance of the plant from the markets. With the building
of the Kettle Valley Railway, which is now under construction, access will
be given to the smelters of the Boundary country, which will make the
manufacture of coke worthy of consideration.
CHARLES GRAHAM,
Supt. N. V. C. & C. Co., Ltd.
Mining is done on the room-and-pillar system. Haulage inside the
mines is performed by mules, on the level roads, and by compressed air
hoists, on the dips. At No. 2 mine, the coal, after being hoisted up the
slope, is hauled to the No. 1 tipple, by a steam dinky. The tracks from both
mines join at the tipple approach.
The plant a(J No. 1 mine, which consists of four 150-h. p.
return-tubular boilers, 6x18 ft.; one Canadian Rand cross compound
air compressor having a capacity of 2000 cu. ft. of free air per
minute and one 27% kw. generator, which is used for lighting purposes. At
No. 2 mine there is one 150-h.p. boiler of the same size and type as those
at No. 1 mine, and one Canadian Rand, straight-line air compressor, simple
steam and compound air, having a capacity of 600 cu. ft. of free air per
minute.
18 Water is supplied by a Canada Foundry Company pump stationed alongside the river, at No. 2 mine. This pump hasi a capacity of 750 gal. pes'
min., and pumps water into storage tanks, which have a, capacity of 60,000
gal. and from which water is distributed to the entire plant and houses.
No. 1 tipple (Fig. 5) was erected by Roberts & Schaefer Co., Chicago,
during the summer of 1911. The tipple has a capacity of 100 tons per
hour and is of wood construction. It is equipped with a Philips cross-over
dump; a pair of shaking screens; a picking table; a Stewart coal washer,
with settling tank and elevators for elevating fine coals; a revolving screen
on top of the coal bunkers, for separating fine coals; and a conveyor line
extending along the top of the bunkers, for conveying coal to the bunkers.
Fig 6.—Middlesboro  Draeger  Class   1912.
Four grades of coal can be made, and the conveyor is so arranged that
the coal from the picking table and revolving screen can bd put either
directly into the bunkers or carried by the conveyor, to the loading chutes.
Any grade of coal can be loaded separately, or any desired mixture of the
various grades can be loaded. A portable Christy box-car loader is used
for loading.   The capacity of the bunkers is 350 tons.
A Draeger-training station is maintained at the mine, where instruction
is given both to officials and miners, in the use of the apparatus. An
interesting feature in connection with these collieries is the Draeger class,
Fig. 6, organized for the purpose of rendering first-aid or rescue work, in
the mine.
Since its organization the team has done much good work in becoming
acquainted with the use of the apparatus required and have maintained
a regular drill, whereby their efficiency has been increased. Our constant
aim is to bring the equipment of the collieries up to date in every respect.
On The Way to The Similkameen
0^mf HE coal mining industry is the direct cause of Merritt's growth,
/-g combined with its transportation facilities, and development of
f | L    Nicola Valley arable lands.
^■^ There are five coal mining companies organized in the Nicola
Valley within two or three miles of Merritt, as follows:
The Nicola Valley Coal & Coke Company, Ltd., The Diamond Vale Collieries, Ltd., The Inland Coal & Coke Company, Ltd., The Pacific Coast Collieries, Ltd., and the South Nicola Coal Company, Ltd.
The combined pay-roll amounts to about $50,000 per month. The coal
basin has as yet hardly been scratched and the life of this coal basin is
for a great many generations to come.
19 At the present time Merrut has two railways, the Canadian Pacific
Railway, and the Kettle Valley Railway. The C.P.R. run dail^ trains
from Nicola to Vancouver, and the K. V. Ry. run trains up the Coldwater
river towards Princeton. The Great Northern Railway are completing their
construction from the Tulameen down the Coquhallah river to Hope, thence
down the Fraser Valley to Vancouver. Spences Bridge is the present C.P.R.
junction where the Nicola, Kamloops & Similkameen Railway meets the
main line of the C.P.R., which is double tracked nearly all the way to the
coast from Spences Bridge. The Kettle Valley line branches near the head
of the Coldwater river and runs down the Great Northern tracks to Hope,
from whence they have a steel bridge over the Fraser river to. the main line
of the C. P. R. into Vancouver.
There is considerable talk of either the Grand Trunk Pacific Ry. or the
Canadian Northern Ry. building into the Nicola Valley from Kamloops. The
G.T.P. Ry. have (already made a survey,, but the C.N.R. is expected to be the
first to build into Merritt, which will make Merritt a distributing point.
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Vegetable Display,  Nicola Valley.
Annual Fair, Merritt, B. C.
Besides coal mining, there is some good copper and gypsum deposits
in and around the Nicola Valley. The best copper camps are situated in
Aspen Grove and Ten Mile Creek. The cuperiferous ores of Ten Mile Creek
are mostly chalcocite. The I.X.L. group and the Aberdeen Claim have good
indications.
While Aspen Grove Copper Camp is a much larger camp with more
development work done, and has an ideal copper formation, similar to the
copper deposits of Michigan and Lake Superior, a large amount of the
copper being in its native state, with some chalcocite and copper glance, the
mines are still lying idle for development companies to prove them up
to be producers. The present development works on the different groups of
mineral claims show that considerable copper ores are opened up, some of
the principal copper claims being the "Big Sioux," "The Portland Group,"
"The Tom Cat Group," "The Blue Bell Group," "The Queen of Hearts and
Parrot Group," and several other promising claims. "The Golden Sovereign"
some years ago shipped several hundred pounds of native copper to the
East and the author shipped a collection of ores to the A. Y. P. Exhibition
in  1909  to  Seattle,  Washington.
20 In 1910 the writer got up a collection of ores from around the Nicola
Valley and shipped same to the Nelson Fall Fair, where it took first prize of
$50.00. The Nicola Valley Board of Trade subscribed $20.00 and took the
prize.
1 here are several gypsum deposits located in the Nicola Valley. The
writer got up a collection from the different gypsum, which also took the
silver medal at the Spokane Interstate Fair in 1910.
The trip from Merritt through Aspen Grove to Tulameen is one of the
most beautiful trips to be taken in an automobile in the summertime.
Mr. N. Peterson's auto-stage leaves Merritt every Monday, Wednesday
and Friday about seven a.m. You soon start to climb the Hamilton Hill
to the east. This section has been for years known as the Commonage,
where numbers of cattle range, sometimes the year round. From the
top of the hill the road leads over an excellent rolling farming district to
Crowders ranch, which is the present stopping place in Aspen Grove. It is
here that the horse stages stop for noon, and where the passengers can see
many of the Aspen Grove copper specimens.
Clark's Ranch, Nicola Valley.
From an agricultural point of view, the Aspen Grove district is essentially a stock-raising country, although Mr. Crowder and many other
farmers in this district have been successful in raising vegetables, oats,
etc. All kinds of hay do well. The Aspen Grove post office is kept by
Captain Turner, who purchased the old Dodds ranch in the center of
Aspen Grove Copper Camp. Owing to the lack of transportation facilities
these extensive copper deposits have not yet been developed1 by capital.
The different prospectors interested have stayed with their prospects for
years. Many of the claims located are now crown granted, and many
have been abandoned. With the necessary transportation facilities and
legitimate capital for development, producing copper mines would undoubtedly be established.
On leaving the Aspen Grove country for the Otter Valley, which is
very beautiful, the road descends into the Otter Canyon and comes to the
"Canyon House," another stopping place, formerly known as Dan McKay's
ranch, but now owned by Jce Collett of Merritt.    Here farmers successfully
21 grow grain and all kinds of garden truck. Nine miles further down the
Otter Valley is Jack Thynnes' extensive ranch. The road passes alongside
their market garden, and it is in this garden that a number of healthy
young apple trees loaded with fruit can be seen in the fall of the year.
The farm is an extensive mixed farming ranch, where several hundred
tons of hay is put up in season.
Not far from here and near Boulder Creek the "Cousin Jack" mines
are located. E. Todd, the locator of the "Cousin Jack," has been Mr.
Thynne's partner for a number of years, and they are both interested in
Bear Creek and Eagle Creek up the Tulameen river. Jack Thynne is one
of the oldest and most successful ranchers in this district. His place was
once the popular stopping-place for travellers before autos became general
in the summer time.
It is nine miles from Thynne's ranch to Tulameen City, a Government
townsite formerly known as Otter Flats.
Short Horns.
Located on the south end of the beautiful Otter Lake, which is about
eight miles long by about one mile in width, the townsite extends from the
foot of the lake to the Tulameen river and junction of the Otter river, and
comprising some 300 acres. Most of the lots were sold to the public by
Government auction sale, but a number of them were sold by private sale.
Many new buildings have gone up in the last year, or so, and the Great
Northern Railway run trains through Ccialmont and Tulameen en route
to the Pacific Coast. Agreements have been entered into between the
Kettle Valley Railway and the Great Northern Railway, whereby they both
use the one road bed from Canyon House down the Coquhallah river
to HSpe, from whence they take separate lines to the Coast.
From the Tulameen or Otter Flats to the west is a very rich mineral
country, extending to the headwaters of the Tulameen river, at the summit
of the Hope range of mountains. Between Railroad Creek and Sutter Creek
is the famous silver-lead camp formerly called Summit Camp, but now
known as "Leadville," called by some Spokane mining men who bonded
some of the old crown-granted mineral claii-ns.
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Indiana were crown-granting their group of claims. The author took an
option on one of the best prospects up there at that time, called the Idaho,
owned by Pete Gunderson. There was about two feet of solid galena ore
carrying very high values in gold and silver, with a little copper. However,
owing to the lack of transportation, nothing was done in the way of
development work until quite recently. Now, however, there is a mining
boom in this rich camp. The Golden Treasure Mountain Mining Company
have driven a tunnel for over 400 feet, and made an upraise to the surface
for ventilation, and have some very rich ore in sight. The company is
composed of Spokane business men.
The Indiana company have been very active in developing their holding
and also have shipping ores in sight, and trial shipments have been made
with satisfactory results. They have now sold out to another Spokane
company.   Patsy Clark has a number of properties under bond.
Tulameen  City,  Formerly  Known  as  Otter Flats—Dominion  Hotel  to   the
left and   Otter  Flat  Hotel  on right.
The new Leadville will undoubtedly make a good producing camp
as soon as road conditions make possible the transportation of machinery
and materials. A railway will be built up the Tulameen river alongside
the Government wagon road for the shipping and treatment of these silver-
lead ores.
Many strong companies are now interested in Leadville, and Mr. J. C.
Edwards, a mining man of Spokane, has made arrangements to continue
the workig of the Treasure Mine. "The Blue Bell," "North Star," "Summit
No. Three" and "David Western" mining claims have the ear marks of
mines.
The claims on Kelley, Siawash, Eagle and Bear Creeks are all turning
out well, increasing in values and quantity, and there will be a number of
new mines opened up in the "Platinum Belt" of British Columbia. This is
the district lying from about two miles above Champion Creek to below
Granite Creek is considered by everyone to be the richest platinum belt
on the North American continent, and has been examined by Mr. Charles
Camsell, Professor James Fullum Kemp and several other engineers and
geologists.
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25 The B. C. Platinum Company of Vancouver, under Mr. Charles F. Law,
have also pushed developments on their Slate Creek property, where they
have been drifting for the old channel of Slate Creek, which is very rich in
both gold and platinum. My report on the alluvial deposits of the) Similkameen and Tulameen valleys appear on another page.
Between Bear and Eagle Creeks there are some large quartz dposits,
with some deposits of Chromite iron which carry small deposits of diamonds
and platinum. This group of claims was located some years ago by the
writer and will shortly be developed when the necessary capital is available.
Young Apple Orchard on Mr. Thynne's Ranch.
Just to the west of Tulameen City is Rabbit Mountain, where there are
large deposits of gold-copper ores. Many of the claims are crown-granted,
and a number of them are being kept up with assessments. Messrs. Flager
and Armstrong own a number of promising properties, and Mr. W. H. Armstrong also owns controlling interest in the Similkameen Mining & Smelting
Company, who own a group of claims on Bear Creek, close to the Indepen-
Cutting Hay on Thynne's Ranch,
dence Group, located at the head waters of Bear Creek, which are large
deposits of low grade gold-copper ores.
Four miles below Tulameen City is the prosperous town of Coalmont,
put on the market by the Columbia Coal & Coke Company, Ltd. A large
number of lots have been sold and a great many good buildings have been
26 27 erected. The townsite is a pretty one, being located on the banks of the
Tulameen river, about one mile west of the old town of Granite Creek,
which is the old placer town of Southern British Columbia. The town of
Coalmont is on the Vancouver, Victoria & Eastern Railway (The Great
Northern Railway), thirteen miles from Princeton, and being located in
the mineral belt of the Tulameen district.
The Columbia Coal & Coke Company own the majority of the Tulameen
coal basin. Their principal claims and showings are located on the west
bank of Granite Creek, where they have several tunnels in the solid semi-
bituminous coal, the seams that dip into the basin aggregating eighty feet
of coal. The rim of this coal basin was traced round to the Tulameen slope
of the mountain and close to the new town of Coalmont a long double tunnel
was driven  into  the  mountain  for  over two thousand' feet  through  solid
Coalmont Townsite Office
rocks to tap the coal basin at a depth, but where the coal was struck it
was too disturbed by the adjoining igneous rocks to be of commercial
value. However, better coal was struck in different places of the company's
properties.
