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Southern British Columbia : the garden of Canada, Kootenay, Boundary, Okanagan and Columbia River districts;… 1909

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 CANADIAN
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Southern
British Columbia
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Tbc Resources and Climate of the
Kootenay,
Boundary,
Okanagan  Districts
and of the
Fan-Famed Columbia Valley
1909 Sk
Southern British Columbia
THE GARDEN OF CANADA.
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Kootenay, Boundary,
Okanagan and
Columbia River Districts*
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THEIR WONDERFUL
NATURAL   RESOURCES   AND
SCENIC  BEAUTIES.
Presented by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company's B.C. Land
Department, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. o
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BRITISH COLUMBIA, Canada's Western Maritime
Province, is 700 miles long by 400 miles wide, lying
between the 49th and 60th degrees of north latitude.
sssd It contains in round numbers 250,000,000 square acres,
of which about 183,000,000 are forest and woodland. The
province is mountainous, being traversed from south to north
by several mountain ranges, some of which throw out spurs
east and west, creating numerous valleys watered by a multitude of rivers, creeks and lakes. Skirting the western slope
of the Rocky Mountains, the valley of the Columbia and
Kootenay rivers—a valley of remarkable length and regularity
—stretches from the United States boundary to the northern
limit of the province and westward to the base of the Selkirk
Range. West of the Selkirks (which include the Purcell and
Gold Ranges), the country extends in a wide plateau about
3,500 feet above sea level, but so deeply eroded by water
courses that it presents all the features of a mountainous region, though interspersed with wide plains and rolling ground
composed of rich arable and grazing land. This grand plateau
is bounded on the west by the Coast Range, and, with the
above mentioned valley, embraces a large proportion of the
choicest agricultural and fruit lands of the province. The
actual quantity of arable land has not yet been determined,
but it is very large and for the most part fertile. Professor
John Macoun, of the Geological Survey Department, Ottawa,
says in his report on British Columbia (1877) :—
*" The whole of British Columbia south of 52 degrees
and east of the Coast Range, is a grazing country up to
3,500 feet, and a farming country up to 2,500 feet, when
irrigation is possible."
This vast territory is Southern British Columbia, the main
characteristics of which are thus summed up by Professor
Macoun.   In it is stored up more potential wealth, in minerals,
*A similar statement might tfe made with regard to the country
west of the Coast range except that irrigation is not necessary, the
rainfall being very heavy and much of the land thickly wooded—facts
which also apply to the western and northern portions of Vancouver
Island and the islands of the Queen Charlotte group. timber and fertility of soil, than in any other country of like
area in the known world. Active development of its great
natural resources has not been long in progress, but the results
so far obtained fully justify this statement, as all that has been
accomplished only seems to illustrate the illimitable possibilities of the future. Gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, iron and
coal are distributed through its length and breadth, magnificent
timber in great variety is found in every section, the valleys
produce the finest fruits, vegetables, grains and grasses, and
its thousand hills afford nutritious fodder for cattle, horses
and sheep.
Portions of Southern British Columbia in which the
most progress has been made, apart from the old settled districts in the Fraser River Valley and on Vancouver Island,
which are attracting the widespread attention of home-
seekers, are East and West Kootenay, Boundary and Okanagan
districts. The special capabilities of each of these magnificent
districts, so varied and extensive that many volumes would
be needed to describe them, can only be briefly outlined in this
booklet, which will have fulfilled its object if the homeseeker
or investor into whose hands it falls finds its contents sufficiently interesting to induce him to travel to British Columbia
and see for himself. He may rest assured in advance that no
attempt at exaggeration is made in these pages, and that what
is here set down in praise of the country falls short of the
reality.
THE   KOOTENAYS.
EAST KOOTENAY forms the most south-eastern portion
of British Columbia, and is famed for the immense coal
measures through which the Crow's Nest Pass branch
of The Canadian Pacific Railway runs for many miles, both
in Alberta and British Columbia. These mines are estimated
to be capable of yielding 10,000,000 tons of coal a year for
7,000 years. Several mining companies, including the Canadian Pacific Railway, are developing properties, and those that
have reached the producing stage are turning out close to
1,000,000 tons annually. There are also extensive deposits
of petroleum in this section of the district, but these have not
as yet reached the commercial stage.    Entering the province from the east, by the branch of the Canadian Pacific Railway,
which crosses the Rocky Mountains through the Crow's Nest
Pass, one descends into the magnificent Kootenay Valley,
watered by the Kootenay and Elk Rivers, and several smaller
streams. The scenery along this route and in the valley is
indescribably picturesque. Sheltered to the north and east by
the Rocky Mountains, and open to the south and west, the
climate is exceptionally mild and healthful. The " bottom "
lands will produce all kinds of crops in perfection, but the
uplands require irrigation, which is easily applied from the
Elk River and other streams. Fruit trees planted late in the
fall stand the winter and thrive, and wherever orchards have
been established they are doing well. Conditions vary somewhat with locality everywhere, more especially in a mountainous country, but speaking generally of this district, it is
a fair valley for British Columbia and none better fitted for
general farming, fruit growing, dairying and cattle raising.
From Kootenay Landing on the west, to the Alberta boundary
on the east, the country is more or less all suited to agriculture;
portions of it are exceedingly fertile. Much of the land is
open and rolling, a beautiful park-like region, ideal for stock
raising, a profitable industry, as there is a good home market
for horses, cattle, sheep and hogs.
COLUMBIA VALLEY.
Going northward, through the Kootenay River Valley,
from the Crow's Nest branch of the Canadian Pacific Railway,
the fertile Windermere District is entered at Canal Flats.
The scenic beauties and fertility of this valley baffle description. Dominated on the east by the Rocky and on the west
by the Selkirk Mountains, the diversity and grandeur of scene
from every point of view is fairly bewildering. The only
present means of transportation is by stage from Cranbrook
and Fort Steele, on the south, to Windermere, and by steamer
or stage from Windermere to Golden, on the Canadian Pacific
Railway main line, or vice-versa. It is probable that a railway
will shortly traverse the valley from north to south. The
advent of such a road would be followed by an inrush of
settlers and the development of the minerals and timber, for
the country is well endowed in both respects. Settlers are
taking up land in the valley, and despite the lack of quick
communication with the outside world, they are all doing well.
Grains,   vegetables  and  fruits  flourish  and  cattle  thrive  on the nutritious bunch grass which covers the benches and hillsides. The snowfall is so light that the live stock winter out,
and winter feeding is the exception.
The lands in the Kootenay and Columbia River Valleys
from Golden, south to Tobacco Plains, on the border of the
United States, are largely in the hands of the'Canadian Pacific
Railway Company and the Government, and are nearly all open
to settlement by pre-emption or by purchase at low prices and
on easy terms of payment.
The remarks which have been cited in regard to the
Columbia River Valley apply largely to the stretches of the
Kootenay River extending from Canal Flat on the north to
the International boundary on the south, the part known as
Tobacco Plains being particularly fertile.
WINDERMERE  DISTRICT.
This perhaps is the most beautiful part in all the far
famed Columbia Valley. Here the Selkirk range has drawn
away from the Rockies, leaving a wide stretch of fertile valley
and bench land, dotted about with numerous little lakes and
watered by the clear running mountain rivulets. The Columbia River winds like a great silver thread through the middle
of the valley. About the centre it widens out forming the
justly famed Windermere Lakes. The land encircling these
lakes is most attractive, being nicely dotted with firs and
poplar clumps giving it an open and parklike appearance. Its
sunlit glades and vistas make it peculiarly attractive to the
homeseeker. The native bunch grass makes the district
peculiarly well adapted for for stock raising, and the attendant
success on the recent introduction of alfalfa makes its future
assured as a dairying district.
Winter wheat gives a diversity to the other cereals grown
and its recent introduction has been equally successful.
Vegetable and small fruit grow in luxurance and Windermere
strawberries are noted for their profusion and flavor.
Such apples as the "Wealthy" and "Fameuse" are
gradually making a reputation for the district which with the
advent of the railway is sure to become as well-known as the
other orchard valleys of the Columbia River. With its
diversified qualities this valley might best be described as the
"Homeseekers' Delight." (A
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cu  _n A LAND OF PLENTY.
As an illustration of the fertility of the soil and mildness
of climate, it may be mentioned that strawberries, raspberries,
currants and gooseberries are indigenous, growing in profusion in the hills and bench lands. Cultivated strawberries,
seven to the pound, are not uncommon near Cranbrook, where
this fruit readily retails. Apples, pears, plums, damsons,
prunes, cherries and all the small fruits grow to perfection.
Peaches of good quality are grown near Creston and further
west, but their culture has not been urged in other sections,
the altitude of other parts of the valley being thought too high
for this delicious fruit.
The local consumption of fruit takes up a great quantity
of what is grown by the producers, but the export industry
is growing apace. In 1904 the Dominion Express Company
carried 2,221 packages of berries from Kootenay River points;
in 1908 their carriage from the same part had increased to
3,608 packages, equal to 42 tons. Of this latter quantity, 885
packages, or 13 tons, came from Creston. For the year 1909
this output is being greatly increased, and new and up-to-date
facilities for conveying fruit to the prairie markets are being
introduced by this great carrier.
The best criterion from which to judge the merits of a
country, in the absence of personal observation, is the unsolicited testimony of resident agriculturists as to their actual
experiences.
Mr. William Hamilton, a practical farmer and pioneer of
East Kootenay, settled near Cranbrook in 1898, and, as he
says, proceeded to " ask the ground what it could produce."
His operations were largely experimental, as he was a stranger
in a strange land, but they proved successful from the beginning. Although a firm believer in the benefits of irrigation,
he has so far depended upon the rainfall with most satisfactory
results. He has grown wonderful crops of cherries, plums,
prunes, apples, pears and strawberries, and other small fruits.
He has raised parsnips two feet long, potatoes, carrots, turnips,
cabbages, onions, and all the other garden vegetables, of
abnormal size and remarkable for the great weight of the crop.
Three pounds of seed potatoes produced 68 pounds, and from
60 pounds of Early Thoroughbreds he marketed 1,500 pounds.
His success with cattle, horses and poultry is quite as satisfactory. The stock requires feeding and shelter during December,
January and February, running at large and doing for them- selves for the other nine months of the year. His poultry pays
well, eggs selling at an average of 50 cents a dozen, and
chickens 18 to 20 cents a pound, live weight. His farm of
179 acres has been gradually cleared of the heavy timber, the
large trees being taken by the lumber companies, while the
smaller ones were made into cordwood. A few trees and
stumps remain, but they do not interfere with the work of the
farm. Fruit trees do well among the stumps, for the same
dry, warm soil which nourished the big pines and larches grows
fruit trees equally well.
Mr. J. M. Durr has four acres of bottom land on St.
Joseph's Creek, south of Cranbrook. He favors small farming
for men of limited means, and declares that ten acres of garden
will pay better than a ranch of 300 acres, and is much more
easily managed, besides requiring very little capital. He has
three and one-half acres under cultivation. Off nine-tenths
of an acre he raised 12 tons of first-class potatoes in 1905. An
acre and a half of cabbages yielded the enormous quantity of
15 tons, which sold for eight cents per pound. He also raised
five tons of carrots from a quarter acre. Mr. Durr's profit
for 1905, after retaining all the vegetables required for his
own use, was $800, equal to over $200 per acre.
Mr. R. Lounsbury, who has four acres of bottom land on
St. Joseph Creek, started with five cows and $200 cash. He
sells milk in Cranbrook at eight to ten cents per quart. His
stock has greatly increased since then, and he derives an income
of $3,000 a year. He supplements his dairy business by
raising a few hogs, which sell readily at 10 cents a pound live
weight.
Mr. S. Brewer, of Fairmount Hot Springs, Windermere
Lake District, say's :—
" In another few years we will see every available
" patch of ground planted in orchards, and I believe fruit
" will be produced here in large quantities, and the mar-
" ket is at hand. I have grown fruit in this valley for
" about 16 years and have never had a failure. So I
" think that 15 successful crops of apples justifies me say-
" ing that this is a good fruit country."
*Mr. R. A. Bevan, of Creston, is one of the progressive
fruit growers in that neighborhood.    Last year, amongst his
*A letter from Mr. Bevan appears in another part of this
pamphlet. 10
other undertakings which proved successful, was the shipping
of strawberries from off his ranch to Sault Ste Marie, Ontario,
a distance of some 3,000 miles. He has also, with success,
shipped berries into parts of Manitoba.
KOOTENAY AND ARROW LAKES.
THE Columbia River about 100 miles northward from its
source, the Columbia Lakes, turns southward, and broadening into the Arrow Lakes, drains a large area, mostly
mountainous and well timbered, till it crosses the International
boundary near Trail.    This country, together with the large
..•.-»vi-
One of the Kootenay Lake Steamers.
valley formed by the Lardeau River and Kootenay Lakes,
comprises West Kootenay, which was until recently regarded
as largely a mining and lumbering region. There are, however, many patches of good land in the district and much that
can be reclaimed by dyking. The bottom lands are rich black
alluvial and very fertile, the benches being a gravelly loam well
adapted to fruit growing. At the southern end of Kootenay
Lake there is a tract of 47,000 acres of meadow land which II
has been partially reclaimed and is very productive. Wherever
fruit trees have been planted in this district they have given
great satisfaction, and fruit growing on a commercial basis
has now been established in the Kootenay Lake section. The
shores of Kootenay Lake are proved to be well suited to fruit
growing, and many orchards have been planted. On the West
Arm of the lake, near Nelson, this is especially noticeable, the
number of plantations indicating that in time the whole available lake front will be one immense orchard. Peaches of large
size and exquisite flavor are grown in the Nelson district.
