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The emigrant soldiers' gazette, and Cape Horn chronicle 1863

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Array         
AND
CAPE   HORN   CHRONICLE.
PUBLISHED ORIGINALLY ON MANUSCRIPT FORMS, KINDLY FURNISHED BY
CAPTAIN W. D. MARSH, R.E., DURING THE VOYAGE, FROM
GRAVESEND TO VANCOUVER ISLAND,
OF THE
DETACHMENT OF ROYAL ENGINEERS SELECTED
FOR SERVICE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA,
Between the 10th November, 1858, and the 12th April, 1859.
I  AND  CAPE  HORN CHRONICLE.
No. 1.]
'THAMES CITY," SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 6th, 1858.
iMMtttL
[Price 3d
WH Emigrant Soldiers' faetfy
"THAMES CITY," NOVEMBER 6th, 1858.
Lat. 20.58 N.     Lon. 20.11 W.     New Moon, Nov.
5th, at 4h. 48m. p. m.
We have started on a long voyage for a distant
land, with no prospect for several months of any fresh
faces to be seen, or any fresh beef to be eaten, unless
our tender hearted Captain, mindful of our infirmities,
can be prevailed upon to put in at some pleasant and
productive port by the way. A life at sea must of necessity be always to a great extent monotonous, and we
shall no doubt often find the time slipping lazily by,
with a faint breese, and at the rate of not more than
a knot or two an hour, notwithstanding the glorious
days of sunshine we look forward to in the tropics,
and the clear starlight nights of the southern hemisphere. But we know, all of us, that, of our duties
to one another, the chief is at all times, and never
more so in our own cases than now, a constant feel-
iug of brotherly love and kindness, a resolution to
avoid offence, a desire to please and be pleased, and a
readiness to contribute, each in his ability, to the common fund of content and cheerfulness. Shakespeare
says that "A merry heart goes all the day," and we
trust that in this respect ours may be found at the end
of the voyage to have kept time as truly as the Captain's chronometer. As one means towards this desired end, a thoughtful friend on shore, whose name
should be held in honor among ns, has provided us
with the means of establishing a small Newspaper, to
be kept up by our own contributions. Let us set about
it with good will and heartiness. Some littje amusement and instruction will be sure to follow. Any tri-
tlitig matter recorded now it will be a pleasure to refer
to hereafter as a memorial of the peaceful and happy
days of our voyage, contrasted with the turmoil and
excitement that await us in the Colony of British
Columbia.
The present year has been a very remarkable one.
The youngest as well as the oldest of our readers will
always look back with feelings of astonishment and
satisfaction at the number of events, social, political,
and otherwise that have crowded on one another in
quick succession during the portion of year 1858 that
has already elapsed. The launch of the Leviathar,
the relief of Lucknow and Cawnpore and the suppression of the Indian mutiny, the Princess Royal's marriage, the Completion of the Persian and Chinese wars,
the extension of our Telegraphic communication, tl«)
appearance of the Comet, the visit of the Queen to
Cherbourg, the extraordinary vintage, the discovery
of gold in abundance in British Columbia leading to its
improved colonization, are all confirmatory of our
opening sentence, and possess the additional charm to
Englishmen that nearly all of them have ended in increasing their power and strengthening their resources.
But on this 6th day of November an event has occurred which far outstrips in importance those previously
mentioned, and adds the as yet crowning gem to the
wonders of this wonderful year. We allude to the
birth of the Emigrant Soldiers' Gazette & Cape Horn
Chronicle. Our readers have doubtless often read in
English newspapers short paragraphs headed "Death
of a contemporary," in which in a few but pithy words
are described the birth, rise, decline, and ultimate
death of the contemporary in question, and it is a singular fact that in no instance do Editors allude to the
birth of a contemporary until it has ceased altogether
to exist. If however our Office were in England instead of in Lat. 21 N., Long. 20 W., so remarkable
an event as the birth of the E. S. G. and C. H. C.
could not fail to call forth remarks from all sides, although only a "birth." True the remarks would be
various. Those on the one hand from superior Editors,
quaking though the latter would necessarily be at
the prospect of rivalry from such an array of talent,
would, written in an apparently generous spirit, give
us encouragement and congratulate the world and ourselves on the event, while on the other hand the inferior class, of Editors would give vent to their feelings in petty and malicious spite. As however we
are now beyond the reach of either encouragement or
discouragement, we will proceed at once to congratulate our friends on the completion of arrangements
A THE EMIGRANT SOLDIERS' GAZETTE,
which place in their hands a weekly periodical unrivalled for the soundness of its political views, the
discretion and unbiassed opinion shown in nil its criticisms on public events, and its keen and accurate taste
for literature and the arts. In conclusion, we earnestly appeal to all interested in our success to give their
hearty support to this interesting publication, and
feci sure that provided each does his best, the production of the rare talent hitherto lying dormant on board
the Thanes City cannot fail to ensure a long life and
glorious success to the Emigrant Soldiers' Gazette
and Cape Horn Chronicle.
NATURAL HISTORY OP THE VOYAGE.
The study of Nature is one which ought to interest the most listless of observers at all times, but if
there is one time more calculated than another to inspire man with reflections on the wonders and
beauties of the world we live in, and fill his mind with
feelings of gratitude towards the Architect of the
Universe for his bountiful goodness in arranging all
things for the good of his creatures, it is when, like
ourselves, he is on a long voyage traversing the vast
and boundless ocean, where at times nothing is discernible around him but the wide circumference of
water and the vast canopy of Heaven apparently
meeting the waters at the boundary commonly known
as the horizon. With the exception of the ship beneath our i'eet, we are entirely surrounded by natural
objects. We have beneath and around us the briny
deep, calm, smooth, and unruffled at one moment, boisterous, foaming, and angry at another; we have over
our heads the spacious firmament, at times presenting
one beautiful rich blue even curtain, and at others dis-
playing the most dismal looking black clouds, forewarning us of heavy rains, furious winds and tempestuous seas. Then again we cannot help feeling interested in the animated creatures which constantly pre1
sent themselves to our view. Scarcely a day passes
^without our attention being called to some poor little
wandering bird whose appearance is as unexpected as
it is mysterious, or to some one of the numerous finny
tribes which frequently follow vessels for several hours
at a time in the hope of picking up scraps of food for
their subsistence, and which in the clear waters of
the southern seas are visible many feet below the ship's
keel. Now though we all of us more or less see and
observe these objects, still how few there are who
think of enquiring into their nature and habits, and
who ask themselves why and wherefore the winds
blow, the waves rise, the clouds form, the rain falls,
&c. The object of our paper being to afford us all
amusement, instruction, and useful information during
the voyage, I propose contributing such information
as will tend to illustrate the nature and habits of such
fish and birds as may happen to come across us during
the week, and the causes and effects of the various
natural phenomena which will constantly present
themselves in the course of our voyage, constituting
in facta "Journal of the Natural History of the
Voyage."
Since the 11th of October last, the day on which
we left the Downs, we have sailed nearly 1100 miles
in a Southerly direction, viz : towards the Equator,
and have experienced great varieties of wind and
weather. We are in a totally different climate from
that in which we were the day we sailed, and the further we progress in our course, the more wc are made
sensible of our approach to the hottest regions of the
globe. On Thursday, the 3rd inst., about 4 p. m., we
passed into the 23rd degree of north latitude, and may
fairly be said to have entered the tropics. It is within
these regions,viz: the space included between 23| degrees
north, and 23J degrees south of the equator, that the
trade winds(a somewhat narrow belt of calms prevailing
near the line) prevail. These winds generally blow
with regularity from one direction, viz: from the northeast above, and the south-east below the line, although
their strength varies according to the locality and season of the year. They are called trade winds on account of the facility they afford to commerce. Were
it not for these winds, vessels might be for months
and months becalmed without making progress, and
losing valuable and irrecoverable time. Let us now
enquire into the causes of these winds. In the tropical regions the sun is almost vertical, that is, he pours
his rays in an almost pe pendieular direction on the
surface of that portion of the glol>e included in thoso
regions, rendering the air in these parts of extreme
tenuity, and lighter than the air in colder latitudes.
Now we all know that if we light a fire in a grate and
open the door or window of the room, a thorough draft
is produced. The air which is heated by coming in
contact with the fire becomes lighter and rushes up
the chimney, and cold air takes its place, which likewise gets heated and disappears in the same manner.
Thus a constant stream of fresh air passes from the
window into the grate, and this is kept up as long as
the fire remains alight, and the chimney is kept free
from any obstacle which might hinder its escape. It
is precisely on this principle that a draft is produced
on the surface of the globe. The heated air in the
regions of the equator may represent the air that
passes through the grate, wnich being extremely light
rises upwards, and the cold air from the north and
south poles which rushes towards these regions to
supply its place, constituting the trade wind, may represent the air which enters the room through the
door or window. If the earth were a fixed object, the
direction of the trade winds would be due suith and
due north, but we all know, that the earth revolves on
an axis from west to east, and let. us observe how this
revolution changes the direction of the current of air.
As the air on the surface of the globe is free and
moveable, it does not acquire the same velocity as the
solid parts of the earth, and it is consequently left
behind : the effect of this is, that an apparent motion
in a contrary direction (i. e. from east to west) is given to it, which, combining with the one already possessed by the polar current, makes the direction of the
northern trade north-east, and that of the southern one
south-east. The two currents thus formed merge
into one which takes an easterly direction. The dividing line however is not exactly at the equator, but a
little to the north of it    Much more might be said SB AND CAPE HORN CHRONICLE;
the subject, but it is hoped that the foregoing remark?
may suffice to explain that wonderful provision of nature, which we maj' look forward to as a source of
progression for several days to come.
Naturalist.
THE FIFTH OF NOVEMBER.
It is an old and a very true saying that " Time and
Tide wait for no man."
Years roll on and anniversaries come round in regular succession, with no possibility of their progress
being stayed by any human effort. The 5th of November has just passed, a day which we cannot refrain
from briefly noticing, famous as it is for the miraculous preservation of a King, Court, and Parliament
from destruction by a gang of desperate conspirators,
in the year 1605. In all countries, and in none more
so than our own, the various events of which anniversaries are celebrated are brought vividly to our remembrance by the observance of old forms and customs. Yesterday for instance, in England, in every
town or village capable of producing a few dozen
small boys, might have been seen grotesque figures,
supposed to represent the conspirator, Guy Fawkes,
carried about triumphantly, hatless, bootless, coatless,
«r otherwise, according to the peculiar tastes of the
boys in question. Whether the image represents the
pope, a cardinal, a soldier, a sailor, an old clothes-man,
or even Calcraft himself, it is all the same to the boys
provided the Guy (we cannot call him Guy Fawkes)
lookH as horrible a miscreant as possible, their great
end and object being, after carrying him about all the
morning, subject during the exhibition to be kicked,
cuffed, pelted, and sometimes even decapitated, in a
manner that defies description, to bear him off, and
make a final end of him the same night in a large
bonfire, y( 1 ing and screaming with exultation at the
just punishment inflicted on so atrocious a conspirator.
So much for Guy Fawkes. Since the year 1854, however, we have other great cause to remember this anniversary, for it was on the 5th of November in that
year, that England's heroes fought so manfully and
successfully in the valley of Inkerman, to support the
honor and glory of their country. Let the memory
of the brave fellows who fell on that day be honored
among us, and may we ever continue to respect, honor, and value those who remain, and at all times let us
keep in mind that if we have cause to remember with
thankfulness, the preservation of King James I. and
his parliament on the 5th of November, 1605, we
have equal cause for thankfulness to that Providence
which gave success to our arms, and for gratitude and
respect to the brave heroes who fought and bled in
their country's cause at Inkerman, on the 5th of November, 1854.
Cor^espiulcnn;.
To the Editor.
Sir,—I find in a work on the early events of creation that the date of the birth of Adam and Eve is
4004 B. C, that Cain slew his brother Abel in 4000
B. O, qnd that the city of Enoch was built in the game
year. As Cain could *not have been more than four
years of age and Abel still j'ounger, by whom could
the above city have been built? I wonder what duration of time composed the year? If you can give me
any information on the subject through your Chronicle.,
I shall feel greatly obliged.
I am, Sir, your obedient servant,
Enquirer.
Jjjaual mi tlitifarrj JntctlirjcriM.
The last detachment of Royal Engineers for service in British Columbia sailed -finally from the Downs at 10 p. m., on
Sunday, the 17th nit., on board the clipper ship Thames City,
557 tons, commanded by Captain Gioveb. The detachment
consisted of 2 Officers, 1 Staff Assistant Surgeon, 118 Noncommissioned Officers and Men, 31 Women, and 34 Children,
the whole under the command of Captain H. R. Liurd, R. E.
The vessel left Gravesend on Sunday, the 10th ult., but was
detained wind-bound in the Downs from the 12th to the 17t.li.
ABSTRACT OF PROGRESS.
During the past week.
Latitude.
Longitude.
MUesRun.
Oct. 31st
.    30°10'N.     .
.     20°29'W.     .
.     S.20.00W. 65 m.
Nov. 1st
.    28°22'N.     .
.     21° 1CW.     .
.     S.19.00W. 114 m.
"   2nd
.    26°5CN.     .
.     20° 3' W.
.     S.35.00E. 120 in.
"3rd
.    25°5S'N.     .
.     19°24'W.     .
.     S.33.00E.63m.
"4th
.    23°46'N.     .
.     ir°28'W.     .
.     S.38.00E. 169 m.
"6th
.    22° 18'if.
.     1S°32'W.     .
.     S.34.00W. 105 m.
"6th
.    20°68'N.     .
.     20°11'W.     .
.     S.48.00W. 124 m.
(Cape de Verd Island) S.
Course and distance to Antonio,
51 W., 357 m.
To day at noon we have completed a distace of 1890 miles,
counting from the Lizard light, in Cornwall, in a straight
line fcr our destination.
VESSELS SPOKEN WITH.
Oct._28tb. The English Barque British Empire, in lat. 3JL
00 N., lvong. 19.30 W., from London for Vancouver Island. |
Nov. 1st. The English Ship Corrie Mulzie, in lat. 28.00 N.,
long. 21.10 W., from Liverpool, for Batavia, 19 days out.
Nov. 2nd. The English Ship Blenheim, in lat. 27.00 N.,
long. 20.10 W., from London, bound for Bombay with troops,
22 days out.
Nov. 5th. The English Barque Eleanor Dixon, in lat. 22.14
N. long. 18.38 W., from Liverpool, bound for Arica, (Peru)
21 days out.
lirtlt.
On the 26th
Osment, It. E.
ultimo, the wife of Acting Quarter Ma
of a daughter.
stcr
Serjeant D. S.
Sfo (foititespjutottk
1. In future, contributors of Leading Articles on any subject are
requested to send them in to the Editor by noon every Thursday, and all other contributions should be sent m by 8 o'clock
the same evening, to give ample time for publishing thepaper.
2. Any person willing to answer letters addressed 'To the Editor,'
are invited to do so, addressing their answers in the same manner.
3. The answers to Charades and Conundrums will be published the
Saturday after they appear, and any person guessing an an-?
swer, may learn on application to the Editor or Sub-Editor if
he is right or wrong. But it is hopea correct guesters will
keep their secret. THE EMIGRANT SOLDIERS' GAZETTE.
HURRA1 FOR COLUMBIA,
(Air ^Bonny Dundee")
"We are bound for the laud where the swift rapids flow,
"Where tho mountains soar high, and are crested with snow,
"Where the buff'lo roams free, in the soft sunny shade,
And the bold forest stretches o'er valley and glade.
Then hurra* for Columbia, Columbia tho fair,
For the pear, and the plum, and the apple are there;
And who shall dare say that we'll ever repine,
As we laugh, dance, and sing o'er the juice of the vino.
2   "We are bound for the land where all nature roams free,
By the Eraser's bold flood rolling down to the sea;
"Where the red savage yells his * *war whoop" o'er tho plain,
In his mantle of skin, of the brute he haB slain.
Then hurrV for Columbia, &c.
S   "We are bound for the land where the cataracts roar,
"Where we'll spear the sweet salmon as upward they soar?
"When tho bright glancing sunbeams awaken the morn,.
We'll bring down with our rifle the Elk and Bighorn.
Then hurra* for Columbia* &c.
4 Though my muse sings of comforts and joys that are there,
There are dangers, but none we're not willing to dare;
And though perils surround us as upward we go,
Still upward we'll climb to those regions of snow.
Then hurra' for Columbia, &c.
5 We'll teach the red savage tho use of the spade*
And his plough-share shall turn the rich mould of tho glade;
And his anvil shall ring, tho' his visage looks grave,
As we tell of old England, the free and the brave.
Then hurra' for Columbia, &c.
POETRY. <
A friend of mine, "who has an universal contempt for poetry
and poets in general, was engaged one day in an animated
argument with me on this subject, and after putting down the
•whole race of poets as thorough humbugs, and ridiculing the
slight deviations iu grammatical construction, order, &c.
which we all know necessarily exist in poetry, gave me the
following lines composed by himself, as illustrative of his
idea of the sort of humbug produced by poets in general.
"Whether they are humbug or not, I leave my readers to decide:—
* 'As I have seen on Alps recumbent height,
The storm-fed lion pulverise the light i
So have I seen an enigmatic bat,
Ely through the zenith in a slip-shod hat.
Down where wild mountains rollth' imperial barge,.
Gave to great Hancock's men peculiar charge;
To drive full tilt againBt subjunctive mood,
And fatten padlocks on antarctic food."
(KJmrate.
i.
* 'Whom Pagans rank with Gods above,
Whom wiser mortals only love;
Which high in air now pours its song,
Now sinks the ocean's depths among,
follows a weddingfrom the door,
Goes to the grave a corpse before;
Touch it and like magic still,
Up starts an agent to your will.
But, if you try to make it speak,
It thrusts its tongue between its cheek.
Adam and Eve had one between them,
But we in- every house have seen them.
first in the church its warning voice to raise,
'first at a ball to lead the circling maze,
full of brief facts, though-brief its age,
Its life unfolds a sporting page;
Each dame the title claims, though each
Would just as soon be called a witch."
(One monosyllabic word answers the whole of the above lines.)
 *—» ■»	
II.
«'My first although 'tis verybright,
Oh may my second never see,
for if my'character then you write.
My third the initial letter 'd be. j
Then if to these my fourth you add,
A time it i* when man 'd be mad
Not to seek and secure tho four
Of him who crushed iny first of yore.
An hyphon here! my fifth has wings,
five and six a child oft sings;
five to seven girls wear, 1 think,
My last the drunkard hates to drink.
But for my whole, oh sad the fate
Of many a person now alive;
A compound word with letters eight,
With hyphon joined 'twixt four and five
dJMumdntms.
I. Why is the visitor we expect at the Equator like a man
looking for the philosopher's stone?
II. When is a sermon like a kiss?
III. Which is the most unequal battle, in point of numbers,
that has ever been fought?
Jokfs, &u.
In talcing a walk one afternoon when it happened to be raining, I saw a-
man fishing under a bridge. On enquiring of him why he fished there, hi*
reply was, "Ochi sure yer honor, and would'nt the fish he after getting out
of the wot as well as yourself?"
An Englishman and a "Welshman were disputing one day. in whose co\m->
try was the best living. *'There is such noble house-fcjBeping in Wales,"'
said Taffy, * 'that I have known above a dozen cooks employed at one wed-,
ding dinner." "Ay," answered John Ball, ' 'that was because every man.
toasted his own cheese!"
A Professor at the Woolwich Academy was lecturing a year
or two since on the properties of dog-wood. He began by
stating that he "did'nt know what the word derived its name
from, or why it should be called dog-wood." One of the young
gentlemen remarked that it might perhaps be on account of
its "bark.''
The Leabked Scotchman.—A lady once asked a very silly
Scotch nobleman how it happened that the Scotch who left
their own country were, generally speaking, men of greater
ability than those who remained at home, " Oh madam,"
said he, " the reason is obvious. At every outlet there are
persons stationed to examine-all who pass,, that, for the honor of the country, no one way be permitted to leave it who is
not a man of understandiEg." ''Then," said the lady, "I
suppose your lordship was smuggled out.''
Prodigy at Sea.—On the night of th* 1st inst., on board
the troopship Thames City? bound for British Columbia, a colored lady gave birth to no less than twelve children at the
one time. No precise information respecting the paternity in
this case has been given,, bat the infants when born were all
of a mottled hue, being black about the face and ears, with
light spots on different parts of the body. To herald the approach of this phenomenon, a star of rare beauty and great
magnitude is said to have appeared for several successive
nights in the western heavens.
P. S.—The childrett are, with their mother, doing as well
as can reasonably be expected.
A Frenchman who dabbOea a little ialiteralare and politics*
but who was not particularly distinguished in either depart"
ment, came over to. England with a swarm of other ragamuffins on the outbreak of the last revolution. An evening or
two after he arrived he found himself in eoaapany at an evening party with Douglas Jerrold,. to whom lie repeatedly expressed his anxiety respecting the fate of M. Siuizot, l,I wish,"
quoth he, "I could be certain that Guizot was safe, I would
take a great interest in him. We are in the same boat sir, we
are in the same boat," which he kept repeating so often, that
Jerrold told him at-last that it was possible enough they might
be in the same Boat, but that they certainly had not got &h*
same Skulls.
The publication of the Ehiokaht Solmirs' Gazette and Cape Horx
CimoNicLE was- commenced yesterday at 6 p. m., and was completed at 4 p.
m, tills day. Published at the Editor's Office, Starboard Front Cabin,
"Thames City." THE   JSXhO.TC3rFLj*i.2<TTI}
W
%\ & \s \ \ /V"i"
AND  CAPE   HORN CHRONICLE.
No. 2.]
'THAMES CITY," SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 13th, 1858.
[Price 3d.
Wha Emigrant §tohta' feetty.
"THAMES CITY," NOVEMBER 13th, 1858.
Lat. 9.34 N.    Lon. 23.00 W.     Moon's First Quarter, Nov. 13th, at 8h. 43m. p. m.
There is a great tendancy observable in most of the
districts of England to do away with, or treat lightly,
the holiday customs of good old times, but we believe
that this is by no means so much the case at sea; for
although the festive occasions proper to that element
are far from numerous, yet, such as they are, they seem
to become, like the peculiarities of a seaman's language^ a part of his profession, and to keep their hold
upon his mind with a tenacity equal to that of limpets
and barnacles. A question bearing directly on this
subject is on the eve of presenting itself to the consideration and judgment of the high authorities on
board. We allude to the nature of the reception to
be given to the great monarch of the deep, who in a
few days may be expected to come and visit us, riding
in his carriage of state, with his wife on one side and
his trident on the other, his august person decorated
in tho most approved style of ancient mariners since
the days when Noah first became a sailor ; that is to
.say, with a beard as venerable as Theodore's or a polar
bear's, and with a pair of trowsers and a waistcoat of
the same pattern and dimensions as those worn in the
Downs by our friend the Deal Boatman. His Majesty
is coming to welcome us to his ancient dominions,
and., as his custom has been since his kingdom, has
been acknowledged by all sea-going vessels, he will
no doubt demand a tribute from every one who has
not before passed his frontier line. From the great
pillar of the Church downwards, we trust that no one
will be found recreant enough to hang back on this
solemn occasion, but that one and all, like men, will
bring forward without a murmur the month's accumulation of hair upon their chins, rendering unto Neptune
the red, black, and grizzly beards, which are his lawful perquisites. The Scotch nobleman alluded to in
last week's paper, (who at the time of reading attracted the attention of one of his distinguished country
men) contrived, as the story goes, to cross the English
border by a species of successful smuggling; but
nothing of the same kind it is hoped will be attempted
in the present case. It is hoped also that the state
razors to be employed during the ceremony will be of
a fine temper and not too deeply notched, and that
plenty of salt water (and a little grog) will be provided for the entertainment, with an ample supply of
lather, manufactured from marine soap, tar, a few
trifling collections from the sheep pen, and other maritime perfumes.
As we are now fairly within the Tropics, where
habits of cleanliness are of the greatest importance,
we have thought it advisable to offer a few remarks
on the sanitary condition of the "City." In doing so
we are happy to bear testimony to the energetic and
praiseworthy exertions of our worthy Chief Commissioner of Health, Captain Glover. Our present object
is to call the attention of our readers to the filthy-
condition of the locality known as "Long-boat Square,
where, notwithstanding the personal exertions of the
Chief Commissioner, the inhabitants cannot be prevailed upon to keep themselves respectable. We beg
to inform our readers that it was at No. 1, Long-boat
Square that the prodigy took place, an account of
which appeared in our last number. But it is more
to Nos. 2 & 3 that our remarks apply. It is very
curious, though no less a fact, that the Cackles living
in No. 2, ground floor, seem quite grateful at first for
the bountiful supply of clean water with which the
Commissioner's men freely deluge them, but soon
their inherent love for dirt returns, and they express
themselves quite disgusted with the cleansing operation. Mrs. Swine and family, living in No. 3, ground
floor, excel in filth the whole street, and are in fact a
disgrace to the neighbourhood; their quarrelling and
fighting, more especially at their meals, calls for the
constant interference of the "Watch" or Police of the
" City." It is a curious fact that not one of this numerous family has ever been known to die a natural
death, and they have been transported by tens and
twenties from under the same roof. Some maiden
ladies of the name of Bleat occupy the upper story of
Nos. 2 & 3, but to them our remarks do not apply,
for though they are rather dirty,   and very lazy and THE EMIGRANT SOLDIERS' GAZETTE,
sleepy, yet when we take into consideration that they
are old maids, and very likely disappointed in life, we
are bound to say they live a very quiet inoffensive life.
A certain Mrs. Nanny G., a lady from Wales, also
lives with them. We have been told that she is a
very old resident in the " City," at present separated
from her husband and under the protection of a gentleman of color. Early on the morning of Wednesday
the 10th instant she gave birth to twins, who with
their mother are doing as well as can be expected.
On the present eventful occasion Mrs. G. is extremely
unfortunate in the absence of her husband, to whom
she is denied the joy of presenting this double pledge
of her affection. A curly headed young gentleman of
the name of Barker has been observed peeping out of
the window, but we must cast no reflections on him.
In conclusion we hope our brother citizens will vigorously assist our worthy Chief Commissioner in keeping
Long-boat Square in as cleanly a condition as the
dirty disposition of the inhabitants will permit.
NATURAL HISTORY OF THE YOYAGE.
In our last number the trade winds formed the subject
of our remarks. During the past week we have accomplished 886 miles, and it is to the prevalence of these
winds that we owe our rapid progress towards our
final destination. I would now beg to draw your attention to the consideration of a beautiful phenomenon
which none of us can have failed to have observed,
and which has exhibited itself in great splendour since
our entry into the tropical seas. I allude to that peculiar luminosity of the water known as the "Phosphorescence of the Sea." This appearance is common
to all seas, being observable in the frozen ocean of
either pole, and under the burning Line, in the Atlantic, and in the Pacific : still there seem to be greater
intensity and brilliancy in the appearance of the phenomenon in the tropical seas than in colder climates.
No sooner has night descended, than on every portion
of the surface of the ocean we have ocular demonstration of the existence of light. Whether we look over
the stern, and observe the beautiful line of yellow
light that marks our wake, consisting of innumerable
sparks of varying form, size, intensity, and duration,
or whether we mark the broad flashes of light from
the surface of the waves, appearing and disappearing
with the rapidity of lightning, either gives us certain
proof of the universal existence of the luminosity of
the ocean. Let us now enquire into the cause of this
extraordinary and beautiful phenomenon. Many very
interesting observations have been made on these
luminous appearances, and there seems to be no doubt
that to a very large extent they are produced by
minute living animals, amongst which larger and
more brillant species may be seen swimming in splendour, some like balls of living fire, others like waving
bands of flame. Numerous experiments have been
made at different times and on different seas by various
Naturalists, on the origin of the light. "Dr. Baird
drew a bucketful of water and allowed it to remain
quiet for some time, when, upon looking into it in a
■dark place, the animals could be distinctly seen  emit
ting a bright speck of light. Sometimes this Was
like a sudden flash, at others appearing like an oblong
or round luminous point, which continued bright for a
short time, like a lamp lit beneath the water and moving through it, still possessing its defined shape, and
then suddenly disappearing. When the bucket was
sharply struck on the outside, there would appear a
great number of these luminous bodies, which retained
their brilliant appearance for a few seconds, and then
all was dark again. They evidently appeared to have
it under their control, giving out their light frequently at various depths in the water, without any agitation being given to the bucket." M. Ehrenburg, a
very eminent Naturalist, has made some interesting
observations on the origin of the phosphorescence of
the sea, and has mentioned several minute animals as
luminous. The Medusa, commonly known as the "sea
blubber," is luminous, and gives rise to the bright
globes of living fire previously described. On making
experiments, it was found that several minute medusae
of various species gave out light, which seemed to be
more vivid on any extraordinary excitement of the animals. A drop of sulphuric acid being put into a glass
of Water several bright flashes of light were seen.
One of the little animals was taken up in a drop of
water on the point of a pen, when, a drop of acid being added, it gate out a momentary spark and instantly died. In the British seas a great deal of the light
is owing to the presence of an exceedingly minute animal, which does not exceed the one-thousandth part
of an inch in diameter. There can be no doubt therefore that the main source of oceanic effulgence is to be
found in the countless millions of minute animals that
throng the sea, but which are invisible without the aid
of high microscopic powers; and truly, when, from a
lofty station on board our ship, We survey a space of
many square miles, and see every portion of its surface gleaming and flashing in living light; or mark the
pathway of the vessel ploughing up from fathoms deep
her radiant furrow, so filled with luminous points that,
like the milky way in the heavens, all individuality is
lost in the general blaze, and reflect that, wherever on
the broad sea that furrow happened to be traced, the
result would be the "same, We can scarcely conceive a
more magnificent idea of the grandeur and the unimaginable immensity of the creation of God.
Naturalist.
ALLEGED MURDER -AND MUTILATION OF THE BODY.
On Monday last, considerable excitement prevailed in the
vicinity of Long-boat Alley, in consequence of the discovery
of the body of a middle-aged gentleman suspended by the
heels with his throat cut from ear to ear. An inquest was
immediately held on the body. It was at first thought that
the unfortunate gentleman ha'd committed jimmycide, and,
but for the position of the 'body, such doubtless would have
been the verdict. One of the 'witnesses, (a respectable townsman of ours, formerly a butcher, but who, finding business
not sufficiently remunerative, 'wisely retired) said in his evidence that the ruffian or ruffians had endeavored to sever the
jugular vein, but,not succeeding in their horrid purpose, had
tried to find its whereabouts by inserting a finger into the
wound, and had actually poked the vein in question out of
the way, thereby causing several unsuccessful attempts at
decapitation by more formidable instruments.    Three knives AtfD CAPE HORN CHRONICLE.
IS
Were found near the body; 'one, that doubtless by which the
first cut was inflicted, answered the description of a glazier's
putty knife (great sensation); the second bore evident marks
of having lately been used to cut up salt junk ; the last was
a horrible looking weapon measuring three feet six inches and
one-eighth in the blade. The name of the deceased is at
present unknown. One of the witnesses said that he had
formerly been known by the name of lamb, and was about to
pass as mutton. A voice in court bawled out that he had not
the slightest claim to the latter. The jury retired but could
not arrive at a verdict of wilful murder, inasmuch as our before-mentioned townsman (being one of them) said that the
deceased had been for some time in indigent circumstances,
had parted with some of his clothing, and was in a very bad
state of health; in fact, he believed the wounds he had received had only accelerated his death. It is believed he has
relatives at or near Rio Janeiro, also parties at the sameplace
by the name of Steer, who, if they cannot give information
respecting his family, can at least give some satisfaction to
the yearning bowels of those amongst whom he latterly resided. Should any vessel be proceeding that way, we would
strongly advise the Captain to put into that or some adjacent
port for humanity's sake. A would-be wag, seeing the crowd,
asked what was the matter, and on being told that it was a
dead body, exclaimed, " Why of course any one can see it is
diseased."
(Iffltppsjjattitau^.
To the Editor.
Sir,—For the information of " Enquirer," it may be observed in reference to the chronology of events recorded in the
sacred Scriptures,that there is some obscurity,and hence some
diversity of opinion upon the subject. The most generally
received chronology is that of Archbishop Usher, which may
be found in Oxford and"Cambridge Bibles with marginal references. According to Usher, the creation of Adam took
place 4004 B. C, and the death of Abel 38Y5 B. C, the building of Enoch having the same date. The data from which
scripture chronology is determined consist of notices of the
ages of Patriarchs at the birth of their eldest sons, (vide
Gen. V.) allusions to periods of time interspersed throughout the sacred volume, and certain historical events, the dates
of which may be accurately determined from profane history:
where these sources fail, recourse is had to Jewish traditionary writings. Allow me to hint that either ''Enquirer" must
have made a mistake when consulting his book, or else the
book is erroneous, probably the latter.
I am, Sir, your most obedient servant,
Fides.
■mrmagng ¥AiyLi.wMnnJ'.M.'Mm
MfflM^HLnamjuiims
c^aahhrnable Jnfeltijgenri;.
On Thursday evening last, a grand ball was given in the
"City," which was very numerously attended. Amongst the
company we noticed the General Commanding-in-Ohief, with
his two Aides-de-Camp, Sir George Can't, the Inspector of
Infantry, and lady, the Gold Sticks in waiting to the Commander-in-Chief and his Aides-de-Camp, with their ladies,
and many other distinguished personages. The Chief Commissioner of Scales, Weights and Measures officiated as
Master of the Ceremonies. The star of the evening, however,
was Miss Matilda Wide-a-Wake, the beautiful and accomrilish-
ed daughter of old Wide-a-Wake, commomly known as the
King of the Cannibal Islands. We believe a matrimonial alliance between this distinguished heiress and Sir John Woodbine, one of Her Majesty's Inspectors of Machinery, is in
contemplation. Amongst those who had the honor of being
invited, but were unable from various causes to attend, were
the Admiral "Commanding-in-Chief and his lady, the Archbishop of our "City" and his lady, the Inspector General of
Hospitals, Her Majesty's Collector of Customs for the Colony
of British Columbia, and the Chief Commissioner of Stores
and Clothing with his lady. The band of the Royal Engineers, which was in attendance, played the most favorite selections in their usual masterly style, and the entertainment
was protracted to an early hour.
gtaial and Jpttfffarg JttttfHgttup.
ABSTRACT OF PROGRESS.
During the past week.
Latitude. Longitude. Miles Run.
Nov. 7th.     .     .    19°18'N.     .    .   "22°19'W. . . S.W.VW. 156 m.
"8th      .     .    17°43'N.     .     .     24°39'W. i . S.W.bW. 163 m.
"9th      .     .    15°59'N.     .    ,    26°58'W. . . S.W.bS.128m.
" 10th      .     .    14°28'N.     .     .     25°55'W. . . S. 91m.
"11th       .     .    12°59'N.     .     .     25°40'W. . . S.%0G. 91 m.
"12th       .     .    11° 9' N.     .     .     23°30'W. . . S.B^VE. 168 m.
"13th      .     .      9°44'N.     .     .     23°     W. . . S.bE.^E. 89 m.
To-day at noon we were 612 miles in a S.b E. J Easterly
direction from the point at which it is proposed to cross the
Equator.
(Bontratdrmna.
IV. What were Jonah's sensations when the whale was in the
act of swallowing him?
V. Why are Clergymen like ladies?
VI. Why is crinoline like a passionate man?
ANSWERS TO
I. Because he is a sea king (seeking) what never was.
II. When it has two heads and a practical application.
III. That in which forty thousand Russians fought a(t)inker-
Sfo dffltppsjjmuUnte
1. Any person guessing answers to Chardes or Gonumdrums are
requested to send them to the Editor's Office that they may be
published for the edification of the community at large.
1. We beg to remind contributors of the last paragraph of the notice originally circulated, in which uIt is hoped that contributors of songs will also sing them for the better appreciation of
their merit."   N. B. One week allowed for preparation.
3. It is hoped that those of Neptun&s children who have not already passed his boundary will make a point of not shaving
during the present -week.
Para$ Jntettigen^.
w
PRESERVED MEATS & SOUPS—Very scarce and in great demand. On
account of the arrival of Suet last week-, there is no scarcity of that article in the market.
TEA, COCOA, SUGAR, RICE, RAISINS, & HOUR—Plentiful at present.
BEEF & PORK—Plentiful.
MUTTON—Scarce.
PORTER—Is in great demand, hut, on account of the monopoly, there is
little chance of a supply being obtained.
WINES.—Sherry was in great demand during the last week, but on the 9th
instant it went off in a very mysterious manner.
T
Theatre Royal, " Thames City."
HE MANAGER of the above Theatre begs to announce to the public of
- this city and the neighborhood that he has completed arrangements for
a series of -performances of a highly interesting nature, and ventures to
hone that, being supported by a company of performers of rare and well
known abilities, he will be able to give universal satisfaction. The performances will commence shortly, and on the first occasion will be presented
the Farce, In two Acts, entitled
M©ia®§©QIKl® THE ILDIKISBM
BY GEOKGE ALMAR.
ms>- Further particulars will be given in the small bUls.
Alfred R. Howse, Manager.
J THE EMIGRANT SOLDIERS' GAZETTE.
tangs and fa^
(Poem.)  MATILDA.
1 Who wraps our wounds and heals our sores,
On pain the halm of comfort pours,
And kneads up holuses by scores?   -
Matilda.
2 Who opens that mysterious trunk,
And bears a draught to every bunk,
Still quite resign'dly nibbles junk?
Matilda.
3 Who trips.along the slippery deck,
With outstretched arms and lengthened neck,
And goes to number one for peck?-
Matilda.
4 See how the little babe she dances,
And casts on it endearing glances,
I say she walks! dont say she prances,
Matilda.
6   See the sweet babe upon her lap,
She plaits its hair and sets its cap,
She gives it everything but pap,
Matilda.
6 Forgive me, sweet, for what I've said,
My muse sings fun, by her I'm led,
Tho' married twice, you'll die a maid,
Matilda.
7 Tour kindness to each heart has sank,
Of old and young of every rank,
Your cup of physic all have drank,
Matilda.
8 Now if you should offended be,
Keep up the fun and write on me,
I'll bear the joke right pleasantly,
Matilda.
$flft#5,  &4*
(Song.) THE RHYME OF AN ANCIENT MARINER.
1 'Twas in the Atlantic ocean, in the Equinoctial gales,
That a man he did fell overboard, among the sharks and whales,
His ghost appeared unto me, saying ' 'Weep no more for me,
i'or I'm marri-ed to a mermaid, at the bottom of the sea.
(Chorus.)   Rule Britannia, &c.
2 The dangers of the spacious deep,, which unto me befel,
'Tis utterly impossible for language for to tell,
But now from debt and drinking, and narvish fear I'm free,
Since I'm marri-ed to a mermaid at the bottom of the sea.
Rule Britannia, &c.
3' Surprised'will be my comrades, and the friends I know'd on shore,
And my poor parients, whom alas I'll never see no more,
To hear that I've been summonsded away so suddenly,
And marri-ed to a mermaid at the bottom of the sea.
B-ule Britannia, &c.
4 'Tis true for to refresh myself, no baccy now I gets,
But of course, as with respect to that myself I never frets,
For all your earthly joys are unmaterial to me,
Since I'm marri-ed to a mermaid at.the bottom of the sea.
Rule Britannia, &c.
(The sprits of the marinere here waxeth pathetic.)
5 A broken sixpence in my chest, likewise a lock of hair,
To Sally, I solicitize that you will safely bear,
And you'll tell to my true lover as'how it was necessity,
As made me marry this 'ere mermaid at the bottom of the sea."
Rule Britannia, Ac.
6 I soe'd and I bear'dthe drrrrr-owndod man, and my jints with terror
I axed him no questions, 'cos since the vords my lips forsook, [shook,
But immediately I swownded, and he said no more to me,
But he dived back to his mermaid at the bottom of the sea.
Singing Rule Britannia, &c.
GOD SATE THE QUEEN.
■&BSEBS&srrxm
dptarad^s.
in.
My first and last two Islands on the sea express,
My second sounds the word without my first at all,
My third is saved from Nature's own most lovely dress,
Fourth the initial of what Adam caused by fall,
Fifth stands for that which it and the remainder spells,
Sixth much quicker made if sol the gloom dispels,
Seventh in song bold sailors loudly bawl,
First and last are one, so I pray you tell me all.
IV.
Out off my head and singular I act,
Cut off my tail and plural I appear,
Cut off my head and tail, I'm nought intact,
My whole a fish to epicures most deaf.
Bon-Mot.—A barrister was married lately in London to a
lady of the name of Bodd. A facetious friend who had been
to the ceremony, taking leave of the bridegroom, who was
about to start for the wedding to unremarked to him that if he
"spared the rod" it was just possible that he might "spoil
the child."
A Bunaway Wife.—An Irish gentleman, whose lady had
absconded from him,cautioned the public against trusting her
in these words, "My wife has eloped from me without rhyme
or reason, ,and I desire that no one will trust her on my account, for I'm not married to her."
Habitual Thirst. —A soldier on trial for habitual drunkenness was thus addressed by the President, "Prisoner you have
heard the prosecution forhabitul drunkenness, what have you
to say in defence?" "Nothing plase yer honor but habitual
thirst."
Advantage of Politeness.—An Irish Officer happened one
day to be making a bow at the moment a cannon ball passed
over his head and took off that of a soldier who stood behind
him. "You see," said he, "a man never loses by politeness."
A Letter written during the Bebellion, and sent bt an
Irish M. P. to his Friend.—My dear Sir, having now a little
peace and quietness, I sit down to inform you of the dreadful
bustle and confusion we are in from these bloodthirsty rebels,
most of whom are, thank God, killed and dispersed. We are
in a pretty mess, can get nothing to eat, nor any wine to
drink, except whiskey, and when we sit down to dinner we are
obliged to keep both hands armed. Whilst I write this letter
I hold a sword in each hand and a pistol in the other; I concluded from the beginning that this would be the end of it,
and I see I was right, for it is'not half over yet; at present
there are such goings on that everything is at a stand. I
should have answered your letter a fortnight ago, but I only
received it this morning; indeed hardly a mail arrives safe
without being robbed; no longer ago than yesterday the. coach
with the mails from Dublin was robbed near this town, the
bags had been judiciously left behind for fear of accidents,
and by good luck there was nobody in it but two outside who
had nothing for the thieves to take. Last Tuesday notice
was given that a band of rebels was advancing here under
the French Standard, but they had no colors, nor any drums
except bagpipes. Immediately every man in the place including women and boys, ran out to meet them. We soon found
our force much too little, and they were far too near for us to
think of retreating. Death was in every face, but to it we
went, and by the time half our little party were killed we began to be all alive. Fortunately the rebels had no guns but
pistols, cutlasses, and pikes, and as we had plenty of musket3
and ammunition, we put them all to the sword; not a soul of
them escaped except some that were drowned in an adjacent
bog,and in a very short time there was nothing to be heard
but silence; their uniforms "were all of different colors, but
mostly green. After the action we went to rummage a
sort of a camp tliey left behind them ; all we found was
a few pikes without heads, a parcel of empty bottles filled
with water, and a number of blank commissions filled up,
with Irishmen's names. Troops are now stationed every^
where around the country. I have only leisure to add that I
am in great haste.   Yours truly, &c.
P. S.—If j-ou don't receive this in course it must have miscarried, therefore I beg you will immediately write and let
me know.
A gentleman, who was rather fond of his port wine after
dinner, found at l*st a. small colony of pimples were begin*.
ning to settle at the extremity of his nose. He was very much
annoyed at this, and, in speaking about it to a friend, told him
he thought he must have been stung upon the nose by a bee.
His friend replied that perhaps the "bees-wing" had more to
do with the matter than the bee itself.
The publication of the Emigrant Soldiers' Gazette and Cape Horx
Chronicle was commenced yesterday at 10 a.m.. ,and was completed at 4p,
m. this day. Published at the Editor's Office, Starboard Front Cabin,
"Thames City." ■«
TKCIE   ES3S£ia-FL-A.3STT
Utttt,
AND  CAPE   HORN CHRONICLE.
No. 3.]
"THAMES CITY," SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 20th, 1858.
[Price 3d.
6!*>
!#l
M Emigrant Sottas' (ifatty.
"THAMES CITY," NOVEMBEB 20th, 1858.
Lat. 2.54 N.    Low. 23.38 W.     Full Moon, Nov.
21st, at 2h. 35m. a. m.
As all hands on board, with the exception of the
ship's company, belong to and form the main body of
the expedition to British Columbia, a few remarks on
the causes which led to its organization and the circumstances attending the same may, we trust, not be
out of place, and we hope our readers will bear with
os, and not think us too egotistical, if we make a few
remarks suggestive of the importance of the expedition,
and the honor conferred opon us, conducive as their
detail must be to our all making firm and steady resolve to acquit ourselves in a manner that shall shew
us to be not unworthy of this honour. ** British Columbia" or, as it was formerly called, " New Caledonia" had, until the recent discovery of gold, been
ancolonized and over-run by Indians. The Hudson's
Bay Company carried on an extensive trade in furs
with these Indians, and for this purpose had large
fortified stations or depots at various intervals in those
districts where the trade was carried on. Last year,
however, Mr. Douglas, the Governor of Vancouver
Island, represented to the English Government that,
in consequence of the discovery of gold in large quantities in New Caledonia, it would be advisable to empower Her Majesty to appoint a Governor, in case of
a sudden rush of diggers to the new gold fields. His
advice was accordingly acted on, and on the news being received in August last that, owing to the verification of the fact of the discovery of gold, the rush
of diggers from San Francisco was daily increasing,
Her Majesty was pleased to appoint Mr. Douglas Governor of the new Colony of British Columbia, as it was
now for the first time called. It being also necessary
that the Governor should be supported by a proper
military force, it became incumbent on the Colonial
Minister to select and send out a body of men on
whom proper trust and reliance could be placed. It
at once occurred to Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton, the
Colonial Minister, that great advantage would accrue
to the Colony, could a body of men be sent out possessed at once of military and scientific acquirements,
inasmuch as, while in their military capacity they could
give all the necessary support to Governor Douglas,
their mechanical and scientific labors would contribute
in a most important degree to the improvement and
colonization of the country. For such a body he turned to the 'forps of Royal Engineers, where the call
for volunteers was speedily responded to, and the Times
shortly afterwards, speaking of the corps with refer-
to the present expedition, said in a leading article on
the subject, " Whenever Her Majesty's Government
want a body of skilful, intelligent, and industrious mechanics to perform any task requiring peculiar judgment, energy and accuracy, such as the arrangement
of a Great Exhibition, the execution of an accurate
National Survey, and so on, or even the construction
of houses, roads and bridges, in a new Colony, they
have only to turn to the Corps of Royal Engineers,
and they find all the material they want." The first
detachment of the expedition sailed from Southampton
on the 2nd September in the Steamer La Plata. . On
this occasion Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton went on
board the steamer when she was off Cowes, and addressed the party under the command of Captain Parsoxs,
R. E. at some length, impressing on them the interest
he felt in their welfare, and how much the ultimate
success of the new Colony depended on the exertions
of themselves and their comrades. Considering, therefore, the circumstances attendant on the despatch of
the expedition, there appears no doubt that we have
been selected for a duty of trust and importance, and
that on our exertions much depends'. The Corps looks
to us, Her Majesty's Government looks to us, and the
Country looks to us, and all expect great things from us.