Large tipples and gravity trams are under construction, and they will
probably also work their good coal showings on Granite Creek.
The company is composed mostly of Winnipeg capital, a large amount
of. which has been expended. The company have their own saw mill and
timber limits, besides some good land on the Tulameen river, over which
they have built their own bridge.
Mr. George Fraser is the superintendent and general manager, and Mr.
T. J. Johnson is the managing director for the company.
28 29 Platinum in  South  B. C.
From the London Mining Journal, March 1st, 1913
By  FRANK  BAILEY,   M.E.
/^0 ONSIDERABLE attention is now being paid to the alluvial deposits
1 of the Similkameen and Tulameen rivers in Southern British Colum-
^^J/ bia, owing to the fact that the Tulameen district has the richest
platinum deposits on the North American continent, and partly in
view of the high price which platinum has attained and the scarcity
of the metal. The rise in the price of the metal is probably due to its
extended uses in the setting of precious jewels, for which purpose it is
better adapted than gold.*
*B. C. Mining & Engineering Record (June, 1912).
To such an extent has platinum invaded the jewellery field that it has
largely displaced gold as a mounting for precious stones. In the Fifth
Avenue shops in New York one can look over hundreds of thousands of
dollars' worth of ornaments without seeing anything but a platinum mounting. Dr. Kunz, a world-wide authority on gems, stated in a recent number
of the Engineering & Mining Journal that two-thirds of the finest jewels
. .    "■■■■ .,.
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Railway Building up the Tulameen River.
are now set in platinum, which holds its setting without any danger of loss,
as in the case of gold. It is an ideal setting for stones, especially for
diamonds, as the color harmonizes better than the yellow color of gold, and
also has the faculty of making a gem set in it look larger than it really
is. A leading jeweller remarks: "Everything is platinum now, and it seems
to have a great future ahead of it."
In addition to its value for jewellery, platinum is in so much demand
in the arts, as for electric, chemical and scientific apparatus and other uses,
that scientific men say it must be found, as there is nothing else known
to take its place.
30 31 That platinum exists in economic quantity in British Columbia placers
is evident from the returns officially recorded. The Geological Survey gives
the production in earlier years as follows: —
Year.                      Value. Year.                      Value.
1887 $5,600 1895 $3,800
1888  6,000 1896      750
1889  3,500 1897  1,600
1890  4,500 1898  1,500
1891 10,000 1899 ..'.      825
1892  3,500 1900     Nil.
1893  1,800 1901      457
1894      950 1902      190
This gives a total estimated value of $44,972.
The records available are, however, very imperfect. In those days, too,
nobody paid any attention to platinum, regarding it as worthless, and the
prices ranged from 50c to $3.50 per oz.*
The Similkameen country has for years been known as a rich mineral
district, and the Tulameen river is its main west fork. The rapidly growing
town of Princeton is situated in the forks of the two, rivers, which in
former days were known as the South Similkameen and Vermillion rivers—■
today the Tulameen.
My first visit to the Tulameen was in 1899. I have, however, repeatedlj
visited this district of great possibilities every year.
Whilst the Similkameen river was found rich only in spots, the early
placer miners in the 'sixties got richer and larger returns from the Tulameen. The largest gold nugget found during the Granite Creek excitement
was reported to me to be worth about $350.00, whilst several nuggets,
ranging in value from $85.00 to $150.00, were picked up from the beds of
the Tulameen river and its tributaries. Several conflicting reports are
made on the estimated output of gold from the Granite Creek and Tulameen
diggings during and long after the rush of miners from the California
goldfields to the Tulameen. They evidently all made good, and spent their
gold dust as fast as they made their daily clean-ups. This has been corroborated by the few old timers who returned to this district at the close of
t>o Cariboo excitement, which was the direct cause of the general exodus
of miners from the Tulameen district into the far north.
The Tulameen river heads in the Hope range of mountains, near the
International boundary line, and flows north to Summit Camp, thence in
an easterly direction to the moiith of Bear Creek, thence in a south-easterly
direction to Granite Creek, keeping a general south-easterly course through
the main canyon of the Tulameen to the Princeton coal basin, whence it
flows northeasterly to its confluence with the Similkameen river at the
town of Princeton.
At the present time there are many different ways of reaching Princeton
and the Tulameen district. The quickest route from the cities on the
Pacific coast is via the Canadian Pacific Railway to Merritt in the Nicola
Valley (nine hours), thence by automobile stage to Coalmont (four hours),
thence by tHe V. V. & E. Railway (Great Northern Railway) to Princeton
(one hour), the total distance from Vancouver being about 290 miles.
Another route is by all rail from Vancouver to Princeton and Coalmont via
Spokane, Washington, U.S.A., on the Great Northern Railway.
Both the V. V. & E. Railway and the Kettle Valley Railway (C.P.R.)
are building their lines up the Tulameen valley as far as the headwaters
of the Coldwater river on the divide between the watersheds of the Okanagan
and Fraser valleys, but from this summit they both go down the Coquihalla
valley on the one line to Hope, where they again build separate lines to
Vancouver. The Provincial Government have constructed a wagon road up
the Tulameen river to Summit Camp from Otter Flats (now known as
Tulameen City).
32 33 The Similkameen and Tulameen rivers have been for many years
famous for the remarkable quality of black sands contained in their gravels,
which all, more or less, contain gold and platinum. Mr. C. F. Law, who
knows the district, places the production of platinum from the Tulameen
and its tributaries at 20,000 ozs. Whilst this amount was saved and marketed, how much more was probably lost? The black platiniferous sands
held in the riffles and sluice boxes were regarded as of no value in those
days, and were thrown away. For instance, according to the "Mineral
Industry," platinum was selling in Russia in 1898 at $7.75 to $8.75 per oz.
Today it is quoted in New York at $45.50 per oz. for refined metal and $48.00
per oz. for hard metal. This represents an average increase in price of
over 50 per cent, per annum, or 600 per cent 'in ten years. The Tulameen
platinums are classed as hard metals.
Many papers and articles have from time to time been published in
different journals on the platinum deposits of the Tulameen by prominent
mining engineers and scientists, quotations from which are as follows: —
The late Dr. G. M. Dawson said of the platinum in the Tulameen, in his
work on the "Mineral Wealth of British Columbia":  "The metal occurs in
Tulameen  River above Princeton,  B. C.
notable quantity in the region of the Upper Similkameen in minute scales
where the gold is fine, but increasing in coarseness to small pellets and
nuggets in places where coarse gold is found. Coarse grains and pellets
have so far been found only on Granite, Cedar and Slate Creeks, all entering
the Tulameen, on the south side. In certain claims in these creeks the
platinum has been found to equal half the weight of gold obtained. . . .
Though above referred to as platinum, the metal so named is alloyed
with several other metals of the same class, of which osmiridium is the
most abundant."
Professor James Fullum Kemp was probably one of the first to make a
study of the Tulameen platinum deposits in 1900. He states that platinum
has been detected in pyroxenites, and even in crushed and chloritised
granite in the Tulameen region; also that the richest platinum nugget yet
assayed and recorded gave 86.50 per cent, platinum, and that the proportion
of the metal found runs down to 68.8 per cent., and adds: "Platinum: has
been obtained in commercial quantities in connection with the gold washings of Southwestern British Columbia, and this source has proved to be
34 the most productive of all thus far developed on the North American continent. As regards platinum, the area of chief interest is in the valley of
Slate Creek and along the Tulameen river."
In the summary report of the Geological Survey of Canada for 1908,
R. W. Brock, director, remarks: "Mr. Chas. Camsell completed his study of
the Hediey mining camp, and began a survey or the Tulameen district. The
latter is unique in that it is the only district in Canada where platinum
gravels have been worked on a commercial scale. Railway facilities for
this section are projected, and with the solution of the transportation
problem it is expected that this portion of the country will be actively
developed.   The present work is in anticipation of this."
Mr. Charles Camsell, of the Geological Survey of Canada, gives some
very interesting information regarding the Tulameen alluvial deposits in
the different Blue Books lately published by the Department of Mines at
Ottawa.    Mr.  Camsell  is now known  by his  colleagues  as  the  "Diamond
'' ■    . ••
The Old Placer Town of Granite Creek, Frenchy's Cabin across the Bridge.
King," as he was one of the first to discover diamonds in place in the
platinum belt of the Tulameen, and the Department of Mines have recently
published Mr. Camsell's bulletin on the Tulameen diamond deposits, which
is very interesting, and this last summer the investigations made by Mr.
Charles W. Thompson, the diamond expert from South Africa, confirms
the writer's belief that the gravel bars and benches of the Tulameen and
its tributaries from the Tulameen Canyon, about six miles below Granite
Creek to about half a mile above Champion Creek, could be profitably
worked on a large scale by the many different companies and individuals
now owning and holding leases in the above-mentioned area.
Whilst nearly all these extensive gravel bars and benches carry gold
averaging from 30 cents to $1.50 per cubic yard, they are rich only in spots,
and many of these rich spots were worked in early days near and on bedrock, which was exposed in the bed of the Tulameen river and Granite
35 Creek, but the majority of the larger gravel benches have great possibilities,
more especially so in the old river channels, which can be traced in different parts of this district.
The search for platinum veins or deposits has not as yet been a commercial success, the platinum being very unevenly distributed in the chro-
mite and magnetite irons, as well as the olivines, serpentines (Tulameen
dunite), pyroxenites and peridotites, besides the other rocks in this "platinum belt," but both the gold and platinum nuggets found in the alluvial
deposits show that they are of local origin. The largest nugget of gold and
platinum the writer has handled from this district weighed about 5 ozs.,
which was owned by one of the old timers of Granite Creek.
In early days the placer miners were greatly hampered with what they
called "white gold" in their sluice boxes, which was then worth practically
nothing, many hundreds of pounds of valuable platinum were dumped out
and covered up by their tailings, and Messrs. Cook, Blair & Rabbit bought
a lot of it for 50 cents per pound, whilst today it is worth over $45.00 per
ounce. When it became a little more valuable many sacks of platinum
were packed out and shipped to the Californian markets, New York and
Railway Bridge across the Similkameen River near Princeton.
Hatton Garden, London. A sample of this Tulameen platinum was also
sent by Mr. Gilbert Blair (now of Vancouver, B.C.) in 1897 to England for
analysis, the percentage of which is as follows: Sheffield Smelting Company, Sheffield, England, June 18, 1897—Platinum (Pt) 78 per cent., gold
(Au) .45 per cent., silver (Ag) .28 per cent., iron (Fe) 9.80 per cent., nickel
(Ni) .10 per cent., iridium (Ir) 4.02 per cent., palladium (Pal) 50 per cent.,
copper (Cu) .85 per cent., osmi-iridium, 6.00 per cent.
A recent assay by the Government Assay Office of some of the black
sands, taken from a bench on Granite Creek gave the following returns:
Black sand—Gold, 3.6 ozs. per ton;  platinum, 7.06 ozs.
Another sample of black sand taken from the Roany hydraulic leases,
situated about five miles below Granite Creek, near the Tulameen river,
which was assayed in Victoria, B. C, gave the following results: Gold, 2
ozs. 4 dwts.;  platinum, 1 oz. 3 dwts.
In December last Mr. Blair sent to the Departmsnt of Mines at Ottawa
for examination a sample of 4 ozs. of black sand concentrate from 1% to 2
cubic yards of river sand and gravel. The report, dated December 28,
1911, is: "On assay this material was found to contain: Platinum at the rate
of 521.57 ozs. per ton of 2,000 lbs. of concentrate; osmiridium at the rate
of 58.82 ozs.; gold at the rate of 75.82 ozs.; silver, very small quantity,
•undetermined."    This represents $1.15 to the cubic yard of gravel.
36 One of the best deposits of alluvial platinum is between the mouth of
Bear Creek and Eagle Creek, on the leases now held by Messrs. Ford &
McConnell, a large amount of both gold and platinum was washed up in
rockers and suice boxes in the early days on the shallow bars in the bed
of the Tulameen river and near bedrock, where it was exposed to the
surface at low water, but the deeper bars and gravel benches of the old
Tulameen channel have not as yet been prospected, and should become very
rich near bedrock.
It was on this property that the writer met his friends, Mr. Charles W.
Thompson and his wife, who were camped in one of the old placer cabins
on the north bank of the Tulameen river below the old Grasshopper mountain trail, and it was near this spot that Mr. Thompson showed me his
pannings; in the bottom of his "gold pan" I could see several small nuggets
of gold and platinum, probably worth about 25 cents each. I could also see
several garnets without the aid of a mineral glass. However, when I
adjusted my glass to the bottom of the pan I could detect several brilliant
rubies, and by moving the pan in different shades of light, I had no difficulty
in detecting two diamonds, which distinctly radiated their characteristic
lights from their facets. I have not heard where one can obtain gold, platinum, iron, garnet, rubies and diamonds from any alluvial deposit in the
same pan in any other district
Mr. Thompson also showed me several other diamonds which he had
extracted from the dunite (serpentine) rocks found in the immediate neighborhood,  and   he  kindly  gave  me  the  following  statement  regarding  his
Roany Hydraulic Leases.
researches for diamonds in the Tulameen: "Last year, when I came into
the Tulameen witlua view to diamond prospecting, I expected to find the
conditions of the occurrance of the precious stone paralleling those of South
Africa, but I cannot now hold that opinion. Here the matrix of the diamond
is without any doubt the dunite, which in the Tulameen is in portion of the
peridotitic intrusion which is rougly in the shape of a triangle with Its
vertix just south of the summit of Mount Olivine, and its base running in a
north-easterly direction for about two miles, beginning at Eagle Creek,
some two miles above its confluence with the Tulameen. The area of this
peridotite stock would comprise, say, some 150 precious stone leases of ten
acres each.