During the year 1908 no less than 11,400 packages of
fruit, equalling 135 tons, were shipped by the Dominion Express Company from the port of Nelson. This year the same
carrier has chartered the s.s. Nelson to pick up fruit shipments along the Kootenay Lake and deliver them daily at
Kootenay Landing, at which point an iced car awaits the
arrival of the steamer, and on the accumulation of a load is
forwarded quickly to the markets of the plains.
The country bordering and south of the Arrow Lakes includes some large areas of good land, which will all be settled
upon and cultivated before many years. Summer frosts may
nip the tenderest shoots on the lands in the creek bottoms, but
wherever the land is ten or more feet above the water level
there is no danger of damage. Professor Thomas A. Sharpe,
who made a trip of observation through Southern British
Columbia in the summer of 1905, says of this part of Kootenay : " If I owned land anywhere along this section I would
have no hesitation in planting an orchard."
Potatoes yield 300 to 400 bushels to the acre, and other
roots give equally heavy returns. Garden vegetables grow to
perfection, and even the more delicate varieties are seldom
injured by frost or drought. Although the acreage and aggregate yield of vegetables, grain and root crops are increasing
yearly, the quantity produced is far from satisfying the local
demand. Mining, lumbering and railway construction employ
large numbers of men whose wants the farmers cannot supply,
so that very much which the country can produce has to be
imported. Figures to illustrate this important point are not
readily available in the case of agricultural products in general,
but.in the matter of fruit the return of freight shipments over
the Canadian Pacific Railway for 1905, show that of 3,061
tons carried, 1,669 tons were delivered within the province and
were absorbed by the home market. 12
In the Columbia Valley and throughout the Kootenay
districts, the altitude rarities the air and makes it bracing. The
rainfall averages from 18 to 20 inches per annum, the lesser
precipitation being in East Kootenay, and the snowfall varies
from one to three feet. The winters extend from December
to March, snow not falling to lie, as a rule, earlier than the
end of December. Navigation on the Upper Columbia closes
early in November, and on the Lower Arrow Lake and Lower
Columbia about the end of that month. The Kootenay Lake
does not freeze over. During the winter the mercury occasionally drops below zero, but these cold "snaps" are of short
duration and, owing to the dryness of the air, the cold is not
severely felt. The highest summer temperature varies from
80 to 90 degrees in the shade, with compensatingly cool nights.
Mr. James Beaumont, of Ipswich, England, who is largely
interested in immigration, in a recent interview in regard to
the Kootenay District and its possibilities, says that that part
of the country is simply ideal for young Englishmen who have
the necessary capital to make a start. Touching on apple trees .
in giving his experience, he says: " The English apple trees
seem to do exceptionally well. I brought 700 trees of different
varieties from England, including Cox Orange Pippin, Graven-
stein and Warren's King of the Pippins. The English trees,
accustomed as they are to the severe English winters of constant freezes and thaws, have become very hardy, and in the
more favorable climate of British Columbia give phenomenal
results."
CITIES  OF THE KOOTENAIES.
Amongst the important and well established business
centres of East and West Kootenay are:
NELSON, incorporated as a city in 1897, has a population of between 6,000 and 7,000. It is situated on the West
Arm of Kootenay Lake, about 20 miles from the outlet of the
lake, and about the same distance from where the Kootenay
Lake empties into the Columbia River. It is an exceedingly
well built and well laid out town. Its large business blocks,
its many branches of different chartered banks, its waterworks, electric light, telephone and other public utilities, are
equal to those only generally found in much larger cities.
Nelson is the commercial, judicial and political capital of
Kootenay district. It is situated some 1,760 feet above sea
level, and is remarkable for its salubrious climate and equable *3
temperature. In winter the thermometer seldom marks zero,
while in summer the heat is never unpleasant, and the nights
are always cool. The chief industries upon which Nelson has
relied have been mining and lumbering, and while these, as
yet, are comparatively undeveloped, they have made Nelson
the wholesale centre of a large and increasing trade. The Hall
Mines smelter, which was recently reconstructed and a new
plant installed, is one of Nelson's important industries. During
the last two or three years fruit raising has received a good
deal of attention, and the shores of the West Arm are dotted
with fruit ranches. Large shipments of strawberries, plums,
peaches, pears, apples and other fruit have been made from
here to Manitoba and the other prairie provinces. The quality
of the fruit is unsurpassed; it ripens early and the yield is
abundant. There are several good hotels with daily trains and
steamers to all parts of the district. As a residential place,
Nelson offers many advantages, on account of the salubrity
of its climate, the orderliness of its inhabitants, its many
churches, athletic and social clubs, its excellent public schools
and hospitals.    A daily newspaper is published here.
TRAIL, on the Columbia River, 14 miles by rail from
Rossland, is an important industrial point. Here is located
the immense plant of The Consolidated Mining and Smelting
Company of Canada, Ltd., including a lead and silver refinery
and a lead pipe factory, the only establishment of the kind in
Canada. The population is between 3,000 and 5,000. Trail
is supplied with water and electricity, has good hotels, churches
and well stocked stores, being a supply depot for the numerous
mines in the vicinity. It is a terminus of the Rossland branch
of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
KASLO, on the west shore of Kootenay Lake, is the distributing point for the important silver-lead mines of Slocan
district. The town has a beautiful situation on a plateau overlooking the lake. The buildings are of a good class, and
include several churches, school house, hotels, banks, etc. The
population is about 2,000.
YMIR, is a flourishing mining town on the Salmon River.
The Ymir mine operates the largest gold saving plant in the
province, having 80 stamps, two crushers, 24 Frue vanners and
six cyanide leachers. Several other mines in the vicinity of the
town are being developed. H
ROSSLAND, which was surveyed as a Townsite in 1894,
is now a flourishing city of 5,500, with fine business blocks,
churches, schools and hospital. On account of its elevated
position (3,400 feet above sea level) much difficulty was encountered in providing water-works and other public utilities,
/
Father "Pat's" Fountain,  Rossland
but the obstacles were surmounted and the city is now well
equipped in all respects. Its chief industry is mining, the
townsite itself and the surrounding hills containing immense
NOTE—Father "Pat," whose name was Henry Irwin, was a
clergyman of the Church of England, who by his devotion to his
work in the nineties won for himself the love and esteem of all the
people of the Kootenays. He was born in the Wicklow mountains,
Ireland, on August 2, 18S9, and died on his way to Ireland at Montreal in January, 1902. This fountain was erected to his memory, the
cost being defrayed by public subscription. is
deposits of iron and copper pyritic ore, carrying gold and silver.
Some of the principal mines near the town are the Le Roi, Le
Roi No. 2, War Eagle, Centre Star, Giant, Velvet, Jumbo,
with many others which contribute to the ore tonnage of the
camp. Electric power is furnished from Bonnington Falls,
on the Kootenay River. Rossland has excellent hotels, banks,
club, breweries, sawmills and newspaper.
There are many other towns of importance as mining
centres in West Kootenay, among which are Sandon, Cam-
bourn,  New Denver,  Silverton, Slocan City, Whitewater, etc.
TOWNSITES ON "THE CROW."
CRANBROOK, the chief divisional point on the Crow's
Nest Pass branch of the Canadian Pacific Railway, is situated
in a beautiful wooded prairie near the southern end of the
Kootenay River Valley. It is an important business place,
the centre of a fine agricultural and lumbering district, and a
distributing point for supplies. The provincial government
also have important offices in the centre of the town. The
population is about 3,500 and steadily increasing. Three
large saw-mills with a daily capacity of about 160,000 feet,
are located in the town. Several promising mines are in the
neighborhood, two of which, the Kimberley and the North
Star, are connected with the town by a branch railway. It
has a good waterworks system, banks, churches, hotels and
schools. The building of the Kootenay Central Railway will
add much to Cranbrook's wealth and importance. Two newspapers thrive here.
CRESTON.—This town is the centre of a rapidly developing district, which has only come into prominence within
the last few years. Owing to the general low elevation of the
district, and its immediate proximity to Kootenay Lake, the
climate is very mild, and allows for the production of all the
finer qualities of fruit. A large territory known as the " reclamation lands " was last year thrown open for sale by the
Government of British Columbia, and in consequence of this,
settlement is developing very rapidly. The town is situated
•on a gentle, rolling slope facing south from the railway.
Within its boundaries are the requisite number of stores, banks
and churches, and semi-public institutions necessary for a
place of its size. It is supplied with electric light and a bountiful supply of good water. The present population is in the
neighborhood of 500.  rf i6     •
MICHEL, on this branch of the Canadian Pacific Railway, is a mining centre and a place which is a centre for the
coke industries.
HOSMER lies to the west of Michel. Within the last
two years, the extensive coal deposits of that neighborhood
have been opened. The latest and most up-to-date machinery
in this industry has been installed, extensive coke ovens have
been built. The town is rapidly developing into a place of
great importance.
FERNIE, 62 miles east of Cranbrook, on the Crow's Nest
Pass branch of the Canadian Pacific Railway, is one of the
centres of the coal mining industry for this part of British
Columbia. Although the town is only eight years old, it possesses many of the features of a long established place. The
coal mines in and about Fernie are practically inexhaustible,
and as the demand for coal and coke is constantly increasing
the town is making wonderful progress.
Other towns in South East Kootenay are Morrissey and
Coleman, coal mining centres; Fort Steele, Wardner, Moyie,
the centre of a group of high grade silver-lead mines; Windermere on Lower Columbia Lake. Elko, on the Elk River, 12
miles south of Fernie, is the market town for Tobacco Plains
and other farm settlements. The town has a splendid asset in
the water power of the Elk River, the utilization of which
should insure Elko's prosperous future. Marysville, the site
of a smelter which treats the ores of the Sullivan mines. New
mining towns are continually springing up, in which prospectors, lumbermen, miners and hunters purchase supplies and
establish their headquarters, the ubiquitous trader keeps
abreast with the advance of settlement. o
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THE   BOUNDARY.
WEST of the Kootenays lies the Boundary country,
which forms the extreme southern part of Yale
District. It is about 40 miles from east to west
and extends for 50 miles north from the International
boundary. The character of the district, ' while varied, is
not very different from that of other parts of the great
interior plateau of British Columbia, save that the highest
elevations seldom exceed 5,000 feet. Most of the hills are
wooded to their summits, with open slopes, facing south, east
and west, plentifully carpeted with bunch grass, a natural beef
producer, while the valleys offer excellent openings for farming
and fruit growing, the higher benches requiring irrigation.
The climate is mild and healthful, presenting no extremes of
heat or cold. The snowfall in the valleys is light and spring
opens early. The winter is confined to eight or ten weeks of
frosty weather, the mercury occasionally falling below zero,
but the cold is not extreme nor protracted. The summers, like
those of the Kootenays, are warm without being oppressive,
and the nights are always cool. The atmosphere is clear, the
prevailing condition being bright sunshine both winter and
summer, and the air is crisp, dry and bracing. The average
rainfall is 10.8 inches, and snowfall 27 inches which would
represent seven to twelve inches on the level.
Between Lower Arrow Lake, its eastern boundary, and
the divide between the Kettle River Valley and Okanagan Lake,
the Boundary possesses many fertile valleys and wide stretches
of rolling prairie, all more or less wooded. The beautiful
Kettle River Valley includes from 40,000 to 50,000 acres of
farming lands, a rich black loam averaging 18 inches, with a
sandy clay subsoil, while lesser areas are situated on Boundary
Creek, Anarchist Mountain, or Sidley, Rock Creek and on the
North and West Forks of the Kettle River. All the soil of
these valleys and their benches is alike fertile and capable of
producing grain, fruits and vegetables, even in the higher
altitudes, as at Anarchist Mountain 3,500 feet altitude, where
hardy grains and vegetables do excellently and yield heavy
crops. This should be proof positive of the fertility of the
soil. The abundance of water and the variety of the native
grasses makes the Sidley Section an ideal dairy country. Hogs
and poultry raising have proved very profitable to those who 19
have tried them. Most of the land not already taken up is in
the railway belt. One of the unique conditions found in this
section is, that despite its high altitude neither drainage or
irrigation is required.
There is a fine plot of land near Midway, which the
settlers testify is free from summer frosts and yields splendid
crops of potatoes, barley, oats and vegetables. Fruit is
successfully grown although the number of trees planted as yet
is not large. Those that have come into bearing show a healthy,
clean growth, and produce goods crops. A peculiar fact was
noted near Midway by Professor Sharpe of the Government
Experimental Farm at Agassiz, B.C., which is, that "potatoes
and fruit trees on the uplands north of the town were doing
very well without irrigation." Other observers have made
similar remarks with regard to other parts of the southern
districts, and there is little doubt that some of the bench lands,
of exceptional depth and fertility, will yield good returns for
many years without irrigation if extra care be given in the
way of tillage and rotation of crops.
Between Cascade and Carson, 12 miles, there is a fine tract
of land, about 20,000 acres, in a beautiful valley about two
miles wide. Most of the cultivated land here is devoted to
mixed farming and dairying. Fruit growing is rapidly becoming popular in this section, about 30,000 trees representing
the progress made so far. The land is admirably adapted to
apples, pears, plums and berries; cherries, grapes and peaches
are also grown to a small extent. Five carloads of fruit were
shipped in 1905 to eastern points.