Let us not disappoint these expectations, but show
ourselves sensible of the honor conferred upon us, and
endeavor to prove ourselves worthy of the same. Let
us each in our various capacities do our best to aid
this work, and let us'fulfil cheerfully and contentedly
the duties we may be called upon to perform, and
above all things remember and stick to the words of
the old motto, "Ubique quo fas et gloria ducv/ni." THE EMIGRANT SOLDIERS' GAZETTE,
It is-a proverbial and no less certain fact that, "All work
and no play makes Jack a dull boy." Now Jack is a name
that under all circumstances, and nowhere more particularly
so than onboard ship, belongs as exclusively to the sailor as
do the beards to Neptune which will shortly, we hope, be rendered up to him their rightful owner, those pills which all
will be so eager to swallow, and that lather to receive which
each successive votary will distend his chin with such eager
avidity. In the present instance, however, we ought all of
us to assume this as a temporary appellation, and agree that
a few kind friends have done their-utmost to give the accumulation of "Jacks" on board the Thames City, as much play
as'possible, by the introduction of sundry sources of recreation and amusement, contributing thereby to alleviate to a
great extent the monotony which is a necessary ingredient of
life on board ship. We have had occasion in a former instance
to bear testimony to the efforts made in this direction by the
kind friend in England, who suggested the method and furnished the materials for establishing our Newspaper. But on
this occasion, as a second instance of the kind interest shown
in our behalf, we cannot refrain from eulogizing the thoughtful kindness of our Commanding Officer, who, as a means of
contributing to our amusements, has, amongst other things,
not forgotten to provide us with the means of establishing a
series of theatrical entertainments. The consequence of this
kind forethought is that we were enabled to publish in our
last number a communication from the distinguished manager of the new theatrical company, in which, after announcing his plans, ''he hopes that, supported as he is by a company
of performers of rare and well known abilities, he will be able
to give universal satisfaction, &c." Let us hope that such
will be the case. We heartily wish him and his company success, and can assure him of our warmest support. A great
portion of the pleasure, on occasions like these, consists in
looking forward to them, and when, in addition to this pleasure (one by no means to be sneered at on board ship),we are,
as we feel sure we shall be, delighted and gratified at the performances, the thing is complete, and the object of the kind
originator successfully gained. A few words in conclusion
about the coming performance. We would venture to suggest that it might contribute to the amusements of the evening if any aspiring musical genii, desirous of distinguishing
themselves, would favor us with their performances. Let
none on this occasion be bashful or shy, but come forward
like men. On Saturday last, a gentleman, who made it quite
evident that | by studying economy he lived like a lord,"
gave great promise on this his first appearance before us, and
we look forward to future indications of his talent. Let us
hope then that there are many such amongst us, and that
they will follow the example thus given them. Lastly, it
must be obvious to our readers that on board ship, where
there is not even a " Hairdresser's" or a " Milliner and Corset
Maker's" shop, considerable obstacles must necessarily exist
in the way of stage management. If therefore the oysters
" Pomona" carries on her back should not be genuine "natives," oi if "Bstelle's" crinoline should happen to be elliptical instead of circular, or even her petticoats rather short, let
us not be too critieal, as after all she is probably just as nice
a girl as ever in spite of her crinoline. Let us all make up
our minds to be pleased and there is but little doubt we shall
be, and let us hope that the performance of Wednesday next
will only he the first of a series to be continued long after
our arrival in the Colony.
COMETS.
A few days before I left England, whilst waiting in a Bail-
way Station for the arrival of the train, I heard the following
conversation between three laborers:
1st Laborer to 2nd Laborer, "I say Bill" (pointing to the
Comet) "what's that?"
2nd Laborer, "That's a Comet."
1st Laborer, "Comet!"
3rd Laborer, "Comet! What's a Comet?"
2nd Laborer, "Why a Comet!"
1st Laborer, "Comet!"
3rd Laborer, "Comet!"
My friends seemed quite staggered, and immediately dropped
the conversation. The question however is really one to which
nobody could give a decided answer, all the researches of Astronomers having as yet failed to establish any fixed theory or
law to account satisfactorily for the peculiar and eccentric
motions of these mysterious bodies, varying as their nature
and circumstances must necessarily be, and sweeping as they
do round the sun in every possible direction and with every
possible velocity. I propose, however, for the information of
my readers to enunciate some of the theories that observations have led Astronomers to support during the last two1
centuries.
Comets may he divided into three classes ; firstly, those
whose nuclei are of considerable density and opacity; secondly those which have nuclei, but of such tenuity that stars can
be distinctly seen through them ; thirdly, those which have
no nuclei at all, and are of uniform density. The nucleus of
a Comet is that bright portion which has the appearance of a
star, forming as it were the head of the Comet. The revolving heavenly bodies with which we are familiar, i. e. the
Planets and their satellites, more in curves called ellipses.
The Ellipse is a curve of such a nature that, without its mathematical properties being interfered with, it may approach
indefinitely near to a circle on the one hand, and to a curve
called a parabola on the other. If a heavenly body moved in
a parabola, it would recede into infinite space never to reappear. Comets revolve round the sun in every possible direction, with every possible velocity, and in periods of almost
every possible duration. Some are supposed to move in parabolas never to reappear, but nearly all of them move
in ellipses. These however so nearly approach parabolas, as to make some of their periods of Vast duration, probably never to reappear to human vision. Comets are luminous bodies supposed to derive their light from the Sun.
Their perihelion passage, i. e. that portion of their path nearest to the Sun, is performed by them with immense rapidity
and in short periods of time. Comets have, when seen, a
nebulous appearance, owing probably to vapors raised by their
proximity to the Sun. They are accompanied by nebulous
tails of immense length and extreme tenuity, the heads of the
Comets being always nearest the sun, with the tails stretching out in a direction away from the sun. The tenuity of
these tails is such, that while a very thin fog would obscure
the brightest star from our vision, stars shine distinctly
through tails of Comets thousands of miles thick. Some Astronomers assert that the nuclei of Comets are surrounded by
nebulous matter, of which that portion opposite the sun is
illuminated, forming the tails we see, but this theory is hardly reconcileable with the occasional appearance of curved and
forked tails. Others argue that the nebulous matter composing the tail is actually whisked round with the nucleus, always preserving a position directly away from the sun. Sir
John Herschel admits the idea of a repulsive power on the
part of the sun, which repels the nebulous matter from the
nucleus to enormous distances, forming the tail. A philosopher named Encke propounded the theory that Comets move
in a resisting medium, and his theory is strongly supported
in the present day. I have now briefly noticed the leading
facts connected with these mysterious bodies, and although
it may be remarked that nothing Very decided has been stated,
be it remembered that we are treading on unknown ground.
Astronomy however fsarapidly advancing science, and though
we must at present be satisfied with the opinions of those who
are the best judges in the matter, let us hope that a time may
come when the mysteries of these chaotic worlds shall be revealed, and all the circumstances connected with them be as
familiar to us as those of the planets are at present. The
study of nature in all it3 phases is wonderful and interesting,
and whether on the one hand, we are led by the study of Natural History to contemplation on and admiration of the all-
providing and ever-presiding power which regulates the phenomena of our globe, or on the other hand, we are led in the
study of Astronomy to ideas of velocity and distance so vast
as almost to defy imagination, all point to one great object,
and lead us to look through nature np to Nature's God, thank- AND CAPE HORN CHRONICLE.
ful on the one hand for his gracious goodness, and awe-
stricken on the other at his vast Omnipotence. I may mention, as one of those ideas of infinity to which this study leads
us, the following instar.ce. Suppose a Comet to perform its
perihelion passage at a distance of 1,000,000 miles from the sun,
and to pass in 24 hours through ft portion of the curve upwards of 3,000,000 miles long. If then the tail be 100,000,000
miles long, and it be true that the tail is whisked round with
the nucleus, the extremity of this tail would move at the rate
of upwards of 13,000,000 miles per hour. Let us now assume
Encke's theory of a resisting medium to be true, and endeavour to form an idea of the extreme tenuity of a medium that
will permit matter of such rarity that stars can be seen distinctly through 60,000 miles of it to move with but slight if any
deflection at this immense rate, and I think the mind almost
fails to grasp the idea, being led as near as it well could be
to a conception of infinity. An article in our paper must bb
somewhat brief, but I trust enough has been said to explain
the most generally entertained ideas on the subject and to enable my readers to venture their own explanations, should
they ever be asked "What is a Comet?" Comes.
NATURAL HISTORY OP THE VOYAGE.
W« pursue our researches into the Natural History of the
Voyage by proceeding to examine the nature and habits of
some of those creatures with whose visits we have been occasionally favored since we left England. Of ocean birds, one
species only has yet been brought under our observation, viz:
the Stormy Petrel, commonly known among sailors as Mother
Carey's Chicken. The name applied to these interesting little
creatures has a somewhat singular derivation. They hare
been said to run upon the surface of the waves with their
wings closed, and this supposed faculty having been compared with St. Peter's miraculous walking upon the sea of Gen-
nesaret, a diminutive of the Apostle's name has been applied
to the bird. Some authors assert that it is called "Pewetrel"
from its cry. These birds belong peculiarly to the ocean, and
never approach the shore, except for the purpose of breeding
amongst the rocks. Flocks of them more or less numerous
often accompany ships for many days successively, not, as
has been asserted, to seek a refuge from the storm in their
shelter, but to feed on the greasy particles which the cook
now and then throws overboard, or the floating substances
which the vessel's motion brings to the surface. They seem
to have the power of dispensing with sleep, at least for very
long intervals. Wilson, one of the most accurate of observers, has recorded a fact illustrative of this; he writes as follows: "In firing at these birds a quill feather was broken in
each Wing of an individual, and hung fluttering in the wind,
which rendered it so conspicuous amongst the rest as to be
known by all on board. This bird, notwithstanding its inconvenience, continued with us for nearly a week, during which
we sailed a distance of more than four hundred miles to the
North." Of course if this individual had gone to sleep, the
vessel would have sailed away, and we can hardly imagine
that it would have again found her in her pathless course. It
is a pity that so interesting a little creature as this should
become an object of a meaningless superstition. The persuasion that they are in some mysterious manner connected
with the creation of storms is so prevalent among seamen as
to render them, innocent and confiding as they are, objects of
general dislike and often even of hatred. If this unoffending
little bird does afford any indication of a coming storm, discovered by its more accurate perceptions, which nevertheless
are very much doubted, should not the navigator reoeive the
warning of this harmless wanderer, whose manner informs
him of the approach of the storm and thereby enables him to
prepare" for it, with feelings of gratitude rather than of disapprobation. The Stormy Petrel belongs to the same family
of birds to which the huge Albatross belongs; of the true
Petrels the largest is the Giant Petrel which inhabits the tempestuous seas south of Cape Horn, and which measures about
twenty-eight inches in length and fifty-six in expanse of wing,
and which at a distance may be reaiily mistaken for the Al
batross. On the 31st of October last our attention was
drawn to a number of small fishes which followed in the wake
of our vessel; these beautiful little creatures, about the size
of a herring, the back :,striped transversely with broad alternate bands of brown and bright azure, are known by the
name of Pilot Fish. This fish receives its name from its habit
of accompanying ships for weeks together: the ancients even
asserted that it pointed out the proper course to the mariner
when he was at a loss how to proceed, leaving him when he
arrived at the desired haven. It appears probable, however,
that the Pilot Pish only attends the voyager for the sake of
the numerous pieces of food which are constantly being thrown
overboard: and a community of feeling in this respect may
perhaps account for the frequent association of the Pilot Pish
and the Shark. It is, however, a general opinion amongst
navigators that the Pilot Pish really attends upon the Shark
as a guide: and an instance has been related in which two of
them led a Shark to a baited hook that had been thrown out
for him. Another observer states that he repeatedly saw a
Shark, which was inclined to swallow a bait put out for him,
prevented from doing so by one or other of four Pilot Fishes
which accompanied him; and that at length, when the Shark
had swallowed the tempting morsel and was being hauled
out of the water, one of his diminutive friends clung to his
side for some little time. The Pilot Fish belongs to that family of fishes of which the common Mackerel is the type. Its
flesh is said to be very good. In our next number we propose
making a few remarks on the Flying Fish and Bonitos, shoals
of both which fish have been frequently observed by us since
we entered the tropics. Naturalist.
Ijtesat and Jptitarg JntyHijwup.
ABSTRACT OF PROGRESS.
During the past week.
Latitude. Longitude.
Xov.14t.li . . 8°51'N. . . 22°55'W. . .
" 16th . . 7°44'N. . . 23°00'W. . .
" 16th . . 6°11'X. . . 23°04'W. . .
" 17th . . 4°19'X. . . 23°51'W. . .
" 18th . . 3°39'X. . . 24°20'W. . .
" 19th . . 3°35'N. . . 23°38'W. . .
" 20th . . 2°54'N. . . 23°38'W. . .
To-day at noon we were 174 miles to the Northward of the Equator, the
distance of the Lizard Light being 3036 miles in a N.X. Easterly direction,
and Cape Horn bearing S.E.bS., 4200 miles.
Miles Bun.
SME. 54 m.
S.KW. 67 m.
S.KW. 92 m.
S.STW.121m.
S.W.bS. 48 m.
EM8. 42 m.
S. 41 m.
8, &'t
Bed is a bundle of paradoxes. We go to it with reluctance yet we quit it
with regret, and we make up our minds every night to leave it early, but
we make up our bodies every morning to keep it late.
An Absent Man.—A friend of mine who was a wrangler at Cambridge
and, liko all great mathematicians, subject to occasional fits of absence of
mind, was in the habit of doing the most eccentric things during these periods of mental abstraction. It was a common thing for him to call his
wife "Sally," (her real name was Clementina) and to pour wine vacantly
into his glass, until the table cloth had the appearance of a map of the world
on the Mercator's plan; and he thought nothing of giving a guest the greater yporti on of the crust of a tart without any fruit, or cutting up a cheese
abstractedly and heaping it upon the plate before him until it represented
a sort of minature ' 'Tower of Babel." On one occasion, before his marriage, when writing at the same time to his Clementina and the First Lord
of the Admiralty, he Unfortunately sent the letters off in the wrong envelopes, and the latter gentleman finding himself addressed the next morning
as somebody's ''own dearest Clementina," was, as may be imagined, highly
indignant, the consequences to my friend being rather serious. Nor were
the feelings of Clementina more pleasant or easy to be described, on finding
herself addressed as ' 'My Lord." At length this great philosopher managed to terminate the said Clementina's existence in a truly scientific manner. He went up to his bedroom one evening to put on his great coat, and,
on leaving the bedroom, succeeded, after great exertion, in blowing the gas
out, a proceeding which must have involved the expenditure of a large
quantity of breath on his part; he took especial care, moreover, to leave the
gas turned on. The unhappy Clementina, going up shortly afterwards with
a lighted candle, suddenly disappeared in air, bedroom, candlestick, gas
pipe and all. I will do my friend the justice to say that he deeply felt his
loss and was effectually cured of his absence of mind, which had been the
cause of his sudden bereavement. His taste for science still clings to him
and, when I last heard of him, he was busily engaged in investigating the
nature and properties of the curve that must have been described by his
poor Clementina in her sndden and unnatural ascent. If, as I deem highly
probable, he takes into consideration the retarding influence of crinoline,
this curve wiU doubtless be possessed of extraordinary properties, and create a great excitement in the mathematical world. THE EMIGRANT SOLDIERS' GAZETTE.
LINES TO THE AUTHOR OF 1 MATILDA/
A would-be wag, we all know him,
To Matilda wrote a silly poem,
So wishing to keep up the parley,
The so called Matilda writes to Charley.
Surely my task of making pills
Is as good as tours in driving quills
O'er cardboard papers;
Or sitting biting your finger nails,
Looking through those window rails
At other people's capers.
You truly must have jolly times,
Lounging in that cabin making rhymes,
Exempt from all the watches;
But to think you put me in a funk
By writing verses on my trunk
All bosh is.
One day when I was on the deck and twigging,
I saw you, Charley, up in the rigging,
Your face long as a peddle;
Perhaps you'd gone up there to wonder,
I rather think you'd gone to plunder
From that book another riddle.
You've wrote a song about deer and pishes,
And game to make us savory dishes;
I hope you'll bag 'em;
Or if those Indians prove too rude,
And on our laws and stores intrude,
Pray be sure to gag 'em.
Between ourselves, shant we be cosey,
And won't our days be rich and rosy,
"Unless there's lots of gammon*;
For you have said, the time must come,
When we shall behold the apple, pear, and plum,
And go fishing for cock salmon.
Your remarks about the baby's cap,
The dandling on my knee—and pap,
Are very cruel;
For, Charley, I can see no harm
In trying little ones to charm,
Or feeding them on grtjel.
The name you've given me is bad,
And even as a joke, my lad,
It might some folks bewilder.
At any rate, when next you try
My paults or goodness to descry,
Don't address me as * -Matilda."
ELEGY ON THE WHITEY-BROWN CAT.
As all hands are doubtless acquainted with the particulars of the melancholy episode on which the following lines are written, I will venture no
further explanation, but hope to carry the sympathy of the audience with
mo during the recital of her untimely end.
(Air iiPestal.,})
1 Yes! you're gone at last,
From hungry dreams they did'nt wake thee,
The pangs of death are past,
The rats and mice and every dainty.
(Air u Wait for the Waggon")
2 Oh! 'twas on a Sunday morning,
When from the poop I spied
A lovely whitey-browny cat
Brought up juBt as she died.
(Chorus) Then why did they kill her, &c
And throw her down the side.
(Air uThe Mistletoe Bought)
3 Her legs hung low, though her tail was curled,
Her ribs lapped over as round she was twirled,
Her eyes looked fishy, her whiskers crimp,
As she shot o'er the side, whitey-browny and limp.
(Chorus) Oh the poor whitey-brown cat, &c.
(Air "LordLovel")
4 Oh! where are you gone, pretty pussey, I say,
I never shan't see thee no more,
But I'll think on your fate, how unconscious you lay,
And gave up the ghost with a snore, -ore, -ore.
(Chorus) And gave up the ghost with a snore.
(Air uThou art gone from my gaze.11)
5 Yes! you're gone from my gaze in the deep heaving sea,
And great Neptune's trident keeps watch over thee;
Though the rats may rejoice, never fear love for me,
For I'm nigh broken hearted and blubbing for thee.
(Chorus) For I'm nigh broken hearted, &c.
(Air uMy Mary-Ann.")
The pride of all the cats so rare,
That dwell in London town,
May handsome be, but can't compare,
In face or form with my whitey-brown,
(Chorus) Then fare thee well, my own whitey-brown,
For ever fare thee well,
For the ship is ready and the wind blows fair,
And we are bound round the '' Horn," whitey-
[brown.
(ttJtaradig.
My whole pulls down, my whole doth rise,
My whole comes sparkling from the skies,
My first it speaks of things that be.
My second's answer in our land,
To what we do not understand.
J       My third's the organ of a sense,
My fourth you write when you write sense,
My fifth a Scotchman calls my third,
Now try if you can tell the word.
Answer to I., Bell.—II., Life-boat.—III., Knapsack.—TV., Cod.
Cfrmumdrums.
VII. What comes after raining cats and dogs in London?
VIII. Why are old maids going to be married like troops going abroad?
IX. If the \ 'Old Gentleman" were to lose his tail, where would he go for
a new one?
Answers to IV.   Down in the mouth and going to blubber.
" V.   Because there is no living without them.
{' VI.   Because it often stands out about trifles.
Puzzle.—Fifteen young ladies at a boarding school went out for a walk
daily for seven successive days and managed to arrange themselves in such
a manner that no two young ladies walked next to one another more than
once during the seven days. They walked in five rows of three each. Explain how the dally arrangement was effected.
<$o dfmp^spatulente.
Correspondents are reminded, that, although contributions may be
published annonymously, the Editor doesnot undertake to publish any communications that are not signed with the Author's
name.
Theatre Royal, | Thames City."
GREAT ATTRACTION!
THE MANAGER of the above Theatre has the honor to announce to the
inhabitants of this * 'City" that he has, with considerable difficulty and
immense expense, succeeded in securing the valuable services of the following histrionic artists, viz:
Charles Sinnett, Charles Derham, James Turnbull,
George Eaton, Henry J. Benney, James H. Elliott,
John Meade, - William A. Franklin,   James Digby,
James B. Launders .
The Theatre has undergone considerable alterations, and every attention
has been paid to the comfort and convenience of the audience. The Scenery,
Dresses and Properties are entirely new, and of a first class description.
On Wednesday, the 24th inst., will be produced for the first time at this
Theatre that laughable and interesting Farce by G. Almar, entitled,
flfi©B<2)©©QtKI© TKlll  ILDIKHSBw
OR  "CROWDED HOUSES."
Wouverman Von Broom, A Boat Builder, C Derham.
Wouter Von Broom, A Pilot,  .0. Sinnett.
Bluflenburg, A Workman, G. Eaton.
Caulkenburg,  .A Sailor, J. H. Elliott*
Von Brent, A Lawyer, J. Turnbull.
Estelle de Burgh, Ward of Wouverman, H. J. Benney.
Pomona Vondertviller, An Oyster Girl, J, Meade.
Leader of the Orchestra, , William Haynes.
Daring the evening several Songs and Dances will be introduced.
J8®*.Doors open at 6.30 p. m., performance to commence at«7 o'clock
precisely.
Alfred R. Howse, Manager.
The publication of the Emigrant Soldiers' Gazette and Cape Horn
Chronicle was commenced at 2 p.m., on the 18th, and was completed at 2 p.
m. this day. Published at the Editor's Office, Starboard Front Cabin,
((Thames City." THE   EHVEICS-I=t^LISra7
^OUUlTS
j
[€nutUf
AND   CAPE   HORN CHRONICLE.
No. 4.]
'THAMES CITY," SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 27th, 1858.
[Price 3d.
®lt4 (Smigrattt gaUim' fee%
"THAMES CITY," NOVEMBER 2Tth, 1858.
Lat. 10.54 S.    Loir. 32.45 W.   Moon's Last Quarter THIS DAT AT 5h. 35m. A. M.
CROSSING THE LINE.
The great event has at length transpired which has
been for so long a time the universal topie of conversation, looked forward to in an heroic manner by some
about'to suffer, dreaded and anathematized by others
as a barbarous and shameful proceeding, and affording
a prospect of malicious delight and satisfaction to all
old salts, with somewhat the same feeling that a fellow
has when he becomes a big boy at school and can bully the youngsters, and, revelling in the conscious superiority due to coat tails and stick-ups, talks about
how he was treated when he was a boy, his age at the
time being about seventeen. On Monday last, Neptune paid his accustomed visit to exact tribute from
those of our inhabitants who had not before crossed
his boundary (ladies, children and live stock excepted),
and although the weather during the forenoon was
such as to eause sundry knots of expectant sufferers
to join in loud chorusses of "Cheer up my lively
lads, we'll all get shaved together," as if they were
determined not to be done by the rain, it cleared up
sufficiently before 12 o'clock to enable Neptune to
come on board radiant with glory, and do justice to
the shouts of applause and weleome which greeted
him from all sides. He was accompanied as usual by
his wife, who, strange to say, always has a baby of
the same age and size in her arms, from which extraordinary and unaccountable fact we must infer that
either like the lady in Long-boat Square, she has a
dozen or two at a time, or else she prigs them, probably the latter. He was accompanied also by his doctor and apothecary, barber, barber's mate and staff
of constables, and, to be brief, we will borrow the
words of the illustrious manager of our theatricals
and state that the "Scenery, dresses and properties
were perfectly new and of a first rate description,"
especially the collars. We must also bear testimony
lo the able manner in which all the salutes were con
ducted, from that with which Neptune's secretary announced his arrival on Sunday night down to that with
which the great monarch himself was pleased to greet
a fair young member of the community previously to
leaving the ship. Neptune's head was of such imposing and stupendous magnitude that we almost regretted that a certain gentleman omitted to serve him
as he served Corporal Casey and fling his head in his
face. On a declaration from the deity that, whilst
coming along the deck, they had all been nearly choked by the smoke from the galley which continued to
stick in their throats, the "main brace," which appears
to have been broken in an unaccountable manner, was
"spliced," and this repair having been effected, the
party proceeded at once to business. To the sufferers
and lookers on a description of the scenes that ensued
would be superfluous, but to those who may have
been prevented from seeing them we may as well say
that the "doctoring, the "shaving" and the "ducking"
were all conducted in a most correct and scientific manner, and that if they would like to form an idea of the
extraordinary grimaces of the victims they had better
come up to-morrow morning and see little Dodd in his
shower bath. All who have witnessed the latter operation must have noticed that the little gentleman is, to
begin with, in an horrible funk the whole time, that he
would give the world to open his month and have a
good bellow, but that, not approving of the taste of
salt water, he is obliged to keep his mouth shut and
content himself with making horrible faces, wriggling
and writhing until he looks as if he were all legs and
arms. Such were the faces of Neptune's victims who
had similar objections to the taste of tar and grease,
or even a nice little pill about the size of a pickled
onion, the one great difference between them and little
Dodd being that the younger gentleman always looks
clean and nice after his ducking, while those who
emerged from Neptune's bath looked equally dirty and
disagreeable, especially about the chin. In conclusion,
we are happy to state that nearly all who were called
upon, from the Commanding Officer downwards, came
to their fate like men, and we will be bound to say
that they, although precious glad it is all over, are
equally glad they have gone through the ordeal, and
will take as much pleasure on some future occasion in
serving others the same trick as did those who on The emigrant soldiers' gazette,
Monday last conducted so ably the operations that invariably takes place on the occasion of
"CROSSING THE LINE."   '
 *—♦—♦	
A leading article which appeared in our columns a short
time ago alluded to the want of cleanliness in certain parts of
this City particularly, and the state of the sewerage in Longboat Square, since which we are happy 1o state that our zealous Commissioner of Public Works has in some degree rectified
the same by carrying out an extensive system of sewers to the
sea. In order to perfect this arrangement it will be necessary to introduce a better means of flushing these sewers.
Though there is no want of water for the purpose, hoses and
buckets are much required for conducting it, and we hope
that this defect maybe speedily remedied. The sanitary state
of the City is much improved, but we cannot impress too
much upon our readers that it depends not only upon the state
of the City generally, but also on the cleanliness of themselves, both as regards their dress and persons, and we sincerely hope that all fathers and mothers will pay particular
attention to their children on this head, and bear in mind that
cleanliness is next to godliness.
NATURAL HISTORY OF THE VOYAGE.
We pursue our examination of the fish which have visited
us during the voyage by calling your attention to a few remarks on the Natural History of the Bonito and the Flying
Fish. About a fortnight ago we were surrounded by scores
of small fish which some of us mistook at first for Dolphins.
These were Bonitos, a class of fish belonging to the family to
which the Tunny, so much prized for food in the Mediterranean, belongs. Notwithstanding the numerous lines thrown
out to entice these creatures on to our baited hooks, not one
seemed to take the least notice of the tempting morsels held
out to them, and passed by as if in pursuit of some object
very different from and more in accordance with their tastes
than fat pork or regimental cloth. Soon after the appearance
of these fish, we noticed large shoals of Flying Fish greatly
agitated and moving rapidly in and out of the. water as if hotly pursued by an enemy. Now this enemy was undoubtedly
the Bonito, whose sole object in life seems to consist in pursuing and capturing these.unfortunate little Flying Fish. It
is very interesting to watch the aerial flights of these wonderful little creatures, who abound in the tropics, and are generally seen in shoals varying in number from a dozen to a hundred or more. One is apt at first sight of a flock, especially
if it be unexpected, to mistake them for white birds flying by
until they are seen to alight in the water. It must not be imagined however that these fish only make their appearance
above the surface of the water in that seemingly unnatural
manner when they are pursued by an enemy ; from the number of shoals which we daily see around our vessel in these
latitudes it seems but natural to conclude that they are in fact
amusing themselves in sportive play, as the lamb skips upon
the grass or the dog pursues its own evasive tail. It is astonishing to watch the bounds that these little fish make over the
surface of the water. Some naturalists have remarked that
they rise and sink alternately in the air so as. to keep at the
same distance from the undulations of the surface, instead of
describing a uniform curve as they generally appear to do;
and.Humboldt, one of the most accurate of observers, positively declares to have seen them flap the air with their long
fins. Indeed it would also seem almost impossible to imagine
that so small a fish, not so large as a herring, should be able
to propel itself to the height of twenty and to the distance of
more than six hundred feet through the air. Generally, one
takes his leap first, then the whole flock follow at once, shooting in nearly a straight line and skimming along a little above
the surface, so little that they often strike the side of a rising
wave and go under water. We have for some time been looking
out for another visitant, who sometimes gives more of his company to ships than sailors exactly like. I allude to the Shark, who
is probably the most terrific monster that cleaves the waves,
certainly the most hated and at the same time the most feared
by the sailor. Sharks, however, are seldom seen when a ship
is making any way through the water, and perhaps the fact
of our not having encountered much calm weather accounts
for our not having had the satisfaction of setting eyes on one
of these most detestable of aquatic animals. We may perhaps come across one of these monsters in the course of the
ensuing week, and if so we shall offer a few remarks on his
nature and habits, which are very interesting to the naturalist, notwithstanding the bad repute in which the animal is-
held by mankind in general and by sailors in particular.
Naturalist.
THE STOET OF EVANGELINE.
The province of Nova Scotia, a part of our North American
possessions, belonged before the year 1*713 to France, and was
known by the name of Acadia. In that year the Colony was
made over by France to Great Britain, and the settlers in the
villages throughout the district were called upon to take the-
oath of allegiance to their new masters, reserving to themselves the condition that they should never be required to
take up arms against either the Indians or their own countrymen the French. As the war proceeded, however, the Aca-
dians were charged with having supplied both French and
English with intelligence, provisions and quarters, and it
was further alleged that a small party of them were on one
occasion found in arms against the English. Little or no>
enquiry was made into these rumours, but the Lieutenant
Governor of the Province, after consulting with the Admiral
on the Station, deemed it advisable to remove for ever from
the Colony all the original settlers. His proposal appears to
have been approved by the Government at home, and orders
were issued that they should all be taken on board the ships
of the squadron, and distributed, some in one part and some-
in another of the other provinces, known now as the United.
States. Their lands, their houses, their stores, their corn,
and their cattle were forfeited to the Crown, and they were
only to be allowed to take with them their money, and such
portions of their household goods as could be conveniently
placed in the ships. These orders at the end of harvest,,
when the crops had been gathered in and could be seized,
upon by the troops, were remorselessly carried out, to the-
horror and consternation of the wretched people. One of the
most beautiful of the villages was named Grand Pre, situated
near the mouth of the river Gasperau, in front of the Basin of
Minas. The cottages were clustered together in a lovely valley, in the midst of rich meadows, broad pasture lands, gardens and orchards, fields of flax and fields of corn, surrounded and watched over on the outskirts by forests of grand and
towering pines, whose tops stretching towards heaven seemed
to announce that they had been owners of the soil since the
creation of the world, and that the faces of the stars in the
stillness of the night were of far closer acquaintance than the
faces of the white people who, but fifty years before, had come-
to sojourn among them. The settlers appear chiefly to have
come from Normandy, and they built their houses in the
Norman fashion, with strong framework of oak and chestnut
thatched roofs, fanciful windows and projecting gables; the
women too imported the snow white picturesque and crested
caps, as well as the gaily colored petticoats that delight to this-
day the hearts of the Norman peasant girls, and the spinning
wheels of the old country hummed busily in their new homes.
They brought with them also the observances of their ancient
Catholic Religion, and a venerable Priest walked among them
as a father among his children, blessing the young who paused in their play as he passed, and the grown people who rose
to welcome his approach to the shady porches of their doorways or to their comfortable, firesides. In one sense they
were all poor, for luxuries were unknown to them, but in another sense ail were rich, for luxuries were neither desired nor
cared for, and necessaries of all kinds flowed in upon them in
great abundance. In this way like the children of one family, fearing God and loving one another, lived these simple and
upright people, till destruction fell suddenly upon their homes,
and banishment, like the last blow of the Angel of Death, fell
upon themselves.    Among all the emigrants settled in the AND CAPE HORN CHRONICLE.
neighborhood of Grand Pre, oae of the wealthiest, one of the
best, most looked up to and beloved was Benedict Bellefon-
taine, a man now well stricken in years, with one only daughter named Evangeline, who was just bursting into the ripeness of womanhood, being at the time the story commences a
little more than 17 years of age; a girl so good and beautiful,
so frank with her friends, so fond and dutiful to her father, so
kind to her poor neighbors, so welcome from the fullness of
her light and gladness to everybody, that she was called by
common consent the "Sunshine of Saint Eulalie," (a fine sunshiny part of the year, which the Acadian farmers looked forward to for ripening their corn, and for loading their apple
boughs with rich blossoms and fruit); but neither the prosperity of the father, nor the daughter's beauty, nor the love
and goodness which were as daily bread to them both could
revert the ruthless fate that was in store for the poor Acadians.
Their sad fortunes, especially those of Evangeline, her father
and her lover, form the subject of Longfellow's celebrated
poem, and if the same story, interspersed with passages from
the poem, can be told in prose with any likelihood of interesting the present audience, the contributor will have great
pleasure in continuing it in future numbers of the paper.
porting Jntettigeiup.
MOOSE   HUNTING.
As we are going to a country in certain districts of which
the above animal abounds, the following extract from a letter
from an officer in Canada, descriptive of the sport, will we
hope interest our readers. As it is too long to publish all at
once, it will be continued in our next.—My dear Charlie, when
I wrote to you last I was just preparing to start for a Moose
hunt, so I will now give you an account of our excursion:—
H—, an officer of the —3rd had planned the expedition and
engaged the Indians, and afterwards, on speaking on the subject to me, I agreed to accompany him. Accordingly we set
out from here on the 15th of February, and proceeded on
sleighs to St. Francis by way of Quebec. Here we found our
Indians who were to act as guides and find game and also
draw the "tabogins" or Indian sleighs in which our provisions
were carried.    The man that H had engaged for himself
was a Mic-Mac with a regular unpronounceable Indian name,
signifying "Dweller in the Woods," but known in civilized
society as Jean Baptiste. My fellow was a half-breed, (his
mother having been as he informed me a " Sauvagesse") the
most villainous looking scoundrel I ever set eyes on,and, as it
turned out, a most horrible impostor in regard of his hunting
capacity. This gentleman's acquaintance with English was
principally of a blasphemous nature, consisting of the most
horrible imprecations in that tongue, consequently^ I am not
particularly fluent in French, our conversation was rather limited. His name was Louis de Fini. Besides these, they had
a French Canadian called Boniface, a very willing fellow, but
whose naturally dirty habits quite unfitted him for society.
Well, we started with these three birds, they drawing the tabogins, and we carrying our guns and axes, all of course
walking in snow shoes, as the snow in the woods is from five
to six feet deep. In this way we marched for eight or nine
days without seeing a blessed thing of any sort, the ground
having been hunted before, but afterwards, on getting deeper
into the bush, we found plenty of moose. The mode of hunting them is this: you come on their track in the snow which
is called "ravage," pronounced after the French fashion; then
you rush frantically on, following this in all its windingSj
tumbling head-over-heels about every ten yards, and knocking your eyes out against branches of trees, this sort of thing
lasts sometimes for eight or ten miles. At last you come to
where the moose is feeding; sometimes he waits to see you and
regards you with a sort of enquiring look j if, however, he is
disinclined for society be mizzles as hard as he can split, and
you hear him crashing through the branches in front, but you
must eventually come up with him as he labors through the
snow; then, as you get sight of him through the trees, you
put your ball in two inches behind his shoulder.   He dies
with christian resignation, invariably giving up the ghost
without a murmur. I made my debut by killing three, athree
year old bull with a travelling harem of two cows. They are
enormous brutes, standing seven feet and a half at the shoulder. After killing them I felt particularly like a murderer,
and swore I wouldn't kill any more, but I broke this vow soon
afterwards, when we changed our camp and got short of provisions; altogether I killed eight myself. At the conclnsion
of the day's march the Indians would cut a couple of spades
out of a tree, and dig a large square space about a yard deep
in the snow, always by a stream if possible, make up a roaring fire across the middle, and build a shed at each end with
fir branches something on the principle of Mrs. W 's cow
house. Then the ground was covered with more fir branches,
"Sapins,"the Canadians called tbem,and the cabin was complete, the three men occupying one side and we the other.
This morning a Flying Fish flew on board about 4 o'clock,
a. m.; after considerable struggling he was eventually caught
by the second officer on board and put into a bucket to keep
fresh, but unfortunately he was nabbed by the cat by way of
breakfast about 8 a. m.
Itaual and PHiiarg; ^nt$tymi{t
ABSTRACT OF PROGRESS.
During the past week.
Latitude. Longitude. Miles Run.
S.W.bS.JiS.103 m
S.W. 123 m.
S.WAjW. 162 m.
S.W.VS-lSlm.
S.S.W. 159 m.
S.W.-SiS. 170 m.
S-MW. 163 m.
To-day at noon Cape Horn bore S.W.bS. 3240 miles, and Rio Janeiro S.
W.J^S. 940 miles.
On the 23rd inst., we spoke the French Barque "Marie Louise,"from
Bordeaux bound to Monte Video, 26 days out.
Nov. 21st     .
1°25'N.     .
.     24°30'W.     .     .
" 22nd    .
.      0°04'N.     .
.     25°55'W.     .     .
"   23rd     .
.      1°62'S.      .
.     27°55'W.     .     .
''    24th    .
8°43'S.
.     29°37'W.     .     .
''   25th     .
.      6°06'S.
.     30°46'W.     .     .
"   26th     .
.      8°23'S.      .
.     32°28'W.     .     .
''   27th     .
.    10°54'S.      .
.     32°45'W.     .     .
girth.
On the 24th inst., in Lat. 4.10 S., Long. 29.30 W., the wife of Sapper John
Linn, 11. E., of a son and heir.
geaifc.
On the 26th inst., in Lat. 5.40 S.-, Long. 30.30 W., Richard, the only
son of Serjeant Richard Bridgman, R. E.
P&rlt$ JnfelttgewK.
09
FLOUR, RAISINS, TEA, SUGAR & PEPPER—Appear to be very plentiful
and of good quality.
MUSTARD & COCOA—Not of first rate quality; we have seen a much better article in the market and only fetching the same price.
BEEP & PORK—Plentiful, and of first rate quality in general.
MUTTON—Scarce.
PORTER & WINES—In great demand still; a fresh cargo is expected shortly.
LIME JUICE—Is eagerly sought after, but dealers in this article need not
look for a further supply until the commencement of the ensuing week,
and then only in limited quantities.
Q[onumdr«ms.
X. What is the difference between an auction and sea-sickness?
XI. Why have the ducks and fowls in the hen-coops on the poop no right
to expect a state of future existence?
XII. What were the colors of the waves and winds in the last storm?
Answer to Vll. Hailing cabs and omnibusses.
''        Tin. Because they go off in transports.
1'        IX. To a low public-house where bad spirits are re-tailed.
%&vqdMmmiz.
THE COMMANDING OFFICER having thought it advisable to postpone
the Theatrical Performance this week, it will, if circumstances permit,
take place on Monday Evening, the 29th inst., at the hour before specified.
FOE THE FUTURE this paper will be allowed to remain on the lower
deck until Friday evening.
i THE EMIGRANT SOLDIERS.' GAZETTE.
VIVA VICTORIA.
Rouse ye lovers of peace and of order,
Of true freedom with glory united,
Rally round the old banner of union,
And its glory shall never be blighted.
No! its freedom shall never be blighted.
There are bold hearts in Britain's dominions,
Who dare all that freemen may dare,
Let the Throne and the Queen be our watchword,
And let foemen and traitors beware.
(Chorus) Viva Victoria!
Viva, viva Victoria!
Strength to the Throne, health to the Queen,
Viva Victoria!
We'll have peace, but it must be with honor,
We have need of no new namee-in story,
But if war sounds the tocsin^ then Britain
Still has heroes enough for her-glory.
Yes! Britain has heroes enough for her glory.
Shame the brawlers who trade in sedition
Misleaders who traffic in lies,
And beware lest these self-seeking martyrs
Would be lions, prove wolves in disguise.
(Chorus) Viva Victoria! &c.
By the head or the hand, if he toileth,
Can the honest man live by his labor,
But the drone, who can work and who will not,
Shall not rest on the strength of his neighbor,
No! he shall not rest on the strength of bis neighbor-
To the Throne as the safeguard^ freedom
By our birthright allegiance we swear,
Eor the Queen as the monarch of freedom
To the King of all kings be our prayer.
(Chorus) Viva Victoria! &c.
CORPORAL PUNISHMENT.
Here's naughty Charley once again
With gall full flowing from his pen,
And like wild hawk at little wren,
Still pecks sir;
His paltry vengeance follows up
That nasty rhyme about the pap,
He thinks he's ' 'no small cheese" that chap,
Charley I mean sir.
Thus he writes quite unforgiving,
As if 'twere thus ho got his living.
Nor cares he aught for people's grieving,
'Tis quickly seen sir;
And dared you write on me last week,
And. call it song that puny squeak,
And will you thus pen vengeance seek,
A host oi't.
Then shall we now have blow for blow,
Till one or t'other's overthrow
Allows the victor loud to crow,
And boast o'it;
When you last week your pen did grip,
You thought you had me on the hip,
Your doom's pronounced, so *'now sir strip"
And take it fairly.
1 With ' 'cat o5 nine" pens now I beat you,
2 With fifty lashes thus I'll treat you,
3 Whenever you I 'show fight" I'll meet you,
4 Late or early.
5 I will not call you by that name
6 That's earned for you a local fame,
7 How odd that you should think with shame
8 On such sweet christening.
9 Come try and hit him somewhat hard,
10 As yet you've scarcely touched the lard,
11 Or is't with fun satiric bard
12 Your eye is glistening ?
13 I stopp'd but just to mend my pen,
14 To fill it full of ink again,
15 But now 'tis done, so to it again,
16 And now I'll lay it on sir.
17 Now when that upward squint you took,
18 And thought me prigging from a book,
19 If you had dar'd come up and look,
20 You'd found your thought^ was wrong sir.
21 Though salt pork fat and hard junk fails
22 To nourish me like your "ox tails,"
23 You never saw me ' 'eat my nails"
24 As tit bits.
25 Tho' I be sent to write on cardboard,
26 Within that cabin window starboard,
27 To say "I idle," that's a hard word,
28 At least on most days,
29 No doubt they work you very hard
30 At making pills of grunter's lard,
31 Spreading diac'lum o'er a yard
32 Of rag or such case.
33 Because your job's to heal up scatches,
34 On paltry wounds to plant your patches,
35 You growl because I get "off watches"
36 And such like.
37 Now that Columbia song I wrote,
38 Tho' as a song not worth a groat,
39 'Twas meant to amuse us while afloat,
40 And help to pass an hour sir.
41 It ill suits you thus to abuse
42 The prattling of my infant muse,
43 She'll make you tremble in your shoes,
44 If you don't give o'er sir.
45 But that about the youngsters charming,
46 By Jove the hit was quite alarming,
47 But nowhere else was any harm in
All that rhyme sir.
48 But I suppose now tired you've grown,
49 My rhyme has beat him black and brown,
50 So "printer's devil" take him down,
And let him go with that much.
[The dose to be repeated at regular intervals until the l 'patient" is better.}
<Sjiftarad#s.
Answer to T. Raise.
THE RAPIDS OF THE COLUMBIA RIVER.
The falls or rapids of the river Columbia are situated about
180 miles above the mouth of the river. The first is a perpendicular cascade of twenty feet, after which there is a swift
descent for a mile between islands of hard black rock to another pitch of eight feet, divided by two rocks. About two
and a half miles below this^the river expands into a wide
basin, seemingly dammed up by a perpendicular ridge of
black rocks. A current however sets diagonally to the left
of this rocky barrier, where there is a chasm of forty-five
yards in width. Through this the whole body of the river
roars along swelling and whirling and boiling for some distance in the wildest confusion. Boats are in great danger
from the great surges and whirlpools existing here. At a distance of a mile and a half from this narrow channel is a rapid
formed by two rocky islands, and two miles beyond is a second great fall over a ledge of rocks twenty feet high, extending nearly from shore to shore. The river is again compressed into a channel from fifty to a hundred feet wide, worn
through a rough bed of hard black rock, along which it boils
and roars with great fury for the distance of three miles. This
is called the "Long Narrows." Here is the great fishing place
of the Columbia. In the spring of the year, when the water
is high, the salmon ascend the river in incredible numbers.
As they pass through this narrow strait, the Indians, standing
on the rocks or on the end of wooden stages projecting from
the banks, scoop them up with small nets distended on hoops
and attached to long handles, and cast them on the shore.
They are then cured and packed in a peculiar manner. After
having been disembowelled, they are exposed to the sun on
scaffolds erected on the river banks. When sufficiently dry
they are pounded fine between two stones, pressed into the
smallest compass and packed in baskets or bales of grass
matting about two feet long and one in diameter, lined with the
cured skin of a salmon. The top is likewise covered with fish
skins, seeured by cords passing through holes in the edge of
the basket. Packages are then made containing twelve of these
bales, seven at bottom and five at top, pressed close to each
other with the corded side upward, wrapped in mats and corded. These are placed in dry places and again covered with
matting. Each of these packages contains from ninety to a
hundred pounds of dried fish, which in this state will keep
sound for several years. This process is given as furnished
by the first explorers in these regions. It marks a practicable
ingenuity in preparing articles of traffic for a market, seldom
seen among the aboriginals.
(To be con tinned.)
The publication of the Emigrant Soldiers' Gazette and Cape Horn
Chronicle was commenced at2p.m., on the 25th, and was completed at2p,
m. this day. Published at the Editor's Office, Starboard Front Cabin,
" Thames City." TiiE] EnvriOFL^-^ra?
%Mhxtf 1
CVrC'v4'4"V4
AND  CAPE  HORN CHRONICLE.
No. 5.]
'THAMES CITY," SATURDAY, DECEMBER 4th, 1858.
[Price 3d.
<$tt^ Emigrant $Mim' feetty.
"THAMES CITY," DECEMBER 4th, 1858.
Lat, 27.30 S.   Lox. 38.5 W.   New Moon, Dec. 5th
at 10h. 10m. a. m.