"In South Africa the diamonds are found in a breeciated shale—'the
blue ground' of Kimberley—which was forced up by volcanic action through
vents made in the carboniferous shale, known as the 'Karoo' shales of the
district. It is true that considerable quantities of Kimberlite—i.e., eclogite
—containing much red garnet, and of the serpentine order, exists in the
Kimberley mine, but it is a most significant fact that Gardner-Williams, as
an experiment, crushed 20 tons of the Kimberlite and failed to discover a
single diamond therein. Whence the 'blue' obtained its load of diamonds
is a question; whereas here, in the Tulameen, we have the stones in their
matrix, a terribly hard and difficult matrix to deal with it is, too. Last
season I collected about 12 lbs. of samples containing a large percentage
37 of chromite from the northern slope of Olivine Mount. By means of repeated
fusion with bicarbonate of soda, I obtained fourteen minute diamonds of
good lustre. Two of them were large enough to exhibit facets under a
pocket lens. Doubtless in the process I destroyed and carbonized many
crystals. Up to the present I believe that no gem approaching even % carat
in weight has been produced from the Tulameen peridotite; but in view
of what they have done in Arkansas, with a comparatively small area of
diamondiferous dunite (where, I understand, upwards of a thousand diamonds, large enough to be classed as 'close goods' by the trade, have been
mined), we are justified in hoping that on our larger intrusion of peridotite
we shall, when more work has been done, find payable ground.
"This season, I am devoting to the possibilities of placer diamonds
which may exist in the Tulameen river, where it drains the peridotite stock
and also further down, as far as Slate Creek Bridge, to which the diamonds
would undoubtedly be Carried down under the existing condition of a heavy
river grade, rapid current, and excessively hard bedrock. The bar, half a
mile above the bridge and at the lower end of the gorge through which the
river flows, proved, in former days, excessively rich in gold and platinum,
and as the diamond with its specific gravity of 3.55, hangs behind with the
Washing for Gold and Platinum on the Streets of Princeton.
black sand if it gets the chance, I consider that portion of the Tulameen
river worthy of being thoroughly prospected. About forty or fifty men in
one season, prospecting with screens and gravitating sieves, would demonstrate whether we have a payable placer diamond field, or whether the
occurrence of the stones is merely of geological interest.
"Last week I was prospecting at the confluence of Eagle Creek and the
Tulameen. In a crevice there I found gravel which filled twelve pans,
yielding three very small diamonds, 48 carats gold, Yi grain platinum,
sundry garnets, and a few light red crystals, too small to identify, but
which were probably rubies. The water in the river was then too high for
favorable 'fossicking' in the crevices.
"In prospecting for diamonds sufficiently large to be cut into gems
one should use a gravitating sieve. This is 18 ins. in diameter, the side 3
ins. high, the wire-gauge No. 20 .003 ins., and the mesh No. 8. Two pairs
of parallel steel wires (the pairs set at right angles to each other) partially
support the wire-cloth, so that in the middle of the sieve there is a place
7 ins. square, which, under the weight of the load of wash-gravel, sags to
38 a slight extent. The sieve is nearly filled with the diamondiferous gravel,
screened to, say, % in., and is then immersed in a tub ot water and pulsated.
This sends all the diamonds through thei lighter gravel to the bottom of
the sieve and then at once work into the middle of the 7-in. 'sag.' About a
dozen shakes or pulisations suffice. The sieve is then thrown, inverted,
onto the sorting heap and lifted up. The diamonds will then be found on
the top, and in the very centre of the 'throw.' The method is sure and
expeditious. Any miner can learn to operate the sieve and to 'gravitate'
infallibly in an hour. However, this method will not save minute diamonds
or diamond dust, so for prospecting on the Tulameen I recommend a modification of the gold-rocker, the perforations in the hopper iron being made
small, and the usual blanket-covered ladder replaced by finely corrugated
glass or iron plates covered with a mixture of lard and tallow. When the
plates are set at the proper grade all the diamonds will be caught on the
grease, while most of the black sand, quartz sand, etc., will be carried off
by the flow of water.
"In the trade diamonds are classified as follows: Blue-white, first
Cape, second Cape, 1st bye, 2nd bye, off color, light-yellow, yellow (the foregoing are called 'close goods');  then come:   Spotted, cleavage, light-brown
iiSur
*'*?*■ .....
Birdseye View of Princeton, B. C. from Princeton Heights
cleavage, flats, maccles (trimmed), rubbish, and boart. The international
carat is 205 milligrams—3.164 grains—and the value of an average 1 carat
stone of 'close goods' is about $10.00. 'Dust' is worth about $92.00 per oz.
troy, say, 30c per carat."
Both Mr. and Mrs. Thompson are delightful people to meet, and I
sincerely hope that their hopes of finding stones of a commercial value may
be fulfilled.
In a letter to the Similkameen Star last year Mr. Camsell is quoted as
saying that "the sample of chromite from which the diamonds were obtained
also yielded platinum and gold.    This is the first time I have seen platinum
in the solid rock Practically all the diamonds obtained are clear
and white, apparently excellent gem stones, if we can only find them big
enough, and there is no reason why we should not." This further note by
Mr. Camsell suggests an added value to the platinum-bearing peridotites
of the section: "In the course of the mapping and examination of the
body of peridotite, which extends from Olivine mountain across the Tulameen valley to Grasshopper mountain, masses of chromite were observed in
39 several places in the peridotite. Hand specimens of this chromite imbedded
in serpentinised peridotite were brought in and handed to Mr. R. A. A.
Johnston, Mineralogist to the Survey, to determine the nature of the
chromite. In the course of his analysis Mr. Johnston obtained a residual
product from fusion, which proved, on examination, to be diamonds, yielding
positive re-actions in all the tests for that mineral. Further tests were
made in New York by Dr. G. F. Kunz, who confirmed the discovery. So
far as our knowledge of the occurrence yet goes, the diamonds are associated
with the chromite, and are not found in other parts of the rock mass, so
that their distribution depends on that of the chromite. The cromite itself
does- not occur here in large bodies, and its distribution is very erratic."
The diamonds obtained from the sample analysed are small, though their
quality is excellent. They have proved very difficult to extract from the
rock without being broken, and even after extraction they often break up
in the course of a few hours or days into much smaller fragments. The
matrix for the diamond is a peridotite of the variety dunite. It occurs as
an intrusive igneous stock about three miles long and a mile wide, bordered
on all sides by pyroxenite, into which the peridotite passes by gradual
change in composition. The two rocks are of the same age, and have been
thrust through rocks of apparently Triassic age, consisting of volcanic
minerals, and a few thin beds of argillite and limestones.
Whilst the present development and prospecting on the Tulameen
river and its tributaries, by placer miners, Chinamen and companies, is
nothing to speak about, the former operators made wages by the gold-pan,
rocker and sluice-boxes. I doubt if the latter have so far made expenses,
but if these companies interested were to extend their operations in a
business-like manner and handle the gravels and benches on the Tulameen
on a fairly large scale with modern appliances, they would undoubtedly
gel; very good returns for their expenditure. Small portions of the Tulameen gravel beds could be profitably worked by suitable dredgers, but the
majority of the auriferous benches and terraces would have to be worked
by steam shovels or hydraulicing, as there is ample of water power going
to waste from the larger creeks that flow into the Tulameen river in this
platinum belt.
The present best paying methods used by individuals is 'fossicking' at
low water, and in the fall of the year successful "fossicking" can be done on
a commercial scale.
A number of Vancouver people are now interested in these alluvial
deposits of the Tulameen, and the following companies have been organized:
The British Columbia Platinum Company. This is the pioneer company in
this field, and was organized by Mr. C. F. Law, with a capitalization of
$200,000 in $1.00 shares, with the following directors: William Henderson
(president), Gilbert Blair, R. P. McLennan, Charles F. Law and D. von
Cramer, all of Vancouver. They have several good bench leases. More
recent companies are: The Platinum Goldfields, Limited, and the Tulameen
Gold & Platinum, Limited, both of Vancouver, B. C. The Roany Hydraulic
Syndicate own several good leases below Granite Creek, and the Coalmont
Syndicate own several good leases on Granite Creek, and many individuals
own half-mile leases on the Tulameen and its tributaries. Messrs. Johnson,
Matthey & Co., of Hatton Garden, had their expert, Mr. A. B. Coussmaker,
from Siberia, for several months in the summer of 1912, making a survey
of the extensive gravel benches of the Tulameen and examining their
probable platinum and gold contents.
40 Gypsum Deposits of The
Tulameen
By FRANK BAILEY, M.E.
^mm^HESE deposits are located from three to four miles below Granite
/ F    Creek on the north slope of the Tulameen river, adjoining and above
^^ what is known as the "Porphyry Dykes" of the Tulameen, which are
an old crown-granted group of mineral claims, and the gypsum claims
are recorded in the Similkameen Mining Division of Yale District in
the Government office in the town of Princeton, B. C.
The Gypsum, Hilda, Portland and Riverside claims are the most important ones as regards gypsum in Southern British Columbia.
The Nicola-Princeton Stage road runs across these properties. The
distance to Princeton is about nine miles in an easterly direction and the
city of Merritt is about 62 miles in a northwesterly direction, and the
town of Coalmont about three and a half miles west.
The "Roany" group of mineral claims located further down the Tulameen River, besides carrying valuable mineral springs, they also carry a
little gypsum in association with its different iron ores. Some very beautiful gypsum crystals from two to six inches in length, containing almost
pure gypsum were found in a pocket in one of their shafts a few years ago.
There are also other gypsum locations made west of the above-mentioned
claims close to Coalmont. These are similar to the "Riverside" and "Portland" claims, being recently sedimentary deposits and have been opened up
close to the stage road, where it was taken out and used for plastering some
of the houses in Coalmont.
While the mountains in this locality are not all rugged, and are open
and covered with bunch grass, timber grass, pine and fir trees of a milling
size, prospecting has not been easy on account of the glacial drift and on
account of the complex geological structure of this district.
The climate, is suih that mining can he continued the year round, the
Tulameen River rarely freezing up in winter.
The transportation facilities are good, the Victoria, Vancouver & Eastern Ry., (Great Northern Ry.) run their trains up the Tulameen to Coalmont
and Tulameen City, and the Kettle Valley Ry. are building their line across
the Aspen Grove Copper Camp from Penticton to connect with Great Northern
Railway.
Considering the size of the Tulameen district, it is remarkable what a
variety of deposits of economic importance are found within its limit. Not
all of these deposits, however, have as yet been exploited or even prospected.
The following list contains all those known to have any present or prospective value:
Gold and platinum placers.
Diamonds and other stones.
Silver and silver-lead veins.
Gypsum deposits.
Chromite deposits.
Ochre (yellow and vermilion) deposits.
Gold quartz veins.
Copper and gold-copper deposits.
Hematite and magnetite deposits.
Molybdenite deposits.
Asbestos veins.
Semi-bituminous and sub-bituminous coal.
41 Table of Formations in the Tulameen District
Quaternary:    Stream deposits, glacial deposits.
Post-Oligocene:    Otter granite, volcanic rocks.
Pre-Oligocene to Post-Triassic: Augite syenite, pyroxenite, peridotite,
boulder granite and Eagle granite.
Triassic:    Volcanic rocks with some argillites and limestones.
Rocks of the oligocene age cover a considerable area in tba southeast
portion of the district, in the angle between the Tulameen River and Granite
Creek. These rocks have been divided into two series: a lower, which is
almost wholly volcanic in origin, and an upper, which is sedimentary and
coal-bearing.
To the east and below these gypsum deposits are the "Roany" mineral
springs, where three or four mineral springs are located, the situation and
surroundings being well adapted for a sanitarium.
M. E. McEwen, M.D., of Hediey, B. C, says that they are well adapted
for cleaning out the system and purifying the blood, for all kinds of rheumatic complaints, etc.
The property consists of 150 acres, more or less, in the following mineral
claims: "Roany," "Fairmont," "Harrison," and "Gladys Fraction," besides
the accepted contracts from the G. N. Ry. to Mr. J. O. Coulthard, the owner
to supply stations and sidings whenever needed.
The copy of the analysis made for the Great Northern Railawy is as
follows:
St. Paul, Minn., March 13, 1912.
Mr. A. E. Hogland,
Chief Engineer, St. Paul, Minn.
Dear Sir:
Referring to attached, about sample of water taken from spring from
mountain side and near no town. Water is on G. N. Railway about 8 miles
up the Tulameen River from the town of Princeton and is called the "Roany
Mineral Springs."
The sanitary examination of this water gives the following results,
expressed in parts per 1,000,000:
Nitrogen as free ammonia Trace
Nitrogen as aluminoid ammonia 058
Nitrogen  as  nitrates None
Chlorine   Trace
Total dissolved solids 1733.1
The mineral analysis of this water is as follows, results expressed in
grains per U. S. gallon:
Silica and insoluble       1.10
Iron and aluminum oxides 04
Sodium sulphates        5.77
Calcium  surphate      69.57
Magnesium  sulphate       13.26
Magnesium carbonate      10.24
As far as the sanitary analysis goes the water is suitable for drinking
purposes, but the large amount of dissolved solids, especially sodium sulphates, magnesium sulphate would make the water act as a laxative.