A BRIGHT FUTURE.
Three lines of railway are now projected traversing the
Boundary so that its future as a desirable field for agriculture
and other industries is assured. Even now, with transportation facilities confined to a comparatively small portion of the
district, the farmers are thriving and steadily growing rich.
The numerous mining camps scattered over the countryside,
the logging camps, lumber mills, and smelters, provide markets at the very farm gate, indeed, it is almost a rule for the
buyer to seek the market, thus reversing the order prevailing
in older countries, and the prices are, to say the least, satisfactory, for instance, oats range from $30.00 per ton; potatoes. 20
$20.oo; hay, $25.00; beef cattle, 3^ to 4 cents per pound, live
weight; hogs, live weight, 7 cents; eggs average 30 cents; butter, 25 to 30 cents per pound.
The Boundary, and in fact all Southern British Columbia,
offers exceptional opportunities to industrious, steady men of
small means. Mechanics, laborers and miners are in demand
at good wages, while the practical farmer can make no mistake in securing land and devoting himself to its cultivation.
The Covert Ranch, near Grand Forks, is a splendid illustration
of what may be accomplished by any man possessed of energy
and perseverance. The owner of this magnificent property
began life in the Boundary with a pair of willing hands and a
cash capital of $60.00, borrowed money. To-day he owns one
of the most valuable properties in the province and has been
for many years living in the midst of plenty—master of a competency.
CHIEF TOWNS OF THE BOUNDARY.
GRAND FORKS, situated at the junction of the Main
Kettle River with its North Fork, is the centre of a beautifully
picturesque valley, twenty miles long with an average width of
three miles containing an area of 20,000 acres of fruit land.
As a fruit country, the district adjacent to the city is unsurpassed. In 1907 Grand Forks won the district exhibit cups
at Nelson and Kaslo, a bronze Knightian Medal at the London,
Eng., Exhibition and the Gold Medal for the best five boxes of
commercial apples at the Northwest Fruit Growers' Exhibition,
held in Vancouver, in a competition with the famous Oregon
and Washington apples.
The chief industries established are the Grariby Smelter,
second in size on the continent, treating over 24,000 tons of
ore each week; a steel works, and Iron foundry, a saw mill, a
sash and door factory, two breweries, a bottling works, a brick
yard, a lime kiln and the Riverside Nursery. Grand Forks
has a public and high school with a staff of nine teachers. A
few years ago Grand Forks was a mining camp; to-day,
besides being a home of the second largest smelter on the continent, it is the centre of one of the richest fruit areas in. the
interior.
GREENWOOD, a prosperous mining town, situated at
the junction of Twin Creek with Boundary Creek, 117 miles
west of Nelson on the Columbia and Western Branch of the
Canadian Pacific Railway, is one of the most important com- 21
mercial and mining centres of the Great Boundary District.
Roads radiate from the town in all directions, giving access to
the numerous mining camps, where it derives the greater part
of its trade. The British Columbia Copper Company's smelter,
situated at Anaconda, a suburb of Greenwood, has a capacity
of over 2,000 tons per day. The Mother Lode Mine, from
which the greater part of the ore is received, is situated about
three miles from the town and employs several hundred men.
The Greenwood-Phoenix Tramway Company have started in
active operation for their big tunnel which will bore the hill
between Greenwood and Phoenix, a distance of over three
miles. This will tap several of the high grade mines in the
district at a depth varying from 1,000 to 3,000 feet, the success
of this tunnel will mean the opening up of several new properties in the surrounding camps. Adjacent to Greenwood on
Boundary Creek are numerous ranches which have made a
success in fruit raising which meets with a ready sale in the
town, a conservative estimate has placed the timber resources
in the immediate neighborhood at several hundred million
feet.
Greenwood is lighted by electricity generated from the
Falls on Boundary Creek, about three miles and a half south
of the town. Its water supply is ample for all purposes and is
unexcelled for its purity. There are several churches, good
schools, numerous hotels, three chartered banks, and several
wholesale and retail stores, and a newspaper.
PHOENIX, five miles east of Greenwood, on a branch of
the Canadian Pacific Railway, occupies the highest position of
any incorporated city in Canada, being at an altitude of 4,694
feet above sea level, but that does not constitute its only attraction. The proximity of the Granby Mines, Old Ironsides
and the Knob Hill Group, and many others, containing immense
ore bodies, give Phoenix a special importance. These mines
have produced over 2,000,000 tons of ore valued at about $10,-
000,000, and are to-day shipping more ore daily than ever
before. Phoenix has five churches, a public school, hospital,
also several good hotels and stores. The streets are well
graded, the town is electrically lighted and has a good water
supply.
EHOLT, a divisional point on the Columbia and Western
branch of the Canadian Pacific Railway, is ten mites from
Phoenix, and is the centre and supply depot for Long Lake, 22
Summit and other mining camps. Besides the Canadian
Pacific Railway shops and roundhouses, a number of local
business houses and minor industries add to the wellbeing of
the town.
MIDWAY, nine miles southwest of Greenwood on the
Kettle River, is the present Western terminus of the Columbia
and Western Railway, which the Canadian Pacific Railway
intends to extend westward to tap the Okanagan Lake country. The town, though small, seems destined to become an
important place, as it is surrounded by a splendid farming and
mining country and promises to be a railway centre.
There are several other towns of more or less importance
in the Boundary District, of which may be mentioned Boundary Falls, the site of a large smelter; Cascade City, at the
southern end of Christina Lake, a beautiful body of water is
the site of the Water Power and Light Company's plant, which
supplies power to the Boundary mines and smelters, and Camp
McKinney, a mining town.
ALTITUDES.
For purposes of comparison we give below the altitudes
of some  of the places   to which   reference   is made in this
pamphlet.   They are :—
Name. Feet.
Anarchist Mountain, West Kootenay  3>5°°
Creston,  East Kootenay  (about)  1,800
Grand  Forks,   West Kootenay  l>750
Greenwood,  West  Kootenay.  2,400
Midway,  West  Kootenay •  1,850
Moyie, East Kootenay    2,997
Okanagan  (District),  West  Kootenay 1,150  to 1,500
Tobacco   Plains   (in   Kootenay   River Valley), East
Kootenay  2,300
Windermere  District  . : . 2,500 23
OKANAGAN   DISTRICT.
LYING west of the Kettle River valley, and divided from it
by a comparatively low watershed, is the Okanagan District, which forms an irregular strip of country stretching
from Sicamous, on the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, southward to the international boundary. The district includes Spallumacheen, White and Creighton valleys, Marble and
Sugar Lakes, Priest's Valley and the Commonage in the north;
and Okanagan Lake, Okanagan Mission Valley, Penticton and
Trout Lake in the south. Okanagan District has been appropriately named the garden of the province, for in no portion
of British Columbia is cultivation more general and successful.
The district is traversed from Sicamous to Vernon by the
Shuswap and Okanagan branch of the Canadian Pacific Railway, which connects at Okanagan Landing at the head of the
lake with Canadian Pacific Railway steamers running to
Penticton at its southern end. The railway runs for almost
its whole length, 51 miles, through a magnificent farming country, a large part of which is open, some lightly wooded and
the rest more heavily, but all very fertile when brought under
cultivation. Many large farms in this section are devoted to
wheat, which yields well and is a sure crop. The wheat ground
locally, at Armstrong, Enderby and Vernon, makes an excellent flour. This part of the district is especially adapted to
mixed farming, dairying and fruit growing. The soil produces
large crops of vegetables of all kinds and fruit of excellent
quality, while native and cultivated grasses grow luxuriantly.
The rainfall in this section of Okanagan is sufficient for all
purposes and irrigation is not necessary. The climate is bracing and pleasant, fairly hot in summer with cool nights, cold
in winter, averaging 44.7, with occasional dips to zero and
below. Snow lies from three to five months, the average fall
being about 37 inches.
There is a brisk demand for lands in Okanagan, the prices
ranging from $10 to $300 per acre, according to location and
irrigation facilities.
A MILDER CLIMATE.
As Okanagan Lake is approached the climate is much
milder and drier, and from Vernon southward irrigation is necessary   on all bench   lands.    Here   luxuriant   vegetation   is 24
wholly confined to the borders of the lakes and water courses,
while the higher benches and round-topped hills present the
characteristic semi-barren appearance of this class of pasture
land. Appearances are deceptive in this case, however, for
those bare hillsides and benches are transformed into fruitful
fields and orchards by the application of water. The country
on the west side of Okanagan Lake is generally hilly and
broken by ravines formed by water courses from the higher
elevations in the background.   These water courses will furnish
British Columbia Peach Tree.
sufficient water for irrigation if a system of storing it is provided. Many individual settlers and land companies are putting
in the necessary embankments and ditches. A peculiarity of
the Commonage, a large tract of high land near Vernon, regarded as only fit for pasture and not considered worth taking 25
up by early settlers, as no water was available to irrigate it, is
the fact that good crops of grain and vegetables are being
raised on portions which have been cultivated. There are
probably other areas of high land in this district and other parts
of Southern British Columbia which will turn out as well with
anyone bold enough to make the experiment.
PEACHES, GRAPES, TOBACCO.
Southern Okanagan, with the Similkameen country further west, is destined to become the great peach and grape
producing section of British Columbia. At Peachland, Sum-
merland, Penticton, Kelowna and other points, a great many
peach trees have been planted and the fruit is of fine quality
and exquisite flavor, commanding the highest prices wherever
offered for sale. Grapes are successfully cultivated at various
points, but their culture is not general and the quantity exported is inconsiderable. Mr. T. G. Earl, of Lytton, has gone
extensively into peach and grape growing and his success is
encouraging many others to plant vineyards. Tobacco of excellent quality is grown in Okanagan Valley to a limited extent, the existing excise laws discouraging large plantations.
CHIEF TOWNS OF THE OKANAGAN DISTRICT.
The principal towns of Okanagan District are Armstrong,
Enderby, Vernon, Kelowna, Summerland, Peachland and
Penticton.
ARMSTRONG AND ENDERBY, on the Shuswap
and Okanagan Railway, nine miles apart, are prosperous,
growing towns and rivals for the trade of the fine agricultural
country which surrounds them. Each has saw-mills, flour
mills, brick yards and other industries, while both are important
shipping points for lumber, flour, fruit and farm produce.
VERNON, at the head of Okanagan Lake Valley, is a
pretty town, the centre of a splendid ranching and fruitgrowing country, and the distributing point for the Okanagan
Valley.
KELOWNA, on Okanagan Lake, 33 miles south of Vernon, is a prosperous place, the shipping point for Mission
Valley and Sunnyside districts. The town has a fruit packing
house and fruit warehouses, saw-mills, etc. 26
PEACHLAND and SUMMERLAND, on the west shore
of Okanagan Lake, are in the heart of the peach district and
are growing steadily, as the lands in the vicinity are rapidly
filling up.
PENTICTON, at the southern end of Okanagan Lake,
is a distributing point for the country south of the lake, and is
the headquarters of extensive irrigation works, designed to reclaim 30,000 acres of land suitable for fruit growing. The
town has a bright future, as it is likely to be an important
railway point, as well as the supply depot for a large area of
fruit growing lands.
SICAMOUS, the gateway to Okanagan, is a station on
the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, 334 miles east
of Vancouver, and the northern terminus of the Shuswap
and Okanagan Railway. It is a favorite summer resort, famed
for its hotel, which is one of the best appointed and most
comfortable in the province. Sicamous is a headquarters for
fishermen and hunters, the neighboring lakes and mountains
affording a great variety of sport.
MINING.
THE history of mining in British Columbia goes back to
1858, when gold was discovered on the Fraser River,
and afterwards in Cariboo, Cassiar, Omineca and
Kootenay. Placer mining was carried on for many years and
is still profitably pursued (the total value of placer gold won up
to 1908 being $70,231,103), but it was only in 1887 that attention was given to lode mining, the backbone of the industry.
In that year some of the silver-lead deposits of the Slocan were
developed on a small scale, and so continued intermittingly for
seven years, when the copper ores of Kootenay attracted
capital, and Rossland and other great mining camps were
founded. The building of branches of the Canadian Pacific
Railway into the mining districts made extensive development
possible, and the mining industry has increased wonderfully
ever since.    In  1894 the total value of   copper   mined was 27
$16,243, while in 1908 it was $5,792,820. Silver-lead mining
has kept pace with copper, having increased in 22 years from
$26,547 to $3,173,195.
The amount and value of mineral products for 1906, 1907
and 1908, were:—
1906
1907
1908
Quantity
Value
Quantity
4,450
196,179
2,745,448
47,738,703
40,832,720
1,800,067
222,91:
Value
$   828,000
4,055,020
1,703,825
2,291,458
8,166.544
6,300,235
1,337,478
1,200,000
Quantity
Value
Gold, placer.. , ,
Gold, lode	
 ozs.
224,027
2,290,262
52,408,217
42,990,448
1,117,303
199,227
$   948,400
4,630,639
1,897,320
2,667,578
8,288,565
4,551,909
996,135
1.000,000
34,100
256,000
3,037,000
43,775,000
43,885,000
1,700,000
248,000
$ 682,000
5,291,520
1,518,500
Coal Tons
Coke    "
Other Minerals.
lbs.
2,240 lbs.