"All the world's a stage, the men and women merely players," and "play-goers," if one might venture to
add a single word to anything written by the great
Shakespeare, and, as some excuse for the liberty we
have taken, we would beg to allude to the opening of
the Theatrical season on Monday evening last, when
the superb scenery and fine acting were only equalled
by the gratification and approval loudly evinced by a
delighted audience in all parts of the house. It is
our glory and pride as Englishmen on all occasions to
place the fair sex foremost, and we accordingly commence by noticing the two bright stars who have just
risen in the theatrical firmament, Miss Bridget Meade,
and Miss Mary Benney, both of whom, by their quiet
ease and elegance on the stage, and by the propriety
of their diction, gave great promise of future excellence. Their acting was admirable throughout, and
the young ladies were dressed for their parts in perfect good taste. We cannot more especially help noticing the rich bands of their beautiful and luxuriant
hair, clustered gracefully around their blooming cheeks,
and we trust these fair damsels will long continue to
delight a crowded audience as on the night of their
last performance. Charms like theirs cannot fail to attract admirers, and we venture to predict that many
a heart-ache is in store for the young nobility and gentry amongst the play-goers of the rising generation in
these realms. Of the performance on the part of the
gentlemen we will only express our cordial and entire
approbation, merely adding that their parts appeared
to have been carefully studied, and that ample justice
was done to them. To the Manager the greatest
praise and credit are due for the able manner in which,
after struggling with considerable difficulties, he succeeded in producing on this occasion a stage effect
which shewed that in the minutest particulars everything had been attended to with the greatest care, and
that, even on board a ship in the middle of the South
Atlantic Ocean, everything must give way to energy
and talent. He opened the performance by delivering
a prologue written for the occasion, which is published
in another part of our paper. Last, but by no means
least,, we come to the band of amateur dancers and
singers, who, by the diversity of their talents and their
comic powers, may almost be said to have rivalled the
renowned Minstrels of Christy, though we must admit
that ^there was a shade or two of difference in their
complexions. Where all were so excellent, it seems
almost invidious to particularize one or more, but, if
this might for once be permitted, it would be something soothing and consolatory to our feelings to mention a young gentleman of a portly and a noble presence, who in the character of a Spanish Prince (admirably sustained) sang a roundelay that would have
done credit to the Troubadours of old; another who,
with the freedom and the gallant air that seemed a
combination of the Seaman and the Soldier, sang
amidst a burst of applause of a "land flowing with
milk and honey" beyond the banks of the river "Jordan." Such a land, we trust, when we look around
on the patient faces of the women and children before
us, may be found ere long at no great distance from
the banks of the river "Fraser." A Highland Fling
gave universal pleasure, and in one direction the burst
of feeling was quite uncontrolled. It led apparently
to the introduction of a Scotch song and a pair of
Scotch breeches, and, from the cheering at the concltfr
sion, both these productions must have given intense
satisfaction. Another gentleman, whose great object
seemed to be to impress upon the audience that he was
" Bobby Miles the charity Boy," and a very learned
character into the bargain, had, we observed, a happy
knack of occasionally, nay frequently edging off to,
the back of the stage with a sort of sideway motion,
with what view we can scarcely tell, unless it were to
imitate the eccentric motions of the great " Robson."
The object, whatever it was, evidently succeeded, as
these little journeys raised shouts of laughter. In
conclusion we beg to congratulate all concerned on
the success of this first effort to, afford us amusement,
and we have great pleasure in stating that the Manager intends to continue the series of performances,
by introducing next week the farce entitled "A Thumping Legacy," all particulars of which are given at the
end of our paper. THE EMIGRANT SOLDIERS' GAZETTE,
NATURAL HISTORY OF THE VOYAGE.
With the exception of a short visit from an interesting little bird known by the name of the Sea Swallow, which flew on the poop, evidently exhausted from
long travelling, on Monday last, nothing new in the
way of Natural History has come before us during
the past week. This bird, about the size of a pigeon,
belongs to the family of Gulls, and is classed among
the Terns, sometimes met with on our coasts during
the spring months. They have long beaks, webbed
feet, and very long wings. They are endowed with
great powers of flight, and live indeed almost entirely
upon the wing. They feed upon small fish, which
they catch whilst swimming over the surface of the
water. They are very bouyant on the water, but
swim little, and are incapable of diving. The bird we
had an opportunity of becoming acquainted with on
Monday last was a very fine specimen. Some hopes
were entertained of our being able to keep him and
tame him, but as all attemps to reconcile him to his
new situation turned out of no avail, and as he had
evidently made up his mind not to make himself at
home amongst us, he was, after due deliberation, set
free, and allowed to continue his journey in pursuit of
his companions, who must have been wondering what
could have become of him for so many hours. I now
propose directing your attention to the consideration
of some of the interesting facts in connection with
the vast ocean-we have been traversing for the last
six weeks, and which offers such innumerable objects
for our reflection. In the first place we are all of us
aware of the fact that sea-water differs materially from
rain water or river water, inasmuch as it is salt. We
all know this, but have we asked ourselves what object the Creator of the Universe may have had in
view when he established this difference between the
waters that were under the firmament, and which he
gathered together and called seas, and the waters that
were above the firmament? In other words, have we
considered for a moment why the sea is salt? Some
persons believe that if the sea were not salt it would
become stagnant and putrefy ; but this reason does
not appear to be the correct one, for large masses of
fresh water, such as inland lakes, do not stagnate.
Strictly speaking, pure water cannot putrefy. When
water does become stagnant, as we often find it does
in pools and small ponds, it is on account of the decomposition of vegetable or animal matters contained in it, and, if
we liked to try the experiment, we should find that animal
and vegetable matters decompose and become offensive in salt
water as well as in fresh. Every one who has been in the
habit of bathing knows how much easier it is to swim in the
sea than it is in the river,'and how much better he can float
on the salt water than on the fresh. Now when we come to
consider that this fluid bears on its bosom the commerce of
the world, how clearly do we see what an important advantage
is gained by its superior buoyance; and is it not very proba-
thatthe Author of the Universe had in view the convenience
and benefit of man when he ordained the sea to be salt? By
the sea being salt its weight is increased without its bulk being in any way affected, and is it not reasonable to suppose
that its present density was necessary also for the perfect accomplishment of those motions and revolutions of the earth,
which would be materially altered, were the vast bulk of water comprising the ocean of less density and of less specific
gravity?   The ocean contains three parts in every hundred of
saline matter, consisting chiefly of "muriate of soda" or common table salt, with small proportions of other salts. The
amount of common salt in the ocean is estimated by Schauf-
hault at 3,051,342 cubic geographical miles, or about five
times more than the mass of the Alps, and only one-third less
than that of the Himalayas. The sulphate of soda equals
633,644,36 cubic miles, or is equal to the mass of the Alps;
the cloride of magnesium 441,811,80 cubic miles; the lime
salts 109,339,44 cubic miles. Admitting with Laplace that
the mean depth of the ocean is from four to five miles, the
mass of marine salt will be more than double the mass of the
Himalayas. If we consider only the immense amount of
evaporation which is daily going on from the sea, we might
suppose that, like a vessel of the fluid exposed to the sun, it
would diminish in volume, and increase in saltness, until at
length nothing would be left but a dry crust of salt upon the
bottom; on the other hand, looking alone at the many millions of tons of fresh water which are every moment poured
into its bosom from the rivers of the earth, we might apprehend a speedy overflow, and a second destruction by a flood.
But these two are exactly balanced ; the water taken up by
evaporation is with scrupulous exactness restored again,either
indirectly in rain, which falls on the sea, or circnitously in the
rain and snow which, falling on the land, feed the mountain
streams and rivers and hurry back to their source. This interesting calculation had been long ago observed by the wisest
of men. "All the rivers run into the sea, yet the sea is not
full: unto the place from whence the rivers come, thither they
return again" (Eccles. 1. 7). And a very beautiful and instructive instance it is of that unerring skill and wisdom with
which the whole constitution of our earth is ordered and kept
in order by Him who, with minute accuracy, "weigheth the
mountains in scales and the hills in a balance." We shall
continue the subject in our next number by making a few
observations on the Depth and Pressure of the ocean, and
the nature and character of the Waves.
Natuealist.
Ifl^S, fy.
m
A Professor of "Woolwich Academy, who had a painful hahit of using Irs
where they were not needed, was heard one day to remark to a Cadet whose
exercise he was examining, that there were only two hens (n's) in Vienna.
Another young gentleman of precocious talent immediately ejaculated "By
Jove how hard up they must be for eggs!"
The effects of free living told heavily upon Sheridan, as all the world
knows, towards the latter part of his life; hut even acute bodily suffering
failed to.depress the brilliancy of wit for which he was so celebrated. On
one occasion, when complaining of digestion, his Surgeon told him that the
' ccoats" of his stomach were entirely destroyed. Sheridan replied that
' 'if that was the case he did'nt know what was to become of him unless the
stomach could contrive to digest in its waistcoat."
!Ecafflg«gafijgm2g2gS!MrrairTrraiS3iaiA^
38iri&.
On the 30th ultimo, in Lat. 17° S., Long. 34°56'W., tho wife of Serjeant
Richard Bridgman, It. E., of a daughter.
Sterol ani Jftifitarg Jn$%^
"ABSTRACT OF PROGRESS.
Latitude.
Longitude.
Miles Run.
Nn-v
. 28th    .
.     13°40'S.     .
33°42'W.     .
.     S.bW.3£W. 176 m.
.     S.bW.jJW. 130 m.
29th    .
.     15°46'S.     .
34°15'W.     .
tu
30th     .
.     17°38'S.     .
.     35° 2'W.
.     S.S.W. 121 m.
Dec
1st
.     20°15'S.     .
35°41'W.
.     S.bW. 196 m.
2nd     .
23°27'S.
.     36° 6'W.
.     S.3£W. 160 m.
11
3rd
.     25°63'S.     .
.     37°40'W.     .
.     S.W.bS.i<S.169m.
••
4th     .
.     28°30'S.     .
.     3S°55'W.     .
.     S.W.bS. 118 m.
To-day at noon Monte Video bore S.W.bW.J^W. 995 miles, the Falkland
Islands S.W.b.S. 1740 miles, and Cape Horn S. W.JiS. 2130 miles.
We have heard with sincere pleasure and we believe on good authority,
that the ancient punishment of the stocks has as a temporary measure been
done away with in the army, by an order emanating from the Office of tho
Commander-in-Chief. It is rumored also that men appearing on parade on
Sundays in hot weather are no longer to be required, as heretofore, to grin
through a collar. We think his Royal Highness is greatly to be commended
for the spirit he has shown in introducing these salutary reforms. •
On the 28th ulto.we spoke the British ship ' 'Northumberland," with depots of Indian Regiments, from Cork, bound to Bombay, 36 days out, with
loss of main-top-gallant-mast and fore-top-mast. About 11.30 p. m. on Sunday the 28th ult., a bird flew on
the poop, and, after sundry hops, bites, and kicks, was eventually captured by that sportsman of sportsmen Mr. Osborne.
He was kept till morning in a bread basket, and, it being first
rumored that he was one of Mother Carey's own chickens, a
match between him and that well known game cock "Hoop
dp doo dem doo" was eagerly looked forward to by the sporting world. Betting .five to four on the game cock (taken and
offered). On the bint being thrown out that he was a
"booby," the betting immediately rose to 10 to 1 on "Hoop
<de doo dem doo," and, when it turned out at last that he was
a Sea SwaHow, and rather out of condition, the match was
d«clared off. Some voted for keeping him, some for killing
and stuffing him, but humanity at length prevailed, and at
the suggestion of the ladies he was eventually let go.
MOOSE  HUNTING.
(Continued.)
My nigger, Mr. da Fini, whose sole talents were of a culinary description,
would now produce his frying pan and fill it with moose meat and onions,
boil some rice, and in a few minutes we would be hard at work eating like
the devil. A slice cut from the haunch of a young moose is the best meat
I ever tasted, not excepting the primest sirloin of English beef, The marrow bone is the grandest thing of the sort you can conceive, and the kidneys are also very fine eating. Yon know I'm not at all a bad hand at the
knife and fork, but I was nothing to the niggers. If we ever spent a whole
day in the camp, as we sometimes did when it snowed much, they would
never stop eating; the intervals between the regular meals were filled up
with roasting bits of meat on sticks and eating it half raw. Then they
would also make an abomination they called a * 'galette" or cake, consisting of flour and water kneaded together until the marks of the manufacturer's filthy thumb were pretty equally distributed over the surface, when
is was shoved into-the ashes, in which they had probably been expectorating for the last forty-eight hours, and, -after remaining thereabout five
minutes, it was pronounced to "be coolced, drawn forth all over smut, and
devoured. Previously to retiring to rest, Da Fini, who, notwithstanding
that he was as horrible a blackguard as ever existed, was an excellent Catholic, would kneel down to say his prayers with his pipe in his mouth, occasionally stopping to swear most frightfully at the dogs, and then continuing his devotions. This .bird offered me his wife for two dollars, on returning to St. Francis, a courtesy which, seeing that she was rather a dirty
squaw, I did not think fit to accept. At night I used to roll my blankets
around me and lie down with my knapsack for a pillow. It was desperately
«;old sometimes, and my 'spirit flask would freeze at my head while my toes
were in the fire. I was .generally woke two or three times in the night by
my niggar poking me up across the fire with a stick, and, on sitting up,
became aware of the pleasing fact that there was a small conflagration going on in my moccassin, blanket, or some other article of apparel. My
slumbers were also frequently broken by one of the Indian dogs called
■"Mata-houta" or the *'devil," a regular specimen of the prick-eared cur
of Iceland, who used to make a point of sitting on my chest or head
as soon as I was asleep, and producing temporary night-mare. The hunting qualities of this *creature were held in great esteem by his proprietor
Hap tis to, in consequence, as I discovered, 'of his having once converted
sheep into mutton, a qualification which in any civilized community would
infallibly have procured him a halter. We took three gallons of brandy into the bush in a keg and drank it all. Baptiste was a teetotaller, but the
other two gentlemen were seized with periodical fits of sickness which obstinately refused to yield to any other remedy than brandy. We used to
•call a cup of brandy and water a horn.   One night the keg, which was stuck
in the side of,the cabin in the snow, tumbled down on H -'s head and
nearly stunned him. * 'Ah!" quoth our red friend, '' your horn stick to
you." In this way we spent thirty days in the bush. I killed a hare and
partridge, both with ball, which, besides the moose I killed were the only
things I fired at. My attire all the time consisted of a flannel waistcoat and
shirt, drawers, trowsers, and a blanket coat. We never washed except on
Sundays, a day which we devoted to cleanliness, and our companions to
eating; I came out of the woods with a white moustache, and a red face. I
was in capital health the whole time. I find our exploits are figuring in a
Yankee sporting paper as "a tall moose hunt."
SCENE IN A DUBLIN THEATRE 50 YEARS AGO.
When anew Lord and Lady Lieutenant visited the Theatre for the first
time, Pat's peculiarities became most diverting.
' 'Pat Mooney," shouts a voice in the gallery.
' 'Holloa," answers Pat from the following side.
1' Can you see them Pat ?'' (meaning the Lord and Lady Lieutenant.
"lean."
"Well, what's he like?"
' 'Oh, mighty like a grazier or a middleman; anyway he's got along nose
of his own," (loud laughter in which his lordship joins).
«'Is he clever think you?"
* 'I'd be sorry to make him sinse keeper," (laughter again).
* 'Does he look good natured?"
"Well, he does, and enjoys a joke to, Heaven bless him! like a gentleman as he is."
' 'Then we'll not have to send him back?"
"No, I don't think we shall; we might get a worse." (roars of laughter.)
1 'They say he's mighty generous, and means to spend'hismoney amongst
us like a prince."
Gallery—"Bravo! bravo! we'll keep him then, we'll keep him then.
Three cheers boys lor the Lord Lieutenant!" (cheers and laughter.)
' 'Well what's she like Pat?"
"Oh nothing particular, she'd not frighten a horse," (roars; her Ladyship joins.)
"Is she tall?**
' 'Wait till she stands up."
■ "Maybe she's stout Pat?"
"Faix! you may say that, it is'nt the likes of her lives on buttermilk."
' 'Do you think she's good natured?"
"Oh I'll engage she is, she has the real blood in her and there's plenty
of it." (roars of ' 'Bravo" from the gallery.)
Many voices—' 'She'll do then Pat."
' 'Och! she will, she will, I'll engage for her Ladyship.1'
* 'We may keep her then may we?"
"Och! the longer the better, the longer the better, (roare) it's her Ladyship that'll speak the good word for the man that's in throuble, and never
let the dacent woman want that's in the straw, God bless her."
Gallery—"Bravol bravo! three cheers for her Ladyship! three cheers
for the Lady Lieutenant." (cheers and laughter.)
Pat Mooney—(seeing the Lord Mayor) "My soul to ye! Dan Finnigan is
that you?"
Gallery—"Ah! ah! is that yon Dan Finnigan? is that you?" (hisses and
laughter.)
pat Mooney—' 'Faix! it's good for the likes of us to see you down among
the gentry there, Dan Finnigan!" (aloud laugh, at which Mb Lordship
does not seem particularly well pleased.) ' 'Och! yon need not look up bo
sour at us. Many's the good time you've sat up here yourself; you know
it is ye ould vinegar bottle." (roars.)
' 'Sure the world's gone well wid you, any way Dan Finnigan. Ye had'nt
them white kid gloves."
Pat Mooney—"No nor that grand cocked hat there."
Gallery—"No, nor that white wand, ye cormorant! When you kept
the chandler's shop, and cheated Mike Kelly out of a farden's worth of
pipes. Who cheated Mike Kelly? Who cheated Mike Kelly?" (greatcon-
fusion during which the orchestra strikes up.)
(ttemmuirumg.
XIII. Why is Blind-man's-buff like sympathy?
XTV. Why did the accession of Queen Victoria throw a greater damp over
England than the death of King William?
XV. What is the difference between an accepted and a rejected lover?
Answers to X. One is the ' 'sale of effects" and the other the "effects of. a
sail."
",       XI. Because they are sure to get their-next -world (nocks twirled) in this.
''      XLT. The waves rose and the winds blew (blue.)
Love Letter:—A young gentleman wrote the following lines to a young
lady with whom he was deeply in love:
Bead  see  that  me;   and    not    my got.
down will   I     love    if      me    love   for
and   you love   you  that  love    for    be
up     and  you     if    you should you must
To which the young lady replied:
Down and girl just  love   for mine's the
and     you  the   to   your me   that   same
up      will I'm your    if     is    find     to
Bead  And that mind; and true you'll you.
Theatre Royal, " Thames City."
IMMENSE ATTRACTION!
THE MANAGES, having succeeded in seeming the addition to his Company of the services of those distinguished artistes, "HerrWolfenden"
and '' Miss Matilda Hazel," has the pleasure to announce to the public
that, on Wednesday evening the 8thinst., "will be presented the farce.in
one Act by John Maddison Morton, entitled,
"A THUMPING LEGACY."
Filippo Geronimo, (an Innkeeper) , Charles Derham.
Jerry Ominous, (bis Nephew) Charles Sinnett..
Bambogetti, James B. Launders.
Leoni, James Turnbull.
Brigadier ol Carbineers, Richard Wolfendrn.
First Carbineer John Meade.
Second Carbineer, George Eaton.
Rosetta, (daughter of Filippo) Miss Matilda Hazel.
Leader of the Orchestra William Hatnes.
Comic, and other Songs will be introduced during the evening.
Reserved seats for Ladies only.
Alfred K. Howse, Manager.
LOST. „    v
TMMEDIATELT in front of the residence of Mrs. Swine, No. 1, Longboat
1 Square, a BJ1GIMENTAL CLASP KNIFE. Whoever will bring the
same to the Editor will receive ample reward.
LOST.
A T or near Laundry Lane, a WHITE-HANDLED PENKNIFE, on which
JL js engraved the name of the owner. Whoever has found the same, and
will return it to the owner, will be rewarded, if not in this world certainly
in the next.
J THE EMIGRANT SOLDIERS' GAZETTE.
Parity JnMlt#«u&
BEEF.—Very good and in great demand.
MUTTON.—There has been a small supply during the past week of .tills
article, but of such an inferior quality, that there was little or no demand made.
PORK.—Not being of such a superior quality as in general, the demands
have been moderate.
FLOUR.—A good consumptive demand at full rate. There are still complaints about the POTATOES.
COFFEE.—Was in great request during the past week, but either Owing
to a scarcity of the article in market, or the desire of monopolists to keep
up their prices, no business was effected..
gtoitjga «n& fNtrg.
m
A~PILL FOR CHARLEY.
1 Had my answer to your first challenge been a fiction,
I could have borne your paltry contradiction;
Your meanness, sir,, has raised my ire,
My barrel's full and thus again I fire.
2 Yott-fairly deserve a sound good thrashing,
Not allegorical, as was my lashing,
For denying shamefully, as you do
The truthful attack I made on you.
I'll see your neck tight in a noose
Before I tremble in my shoes;
Retreat I can't, I won't be dumb;
If you don't bite your nails, you suck your thumb.
3 You say I growl because from watches you're exempt,
I treat this false assertion, sir, with gross contempt;
I neither growl, nor snarl, nor bite,
I only bit you hard when e'er I write.
You dare taunt me with feeding on ox-tails,.
But even here your base assertion fails,
The cabin folks (gentlemen excuse a sinner)
Don't always get ox-tails to eat for dinner.
4 You contradict yourself, for in a former pun
You said I ' 'nibbled junk at number one;"
Allow me to ask sir, without any jesting,
Why your head upon your hand is often resting;-
The matter's plain, and there is no delusion,
By me you're licked, completely in confusion;
Your senses seem gone,, aye every .particle,
Judging from your last wishy-washy article..
5 Write something good, if 'tis within your scope,
Don't look so cross, there's no offence I hope,.
Why call the lines I wrote a j'puny squeak?"
At any rate they quickly make you speak,
In pasBion to! you're far too rash,
Take it coolly, mail, as I do your trash.
We each defend ourselves as if prize writers,.
We're hardly big enough to be prize fighters..
6 I did not wish to take a look
Into that very pretty book,
But if from it you do not steal,
Why does my alluBion make you squeal?
Was it a Survey lesson or on chain jobbing,
"Jack the Giant Killer," or Cock Robin?"
Perhaps a fable ' 'The Shadow and the Dog,"
Or else that one about the Bull and Frog.
7 The silly frog who swelled himself so full,
He thought in size to be a noble bull,
Analogies are often pleasing.
And as I have a knack of teasing,
I'll carry on this funny tale,
The simile should make you quail;
Of bounce you seem so very full,
T'll call you the frog, myself the bull.
8 The bull for vengeance did not thirst,
But let the frog go on until he burst;
Such is your case I'll willingly engage,
You're bursting now, if not with grass, with rage..
The noble bull on the frog took pity,
I treat you the same, also your ditty.
9 You've styled yourself a hawk, and me a little wren,
But mighty deeds have been performed by little men,
And, by the alteration of a single word,
You have had a mighty pecking from a little bird.
Come, come, confess at once (don't look, alack)
That the wren has laid the hawk upon his back.
You are plainly beat and in a pretty fixture,
But hold again, I've got another picture.
10 Of birds you seem quite fond, and now my wish is
To introduce a line or two about fishes.
Of course I do but wish to hit my mark
So consider yourself a trout, and me a shark.
Along the Btream you have been closely followed,
Alas, poor trout you're in shark's jaws, and swallowed!
11 I must-say a word about my healing scratches,
On horrid wounds, sir, I have laid the patches;
In soothing others' pains I take great pleasure,
And try my very best to prove a little treasure.
By such duties I fulfil my mission,
Therefore cast no slur on my position,
To serve you all I'll be constant, firm and steady, •
Morn, noon and night, I'm always willing, ready.
12 Another word before I say adieu,
As you lash me, sir, so shall I lash you,
"Repeat your dose yon'U do no harm 1 know,
My motto is that [ 'while I live I'll crow!"
THE ILL FATED PORPOISE.
See on our stately ship's lee quarter
A herd of sea-hogs is descried,
On they rush through air and water
Steering for the vessel's side.
In greedy haste.
The practie'd tar his weapon takes,
And he hurries to his post,
He for the Dolphin-striker makes
For there is no time to be lost,
They now are near.
With well nerved arm and steady hand
The deadly shaft he poises,
The running line is ably manned,
And here come the Porpoises,
Dashing and splashing.
They brisk and plunge beneath the bow,
Now have a care you lubber,
One moment more he has him now,
With nine barbs in his blubber,
Some inches deep.
In vain he wrestles to get free,
He finds he's been too bold,
He struggles hard for liberty,
And breaks from treacherous hold,
In lashing rage.
The ponderous fish has bent the grain,
I   Now madly off he rushes,
The path he takes his life blood stains,
As from bis wounds it gushes,
In copious stream.
With lightning speed the herd he reaches
And they scent the vital stream,
They fix their snouts on him like leeches,
How greedy now of gore, they seem!
To know not sympathy K
His fears increase, improved his speed,
Resolved, they keep his track,
Once more from him they wrest the lead,
And fix on his gory back.
Without remorse.
In pain he leaps high in the air,
And with fins he fain would fly,
Then deep he dives in wild despair,
He is spent and soon must die;
How sad his fate!
Once more his sides appear to view,
Soon death will close his eyes,
See, with a plunge he bids adieu,
He flaps his tail, and dies,
By kin unpitied.
J. B. L.
PROLOGUE TO "CROSSING THE LINE.1'
There is not one of us who does not love
At night to search the clear calm skies above,
To watch the light clouds drifting o'er the moon,
And wait for stars we know are coming soon.
And is there one of us who does not cast
Across the magic line we have just passed,
In the deep night when lights are bugled out,
A thought on England fogs and ' 'London Stout,"
The shrimps, the prawns, the wfnkles of the shores
Of that dear land an Englishman adores?
And don't we now and then besides remember
The plays that we have gone to in November,
The little stalls that decorate our streets,
Containing oysters, pettitoes, and sweets?
And these delights, are they forever o'er?
Shall crowds no longer throng the play-house door?
Yes; be it known we've entered on the line
Theatrical, great talents here combine
To reproduce the play of Monday morning,
When Neptune, after Sunday-evening's warning,
Called with his wife and officers of state,
Whose shirts had collars of the latest date,
Collars so shapely that they well might be
The envy of that swell Leiutenant P	
Then all men bent in awe at Neptune's rule,
Save some brought forward like great boys to.school,
And Hughey Price, who kept his legs below,
And trembled at his \ 'Sadder's" overthrow.
At last perhaps our curtain we may raise,
And, when it drops, we hope for some small praise;
Meanwhile we make no promises but these,
That we will do our very best to please*
And trust to frighten no one by our story,
As Neptune did by kiSBing Fanny Morey. W. Ii
The publication of the Emigrant Soldiers' Gazette and Cape Horn
Chronicle was commenced at 2 p. m. on the 2nd inst., and finished at 2 p.
m. tliis day.   Published at the office, Starboard Front Cabin j Thames Ci ty < TX3IE1 E3M:ia-n.^5»uisra?
^tMwttf
AND  CAPE  HORN CHRONICLE.
No. 6.]
'THAMES CITY," SATURDAY,   DECEMBER 11th, 1858.
[Price 3d.
§1t3 Emigrant Soldiers' dfatfy.
"THAMES CITY," DECEMBER 11th, 1858.
Lat. 39.24 S.   Long. 49.44 W.   Moon's First Quarter, Dec. 13th, at 3h. 29m. p. m.
Probably most of our readers are anxiously looking
forward to the day when the "Thames City" will be
safely anchored in Port William at the Falkland Islands. We trust that their expectations may be soon
realized, and that the few days we may remain there,
will be a pleasant break in our long voyage. The
Falkland Islands form a group or cluster of nearly
ninety iu number ; they were first seen in the year
1592 by Captain Davis, when there was no appearance of their ever having been inhabited. Several attempts at settling in these Islands were made by the
French, English, Spanish and Germans in succession,
between 1763 and 1834, none of which appear to have
succeedod. At the latter date Lieut. Smith, R. N., was
appointed Governor, and arrived there with a small
party as the nacleus of a future Colony. Col. Moody,
R. E., under whose command we shall be in British
Columbia, was also Governor of these Islands for
some years. la one point of view the Falkland Islands present to the English a most important feature,
as the Eastern island possesses a beautiful harbor of
easy access, where excellent water, fine beef and good
vegetables can be procured at moderate prices. It is
also in the direct track of every ship doubling Cape
Horn. The climate is temperate, but the weather
generally unsettled ; some parts of the Islands are
mountainous, and few if any trees are to be seen.
Herds of wild horned cattle exist, wild horses are also
found of small size and very hardy. Game is extremely common, especially wild geese and ducks. Fish
abound iu all the bays and inlets, particularly in the
spring; their flavor is excellent, and when salted are
considered by some to be superior to cod. We hope
that no time will be lost when we get into harbor by
the Commissariat Department in obtaining a good supply of fresh beef, mutton and other necessaries of life
for the use of all on board. We also think that this
opportunity should not be lost by the Chief Commissioner of Public Works for obtaining a good assort
ment of lamps, brooms, mops, buckets, hose, &c,
sufficient to last for the remainder of the voyage.
We are aware that it is not usual for troops on a voyage to be allowed to land until they get to their destination, but should our Commanding Officer, taking into consideration the nature of the expedition, and the
high character borne by the Detachment, grant this
indulgence, we are sure that every one would consider
it a matter of honor as well as duty not to abuse it.
It is very pleasant and delightful of a fine clear night to be
on deck and 'watch the stars or planets as they make their
first appearance above the horizon, suddenly burstisg upon
our view with a cheerful little twinkle and throw their subdued rays across the intervening waters.    There is no ceremony or grandeur attending their appearance, but they suddenly shine forth bright and happy looking, in a hitherto
gloomy portion of the horizon, and pursue their silent path
through the deep vault of heaven.    If however we stay till
morning, and see the sun rise, a much grander and more magnificent spectacle awaits us.   He sends his light before him to
herald as it were his approach, and soon we see the first bright
speck, gradually increasing from speck to segment, from segment to semicircle and from semicircle to circle, when finally
the whole of the magnificent orb shines forth in stately splendor, and pursues his daily path, giving forth that light and
heat so essential to our globe and all mankind, while the simple star-rise is almost forgotten in the solemn  and stately
splendor which accompanies the rising of the greater orb.
Ideas of this nature must evidently have actuated the manager
of our theatricals in arranging the programmes of his entertainments, as, although it is far from our intention or wish to
speak lightly of the performance of Monday week, which was
in every respect excellent and amusing, it must be confessed
that the successive portions of the entertainment of Wednesday evening last, which drew forth tursts of applause from an
audience more delighted and more crowded if possible than
before, as far outshone and eclipsed those of the foimer occasion as does the grand and stately appearance of the sun-rise
overwhelm in magnificence the quiet and simple beauty which
attends the first appearance of a star.   We have often observed that our nautical friends on board evince to a great extent,
and more especially when hauling on the ropes, the existence
in their noddles of the bump of " destructiveness,'' as, no
matter what they are pulling at, they invariably ejaculate
"down his house, heigh hoi"    In this instance however we
may safely predict that, whether their efforts are directed against
"Howse the Manager" ox the  "House Theatrical," either
house, to judge from the grandeur of their first successes, will
effectually withstand  all  attempts at its destruction.     In
connection with the play itself, we beg to congratulate, all
concerned on the addition to the Company of that beautiful
and accomplished actress, Miss Matilda Hazel, who, in the
J THE EMIGRANT SOLDIERS' GAZETTE,
character of Eosetta, combining becoming modesty with
charming naivete and frankness, acted most admirably, and
delighted the whole audience with the exquisite modulations
of her voice. The excellent acting of the gentlemen must
■have been obvious to all, but, as critics, we would beg more
especially to notice that of Messrs. Sinnett and Derham, the
former of whom as " Jerry Ominous," and the latter as his
uncle "Geronimo," evinced great talent and a careful preparation of their respective parts. After the play a collection of
comic and other songs, such as probably have never before been
heard on board ship, and rarely, if ever, on shore, produced
loud bursts of applause. First came the Christy's Minstrels,
(for we can call them by no other name) a band of negro performers of such rare ability and color, and with instruments
of so fine a tone and construction that, while at one moment
their entreaties to a certain "Susanna" not to indulge in tears
on their account, would all but affect the audience to indulgence in the same weakness themselves, their jokes and antics
the next moment would make all laugh to an extent that
threatened immediate explosion, and cause them to think of
their own ribs in connection with some bones played by an
old friend of ours in his favorite corner at the back of the
stage. Another gentleman appeared rather bilious, in consequence, as he informed us, of his having detected in certain
mutton pies the flavor, not of pepper, potatoes, onions, or salt,
but of a patriarchal dog, in indigent circumstances, commonly
called Tray, whose existence had been suddenly terminated by
a dose of prussic acid. "Bobby Miles," who, by the by, imitates Robson as much as ever, told us a good deal, but not
quite all about a trip to Gravesend with his wife, and the
consequences. Since his marriage he has indulged in a new
suit of clothes, and has given further proof of his scientific
capabilities by the invention of a complication of machinery
which imparts to his head, while music is playing, a curious
kind of reciprocating motion, that produces a pleasing and
soothing effect on the audience.
NATURAL HISTORY OF THE VOYAGE.
During the past week we have had the opportunity of observing a most remarkable species of ocean bird. Last Monday the 6th inst., two Albatrosses first made their appearance
following our vessel, together with several Cape Hens and
Stormy Petrels, who accompanied us the whole day in a most
persevering manner, pouncing upon everything that was
thrown overboard as if they had been weeks without food.
The following day, the Yth, scarcely one of this large party
was visible. The fact was we were almost becalmed, and,
curious to say, these ocean birds seldom accompany a vessel
except in rough weather. The next day the weather was very
unsettled, and we Again found ourselves in the company of
the two Albatrosses and their large retinue of Cape Hens and
Stormy Petrels. We cannot positively state whether they
were the identical birds who had followed us on Monday, but
in all probability they were the same. The Albatross generally frequents the vast expanse of ocean which lies to the
south of the Cape of Good Hope and Cape Horn, and seldom
■or ever approaches the tropics. These birds, provided with
■enormous wings, which sometimes measure as much as fifteen
feet in extent, follow and attend ships for many thousands of
miles, and even from one ocean to another. They are exceedingly voracious, and it is said they will even attack sailors
who may happen to fall overboard, in places where they
abound, if not immediately rescued by their comrades. It
was long supposed that the Albatross was peculiar to the
Southern Hemisphere, but a species has been found in considerable numbers in the North Pacific Ocean about Behring's
Straits, in pursuit of the vast shoals of fish which occur in
these regions. On the morning of the 8th, attention was
drawn to a most curious appearance which the water presented. Streaks of a gelatinous looking substance of a reddish
brown eolor were observed floating and extending for several
feet in a zig-zag direction along the sides of our vessel. This
extraordinary looking substance was supposed to be the spawn
of some large fish, but, on examining a tumbler of water drawn
fr«m the dark brown surface, some curious transparent look
ing creatures of an oblong shape, varying in length from one-
eighth to one-fourth of an inch, were visible. The head of
one of these creatures presented a most interesting subject for
reflection on the wonders of Nature. The mouth was surrounded by a delicate fringe covered with very minute red
specks, which under the microscope would have presented the
appearance of transparent cylinders, furnished with suckers;
capable of being thrust out, and adapted for seizing and holding their minute prey. On each side of the mouth was a long
tenticle or feeder, whose office appears to have been to attract
the particles of food and conduct them to the animal's mouth.
After careful examination and close observation, we came to
the conclusion that these interesting little creatures were
small medusa?, a species of living animal we had occasion to
mention in the second number of our paper as contributing
largely to the production of that beautiful phenomenon the
"phosphorescence of the sea." Anxious to witness this curious
luminous property, I kept a few of these medusa? in a tumbler
of water until night, and, on agitating the water in the dark,
I had the satisfaction of observing bright specks of light proceeding from the bottom of the glass where the creatures were
lying: some of the sparks were very vivid, while others were
faint and scarcelypreceptible. After a few minutes the emission of light ceased, but again appeared on stirring the water
after having been allowed to rest for a short while. The act
of stirring the liquid however soon caused the destruction ot
the medusa?, and life being extinct they ceased to emit any
more luminosity. The discoloration of vast extents of the
water by these hosts of small animals is not an uncommon
occurrence in the Atlantic, but it is more noticeable in the
Arctic seas, where the water is most extensively colored of a
grass-green or an olive-green hue., owing to the presence of
millions of medusae of microscopic minuteness. The "green
water," as it is called, though liable to slight shifting from
the force of currents, is pretty constant in its position, occupying about one-fourth of the whole of the Greenland Sea.
Mr. Scoresby an eminent naturalist computes that within the
compass of two square miles, supposing these animals to extend to the depth of two hundred and fifty fathoms, there
would be congregated a number which 80,000 persons'count-
ingincessantly from the creation until now would not have
enumerated though they worked at the rate of a million per
week. And when we consider that the area occupied by this
green water in the Greenland Seas is not less than 20,000
miles, what a vast idea does it give us of the profusion of animal life, and of the beneficence of Him who " openeth His
hand and satisfieth the desire of every living thing."
Naturalist.
THE RAPIDS OP THE COLUMBIA RIVER.
(Continued.)
It is surprising to see with what fearless unconcern the
savages about here venture in their light barks upon the
roughest and most tempestuous seas. They seem to ride upon
the waves like sea-fowl. In managing their canoes they
kneel two and two along the bottom, sitting on their heels,
and wielding paddles from four to five feet long, while one sits
on the stern and steers with a paddle of the same kind. The
women are equally expert with the men in managing the canoe, and generally take the helm. Should a surge throw the
canoe on its side and endanger its overturn, those to the windward lean over the upper gunwale, thrust their paddles deep
into the wave, apparently catch the water and force it under
the canoe, and by this action not merely gain their equilibrium
but give their bark a vigorous impulse forward. The effect
of different modes of life upon the human frame and human
character is strikingly instanced in the contrast between the
hunting Indians of the prairies and the piscatory Indians of
the Sea Coast. The former, continually on horse-back scouring the plains, gaining their food by hardy exercise, and subsisting chiefly on flesh, are generally tall, sinewy, meagre, but
well formed, and of bold and fierce deportment; the latter,
lounging about the river banks, or squatting and curved up
in their canoes, are generally low in stature, ill shaped, with/
crooked legs, thick ancles and broad flat feet.   They are in- AND CAPE HORN CHRONICLE.
ferio<* also in muscular power and activity. Towards spring
the fishing season commences, the season of plenty on the
Columbia river. About the beginning of February a small
kind of fish, about six inches long, called by the natives the
"oolachan," and resembling the smelt, makes its appearance
at the mouth of the river. It is said to be of delicious flavor,
and so fat as to burn like a candle, for which it is often used
by the natives. It enters the river in immense shoals, like
solid columns, often extending to the depth of four or five
feet, and is scooped up by the natives with small nets at the
end of poles. In this way they soon fill a canoe, or form a
great heap on the river banks. These fish constitute a principal artiele of their food, the women drying them and string-
them on cords. The "sturgeon" makes its appearance in the
river shortly after the "oolachan," and is taken in different
ways by the natives; sometimes they spear it, but often they
use the hook and line, and the net. Occasionally they sink a
cord in the river with a heavy weight with a buoy at the upper end to keep it floating. To this cord several hooks are
attached by short lines, a few feet distant from each other,
and baited with small fish. This apparatus is often set towards night, and by the morning several sturgeon will be
found hooked by it, for though a large and strong fish it makes
but little resistance when ensnared. The salmon, which are
the prime fish of the Coliynbia, do not enter the river until
towards the latter part of May, from which time until the middle of August they abound, and are now taken in vast quantities, either with the spear or seine, and mostly in shallow
water. An inferior species succeeds and continues from August to December. It is remarkable for having a double row
of teeth, half an inch long and extremely sharp, from whence
it has received the name ot the dog-toothed salmon. It is
generally killed with the spear in small rivulets and smoked
for winter provisions.
ON RAIN.
As we have lately had an abundance of the above article, a
few words on its nature and origin may I trust be possessed
of some interest to such as are not already acquainted with
them. Water poured into an open vessel is found to diminish
gradually, and eventually disappear altogether. This process
is termed Evaporation, but as it is an essential property of
matter that the particles composing any substance camnot be
annihilated, and although decomposed in infinitesimal portions must continue to exist in some form or other, we know
that the water has only changed its form and ascended into
the air as vapor. Evaporation is favored by heat, as we have
ample evidence to show. Warm water for instance decreases
in bulk, as is well known, more quickly than cold, and wet
decks and puddles dry up more quickly in warm than in cold
weather. Whether however the process of evaporation be
visible or not, depends on the state of the surrounding atmosphere; i. e. if the surrounding atmosphere have a somewhat
lower temperature than the evaporating body, the vapors as
they rise become cool and are condense! being thus rendered
visible. If however the surrounding atmosphere have the
same or nearly the same temperature as the evaporating body,
the vapors are not condensed, and remain invisible. This is
evident from the fogs and mists which appear on the surfaces
of lakes and marshes after the sun has set and the atmosphere
cooled, but which are not visible by day when the sun is up.
The atmosphere always contains watery vapor in some form
or other, whether it exists in a visible state in the form of mist,
fog, or clouds, (the only difference in these three consisting
in the height to which they rise,) or whether it exists in an
invisible state as it does in clear weather. A proof of its existence ia the above state may be given by pouring cold water
into a bottle on a warm day, when the exterior surface of the
bottle will be soon covered with moisture, sometimes amounting to drops caused by the condensation of the air surrounding the bottle, owing to the diminished temperature of the latter. In a similar manner dew is simply a deposition of moisture oh the earth's surface, caused by the diminished temperature of the lower strata of the atmosphere.    Let us now
extend this principle to the upper strata of the atmosphere,
and it will be readily understood, that if a cool stratum come
into contact with a warm one, condensation of the watery
vapor takes place, and it descends to the earth in the form of
rain. Aquarius.
SiOni^n Jntelltrjetttt.
(From our own Correspondent.)
New York, Dec. 1st.—Since I last wrote to you nothing
new of a political nature has transpired, so I will send you
an extrapt from the Patent Office report as a gratifying index
of the general inventive industry of the country. In Prof.
Rennick's examiner's report we hear of the invention of a harpoon which makes the whale kill himself. The more he pulls
the line the deeper goes the harpoon. Examiner Lane's report describes various new electrical inventions. Among
those is an electric whaling apparatus, by which the whale is
literally "shocked to death.'' Another is an electro-magnetic
alarm which rings bells and displays signals in case of fire or
burglars. Another is an electric clock, which wakes you up,
tells you what time it is and lights a lamp for you, at any
hour you please. There is a sound-gatherer, a sort of huge
ear trumpet, to be placed in front of a locomotive, bringing
to the engineer's ear all the noises ahead perfectly distinct,
notwithstanding the rattle of the train. There is an invention
that picks up pins from a confused heap, turns them all round
with their heads up and sticks them in papers in regularrows.
Another goes though the whole process of cigar making, taking in tobacco leaves and turning out the perfect article.
One machine cuts cheese; another scours knives and forks;
another blacks boots; another rocks the cradle; and seven or
eight take in washing and ironing.
There is a parlor chair patented that cannot be tipped back
on two legs, and a railway chair that can be tipped back into
any position without any legs at all.
Another patent is for a machine that counts the passengers
in an omnibus and takes their fares. When a very fat man
gets in it counts two and charges double.
There are a variety of guns patented that load themselves;
a fish line that adjusts its own bait; and a rat-trap that throws
away the rat, and then baits and sets itself, and stands in the
corner for another.
There is a machine also by which a man prints instead of
writing his thoughts; it is played on like a piano. And speaking of pianos, it is estimated that nine thousand are made
every day in the United States, giving constant employment
to one thousand nine hundred hands, and costing over two
millions of dollars.
farat and fttUtarg 3«t#M*v
ABSTRACT OF PROGRESS.
Soring the past week.
Sec.
5th
6th
7th
8th
9th
10th
11th
Latitude.
29°52'S.
82° OS'S.
83°48'S.
86°15'S.
S7°l°/S.
39° 09' S.
39°24'S.
Longitude.
40° 04' W.
42° WW.
44°24'W.
WWW.
47°23'W.
49° WW.
49<!44'W.
Miles Run.
S.S.W. 154 m.
S.W. 188 m.
S.W.US. 137 m.
S.W.HW.lS8m.
S.hW.'kW. 181 m
S.W.J-S3.137 m.
S.W.bW^W^3m
To-day at noon Port William bore S.S.W.J£W. 808 mileB.
C?
>**
A gentleman who had an Irish servant sent him one day to the farrier's to
get his horse shod. John, the servant* foolishly took up one of the shoes
while hot and burnt; his hand. On waiting at dinner the same day his master asked him what he had done, and, on being told, he said to John ' 'You
should always spit upon a thing if you want to find out whether it is hot,
and if it goes phiz whizz you may be sureitishot." A few days afterwards
the gentleman had a few friends to dinner, and on taking a spoonful of soup
he burnt his throat and called out, "John how hot the soup is." John
turning round said, ' 'well, sir, I am sure it ain't for want of spitting in it,
for if I spat in it once I spat In it a dozen times, and it never went phiz
whizz all the time." THE EMIGRANT SQMMERS' GAZETTE.
L
jftrnjp and l^trg^
"HOT WATER BELOW!"
So fair one you have again taken pluck,
And obliged us to listen to more of your muck,
About giants, and Jacks, and shadows, and dogs,
About noble bulls and slimy frogs.
So you're not ' 'the chap wot sings" and fights,,
You call yourself * 'the chap wot writes,"
You style yourself a noble bull, ha! ha!
Run and tell such stuff to your mamma;
Once more catch hold of her apron strings,
And tell her of ('Charley," the chap wot STINGS,
You think your sheepish poem smashes
Because you underline it well with dashes, jj
You pertly say "come take it coolly,"
Now my lines set you frantic—quite unruly.
You know they did.; we all remember
Your frenzied Tage, thirteenth November,
When you went stamping o'er the deck;
Oh! you'd liked to have twisted some one's neck!
I dare say we'll hear of you throttling a hen,
Endeavoring to think its the "hawk," miss "wren"!
So my ' 'noble bull" you the "frog" have pitied,
Yet still you say the frog eat till he splitted.
What sickly nonsense to send to the paper!
Why I'd scarcely use it to light a taper!
You say great big deeds have been done by "wee" men,
. Mean you spreading a plaster or handling a pen?
At rolling up pills I'll allow you're a stunner,
.But don't talk of ' 'firing," you're an infernal bad gunner.
You forswear *(ox-tail soup"—you deny you're a * 'nobbier,"
Yetyou say you're a shark, and of course a great gobbler.
Take my advice, be a shark no more,
It's an infernal bad character at sea or ashore.
When next you write—write shorter, hit harder,
And between ourselves no more of the larder.
He^s an ill-fed bull its clearly shown,
■ Who'can boast of nought but skin and bone;
Tho' "the nearer the bone the sweeter tho meat,"
I think "noble bull" you'd be no great treat.
Oh'."thou Bkinny bull pray "go to grass,"
For at present by Jove you are more like an ass.
Yon talk of being ready and always willing,
In the mighty mission that you're fulfilling,
You seem much more like a "peeler" tome,
Who may always be found where he ought not to be.
The next time you send me a "pill," "draught,"or "julep,:
Let it be I 'short and sweet, like a donkey's gallop."
TSIethlnks my blister has made you sore,
Do you want hot water? • 'any more?"
THE CAPTURED PORPOISE,
Again the cry of ! 'porpoises" is heard,
(As yet we've neither caught a fish or bird)
This time our worthy * 'tar," a knowing coon,
intends to make sure work with his harpoon.
Again he takes his post as heretofore,
We wish him better luck than he'd before,
We watch with interest his every chance,
As oft the sea-swine glide beneath his lance.