Yours truly,
(Signed) J. O. MEYER, Chemist.
A local syndicate is being organized to incorporate a company to place
these springs in a suitable hotel building for the use of the public.
42 The Princeton Coal Basin
By Frank Bailey, Mining Engineer, Princeton, B. C.
^H^ Princeton or Similkameen coal basin is situated at the foot of the
/ eastern slope of the Hope Range of mountains in Southern British
^^' Columbia, the center of this basin being about two miles southwest
of the town of Princeton,! between the Similkameen and Tulameen
Rivers, the town being located in the junction of these two rivers,
where most of the coal is at present being mined.
Mr. D. B. Dowling in his paper on the "Undeveloped Coal Resources of
Canada," says: The tertiary coal-bearing rocks in this district are masked
on each side of the valley by later volcanic rocks.
It is thought that the extension of the coal-bearing beds in a lateral
direction may importantly increase the area in which coal may tie mined.
The United Empire Mine, East Princeton, B. C.
Seams up to 1 ft. in thickness are known to occur, the minimum thickness
found by boring over the area, namely 8 ft. seam, may be taken as a basis for
estimating purposes.
Length of field 13 miles, width 4 miles, with possibility of the extension
under volcanics to a maximum of 7 miles. Area 52 square miles at 5 feet
of coal, "166 millions of tons of coal."
In early days, some time before the year 1899 when there was
little or no coal mining going on in the valley, but several locations were
made in the following years, and at the present date there are four mining
companies operating in the Princeton coal basis, and one up the Tulameen
River, namely: "The Princeton Coal & Land Co., Ltd., of London, Eng.,"
"The Princeton Collieries, Ltd.," "The United Empire Co.," of Spokane,
Wash., and "The Princeton-Chilliwack Coal Co. Besides there are several
private owners of coal lands and leases, but the Princeton Collieries, Ltd.,
hold the largest area of coal lands, the most of it being held by Government
leases, and they have the least development work done.
The Princeton Coal & Land Co. are now in first class shape and have
been shipping regularly for a number of years, their present production is
43 about 100 to 400 tons per day, but owing to the delay in through transportation facilities to the Coast, at the present time they do not get extensive
orders.
The United Empire Co. have also commenced to ship a few cars of coal
per week, and will soon be classed as a shipping commercial mine.
The Princeton-Chilliwack Coal Co. is still in its prospective stage, but
has several good showings of coal in their different pits. However, there is
at present a deal pending and their properties may shortly be sold to British
capital. Coal on these properties was first opened up by the writer in a
tunnel on the north bank of the Tulameen in 1907 then the property was
transferred to the above company.
The Columbia Coal & Coke Company of Winnipeg, who own a group of
ten coal claims in the Granite Creek coal basin and Tulameen Valley. Large
exposures of coal of very good quality have been opened up and developed
on the north slope of Granite Creek, but their present main workings are on
the south slope of the Tulameen River at their town of Coalmont, where a
long crosscut tunnel which is now in about 2600 feet and two seams of coal
were met but were too badly crushed to be of commercial use, and from the
face a drill hole has been put in for a further distance of 900 feet, but so far
No. 1 Tipple—Princeton Coal & Land Co., Ltd., at Princeton, B. C.
no shipments have been made. The character of the coal encountered on
Granite is similar to< the coals being produced from the Nicola Valley at
Merritt, B. C, being a bituminous coal with good coking qualities and with
a higher percentage of fixed carbon than the Princeton coals.
The Princeton coals, whilst being very lignitic on the rim of the basin
and where the croppings are exposed on the surface are not lignite (brown
coals) but may be called lignite—coal, or sub-bituminous if classified by the
United States Geological Standard, and the quality greatly improves as depth
and pressure is gained, which makes a first class domestic coal.
Whilst different geologists have different opinions as regard to the age
of the Similkameen coal basin, the writer is of the opinion of Mr. Charles
Camsell of the Geological Survey of Canada, who remarks:
"The coal formation of the Princeton basin covers an area of about 50
square miles and includes a considerable though yet unknown quantity of
coal. The rocks are inclined at low angles and are not much disturbed. A
drill hole near the mouth of the Tulameen River, sunk to a depth of 280 feet,
passed through a total of 34 ft, 5 inches of coal.
44 "In this depth three workable seams of respectively 4 ft. 6 in., 6 ft. 7 in.
and 18 ft. 6 in. thick were encountered. The depth of this basin is at least
1000 feet, and it is probable that it may contain other seams besides those
encountered.
Oligocene rocks occur in several small isolated basins throughout this
region. The rocks in these basins consist of sandstones, shales, conglomerates and coal. Such basins are situated at Princeton, Granite Creek,
Nicola, Quilchena, Kamloops, Enderby, Okanagan Lake and White Lake.
Each of these oligocene basins contains some coal, and most of them several
workable seams. The coal is generally a lignite of high grade, an excellent
fuel for domestic purposes or for gas.
The most important coal mine in this district is Pit No. 1, owned by the
Princeton Coal & Land Co., Ltd., and a short history and description of the
property may be of interest.
"The Princeton Coal & Land Company, Limited."
Head office, 15 Great St. Helens, London, E. C. Colliery office, Princeton, B. C, Capitalization, $200,000 in one pound shares. Ernest Waterman,
Res. Mgr.;  Frances Glover, Mine Supt. 	
One of the Shifts of No. 1 Pit, Princeton Coal & Land Co., Ltd.
The property of the above-named Company (which until last year had
traded under the name of the Vermilion Forks Mining & Development Co.,
Ltd.), is situated in and around Princeton, B. C, and consists of the town
of Princeton and underlying coal rights embracing some 332 acres besides
Lot 1822 comprising 312 acres adjoining the town on the east bank of the
Similkameen river, and Lot 2046, consisting of 626 acres to the south and
adjoining Lot 1822. This including the coal rights under the town, gives
a block of approximately two square miles.
The coal company also hold; a one square mile of coal land under
Government lease, situated on Nine Mile Creek, about ten miles southwest
of Princeton.
Besides coal property the company also own four crown-granted mineral
claims' on Copper Mountain, and three crown-granted mineral claims on
Kennedy Mountain, a power site of 62 acres situated near the mouth of
Whipsaw Creek, a timber lease on the Similkameen River, together with
water rights and the controlling interest in the "Princeton Water Works Co.,
Ltd.
45 This property was originally located in 1897 and the town of Princeton
laid out, but owing to the lack of transportation facilities little headway was
made in the development of the property for the subsequent ten years.
The town of Princeton, situated on the Main line of the Victoria, Vancouver & Eastern Railway (Great Northern Ry.), some 120; miles west of
Vancouver, is beautifully located at the junction of the Similkameen and
Tulameen Rivers, is the government headquarters for the Similkameen district, has a population of 500 inhabitants, and is furnished with an ample
supply of water by the Princeton Water Works Co. It is anticipated that
early this year an electric lighting plant will be installed to furnish light
for the town.
Coal has been known to exist at Princeton for many years, a seam
twenty feet thick outcropping on the east bank of the Similkameen river
some 1500 feet above the Forks. This seam was used over 40 years ago by
the cattle ranchers located in the valley.
During the years preceeding the advent of the Railway (which did not
reach Princeton until December, 1909) little active development work could
be done on this company's coal property, but it was thoroughly exploited by
Prospecting for Coal in Similkameen Coal Basin,
bore-holes and the continuity of the large seam above mentioned was established and other and smaller seams were discovered in a prospecting tunnel,
consisting of an adit level driven easterly into the bank from the outcrop
near the river, a distance of 660 feet, where it was connected with an 8x8
air shaft 64 feet deep situated on the higher! bench above. The air shaft
is now one of the intakes, furnishing the present mine with air and the
level is used to carry off the water from the present workings.
This company in 1907, acting on the advice of Mr. James McEvoy, at
that time Chief Engineer for the Crows Nest Pass Coal Company, laid out a
definite plan for the future development of the mine and a slope 7x10 was
driven down from, the bench on an 18 degree pitch till the coal seam was
encountered, when it was continued on the dip of the seam, 11 degrees.
In the summer of 1909, when the railway was building up the Similkameen valley from Spokane, active development work was begun, a tipple
structure was erected, and a 50 h.p. boiler and hoist was installed. Underground development work was speedily prosecuted and has been continued
to this date. , '    .
The slope is driven in the dip of the seam and the levels run ott at
right angles to it. Headings at right angles to the levels (and parallel with
the slope) are turned off every 400 feet and rooms will be turned off these
headings every 30 feet. The width of the rooms are 18 feet. They will be
driven for 200 feet.
46 The method adopted in working the coal is the pillar and stall system.
The original plant, which was only capable of handling about 100 tons
per day, and which did not afford any facilities for proper preparation of
the coal, was found inadequate to meet the requirements so an up-to-date
plant was installed with a capacity of 500 tons per day.
This plant which was supplied by the Link Belt Company of Chicago,
consists of rotary dump, shaker screens for lump, egg and nut coal, two
picking belts and a Victor box-car loader. The method adopted of handling
the coal is as follows: The mine cars are first elevated on to the tipple,
which they pass into the rotary dump, which deposits the coal into a reciprocating hopper, from whence it passes on to a shaker screen, having a
%ths diameter perforations, eliminating the slack; it then passes shaker
screens having 1% perforations, thus taking out the nut coal which drops
on to a picking belt, where it is sorted and afterwards carried into a 80-ton
bunker, the lump and egg passing on to a second belt and after soruug is
Princeton, looking north from Princeton  Heights.
carried to the bunkers where it again passes over a 4" bar screen separating
the lump coal from the egg size, which grades are then deposited into separate bunkers having a capacity of 80 tons each. After being bunkered the
coal is carried by a conveyer belt to the box car loader, which loads it into
the box-cars.
A compressor having a capacity of 744 cubic feet per minute of air
has also been installed and three Hardy coal cutting machines are now used
in cutting the coal with very satisfactory results.
The number of coal cutters will be increased to eight.
The other equipment consists of: two 75-h.p. boilers, machine shop
fully equipped, 80-ton railroad track scales, bath house for miners, blacksmith shop, store house and stables.
The ventilation of the mine is supplied by a fan operating from the air
shaft.
Together the cost of the new equipment amounted to about $100,000,
and was in full running order by the end of February, 1912.
The coal seam, as mentioned before, is 24 feet thick, with a 3-foot clay
parting 8 feet from the roof.
47 An average analysis will read as follows:
Moisture    10%
Fixed  Carbon   50%
Volotile   34%
Ash   6%
Calorific value  11,640 B.T.U.
The Kettle Valley Railway (C.P.R.) are actively building into Princeton
and are expected to reach Vancouver in about two years.
When these two railways run through trains to the Pacific coast, and
the B. C. Copper Co. and other development companies start operations on
the mineral wealth of the Similkameen, good times are predicted for this
country, with unrivalled opportunities for mining capital.
Princeton
The beautiful town of Princeton is situated in the junction of the
Similkameen and Tulameen Rivers, near the centre of the Similkameen
Valley. It is the distributing point for Southern, B. C. Being surrounded
by rich mineral and arable lands, its future is assured. Bounded on the
north by ,the coalfields of the Nicola Valley, on the south by the State of
B. C. Copper Co. sinking a shaft on the "Silver Dollar" M. C.
on Copper Mountain.
Washington, on the east by the Okanagan Valley, and on the west by the
Hope Mountains. The Tulameen River is considered a very rich mineral
country. Near the head of this river there are a number of mining companies digging out rich silver-lead ores. About 12 miles up from Princeton
the semi-bituminous coal basin is being operated by the Columbia Coal &
Coke Co. North and adjoining the old town of Princeton is the beautiful
new townsite of Princeton Heights, surrounded by rich agricultural lands;
and up the one-mile creek there are many farmers tilling the soil with satisfactory results, and beyond the farming district are the rich copper camps
of Asj-en 0~ve. with their extensive cattle ranges. It is through this district that the Kettle Valley Railway build their main line from the Okan- 1
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"■' agan. This railway has a branch to Copper Mountain to the south, coming
in by the way of Five Mile Creek, and their Princeton line comes in by the
north opposite to the V. V. & E. Ry. (Great Northern Railway). To the
south of Princeton are some rich copper camps. Copper Mt. is about 11
miles, where the B. C. Copper Company are now opening several good copper
mines. Kennedy Mountain, on the opposite side of Similkameen River,
where American capital is rapidly proving up the properties to be producers.
Whipsaw Creek Camp is very rich in silver and gold. Messrs. Knight &
Day have some very rich showings, and higher up in the mountains Hugh
Campbell and Sam Spencer have excellent rich mineral showings. Further
south, some Chicago capital is developing the "Red Star" group; on the
Roach River rich copper ores are encountered. Then there are other
silver-lead camps situated near the summit of the Hope Mountains.
The Trans-Provincial Auto Highway passes over these mountains, and
near the old Dewdney trail, and comes through the old town of Princeton.
About 22 miles to the south-east of here is the rich gold camp of Camp
Hediey,  which  is  described  later  on,  and  further  down  the   Similkameen
B. C. Copper Co. proving up their bonds on Copper Mountain
by Diamond Drills.