1,654,695
5,792,820
5,950,000
1,488,000
1,200,000
Total
24,980,543
25,882,560
■
23,577,535
The apparent decrease in 1908 is due to the sudden decline
in the prices of metals which took place in the fall of 1907 and
continued through 1908. The actual number of tons of ore
mined showed a material increase.
Total production to end of 1908 for the province in dollars
and cents being:—
Gold Placer, oz. $ 70,231,103
Gold Lode    50,362,237
Silver     28,808,333
Lead,  lbs  21,571,892
Coal, tons (2,240 lbs.)  .  85,065,658
Copper     49,505,942
Coke    9,304,853
Other minerals     8,213,799
Total    $323,063,817
These figures indicate that British Columbia is rapidly
confirming her title as "The Mineral Province of Canada."
In 1907 the total value of metallic minerals, coal and coke,
produced in Canada, including the Yukon, was $66,513,692,
of which British Columbia contributed $24,687,060, or leaving Yukon's $3,150,000 of placer gold out of the question,
British Columbia produced 39 per cent, of the total. 28
In this splendid showing Southern British Columbia
stands prominently to the fore, its production in 1906, 1907
and 1908, being:—
1906.             I9°7- 1908.
Kootenay, East      5,171,024    5,548,880 4,726,060
Kootenay, West     4,660,352    4,792,976 5,710,690
Yale, Boundary, etc..   ..     8,799,711    8,444,326 7,160,245
A plain showing that Southern British Columbia stands
in the same relation to the rest of the province as British
Columbia itself stands with the other provinces of the Dominion, for out of the total mineral production of British
Columbia for 1908, $23,857,535, the southern districts contributed $17,596,995 or over 74 per cent.
The opportunities for profitable mining in Southern
British Columbia are greater to-day than they were fifteen
years ago, for the mineral zones are as yet but superficially
explored, capital is more easily interested and transportation
facilities are better and constantly being improved and extended.
An important event in the history of mining in Southern
British Columbia was the establishment of zinc mining in
1905. The existence of zinc in many of the Slocan ores was
known for years, but no attempt to separate or utilize it was
made till recently. Now, however, zinc mining is receiving
a great deal of attention and capitalists are enquiring for good
zinc properties. The output of zinc in 1905 was 13,300 tons.
Owing to tariff difficulties with the- United States there has
been but little production since, but in 1908 some 9,000 tons
were shipped and an electric was recently blown at Nelson so
that increased production is now likely to ensue.
COAL  MINING.
The immense deposits of copper, silver-lead and gold
bearing ores which are found in Southern British Columbia
would be practically worthless had kindly nature neglected
to provide the essential for their utilization, but the presence of inexhaustible coal measures in juxtaposition with
them renders profitable development easy and economical.
The coal deposits of Southeast Kootenay have been already
mentioned in these pages, but other extensive and undeveloped measures exist at Princeton, Granite Creek, Quilchena, and
further west in the Nicola Valley as well as the old collieries 29
of Vancouver Island, and the large fields on the Queen
Charlotte Sound, in the Buckley Valley and far north in the
Atlin District, which insure unlimited and cheap fuel to the
metalliferous mines which may be opened in the future in
those districts. The output of the Crow's Nest Pass coal
mines in 1908 aggregated 522,000 long tons of coal and 235,-
000 tons of coke, the total coal production of the province
being: Coal, 1,700,000 tons; coke, 248,000 tons. The coal
of Southern British Columbia is of excellent quality for all
purposes and makes good coke, which is supplied to the
smelters. The Crow's Nest coal mines employ over 3,000
men, and have a daily capacity of 6,000 tons of coal and
1,500 tons of coke, burned in 1,128 coke ovens. The Hosmer
Mines, Ltd., started production at the end of last year and
have 240 coke ovens built producing 300 tons per day.
PETROLEUM.
Surface indications and borings show that there are vast
deposits of petroleum in the southeastern corner of East
Kootenay, and several companies have been formed to develop them. Much interest is being taken in the operations,
as their successful outcome would mean the establishment of
a new and important industry.
LUMBERING.
THE Province of British Columbia in addition to being
widely known as a province rich in its minerals and
having untold capabilities from an agricultural standpoint, also ranks high in the Dominion of Canada as one of
the most important in the production of lumber. British
Columbia "toothpicks" are in great demand for works of importance, necessitating the use of large pieces of timber.
British Golumbia shingles stand high on the building market.
In the popular mind the lumber industry of British Columbia
is confined to the manufacture of these two products, a great
quantity of which comes from the coast district and Vancouver Island, but within the last few years a new and distinct
business has been created by the establishment of the "Mountain Mills," which furnish by far the larger part of the lumber cut in the province.    The province may now be said to 3Q
possess the greatest compact area of timber in North America.
According to the Government handbook for 1908, the total
forest area of the Dominion is estimated at 1,657,600,000
acres, an area exceeding that of United States and Europe
combined. Of this immense area, British Columbia is computed to control 182,750,000 acres.
A " Stick" of British Columbia Timber.
The principal trees indigenous to the province are white
pine, larch, spruce, Douglas fir, cedar and hemlock, also some
varieties of hardwood. The local demand is very great and
ever increasing, the bulk of the output from the Mountain
Mills especially is marketed in Alberta and the Prairie Pro- 31
vinces. The fine high grades are rapidly finding a market
in Eastern Canada and the United States. At the close of
1907 it was figured that there were in the neighborhood of
160 saw mills of all sizes in the province, in addition to which
there are a great number of shingle and planing mills. The
aggregate value of all these mills with their appurtenances
exclusive of the lands is estimated to represent about $30,000,-
000 of capital. The ever increasing demand for British
Columbia timber is having the natural result of inducing
capitalists who are interested in milling industries to head this
way. While in 1904 the total cut only amounted to
$325,275,000, by the end of the year 1907 it had increased
to $846,000,000.
A kindred interest to the lumber industry is the consumption of timber for the manufacture of paper pulp. In
the raw material British Columbia possesses a full share necessary for this industry. Her geographical position when
coupled with her facilities for transportation and cheap communication open an unrivalled field for the introduction of
paper manufacture.
AGRICULTURE.
LESS than half a century ago British Columbia was shown
on maps of North  America as "New Caledonia,"   and
held as a fur preserve by the Hudson's Bay Company
under lease from the British Government. To the world at
large it was an unexplored wilderness, a home of savage men
and wild beasts. One day gold was discovered, thousands
of treasure hunters rushed in, and sudden and important
changes occurred. The territory was created a Crown
Colony with a responsible government, laws were enacted and
enforced in accordance with British precedent, roads and
trails were made to the "diggings," civic, educational and
religious institutions were established, and British Columbia
emerged from obscurity and became the Mecca of a vast
army of sturdy pilgrims from all parts of the world.
The primary object of the new comers was gold, and the
fortunate ones succeeded in winning about $30,000,000 in
the period between  1858   and  1868.   but the   needs   of the 32
miners encouraged ventures in other industries, and in due
course British Columbia's timber and fisheries came to be regarded as nearly equal in importance with her gold mines.
During the halcyon days of placer mining agriculture was
ignored—for who would waste energy in planting potatoes in
soil that produced crops of nuggets—but when the golden
harvests became lighter and the work of mining harder, many
miners turned to farming, some from necessity, others for
congenial employment. Cultivated fields and cattle ranches
slowly began to appear in the beautiful valleys, on the lake
fronts and river banks. Few of these early cultivators took
their new occupation seriously—to most of them it was a
stop gap to permit the prosecution of their real work of
prospecting, while to others it was little else than a pastime. The
minority, practical farmers who were in earnest, made money
and to-day their fine residences, embowered in flowers and
shrubberies, surrounded by well-tilled fields and fruitful orchards, are the envy as well as the incentive of every new settler. The industry and intelligent efforts of these pioneer
farmers demonstrated the capabilities of the soil of British
Columbia for producing in perfection every cereal, fruit and
vegetable which can be grown in the temperate zone. As
these prosperous holdings are well distributed through the
southern portions of the province, those who come after have
but to follow the example set to attain success.
LARGE HOLDINGS.
The tendency in the early days when land laws were lax
or non-existent was to stake large areas of land. In this way
many of the most fertile valleys were monopolized by a few
individuals, who owned from 1,000 to 30,000 acres, many
more than they could possibly cultivate or otherwise utilize.
These big estates are now being subdivided and sold in small
parcels, with the result that small farms and orchards are
becoming plentiful on ground which was held for years as
pasture or merely for purposes of speculation. The breaking
up of these large ranches is one of the most hopeful signs of
the times, as it insures a large increase in the industrial
population as well as the bringing under cultivation of very
considerable areas of land in different parts of the province
and the establishment of new communities, all contributing
to the general prosperity. These land holders were not able
to "grab everything in sight."    Their holdings though large, 33
only represented a small percentage of the available agricultural land, the bulk of which is still held by the Provincial
and Dominion Governments and the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, this company being granted several thousand
acres, contiguous to its lines, thus, rendering all the lands,
mineral, timber and agricultural, valuable to the province and
to the individual miner, lumberman and farmer.
THE ORCHARD OF THE EMPIRE.
The proverbial difficulty experienced by an old dog in
learning new tricks accounts in a great measure for the slow
progress made in farming during the early days of British
Columbia. The miner, always a prospective millionaire, did
not take kindly to the prosiac occupation of planting things
and waiting for them to grow, and it was not until the Canadian Pacific Railway had constructed branches from its
main line into the fertile valleys, and, in conjunction with the
governments, advertised their capabilities to the world that
agriculture assumed the importance of a distinct industry.
Since the adoption of this policy and its persistent prosecution
the increase in all branches of agriculture has been steady, but
the great opportunities offered by the prairie country for
quick profits in wheat checked the westward tide of immigration, and it is but recently that settlers in large numbers have
begun to cross the Rocky Mountains and establish homes in
British Columbia. The advantages offered by the province,
however, are so manifest that no sooner has a new comer established himself than he becomes an enthusiastic immigration
agent, and hastens to advise his friends and old neighbors to
"pull up stakes and come to the Garden of Canada." The
ideal conditions of soil and climate in the midst of beautiful
and inspiring scenery, and the ready sale at good prices for
everything produced are fully appreciated by men who have
been "grubbing along" in the worn out fields of the older
countries and their glowing reports are inducing thousands of
farmers in Eastern Canada, the United States and the British
Isles to sell out and secure land in Southern British Columbia,
which is destined to become the Orchard of the Empire, as
the prairie provinces are its granary.
MARKETS.
It is an axiom in trade that "there is no market like the
home market," and in this respect British Columbia is
singularly blessed, for there is no country in the world which >
v
D
V 35
offers such exceptional advantages in the way of markets for
farm products. The mining and logging camps, with which
the whole country is dotted, employing thousands of men; the
numerous working mines and smelters with their large staffs
of employees; the railways, operating and under construction,
and the lake and river steamers, are all liberal patrons of the
farmer at prices unaffected by competition, for imported
articles do not disturb local trade, and in every case home
products are preferred to those from abroad. The established
cities and towns and the new ones which are constantly springing up, with the opening of new mines, and the establishment
of new industries, afford splendid markets to the farmer,
who deals directly with the consumer or retailer for cash—■
the trading system in vogue in older countries being practically
unknown. Fruits and early vegetables not disposed of locally
find an unlimited market in the homes on the boundless
prairies east of the Rocky Mountains and in the coast cities
of the province eggs, butter, milk and cream are always at a
premium, the local production falling far short of supplying
the demand. In many towns fresh milk is hard to get, and it
is almost unknown in the mining, lumbering and railway
camps, where the imported condensed milk and cream is used.
Dairying gives good returns, more especially so with a
farmer who does not find it necessary to employ skilled labor
to carry through the work pertaining to this branch. The
local demand for dairy products has always been great and is
ever on the increase, as the population of Western Canada
grows. The prices which can be secured are quite high. There
has been a substantial growth in this industry, both in the
number of creameries and in the output. The Provincial
Dairymen's Association has more than doubled in membership and a lively interest is being taken in its work. The
creameries have in the last year increased throughout the
province from 18 to 22 and the number of patrons from 944
to 1,214. A comparative statement for the years 1907 and
1908 shows the following results:
1907. 1908.
Number of patrons  944 1,214
Butter, lbs      1,651,304        1,846,977
Gross receipts $549,421.43    $570,367.87
Sold, per lb  0.32 0.34 1-7C
Amount paid to patrons $466,824.28    $491,267.63 36
The above figures do not include dairy butter, a rough
estimate of which is put down at 450,000 pounds at a valuation of $125,000. This would bring the grand total to over
two million pounds, valued at $659,367 or $128,500 more than
the output of 1907. In addition to this, in 1907 there was
imported 4,317,000 pounds, a large proportion of which was
forwarded to the Yukon. Though the local output is yearly
increasing, the demand is not nearly supplied. The importations of these articles into British Columbia for an average
year throw light on the possibilities for dairying and poultry
raising in Southern British Columbia.   They are for 1904:
Butter  $1,179,511
Condensed milk and cream  165,000
Eggs  339,°o°
Poultry  73,700
If cheese, which is not made in quantity in British
Columbia, be added, $333,342, we have an average total of
over $2,000,000 sent out of the province annually for articles
which can be profitably produced at home.
Again, in the matter of fresh meats, and pork, ham,
bacon and lard, the yearly importations aggregate $2,136,366,
as well as $8,000,000 worth of beef cattle, sheep and swine,
all of which should be raised by the farmers of the province.