His reputation being now at stake,
The first that offers on the hop he'll take;
At length one bolder than the rest advances,
He's struck, but from his side the weapon glances,
Off on his side he goes, and seems to say,
' 'I'll have no more of this, there's some foul play.'
But yet again he comes beneath the bow,
As though he wished we'd take his trunk-in tow;
His body now is by the lance transfix'd,
And with the ocean now his blood is mixed.
His comrades horror sticken leave his wreck,
We with a luBty cheer haul him on deck.
J. B. L.
THE PATH BEFORE US.
Now onwards push united comrades,
Unto our battle field of life,-
We'll ne'er repine tho' storms surround us,
But press on cheerful 'mid the strife.
'Tis true our path is strewn with dangers,
The thundering billows round us roar,
Yet golden nuggets shall repay us,
When we reach Columbian shore.
We'll build ourselves some pretty dwellings,
By Eraser's river fair to view;
We'll civilize the squaw anoNsavage,
The Gospel Truths we'll teach them too.
We'll yield not there, tho' hosts surround us,
But firmly duty's path pursue;
For all who gild the page of story
Know these brave words—' 'Dare and Do."
We'll chase the deer on the woodland mountain,
The Bear and Elk we ne'er shall miss,
Shot shall echo thro' glen and forest,
Our spear shall bring us dainty fish.
So forward then with bright eyes beaming,
Try notiose the conqueror's crown,
JWithuifted arms let's seize our toil-tight,
We'll take it, wear it, 'tis our own.
By our country we've been highly honored,
Who selected us the chosen few,
Let no one'therefore waste his talents,
But each resolve his best to do.
Then when retired and freed from labor,
Triumphantly we'll tread the plain,
Then fortune's pencil shall be waiting
To write our names in book of fame.
To the Editor. '
Sir,—Last Saturday morning a vast amount of light penetrated the great
saloon in the * 'City." Many conjectures were set afloat as to the cause of
so extraordinary a phenomenon, till at length the curiosity of every one
was satisfied by the discovery that the skylights were undergoing the purifying and cleansing process recently invented and patented by our zealous
Chief Commissioner of Public Works. This invention having met with
such decided successi I venture to suggest that its general adoption would
meet with the approbation of all the inhabitants of the ' *City^ and might
be easily applied in cleansing the interior of Long-boat Crescent, Duck Lane
and Fowl Alley, where a large amount of Vegetable and animal matter has
been known to accumulate. Should it also answer for cleansing paint and
man ropes, the vicinity of Poop Square and Fire Bucket Arcade offer plenty
of scope to the talent and energy of the patentee, who, though he may not
realize a large fortune by hiti Invention, will at least receive the thanks of
those who benefit by it. Observer.
dtonumdrums.
XVI. Why may the English be considered the worst judges of cattle in
the world?
XVII. Why are men happier with two wives than with one?
XYIII. Wny does a donkey prefer thistles to grass?
Answer, to JJH, Because it is a fellow feeling for a fellow creature.
]'        XIV. Because the King was (missed) mist while the Queen was
(reigning) raining.
"        XV. One kisses his missis and the other misses his kisses.
. Answer to last week's Love Letter:
1 Read down and up and you will see
That I love you if you love me,
And if that you should love me not
My love for you must be forgot.
2 Bead up and down and you will find
That I'm the girl just to your mind
And if your love to me is true
You'll find that mine's the same to you.
Matilda.
Theatre Royal, " Thames City."
THE MANAGER has the honor to announce to his fellow citizens, that
Capt. Luard, Lieut. Palmer, R. E., and Dr. Seddall have kindly consented to appear, on Wednesday next the 15th inst., in that celebrated
and laughable Farce, entitled,
ZBOIX.  ^.JSTID   G02ZL.
Box, , Capt. Ltjard.
Cox, Lieut. Palmer.
Mrs. Bouncer, Dr. Seddall.
After which there will be a variety of Sentimental and Comic Songs, and
during the evening the far famed CHRISTY'S MINSTRELS will have the
honor of appearing.
HQr*Doors open at 6.30 p. m., performance to commence at 7 o'clock
precisely.
Reserved seats for Ladies only.
The encouragement which the Theatrical Company have hitherto met with
in their endeavors to afford some amusement to their companions during
their long and tedious passage has induced them to establish it as a permanent affair, and to carry out on shore that which has been so successfully
commenced on board ship. To do this it would be necessary to raiBe a fund
sufficient to enable the Company to purchase suitable scenery and appointments. If therefore such an undertaking should meet the approval of
their companions and they are willing to contribute a trifling sum towards
its accomplishment, they are requested to signify their assent to it by entering their names and subscriptions in a book which will be opened for that
purpose by the Manager on Monday next. Proper arrangements will be
made for appointing a committee to carry out the design, and to purchase
a few necessary articles if possible at the Falkland Islands.
The publication of the Emigrant Soldiers' Gazette and Cape Horn
Chronicle was commenced at 2 p. m., on the 9th, and was completed at 2 p.
m. this day. Published at the Editor's Office, Starboard Front Cabin,
"Thames City.?' the] Eovcia-i\-A.isra7
Mtiit,
AND  CAPE  HORN CHRONICLE.
'THAMES CITY," SATURDAY,   DECEMBER 18th, 1858.
No. I.]
[Price Zb.
<$h$ Emigrant Soldiers' (fcetty.
■"THAMES CITY," DECEMBER 18th, 1858.
L:at. 49.33 S.     Long. 50.08 W.    Full Moon, Dec.
20th, at 1h. 6m. p. m.
Well! we have not anchored in Port William harbor yet,
though,from the many eager faces that awaited the arrival at
the main hatchway of the " abstract of progress" on Wednesday last*, and the excitement in the betting on the probable distance of the ship from port on that day, we feel sure
that the moment is anxiously looked forward to by all hands,
when the chain will once more rattle through the hawse-hole
as it did for the last time on our own shores on the 17th October last. Many of us, and especially the fair sex, will also
rejoice when the ''Thames City" lies with furled sails as quiet
as a duck in a pond, and no longer gives her inhabitants cause
to roam about the deck in a wild sort of manner, and with all
the appearance of semi, if not total intoxication, embracing
ropes, blocks, sails, or even one another in a most endearing
manner, and finally settling down into the lee-scuppers on top
of a plate-basket, or some other convenient article, with probably two or three other stout persons on top of them to make
the heap complete. During the past week the slightest allusion to boats, oars,,or rollocks seems to have produced an instantaneous effect on the hearers, causing them to prick up
their ears, as they think on the prospect of their very soon
hearing the splash of oars which they hope will ere long bear
them to land, and producing a -watery sensation in their
mouths, as the connection of ideas is carried on, aud visions
of fresh meat, vegetables, bottled beer, soft tommy and pickles
float o'er their brain, and last, but by r-o means least, the
prospect of a good run on shore. Our voyage since leaving
Gravesend has been so protracted, that, although it was expected that we should spend our Christmas Day very near
Cape Horn, there appears to be every probability, from the
quantity of ballast and water that it will be necessary to procure in order to enable us to proceed on our journey, that we
shall at that time be anchored in Port William harbor. Should
such be the case, we hope all will spend a merry and happy
Christmas Day. There will be something more congenial to
our feelings in being on such an anniversary, if not on land,
at least in harbor, where we may hear a bell summoning all
people to morning church, and although,after service is over,
we shall not, amid the rustling of silks and the buzz and
cackle about the sermon, see small boys issuing from public
houses with pots of foaming beer, and people of all sizes Carrying along dishes of roasted meat and baked potatoes, which
smell so savory in the cokl frosty air that one almost feels inclined to beg a morsel, we at least hope that all hands will
have a jolly gocd diuner somewhere or other, and an equally
pleasant evening afterwards.    Circumstances do not permit
our sitting round a good fire in the evening and roasting ches-
nuts on the hob, (unless we could manage to borrow the stove
from the bedroom of Messrs. Box and Cox) nor indeed does
the climate require it, and brandy does aot wander about in
search of an owner to an extent that warrants any expectation of snap-dragon, but at the same time there is nothing to
prevent us all enjeying ourselves, and looking forward to the
day, far distant though it may be, when we shall spend another Christmas Day in old England. We have heard it confidently averred by a Scotch gentleman on board that his wife
(and she is by no means light) will trip up the gangway ladder after her trip on shore as light as a feather, and that on
this occasion no chains or tackles will be required; let us all
follow her example, and when the gang way ladder is finally
hauled up pursue our voyage with light hearts. Little discomforts are a necessary ingredient of life on hoard ship, and
cm not therefore be avoided, but at the same time while putting up with these, let all grumbling be smothered in the consciousness that with our two weekly entertainments as much
relief is given to the monotony of the voyage as has been the
case with any ship that ever left her port, and above everything, let one and all be thankful to Providence who has been
graciously pleased ta conduct us in safety and with such freedom from danger and accidents thus far on our* tedious voyage.
That "perseverance conquers" is a maxim the oftener tried
the better proved. With respect to our theatricals the truth
of this is weekly illustrated. What seem insurmountable difficulties are here treated as "trifles light as air," and the consequence is that we have a stage machinery complete in every
particular, at least as far as can possibly be obtained by untiring energy and perseverance in spite of great want of material. Great credit is due to the manager and his assistants
tor the complete and able manner in which they so arranged
matters last Wednesday night, as to enable Box to go to bed
and Cox to fry his chop, and to empower either individual to
wreak his vengeance on the other by throwing his breakfast
out of a window. With reference to the players in that inimitable farce of Box and Cox on Wednesday evening, we
have but to say that their debut was in every way admirable
and interesting, that the moustache, &c, of the gentleman
who played the part of Mrs. Bouncer was caused to disappear
as if by magic, that his portly and noble proportions admirably characterized the venerable female he personated, and,
combined with admirable acting, charmed and delighted all
who had the opportunity of hearing and seeing him. The
characters of Box and Cox were ably personated by Captain
Luard and Lieut. Palmer, who by their excellent acting gave
universal satisfaction, more particularly in those parts of the
farce where Box deplores the untimely consumption ot his
coals and candle, and the discovery that even his lncifers are
not saced from the supposed pilfering of the innocent Bouncer, and also where Cox discovers that some mysterious hand
has abstracted his chop, used his last lucifer, and even invad-
J THE EMIGRANT SOLDIERS' GAZETTE,
l' i
ed the sancity of his gridiion. We were glad to see that the
merry faces in every part of the house showed the interest all
felt, and the amusement they derived from the excellent acting of these gentlemen, who kept up the.interest and fun in
an able manner to the conclusion. Before coacluding our
critique, we must beg to say that sincere thanks are due to
our Captain and Officers for the lively and personal interest
they take in endeavoring to lessen the monotony of our dreary
voyage. The Christy's Minstrels were, as before, highly
amusing. The description of a dinner that was eaten by
their leader, resembled much more a description of the probable lading of our provision boat at the Falkland Islands
than a meal (cod-liver oil excepted). We regret to say that
the individual who is so desirous of getting back to "OleVar-
ginny" is not likely to have his wishes gratified, and we sincerely hope that the gentlemen who requested the ladies to
marry are not imbibing the pernicious doctrines of the Mormon persuasion, as we strongly suspect that they have already
succeeded in persuading a fair one, each of them, to come on
"t'other side of Jordan." The rapturous encore accorded to
Serj. Major Cann on his first appearance needs no eulogium
from us. But to those who were denied the pleasure of hearing him we have but to say that our worthy S. M. wa3 in full
tune, that his black eye was all perfection, and that the lovely
episode in the life of a broom-seller was most musically narrated to a pleased and gratified audience. We cannot conclude our somewhat lengthy critique without mentioning Sapper Hughes, whose well tuned voice and harmony in the
beautiful song of the "TrystingTree," called forth the hearty
applause of all, especially the ladies, whose tender hearts are
always touched by the recital of such scenes and associations.
 •—*—.	
NATURAL HISTORY OF THE VOYAGE.
We continue our remarks on the interesting facts connected with the Natural History of the Ocean by making a
few observations on its depth. Within the last few
years numerous experiments have been made at different localities, and by different individuals, with a view of ascertaining the extreme depth of the Ocean, but latterly our conclusions have been formed more from inference than from
direct evidence. The bed of the Oceanic waters presents irregularities and roughnesses, hills and valleys, plains and
slopes, similar to those which mark the surface of the dry
land. Off a low, level and sandy shore, the sea is in general
shallow for a considerable distance; but close to told, towering rocky cliffs it is generally very deep. A very simple experiment will give us some idea of the depth of the ocean. If we
were to place a thick coating of wax over the bottom of a dish,
taking care to make a very irregular surface with cavities and
prominences of all forms and sizes, we should probably have
a fair idea of the solid surface of the globe. Let us then pour
water upon it until the surface of the water should equal that
part which is exposed, and it is clear the average depth of
the one will be equal to the average height of the other. But
we know that the proportion of the water of the globe to the
land is as 3 to 1; if therefore we increase the quantity of water
until the proportion is as 3 to 1 it is evident that the dbpth
will have increased in the same ratio. We may therefore with
high probability conclude that, as the greatest height of the
land is about 5 miles,the greatest depth of the water does not
much exceed 12 or 13 miles, while the average depth may be
about 2 or 3. Captain Sir Jamej Ross, in his voyage to the
south, made some enormous soundings at sea, one of which,
900 miles off St. Helena, extended to the depth of 5000 fathoms, or 30,000 feet, or nearly 5^ miles ; the weight.employed
amounting to 450 lbs. Another, made in Lat. 33°.4' S. and
Dong. 9° W., about 300 miles west of the Cape of Good Hope,
occupied 49J minutes, in which time 2226 fathoms were sounded. These facts are thought to disprove the common opinion
that soundings could not be obtained at very great depths.
Captain Denham sounded in the South Atlantic, between Rio
• Janeiro and the Cape of Good Hope, 7,706 fathoms, or46,236
feet, something more than 7 geographical miles. Now the
highest summits of the Himalayas are little more than 28,000
feet.   The sea-bottom has therefore depths greatly exceeding
the elevation of the highest pinnacle above its surface. The
mean depth of the sea is, according to Laplace", from four to
five miles. If the existing waters were increased only by one-
fourth it would drown the earth, with the exception of some
high mountains. Professor Maury has madesome interesting
observations on the depth of the Atlantic. He says, "The
basin of the Atlantic Ocean is a long trough, separating the
old world from the new, and extending probably from pole to
pole." The Ocean furrow was probably scored into the solid
crust of our planet by the Almighty hand, that there the waters which he called the seas might be gathered together, so
as to let dry land appear, and fit the earth for the habitation
of man. From the top of Chimborazo to the bottom
of the Atlantic, at the deepest place yet reached by
the plummet in the Northern Atlantic, the distance in a vertical line is nine miles. Could the waters of the Atlantic be
drawn off so as to expose to view the great sea-gash which
separates continents and extends from the Arctic to the Antarctic, it would present a scene the most rugged, grand and
imposing. The very ribs of the solid earth with the foundations of the sea would be brought to light, and we should
have presented to us at one view, in the empty cradle of the
ocean, a thousand fearful wrecks, with that horrid array of
dead men's sculls, great anchors, heaps of pearl, and inestimable, stores, which, in the poet's eye, lie scattered in the bottom of the sea, making it hideous with sights of ugly de.Uh.
The deepest part of the Atlantic is probably somewhere between the Bermudas and the Grand Banks. The waters of
the Gulf of Mexico are held in a basin about a mile deep in
the deepest part, and there is at the bottom of the sea between.
Trinity Bay, in Newfoundland, and Valencia Bay, in Ireland,
a remarkable steppe or plateau, on which the Atlantic Telegraph Cable, that wonderful achievement of science and art,
has been recently laid. Such are a few of the marvellous
facts which the vast ocean presents for our investigation, and
let us remember, whilst we reflect on the nature of the water
of the ocean, on its vast expanse and immeasurable depths,
and on the countless variety of animated creatures with which
it abounds, that we are marking the footsteps of Him whose
"way is in the sea and His path in the great waters."
Naturalist.
To the Editor.
Dear Mr. Editor,—The circumstance of a man's rushing frantically round
the deck about a fortnight ago in search of a shaving tackle with which he
might shave a sheepskin, in order to convert it into a banjo-head, coupled
with the consideration that we are going to a country expected to be abundant with wild animals of every description, and where we hope, in the language of our poet Laureate, to \* bring down with our rifle the Elk and
Bighorn," has induced me to offer the following remarks relative to the
curing and dressing of skins. From the perusal and simple practical application of them I trust some of our party may be enabled to turn to good
account for clothing, coverings, &c., the skin of such animals as they may
be fortunate enough to *' bag." There are doubtless many of your readers
who are already well skilled in these matters, and who may inwardly feel
disposed to advise me to ' j teach my grandmother to suck eggs," but even
by them may Borne of these hints be found serviceable at no very distant
period, equally as by him who was obliged to have recourse to the razor
and soap in the instance above referred to, as we shall not be surprised if,
ere long, the former article ceases to form part of the Regimental Kit, and
consequently even these means be no longer at his disposal.
1. pressed skins are so essential to a traveller in* an uncivilized country,,
since they make his packing straps, his bags, his clothes, shoes, nails and
strings, that no hide should be wasted. After a hide is flayed from a beast,
if it is not intended to dross it, it should be laid out in the sun. If simply
sun-dried it will keep. If rubbed over with wood ashes and also sun-dried
it will keep better. If w.th salt, better still. Smoking hides over a
smouldering fire has a strong preservative effect, especially against the effects of water.
2. In dressing skins there is no clever secret, it is hard work that they
want; either continued crumpling and stretching out with the hands,, or
working or trampling about with the feet. A goat-skin takes one person
a whole day, an ox-hide takes two persons a day and a half or even two
days; hard labor. It is the simplest plan to begin upon the skin half an
hour after it has been flayed-, if once allowed to dry it mast be softened again by damping, not with water in any case, for that makes it dry
and hard, but with whatever the natives generally employ: thus clotted
milk and linseed meal is used in Abyssinia, cow-dung by the Cufires and
Bushmen. When a skin is put aside for the night it mustberolledup,lest
it should become dry by the morning. Some grease is usually required by
the time that the skm is half dressed to make it thoroughly supple.
3. The greater part of skins, however, go through still another operation,
afterwards (besides dressing), which gives them, a greater value, and-rem- AND CAPE HORN CHRONICLE.
dcrs them much more serviceable, that is the process of smoking. For this
a small hole is dug in the ground and a fire is built in it, with rotten wood,
which will produce a great quantity of smoke without much blaze, and
several small poles of the proper length stuck in the ground around it, and
drawn and fastened together at the top (making a cone), around which the
t&in is wrapped in the form of a tent and generally sewed together at the
edges to secure the smoke within it. Within this the skins to be smoked
are placed, and in this condition the tent will stand a day or two inclosing
the heated smoke. This-is the mode adopted by the North American Indians, and Oatlin, in describing it, adds : ' 'By some -chemical process or
other, which I do not understand, the skins thus acquire a quality which
enables them, after being ever so many times wet, to dry soft and pliant as
they were before, which secret I have never seen practised in my own country, and for the lack Of which all our dressed skins when-once wet are, I
think, chiefly ruined."
And now, Mr. Editor, you will be thinking that I have come to the end
of my, or I might more appropriately say your tether. I only hope that
your readers have been able to follow me with interest through the paragraphs of this article, which is I must confess a somewhat dry one, but I
am sure that any who may now make notes from it will hereafter derive
some little benefit. Another week I propose continuing this article, and
hope on future occasions to put them up to a few more dodges equally as
useful, and porhaps more interesting than preserving skins. In the mean
time I cannot do better thansubscribejnyself as your obedient servant,
Peteh. Simple.
JPaoat and
Jjftilitarg Jirt$trjgen(|e.
ABSTRACT OF PROGRESS.
During the past week.
latitude.
Longitude.
Miles Run.
12th     .
.    40°38'S.     .
.     47°59'W.     .
.     SJ!. 109 m.
13th     .
.    42°15'S.     .
.     47° 47' W.     .
.     S.%E. 88 m.
14th     .
.    44°28'S.
.     48°36'W.     .
.     S.bW.VW.139m
16th    .
.    46°11'S.      .
.     48°56'W.     .
.    -S.bW.j2w. 46 m.
16th     .
.    46°27'S.      .
.    49°40'W.     .
.     S.S.W.82 m.
17 th     .
.    4706?'S.      .
.     60908/W.     .
.     S.bW. 91 m.
18th     .
.    49°3S'S.      .
.     60°08'W.     .
.     S.J^W. 96 m.
Dec
To-day at noon Port William bore S.S.W. 332 miles.
We were happy to hear yesterday morning that the Commanding Officer
had at length issued an order that of late has been much wished for, viz:
that we are riot for the present to be required to show feet at the morning
parades. The certainty that our as yet tender ' 'understandings" would
for many a day have to be exposed to a somewhat uncongenial climate, and
that, like young bears,all our troubles are before us, has no doubt induced
him to allow us to preserve our extremities from the frosty blasts of the
South Atlantic.
A SKETCH FROM BJBAL LIFE OF TWO VERY OLD SOLDIEBS.
A long way back in the avenue of my life, perhaps rather more than a
quarter of a century ago, I can remember a poor old soldier who had been'
in the American War, and had fought at the battle of ** Bunker's Hill."
He had been frost-bitten and crippled in a winter's campaign, and had suffered so much that he was unable to walk, or even to stand without inconvenience. Through somebody's kindness, for out of his pension it would
have been-impossible to save money for the purpose, he had become possessed of a donkey, on which he seemed literally to pass his life. No one
was ever known to have seen them apart except an old woman who took
charge of him, that is to say, who cooked his meals, put him to bed, and
dressed him and patched his clothes when necessary. He and the donkey
were in fact as one animal, and they wandered up and down the streets of a
small town in an out-of-the-way district in England, in any direction that
suited the fancy of the donkey rather than under any guidance from his
master. The cold which had smitten his limbs had alBo settled on his face
with an air of frostiness, and he looked almost as if he belonged to another
world. He retained as a fragment of his military service an old three-cornered cocked hat, which he always wore perched on the top of an old Welsh
wig and a flannel nightcap. A dingy coat with velveteen breeches, thick
worsted stockings, and shoes ornamented with broad brass buckles completed his costume. An old hunting whip was also carried about in the hands
which had so long been f imiliar with Brown Bess; altogether it was a very
grotesque figure, but it bred no feeling of insult or ridicule; on the contrary
he was always regarded with a sort of good natured respect, and a kind
word was always ready for him aB he passed. Gentle folks of the good old
stock know well that nothing of .their dignity is lost by frequent intercourse
with their poorer neighbors. On the contrary, by taking an interest in their
welfare, and showing them at all opportunities little acts of k ndness, love
and good feeling on both sides are engendered. Only upstarts and half bred
people treat the poor with slights and scorn. Of the battle of Bunker's
Hill he could tell but little, there was a great * *wurl" and a great smoke,
and "Lord bless ye, my dear, the Americans hopped about like squ;rrels
from bush to bush, so that a fellow couldn't get a poke at them with his
baggonet," hut as a traveller his pretensions in that sequestered place were
very great, and few wild animals, whether real or fabulous, could be mentioned but he was ready instantly to exclaim with an air of indisputable authority that he bad seen them all alive in America. He had no relatives of
any kind, and when nature grew tired of the contest for life he dropped
quietly and unnoticed from the donkey to the grave.
Manys year later in life; -I was visiting one day an old village Church in
England, accompanied by the sexton, who was a little old man with a stoop
and a squint; about the Church he knew little, and seemed to care less, but
he was not long before he fuund an opportunity to say that he had been a
soldier in the Oth regiment in the Peninsular War, and had shared in the
dashing charge which swept the French from the height of Busaco. But
the crowning glory of Ids life was an adventure in which he was a single
actor, and of the prowess he had then shown any man might have been
proud. His story was that he was on an out-picket, and had gone to a
neighboring fountain for water; he had placed his musket against a stone
and was stooping to drink when he heard a noise behind him: turning round
he saw three French ('Chasseurs" gallop at him from behind a clump of
trees. He seized his piece in an instant, fired, and the foremost man and
horse fell. He then dashed at the second and disabled him. with a bayonet
wound in the thigh. The third "Chasseur," seeing the fate of his comrades , took to flight at once. I am afraid he must have seen something like
a look of incredulity about my face as his story was going on, for he took
out, when he had finished, from his bosom a bit of paper, dirty and almost
filling to pieces from old age and constant folding and unfolding. It was a
document under the hand of one whose name is often repeated when England's greatest battles are talked about, stating that the bearer on a certain
day had brought in two wounded prisoners and a horse, and that a second
horse was found lying dead at a short distance from the picket house. So
his story was corroborated, and it was no doubt true ; the bit of paper he
carried always in his bosom; it was the patent of Mb nobility among bravo
men (like the bits of ribbon on several breasts in the ship) and as dearly
prized as if it had been a badge of Knighthood. It has no doubt gone down
with him into the grave, and is now mouldering away alongside of his brave
old soldier's heart in the quiet dust.
THE TRANSMIGRATION OF SOULS.
The melancholy episode to which the following dialogue has reference is
believed to have occur ed once upon a time on board a ship in the South Atlantic Ocean, at no great distance from the Falkland Islands.
(Scene) a "Long-boat." (Dramatis persona;) Two solemn hut seedy
looking animals in an advanced stage of decline, the one called "Sammy"
the other "Jimmy." Jimmy—"I say Sammy! do you believe in the doctrine of the transmigration of souls?" Sammy—' *Well, not exactly. Why
do you ask?" Jimmy—' 'Because I have a dim recollection of being once a
sheep, hut I'm blessed "if I'm anything but a parcel of skin, bones and ticks
now." Sammy—* 'Well you're not far out there; but I say Jimmy, do you
think they are meditating murdering us deliberately?" Jimmy—' 'No, no
Sammy, I wish they would murder us, but its my firm opinion that they
are trying to see if we can live upon nothing." Sammy—"Oh! Jimmy, I
feel so faint! I say Jimmy did you ever hear the story of the man who made
his horse wear green spectacles and got him to live upon shavings and fancy
they were grass?" Jimmy—No, but I wish they would give us the same
chance; even shavings would be better than nothing. By the bye Sammy
I dare say they could get us some green spectacles at the Falkland Islands."
Sammy—"We are spectacles enough already. I shall never see the Falkland Islands. Oh! Jimmy, is'nt it horrible! I feel sure I'm going to give
up the ghost! oh! oh! oh!" Jimmy—' 'Don't take on so, Sammy. You'll
soon be all right again." Sammy—' 'No I sha'nt. I feel I'm dying fast.
Goodbye, Jimmy..'Give my love to my family. Going—going—going—
guggle." (Enter butcher, who puts an end to the conversation, and cuts'
Sammy's throat to save his life.)
<3
a, &$.
Pat's Idea.—'Why don't you go on making the pudding Judy?* 'Arrah,
bad 'cess to you Pat, how can Iwidout the shuet?' 'Butwhere's theshuet?*
'Divil a one o'me knows; it's not to be found anyway.' 'Be the powers
but its that divils clip of a cat that's at his ould work again. I'd bet a brass
farden.' 'Well sweet bad luck to you Pat, but you've a dirty tongue in
yer head whin you like, to be thrying to make an innocent baste answer
for yer sins in that way.' 'Och! Judy, but its yerself and yer growlin'
that's squeesen the life out o' me; can't ye whist an I'll thry an find the
shuet to-morrow.' 'Well may I niver ate mate agin, but that man's killin
me be inches; to talk of find in the shuet jist whin I don't want it, an we
wid nothen to ate but a dry rib of 'Coteen' the ould sow.' 'Hurroa! Judy
darlin, I have an idaah!' 'Tell us it then Pat, for be the holy it's the first
one iver ye had.' 'Just cut up some small pieces of fat pork, an put them
in the pudilin; I mind now we had to do that same wonst on boord-ship.
somewhere about the Atlantic saas ; I think the shuet got somewhere far
into the hould ov the ship, among the rats, and there wasn't; a man or cat
bould enough to fetch it out.' 'Is it cut up the ould sow to put in the pud-
din, an is that what ye call an idaah; may ye niver have another one is my
heart's wish.' 'Thry itanyway acushla.' *I couldn't do it Pat, for -t wint
to me heart's core to see ye putLin a knife in that poor withered ould sow,
that was like a mother to us. But sure I don't want any ill feelin beween
us, so I'll thry the idaah, if me feelins '11 let me.'
The Prince of jokers among gentlemen was the Uev. Sidney Smith, who,
from all accounts that have been published respecting him seems to have
lived in a perpetual atmosphere of pleasantry from the time he entered the
breakfast room of his parsonage house in the morning (when the servantr
instead of being told to draw back the curtains, was desired to glorify the
room) till he went to bed at night. His funny sayings are known all over
the world, but most of them will hear repetition, lie was taking leave of
the first bishop appointed to New Zealand at a time when the aborigines in
that Colony were very numerous, and by no means pleasant to come in contact with, on account of their inclination towards cannibalism. He told the
bishop by way of a finish to his adieux, that he hoped he would not disagree
with the man that ate him. He then recommended him to be careful as a
bishop ought to observe the rites of hospitality, especially towards the natives, adding that it might perhaps be considered a sort of compliment to
them if he always kept a cold clergyman on the sideboard by way of luncheon in the forenoon.
A neighboring vicar had a little girl who, in repeating her lesson in scripture history, persisted in calling the patriarchs "partridges"; when this
was mentioned to Sidney Smith, he told the child that she must be a very
naughty little girl to "make game" of the patriarchs.
Lord Brougham was passing him one day in London in his carriage; the
carriage had Lord Brougham's initial letter B on the panel. Sidney Smith
observed to his companion, "There he goes with a B(ee)outside and a wasp
in.'* THE EMIGRANT SOLDIERS' GAZETTE.
$0ttp and foetrg.
A MUSTARD PLASTER.
A pretty duty now dovolves on me
To answer that chap's rubbish, No. three;
To my motto I intend to stick;
I'll crow and conquer too, old Flick.
So the fable of the bull and frog
Has made you snarl, you silly dog!
Talking of dogs, is there any danger
If I illustrate that one in the manger.
That greedy cur, snug in the feeding box,
Who could not eat the hay, nor give it to the ox?
You are like that dog, you can't claim all the merit,
And yet you seem unwilling to give me a share of credit;
In ' 'poem writing" I mean—now ain't you greedy?
But dam' me some of your's are precious seedy ;
You talk of mine as such—that's not gentility;
I write with elegance sir,—also ability.
My dashing lines you call, sir, absurd;
The same, to yours,—upon my word!
You call me an ass,—now I must say,
You are the biggest ass, you first began to bray.
As to the shark, it was never my wish or intention
To possess that monster's hungry propension;
Merely as an illustration did I wish
You to understand me as that fish.
In firing too you wish to take the shine,
In one sense you do—with your carbine,
To be a gunner militaire I don't presume,
You'd beat me at feu-de-joie, you can't at feu-de-plumb.
I don't mean, sir, the plume in your Sunday hat;
The plume's my pen—please remember that.
How many times am I to ask forsooth
Why, when you write, you do not stick to truth?
Tell me at once, I can't remember
Putting myself in a passion last November;
You're in a pasBion oftener—for you're defeated;
Of course you won't confess it, you're so deviliBh conceited.
You call my attention to your sting, ah! ah!
For such a sting as yours I would'nt trouble my mamma;
Such cheek as this is quite unbounded,—moBt ill-bred,
Don't rouse the Bull too much, or Frog you'll be in dread.
Of what? why a tossing you little croaker,
Or perhaps a goring,—that's a choker!
You call me a peeler—that joke you spoil,
Where was I when you wanted caBtor oil?
At my post, sir, and in glee quite full,
To see the face you were about to pull.
Oh! Gemini! the sight was so very pretty,
I think I shall more about it in a future ditty.
That thing you call a blister is all bother,
It wasn't strong enough—so spread another;
You blister me! how I should like to know;
Not by pouring such ' 'Hot water down below."
I can bear such a scalding every day,
I have no fear, so pour away.
A pretty bauble you were spouting,
The thing was lost but for the shouting
Of Captain L , whose lungs are sound,
Judging from the way they heard him under ground.
The effect was good, and we all rejoice
That he possesses so strong a voice;
On this bead I have nothing more to follow,
Beyond that he beats John McGowan hollow.
When next you take your pen in hand,
An explanation, sir, I must demand.
What do you mean'by skinny, you lubber?
I'm as fat as thou, but not so full'of blubber.
Now go to bed, I think you've found your master;
I don't call this a blister, but a mustard plaster!
Your blister, sir, will never rise on me,
What mustard does on you—we'll wait and see!
THE THAMES CITIZEN.
Tho citizens to rest have gone,
The moon wanes on our lee,
The fresh'ning breeze with cheeful tone,
Sweeps o'er the dark blue sea.
The dolphin leaps from wave to wave,
In phosphorescence bright,
The flying fish himself to savo,
Eludes his foe by flight.
Our gallant ship with clipper stem,
Ploughs through the moon-lit sea,
But England still is loved by them
Who now repose in thee.
And.though they travel o'er the main,
Their thoughts revert to home,
Take courage then my merry men,
Wherever you may roam.
Bold chanticleer with loud clear voice,
Proclaims th' approaching dawn,
The gold tinged clouds bid all rejoice,
And'hail the smiling morn,
Predicate of our future joys,
In our far distant land,
Arouse you then my merry boys
And lend a helping hand.
We cross the Equinoctial line,
Where Neptune reigns supreme,
He boards us with his razors fine,
His barbers and his cream,
Made from the sea-king's own [recent,
Nor rank nor grade escape,
His pill and draught, new hands must meet,
And wash after their scrape.
Time heavy hangs, the day seems long,
Yet jovial we can be,
To-night we have our round of song,
All join in harmony.
To-night we read our own gazette,
When gathered in a ring,
To-night on equal terms all meet,
With heart and voice to sing.
We have no store nor sordid wealth.
Though we may see the day,
But social intercourse and health
Will cheer us on our way.
As brethren let us still remain,
And jovial will we be,
Then let us all, my merry men,
In unity agree.
 »   »   »	
'•POOR JACK."
When lonely and far on the wild ocean wave,
How our warmest affections awaken;
And mem'ry clings firmly to all whom the grave
From among us so rudely hath taken.
Though he was but a dog, poor ' 'Jack" oft' amused us,
And his bark was a laugh as he galloped away;
His paw after fighting he never refused us,
And his clear eye shone bright as the sun's sparkling ray.
How intently we gazed as we saw him afar
In the waves mighty grasp nobly struggling for life,
Had we seen it that clear eye had shone like a star,
But alas! it's now dim, and he's given up the strife.
Then farewell to thee ' 'Jack!" thou wer't faithful and true,
Though but a poor dog we'll regret thee,'
May we ne'er want a friend we could liken to you,
Be it never the day we forget thee. C. S.
Notice.—To any man or woman desirous of making a fortune and benefitting their fellow creatures. A handsome reward is hereby offered to any
person or persons who will invent a certain mode of promoting good feeling
among women, and preventing them from fighting with, teasing,abusing and
quarrelling with one another. The cure must be perfect and involve no
bodily injury.
M*VAJ»'MIH.I V1**VM
djjottumttntms.
XIX. Why does a duck put its head under water?
XX. Why does a man who marries a widow do well?
XXI. Why is a man who is restless at night like a lawyer?
Answer to XYI. Because when the Pope sent them a bull they thought it
a bore (boar).
"        XVII. Because with one he is delighted and with two trans -
. ported.
"        XVIII. Because he's an ass.
Vheatre Royal, | Shames City."
THE MANAGER, of the above Theatre begs to inform the gentry and public in general of this "City," that the celebrated Comedy, by Oliver
Goldsmith, entitled
fifl©[Klg  ©^©©P©  IF®   ©©tKKgXHJEOSa93
is in preparation, and will be presented on Wednesday evening next, circumstances permitting, when the entire strength of his talented Company
will have the honor of appearing.
He takes this opportunity of expressing his warmest thanks for tho liberal
support that has been given to the "Columbian Theatrical Fund," which
at 3 o'clock this afternoon amounted to £1218s 9^cl. As it is necessary to
close the list by Monday evening, persons desirous of subscribing are requested to apply to Rich. Wolfenden, Acting Secretary, No. 7, Port Side,
Lower-deck Street.
(Signed) Alfred R. Howse, Manager.
The publication of the Emigrant Soldiers' Gazette and Cape Hoe*
Chronicle was commenced at 2 p.m., on the 16th, and was completed at
4p. m. this day. Published at the Editor's Office, Starboard Front Cabin,
" Thames City." 1
THH   ElIwIIC3l-FL-A.lSrT
$M£tt£f
AND  CAPE  HORN CHRONICLE.
!ST.o 8.]
'THAMES CITY," SATURDAY,   DECEMBER 25th, 1858.
[Price 3d.
WH Emigrant jltftdim' <Sa2ett$.
"THAMES CITY," DECEMBER 25th, 1858.
Lat. 50.46 S.    Long. 55.58 W.
Another great anniversary has come round, with its heap
of associations, and the recollections of happy hours spent
with pleasant companions, that possess such a charm for us
all and remind us so forcibly of dear old England.
Christmas time—with its visions of roast beef and plum
pudding,—holly and mistletoe,—Christmast trees and Christmas presents,—prize turkeys and prize geese,—clowns and
pantomimes,—cheerful firesides and happy faces,—cold noses
and hot grog.
Christmas—the time that the school-boy looks forward to
as the jolliest in the whole year, when he can sit down to eat
with the certainty of rising from the table with the loss of at
least the three lower buttons of his waistcoat and the two upper ones of his trowsers,—when he can kiss his pretty cousin
under the mistletoe, and, emboldened by sundry glasses of
wine, even extend his caresses to the sly little housemaid,
causing both young ladies to blush incessantly for at least a
week afterwards, and to declare (although ihey really like it
very much) that he is a "nasty rude fellow."
Christmas time,— when diminutive boys make slides on the
pavement to entrap wary old gentlemen with blue noses and
still bluer spectacles, and take a malicious de ight iu pelting
policemen from round corners or behind lamp-posts with snowballs so hard as to cause temporary aberration of intellect on
the part of the policemen in question, and enable their tormentors to escape with impunity.
Christmas time,—when "cabbies" stand at the corners of
the streets, beating a tattoo with their hands and feet to keep
themselves warm, watching their own breath as it assumes nil
sorts of fantastic shapes in the cold frosty air, and growling
inwardly, as the foot passengers pass on heedless of their importunities, preferring the healthy air and exercise to. the close
and stuffy feeling of a hackney cab.
Christmas eve,—when boys go about singing Christmas
carols from house to house and from street to street; boys so
small that, as they huddle round your door to keep one another
warm, the only fear is that, in the squeeze, one of them might
get jammed in the key-hole or the letter box, but who nevertheless contrive to amass s.nall fortunes, and forthwith proceed to invest them, not in "Three per cents,'' but in mince
pies, sausage rolls and ginger popat the shop roand the corner.
Christmas time,—when the butcher's boy has a pitched battle with the chimney sweeper's boy, in consequence of your
having given the former 2s. and latter 2s. 6d. as a Christmas
box, thereby causing the "blackamoor" to chaff "greasy" to
an extent that injures his sensitive feelings.
Christmas Day,—when in England, even the poorest of the
poor are, we hope, enabled to have a better dinner than they
have had for some time before, and to derive warmth and
comfort from hot soup and a good fire, and when all, both
rich and poor, manage, in spite of the cold, to enjoy themselves more than on any other day in the year. Such in a
few words are some ot the associations with Christmas day
and Christmas times in old England that the recurrence of
this anniversary calls forth; and while in our lonely position
in the middle of the South Atlantic ocean, far away from such
scenes, we think of fathers and mothers, brothers and sisters,
sweethearts and friends, whom we have left behind, let all derive some satisfaction from the knowledge that we too are
not forgotten, and that on this day a tie of thought is as it
were established and extended over thousands and thousands
of miles, through which all think reciprocally of those that
are near and dear to them, and look forward to a recurrence
of the happy days and seenes that are associated with this
the greatest of all anniversaries. We at one time expected to
spend this day in the vicinity of Cape Horn, and it is there
doubtless that the thoughts of all onr friends- in England are
directed. Latterly we certainly did hope, and not withont
reason, (for during the whole of the past week we have only
completed a distance of 247 miles) that we should spend it at
the Falkland Islands. This pleasure the wind however has
done its utmost to obviate, so under the circumstances we
must make up our minds to have as jolly an evening as possible. Anyway it is some little consolation to think that,before we do encounter the still colder blasts off Cape Horn, we
shall have a trip on shore, to send the blood once more circulating through our veins, (an animal function that has of late
ceased altogether to act except during an occasional dance)
and that we shall at least have a good layer of fat beef, bottled porter, &c, to fortify our inner man. There seems to be
something unnatural in separating Christmas day and Christmas dinner, the latfr forming, as we are sure it does with
most people, the staple delight of the day; but, since present
circumstances must be pat up with, we cannot do better than
wish every one a merry Christmas day and night, with the
hope that they will ere long have a real Christmas dinner at
the Falkland Islands, and that we may all live long enough
to enjoy in harmony and fellowship together many another
Christmas day in a better and more congenial-spot than the
South Atlantic Ocean.
The termination of one of the epochs of man's life called a
year Is an occasion, of all others, the most calculated to im
press on us how stealthy, rapid, inexorable and irrevocable
is the march of man's great enemy "Tira«.n Bre our next
publication is completed,the year 1858 will have ceased to-be,
and, on looking back on the various events which have served
to distinguish it as a truly wonderful year, we cannot refrain
from briefly noticing, as one of the most important of those
events, i&8 birthand early career of the "Emigrant Soldier's
Gazette and Cape Horn Chronicle." This magnificent publication first saw the light at 7 p. ra., on the 6th Nov.  1858 THE EMIGRANT SOLDIERS' GAZETTE,
Great fears were entertained for the infant's safety, but, thanks
to a very fine evening, and the able support afforded to the
doctor and his nurse on this trying occasion by a number of
kind friends, it was ushered into the world under the most auspicious circumstances. Since its birth it has received every
possible attention and kindness that its tender age could require, and its friends seem to have vied with each other as to
who could best contribute to its welfare and prosperity.
Amongst other little contributions, medical comforts have not
been forgotten. A kind young lady sent us for the infant's
use (Charley she called it) a "pill" and a "mustard plaster,"
both of which took great effect. One whipping has been already necessary, and a contribution of a jug of very hot water, coupled with the offer of more if required, proved of
great service in these cold latitudes. Little inflictions like
these are, as all mothers know, conducive to preserving children in good health and spirits, and "trainingthem up the way
they should go." With regard to our young progeny, such,
we are happy to say, has been the case; it is getting on as well
as can reasonably be expected, and better than we ourselves
ever dared to hope, and we feel sure that our friends will bear
us out in the assertion that for its age (seven weeks to-day) so
fine a child has never been seen, not even excepting Master
Linn. In presenting therefore the final number of the "Emigrant Soldiers Gazette and Cape Horn Chronicle" for the year
1858, we beg to express our grateful acknowledgments for
the patronage that it has received, and for the numerous testimonials of approbation that have reached us from all sides.
We allude with pride and satisfaction to the success it has
achieved, and the position it now occupies as the reading publication of the deep. Brightest in the constellation of the
literary lights, the E. S. G. & C. H. C. is weekly rising higher
and higher in position, and whilst it continues to sparkle as
it does, there is not the least fear of any other star getting the
ascendancy and taking the shine out of it. In conclusion, we
beg to assure our readers that the eight weekly numbers for
the latter portion of the present year will, when printed and
bound, form one of the most magnificent and interesting publications in the world, and to call upon all who are interested
in our success to join with us in wishing the E. S. G. & C. H.
G very many happy returns of this its first "Christmas day."
NATURAL HISTORY OP THE VOYAGE.
The next interesting subject which the ocean presents for
our consideration is temperature. The surface of the ocean
is warmest at the tropics and gets cooler and cooler as we go
north and south, until we get to the poles,where we find water
converted into solid ice. The surface of the water is generally cooler at mid-day than the atmosphere (noticed in the
•shade), but always warmer at mid-night. In the morningand
evening the temperature of the surface of the ocean usually
corresponds with that of the atmosphere. Banks diminish
the temperature of the sea, so that it is always colder over
them than where it is deeper; and the difference is greater, the
greater the shallows. So much for the surface of the ocean;
•but the temperature of the ocean also differs according to its
depth; as water is a very slow conductor of heat, the upper
surface only is affected only by the influence of seasons and
atmospherical changes, and observation has shown that, in the
ocean the vicissitudes of season do not influence the temperature of the water beyond the depth of 300 feet. Throughout the whole of the deep ocean there is at a certain depth,
varying with the latitude, a stratum of water which maintains
invariably the temperature of about 39° 5'; this stratum marks
the influence of the sun's heat. In the equatorial seas the
line of unvarying temperature is found at the depth of 7200
feet. From this depth at the equator the line gradually rises
till it comes to the surface in Lat. 56° 26' N. & S., and here
the water has the same temperature 39° 5' at all depths. From
the latitudes named to near the degree of 70° the line descends to the depth of 4200 feet, beneath which to the great-
test depth the temperature is uniformly that of 39° 5', while
that of the surface is 30° 7'. Thus the temperature of the
■ocean decreaseswith the depth to a certain limit at the equator, and increases with the depth to a certain limit towards
the poles. Some interesting experiments have been made
with a view of determining the depth to which light penetrates the water, and the conclusions arrived at are that the
propagation of light through water is not carried far below
the surface; that its influence at the depth of 300 feet is
scarcely equal to the glimmer of twilight, and below about
700 feet there is perpetual darkness. Admitting this to be a
fact, founded on the most accurate of calculation, do we not
wonder how it is that the myriads of animals which inhabit
the depth of the ocean are thus left without the benefit of
light, but here again do we see the wonderful provision which
the All-disposing hand of Providence makes for his creatures.
We have had occasion to notice the light thrown out by countless numbers of organic beings which inhabit the ocean, giving rise to that magnificent and imposing spectacle the phosphorescence of the sea, and might we not venture to suppose
that the light thus produced in the extreme depths of the
ocean contributes in a great measure to supply the place of
the sun's rays, which do not penetrate beyond 700 feet. One
important fact has suggested this notion, and it is this : we
have every reason to believe that Algoe or sea-plants, which
constitute the food of large fish and afford shelter to small
ones, grow in great abundance in the extensive depths of the
ocean; now experiments have proved that plants cannot grow
and flourish without light, in fact that light is essential to the
growth of plants, and, as the light of the sun does not reach
very deep sea-plants,is it not natural to suppose that the light
constituting the phosphorescence of the sea answers the purpose equally as well, especially as we are aware that plants of
a low organization like sea-weed do not require the influence
of so strong a light as those of a higher organization?
