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Cruisings in the Cascades. A narrative of travel, exploration, amateur photography, hunting, and fishing,… Shields, G. O. (George O.), 1846-1925 1889

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Array Cruisings in the Cascades
Hunting Adventures        Cruisings in the Cascades.
Travel, Exploration, Amateur Photography,
Hunting, and Fishing,
IIUNTING   THE   grizzly   bear,   the   buffalo,   elk,   antelope,
By  G.   O.   SHIELDS,
("coquina" )
chicago and new york:
Rand, McNally & Company, Publishers.
1889. Copyright, 1889, by Rand, McXally & Co.
/5"7 62^
The articles herein on Elk, Bear, and Antelope Hunting are reprinted by the courtesy
of Messrs. Harper & Brothers, in whose Magazine they were first published; and those
on Buffalo Hunting and Trouting are reproduced from "Outing" Magazine, in which,
they first appeared. I Come live with me and be "my love.
And we will all the pleasures prove
That hills and valleys, dales and fields,
Woods or steepy mountains, yield."
"Earth has built the great watch-towers of the mountain^
and they lift their heads far up into the sky, and gaze ever upward and around to see if the Judge of the World comes not."
—Longfellow.  PREFACE,
And now, how can I suitably apologize for having
inflicted another book on the reading public? I
would not attempt it but that it is the custom among
authors. And, come to think of it, I guess I won't
attempt it anyway. I will merely say, by way of
excuse, that my former literary efforts, especially
my " Rustlings in the Rockies," have brought me
in sundry dollars, in good and lawful money, which
I have found very useful things to have about the
house. If this volume shall meet with an equally
kind reception at the hands of book buyers, I shall
feel that, after all, I am not to blame for having
written it.
Chicago, March, 1889.
The Benefits, Mental and Physical, of Mountain Climbing—A
Never-failing Means of Obtaining Sound Sleep and a Good
Appetite—The Work to be in Proportion to the Strength of
the Climber—People Who Would Like to See, but are Too
Lazy to CMmb—How the Photograph Camera May Enchance
the Pleasures and Benefits of Mountain Climbing—Valuable
Souvenirsof Each Ascent—How " These Things are Donein
Europe "—An Effective Cure for Egotism.     ... 17
The Cascade Mountains Compared with the Rockies—Characteristics and Landmarks of the Former—The Proper Season for
Cruising in the Cascades—Grand Scenery of the Columbia—
< Viewing Mount Tacoma from the City of Tacoma—Men Who
Have Ascended this Mysterious Peak—Indian Legends Concerning the Mountain—Evil Spirits, Who Dwell in Yawning
Caverns—The View from the Mountain—Crater Lake and
the Glaciers—Nine Water-falls in Sight from One Point.    .     25
The City of Seattle—A Booming Western Town—Lumbering
and Salmon Canning—Extensive Hop Ranches—Rich Coal
and Iron Mines—Timber Resources of Puget Sound—Giant
Firs and Cedars—A Hollow Tree for a House—Big Timber
Shipped to England—A Million Feet of Lumber from an Acre
of Land—Novel Method of Logging—No Snow in Theirs—
A World's Supply of Timber for a Thousand Years.       .        35
(9) 10
Length, Breadth, and Depth of Puget Sound—Natural Resources of the Surrounding Country—Flora and Fauna of the
Region—Great Variety of Game Birds and Animals—Large
Variety of Game and Food Fishes—A Paradise for Sportsman or Naturalist—A Sail Through the Sound—Grand
Mountains in Every Direction—The Home of the Elk, Bear,
Deer, and Salmon—Sea Gulls as Fellow Passengers—Photographed on the Wing—Wild Cattle on Whidby Island—
Deception Pass; its Fierce Current and Wierd Surroundings
—Victoria, B. C.—A Quaint Old, English-looking Town.
Through English Bay—Water Fowls that Seem Never to Have
Been Hunted—Rifle Practice that was Soon Interrupted—
Peculiarities of Burrard Inlet—Vancouver and Port Moody
—A Stage Ride to Westminster—A Stranger in a Strange
Land—Hunting for a Guide—" Douglass Bill" Found and
Employed—An Indian Funeral Delays the Expedition.
The Voyage up the Frazier—Delicious Peaches Growing in Sight
of Glaciers—The Detective Camera Again to the Front—
Good Views from the Moving Steamer—A Night in an
Indian Hut—The Sleeping Bag a Refuge from Vermin—The
Indian as a Stamping Ground for Insects—He Heeds Not
Their Ravages.	
A Breakfast with the Bachelor—Up Harrison River in a Canoe
—Dead Salmon Everywhere—Their Stench Nauseating—The
Water Poisoned with Carrion—A Good Goose Spoiled with
an Express Bullet—Lively Salmon on the Falls—Strange Instinct of this Noble Fish—Life Sacrificed in the Effort to
Reach its Spawning Grounds—Ranchmen Fishing with Pitchforks, and Indians with Sharp Sticks—Salmon Fed to
Hogs, and Used as Fertilizers; the Prey of Bears, Cougars,
Wild. Cats, Lynxes,  Minks,  Martins, Hawks, and Eagles.
The River Above the Rapids—A Lake Within Basaltic Walls-
Many Beautiful Waterfalls—Mount Douglas and its Glaciers
—A Trading Post of the Hudson Bay Fur Company—The
Hot Springs; an Ancient Indian Sanitarium—Anxiously
Waiting for "Douglass Bill"—Novel Method of Photographing Big Trees 75
An Early Morning Climb—A Thousand Feet Above the Lake—
Fresh Deer Signs in Sight of the Hotel—Three Indians Bring
in Three Deer—" Douglass Bill" Proves as Big a Liar as
Other Indians—Heading off a Flock of Canvas Backs—A
Goodly Bag of these Toothsome Birds—A Siwash Hut—A
Revolting Picture of Dirt, Filth, Nakedness, and Decayed
Fish—Another Guide Employed—Ready on Short Notice—
Off for the Mountain*. 82
Characteristics of the Flathead Indians—Canoeists and Packers by Birth and Education—A Skillful Canoe Builder—
Freighting Canoes—Fi-hing Canoes—Traveling Canoes—
Two Cords of Wood for a Cargo, and Four Tons of Merchandise for Another—Dress of the Coast Indians.       . 89
Climbing the Mountain in a Rainstorm—Pean's Dirty Blankets—
His Careful Treatment of His Old Musket—A Novel Charge
for Big Game—The Chatter of the Pine Squirrel—A Shot
Through the Brush—Venison for Supper—A Lame Conversation: English on the One Side, Chinook on the Other—
The Winchester Express Staggers the Natives—Peculiarities
of the Columbia Black Tail Deer 97
The Chinook Jargon; an Odd Conglomeration of Words; the
Court Language of the Northwest; a Specimen Conversation—A Camp on the Mountain Side—How the Indian Tried 12
to Sleep Warm—The Importance of a Good Bed when
Camping—Pean is taken 111—His Fall Down a Mountain-
Unable to go Further, We Turn Back—Bitter Disappointment.       . " 102
The Return to the Village—Two New Guides Employed—Off for
the Mountains Once More—The Tramp up Ski-ik-kul Creek
Through Jungles, Gulches, and Canons—And Still it Rains
—Ravages of Forest Fires—A Bed of Mountain Feathers—
Description of a Sleeping Bag; an Indispensable Luxury in Camp Life; an Indian Opinion of It.
Meditations by a Camp Fire-^Suspicions as to the Honesty of
My Guides; at Their Mercy in Case of Stealthy Attack—A.
Frightful  Fall—Broken Bones and Intense Suffering—A
Painful and Tedious Journey Home—A Painful Surgical
• Operation—A Happy Denouement.       .... 113
The Beauties of Ski-ikkul Creek; a Raging Mountain Torrent;
Rapids and Waterfalls Everywhere; Picturesque Tributaries—Above the Tree Tops—The Pleasure of Quenching
Thirst—A Novel Spear—A Fifteen-Pound Salmon for Supper—The Indians' Midnight Lunch—A Grand Camp Fire—
. At Peace with All Men.       .       .       .    §§§    .       . 118
Seymour Advises a Late Start for Goat Hunting; but His Council
is Disregarded—We Start at Sunrise—A Queer Craft—Navigating Ski-ik-kul Lake—A " Straight-up " Shot at a Goat—
Both Horns Broken Off in the Fall—More Rain and Less
Fun—A Doe and Kid—Successful Trout Fishing—Peculiarities of the Skowlitz Tongue; Grunts, Groans and Whistles
—John has Traveled—Seymour's Pretended Ignorance of
English.        . ....
125 CONTENTS. 13
En Route to the Village Again—A Water-Soaked Country—"Oh,
What a Fall was There,My Countrymen!"—Walking on Slippery Logs—More Rain—Wet Indians—" Semo He Spile de
Grouse"—A Frugal Breakfast—High Living at Home—A
Bear He did a Fishing Go; but. He was Caught Instead of
the Fish, and His Skin is Bartered to the Unwashed
Siwashes 135
John and His Family " At Home "—An Interesting Picture of
Domestic Economy—Rifle Practice on Gulls and Grebes—
Puzzled Natives—" Phwat Kind of Burds is Them ?"—A day
on the Columbia—The Pallisades'from a Steamer—Photographing Bad Lands from a Moving Train.       .       .       142
Deer Hunting at Spokane Falls—Ruin Wrought by an Overloaded Shotgun: A Tattered Vest and a Wrecked Watch—
Billy's Bear Story—The Poorest Hunter Makes the Biggest
Score—A Claw in Evidence—A Disgusted Party.       .       146
A Fusilade on the Mule Deer—Two Does as the Result—A Good
Shot Spoiled—View from the Top of Blue Grouse Mountain—
A Grand Panorama; Lakes, Mountains, Prairies and Forests
—Johnston's Sto^y—Rounding Up Wild Hogs—A Trick on
the Dutchman—A Bucking Mule and a Balky Cayuse—Falls
of the Spokane River.        ......       153
Hunting the Grizzly Beaiv-Habitat and Characteristics—A Camp
Kettle as a Weapon of Defense—To the Rescue with a Winchester—Best Localities for Hunting the Grizzly—Baiting
and Still-Hunting—A Surprise Parly in the Trail—Two Bnlh-
eyesandaMiss—Fresh Meat and Revelry in Camp.       .       164 14
Elk Hunting in the Rocky Mountains—Characteristics of the
Elk—His Mode of Travel—A Stampede in a Thicket—The
Whist'eofthe Elk, the Hunter's Sweetest Music—Measurements of a Pair of Antlers—Saved by Following an Elk
Trail—The Work of Exterminators—The Elk Doomed.
Antelope Hunting in Montana—A Red Letter Day on Flat Willow—Initiating a Pilgrim—Sample Shots—Flagging and
Fanning—Catching Wounded Antelopes on Horseback—
Four Mule-Loads of Meat 194
Buffalo Huntin
with Skins-
Range—Red River Frank's Mission
on the Texas Plains—A " Bull Train " Loaded
A Sensation in Fort Worth—En Route to the
A Stand on the Herd—
Deluged with Buffalo Blood—A Wild Run by Indians—
Tossed into the Air and Trampled into the Earth.       .       213
Hunting the Rocky Mountain Goat—Technical Description of
the Animal—Its Limited Range—Dangers Incurred in Hunt-
iug It—An Army Officer's Experience—A Perilous Shot—A
Long and Dangerous Pursuit—Successful at Last—Carrying the Trophies to Camp—Wading up Lost Horse Creek—
Numerous Baths in Icy Water—An Indian's Fatal Fall—
Horses Stampeded by a Bear—Seven Days on Foot and
Alone—Home at Last.       .  236
Trouting in the Mountains—Gameness of the Mountain Trout—
A Red Letter Day on the Bitter Root—Frontier Tackle and
Orthodox Bait—How a Private Soldier Gets to the Front as
an Angler—A Coot Interrupts the Sport, and a Rock Interrupts the Coot—Colonel Gibson takes a Nine-Pounder—A
Native Fly Fisherman—Grand Sport on Big Spring Creek—
How Captain Hathaway does the Honors—Where Grand
Sport may be Found 257 CONTENTS. 15
Deer Hunting in Northern Wisconsin—On the Range at Daylight—The Woods Full of Game—Missing a Standing
'' Broadside " at Thirty Yards—Several Easy Shots in Rapid
Succession; the only Fruits Shame and Chagrin—Nervousness and Excitement Finally Give Way to Coolness and
Deliberation—A Big Buck at Long Range—A Steady Aim
and a Ruptured Throat—A Blind Run Through Brush and
Fallen Trees—Down at Last—A Noble Specimen—His
Head as a Trophy. 280
Among the Pines—A Picture of Autumnal Loveliness— Cordial a Logging Camp—A Successful Shot—The
Music of the Dinner Horn—A Throat Cut and a Leg Broken
—A Stump for a Watch-Tower—The Raven Homeward
Bound—A Suspicious Buck—A Mysterious Presence—Dead
Beside His Mate—Three Shots and Three Deer.       .        288
A Typical Woodsman—Model Home iu the Great Pine Forest
—A Lifetime in the Wilderness—A Deer in a Natural Trap
—Disappointment and Despondency—"What, You Killed a
Buck!"—Sunrise in the Woods—An Unexpected Shot—A
' Free Circus and a Small Audience—A Buck as a Buck' r—
More Venison. 296
Cowboy Life—The Boys that Become Good Range Riders—
Peculiar Tastes and Talents Required for the Ranch—Wages
Paid to Cowboys—Abuse and Misrepresentation to which
They are Subjected—The " Fresh Kid," and the L>ng-Haired
'' Greaser "—The Stranger Always Welcome at the Ranch—
A Dude Insul'ed—A Plaid Ulster, a Green Umbrella, and a
Cranky Disposition—Making a Train Crew Dance—An
Uncomplimentary Concert—No Sneak Thieves on the Plains
—Leather Breeches, Big Spurs, and a Six-Shooter in a Sleeping Car—Fear Gives Way to Admiration—The Slang of the 16
Range—The "Bucker,"andthe "Buster"—The Good Cow-
Horse—Roping for Prizes—Snaking a Bear with a Lariat—
A Good School for Boys—Communion with Nature Mak s
Honest Men 304
A : lontana Roundup—Ranges and Ranches on Powder River;
Once the Home of the Buffalo, the Elk, the Antelope; now
the Home of the Texas Steer and the Cowboy—The Great
Plains in Spring Attire—A Gathering of Rustlers—" Chuck
Outfits" to the Front—Early Risers--Taming an " Alecky "
Steer—A Red-Hot Device—Branding and Slitting—The Run
on the Mess Wagon—"Cutting Out" and "Throwing
Over "—A Cruel Process.       ...
" Mountains are the beginning and the end of all natural scenery."
U^OR anyone  who has  the courage, the
rcLihood, and the physical strength
to endure the exercise, there is no form
W of recreation or amusement known to
mankind that can yield such grand
results as mountain climbing. I mean
"' from a mental as well as from a physical standpoint; and, in fact, it is the
mind that receives the greater benefit. The
|; exertion of the muscular forces in climbing a
high mountain is necessarily severe; in fact, it is
[more than most persons unused to it can readily
endure ; and were it not for the inspiration which
the mind derives from the experience when the
ascent is made it would be better that the subject
should essay some milder form of exercise. But
if one's strength be sufficient to endure the labor
of ascending a grand mountain peak, that extends
to or above timber line, to the regions of perpetual
snow and ice, or even to a height that gives a general
view of the surrounding country, the compensation
must be ample if one Lave an eye for the beauties
of nature, or any appreciation of the grandeur of the
Creator's greatest works.
Vain, self-loving man is wont to consider himself
the noblest work of God, but let him go to the top of
one of these lofty mountains, surrounded by other
towering peaks, and if he be a sane man he will soon
be convinced that his place in the scale of creation is
far from the top. Let him stand, for instance, on the
summit of Mount Hood, Mount Tacoma, or Mount Baker, thousands of feet above all surrounding peaks,
hills, and valleys, where he may gaze into space hundreds of miles in every direction, with naught to obstruct his view, face to face with his Creator, and
if he have aught of the love of nature in his soul, or of
appreciation of the sublime in his mental composition, he will be moved to exclaim with the Apostle,
"What is man that Thou art mindful of him, or the
son of man that Thou visitest him V He will feel
his littleness, his insignificance, his utter lack of importance, more forcibly perhaps than ever before. It
seems almost incredible that there should be men in
the world who could care so little for the grandest,
the sublimest sights their native land affords, as to
be unwilling to perform the labor necessary to see
them to the best possible advantage ; and yet it is so,
for I have frequently heard them say :
" I should like very much to see these grand
sights you describe, but I never could afford to climb
those high mountains for that pleasure ; it is too
hard work for me."
And, after all, the benefits to be derived from
mountain climbing are not wholly of an intellectual  AND   OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES. 21
character ; the physical system may be benefited by
it as well. It is a kind of exercise that in turn
brings into use almost every muscle in the body,
those of the legs being of course taxed most severely, but those of the back do their full share of
the work, while the arms are called into action almost
constantly, as the climber grasps bushes or rocks by
which to aid himself in the ascent. The lungs expand and contract like bellows as they inhale and
exhale the rarified atmosphere, and the heart beats
like a trip-hammer as it pumps the invigorated blood
through the system. The liver is shaken loose from
the ribs to which it has perchance grown fast, and
the stomach is aroused to such a state of activity as
it has probably not experienced for years. Let any
man, especially one of sedentary habits, climb a
mountain 5,000 feet high, on a bright, pleasant day,
" Night's candles are burnt out and jocund d ly
Stands tiptoe on the misty mountain tops."
There let him breathe the rare, pure atmosphere,
fresh from the portals of heaven, and my word for
it he will have a better appetite, will eat heartier,
sleep sounder, and awake next morning feeling more
refreshed than since the days of his boyhood.
Although the labor be severe it can and should be
modulated to the strength and capabilities of the
person undertaking the task. No one should climb
faster than is compatible with his strength, and
halts should be made every five or ten minutes, if
need be, to allow the sy=tem ample rest. In this
manner a vast amount of work may be accomplished 22
in a day, even by one who has had no previous
experience in climbing.
The benefits and pleasures of mountain climbing
are much  better  understood and appreciated  in
Europe than in this country. Nearly every city of
England, France, Spain, Germany, and other European countries has an Alpine, Pyrenese, or Himalayan club.   The members of these clubs spend their AND  OTHER -HUNTING ADVENTURES.
summer outings in scaling the great peaks of the
mountains after which the societies are named, or
other ranges, and the winter evenings in recounting
to each other their experiences; and many a man, by
his association with the clubs and by indulgence in
this invigorating pastime develops from a delicate
youth into a muscular, sturdy, athletic man - in a
few years.
The possible value of mountain climbing as a recreation and as a means of gaining knowledge, has been
greatly enhanced, of late years, by the introduction of the dry-plate system in photography, and
since the small, light, compact cameras have been
constructed, which may be easily and conveniently
carried wherever a man can pack his blankets
and a day's supply of food. With one of these
instruments fine views can be taken of all interesting
objects and bits of scenery on the mountain, and of
the surrounding country. The views are interesting
and instructive to friends and to the public in general, and as souvenirs are invaluable to the author.
And from the negatives thus secured lantern slides
may be made, and from these, by the aid of the
calcium light, pictures projected on a screen that
can only be excelled in their beauty and attractiveness bv nature herself.  CHAPTER II.
|Ǥ|#ACH succeeding autumn, for years past,
j^T    has found me in some range of mountains,     camping,     hunting,     fishing,
climbing,   and   taking   views.     The
benefits I have derived from   these
expeditions,  in the  way of  health,
strength,   and vigor,   are  incalculable,
*Sland the pleasures inexpressible.    My last
^i|T outing was in the Cascade Range, in Oregon
JgKand Washington Territory, where I spent
f|a month in these delightful occupations, and it
is with a view of encouraging and promoting a love
for these modes of recreation that this record is
"LI live not in myself, but I become
Portion of that around me; and to me
High mountains are a feeling, but the hum
Of human cities torture."
The Cascade Range of mountains extends from
Southern Oregon through Washington Territory,
away to the northward in British Columbia. In width,
from east to west, it varies from fifty to one hundred
miles. It is the most densely-timbered range on the
continent, and yet is one of the highest and most rugged. It may not possess so many ragged, shapeless
crags and dark canons as the Rocky Range, and yet
everyone who has ever traversed both accords to the
Cascades the distinction of being the equal, in pictur-
esqueness and grandeur, of the Rockies, or, in fact,
of any other range in the country. As continental
landmarks, Mounts Pitt, Union, Thielson, Jefferson,
Hood, Adams, St. Helens, Tacoma, Baker, Stuart,
Chiam, Douglass, and others are unsurpassed. Their
hoary crests tower to such majestic heights as to be
visible, in some instances, hundreds of miles, and
their many glaciers feed mighty rivers upon whose
bosoms the commerce of nations is borne. Mount Jefferson is 9,020 feet high; Mount Adams, 9,570; Mount
St. Helens, 9,750; Mount Baker, 10,800, Mount Hood,
11,025, and Mount Tacoma, 14,444. There are many
other peaks that rise to altitudes of 7,000 to 9,000
feet, and from these figures one may readily form
something of an idea of the general height and beauty
of the Cascade Range. The foot-hills are generally
high, rolling, and picturesque, and so heavily timbered that in many places one cannot see a hundred
yards in any direction. Higher up the range, however, this heavy timber is replaced by smaller trees,
that stand farther apart, and the growth of underbrush is not so dense; consequently, the labor of travel
is lightened and the range of vision is extended. The
geological formation in the Cascades is varied.
Igneous rock abounds; extensive basaltic cliffs and
large bodies of granite, limestone, sandstone, etc.,
are frequently met with, and nearly all the tablelands, in and about the foot-hills, are composed of
gravel drift, covered with vegetable mold. The Cas -
ca^es may be explored with comfort later in the
fall than the Rockies or other more eastern ranges,
the winter setting in on the former much later than  AND   OTHER  HUNTING ADVENTURES. 29
on the latter, although the winter rains usually come
in November. September and October are the most
pleasant months for an outing in the Cascades.
* * * It was late in October when my wife and
I started from Chicago for a tour of a month among
the bristling peaks of the Cascades and the picturesque islands of Puget Sound. A pleasant ride of
fifteen hours on the Wisconsin Central Railroad to
St. Paul, and another of three days and nights on the
grand old Northern Pacific, brought us face to face
with the glittering crests and beetling cliffs that were
the objects of our pilgrimage. As the tourist goes
west, the first view of the range is obtained at the
Dalles of the Columbia river, from whence old Mount
Hood, thirty-five miles distant, rears its majestic
head high into the ethereal vault of-heaven, and
neighboring peaks, of lesser magnitude, unfold themselves to the enraptured vision. As the train whirls
down the broad Columbia river, every curve, around
which we swing with dazzling speed, reveals to our
bewildered gaze new forms of beauty and new
objects of wonder. So many descriptions of the
scenery along this mystic stream have been written, that every reading man, woman, and child
in the land must be familiar with it, and I will
not repeat or attempt to improve upon any of them.
To say the most extravagant representations are not
exaggerated, is to speak truly, and no one can know
how beautiful some of these towers and cliffs are
until he has seen them.
The train arrived at Portland, that old and far-
famed metropolis of the North Pacific coast, at half
past ten o'clock in the morning, and after twenty- CRUISINGS IN THE CASCADES
four hours pleasantly spent in viewing its many
points of interest and the snow-covered mountains
thereabouts, we again boarded the Northern Pacific
train and sped toward Tacoma, where we arrived at
six o'clock in the evening. Here we passed another
day in looking over a booming Western city, whose
future prosperity and greatness have been assured by
its having been chosen as the tide-water terminus of
the Northern Pacific Railway. Tacoma is situated
on Commencement Bay, an arm of Puget Sound,
and has a harbor navigable for the largest ocean
steamships. The vast forests of pine, fir, and cedar,
with which it is surrounded, give Tacoma great
commercial importance as a lumbering town, and the
rich agricultural valleys thereabout assure home production of breadstuffs, vegetables, meats, etc., sufficient to feed its army of workingmen. Rich coal fields,
in the immediate neighborhood, furnish fuel for
domestic and manufacturing purposes at merely
nominal prices. All the waters hereabouts abound
in salmon, several varieties of trout and other food-
while in the woods and mountains adjacent,
elk, deer, and bears are numerous; so the place will
always be a popular resort for the sportsman and
the tourist. The chief attraction of the city,- how-
ever, for the traveler, will always be the fine view
it affords of Mount Tacoma. This grand old pinnacle
of the Cascade Range, forty-five miles distant, lifts its
snow-mantled form far above its neighbors, which are
themselves great mountains, while its glacier-crowned
summit rises, towers, and struggles aloft 'til—
" Round its breast the rolling clouds are spread,
Eternal sunshine settles on its head;" AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES. 31
and its crown is almost lost in the limitless regions
of the deep blue sky.
From the verandas of the Tacoma House one may
view Mount Tacoma until wearied with gazing.   The
Northern Pacific Railway runs within fifteen miles
of the base of it, and from the nearest point a trail
has been made, at a cost of some thousands of dollars,
by which tourists   may  ascend the mountain on
horseback, to an altitude of about 10,000 feet, with
comparative comfort; but he who goes above that
height must work his passage.    There are several
men who claim the distinction of being the only
white man that has ever been to the top of this
-mountain.   Others declare that it has been ascended
only twice; but we have authentic information of at
least three successful and complete ascents having
been made.    Indian legends people the mountain
with evil spirits, which are said to dwell in boiling
caldrons and yawning caverns—
" Calling shapes, and beck'ning shadows dire,
And airy tongues that syllable men's names."