Although British Columbia has begun to export fruits,
the home market falls far short of being supplied, for we find
that in the same year the province imported $800,000 worth
of fruits and fruit products, viz: Apples, other fruits (not
tropical), canned fruits, jams and jellies. The importation
of apples may be accounted for by the demand in the early
spring and summer months, when no home grown stock is
available, which has to be supplied from New Zealand and
Australia. The " other fruits " represent berries, and early
fruits grown in California and brought in before the local
fruits have matured. Jam factories are now being established
in various parts of the Province, and in due time the jams,
jellies and canned fruit will be produced locally as the fruit
industry develops, and in good time all the other products of
the ranch, farm, dairy and orchard, of which the province
now imports over $7,000,000 worth annually, will be won
from the fertile valleys and hillsides of Southern British
Columbia. There is no fear of over-production in any branch
of agriculture, for in the future as in the past, the farmers 37
will not be able to supply the ever increasing demand created
by the march of industry. Should a day arrive when they
find themselves with a surplus, the great mining camps of the
north and the prairie provinces will provide a market for
more than they can offer.
While on the subject of home markets, attention may
be called to the fact that of 3,181 tons of fruit shipped by
freight over the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1905, 1,669
tons were consigned to points within the province.
All this goes to show there is practically no risk to the
farmer in settling in Southern British Columbia. His market
is at his door and will be for many years, and he can confidently assure himself of such prices for his produce as will
give him a comfortable living and enable him to lay by a
" nest egg " every year, in anticipation of his old age. If he
is possessed of sufficient capital to start on a comfortable scale
he should become independent and well-to-do in a few years.
Even with limited means there are no difficulties in the way
which may not be surmounted by industry and perseverance.
MIXED FARMING.
To the man of small means mixed farming affords the
most promising means of making a comfortable livelihood
in Southern British Columbia. To engage exclusively in
fruit growing one is obliged to provide for the period from
the setting out of the trees till they come into bearing, thus
requiring an income from other sources, while in mixed farming returns may be counted on from the start. A few acres
planted in small fruits, early vegetables, potatoes, carrots,
onions, cabbages, etc., with fowls, some cows and pigs, will
give a man an assured income the first season and will not
interfere with his planting a variety of fruit trees which will
become profitable later. Another advantage of mixed farming
is the fact that a man and his family can attend to the work,
which occupies them pleasantly the year round, while the
special farmer, with but one crop to depend upon, has to
cultivate a larger area and hire help during the short periods
of seeding and harvest, and has nothing to occupy his time
the remainder of the year. Large farms and specialties in
agriculture should only be attempted by men of sufficient
means to tide over long periods of unproductive idleness. a
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As an example of what can be done on a io-acre farm
in  Southern  British  Columbia,   the following statement of
early fruit and vegetables shipped from  Gellatley, B.C.,  in
1904, by D. E. Gellatley & Sons, is submitted. The results
in that year were:—
By express By freight
Shipments.               Lbs. Lbs. Total lbs.
Beets         120   120
Beans, green      1,028   1,028
Corn, green  .        998   998
Cabbage        815 3,711 4,526
Carrots        985 3,075 4,060
Cucumbers      3,295   3,295
Citron  4,090 4,090
Egg plant         151   151
Melons      2,436   2,436
Onions        200 1,030 1,230
Parsnips  1,450 i,45°
Pumpkins  275 275
Potatoes      1,780 11,065 12,845
Peppers         170   170
Rhubarb         760 1,000 1,760
Raspberries  700 700
Strawberries      3,775 6,725 10,500
Turnips      1,060 155 1,215
Tomatoes 44,035 25,228 69,263
Totals 61,608        58,504      120,112
Total 60 tons, 112 lbs.
Plants.
Tomato  85,000
Cabbage  10,000
Strawberry  80,000
Raspberry  3,000
Total      178,000
All this was raised on a ten-acre clearing in heavy bush,
the fourth year after Mr. Gellatley located the land. 40
IRRIGATION.
The introduction of irrigation has wrought great changes
in agricultural methods, but its advantages are not generally
understood. Mixed farming is especially profitable on irrigated lands, for it has been proved that under this system
seemingly worthless land is made to produce four times as
much as the choicest soil cultivated under the old method.
There is nothing intricate or difficult to learn in connection
with irrigation, and men quickly appreciate its great advantages. It renders them independent of the elements in the
conduct of their farm work, so that they have only to study
the needs of their locality and adjust their products to the
demand, thus deriving a continuous income without fear of
failure from drought or excessive rain.
Under the "Water Clauses Consolidation Act, 1897," and
amending Acts, unrecorded water may be diverted from any
natural source for irrigation or agricultural purposes generally.
The scale of fees* is the same for industrial purposes, and is
calculated on a sliding scale. For a record fee of $10.75 per
100 miner's inches up to $110.75 Ior 5°° inches; $260.75 Ior
1,000 inches; $560.75 for 2,000 inches; $680.75 f°r 5>oo°
inches; $880.75 10r 10,000 inches, and so on according to the
quantity of water actually required. For industrial purposes
there is an annual fee calculated according to the same sliding
scale. No annual fee is charged on water recorded and
actually used for agricultural purposes. A miner's inch of
water represents a flow of about 100 cubic feet per hour,
equal to about 623 gallons, or 14,950 gallons per day, 24
hours. The unit of measurement of flowing water under the
Water Act for 1909 is the discharge of one cubic foot of
water per second, and the "acre foot"—being the quantity of
water that will cover one acre of land one foot deep—is the
unit of measurement of quantity.
*Some minor changes in regard to the scale of fees was under
contemplation by the Government of the Province of British Columbia at the time of this pamphlet going to press, fuller particulars
in regard to these and the general laws pertaining to the use of water
may be obtained from the Chief Commissioner of Lands, Victoria,
B.C. 4i
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The raising of poultry is looked upon by many farmers
as an unimportant and therefore very much neglected branch
of farm work. It is really a very profitable business and offers
excellent opportunities to all who take it up seriously and give
the subject the attention and study which it richly deserves.
The home market is nowhere nearly supplied with either eggs
or poultry, large quantities being imported from places both
east and west of the province. The price of these products
is continuing to advance, eggs in 1905 were averaging 30
cents per dozen; in 1908 their price had risen to 40 cents,
while this year they are higher still in value. The price for
poultry has in the same period increased from 20 to 30 per
cent, and the end is not yet. The prices which are being paid
wholesale this year to farmers in Southern British Columbia
for dressed poultry runs per pound at from 10 to 15 cents for
ducks; 15 to 25 cents for chickens; 13 to 18 cents for geese;
18 to 30 cents for turkeys. It is the fixed opinion of some
persons who have followed the raising of poultry that each
bird should net a profit of $1.00 per annum. Every part of
British Columbia is suitable for poultry raising. Those engaged in the production in the past have been handicapped in
instances from want of facilities for marketing their products,
but a remedy for this is promised through a scheme of cooperation by which the creamery companies will handle poultry
and eggs as well as their own output. , m
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FRUIT   GROWING.
FRUIT GROWING is one of the infant industries of
British Columbia, but it is growing rapidly, and is
quite certain ere many years to rival mining, lumbering
or fishing. A few years ago the man who would venture
to describe the Kootenays as fruit growing districts was
looked upon as visionary or an imbecile; to-day all Southern
British Columbia is acknowledged to be the finest fruit
country on this continent. Not only will it produce fruit in
abundance, but the quality of its fruit is superior to that
grown in other parts of America. Certain varieties of fruit
attain perfection in certain localities, but taking a collection
of British Columbia fruit it is larger, better colored and better
flavored than any similar miscellaneous lot, the product of
any other country. Proof of this is not far to seek. In 1903,
Messrs. Stirling & Pitcairn, of Kelowna, on Okanagan Lake,
shipped a trial carload of apples to Great Britain. The shipment consisted of Spys, Baldwins, Ontarios and Canada Reds.
They arrived in Glasgow, Scotland, on November 9th, in
splendid condition, and sold at six shillings per box, or about
$1 more per barrel than the choicest Eastern Canadian aooles
—reckoning three and a half boxes to the barrel. The British
Columbia apples aroused much interest amongst fruit dealers
as well as consumers, and many letters were received by the
consignors from persons eager to secure shipments of the
splendid fruit. In the year following, 1904, the British Columbia Department of Agriculture forwarded a collection of
British Columbia fruit to London, England, for exhibition
purposes. It consisted of apples, pears and plums, including
the following varieties: Apples—Fall Pippins, Kings, Van-
derveres, Twenty-ounce Pippins, Blue Pearmains and Oranos,
from Lytton; Ribstone Pippins, Wolfe Rivers, Wealthies and
Snows, from Kelowna and Lytton; Warners, Kings, Canada
Red, King of Tompkins, Ontario, Jonathan, Northern Spy,
Belle of Boskoop, Baldwin, St. Lawrence, Greening, Golden
Russett, Alexander, Blenheim Orange, Wagoner and Mcintosh Red, from Kelowna; Wealthy Ribstons and Graven-
steins from Victoria. Pears — Beurre Clairgeau, Easter
Beurre, Beurre d'Anjou and Howells, from Kelowna; and
plums from Victoria. The exhibit was greatly admired and
evoked the highest enconiums  from   the   newspapers.    The 44
London Times, while hesitating to declare the fruit superior
to the best English specimens, admitted that they very nearly
approached them in color, shape and flavor, even after having
travelled 6,000 miles by railway and steamship. The Royal
Horticultural Society's appreciation of the fruit was shown
by the award of the society's gold medal and diploma.
PRIZE FRUIT.
One result of this exhibit was the deluging of the Agent-
General of British Columbia, Hon. J.  H. Turner, Finsbury
A   Branch   of   Pears.
anxious to do business with British Columbia fruit growers.
To momentarily satisfy the clamor for British Columbia fruit
Circus, London, with letters from prominent fruit dealers
and to emphasize the fact of its good qualities, the Department of Agriculture shipped in cold storage a full carload of 45
assorted fruits to London in the fall of 1905, in charge of
Mr. R. M. Palmer, Provincial Horticulturist. This fine collection was the chief attraction at the Royal Horticultural
Fruit Show at London, England, and at several provincial
shows, and was awarded many prizes.
After going the rounds of the fruit shows and securing
unqualified approval everywhere, this collection was broken
up and sold to fruit dealers at the highest prices. Several
of the leading fruit firms of Great Britain placed orders for
next season's fruit, so it may be confidently stated that the
fruit trade with the Old Country has been firmly established.
EXPANSION OF TRADE.
The general experience of those who ship apples for the
British market has been that, given the finest specimens procurable, they find a ready sale at top prices.
To show the - wonderful progress of the province's fruit
business, it is only necessary to quote the shipments for four
years, which are as follows:—
By freight    By express    Total       Increase
tons. tons. tons tons.
1902   1,469     487    ^956    	
1903   1,868     676    2,544     588
1904   2,161     864    3,025     481
1905   3,1^1 ^76   4,357    !>332
8,679   3,203   11,882   2,401
An increase of over 50 per cent, in that period.
The total shipments for four years, 11,882 tons, are far
from representing the whole crop, the greater portion of
which is consumed locally. In 1906 there was a marked increase, while in 1907 the transportation companies' records
show that the fruit shipment for that year aggregated 4,743
tons, while last year (1908) there was shipped a total of 6,498
tons, or an increase of nearly six hundred per cent, in as many
years.
The records in areas devoted in the province to the raising of fruits show a promising increase within the last two
decades. In 1891 the total area was said to be 6,431; ten
years later it had only increased to 7,430; by 1906 it had
increased to 20,000 acres, and by the close of 1908 the Govern- 46
ment statistics show it to have reached over 100,000 acres
with an estimated value of $1,500,000 for the season's past
harvest. This year the development is also very marked, new
settlements are forming, new developments are taking place,
until possibilities that were only dreamed of before are now
becoming realities.
Mr. Byron E. Walker, President of the Canadian Bank
of Commerce, which ranks as one of the largest financial institutions in Canada, in his address to the shareholders at the
last annual meeting whilst speaking of the outlook in British
Columbia, said in part:—
" The most notable feature in the development of the
province is the widespread demand for fruit and farm lands,
both in the districts where there is ample rainfall and in the
districts needing irrigation. It may safely be said that fruit
of the most perfect character can be grown in large quantities
in surroundings as favorable to the fruit as they are attractive
to the grower as a place of residence. It is equally certain
that for many years to come the industry might increase
rapidly and yet there will not be any fear as to the necessary
market."
PEACHES, GRAPES, ETC.
The quality of the peaches and grapes grown in Southern
British Columbia can scarcely be excelled, the crisp, dry air,
and bright sunshine combining to impart a lusciousness and
flavor lacking in the fruit of hot countries. The recent discovery of fig trees growing wild on Vancouver Island, near
Nanaimo, has suggested the possibility of the successful cultivation of this fruit, especially in the southern districts, and
no doubt the experiment will be made in the near future.
Almonds, walnuts, chestnuts, nectarines, apricots, olives, and
other semi-tropical fruits, have been successfully grown. No
attempt has been made to grow citrus fruits, but it seems
reasonable that the hardy Japanese orange would do well in
some of the sunny valleys of Southern British Columbia.
MAKING AN ORCHARD.