There is yet one more subject in connection with the Natural History of the Ocean which merits our consideration, and
that is the formation of waves. Were it not for winds the
surface of the sea would ever present an unbroken and glassy
smoothness. The playful ripples which break the moon's
rays into a thousand sparkling diamonds, and the huge billows that rear their crested summits to the sky would be
alike unknown. If the direction of the breeze were exactly
horizontal, it is difficult to imagine how the surface could be
ruffled at all, but doubtless the wind exerts an irregular pressure obliquely upon the water, a few particles of which are
thus forced out. of their level above the surrounding ones;
these afford a surface, however slight,on which the air can act
directly,and the effect now goes on increasing every moment,
until, if the wind be of sufficient velocity, the mightiest waves
are produced. The progressive motion of the undulation produced appears like an onward flow of the water, but a bird
resting on the sea, or a boat adrift upon its surface is not carried forward by the waves. There is merely a rise and fall
with them, except in the'case of a strong continuous wind
which occasions a superficial current. Notwithstanding the
extremely agitated state of the surface of the ocean during
furious tempests, at a comparatively small depth it is perfectly tranquil. By experiments in 1836 it was found that, in water 12 feet deep, waves 9 inches high and 4 or 5 feet long did
not sensibly affect the water at the bottom. The effect of the
strongest gales does not probably extend beyond the depth of
200 feet. The common saying of the waves running mountains high is a popular exaggeration. Viewed from the deck
of a vessel the immense undulating surface causes them to
appear much higher than they are, while the. everchanging inclination of the vessel itself produces a deception of the
senses which increases the exaggeration. Experienced practical men have however made some observations which show
us their height. Taking theirstation in the shrouds, they have
proceeded higher and higher until the summit of the loftiest
billow no longer intercepts the view of the horizon. After
watching for a sufficient length of time to verify the deductions they descended, and measured the height of the- point
of sight from the ship's water line; deducting half of this distance for the depression of the hollow below the level of the
surface,the remainder gives the elevation of the highest wave.
It is .fijlhnd that the waves do not usually exceed six feet in
heigh™ except when cross waves overrun each other. The
' highest rise noticed in the Mediterranean is only 16-fee'-,- and AND CAPE HORN CHRONICLE.
20 feet off Australia. The French ship 'Venus,' in a recent
circum-navigation of the globe, met with no wave higher than
23 feer. Off the Cape of Good Hope 40 feet is considered the
extreme height of the waves, or 20 feet above and below the
general level of the ocean. Although the height of waves
in a storm does not exceed 22 feet, the surf, half water and
half spray, rises at times above the head of the Eddystone
Lighthouse, which is 90 feet high, hooding the lantern in a
watery shroud and sometimes extinguishing the lights. At
the Bell-Rock Lighthouse the surf in a storm mounts to the
lights, which are 100 feet above the ordinary level of the sea.
At such time the column is felt to tremble when struck by
the hugh mass of the rolling waters. What a grand subject
for contemplation is this? What is more eminently calculat-
*d to draw man's attention to the power and majesty of God
than the consideration of a mighty tempest, and what can be
greater claims on man's grateful love and praise than the
wondrous deliverance He has so often wrought from its fury.
Naturalist.
ftarat att<t Jfttlttarg Jntqttijoup.
During the past week.
Latitude.               Longitude. Miles Run.
. W.S.W. 60 m.
. W.US. 124 m.
. &S.W.70m.
. N. 2 m.
, N.W.}£W. 15 m.
. S.E.bE^B. 23 m.
                  N.W.^W. 33 m.
To-day at noon Port William Lighthouse bore S.W.^W. 85 miles.
All old sayings have something good about them, something that ought
not only to be remembered but also, if circumstances permit, to be acted
on. One of the very oldest, for it has probably been repeated in one shape
or another not less than eighteen hundred years, is that('Christmas comes
hut once a year and that when it comes it brings good cheer." The cheer
with the greater part of us will not be such to-day or to-night as we could
desire, but we hope to be pardoned for bringing forward for consideration
the question of an additional glass of grog. We know that every arrangement for our comfort is in good hands, and we hope that in the little matter now hinted at we shall not be disappointed.
showed him a glimpse of better things above. Did we not all feel glad to
follow him step by step as he worked bis way from one grade to another,by
good conduct and constant bravery in action, to a high rank in bis profession? Was it not a pleasure to think of that good officer who made the poor
soldier his friend and pulled him up, in sheer love and kindness, on tho
ladder of life? it was a pleasure too we connot help thinking to leave that
good officer dying, as a brave man loves to die, on the field of battle and
with the shouts of victory echoing in his ears, and lastly it was no small
pleasure to leave "Master Doubledick" himself living as a brave man loves
to live, doing his duty always, his services acknowledged and advancement
given him as he deserved, with that priceless treasure, the chosen wife of
his bosom beside him.
Bee, 19th     .
.    49°51'S.     .
.     61085'W.
"   20th     .
.   Ecpcys.    .
.     54° WW.
'"    21st     .
.    51°10'S.      .
.     55°35'W.
" 22nd     .
.    61°08'S.      .
.     65°35'W.
-"   23rd     .
.    5<P5S'8.     .
.     55°53'w".
-'   24th     .
.    61° OS'S.      .
.'  65°20'W.
''   25th     .
.    40°46'S.     .
.     55°5S'W.
petes of the Mul.
The weather during the early part of the week was windy; wet, cold and
dismal, .is the nose, throat and pocket-handkerchiefs of almost every one
of us can bear witness, but on Friday the wind had lulled and the sun resumed a little of its warmth, comforting once more our backs and bosoms;
and the poor old year 1858, (the bright and cheerful months of his youth,
manhood and old age worn through) as if conscious that the last scene is
approaching, seems preparing to depart in peace. How fondly we trusted
ere this to have been at anchor snug and sheltered in Port William harbor,
aud to have had the satisfaction on this Christmas day to have walked round
the mess tables laden with good fresh fat beef, plenty of vegetables and
other things to correspond! Few sights we could think of at the present
time could gladden us so much as this. In so small a community every
trifle acquires importance, and we feel bound therefore to record the decease
of the two little Kids, who in the storm of Wednesday morning, with the
wind singing a dismal dirge around them, gave up the ghost at the feet of
our reverend pastor and master. Several Albatrosses have been captured
and paraded round the decks like the spoils of war at a Roman triumph.
The victor in this case, at whose chariot wheels the prisoners were borne,
being Serjeant Lindsay. Neither conqueror nor conquered could have shown
a prouder or more defiant eye than did these haughty birds, with their bills
strapped down in the Quarter Master Serjeant's hand. They seem so friendly to us, following us with their glossy wings waving in the wind like the
ensign of a foreign vessel saluting us on our onward path, that, although
their capture and their measurement from wing to wing is something to talk
of hereafter, we confess to have felt a pleasure at seeing one of them sent
back again in freedom to his native element. Some one on this occasion we
are told hazarded an inquiry as to whether the bird would be ready to take
the hook again if it came in his way. The most facetious of Hospital orderlies, with his usual promptitude and acuteness,replied that there was not
much doubt about that, as he had already hooked it.
The usual theatrical performance of Wednesday evening was unavoidably
postponed .owing, we regret to state, to the indisposition of some of the performers, but,to prevent disappointment being felt. Capt. Luard kindly came
forward and read to us the most appropriate and beautiful tale (by Dickens)
of the "Poor Traveller." Do we not owe Capt. Luard our hearty thanks
for the gratification he afforded us? The story commences with the descrp-
tion of a heart-broken but high sonled man, who, having quarrelled with
his sweetheart and believing that the gates of the Paradise of her love were
for ever closed against him, in a fit of despair became a soldier. The estimation in which soldiers were held in those days was very different from
that in which they are held now, when a soldier who does his dvjfe and holds
fast to a good reputation is respected and honored from one erilV>f Britain
to another. This poor soldier however, going fast to destructron. met in
hit downward path a guardian angel, who stopped and checked him and
To the Editor.
Dear Mb, Editor,—As the taste for dressing skins has, during the past
week, not alone been confined to those of Albatrosses, but even been extended to those of the twin progeny of "Mrs. Nanny G.," I trust that the
few hints I offered on this subject in your last number have created sonic
interest. I do not hesitate in forwarding the enclosed according to my proposal, which contains a few instructions for the easy preparation of parchment, catgut, £c.
The same sort of substance as that which is called parchment when made
from sheep or goat-skins, and vellum when from calves, kids or dead-born
lambs, can be made also from any other skin. The raw hide is buried for
one or two days, till the hair comes easily off, then it is taken out and well
scraped. Next a skewer is run in and out along each of its four sides, and.
strings being made fast to these skewers, the skin is very tightly stretched
out; as it lies on the stretch it is carefully scraped over, squeezing out the
water; and, lastly, the skin is ground with rough stones, as pumicestone,
sandstone, &c. It is now allowed to dry, the skewers being tightened out
from time to time. If used for writing the above will be found rather
greasy, but ox-gall will probably remedy this. In the regular preparation
of parchment, before taking off the hairs, the skin is soaked for a short time
in a lime pit to take out the grease.
5. To make catgut. Steep the intestines of any animal in water for a day,
then peel off the outer membrane, which will come off in long strips?these
should be twisted up.between the hands and hung out to dry; they form
excellent sewing thread for skins, &c. The next step is to tuin the gut inside out, scrape off the whole of its inner soft parts, what remains is a fine
transparent tube, which being twisted up tightly and stretched to dry, forms
catgut.
6. By boiling, or exposing to heat in hot sand, horn is made quite soft;
it can be moulded in what shape you will, and when cold it will keep it.
Not only this,, but it can be welded by heating and pressing two edges together, which however must be clean and quite free from grease; even the
touch of the hand taints them. Sheets of horn are awell known substitute
for glass. Ox-horn is left to soak for a fortnight in a pond, then well-
washed to separate the pith, and boiled again for half an hour. After this
it is sawn lengthwise and boiled continually until it is ready to split into
sheets; this is done with a chisel. The sheets are again boiled, scraped of
an uniform thickness and set in shape to dry.
Thus far have I got, when the quantity that I have written tells me that
such is sufficient for the limited space in your valuable columns. I only
hope that 12 months hence some few of your readers may have profited from
these hints, and from the application of them have placed to the good accounts of their wardrobes skins in sufficient number to keep them warmer,
perhaps I should say to make them look warmer than at the present time.
I wish you and them all as merry a Christmas as is consistent with our present desolate position, and look forward to our spending the one in the
"happy new year" before us in a more congenial clime. I have only to request that you will not be astonished if on some future occasion on another
theme breaks out your obedient servant, Peter Simple.
A YANKEE DESCRIPTION OF THE "IRON HORSE."
When we got to the depot I went round to get a look at the iron boss.
Thunderation ! it warn't no more like a hoss than ameetin'-house. If 1
was goin' to describe the animule I'd say it looked like—well, it looked like
—darned if I know what it looked like, unless it was a he-devil, snortin1
smoke all round, and pan tin1, and beavin', and swellin*, and chawin* up
red coals like they was good, A fellow stood in a house-like feedin* him all
the time; but the more he got the more he wanted, and the more he snorted. After a spell the fellow catched him by the tail, and great Jericho! he
set up a yell that split up the ground for more'n a mile and a half, and the
next minit I felt my legs a waggin' and found myself at t'other end of the
string of vehicles. I wasn't skeered, but 1 had three chills and a stroke of
the palsy in less than five minits, and my face had a curious brownish-yel-
ler-green -bluish color in it, which was perfectly unaccountable. "Well,"
says I, "comment is supper-FLuoos," and I took a seat in the nearest wag-
in * or car, as they called it—a consarned long steam-boat lookin* thing,.
with a string of pews down each side big enough to hold about a man and a
half. Just as I Bet down the hoss hollered twice and started off like a streak,
pitcbin* me head first at the stomach of a big Irish-woman, and she gave a
tremendous grunt, and then catched me by the head and crammed me under
tho seat; the cars was ajumpin' and a tearin' along at nigh on to forty thousand miles an hour, and everybody was bobbin'up and down like a null-saw.
and every wretch on 'em had his mouth wide open and looked like they
was laffin', but I could not hear nothin', the cars kept up such a racket.
Bimeby they stopped all at once, and such another laff busted out o' them
passengers as I never hearn before. Laffin' at me toe, that'b what made
me mad, and I was mad as thunder too. I ris up, and shakin* my fist at
'em, says I, *' Ladies and gentlemen, look a here r I'm a peaceable stranger—— and away the darn train went like small-pox was in town, jerkin1
me down in a seat with a whack like I'd been thrown from the moon, and
the'r cussed mouths flapped open, and the fellows went to bobbin' up and
down again. I put on an air of magnimous contempt like, and took no
more notice of 'em, and very naturally went to bobbin* up and down myself.
J THE EMIGRANT SOLDIERS' GAZETTE.
hnp ami $)otfrg.
A CHRISTMAS CAROL.
Of all the days throughout the year for being blithe and gay,
There's none so great a festival as rare old Christmas day.
Of all the placos in the world where folks can happy be,
There's none to Englishmen like home for mirth and jollity.
There, spite the cold, the frost, the snow, that climate doth afford,
All keep up harmony and love around the festive board,
Good fellowship here reigns supreme, good cheer, old England's boast,
And absent friends the constant theme, the earnest heartfelt toast.
While all then think on their dear friends in our own native land.
Let all give thanks to Providence, who, with Almighty hand,
Hath guided us, from danger free, across the stormy sea,
Who gave his Son, that he might us from Satan's thraldom free-
As Britons, friends, and fellow men, to-day let's all combine
To keep right well and merily the good old Christmas time,.
Drown all thought of discomfort, nor discontented be,
Remember we're in duty's path though tossed upon the sea;.
And though we're not at Falkland Isles, no doubt 'tis for the best,
Put trust and confidence in God, to Him our prayers address,
To Him let's look for guardianship throughout our future path,
Protection seek from angry winds and fjxey tempest's wrath.
Meanwhile let's spend our Christmas just as they do.at home,
Let's have our dance, though wildly about the decks we roam,
Let's drink to absent friends, and still we've one more word to say,
May all enjoy both this; and many another Christmas day.
MATILDA'S CHRISTMAS BOX.
Well you've sent me a '.'pill" and a '-'mustard plaster,"
You talk of beating me, of being my master;
The plaster was made of pea-soup I should think,
If 'twas on for month, puss, I should'nt blink.
Or did you, miss, prig.it from Neptunes own trunk?
I should think that you did, by the way that it stunk;.
Now this too, I suppose, you wjll call ' 'ungenteel, "
Such flimsy excuses I tramp under heel;
Cannot you fight me fairly without quoting gentility,
And is your breed to make up for such want of ability?
I have yet, sir, to learn that you're aristocratic,
But a week or two since your'brecd was aquatic,
For a shark you have call'd yourself, if right I remember,.
And you did make a fuss on the 13th November.
Don't imagine you conquer because I turn red,
'Twas because, miss, you dared e'en to call me ill-bred.
But, poor girl, I suppose you must make up a rhyme,
Now don't talk of breed I'd advise you next time.
Now, Matilda, you know I'm not going to be beat,
And though my Christmas dinner has been no great treat,
I've got strength enough left to lick you, you know,
In spite of your motto that ' 'while living you'll crow."
There's a word in your last rhyme which I think I must mention,
It's an awful ' 'jaw breaker" that rhymes to intention,
John Walker ne'er penned such a word I'll be bound,
As i 'propention"—nor will it in Johnson be found.
Take a poor man's advice, no more paper spoil,
'Bout the long face I pull when I'm taking your oil,.
For your ow,n is as long as a pump in the morn,
If your shoe fits so tight as to pinch your pet corn.
"Why your chin meets your knee if the wind's blowing keen,
And on your long faco longer wrinkles are seen;
Wrinkles like ropes, and so very uncouth
That it's quite hard to say, miss, which wrinkle's your mouth.
I deny that by rhyme writing I am ' 'conceited,"
Must I warn you again, still again repeat it,
That what you mistake for a "bumble bee,"
May turn out a wasp, miss, and sting you some day.
Now no more of "frogs," "bulls," "sharks" or cocks,
Who should never crow except in flocks,
Don't dare me, miss, to harder knocks
Than warming your lug with o \' Christmas box .''
THE LOAN OF A KNOCKER.
An Irishman travelling one cold night came very late to the village where
he-intended to pit up. The proprietor of the only public house was snug
in his bed, and Paddy was at a loss how to get him out of it. A thought
came into his head; on the other side of the narrow street Paddy could see
a large brass knocker on a door, above which was suspended a small lamp.
So over he went and hammered away with all his might. The village doctor (for it was his house) soon appeared in his shirt ax the window and demanded who was ill? 'Sure it's not yourself jewel or ye would not be after
turning out of yer bed at this unseasonable hour of the day!' 'Who is it I
aw V says the doctor. 'Is it yourself then?' 'JDivil a bit! sure it's myself
that was never better or a day older in all my life than at the present, barring the want of a noggin of whiskey & a warm bed.' 'Then what do you mean
by,knocking at my door loud enough to waken the dead in their graves?'
'Jfcad luck to ye's'says Paddy, many's the one ye's sent there. So here goes
to waken 'em,' after which he commenced knocking again. '-What the devil
f|o you knock at my door for?' 'Och! go to bed honey it's not yourself at all
at all I want, I mairly took the loan of yer knocker to waken the landlord
over the way,* and who by this time was poking his head out of his bedroom
ltgadpw to see what the.infernal row was that was going on in the street.
Muffins.—-In a new but rapidly increasing settlement in Canada West, a
few years ago, the art of courtship was carried on among young people with
great vigor, as generally happens to be the case in most places where men
and women congregate together, but there was this peculiarity about th»!
place alluded to, that, when a young gentleman attached himself to a yonnj*
lady and became to all, intents and purposes her devoted slave, attending
her to sleighing parties, dancing parties, and all other parties, the young lady
received the title of his '.'muffin, "and was known as such in polite society,.
and aB there were several young officers stationed there of the Artillery and
Line it maybe readily supposed that few of them were in want of "muffins.'*"
One however who was rather a stupid, capering fellow, and who had feeem
consequently turned into ridicule by the young ladies, was boasting one-
day at mess of a nice * 'muffin" he had got hold of, ' 'such a splendid muffin!" there was nothing he insisted in the neighborhood fit to be compared
with her. A friend sitting, by while the conversation was going on told him
he suspected that if he had a muffin at all it must be a rag-a-muffin.
The facetious Watty Morrison, as he was commonly called, was entreating the Commanding Officer of a regiment at Fort George to pardon a poor
fellow sent to the halberts. The Officer granted his petition on condition
that Mr. Morrison should accord with the first favor he asked. The favor
was to perform the ceremony of Baptism on a young puppy. At the christening Mr. Morrison desired the Major to hold the dog. * 'As I am a minister of the Kirk of Scotland," said Mr.Morrison,"I must proceed accordingly." The Major said he asked no more. "Well then Major I begin with
the usual question, you acknowledge yourself the father of thfe puppy?"
The Major understood the joke and threw away the animal. Thus did Mr.
Morrison turn and laugh at the ensnarer who intended to decide a sacred
ordinance.
When the body of the illustrious hero of Trafalgar was put into a cask of
spirits to be transported to o\d England, the bung accidently fell out^ and
one of his Lordship's fingers made its appearance at the opening. A seaman, who had served some years in the Admiral's ship, seized the hand,.
and giving it a cordial gripe, at the same time wiping away a teaarthat glistened on his weather-beaten cheek, exclaimed, "Hang me old boy, if yoa
are not in better spirits than any of us.""
A reverend gentleman, while walking along the canal near Rochester,,
came across a boatman who was swearing furiously. Marching up, he confronted him and rather abruptly said: "Do you know where you-'re going?''*
The unsuspecting man innocently replied that he was going up the canal in-
bis boat. "No sir, you are not," continuedthe reverend gentleman r "you.
are going to hell faster than the canal-boat can carry you." The boatman
looked at him in astonishment for a moment and then returned the question, "Do you know where you are going?" **I expect to go to-heaven."*
' 'No, sir, you are going right into the canal,." and suiting the action to the
words, he took the reverend gentleman in his arms and tossed bfm into the
water, where he would have drowned had not the boatman relented and
fished him out.
The great French romance writer, Alexander Dumas, is said to be of negro extraction, of which it is also understood he does not affect to make any
secret or to be in any way ashamed. A French gentleman of the old nobility, but remarkable for nothing except frivolity, was questioning him one
evening at a large party on the subject of his descent, inquiring what particular shade of color his father, grandfather and great grandfather had
been. All this Dumas replied to with great and good humor, till his tormentor thinking at last to puzzle him asked him again what his great great
grandfather was. "A monkey ^ sir," said Dumas getting exasperated, "a
monkey; my family began, sir, where yours has ended."
dtonumirams.
XXII.   What is the moral difference between cake and wine?
XxIII. Why do ducks take their heads out of water?
XXIV. Why is hot bread like a charysalia?
Answer to XIX. For divers reasons.
H        XX.   Because he does not marry a miss.
''        XXI. Because he first lies on one side and then on tho other.
RTaaggSBgsaagJxanRjMMarariUEugjcaTira
"Theatre Royal, | Thames City."
THE MANAGER of tho above Theatre, having received a pressing invitation to go to Bath, &c., begs to announce to the nobility, gentry, arid
public of this city, that his season, is closed here for a short period. When
he returns he hopes to be able to astonish his friends with a multiplicity of
new dresses, scenes and properties, such as have never been seen on any
stage in this part of the world. The play to be presented on the opening
of next season will be the celebrated Comedy, in 5 acts, by Oliver Goldsmith, entitled, "She Stoops to Cohquee."
The publication of the Emigrant Solmees' Gazette akd Cape Horjt
Chronich| waa commenced at 2 p.m., on the 23rd, and was completed at
4p. m. IBs.day. Published at the Editor's Office, Starboard Front Cabia.
"Tham»City." 8p%S the :m:rvEiG-:rR.AJxrT
&• iC'V x x K-+
AND   CAPE   HORN CHRONICLE.
N.o 9.]
"THAMES CITY," SATURDAY,   JANUARY 15th, 1859.
[Price 3d.
Wx\ (Bmigratti $ottkvs' ferity.
"THAMES CITY," JANUARY 15th, 1859.
Lat. 55.00 S.     Long. 63.00 W.     Full Moos, p§!
18th at 11h. 48m. p. m.
The anchor is again weighed, and we are now leaving the Falkland Islands behind us, and pursuing our
course round Cape Horn for the next port our Captain
may deem it desirable to put into for water, lime-juice
and other provisions, before getting to our final destination. We may, however, all look forward to another
two or three months in the ''Thames City." Some
will no doubt consider it a bore, and either wish themselves back in England or that the remaining distance
may be accomplished in less time than it takes to read
this; others will grumble about being so long on salt
provisions, fancy they will never get to their destination, and be discontented with almost every one and
everything; and ag'ain others will take it as a matter
of course; having made up their minds to take things
as they come, they will do their duty as it ought to
be done, be always cheerful and contented, and ready
to give a helping hand where required; these last we
wish to encourage, and with one and all we trust that
should there be any slight difference or ill-feeling now
existing, which may have arisen either in the earlier
part of our voyage or on shore at the Falkland Islands, it may now be forgotten, and that all will do
their best to aid and assist in making the rest of the
voyage peaceable and pleasant, so that eacli person
may hereafter have the satisfaction of having in some
degree administered to the general comfort and cheerfulness of all.
"Wsare oncemore restored to the rolling and pitching,smoking
and spitting, make sail and shorten sail, Trash decks and scrape
tables, lonely and monotonous life so peculiar to a sea voyage,
and though there are many with whom this species of existence is preferable to the dirty, confused and tantalizing life
on board a ship in harbor, there are many doubtless on the
other hand to whom the sight of a pebble, the smell of a bit
of sea-weed, a cosy fire or a comfortable tea have always, and
lately more than ever, afforded an amount of pleasure so great
as to cause them to leave even so desolate a spot as East Falkland Island with many a grudge, and with the words "Dean's
Store," "Rutter," "Cyprian's," and"Rudd" ringing constantly in their ears. We say "desolate," for, if a barren, and peaty
soil, deep bogs, a rugged, mountainous and rocky country,
and the total absence of trees and vegetation entitle any place
in the world to such an epithet, Bast Falkland most certainly
deserves it. Everything too seemed quaint and old fashioned,
from the pilot, on whose face time and exposure had furrowed
wrinkles deeper even than those assigned to a charming member of our own little community, and who, with one eye gone,
seemed to be making an effort to see round Cape Horn with
the other,—and the American Consul, whose appearance full}7
justified the opinion that he was a superior kind of bum-boat
man, and elicited an enquiry from a hungry friend of ours as
to the number of herrings he had brought off in his boat.—
down to the king-penguins on the Governor's lawn, who, with
their bright golden breasts and awkward fins,stood looking at
one another as if anxious to commence a conversation but
unable to find any interesting topic in such an out of the way
spot. Still it is an English Colony, and, spite of natural defects, we feel sure that there are many of us who, bleak and
isolated as it is, derived more pleasure from a trip on shore
there, where all saw English faces, English customs and English dress, and where many received such hospitality as is
known only in those places inhabited by English people, than
would have been the case had we put in at any foreign port
on the coast of South America. Anyway our protracted stay-
in Stanley Harbour has been a pleasant break in this tedious
voyage. It has enabled all who required them to lay in a
stock of clothing and other necessaries, and, although we were
disappointed in our expectations of soft tommy and potatoes,
a fortnight's fresh meat and vegetables, and a change of scene
have doubtless contributed in a great degree to cheer us both
bodily and mentally, and to fortify us for the severe weather
we may expect to encounter for the next week or two, and we
feel sure that it will give us all pleasure to refer hereafter to
onr visit to lonely East Falkland and the kindness and hospitality of its inhabitants. Nothing tends so much to a cheerful
and contented frame of mind as a resolution always to look
on the bright side of affairs, and although we cannot fairly
presume that more than half our voyage is over, everything is
doubtless ordered for the best. If each one makes and keeps'
the above resolution, ana does his best to be happy himself
and make those around him happy, it will tend to lighten the
monotony of the rest of the voyage, and to promote harmony
and good fellowship among a body of men and women who
have yet many years to spend together, in a country where we
shall be thrown upon our own resources, and where the comfort of each and all will depend upon themselves.
i\ THE EMIGRANT SOLDIERS' GAZETTE,
NATURAL HISTORY OF THE YOYAGE.
Nothing of any importance connected with Natural History-
having presented itself to our notice since our last publication
until our arrival at the Falkland Islands, I propose giving a
brief sketch of the Natural History of these Islands, founded
chiefly on the observations of Mr. Darwin, Captain Fitzroy, R.
N., and other naturalists.   There is very little to remark on
the geology of these islands.    Their geological structure is
very simple, the lower country consisting of clayslate and
sandstone, which contain fossils very closely related to, but
not identical with those found in the Silurian formations of
Europe; the hills are formed of white granular quartz rock.
In many parts of East Falkland the bottoms of the valleys are
covered in an extraordinary manner by myriads of great,loose,
angular fragments of the quartz rock, forming what have been
called streams of stones.    The blocks are not water-worn,
their angles being only a little blunted; they vary in size from
one or two feet in diameter to ten or even more than twenty
times as much.   Their origin is attributed to streams of white
lava having flowed from many parts of the mountains into
the lower country, and that, when solidified, they had been
rent by some enormous convulsion into myriads of fragments.
The expression "streams of stones," which immediately occurs
to every one, conveys the same idea.    Wild horses and wild
oxen are met with frequently in East and West Falkland, and
these together with rabbits, which have been introduced and
abound over large parts of the islands, and a large wolf-like
fox, which is a peculiar species and confined to these islands,
constitute the only quadrupeds native to the Falklands.    Of
birds there are very few varieties.   There is a species of Carrion Vulture very common in these islands and more frequently seen in winter than in summer. There are al30 some hawks,
owls, a very pretty variety of starling, distinguished ty its
rich, crimson red breast, and a few small land birds.    The
waterfowl are particularly numerous.   Two kinds of geese
frequent the Falklands.    The upland species is common, in
pairs and in small flocks, throughout the islands.    They do
hot migrate, but build on the small outlying islets.   They live
entirely on vegetable matter.    The other kind, the rock-goose,
so called from living exclusively on the sea beach, is very
common.    The large species of Albatross is sometimes, but
not often seen, but a smaller species known by the name of
molly-mawk abounds extensively in the surrounding islets ;
their eggs constitute a common article of food and are very
palatable.    In these islands a great logger-headed duck or
goose, which sometimes weighs twenty-two pounds, is very
abundant.    These birds weie in former days called,from their
extraordinary manner of paddling and splashing upon the
water, race horses; but now they are named much more appropriately steamers.    Their wings are too small and weak to
allow of flight, but by their aid, partly swimming and partly
flapping the surface of the water, they move very quickly.
The steamer is able to dive only to a very short distance.    It
feeds entirely on-shell-fish from the kelp and tidal rocks, and
for the purpose of breaking them the beak and head are surprisingly strong and heavy.    They are very abundant about
Stanley Harbour and are exceedingly tame and fearless.    But
the most curious birds which inhabit these islands, and which
,seem to be the link connecting the feathered with the finny
race, are the Penguins.   Their little wings, destitute of quills
but covered with stiff scaly feathers, hang down by their sides,
perfectly incompetent to lift them from the ground, resembling
in shape the fins of a fish, or still more the flippers of a turtle.     But see the Penguin in the water:   the deficiency of
flight is abundantly compensated by the power and agility it
possesses in this element; it dashes along over the surface in
gallant style, or, diving, shoots through the water with the
rapidity of a fish, urging its course by the united action of
its finny wings and its broad webbed feet; then, coming again
to the top, leaps over any obstacle in its course, many feet at
a bound, and pursues its way.    On the sandy shores or flat
rocks of the Falkland's the Penguins of several species assemble in innumerable multitudes for the purpose of hatching
their eggs and rearing their young.   The feet are placed very-
far back on the body, so that the bird assumes an erect posture when resting or walking on land, and, from their posture,
their colors, their numbers and their orderly arrangement,
they have been compared when seen at a distance to an army
of disciplined soldiers. Their habitations where they assemble for the purpose of hatching their eggs and rearing their
young are wonderful to behold. We can scarcely form an adequate idea of one of the camps or towns, as they have been
appropriately called. A space of ground covering three or
four acres is laid out and levelled, and then divided into squares
for the nests as accurately as if done by a surveyor; between
these compartments they march and counter-march with an
order and regularity that reminds one of soldiers on parade.
The three species are named the King Penguin, the Crested
Penguin and the Jackass Penguin, but their manners and
habits differ but little. In our next I propose concludingthe
Natural History of the Falkland Islands. Naturalist.
||aral and Jftititarjy Intelligent.
ABSTRACT OF PROGRESS.
During
the past week.
Latitude.
Longitude.
Miles Bun.
an. 12tli    .
.    52°00'S.     .
.     67°43'W.     .
"  13th    .
.    53°37'S.     .
.     57°42'W.     .
.     S. 97 m.
" Uth    .
.    53° 53'S.
.     57°19'W.     .
.     S.E.}ffi.21 m.
"  15th     .
.    55o00/S.
.     63°00/W.     .
.     W.S.W. 178 m
To-day at noon Cape Horn bore W.bS.%S. 187 miles.
The transport ship " Thames City," with the Columbia Detachment of
the Royal Engineers, anchored in Stanley harbour, East Falkland, at 9.30
P. M. on the 28th ult., and after a stay of 15 days, during which time ebe
was engaged taking in water and ballast, sailed at 7 A. M. on the 12th
inst. for British Columbia.
By our latest intelligence from England (Nov. 9th) we hear that the ship
' 'Euphrates" has been chartered by the Admiralty for the conveyance of
stores and twelve months provisions for the detachment of Royal Engineers
en route for British Columbia. She was expeccted to sail in the latter part
of November, and Sergt. Rylatt, R. E., was to sail in the same vessel in
charge of the stores and provisions, &c.
Colonel Moody,. R. E., Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works for the
Colony of British ColumUia, sailed from Liverpool in the steamer ' 'Asia"
on the 30th October. He was accompanied by Capt. W. D. Gosset, R. E.,
late Surveyor General of Ceylon, who has received the appointment of
Colonial Treasurer.
"We regret to record the death of Major General Sir William Reid, K. C.
B., late of the Royal Engineers. This officer served with distinction in
the Peninsular War, and has held the appointment of Governor in the Islands of Bermuda and Malta, from which latter place he returned about
a twelvemonth ago, after a government of 7 years. He was chairman of
the Executive Committee of the Great Exhibition of 1851, and as a scientific
man has done more to develop the intricate theory of Rotary and other
storms, and to establish rules in connection with the same for the guidance
of mariners than any of his countrymen.
Also, of Capt. W. E.. Lambert, R. E., who sailed from Southampton for
China about the 20th December, 1857, in command of the 8th Company
Royal Engineers.
ANOTHER PRODIGY AT SEA.
Of all the spots on board the "Thames City" for marvellous
and unnatural events Long-boat Square stands pre-eminent.
We have had occasion in former numbers to allude to the
birth of twelve children at one time, a heart-breaking dialogue between two individuals named respectively "Sammy"
and "Jimmy," winding up in the most tragic manner with the
death of the latter, and sundry other little incidents that have
alike excited the wonder and curiosity of all on board. But
we have now to record a prodigy, in comparison with which
all the preceeding ones sink into insignificance ; it is as follows: On Thursday morning last, in Lat. 53° 35' S. Long.
57° 45' W., a being of large stature and hairy aspect made
its first appearance in that portion of the square occupied by
the sheep. It was dressed in the clothes of a human being,
and, as an evidence of the tender solicitude and care of its
maternal relative, though what she was we cannot exactly
say, it was provided with a large supply of cracknel biscuits ;
it rejected pap with scorn, but evinced a precocious partiality
for rum, and it quite made our flesh creep to see this unnatural object pace the slippery decks with a degree of ease and
freedom that made us almost incline to believe it was one of
Neptune's own progeny. Still we can hardly believe that that
great deity would have chosen so unwholesome a spot for the
Goddess on such a trying occasion, and have finally come to AND CAPE HORN CHRONICLE.
the opinion that the being in question owes its origin either
to an unnatural effort on the part of the hay, or to a natural
effort of some one or other of the stranger sheep now located
in Long-boat Square. We never heard in the whole course
of our experience of a four-footed animal giving birth to a
bipedal progeny, but, taking into consideration the entirely
unnatural circumstances of the creatures birth, we are inclined to lean to the latter opinion, in consequence of its having
exhibited a decidedly 'sheepish physiognomy on making its
first appearance amongst us. At the same time we beg to
welcome our new friend, and to congratulate Captain Glover
and the community at large on the acquisition of a being endowed at birth with powers of walking and talking, eating
and drinking, climbing, smoking and spitting never before
possessed by any newborn babe in the natural world.
AN IRISHMAN'S LETTER TO HIS MAMMA.
We have had the good fortune to pick up on the deck of the
"Thames City" the following graphic description.from the pen
of an Irishman, of the little incidents of our stay at the Falkland Islands, &c, and have taken the liberty of publishing it.
We heartily beg the author's pardon for such unwarrantable
impudence, and, for fear of disappointing his poor old mother, shall be happy to return him his letter, if he would like
to go on shore and post it:
Dear Mother,—Here we are at the half-way house, you
may call it, on our way to the goold diggins. But faith its
little I can say for the Falkland Islands, for its as rugged an
as rocky an as blake as the ngliest hill in dear ould Conemara,
and, barrin' a little bad turf, it hasent a patch to cover its
nakedness. Port William, where we're stoppin, is a mighty
nate little place for all that, and for aU the world a twin sistsr
to Bally-cum-slatternly, barrin' there's nather whiskey still,
pigs, nor polis, except a disased ould constable, that's suffer-
in' from what they call a sinacure; I don't know what sort of
a disase it is, anyway I'm not sufferin' from it meself, for I
was never heartier in all me life. Well, as I was sayin'mother, we're half way on our long journey, and musha meself
wishes we wor at the tail ind of the other half, though to be
sure I've seen some quare sights, such as bein' out so far at
saa that we couldn't see anything at all—except sky an wath-
ar; an seein' fishes flyin' like birds, an geese flyin' about the
size of a donkey, with wings on thim as long as Tim Finner-
ty's mill sails; be the same token may bad luck come on him
and his if he doesent give ye a dacint price for the pig this
Christmas; well, an I've seen fishes as big as a house, and
spurtin' up wather like a stame ingine, an fishes they call
porpoises wid snouts on thim like pigs; talkin' of pigs mother, it 'ud go to your heart to see the poor ould sow they have
on board here, an the state she's in, an the jokes they passed
on the poor crature a while ago whin she was in the straw;
but the pig's nothin' to the hins an geese. Oh! mother, but
ye should see the geese, an thim standin' on one leg from
mornin' till night, an not a dacent feather on thim; be the
hokey they look mighty like a thing I saw wonst at a show in
Drumrig they called an ostrich, barrin' there isn't a kick in
thim. But I suppose you will he wantin' to know how Ipass-
ed the Christmas ; well I must begin' by tellin' ye that the
divil a thimbletul of whiskey crossed me lips, nor as much as
the claw of a goose; though be the same token we had a very
good dinner an as much grog as was good for us; an in the
evenin' we had what they call a ball. Ohl may I never! if
that wasn't a ball, it was exactly like dancin' on the slant of
a house-top; I'm think in' if you just had a peep at us, you'd
scarcely have thought we were in our siases. I tried me hand'
at a jig, but no sooner did I lift me leg than I put it down
agin two or three yards off, and thryin' a bit of a twurl, I was
landed in the lap of a lady that was restin' herself. Toords
the ind of the fun, we had the kissin' dance I think they call
it; we all stood round in a ring, and one of the ladies came
curtsey in' round, something like the pet horse in a circus, wid
a bolsther before her, till she'd stop and kneel down before
some one she liked, an then he'd kneel down on the bolsther
before her an then ; but I'll tell ye no more about it, except that one came up to me an pat the bolsther down, when
just as I was sayin' to meself, "divil mind ye, Pat, but yer the
lucky man afther all," she snatched up the bolsther an away
she pranced. I didn't care at any rate to have much to do
wid thim (betune me an you) for they were so mighty feard
of a row, that they wor holdin' up the tails of aach other's
coat for fear of thredmn' on thim. I've no more to say this
time, mother, except that Judy an I had some words a while
ago about some shuet, but she's behaved herself party well
since. Hopin' this'll find yerself an the pig well an thrivin',
I remain, your jutiful son,
Sap Green.
P. S.—I posted this yesterday, an as the packet sailed with
it last night, I'm thjnkin' its farther on its way home by this
time than is yer own S. G.
Itrtfra.
On the 26th ult., in Lat. 61° 07' S. Long. 56° 20' W., the wife of Sapper
Thomas Price, R. E., of a daughter.
On the 5th inst., at Stanley harbour, East Falkland, the wife of Sapper
Thomas Gilchrist, R. E., of a son and heir.
On the 18th inst., at Stanley harbour,East Falkland, the wife of Sergt.
Jonathan Morey, R. E., of a daughter.
lolti^s, &4.
02,
A Puzzling Balance Sheet.—A Scotch tradesman who had
amassed, as he believed, £4000,was surprised by his old clerk
with a balance sheet showing his fortune to be £6000. "It
canna be," said the principal, "count again." The clerk did
count again, and again declared the balance to be £6000.
The master counted himself and he also brought out a surplus
of £6000. Time after time he cast up the columns—it was
still a six and not a four that rewarded his labors. So the
old merchant, on the strength of his good fortune, modernized his house, and " put money in the purse" of the carpenter, the painter, and the upholsterer. Still however he had a
lurking doubt of the existence of the £2000, so one night he
sat down to give the columns "one count more." At the close
of his task, as though, he had been galvanized, he rushed
through the streets, in a shower of rain, to the house of his
clerk. The clerk's head, capped and drowsy, emerged from
an attic window at the sound of the knocker, to enquire the
errand of his midnight visitor. "Who's there," he mumbled, "and what do you want?" "It's me, ye d—d scoundrel," exclaimed his employer, "ye've added up the year of
our Lord among tire pounds!"
Weak Soup.—The best description of weakness we have
ever heard is contained in the wag's prayer to his wife, when
she gave him some thin chicken broth, if she would not try
to coax that chicken just to wade through the soup once more.
Kill or Cure.:—A poor man, having a sick wife, asked a
doctor if he could cure her. The doctor said he would enter
into a contract with him to kill or cure for five ptmnds. In the
course of the following week the poor woman died, and the
doctor brought his bill, " Did yon cure her ?" said the man.
" No," said the doctor. " Did yon kill her then?" said the
man, "No," said the doctor again. "Then I've nothing to
pay you, for our bargain was to kill or cure for five pourids,
and you have done neither." Rambler.
Willie's Musical. Adventure.—"Meet me by moonlight
alone," as Willie the gambler warbled to the old gent with a
gold watch and five hundred dollars. "Come, oh come with
me," sung the officer taking him to the station-house. "Welcome, welcome home," responded the turnkey on locking him
up. "Go where glory waits thee," snng the Judge as he sentenced Willie to seven years and a free passage across the Atlantic. "Wait for the waggon and we'll all take a ride,"
hummed the officer whilst attending the arrival of " Black
Maria," the prison van. "We meet to part no more," warbled the keeper, warmly grasping Willie by the handcuffs.
"Home, home, sweet home," sighed Willie as he pat on the
zebra suit. THE EMIGRANT SOLDIERS' GAZETTE.
^ongs and Saeirg.
MATILDA'S NEW YEAR'S GIFT TO "CHARLEY."
1 The construction of your ■ 'Christmas box" was so very slight
That I pulled it all to pieces in a single night,
You naughty, wicked, foolish boy
To send at this season such a rotten toy.
It cost you some exertion though my pretty dear,
So I'll repay you with a gift for the new year,
A gift so strong that you can't break it,
Here it is, now kindly take it.
2 You dolt, you dunce, to raise contention
About that simple word ' 'propensioh!"
In it's meaning there's no wonderful immensity;
"Propension" per ''Maunders'" means propensity.
There's yet another word it's quite as famous,
I'll apply it, sir, to you, and call it * 'ignoramus,'*
With ' 'Walker" and ' 'Johnson" you come too late,
Like "Mrs. Caudle" they are out of date.
3 From you, thick heap, I now demand apology,
For daring to question my * 'Etymology,"
That's a long 'un, don't be in a hurry,
If you don't know its meaning apply to * 'Murray."
Grammar Murray I mean, not Murray Sapper,
By jingo! that's putting on the clapper.
With wit (ahem!) you see my verses I entwine,
But why should I throw such precious pearls to swine.
4 Swine, ah! ah! you flinch at that,
Remember wasp, its only ' Hit for tat;"
As regards your remark about your getting red,
I never saw that color but in your head.
Your feelings, dear, I don't wish to hurt,
But the color of your race is always hid with dirt;
My own face with good humor is always glowing,
But yours with grease and sulkiness is always flowing.
5 You look I say (but never mind it)
As though you'd lost something and couldn't find it.
As to my wrinkles, sir, I'll let you see
That you won't ever take a wrinkle out of me.
Solar so good—now, if you please,
What do you mean by my chin touching my knees?
Such Balderdash—pray cut this caper,
And with such babyism don't fill the paper.
6 Do something better, stop these rigs,
But don't fall back on goats and pigs,
We want an article of ye profound and deep,
And less about the butcher killing sheep.
With pleasure on your past efforts I can't look back,
Your best attempt was your dirge on "Jack."
Yet stay, I'll give you your due—as it should be
The song was decent—the air "Bonny Dundee."
7 These are the only two for which I give you praise,
For a little while my own banner now I raise,
In that thing on ' 'Matilda," you gave me a challenge bold,
I've answered it—pretty fairly I am told.
Next came that abortion you called a ' 'whipping,"
For this trash you well deserve a dripping,
I answer'd that in a manner, sir, most able,
By illustrating a celebrated fable.
8 With my own talent I'm not dead smitten,
But that surpasses all that von have written;
Your * 'Hot Water" came then, quickly following,
It was saved only by the Captain's holloaing;
I'll say no more of this, but push on faster
To my reply called ' 'A Mustard Plaster,"
I own that this was not a prize,
Although it brought the water in yonr eyes.
9 I come at last to your late attempt poor poet,
*^'A Christmas Box"—not worth a rap, away I throw it,
Being no better nor any chance of such, I fear,
I've given you in return * 'A gift for the New Year."
The champion I am without a doubt,
But ere you say so, you'll hang your lip and pout;
My blows, sir, you have most severely felt,
I've won the fight, give me at once the belt.
A FEW LINES TO A SWEETHEART.
The following verses were sent home from the Falkland Islands by
..friend of ours, whose heart and soul are evidently in the right place.
1 Lizzy my love, to thee I write,
, — - ---3£pt less myself than thee to cheer,
To wish to thee, my heart's delight,
A bright and happy new born year.
2 And if before its close you come
With your dear voice my gloom to cheer,
So happy in oar western home,
We yet may end the coming year.
3 Twelve months since, I remember well,
The day I passed when thou wert near,
With words so sweet I dare not tell,
We pledged to each the happy year.
4 E'en now the echo of thy voice,
With those of other friends most dear,
Is plainly heard, maid of my choice,
Whisp'ring softly "a happy yeax*.'.*
5 If thou come not, may one above
In well or ill to thee appear,
Then at its end you'll say, with love,
This was indeed a happy year.
6 Not thee alone, but may we both
God's law and holy name revere;
If thus to each we plight our troth,
'Twill surely prove a happy year.
7 And let us "by submission prove,"
Should we meet aught that's dark or drear,
We feel He ' 'chasten'd out of love,"
And own it was a happy year.
8 With holy thoughts like these within
Our minds through life each other cheer,
Then at its end we shall begin
A brighter, never ending year.
(fttaradfls.
I'm a strange contradiction, I'm new and I'm old,
I'm often in tatters and oft decked with gold;
Though I never could read, yet lettered I'm found,
Though blind I enlighten, though loose I am bound;
I'm always in black and I'm always in white,
I'm grave and I'm gay, I'm heavy and light;
In form too I differ, I'm thick and I'm thin,
I've no flesh and no bones yet I'm covered with skin,
I've more points than the compass, more stops than a flute,
I sing without voice, without speaking confute;
Though destroyed to-day I do e'en last for ages,
And no monarch on earth has so many pages.
dtonumdrunts.
; King
XXV. What is it that is white, black and red all over?
XXVI. What did the executioner have for breakfast on the morning
Charles was beheaded?
XXVH. Why was Lord St. Vincent equal to any two able seamen?
Answer to XXII. Cake is sometimes 'tipsy,' but wine is always 'drunk.'
*'        XXIII. For sun-dry reasons.
f-'        XXIV. Because that's the 'grub' that makes the 'butter-fly. *
Utarft^t Intelligent
Since our last intelligence the markets have undergone a*great change.
FRFSH MEAT of excellent quality has been procured.
VEGETABLES have been scarce and, with the exception of Cabbage, were
not to be had for money.
FLOUR—The samples of Stanley Flour were indifferent and at a high figure,
yet, notwithstanding, good sales were effected.
CHEESE was reasonable, but the quality very poor.
PICKLES, CURRIES, PRESERVES, &c, were in prime order, but at a
high price; nevertheless there were many buyers.
BEER, SPIRITS, WINES, &c, were in great demand, the former fetching a high price.
STOCK EXCHANGE.—Little business has been done of late. Attempts
were made to exchange * * Sammy " and a Dutch sheep of the name of
* 'Van-Buster" for two fat Falkland sheep, but were unsuccessful. On
the proposal being made to a dealer, he immediately ejaculated, "D'ye
see any green?" whereupon Samuel, who was standing by, and who by
the bye has been supplied with his heart's desire, viz : a pair of green
spectacles, replied pathetically, that "he saw nothing else, but couldn't
get a bite."