Tradition says their wild shrieks and groans maybe
heard therein at all times; and no Indians are known
ever to have gone any great distance up Mount
Rainier, as they call it. White men have tried to
employ the native red men as guides and packers
for the ascent, but no amount of money can tempt
them to invade the mysterious canons and cliffs
with which the marvelous pile is surrounded. They
say that all attempts to do so, by either white or
red men, must result in certain destruction. Undoubtedly the first ascent was made about thirty
years ago, by General (then Lieutenant) Kautz, and 32
Lieutenant Slaughter, of the United States Army,
who were then stationed at Steilacoom, Washington
Territory. They took pack animals, and with an
escort of several men ascended as far as the animals
could go. There they left them and continued the
climb on foot. They were gone nine days, from the
time of leaving their mules until they returned to
the animals, and claimed, no doubt justly, to have
gone to the top of Liberty Cap, the highest of the
three distinct summits that form the triplex corona;
the others being known as the Summit and the
Dome. The next ascent, so far as known, was made
in 1876 by Mr. Hazard Stevens, who gave an account
«/ 7 Cj
of his experiences in the Atlantic Monthly for November, of that year. In 1882, Messrs. Van Trump
and Smith, of San Francisco, made a successful
ascent, and in the same year an Austrian tourist
who attempted to ascend the mountain, got within
three hundred feet of the top, when his progress was
arrested by an avalanche, and he came very near
losing his life. Mr. L. L. Holden, of Boston, went
to within about six hundred feet of the summit in
1883, and Mr. J. R. Hitchcock Claims to have
reached it in 1885.
From the point gained by the trail above mentioned, the tourist may look down upon the glaciers
of the North Fork of the Puyallup River, 3,000
feet below, while on the other hand,, the glaciers of
the canon of the Carbon may be seen 4,000 feet
beneath him. Away to the north, glimmering and
glinting under the effulgent rays of the noonday
san, stretches that labyrinth of waters known as
Puget Sound—
" Whose breezy waves tos3 up their silvery spray;" AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES. 33
while the many islands therein, draped in their
•evergreen foliage, look like emeralds set in a sheet
of silver. Many prominent landmarks in British
Columbia are seen, while to the north and south
stretches the Cascade Range, to the west the Olympic, and to the southwest the Coast Range. All these
are spread out before the eye of the tourist in a
.grand panorama unsurpassed for loveliness. Crater
Lake forms one of the mysteries of Mount Tacoma.
About its ragged, ice-bound and rock-ribbed shores
are many dark caverns, from which the Indians conceived their superstitious fears of this mysterious
pile.    An explorer says of one of these chambers:
"Its roof is a dome of brilliant green, with long
icicles pendant therefrom; while its floor is composed of the rocks and debris that formed the side
of the crater, worn smooth by the action of water
and heated by a natural register, from which issue
clouds of steam."
The grand canon of the Puyallup is two and a half
miles wide, and from its head may be seen the great
glacier, 300 feet in thickness, which supplies the
great volume of water that flows through the Puyallup river. From here no less than nine different
waterfalls, varying in height from 500 to 1,500 feet,
are visible; and visitors are sometimes thrilled with
the magnificent spectacle of an avalanche of thousands of tons of overhanging ice falling with an
•overwhelming crash into the canon, roaring and
reverberating in a way that almost makes the great
mountain tremble. Fed by the lake, torrents pour
-over the edge of the cliff, and the foaming waters,
forming a perpetual veil of seemingly silver lace. 34
fall with a fearful leap into the arms of the surging-
waves below. Mount Tacoma will be the future
resort of the continent, and many of its wondrous
beauties yet remain to be explored.
,-l*r,'f - .j?j
t—HtffoMif'iL. W- Ci
HE Oregon Railway &
Navigation Company's steamers leave Tacoma, for Seattle^
at four o'clock in the morning, ' and at six-thirty in the
evening, so we were unable to
see this portion of the sound
until our return trip. Seattle is another
of those rushing, pushing, thriving, Western towns, whose energy and dash always
surprise Eastern people. The population of the city
is 15,000 souls; it has gas-works, water-works, and
a street railway, and does more business„ and handles more money each year than many an Eastern
city of 50,000 or more.
The annual lumber shipments alone aggregate
over a million dollars, from ten saw-mills that cost
over four millions, and the value of the salmon-canning product is nearly a million more. The soil of
the valleys adjacent to Seattle is peculiarly adapted
to hop-raising, and that industry is extensively carried on by a large number of farmers. Some of the
largest and finest hop-ranches in the world are located in the vicinity, and their product is shipped to
(35) 36
various American and European ports, over 100,000
tons having been shipped in 1888, bringing the
growers the handsome sum of $560,327.
During the fifteen years since the beginning of
this important cultivation, the hop crop is said-
never to have failed, nor has it been attacked by
disease, nor deteriorated by reason of the roots being
kept on the same land without replanting. It is
believed that the Dwamish, the White River, and
the Puyallup Valleys could easily produce as many
hops as are now raised in the United States, if labor
could be obtained to pick them. Indians have been
mainly relied upon to do the picking, and they have
flocked to the Sound from nearly all parts of the
Territory, even from beyond the mountains. Many
have come in canoes from regions near the outlet of
the Sound, from British Columbia, and even from
far off Alaska, to engage temporarily in this occupation; then to purchase goods and return to their
wigwams. They excel the whites in their skill as
pickers, and, as a rule, conduct themselves peaceably.
Elliot Bay, on which Seattle is built, affords a fine
harbor and good anchorage, while Lakes Union and
Washington, large bodies of fresh water—the
former eleven and the latter eighteen feet above tide
level—lie just outside the city limits, opposite.
There are rich coal mines at hand, which produce
nearly a million dollars worth each year. Large
fertile tracts of agricultural lands, in the near
vicinity, produce grain, vegetables, and fruits of
many varieties, and in great luxuriance. Iron ore
of an excellent quality abounds in the hills and AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES. 37
mountains back of the city, and with all these
natural resources and advantages at her command,
Seattle is sure to become a great metropolis in the
near future. The climate of the Puget Sound country is temperate; snow seldom falls before Christmas, never to a greater depth than a few inches in
the valleys and lowlands, and seldom lies more
than a few days at a time. My friend, Mr. W.
A. Perry, of Seattle, in a letter dated December 6,
"The weather, since your departure, has been
very beautiful. The morning of your arrival was
the coldest day we have had this autumn. Flowers
are now blooming in the gardens, and yesterday a
friend who lives at Lake Washington sent me a box
of delicious strawberries, picked from the vines in
his garden in the open air on December 4, while
you, poor fellow, were shivering, wrapped up in
numberless coats and furs, in the arctic regions of
Chicago. Why don't you emigrate? There's lots of
room for you on the Sumas, where the flowers are
ever blooming, where the summer never dies, where
the good Lord sends the tyee (great) salmon to your
verv door; ' and where, if you want to shoot, you
have your choice from the tiny jacksnipe to the
cultus bear or the lordly elk."
There are thousands of acres of natural cranberry
marshes on the shores of the sound, where this fruit
grows wild, of good quality, and in great abundance.
It has not been cultivated there yet, but fortunes
will be made in that industry in the near future.
But the crowning glory of Puget Sound, and its
greatest source of wealth, are the vast forests of ffi!&Z8Z^ffi%Z%ffiffi%%ffiZ%. AND   OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES. 39
"timber. It is scarcely advisable to tell the truth
concerning the size to which some of the giant firs
and cedars grow in this country, lest I be accused of
-exaggeration; but, for proof of what I say, it will
only be necessary to inquire of any resident of the
:Sound country. There are hundreds of fir and cedar
trees in these woods twenty to twenty-five feet in
-diameter, above the spur roots, and over three
hundred feet high. A cube was cut from a fir tree,
near Vancouver, and shipped to the Colonial Exhibition in London in 1886, that measured nine feet
and eight inches in thickness each way. The bark
of this tree was fourteen inches thick. Another
tree was cut, trimmed to a length of three hundred
and two feet, and sent to the same destination, but
this one, I am told, was only six feet through at
the butt.
From one tree cut near Seattle six saw-logs were
taken, five of which were thirty feet long, each, and
the other was twenty-four feet in length. This tree
was only five feet in diameter at the base, and the
first limb grew at a height of two feet above where
the last log was cut off, or over one hundred and
•seventy feet from the ground. A red cedar was cut
in the same neighborhood that measured eighteen
feet in diameter six feet above the ground ; and
there is a well-authenticated case of a man, named
Hepburn, having lived in one of these cedars for over
a year, while clearing up a farm. The tree was hollow
at the ground, the cavity measuring twenty-two feet
in the clear and running up to a knot hole about
forty feet above. The homesteader laid a floor in
the hollow, seven or eight feet above the ground, and 40
placed a ladder against the wall by which to go up
and down. On the floor he built a stone flreplace,
and from it to the knot hole above a stick and clay
chimney. He lived ups'airs and kept his horse and
cow downstairs. It may be well to explain that he
was a bachelor, and thus save the reader any anxiety
as to how his wife and children liked the situation.
The '' Sumas Sapling'' stands near Sumas Lake,,
northeast of Seattle. It is a hollow cedar, twenty-
three feet in the clear, on the ground, and is estimated to be fifteen feet in diameter twenty feet
above the ground. I have, in several instances,
counted more than a hundred of these mammoth
trees on an acre of land, and am informed that
one tract has been cut off that yielded over 1,000,000'
feet of lumber per acre. In this case the trees stood
so close together that many of the stumps had to be
dug out, after the trees had been felled, before the-
logs could be gotten out. The system of logging in
vogue here differs widely from that practiced in
Wisconsin, Michigan, Maine, and elsewhere. No-
snow or ice are required here, and, in fact, if snow
falls to any considerable depth while crews are in.
the woods a halt is called until it goes off.
Corduroy roads are built into the timber as fast
as required, on which the teams travel, so that it is not
necessary that the ground should be even frozen.
Skids, twelve to eighteen inches thick, are laid across,
■these roads, about nine feet apart, and sunk into the
ground so as to project about six inches above the;
surface ; the bark is peeled off the top, they are kept
greased, and the logs are " snaked" over them with
four to seven yoke of cattle, as may be required.. AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
The wealthier operators use steam locomotives and
cars, building tracks into the timber as fast and as
far as needed. This great timber belt is co-extensive
with Puget Sound, the Straits of Georgia, and the
Cascade Mountains. I believe that at the present
rate at which lumber is being consumed, there is fir,
pine, and cedar enough in Washington Territory and
British Columbia to last the world a thousand years. '   CHAPTER IV.
UGKET SOUND is a great inland
sea, extending nearly 200 miles
from the ocean, having a surface of about 2,000 square miles,
and a shore line of 1,594 miles,
indented with numerous bays, harbors, and inlets,
each with its peculiar name ; and it contains numerous islands inhabited by farmers, lumbermen, herdsmen, and those engaged in quarrying lime and building stone.    Nothing can surpass the beauty of these
waters and their safety.    Not a shoal exists within
the Sound, the Straits of Juan de Fuca, Admiralty
Bay, Hood's Canal, or the Straits of Georgia, that
v   J ? CJ 7
would in any way interrupt their navigation by a
seventy-four-gun ship. There is no country in the
world that possesses waters equal to these. The
shores of all the inlets and bays are remarkab'ybold,
so much so that a ship's side would touch the
shore before her keel would touch the ground. The
country by which these waters are surrounded has
a remarkably salubrious climate.
The region affords every advantage for the accommodation of a vast commercial and military marine,
with conveniences for docks, and there are a great
many sites for towns and cities, which at all times
would be well supplied with water, and the surrounding country, which is well adapted to agricult-
ure, would supply all the wants of a large population.
No part of the world affords finer islands, sounds,
or a greater number of harbors than are found within
these waters. They are capable of receiving the
largest class of vessels, and are without a single hidden danger. From the rise and fall of the tide (18
feet), every facility is afforded for the erection of
works for a great maritime nation. The rivers also
furnish hundreds of sites for water-power for manufacturing purposes. On this Sound are already situated many thriving towns and cities, besides those
already mentioned, bidding for the commerce of the
The flora of the Sound region is varied and interesting. A saturated atmosphere, constantly in contact with the Coast Range system of upheaval, together with the warm temperature, induces a growth
of vegetation almost tropical in its luxuriance. On
the better soils, the shot-clay hills and uplands, and
on the alluvial plains and river bottoms, grow the
great trees, already mentioned, and many other
species of almost equal beauty, though of no commercial value.
"The characteristic shrubs are the cornels and the
spiraeas, many species. These, with the low thickets
of szLlal(Gaultheria shallori), Oregon grape (berries),
and fern (chiefly pteris, which is the most abundant),
and the tangle of the trailing blackberry (Rubus
pedatus) make the forests almost impenetrable save
where the ax or the wild beast or the wilder fire have
left their trails.
"The dense shade of the forest gives little opportunity for the growth of the more lowly herbs.  AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES. 45
Where the fire has opened these shades to the light
the almost universal fireweed (epilobium) and the
lovely brown fire-moss (funaria) abound. In swamps
and lowlands the combustion of decay, almost as
quick and effective as fire itself, opens large spaces
to the light; and here abound chiefly the skunk
cabbage of the Pacific coast (lysichiton) and many
forms of the lovliest mosses, grown beyond belief
save by those who have looked upon their tropical
congeners. Hypnums and Miliums make the great
mass which meet the eye ; and among the many less
obvious forms a careful search will reveal many
species characteristic of this coast alone. The lower
forms of the cryptogams, the lichens and the fungi,
abound in greatest profusion as might be expected.
The chief interest in these, in the present state of our
knowledge of them, springs from their, disposition
to invade the more valuable forms of vegetation
which follow advancing civilization."
I measured one fungus, which I found growing upon
the decaying trunk of a mammoth fir, that was thir-
teen inches thick and thirty-four inches wide. I have
frequently. seen mosses growing on rotten logs, in
the deep shades of these lonely forests, that were
twelve to sixteen inches deep, and others hanging
from branches overhead three feet or more in length.
There are places in these dense forests where the trees
stand so close and their branches are so intertwined
that the sun's rays never reach the ground, and have
not, perhaps for centuries ; and it is but natural that
these shade and moisture loving plants should grow
to great size in such places.
The fauna of this Territorv includes the elk, black- 46
tailed deer, Cervus columbianus; the mule-deer,
Cervus macrotus; the Virginia deer, Cervus virgin-
ianus; the caribou, the Rocky Mountain goat,
Rocky Mountain sheep, the grizzly and black bear.
Among the smaller mammals there are the raccoon,
the cougar, wild cat, gray wolf, black wolf, prairie
wolf or coyote, gray, and red fox, fisher, mink,
martin, oeaver, otter, sea otter, red squirrel, ermine,
muskrat, sea lion, fur and hair seals, wolverine,
skunk, badger, porcupine, marmot, swamp hare,
jack-rabbit, etc. Of birds and wild fowls there is
a long list, among which may be mentioned several
varieties of geese and brant, including the rare and
toothsome black brant, which in season hovers in
black clouds about the sand spits ; the canvas back,
red head, blue bill, teal, widgeon, shoveler, and various other ducks ; ruffed, pinnated, and blue grouse \
various snipes and plovers; eagles, hawks, owls,
woodpeckers, jays, magpies, nuthatches, warblers,
sparrows, etc. There are many varieties of game and
food fishes in the Sound and its tributaries, in addition to the salmon and trout already mentioned.
In short, this whole country is a paradise for the
sportsman and the naturalist, whatever the specialty
of either.
We left Seattle, en route for Victoria, at seven
o'clock on a bright, crisp November morning. The
air was still, the bay was like a sheet of glass, and
only long, low swells were running outside. We
had a charming view of the Cascade Mountains to
the east and the Olympics to the west, all day. The
higher peaks were covered with show, and the sunlight glinted and shimmered across them in playful, AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES. 47
cheery mood. Deep shadows fell athwart dark
canons, in whose gloomy depths we felt sure herds
of elk and deer were nipping the tender herbage,
and along whose raging rivers sundry bears were
doubtless breakfasting on salmon straight. Old.
Mount Baker's majestic head, rising 10,800 feet above
us and only fifty miles away, was the most prominent object in the gorgeous landscape, and one on
which we never tired of gazing. We had only to
cast our eyes from the grand scene ashore to that
at our feet, and vice versa, to—
" See the mountains kiss high heaven,
And the waves clasp one another."
A large colony of gulls followed the steamer, with
ceaseless beat of downy wings, from daylight till dark,
and after the first hour they seemed to regard us as
old friends. They hovered about the deck like
winged spirits around a lost child. Strange bird
thus to poise with tireless wing over this watery
waste day after day! Near the route of the vessel
one of the poor, creatures lay dead, drifting sadly
and alone on the cold waves. Mysterious creature,
" Lack lustre eye, and idle wing,
And smirched breast that skims no more,
Hast thou not even a grave
Upon the dreary shore,
Forlorn, forsaken thing?"
Our feathered fellow-passengers greeted us with,
plaintive cries whenever we stepped out of the cabin,
dropping into the water in pursuit of every stray
bit of food that was thrown overboard from the cook-
room.    My wife begged several plates of stale bread. 48
from the steward, and, breaking it into small pieces,
threw handf uls at a time into the water.
Twenty or thirty of the birds would drop in a bunch
where the bread fell, and a lively scramble would
ensue for the coveted food. The lucky ones would
quickly corral it, however, when the whole flight,
rising again, would follow and soon overtake the
vessel. Then they would cluster around their patron,
cooing, and coaxing for more of the welcome bounty.
I took out my detective camera and made a number
of exposures on the gulls, which resulted very satisfactorily. Many of the prints show them sadly out
of focus, but this was unavoidable, as I focused at AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES. 49
twenty feet, and of course all that were nearer or
farther away, at the instant of exposure, are not
sharp. Many, however, that were on wing at the
time of making the exposure, and at the proper distance from the lens,  are clearly and. sharply cut.
These pictures form a most interesting study for
artists, anatomists, naturalists, and others, the
wings being shown in every position assumed by the
birds in flight. The shutter worked at so high a
pressure that only one or two birds in the entire
series show any movement at all, and they are but
very slightly blurred. When we consider that the
steamer, as well as the gulls, was in motion—running ten miles an hour—trembling and vibrating
from stem to stern, and that, in many cases, the
birds were going in an opposite direction from that
of the vessel, the results obtained are certainly marvelous. It may interest some of my readers to
know that I used an Anthony detective camera,
making a four-by-five-inch picture, to which is fitted
a roll holder, and in all the work done on this trip,
I used negative paper. I also obtained, en route,
several good views of various islands, and points of
interest on the mainland, while the boat was in
There are many beautiful scenes in and about the
Sound; many charming islands, clothed in evergreen
foliage, from whose interiors issue clear, sparkling
brooks of fresh water; while the mainland shores
rise abruptly, in places, to several hundreds of feet,
bearing their burdens of giant trees. There are perpendicular cut banks on many of the islands and
the mainland shores, thirty, forty, or fifty feet high,
4 ft
almost perpendicular, made so by the hungry waves
having eaten away their foundations, and the earth
having fallen into the brine, leaving exposed bare
walls of sand and gravel. On Whidby Island, one
of the largest in the Sound, there was, up to a few
years ago, a herd of wild cattle, to which no one
made claim of ownership, and which were, consequently, considered legitimate game for anyone
who cared to hunt them. They were wary and cunning in the extreme. The elk or deer, native and to
the manor born, could not be more so. But, alas,
these cattle were not to be the prey of true, conscientious sportsmen; for the greed of the market
hunter and the skin hunter exceeded the natural
cunning of the noble animals, and they have been
nearly exterminated; only ten or twelve remain, and
they will soon have to yield up their lives to the
insatiable greed of those infamous butchers.
One of the most curious and interesting points in
the sound is Deception Pass. This is a narrow channel or passage between two islands, only fifty yards
wide, and about two hundred yards long. On either
side rise abrupt and towering columns of basaltic rock,
and during both ebb and flow the tide runs through
it, between Padilla and Dugalla Bays, with all the
wild fury and bewildering speed of the maelstrom.,
This pass takes its name from the fact of there
being three coves near—on the west coast of
Whidby Island—that look so much like Deception
that they are often mistaken for it at night or during foggy weather, even by experienced navigators.
All the skill and care of the best pilots are required
to make the pass in safety, and the bravest of them 11
heave a sigh of relief when once its beetling cliffs
and seething abysses are far astern. Gulls hover
about this weird place, and eagles soar above it at all
hours, as if admiring its pristine beauties, yet in
superstitious awe of the dark depths. Mount Erie,
two miles away, rising to a height of 1,300 feet, casting
its deep shadows across the pass and surrounding
waters, completes a picture of rare beauty and
We reached Victoria, that quaint, old, aristocratic,
ultra-English town, just as the sun was sinking
beneath the waves, that rolled restlessly on the surface
of Juan de Fuca Strait. We were surprised to see
so substantial and well-built a town as this, and
one possessing so much of the air of age and independence, so far north and west. One might readily
imagine, from the exterior appearance of the city
and its surroundings, that he were in the province
of Quebec instead of that of British Columbia. My
wife felt that she must not remain longer away from
home at present, and we were to part here; therefore, in the early morning she embarked for home^
while I transferred my effects and self to the steamer
Princess Louise, bound for Burrard Inlet.
iBllijte^ CHAPTER V.
day light in the morning we entered English
Bay, having crossed the strait during the
night.   The sun climbed up over the snow-
mantled mountains into a cloudless sky,
and his rays were reflected from the limpid,
tranquil surface of the bay:
"Blue, darkly, deeply, beautifully blue,"
as if from the face of a mirror. A few
miles to the east, the triple-mouthed Frazer
empties its great volume of fresh, cold, glacier-
tinted fluid into the briny inland sea, and its
delta, level as a floor, stretches back many miles
on either side of the river to the foot-hills of the
Cascades. Thousands of ducks sat idly and lazily
in the water, sunning themselves, pruning their
feathers, and eyeing us curiously but fearlessly,
as we passed, sometimes within twenty-five or
thirty yards of them. A few geese crossed hither
'and thither, in low, long, dark lines, uttering their
familiar honk, honk; but they were more wary
than their lesser cousins, and kept well out of range.
I asked the purser if there was any rule against
shooting on board, and he said no; to go down on
the after main deck, and shoot until I was tired. I
took my Winchester express from the case, went
below and opened on the ducks.   They at once found
(53) 54
it necessary to get out of the country, and their
motion, and. that of the vessel combined, caused me
to score several close misses, but I finally found the'
bull's-eye, so to speak, and killed three in rapid succession.    Then the mate came down and said:
"We don't allow no one to be firin' off guns on
"I have the purser's permission," I said.
"Well," he replied, "the captain's better authority than the purser on this here boat," whereupon
he returned to the cabin deck, and so did I. I was
not seriously disappointed, however, for I cared
little for the duck shooting; I was in quest of larger
game, and only wanted to practice a little, to renew
acquaintance and familiarity with my weapon.
Early in the day we entered Burrard Inlet, a narrow,
crooked, and peculiarly shaped arm of the salt water,
that winds and threads its way many miles back
into the mountains, so narrow in places, that a boy
may cast a stone across it, and yet so deep as to be
navigable for the largest ocean steamship." The inlet
is so narrow and crooked that a stranger, sailing into
it for the first time, would pronounce it a great river
coming down from the mountains. Through this
picturesque body of water our good boat cleft the
shadows of the overhanging mountains until nearly
noon, when we landed at Vancouver, the terminus
of the Canadian Pacific Railway. In consequence of
this important selection, the place is a busy mart of
trade. The clang of saw and hammer, the rattle of
wheels, the general din of a building boom, are such
as to tire one's nerves in a few hours. Later in the
day we reached Port Moody.    This town was origi- AND   OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES 55
nally designated as the tide-water terminus of the
road, and had its brief era of prosperity and speculation in consequence; but now that the plan has
beeD changed it has been reduced to a mere way
station, and has relapsed into the dullest kind of
From here I staged across the divide to New
Westminster, on the Frazer river, the home of Mr.
J. C. Hughs, who had inyited me there to hunt
Rocky Mountain goats with him. I was grieved
beyond measure, however, to learn on my arrival that
he was dangerously ill, and went at once to his
house, but he was unable to see me. He sank rapidly
from the date of his first illness, died two days after
my arrival, and I therefore found myself in a strange
land, with no friend or acquaintance to whom I
could go for information or advice.
My first object, therefore, was to find a guide to take
me into the mountains, and although I found several
pretended sportsmen, I could hear of no one who had
•ever killed a goat, except poor Hughs, and a Mr.
Fannin, who had formerly lived there, but had lately
moved away, so of course no one knew where I could
.get a guide. Several business men, of whom I asked
information, inquired at once where I was from, and
-on learning that I was an American, simply said '' I
cLon't know," and were, or at least pretended to be,
too busy to talk with me. They seemed to have no
use for people from this side of the boundary line,
and this same ill-feeling toward my Nation (with a
big N) was shown me in other places, and on various
occasions, while in the province. I found, however,
one gracious exception, in New Westminster, in the 56
person of Mr. C. Gr. Major, a merchant, who, the moment I made known to him my wish, replied:
"Well, sir, the best guide and the best hunter in
British Columbia left here not three minutes ago.
He is an Indian who lives on Douglass Lake, and I
think I can get him for you. If I can, you are fixed
for a good and successful hunt."
This news, and the frank, manly, cordial greeting
that came with it, were surprising to me, after the
treatment I had been receiving. Mr. Major invited
me into his private office, gave me a chair by the fire,
and sent out a messenger to look for '' Douglass Bill,"
the Indian of whom he had spoken. This important
personage soon came in. Mr. Major told him what
I wanted, and it took but a few minutes to make
a bargain. He was a solid, well-built Indian, had
an intelligent face, spoke fair English, and had the
reputation of being, as Mr. Major had said, an excellent hunter. Mr. Major further said he considered
Bill one of the most honest, truthful Indians he had
ever known, and that I could trust him as implicitly
as I could any white man in the country.
This arrangement was made on Saturday night,
but Bill said he could not start on the hunt until
Wednesday morning, as his mother-in-law had just
died, and he must go and help to bury her on Tuesday. The funeral was to take place on the Chiluk-
weyuk river, a tributary of the Frazer, about fifty
miles above New Westminster, and it was arranged
that I should go up on the steamer, and meet him at
the mouth of Harrison river, another tributary
stream, on Wednesday morning. We were then to
go up the Harrison to the hunting grounds.     I was AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
delighted at the prospect of a successful hunt, with
so good a guide, and cheerfully consented to wait
the necessary three days for the red man to perform
the last sad rites of his tribe over the remains of
the departed Moochman, but I was doomed to disappointment.  CHAPTER VI.