The setting out and care of an orchard until it becomes
a source of profit requires considerable outlay of cash and
personal exertion, but the results after a few years furnish :
Watching It Grow. 48
ample compensation.   The cost of setting out twenty acres of
apple trees in Southern British Columbia is about as follows:
Twenty acres at $150 an acre $3,000.00
Fencing       200.00
Preparing land       150.00
Trees (968) at 25 cents each      242.00
Freight, etc        20.00
Setting out, at 8 cents each         77-44
$3,689.44
Root crops and small fruits, planted between the trees
for the first year or two, and red clover up to the fifth year,
should more than pay for the trees. The fourth year the
trees should produce some fruit—probably $100 worth. The
cost of the maintenance for five years, with the original cost
and interest, would amount to $7,296.14, or $364.80 per acre,
less the value of roots, clover and fruit. In the sixth year
the orchard should produce $850 worth of fruit, in the
seventh $3^,200, and in the ninth $5,800, after which it should
pay a net annual profit of $125 to $150 per acre—an assured
income for life of $2,500 to $3,000 a year.
ACTUAL RESULTS.
This estimate of profits is not based upon paper and
pencil, but is justified by actual experience. Mr. T. W.
Stirling, Bankhead Ranch, Kelowna, says:
In 1903 the ranch produced 140 tons.
In  1904 it produced  130 tons.
In 1905 it produced over 170 tons and probably has not
yet reached maximum production.
Apples (Jonathan) planted in 1900 produced in 1905
100 lbs. a tree. (Fruit worth $1.50 per 40 lb. box, f. o. b.
packing house.)
In 1906 these trees yielded as four year olds, 60 lbs. a
tree.
YIELD FROM TREES PLANTED IN 1895.
One and one-third acres of Baftlett pears produced 16
tons of fruit, or about 800 boxes. Selling price $1.35 per
box, f. o. b. packing house, $1,080.00. 49
One and one-third acres of Beurre d'Anjou pears
produced 17 tons, or 850 boxes. Selling price $1.40 per
box, f. o. b. packing house, $1,190.00.
Two and one-third acres of Italian prunes produced 32
tons, or 3,200 crates.   Selling price 60c per crate, $1,920.00.
One acre of plums produced 12 tons or 1,200 crates.
Selling price 70c a crate, $840.
Over $5,000 from six and one-third acres.
STOCK RAISING.
THERE will always be considerable tracts of land in
Southern British Columbia which, too elevated for
irrigation, will provide pasturage for horses, cattle and
sheep. To the man of experience and capital stock raising
affords a profitable and pleasant occupation. The local
market for ranch cattle, beef and mutton is unlimited and will
be for many years to come. Water is plentiful everywhere
and the climate so mild that comparatively little winter feeding is necessary. Wild hay and other grasses are abundant
in the valleys and may be had for the cutting, so that a stock
of winter fodder is easily obtained. Much of this pasture land
can be bought at from $2.50 to $3.00 per acre.
Such is the local demand for horses and cattle that high
prices are the rule for choice animals. Working and draught
horses are worth $200 to $400, and grade cows recently sold
at auction, brought from $70 to $135. Little attention is
given to the breeding of light horses and consequently driving
and saddle horses are very scarce and command fancy prices.
(For further particulars re areas for stock raising, see
page 6.)
CLIMATE.
The subject of climate has been mentioned incidently in
describing the several districts of Southern British Columbia,
but it may be added that through all its variations, from the
semi-rigorous winters of Northern Kootenay to the milder
ones of the Boundary and Okanagan districts and the ideal
summers prevailing  throughout,   there is no  more healthful 5o
region on the face of the earth. Medical men have pronounced
Southern British Columbia to be a vast sanitarium in which
victims of nervous affections, insomnia, asthma, bronchitis
and tuberculosis find substantial relief if not cure. The country is wholly free from malaria, the curse of so many agricultural countries. Cyclones, blizzards, droughts and floods
are practically unknown, while cases of sunstroke have yet
to be reported. The great diversity of climate existing in
the mountains and valleys, added to the scenic beauty and
grandeur of the landscape lend an indescribable charm to life.
Every valley farm house looks out upon great ranges of
majestic mountains, or beautiful water stretches, while in
every direction the eye is delighted with graceful foliage and
bright hued flowers, appealing to the love of the beautiful, and
making the mere fact of living a constant delight.
SCENERY AND HOTELS.
Complete change of scene and climate may be had in a
few hours, and a day's journey or less takes one to the sea
coast-—a veritable new world to the dweller in inland regions.
A   C.   P.   R.   Summer   Resort.
Southern British Columbia is endowed with many material
advantages not the least valuable of which is its glorious
climate.
No possible combination of words can convey an idea
of the wonderful grandeur and beauty of the scenery of
British Columbia.    The secret of its charm lies in its diversity 5i
which seems illimitable and free from that monotony which
often mars the pleasure of the sightseer in other lands.
Mountain, valley, park and prairie, rushing torrents, placid
streams, waterfalls of liquid emerald in silver settings,
translucent lakes, embowered in a wealth of luxurious vegetation lit up with gorgeous glints of color, make up a succession
of pictures, ever changing, that are an endless delight to the
traveller. All of the chief centres have excellent hotels suitable for the accommodation of guests according to their
means and requirements, while along their main line are to be
found the famous mountain resorts of the Canadian Pacific
Railway.
HUNTING AND FISHING.
To the man who loves hunting for the sake of the adventure incidental to the sport, British Columbia affords a
variety unequalled in any other part of America. Competent
guides and outfits can be secured by hunters of big game at
several central points and at reasonable rates. Non-residents
are charged "$50 for a license to shoot big game and $5 per
week for game bird shooting. Pamphlets giving fuller information regarding hunting and fishing may be had on application
to The Colonization and Tourist Agent of The Canadian
Pacific Railway Company at Montreal, or any of the company's more important agencies.
Innumerable wild creatures, from the fierce grizzly bear
to the timid rabbit, find shelter and sustenance amid the enchanting scenes, the lakes and streams abound with trout and
other game fish, and the feathered tribes are numerous and
widely distributed. Offering as it does exceptional advantages
to the hunter and the angler, the botanist, mineralogist, artist
and photographer will find material everywhere for exercising his pet hobby to the limit of his desire.
The advantage to the settler of this abundance of game
and fish can scarcely be over estimated, especially in the case
of the man of limited means in the early days of his home
making while waiting the first returns from his land. Owning
a gun and some fishing tackle, a man can always supply his
wants in the matter of food, and in every case add variety
to his daily bill of fare.
The big game includes grizzly, black and brown bears,
big horn sheep, mountain goats, panthers, lynx, wild cats,
several varieties of deer, including the elk, or wapti, in East 52
Kootenay and Vancouver Island. Of birds there are five
species of grouse, prairie chickens, partridges, swans, geese,
ducks of many kinds, snipe, plover, woodcock and quail.
Brook trout is found in almost every stream, while the lakes
hold myriads of salmon trout, bass, etc.
Amongst the resorts of the Nelson district is the famous
" pool " on the Kootenay River, near Slocan Junction. The
C.P.R. have reserved from sale the land which surrounds
this expansion of the river. Here " Creel Lodge" nestles,
and during the proper season sportsman's accommodation may
be obtained for a limited number. Persons desirous of staying at this lodge should first enter into communication with
the lodge keeper, whose address is Slocan Junction, B.C.
TRANSPORTATION FACILITIES.
Southern British Columbia is well supplied with means
of transportation, considering the character of the country
and its newness. It is traversed on what may be described
as its Northern boundary by the main line of the Canadian
Pacific Railway, with branches running southward from
Revelstoke and Sicamous and connecting with the company's
line of steamers on the Kootenay, Arrow and Okanagan lakes.
These steamers are comfortable, well equipped, and furnish a
most satisfactory service. At the town of Golden, connection
is made with a semi-weekly steamer for Windermere and
points south on the Upper Columbia River. The Crow's Nest
Pass branch of the Canadian Pacific Railway gives
access to the Kootenay and Boundary Districts from the east,
touching the important towns and connecting with the company's Kootenay, Arrow, Slocan and Trout Lake steamers.
Thus a traveller can make a complete tour of the whole territory in the greatest comfort. The Canadian Pacific Railway
has in contemplation the construction of new branch lines in
Kootenay, Okanagan and Similkameen, which will open to
settlement and industry very extensive and valuable stretches
of country. Good wagon roads traverse the country in many
directions, by which stage connection is made with outlying
sections.
EDUCATION.
British Columbia has an excellent public school system,
free and non-sectarian, supported by the government, who
spend $400,000 annually.    In the case of large   towns and 53
cities, High Schools have been established, and public schools
which are managed by a local board. Some of the High
Schools of the province being affiliated with McGill University,
of Montreal. Schools are establshed in new communities as
soon as there are twenty children of school age; attendance is
compulsory. The standard for teachers is as high as that of
any of the other provinces of Canada. The minimum salary
paid is $50.00 per month in rural districts, up to $150.00 in
city and high schools. The Education Department is presided
over by a Minister of the Crown. There are also a superintendent and four inspectors in the province, also boards of
trustees in each district. According to the last educational
report, there are 391 schools in operation. The number of
pupils enrolled in 1907 was 30,039, and of the teachers 735.
The public school system was established in 1872, with 28
schools, 28 teachers, and 1,028 pupils. Its growth proves that
education has not been neglected in British Columbia.
The high schools through Southern British Columbia
are distributed as follows: Nelson, Rossland, Cumberland,
Vernon, Kaslo, Chilliwack, Grand Forks, Kamloops, Armstrong, Golden and Revelstoke. There is a provincial normal
school at Vancouver, and many excellent private colleges and
boarding schools in various parts of the province. The legislature recently passed an act providing for the establishment
of the University of British Columbia, for the endowment of
which two million acres of the public lands have been set
apart. 54
SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS.
Those who come to British Columbia expecting to encounter the extreme discomforts of the old western pioneers
will be agreeably disappointed to find most of the comforts
and conveniences of modern life and a population made up
of law-abiding and peaceful people. The rough western ways
and the " bad man " of the story books are conspicuously
absent, even in the most isolated communities. Peace and
good order are universal. The law is strictly administered
in the courts, and serious crimes are rare. The Provincial
police, a small but efficient body of men, do good service in
maintaining law and order. Outdoor sports are popular,
cricket, lacrosse, hockey, football, baseball, golf and boating
clubs being common throughout the province.
The spiritual well-being of the people is ministered to
by resident priests and clergymen in nearly every community,
and few places, however small, are without one or more
churches. Every building set apart for the worship of God
is free from taxation.
TAXATION.
Outside incorporated municipalities, the taxation is imposed and collected directly by the Provincial Government,
and forms part of the consolidated revenues of the province,
which are expended in Public Improvements, Roads, Trails,
Wharves, Bridges, etc., and in assisting and maintaining the
Schools and in the Administration of Justice. The Rates of
Taxes imposed by the latest Assessment Acts are as follows:
On Personal Property, three-fifths of one per cent, of
assessed value.
On Real Estate (improved), three-fifths of one per cent,
of assessed value.
On Wild Land, 4 per cent, of assessed value.
*On Coal Lands, Class "A," 1 per cent, of assessed value.
11 On Coal Lands, Class "B," 2 per cent of assessed value.
On Timber Land, 2 per cent, of assessed value.
All Incomes up to $1,000 are exempt.
On the taxable income of $2,000 or under, iy2 per cent.
*Working Mines.
HUnworked Mines. 55
On the taxable income over $2,000 and not exceeding
$3,000, i}4- per cent.
On the taxable income over $3,000 and not exceeding
$4,000, 2 per cent.
On the taxable income over $4,000 and not exceeding
$7,000, 3 per cent.
On the taxable income over $7,000, 4 per cent.
A discount of 10 per cent, is allowed for prompt payment,
by 30th June annually, on all assessed taxes (except school
taxes in rural school districts).
The Following Exemptions Are Allowed:—
On Mortgage, as personal property.
' On the unpaid   purchase   money of   land   as   personal
property.
On household furniture and effects in dwelling houses.
On Homesteads under the Dominion Land Act and on
pre-emptions under the Provincial Land Act for two years
from date of entry and to the extent of $500 for four years
thereafter.
On Farm Produce, and on Live Stock and Machinery on
the farm up to the value of $500, and on all incomes from
the Farm.   And from personal property tax on the following:
On monies deposited in bank.
On minerals, matte or bullion in the course of treatment.
On timber and coal lands held under lease or license from
the Crown.
On timber cut from Crown leaseholds or from land held
under license from the Crown.
On timber cut from lands other than Crown lands, if
the tax payable under the Land Act has been paid.
In addition to the above, there is a tax on all coal shipped
from the mine of 10 cents per ton, and on coke of 15 cents
per ton.    (Royalty on coal ceased on the 1st July, 1908.)
Minerals are taxed 2 per cent, on their gross value at
the mine, less the cost of transportation and treatment. A
royalty is reserved on minerals where the tax is not eligible.
Unworked Crown granted mineral claims are taxed at the
rate of twenty-five cents per acre. 56
A royalty of 50 cents per 1,000 feet of board measure
is reserved to the Crown on all timber cut from Crown lands,
and from lands held under lease or license; also a royalty of
25 cents per cord on wood cut from upon Crown lands, timber
leaseholds and timber limits. A tax is payable under the
Land Act upon all timber, except that upon which a royalty
is reserved, but a rebate is allowed where the timber is manufactured or used in the province.
There is also a revenue tax of three dollars annually payable by every male person over 18 years of age. There is also
Succession Duties and Probate Duties payable on the estates
of deceased persons.
A Local School Tax in Rural School Districts (outside
of municipalities) is also payable. The rate of this Local
School Tax varies with the needs of the Local School Trustees.