Theatre B-oyal, " Thames City."
rjpHE MANAGER,having returned from his tour in the Provinces,intends
-*• re-opening the above Theatre on a scale of unparalleled splendour. He
has much pleasure in announcing the re-engagement of those distinguished
histrionic artists who had the honor of appearing last season. The scene
department, under the direction of that eminent artist C. White, R. E.,
R. A., will surpass anything hitherto represented in this or any other
country. The dresses are quite new and of a most costly and elegant description, whilst the minor stage arrangements are calculated to produce
an effect which cannot fail to be appreciated by all who witness them.
On Wednesday next, the 19th inst., will be produced that popular Comedy, in five Acts, by Oliver Goldsmith, entitled,
SDclo &toojo& to OorLquerl
In which the whole strength of the Company will have the honor of appearing.   For further particulars see daily bills.
JKep" Doors open at 6 o'clock,'performance to commence at 6.30 precisely.
Reserved seats for Ladies only.
The publication of the Emigrant Soldiers' Gazette and Cape Horn
Chronicle was commenced at noon on Thursday, and was completed at
4p. m. this day. Published at the Editor's Office, Starboard Front Cabin,
" Thames City." TISIIEl   lEJMIGKFL-A^T-I"
MM
ImuMUt
AND  CAPE  HORN CHRONICLE.
No. 10.]
'THAMES CITY," SATURDAY,   JANUARY 22nd, 1859.
[Peice 3d.
®h4 Emigrant Stolita' feetfy
"THAMES CITY," JANUARY 22nd, 1859.
Lat. 59.53 S.   Long. 72.26 W.   Mood's Last Quarter, Jan. 26th at 8h. 45m. p. m.
It gave us great pleasure to refer in our Christmas
number to the successful birth and early career of the
"Emigrant Soldiers' Gazette and Cape Horn Chronicle," and to have an opportunity cf thauking those
kind friends who have been the means of contributing to its welfare and prosperity. But though its success has been unequivocal, the B. S. G. and C. H. C.
is not what we could wish it to be. It has certainly,
and we are happy to say so, been the humble means
of affording to most of us at least one hour's amusement in the week, but, as managers of so great a publication, we cannot rest satisfied with this. We wish
the E. S. G. and C. H. C, to be like the comet of
1858. No fox's brush was ever hunted after, chased
and chevied as was the tail of that great heavenly
phenomenon. No sooner did he appear in public than
shouts were heard of " Here he is again." People
collected in multitudes wherever a glimpse of him was
to be had, and those who were not blessed with any
sort of telescope or spectacles were nightly in the
habit of straining their nude optics till, to use an Irish
expression, they could "hardly see for staring." Such
is the sort of treatment we would like to see the E.
S. G. & (J. H. C. exposed to. We would have it
watched, and hunted, and pointed at, and talked about,
to an extent that should even make it blush. We
do not mean to say that it is going down in the world
—far from it—it is still, as it always has done, maintaining an honorable position, but we are not going
to stop here or be satisfied with mere excellence. We
wish it to shine forth brightest and most conspicuous
in the literary heavens, to frisk its tail about in defiance of all the lesser constellations, and to excel in
grandeur and importance every other periodical in the
world, and, as a means to this end, we beg to appeal to
the hearts and talents of the 31 ladies and 120 gentlemen on board the "Thames City." Talking of the
ladies, it would perhaps be as well to remind some of
them of their mission upon earth.   'As the vine, which
has long twisted its graceful foliage about the oak and
been nurtured by it in sunshine, will, when the hardy
plant is riven by the thunderbolt, cling round it with
its earessing tendrils and bind up its shattered boughs,
so it is beautifully ordered that woman, who is the
dependent and ornament of man in his happier hours,
should be his stay and solace when smitten with sudden calamity, winding herself into the rugged recesses
of his nature, tenderly supporting the drooping head
and binding up the broken heart." Now though the
E. S. G. & C. H. 0. cannot be said to be smitten with
any sudden calamity, its head droops and it becomes
nigh broken-hearted when it reflects on the melancholy
fact that, ever since its birth, it has received no sort of
attention or kindness from any of the ladies on board.
It cannot be expected to exist without having its little jokes and flirtations with the ladies any more than
any other young man can, and we take this opportunity of appealing in its behalf to their tender hearts for
a little love and encouragement Married though
they are, there is not the least doubt that they all cf
them possess, if not in unexplored regions of their
trunks, at least in the fathomless recesses of their
memories, songs, valentines, fragments of pcetry, and
even love-letters, tokens of ardent love and young affection, which would go far to support the drooping
head and bind up the broken heart of the E. S. G. &
C. H. C, They may say that they have lost them or
thrown them away, or torn them up, or burnt them,
but, with all due deference, we must beg to refute their
assertions; whatever the gentlemen may do, ladies
are not guilty of such weaknesses as these, and we
trust to their generous and affectionate natures to aid,
by the reproduction of some of these hidden treasures, in raising our weekly journal to the highest and
brightest*position in the literary heavens. As to the
gentlemen we must plainly say that the support we
have received from them has not been such as we have
a right to expect from 120 minds of various degrees
of literary talent. All letters for England are now
written and posted, and we have resumed our sea life.
The newspaper is a common fund of amusement, and
as such all should, and we trust will, do their best to
support it. The manager of the theatricals intends
re-opening his house on a scale of unparalleled splendour, and we cannot see any just cause or impedi-
ji THE EMIGRANT SOLDIERS' GAZETTE,
ment why the E. S. G. & C. H. C. should not likewise
rise and shine, and to this end we appeal to all interested in our behalf to give us their warmest support.
In addition to stocks of already acquired information and anecdotes, there are dozens of little incidents
daily occurring which might form the subjects either
for leading articles, jokes, songs, or poetry, and we
can only say that, should any who are inclined that
way lack the means, the opportunity or the place for
writing, we shall be happy to afford them every assistance in our power.
 ♦ ♦ »	
One great excellence in the writings of Dickens is this,
that, besides the delight we experience in contemplating the
creations of his genius and in acknowledging the truthfulness
and humour with which his numberless characters abound,
we feel, in perusing every separate story, a sort of certainty
of the unbounded goodness and benevolence of himself as a
man. And that these are really his great characteristics is,
we believe, amply borne out by all the actions of his life.
Not content with joining in the ordinary courses of charity,
as he has at all times been ready most liberally to do, he some
time since, for the purpose of raising a fund of money to
make easy the rest of the lives of the wife and children of a
deceased author, proposed to read aloud in public one of his
own short tales—the "Christmas Carol." All the world within
reach seemed to flock to hear him, and crowds went murmuring away for want of space to admit them. So night after
night, with untiring willingness, and regardless of his own
convenience, the readings were repeated until at last a very
considerable amount was accumulated for the object he had
in view. We had the good fortune to hear him read the
"Carol" on one of these occasions, and it was a scene not
readily to be forgotten. Eagerness and delight were on every
countenance, and the applause, as often as he stopped to take
breath, was tumultuous. He had told us at the starting to lay
ceremony aside and, if we felt pleased at any time, to show it
freely. The "Christmas Carol" is a tale that will bear many
a reading, and many a hearing also, without a chance of tiring the patience of any one, and it was with infinite gratification that we heard it once more read aloud on the troop
deck of the "Thames City." This gratification we doubt not
was shared by all present. The story and the language in
which it is told are so perfect in themselves that it is impossible to give any portions with effect, or to point out any
beautiful passages with which you are not already acquainted.
Still a few words on the general tendency of the tale may
perhaps, even, now not be without some slight interest. The
chief figure in the matchless picture that has been placed before us is that of an old merchant whose heart and soul have
become thickly crusted over with the love of wealth, who
has steeled himself against all kindly affections, and shut out
from his bosom every remembrance of home; but it is an old
saying that "when the night is darkest daylight is near," (an
adage that may perhaps give some little consolation to ourselves after beating so long about in the neighborhood of
Cape Horn),so,on a Christmas eve, after being more than usually caustic to his nephew, bitter to his poor clerk, and stern
and sullen to all the world, he betook himself to bed, where
the goodness of God in a dream that overshadowed him
touched his heart, as the rod of Moses touched wte rock, and
streams of living water flowed freely forth. With a spirit of
good beside him "he saw once more a little sister who had loved him as a child,—a trusting hearted girl whom, a few years
later,he had promised to marry, but who felt that bis love was
fast fading and that her only hope of security was to release
him from his engagement,—he saw her afterwards with a husband at ber side and laughing children looking up into her
face, and compared her state of happiness with his own desolation. Again and again the same comparison was forced
upon him, while witnessing the Christmas party at his
nephew's, and Bob Cratchet's family assembled around their
Christmas dinner of sage and onions, goose and plum-pudding.   He saw also what his own death-'bed scene would be
if things remained unchanged. He awakes in an agony and
rejoices to find that it is only the morning of Christmas day;
then,with all his warnings yet echoing in bis ears, but witb a
breast unburdened, for resolve is strong within him, he begins
a new lite. All this and much more, with wonderful minuteness and detail, with streaks of light falling here and there
like burnished gold, is painted on the small-sized canvas of
a Christmas Story Book, painted in such glowing colors, and
with touches so true to life that we feel as if we were ourselves carried back on the stream of time and becoming again
each as a little child—reckoning up from our earliest years our
short comings and resolving, let us hope, that Christmas eves
hereafter shall be seasons of cheerfulness and enjoyment, and
Christmas days, as far as we are able, sacred to love and
charity.
NATURAL HISTORY OF THE VOYAGE.
We continue our notes on the Natural History of the Falkland Islands by making a few observations on the habits of
the Penguin, of which, as was before stated, there are three
principal varieties in the Falklands, viz : the King Penguin,
the Crested Penguin, and the Jackass Penguin. The latter
has obtained its title from its nightly habit of emitting discordant sounds, which have been likened to the effusions of
our humble sonorous friend of the common. This species
seems to deviate from the general manner of breeding, as it
burrows on the sandy hills, and is more sensible of injury
than its fellows. The ground which it occupies whilst rearing its young is everywhere so much bored that a person
in walking often sinks up to the knees ; and, if the Penguin
chances to be In her hole, she revenges herself on the passenger by fastening on his legs, which she bites very bard. Of
the Jackass Penguin Capt. iitzroy thus speaks: "Multitudes
of Penguins were swarming together in some parts of Noir
Island among the bushes and tussocks near the shore, having
gone there for the purpose of moulting and rearing their
young. They were very valiant in self defence, and ran open-
mouthed by dozens at any one who invaded their territory,
little knowing how soon a stick could scatter them on the
ground. Tbe young ones were good eating, but the others
proved to be black and tough when cooked. The manner in
which they feed their young is curious and rather amusing.
The old bird gets on a little eminence and makes a great noise
between quacking and braying, holding its head up in the
air as if it were haranguing the Penguinnary, whilst the
young one stands close to it but a little lower. The old bird,
having continued its clatter for about a minute, puts its head
down and opens its mouth widely, into which the young one
thrusts its head, and then appears to suck from the throat of
its mother for a minute or two, after which tbe clatter is repeated and the young one is again fed; this continues for
about ten minutes." The King Penguin is by far the handsomest of the three varieties. Two very fine specimens are
to be seen in the grounds of the Government House at Stanley; they are quite tame, and will not only allow people to
approach them, but do not object to having their heads patted or their beautiful soft brtasts stroked down. In some
places these birds flock together in thousands. One colony
of these birds seen by Mr. G. Bennett, on Macquarrie Island,
occupied a space of thirty or forty acres in extent; and though
no conjecture could possibly be formed of the number of birds
composing the town, yet some notion of its amazing amount
may be given from tbe fact that, during the whole day and
night, 30,000 or 40,000 are continually landing and as many
going to sea. Mr. Weddell observes of the King Penguins:
"In pride these birds are perhaps not surpassed even by the
peacock, to which in beauty of plumage they are indeed little
inferior. During the time of moulting they seem to repel each
other with disgust on account of tbe rugged state of their
coats, but, as they arrive at the maximum of splendour, they
reassemble, and no one who has not completed his plumage
is allowed to enter the community. Their frequently looking
down their front and sides, in order to contemplate the perfection of their exterior brilliancy, and to remove any speck
which might sully it, is truly amusing to an observer.   About AND CAPE HORN CHRONICLE.
the beginning of January they pair and lay their eggs.   During the time of hatching the male is remarkably assiduous,
so that,when the hen has occasion to go off to feed and wash,
the egg is transported to him, which is done by placing their
toes together and rolling it from one to the other, using their
beaks to place it properly.    As they have no nest, it is to be
remarked that the egg is carried between the tail and legs,
where the female in particular has a cavity for that purpose.
The hen keeps charge of her young nearly a twelvemonth,
during which time they change and complete their plumage,
and, in teaching them to swim, the mother has frequently to
use some artifice, for, when the young one refuses to take the
water,she entices it to the edge of a rock and cunningly pushes it
in, and this is repeated until it takes the sea of its own accord.
All the species are arrant thieves, each losing no opportunity
of stealing materials during the building of their habitations,
and even the eggs from each other if they are left unguarded.
They are usually thought, when seen at sea, to indicate that
land is at no great distance; but this indication is not always
correct, for they are occasionly seen very far from any shore,
and indeed, with their swimming powers, one can readily imagine that the space of a few leagues would be no object of
concern.    The Crested Penguin in particular lives in open sea;
it has been seen some hundreds of miles from land, voyaging
|n pairs, male and female.    So much for the birds of the
jFalklands.    Of fishes there are very few varieties.    Mullet
l&nd rock-fish are the only two kinds eaten in the Islands.
The former abound extensively in the neighbourhood of Stanley Harbour, and vary greatly in size;  some are very large,
and resemble cod more than the ordinary grey mullet.    There
are very few shells to be found in the Falklands.    Mussels
abound in great quantities in the vicinity of the shore, and
limpets, which grow to a very large size, are found on all the
frocks.   Fine specimens of sea-weeds are to be found, washed
Up by the tide, in most of the bays; the varieties however are
very few in number and greatly resemble those commonly
found on the shores of England and Scotland.    Some which
I found at Hooker's Point, a little to the south of the Lighthouse, are very large and wonderfully perfect.    Scarcely an
insect of any sort is to be seen on the Islands with the exception of a small variety of beetle, which however is not very
common; this scarcity of insects is in all probability owingto
the absence of vegetation.    Such is a brief summary of the
Natural History of the Falkland Islands; bleak and barren as
they appear, a great deal is to be learned from the few animated creatures which inhabit them, and,although we may be
apt to look upon many of the surrounding rocky islands as
worthless and of no possible use to mankind, let us not forget that they are the resting places and form the habitations
of myriads of God's creatures, as Penguins, Albatrosses and
other water-fowl, thousands of whom have probably never
seen a human creature. Naturalist.
(j|fli|i|espnd«nr^
To the Editor.
Dear Mr. Editor,—There are, I know, few amongst us who
are not fond of their pipe, fewer still are there who are capable, chamelo i-like, of existing upon air—though to be deprived of our smoke, and our being starved to death are contingencies, against the slightest chance of the existence^ which
the Government at home have made promises to provide amply by supplying us with tobacco and rations of every description on our arrival in the new El Dorado, tho' I must beg
your readers to put a large note of interrogation in their
minds against the certainty of the foimer being forthcoming
at the expense of Her Majesty. However we will admit that
we have both in our haversacks. So far, so good ; but what
is the good of either without lucifers, matches, or some means
at hand of striking a light. It's all very fine so long as we
are at head-quarters, with fires constantly burning and dry
cupboards in which to keep our lucifers. An old friend of
mine who used to be very fond of driving a team, i. e., four
in hand, and who was, as he himself "would have said in his
stable parlance, fast "rising" three score years and ten, one
day said to me, "I say old fellow, I do hate your new fashioned railways. If," said he, "you get upset in a coach, why
there you are I but if you come to grief in a railway, where
are you?" So it will be in the Colonial life before us; while
we are at head-quarters we shall be comfortable enough (after
a time), but when we get our orders for a campaign in the
"bush," then shall we be thrown completely, for some things,
on our own resources, and have to keep our weather-eyes
open, and a good look-out ahead. In your present number I
propose to offer a few remarks on the ways and means of procuring light and fuel, and maintaining a fire, as, although in
the teeth of every precaution fires constantly break out, yet
when we want a spark, and do not happen to have our ingenious fire-making contrivances at hand, it is scarcely possible
to get one. And further, though sparks of their own accord,
and in the most unlikely places, too often burst out into conflagrations, yet it is a matter of no small skill and difficulty
to coax a spark into a blaze. In default of lucifer matches
(and in damp weather wooden ones will hardly burn)
the principal means of obtaining fire are by flint and
steel, a gun, or a burning glass. Every man on a bush excursion should have about him : 1st, a light, handy steel,
which he can even make out of common iron by "case hardening," and the link of a chain is a good shape to be turned
into a steel (the North Americans use iron pyrites); 2nd, an
agate, which is better than flint, making a hotter spark; quartz
and other hard stones will just make a spark; the joints of
bamboo, too, sometimes contain silex enough to strike alight
with steel; 3rd, tinder, of which I shall treat hereafter; and,
4th, a bundle of chips of wood thinner and shorter than lucifer matches, with fine points which he has dipped in melted sulphur, and also a small spare lump of sulphur in reserve.
The cook should have a regular tinder-box, such as he happens to have been used to, and an abundance of lucifer
matches. With a flint-and-steel gun, the touch-hole may be
stuffed up, and a piece of tinder put among the priming powder; a light can be obtained in that way without letting it off.
With a percussion gun, a light may be got by putting powder
and tinder round the cap, outside the nipple, which will,
though not with certainty, catch fire on exploding the gun.
But the common waywith a gun is toput a quarter of a charge
of powder in, and above it, quite loosely, a quantity of rag or
tinder. On firing the gun straight up in the air the .rag will
be shot out lighted; you must then run after it as it falls and
pick it quickly up.
But time's up, the tea-bugle is sounding and I must obey.
Next week, if you have any spare space, with your permission,
I will continue the subject. Meanwhile I wish to impress upon your readers that I do not pretend to teach anything new,
or wish them to believe that what I have written is original.
I only want to remind them of these and other similar 'little'
things, so that, when they are placed in any dilemma, they
may not have occasion to say, as is often the case, "If I had
but thought of that it would have all been right," or some
such expression. However I doubt not that many of them
will say, "What more can you expect from one who signs himself as your obedient servant, Peter Simple?
d[o-rap Intelligent.
ASTOUNDINS ADVANCE OP CIVILIZATION IN 'BRITISH COLUMBIA!'
—We are happy to have it in our power to inform those of
the Detachment who have children that there is some prospect of their being able to .place them at school on their arrival at their destination, judging from the fact of the first report having just been received at home from Prof. Syntax,
the recently appointed Inspector General of Schools in that
Colony. In it, a copy of which we saw in an American paper kindly sent to us for onr perusal by a friend in Stanley,
he quotes the following remarkable instance of progress in
spelling made by a boy who had arrived from England but
about three nionths before. "Thomas, spell weather," said the
schoolmaster, Mr. Birch,to him one day. "W-i-e-a-t-h-i-o-u-r,
weather." "Well, Thomas, yon may sit down," said Mr.
Birch, "you may be a sharp lad, but that must have been th»
sort of weather yon had on coming round Cape Horn." THE EMIGRANT SOLDIERS' GAZETTE.
A "BITE" FOR A "BARK."
"Will you kindly inform us next week, If you please,
If you've used up all that dirt and grease
That flowed from your pen and aroused our fears?
Keep it clear of your fingers—'twould smell for years.
"Twas insult foul, and thrown at my pace,
It missed its mark,—for I feel no disgrace,
Tho" I hit you hard, miss, I never insulted,
I drew a true picture, nor cared what resulted.
But it piqued your vanity, that ' 'Christmas Box,"
When I spoke of your wrinkles and sulky looks,
It made you sore,—twas answered meanly,
You had nought to say but that I was uncleanly.
Who can but smile, when a nam-skull pate
Asserts that Walker is out of date,
Or Johnston either,—but 'tis useless speaking,
While such a goose insists on squeaking.
Suppose we both learn to spell, and then
We'll freely quote with flowing pen
From men of fame and men of letters;
But as yet let's leave such to our betters.
Your impudence is quite amusing;
You Ass!—my job was not my. choosing;
But if I write nonsense about sheep and fowls.
It's better than your fortnightly growls;
Growing thou call'st it, thou wry neck'd hen!
Why it's wasting good paper, ink and pen;
Cackling it must be—for may I be blowed
If I ever yet heard of a hen that crowed.
And an old hen too, whose voice is weak,
It's not even a good cackle—it's but a squeak.
When tour squeak is read you dance and kick,
When my time comes it makes you sick.
For on Christmas Day I saw you come up,
As one who had drank some bitter cup,
You saw me,—tried hard—bat coxtld'nt rally,
So * 'cast up your accounts" not far from the galley.
* "Non mi ricordo"—you will probably say.
But others saw you as well as I,
And I write the truth, miss, nor fear disgrace,
But you wrote an untruth about my * 'dirty face."
Tho' you are so learned, and have plenty of time.
You've never sent us aught but rhyme,
And that's all abuse and vaunting brags
About "blowing your trumpet" and "hoisting your flags;'*
And the "belt" you've won, miss, where do you wear it?
Close out of sight—lest some one should tear ft?
Beneath that polka that so becomes you
When Cape Horn's icy blast benumbs you?
That polka makes you look so matronly and tender,
Good faith! one very well might doubt your gender;
At stitching too you give your fist a twirl,
It makes one stare to see your beard old girl.
And at washing too, although you're nearly frozen,
You'll wash the baby's heppins by the dozen,
They were baby's clothes, but p'rhaps belonged to pussy,
That one from Falkland Isles you hussey,
Call it ' 'Pompey," the little dear, so like its mother,
And call the next one "Caesar"—if you ever get another.
Then just like one another, particularly -' 'Caesar,"
Oh! how the little imps will fight to please her!
How strange it is—this breach in Nature's laws,
To send among as thus a babe with paws!
And stranger still, pray do not laagh, bat list' sirs,
Tho' the parent's jaws are bare, the baby's born with whiskers .
I saw yon bring it up, stagger along the deck,
Black passy in yonr arms. white tape around its neck,
What you brought it for and what it did, I won't at present mention,
To tram it as it ought to go was clearly yoar intention.
You say I look as if I'd lost something and coald'nt find it,
Bat this, like all yoar other blows, I scorn, nor do I mind it.
How did yoa look that night when you had lost your £ s. d. ?
I'm told your well-oiled pate was like a mop upon the spree;
The loss., miss, made you stamp and seem a little foggy,
Now don't you go and say as how I said as yon was groggy.
Although that night yoa groaned aloud, 'I'velost two pound eleven!'
Muzzy yoa mast have been, miss, next day'twas 'onepoand seven.'
And yet yoa have the cheek to think I'd yield the champion's belt
To an addle-headed muff like you, a girl who always smelt
Of pap and plaster! no miss, spite of yoar hems and* stitches,
A belt like that should e'er be worn by him who wears the breeches;
"Not by a ' 'donkey penguin!" who flaps its hands and jumps,
With trbwsers twisted up to show its skinny feet and stumps;
The champion's belt on such an one would quite unseemly be,
And, ere I say goodbye, my dear, take this advice from me,
When aext you write (tho' much I fear your brain is nigh done up)
Sound not your praises quite so loud, you great conceited pup!
The dog's no good that barks too much, e'en if he be the strongest,
A little dog who only bites will surely fight the longest.
DOING UP CONSIDERABLE SLEEP.
'' Away down in Missouri" they live on the primitive system. People
sleep as well as eat in companies, and in many of the hotels there are from
three to a dozen beds in each chamber. On a cold winter's night, a weary
and foot-worn traveller arrived at one of those caravansaries by the road
side. After stepping into the bar-room and taking the requisite number
of "drinks, "he invoked the attention of the accommodating landlady with
this interrogatory:—' 'I say, ma'am, have you got a considerable number
of beds in your house?" " Yes," answered she, "I reckon we have."
"How may beds have you about this time that aint noways engaged?"
"Well, we've one room upstairs with eleven beds in it." "That's just
right," said the traveller, ' 'I'll take that room and engage all the beds,
if you please." The landlady, not expecting any more company for tht
night, and thinking that her guest might wish to be alone, consented thai
he should occupy the room. But no sooner had the wayfarer retired, thai
a large party arrived and demanded lodgings for the night. The landlady
told them she was very sorry, but all her rooms were engaged; true, there
was one room with eleven beds in it and only one gentleman. * 'We must
go there then—we must have beds there." The party accordingly proceeded to the chamber with the beds and rapped; no answer was returned. They
essayed to open the door—it was locked. They shouted aloud, but received
no reply. At last, driven to desperation, they determined upon bursting
open the door. They had no sooner done so than they discovered every
bedstead empty, and all the beds piled one upon another in the centre of
the room, with the traveller sound asleep on the top. They with some
difficulty aroused him, and demanded what in the world he wanted with
all those beds. ' 'Why, look here, strangers," said he, ' 'I ain't had no
sleep these eleven nights, so I just hired eleven beds, to get rested all at
once and make up what I have lost. I calculate to do up a considerable
mess of sleeping; I've hired all these beds and paid for 'em, and hang me
if I don't have eleven nights sleep out on 'em before morning."
ABSTRACT OF PROGRESS.
During the past week.
Latitude. Longitude. Miles Bun.
. S.W.bW. 83 m.
. S.W. 92 m.
. S-S.W-KW. 84 m.
. W.bN. 44 m.
. N.bW.Ww.40m.
. 8.W.%fg.ll8m.
. S.W.?|S. 74 m.
Cape Flattery N.N.W. about
Since our last we have obtained further particulars of the melancholy
death of.Capt. W. F. Lambert, 11. E. It appears by the official dispatch
of General Van Straubenzee, the Commander-in-Chief in China, that, in
consequence of a flag of truce from Her Majesty's gun-boat "Starling" having been fired upon by the Imperial troops at Namtow, he sent an armed
force thither to exact retribution. Tho fort was taken by assault on tbe
11th of August last, the party being led by Capt. Lambert, accompanied
by Commander Saumorez, It. N. Captain Lambert was getting on the top
of the wall when he received a mortal wound in the groin, owing to an accidental explosion of a fire-lock carried by one of the '' Nankin's" seamen
who was struggling with a soldier to be the first up the ladder.
Jim. 16th     .
.    65°44'S.     .     .
64P03'W.
*t iy*h   .
.    68860'S.     .     .
66°57'W.
" 18th    .
.    58°06'S.      .     .
67°04'W.
"  19th     .
.    »T058'8.      .     .
WWW.
"   20th     .
.    57" 19' S.      .     .
88°45'W.
"   21st     .
.    fXPWS.     .     .
71° (WW.
" 22nd     .
.    59°58'S.     .     .
72°26'W.
To-day Gape
Jjora bore N.E.bN
286 m,    Ca
7050 m.
Joarp, &if.
Characteristic.—An Irishman, an Englishman and a Scotchman happened one day to stop at the window of a pastry-cook's shop ; behind the
counter was a most lovely girl. "By the powers!" said the Irishman,
' 'let's go in and have a crown's worth, if its only to look at her." * 'I've
a mind to spend half a crown, though I don't want anything," said the
Englishman^ ■** for the same purpose." " Hoot mon," says Sandy, "do
ye no ken we might all go in, one at a time, and ask for twa sixpences for
a shellin'."
Mr. A., a member of the board of Councillors in a neighboring city, came
home rather late one fine moonlight night. He was conscious of some oscillation in his movements, to counteract which, he walked exceedingly
straight, with a stiff upper lip, and some care in wording his paragraphs.
He was met at the door by his indignant spouse with the usual reprimand
on such occasions. "Pretty time of night Mr. A. for you to come home!
pretty time, three o'clock in the morning; you a respectable man in the
community and the father of a family I" "Tis'nt three, its only one, I
heard it strike; council alwayB sits up till one o'clock." ' 'My soul Mr. A.
you're drunk, as true as I'm alive you're drunk. It's three in the morning!" **I say Mrs. A. it's one. I heard it strike one as I came round the
corner, two or three-times."
djimromdntms.
XXV1TI. TVhy is a member of the Royal Academy superior to Solomon in
glory?
XXIX. Why iB Joseph Gillott the cleverest man that ever lived?
XXX. "Why have travellers in a desert no occasion to starve?
Answer to XXV. A Newspaper.
'' XXVI. A chop at the • 'King's Head."
" XXVII. Because they are only'tars'but he was a'Tar-tar.'
''        Last Charade.—A Book.
The publication of the Emigrant Soldiers' Gazette and Cape Hobx
Chronicle was commenced at 10 a. m., on the 20th, and was completed at
4p. m. this day. Published at the Editor's Office, Starboard Front Cabin,
<< Thames City." THIE   E^IQ-IFL.AJNrT
MM 1
ix&\s x 4"V4
AND  CAPE   HORN CHRONICLE.
No. 11.]
"THAMES CITY," SATURDAY,   JANUARY 29th, 1859.
[Price 3d.
$fy (Bmigtimt gaUim* (totty
"THAMES CITY," JANUARY 29th, 1859.
Lat. 52.21 S.    Long. 81.3T W.    New Moon, Fer'y
3RP,   AT   lflL iil. A. M.
. If there is one question that is more often asked, and less
satisfactorily answered than another on board the "Thames
City" it is, "What shall we do.when we get to British Columbia?" To tell the truth it is. as impossible to explain this in
a positive and lucid manner) as it is to predict the day when
we shall drop anchor in Esquimau Harbour,, but as it is at
least permitted to all to think for themselv.es, and to form,
their own opinions, we, on the strength of this permission,
venture to offer a few remarks as to the probable destination,
occupation, and future career, of the Columbian Detachment
of the Royal Engineers. First then, to. judge from the authenticity of the various reports upon the subject, there is
little or no doubt that gold does exist in great abundance
throughout large districts of the Colony of British, Columbia,
and, these reports once verified,.the country, like Australia
and California before it, will soon be crowded with a vast and
motley throng from nearly every portion of the inhabited
globe, attracted thither in search of gold. The fifst thing to
be done is to establish a capital, town, accessible if possible
to shipping, which, like all other capital towns, shall form
the seat of Government, a place of habitation and trade, and
a depot for the vast stock of stores and provisions necessary
to meet the demands of so large a population. The choice
of the site on which to establish this capital rests with. Col.
Moody, R. E., and there is little doubt that he has ere this
decided on the spot, one probably on the banks of the river
"Fraser." Our first business on our arrival will be to build
houses for ourselves, then probably, as is the case in all places where Englishmen collect, will appear two or three grog
shop3, then a store or two, a Government house, a Bank, a
a Church, a burial ground, an hotel, a jetty, and finally a
street. In due time too we shall probably have our theatre,
our library, water works, gas works, docks, pavements, lampposts, omnibusses, and possibly even railroads and electric telegraphs, the same as in any other civilized town in England.
The duties of the detachment will probably be as various as
the names of the men composing it, such as clearing and levelling ground, building, draining, road-making, surveying,
digging wells, building jettys, &c. We shall also have our
archilects,.clerks, surveyors, draughtsmen and photographers,
and be, we hope, at the bottom of all the good and as little
of the evil as possible that is done in the Colony. By and
bye when provisions are cheap and plentiful we shall have
settlers from old England to cultivate the country, whose
bright and happy faces will form a delightful contrast to the
care-worn, dissipated, and scoundrelly physiognomies of the
gold diggers in general; and, finally, let us hope the day will
come when we shall see many of the detachment, with their
wives and families, comfortably settled on comfortable little
farms, who, if you pay them a visit, will tell you wonderful
stories of a certain, passage round Cape Horn in a certain
ship, how the winds blew, and the pitching of the ship stirred
up their bile, how they were obliged to hold on to their teeth
to prevent their being blown down their throats, how there
was a squall of wind one night which laid the ship over on
her beam ends, how all the women (the narrator alone excepted) were-screaming out for their husbands to kiss them,
quite positive that the ship was going down that very minute,
and, lastly, what a lot of rows there used to be on board, and
how precious glad they are that they are out of that. Unless
all fathers and mothers are blessed with such good children
as those of our friend " Bob Cratchit," who, as we were told
the other night, stuck their spoons into their mouths, for fear
they should shriek out too soon for goose, there are doubtless
mar>y occasions which call for the mild reproof, " Little children should be seen and not heard." Still there is no reason
why they should not be thought of, and to judge from our
column of births since our departure, it is evidently the mature
resolution of, the Columbia Detachment of theRoyal Engineers
to increase the rising generation to the best of their ability.
We have children of every size and every description on board,
ch ildren with namesand children without names,pink children,
and red children,, and yellow children, and white children,
children with; comforters round their necks, and one child
with occasionally white tape round its neck, children who can
walk, children who can only toddle, and children who can do
neither ; children who. blow their noses and children who
don't blow their noses; children who are indebted for a large
portion of their washing to Miss M. H., and children who do
not require any washing of the peculiar nature ascribed to
that young lady, children of every colour, every age and every
temp r, and there will probably ere long be just as many more
children as different from these as these are from one another.
Let us hope that there are many of us who may live to see
them growing up and grown up, land-owners and house-owners, doing, their duty like Englishmen and Englishwomen in
every walk of life, editors of Colonial newspapers, actors and
actresses, aldermen and burgesses, perhaps even Johnny
Scales town-councilman, and Miss Judy the prima donna of
th ■ Italian Opera,.in. our future city on the banks of the river
Fraser. THE EMIGRANT SOLDIERS' GAZETTE,
Everybody has heard the old story of "Whittington and
his cat," how,as he was leaving London,Bow Bells seemed to
say, "Turn again Whittington, Lord Mayor of London," how
he turned back, how he gave away his cat, how the cat made
his fortune, and how he eventually did become Lord Mayor of
London. Now there is a young lady on board the "Thames
City" blessed in the possession of an affectionate pussy, and
although we cannot venture to say that the pussy will be the
making of Miss Matilda Hazel's fortune, there is no doubt
that as, when Whittington turned back at the sound of Bow
Bells, he put his foot on the first step of the ladder of fortune,
so clearly has Miss Matilda Hazel adopted the line of life for
which she is evidently marked out, and one in which her
talents have shone forth more conspicuously than ever since
the acquisition of her little black cat. We need not say that
the line of life we allude to is the stage, and truly when we
look back at the performance of Monday evening, and reflect
on the charming grace and modesty, tbe refinement, the elegance of action, and the delightful modulation of voice that
distinguished the acting of this young lady in the character
of "Miss Hardcastle," and remember her easy, pert and coquettish air as "bar-maid" at the inn, we cannot but regret
that so much beauty and talent has been lost to the country,
and confined to the small stage of the "Thames City." Preeminently beautiful she certainly is, charming, with her endearing smiles and occasional bursts of merriment, the hearts
and eyes of the whole audience, and when we think of the
pretty little foot and ancle that peeped so bewitchingly forth
from beneath the folds of her elegantly braided dress, we
cannot but anathematize the base villain who dared last week
to speak of these ravishing charms as "skinny feet and
stumps," and when we recognize the same individual in the
character of "Young Marlow," our only wonder is that a being of such rare grace and beauty could "stoop so low as to
conquer" a creature whom she has unhesitatingly set down
as a "frog" and a "dirty cur." On the whole "She Stoops to
Conquer" was decidedly a success, and one worthy of the reopening of the theatrical season. The gentlemen, taken all
in all, acted admirably, and although we were disappointed
with the memory of one who has heretofore promised better
things, we feel we cannot speak too highly of the performance
of Messrs. Turnbull and Derham, who clearly threw their
whole hearts and souls into the matter, and succeeded in
pleasing all who heard them. Nor should those who had not
the good fortune to take principal parts be forgotten. What
they did, they did well; and perhaps there were no parts of the
performance that pleased us more than those where "Jeremy"
declared that "although only a servant he was as good a man
as anybody else," and where "Diggory," with a voice—such
a voice 1—a voice that seemed to come from the very bottom
of the ship, (somewhere in the vicinity of the milk) expressed his fixed determination "to stay his stomach with a slice
of cold beef in the pantry," and we beg to congratulate the
manager on the acquisition of a company possessed, one and
all, of such a perfection of elementary histrionic talent.' Nor
can we speak too highly of the new stage properties, all of
which, from the dresses to the footlights, were in perfect good
taste, and of the highest quality. That eminent artist, J. C.
White, has clearly established, beyond a doubt, his superiority to Solomon, and we look forward with much pleasure to
witnessing on Wednesday next further proofs of a talent
which, with the aid of only two or three colours, in the midst
of a crowded deck, and in the worst weather, succeeds in producing specimens of artistic genius, that will contribute in a
very important degree to the lustre and general effect of our
theatrical entertainments.
NATURAL HISTORY OF THE VOYAGE.
There is no study more interesting and instructive, and
more calculated to remind us of the infinite resources and
Omnipotence of the Creator of the universe, than the study
of Animated Nature. In whatever direction we turn oar eyes
we everywhere meet the varied forms of animal life.- Earth,
air, water are all alike occupied by multitudes of living
creatures, each fitted especially for the habitation assigned
to it by nature. Every wood or meadow, nay, every tree or
shrub, or turf of grass has its inhabitants, and, even beneath
the surface of the ground, numbers of animals may be found
fulfilling the purposes for which their species were called into existence. Myriads of birds dash through the air supported on their feathered pinions, or solicit our attention by the
charming sons which they pour forth from their restingplaces;
whilst swarms of insects with still lighter wings dispute with
them the empire of the air. The waters, whether salt or
fresh, are also filled with living organisms; fishes of many
forms and various colours, and creatures of still more strange
appearance swim silently through their depths, and their
shores are covered with a profusion of polypes, sponges, starfish and other animals. Notwithstanding the immense number of animals existing on the'face of the earth, we have been
enabled to form a system of classification, which, by bringing together those animals which most resemble each other
and characterizing them by some common point of structure,
enables us to form a sort of general idea of the whole, and
to remember more readily the peculiarities of each. Irrespective of the scientific classification of animals, a popular
classification exists, which to a great extent coincides with it;
thus we find that tolerably clear notions are entertained as to
the differences between a beast, a bird, a fish, a reptile, and
an insect,—these being creatures that pass constantly under
our eyes; but, with respect to the lower animals with which
mankind at large are not familiar, the classification of ordinary language is by no means so precise, and science is compelled to invent a system of her own. The first step which
the student of Natural History takes in commencing bis subject is to adopt a system of classification. Now, as I have
every reason to hope that there are many who hear and read
these contributions with feelings of interest in the subject,
and not merely with a view of killing a little time, I have
considered this a fit opportunity of bringing before your notice a few remarks on the basis of the study of Zoology, viz:
"the classification of animals," which, being of a simple nature and easily understood,may induce some to enter into the
subject, who have been deterred from doing so by a preconceived notion that scientific classifications are nothing but a
collection of hard names, more calculated to puzzle than to
enlighten the young beginner. The arrangement of the animal kingdom proposed by the illustrious Cuvier is the one
generally adopted. He distributes the forms of animal life
into four grand Divisions, which are again subdivided into
orders, groups, and families. The first division comprises
those animals which have a vertebral column or spine terminating in a skull, such as the monkey, the horse, the goose,
the salmon, the boa-constrictor, the frog, the tortoise, &c.
The second division comprises those animals which have no
skeleton, are of a soft texture, and are sometimes covered with
a strong covering or shell, such as the snail, the slug, the oyster, the mussel, &c. The third division includes those animals which are formed of a number of articulated points or
rings, soft or hard, as the worm, the lobster, the spider and
the small insects. The fourth division comprises those animals which have their organs arranged like rays proceeding
from a centre, such as the sea-urchin, the star-fish, the medusa, &c. Thus tbe first division is called that of the Verte-
brated animals, the second division that of the Molluscous
animals, the third division that of the Articulate animals, and the fourth division that of the Radiated animals.
Every known living animal, whatever be its size' or form,
comes under the bead of one of these grand divisions, from
the huge whale to the smallest microscopic animalcule, and
so simple are the distinctions that the telling off of each animal to its own particular division .might almost be entrusted
to a child; tut, when we come to the orders, groups and families, the characteristic distinctions are not so easy to discern,
but require closer study and more acute observation. In our
next we purpose to discuss the division into orders ef the
Yertebrated animals, which we shall find correspond with the
popular classification before mentioned, by which beasts,
birds, reptiles and fishes are distinguished from one another.
Naturalist. AND CAPE HORN CHRONICLE.
dkiflfsgondenr^.
To the Editor.
Dear Mb. Editor,—The Captain having just inspected the
lower deck, down we rush to our tables like so many rabbits
into their holes in a warren, and so,with the whole day before
me, I hope to finish what little more I have to say on the subject of light, fuel, &c.
I come dow to the means whereby light is to be obtained
with the aid of a burning glass. What school boy has not
considerably increased the tailor's bill of his affectionate
parent by burning holes'in tbe cuff of his jacket or the
knee of his trowsers with a burning glass? The object glass
(and indeed almost any other one) of a telescope is a burning
glass. Some old fashioned watch glasses filled with water
will answer the same purpose ; if the sun is not high overhead, its rays must be glittered vertically down by means of
ft mirror. ( have somewhere read of the crystalline lens of a
dead animal's eye having beeni used on an emergency with
success as a burning glass. It is hardly necessary for me to
add that black tinder ignites much more easily in the sun
than light coloured tinder.
In more than one uncivilized country fire-sticks are used by
the natives, but these require a long apprenticeship to work
with, and it is not every kind of stick that will do. Difficult
as it is to those unpractised in the art, should a serious
emergency occur, it is by no means hopeless to obtain fire
after this method. Two blocks of wood are required, a drill
stick, and any rude description of bow with which to work
the stick. A party of men have advantages, inasmuch as the
work is very fatiguing; the whole party can try in turns, and,
as there is considerable knack required to succeed, it is much
more probable that one out of many should succeed than that
a single beginner should do so. One person works the "drill
stick" with a rude bow, and with his other band holds the
upper piece of wood, both to steady it and give it the requisite pressure. Another man holds the lower piece of wood,
the fire block, to steady it, having a piece of tinder ready to
catch fire. Any tough, hard and dry stick will do for the
"drill," but the fire block must be of wood with little grain,
of a middle degree of softness and sufficiently inflammable.
It is not at all difficult to produce smoke with a broken fishing-rod, or ram-rod, as a drill stick, and a common wooden
pill-box, or tooth-powder box, as a fire block; walnut is good
also, but deal and mahogany are both worthless for fire sticks.
The best sort of tinder is the commonest, namely, cotton
or linen lighted and smothered by being crammed into your
tinder box before they are burnt to ashes. Amadou, punk,
or German tinder, is made from a kind of fungus or mushroom that grows on the trunks of old oaks, ashes, beeches,
&c, and many other kinds of fungus, and I believe all kinds
of puff balls will do. Dried cattle-dung is very useful as
tinder. In all cases the presence of saltpetre makes tinder
burn more hotly and more fiercely, and saltpetre exists in such
great quantities in the ashes of many plants (as tobacco, dill,
maize, sun-flower, &c) that these can be used just as they
are in place of it. Thus, if the ashes of a cigar be well rubbed into a bit of paper (unsized paper like that out of a blotting book is best suited, but any will do) they convert it into
touch paper. Gunpowder, of which three-quarters is saltpetre, (uninjured gunpowder is as good as any for this purpose)
has the same effect. If it be an object to prepare a store of
touch paper, a strong solution of saltpetre in water (and let
it be remembered that boiling water makes tbe solution forty-
fold stronger than ice-cold water, and about eight times
stronger than water 60° Fahr.) should be obtained, and the
paper, rags, or fungus, dipped into it and hung to dry.
To kindle a spark into a flame by blowing is quite an art,
which few Europeans have learned, but in which ev-ry savage is proficient. Tbe spark should be received into a sort
of loose nest of the most inflammable substances procurable,
prepared before hand; when by careful blowing or tann'ng
the flame is once started, it should be fed with little bite of
stick or bark, until it has gained strength enough to grapple
with thicker ones.    There is an old proverb "small sticks
kindle a flame, but large ones put it out." In soaking wet
weather tbe fire may be started in a frying pan itself, for want
of a dry piece of ground.
There is something of a knack in looking for fuel. It
should be looked for under bushes; tbe stump of a tree that
is rotted nearly to the ground has often a magnificent root fit
to blaze throughout the night. In want of fire-wood the dry
m mure of cattle and other animals is very generally used
throughout tbe world, and there is nothing objectionable in
using it. Another remarkable substitute for fire-wood is
bones, a fact to which Mr. Darwin, the Naturalist quoted by
our "Naturalist," was the first to draw attention. During the
Russian campaign, in 1829, the troops suffered so severely
from cold at Adrianople that the cemeteries were ransacked
for bones for fuel.
My stock of information about Fuel is now finished, fortunately so, not only for the patience of your readers, but also
for the difficulty which I should have (had I more) in writing
it, from the heavy rolling of the ship and the bitter damp
cold. Had we plenty of fuel and appliances we might guard
against the latter, in the absence of both we must "grin and
bear it," and that the putting up with these and all other like
discomforts without grumbling, will every.day make us more
callous to the inclemencies of the weather which we are led
to expect wo shall find in "British Columbia" is the firm belief of your obedient servant, Peter Simple.
Jjtacat and Jptititarg $ntyttipti[e.
Jan. 23rd
"   24th
"  26th
"  26th
«'  27th
"   28th
"   29th
To-day at
ABSTRACT OF PROGRESS.
During the past week.
Latitude.             Longitude.                  Miles Run.
.    58° ay 8.     .     .     74°04'W.     .     .    N;W.bN.94m.
.    58° 18'8.     .     .     77°0O'W.     .     .     W.bN.96m.
.    89° (WS.     .     .     79°53'W.     .     .   8.W.bW.<(£W.99m.
.    57°14'8.      .     .     80°47'W.     .     .     N.bW.VW.UOm
.    56°13'S.     .     .     80°40'W.     .     .     N.NJ1.6SM.
.     .    54°23'S.      .     .     80»S7'W.     *     .     N.bW. 112m.
.    62°27'8.     .     .     81°87'W.     .     .     N.W-HW. 122 m.
noon Valparaiso bore N.bE.%E. 1245 miles.
"RAISING A CROP OF CHICKENS."
Uncle "Dad Morton," of Vermont, tells tbe following story: "Then,
ancestors of our'n didn't do nothin half way. Bnt there's an awful fallin'
off since them times. Why, in my time, when I was a boy, things went
on more economical than now. We all worked. My work was to take care
of the hens and chickens, and I'll tell yer bow I raised'em. Yon know I'ee
a very thinkin' child, al'as a thinkin', 'cept when 1'se asleep. Well, it
came to me one night to raise a big lot of chickings from one hen, and I'll
tell yer how I did it. I took an old whiskey barrel and filled it up with
fresh eggs, and then put it on the south side of the barn, with some horse
manure round it, and: then Bet the old hen on the bung-hole. The old critter kept her settin', and in three weeks I heard a little 'peep.' Then I put
my ear to tbe spigot, when the peeping growed like a swarm of bees. I
didn't say anything to the folks about the hatching, for they'd all the time
told me I was a fool, but the next mornin* I knocked in the head of tbe
barrel and covered tbe barn floor two deep all over with chickings."