River are the fertile fruit lands around Keremeos,  which is the best fruitgrowing district in the Dominion of Canada.    The Keremeos Land Company
have a good irrigation system; the water is brought down from the Ashnola
River below Hediey.
The original settler in this valley was Mr. Allison, who owned all the
land around the forks of the two rivers. He located the Princeton land in
the early 60's as a pre-emption, and called it Princeton, but later gave it up
to Mr. J. Sands, who in turn later on sold to W. J. Waterman, who organized
with his brother and formed the first company to operate in the district in
London, England, and known as the Vermilion Forks Mining and Development Company, Ltd., who had the land subdivided into lots and blocks in
1896-1897. The first hotel was erected in the early 90's by Jim Wallace, an
old Granite Creek timer. Although Jamison had a saloon in the valley and
Coutlee had the first hotel on the Tulameen, the first white store erected at
Princeton was owned by Charlie Thomas, and the second by F. P. Cook.
Although nearly all the old-timers have stayed with the district, a number
have crossed the big divide.
Princeton now has three chartered Banks—the Bank of Montreal,
Canadian  Bank  of  Commerce  and  the  Royal  Bank  of  Canada—all   doing
SO business on Bridge Street.    Four general stores—Thomas Bros., F. P. Cook,
A. E. Howse Company, Ltd., and Alex. Bell, who also runs the P. O. and
The Keremeos Land Co.'s Pipe Line.
Government Telephone Office. There are seven other stores of different
kinds, besides pool rooms and barber shops. P. Burns has also established
a shop here. There are three large hotels with licenses. The best hotel in
Southern B. C. and first brick building in the town is the Hotel Princeton,
owned by Messrs. Swanson and Broomfield, with hot and cold water in the
Hamburg Grapes grown at  Keremeos.
bedrooms. Both this hotel and the Tulameen Hotel are situated on Bridge
Street. The Similkameen Hotel is located on Vermilion Avenue. The
Great Northern Railway Depot is situated at the head of Vermilion Avenue.
The immediate district around Princeton is underlaid with good domestic
coal. The climate is mild and dry the year round, and very healthy, and the
Similkameen is a sportsman's paradise for both fish and game.
SI B. C. Portland Cement Co.'s Plant at East Princeton which is about one
mile east of the old town.
Bridge Street, the main street of Princeton, looking south from Princeton
Heights, Tulameen River in foreground.
52 Princeton Heights
Distant view of Tulameen Avenue and Princeton Heights from the top
of "Knob Hill" addition. Princeton Heights have just been placed on the
market. It is on these beautiful flat bench lands that the Princeton Athletic
and Racing Association have purchased  and built their splendid half-mile
oval Race Track, Base-ball and Park Grounds.    The continuation of Bridge
Street takes you to the Park and beautiful residential sites.
For sale by Frank Bailey on easy terms;  20 per cent, discount off for
all cash.
Apply to Frank Bailey & Co., Similkameen Lands and Mines, Princeton, B. C.
53 uNfrw
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New $500,000. Portland Canal Plant
EAST PRINCETON, B.C.
Head and Sales Office Vancouver,  B.  C, 615  Hastings  Street,  West.
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Manufacturers of ELK BRAND Portland Cement, Lime and Bricks. All
raw material of the best quality, including coal for burning, are obtained within a few hundred feet of the works. The plant is now taxed
to capacity to supply the demand for its products. This important industry furnishes a large pay roll for this district.
55 Camp Hediey
BY THE HEDLEY GAZETTE AND FRANK BAILEY, M.E.
Taken from "The London Mining Journal," May, 1911.
v^to N the spring of 1899 when the writer came over the mountain trail
\^L  from Keremos over the divide to the head waters of Twenty Mile
■    Creek, the camps of Mr. M. K. Rodger's outfit could plainly be seen
%~M   from Independence Mountain to the Nickel Plate Mountain,  when
they were working on  their bond of the "Nickel  Plate"  group  of
claims.    This bond was paid for long before it came due, on account of the
large amount of gold in sight.
The history of Camp Hediey dates from the time when Mr. Peter Scott
came in from the Slocan country and located the "Rollo" mineral claim,
in August, 1897.    He was grub-staked1 by Mr. Robert Hediey, M.E., of the
Offices of Daly Reduction Co. and Hediey Gold
Mines  Co.
Hall Mines near Nelson, and Paul Johnson, of the Greenwood smelter.    He
shortly afterwards located the King, Princeton, Kingston and War Horse
mineral claims.
Mr. Albert Jacobson and C. Johnson, two Swedes who had been grubstaked by William Yolen Williams, the superintendent of the Granby mines,
located the Mound and Copper Cliff claims, which were later purchased by
the Yale Minine Company.
In August, 1898, Messrs. Wollaston and Arundel located the Horsefly,
Bulldog, Sunnyside, Nickel Plate and Copperfield. The ore from these
properties attracted the attention of Mr. M. K. Rodgers, who was then
commissioned by the late Marcus Daly to the Similkameen country, and a
56 bond was taken on these properties in 1898 and development work was
started in January, 1899. The other claims already located had all shown
up well in value and soon the hillside was located in all directions by
enterprising prospectors.
The writer made the first map of the lower Similkameen, including Camp
Hediey, which was named by the writer and Pete Scott, and published same
in 1900. In the fall of 1899 the author located the Wellington, Cracker-Jack
and Cannon-Bail mineral claims on Red Mountain, and both sides of Twenty
Mile Creek, blazing the first trail up this creek. These claims are now
crown-granted, awaiting the necessary capital to prove them to be producing
mines.
The successful development of the Nickel Plate mine and the results
are ancient history. The work done to make possible this success would
have bankrupted many a small company, as roads, bridges and trails had
to be built before the property could be reached by machinery to prove the
worth of the property. In 1904, when the forty stamps began to drop
$759,000 had been expended. Reports today show a production of about
$4,000,000.00 with about $500,000 being wasted in the sands. The acquiring
of this property made Mr. M. K. Rodgers a successful mining man, as he
was given a fifth interest in one of the great gold mines of the world. He
engaged the services of Mr. Gomer P. Jones from Australia in 1899, at the
Electric Ore Train at Nickel Plate Mine.
early stages of development, then the Daly interests, combined with New
York capital, organized the Yale Mining Company to purchase and operate
the Hediey properties, and the Daly Reduction Company, to operate the
forty stamp mill and large cyanide plant and extensive power house.
When a change of management was made by the Daly interests, Mr.
Rodgers was engaged by the Guggenheims to develop their interests in
Alska. Later he returned and organized a company composed of men in ihe
steel trust. This new company is now known as the Hediey Gold Mining
Company. To illustrate their methods, $10,000.00 was spent in diamond
drilling, aside from 500 samples from the different ores blocked out. On this
showing a bonus of $500,000.00 was given the Daly interests. Mr. G. P. Jones
was made general manager, and the diamond drill work was proved by
drifting, crosscuts and upraises in 1910, with the result that in twelve months
time more ore was blocked than had been treated in the previous history
of the mines.
In the spring of 1911 Mr. G. P. Jones, the general manager, submitted
the following report to the president and stockholders of the Hediey Gold
Mining Company, concerning the operations during 1910:
57 Working on "Cannon-Ball" M.C., in the Canyon of Twenty-Mile Creek.
58 "I beg to report progress for the year 1910, as follows: Mining on the
company's claims has been carried on continuously, and 46,828 tons of ore
mined and milled. For the first four months practically no development
work was done, owing to shortage of power. During the last eight, months
the development work that has been done was mostly confined to extending
the present ore-bodies, and testing the ground adjacent. The ore for the
mill has been stoped from several sections of the mine, and proves the
estimate of ore reserves of August 13th, 1910, to be a very conservative, both
as to tonnage and values. The ore broken for the year is about 16,000 tons
in excess of the ore shipped to the mill, and is lying in the stopes. This
broken ore will average $13.00 per ton.
The Hediey Gazette of January 2nd, 1913, publishes the following:
"It will not be necessary to remind our readers that in the fourteen
years' history of the mine, of which only about eight and a half years
covered the producing period, the Christmas season did not always find the
situation affording the same sense of buoyancy and contentment. Yet the
mine was really richer than it is now by the amount of value which has
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PROSPECTOR'S CAMP.
been extracted since then. The difference lay in the fact that the 30 per
cent in annual dividends, and for the year that has just closed, the owners
are moreover free to admit that the outlook of their mines in this camp
based upon actual development.
As might be expected from the fact that the dividends have been greater
during the past year than any previous year, 1912 has been a year of
smashing records and all former achievements have had to take second
place. The tonnage of ore mined and milled has been greater; the bullion
produced has been greater; the mill has accomplished a higher duty per
stamp; the extraction has been higher; and, more important than all of
them, the development done during the year has shown up foot for foot a
vastly greater amount of ore than ever before, with the result that the ore
reserves have reached a point which puts the whole concern on easy street
for years to come, so far as the necessity for looking for new ore-bodies is
concerned. No wonder the ore reserves have increased so enormously
during the year, when it is known that every bit of the development done
on the Nickel Plate during the year has been all in ore.
Mine Development.
the development work consisted of 400 ft.  of
59
On the "Nickel Plate,' sinking of an incline shaft, with four levels, opened out from it, and 300 ft.
of drifting in them. This incline is known as the No. 5 incline from No. 4
tunnel. There is also an incline raise here to connect No. 4 tunnel with the
workings above.
Another important feature connected with the development from the
underground workings of the Nickel Plate was the commencement made, on
what is known as the Dickson incline. This will be a very important undertaking and will play a very prominent part in the future working of tha
mine.
The incline is planned for 3000 ft., and is pointed in the direction best
calculated to serve in the mining of the large ore reserves already known
to exist and when carried on will pierce the territory where it is known
that new ore bodies will be opened. The incline is to be a double-compartment with man-hole ways. The work already done is that of cutting the
station for it and providing ore-pockets. The present intention is to equip
for1 sinking the incline to 1000 ft. and a hoist capable of doing so will be
installed at once. As before stated, every part of the development work
on the Nickel Plate underground workings has been in ore.
Other development work has been the 140-ft. tunnel under the bunk-
house into the "Silver Plate" Property, and sinking 150 ft. in the Sunnyside
No. 4 incline, but as the power which could be spared for development was
limited the work was concentrated on the Nickel Plate.
Exploration by diamond-drill was prosecuted extensively during the
year and a total of 3,447 ft. was drilled of which 2066 ft. was by contractors'
drills and 1381 by the company's own drills.
r.g.1
DIAGRAMMATIC WEST TO EAST SECTION
across
CAMP HEDLEY
Vertical and Horizontal Scale, 2000 feet - I inch
Fig.   1.—Shows  monzonite  making plunging contact with  sediments,  with
off-shoots   of  monozonite  penetrating  sediments   along  bedding  planes,
which are lines of least resistance.    Scale should read 4000 feet=l inch.
By Charles Camsell—Geological Survey of Canada, 1907-08.
There was mined and milled during 1912 a little over 70,000 tons, which
is nearly 13,000 tons more than last year, while last year (1911) was about
10,000 tons more than the year preceding.
The tonnage month by month for 1912 was as follows:
Tons. Assay value.
January  5701 $10.70
February  5014 9.49
March   6263 11.60
April  5326 10.55
May    5666 10.64
June   6027 10.13
Tons. Assay value.
July 6110        $ 9.97
August  5900 12.11
September 6108 16.38
October  6101 11.69
November  6003 11.57
December  6050 (estimated)
The Windfall Purchase.
As a part of the development may also be mentioned the exploratory
work done in connection with the purchase of the Windfall group of claims,,
consisting of the Windfall, Morning, Bighorn, Winchester, Fraction and
Czar Fractional mineral claims, on which the company took a bond from
60 the owners in the early part of the summer and began diamond-drilling.
This drilling was not done on the properties under bond but on the company's own property in unexplored ground lying between the Nickel Plate
workings and the ground bonded, and within a few feet from the Windfall
line. The bond was for a long term and the consideration was for $150,000,
but it was taken up at the end of four months and the full consideration was
paid, less the discount for cash before completion as provided for in the
61 bond. The spot where the last drilling was done was very precipitous!,
which rendered the work a trifle hazardous after the snow came on, as it
does very early at that point. The company have provided themselves with
drilling equipment capable of going the depth necessary to reach the ore-
bearing strata at that point, and doubtless will resume the drilling and put
down a few more holes to obtain further information than that upon
which the bond was taken up.
Extracts from Mr. Charles Camsell's report on the Geology of Camp
Hediey:
There is only one series of sedimentary rocks, and these are the oldest
rocks in the camp. No determinable fossils have yet been found in them
but from their lithological characters they have been referred to the Cache
Creek   group   of   Dawson's   classification,   and   are   therefore   presumably
Natural Cave at Princeton.
Carboniferous. The series in ascending order, as exposed within the limits
of the camp, gives the following succession: (1) red, grey and black)
silicious and argillaceous beds interstratified in thin bands; (2) blue and
white limestone becoming impure at the top, and breccia; (3) silicious and
argillaceous beds like the lower ones with probably some tuffs.
The limestones of the middle division hold the ore bodies that have so
far proved to be of economic importance. These sediments dip to the
westward at an angle which increases in that direction from 12 to 90,
degrees. They are cut by a mass of monzonite lying in the central part
of the camp, and also by a granite which is later than the monoznite. Dikes
and sheets emanating from these two igneous masses, and particularly
from the monzonite, penetrate the sediments in every part of the camp
and alter them to such a degree as to make them difficult to recognize in
the field.