For fuller particulars about Taxes, Royalties, Duties, etc.,
reference should be made to the " Assessment Act," " Railway
Assessment Act," " Coal and Coke Tax Act," " Land Act,"
" Revenue Tax Act," " Public School Act," and " Succession
Duty Act," and copies of these Acts may be obtained at a
nominal price on application to the King's Printer, Victoria,
B.C.
For fuller information about Taxes, Licenses, etc., application may be made to any of the Provincial Assessors or
to the Surveyor of Taxes, Victoria, B.C.
WAGES.
Good wages are paid for labor of all kinds, skilled and
unskilled, and while rates of course may vary slightly according to local conditions, and are subject to change, still the
following schedule will be found to be fairly accurate:
Quartz miners, $3.00 to $4.00 per day; coal miners, 60
to 80 cents per ton.
For lumbermen: laborer, $2.00 to $3.00 per day; mill
hands, $1.50 per day and upward; mill foreman, $100.00 pet-
month.
Laborers, railway construction work, $2.00 to $5.00 per
day; Government, day labor, $2.50 per day.
Teamsters and farm hands, $30.00 to $50.00 per month,
with board.
Domestic servants, $10.00 to $25.00 per month; cooks,
$25.00 to $50.00 per month; these classes with board and
lodging. 4l a
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INDUSTRIAL OPPORTUNITIES.
While Southern British Columbia affords good openings
to the man of moderate means, the farmer, fruit grower,
dairyman, fisherman, mechanic, prospector, miner and laborer,
the opportunities for the profitable investment of capital are
equally favorable. The development of the mining, smelting
and lumbering industries in the Kootenay and Boundary districts, the progress of fruit growing in those districts and in
Okanagan, all conducing to a rapid increase of population
and an expanding market for local products, should open the
eyes of investors to advantages of this virgin field  for the
Young    Peach    Orchard.
establishment of new industries. The supply of electric and
water power for the mines, smelters and sawmills is an enterprise well worthy of consideration, ample sources of energy
being available in the numerous waterfalls and rapid streams.
In the fruit districts packing houses, cold storage warehouses,
canning and-evaporating plants, jam and pickle factories,
should pay well. Saw mills are numerous, but there is room
for more. Planing mills, box factories, pulp and paper mills,
meat packing plants, brick and cement works, stone quarries, 59
marble works, woollen mills, tanneries, iron foundries, cooperages, and many other minor industries, would find profitable
markets for their products and add to the general well being
and prosperity of the province.
CANADIAN   PACIFIC   LANDS.
The Canadian Pacific Railway Company controls large
areas of the choicest farming, fruit, ranching and timber lands
in the Kootenay, Boundary and Okanagan districts, as shown
on the maps furnished on application to any of the local representatives or the B.C. Land Department at Calgary, Alberta.
Generally speaking, the prices for agricultural lands are as
follows:
FIRST-CLASS LAND.
Lands suitable for agricultural purposes in their present
condition, or which are capable of being brought under cultivation profitably by the clearing of the timber thereon, or
which are hay meadow lands. Price $5.00 per acre and
upward.
SECOND-CLASS LAND.
Lands which are suitable for agricultural purposes only
when irrigated.    Price $2.50 per acre to $5.00.
THIRD-CLASS LAND.
Mountainous and rocky tracts of land, unfit for agricultural purposes other than as range land, and which cannot
under any reasonable conditions be brought under cultivation.
Price $1.00 to $2.50 per acre.
In addition to the prices for the land as above set forth,
any applicant for the purchase of land will be called upon to
pay at the rate of two dollars per thousand, board measure
for all the timber which the land is found to contain at the
time of making the application. The amount of timber to be
arrived at by a scaling made by the Chief or Assistant Timber
Ranger of the Company after the application has been fyled.
Any land in the Columbia and Western land grant,
Boundary district, which contains timber fit for manufacture
into   lumber   to   the extent of  three   thousand  feet, board 6o
measure, to the acre, does not come under the heading of agricultural land, and will only be disposed of under the provisions
of the Company's regulations for the sale of timber lands. In
the remaining grants the limit for agricultural lands is fixed
at 5,000 feet, board measure, to the acre.
The minimum area of agricultural land offered for sale
is 160 acres, and all lands must be purchased in square or
rectangular parcels, viz.: 160 acres must measure forty (40)
chains by forty (40) chains; 320 acres must measure eighty
(80) chains by forty (40) chains; and 640 acres must measure
eighty (80) chains by eighty (80) chains, the purchaser
arranging his own survey in the case of unsurveyed lands.
Land sold at $1.00 per acre must be paid for one-fourth
cash and the balance in three equal annual instalments.
Land sold at $2.50 per acre must be paid one-fifth cash,
and the balance in four equal annual instalments.
Land sold at $5.00 per acre must be paid for one-eighth
cash, and the balance in seven equal annual instalments.
Interest at six per cent, is payable on all outstanding
amounts of principal, and also on overdue instalments. If
land is paid for in full at the time of purchase, a discount of
ten per cent, will be allowed on the amount paid in excess of
the usual cash instalments on the purchase price of the land,
but no reduction will be allowed on subsequent payment of
instalments in advance of maturity. All payments on account
of the purchase of lands from this company must be remitted
direct to the office of the British Columbia Land Commissioner
for the Canadian Pacific Railway at Calgary, Alberta; no
representative for the Company being allowed to receive or
receipt for money, or to bind the Company by any act whatsoever.
Merchantable timber on agricultural land will have to be
accounted for as per the following schedule:
Lumber, per M feet B.M '." $2.00
Shingle bolts, per cord      1.00
Firewood, per cord     0.25
Fence posts, per cord  . . .   0.50
Mining props (10 ft. by 10 in. or less), per cord 0.50
Mining props (larger), each   0.05
Ties, each     0.02
House logs (20 ft. or less), each   0.10
Piles,  cribbing-,   telegraph poles,   per running
foot       O.OOJ4 6i
Such dues are exclusive of all Government royalties,
which must be paid by the purchaser.
WHERE TO  GET INFORMATION.
The above terms and conditions are always subject to
change. Copies of the regulations with fuller particulars may
be obtained on application to J. S. Dennis, Assistant to Second
Vice-President of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company,
Calgary, or from any of the following persons:
East Kootenay (Central).—R. R. Bruce, Wilmer, B.C.
East Kootenay (Southern).—E. Mallandaine, Cranbrook, B.C., and J. Austin, Elko, B.C.
West Kootenay.—H. & M. Bird, Nelson, B.C., and Thos.
Abriel,  Nakusp, B.C.
Yale District.—J. A. McCallum, Grand Forks, B.C.; F.
W. McLaine, Greenwood, B.C.; J. R. Mitchell, Penticton, B.C.
Kamloops District.—J. D. Sibbald, Revelstoke, B.C.
The company is also interested in the following town-
sites, where local agents may be consulted as to price of lots
and obtaining of application forms: Elko, Cranbrook, Creston,
Procter, Nelson, Nakusp, Arrowhead, Revelstoke, Castlegar,
Cascade, Eholt, Grand Forks, Greenwood and Midway.
FARE REBATE.
One-half the amount paid by new settlers for fare on
the railway lines of the Canadian Pacific Railway in travelling
to British Columbia, will be applied on account of the first A*-c~ot
instalment, if land is purchased from the company in this
territory. Receipts must be taken showing the route, and
produced for inspection when making application for the
concession.
PROVINCIAL LAND REGULATIONS.
Lands owned by the Provincial Government are laid off
and surveyed in quadrilateral townships containing thirty-six
sections of one square mile each, whenever it is practicable
to carry this survey through. 62
HOW TO SECURE PRE-EMPTION.
Any person, except an aborigine, being the head of a
family, a widow, or a single man over eighteen years of age,
and being a British subject or any alien upon his making a
declaration of his intention to become a British subject may,
for agricultural purposes, record any tract not exceeding one
hundred and sixty acres, of unoccupied and unreserved crown
lands which may not be within an Indian settlement.
If the land be unsurveyed, he shall first place a stake or
post four inches square and four or more feet high—tree
stumps squared and of the proper height will do—at one
corner of the land to be recorded, and he shall inscribe upon
each post his name and the angle which it represents, thus:
"John Smith's land, N.E. post," or "John Smith's land
N.W. post," or whatever corner the post may represent. In
addition to this, he must post a written or printed notice giving
description in detail of the length and direction of the boundary
lines of the land sought and the date of his location and of his
intention to apply for and record the same.
After staking the land and marking the posts, the applicant must make an application in writing to the Commissioner
of the district within which the land is situated. This application must be recorded within thirty days after location, if the
land is within ten miles of the office of the Commissioner, one
additional day will be allowed for the filing of such application
for every additional ten miles or fraction thereof. The application must contain a full description, in duplicate, of the land
sought to be acquired and must also have attached a sketch
plan in duplicate, and be accompanied by a fee of $2.00 and
a declaration re staking.
If the applicant desires to pre-empt surveyed land, he
must make a similar application in writing to the Commissioner, giving the description as before mentioned, and accompanying it with plan in duplicate. He must also pay the
$2.00 fee.    It will not be necessary for him to plant posts.
Any number of persons, not exceeding four, may unite
in partnership for the purpose of pre-empting, holding and
working land, and shall be eligible to pre-empt as a firm, for
agricultural purposes, an area to the extent to each of the
persons, of one hundred and sixty acres. Each member of
the firm shall represent his interest by occupation of some
portion of the land so held, but it shall not be necessary in
such cases, that he shall reside on his particular pre-emption. 63
All the persons may reside together on one of the pieces. For
the purposes of obtaining a Certificate of Improvement to the
land pre-empted in this way, it shall be necessary to show the
Commissioner, that improvements amounting in the aggregate, to $2.50 per acre, for the whole of the land, have been
made on some portion thereof.
A pre-emptor or pre-emptors of unsurveyed land shall
have the land surveyed at his own cost and expense, within
five years from the date of record, subject to the rectification
of the boundaries. The regulations governing the survey of
the same are practically identical with those pertaining to the
purchase of land under the different land grants of the Canadian Pacific Railway as more fully set forth on page 60
of this pamphlet.
In all cases the person or persons making the pre-emption
entry shall, within sixty days from the date of certificate,
•enter into occupation of the land so recorded.
A pre-emptor, after carrying out the conditions pertaining to his pre-emption entry, is required to go into occupation
of his land for a period of at least two years and to make
permanent improvements thereon to the value of $2.50 per
acre. The meaning of the word "occupation" under the Act
implies the continuous, bona fide personal residence of the pre-
emptor or his family on the land recorded by him. He may
not, without special permission from the Commissioner, be
absent during one year for a period longer than two months.
A pre-emptor who has been in occupation of his preemption for not less than two years from the date of its record,
shall be entitled to receive from the Commissioner, a Certificate, to be called a Certificate of Improvement, upon his proving to him by declarations in writing of himself and two other
persons, or in such other manner as may be required, that he
has been in occupation of his pre-emption claim from the date
-of record thereof, and has made permanent improvements
thereon to the value of $2.50 per acre.
After the granting of the Certificate of Improvement as
aforesaid, and the payment of $1.00 per acre for the land has
been made, a crown grant of the fee simple of and in the land
recorded in such Certificate, will be executed in favor of the
pre-emptor, upon payment of the sum of $10.00 therefor; but
no crown grant shall be executed in favor of any alien who
may have declared as aforesaid, his intention of becoming a
British subject, until he has become such according to law. g
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SALE OF CROWN LANDS.
Every person desirous of purchasing unsurveyed, unoccupied and unreserved crown lands, shall stake the land in
practically the same way as provided in the case of pre-emption, and if within ten miles of the office of the Commissioner,
he shall commence and continue the publication of a notice in
the British Columbia Gazette and in a local newspaper, setting
forth the description of the land which he desires to purchase, and shall within three months of the date of the first
publication of such notice make an application in duplicate
to the Commissioner for permission to purchase the said land,
filing a statutory declaration in duplicate of the publication of
the notice and accompanying it with a deposit equal to the
sum of fifty cents per acre on the area applied for. The Commissioner shall then issue a ctrtificate of purchase therefor.
The minimum price of first-class lands is $5.00 per acre,
that of second-class lands $2.50 per acre, but the chief Commissioner may for any reason increase the price of any of the
lands above the said price.
The minimum area that he may purchase under the provisions of the Act shall be 40 acres, measuring 20 chains by 20
chains, except in cases where such area cannot be obtained,
and the maximum area under general conditions shall be 640
acres, measuring 80 chains 80 chains.
If the chief Commissioner decides that the land can be
sold, he shall forthwith notify the applicant, who shall have
the land required surveyed at his own cost and expense by a
duly authorized British Columbia land surveyor, in accordance
with the regulations as previously set forth, and the deposit
of fifty cents per acre shall then be credited toward the payment of the purchase price.
It shall be the duty of the surveyor to classify the lands
as timber lands, first or second-class lands, as herein set forth:
FIRST CLASS LANDS.—Lands under the Act are
those which are suitable for agricultural purposes, or which
are capable or being brought under cultivation profitably or
which are wild hay meadow lands. All other lands, other than
timber lands, shall rank and be classified as second-class lands.
TIMBER LANDS are those which contain timber to
the extent of 8,000 feet per acre to the west of the Cascades,
and 5,000 feet per acre to the east of the Cascades. These
timber lands shall not be open for sale or pre-emption. 66
GOVERNMENT TIMBER LANDS.