£^0R many years I had read, heard, and
dreamed of the Frazer, that mysterious
stream which flows out from among
the icy fastnesses of the Cascades, in
the far-off confines of British Columbia.
For many years had I longed to see
• with my own eyes some of the grand
scenery of the region it drains, and now,
P at last, that mighty stream flowed at my
] feet. How eagerly I drank in the beauty of
the scene ! How my heart thrilled at the'
thought that I stood face to face with this land
of my dreams and was about to explore a portion,
at least, of the country in which this great river
rises. The beautiful lines penned by Maria Brooks,
on the occasion of her first visit to the St. Lawrence, came vividly to my mind:
'' The first time I beheld thee, beauteous stream,
How pure, how smooth, how broad thy bosom heaved;
What feelings rushed upon my heart! a gleam
As of another life my kindling soul received."
I left New Westminster at seven o' clock Monday
morning on the steamer Adelaide, for the mouth of
Harrison river, sixty miles up the Frazer. There
were over twenty Indians on board, going up to the
mouth of the Chilukweyuk, to attend the funeral of
Douglass Bill's deceased relative.    As   soon as I
(59) 60
learned their destination I inquired if he were
among them, but they said he was not. He had
come aboard before we left, but for some reason had
decided to go on another boat thai; left half an hour
ahead of the Adelaide. The voyage proved intensely
interesting. The Frazer is from a quarter to half a
mile wide, and is navigable for large steamers for a
hundred miles above its mouth. There are portions
of the valley that are fertile, thickly settled, and
well cultivated. The valleys of some of its tributaries are also good farming districts, and grain,
fruits, and vegetables of various kinds grow in
abundance. At the mouth of the Chilukweyuk I
saw fine peaches that had grown in the valley, within ten miles of perpetual snow. The river became
very crooked as we neared the mountains, and
finally we entered the gorge, or canon, where the
rocky-faced mountains rise, sheer from the water's
edge, to heights of many hundreds of feet, and just
back of them tower great peaks, clad in eternal
snows. The little camera was again brought into
requisition and, as we rounded some of these picturesque bends and traversed some of the beautiful
reaches, I secured many good views, though the day
was cloudy and lowery. The boat being in motion,
I was, of course, compelled to make the shortest
possible exposures, and was, therefore, unable to get
fine details in the shadows; yet many of the prints
turned out fairly well.
We saw several seals in the river on the way up,
and the captain informed me that at certain seasons
they were quite plentiful in the Frazer and all the
larger streams in the neighborhood.    They go up.
the Frazer to the head of navigation and he could
not say how much farther. He said that on one
occasion a female seal and her young were seen
sporting in the water ahead of the steamer, and that
when the vessel came within about fifty yards they
dove. Nothing more was seen of the puppy, and
the captain thought it must have been caught in
the wheel and killed, for the mother followed the
vessel several miles, whining, looking longingly,
pitifully, and beseechingly at the passengers and
crew. She would swim around and around the
steamer, coming close up, showing no fear for her
own safety, whatever, but seeming to beg them to
give back her baby. She appeared to have lost sight
of it entirely, whatever its fate, and to think it had
been captured and taken on board. Her moaning
and begging, her intense grief, were pitiable in the
extreme, and brought tears to the eyes of stout,
brawny men. Finally she seemed completely
exhausted with anguish and her exertions and gradually sank out of sight. My informant said he
hoped never to witness another such sight.
We arrived at the mouth of Harrison river at six
o'clock in the evening. There is a little Indian village there called by the same name as the river, and
Mr. J. Barker keeps a trading post on the reservation, he being the only white man living there. He
made me welcome to the best accommodations his
bachelor quarters afforded, but said the only sleeping-room he had was full, as two friends from down
the river were stopping with him for the night, and
that I would have to lodge with one of the Indian
families.    He. said there was one Moochman (the CRUISINGS IN THE CASCADES
Chinook word for squaw) who was a remarkably
neat, cleanly housekeeper, who had a spare room,
and who usually kept any strangers that wished to
stop over night in the village. While we were talking the squaw in question came in and Mr. Barker
said to her:
"Mary, yah-kwa Boston man tik-eh moo-sum
me-si-ka house po-lak-le." (Here is an American
who would like to sleep in your house to-night.)
To which she replied:
" Yak-ka hy-ak " (he can come), and the bargain
was closed.
I remained at the store and talked with Mr.
Barker and his friends until ten o' clock, when he
took a lantern and piloted me over to the Indian
rancherie, where I was to lodge. I took my sleeping-
>ag with me and thanked my stars that I did, for
notwithstanding the assurances given me by good
Mr. Barker that the Indian woman was as good a
housekeeper as the average white woman, I was
afraid of vermin. I have never known an Indian to
be without the hemipterous little insect, Pediculus
(humanus) capitis. Possibly there may be some
Indians who do not wear them; I simply say I have
never had the pleasure of knowing one, and I have
known a great many, too. I seriously doubt if one
has ever yet lived many days at a time devoid of the
companionship of these pestiferous little creatures.
In fact, an Indian and a louse are natural allies—
boon companions—and are as inseparable as the
boarding-house bed and the bedbug. The red man
is so inured to the ravages of his parasitic companion,   so   accustomed   to   have    him   rustling AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
around on his person and foraging for grub, that he
pays little or no attention to the insect, and seems
hardly to feel its bite.
You will rarely see an Indian scratch his head or,
in fact, any portion of his person, as a white man
does when he gets,a bite. Lo gives forth no outward
sign that he is thickly settled, and it is only when
he sits or lies down in the hot sun that the inhabitants of his hair and clothing come to the front;
then you may see them crawling about like roaches
in a hotel kitchen. Or, when he has lain down on a
board, or your tent canvas, or any light-colored substance and got up and gone away, leaving some of
his neighbors behind, then you know he is—like
others of his race—the home of a large colonv of
When Mary and her husband, George, saw my
roll of bedding, which they supposed to be simply
blankets, they protested to Mr. Barker that I would
not need them, that there was "hy-iu mit-lite pa-
se-se I (plenty of covering on the bed). I told them,
however, that I could sleep better in my own
blankets and preferred to use them. I took the
bundle into my room, spread the sleeping-bag on
the bed and crawled into it. The outer covering of
the bag being of thick, hard canvas, I hoped it
would prove an effectual barrrier against the
assaults of the vermin, and that they might not find
the portal by which I entered, and so it proved.
George and Mary live in a very well-built, comfortable, one-story frame cottage, divided into two rooms;
the kitchen, dining-room, parlor and family sleeping-
room all in one,  and the spare room being the other. 64
The house has four windows and one door, a shingle
roof and a board floor. They have a coo"king-stove,
several chairs, a table, cupboard, etc. The bedstead
"on which I slept was homemade, but neat and substantial.    It was furnished with a white cotton tick,
filled with straw, feather pillows, several clean-looking blankets, and a pair of moderately clean cotton
sheets. I have slept in much worse-looking beds
in hotels kept by white people.
This Indian village, Harrison'river, or Skowlitz,
as the Indians call both the river and the village, is
composed of about twenty families, living in houses AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
of about the same class and of the same general design
as the one described, although some are slightly
larger and better, while others are not quite so good.
All have been built by white carpenters, or the
greater part of the, work was done by them, and the
lumber and other materials were manufactured by
white men. None of the dwellings have ever been
painted inside or out, but there is a neat mission
church in the village that has been honored with a
coat of white paint. There are a few log shacks
standing near, that look very much as if they had
been built by native industry. The frame houses, I
am informed, were erected by the Government and
the church by the Catholic Missionary Society.
was not compelled to eat with George and
pMary, for Mr. Barker had kindly'invited
•me to breakfast with him, and when I
reached his store, at the breakfast hour
in the morning, I found a neat inviting-
looking table in the room back of the
store, loaded with broiled ham, baked
^potatoes, good bread and butter, a pot of
Ippsteaming coffee, etc.; all of which we
enjoyed intensely. Mr. Barker informed
me there was a cluster of hot springs ten miles up
the river, at the foot of Harrison Lake, the source of
Harrison river, near which a large Kotel had lately
been built. Upon inquiry as to a means of getting
up there, I learned that he had employed a couple
of Indians to take some freight up that morning in
a canoe, and that I could probably secure a passage
with them. As Harrison Lake, or rather the mountains surrounding it, were the hunting-grounds
which Douglass Bill had selected, and as we would
have to pass these hot springs en route, I decided
to go there and wait for him. I therefore arranged
with Barker to send him up to the springs, when he
should call for me at the store, and took passage
in the freight canoe.
The Harrison river is a large stream that cuts its
way through high, rugged mountains, and the water
has a pronounced milky tinge imparted by the glaciers from which its feeders come, away back in the
Cascades. It is a famous salmon stream, and thousands of these noble fishes, of mammoth size, that
had lately gone up the river and into the small
creeks to spawn, having died from disease, or having been killed in the terrible rapids they had to
encounter, were lying dead on every sand bar,
lodged against every stick of driftwood, or were
slowly floating in the current. Their carcasses lined
the shore all along the lower portion of the river,
and the hogs, of which the Indians have large numbers, were feasting on the putrid masses as voraciously as if they had been ears of new, sweet corn.
The stench emitted by these festering bodies was
nauseating in the extreme; and the water, ordinarly
so pure and palatable, was now totally unfit for use.
I counted over one hundred of these dead fishes on a
single sand bar of less than half an acre in extent.
Cruising amid such surroundings was anything but
pleasant, and I was glad the current was slow here
so that, though going up stream, we were able to
make good progress, and soon got away from this
nauseating sight.
About a mile above the village we rounded a bend
in the river, where it spread out to nearly a quarter
of a mile in width, and on a sand bar in the middle
of the stream, sat a flock of geese. I picked up my
rifle and took a shot at them, but the ball cut a ditch
in the water nearly fifty yards this side, and went
singing over their heads into the woods beyond.
They did not seem to enjoy such music, and taking
wing started for some safer feeding-ground, carrying (68) AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
on a lively conversation in goose Latin, probably
about any fool who would try to kill geese at that
distance. I turned loose on them again, and in about
a second after pulling the trigger one of them seemed
to explode, as if hit by a dynamite bomb. For a few
seconds the air was full of fragments of goose, which
rained down into the water like a shower of autumn
leaves. My red companions enjoyed the result of this
shot hugely, and a canoe load of Indians from up
river, who were passing at the time, set up a regular
war whoop. We pulled over and got what was left of
the goose, and found that my express bullet had
carried away all his stern rigging, his rudder, one
of his paddles, and a considerable portion of his
hull. The water was covered with fragments of sail,
provisions of various kinds, and sundry bits of cargo
and hull. Charlie picked up so much of the wreck
together, and said in his broken, laconic
no good
Shoot him too much
were plenty of ducks, coots,  grebes, and
on the river, and I had fine sport with them
whenever I cared to shoot.
A mile above where I killed the goose we entered
a long reach of shoal rapids, where all the brawn
and skill of the Indians were required to stem the
powerful current and the immense volume of water.
The rapids are over a mile long, and it took us nearly
two hours to reach their head. As soon as we were
well into them we came among large numbers of live,
healthy salmon. Many of them were running down
the stream, some up, while others seemed not to be ill
111 111
11 III ml mmfi'm
ttHi'it' H          '   i:,.ji;i.;.'!J.',ltLlLuh1
going anywhere in particular, but just loafing
around, enjoying themselves. They were wild, but,
owing to the water being so rough and rapid, we
frequently got within two or three feet of them
before they saw us, and.the Indians killed two large
ones with their canoe poles. Occasionally we would
corner a whole school of them in some little pocket, -
where the water was so shallow that their dorsal fins
would stick out, and where there was no exit but by
passing close to the canoe. When alarmed they
would cavort around like a herd of wild mustangs
in a corral, until they would churn the water into a
foam; then, emboldened by their peril, they would
flash out past us with the velocity of an arrow.
They were doing a great deal of jumping; frequently
a large fish, two or three feet long, would start across
the stream, and make four or five long, high leaps
out of the water, in rapid succession, only remaining in the water long enough after each jump to gain
momentum for the next. I asked Charlie why they
were doing this, if they were sick, or if something
was biting them.
"No," he said. "Play. All same drunk—raise
These salmon run up the rivers and creeks to
deposit their spawn, and seem possessed of an insane
desire to get as far up into the small brooks as they
possibly can. They frequently pursue their mad
course up over boiling, foaming, roaring rapids, and
abrupt, perpendicular falls, where it would seem
impossible for any living creature to go—regardless
of their own safety or comfort. They are often found
in dense schools in little creeks away up near their 72
sources, where there is not water enough to cover
their bodies, and where they become an easy prey to
man, or to wild beasts. In such cases, Indians kill
them with spears and sharp sticks, or even catch and
throw them out with their hands.
Or if their journeyings take them among farms or
ranches, as is often the case, the people throw them
out on the banks with pitch-forks, and after supplying their household necessities, they cart the noble
fish away and feed them to their hogs, or even use
them to fertilize their fields. I have seen salmon
wedged into some of the small streams until you could
almost walk on them. The banks of many creeks,
far up in the foot-hills, are almost wholly composed
of the bones of salmon. In traveling through dense
woods I have often heard, at some distance ahead,
a loud splashing and general commotion in water,
as if of a dozen small boys in bathing. This would,
perhaps, be the first intimation I had that I was near
water, and, on approaching the source of the noise,
I have found it to have been made by a school of
these lordly salmon, wedged into one of the little
streams, thrashing the creek into suds in their efforts
to get to its head.
After depositing their spawn the poor creatures,
already half dead from bruises and exhaustion
incurred in their perilous voyage up stream, begin to
drift down. But how different, now, from the bright,
silvery creatures that once darted like rays of living
light through the sea. Unable to control their movements in the descent, even as well as in the ascent,
they drift at the cruel mercy of the stream. They
are driven against rough bowlders, submerged logs AND OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
and" snags, or through raging rapids by the fury of
the torrent, until hundreds, yes thousands, of them
are killed outright, and thousands more die from
sheer exhaustion.
I have seen salmon with their noses broken and
torn off; others with a lower jaw torn away; some
with sides, backs, or bellies bruised and bleeding;
others with their tails whipped and split into shreds,
and still others with   their entrails torn out by
. snags.   In this sad plight they are beset at every
turn in the river by their natural enemies. Bears,
cougars,  minks,  wild cats, fishers,  eagles, hawks,
and worst and most destructive of all, men, await
them   everywhere,   and    it    would    be   strange,
indeed,. if one in each thousand that left the salt
water should live to return.    The few that do so,
are, of course, so weak that they fall an easy prey
to the seals, sharks, and other enemies, that wait
with open mouths to engulf them.    So, all the leaping, rushing multitude that entered the river a few
months ago, have, ere this, gone to their doom, but
their seed is planted in the icy brook, far away in
the mountains, and their young will soon come forth
to take the place of the parents that have passed
away.    The instinct of reproduction must, indeed,
be an absorbing passion in poor dumb creatures,
when they will thus sacrifice life in the effort to
deposit their ova where the offspring may best be
brought into being. CRUISINGS IN THE CASCADES.
BOVE the rapids we had a lovely reach
of   river,  from a quarter to half a
mile wide, with no  perceptible cur-
ent.   Impelled by our united efforts,
our light cedar canoe shot over the
water as lightly and almost as
swiftly as the gulls above us sped
^through the air. I took one of the
j|| poles and used it while the In-
l£f dians plied their paddles, and for
^a distance of nearly two miles the depth of
water did not vary two inches from four and a half
feet. The bottom was composed of a hard, white
sand, into which the pole, with my weight on it,
sunk less than an inch; in fact, the current is so
slight, the width of the river so great, and the general character of the water such, that it might all be
termed a lake above the falls; though the foot of
the lake, as designated on the map, has a still
greater widening five miles above the head of the
Abrupt basaltic walls, 500 to 1,000 feet high and
nearly perpendicular, rise from the water's edge
on either side. On the more sloping faces of
these, vegetation has obtained root-room, little
bunches of soil have formed, and various evergreens, alders, water hazels, etc., grow vigorously.
Half a foot of snow had lately fallen on the tops of
these mountains, and a warm, southwest wind and
the bright sun were now sending it down into the
river in numerous plunging streams of crystal fluid.
For thousands of years these miniature torrents have,
at frequent intervals, tumbled down here, and in all
that time have worn but slight notches in the rocky
Shrubs have grown up along and over these
small waterways, and as the little rivulets come
coursing down, dodging hither and thither under overhanging clumps of green foliage, leaping from crag
to crag and curving from right to left and from left
to right, around and among frowning*projections of
invulnerable rock, glinting and sparkling in the sunlight, they remind one of silvery satin ribbons, tossed
by a summer breeze, among the brown tresses of
some winsome maiden. I took several views of these
little waterfalls, but their, transcendent beauty can
not be intelligently expressed on a little four-by-five
silver print.
Several larger streams also put into the Harrison,
that come from remote fastnesses, and seem to carve
their way through great mountains of granite. Their
shores are lined with dense growths of conifers, and
afford choice retreats for deer, bears, and other wild
At three o'clock in the afternoon we rounded a
high point of rocks that julied out into the river,
and another beautiful picture—another surprise, in
this land of surprises—lay before us. Harrison
Lake, nestling among snowy peaks and dotted, with
basaltic islands, reflected in its peaceful depths the 78
surrounding mountains as clearly as though its
placid surface had been covered with quicksilver.
This lake is about forty miles long, is fed by the
Lillooet river and numerous smaller streams. Silver
creek, which comes in on the west side, twenty miles
north of the hot springs, is a beautiful mountain
stream of considerable size. A quarter of a mile
above its mouth, it makes a perpendicular fall of
over sixty feet. It is one of the most beautiful falls
in the country. Near the head of the lake, and in
full view from the springs, old Mount Douglass, clad
in perpetual snow and glacial ice, towers into the
blue sky until its brilliancy almost dazzles one's
eyes. Though forty miles away, one who did not
know would estimate the distance at not more than
five, so clearly are all the details of the grand picture
shown. It is said that from the glaciers on this peak
come the streams whose waters give their peculiar
milky cast to Harrison Lake and Harrison river.
Near the base of Mount Douglass is an Indian village
of the same name, and the Hudson Bay Fur Company formerly had a trading post in the neighborhood, which they called Fort Douglass. This Indian
village is the home of my prospective guide, and
from it he has adopted his unpoetic cognomen.
Half a mile to the right of where we entered the
lake, the famous hot springs, already mentioned, boil
out from under the foot of a mountain, and discharge
their steaming fluid into the lake. The curative
power, of these waters has been known to the natives
for ages past, and the sick have come from all directions, and from villages many miles away, to
bathe in the waters and be healed.   All about the AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
place are remains of Indian encampments, medicine
lodges, etc. The tribes in this vicinity are greatly
exercised over the fact of the white man having
lately asserted ownership of their great sanitarium,
and having assumed its control. Mr. J. R. Brown
has erected over the springs a large bath-house, and
near that a commodious hotel. He has cut a road
through a pass in the mountains to Agassiz station,
on the Canadian Pacific Railway, five miles distant,
so that the springs may now be easily reached by
invalids wishing to test their curative properties.
Soon after my arrival at the springs, I climbed the
mountain to the east of the hotel, and passed the
time pleasantly, until sunset, viewing the beautiful
scenery in the neighborhood.
On the following morning I took a boat and rowed
up the east shore of the lake, in hope of getting a shot
at a deer, but though I saw plenty of fresh signs all
along the shore no game was visible. I spent the
afternoon looking anxiously for my promised guide,
. but he came not. I again amused myself, however,
taking views of the scenery, but found on developing the negatives that I had not been eminently successful with either Mount Douglass or Mount Chiam.
Snowy mountains are about the most difficult objects
in all nature to photograph, especially if you attempt
to include anything beside the snowy peaks in the
picture ; for they are so intensely white, and the sky
or even clouds that form the background are so light
and afford so slight contrast, that it is next to impossible to get good sharp pictures of them; The landscape
about the mountains is sure to offer some dark objects,
perhaps deep shadows, and even the mountain itself 80
nearly always has bare rocks and dark, gloomy canons, and to get these and the dazzling whiteness of the
snow and ice on the same plate is decidedly difficult.
Of course we see many fine photographs of snow-covered mountains, but if taken with a clear sky or with
light clouds for background, there is generally more
or less retouching necessary, and more or less doctoring in printing, with tissue paper, glass screens, etc.,
in order to obtain the results we see in the prints. I
made some fair views of both these peaks, but not
such as an enthusiastic amateur might wish. Of the
lower mountains, where at that time there was no
snow, of the lake, the islands, etc., I got very sat-,
isfactory pictures. I went up the road, toward the
railway station, a mile or more, where it passes
through one of those grand forests for which this
country is so famous, where—
" Those green-robed senators of mighty woods
Dream, and so dream all night "without a stir."
There I made views of some of the giant ce"dars, the
dense moss-hung jungles, the great fir trees, etc. In
these dark, densely-shaded woods I had to take off
the flying shutter and make time exposures. I gave
three to five seconds to each plate. In the prints
the trees and other objects nearest to the lens are of
course over-exposed, but the details in the shadows
and objects in the extreme distance are clearly and
beautifully brought out. For these time exposures
I placed the camera on some convenient log, stump,
or stone, in lieu of a tripod. In two instances I seated
the rear end of the instrument on the ground, with
the lens bearing up through the tops of the trees.
The whitened trunk and broken, straggling arms of AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
one great old dead fir—one that has flourished in
this rich soil and drawn sustenance from the moist,
ozone-laden atmosphere of these mountains for hundreds of years, but has lived out his time and is now
going the way of all things earthly—forms the subject of one of the best and most interesting pictures
of the whole series. The tops of several other trees
—birch, maple, etc., that stood near the fir—are also
shown in the picture. It can best be seen and appreciated by holding it above your head, looking up at
it, and imagining yourself there in the forest, looking up through the tops of the giant trees into the
blue ethereal dome of heaven.
IN the morning I got up early to look for Doug-
I lass Bill, thinking and hoping he might
I have landed during the night, but no one
=§ had seen him and there was no strange
canoe in the harbor. After breakfast,
in order to kill time, I climbed the
=. mountain east of the hotel to a height of
I about a thousand feet. It is heavily
Up timbered, and I found plenty of fresh
deer-signs within plain sound of the
hammers wielded by the carpenters at work on the
hotel, but failed to get a shot. I returned at
eleven o'clock, but Bill had not yet shown up.
Three other Indians were there, however, with
three deer in their canoe, which they had killed
on the opposite side of the lake the day before. I
now concluded that Mr. Major's confidence in Bill
was misplaced; that he was not going to keep his
contract, and was, in short, as treacherous, as unreliable, and as consummate a liar as other Indians;
so I entered into negotiations with these three Indians to get one or two of them to go with me. But they
had planned a trip to New Westminster, to sell their
venison, and I could not induce any one of them to
go, though I offered big wages, and a premium on
each head of game I might kill, besides. They said
that if I wished they would take me to their village—
(82) *^"—
which is five miles down the river—and that there
were several good goat hunters there whom I could
get. I accepted their offer of transportation, stepped
into the canoe, and we pulled out. As we entered
the shoal water in the river I asked for a pole, and
impelled by it and the thr^ee paddles we sped down
the stream at a rapid rate.
There was a cold, disagreeable rain failing and a
chilly north wind blowing. This storm had brought
clouds of ducks into the river, among them several
flocks of canvas backs. The Indians, who were using
smooth-bore muskets, killed several of these toothsome fowls. One flock rose ahead of us and started
directly down the river, but by some kind of native
intuition the Indians seemed to know that they would
come back up the opposite shore. They dropped
their guns, caught up the paddles and plied them
with such force that every stroke fairly lifted the
light cedar canoe out of the water, and we shot across
the river with the speed of a deer. Sure enough,
after flying a hundred yards down stream the
ducks turned and, hugging the shore, undertook to
pass up the river on the other side, but we cut them
off, so that they had to pass over our heads. At
this juncture the two muskets carried by the two
young men cracked and three canvas backs dropped,
limp and lifeless, into the water within a few feet
of us.
We arrived at the hut occupied by this family at
noon. It stands on the bank of the river, half a mile
above the village of Chehalis, and as we pulled up,
two old and two young squaws and nine small Indians, some of them mere papooses in arms (but not 84
in long clothes—in fact, not in any clothes worth men-
tioning), came swarming out to meet us. Their abode
was a shanty about twelve feet square, made by setting four corner posts into the ground, nailing cross-
ribs on, and over these clapboards riven from the
native cedars, and the roof was of the same material.
The adult members of this social alliance had been
engaged in catching and drying salmon during the
recent run; the heads, entrails and backbones of which
had been dumped into the river at their very door.
There being no current near the shore they had sunk
in barely enough water to cover them, and lay there
rotting and pointing the water used by the family
for drinking and cooking. Cart-loads of this offal
were also lying about the dooryard, and had been
trampled into and mixed up with the mud until the
whole outfit stunk like a tanyard.
Within was a picture of filth and squalor that
beggars description. The floor of the hut was of
mother earth. A couple of logs with two clapboards
laid across them formed the only seats. On one side
was a pile of brush, hay, and dirty, filthy blankets,
indiscriminately mixed,. on which the entire three
families slept, presumably in the same fashion. Near
the centre of the hut a small fire struggled for existence, and that portion of the smoke that was not
absorbed by the people, the drying fish and other
objects in the room, escaped through a hole in the
centre of the roof. The children, barefooted and half-
naked^ came in out of the rain, mud, and fish carrion,
in which they had been tramping about, and sat or
lay on the ground about the fire, looking as happy
as a litter of pigs in a mud hole.    On poles, attached
by cedar withes to the rafters, were hung several
hundred salmon, absorbing smoke, carbonic acid gas
from the lungs of the human beings beneath, and
steam from the cooking that was going on. It is
understood that after this process has been prolonged
for some weeks these once noble fishes will be fit for
the winter food of the Siwash.