Monzonite is the next rock in age to the sediments. This occurs in
two distinct varieties in different parts of the same mass with, all stages
of transition between them. The more basic variety covers the widest
area and occupies the central and western portions of the mass, while the
acid variety lies along the eastern side and sometimes also occurs intrusive
in the basic variety.    The constituent minerals of the normal phase are
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63 orthoclase and plagioclase in about equal quantities, with hornblende,
augite, quartz and biotite in varying proportions. All stages of transition
from the basic to the acid variety can be found. Well marked contacts
are common, and these always show the acid variety as cutting the basic.
From this core a great number of sheets and dikes of what is called \
andesite have been given off, and the same gradual transition in composition
is noted in them as in the mass from which they emanated.
As arsenopyrite is the most prominent sulphide with which the gold
is commonly associated, these deposits are somewhat unique in so far as
arsenopyrite has never yet been found in such proportion to] the otherf
sulphides in contact deposits  of this character.
Arsenopyrite is found to a certain extent in a great many contact
metamorphic deposits, but in this case it frequently occurs to the exclusion
of the other sulphides. As a rule it is found as secondary in importance to
such minerals as chalcopyrite, magnetite or pyrrhotite: but in these deposits
it occurs so abundantly that Weed in a classification of ore deposits
assigns them to a distinct type, of which this is the only representative.
The arsenopyrite is often disseminated through the gangue rock in crystallized individuals, in which case it would probably be of primary origin.
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Above the Clouds in Winter at Nickel Plate Mine.
In the same specimen it will also be found as filling small, narrow lines
of Assuring, showing that some secondary action has taken place. The
latter feature is often a good indication of high grade ore.
Gold values appear to be always associated with arsenopyrite, yet
much arsenopyrite occurs throughout in which little, if any, gold can be
obtained. An assay of the sample is the only means of acquiring the
slightest information as to its gold contents, as free gold is rarely visible.
In many cases it is impossible to distinguish a sample which will give twenty
dollars to the ton from one that will assay two dollars per ton. Again in the
oxidized rock of the surface one can often wash a crushed sample in a
great number of very fine colors of gold will appear in the bottom of the
pan. In another sample no colors will be obtained, yet the one will; give
as good results on an assay as the other. As a rule, however, some assay
values in gold will be obtained when arsenopyrite occurs in that altered
sediments where they are cut by the acid variety of monzonite or its dike
equivalent.
As to the original source of the arsenopyrite, one does not have to look
farther than the monzonite itself. It occurs in small quantities as an accessory mineral in the monzonite mass, but in the dikes and sheets of andesite
it is so plentiful as to appear almost as an essential constituent. It does
not appear in the sediments on the granite contact, but always at or near
the monzonite and andesite contacts.
64 An interesting point developed in connection with the treatment of
these ores is the finding at the end of a month's run of the mill of some
platinum along with the gold.
Mr. Charles Camsell also states that Hediey is the most important,
mining camp in the Osoyoos Mining Division of Yale District, and is the
largest producer of gold alonei of any camp in British Columbia."
1913 opens up with another large deal for Camp Hediey, when Mr.
Beam obtained options on many important properties in the camp. Mr.
Beam is also interested in the Hediey Gold Mining Company and has
interested in this bond a large amount of mining capital, who are locally
known as the New York Syndicate No. 2, and while some of the former
syndicate that took up the bond on the Nickel Plate about three years
ago are in this new syndicate, which other capitalists have joined, |the
day is not far distant before Camp Hediey will become one of the most
important facts in the production of gold on the North American continent.
Similkameen Hotel,   the Finest Hotel in Hediey, B. C.
The properties under option are the "Florence" group of seven claims
owned by Thomas Bradshaw, and comprising the Florence, Florence Fraction, Eagle's Nest No. 2, Zerust, Little Pittsburg, Whale and Bullion Beck;
the Duffy group, owned by H. J. Duffy of Spokane, and compriejng the
Reno, Lorena, Copper World Fraction, Lion's Paw, Northern Light Fraction,
Canadian Belle, Union Fraction and Midnight Sun; the Paris, owned by
Wm. Arnott, the Red Mountain by Chas. de Bois Green and his partners.
There are also some other claims taken in but those mentioned will give
a fair idea of the far reaching character of the transaction.
Extensive diamond drilling will be employed and should the ground
stand the test it will mean a great thing indeed for Hediey, for the- actual
mining of all the Hediey ores will be by long, deep tunnels from very little
above the bed of Twenty Mile Creek, and will bring mining operations
almost in to the town itself as the town is located in the bed of the creek.
The most of the properties under bond lie right in the Canyon closely
adjoining the town.
The Cracker-Jack, Wellington, Cannon-Bail, and the three adjoining
fractions have splendid surface showings, and the ear-marks of mines and
are still open for a working bond, the characters explained by Mr. Camsell
of the Hediey ore deposits are noticeable on this group of crown-granted
mineral claims.
65 The  Kingston Group
^h^HE Kingston group consists of four claims, the Kingston, War Horse,
/ |     Metropolitan and Grand View.    They are situated quite close to the
^^^ town, on the steep mountain side about 2,000 feet above the valley,
and when developed to the producing point, they may be easily and
cheaply equipped for shipping purposes by tramway (either aerial
or gravity).
The First Pack Load of Ore taken out of
Hediey by Mr. M. K. Rodgers in 1898.
The group is owned by the Kingston Gold and Copper Mining Co., Ltd.,
and most of the stock is held in Quebec, although Mr. A. B. Clabon of
Vancouver and Mr. F. M. Wells hold a lot of it and were the promoters of
the company. The president of the company is Mr. W. A. Marsh of Quebec.
H. C. Polock has been the superintendent for a number of years and they
now have some high grade ore in sight.    The property has been bonded
66 several times since then, but is still controlled by the Kingston Company
of Quebec.
Mr. Charles Camsell of the Canadian Geological Survey, says of the
Kingston group in his report:
"The War Horse ore body lies on a contact of massive blue limestone,
with an andesite sheet, and not far from the central core of monzotiite.
The limestone dips 30 degrees to the west, and carries Irregular masses
of chert rock. It is cut by irregular dikes of andesite, which alter the limestone to an epidote-garnet-calcite rock. This constitutes the gangue of the
ores, and the ore minerals are pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite and
galena. These are scattered through the gangue in varying proportions,
pyrrhotite forming with chalcopyrite the largest percentage. The chief
values are in copper, but this is supplemented by some gold and silver.
On the Kingston claim farther down the hill the workings are in the
sediments within a few feet of the edge of the monzonite core. Injection
from the monzonite have penetrated the bedding planes of the sediments,
altering and mineralizing them as in the case of the Nickel Plate mine.
The  chief values  are in gold, which  is  associated  with  arsenopyrite.
■      . "
.                 '                             ■            '■                          ' ;,': fs         *V&        •*" -*
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lilfe.
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Chas. Camsell's Camp at Coalmont, B. C.
Some latter dikes cut both the sediments and igneous rocks, forming favorable localities for the concentration of the gold by circulating waters. The
Kingston group of claims is very favorably situated for the occurrence of
ore bodies, and more extensive development may prove their existence."
THE   APEX   GROUP
Next to the Kingston in point of development done, and values obtained is the Apex Group, part of which was first located by the writer in
1899 and 1900; they were afterwards restaked and acquired by W. D.
McMillan and associates, who bonded them to the Colonial Gold Mining
Co. of Manchester, N. H., who in 1912 sold them to M. K. Rodgers, W. T.
Shatford, M.P.P., F. H. French^ N. T. Pickhard and associates, who have
undoubtedly opened up some more producing mines.
The Apex group consists of five claims and two fractions, known as
the Acacia, Apex, Acadia, Australia, Australian Fraction, Alpha and Utopia,
and are situated about 6,000 feet above sea level and 4,500 ft. above tha
Similkameen valley, on the summit between the headwaters of Keremeos
67 Creek, Twenty Mile Creek and Sixteen Mile Creek, and lying midway
between Independence, Dividend and Red Mountains in the Osoyoos Mining
Division of Yale District and about five miles east of the Nickel Plate mine.
Assay and analysis by J. O'Sullivan, F.C.S., gave:
Iron    19.20%
Lime   6 50%
Silica   29.40%
Copper  5.30%
Silver      2.15
Alunina 17.54%
Arsenic   6.00%
Sulphur  15.61%
Gold $24.00 per ton
"I may mention that, judging from the results of the analysis, this is
a good self-fluxing ore."—J. O'Sullivan, F.C.S., Provincial Assayer.
Bridges  Across   the   Similkameen  River.
THE  GOLDEN  ZONE
Situated near the head waters of the north fork of Twenty Mile Creek
about twelve miles from Hediey up the Twenty Mile Creek Road is the
Golden Zone Group of four claims, the Golden Zone, B. C, Irish Boy, and
Silver Bell.
These claims were first located by J. J. Marks, Paul Broadhaggen and
James Murphy, old-time prospectors, who organized the first company
known as the Golden Zone Mining Co., Limited, with a capital of $500,00°,
having 2,000,000 shares at 25 cents each, par value. The property was the.i
equipped with steam hoist, a No. 5 Cameron pump and a five stamp mill.
It was soon afterwards bonded by C. H. Brooks and the company was
re-organized in Victoria, B. C, as the Gold Plate Mining Co., although the
ore deposits are good and carry high values, the property has not been
worked steadily, probably on account of lack of the necessary capital, but
it has the ear-marks of a producing mine.
68 THE   POLLOCK MINES
/■■te^HE Pollock Group is situated about two miles up the Similkameen
/ j river from Hediey, on the opposite of the river, on the water-
^^^ shed between Sterling creek and Henry Creek.
The Group consists of five claims, Martin, Maple Leaf, Daisy
Fraction, Pine Knot and  Minnehaha.
The ownership is vested in the Pollock Mines, Limited, a company
which was formed in 1905. The capitalization is 1,000,000 shares at $1.00
each, and of this 500,000 shares were set aside for treasury, and there are
410,000 shares of the treasury stock still unsold. The company also own
the Copper Cliff, on Nickel Plate Mountain. The officers of the company
were: President, H. C. Pollock; Vice-President, John Gladden, C.E.; Secretary, Chas. E. Oliver, M.E.; Managing Director, E. A. C Studd, Esq. The
claims were all located by H. C. Pollock, in 1900.
The ore bodies are true fissure veins running approximately northeast
and southwest.
The most development is done on the Martin claim. There are many
openings, all proving the existence of a good, strong-looking lead with a
strike of about northeast. On this vein two shafts heve been sunk, one
60 feet deep, and the other 55 feet deep, out of which two good dumps of
ore have been taken out. There are also a number of tunnels cross-cutting
the vein, which was found in places to be 22 feet wide, some of which carries
free gold which can always be found in panning and is often visible in hand
specimens. The ore is a white quartz very friable and slightly mineralized
with pyrite, arsenopyrite and zinc-blende, the arsenopyrite predominating.
On both foot and hanging walls is marked cleavage or gouge of the true
fissure, which in this case seems to be cutting the monzonite eruptive so
well known in Camp Hediey from its frequent occurrence. As for values,
they have been found on extensive assaying both from tunnels and shafts
to be very satisfactory, going more often above $50.00 per ton than below
$20.00, and what is more encouraging still in the case of a free-milling
property, it pans well all over.
When a special claim is made for the Pollock Group in the matter of
advantageous operation, it will be only necessary to enumerate a few to
show how great these advantages are. The steep hillside lends itself
admirably to tunnelling; the ground is easily worked, making it possible to
prosecute development work and ore extraction with hand steel without
the necessity of power-drills until harder ground is encountered at lower
levels, by which time the property should turn out bullion far over enough
to equip itself.
At the foot of the mountain the Victoria, Vancouver & Eastern Railway
(Great Northern Ry.) are running trains through the "Crown Point No. 2"
mineral claim, and an aerial tram of not over half a mile could land the
ore into a mill alongside the Similkameen river on the railway track. In
Henry creek there is water enough the year round to supply the batteries
without any expensive Burning or pumping from the river; and for fuel,
coal could be dumped into a bin at the mill from the railway cars. All
expenses for haulage of machinery to install a mill or to ship off concentrates would be cut out, for it would be simply a matter of putting off and
on the cars. Then in operation of a mill the friable character of the orei
should increase the duty per stamp of a mill to a high point.
69 THE  CROWN   POINT  GROUP
^** HESE claims are known as the Crown Point No. 2, and the Hilda,
fl situated east of the Martin and the Hilda is the south extension of
\im    the Crown Point, adjoining the Minnehaha on the north and east.
The Crown Point No. 2 is one of the prior claims after the
Pollock group and the Bulldog group adjoins these claims on the
east, the northeast corner of the Crown Point claim is just across the
Similkameen river. The V. V. & E. Ry. runs through the north portion of
the property. Just above the track there is one hundred foot of a tunnel
driven1 in towards a rich vein of galena, carrying high values in zinc,
silver and gold, which are exposed on the steep cliffs above the railway
tracks. There are a number of contact veins running parallel to each other,
on which there are several open cuts, some of which are in ten or twelve:
feet. In some of these cuts good values can be obtained. The rich vein,
which is about two feet in width, has not yet been reached. It will take
about twelve or fifteen feet from the present face of the lower tunnel.