Jofys, &4.
French Bulls.—The Irish nation have been long supposed to enjoy the
exclusive privilege of making blunders-. A French gentleman who lately
died at Provence, whose name was M.CIante,affords an.instance to tbe contrary, as will appear by the following anecdotes of him. He bid his ' 'valet
de chambre," very early one morning, look out of the window and tell him
if it was daylight. "Sir," said tbe fellow, ' 'it is so dark I can see nothing
as yet." ' 'Beast that you are," replied the master, ' 'why don't you take
a candle to see if the sun is rising or no?" He was ill with a fever, his
physician forbade him the use of wine, and ordered him to drink nothing
but barley-water. "That I would, "said the patient, "with all my heart,
provided it had the relish of wine, for I assure you I'd as soon eat beef a*
partridge, if it had the same taste." He paid a Visit to a painter who was
busy drawing a landscape, where a lover and his mistress were in conversation. ' 'Let me beg of yon," said he, ' 'to draw me in a corner where 1
can hear every word these lovers are saying, without any body seeing me."
At another time he desired the painter who was taking his portrait to
draw him with a book in his band which he should read out loud.
How rr JtKr\T*r* Out.—" Mamma what makes dada kiss yon," inquired
little Willie of his mother. *' Get away yon scamp or I'll box your
ears." "Bat mamma I should like to know." "Well then child it's
because he loves me; but lovey what makes you ask such a naughty que*,
tion ?" '' Because I saw dada kiss the cook last Sunday, when yon were
at church, so I think he lores her as well as you." There was a fust in tb«
family. THE EMIGRANT SOLDIERS' GAZETTE.
castSesTFtheTir.
1 The bonnie, bonnie bairn wha sits pokin' in tho ase,
Glowerin' in the fire wi' his wee round face,
Laugh in* at the puffin' lowe, what sees bo there?
Ha! the young dreamer's biggin castles in the air.
2 His wee chubby face, and his tousey curly pow,
Is laughin' and noddin' to the wee dancin' lowe;
He'll brown his rosy cheeks, an* sing' his sunny hair,
Glowerin' at the imps wi' their castles in the air.
3 He seeB muckle castlos towerin' to the moon,
He sees wee sodgers puin' them a' doon;
Worlds womblin* up and down bleezin' wi' a flare,
Losh! how he looks as they glimmer in the air.
4 "For a' sae sage he looks, what can the laddie ken,
He's thinkin' upon naething liko mony mighty men,
A wee thing maks us think, a sma' thing maks us stare.
There are mair folks than him biggin castles in the air.
5 Sick a night in winter may weel mak him cauld,
His chin upon his puffy hann will sune mak him auld;
His brow is brent sae braid, 0' pray that daddy care,
Wad let the wean alane wi' his castles in the air,
6 He'll glower at the fire and he'll keek at the licht,
But mony sparklin' stars are swallowed up by nicht,
Aulder een than his are glamoured by a glare,
Hearts are broken, heads are turned wi' castles in, tbe air..
A "BITER" BIT.
.TackAss! to think to put me in the shade
By that vulgar composition you last week made!
For personality like that there is no palliation,
So now for personal, but truthful retaliation.
Your bite, whelp, ah! ahl was goon forgotten,
You can't bite hard for all your teeth are rotten.
Don't wince, again your feelings do I shock?
They are very filthy, just like your smock..
Greyhound! your brains must be very slender,
When you make such a fool's remark about my genderK
I call you greyhound, you know what it means,
A hound that's scraggy and has no brains.
No doubt you thought you cut it nice and fat,
By hitting on my tiny, little cat,.
In teaching him his duty I cannot fail,
He spurns all curs, when he sees you swells his tail.,
I hope, dear, from pussy you'll take a pattern.
He is so clean and nothing of a slattern;
If I required a monkey to lead upon the deck,
I should take off pussy's string and tie it on your nock.
And your head once within that noose of tape,
Would give me the ''tout air" of an—ape!
A gentleman, "enpassant" I call him "Terry,"
Has an animal whom he names * 'Jerry;"
Like you, he scrawls on paper, sits in a Chair,
Yon are as like him as hair to hair.
His visage, too, is freckled, ugly, frightful,
But then, unlike you, "Jerry" isn't spiteful,.
"What is he?" you ask—' *a baboon!" the truth Icannot smother,
You are bo like him, I could take you for his brother.
My washing clothes you have most highly vaunted,
Do take a lesson—I'm sure it's wanted;
Wash did I say, I must be joking,
First you'd better learn the art of soaking.
If, as I, you are hot clever at putting in a stitch
I can't help that, you fiddle-ficed, Hecate-like wjtch.
Hecate! tnis reminds me of poor Macbeth!
Remember Macduff hunted him to death;
Macduff am I, don't think me too precocious,
You're Macbeth (or rather like him),, you're so ferocious.
As to my being groggy', say no more,
Were you groggy when you went on shore?
Another question answer with candour, sir, I say,
_ Why for boat-hire tenpen.ce only you haye to pay?
I did the thing in a far more handsome manner,
And have to fork out seven bob and a tanner.
Booby, the night of the ball on shore,
I had, when 1 started, two pounca four,
It wasn't all my own, or no cause for sorrow,
I was going to buy stock for others on the morrow.
With what I spend and paid, if I remember even,
There was in my purse when I lost it one pound seven,    .
Fool! you are to quote "non mi rijordo," I am in no fix,
Numskull! I was never in "the forty-sixth."
My ' 'polka" with which you say I keep out tbe cold,
Your very self by this allusion has been sold;
In the cook-house (from cold) you are a nightly dweller,
Sitting among the ashes like Cinderella;
But not so pretty, you'ce frozen stiff, just as a dummy,
Dried up and shrivelled, the colour of an Egyptian mummy.
An old hen arid wry-neck'd am I! go hide your empty pate,
How can my neck be wry, you ass, when I can hold it straight?
What can it be to you, you saucy pup,
The reason why 1 stick my trowsers up?
I might ask of'you without any sin,
Why you always, like a shirt, your smock tuck in?
.1 was sick on Christmas day, no wonder, to see you with thumbs
Cramming in that pudding so stuffed with plums;
Gorging is certainly tbe worst of faults,
I wish yon'd eat less and not bore me for salts.
With pity towards you my bowels were yearning,
When I read your lines upon my learning,
To the * 'I-Iaut Ecole" of learning I have no pretence,
Yet unlike you, donkey, I believe I've common sense;
You have not even that, or you don't use it,
From what you write you every day abuse it.
I would call you Solomon, but it doesn't suit yon well,
Polecat! is far better, judging from your smell.
I know I've sedt nothing but rhyme to this journal,
You have sent nonsense enough—most infernal;
In writing an article I should take some pride,
If such a noodle as you o'er the paper did not preside.
I think by this I've shown I still obow—not cackle,
My crowing is more, clown, than you can tackle,
Whate'er you do, knave, I am still the same,
Not an "old hen," but a "young cock" that's game.
FIRST LOYE.
The following lines are from the pen of a lady, and in thanking her for
her most kind contribution, we can but express our satisfaction at finding
that the few remarks we ventured to offer last week have been taken in
good part, with the hope that many more will soon find an opportunity ol
following her example.
First love, the Eden of, the inmost heart,
Of all earth's joys the only priceless part,
Thou bright first joy,_ too beautiful to last.
To-day thou art, to-morrow thou art past;
Leaving an impress on the inmost soul,
O'er w^iich in vain the tide of years may roll,
Not dark eternity itself can 'rase
Thy memory love, first love of early days.
How She tricked Him.—A young lady, at a ball one evening, asked her
cousin Fred ' 'if hftknew that very nice young man at the other end of the
room?" " Yes,"said Fred, '-' he is a* school-fellow of mine." "I wish
you woujd introduce me," said Miss Emma. Immediately Fred went down
and requested the young man to come up and he would introduce him to
his cousin Emma. "Ah!" said the young gentleman, "just trot her down
he-aw." Poor Emma happened to overhear the answer her cousin received, and requested him to make a second attempt, which he did, and was
successful. When the young man approached Miss Emma's seat, he was
quite struck with her beauty, and was about to make an apology, but before he had time to speak,. Miss Emma surveyed him from head to foot,
and very smartly, said to her cousin,. * 'That will do, yon can just trot him
off now."
tyotmmimmz.
XXXI.. Why is the "Thames City" like an old cow?
XXXII. Why is a butcher like a great continental traveller?
XXXIII. Why is the "Thames City" in a heavy sea like the black dog
brought on board at the Falkland Islands?
Answer to XXVIII. Because Solomon in all his glory was not R. A.'d
(arrayed) like one of these.
''-       XXIX. Because he first made people steel (steal) pens and then
persuaded them that they did write (right.)
' §        XXX. Because of the quantity of sand which is (wiches) there.
Theatre Royal, "Thames City."
THE MANAGER of the above Theatre takes this opportunity of offering
his warmest thanks for the liberal and substantial support given to the
Columbian Theatrical Fund, which enabled him to purchase dresses, scenery and other properties of such a character that he feels assured they cannot be surpassed by any Theatrical Company in British Columbia. He
sincerely trusts that it will be the means of passing many an hour in harm -
less amusement, and he begs to assure the subscribers that no effort shall
be wanting on the part of himself and company to afford them a good entertainment. He has much satisfaction in stating that the subscriptions
amounted to £13.1.0, of which £7.8.6, was expended for Theatrical purposes, leaving a balance in hand of £5.12.6 to meet future exigencies.
The Manager begs to announce that on Wednesday, the 2nd Feb., will
be presented that well known and justly celebrated Burlesque Tragic
Opera, in one Aet, by W. B. Rhodes, Esq., entitled,
"©©fiflEAOTE©  IFQDiafl®@®ow
Artaxominous, (King of Utopia) James Turnbull.
Fusbos, (Minister of State) Charles Sinnett.
General Bombastes,   A. R. Howse.
1st Courtier,   Lewis Hughes.
2nd Courtier,   George Eaton.
Distaffina, - Henry Benney.
After which there will he a variety of singing and dancing.
JQ£g*Doors open at6 o'clock, performance to commence at 6.30precisely.
The publication of the Emigrant Soldiers' Gazette and Cape Horn
Chronicle was commenced at 10 a. m,, on the 27th, and was completed at
4p. m, this day. Published at the Editor's Office, Starboard Front Cabin,
" Thames City."
= the ZEHs^GKR^isra?
^ (ferity
AND  CAPE  HORN CHRONICLE.
:no. 12.]
"THAMES CITY," SATURDAY,   FEBRUARY 5th, "1859.
[Price 3d.
WH Emigrant ^altas' toetht.
"THAMES CITY," FEBRUARY 5th, 1859.
Lat. 39.41 S.   Long. 19.16 W.   Moon's First Quarter, Feb't 10th, at 1h. 39m. p. m.
Most of our readers must be acquainted with that
celebrated book of Defoe's—Robinson Crusoe. The
undoubted original of this character was Alexander
Selkirk, a Scotchman by birth, and the Island of Juan
Fernandez, in Lat. 33 ° 40 South and Long. 19°
West about 400 miles west of Valparaiso, is where
he was cast ashore. The island was first discovered
by a Spanish navigator in the year 1512 ; it is of irregular form, from ten to twelve miles long and about
six broad, its area being 10 square miles. It was in
the year 1104 that Alexander Selkirk while engaged
in a privateering expedition quarrelled with the Captain of his ship and resolved to leave the vessel as
soon as an opportunity offered ; he had not to wait
long, for they shortly after arrived at Juan Fernandez,
where our hero was landed with all his effects. Selkirk soon began to consider the means of rendering
his residence on the island endurable. It was the
month of October and the middle of spring, and all
was blooming and fragrant. The possibility of starving was not one of the horrors which his situation
presented. Besides the fish and seals which swarmed
round the shores of the island, there were innumerable
fruits and vegetables in tho woods, among which was
the never-failing cabbage ; and hundreds of goats
skipped wild among the hills. Almost all the means
of ordinary physical comfort were within his reach,
and he had only to exert his strength and ingenuity to
make the island yield him its resources. How he proceeded to do this; the various shifts and devices he fell
upon to supply his wants, and to add gradually to his
store of comforts; the succession of daily steps and
contrivances by which in the course of four years and
a half he raised himself from comparative helplessness to complete dominion over the resources of his
little territory; and along with, this the various stages
which his feelings went through from the agony and
stupefaction of the first night which he spent on the
island to the perfect freedom and happiness which he
ultimately obtained, we have not sufficient room to
discuss in detail. It is needless to say that Defoe's
narrative is almost entirely a fiction. So far as the
details of his hero's daily fife in the desert island are
concerned, it was not visited by cannibal savages as is
the case in the romance, and no faithful Friday appeared to cheer the hours of Selkirk's solitude. All
these ornaments of the story the world owes to Defoe,
whose object was not to write the history of Selkirk,
or any other known cast-away, but to describe, by the
force of imagination, the life of an ideal hero, on an
ideal desert island; at the same time there is no doubt
that Defoe's narrative fills up our conception of Selkirk's long residence on this island with details such
as must actually be true. We may perceive by this
story the truth of the maxim, that "necessity is the
mother of invention," since this man found means to
supply his wants in a very natural manner so as to
maintain his life, though not so conveniently, yet as
effectually as we are able to do with the help of our
arts and society. It may likewise instruct us how
much a plain and temperate way of living conduces to
the health of the body and vigor of the mind, both
which we are apt to destroy by excess and plenty, especially of strong liquor, and the variety as well as the
nature of our meat and drink; for this man, when he
came back to our ordinary method of diet and life,
though he was sober enough, lost much of his strength
and agility. The island of Juan Fernandez was visited in the year 1845 by H. M. S. Collingwood, when a
single Chilian family constituted the whole of the resident population, who claimed the largest and readiest
stream for watering. Cabbage, palms, cherry trees,
and peaches were found in great abundance, and all
these, with wild oats, radishes, nasturtiums, rhubarb,
and strawberries, grew in wild and useless fruitfulness.
Animals are abundant fcr such a small spot; goats,
which exist in great numbers, may be seen grazing on
every height, and many horses run wild; also asses,
which have attained great size, and roam in fierce and
wild herds. Dogs are said to be numerous and troublesome. Cats, like the dogs, bow live among the
rdeks. Seals are nearly extirpated, but fish and crawfish are abundant. Vessels occasionally put in here
for water and provisions. THE EMIGRANT SOLDIERS' GAZETTE,
What a blessing fine weather seems to be after several
weeks of cold winds, and stormy seas, and their attendant
discomforts, in a crowded ship. Something of this kind was
probably passing through the minds of most of us on Tuesday last, when the glorious sunshine settled, once again, all
the day long upon the decks, warming the laughing faces of
the children, who came swarming up, like butter flies on a
summer day, from the recesses of the between-decks. The
rough part of the journey we hope is over, now that the notorious Oape is past, and we may fairly congratulate ourselves
that, with but little interruption, the rest of the voyage will
be composed of fine weather, smooth seas, and a clear sky.
It is a comfort too to think that we are near'mg our destination, and we may begin to calculate, not so much the time
we have been absent from England, as the number of weeks
(growing shorter and shorter) it will yet takeus to reach the
Colony. Our newspaper, we rejoice to say, like a seasoned
traveller, is getting, like the rest of us, used to sea life, 'and
holds up his head strong and flourishing, but with great regret, we are compelled to add, that our chief contributor and
main support, who from the first has been a tower of strength
on our side, has been afflicted for some days past with a malady called the "mumps," a malady which interferes materially with the exercise of the faculties in general, more especially with those connected with the science of eating and drinking. We trust, however, shortly to see him again in his
accustomed place, not only on Saturday evenings, but on
others also, when with his hands in his breeches pockets, a
short pipe in his mouth, and a Glengary cap on his head, he
will appear as before, in deep conference with Sapper Scales,
the recognized master of the ceremonies, respecting the order
for the dances of the evening. He missed on Thursday last
a rare treat in not being present to witness the delightful
manner in which the burlesque of "Bombastes Furioso" was
put on the stage, when the acting of all the performers, their
dresses, and the scenery, brought down the plaudits of the
house, and evidently gave universal satisfaction. To remind
us again that our old customs in fine weather were returning,
some excellent songs followed, with the recital, by Corporal
Sinnett, of an old Homeric lay of the siege of Troy. This
last we hope will very shortly be repeated that a fresh opportunity may be given us of admiring its incontestable beauties
ar_d merits.
NATURAL HISTORY OF THE VOYAGE.
Having in our last number described Cuvier's classification
.of the animal kingdom into four grand divisions, we now.'pro-
ceed to investigate more fully the first of these divisions, viz:
"that of the Vertebrated, which has been again subdivided in-
.to four orders. As the name indicates, the animals comprised in this division are all furnished with a vertebrated column, known in popular language as the spine, and an internal
skeleton, or bony framework, which is covered externally
with flesh and which contains the internal organs destined to
perform those functions necessary to the maintenance and
- support of life. Tbe distinction between an animal thus provided with a spine and one without a spine (called by Naturalists an Invertebrate animal) is very apparent. Take a cod
fish, for instance, and split him open and you find a long flexible bone extending from head to tail, and composed of a
number of small bones united together, around which the
.flesh is attached; but take a lobster and split him open in the
same way, and you do not find any trace whatever ot a spine
or even of an internal skeleton; on the contrary, his skeleton
"is outside, and consists of a hard case or shell in Which the
flesh is contained. We have no hesitation then in placing the
cod fish amongst the vertebrate animals, and the lobster
among the invertebrate animals. Amongst the animals provided with a spine we find there are some which produce their
_young alive, and for a time suckle them; they constitute the
highest order of the animal kingdom, and have warm blood.
Next we find a set of animals, also warm-blooded, 'but who
produce their young from eggs; their bodies are covered with
feathers and their limbs are adapted for motion through the
air, as well as for progression on land. Then again we fini
Some of this division of animals entirely different in structure
from either of the two mentioned; these we find are so constituted that they can only live in water; their extremities are
converted into fins, by means of which, tegether with their
expanded tails, they move through the water. They are coldblooded animals, and their skins are either naked or covered
with scales. Lastly, we find a class of animals furnishedwith
a vertebral column quite distinct from those above mentioned,
both in habits and structure; they are a group of animals
generally regarded with but little favor by mankind; a portion of them only are provided with limbs, and they all more
or less creep upon their bellies; they have cold blood, but are
constituted to breathe air. The types of these different orders are very easily recognized. In the first place, as examples of those animals which produce their young alive and
suckle them, called the Mammalia, we may quote, the cat, the
cow, the sheep. Those animals popularly known as Birds are
included in the second order. The third order comprises the
Fishes; and the fourth those animals which are commonly distinguished by the name of Reptiles. These different classes
of animals differ essentially, not only in external form and
appearanoe, but also in the structure of their internal organs:
thus we find the mammalia breathe by means of lungs, which
communicate externally by one opening, called the wind-pipe.
Birds also breathe by means of lungs, which, however, are
furnished with several apertures communicating with the
cellular tissue of the body and the interior of the bones; the
air thus penetrating to all parts of the body renders them
lighter and capable of 'being supported by the atmosphere.
Respiration in fishes is effected not by lungs but by a different set ot organs called gills. Reptiles are furnished with
respirating organs differing from both lungs and gills, and in
some instances attaining an extraordinary size and occupying
a considerable portion of the entire body. The heart also
differs in form in these different classes : thus, the heart of
mammals and birds is divided into four separate cavities; that
of the fishes' consists of two cavities; and that of the reptiles
consists of one entire cavity only. Knowing these distinctive characteristics relative to the internal organs, we are
better enabled to judge as to what division of the animal
kingdom certain creatures belong whose outward appearance
is at first sight very apt to mislead us. We have a remarkable instance of this in one of the largest of known animals,
viz: the whale, a.small species of which we have of late frequently observed swimming about in the neighbourhood of
our vessel. How many there are who, if asked to which division of animals this creature belongs, would not hesitate for
an instant, judging from its appearance and habits, to rank
it amongst the fishes. But it is well known that the whale is
not a fish, and has no affinity whatever with fishes; it is just
as much a mammal as the ox or the elephant, inasmuch as it
has warm blood, breathes air through lungs, brings forth living young, and suckles them with true milk. It is certainly a
peculiar mammal, differing from other mammals in its being
aquatic and not terrestrial, but it can no longer stay under
waterwithout fresh air beyond a very short period than a man
could. .In a future number we hope to have an opportunity
of making a few observations on the Natural History of this
monster df the deep, when more will be said or. this subject.
In our next we purpose continuing the subject of classification
by calling your attention to the different groups of animals
into which the mammalia have been subdivided by Cuvier ;
tbe first group of which includes only the human species.
Some naturalists refuse to allow the human race to enter the
zoological series at all; whilst others hold that the highest
order of the apes tread so closely upon the heels of humanity
that it is not easy to draw the line between them. Physically considered, man must be regarded as belonging to the class
mammalia, but any one, who will compare an Ourang-Outang
or a Champanzee with a man, will at once see that the differences in organization are sufficiently great as to warrant us in
keeping him quite separate from even the highest of the lower animals. Naturalist. AND CAPE HORN CHRONICLE.
To the Editor.
Ma. Editor,—I am no less hurt than surprised at tbe allusions made to me in the "Emigrant Soldiers' Gazette" of the
29th January last. As regards the first part, I pass that by,
as I have done many other comical references to the little
black animal I brought from the Falklands—and although I
have not, nor ever had, any Lord-Mayor-like ideas when I
obtained him, still if the author of the article thought, or
still thinks I have, he is at full liberty to do so, and I take the
affair as a very good joke, and promise the said gentleman a
dinner invitation as soon as I am installed in the civic chair.
But as regards the succeeding part, so severe and codding a
critique I cannot allow to go by without a rather more serious observation. In personating the character of "Miss Hard-
castle" I endeavored to do so to the best of my limited ability, and when I know (by reading, for I never saw them) that
such celebrated actresses as the late Mrs. Nesbitt, Mrs. Hum-
bey, and (now in my own day) Miss Reynolds, have played
the part, I felt (not being a woman) no little difficulty in undertaking it. I played tbe character according to my own
conception, and if my imperfection afforded only a tenth part
nf the audience the least satisfaction I am delighted. The
istage is not, nor ever will be, my business, but as a pastime
among my brother amateurs, I should always have been glad
to while away a few hours, either at-the present or at any future time; at any rate as I do not possess either "the grace,"
"refinement," "beauty," "ankles," or any other qualification
the author of the article in question attributes to me, I must
beg of him for the future to send his heaps of cod-ism to some
other quarter; a passing allusion to my performance would
have been sufficient for my vanity, and which I should have
taken as a compliment. The matter as it now stands leaves
me the butt of many who are not able to refrain from insult,
and whose want of sense prevents them from knowing the
difference between a jocular allusion and a reality. To all
such I feel it too great a trouble to further remark. I have
no doubt the article was written with the idea of being both
funny and amusing, but as it is addressed in direct ridicule
to and of me, for the future no further opportunity will be
given by me for a repetition of nonsense on the part of the
writer, as henceforth the manager has it in his power to replace me (whenever he pleases) by some othtr " charmer,"
whom I am convinced will be as anxious on all occasions to
acquit himself creditably, as I have been. I cannot conclude
without publicly thanking those four ladies who were kind
enough to make mine and the other female dresses, and to
whose taste I am indebted; I would name them individually,
but, as I know it would be offensive to them, I refrain from doing so. What I have written is written in sincerity; had the
writer of the article No. 2 followed the same plan there had
been no need of these remarks from me. I apologize for "the
space I have taken, and remain,
Mr. Editor, yours, &c,
Henry War. Hazel.
Note by the Editor.—We have inserted the above letter,
but at the same time beg to remind Mr. Hazel that as it was
his wish, in taking the part of "Miss Hardcastle," to do it
the most ample justice in his power and to please all, in which
effort he did most certainly succeed, so it was doubtless the
wish of the author of the article in question to give pleasure
and avoid offence; and we beg also to assure him that had it
been for one moment imagined that the effect would have
been the contrary, and the intended joke not been taken in
good part, the article would not have been inserted, such being quite opposed to the rule on which the journal is conducted.
» » «
To the Editor.  ■
Dear Mr. Editor,—As " Naturalist " has kindly promised
to give some information on the classification, tc, of animals,
I thought if I paid a visit to the "City" menagerie and inspected some of the animals themselves, as they are "all to
be seen alive," that I might understand him all tbe better. I
bad but one .hour to spare, so plunging down the first ladder
which led to the dens I came right upon "Cage No. 8." They
were motley birds in this cage. One, a "mocking bird;" last
week he was in fall talking order, and could imitate every
other animal in the collection. Then there was a "cobbler,"
and lastly, a very fine specimen of "Mother Cary." Next
came No. 10, a rare collection this; there was a sharp dog,
not so old as he looks, and seldom bites; not a water dog, at
least I am told he has a great aversion to water, and if there
is the least sign of his having to take to it, -such is his sagacity, that he collars himself with a life-buoy. Then there is
a fine young hippopotamus, a west-country cock, a sandy coloured bear, and a dirty young monkey, at least so a visitor
once called him. These animals are in fine training and were
never known to fall out but once—the bear thought the monkey was grinning at him, and threw his feeding trough at the
monkey, who threw it back and tried to scratch -the bear's
eyes out; the bear was about to hug the monkey, when the
dog gave a bark, and the young hippopotamus growled " hot
water below," and all were like lambs again. It is also remarkable how these animals agree over their meals. Next
came No. 12 den, such a den of animals, a small red-maned
Numidian Lion and cub, a London game cock, a live egg, a
roebuck, and a Wiltshire hog; at feeding times the growling
here is terrific. I was so frightened that I dare not go farther, but lower down I hear there are he-bears, and she-bears,
and cubs, and welsh rabbits, and crocodiles, and cats, and fiddles, and a prick-ear'd ourang-outang playing on a goose's
neck. On Saturday evening last, a laughing-hyena-like noise
was heard proceeding from No. 10 cage, and at first it was
thought that an animal of that description was confined there,
but it turned out to be a poor harmless "booby" which had
escaped from the breeding cage on the opposite side of the
menagerie. The next opportunity I get I intend visiting the
Dove-Cote, and, with your permission, will give you an account of my visit.
I am, dear Mr. Editor, yours, &c,
Naturalist-Secundus.
J^arai and jpiiiarg Jntyttigen^.
ABSTRACT OF PROGRESS.
During the past week.
Latitude.
Longitude
.Tan. 30th     .
.    60°24'S.     .
.     81°87'-W.
''   31st     .
.    49°23'S.     .
.     SOP WW
Feb.  1st    .
.    46°28'S.     .
.     81° (WW.
"2nd    .
.    46°10'S.     .
,     Sl°WW.
"    3rd     .
.    4o°20'S.     -
..   -i^WW
"    4th    .
.    41°45'S.     .
.     81085^
'*    6th    .
.    39°47'S.     .
.   n»»w
Miles Bun.
N.123m.
N.bWA^W. 63 m.
N.bE. 179 m.
N.UW.79m.
W.S.W.27m.
N.J4B.215m.
N .E.^N. 158 m.
To-day at noon Valparaiso bore NJ5.^[N. 546 miles.
Rigid Sense op Duty.—At one of our sea-port Towns there stood—and we
believe does stand there still—a fort, on the outside of which is a spacious
field, overlooking a delightful prospect of land and water. At the time
we are speaking of, a Major Brown was the Commandant; and his family
being fond of a milk diet, the veteran had several cows that pastured in the
land aforesaid; a sentry was placed near the entrance, part of whose duty
it was to prevent strangers and stray cattle from trespassing thereon. On
one occasion an Irish Marine, a stranger to the place, was on guard at this
post, and having received the regular orders not to allow any one to go on
the grass but the Major's cows, determined to adhere to them strictly. He
had not been long at his post when three elegant young ladies presented
themselves at the entrance, for the purpose of taking their usual evening
walk, and the Marine quickly accosted them with * 'You can't go there.'*
"Oh! but we may," uttered the ladies with one voice, "we have the privilege to do so." "PrivilegeI" repeated the sentry, f'faith, and I don't
care what ye have, but you mustn't go there, I tell ye it's Major Brown's
positive orders to the conthrary." "Oh!—ay—=yes—we know that," said
the eldest of the ladies, with great dignity, "but we are Major Brown's
daughters." ' 'Ah, well, you don't go in there any how," exclaimed Pat,
* 'you may be Major Brown's daughters, but you're not Major Brown's
cows.**
Conundrums.
XXXIV. Why have we every reason to suppose that the Serjeant Major of
the Detachment is a Yankee 7
XXXV. Why is a laundress like the greatest traveller in the world?
XXXVI. Why is the "Thames City" like a fop getting at?
Answer to XXXI. Because she yields little or no milk.
.-.■*«-       XXXH. Because he's constantly ill over grease (Greece).
<'       XXXIII. Because she is a horrible lurcher. THE EMIGRANT SOLDIERS' GAZETTE.
gjrnjjB and |w^
TO MY GOD-CHILD.
Dear little innocent, thou dost not know,
The promises for thee I made—and vow,
That in thy coming lifetime thou shouldst be
A child of the Almighty Deity.
Yet I will ask that such may be thy lot,
And show to thee my vows are not forgot.
Thy parents too, oh! ever may they find
Thee dutiful, affectionate and kind.
Their's be the joys in after years to trace,
In thee the fruits of all-redeeming grace;
If you have this, you surely then will prove,
Solace in their care and worthy of their love.
I too, will ne'er forget thee, though I stray
To other lands, and I will ever pray,
That heav'n may bless thee with its brightest smiles,
Little Marina, of the Falkland Isles.
A RETORT.
A CONTRIBUTION FROM A LADY.
"We are forever parted,
But oh! may thou be gay,
Forget the broken-hearted
Whom sorrow wastes away.
May the heart to whom is plighted
Thy vows, thou faithless one,
Love thee as did the slighted,
In happiness here gone.
But I will not reprove thee,
Thy faults I all forgive,
For I cannot cease to love thee
Until I cease to live.
Soon, soon hast thou forgotten
One who prized thee more than life,
And with constancy unshaken
Would love thee all her life.
"SIMPLE DRESSING."
Once gentle maid—thou'rt turning gruff,
Thy last indeed was paltry stuff,
*Twas poor and filthy—coarse and rough,
And mean too.
And is such sweetness turning sour
From week to week—from hour to hour,
Fast fading now—once blooming flower,
And green too?
What once was green is turning yellow,
It's rotten now—what once was mellow,
The half-dead * 'bull" begins to bellow,
With spite and fear;
The * 'shark" has got the hook at last,
Her scream.is heard above the blast,
And like the ((honey-moon" that's past,
The "Bplice" looks queer.
The poor wee * 'wren" is * 'peck'd" to death,
Yet gasping still with dying breath,
He chirips out j 'come forth Macbeth,"
And show your muscle.
And bring Macduff up here as well,
With "troopB" of imps (don't mind the smell)
1 'Tuck up" your sleeves, Mac, face him well,
And have a tussle.
They're on the boards and now for fun,
One armed with pestle, one with gun,
I wonder who'll be first to run
And cry "enough,"
First blow from red, well answer'd grey-,
' 'Go it my chickens"—splendid ' 'play,"
'Tie hard to tell who'll win the day.
Or who's the muff.
But ah! the Grey is on hiB knees,
That blow from Red, faith made him sneezer-
Still he's recov'ring by degreeB,
He'll stand another round.
Ah! ah! sir Grey, what are you at?
I thought you said 'twas -"tit for tat,"
You're hitting below the "belt," you brat,
Come, try and stand your ground.
Come, gently, Bed, don't be too cruel,
By Jove! he's giving Grey his * 'gruel,"
He's making him fizz like "patent fuel,"
Yet still he strikes him fairly.
Grey "nails-hiscolours to the mast,"
But what's the use, his strength is past,
His sun with cloud is over-cast,
For Red has killed him nearly.
Listen, sirs I and pray don't shout.
For Bed's telling what 'twas all about,
And bathing pestles bleeding snout,
Just while he tells his story,
You say that I eat too much ' 'junk,"
And like a ' 'polecat" said I stunk,
If I'm a polecat you're a * 'skunk,"
With muzzle red and gory.
Can't you give me a harder knock
Than writing stuff about my ' 'smock,"
*Tis cleaner than your "bunk," old "cock;"
My pen I can't check, miss:
Suppose miss "trout," "cock," "bull," and "shark,"
You rise some morning with the lark,
And wash away the water mark
That encircles your "straight" neck, miss#
Now if my * 'dirt" is so distressing,
That I don't consider soap a blessing,
My pate's not daub'd with "simple dressing,"
As I saw your's, miss:
From joking, miss, I can't refrain,
Since you've become so very plain,
Tell us where you got that watch and chain
You sported at the ball, miss.
You say that you have common sense*
Why, use it then, I mean no offence,
Pray use a little—do commence,
And give us less de Francais.
Ere by your French your lines distinguish,
Just try and write some better English,
You ugly, ill-made, empty, tin-dish*
Who would like to he thought silver.
* 'Come on" you donkey Penguin muff*
' 'Come on" and write some better stuff*
My cry shall be
"Come on Macduff.**
PAT AS GOOD AS HIS MASTEBv
An Irishman being very hard up at home came to the conclusion that he
would go to London to look for a job, which he did; but on his arrival in
the great metropolis he was at as great a loss as ever how: to manage. At
length, after taking several round turns through the city,, he was accosted
by one of the "swell mob," who shouted * 'Halloa there." Pat turned
round and asked, "Was it me yer honour was callin' to?" "Yes,'"he replied, "I suppose you've newlyswam." "Well," said Pat, "I'mlivin*
since I was born, and a while afore that, an' I never Bwum a stroke in me
life." "I mean you're not long from the 'sod.'" "Just thiB morning
yer honour." "I suppose you want a job." "I'd rather have somethin*
to aat first, for I'm as waak as a new-born child, barrin' I can keep ine
feet." "Well," said the gent, "come with me and you shall have something to eat," which Pat readily did. "Now," said the gent, when Pat
had finished a hearty meal, "I will give you employment if you wish."
■* 'Thank ye kindly," said Pat, ' 'afther such a dinner as that I'm aqual to
anything, from kissin' a purty girl to robbin' the 'mail.'" About 7 o'clock
that evening Pat and his new master went out for a walk; they were passing a Jew's shop, when Pat's master stopped and said: ' 'Now Pat, this is
where I intend giving you your first lesson; stand at this window, and let
nothing attract your attention from my proceedings inBide." Pat stood at
the window as he was told; the lesson soon commenced; he saw his master
examining several watches, none of which appeared to please him; the attentive and grinning Jew at length lifted from a shelf a large case containing twelve dozen of gold watches, of the newest and most fashionable description; still none of these appeared to please; at length he fixed his eyes
on one that hung In the window, which the Jew quickly reached over to
him, but while he was thus engaged Pat saw his master abstract two watches
from the large case and put them into his pocket. The watch taken from
the window appeared to please him, for he took the number, paid a pound
in advance, and was quickly at Pat's side. ' 'What do you think of that,"
said he. ' 'Faith it was a dirty thrick to say the best of it, be the hokey
yer honour has the quickest way of makin' watches ever was seen." The
next evening they repaired to the same shop, the master taking the place
of the apprentice on this occasion. Pat went into the shop, the Jew immediately told him he might go, for he had nothing for him. "Sure and I
wanted nothin'," said Pat, "I only came to tell ye how ye lost yer
watches." "How! how!" screamed the eager Jew. "Do ye mind the gin-
tleman you sould the goold watch to last night ?" ' 'Yes, yes," said the
Jew. "Well," said Pat, "he stole two out of the big box full ye wor
showin' him." Immediately the Jew took down the case and found Pat's
information to be correct. * 'Now," said Pat, "he's outBide the window
there." ' 'You are von honish man, jush stop here till I get him taken." he
instantly leaped over the counter, ran into the street, screamed for the
police, and set off in pursuit of Pat's tutor, who had by this time decided
on taking a little violent exercise. Pat being left alone in the shop, took a
sudden notion into his head that he would try how far he could carry eleven
dozen and ten gold watches without being tired, he succeeded in carrying
them all the way to the "sod," and never heard anything more either of
his master or the Jew.
Query.—A correspondent wishes to be informed if the vessel that was in
distress the other night in the ' 'Bay of Biscay 0!" has been rescued.
The publication of the Emigrant Soldiers* Gazette and Cape Horn
Chronicle was commenced at 10 a. m., on the 3rd, and was completed at
4p. m. this day. published at the Editor's Office, Starboard Front Cabin,
"Thames City." the :E:M:iQ-:R..A-:isrT
ixfrj K- xx \sf
AND  CAPE   HORN CHRONICLE.
No. 13.]
'THAMES CITY," SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 19th, 1859.
[Price 3d.
<i!u[ Emigrant Soldiers' fcett^
"THAMES CITY," FEBRUARY 19th, 1859.
Lat. 21.44 S.    Long. 80.51 W.     Moon's Last Quarter, Feb'y 24th, at 2h. 21m. p. m.
Well, we are once more rolling and groaning along
towards our destination with a fair trade wind, going
too, as the Abstract of Progress will show, at a very
respectable pace, with Valparaiso 900 miles behind
us, and with a prospect of not more than eight weeks
longer on board the "Thames City" before we arrive
at Esquimalt Harbour. Valparaiso being a foreign
port, general leave for the Detachment was prohibited
by the Queen's Regulations, and the revolutionary
state of the country was a further obstacle to their
going on shore, as the Chilians hate both Americans
and English, more especially when in red coats. Still,
as there are perhaps many of the Detachment who
would be glad to know'something of the place, we will
offer a short description of the most interesting points
about it. The port or lower portion of the town is
well built and filled with good shops and hotels, but
the cluster of houses higher up on the hill which are
inhabited by the native Chilians are, very different in
construction, being low and badly built. There are
a great many European inhabitants, English, French
and Spaniards, chiefly merchants and people in trade,
many of whom have their houses of business in the
port and live in the pretty villas that dot the heights
above. Nearly everything except fruit and articles
of diet is very expensive, and dollars fly about as
shillings do in England, but everybody seems rich,
and all, more especially the Chilians, dress in the most
expensive manner. The ladies, both Chilian, Spanish
and French, are many of them very beautiful, but
there were few to be seen, as, owing to the disturbed
state of the country, most of them had either shut
themselves up or gone to their country residences.
The crinoline is something really awful. Regent
street can produce nothing like it, and we would advise
any gentleman who may have the good fortune in future to meet one of these fair walking balloons to get
well to the windward of her, unless he wants his eyes
filled with an amount of dust that is anything but
satisfactory. The carriages are wonderful affairs made
to hold four, but affording an almost certain prospect
of at least two out of the four being pitched out at an
early stage of the journey. They are drawn by two
horses, who clash them along at a fearful pace over
ditches, and stones, and lumps, and holes, and shake
you up like the pea inside a tin rattle, till you almost
fancy you are back at Cape Horn again, except that
if anything it is rather worse. There are plenty of
good Cafes and hotels in the port, and a very good
opera, also a rail-road, and an electric telegraph. The
rail is now completed as far as Quillota, (a distance of
36 miles) but, as soon as the country is once more
quiet, it will be extended to Santiago the capital town
and seat of Government of Chili, 90 miles from Valparaiso. The engines are from Leith and Manchester,
and the labour in the workshops, which are very extensive, is carried on by European mechanics. Tho
whole of Chili both north and south of Valparaiso is
in a state of revolution. The rebels, who are dissatisfied with the present republican Government, are in
possession of many of the principal towns in the
country, and an outbreak was daily expected at Valparaiso while we were there. Many of the inhabitants
were of opinion that our presence in the harbour delayed the outbreak, as,fromallaccounts,120 well armed
English troops would send as many hundreds of the
rebels scudding off to the hills as fast as their legs
could carry them. Those of us who did go on shore
where spoken of by the rebels as being armed to the
teeth, with revolvers concealed inside our tunics,: and
we deem it highly probable that the noble and imposing appearance of our worthy doctor in his uniform
struck awe and terror into the breasts of the rebel
Chilians and kept them quiet for the time being. The
mountains immediately at the back of the town are
part of the range of the Cordilleras, and those in the
distance, which we saw. for the first time on Monday,
towering far aboy,e the others, with their summits
cohered with snow are the celebrated Andes. The
northernmost of the snow-capped range visible from
the bay is the volcano of "Aconcagua," the second
highest mountain in the world, its summit being 23,-
000 feet above the level of the sea. Such is a short
description of Valparaiso, and, with the hope that it
may afford some pleasure to those of. our readers who
I THE EMIGRANT SOLDIERS' GAZETTE,
take an interest in learning a few of the leading features of the countries they may visit, we will bid Valparaiso, Santiago, and Aconcagua good bye, and
direct our thoughts to our arrival in a country where
we shall be introduced to places with English names,
such as Fort Langley, Fort Yale and Victoria, and
where please God we shall ere long arrive and bid a
hearty and by no means a sorrowful good bye to our
life on board ship.
NATURAL HISTORY OF THE VOYAGE.
It was my intention to continue the subject of the Classification of Animals, but as we are now fast approaching the
Equator, I wish, before we bid adieu to the Southern seas and
the many objects of interest more or less connected with them,
to call your attention to a few remarks on the most gigantic
inhabitant of the Southern ocean, viz : the Whale.    In our
last number the rank and position which the Whale holds in
the Animal Kingdom were pointed out, and it was distinctly
shown that, notwithstanding the Whale lives in water, it is
not a fish, and does not possess any affinity with fishes, but
but that it is as much a mammal as the ox or the elephant,
having warm blood, breathing air, bringing forth living young
and'Suckling them with true milk.   But though the Whale,
like other mammalia, is formed for breathing air alone, and
is therefore obliged to come to the surface at certain intervals,
yet those intervals are occasionally of great length.   We well
know that we could not intermit the process of breathing for
a single minute without great inconvenience, and that the
lapse of only a few minutes would be followed by insensibility and perhaps death.     The Whale howevei can remain an
hour uuder water, or in an emergency even nearly two hours,
though it ordinarily comes up to breathe at intervals of eight
or ten minutes, except when feeding, when it is sometimes a
quarter of an hour or twenty minutes submerged.    Now the
object of breathing is to renew the vital qualities of the blood
by presenting it to the air, the oxygen of which, uniting with
the blood,renders it again fit for sustaining life.    But if more
blood could be created than is wanted for immediate use, and
the overplus deposited in a reservoir until wanted, respiration could be dispensed with for a while.    This is actually
what the wisdom of Providence has contrived in the Whale.
A great irregular reservoir, consisting of a complicated series
of arteries, which is situated in the interior of the chest and
within the skull and spinal tube, receives the overplus blood
and reserves it until the system needs it; it is then poured
and circulates, and thus the necessity of frequent access to
the surface is prevented.    It is an object of importance that
the act of breathing should be performed with as little effort
as possible, and therefore the wind-pipe is made to terminate
not in the mouth nor in nostrils placed at the extremity of
the muzzle.    If this were the case it would require a large
portion of the head and body to be projected from the water,
or else the animal should throw itself into a perpendicular
position, either of which alternatives would be inconvenient
when swimmingrapidly,as for example endeavouring to escape
when harpooned.    The wind-pipe therefore  communicates
with the air at the very top of the head, which, by a peculiar
rising or bump at that part, is the highest part of the animal
when horizontal, so that it can breathe when none of its body
is exposed except the orifice itself.   The Whale often begins
to breathe when a little below the surface, and then the force
with which the air is expired blows up the water lying above
it in a jet or stream, which, with the condensed moisture of
the breath itself, constitutes what are called "the spoutings,"
and which are attended with a rushing noise that may be
heard upwards of a mile.    There is another wonderful contrivance connected with the structure of the air-passages well
worth noticing.    The wind-pipe and gullet of ordinary mammalia usually open into a hollow at the back of the mouth,
the food being prevented from entering the gullet by a lid or
valve which shuts down during the act of swallowing; but if
fswb. were the construction in the Whale, the force with which
the water rushes into the mouth would inevitably carry»a
large portion of the fluid down upon the lungs, and the animal would be suffocated. The wind-pipe is therefore carried
upward in a conical form with theaperture upon the top, and
this projecting cone is received into the lower end of the
blowing tube, which tightly grasps it, and thus the communication between the lungs and the air is effected by a continuous tube which crosses the orifice of the gullet, leaving a
space on each side for the passage of the food. The eye of
the Whale is peculiarly formed to resist pressure at enormous
depths, the coatings composing the eyeball being extremely
thick and as dense as tanned leather. I might add other instances of the beautiful contrivance and design in the construction of the mouth, the eyes, the fins and tail, but those
which have been adduced will suffice to point out to those interested in Natural History how many subjects for study and
contemplation this gigantic monster of the deep affords. The
subject will be continued in our next. Naturalist.
Jjordp Jntetligwitc.
(From our own Correspondent.)
Victoria, V. I., Dec. 4th, 1858.
The steps of progress in this country are so noiseless and
quiet that one is seldom aware of what will take place until
it is accomplished.    Since my last letter several things have
transpired of importance.    On the 19th Nov. Governor Douglas delivered the Queen's commission to Mr. Begbie, appointing him Judge of the New  Colony,  and administered all
necessary oaths, &c.    The compliment was then returned by
tbe Judge, and the Governor duly installed into office.   As
the first day of the existence of a new Colony destined to occupy no unimportant place in the future, the 19th Nov. might
have been very properly considered a fit occasion for burning
gunpowder, &c, but everything was quiet here.     In tact few
knew anything about it until the announcement was published in the Cazette.    The honesty of the British officials here is
almost laughable to a Californian.    He is not used to it, and
can hardly excuse them for being so simple as to have a good
fat office and not use it to make money.    Another thing that
astounds a Californian is to see streets and side-walks properly made, thereby preventing many a good fellow from getting
a fat job in making them over again in a year or two.   But
what perhaps seems the strangest of all is that permanent
public improvements are going 'on constantly all over the
city, and that every man is allowed to pursue his vocation unmolested by any demand for taxes in any form.    On the 25th
of Nov. the sale of lots in the new town of Langley, situated
on Fraser River near Fort Langley, commenced here.   There
is not a building of any kind on the town site as yet, it being
a new location.     The streets are to be 78 feet wide, running
at right angles.    The blocks are 76 feet by 252 feet, forming
two rows of nine lots, each 64 feet by 120 feet, and leaving an
alley 12 feet wide running lengthwise of the block.    The
Government price of a lot was 100 dollars, but some brought
as high as 750 dollars.    The first twenty lots averaged 355
dollars.    Buildings will commence going up in Langley at
once, and the Government advertises for proposals for building
a church, parsonage, court house and jail.    The spirits of the
people in Victoria are rising very rapidly, and the large prices
obtained for the Langley lots are supposed to be indicative of
great future prosperity both to British Columbia and Vancouver Island.   The future importance of the town of Langley is admitted by everybody.    Its favourable situation on the
banks of the Mississippi of British Columbia, tbe. only known
thoroughfare to a large tract of agricultural and prairie land,
and advantages for trade, all conspire to render it the future
New Orleans of the new Colony.    A law has been passed to
the effect that an "alien" can hold land only by the sufferance
of the Crown, and that this sufferance will be extended for
three years only, when the "alien" must either become a naturalized British subject, or sell his land to one.    Governor
Douglas has also issued a proclamation relative to the customs duties in British Columbia, which will for the present be
collected at Victoria.   Mauy articles are free, the duties be-
I AND CAPE HORN CHRONICLE.
ing principally on food and drink. Victoria itself has improved immensely of late. Several fine wharves have been built
and the levee is lined w;ith storehouses. Some .fine brick
buildings have also been erected, one of which, "The Royal
Hotel," is substantially built and well .patronized, though it
has several rivals equally as commodious to compete with it.