Some of the houses in Chehalis are neat frame
cottages; in fact, it is a better-built town, on the
whole, than the village of Harrison River already
described; but these better houses all stand back
about a quarter of a mile from the river, and the
inhabitants have left them and gone into the "fish-
houses," the clapboard structures, on the immediate
river bank. Some of these shanties are much larger
than the one mentioned above, and in some cases
four, five, or even six families hole up in one of
these filthy dens during the fish-curing season.
As a matter of fact, there are salmon of one variety
or another in these larger rivers nearly all the year,
but sometimes the weather is too cold, too wet, or
otherwise too disagreable in winter for the noble red
man to fish with comfort, and hence all these preparations for a rainy day. After the fishes are cured
they are hung up in big out-houses set on posts, or
in some cases built high up in the branches of trees, in
order to be entirely out of the reach of rats, minks,
or other vermin, and the members of the commune
draw from the stock at will. The coast Indians live
almost wholly on fish, and seem perfectly happy
without flesh, vegetables, or bread, if such be not at
hand, though they can eat plenty of all these when
set before them.   If one of them kills a deer he sel- 86
dom or never eats more of it than the liver, heart,
lungs, etc.   He sells the carcass, if within a three
days' voyage of a white man who will buy venison.
One of the young men already mentioned went with
me down to one of the big fish-houses and called out
Pean, a man about fifty years of age, who he said
was a good goat hunter and a good guide. They held a
hurried conversation in their native tongue, at the AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
close of which the young man said Pean would go
with me for two dollars a day. I asked Pean if he
could talk English, and he said "yes," but this
proved, in after experience, to be about the only
English word he could speak. He rushed into the
hut, and in about three or four minutes returned
with his gun, powder-horn, bullet-pouch, pipe,
and a small roll of blankets, and was ready for
a journey into the mountains of, he knew not how
many days. His canoe was on the river bank near
us, and as we were stepping into it I asked him a
few questions which he tried to answer in English,
but made a poor stagger at it, and slid off into Chinook.
Just then another old Indian came up with a
canoe-load of wood. I asked him if he could speak
English—"wah-wahKing George"; and he said
I then told him I had hired this other man
to go hunting with me and asked him if he knew
"Oh, yes," he said; "me chief here. Alldese
house my house. All dese people my people. No
other chief here." I said I was delighted to know
him, shook hands with him, gave him a cigar, and
inquired his name.
I Captain George," he said; "me chief here."
" Is he a good hunter?" pointing to Pean.
' 'Yes, Pean good hunter; good man. He kill plenty
sheep, deer, bear.'' With this additional certificate of
efficiency and good character I felt more confidence
in Pean, and stepping into the canoe was once more
en route to the mountains. 88
Still, I felt some misgivings, for my past experience
with the fish eaters had taught me not to place
implicit faith in their statements or pretensions, and
the sequel will show how well grounded these fears
were. CHAPTER X.
■HE Flathead nation, to
which nearly all the Puget
Sound Indians belong, may
almost be termed amphibians;
for though they can, and do
in some cases, live inland exclusively, they are never happy
when away from the water. They are
canoeists by birth and education. A coast
Indian is as helpless and miserable without a canoe as a plains Indian without a horse, and
the Si wash (Chinook for coast Indian) is as expert in
the use of the canoe as the Sioux, Crow, or Arapahoe
in the use and control of his cayuse. Almost the sole
means of travel, of intercommunication among these
people, and between themselves and the whites, is
the canoe.
There are very few horses owned in any of the
coast tiibes, and these are rarely ridden. When a
Siwash attempts to ride a horse he climbs onto it
kicking and grunting with the effort, much as an
Alabama negro mounts his mule, and sits him about
as gracefully. But let the. Siwash step into his
canoe, and he fears no rapid, whirlpool, nor stormy
billow.   He faces the most perilous water and sends
(89) 90
his frail cedar shell into it with a skill and a consciousness of mastery that would put to the blush any of
the prize winners in our Eastern canoe-club regattas.
The canoes are models of nautical architecture.
They are cut and carved from the cedar trees which
bounteous Nature, in wise provision for the wants of
Her children, has caused to grow so plentifully and
to such prodigious size in the Sound country. They
are of various sizes and lengths, owing to the uses
for which they are intended. If for spearing salmon or for light traveling, they are cut from a tree
twenty to twenty-four inches in diameter, and are
not more than twelve to fifteen feet long. If for
attending nets and bringing in the catch, they are
generally longer, and if for freighting and long-distance traveling, they are of immense size and capable
of carrying great burdens. A tree of the size wanted
is selected, perfectly sound and free from knots, and
a log of the desired length cut off. The log is hoi-.
lowed, carved out to the desired shape, then trimmed
and tapered outside until it is a mere shell, scarcely
more than an inch thick anywhere.
It is then filled with water, a fire is built near in
which rocks are heated and thrown into the canoe
until the water boils. This is continued until the
wood is thoroughly cooked and softened, when the
water is turned out, the canoe is spread at the
centre, braced out to nearly twice its natural width
or diameter, and left to dry. \ This gives it "sheer"
and enables it to ride a heavy sea like a lifeboat.
Handsomely carved figureheads are attached to
some of the large canoes, and the entire craft is
painted, striped,  and decorated in gay colors.   I 92
measured one of these cedar canoes that was thirty-
four feet long and five and a half feet beam, and was
told by its owner that he had carried in it four tons
of freight on one trip, and two cords of green wood
on another. It would carry fifty men comfortably
and safely. There are not many of the Indians that
can make the larger and better grade of canoes, and
the trade is one that but few master.
There is one famous old canoe builder near Vancouver, to whom Indians go from distances of a
hundred miles or more when they want an extra
fine, large, light canoe. For some specimens of his
handiwork he gets as high as $80 to $100. The Indians throughout Washington Territory and British
Columbia do considerable freighting for whites, on
•streams not navigable for steamers, and they take
freight up over some of the rapids where no white
man could run an empty canoe.
Some of these Flatheads are industrious and are
employed by the whites in salmon canneries, lumbering and logging operations, farming, etc. Steamboat men employ them almost exclusively for deck
hands, and they make the best ones to be hald in the
country; better than either whites or Chinamen.
They are excellent packers by education. In this
densely-timbered country horses can not, as a rule,
be used for packing, and the Indians, in going across
country where there is no watercourse, pack all
their plunder on their backs. Whites traveling in
the woods also depend on Indians to pack their luggage; consequently it is not strange that the latter
become experts at the business, and it is this
schooling that makes them valuable as deck hands. AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES. 93
They are not large men, but are tough, sinewy, and
muscular. An average Siwash will pick up a barrel
of flour or pork, a case of dry goods, or other heavy
freight weighing three hundred pounds or more, roll
it onto his back, and walk up a gang-plank or a steep
river-bank as easily as a white man would with a
barrel of crackers.
No work is too dirty or too hard for them. They
are obedient to orders and submissive to discipline,
but their weak point, like that of all Indians, is their
inordinate love of whisky. Quite frequently, after
working a few weeks or months, they quit and go
on a drunken debauch that ends only when their
money is gone. Their dress is much the same, in
general, as that of the whites in this region, with the
exception that the Indians wear moccasins when
hunting. This footgear is little in favor here with
white hunters, owing to there being so much rainfall, and so much wading to do. Rubber boots are
indispensable for hunting in most seasons, and a rubber coat should also be included in every hunter's
outfit. I found the Hannaford ventilated rubber
boot the most comfortable and perfect footgear I
have ever worn. You can scarcely walk a mile in
any direction in this country at any time of year,
on mountains or.lowlands, without encountering
water. Moccasins soon become soaked, and are then
the most uncomfortable things imaginable. I asked
one of my guides why he did not wear rubber boots
instead of moccasins, and he replied:
" O, I dunno. De moxicans cheaper, mebbe. I
mek him myself.    Can't mek de boots."
This is about the only use the Indians make of 94
buckskin. It is not popular with them as a material
for clothing, on account of the vast amount of rainy
It has been said they make cloth from the wool
of the goat, but, so far as I could learn, they make
very little, if any of it, of late years. I saw some
blankets that Indians had woven from this wool,
but they were very coarse. They have no machinery
for spinning; the yarn is merely twisted by hand, and
is so coarse and loose that it would not hold together
a week if made into a garment and worn in the woods.
Of course, a fair article of yarn, and even cloth, may
be, and has been, made entirely by hand, but these
people have neither the skill, the taste, nor the
industry to enable them to do such work. A
coarse hair grows with the wool on the goat, and
the squaws do not even take the trouble to separate
it, but work both up together, making a very
uncouth-looking fabric, even if thick, warm, and
As a class, these Indians appear to be strictly
honest, toward each other at least. They leave their
canoes, guns, game, or in fact, any kind of property,
anywhere they choose, without the slightest effort at
concealment, and always feel perfectly sure of finding it on their return. About the only case of pilfering I ever heard of while among them (and I
took special pains to investigate) was when John
asked me for some fish-hooks, and said in explanation:
"I had plenty hooks, but I reckon Seemo he steal
all my hooks."
"Why, does Seymour steal?"   I inquired.    He AND OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
looked all around to see if Seymour was within hearing, and not seeing him, replied:
I You bet.    He steal my hooks, too.'7 96
HAD left my bedding  at the Hot Springs
Hotel, and returning to get it staid there
all night.    Early next morning (Friday,
; November 12) we crossed Harrison Lake,
in a drenching rain, to the foot of a high
mountain,   about   two   miles   from the
springs, on which Pean, Captain George,
| and other Indians said there were plenty
of goats.    We beached our canoe, and
made   up packs for  the   climb up  the
mountain.    The outfit consisted of our guns, my
sleeping-bag, Pean's gun and blankets,  a few sea
biscuits, a piece of bacon, and some salt.
My sleeping-bag was wrapped up in a piece of
canvas, and when I handed it to Pean, he commenced
to unroll it to put his blankets in with it, but I
objected. Visions of the insects with which I knew
his bedding was inhabited rose up before me. I
thought of the rotary drill, key-hole saw, and suction
pump with which they are said to be armed, and
I did not want any of them in my bag. So I
unrolled the canvas only a part of its- length, laid his
blankets in and rolled it up again, hoping the remaining folds might prevent the vermin from, finding
their way in, and my reckoning proved correct.
One of his blankets had been white in its day, but
had long since lost its grip on that color, and was
7 07) 98
now about as pronounced a brunette as its owner.
The other blanket was gray, but even through this
sombre shade, as well as through the rank odor
it emitted, gave evidence that it had not been
washed for many years. Pean brought with him
a cotton bedspread that had also once been
white, but left this with the canoe. In my pack I
carried the grub, and an extra coat for use on the
mountain, where we expected to encounter colder
We started up the mountain at ten o' clock in the
forenoon. For the first two miles we skirted its
base to the eastward, through dense timber, crossing
several deep, dark jungles and swamps. Then we
began the ascent proper, and as soon as we got up a
few hundred feet on the mountain side, we found
numerous fresh deer-signs. We halted to rest, when
Pean took from its case his gun, which up to this
time he had kept covered, and which I naturally
supposed to be a good, modern weapon. It proved,
however, an old smooth bore, muzzle-loading,
percussion-lock musket, of .65 calibre, with a
barrel about fifty inches long. He drew out the
wiping stick, on the end of which was a wormer,
pulled a wad of paper from the gun and poured a
charge of shot out into his hand. This he put carefully into his shot-bag. Then he took from another
pouch a No. 1 buckshot, and dropped it into the
muzzle of his musket. It rolled down onto the
powder, when he again inserted the bunch of paper,
rammed it home with the rod, put on a cap, and was
loaded for bear, deer, or whatever else he might
encounter.    He then replaced the musket in its seal- AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES. 99
skin cover as carefully as if it had been a $300
Nearly all these Indians use just such old muskets, bought from the Hudson Bay Company, and
yet they keep them in covers made of the skin of
the seal, which they kill in the rivers hereabout, or
of deer or other animals. They take excellent care
of their guns in this respect, but I have never seen
one of them clean or oil his weapon, and several of
them told me they seldom do so.
My Winchester express, with fancy stock, Lyman
sight, etc., was a curiosity to them. None of them
had ever seen anything like it, and one of them
asked me what kind of a rifle it was. When told it
was a Winchester, he said:
" I didn't know Winchester so big like dat.
Didn't know he had stock like dat." He had only
seen the little .44 Winchester, with a plain stock,
and innocently supposed it was the only kind
Pean and I had a hard day's work toiling up the
mountain through fallen timber, over and around
great ledges of jutting rock, across deep, rugged
canons and gulches, and through dense jungles of
underbrush. About two o'clock in the afternoon we
halted, lay down for a rest, and had been there but
a few minutes when I heard the sharp, familiar
chatter of the little pine squirrel. I looked around
quickly, expecting to see one within a few feet of
me, but instead saw Pean lying close to the ground,
beckoning to me and pointing excitedly up the game
trail in which we had been walking. Looking
through the thick, intervening brush,   I saw two 100
deer, a buck and a doe, looking toward us. They
had not seen nor scented us, but had merely heard
the chatter of the little squirrel, as they supposed,
and, though apparently as completely deceived by it
as I had been, they had stopped to listen, as they do
at almost every sound they hear in the woods. But
there was no squirrel there. Pean had taken this
method of calling my attention, and had imitated
the cry of the familiar little cone-eater so perfectly
that even the deer had been deceived by it.
I cautiously and slowly drew my rifle to my
shoulder, and taking aim at the breast of the buck,
fired. Both deer bounded away into thicker brush,
and were out of sight in an instant. Pean sprang
after them, and in a few minutes I heard the dull,
muffled report of his musket. He shouted to me,
and going to him I found the buck dead and the
Indian engaged in butchering it. My bullet had
jone a little farther to the left than I intended,
breaking its shoulder, and had passed out through
the ribs on the same side. The deer had fallen after
going but a few yards, but was not quite dead when
Pean came up and shot it through the head. We
took out the entrails, cut a choice roast of the meat
for our supper and breakfast, and hurried on our
We camped at four o'clock on a small bench of
the mountain, and you may rest assured, gentle
reader, that our conversation in front of the camp
fire that night was novel. Pean, you will remember,
could not speak half a dozen words of English. He
spoke entirely in Chinook, and I knew but a few
words of that jargon.    I had a Chinook dictionary AND OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
with me, however, and by its aid was able to pick
out the few words necessary in what little talking I
had to do, and to translate enough of Pean's answers
to my questions to get along fairly well. The great
trouble with him seemed to be that he was wotmd
up to talk, and whenever I made a remark or asked
a question in his adopted language he turned loose,
and talked until I shut him off with "Halokum-
tucks" (I don't understand). No matter how often
I repeated this he seemed soon to forget it, and
would open on me again whenever he got a cue. He
was a fluent talker, and if I had only been well up
in the jargon, 1 could have got lots of pointers from
The deer of this region is the true black-tail {Cervus columbianus), not the mule-deer {Cervus ma-
crotis), that is so often miscalled the black-tail.
The black-tail is smaller than the mule-deer, and its
ears, though not so large as those of the latter, are
larger than those of the Virginia deer {Cervus vir-
ginianus). Its tail is white underneath, dark outside, shading to black at the lower end, and while
longer than that of the mule-deer, is not so long as
that of the Virginia deer. CHAPTER XII.
3IN00K is a queer jargon. It is said
to have been manufactured many
years ago by an employe of the Hudson Bay Fur Company, who taught the
principal chiefs of various Indian tribes to speak
it in order to facilitate traffic with them. From that
time it has grown and spread until almost every
Indian of the North Pacific Coast, and many inland
tribes of Washington, British Columbia, and Oregon
speak it. White men of all nations who live in this
country speak it, and even the almond-eyed Chinaman learns it soon after locating here. In short, it
is the court language of the Northwest, as the sign
language is of the plains. It is made up from various Indian tongues, with a few English, or rather
pigeon-English, French, and Spanish words intermixed. There are only about 1,500 words in the
language and it is very easy to learn. Of course, it
is woefully lacking in strength and beauty. You
will often want to say something that can not be said
in Chinook, because there are no words in that
jargon with which to say it. But it is made to
answer the purposes of trade, travel, and barter, in
common forms.    For instance:
"Kah-tah si-ah ko-pa Frazer chuck?" would be,
I How far is it to the Frazer river?"
"Yutes kut klat-a-wala-pe-a,"  "Only  a short
walk."    If you wish to say good-morning or
evening to an Indian you say:
"Kla-how-ya, six."
" Chah-co yah-wa " is " Come here."
"Mi-ka tik-eh mam-ook?" "Do you want to
k■ Ik-ta mi-ka mam-ook?''    "At what?''
' ■ Mam-ook stick."    " Cut some wood.''
'' Na-wit-ka."    " Certainly.''
" Kon-si dat-la spose mi-ka mam-ook kon-a-way
o-koke stick?" "What do you want for cutting
that lot of wood?"
" Ikt dol la."    I One dollar.''
The numerals are ikt (one), mox (two), klone
(three), lock-it (four), kwin-num (five), tagh-kum
(six), sin-na mox (seven), sto te-kin (eight), twaist
(nine), tah-tlum (ten), tah-tlum pee-ikt (eleven), tah-
tlum pee-mox (twelve), mox-tah tlum (twenty),
klone tah-tlum (thirty), ikt tah-kamo-nux (one
hundred), tah-tlum to-ka mo-mik' (one thousand),
etc. It is often difficult to get accurate information
from these Indians as to distances or time, as they
have little idea of English miles or of the measurements of time, and very few of them own or know
how to read a watch or clock. Under Pean's tutelage
I learned rapidly, and was soon able to carry on
quite an interesting conversation by the aid of the
little dictionary.
By the light of a rousing camp-fire I cut a large
quantity of cedar boughs and made for myself a
bed a foot deep. On this I spread my sleeping-bag,
crawled into it and slept the sleep of the weary hunter.    Pean cut only a handful of boughs, spread 104
them near the fire, threw his coat over them, and lay
down. Then he folded his two blankets and spread
them over Kim, mostly on the side away from the
fire, leaving that part of his body next to the fire
exposed so as to catch its heat direct. During the
night, whenever he turned over, he would shift his
blankets so as to keep them where most needed. At
frequent intervals he would get up and replenish
the fire from the large supply of dry wood we had
provided. The night was bitter cold, at this high
altitude, and snow fell at frequent intervals. A
raw wind blew, and the old man must have suffered
from the cold to which he exposed himself.
There are few of these savages that understand
and appreciate fully the value of a good bed when
camping. In fact, many white hunters and mountaineers go on long camping trips with insufficient
bedding, simply because they are too lazy to carry
enough to keep them comfortable.. I would rather
get into a good warm, soft bed at night without my
supper, than eat a feast and then sleep on the hard,
ground, without covering enough to keep me warm.
After a hard day's work a good bed is absolutely
necessary to prepare one for the labor and fatigue of
the following day.
" In hed we laugh, in bed we cry,
And born in bed, in bed we die;
The near approach, a bed, may show,
Of human bliss to human woe."
Any ablebodied man may endure a few nights of
cold, comfortless sleep, but it will tell on him sooner
or later;   while if he sleep comfortably and eat AND   OTHER HUNTING  ADVENTURES.
heartily, he may endure an incredible amount of
labor and hardship of other kinds. You may tramp
all day with your feet wet, and all your clothing
wet, if need be, but be sure you crawd into a good,
warm, dry bed at night.
Old Pean complained of feeling unwell during the
evening, and in the morning when we got up said
he was sick. I prepared a good breakfast, but he
could not, or at least would not, eat. Then he told
me that he had once fallen down a mountain; that
his breast-bone had been crushed in by striking on
a sharp rock, and that it always hurt him since
when doing any hard work. He said the climb up
the mountain with the j)ack was too hard for him
and he was played out, that he could go no
Here was another bitter disappointment, as we were
yet two miles from the top of the mountain, and in
going that distance a perpendicular ascent of from
2,000 to 3,000 feet must be made. I deliberated,
therefore, as to whether I should go up the mountain alone and let Pean go back, but decided it
would be useless. I could not carry' more load than
my sleeping-bag, gun, etc., and therefore could
"bring no game down with me if I killed it, not even
a head or skin. Beside, if he went back he would
take his canoe, and I would be left with no means
of crossing the lake. So the only thing to be done
was to pack up and retrace our steps. On our way
down we stopped and took the head and skin off of
the deer killed the day before, and I carried them
to the canoe. Arriving at the lake, we pulled again
for Chehalis in a cold, disagreeable rain.   I stopped 106
at the hot springs on my way down, and took my
leave of my host, Mr. Brown, who had been so kind,
to me, and who regretted my ill luck almost as
much as I did. «^ CHAPTER XIII.
=) M^ our return to Chehalis—that town of
'JM unsavory odors and salmon-drying,
W salmon-smoking Siwashes—I at once
?*- employed two other Indians, named John
and Seymour, and, on the following day we
started up Ski-ik-kul Creek, to a lake of the
same name, in which it heads ten miles back in
the mountains. The Indians claimed that goats, or
sheep, as they call them, were plentiful on the cliffs
surrounding this lake, and that we could kill plenty
of them from a raft while floating up and down
along the shores. Seymour claimed to have killed
twenty-three in March last, just after the winter
snows had gone off, and a party of seven Siwashes
from Chehalis had killed ten about two weeks previous to the date of my visit.
Such glowing accounts as these built up my hopes
again to such a height as to banish from my mind all
recollection of the bitter disappointment in which the
former expedition had ended, and, although the
rain continued to fall heavily at short intervals, so
that the underbrush reeked with dampness and
drenching showers fell from every bush we touched,
I trudged cheerily along regardless of all discomforts.
The first two miles up the creek, we had a good,
open trail, but at the end of this we climbed a steep,
rocky bluff, about 500 feet high, and made the greater
portion of the remaining distance at an average of
about this height above the stream. There was a
blind Indian trail all the way to the lake, but it led
over the roughest, most tortuous, outlandish country
that ever any fool of a goat hunter attempted to
traverse. There are marshes and morasses away up
among these mountains, where alders and water
beeches, manzanitas, and other shrubs grow so thick
that their branches intertwine to nearly their full
length. Many of these have fallen down in various
directions, and their trunks are as inextricably mixed
as their branches, forming altogether a labyrinthine
mass, through wrhich it was with the utmost difficulty
we could walk at all.
There were numberless little creeks coming down
from the mountain into the main stream, and each
had in time cut its deep, narrow gulch, or canon,
lined on both sides with rough, shapeless masses of
rock, and all these we were obliged to cross. In
many cases, they were so close together that only a
sharp hog-back lay between them, and we merely
Climbed out of one gulch 300 or 400 feet deep, to go
at once down into another still deeper, and so on.
Fire had run through a large tract of this country,
killing out all the large timber, and many trees have
since rotted away and fallen, while the blackened
and barkless trunks of others, with here and there a
craggy limb, still stand as mute monuments to
the glory of the forest before the dread element laid
it waste.
We camped that night at the base of one of these
great dead firs around which lay a cord or more AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
of old dry bark that had fallen from it, and which,
with a few dry logs we gathered, furnished fuel for
a rousing, all-night fire. Within a few feet of our
camp, a clear, ice-cold little rivulet threaded its serpentine way down among rocks and ferns, and made
sweet music to lull us to sleep. After supper, I
made for myself the usual bed of mountain feathers
(cedar boughs), on which to spread my sleeping-bag.
This old companion of so many rough jaunts, over
plains and mountains, has become as necessary a
part of my outfit for such voyages as my rifle.
Whether it journey by day, on the hurricane deck of
a mule, in the hatchway of a canoe, on my shoulder-
blades or those of a Siwash, it always rounds up at
night to house me against the bleak wind, the driving snow, or pouring rain. I have learned to prize
it so highly that I can appreciate the sentiments of
the fallen monarch, Napoleon, on the lonely island
of St. Helena, when he wrote:
'; The bed has become a place of luxury to me.
I would not exchange it for all the thrones in the
world "
These Indians, like Pean, and, in fact, all others
who have seen the bag, are greatly interested in it.
They had never seen anything like it, and watched
with undisguised interest the unfolding and preparing of the article, and when I had crawled into it,
and stowed myself snugly away, they looked at each
other, grunted and uttered a few of their peculiar
guttural sounds, which I imagined would be, if
"Well, I'll be doggoned if that ain't about the
sleekest trick I ever saw.  Eh?" 110
" You bet it's nice to sleep in, but heavy to carry."
By the way, some of my readers may never have
seen one of these valuable camp appendages, and a
description of it may interest them. The outer bag is
made of heavy, brown, waterproof canvas, six feet
long, three feet wide in the centre, tapered to two
i   i
feet at the head and sixteen inches at the foot.
Above the head of the bag proper, flaps project a
foot farther, with which the occupant's head may be
completely covered, if desired. These are provided
with buttons and button-holess so that they may be
buttoned clear across, for stormy or very cold
weather. The bag is left open, from the head down
one edge, two feet, and a flap is provided to lap over AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
this opening. Buttons are sewed on the bag, and
there are button-holes in the flaps so it may also be
buttoned up tightly. Inside of this canvas bag is
another of the same size and shape, less the head
flaps. This is made of lamb skin with the wool on,
and is lined with ordinary sheeting, to keep the
wool from coming in direct contact with the person or clothing. One or more pairs of blankets
may be folded and inserted in this, as may be
necessary, for any temperature in which it is to be
If the weather be warm, so that not all this covering is needed over the sleeper, he may shift it to
suit the weather and his taste, crawling in on top of
as much of it as he may wish, and the less he has
over him the more he will have under him, and the
softer will be his bed. Beside being waterproof, the
canvas is windproof, and one can button himself up in
this house, leaving only an air-hole at the end of his
nose, and sleep as soundly, and almost as com-1
fortably in a snowdrift on the prairie as in a
tent or house. In short, he may be absolutely
at home, and comfortable, wherever night finds
him, and no matter what horrid nightmares he
may have, he can not roll out of bed or kick off the
Nor will he catch a draft of cold air along the
north edge of his spine every time he turns over, as
he is liable to do when sleeping in blankets. Nor
will his feet crawl out from under the cover and
catch chilblains, as they are liable to do in the old-
fashioned way. In fact, this sleeping-bag is one of
the greatest luxuries I ever took into camp, and if CRUISINGS IN THE CASCADES.
any brother sportsman who may read this wants one,
and can not find an architect in his neighborhood
capable of building one, let him communicate with
me and I will tell him where mine was made. CHAPTER XIV.
after the Indians went to sleep I lay there,
into the fire and thinking. Many and
varied were the fancies that chased
each other through my restless brain—
some pleasant, some unpleasant. I pondered on
the novelty, even the danger, of my situation. I
was away up there in that wild, trackless, mountain
wilderness, alone, so far as any congenial companionship was concerned. Yes, I was worse
than alone, for the moment I might close my eyes and
sleep I would be at the mercy of these two reckless
red men. True, they are not of a courageous, warlike race, but what might they not do for the sake of
plunder ? They could crush my skull at a blow and
conceal my body beyond all possibility of discovery;
or they could leave it and, saying I had killed myself by a fall, reveal its resting place to anyone who
might care to go in search of me. I had some property with me, especially my rifle, sleeping-bag, and a
small sum of money, that I knew they coveted, and
I reflected that they might already have concocted
some foul scheme for disposing of me and getting
possession of my effects.