The Beautiful Townsite of Keremoes, B. C.
The Hilda claim is a relocation of the Tip-Top and Similkameen mineral
claims, and is located directly above the Crown Point No. 2, and these silver
contact leads run through the Hilda and Minnehaha. A little prospecting
work shows some promising lime contacts with the argillisous rocks, and
dikes of monzonite which evidently carry and distribute the economic
minerals, through these  contacts.
The Crown Point No. 2 is well situated for handling and shipping its
ores, being right on the V. V. & E. Ry. This tunnel could be carried on into
the mountain for several hundreds of feet, which would give it thousands
of feet in depth, when the mountain could then be cross-cutted at great
depth and the Pollock veins would also be encountered, as their strike Is
through the Crown Point property. This group of claims is open for bonding
on easy terms, and it would be an easy matter to prove the property, to be
a commercial mine with a little ready capital.
There are some very promising properties on 15 and 16 Mile Creeks,
besides some new gold discoveries have been made near Old Tom Creek,
which are now being developed by coast capital.
About twenty miles down the Similkameen is the beautiful townsite of
Keremos.   In 1899, when the writer came to this country from the Boundary,
70 Keremeos and Princeton were the only two townsites in the Similkameen
valley, and the writer secured by purchase from the Provincial Government
a large track of land in Camg Hediey being protected from any possible
opposition townsite  in Hediey by the  Chuchuwayha  Indian  Reserve,  and
>
a
FM
Indian Reserve No. 2, and when he was assured by both the Dominion and
Provincial Governmets that these Reserves would not be thrown open for
townsite purposes. So the Similkameen City was started, and at a great
expense put on the market. However, shortly after this subdivision of
Lot 1968 was completed into lots and blocks, the Indian Reserve lines were
71 resurveyed and two fractions were thrown out of the Indian Reserve on
the bed of Twenty Mila Creek, near the mouth of the Twenty Mile Creek
canyon, which was located by R. H. Parkinson and his associates, as fractional mineral claims. Soon after he completed the survey on Similkameen
City he started to survey Hediey City on the old bed of Twenty Mile Creek
The following year Mr. M. K. Rodgers commenced his flume and reduction
works near by, and by the expenditure of a large amount of money and
employment of an army of workers, Hediey City was an established fact,
and for many years the former and natural place for a townsite has been
taken off the market. However, it will all make excellent fruit lnds, and
the climate is well adapted for the successful growing of all kinds of fruits
with a little irrigation.
A new power scheme is now under way to harness the Similkameen
river a few miles above Lot 1968, G. 1, and bring a large ditch across the
same for irrigation and Hediey mining purposes, and abandon the old,
broken-down flume on Twenty Mile Creek. This will be a great improvement
to the Camp, and will be able to supply unlimited power for the different
mines now being operated.
■
m. '-^'wMt
.•>*#JSlf-4f*
■-'.
V     *
School House.
About two miles north of Keremeos is the old mining camp of Olalla. The
best fruit lands are located in the beautiful Keremeos Valley, where the best
fruit is grown in British Columbia. The Ritcher Estate has taken many prizes
for their Hamburg grapes, and the Keremeos Land Co. have some splendid
orchards. Most of the large estates that were in early days held as large
winter ranges for cattle, have now been subdivided into fruit acreage and
sold to the fruit growers. Three or four crops of alfalfa can be grown
on the Keremeos lands in one season with irrigation. The Keremeos Land
Co. have a large ditch and a pipe line running from the Ashola river about
midway between Keremeos and Twenty Mile Creek.
A lot of new ranches have been taken up on the Ashnola river, which
heads in the State of Washington, U. S. A., and flows north, emptying into
the Similkameen river on the south side. There are also a number of high
grade tungsten and other valuable mineral claimsi recently located on the
Ashnola river, which has no relation to the Ashnola townsite located near
the foot of Kennedy Mountain, some nine miles south of the prosperous
town of Princeton.
72 Hotel Penticton, Starting Point for the Similkameen.
Peach  Trees  in  Bloom,  Keremeos,  B.  C.
73 Old Timers
The oldest Chinaman in the Similkameen was on Granite Creek all
through the big placer excitement in the early '60's, and built himself a home
at the junction of Granite Creek with the Tulameen, making a living out
of placer mining and market gardening. He died last year. They say he
was over 90 years old.
Frenchy.
THE LATE WILLIAM VOIGHT.
The late William Voight, one of the first white men in the Nicola Valley,
the Father of Merritt, B. C, who will always be fondly remembered
by all who have met him.
HUGH CAMPBELL
Born May 18th, 1835, at sea, coming to Halifax. Left Halifax March,
1862, went to New York, from thence to San Francisco via Panama Isthmus,
thence to Victoria, B. C, thence to New Westminster, thence up the Fraser
River by boat to Yale, the gateway to the Cariboo. The only1 town at that
time in the Cariboo was called Richfield. Went to Barkerville in 1863;
went to Montana (Helena) in 1865. Came into the Similkameen with Capt.
Scott's Golden Creek Mining Company on South Fork of Similkameen, and
stayed with the country ever since; owner of some rich mineral claims near
headwaters of Whip Saw Creek, a well respected old-timer, who will yet
be rich.
74 Hugh  Campbell.
A Prospector and  His Two  Faithful Companions.
75 Col. Robert Stevenson of Glengarry, Vankleek's Hill, Canada, came to
British Columbia in May, 1859, came to Rock Creek and Similkameen Mines
in June, 1860. He was appointed Custom House Officer under Sir James
Douglas, then governor of B. C, with a salary of $250.00 per month, but
the rich gold discoveries of Cariboo attracted his attention and he left for
there in 1861. Leaving Cariboo for good in June, 1877, he came back to
the Similkameen to continue his explorations made many years ago and
was  one  of the  first  to  draw  the  attention  of the  outside  world  to  the
Col. Robert Stevenson.
Similkameen country. In 1888 Stevenson and James Jannson discovered
Copper Mountain. Mr. Stevenson still owns large interests on Copper Mt.,
Nickel Plate Mountain, Kelly Creek and Leadville, and next to E. F. Voight
is the largest mine owner in the Similkameen. He is now almost 75 years
of age, and still quite active in the hills. The Indians used to speak of him
as "HaloQuasch Copa Icta" (the man without fear).
76 We all hope he may live long enough to enjoy the fruits of his toils
He has his family on a splendid ranch at Chilliwack, B. C, and is well known
throughout Southern B. C.
The most successful business man in Southern B. C.
Born in Nova Scotia in 1873; came to Fairview, B. C, in the spring of
1893, joining his brother, W. T. Shatford of Vernon, in running tneir general
stores at Vernon, Fairview, Camp McKinney and Hediey, B. C. This firm
was known for 20 years as W. T. Shalford & Company, but after they organized the Southern Okanagan Land Co., their commercial business was
reorganized as Shatfords, Ltd. The Southern Okanagan Land Company, Ltd.
was organized in 1905, which was the starting point of the fruit boom ot
Southern B. C, and was the direct means of opening up the Okanagan
Valley. Both brothers are the Managing Directors since the inception of the
company to date.
The Hon. L. W. Shatford, M. P. P.
Became member for the Similkameen in 1903, and has 'oeen elected to
represent this riding three times, the last time by acclamation.
Mr. Shatford is the Vice-President of the Bank of Vancouver, and in
addition was General Manager from 1912 to March, 1913. He is the President
for the B. C. Life Assurance Company, Ltd., Vice-President for the B. C.
Portland Cement Company, President for the B. C. Financial and Investment
Co., Ltd.
Mr. Shatford has a number of valuable mining interests throughout the
Similkameen, which will make him a very rich man and since he has been
the representative for the Similkameen has worked hard in getting us good
roads, together with the Trans-Provincial Highway which runs from Hope
over the divide to Princeton, thence right through the Similkameen country
to the Boundary, which is a splendid auto run from Vancouver. His home
is now in Vancouver, but he still has many interests in the Similkameen
and long may he live to enjoy the same.
77 The HON. ALEX. LUCAS, M.P.P.
The Hon. Alexander Lucas, M.P.P.—Second term for Yale Electorial District of B. C., member of the Royal Agricultural Commission to Australia, Owner of a large property at Agassiz, B. C.
Birdseye View of B. C. Portland Cement Company's Plant.
78 K I
RAILWAY   MAP   OF   PRINCETON   AND   DISTRICT.
79 M.16B
Princeton north by Auto Road to Summers Creek     5
Princeton north to Race Track on Princeton Heights       %
Princeton  north  to  Hagermanus   Ranch     6
Princeton north to Aspen Grove via One Mile Creek  32
Princeton Northwest to Granite Creek  12
Princeton  northwest  to  Coalmont   13
Princeton northwest to Tulameen City  17
Princeton northwest to Otter Lake    18
Princeton northwest to Jack Thynne's Ranch  27
Princeton  northwest  to   Canyon  House  35
Princeton northwest to Aspen  Grove  47
Princeton northwest to Merritt  72
Princeton south by Auto Road to Copper Mountain  11
Princeton south by  (Whip-saw Cr.)  Ashnola     8
Princeton south to top of Kennedy Mountain  12
Princeton south to Friday Creek  14
Princeton south to Copper Creek  16
3
<
J3.
Princeton south to Roceh River  20
Princeton south to International Boundary Line  30
Princeton south to Hope Summit  30
Princeton south to Hope  60
Princeton northeast to East Princeton     P/2
Princeton northeast to United Empire  Mines     2]/2
Princeton southeast to Five-Mile  Creek     5%
Princeton southeast to Similkameen  City  22
Princeton southeast to Crown Point Mines.  23
Princeton southeast to Hediey   24
Princeton southeast to Nickel Plate Mines (via Tramway)  26
Princeton southeast to Fifteen-Mile Creek, Bradshaw's  30
Princeton  southeast  to  Ashnola  River  35
Princeton southeast to Keremeos  45
Princeton southeast to Olalla  47
Princeton southeast to Penticton (foot of Okanagan Lake)  75
By the end of August, 1913, the Hediey Gold Mining Company of New
York will have paid out to their shareholders over one million dollars in
dividends taken out of their Hediey mines.
80 VANCOUVER, B. C.
The Coming Central Market
BY ING. D. CARSON
Assistant to the Commissioner,  Progress Club
ALA. ANCOUVER, chief city of the British Pacific, and financial, commercial and industrial centre of British Columbia, is rapidly developing
channels of intra-provincial trade along established lines of trans-
'^ portation.    Because of the facility with which merchandise can be
forwarded eastward by rail and northward and westward by steamer,
Vancouver is assuming a position of importance as the coming central market
of the province.
Agriculturists, fishermen, settlers, ranchers, fruitgrowers, lumbermen,
railway contractors and mining operators—buyers of food, clothing, machinery and equipment in wholesale quantities—are making of Vancouver their
chief source of supply. Vancouver is acquiring the facilities for collecting
and forwarding the necessary merchandise, and with the development of
nailroad and steamship transportation the volume of intra-provincial trade
is rapidly expanding.
During the past year the bank clearings of Vancouver amounted to
$645,118,870, an increase of nearly six hundred millions in the past ten years.
Customs reeeipts for the year ending March 31, 1913, totalled $9,278,826.04,
and exports and imports for the same period were in excess of fifty-five
million dollars, divided as follows: Exports, $11,077,421; imports, $44,361,962.
The business of the Port of Vancouver during 1912 aggregated 10,712,345
tons, 10,657 vessels inward bound and 10,928 vessels outward bound, of which
8,237 and 8,623 respectively were coasting vessels engaged in west-bound
and north-bound trade and transportation. During the past year the wholesale trade of the city amounted to about $75,000,000, and $16,000,000 worth of
merchandise manufactured in Vancouver was placed upon the market during
the same period.
With the completion of the Victoria, Vancouver and Eastern and the
Kettle Valley railways, the near-by Nicola, Similkameen and Tulameen
districts will be placed in direct communication with the Vancouver markets.
Vast stores of highly mineralized ores, coal, coke, gypsum and cement and
the fertile agricultural and horticultural areas of these valleys will be
directly available for development. Vancouver is situated due west of the
heart of this district, about 120 miles distant as compared with Spokane, the
present distributing point, which is 180 miles distant as the crow flies.
Geographically, Vancouver occupies a strategic position as seaport,
supply base and financial centre for the rapidly developing districts of the
interior. The great supply houses are adding to their importance as trade
centres by the encouragement of a closer commercial union between city and
country; the completion of the Panama Canal in a few months will solve for
all time the problem of freight transportation from the manufacturing
centres of Great Britain and Europe, and harbor and warehouse improTe-
ments soon to be completed will place Vancouver among the great storage
and forwarding seaports of the world, and constitutes this city's chief source
of supply for British Columbia and the western prairies.
For Statistics regarding financial, commercial, industrial, agricultural
and mining conditions in any part of British Columbia, the information
bureaus conducted by the Progress Club (437 Hastings Street West, Vancouver, Canada) may be consulted with profit. Valuable information, data
and statistics have been compiled in booklet form for free distribution upon
request. If you are interested in Vancouver as the Comimg Central Market
for British Columbia, you will be interested in Bulletin K. Write for it
today. S.R.TILSON&CO
Mens Furnishings,
Boots, Shoes, Pipes,
Tobacco and Notions
OUR PRICES WILL SUIT YOUR PURSE
GIVE US YOUR BUSINESS
AND
WE  WILL  GIVE   YOU   GOOD   VALUE
STORES AT
TULAMEEN and COALMONT, B.C. When Staying at Tulameen, B. G.