Fine commodious barracks are in course of erection on the
border .of Esquimau harbour, about two miles from Victoria,
and I believe the Royal Engineers .who lately arrived from
England are (it present in the finished portion of them. Arrangements have been made to establish .post offices at Langley, Forts Hope and Yale, and Fort Douglas, and mails will
be forwarded by every opportunity. A good deal of mining
.is being carried on on the banks of the Fraser river, from
three to six dollars per day to the hand being taken out, and
the people in California begin to think the Fraser river is "not
so big a humbug After, all." The weather up at the diggings
by the latest accounts was very inclement, but business was
brisk, and a large influx of diggers and merchandise is expected early in the ensuing spring. At Fort Yale affairs are
thriving steadily. There are over-a dozen provision and general merchandize stores in full blast, and large arrivals of
provisions are being received by every trip of the steamer
from Victoria. Large quantities of land have been granted
for farming purposes between Fort Yale and the Forks, and
the country at Langley and up to the Chiliwack, at Sumas
Lake, &c, has been taken up in large quantities, not by speculators, but by bona fide farmers, who are busily employed
preparing the soil for next year. Diggers are working the
gold all along the river bank for some fourteen miles bekiw
Fort Hope, and in many other places higher up. At the former place many are earning from six to twelve dollars a day.
It is well known now that gold exists in both Vancouver and
Queen Charlotte Islands. The latter especially has been
found to be rich in gold-bearing quarts, and it is expected
that numbers of emigrants will wend their way thither with
the opening of the new year. Surely there is some gold in the
country to warrant the steps the Government is gradually
taking to advance civilization and enterprise. And though
every circumstance has so far militated against its progress
and development, time will regulate all this, and British Columbia rival Canada as an important colony,independently even
of its gold interest, great though that may be.
(Eotftespndenq.
To the Editor.
Sir,—I must say you made yerself very ready, a while
ago, puttin' me in print widout lave or licence. But as we're
on board ship, where there isn't room to whip a cat, let-lone
an Editor, I'll let ye off for wanst, wid this little tongue-
thrashin', and to shew that I don't bear malice here's another
that you may put in print:
TO MY OULD MOTHER.
Dear Mother,—Here we are safe and sound in Valparaiso
harbour, though what put it iu the Captain's head to bring
us in here divil a one 0 me knows, except it is to give the
ship a rest afther the tuggin' and pullin' she had comin' round
Cape Horn, or p'r'aps he took a fit of tinderness that he
couldn't get rid of until he'd give us a male of fresh mate.
Its a born wonder mother that I'm in the land of the livin' at
all at all, seein' I didn't ate a pratie for months, the divil a
smell as much. The sweetest apples ever I stole out of ould
Blake's orchard (and there's a heap of thim on me conscience)
never tasted like the first pratie I ate in Valparaiso. Oh I
mother, but thravlin' is the great thing afther all, I mind the
time whin I thought they wor all hathens out of Conemara,
but faith it was a big mistake that, for though they'er very
dirty lookin' ehristains here, for all that they grow as fine praties as the best of us. Och! but sure I'm no judge of a pratie at all to what I was; well, and they have great big plums
too, the size of yer fist, and things like over grown coucum-
bers the size of yer bead an' bigger; and sure its a mighty big
place altogether, for we have ships lyin' all round us from all
quarters, there's French, an' Dutch, an' Russians, an'Yankees,
an' JVorwagians, an' £otewagians, an' East Ingins, an' Wttt
Ingins, an' Greenlanders, an'Patlanders, an'—och! but what's
tbe use me tellin' you, mother, that doesn't know a B from a
bull's foot, but still you might shew this to little Phil Ryan,
the blind fiddler, he knows gometlury. But I'll be tellin' ye
some of the work we had comin' round Cape Horn, among the
waves as big as mountains an' the wind howlin' an' schrech-
iu' an' roarin' an' tossin' us about like a paa in a cullender.
Faith they'll have good eye sight that'll ever see me comin'
round Cape Horn again, unless I'm able to work my passage
as a first cabin passenger or the like. Bat one night was the
worst of all; och! but the hair rises on me head to think of
it. The ship was what they call on her bame inds, wid the
sailors runnin' about like maniacs, an' pullin' an' tuggin' at
the ropes for the bare life; the masts bindin' like switches an'
the sails in smithereens, an' the life buoys flyin' about like
snuff at a wake. And down below—oh holy! the row was
enough to wake tbe dead, only there was none to wake,
though some of thim was as near dead as ever they wor in
their lives before, be all accounts. The women singin' out
pillilue! for their husbands, as if they thought Saint Pether
wouldn't turn "the kay in the lock" unless he saw the marks
of a parlin' kiss. An' the tin pots an' pans tumblin' helther-
skelther from one side of the deck to the other; an' glass bottles bavin' a regular fight, chasm' an' bumpin' each other
from side to side, an' the wather barrels in. the hould, sweet
bad luck to- thim! must "put in their oar" an' ' 'pump thunder" below. The next mornin' there was as much spilt biscuit an' Sour, broken pots an' pans, bottles an'jars, as would
fill a pond. I wint up to one chap that I thought looked as
frightened as meself, an' was just beginnin'' to tell him the
mortal fear I was in the night before, whin he struck out an'
tould me "Pshaw! that was nothing, I was woke up by the
noise to be sure, but I 'turned over' and went to sleep again."
Well! if that isn't a "flamer," says I to meself, but I said
notliin' but looked bard at him an' walked away. But faith
his story was exactly the one that was in everybody's month,
so says I to- meself, Pat, ye white-liver'd spalpeen ye, ye may
as well be a haro as anybody else, whin ye can be one so
cbape. I hear that there is likely to be a tow here very
shortly for they are talkin' a-bout rebels an' tbe like; I suppose
they want a repale here too, as well as they did in Ireland a
while back; I dare say they have their "ribt)0n min," an'
"white boys," an' "united Irishmin,"an'"young Irelandmin,"
an' "repalers" here as well as in any civilized country. Any
how I hope the row won't come on before we're off. So good
bye mother, I'll write again from the "diggins" and sind ye
home a lump of goold as big as a piece of chalk, bo no more
at present mother, from yer lovin' son, "Sap Green."
West op England Circular.—Roger Giles„Surjonn. Parish)
Clark, and Skule-master, Reforms Ladys and Gentelman that
he drass teeth without waking a moment, blisters on the lowest tarms, and fiziks for a penny a piece. He zell god-father's
cordel, kuts korns, and undertakes to keep everybody's Nayles
by the year: or so on. Young ladees and gentelmen larned
their grammer langage in the purtiest manner—also gurtkeer
taken off their morals and spellin, also zarm zinging, teech-
ing the baze vial, and all other sorts of phancy work. Queer-
drills, fashingable poker, and all other contrary dances tort
at home and abroad to perfackshun, perfumery and snuff in
all its branches. As times be cruel bad, he begs to tell that
he has jist begun to zell all sorts of stashuuery wares, blacking bawls, hurd herins, and coles, skrubbing brushes, trakal,
mice traps, brick dust, and all sorts of sweetmeats, including
taters, sassages, and other gearden staff, also sprnce, hats,
zongs, hoyl, lat tin, buckets, and other eatables, korn and bun-
yan zarve. and all other hard Wares—He also performs flea-
bottomy on the shortest notice,and farthermore in particular,
he has laid in a large sortment of trype, chains, dogs' meat,
lolly pops, and other pickles, such as oyzters, windzur soap,
&c. Old raggs bort and zold hear and no place helse, and
new laid eggs every day by me Mr. Roger Giles.—P, S. I
teeches joggreffy, Rhumaticks, and them outlandish things.
N. B. A bawl on wensdays, whbn our Mariar will perform
on the gar tar. THE EMIGRANT SOLDIERS' GAZETTE.
THE QUEEN'S PROCLAMATION IN INDIA.
On the 1st of November the act was finally consummated
which transfers the Government of India from the hands of
the East India Company to those of the Government at home.
On that day a proclamation was read at Calcutta, Bombay,
Madras, and Lahore, announcing the sovereignty of Queen
Victoria throughout the whole of our East India possessions.
It specified that all treaties and engagements made heretofore
by the East India Company will for the future remain valid;
that the religious beliefs of the people will not be interfered
with; that the natives will be admitted to offices of trust and
emoluments equally with Europeans, without distinction of
caste or colour; and that the rights, dignity and honour- of
the native princes shall be respected, no further territorial aggression being permitted. The Proclamation is couched in
beautiful and conciliatory language, as we hope you will have
an opportunity of judging for yourselves next week, it being
too lengthy to publish at full in our little journal. The native newspapers speak very highly of the royal Proclamation.
The East India Company have frequently made similar promises but have failed to act scrupulously up to them, and the
people of India look forward to tbe known honesty, sincerity
and earnestness that distinguish the actions of our English
Government as an augury of great-future benefit to theeoun-
try and its inhabitants.
Character.—An Irishman, an Englishman and a Scotchman, conversing together one day, proposed that they should
compose a verse, each of them to a contribute a line so that
it should rhyme.   Tbe Englishman commenced by saying:
Englishman—On the 12th July King William crossed the water,
Scotchman—On the 13th July there was a great slaughter,
Ieishman—And the 14th July was raaly the day afther.
Nelson in his cups.—Nelson once punished an excellent
seaman for being tipsy, and told him "If ever you see me in
such a state, I'll not only allow you to get tipsy, but find you
in grog to do so." At Palermo Nelson gave a grand dinner,
and going into his boat more than half seas over, the sailor
steered about and reminded his commander of the punishment
he had given him, and also of the promise he had made.
Nelson at once ordered him a gallon ot rum, and observed ia
future that he was as weak as his men, though his faults were
less pardonable; "but" said he "Old English bark,if not kept
moist, is sure to perish with 'the dry rot.' "
BISHOPRIC OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The Rev. Henry Hills, ex-Vicar of Great Yarmouth,, has
been appointed Bishop of the Colony of British Columbia.
He received the appoinment in November,.but it was not expected that he would be consecrated before Christmas.
IRarltyt intelligent
Latitude.
Longitude.
Peb. 15th     .
.    80°11'S.      .
.     74°13'W:
"   16th     .
.    27°27'S.     .
.     75°18'W.
"  17th     .
.    25°15'S.     .
.     76°13'W.
"   18th     .
.    23°34'S.      .
.     7S°31'W.
"   19th     .
.    21°44'S.      .
.     80°51"W.
ABSTRACT OF PROGRESS.
Miles Run.
.     N.W.^N. 215 m.
.     N.bWMW.lUm
.     N.N.W. 142 m.
.     N.W.Ww.l63m.
.     N/W.J|W.171m.
To-day at noon we were.2160miles in a S.E.J£E- direction from the point
at which it is proposed to cross the Equator.
Col. Moody, 11. E., with Mrs. Moody and four children, were at San Francisco on the 19th Dec. They arrived on the 15th Dec. on the steamer '(So-
nora" from Panama, and were expected to go on immediately to Vancouver
Island.
Capt. Gosset, R.E., the Colonial Treasurer for British Columbia, with
his wife and child, also arrived at San Francisco in the same steamer.
The barque "Briseis" sailed from the Downs on the27th Oct. with stores
and provisions for the use of the Columbian Detachment of the Royal Engineers, with four* married men of the Detachment and their families j the
whole under the command of Corporal Hall, R. E.
From England. By our latest advices (Dec. 17th) the ship '-'Euphrates"
was loading in the London Docks with stores and provisions for the Detachment, to be sent out under the charge of Serjeant Rylatt, R. E.
Her Majesty's ships "-Amethyst," "Pylades" and "Tribune" sailed
from China for Vancouver Island about the 20thiNovember- with parties of
Marines.
By the death of Lieut. General Fanshawe, Royal Engineers, Major Gen.
G. J. Harding and Major Gen. W. Douglas, Royal Engineers are promoted to
the rank of Lieut. General. Col. H. J. Savage to,be Major Gen.. Brevet
Col. H. 0- Crawley to be Colonel. Brevet Major J. H. Freeth to be Lieut.
Colonel. Second Captain and Brevet Major C. B. Ewart to be Captain; and
Lieut. C. E. Harvey to be second Captain.
Our advices this week are upon the whole of a most cheering character-
3?L0(JR—An abundance of American Flour of first-rate quality was offered
and readily bought up without reduction in price.
POTATOES & ONIONS were also sold at the upset price, the quality fce-
ing tolerably good.
BUTTER—For the first time in this 'City* Limerick Butter was offered for
sale, and being of excellent quality was soon disposed of, the demand
being greater than the supply.
TEA & SUGAR fetched a high price, nevertheless there were many buyers.
Other articles of general consumption were readily disposed of notwithstanding the prices being unusually high.
TOBACCO—We regret to learn that serious doubtsare entertained of a failure in'the Tobacco crops, owing, it is supposed, to its being planted below the usual depth, it is however hoped that by proper vigilance it may
be raised. So great is the demand for this article that nearly tbe whole
of; the stocks of small traders in this 'City' are exhausted. If a supply
is not forthcoming very shortly it is evident that manufactories to consume their own smoke will become a dead letter; most of our sweeps are
beginning to look very down in the mouth.
■■■■I iiiii ii   m    in ■
dkmmi.rmnss.
XXXVII. Who was the first man that obtained a free pass to the Theatre?
XXXVIII. Why is the "Thames City" like an Admiralty Chart?
XXXIX. What is the difference between the (' Thames City " and Joan of
Arc?
Answer io XXXIV. Because he ia a merry Cann (American).
'' XXXV. Because she is constantly at every part of the line and
■travels from Pole to Pole.
*' XXXVI. Because she is the largest round the waist and is
constantly bursting her stays.
Jou^s, &J^
A Joint Concern.—At Worcester there was an idiot w.ho
was employed at the Cathedra] in blowing the organ. A remarkably fine anthem being performed one day,, the blower,
when all was over, said,"I think we have performed very well
to-day." " We performed!" answered the organist, "I think
it was I performed, or I am much mistaken." Shortly afterwards another celebrated piece of music was being performed;
in the middle of the piece the organ stopped all at once; the
organist cried out in a passion, "Why don't you blow?" At
this the blower popped out his head from behind the organ
and said, "Shall it be we then?"
Jutt^rtisjjmcnk
Theatre Royal, " Shames City."
THE MANAGER of tho above Theatre begs to inform the nobility, gentry, and inhabitants of this 'City,' that, having completed his arrangements for this season,, he is-enabled to.offer an entertainment unsurpassed
by any other theatre, and therefore trusts to merit a liberal share of their
patronage..
On Wednesday the 23rd inst.,. will be presented that celebrated Farce,
in one-Act,.by Charles Matthews, Esq., entitled,
""(§©©0,   A©   A    ©^©(UJOaiBIIISB'"'
Characters:
Plumper, a returned Tourist-, Charles Sinnett.
Fred, ditto. Richard Wolfenden. •
Barkins, Fred's Uucle, Charles Derham.
Wiggins, Servant,   T. W. Mills.
Jessy, Fred's '-'intended,'5' , H. w. Smith.
To be followed by a laughable Extravaganze, written especially for the
occasion by a gentleman of this City, entitled,
HAILIF  AIM
Characters:
ran Kia®®[iB©a
Sambo.......  J. H.. Elliott.
Jim, James Turnbull.
Hose. ................ George Eaton.
Bones, William Edwards.
Pete, H. Yates.
Susanna, :... T.   W.   Mills.
Doors open at6 o'clock, performance to commence at 6.30 precisely.
Reserved seats for Ladies only.
The publication of the Emigrant Soldiers' Gazette and Cape Horn
Chronicle was commenced at noon on Thursday, and was completed at
4p.m. this day. Published at the Editor's Office, Starboard Front Cabin,
" Thames City.'* THE  EliMIIQ-iFt^JSrT
€mtttef
AND  CAPE   HORN CHRONICLE.
No. 14.]
"THAMES CITY," SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 26th, 1859.
[Prick 3d.
§h^ (Emigrant Soldiers' (feetty.
"THASHSS CITY," FEBRUARY 26th, 1859.
Lat. 10.30 S.    Long. 19.21 W.   New Moon, March
3rd, at 10h. 18m. a. m.
Last week we published some very interesting details from our correspondent in Victoria, relative to
the rapid progress that was being made in the new
Colony of British Columbia, where we all hope before
many weeks to arrive safe and sound. Some of us
will never willingly take such a long voyage again,
even for the sake of getting back once more to old
England where every one must have some friends,
whom one may frequently think of and portray to one's
own imagination. It will not do for us however to
give up all hopes of seeing England again, and when
■we come to think of the great engineering works which
have already been proposed for facilitating the communication between it and British Columbia, we shall
have every reason to expect that eventually those
among us who do not return to England will get their
friends to pay them a visit in tbe new country and
perhaps settle there. A few remarks upon the position of British Columbia, with the present and proposed means of communication between it and England,
may not be out place, and may perhaps be interesting
to some of our readers. It is situated on the North
West coast of North America between Lat. 55° and
49° N. the latter being the boundary line between it
and the Oregon territory which was made over to the
United States. At present there are three routes to
Columbia and Vancouver Island, viz: lat, by the
Isthmus of Panama; 2nd, through Canada or the
United States over the Rocky Mountains; 3rd, round
Cape Horn.   The first named route is the quickest,
occupying only 35 or 40 days.    Steamers leave England for Colon, situated on the East of the Isthmus of
Panama; from Colon trains ran across the Isthmus to
Panama, and from thence steamers go to San Francisco
and up to the mouth of the Fraser river.    By the
second route passengers go by steamers to Quebec,
and thence by railway to St. Paul's, near the head of
Lake Superior, in Minnesota; from thence by the
United States mail across the Rocky Mountains to the
head waters of the Columbia river; at this point passengers can either turn to the right overland to the
Thompson and Fraser river districts, or go down the
Columbia,cross ever to the Puget Sound,and across the
straits to Yancouver.     The third route round Cape
Horn, we must all be well acquainted with, and the
sooner perhaps such acquaintance is cat the better.
The additional means of communication now proposed
are, 1st, A railway through the British possessions in
North America, extending from the Atlantic to the
Pacific oceans.    On the Atlantic coast of British North
America we have but one safe open seaport accessible
at all seasons, the rest being closed by ice for six
months of the year; but that port, Halifax, (in Nova
Scotia) has the finest harbour in the Atlantic, and is
nearer to Europe by 400 miles than any other port in
the whole continent of America.   From Halifax to Quebec is 609 miles, a railway for 110 of which is now in
course of construction.    From Quebec there is a direct
line of railway through Canada to Lake Huron, a distance of 500 miles; from this point it is proposed to extend the railway along the north shore of Lake Superior,
through the Red River Settlement, along the valley of
the Saskatchewan, and though British Columbia to the
mouth of Fraser river.    The distance from Liverpool
to Halifax is 2466 miles, and the average passage by
steamer 9 days.    From Halifax to the month of the
Fraser River, taking the direction of the proposed
railway, is 3184 miles, and, should this line be executed, passengers will be able to get from Liverpool to
Vancouver in about 14 or 15 days.    Another great
engineering work is in contemplation, by which steamers will be able to go from Liverpool to the mouth of
the Fraser river in about 35 days, ?iz; by cutting' % THE EMIGRANT SOLDIERS' GAZETTE,
ship-canal through the Isthmus of Panama; thia
would obviate the necessity of vessels going round
Cape Horn, and lessen the voyage about one half.
Should the railway be carried out from Halifax to the
mouth of the Fraser river, it will be one great step in
the progress of the British Dominions in North America, and may ultimately lead to its being peopled in an
unbroken chain from the Atlantic to the Pacific by a
loyal and industrious population of subjects of the
British Crown.
NATURAL HISTORY OF THE VOYAGE.
In our last number we offered a few remarks on the pecu-
liar nature and structure of the Whale and its allied species
alluding particularly to the formation of its breathing apparatus, the position of the wind-pipe, the cause of the jets of
water thrown out of the top of its head called spoutings,and
the density of the coatings of the eye.    I now beg to call
your attention to the consideration of the produce  of the
Whale, which renders it one of the most valuable of animals,
in pursuit of which scores of ships well manned and fitted
out at great expense proceed every year from England, Holland, France and America.    The produce of the Whale has
been known to bring into Britain fTOOjOOO in a single year,
and one cargo alone has yielded £11,000.    Every one is probably aware that the body of the Whale is encased in a thick
coat of fat, denominated blubber, varying in diameter from
eight inches to nearly two feet in different parts of the animal.    It has however been only recently known that this fat
lies, not under the skin, but actually in its substance.    The
structure in which the oil denominated blubber is deposited
is the true skia of the animal, modified certainly for the purpose of holding this fluid oil, but still being the true skin.
In this respect does the structure of the skin of the Whale
differ from that of other animals, the object still being defence
against external pressure.    Taking the hog as an example of
an animal covered with an external layer of fat, we find that
we can raise the true skin without any difficulty, leaving a
thick lajer of cellular membrane loaded with fat of the same
nature as that in the other parts of the body; on the contrary
in the Whale it is altogether impossible to raise any layer of
skin distinct from the rest of the blubber, however thick it
may be; and in flensing the Whale the operator removes this
blubber or skin from the muscular parts beneath, merely dividing with his spade theconnecting cellular membrane. Such
a structure as this, being firm and elastic in the highest degree, operates like so much India-rubber, possessing a density
and power of resistance which increases with the pressure.
But this thick coating of fat fulfils other important purposes
in the economy of the Whale.   We must remember that the
Whale is a warm-blooded animal, and dependent for existence
on keeping up the animal heat, although an inhabitant of the
seas where the cold is most intense, and, were it not for this
thick wrapper calculated to resist the abstraction of heat from
the body, the animal would not be kept so comfortably warm
as it is even throughout the fiercest polar winters.    Again-, so
much oil contained in the cells of the skin renders the animal
much lighter and much more buoyant in the water, and thus
saves much muscular exertion in swimming horizontally and
in rising to the surface; the bones, being of a porous or spongy texture, have a similar influence.  Besides the blubber, one
species of the Whale, generally known as "the right Whale"
of the seamen, furnishes an article which has been turned to
various uses by mankind, and which forms an important object of the fishery; it is commonly called Whale-bone and its
substance is known to everybody.   Now this Whale-bone is
not, as many might suppose, part of the spine or ribs of the
animal, but it is a substance which enters into the structure
of the mouth and jaws of this species of the Whale.   Although the head of this species, commonly called the Greenland Whale, is of immense size, the mouth reaching to scarcely less than a fourth of the total length of the animal, still
tbe gullet is so small as not to admit the passage of a fish as
large as a herring; hence its support is chiefly derived from
creatures of a very small bulk and apparently insignificant,
such as shrimps, sea-slugs, sea-blubbers and animalcules still
smaller, called medusa;, of which mention has already been
made in a former paper.    But how does it secure its minute
and almost invisible prey? for, without some express provision,
these atoms would be quite lost in the cavity of its capacious
mouth, unless swallowed promiscuously with the water which
would fill the stomach before a hundreth part of the meal
were obtained.    There is a very peculiar contrivance to meet
this exigency; the mouth has no teeth, but from each upper
jaw proceed more than three hundred horny plates, set parallel to each other and very close ; they rur. perpendicularly
downwards, are fringed on the inner edge with hair, and diminish in size from the central plate to the first and last, the
central one being about twelve feet long.   It is the substance
of these plates that constitutes the whale-bone of commerce.
The lower jaw is very deep, like a vast spoon, and receives
these depending plates, the use of which is this: when the
Whale feeds he swims rapidly, just under or at the surface,
with his mouth wide open; the water, with all its contents,
rushes into the immense cavity and filters out at the sides between the plates of the whale-bone, which are so close and
finely fringed that every particle of solid matter is retained.
The capture of these immense animals is an«adventure of a
most exciting nature, and attended with considerable danger
and extraordinay hazard.    After the huge animal is killed
and towed in triumph alongside of the ship, it is secured by
tackles at the head &ud tail and the process of flensing commences.   The men, having shoes armed with long iron spikes
to maintain their footing, get down on the huge and slippery
carcass, and with very long knives and sharp spades make
parallel cuts through the blubber from the head to the tail.
A band of fat however is left around the neck, called the kent,
to which the hooks and ropes are attached for the purpose of
shifting round the careas3.    The long parallel strips are divided across into portions weighing about half a ton each,
and, being separated from the flesh beneath, are hoisted on
board,chopped into pieces and put into casks. When the whalebone is exposed it is detached by spades, &c, made for the
purpose, ana hoisted on deck in a mass; it is then split into
junks containing eight or ten blades each.    The carcass is
then cut away, as valueless to man, though a valuable prize
to bears, birds and sharks.    Such is a brief outline of the
Natural History of this monster of the deep, in whose structure and habits there are, as we have seen, more than ordinary
evidences of that gracious forethought and contrivance, the
tracing of which makes the study of nature so interesting
and so instructive* Naturalist.
O^itpsjjonttonri}.
To the Editor.
Dear Mr. Editor,—In my last two letters I endeavoured
to point out to your readers what simple means might be had
recourse to by tbem, in the event of their being sent on detachment on our arrival in British Columbia, for the speedy
provision of light and fuel. Then Fire! was my cry, and now
I think your hearers will not deem out of place an attempt
from me to teach them where, in case of "Fire," they may apply and look with any certainty for "Water." Judging from
the present accounts, and the very fact of our going to the
river Fraser, we may all say that there is not much chance of
our finding any scarcity of water—we certainly hope not, but
it does not follow that the water which may be always at hand
will be fit for drinking and cooking purposes, and the hope
that the few remarks that are offered with regard to the purifying muddy and putrid water will be of benefit to some few,
induces me to continue the subject. Foremost of all, it should
be the daily care of every traveller to make sure of getting
water before he sets out for his day's journey. Of course
I allude to a traveller in a strange uninhabited country like
British Columbia; it will therefore be as well to'commence by
describing the indications which ought to guide him in hig
search for it.   A traveller in an arid land that is visited by 1
AND CAPE HORN CHRONICLE.
occasional showers finds his supplies in ponds made by the
drainage of a large extent of country, or else in pools left
here and there along the bed of a partly dried up water-course,
or, lastly, in fountains.    When the dry season of the year is
advanced, there remains no alternative bui to dig wells where
the pools formerly lay.    Spots must be sought for where the
earth is still moist; or, failing that, where birds and wild animals have lately been scratching, or where gnats hover in
swarms.    It Is usual, where no damp earth can be seen, but
where the place appears likely to yield well-water, to thrust
a ramrod down into the soil, and, if it brings np any grains
that are moist, to dig.   It must never be forgotten that, at the
point where it is known, on searching the beds, little tributaries tall into the main water-course, the most water is to be
found.   Fresh water is frequently to be found under the very
sands of the sea-shore, whither it has oozed down underground from the upper country.    I myself witnessed an instance of this at Port Louis, East Falkland.    Vegetation is a
deceitful guide, unless it be luxuriant, or where such trees are
as are observed usually to grow near water in the particular
country visited, as the black thorn in South Africa, and the
gum tree in Australia.    Birds, as water-fowl and parrots; or
animals, as baboons, afford surer signs ; but the converging
flight of birds or the converging fresh tracks of animals is the
most satisfactory of all.    From the number of birds, tracks
and other signs, travellers are often pretty sure that they are
near water., but cannot find the spring itself.     There is great
instinct shown in discovering water—dogs find it out well,
and the fact of a dog looking refreshed and, it may be wet, has
often and often drawn attention to a water-pond that would
otherwise have been overlooked and passed by.    Cattle, curiously enough, cannot be depended on.    Our temporary life on
board ship has shown us that showers may be looked to for
an occasional supply,and we shall not forget the service done
by that awning on the other side of the continent in the variable latitudes, though more water could have been saved had
a weight been put into the middle and a tub to catch the
drippings from it.    An umbrella reversed will catch water,
but drippings from any mackintosh or water-proofed article
are intolerably nauseous and very unwholesome.   It must be
remembered that thirst is greatly satisfied by the skin being
wetted, and lives of sailors have more than once been saved,
when turned adrift in a boat,by bathing frequently, and keeping their clothes damp with salt water, though after some
days the nauseous taste of the salt water is very perceptible
in the saliva, and at last becomes unbearable.    The Australians who live near the sea go about the bushes with a great
piece of bark and a wisp of grass, and brush the dew-drops
from the leaves down into it, collecting in this way large
quantities.    In emergencies the contents of the paunch of an
animal that has been shot, the taste of which is like sweet-
wort, has been resorted to as a souree of fluid.   Mr. Darwin
writes of people who, catching turtles, drank the water found
in the pericardium (the vessel containing the heart) which was
quite sweet and pure.   Many roots exist from which both natives and animals obtain a sufficiency of sap and pulp to take
the place of water.    The most necessary precautions against
thirst are to drink well before starting in the morning and to
drink nothing all day till the halt; to keep the mouth shut; to
chew a straw or leaf, or, Arab-like, to keep the mouth covered with a cloth.    Tying a handkerchief well wetted in salt
water round the neck allays thirst for a considerable time.
Next week, with your permission, I will resume the subject,
with a few remarks on purifying water that is muddy, putrid
or salt, and on the construction of some rude contrivances
for carrying water with which a traveller, surveyor or sportsman may take the field, &c.   Believe me to be,
Your obedient servant,
Peter Simple.
smart for that. "But," says he, "I'll put my dog's tail in and
see what the baste will do." He immediately called up his
dog, took his tail in his hand and stuck it into the turtle's
mouth. He had scarcely got it in when Mr. Turtle shut down
on tbe poor dog's tail, and off the latter started at railroad
Speed, pulling the turtle after him at a more rapid rate than
ever it travelled before. The countryman, thinking that his
day's work would be thrown away if the animal should run
at that rate, turned with a savage look upon tbe Irishman and
exclaimed, "Call back your dog!" Paddy put his hands into
pockets, threw his head to one side, winked, and then answered with a provoking sang froid, "Call back your fish!"
Ijtacal and $Ritiisrg Jnt$%«u[e,
ABSTRACT OF PROGRESS.
Paring the past week.
Latitude.
Feb. 20th  .
. 19°36'S.
'' 21st  .
. 18°21'S.
«' 22nd  .
. 16°51'S.
" 23rd  .
. lo°22'S.
" 24th  .
. 13°34'S.
" 25th  .
. 11° 68' 8.
«• 26th  .
. 10°30'S.
Miles Run.
N.W.bW. 204 m.
N.W.bW. 182 lii.
N.W.bW.UW.174
N.W.DWV.W.1T3
N-W.tiW.169m.
N.W.mW. 144 m.
N.W.BW. 132 m.
Longitude.
88«64'W.
86°40'W.
89° WW.
WWW.
VSPWW.
WWW.
. 97°M'W.
To-day at noon the 110th degree of Longitude on the Equator bore N.W.JW. 984 miles.
We regret to record the death of Admiral Lord Lyons, as
good an Englishman and as brilliant a seaman as has lived
since the days of Nelson. He died at Arundel Castle on the
23rd of November, in bis G8lh year, closing a career of service distinguished by talent and activity and devotion to his
country and profession. His service commenced in the Mediterranean, after which he distinguished himself in the East
Indies and at the islands in the China seas, and again leturn-
ed to the Mediterranean in the command of the "Blonde"
frigate, and was present at the blockade of Navarino. On
one memorable occasion he entered the Black Sea in the first
British man-of-war that ever passed the Bosphorus, and visited Sebastopol, the scene of his future glory. He was Minister Plenipotentiary at the court of Athens for 14 years, and
held the post of British Minister to the Swiss Confederacy as
well as at Stockholm. In November, 1853, he was appointed
second in command of the Mediterranean fleet, in which capacity, as well as when first in command, the valuable and
important services he rendered to his country, to which probably we owe all our success, are well known to most of us,
and earned him the peerage he so richly deserved. There are
few Cfimeans amongst us who do not recollect him hovering
about the English lines over Sebastopol day after day on his
gray pony, and we feel sure that there also few amongst us
who do not regret the loss of a brave and gallant officer, who,
if he had not the same opportunities as Nelson for displaying
the highest qualities of a commander, showed himself throughout the war to be possessed of all the high attributes that
distinguished that great Admiral, and in no instance proved
unequal to fulfil the duties of the high appointment the Government thought fit to entrust to him.
PADDY AND THE TURTLE.
In New York a man was carrying a live turtle along the
street, when by came an Irishman, followed by a large dog.
The countryman tried by gentle words to get the son of Emerald to put his finger into the turtle's mouth, but he was too
lirtft.
At Southampton,
a daughter.
the wife of Captain A. H. Clarke, Royal Engineers, of
Death.
Oil the journey from Panama to Vancouver Island, the infant son of Captain Grant, Royal Engineers.
flptarade,.
There is a noun of plural number,
A foe to peace and quiet slumber;
Now if you add an S to this,
Strange is the metamorphosis;
Plural is plural now no more,
And sweet what hitter was before.
J THE EMIGEANT SOLDIERS' GAZETTE.
^ngs and |oetrg.
A Song written and sung by Corporal John Brown, of the Grenadier
Guards, when the men got some drink for the first time at Balaclava, Sept.
28th, 1854.   Printed afterwards in Blackwood's Magazine.
Come all you gallant British hearts, that love the red and blue,
And drink the health of those brave lads who made the Russians rue,
Then fill the glass and let it pass, three times three and one more
Por the twentieth of September, eighteen hundred fifty-four.
We sailed from Kalamita Bay and soon we made the coast,
Determined we would do our best, in spite of brag or boast,
"We sprung to land upon the strand, and slept on Russia's shore,
On the fourteenth of September, eighteen hundred fifty-four.
We marched along until we carae upon the Alma's banks,
Wo halted just beneath their lines to breathe and close our ranks,
* 'Advance" we heard, and at the word across the brook we bore
On the twentieth of September, eighteeen hundred fifty-four.
We scrambled through their clustering grapes,then came the battle's brunt,
Our officers all cheered us on, our colours waved in front;
There fighting well full many fell, alas! to rise no more,
On the twentieth of September, eighteen hundred fifty-four.
The French they had the right that day and flanked the Russian line,
Whilst full upon their front they saw the British bayonets shine;
We gave three cheers, which stunned their ears amidst the cannon's roar,
On the.twentieth of. September, eighteen hundred fifty-four.
A pic-nic party Menschikoff had asked to share the fun,
The ladies came at twelve o'clock to see the battle won,
They found the day too hot to stay, and the Prince felt rather sore,
On the twentieth of September, eighteen hundred fifty-four.
'Por when he ealled his carriage up the Prench came up ljkewjse,
And so he took French leave at once and left them to the prize;
The Chasseurs took his pocket-book,  the Zouaves they sacked-his store,
On the twentieth of September, eighteen hundred fifty-four.
A letter to old Nick' they found, and this was what it said,
"To meet their bravest men, my Liege, your Russians do.not dread,"1
But devils them, not mortal men, the Russian General swore,.
Drove them off the heights of Alma in September fifty-four.
■ Here's a health to noble Raglan, to Campbell and to Brown,
And to all the gallant Frenchmen who share that day's renown,.
Whilst we displayed the black cockade, and they the tri-colour,
The Russian hue was black and blue in September fifty-four.
One more toast we must drink to-night, your glasses take in hand,.
And here around the festive board in solemn silence stand,
Before we part let each true heart drink .onee to those no more,
Who fought their fight on Alma's height in September fifty-four.
And now God bless our gracious Queen and all her royal r,ace,
And may her boys become her joys, still keep the foremost place,.
For in the van each Englishman oft saw their sires of yore,
Brave Cambridge showed the royal road in September fifty-four.
A DUEL.
"Every bullet has its billet." Napoleon, when he was told
that a cannon ball had killed a sailor who had hidden himself
in a coil of rope in the hold of a man-of-war, observed, "A
man can never avoid his fate ;" a fact well illustrated by the
following circumstance:—An Englishman, brave as Julius
Csesar, challenged a Frenchman to mortal combat. Knowing
John Bull to be a dead shot, the Frenchman, being the challenged party, and having the choice of time, place and weapons, selected a large dark apartment, night and pistols. The
seconds were to remain outside and give the word, after which
each was to fire when he pleased. "Fire!" cried the seconds,
when the combatants had been locked in and declared themselves ready. But no sound was heard. John Bull could find
no mark for an aim; and his adversary, hearing him groping
about the room, fired at random. John was safe enough now,
and, after searching every corner of the room in vain for any
indication of the whereabouts of his antagonist, at length exclaimed,—"Come, I'm tfred of this fun, besides I'm satisfied;"
and he accordingly groped his way to the fire-place and fired
up the chimney. There was a shriek and a yell, and down
came the Frenchman, dead as a door nail.
PADDY AND HIS BARN.
djjflttuttdrums*
XL. What does a man do with a scolding wife?
XLI. .Why are bankrupts more to be pitied than fools?
XLII. Wh;y is Annie McMurphy sure to be happy on the morning of her
marriage?-
Answer TO XXXVII. Joseph, when his brothers put him into the pit .for
nothing at all.
'I        XXXVIII. Because she is full of creaks (creeks) and sounds,
inlets and streams, and covered with figures.
\'        XXXIX. Because one was made of wood and the other was
i 'maid of Orleans."
Paddy had a.barn, to which the parish laid, claim, inasrancb
as he had for several years omitted to pay some trifle for the
land on which it stood. Trustees, Churchwardens and tbe
parish clerk failed to convince Paddy that the barn was forfeited. "By Japers!" said he, "isn't it as clear as mud that
a barn which has been mine iver since it was a little shed
can't belong to anybody else, and afore I'll give it up I'll to
the coorts and see the larned man." He w.ent and was told
that, according to law, his barn wasforfeited, but, if tbe trustee was not arbitrary,be might give a small equivalent,get two
aBbitrators and an umpire, and he had no doubt this would
put the matter into a train of conclusion. On Paddy's return
a second vestry was called, and he was asked by the trustee
what the learned man had said. '-Why," said Paddy, "he
tould me that, accordin,' to law, my bacn. was mortified, but, if
the Jandherd was not an oyster man, I.was to give him a great
elephant, and get two fornicators and a thrumpeter. So now
my friends I have, no doubt, brought the matter into a drain
ot confusion.'' Which all agreed and, rather than clear it,
gave Paddy his barn.
THE CHEAP DINNER.
A traveller called at the London Inn, Plymouth, in Devonshire, and ordered them to get a dinner worth his money.
.Thelandlord, thinking this would be a profitable customer,
set before bim a most excellent Tepast, to which the traveller
did ample justice. When he had finished the landlord presented his "little bill," and the traveller tendered him a sixpence. "How is this," said the host, "your dinner comes to
fifteen and ninepence." "No," answered the other, "I expressly ordered a 'dinner worth my money, and I assure you
this sixpence is all the money I have in the world." The
landlord, finding he was victimized, thought it useless to
argue the matter any further, consented to be the loser on this
condition, viz; that tbe guest should go and cheat the landlord of the "Red Lion" (.his .enemy) of a dinner likewise;
"My good man," Said the otb.er, "I cheated him of a breakfast
.this morning, and he gave me five shillings to pay you a
visit." SES5
Jflfc^,   &I[.
A Quaker's Reproof.—Some time since, a man employed
on a wharf in England was swearingmost boisterously, when
one of the Society of Friends passing along accosted him very
pleasantly and said, "Swear away friend, swear away, till
thee get all that bad stuff out of thee, for thee can never go
to heaven with that bad stuff in thy heart." The man, with
a look of astonishment and shame, bowed to the honest Quaker and retired.
An Irreverent Young Rogue.— 4n urchin in a country
parish in Scotland, having been told by his parents to read a
newspaper aloud to them, commenced to do so in the usual
drawling manner of the parish school. He had not proceeded far when his mother stopped him short, exclaiming, "Ye
scounralJ how daur ye read a newspaper wi' the Bible twang?"
Pat's Comparison.—"That's the smallest horse I ever saw,"
said a countryman on viewing a Shetland pony. "Indade,
■now," replied his Irish companion, "but I've seen one as
small as two of him."
The publication of the Emigrant Soldiers' Gazette and Cape Horx
Chronicle was commenced at noon on Thursday, and was completed at
4p.m. this day. Published at the Editor's Office, Starboard Front Cabin,
'J Thames City." «jL«JdLJV| 'EEM:iOf^A.a>3"a?
MM
($)KMtt£f
AND  CAFE  HORN UHciONICLE.
No.:15.]
"STHAME8 CITY," SATURDAY, MARCH 5th, 1859.
[Prick 3d.
$Ch4 (gmtjgratti jtaldienf fcett$.
"THAMES CITY;" MARCH 5th, 1859.
Lat. 1.13 S.    Long. 110.09 ffl.   New Mook, March
4th, at 1h. 11m. p. m.
It is said that, in the Chilian revolution-of 1851, the
regular troops who were browght to fight against the
rebels evinced so strong a disposition to cut and runt
that their officers, instead of being in front or on their
flanks leading them on, had to get in the rear of them
and prod them up with bayenets, sticks, or sworda, as
the case might be, to make them advance against 'the
enemy—a style of proceeding that reminds >ns svery
forcibly of the under keeper at Wombwell's menagerie, who, as most of our readers are doubtless aware,
invariably rejoices in tbe popular patronymic of 'John/
and goes about from cage to cage armed with a long
pole to exhibit the fine points of <he camel-leopard,
hippopotamus, &c. It would perhaps be no easy matter to get Mr. John to make his appearance on board
here, armed with his pole, in the same mysterious
manner as did Neptune and his trident on the occasion
of our last crossing the line, but we must say that*
were it possible to secure his services, as well as those
of his pole, for the purpose of prodding up the hearts
and souls of the members of our little community,
they would be productive of great benefit to us all.
We were very sorry to hear that, in the early part of
the week, thoughts were entertained of giving up the
theatricals, in consequence of a feeling of dissatisfaction that appeared to exist generally with regard to
the entertainments. Perhaps the hot weather is tbe
cause of this feeling. Well I it is precious hot, there's
no doubt of it. Even the children are bad tempered
in consequence, so bad tempered that they shriek eat
when one tries to make them cool by putting them
under a shower bath. Or perhaps, (and this is more
likely,) it is because everybody is tired of this horrid
dong voyage, looks "with a jaundiced eye upon everything, fancies the acting is not good enough, and thinks
it clumsiness when that horrid curtain sticks half-way.
If this be the case we should bear in mind that oar
actors are all amateurs and beginners, that a perfect
stage management is impracticable, that the plays
have been acted bat once, and that for the first time,
and that really, when one comes to think of it, the acting atid everything else are as good as can reasonably
be expected. The idea of giving up the theatricals
was abandoned on second thoughts, and we are very
glad to see that there are still some who are earnest
and interested in the matter, and who came forward
last night boldly and fearlessly, in spite of the general
feeling, to re-enact the play with which the bouse was
originally opened, forming as -it were a re-commencement of the whole and holding out an inducement to
all to emulate their example. The play too was acted
in pretty nearly the same latitude as on the former occasion, there being this little difference about the matter, vifc: that we are tow, thank Goodness, in the Pacific
instead of the Atlantic ocean, and that several gentlemen were last night happily devoid of a certain uncomfortable sticky feeling about the chin and cheeks,
which they must have felt on the 29th Nov. 1858.
There is another little point about which a feeling of
apathy and indifference seems to exist—we measP'The
Newspaper"—why, we cannot tell, unless the stocks
of contributors are pretty nigh exhausted, and we can
hardly believe that, or perhaps it is because we have
aH been lately reading not fine newspapers, ar becanse
we are getting so near our journey's end,that all thought
of everything else ill drowned in this one dHnabsorbiag
subject.   Whatever the sources of these feelings with THE EMIGRANT SOLDIERS' GAZETTE,
regard to the theatricals and the newspaper may be,
let us hope that they may soon cease to exist, that both
performers and audience will encourage the Manager
of the one, and the literary souls support the Editor
of the other. Our Manager is a sharp fellow, but we
doubt his being sharp enough to cut himself into six
or seven actors and actresses all full grown and ready
dressed. An Editor too may, and ours doubtless
does possess a large amount of brains, but then again
it must be remembered that, besides his head and brains,
the gentleman in question has two arms, and two legs,
and a body, and those too of a very respectable size>
in fact we must recollect that he is not all brains. It
would seem a pity, after carrying on these two entertainments so successfully during three portions of a
very long voyage, to give them up towards the close,
just because everybody is hot, and lazy, and tired of
sea life. Let us try and carry them on pluekily to the
conclusion, and kok forward to the time when we shall
be able to talk, over a good fire on terra firma, about
the whales, and the sharks, and the preserved milk,
and the sea serpents, and the suet, and all the other
natural curiosities met with by the passengers of the
('Thames City" on a voyage from England to Vancouver Island.
NATURAL HISTORY OF THE VOYAGE.
In resuming the subject of the Classification of the animal
kingdom, I beg to call your attention to the four orders mentioned in a former number, viz: the Mammals, Birds, Reptiles,
and Fishes, into which the Vertebrated Animals are divided,
andto remind you that the Mammals more generally known
as Quadrupeds stand at the head of the animal creation. Now
although these Quadrupeds are classed in one division, they
differ vastly in appearance and habits. In one respect however they all correspond, viz : in bringing forth their young
alive, and in suckling them with true milk, from which char-
acteristic'their name Mammalia is derived. The great Naturalist Cuvier, whose classification we have adopted as tbe
easiest and most clearly understood, divides the Mammalia into eight distinct groups. Some Naturalists, as I have before
stated, look upon man as the type of the highest class in the
scale of animal life, and they go on to consider the tribe ot
monkeys as the next m the scale, but a very little reflection
suffices to point oat how wide is the difference between man
and a monkey, independently of the immortal soul with which
man is endowed, and which constitutes him superior to the
beasts that perish. We shall therefore leave man out altogether
in our Classification of animals, and consider him as totally
unconnected with the groups into which the Mammals are
divided. We commence therefore with the group of Monkeys,
or as Cuvier calls them four-handed animals; these have four
limbs capable of "prehension" or of laying hold of things.
which also answer the purpose of progression. We all know
how Monkeys can seize hold of nuts and ginger-bread with
their hands, and how they can grasp a bough of a tree almost
as well with their feet as with their hands; in th;s respect do
they differ from other animals, and it is this peculiarity that
gives them the name of four-handed animals. Next we have
a set of animals whose jaws, teeth, and digestive organs are
adapted for eating flesh, and which iu a wild state live entirely upon it.   These are called carnivorous>or flesh-eating ani
mals. Several types of this group are familiar to all of us,
such as the cat, the dog, the wolf, the fox, and to this group
belong some of the most powerful animals known, viz: the
lion, the tiger, the leopard, the panther, the hyena, and tbe
bear. The third group consists of those