8 (113) 114
In their native tongue of strange, weird gutturals,
hisses, and aspirations, they had conversed all the
evening of—I knew not what. John had rather
an honest, frank face, that I thought bespoke a
good heart, but Seymour had a dark, repulsive
countenaDce that plainly indicated a treacherous
nature. From the first I had made up my mind
that he was a thief, if nothing worse. He pretended not to be able to speak or understand English, although I knew he could. John spoke our
tongue fairly, and through him all communication
with either or both was held. Should they contemplate any violence I would welcome them both to an
encounter, if only I could have notice of it a second,
in advance. Their two old smooth-bore muskets
would cut no figure against the deadly stream of fire
that my Winchester express could pour forth. But
I dreaded the treachery, the stealth, the silent midnight assault that is a characteristic of their race.
Yet, on further consideration, I dismissed all such
forebodings as purely chimerical. These were civilized Indians, living within the sound of the whistle
of a railroad engine, and would hardly be willing to-
place themselves within the toils of the law, by the
commission of such a crime, even if they had. the
courage or the desire to do it, and I hoped they had
Then my fancies turned to the contemplation of
pleasanter themes. I thought of the dear little
black-eyed woman, whom I had parted with on board
the steamer nearly a week ago. She is homeward-
bound and must now be speeding over the Dakota or
Minnesota prairies, well on toward St. Paul.    Will AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
she reach home in safety ? God grant it—and that
in due time I may be permitted to join her there.
Then other familiar images passed and repassed my
mental ken. The kind acts of dear friends, the
hospitalities shown me by strangers and passing
acquaintances in distant lands and in years long
agone came trooping through my memory, and a feeling of gratitude for those kindnesses supplanted for
the time that of solitude. Gradually and sweetly I
sank into a profound slumber and all was stillness
and oblivion.
Several hours, perhaps, have passed, and I am
thirsty. I get up and start to the little brook for
water ; to reach it a log, lying across a deep fissure
in the rocks, must be scaled. With no thought of
danger I essay the task by the dying fire's uncertain light and that of the twinkling stars. I have
not counted on the heavy covering of frost that has
been deposited on the log since dark, and stepping
out upon the barkless part of the trunk, my moccasins slip, and with a shriek and a wild but unsuccessful grasp at an overhanging limb I fall twenty feet
and land on the mass of broken and jagged granite
beneath! The Indians, alarmed by my cries, spring
to my relief, carry me to the fire, give me stimulants,
bind up my broken arm, and do all in their power
to alleviate my sufferings.
They are not the crafty villains and assassins that
my fancy had painted. They are kind, sympathetic
friends. I realize that my right collar-bone and three
ribs on the same side are broken, and when I remember where I am, the deplorableness and utter helplessness of my condition appal me. 116
The long hours until daylight drag slowly by, and
at last, as the sun tips the distant mountain tops with
golden light, we start on our perilous and painful
journey to the Indian village and to the steamboat
landing. The two red men have rigged a litter from
poles and blankets, on which they carry me safely
to their homes, and thence in a canoe to the landing
below. How the long, tedious journey thence, by
steamer and rail, to my own home is accomplished ;
how the weary days and nights of suffering and
delirium which I endure en route were passed, are
subjects too painful to dwell upon. I am finally
assisted from the sleeper at my destination. My wife,
whom the wire has informed of my misfortune and my
coming, is there. She greets me with that fervent
love, that intensity of pity and emotion that only a AND   OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
wife can feel. Her lips move, but her tongue is paralyzed. For the time she can not speak ; the wells of
her grief have gone dry ; she can not weep ; she can
only act. I am taken to my home, and the suspense,
the anxiety, having been lived out, the climax
having been reached and passed I swoon away. Again
the surgeon appears to be racking me with pain in
an effort to set the broken ribs, and seems to be
making an incision in my side for that purpose, when
I awake.
The stars shone brightly above me, the frost on
the leaves sparkled brightly in the fire-light. It took
me several minutes to realize that I had been dreaming. I searched for the cause of the acute pain in
my side, and found it to be the sharp point of a rock
that my cedar boughs had not sufficiently covered
and which was trying to get in between t wo of my ribs.
I got up, removed it and slept better through the
remainder of the night. ,/lw^ggjt
KI-IK-KUL, or Chehalis Creek, as the
whites call it, is surely one of the most
— beautiful streams in the whole Cascade
Range. Its size may be stated, approximately, as two feet in depth by fifty
feet in width, at or near the mouth, but
its course is so crooked, so tortuous,
and its bed so broken and uneven that
the explorer will seldom find a reach
of it sufficiently quiet and undisturbed to afford
a measurement of this character. At one point
it is choked into a narrow gorge ten feet wide
and twice as deep, with a fall of ten feet in a
distance of thirty. Through this notch the stream
surges and swirls with the wild fury, the fearful
power, and the awe-inspiring grandeur of a tornado.
At another place it runs more placidly for a few
yards, as if to gather strength and courage for a
wild leap over a sheer wall of frowning rock into
a foaming pool thirty, forty, or fifty feet below.
At still another place it seems to carve its way, by
the sheer power of madness, through piles and
walls of broken and disordered quartz, granite, or
basalt, even as Cortes and his handful of Spanish
cavaliers hewed their way through the massed
legions of Aztecs at Tlascala.
Farther up,  or down,  it is split  into   various
channels by great masses of upheaved rock, and
these miniature streams, after winding hither and
thither through deep, dark, narrow fissures for
perhaps one or two hundred yards, reunite to form
this headlong mountain torrent. Viewing these
scenes, one is forcibly reminded of the poet's words:
"How the giant element,
From rock to rock, leaps with delirious bound."
Series of cascades, a quarter to half a mile long, are
met with at frequent intervals, which rival in their
beauty and magnificence those of the Columbia or
the Upper Yellowstone. Whirlpools occur at the
foot of some of these, in which the clear, bright
green water boils, sparkles, and effervesces like vast
reservoirs of champagne. The moanings and roarings emitted by this matchless stream in its mad
career may be heard in places half a mile. At
many points its banks rise almost perpendicularly
to heights of 300, 400, or 500 feet. You may stand
so nearly over the water that you can easily toss a
large rock into it, and yet you are far above the
tops of the massive firs and cedars that grow at the
water's edge. Looking down from these heights
you may see in the crystal fluid whole schools of
the lordly salmon plowing their way up against the
almost resistless fury of the current, leaping through
the foam, striking with stunning force against hidden
rocks, falling back half dead, and, drifting into some
clear pool below, recovering strength to renew the
hopeless assault.
The time will come when an easy roadway, and
possibly an iron one, will be built up this- grand
canon, and thousands of tourists will annually stand CRUISINGS  IN THE CASCADES
within its walls to gaze upon these magic pictures,
absorbed in their grandeur and romantic beauty. Nor
does the main stream afford the only objects of
beauty and-interest here. It is a~ diamondssset in a
cluster of diamonds, for many of the little brooks,
already mentioned as coming down the mountain
on either side, are only less attractive because
smaller. Many of them tumble from the tops of
rocky walls, and dance down among the branches of
evergreen trees, sparkling like ribbons of silver in
the rays of the noonday sun.
Theodore Roosevelt, in his excellent work, "Hunting Trips of a Ran-mman," says: "Thirst is largely
a matter of habit." So it may be, but I am sadly
addicted to the habit, and I found it one from which,
on this trip, I was able to extract a great deal of
comfort, for we crossed one or more of these little
brooks every hour, and I rarely passed one without
taking a copious draught of its icy fluid. The days
were moderately warm, and the hard labor we performed, walking and climbing, made these frequent
opportunities to quench thirst one of the most
pleasant features of the journey. I was frequently
reminded of Cole's beautiful tribute to the mountain
" Sleeping in crystal wells,
Leaping in shady dells,
Or issuing clear from the womb of the mountain,
Sky-maled, related, earth's holiest daughter;
Not the hot kiss of wine,
Is half so divine as the sip of thy lip, iuspiiing cold water."
We arrived at our destination, the foot of Ski-ik-
kul Lake (and the source of the creek up which we
had been traveling), at four o'clock in the afternoon AND   OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
of the second day out. We made camp on the bank
of the creek, and John and I engaged in gathering
a supply of wood. After we had been thus occu-
-piedforten or fifteen minutes, I noticed that Seymour was nowhere in sight, and asked John where
he was.
" He try spear salmon.'
" What will he spear him with?" I said. " Sharp
"No.    He bring spear in him pocket," said John.
We were standing on the bank of the creek again>
and as he spoke there was a crashing in the brush
overhead, and an immense salmon, nearly three feet
long, landed on the ground between us.    Seymour
had indeed brought a spear with him in his pocket.
It was made of a fence-nail and two pieces of goat
horn, with a strong cord about four feet long
attached. There was a sort of socket in the upper
end of it, and the points of the two pieces of horn
were formed into barbs. As soon as Seymour had
dropped his pack he had picked up a long, dry,
cedar pole, one end of which he had sharpened and
inserted between the barbs, fastening the string so
that when he should strike a. fish the spear point
would pull off. With this simple weapon in hand
he had walked out on the vast body of driftwood
with which the creek is bridged for half a mile below
the lake, and peering down between the logs, had
found' and killed the fish. We made a fire in the
hollow of a great cedar that stood at the water's
edge. The tree was green, but the fire soon ate a
large hole into the central cavity, and, by frequent feeding with dry wood, we had a fire that SUPPER FOE THREE—SAUMONROTI.
roared and crackled like a great fuanace, all night.
I Kindled thegummy bark of fir or pine,
And sent a comfortable heat from far,
Which might supply the sun."
Seymour cut off the salmon's head, split the body
down the back, and took out the spine, Then he
spread the fish out and put skewers through it to
hold it flat. He next cut a stick about four feet
long,  split it half its length, tied a cedar withe
around to keep it from splitting further, and inserting the fish in the aperture, tied another withe
around the upper end. He now stuck the other end
of the stick into the ground in front of the fire, and
our supper was under way.
I have often been reduced to the necessity of eating grub cooked by Indians, both squaws and men,
and can place my hand on my heart and say truth-
fully I never hankered after Indian cookery. In fact,
I have always eaten it with a mental reservation,
and a quiet, perhaps unuttered protest, but I counted
the minutes while that fish cooked. I knew Seymour was no more cleanly in his habits than his
kin—in fact, he would not have washed his hands
before commencing, nor the fish after removing its
entrails, had I not watched him and made him do so;
but even if he had not I should not have refused to
eat, for when a man hast been climbing mountains
all day he can not afford to be too scrupulous in
regard to his food. When the fish was thoroughly
roasted on one side the other was turned to the fire,
and finally, when done to a turn, it was laid smok-
hot on a platter of cedar boughs which I had
prepared, and the savory odors it emitted would
have tempted the palate of an epicure. I took out
my huntin
toward the smoking fish, asked John if I should cut
off a piece; for not withstanding my consuming hunger, ray native modesty still remained with me, and
I thus hinted for an invitation to help myself.
'' Yes,'' he said. " Cut off how much you can eat.''
You can rest assured I cut off a ration that would
have frightened a tramp. Good digestion waited on
appetite, and health on both. I ate with the hunger
born of the day's fatigue and the mountain atmosphere, and the Indians followed suit, or rather led, and
in half an hour only the head and spine of that fifteen-
pound salmon remained, and they were not yet in an
edible condition. Near bedtime, however, they wTere
both spitted before the fire, and in the silent watches
of the night, as I awoke and looked out of my downy
bed, I saw those two simple-minded children of the
forest, sitting there picking the last remaining
morsels of flesh from those two pieces of what, in
any civilized camp or household, would have been
considered offal. But when a Siwash quits eating fish
generally because there is no more fish to eat.
After such a supper, charmed by such weird, novel
surroundings, lulled by the music of the rushing
waters, and warmed by a glowing camp-fire, I slept
that night with naught else to wish for, at peace with
all mankind. Even '' mine enemy's dog, though he
had bit me, should have stood that night against my
fire" HSSasL
'EFORE going to bed, Seymour cautioned
through his interpreter, the faithful
John, against getting out too early
in the morning. He said the goats
did not commence to move
around until nine or ten o' clock,
and if we started .out to hunt
before that time we were liable to
them asleep in their beds.
But I read the hypocrite's meaning between
his words; he is a lazy loafer and loves to li»j and
snooze in the morning. It was his own comfort,
more than our success in hunting, that he was concerned about. Goats, as well as all other species of
large game, are on foot at daylight, whether they
have been out all night or not, and from that time
until an hour after sunrise, and again just before dark
in the evening, are the most favorable times to hunt.
The game is intent on feeding at these times and is
not so wary as at other times. I told Seymour we
would get up at four o'clock, get breakfast, and be
ready to move at daylight.    And so we did.
The night had been clear and cold; ice had formed
around the margin of the lake, and a hoar frost a
quarter of an inch deep covered the ground, the logs,
and rocks that were not. sheltered by trees. Ski-ik-
kul or Willey's Lake, as it is termed by the whites,
(125) mMmm,
is a beautiful little mountain tarn about a quarter of
a mile wide and four miles long. It is of glassy
transparency, of great depth, and abounds in mountain trout, salmon, and salmon trout. It is walled
in by abrupt, rocky-faced mountains that rise many
hundreds of feet from the water's edge, and on
which a scanty growth of laurel, currant bushes, and
moss furnish food for the goats. Stunted cedars,
balsams, spruces, and pines also grow from small
fissures in the rocks that -afford sufficient earth to
cover their roots.
The craft on which we were to navigate this lake
was an interesting specimen of Indian nautical
architecture. It was a raft Seymour had made on a
former visit. The stringers were two large, dry,
cedar logs, one about sixteen feet long, the other
about twenty; these were held together by four
poles, or cross-ties, pinned to the logs, and a floor-
composed of cedar clapboards was laid over all.
Pins of hard, dry birch, driven into the logs and tied
together at the tops, formed rowlocks, and the craft
was provided with four large paddles,, or oars, hewed
out with an ax. In fact, that was the only tool used,
in building the raft. The pins had been sharpened
to a flat point and driven firmly into sockets made
by striking the ax deeply into the log, and instead
of ropes, cedar withes were used for lashing. These
had been roasted in the fire until tough and flexible,
and when thus treated they formed a good substitute
for the white sailor's marline or the cow-boy's picket,
We boarded this lubberly old hulk and pulled out
up the north shore of the lake just as the morning- AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES. 127
sun gave  the first
golden tints to the
mountain tops. Our
progress was slow
despite our united
strength applied to
the oars, but it gave
us more time to scan
the mountain sides
for game. I did not
find it so plentiful
as I had been promised, for I had been
told by the IndiaDs
that we should see
a   dozen   goats  in
the first hour, but we had been out more than that
length of time before we saw any. Finally, however, after we had gone a mile or more up the lake
shore, I saw a large buck goat browsing among the
crags about four hundred feet above us. He had not
seen us, and dropping the oar I caught up my rifle.
The men backed water, and as the raft came to a
standstill, I sent a bullet into him. He sprang
forward, lost his footing, came bounding and crashing to the foot of the mountain, and stopped, stone
dead, in the brush at the water's edge not more than
twenty feet from the raft. We pushed ashore and
took him on board, wlien I found, to my disappointment, that both horns had been broken off in the full,
so that his head was worthless for mounting.
We cruised clear around the lake that day and
could not find another goat. In the afternoon it
clouded up and set in to rain heavily again in the
canon, while snow fell on the mountains a few hundred feet above us. The next morning I went up a
narrow canon to the north, and ascending a high
peak hunted until nearly noon, when I found two
more goats, a female and her kid (nearly full grown),
both of which I killed, and taking the skins and one
ham of the kid, I returned to camp. It continued
to rain at frequent intervals, which robbed camp life
and hunting of much of their charm, so I decided
to start for home the following morning. In the
afternoon I rigged a hook and line, cut an alder pole,
and caught five fine trout, the largest seventeen and
a half inches long. Seymour speared three more
salmon and roasted one of them, so that we had
another feast of fish that night.    We also roasted AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
a leg of goat for use on our way home, and
spent the evening cleaning and drying the three
skins as best we could by the camp-fire, to lighten
their weight as much as possible.
Meanwhile, I questioned John at considerable
length regarding the nature of his language, but
could get little information, as he seemed unable to
convey his ideas on the subject in our tongue. The
language of the Skowlitz tribe, to which he and Seymour belong, is a strange medley of gutturals, aspirates, coughs, sneezes, throat scrapings, and a few
words    I said:
"Your language don't seem to have as many
words as ours."
" No; English too much. Make awful tired learn
"Where did you learn it?"
"0, I work in pack train for Hudson Bay one
year, and work on boat one year."
I Where did the boat run?"
" She run nort from Victoria," he said.
"Where to, Alaska?"
"O, Idunno."
" How far north?"
"O, I dunno. Take seven day. We go to de
mout of de river."
" What river?  What was the name of the town?"
" 0, I dunno know what you call 'em."
And thus I learned, by continued questioning,
that he did not know or remember the English
names of the places he had visited, but that they
were probably in Alaska. He always appealed to
Seymour to reply to any of my questions that he 130
could not himself answer, and a question or remark
that in our tongue had taken a dozen words to
express he would repeat in a cough, a throat-clearing
sound, and a grunt or two. Seymour's answer would
be returned in a half sneeze, a lisp, a suppressed
whistle, a slight groan, and an upturning of the eye.
Then John would look thoughtful while framing
the answer into his pigin English, and it would
come back, for instance, something like this:
" Seymo say he tink we ketch plenty sheep up dat
big mountain, on de top' Or, "He say he tink
maybe we get plenty grouse down de creek. Tomorrow we don't need carry meat," etc. John
seemed to regard Seymour as a perfect walking-
cyclopedia of knowledge, and, in fact, he was well
informed on woodcraft, the habits of birds and
animals, Indian lore, and other matters pertaining to
the country in which he lived, but outside of these
limits he knew much less than John.
I was disgusted with his pretended inability to
speak or understand English, for on one of my
former visits to the village I had heard him speak
it, and he did it much better than John could.
Beside, Pean had told me that Seymour had
attended school at the mission on the Frazer river,
and could even read and write, but now that he had
an interpreter he considered it smart, just as a great
many Indians do, to affect an utter ignorance of our
language. I asked him why he did not talk; 'told
him I knew he could talk, and reminded him that I
had heard him speak good English; that I knew he
had been to school, etc. He simply shook his head
and grunted. Then I told him he was a boiled-down
fool to act thus, and that if he really wanted to
appear smarter even than his fellows, the best way
to do it was to make use of the education he had
whenever he could make himself more useful and
agreeable by so doing. I saw by the way he changed
countenance that he understood every word I said;
though he still remained obstinate. On several
occasions, however, I suddenly fired some short,
sharp question at him when he was not expecting it,
and before stopping to think he would answer in
good English. CHAPTER XVII.
TER making a hearty breakfast on
Rocky Mountain kid, salmon, and sea
biscuits, we began our return journey
down the creek in a drizzling rain.
Our burdens were increased by the
weight of the three goat skins, and
the walking was rendered still
more precarious than before by
gg» the logs, grass, soil,.pine needles,
l?and everything else having become
so thoroughly watersoaked. If we
had had hard climbing up the steep pitches on our
outbound cruise, we had it still harder now. We
could not stick in our toe nails as well now as
before, and even if we stuck in our heels going
down a hill, they would not stay stuck any better
than a second-hand postage-stamp. I remembered one hill, or canon wall, that in the ascent
made us a great deal of hard work, and much
perturbation of spirit, because it was steep,
rocky, and had very few bushes on it that we
could use as derricks by which to raise ourselves.
I dreaded the descent of this hill, now that the
rocks were wet, but we made it safely. Not so,
however, the next one we attempted; it was not so
rocky as the other, and had a goodly bed of blue
clay, with a shallow covering of vegetable mold for
a surface, with a little grass and a few weeds. It
was very steep, I think about what an architect
would call a three-quarter pitch, but we essayed it
boldly and fearlessly. Seymour was in the lead,
his faithful partisan, John, followed, and I constituted the tail end of the procession. We had just
got well over the brow, when the end of a dry hemlock stick caught in the mansard roof of my left foot;
the other end was fast in the ground, and, though I
tried to free myself, both ends stuck; the stick
played a lone hand,- but it raised me clear out in
spite of my struggles. I uttered a mournful groan
as I saw myself going, but was as helpless as a tenderfoot on a bucking cayuse. My foot was lifted
till my heel punched the small of my back, and my
other foot slid out from under me; I spread out like
a step ladder, and clawed the air for succor, but
there was not a bush or branch within reach. I think
I went ten feet before I touched the earth again, and
then I landed head first among John's legs. He sat
down on the back of my neck • like a trip-hammer,
and we both assaulted Seymour in the rear with
such violence as to knock him clear out. For a few
seconds we were the worst mixed up community that
ever lived, I reckon. Arms, legs, guns, hats, packs,
and human forms were mingled in one writhing,
squirming, surging mass, and groans, shouts, and
imprecations, in English, Chinook, and Scowlitz, rent
the air. Every hand was grabbing for something to
stop its owner, but there were no friendly stoppers
within reach; if one caught a weed, or a stunted
juniper, it faded away from his herculean grasp like
dry grass before a prairie fire.    I seemed to have the TRYING TO GET UP.
Highest initial velocity of any member of the expedition, and, though in the rear at the- start, I was a
full length ahead at the finish. We finally all
brought up in a confused mass at the foot of the hill,
and it took some time for each man to extricate himself from the pile, and reclaim his property from the
wreck. Strange as it may seem, however, but little
damage was done. There was a skinned nose, a
hruised knee or two, a sprained wrist, and everybody was painted with mud. All were, however,
able to travel, and after that, when going down steep
nills, the Siwashes kept looking back to see il I
were coming.
We performed several dangerous feats that day
and the next, walking along smooth, barkless logs,
that lay across some of the deep gorges; in places
we were thirty feet or more above the ground, or
rather rocks, where a slip would have resulted in
instant death. My hair frequently stood on end, what
little I have left, but John and Seymour always went
safely across and I could not afford to be outdone in
■courage by these miserable, fish-eating Siwashes, so
I followed wherever they led. We read that the
wicked stand on slippery places, but I can see these
wicked people, and go them about ten better, for I
liave stood, and even walked, on many of these wet
logs, and they are about the all-firedest slipperyest
things extant, and yet I have not fallen off. I fell
only that once, when I got my foot in the trap, and
that would have downed a wooden man. Just before
going into camp that night, John shot a grouse,
but we were all too tired and hungry to cook it then,
and made our meal on cold kid, fish, and biscuits. IKYING TO GET DOWN.
After supper, however, John dressed the bird and
laid it aside for breakfast, saying we would each
have a piece of it then. The rain ceased falling at
dark, and the stars came out,, which greatly revived
our drooping spirits. We gathered large quantities
of dry wood and bark, so we were able to keep a
good fire all night. I drew from a half-rotten log, a
flat, slab-like piece of pine, which at first I failed to
recognize.    John saw it and said:
"Good.    Dat's beech."
' | Beech,'' I said. '' Why, there's no beech in this
"No, beech wood, make good fire, good kindle,
good what you call him?   Good torch."
"Oh," I said, "pitch pine, eh?"
" Yas, beech pine." And this was as near as he
could get to pitch.
About two o'clock in the morning, it commenced
to rain heavily again, and the poor Indians were soon
in a pitable condition, with their blankets and clothing wet through. They sat up the remainder of the
night, feeding the fire to keep it alive and themselves warm, for they had neither canvas or rubber
coats, or any other kind of waterproof clothing.
They put up some of the longer pieces of the bark we
had gathered for fuel, and made a passable shelter,
but it was so small, and leaked so badly, that it
was far from comfortable. I pitied the poor fellows, but had nothing I could give or even share
with them for shelter. I got up at five o'clock, and
we commenced preparations for breakfast. I told
John he had better cook the grouse, but he shook
his head, and said sadly: 138
" Seymo, he spile de grouse."
| How did he do that?" I inquired.
" He say put him on stick by fire to cook in de
night. Then he go to sleep and stick burn off.
Grouse fall in de fire and burn."
"That's too thin," I said. "Seymour cooked
that grouse and ate it while you and I were asleep."
Seymour glared at me, but had not the courage to
resent or deny the charge. An Indian does not let
sleep interfere with his appetite; he eats whatever
there is first, and then sleeps. I divided the last of
the bacon and biscuits equally between us, and with
a remnant of cold broiled salmon, we eked out a
scant breakfast on which to begin a day's work.
John was clawing some white greasy substance from
a tin can with his fingers, and spreading it on his
biscuits with the same tools. He passed the can to
me, and said:
"No, thanks," I answered; "I seldom eat butter
in camp."
"Hike him all time," he replied; "I never git
widout butta for brade at home." This by way of
informing me that he knew what good living was,
and practiced it at home. It rained heavily all day,
and our tramp through the jungle was most dreary
and disagreeable.