Stop at
Hotel
Otter Flat
MRS. E. J. HENDERSON, Proprietress
CHARLEY HENDERSON, Manager
The   Pioneer   Mining   Headquarters   for
the District
All Stages and Autos Gall Here
Good Fishing and Boating
in Otter Lake
We Furnish Guides and Pack Horses
TULAMEEN, B. C. F. P. Cook
GENERAL
MERCHANT
Miners'  Outfitter
Oldest Established Trading Post in
Similkameen District
STORES AT
Princeton,
Granite Creek
and   Coalmont, B. C. Hotel
Similkameen
The Finest Hotel in
Hediey, B. C.
An Up-To-Date, First-Class Hotel
Steam Heated
RATES MODERATE
F.   G.   DOLLEMORE, Proprietor MODEL
LIVERY STABLE
PRINCETON, B. C.
GENERAL FREIGHT DELIVERY
CONTRACTS TAKEN
COAL     HAULED     PROMPTLY
Variety of Rigs
Good Roadsters
Big Stables
Courteous Attention to all Customers
W,  S.   GARRISON,   PROPRIETOR W. S. WILSON
BUILDER
..•       and	
CONTRACTOR
Plans   Made  and   Estimates   Given
PRINCETON, B. C.
Max S, Wilson
CONTRACTOR,
HOUSE DECORATOR
and PAINTER
WALL PAPER AND PAINTS
PIANOS  FOR  SALE
Vermillion Ave.,     PRINCETON, B. C. PRINCETON LUMBER
COMPANY LIMITED
W. C. MCDOUGALL, MANAGER
LUMBER AND
COAL
FOR SALE
W. C. MCDOUGALL, MANAGER
United Empire Mines
SAW MILLS ON CHINA CREEK
MINES NEAR ONE MILE CREEK
PRINCETON. B.C. Tulameen
Stables
JOHN H. JACKSON,  Proprietor
LIVERY,   SALE AND FEED
STABLES
TULAMEEN, - B. C.
flbrinceton Shrug anb
3Book Store
PRESCRIPTIONS A SPECIALTY
Magazines, Books, Stationery, Drugs,  Chemicals, Patent
Medicines,   Cameras   and   Photo   Supplies,   Toilet
Articles,   Druggists*   Sundries,   Tobacco.
BRIDGE  STREET        TELEPHONE  15 D.  MUNROE
Merritt Transfer Co.
Light and Heavy Express
General   Transfer   and
Haulage
Merritt,   -   -   -   B.C.
W. H. GUTHRIE & Company
GUIDES AND PACK TRAINS ANYWHERE IN THE SIMILKAMEEN
AND     TULAMEEN     DISTRICTS
GENTLE PACK AND SADDLE
HORSES  FOR   HIRE
OFFICE AND STABLES: TULAMEEN, B.C. Coalmont
Livery &
Sale Stables
LIVERY   RIGS  AND  SADDLE HORSES   FOR HIRE
ALL   KINDS    OF    TEAMING    DONE
STABLE    AND    OFFICE   OPPOSITE
C.N.RY. DEPOT COALMONT, B.C.
STABLES   AT
COALMONT
PRINCETON
TULAMEEN, B.C. Nicola & Similkameen
Royal Mail Stage
Li
ine
Tri-weekly Auto-Stage from Mer-
rit to Tulameen, passengers and
express. The shortest present
route to the Similkameen.
LIVERY   RIGS   FOR  HIRE
Stables in
Merritt and Tulameen,  B.C.
N. PETERSON, Proprietor Frank Bailey & Company
MINING AND CIVIL ENGINEERS
NOTARY PUBLIC. Etc.
Real Estate,  Lands and  Mines  for Sale
Established since 1896, the first office established
in Merritt, B. C.
Examinations and Reports on all Mining Properties.
Fruit Lands and Cattle Ranches for sale in Sout. B.C.
Copper, Gold, Silver-lead, Platinum, Iron, Gypsum
and Coal Properties.
FOR SALE IN THE SIMILKAMEEN AND TULAMEEN VALLEYS
Princeton Real Estate for Sale.
THE NEW TOWNSITE OF PRINCETON
HEIGHTS
Apply to Frank Bailey, M.C.M.I.
General Manager and Vice-President
Prineeton Townsite Company. HEDLEY MEAT
MARKET
R.   J.   EDMOND,
PROPRIETOR
HEDLEY,     -     -     B. C
R. W. Moeran
Real Estate
AND   INSURANCE
Agent for
S.   L.   ALLISON   ADDITION
Reliable Information
of District  and  Resources
PRINCETON, B.C. Bovinc & Go. of Canada
HYDRAULIC & CENERAL POWER ENGINEERS    limited
WORKS HEAD OFFICE
LINDSAY, ONTARIO 164 BAY ST., TORONTO
WATER  POWER PLANTS
FRANCIS TURBINES
IMPULSE WHEELS
TURBO PUMPS
PIPE LINES
WELDED STEEL
WATER TURBINE GOVERNORS,
PULP AND PAPER MACHINERY,
DIESEL   CRUDE   OIL   ENGINES,
ADVANCE CRUDE OIL ENGINES,
SAMPSON STUMP EXTRACTORS,
FLEXIBLE COUPLINGS, ETC., ETC.
VANCOUVER OFFICE,     -    804 LONDON BUILDING ilbrrffl Ifmlu
The Oldest Newspaper
in the Nicola Valley
Published every week at
Merritt, B. C.
By the Merritt   Herald   Printing  and   Publishing
Company Limited.
If You Use
WRAPPING PAPER AND PAPER BAGS
You Should Have Our Samples and Prices
"CONTINENTAL" BACS "TAURUS KRAFT
are the best on the market The Economical Wrapping
and cost no more than in- Paper, stocked in reams and
ferior grades. rolls of all sizes.
We also carry a large stock of
DRUG PAPERS,   FRUIT PAPERS, TOILET PAPERS,
PAPER and WOODEN PIE PLATES,
ICE CREAM   AND  OYSTER   PAILS.
SMITH, DAVIDSON & WRIGHT
LIMITED
WHOLESALE STATIONERS AND PAPER DEALERS
VANCOUVER, B. C. THE
Hediey Trading
Company
(Successors to J. A. Schubert and F. H. French)
General  Merchants
Miners' Supplies
«8>
F. H. FRENCH, Secretary and Manager for
HEDLEY TOWNSITE
COMPANY
AUTOMOBILES FOR SALE
®
HEDLEY, B. C. Hotel
Keremeos
Opposite G. N. Ry. Depot
All Auto Stages
Stop Here
A   Comfortable   Home-Like   Hotel
RATES  MODERATE
Up-To-Date in Every Respect
MRS. A. F. KIRBY, Proprietress
KEREMEOS,
B. C. The
Similkameen Star
J. M. WRIGHT
Published every Friday, at Princeton, B.C., by
Princeton Printing and Publishing Co.
The Oldest paper Published in the Similkameen
Reliable Mining News Established 1900
Subscription Rates
British Empire, One Year $2 Foreign, One Year $2.50
Payable in advance
P. W. Gregory, C.E.
British Columbia
LAND   SURVEYOR
Princeton, B. C. Fully Modern Steam Heating
Ample Bath Accommodation
Hotel Coalmont
Coalmont Hotel Co., Ltd.
L. N. MARCOTTE, Manager
COALMONT, B. C.
Headquarters for Miners and Prospectors
Good Stabling in Connection
Granite Greek
Hotel
H. GOODISSON, Proprietor
Granite Creek, B. C.
COAL ORE PLACERS T. Bcauchamp
CIVIL ENGINEER
and
B. C. LAND SURVEYOR
Phone  Seymour 4620
Mineral Claims, Townsites, Timber
Limits, Sub-Divisions,  Etc.
Underground Surveying.
All   Kinds   of   Engineering   Work
Room 12 Pender Chambers
522 Pender St., West VanCOUVef,  B. C.
FRANK BAILEY 8c CO.,
AGENTS
For   Nicola,   Similkameen   and   Tulameen Valleys. IfoeMe^ (3a3ette
and
Similkameen Bbvertteev
A. MEGRAW, Managing Editor
Issued on Thursdays, by the HEDLEY GAZETTE
PRINTING AND PUBLISHING COMPANY,
Limited,   at Hediey B. C.
Subscriptions in Advance
Per Year $2.00
"  (United States)  $2.50
Zanardi-Landi
& Whyte
INVESTMENT   BROKERS
TIMBER, LANDS & MINES
REAL ESTATE      INSURANCE
RENTS COLLECTED
316 Pender St. West, Vancouver, B. C. dii
Bettschen & Hicgins Co.
Manufacturers  Of
INTERIOR FINISH AND DETAIL WORK.     SHOW CASES.
Bank. Store and Office Fixtures
We Are The Leaders of Hieh-Grade Work in B. C.    Write for Catalogue and Price List
1261 POWELL STREET
VANCOUVER, B. G.
The Bookstore that Moves with the Times
THE PEOPLES BOOK STORE
152 Cordova St. W., Vancouver, B. C.
WE SELL EVERYTHING IN BOOKS
AND POST CARDS
MAIL ORDERS PROMPTLY ATTENDED TO
Scientific Books a Specialty Fast Sellers in Novels
SEND FOR CATALOGUES
WALTER B. BAILEY
Public Accountant
Past seven years with Southern Pacific Co.,     Accountant for Price,
Waterhouse & Company.     Auditor for The Great Western Power Co.
226 HOLBROOK BUILDING
San Francisco, California  THE BRITISH COLUMBIA
GO-OPERATIVE SETTLERS'
ASSOCIATION, Ltd.
Recently formed for the purpose of supplying all intending settlers
with most accurate aud   reliable   information  about lands,
conditions and opportunities existing in this province.
We have reports covering existing conditions in nearly one
hundred different localities. Every statement is sworn to
before a Notary Public by the contributor.
If you want land, either by purchase or homestead, for
farming we can tell you where you can get it, from whom;
and what it will cost and what you can accomplish on it. WE
HAVE NO LAND OF OUR OWN TO SELL.
The representatives of this Association are under very strict
contract to do nothing but honest business; to be utterly reliable to all clients.
We handle no townsite properties; no mines. We cater
particularly to Settlers, Manufacturers and Industrial
concerns.
Our Information Department is the most complete of any
operated in British Columbia. This information is FREE
TO ALL.
For men of energy, ability, health and ambition, willing to
work, British Columbia offers exceptional opportunities.
There is no room for loafers and useless creatures. The
newcomer requires some capital as he cannot get a start in
this province with hot air now-a-days.
The retired business man, the man with sufficient capital for
all requirements, can find the most beautiful homes, climate
and other conditions here. The poor man, the Manufacturer,
the Merchant and the Mechanic can also find excellent opportunities in British Columbia.
For any kind of information regarding any portion of the
Province apply personally or by letter to our head office, and
if possible same will be cheerfully given you.
The British Columbia Co-Operative
Settlers' Association, Ltd.
805 Metropolitan Bldg. Vancouver, B. C. THE SECRET SERVICE BUREAU
319 PENDER STREET, VANCOUVER, B. G.
MR. JOHNSTON AS A NAVVY
Is strictly what its
name i mp 1 i e s, Mr.
Johnston being the
mainspring of very intricate detective machinery for investigating mysterious disappearances, the antecedents and daily habits of
suspected persons,
commercial and private affairs.
Mr. Johnston only
employs those as detectives who have established reputations
for integrity, shrewdness, and tenacity of
purpose, discarding the
old maxim of set a
thief to catch a thief.
The honest mind guided by an upright purpose is Mr. Johnston's
motto.
It is said Mr. Johnston is master of the art
of disguising, but this
is very rarely necessary; as it must be apparent to everyone
that, owing to the large
amount of detective
work which comes
through Mr. Johnston's
hands, it would be impossible     t o     grapple
MR-J0S??oNASA 2?* syv&rf£
COLLIER sistants.    These  ladies
and gentlemen are in all walks of life, and moving in all classes of society,
thereforeit is seldom necessary to resort to the art of disguise, Mr. Johnston
being the mainspring in a very intricate piece of mechanism which is always
in motion.
Strictest secrecy. Information most successfully obtained. Long experience has taught the best, safest and least expensive methods of investigation. In connection with his offices, 103-104-319 Pender St. W., Mr.
Johnston conducts a Rent Department and has an efficient Bailiff staff in
attendance. When you have any difficulty with your tenant consult Mr.
Johnston.    Distress Warrants issued and writs served.
THE DETECTIVE must have a wide range of knowledge
and be able to analyze his work as the scientists. If in
trouble see Johnston, the Secret Service Bureau, 319
Pender.
. JOHNSTON AS AN ITALIAN
ORCAN CRINDER PRINCETON   DISTRICT
=^f
FOR SALE
Similkameen Lands and Mines
Princeton Heights   Town   Lots
FRANK   BAILEY   8c   ICO..
PRINCETON, B. C.
BOX  102
SCALE SHOULD  READ  2  MILES TO  ONE  INCH PLAN   OF
HED LET CAMP
shewing Surveyed Claims
  Frank Bailey, M.C M I.	
Sc-cile  -150oi-eer-to  I inch
SCALE SHOULD  READ  2800   FT. TO  1   INCH

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