Timber lands vesting in the Crown, being land which
contains timber to the extent of 8,000 feet, board measure,
per acre, lying west of the Cascades, and 5,000 feet, board
measure, per acre, lying to the east of the Cascade Mountains,
cannot be purchased, but particulars relative to permission in
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A Cluster of Fruit,
regard to cutting of the timber from off government timber
lands may be had by applying to any one of the persons whose
names are shown on next page.
WHERE INFORMATION RE LANDS IS OBTAINABLE.
Entries for pre-emption or purchase must be fyled with
the Commissioner in charge of the district.
Full and detailed information regarding the Provincial
Government lands is set forth in the Act affecting the crown 67
lands, and may be obtained through the office of The Honorable, the Chief Commissioner of Lands, at Victoria, B.C. Preemptions for Southern British Columbia may be fyled either
with R. A. Renwick, Deputy Commissioner of Lands, at Victoria, B.C., or the following persons :
J. E. Griffith  Golden
J. F. Armstrong  Cranbrook
E. E. Chipman  Kaslo
Harry Wright  Nelson
E. Edwards .  Revelstoke
G. C. Tunstall  Kamloops
George Murray      .      .      .      .      .      . Nicola
L. Norris     .      .      .      ...      .      .      . Vernon
G. A. R. Lambly  Fairview
LITERATURE AND INFORMATION.
The Province of British Columbia issues a wide range
of literature and maps. These cover all the features, industries and conditions common to this, rich province in general.
Full particulars in regard to the obtaining of these may be
had on application to me Secretary of the Provincial Bureau
of Information, Victoria, B.C.
DOMINION GOVERNMENT LANDS.
All the lands in British Columbia within twenty miles on
each side of the Canadian Pacific Railway main line are the
Property of the Dominion of Canada, with all timber and
minerals they contain (except precious metals). This tract of
land, with its timber, hay, water powers, coal and stone, is
now administered by the Department of the Interior of
Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, practically according to the same
laws and regulations as are the public lands in Manitoba,
Alberta and Saskatchewan. Government agencies are established at Kamloops, in the mountains, and New Westminster. 68
ADVICE TO IMMIGRANTS.
THERE is no country within the British Empire which
offers more inducements to men of energy and industry,
who can adapt themselves, than does British Columbia.
To the practical farmer, miner, lumberman, fisherman, horticulturist and dairyman it offers a comfortable living and ultimate
independence, if he begins right, perseveres and takes advantage of his opportunities. The skilled mechanic has also
a good chance to establish himself, and the laborer will scarcely
fail to find employment. The man without a trade, the clerk,
accountant and the semi-professional, is warned, however, that
his chances for employment are by no means good. Much
depends upon the individual, for where many fail one may
secure a position and win success, but men in search of employment in offices or warehouses, and who are unable to turn
their hands to any kind of manual labor in an emergency,
would do well to stay away from British Columbia unless they
have willingness to work at whatever offers or sufficient means
to support themselves for six months or a year while seeking
employment.
The class of immigrants whose chances of success are
greatest is the man of small or moderate means, possessing
energy, good health and self-reliance, with the faculty of
adaptibility to .his new surroundings. He should have at least
£300 ($1,500) or £500 ($2,500) on arrival in the province,
sufficient to "look around" before locating permanently to
make his first payment on his land and support himself and
family while awaiting returns from his first crop. This
applies to a man taking up mixed farming. It is generally
advisable for a new comer to work for wages for a time until
he learns the "ways of the country."
CUSTOMS DUTIES.
To avoid the risk of loss the immigrant from Great
Britain should pay the money which he does not need on the
passage to the Dominion Express Company's office in London, Liverpool or Glasgow, and get a money order in his
favor payable at any point in British Columbia; or he may
pay his money to any bank in London having an agency in
British Columbia, such as the Bank of Montreal, Canadian
Bank of Commerce, Bank of British North America, Imperial 69
Bank, etc., who will effect the same arrangement. This suggestion applies with equal force to persons coming from
Eastern Canada or the United States. United States currency
is taken at par in business circles.
The Provincial Government agent at point of arrival, or
the persons whose names have been previously mentioned, will
on enquiry furnish information as to lands open for settlement, farms for sale, rate of wages, etc.
Settlers' effects, etc., household furniture, farming implements in use, and live stock, brought into the province
by bona fide settlers are admitted free of duty, but most
articles of domestic use may be bought in the country at
reasonable prices.
The following is the authorized number of live stock
allowed to be imported: Horses, i to every 10 acres, not exceeding 16 in all; cattle, the same; sheep, i to each acre, ioo
in all allowed; hogs, the same.
HOW TO  REACH  BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
From Europe.:—The steamers of the Canadian Pacific
Railway Atlantic lines, from about 20th November to 1st May,
land their passengers at St. John, N.B.    From about 1st May
One    of    the C.    P.    R.    Steamers.
to 20th November, passengers are landed at Quebec or Montreal, and if they come via New York or Boston vessel, the
route west is by Montreal. The continent is crossed in the
trains of the Canadian Pacific Railway, the only change being
at Montreal. 7o
Colonists should apply, in case of need, to the local immigration officers of the Canadian Pacific Railway, or of the
Government of the Dominion of Canada, who will give honest
advice and information. The Company's Land Departments
have an office in the Canadian Pacific Railway Company's
general office building situated at 62 to 65 Charing Cross,
London, Eng. At this office will be found an efficient and able
staff who can furnish on enquiry more detailed information to
the intending settler. He may also obtain tickets through
to British Columbia, together with information, from agents
of the Canadian Pacific Railway in London, Liverpool,
Bristol and Glasgow.
From the United States.—From Oregon, Washington,
Nevada and California, via Sumas, at the International
boundary, reaching Nelson, Rossland or Vancouver. From
the Dakotas, Minnesota, Illinois, Nebraska, Iowa and Missouri,
via the Soo-Pacific Line, entering Canada at North Portal,
Emerson or Gretna, in the Canadian Northwest, and connecting with the Canadian Pacific Railway. From Eastern States,
via Montreal, Que., or Prescott, Ont., or via Niagara Falls,
Hamilton, Toronto and North Bay, Ontario.
From Eastern Canada.—By Canadian Pacific Railway
from Halifax, St. John, N.B., Quebec, Montreal or Ottawa,
and by Canadian Pacific Railway from Toronto and other
points in Central and Western Ontario to Sudbury, where
connection is made with the transcontinental trains.
During the season of navigation there is an alternative
route through Lakes Huron and Superior, via Owen Sound,
by the Canadian Pacific Railway upper lakes steamships, to
Fort William, at the western extremity of Lake Superior,
and thence by the Canadian Pacific main line.
EXPERIENCES.
This book would hardly be complete without giving some
of the experiences of men who have gone out to British
Columbia and having lived there, under varying circumstances
and made a success of it, are fully qualified to write and put
forth what has been the result of their labors. Below, we
have pleasure in reciting two tetters, the first being from Mr.
Thomas Ellis, who has resided for over 43 years in the province. The other letter which we publish is from Mr. R. S.
Bevan, a good representative rancher in the Creston district. jflBEBiBi
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His experience extends over a period of nine years, which is
about the length of time required by a man with industry, and
similarily situated, to enable him to bring his farm or ranch
to a state of perfection.
Mr. Thomas Ellis, a resident of Penticton, B.C., in a
recent letter written to this department regarding Southern
Okanagan District, says in part:
"Answering your enquiry as to my length of residence
and climatic conditions as I found them in the Southern
Okanagan. I came to Penticton in May '66, over 43 years
ago and engaged in the the business of stock raising, during
this time I never experienced a winter severe enough to cause
any loss in my band of cattle; I think no other stock raiser
in the province can point to a similar record. This in itself
should be accepted as proof of the mildness of Penticton
winters; I have never known the thermometer to register
more than 10 degree below zero, while the coldest winter
weather ordinarily is zero and this lasts for but a couple of
days.
"Eight years after my arrival, or 35 years ago, I planted
an orchard principally of apples, all the trees are alive and in
excellent shape to-day; ten years later I planted a second
orchard, a number of peach trees being among the trees planted, this orchard is also in splendid condition, and I understand
the peach trees came through last winter, which was one of the
coldest ever experienced, in good condition. As there was
no market in the early days for fruit my orchards were not
planted for commercial purposes, but several fruit experts
upon examination of the fruit on the trees pronounced it as
equal to any they had ever seen both as to quality and quantity.
All apples were classed as perfect specimens.
"I disposed of my lands about four years ago, but I still
retain an interest in the Company organized to develop the
lands, The Southern Okanagan Land Co., Ltd., and for this
reason I visit the district annually. I did not think the bench
lands especially valuable for any purpose then, but upon ex-
axination of orchards planted by the Land Co., I am convinced
that although most excellent fruit can be grown on bottom
lands the bench lands are to be preferred for fruit growing.
"A striking feature of the development is the distribution
of water over all the high bench lands; this water, of which
there is   an abundant   supply,   is taken   from   Penticton and  74
Ellis Creeks; large reservoirs have been constructed at the
headwaters of these creeks so that no matter how dry the
season may be water will be available.
"Its natural advantages must be apparent to you.
Situated at the foot of Okanagan Lake with Lake Skaha
(Dog Lake) four miles to the south is responsible for the
climate being the mildest in winter and coolest in summer of
any Okanagan point. We have the most beautiful sand
beaches in the interior at both lakes, and the Okanagan River
connecting the lakes makes a fine boating and canoeing
stream."
Mr. Bevan, another representative rancher, has this to say
of his work in the Creston:
Griffin Ranch, Creston, B.C., July 3rd, 1909.
To J. S. Dennis, Esq., Calgary, Alta.:—
"In 1900 I purchased from the Great Northern Railway
Co. 40 acres of land. I cleared one acre as it was all I could
afford. Next year I planted 50 apple trees and so by working-
out and earning enough made a little more improvements.
In 1904 I planted 300 more fruit trees, set in small fruit in
the way of strawberries, raspberries, etc., and at present I
have 1,800 fruit trees consisting of apples, pears, peaches,
apricots, quinces, plums, cherries and prunes, and I may say
each kind of fruit does excellent. Now in regards to how all
these succeed, we took nine (9) prizes at Spokane, Wash.,
fruit fair (apple show) out of 13 exhibits.
"I have three acres of strawberries, these need no comment as people of Calgary know what excellent berries we
ship them. Last year I shipped $730.00 worth of strawberries
off an acre at an average price of $2.40 per crate net. In
regards to what an orchard will produce and what its worth
when say six years old, a six year old tree properly looked
after should produce three boxes of apples at $1.75 per box,
and as a general rule we plant about 97 trees to acre and at
ten years old a tree should produce ten boxes.
"In the past six years' experience of this place we have
plenty of rainfall, an average of about 28 inches per year, so
irrigation is not needed, except sometimes it might help small
fruits in bearing season, and then I believe it would hurt the
quality. £
I-H
o
O
m
o
u
>
3
P5
v
g
(0
04 76
"We have the best shipping facilities of any fruit section
in British Columbia. Small fruit picked at noon got to Calgary next morning.
Yours very truly,
R. S. BEVAN."
In connection with these experiences, this department is
issuing a separate pamphlet devoted exclusively to that feature,
and would be pleased, on application to J. S. Dennis, Assistant to the Second Vice-President, Calgary, Alberta, to send
one or more copies, as required. 77
INDEX.
PAGE
Advice     68
Agriculture    31
Altitudes    12, 14, 22
Apples     6, 12, 43
Armstrong     25
Arrow Lake District    9
Boundary  District     18
Cities of     20
Markets    19
Canadian  Pacific  Railway:—
Lands     59
Hotels    26,50
Cascade  City     22
Climate   23, 49
Coal Mining  28
Columbia  River Valley       5, 12
Cranbrook     15
Creston     15
Creameries     36
Customs   Duties  68
Dairying     35
Education     52
Eholt  21
Enderby     25
Experiences   8, 9, 48, 70
Farming, mixed   23, 37, 40
Fernie    16
Fishing  26, 51
Fruit:—
Shipments   8, 11, 37, 43, 45
Growing    19, 43
Markets    36
Grand Forks     20
Greenwood    20
Hosmer    ,     16
Hotels 26, 50
Homesteads    • 67
Hunting   26, 51
Irrigation    24, 40
Industrial   Opportunities     58
Kaslo     13
Kelowna   25 78
PAGE
Kettle  River Valley   18, 20
Kootenay:—■
East    :  4
Lake     9
Cities of   12
Lands:—
C.P.R. Terms of Sale, etc         59
Provincial   Government            61
Dominion Government           63
Literature: Where to get it    61, 66, 76
Lumbering         29
Markets    19, 33
Michel         16
Midway  19, 22
Mining            26
Nelson 11, 12
Okanagan,  District            23
Cities   of            25
Orchard:—■
Making one            46
Results           48
Peaches    25, 46
Peachland   -■         26
Penticton            26
Petroleum           29
Phoenix            21
Potatoes         11
Poultry    18, 36, 42
Pre-emptions         62
Provincial Lands    61 to 67
Rainfall           12
Religion     54
Rossland   .         14
Sale ol  Lands           65
Sicamous            26
Society           54
Stock   Raising            49
Summerland         26
Taxation           54
Timber    29 to 31, 66
Trail .'    13
Transportation Facilities       11,  12, 52
How to reach B.C         69
Fare Rebates           61
Vernon    25, 23
Wages           56
Windermere District     5, 6, 7
Ymir  13 

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