" The day was dark, and cold, and dreary;
It rained, and the wind was never weary."
About three o' clock in the afternoon, we sat down
to rest on the bank of the creek. We had been there
but a few minutes, when a good sized black bear
came shambling along up the bank of the creek, AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
looking for salmon. The Indians saw him when
a hundred yards or more away, and flattened themselves out on the ground to await his nearer
approach. I raised my rifle to my shoulder, but they
both motioned me to wait, that he was yet too far
away. I disregarded their injunction, however, and
promptly landed an express bullet in the bear's
breast. He reared, uttered a smothered groan,
turned, made one jump, and fell dead. Now arose
the question of saving his skin; it was late, and we
were yet three miles from the Indian village; to skin 140
the bear then meant to camp there for the night, and
as the rain still came down in a steady, heavy sheet, I
at once decided that I would not stay out there
another night for the best bear skin in the country.
Seymour and John held a short consultation, and
then John said they would come back and get the skin
next day, and take it in lieu of the money I owed them
for their services. We struck a bargain in about a
minute, and hurried on, arriving at the village just as
it grew dark. My rubber coat and high rubber boots
had kept me comparatively dry, but the poor Indians
were wet to the skin.
N arriving at Chehalis John kindly
invited me to stop over night with him,
but I declined with thanks. I went into
his house, however, to wait while he got
ready to take me down to Barker's. It
was the same type of home that nearly
all these Indians have — a large clapboard building about eight feet high, with smoked
salmon hung everywhere and a fire in the centre
of the room, which, by the way, was more of a
smoke than fire, curing the winter provender. A
pile of wood lay in one corner of the room, some
empty barrels in another, fish-nets were hung in still
another, and the family lived, principally, in the
fourth. John lives with his father-in-law, mother-in-
law, two brothers-in-law, one sister-in-law, his wife
and three papooses. Blankets, pots, tinware and
grub of various kinds were piled up promiscuously in
this living corner, and the little undressed kids hovered and shivered around the dull fire, suffering from
the cold. We were, soon in the canoe again, en route
to the steamboat landing, where we arrived soon after
dark. I regretted to part with John, for I had found
him a good, faithful servant and staunch friend. I
was glad to get rid of Seymour, however, for I had
learned that he was a contemptible sneak, and told
him so in as many words.
m 142
En route home I had about two hours to wait at
Port Moody for the boat. There were great numbers
of grebes and ducks in the bay, and I asked the dock
foreman if there was any rule against shooting there.
He said he guessed not; he had never seen anyone
shooting there, but he guessed there wouldn't be any
objection. I got out my rifle and two boxes of cartridges and opened on the birds. The ducks left at
once, but the grebes sought safety in diving, and as.
soon as the fusillade began a number of gulls came
hovering around, apparently to learn the cause of
the racket. I had fine sport between the twro, and a
large audience to enjoy it with me. In ten minutes
from the time I commenced shooting all the clerks
in the dock office, all the freight hustlers in the
warehouse, all the railroad section men, the ticket-
agent and baggage-master, numbering at least
twenty men in the aggregate, were clustered around
me, and their comments on my rifle and shooting
were extremely amusing. Not a man in the party
had ever before seen a Winchester express, and the
racket it made, the way in which the balls plowed
up the water, and the way the birds, when hit, vanished into thin air and a few feathers, were mvste- •
ries far beyond their power to solve. At the first lull
in the firing half a dozen of them rushed up and
wanted to examine the rifle, the fancy finish and
combination sights of which were as profoundly
strange to them as to the benighted Indians. They
soon handed it back to me, however, with the request
to resume hostilities against the birds; they preferred to seethe old thing work rather than to handle
it.    The gulls were soaring in close, and six shots. AND   OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
rapidly delivered, dropped three of them into the
water, mutilated beyond recognition. This was
the climax; the idea of killing birds on the wing,
with a rifle, was something these men had never
before heard of, and two or three examined my cartridges to see if they were not loaded with shot,
instead of bullets. When they found this suspicion
was groundless they were beside themselves with
wonder and admiration of the strange arm. As a
matter of fact, it required no particular skill to kill
the gulls on the wing, for they were the large gray
variety, and frequently came within twenty or thirty
feet of me, so that anyone who could kill them with
a shotgun could do so with a rifle.
Finally the steamer came in and I went aboard.
The train arrived soon after and several of its passengers boarded the boat. The gulls were now hovering about the steamer, picking up whatever particles
of food were thrown overboard from the cook-room.
One old Irishman, who had come in on the train
from the interior wilds, walked out on the quarter
deck and looking at them intently for a few minutes,
turned to me and inquired :
" Phwat kind of burds is thim—geese ?"
" Yes," I said, "thim's geese, I reckon."'
"Well, be gorry, if I had a gun here I'd shoot
some o'thim" ; and he went and told his companions
"there was a flock of the tamest wild geese out thare
ye iver sawed."
The return journey to Portland was without incident. There I boarded the steamer and spent
another delightful day on the broad bosom of the
Columbia river, winding up among the grand basaltic 144
cliffs and towering mountain peaks of the Cascade
Range. Again the little camera came into requisition, and though the day was cloudy and blusterous,
though snow fell at frequent intervals, and though
the steamer trembled like a reed shaken by the wind,
I made a dozen or more exposures on the most interesting and beautiful subjects as we passed them, and
to my surprise many came out good pictures,
of them lack detail in the deeper shadows, but the
results altogether show that had the day been clear
and bright all would have been perfect. In short, it
is possible with this dry-plate process to make good
pictures from a moving steamboat, or even from a
railway train going at a high rate of speed. I made
three pictures from a Northern Pacific train, coming
through the Bad Lands, when running twenty-five
miles an hour, and though slightly blurred in the
near foreground, the buttes and bluffs, a hundred
yards and further away, are as sharp as if I had been
standing on the ground and the camera on a tripod;
and a snap shot at a prairie-dog town—just as the
train slowed on a heavy grade—shows several of the
little rodents in various poses, some of them apparently trying to look pretty while having their " pictures took."
\f|  stopped off   at
Spokane Falls,
^;.\ 8    on    my   way
home, for a few
days' deer hunt
yjgTjr ing, and though
that region be not exactly in the Cascades, it is so near that a few points in
relation to the sport there may be
admissible in connection with the*
foregoing narrative.     I   had
advised my good friend\ Dr.
C. S. Penfield, of my coming,   and   he   had   kindly
I    planned for me a  hunting trip.   On the morning   after   my  arrival
his brother-in-law, Mr.
T. E.   Jefferson,   took
me up behind a pair of
good    roadsters    and
drove   to    Johnston's
ranch,   eighteen  miles
from the falls, and near
the foot of Mount Carle-
ton, where we hoped to find
plenty  of  deer.      We   hunted
there two days, and though we found signs reasonably plentiful and saw three or four deer we were
unable to kill any. Mr. Jefferson burned some
powder after a buck and a doe the first morning
after our arrival, but it was his first experience in
deer hunting, so it is not at
all strange that the game
should have escaped. Mr.
Jefferson was compelled to
return home at that time on account of a business
engagement, but Mr. Johnston, with characteristic
Western hospitality and kindness, said I must
not leave without a shot, and so hooked up his
team and drove me twenty-five miles farther
into the mountains, to a place where he said we
would surely find plenty of game. On the way
in we picked up old Billy Cowgill, a famous deer
hunter in this region, and took him along as guide.
w 148
We stopped at Brooks' stage ranch, on the Colville
road to rest the team, and the proprietor gave us an
amusing account of some experiments he had been
making in shooting buckshot from a muzzle-loading
shotgun. He had made some little bags of buckskin, just large enough to hold twelve No. 2 buckshot, and after filling them had sewed up the ends.
He shot a few of them at a tree sixty yards away,
but they failed to spread and all went into one hole.
Then he tried leaving the front end of the bag open,
and still they acted as a solid ball; so he had to abandon the scheme, and loaded the charge loose, as of old.
He concluded, however, not to fire this last load at
the target, and hung the gun up in its usual place.
A few days later he heard the dog barking in the
woods a short distance from the house, and supposed
it had treed a porcupine. Mr. Brooks' brother, who
was visiting at the time, took the gun and went out
to kill the game, whatever it might be. On reaching
the place, he found a ruffed grouse sitting in a tree,
at which he fired. The ranchman said he heard the
report, and his brother soon came back, carrying a
badly-mutilated bird; he threw it into the kitchen,
and put the gun away; then he sat down, looked
thoughtful, and kept silent for a long time. Finally
he blurted out:
"Say, Tom; that gun got away from me."
' \ How was that ?'' queried the ranchman.
11 don't know; but I shot pretty near straight up
at the grouse, and somehow the gun slipped off my
shoulder and done this." And opening his coat he
showed his vest, one side of which was split from
top to bottom; he. then took out a handful of his AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
watch and held it up—one case was torn off, the
crystal smashed, the dial caved in, and the running
gear all mixed up. The ranchman said he guessed
he had put one of the buckskin bags of shot into
that barrel, and forgetting that fact, had added the
loose charge. He said he reckoned twenty-four No.
2 buckshot made too heavy a load for an eight-pound
We reached " Peavine Jimmy's " mining cabin,
which was to be our camp, at three o'clock in the
afternoon, and busied ourselves till dark in the usual
duties of cooking, eating, and gathering wood. Old
Billy proved a very interesting character; he is a
simple, quiet, honest, unpretentious old man, and
unlike most backwoodsmen, a veritable coward. He
has the rare good sense, however, to admit it frankly,
and thus disarms criticism. In fact, his frequent
admission of this weakness is amusing. He says
that for fear of getting lost he does not like to go off
a trail when hunting, unless there is snow on the
ground, so that he can track himself back into camp.
He rides an old buckskin pony that is as modest and
gentle as its master. Billy says he often gets lost
when he does venture away from the trail, but in
such cases he just gives old Buck therein, hits him a
slap, and tells him to go to camp and he soon gets
there. He told us a bear story that night, worthy of
repetition. Something was said that reminded him
of it, and he mentioned it, but added, modestly,
that he didn't know as we cared for any bear
stories. But we said we were very fond of them,
and urged the recital.
' | Well, then," he said, '' if you will wait a minute, 150
I'll take a drink of water first and then I'll tell it to
you," and he laughed a kind of boyish titter, and
1 Well, me and three other fellers was up north
in the Colville country, huntin', and all the other
fellows was crazy to kill a bear. I didn't want to
kill no bear, and didn't expect to. I'm as'feard as
death of a bear, and hain't no use for 'em. All I
wanted to kill was a deer. The other fellers, they
wanted to kill some deer, too, but they wanted bear
the worst. So one mornin' we all started out, and
the other fellers they took the best huntin' ground,
and said I'd better go down along the creek and see
if I couldn't kill some grouse, for they didn't believe
I could kill any thing bigger'n that; and 1 said, all
right, and started off down the creek. Purty soon I
come to an old mill that wasn't runnin' then. And
when I got purty hear to the mill I set down on a
log, fori didn't think it was worth while to go any
furder, for I didn't think I would find any game
down the creek, and I didn't care much whether I
did or not. Well, I heard a kind of a racket in the
mill, and durned if there wasn't a big black bear
right in the mill. And I watched him a little bit,
and he started out towards me. And I said to myself, says I, ' Now Billy, here's your chance to kill
a bear.'
"I hadn't never killed no bear before, nor never
seed one before, and durned if I wasn't skeered
nearly to death. But I thought there wasn't no use
of runnin', for I knowed he could run faster'n I
could, so I took out my knife and commenced cut-
tin' down the brush in front of me, for I wanted to AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
make a shure shot if I did shoot, if I could. And
the bear, he come out of the mill and rared up, and
put his paws on a log and looked at me, and I
said to myself, says I, ' Now Billy, this is your
time to shoot'; but I wasn' t ready to shoot yit. They
was one more bush I wanted to cut out of the way
before I shot, so I cut if off and laid down my knife,
and then I took up my gun and tried to take aim at
his breast, but doggoned if I didn't shake so I
couldn't see the sights at all. And I thought one
time I wouldn't shoot, and then I knowed the other
fellers would laugh at me if I told 'em I seed a bear
and didn't shoot at him, and besides I was afraid
some of ' em was up on the hillside lookin' at me
then. So I just said to myself, says I, ' Now Billy,
you're goin' to get eat up if you don't kill him, but
you might as well be eat up as to be laughed at.'
So I jist took the best aim I could for shakin', an'
shet both eyes an' pulled.
"Well, I think the bear must a begin to git down
jist as I pulled, for I tore his lower jaw off and shot
a big hole through one side of his neck. He howled
and roared and rolled around there awhile and then
he got still. I got round where I could see him, after
he quit kickin', but I was af eared to go up to him,
so I shot two more bullets through his head to make
sure of him. And then I set down and waited a long
while to see if he moved any more; for I was afeard
he mightn't be dead yit, and might be playin' possum,
jist to get ahold of me. But he didn't move no more,
so I went up to him with my gun cocked and pointed
at his head, so if he did move I could give him another
one right quick.   An' then I punched him a little with 152
my gun, but he didn't stir. An' when I found he
was real dead I took my knife and cut off one of his
claws, an' then I went back to camp, the biggest
feelin' old cuss you ever seed.
"Well, arter while the other fellers they all come
in, lookin' mighty blue, for they hadn't any of ' em
killed a thing, an' when I told 'em I'd killed a bear,
they wouldn't believe it till I showed 'em the claw.
An' then they wouldn't believe it, neither, for they
thought I' d bought the claw of some Injin. And they
wouldn' t believe it at all till they went out with me
and seed the bear and helped skin 'im, and cut 'im
up, and pack 'im into camp. An' they was the dog-
gondest, disappointedest lot of fellers you ever seed,
for we hunted five days longer, an' nary one of'em
got to kill a bear nor even see one. They thought I
was the poorest hunter and the biggest coward in the
lot, but I was the only one that killed a bear that
J3 were out at daylight the next morning
and hunted all day with fair success.
Johnston and Billy jumped a bunch of
five mule-deer, a buck, two does, and
two fawns.     Johnston   fired fourteen
shots at them before they got out of
the country, and killed the two does.
In speaking of  it afterward Billy said he was just
taking a good aim at  the old buck's   eye when
Johnston's gun cracked  the  first  time,  and   of
course the buck ran, so he did not get a shot.
" But why didn't you shoot at him running?" I
"Because I can't hit a jumpin' deer," he replied,
frankly, "and I hate like thunder to miss."
I spent the day about a mile from camp on top of
Blue Grouse Mountain, a prominent landmark of
the country. A heavy fog hung about the mountain and over the surrounding country until about
three o'clock in the afternoon, when it lifted and
disclosed a view of surpassing loveliness. Away to
the west and southwest there was a level tract of
swampy, heavily timbered country about thirty
miles long and ten miles wide. I looked down on
the tops of the trees composing this vast forest, and
they appeared at this distance not unlike a vast field
of half-grown green grain.   Beyond this tract to the
west a chain of hills wound in serpentine curves
from north to south, their parks and bits of prairie
gleaming in the sun like well-made farms. To the
north lay Loon Lake nestling among the pine-clad
hills, its placid bosom sparkling in the setting sun
like a sheet of silver. Farther to the north and
northeast were two other lakes of equal size and
beauty, while far distant in the east were several
large bodies of prairie separated by strips of pine
and fir. I longed for my camera, but on account of
the unfavorable outlook of the morning, I had not
brought the instrument.
The following morning promised no better, for the
fog hung like a pall over the whole country; but I
took the little detective with me, hoping the mist
would lift as before; in this, however, I was disappointed. I staid on the mountain from early morning till half-past three, and there being then no prospect of a change went down. Just as I reached the
base I saw a rift in the clouds, and supposing the
long-wished change in the weather was about to
take place, I turned and began the weary climb, but
again the fog settled down, and I was at last compelled to return to camp without the coveted views.
I made several exposures during the day on crooked,
deformed, wind-twisted trees on the top of the
mountain, which, strange to say, came out good.
The fog was so dense at the time that one could not
see fifty yards. I used a small stop and gave each
plate from five to twenty seconds, and found, when
developed, that none of them were over exposed,
while those given the shorter time were under
That day's hunting resulted in three more 156
deer, and as we then had all the meat our team could
take out up the steep hills near camp, we decided to
start for home the next morning. While seated
around our blazing log fire in the old cabin that night,
Mr. Johnston entertained us with some interesting
reminiscences of his extensive experience in the West.
He has been a "broncho buster," a stock ranchman,
and a cow-boy by turns, and a recital of his varied
experiences in these several lines would fill a big
book.   Among others, he told us that he once lived AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
in a portion of California where the ranchmen raised
a great many hogs, but allowed them to range at will
in the hills and mountains from the time they were
littered until old enough and large enough for
market; that in this time they became as wild as
deer and as savage as peccaries, so that the only way
they could ever be reclaimed and marketed was to
catch them with large, powerful dogs, trained to the
work.    Their feet were then securely tied with strong
thongs, and they were muzzled and packed into
market or to the ranches, as their owners desired, on
horses or mules.
Johnston had a pair of these dogs, and used to
assist his neighbors in rounding up their wild hogs.
In one case, he and several other men went with an
old German ranchman away up into the mountains
to bring out a drove of these pine-skinners, many of
whom had scarcely seen a human being since they
were pigs, and at sight of the party the hogs stampeded of course, and ran like so many deer. The dogs
were turned loose, took up a trail, and soon had a
vicious critter by the ears, when the packers came up,
muzzled and tied it securely. The dogs were then
turned loose again, and another hog was rounded up
in the same way. These two were hung onto a pack-
animal with their backs down, their feet lashed
together over the pack-saddle, and their long, sharp
shouts pointing toward the horse's head. They were
duly cinched, and the horse turned loose to join the
train. This operation was repeated until the whole
herd was corralled and swung into place on the horses,
and the squealing, groaning, and snorting of the terrified brutes was almost deafening.    One pair of hogs .     .""7
were loaded on a little mule which had never been
accustomed to this work, and, as the men were all
engaged in handling the other animals, the old ranchman said he would lead this mule down the mountain
himself. Johnston and his partner cinched the hogs
on in good shape, while the Dutchman hung to
the mule.
As they were giving the ropes the final pull, Johnston gave his chum a wink, and they both slipped
out their knives, cut the muzzles off the porkers when
the old man was looking the other way, and told
him to go ahead. He started down the trail towing
the little mule, which did not relish its load in the
least, by the halter. The hogs were struggling to
free themselves, and, as the thongs began to cut into
their legs, they got mad and began to bite the mule.
Then there was trouble; stiff-legged bucking set
in, and mule and hogs were churned up and down,
and changed ends so rapidly that for a few minutes
it was hard to tell which of the three animals was on
the outside, the inside, the topside, or the bottom-
side. The poor little mule was frantic with rage and
fright, and what a mule can not and will not do
under such circumstances, to get rid of a load can not
be done by any four-footed beast. He pawed the
air, kicked, and brayed, jumped backward, forward,
and. sidewise, and twisted, himself into every imaginable shape. The old Dutchman was as badly stampeded as the mule; he shouted, yanked, and swore
in Dutch, English, and Spanish; he yelled to the
men above to come and help him, but they were so
convulsed and doubled up with laughter that they
could not have helped him if they would. 160
Finally, the mule got away from the old man and
went tearing down into the canon; he overtook and
passed the balance of the pack-train, stampeded them
almost beyond control of the packers, and knocked
the poor hogs against trees and brush until they were
almost dead. He ran nearly six miles, and being
unable to get rid of his pack, fell exhausted and lay
there until the men came up and took charge of him.
The old man accused Johnston of cutting the muzzles
off the hogs, but he and his partner both denied it,
said they certainly must have slipped off, and they
finally convinced him that that was the way the
trouble came about.
This, with sundry other recitals of an equally
interesting nature, caused the evening to pass pleasantly, and at a late hour we turned into our bunks.
We were up and moving long before daylight the
next morning, and as soon as we could see the trail AND   OTHER HUNTING  ADVENTURES.
hooked up the team and attempted to go, but, alas
for our hopes of an early start, one of the horses
refused to pull at the Very outset—in short, he balked
and no mule ever balked worse. Johnston plied the
buckskin until the horse refused to stand it any
longer and began to rear and to throw himself on
the tongue, back in the harness, etc. Johnston got off
the wagon, went to the animal's head and tried to lead
it, -but the brute would not be led any more than it
would be driven, and commenced rearing and striking at its master as if trying to kill him. This
aroused the ire of the ranchman and he picked up a
piece of a board, about four inches wide and three
feet long, and fanned the vicious critter right vigorously. I took a hand in the game, at Johnston's
request, and warmed the cayuse's latter half to the
best of my ability with a green hemlock gad. He
bucked and backed, reared and ranted, pawed,
pitched, plunged and pranced, charged, cavorted
and kicked, until it seemed that he would surely
make shreds of the harness and kindling wood
of the wagon ; but the whole outfit staid with him,
including Johnston and myself.
We wore out his powers of endurance if not his hide,
and he finally got down to business, took the load up
the hill and home to the ranch, without manifesting
any further inclination to strike. We reached the
ranch about nine o'clock at night, and the next day
Johnston drove me into Spokane Falls, where, in due
time, I caught the train for home.
Spokane Falls is a growing, pushing town, and
the falls of the Spokane river, from which the town
takes its name, afford one of the most beautiful and
11 iri'it'W"-"' 'titfl
m* ~
interesting sights on the line of the Northern Pacific
road. There are over a dozen distinct falls within a
half a mile, one of which is over sixty feet in perpendicular height. Several of these falls are split
into various channels by small islands or pillars of
basaltic rock. At one place, where two of these
channels unite in a common plunge into a small
pool, the water is thrown up in a beautiful, shelllike cone of white foam, to a height of nearly six
feet. It is estimated by competent engineers that
the river at this point furnishes a water-power equal
in the aggregate to that of the Mississippi at St.
Anthony's Falls. Every passenger over this route
should certainly stop off and spend a few hours
viewing the falls of the Spokane river. CHAPTER XXI.
)HE bear, like man, inhabits almost every
latitude and every land, and has
even been translated to the
starry heavens, where the
constellations of the Great
Dipper and the Little Dipper are
known to us as well as to the ancients as
TJrsi Major and Minor. But North America
ffurnishes the largest and most aggressive species
in the grizzly {Ursus horribilis), the black {Ursus
americanus), and the polar {Ursus maritimus)
bears, and here the hunter finds his most daring
sport. Of all the known plantigrades (flat-footed
beasts) the grizzly is the most savage and the most
dreaded, and he is the largest of. all, saving the
presence of his cousin the polar bear, for which,
nevertheless, he is more than a match in strength
and courage. Some specimens measure seven feet
from tip of nose to root of tail. The distinctive
marks of the species are its great size; the shortness
of the tail as compared with the ears; the huge flat
paws, the sole of the hind foot sometimes measuring seven and a half by five inches in a large male;
the length of the hind legs as compared with the
fore legs, which gives the beast his awkward, shambling gait; the long claws of the fore foot, sometimes
seven inches in length, while those of the hind foot
measure only three or four; the erect, bristling mane
of stiff hair, often six inches long; the coarse hair
of the body, sometimes three inches long, dark at
the base, but with light tips. He has a dark stripe
along the back, and one along each side, the hair on
his body being, as a rule, a brownish-yellow, the
region around the ears duskj7, the legs nearly black,
and the muzzle pale. Color, however, is not a distinctive mark, for female grizzlies have been killed-
in company with two cubs, one of-which was brown,
the other gray, or one dark, the other light; and the
supposed species of "cinnamon" and "brown"
bears are merely color variations of Ursus horribilis
This ubiquitous gentleman has a wide range for his
habitat. He has been found on the Missouri river
from Fort Pierre northward, and thence west to his
favorite haunts in the Rockies; on the Pacific slope
clear down to the coast; as far south as Mexico, and as
far north as the Great Slave Lake in British America.
He not only ranges everywhere, but eats everything.
His majesty is a good liver. He is not properly a
beast of prey, for he has neither the cat-like instincts,
nor the noiseless tread of t\iefelidai, nor is he fleet
and long-winded like the wolf, although good at a
short run, as an unlucky hunter may find. But he
hangs about the flanks of a herd of buffalo, with
probably an eye to a wounded or disabled animal,,
and he frequently raids a ranch and carries off a
sheep, hog, or calf that is penned beyond the possibility of escape.
Elk is his favorite meat, and the knowing hunter
who has the good luck to kill an elk makes sure 166
that its carcass will draw Mr. Grizzly if he is within
a range of five miles. He will eat not only flesh,
fish, and fowl, but roots, herbs, fruit, vegetables,
honey, and insects as well.   Plums, buffalo-berries,
and choke-cherries make a large part of his diet in
their seasons.
The grizzly bear possesses greater vitality and
tenacity of life than any other animal on the continent, and the hunter who would hunt him must be
well armed and keep a steady nerve. Each shot must
be cooly put where it will do the most good. Several AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
are frequently necessary to stop one of these savage
beasts. A single bullet lodged in the brain is fatal.
If shot through the heart he may run a quarter of
a mile or kill a man before he succumbs. In the
days of the old muzzle-loading rifle it was hazardous indeed to hunt the grizzly, and many a man has
paid the penalty of his folly with his life. With
our improved breech-loading and repeating rifles
there is less risk.
The grizzly is said to bury carcasses of large ani-
mals for future use as food, but this I doubt. I
have frequently returned to carcasses of elk or deer
that I had killed and found that during my absence
bears had partially destroyed them, and in their
excitement, occasioned by the smell or taste of fresh
meat, had pawed up the earth a good deal thereabout, throwing dirt and leaves in various directions,
and some of this debris may have fallen on the
bodies of the dead game; but I have never seen where
any systematic attempt had been made at burying a
carcass. Still, Bruin may have playad the sexton in
some cases. He hibernates during winter, but does
not take to his long sleep until the winter has
thoroughly set in and the snow is quite deep. He
may frequently be tracked and found in snow a foot
deep, where he is roaming in search of food. He
becomes very fat before going into winter quarters,
and this vast accumulation of oil furnishes nutriment
and heat sufficient to sustain life during his long
The newspapers often kill grizzlies, weighing 1,500,
1,800, or even 2,000 pounds, and in any party of
frontiersmen "talking grizzly" you will find plenty 168
of men who can give date and place where they
killed or helped to kill at least 1,800 pounds of
"Did you weigh it?"
" No, we didn't weigh 'im; but every man as seed
'im said he would weigh that, and they was all good
jedges, too."
And this is the way most of the stories of big bear,
big elk, big deer, etc., begin and end. Bears are
usually, though not always, killed at considerable
distances from towns, or even ranches, where it is
not easy to find a scales large enough to weigh so
much meat.
The largest grizzly I have ever killed would not
weigh more than 700 or 800 pounds, and I do not
believe one has ever lived that would weigh 1,000
pounds. The flesh of the adult grizzly is tough,
stringy, and decidedly unpalatable, but that of a
young fat one is tender and juicy, and is always a
welcome dish on the hunter's table.
The female usually gives birth to two cubs, and
sometimes three, at a time. At birth they weigh
only about 1J to 1£ pounds each. The grizzly breeds
readily in confinement, and several litters have been
produced in the Zoological Gardens at Cincinnati.
The female is unusually vicious while rearing her
young, and the hunter must be doubly cautious
about attacking at that time. An Indian rarely
attacks a grizzly single-handed at any time, and it is
only when several of these native hunters are together
that they will attempt to kill one. They value the
claws very highly, however, and take great pride in
wearing strings of them around their necks. AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
The grizzly usually frequents the timbered or
brush-covered portions of mountainous regions, or
the timbered valleys of streams that head in the
mountains. He occasionally follows down the course
of these streams, and even travels many miles from
one stream to another, or from one range of mountains to another, across open prairie. I once found
one on a broad open plateau in the Big Horn
Mountains, about half a mile from the nearest
cover of any kind. He was turning over rocks m
search of worms. At the report of my rifle he started
for the nearest canon, but never reached it. An
explosive bullet through his lungs rendered him
unequal to the journey.
Few persons believe that a grizzly will attack a
man before he is himself attacked. I was one of
these doubting Thomases until a few years ago,
when I was thoroughly convinced by ocular demonstration that some-grizzlies, at least, will attempt to
make a meal off a man even though he may not have
harmed them previously. We were hunting in the
Shoshone Mountains in Northern Wyoming. I had
killed a large elk in the morning, and on going back
to the carcass in the afternoon to skin it we saw that
Bruin had been there ahead us, but had fled on our
approach. Without the least apprehension of his
return, we leaned our rifles against a tree about fifty
feet away, and commenced work. There were three
of us, but only two rifles, Mr. Huffman, the photographer, having left his in camp He had finished
taking views of the carcass, and we were all busily
engaged skinning, when, hearing a crashing in the
brush and a series of savage roars and growls, we 170
looked up the hill, and were horrified to see three
grizzly bears, an old female and two cubs about two-
thirds grown, charging upon us with all the savage
fury of a pack of starving wolves upon a sheepfold.
To make a long story short, .we killed the old
female and one cub; the other escaped into the jungle before we could get a shot at him. The resolute
front we put on alone saved our lives.
In another instance, when hunting deer in Idaho,
I came suddenly upon a female grizzly and two cubs,
when the mother bear charged me savagely and
would have killed me had I not fortunately controlled my nerves long enough to put a couple of
bullets through her and stop her before she got
to me.
I have heard of several other instances of grizzlies
making unprovoked attacks on men, which were so
well substantiated that I could not question the
truth of the reports.
The grizzly is partially nocturnal in his habits,
and apparently divides his labor of obtaining food
and his traveling about equally between day and
night. It is not definitely known to what age he
lives in his wild state, but he is supposed to attain
to twenty-five or thirty years. Several have lived in
domestication to nearly that age, and one died in
Union Park, Chicago, a few years ago, that was
known to be eighteen years old.
Notwithstanding the great courage and ferocity of
this formidable beast, he will utter the most pitiable
groans and howls when seriously or mortally
Two brothers were prospecting in a range of mount-
ains near the headwaters of the Stinking Water
river. The younger of the two, though an able-
bodied man, and capable of doing a good day's work
with a pick or shovel, -was weak-minded, and the
elder brother never allowed him to go any distance
away from camp or their work alone. He, however,
sent him one evening to the spring, a few rods off,
to bring a kettleful of water. The spring was in a
deep gorge, and the trail to it wound through some
fissures in the rock. As the young man passed
under a shelving rock, an immense old female grizzly,
that had taken up temporary quarters there, reached
out and struck a powerful blow at his head, but fortunately could not reach far enough to do him any
serious harm. The blow knocked his hat off, and
her claws caught his scalp, and laid it open clear
across the top of his head in several ugly gashes.
The force of the blow sent him spinning around, and
not knowing enough to be frightened, he attacked
her savagely with the only weapon he had at hand—
the camp kettle.
The elder brother heard the racket, and hastily
catchng up his rifle and hurrying to the scene of the
disturbance, found his brother vigorously belaboring the bear over the head with the camp kettle,
and the bear striking savage blows at him, any
one of which, if she could have reached him,
would have torn his head from his shoulders.
Three bullets from the rifle, fired in rapid succession,
loosened her hold upon the rocks, and she tumbled
lifelessly into the trail. The poor idiotic boy could
not even then realize the danger through which he
had passed, and could only appease his anger by
I 172
continuing to maul the bear over the head with the
camp kettle for several minutes after she was dead-
Some years ago I went into the mountains with a
party of friends to hunt elk. Our guide told us we
should find plenty of grouse along the trail, from
the day we left the settlements; that on the third
day out we should find elk, and that it would therefore be useless to burden our pack-horses with meat.
We accordingly took none save a small piece of
Contrary to his predictions, however, we found no
grouse or other small game en route, and soon ate up
our bacon. Furthermore, we were five days in
reaching the elk country, instead of three as he said.
All this time we were climbing mountains and had
appetites that are known only to mountain climbers.
We had plenty of bread and potatoes, but these
were not sufficient. We hankered for flesh, and
though we filled ourselves with vegetable food, yet
were we hungry.
Finally we reached our destination at midday.
While we were unloading the horses, a "fool hen"
came and lit in a tree near us. A rifle ball beheaded
her, and almost, before she was done kicking she
was in the frying pan.
A negro once had a bottle of whisky, and was^
making vigorous efforts to get outside of it, when a
chum came up and asked for a pull at it. " O, g' long,
nigger," said the happy owner of the corn juice.
"What's one bottle of whisky 'mong one man?"
And what was one little grouse among five half-
starved men? The smell and taste only made us
After dinner we all went out and hunted until
dark. Soon after leaving camp some of us heard
lively firing up the canon, where our guide had
gone, and felt certain that he had secured meat, for
we had heard glowing accounts, from him and his
friends, of his prowess as a hunter. The rest of us
were not so despondent, therefore, when we returned
at dusk empty handed, as we should otherwise have
been, until we reached camp and found the guide
there wearing a long face and bloodless hands.
He told a doleful story of having had five fair
shots at a large bull elk, who stood broadside on, only
seventy-five yards away, but who finally became
alarmed at the fusilade and fled, leaving no blood
on his trail. The guide of course anathematized
his gun in the choicest terms known to frontiersmen,
and our mouths watered as we thought of what
might have been.
Our potatoes, having been compelled to stand for
meat also, had vanished rapidly, and we ate the last
of them for supper that night. Few words were
spoken and no jokes cracked over that meal. We
ate bread straight for breakfast, and turning out
early hunted diligently all day. We were nearly
famished when we returned at night and no one had
seen any living thing larger than a pine squirrel.
It is written that "man shall not live by bread
alone," and we found that we could not much longer.
And soon we should not have even that, for our
flour was getting low. But we broke the steaming
flat-cake again at supper, and turned in to dream of
juicy steaks, succulent joints, and delicious rib
roasts. 174
We were up before daylight to find that six or
eight inches of light snow had fallen silently during
the night, which lay piled up on the branches of
the trees, draping the dense forests in ghostly white.
Our drooping spirits revived, for we hoped that the
tell-tale mantle would enable us to find the game we
so much needed in oar business. We broke our
bread more cheerfully that morning than for two
days previously, but at the council of war held over
the frugal meal, decided that unless we scored that
day we must make tracks for the nearest ranch the
next morning, and try to make our scanty remnant of flour keep us alive until we could get there.
Breakfast over we scattered ourselves by the four
points of the'compass and set out. It fell to my lot
to go up the canon. Silently I strode through the
forest, scanning the snow in search of foot-prints,
but for an hour I could see none. Then, as I cautiously
ascended a ridge, I heard a crash in the brush
beyond and reached the summit just in time to see
the latter end of a large bull elk disappear in the
He had not heard or seen me, but had winded me,
and tarried not for better acquaintance. I followed his
trail some three miles up the canon, carefully
penetrating the thickets and peering among the
larger trees, but never a glimpse could I get and
never a sound could I hear of him. He seemed
unusually wild. I could see by his trail that he had
not stopped, but had kept straight away on that
long, swinging trot that is such a telling gait of the
species, and which they will sometimes keep up for
hours together.    Finally I came to where he had AND   OTHER HUNTING  ADVENTURES.
left the canon and ascended the mountain. I followed up this for a time, but seeing that he had not
yet paused, and finding that my famished condition
rendered me unequal to the climb, was compelled to
abandon the pursuit and with a heavy heart return
again to the canon. I kept on up it, but could find
no other game or sign of any. Like the red hunter,
in the time of famine, who
" Vainly walked through the forest,
Sought for bird, or beast, and found none;
Saw no track of deer or rabbit,
In the snow beheld no foot-prints,
In the ghostly gleaming forest
Fell fsnd could not rise from weakness,"
so I trudged on until, wearied and worn out, I lay
down beside a giant .fir tree, whose spreading
branches had kept the snow from the ground, and
fell asleep. When I awoke my joints were stiff and
sore, and I was chilled to the bone. It was late in
the afternoon, and a quiet, drizzling rain had set in.
I found the trail that led through the canon, and
started back to camp, trudging along as rapidly as
possible, for hunger was gnawing at my vitals and
my strength was fast failing.
" Over snow-fields waste and pathless,
Under snow-encumbered branches,
Empty-handed, heavy-hearted,"
I toiled wearily on. The snow had become saturated with the rain, and great chunks of it were
falling from the trees with dull, monotonous sounds.
"Slush, slush," "Splash, splash," came the gloomy
sounds from all parts of the woods. I was nearing
camp, and had abandoned all hope of seeing game. 176
My only object was to reach shelter, to rest, and
feast on the unsatisfying bread. I heard a succession of the splashings that came from my left with
such regular cadence as to cause me to look up,
when, great St. Hubert! there came a huge grizzly
bear shambling and splashing along through- the
wet snow. It was his footsteps that I had been
hearing for a minute or two past, and which I had,
at first, thought to be the falling snow.
He had not yet seen me, and what a marvelous
change came over me! I forgot that I was tired;
that I was wreak; that I was hungry. The instincts
of the hunter reanimated me, and I.thought only of
killing the grand game before me. I threw down
my rifle, raising the hammer as the weapon came
into position, and the click of the lock reached his
ear. It was the first intimation he had of possible
danger, and he stopped and threw up his head to
look and listen. My thoughts came and went like
flashes of lightning. I remembered then the famishing condition of myself and friends. Here was
meat, and I must save it. There must be no nervousness—no wild shooting now. This shot must
tell. And there was not a tremor in all my system.
Every nerve was as of steel for the instant. The
little gold bead on the muzzle of the rifle instantly
found the vital spot behind the bear's shoulder,
gleamed through the rear sight like a spark of fire,
and before he had time to realize what the strange
apparition was that had so suddenly confronted
him, the voice of the Winchester was echoing
through the canon and an express bullet had
crashed through his vitals. AND. OTHER HUNTING  ADVENTURES.
The shock was so sudden and the effect on him so
deadly that he apparently thought nothing of fight,
but only of seeking a place to die in peace.
He wdieeled and shot into a neighboring thicket
with the speed of an arrow. I fired at him again as
he disappeared. He crashed through the jungle out
into the open woods, turned to the right and went
across a ridge as if Satan himself were" after him.
As the big gray mass shot through a clear space
between two trees I gave him another speeder, and
then he disappeared beyond a ridge.
The snow had melted rapidly and the ground was
bare in places, so that I had some trouble in trailing
the bear, but wherever he crossed a Datch of snow
his trail was bespattered with blood. I followed
over the ridge and through scattering jack pines,
about two hundred yards, and found him lying
dead near the trail. My first and third bullets had
gone in behind his shoulder only an inch apart.
The first had passed clear through him, and the
other had lodged against the skin on the opposite
side. Several ribs were broken on either side, and
his lungs and other portions of his interior were
ground into sausage; yet so great was his vitality
and tenacity to life that he was able to make this
distance at a speed that would have taxed the best
horse in the country, and if he had seen fit to attack
me instead of running away he would probably
have made sausage of me.
But what feasting and what revelry there was in
camp that night. It was a young bear, fat as
butter, and rib roasts and cutlets were devoured in
quantities that would have shocked the modesty of
J 178
a tramp. Not until well into the night did we cease
to eat, and wrap ourselves in our blankets. We staid
several days in the canon after that, and killed plenty
of elk and other game.
The skin of the grizzly is one of the most valuable
trophies a sportsman can obtain on any field, and its
rarity, and the danger and excitement attending the
taking of it, the courage it bespeaks on the part of
the hunter, render it a prize of which the winner
may justly feel proud for a lifetime.
The best localities in which to hunt the grizzly
bear—that is, those most accessible and in which he
is now most numerous—are the Big Horn, Shoshone,
Wind River, Bear Tooth, Belt, and Crazy Mountains, in Wyoming and Montana, all of which may be
easily reached by way of the Northern Pacific
The best time of year to hunt for this, as well
as all the other species of large game in the Rocky
Mountains, is in the months of September, October,
and November, though in the latter month'the
sportsman should not venture high up into the
mountains where heavy snow-falls are liable to
occur. There is a great deal of bear hunting done
in the summer months, but it is contrary to the laws
of nature, and should not be indulged in by any
true sportsman. The skins are nearly worthless
then, while in the autumn they are prime; the heat
is oppressive, and the flies and mosquitoes are great
The best arm for this class of game is a repeating
rifle of large calibre,
45 or 50,
charge of powder and a solid bullet. The new Winchester express, 1^r, with solid ball, is perhaps the
best in the market, all things considered.
There are several methods of hunting the grizzly,
the most common being to kill an elk, and then watch
the carcass. Shots may frequently be obtained in
this way early in the morning or late in the evening,
and on bright moonlight nights it is best to watch all
night, for the immense size of the grizzly renders him
an easy target at short range even by moonlight.
Another method is to still-hunt him, the same as is
done with deer. This is perhaps the most sportsmanlike of all, and if a coulee or creek bottom be
selected where there are plenty of benies, or an
open, hilly, rocky country, where the bears are in
the habit of hunting for worms, or any good feeding-
ground where bear signs are plentiful, and due care
and caution be exercised, there is as good a chance
of success as by any other method. Many hunters
set guns with a cord running from the trigger to a
bait of fresh meat, and the muzzle of the gun pointing at the meat; others set large steel traps or deadfalls. But such contrivances are never used by true
Game of any kind should always be pursued in a
fair, manly manner, and given due chance to pre-'
serve its life if it is skillful enough to do so. If
captured, let it be by the superior skill, sagacity, or
endurance of the sportsman, not by traps which
close on it as it innocently and unsuspectingly seeks
its food.
Grizzly bear hunting is unquestionably the grandest sport that our continent affords.    The grizzly 180
is the only really dangerous game we have, and the
decidedly hazardous character of the sport is what
gives it its greatest zest, and renders it the most fascinating of pursuits. Many sportsmen proclaim the
superiority of their favorite pastime over all other
kinds, be it quail, grouse, or duck shooting, fox-
chasing, deer-stalking, or what not; and each has its
charm, more or less intense, according to its nature;
but no man ever felt his heart swell with pride, his
nerves tingle with animation, his whole system glow
with wild, uncontrollable enthusiasm, at the bagging of any bird or small animal, as does the man
who stands over the prostrate form of a monster
grizzly that he has slain. Let the devotee of these
other classes of sport try bear hunting, and when he
has bagged his first grizzly, then let him talk! CHAPTER XXII.
JH^F all the large game on the American
continent, the elk {Cervus canadensis)
is the noblest, the grandest, the stateliest.
wrould detract nothing from the noble
jame qualities of the moose, caribou, deer,
or mountain sheep. Each has its peculiar
points of excellence which endear it to the heart of
the sportsman, but the elk j)ossesses more than any
of the others. In size he towers far above all,
except the moose. In sagacity, caution, cunning,
and wariness he is the peer, if not the superior, of
them all. He is always on the alert, his keen scent,
his piercing eye, his acute sense of hearing, combining to render him a vigilant sentinel of his own
His great size and powerful muscular construction
give him almost unbounded endurance. When
alarmed or pursued he will travel for twenty or
thirty hours, at a rapid swinging trot, without stopping for food or rest. He is a proud, fearless ranger,
and even when simply migrating from one range of
mountains to another, will travel from seventy-five
to a hundred miles without lying down. He is a
marvelous   mountaineer,    and,    considering    his
^^^5 182
immense size and weight, often ascends to heights
that seem incredible. He may often be found away
up to timber line, and will traverse narrow passes
and defiles, climbing over walls of rock and through
fissures where it would seem impossible for so large
an animal, with such massive antlers as he carries,
to go. He chooses his route, however, with rare
good judgment, and all mountaineers know that an
elk trail is the best that can possibly be selected
over any given section of mountainous country.
His faculty of traversing dense jungles and windfalls is equally astonishing. If given his own time,
he will move quietly and easily through the worst of
these, leaping over logs higher than his back as
gracefully and almost as lightly as the deer; yet let
a herd of elk be alarmed and start on a run through
one of these labyrinthine masses, and they will make
a noise like a regiment of cavalry on a precipitous
I have stood on the margin of a quaking-asp
thicket and heard a large band of elk coming
toward me that had been "jumped" and fired upon
by my friend at the other side, and the frightful
noise of their horns pounding the trees, their hoofs
striking each other and the numerous rocks, the
crashing of dead branches, with the snorting of the
affrighted beasts, might well have struck terror to
the heart of anyone unused to such sights and
sounds, and have caused him to seek safety in
flight. But by standing my ground I was enabled
to get in a couple of shots at short range, and to
bring down two of the finest animals in the herd.
The whistle of the elk is a sound which many AND  OTHER  HUNTING ADVENTURES.
have tried to describe, yet I doubt if anyone wrho
may have read all the descriptions of it ever written
would recognize it on a first hearing. It is a most
strange, weird, peculiar sound, baffling all efforts of
the most skillful word-painter. It is only uttered by
the male, and there is the same variety in the sound
made by different stags as in different human voices.
Usually the cry begins and ends with a sort of grunt,
somewhat like the bellow of a domestic cow cut short,
but the interlude is a long-drawn, melodious, flutelike sound that rises and falls with a rhythmical
cadence, floating on the still evening air, by which
it is often wafted with singular distinctness to great
distances. By other individuals, or even by the
same individual at various times, either the first or
last of these abrupt sounds is omitted, and only the
other, in connection with the long-drawn, silver-
toned strain, is given. .
The stag utters this call only in the love-making
season, and for the purpose of ascertaining the
whereabouts of his dusky mate, who responds by a
short and utterly unmusical sound, similar to that
with which the male begins or ends his call.
Once, when exploring in Idaho, I had an interesting and exciting experience with a band of elk.
I had camped for the night on a high divide, between
two branches of the Clearwater river. The weather
had been intensely dry and hot for several days, and
the tall rye grass that grew in the old burn where I
had pitched my camp was dry as powder. There
was a gentle breeze from the south. Fearing that a
spark might be carried into the grass, I extinguished
my camp-fire as soon as I had cooked and eaten my
f 184
supper. As darkness drew on, I went out to picket
my horses and noticed that they were acting
strangely. They were looking down the mountain
side with ears pointed forward, sniffing the air and
moving about uneasily.
I gave their picket ropes a turn around convenient
jack pines, and then slipping cautiously back to the
tent, got my rifle and returned. I could see nothing
strange and sat down beside a log to await developments. In a few minutes I heard a dead limb break.
Then there was a rustling in a bunch of tall, dry
grass; more snapping of twigs and shaking of bushes.
I ascertained that there were several large animals
moving toward me and feared it might be a family
of bears. I feared it, I say, because it was now so
dark that I could not see to shoot at any distance, and
knew that if bears came near the horses the latter
would break their ropes and stampede. I thought
of shouting and trying to frighten them off, but-
decided to await developments. Presently I heard
' a snapping of hoofs and a succession of dull, heavy,
thumping noises, accompanied by reports of breaking brush, which I knew at once were made by a
band of elk jumping oyer a high log.
The game was now not more than fifty yards
away and in open ground, yet I could not see even
a movement, for I was looking down toward a dark
canon, many hundreds of feet deep.. Slowly the
great beasts worked toward me. They were coming
down wind and I felt sure could not scent me, but
they could evidently see my horses, outlined against
the sky, and had doubtless heard them snorting
and moving about. 186
The ponies grew more anxious but less frightened
than at first, and seemed now desirous of making
the acquaintance of their wild visitors.
Slowly the elk moved forward until within thirty
or forty feet of me, when I could begin to discern
by the starlight their dark, shaggy forms. Then
they stopped. I could hear them sniffing the air
and could see them moving cautiously from place
to place, apparently suspicious of danger. But
they were coming down wind, could get no indication of my presence, and were anxious to interview
the horses.
They moved. slowly forward, and when they
stopped this time, two old bulls and one cow,
who were in the front rank, so to speak, stood
within ten feet of me. Their great horns towered
up like the branches of dead trees, and I could hear
them breathe.
Again they circled from side to side and I thought
surely they would get far enough to one quarter or
the other to wind me, but they did not. Several
other cows and two timid little calves crowded to the
front to look at their hornless cousins who now stood
close behind me, and even in the starlight, I could
have shot any one of them between the eyes.
My saddle cay use uttered a low gentle whinny,
whereat the whole band wheeled and dashed away;
but after making a few leaps their momentary scare
seemed to subside, and they stopped, looked, snorted
a few times and then began to edge up again—this
time even more shyly than before.
It was intensely interesting to study the caution
and circumspection   with   which   these   creatures AND   OTHER  HUNTING  ADVENTURES.
planned and carried out their investigation all the
wTay through.
The only mistake they made, and one at which
I was surprised, considering their usual cunning
and sagacity, was that some of them at least did not
circle the horses and get to the leeward. But they
were in such a wild country, so far back in the
remote fastnesses of the Rockies, that they had
probably never encountered hunters or horses
before and had not acquired all the cunning of their
more hunted and haunted _ brothers. After their
temporary scare they returned, step by step, to their
investigation, and the largest bull in the bunch
approached the very log behind Avhich I sat. He
was just in the act of stepping over it when he
caught a whiff of my breath and, with a terrific
snort, vaulted backward and sidewise certainly
thirty feet.. At the same instant I rose up and
shouted, and the whole band went tearing down
the mountain side making a racket like that of an
As before stated, I could have had my choice out
of the herd, but my only pack-horse was loaded so
that I could have carried but a small piece of meat,
and was unwilling to waste so grand a creature for
the little I could save from him.
The antlers of the bull elk grow to a great size.
He sheds them in February of each year. The new
horn begins to grow in April. During the summer it
is soft and pulpy and is covered with a fine velvety-
growth of hair; it matures and hardens in August;
early in September he rubs this velvet off and is then
ready to try conclusions with any rival that comes in 188
his way. The rutting season over, he has no further
use for his antlers until the next autumn, and they
drop off. Thus the process is repeated, year after
vear, as regularly as the leaves grow and fall from
the trees. But it seems a strange provision of nature
that should load an animal with sixty to seventy-
five pounds of horns, for half the year; when
weapons of one-quarter the size and weight would
be equally effective if all were armed alike.
I have in my collection the head of a bull elk,
killed in the Shoshone Mountains, in Northern
Wyoming, the antlers of which measure as follows:
Length of main beam, 4 feet 8 inches; length of
brow tine, 1 foot 6£ inches; length of bes tine, 1 foot
8£ inches; length of royal tine, 1 foot 7 inches;
length of surroyal, 1 foot 8£- inches: circumference
around burr, 1 foot3J inches; circumference around
beam above burr, 12 inches; circumference of brow
tine at base, 7f inches; spread of main beams at tips,
4 feet 9 inches. They are one of the largest and finest
pairs of antlers of which I have any knowledge.
The animal when killed would have weighed nearly
a thousand pounds.
The elk is strictly gregarious, and in winter time,
especially, the animals gather into large bands, and
a few years ago herds of from five hundred to a
thousand wrere not uncommon. Now, however, their
numbers have been so far reduced by the ravages
of I' skin hunters'' and others that one will rarely
find more than twenty-five or thirty in a band.
In the fall of 1879, a party of three men were
sight-seeing and hunting in the Yellowstone National Park, and having prolonged their stav until AND  OTHER HUNTING  ADVENTURES.
late in October, were overtaken by a terrible snowstorm, which completely blockaded and obliterated
all the trails, and filled the gulches, canons, and
coulees to such a depth that their horses could not
travel over them at. all. They had lain in camp
three days waiting for the storm to abate; but as it
continued to grow in severity, and as the snow
became deeper and deeper, their situation grew daily
and hourly more alarming. Their stock of provisions was low, they had no shelter sufficient to
withstand the rigors of a winter at that high altitude, and it was fast becoming a question whether
they should ever be able to escape beyond the snow-
clad peaks and snow-filled canons with which they
were hemmed in. Their only hope of escape was by
abandoning their horses, and constructing snow-
shoes which might keep them above the snow; but
in this case they could not carry bedding and food
enough to last them throughout the several days
that the journey would occupy to the nearest ranch,
and the chances of killing game en route after the
severe weather had set in were extremely precarious.
They had already set about making snow-shoes
from the skin of an elk which they had saved. One
pair had been completed, and the storm having
abated, one of the party set out to look over the
surrounding country for the most feasible route by
which to get out, and also to try if possible to find
game of some kind. He had gone about a mile
toward the northeast when he came upon the fresh
trail of a large band of elk that were moving toward
the east. He followed, and in a short time came up
with them.    They were traveling in single file, led 190
by a powerful old bull, who Avallowed through snow
in which only his head and neck were visible, with
•all the patience and perseverance of a faithful old
ox. The others followed him—the stronger ones in
front and the weaker ones bringing up the rear.
There were thirty-seven in the band, and by the
time they had all walked in the same line they left
it an open, well-beaten trail. The hunter approached
within a few yards of them. They were greatly
alarmed when they saw him, and made a few bounds
in various directions;   but seeing their struggles
were in vain, they meekly submitted to what seemed
their impending fate, and fell back in rear of their
file-leader. This would have been the golden opportunity of a skin hunter, who could and would have
shot them all down in their tracks from a single
stand. But such was not the mission of our friend.
He saw in this noble, struggling band a means of
deliverance from what had threatened to be a wintry
grave for him and his companions. He did not fire
a shot, and did not in any way create unnecessary
alarm amongst the elk, but hurried back to camp
and reported to his friends what he had seen.
In a moment the camp was a scene of activity and
excitement. Tent, bedding, provisions, everything
that was absolutely necessary to their iournev, were
hurriedly packed upon their pack animals; saddles
were placed, rifles were slung to the saddles, and
leaving all surplus baggage, such as trophies of
their hunt, mineral specimens and curios of various
kinds, for future comers, they started for the elk
trail. They had a-slow, tedious, and laborious task,
breaking a way through the deep snow to reach it, AND  OTHER HUNTING
but by walking and leading their saddle animals
ahead, the pack animals were able to follow slowly.
Finally they reached the trail of the elk herd, and
following this, after nine days of tedious and painful
traveling, the party arrived at a ranch on the
Stinking Water river, which was kept by a
"squaw man" and his wife, where they were
enabled to lodge and recruit themselves and. their
stock, and whence they finally reached their homes
in safety. The band of elk passed on down the
river, and our tourists never saw them again; but
they have doubtless long ere this all fallen a prey to
the ruthless war that is constantly being waged
against them by hunters white and red.
It is sad to think that such a noble creature as the
American elk is doomed to early and absolute
extinction, but such is nevertheless the fact. Year
by year his mountain habitat is being surrounded
and encroached upon by the advancing line of settlements, as the fisherman encircles the struggling
mass of fishes in the clear pond with his long and
closely-meshed net. The lines are drawn closer and
closer each year. These lines are the ranches of
cattle and sheep raisers, the cabins and towns of
miners, the stations and residences of employes of
the railroads. All these places are made the shelters
and temporary abiding places of Eastern and foreign sportsmen who go out to the mountains to
hunt. Worse than this, they are made the permanent abiding places, and constitute the active and
convenient markets of the nefarious and unconscionable skin hunter and meat hunter. Here he can
find a ready market for the meats and skins he  AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
brings in, and an opportunity to spend the proceeds
of such outrageous traffic in ranch whisky and revelry. The ranchmen themselves hunt and lay in
their stock of meat for the year when the game
comes down into the valleys. The Indians, when
they have eaten up their Government rations, lie in
wait for the elk in the same manner. So that when
the first great snows of the autumn or winter fall in
the high ranges, when the elk band together and
seek refuge in the valleys, as did the herd that our
fortunate tourists followed out, they find a mixed
and hungry horde waiting for them at the mouth of
every canon. Before they have reached the valley
where the snow-fall is light enough to allow them
to live through the winter their skins are drying in
the neighboring "shacks."
This unequal, one-sided warfare, this ruthless
slaughter^ of inoffensive creatures, can not last
always. Indeed, it can last but little longer. In
ranges where only a few years ago herds of four or
five hundred elk could be found, the hunter of
to-day considers himself in rare luck when he finds
a band of ten or twelve, and even small bands of
any number are so rare that a good hunter may
often hunt a week in the best elk country to be
found anywhere without getting a single shot. All
the Territories have good, wholesome game-laws
which forbid the killing of game animals except
during two or three months in the fall; but these
laws are not enforced. They are a dead letter on
the statute-books, and the illegal and illegitimate
slaughter goes on unchecked.
F"all the numerous species of large game to be
found in the far West, there, is none whose
pursuit furnishes grander sport to the expert
rifleman than the antelope {Antilocapra
americana). His habitat "being the high,
P open plains, he may be hunted on horse-
j back, and with a much greater degree of
comfort than may the deer, elk, bear, and
other species which inhabit the wooded or
HI mountainous districts. His keen eyesight,
his fine sense of' smell, his intense fear of his
natural enemy, man, however, render him the most
difficult of all game animals to approach, and
he must indeed, be a skillful hunter who can get
within easy rifle range of the antelope, unless he
happens to have the circumstances of wind and lie of
ground peculiarly in his favor. When the game is
first sighted, even though it be one, two, or three
miles away, you must either dismount and picket
your horse, or find cover in some coulee or draw,
where you can ride entirely out of sight of the quarry.
But even under such favorable circumstances it is
not well to attempt to ride very near them. Their
sense of hearing is also very acute, and should your
horse's hoof or shoe strike a loose rock, or should he
snort or neigh, the game is likely to catch the sound
while you are yet entirely out of sight and far away,
and when you finally creep cautiously to the top of
the ridge from which you expect a favorable shot,
you may find the game placidly looking for vou
from the top of another ridge a mile or two farther
But we will hope that you. are to have better luck
than this. To start with, we will presume that you
are an expert rifleman; that you are in the habit of
making good scores at the butts; that at 800, 900,
and 1,000 yards you frequently score 200 to 210 out
of a possible 225*points. We will also suppose that
you are a hunter of some experience; that you have
at least killed a good many deer in the States, but
that this is your first trip to the plains. You have
learned to estimate distances, however, even in this
rare atmosphere, and possess good judgment as to
windage. You have brought your Creedmoor rifle
along, divested, of course, of its Venier sight, wind-
guage, and spirit-level, and in their places you have
fitted a Beach combination front sight and Lyman
CD t/
rear sight. Besides these you have the ordinary
open step sight attached to the barrel just in front of
the action. This is not the best arm for antelope hunting; a Winchester express with the same sights
would be much better; but this will answer very well.
We camped last night on the bank of a clear,
rapid stream that gurgles down from the mountain,
and this morning are up long before daylight;
have eaten our breakfasts, saddled our horses,
and just as the gray of dawn begins to show
over the low,  flat prairie to the east of us, wa ttmms
mount, and are ready for the start. The wind is from
the northeast. That suits us very well, for in that
direction, about a mile away, there are some low
foot-hills that skirt the valley in which we are
camped. In or just beyond these wre are very likely
to find antelope, and they will probably be coming-
toward the creek this morning for water.
We put spurs to our horses and gallop away. A
brisk and exhilarating ride of ten minutes brings us
to the foot-hills," and then we rein up and ride
slowly and cautiously to near the top of the first one.
Here we dismount, and, picketing our ponies, we
crawl slowly and carefully to the apex. By this
time it is almost fully daylight. We remove our
hats, and peer cautiously through the short, scattering grass on the brow of the hill.
Do you see anything?
No; nothing but prairie and grass.
No? Hold! What are those small, gray objects
away off yonder to the left? I think I saw one of
them move. And now, as the light grows stronger,
I can see white patches on them. Yes, they are
antelope. They are busily feeding, and we may
raise our heads slightly and get a more favorable
view.' One, two, three—there are five of them—two
bucks, a doe, and two kids. And you will observe
that they are nearly in the centre of a broad stretch
of table-land.
"But," you say, "may we not wait here a little
while until they come nearer to us?"
Hardly.    You see they are intent on getting their
v v CD O •
breakfast.    There is a heavy frost on the grass,
which moistens it sufficiently for present purposes, AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
and it may be an hour or more before they will start
for water. It won't pay us to wait so long, for we
shall most likely find others within that time that
we can get within range of without waiting for them.
So you may as well try them from here.
Now your experience at the butts may serve you
a good turn. After taking a careful look over the
ground, you estimate the distance at 850 yards, and
setting up your Beach front and Lyman rear sights,
you make the necessary elevation. There is a brisk
wind blowing from the right, and you think it necessary to hold off about three feet. We are now
both lying prone upon the ground. You face the
game, and support your rifle at your shoulder by
resting your elbows on the ground, The sun is now
shining brightly, and you take careful aim at that
CD Cj v   J *1
old buck that stands out there at the left. At the
report of your rifle a cloud of dust rises from a point
about a hundred yards this side of him, and a little
to the left, showing that you have underestimated
both the distance and the force of the wind—things
that even an old hunter is liable to do occasionally.
We both lie close, and the anima's have not yet
seen us. They make a few jumps, and stop all in a
bunch. The cross-wind and long distance prevent
them from knowing to a certainty where the report
comes from, and they don't like to run just yet, lest
they may run toward the danger instead of away
from it. You make another half-point of elevation,
hold a little farther away to the right, and try them
again. This time the dirt rises, about twenty feet
beyond them, and they jump in every direction.
That was certainly a close call, and the bullet evi- 198
dently whistled uncomfortably close to several of
them. They are now thoroughly frightened. You
insert another cartridge, hurriedly draw a bead on
the largest buck again, and fire. You break dirt
just beyond him, and we can't tell for the life of us
how or on which side of him your bullet passed. It
is astonishing how much vacant space there is round
an antelope, anyway. This time they go, sure.
They have located the puff of smoke, and are gone
with the speed of the wind away to the west. But
don't be discouraged, my friend. You did some
clever shooting, some very clever shooting, and a
little practice of that kind will enable you to score
before night.
We go back to our horses, mount, and gallop
away again across the table-land. A ride of another
mile brings us to the northern margin of this plateau,
and to a more broken country. Here we dismount and
picket our horses again. We ascend a high butte,
and from the top of it we can see three more antelope
about a mile to the north of us; but this time they
are in a hilly, broken country, and the wind is com*
ing directly from them to us. We shall be able to
get a shot at them at short range. So we cautiously
back down out of sight, and then begins the tedious
process of stalking them. We walk briskly along
around the foot of a hill for a quarter of a mile, to
where it makes a turn that would carry us too far
out of our course. We must cross this hill, and
after looking carefully at the shape and location of
it, we at last find a low point in it where by lying
flat down we can crawl over it without revealing our-
selves to the game.   It is a most tedious and painful AND  OTHER HUNTING  ADVENTURES.
piece of work, for the ground is almost covered with
cactus and sharp flinty rocks, and our hands and
knees are terribly lacerated. But every rose has its
thorn, and nearly every kind of sport has something
unpleasant connected with it occasionally; and our
reward, if we get it, will be worth the pain it costs
us. With such reflections and comments, and with
frequent longing looks at the game, we kill time till
at last the critical part of our work is done, and we 200
can arise and descend in a comfortable but cautious
walk into another draw.
This we follow for about two hundred yards, until
we think we are as near our quarry as we can
get. We turn to the right, cautiously ascend the
hill, remove our hats, and peer over, and there, sure
enough, are our antelope quietly grazing, utterly
oblivious to the danger that threatens them. They
have not seen, heard, or scented us, so we have
ample time to plan an attack. You take the standing shot at the buck, and together we will try and
•O CD */
take care of the two .does afterward. At this short
distance you don't care for the peep and globe sights,
and wisely decide to use the plain open ones. This
time you simply kneel, and then edge up until you
can get a good clear aim over the apex of the ridge
in this position. The buck stands broadside to
you, and at the crack of your rifle springs into
the air, and falls all in a heap, pierced through the
And now for the two does.    They are flying over
v v CD
the level stretch of prairie with the speed of an arrow,
and are almost out of sure range now. You turn
loose on that one on the right, and I will look after
the one on the left. Our rifles crack together, and
little clouds of dust rising just beyond tell us that,
though we have both missed, we.have made close
calls. I put in about three shots to your one, owing
to my rifle being a repeater, while you must load
yours at each shot. At my fourth shot my left-
fielder doubles up and goes down with a broken
neck; and although you have fairly " set the ground
afire"—to use a Western phrase — around your AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
right-fielder, you have not had the good fortune
to stop her, and she is now out of sight behind a
low ridge.
But you have the better animal of the two, and
have had sport enough for the first morning. We
will take the entrails out of these two, lash them
across our horses behind our saddles, go to camp,
and rest through the heat of the day; for this September sun beams down with great power in midday, even though the nights are cool and frosty.
And now, as we have quite a long ride to camp,
and as we are to pass over a rather monotonous
prairie country en route, I will give you a point or
two on flagging antelope, as we ride along, that may
be useful to you at some time. Fine sport may
frequently be enjoyed in this way. If you can find
a band that have not been hunted much, and are not
familiar with the wiles of the white man, you will have
little trouble in decoying them within rifle range
by displaying to them almost any brightly-colored
«/ X «/ CD t/ <D *J
object. They have as much curiosity as a woman,
and will run into all kinds of danger to investigate
any strange object they may discover. They have
been known to follow an emigrant or freight wagon,
with a white cover, several miles, and the Indian of ten
brings them within reach of his arrow or bullet
by standing in plain view wrapped in his red blanket.
A piece of bright tin or a mirror answers the same
purpose on a clear day. Almost any conspicious or
strange-looking object will attract them; but ihe
most convenient as well as the most reliable at all
times is a little bright-red flag.
On one occasion I was hunting in the Snowy Mount- 202
ains, in Northern Montana," with S. K. Fishel, the
government scout, and Richard Thomas, the packer,
from Fort Maginnis. We had not been successful in
finding game there, and on our way back to the post
camped two days on the head of Flat Willow creek,
near the foot of the mountains, to hunt antelopes.
As night approached several small bands of them
came toward the creek, but none came within range
of oar camp during daylight, and we did not go
after them that night, but were up and at them
betimes the next morning.
I preferred to hunt alone, as I always do when
after big game, and wrent out across a level flat to
some low hills north of camp. When I ascended
the first of these I saw a handsome buck antelope
on the prairie half a mile away. I made a long
detour to get to leeward of him, and meantime had
great difficulty in keeping him from seeing me. But
by careful maneuvering I finally got into a draw
below him, and found the wind blowing directly
from 'him to me. In his neighborhood were some
large, ragged volcanic rocks, and getting in line
with one of these I started to stalk him. He was
feeding, and as I moved cautiously forward I could
frequently see his nose or rump show up at one side
or the other of the rock. I would accordingly glide
to right or left, as necessary, and move on. Finally,
I succeeded in reaching the rock, crawled carefully
up to where I could see over it, and there, sure
enough, stood the handsome old fellow not more
than fifty yards away, still complacently nipping
the bunch-grass.
uAh, my fine laddie," I said to myself,   " you'll AND  OTHER HUNTING  ADVENTURES.
never know what hurt you;" and resting the muzzle
of the rifle on the rock, I took a fine, steady aim for
his heart and turned the bullet loose. There was a
terrific roar; the lead tore up a cloud of dust and
went screaming away over the hills, while, to my
utter astonishment, the antelope went sailing across
the prairie with the speed of a greyhound. I sprang
to my feet, pumped lead after him at a lively rate,
and, though I tore the ground up all around him,
never touched a hair. And what annoyed me most
was that, owing to some peculiar condition of the
atmosphere, the smoke of each shot hung in front of
me long enough to prevent me from seeing just
where my bullets struck, and, for the life of me, I
could not tell whether I was shooting over or under
the game!
I went back over the hill to my horse, with my
heart full of disappointment and my magazine only
half full of cartridges. I loaded up, however,
mounted, and, as I rode away in search of more
game, I could occasionally hear the almost whis-
pered "puff, puff" of Fishel's and Thomas's rifles
away to the south and west, which brought me the
cheering assurance that they were also having fun,
and also assured me that we should not be without
meat for supper and breakfast.
I soon sighted a band of about thirty antelopes,
and riding into a coulee dismounted, picketed my
horse, and began another crawl. In due time I
reached the desired "stand," within about eighty
yards of them, and, picking out the finest buck in
the bunch, again took a careful, deliberate aim and
another   clear   miss.     The   band. 204
intsead of running away, turned and ran directly
to ward, me, and, circling slightly, passed within
thirty yards of me, drawn out in single file. It was
a golden opportunity and I felt sure I should kill
half a dozen of them at least; but, alas! for fleeting
hopes. I knew not the frailty of the support on
which I built my expectations. I fanned them as long
as there wras a cartridge in my magazine, and had
to endure the intense chagrin of seeing the last one
of them go over a ridge a mile away safe and
I was dumb. If there had been anyone there to
talk to, I don't think I could have found a word in
the language to express my feelings. As before, the
smoke.prevented me from seeing just where my bullets struck the ground, but I felt sure they must be
striking very close to the game. I sat down, pondered, and examined my rifle. I could see nothing
wrong with it, and felt sure it must be perfect, for
within the past week I had killed a deer with it at
170 yards and had shaved the heads off a dozen
grouse at short range. I was, therefore, forced to
the conclusion that I had merely failed to exercise
proper care in holding. I returned .to my horse,
mounted, and once more set out in search of game,
determined to kill the next animal I shot at or
leave the country.
I rode away to the west about two miles, and
from the top of a high hill saw another band of forty
or fifty antelopes on a table-land. I rode around
till I got within about two hundred yards of them,
Avhen I left my horse under cover of a hill and again
began to sneak on the unsuspecting little creatures. AND   OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
They were near the edge of the table, and from just
beyond them the formation fell abruptly away into
the valley some fifty feet. I crawled up this bluff
until within about forty yards of the nearest antelope, and then, lying flat upon the ground, I placed
my rifle in position for firing, and, inch by inch,
edged up over the" apex of the bluff until within
fair view of the game. Again selecting the best
buck—for I wanted a good head for mounting—I
drew down on his brown side until I felt sure that
if there had been a silver dollar hung on it I could
have driven it through him. Confidently expecting
to see him drop in his tracks, I touched the trigger.
But, alas ! I was doomed to still further disgrace.
When the smoke lifted, my coveted prize was. speeding away with the rest of the herd..
I simply stood, with my lower jaw hanging down,
and looked after them till they were out of sight.
Then I went and got my horse and went to camp.
Sam and Dick were there with the saddles of three
antelopes. When I told them what I had been
doing, they tried to console me, but I wouldn't be
consoled. After dinner, Sam picked up my rifle
and looked it over carefully.
" Why, look here, you blooming idiot," said he.
"No wonder you couldn't kill at short range. The
wedge has slipped up under your rear sight two
notches. She's elevated for 350 yards, and at that
rate would shoot about a foot high at a hundred
yards." I looked and found it even so. Then I
offered him and Dick a dollar each if they would
kick me, but they wouldn' t.
Sam said good-naturedly:   "Come,
go with me 206
and get the head of the buck I killed. It's a very
handsome one, and only two miles from camp."
I said I didn't want any heads for my own use
unless I could kill their owners myself, but Avould
take this one home for a friend, so we saddled our
horses and started.
As we reached the top of a hill about a mile from
camp a large buck that was grazing ahead of us
jumped and ran away to what he seemed to consider
a safe distance, and stopped to look at us, Sam
generously offered me the shot, and springing out
of my saddle I threw down my rifle, took careful
aim and fired. At the crack the buck turned just
half way round, but was unable to make a single
jump and sank dead in his tracks.
Sam is ordinarily a quiet man, but he fairly
shouted at the result of my shot. I paced the distance carefully to where the carcass lay, and it was
exactly 290 steps. The buck wras standing broadside
to me and I had shot him through the heart. Of
course, it was a scratch. I could not do it again perhaps in twenty shots, and yet when I considered that
I shot for one single animal and got him I could not
help feeling a little proud of it. As we approached
the animal, not knowing just where I had hit him,
I held my rifle in readiness, but Sam said:
"Oh, you needn't be afraid of his getting up.
One of those Winchester express bullets is all an
antelope needs, no matter what part of the body you
hit him in."
This old fellow had a fine head, and we took it
off, and now as I write it gazes down upon me with
those large, lustrous black eyes, from its place on AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES
the wall, as proudly and curiously as it did there on
the prairie when I looked at it through the sights of
my Winchester. His portrait adorns page 199 of
this book, and though the artist has treated it with a
master's hand, it does not possess the lordly beaming, the fascinating grace, the timid beauty that
distinguished the living animal.
It was so late when we got this one dressed that
we decided to return to camp at once.
The curiosity which is so prominent a feature in the
antelope's nature costs many a one of them his life,
and is taken advantage of by the hunter in various
CD v
ways. When we reached camp that afternoon Dick
told us how he had taken advantage of it. He had
seen a small band on.a level stretch of prairie where
there was no possible way of getting within range
of them, and having heard that if a man would lie
down on his back, elevate his feet as high as possible, and swing them back and forth through the
air, that it would attract antelopes, decided to try
it. But the antelopes of this section had evidently
never seen soap boxes or bales of hay floating
through the air, and had no desire to cultivate a
closer acquaintance with such frightful looking
objects as he exhibited to their astonished gaze.
And Dick said that when he turned to see if they
had yet come within shooting distance they were
about a mile away, and judging from the cloud of
dust they were leaving behind them seemed to be
running a race to see which could get out of the
country first.
The next morning Sam and I went together and
Dick alone in another direction.   During the fore- 208
noon I shot a buck through both fore legs, cutting
one off clean and paralyzing the other. Sam said
not to shoot him again and he would catch him, and
putting spurs to his horse was soon galloping alongside of the quarry. He caught him by one horn and
held him until I came up. Tiie little fellow pranced
wildly about, and bleated pitifully, but a stroke of
the hunting knife across his throat soon relieved his
We then got the head from the buck Sam had
killed the day before, and returned to camp about
11 o'clock a. m.
In the afternoon we rode out together again, and
had not gone, far when we saw five of the bright little
animals we were hunting, on a hill-side. They were
too far away for anything like a sure shot, but were
in such a position that we could get no nearer to
them. They stood looking at us, and Sam told me
to try them. I had little hope of making a hit, but
dismounting took a shot off hand, holding for the
shoulder of a good sized biick. When the gun
cracked there was a circus. I had missed my aim
so far as to cut both his hind legs off just below the
knee. The buck commenced bucking. First he
stood on his fore feet, got his hind legs up in the air
and shook the stumps. Then he tried to stand on
them and "paw the air with his fore feet, but lost his
balance and fell over backward. He got up, jumped
first to one side, then to the other, then forward.
Meantime Sam rode toward him, and he tried to run.
In this his motions were more like those of a rocking horse than of a living animal. The race was a
short one.    Sam soon rode up to him, caught him AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
oy a horn and held him till I came up and cut the
little fellow's throat. Then Sam said that was a
Tery long shot, and he would like to know what
the distance was. He went back to where I stood
when I shot, stepped the distance to where the
antelope stood, and found it to be 362 paces.
We rode on a mile further and saw a young antelope lying down in some tall rye-grass. We could
just see his horns and ears, and though he appeared
to be looking at us he seemed to think himself
securely hidden, for he made no movement toward
getting up. I told Sam to shoot this time, but he
said, '' No, you shoot. I live in this country and
•can get all the shooting I want any time. You have
-come a long way out here to have some fun. Turn
loose on him." And slipping off my horse I knelt
•down to get a knee rest, but found that from that
position I could not see the game at all, and was
compelled to shoot off hand again. Raising up I
-drew a bead on one of the horns, and then lowering
the muzzle to where I thought the body should be,
pressed the trigger. There was a lively commotion
in the grass, but the buck never got out of his bed.
The ball went in at one shoulder and out at the
opposite hip. On stepping the distance we found it
to be only 125 yards.
And now, having in a measure wiped out the disgrace of the previous day's work and secured all the
meat, skins, and heads that our pack-mules could
carry, we returned to camp and the next day went
back to Fort Maginnis.
These bright little creatures, though naturally
1imid, sometimes show
great courage in defense of 210
their young. I once saw a coyote sneak frohi behind
a hill toward a herd of antelope.   Instantly there was
a grand rush of all the adult members of the band,
male and female, toward the intruder, and when
they had gotten in front of the kids they stopped,
with bristles erect, ears thrown forward, and heads,
lowered, presenting a most warlike and belligerent
appearance.    The coyote, when he saw himself con-,
fronted with this solid phalanx, suddenly stopped,;
eyed his opponents for a few moments, and then,
apparently overawed at the superiority of numbers,
and warlike attitude of his intended prey, slunk
reluctantly away in search of some weaker victim.
When he was well out of sight, the older members-
of the band turned to their young, caressed them,
and resumed their grazing.
The speed of the antelope is probably not excelled
by that of any other animal in this country, wild,
or domestic, except the greyhound, and, in fact, it
is only the finest and fleetest of these that can pull,
down an antelope in a fair race.
In the little village of Garfield, Kansas, there-
lived a man some years ago—the proprietor of a.
hotel—who had two pet antelopes. The village
dogs had several times chased them, but had always-
been distanced. One day a Mexican came to town
who had with him two large, handsome greyhounds.
Immediately on riding up to the hotel he saw the
antelopes in the yard, and told the proprietor gruffly
that he had better put " them critters " in the corral,"
or his dogs would kill them. The proprietor said
he guessed the "critters" wTere able to take care
of themselves, especially if the dogs did not spring- AND   OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
upon them unawares. This aroused the Mexican's
ire, and lie promptly offered to wager a goodly sum
that his dogs would pull down one or both of
the antelopes within a mile. The challenge was
accepted, the stakes deposited, the antelopes turned
into the street, and the "greaser" told his dogs
to "take 'em."
The dogs sprang at the antelopes, but the latter
had by this time reached a vacant lot across the
street. They started off down the river. For a
distance of four.miles the river bottom was an open
prairie, and as level as a floor. As the quartette
sped over this grand natural race-course, the whole
populace of the town turned out en masse to see the
race. Men and boys shouted, and ladies waved
their handkerchiefs. Betting was rife, the natives
offering two to one on the antelopes, the Mexican
and the few other strangers in town being eager
takers. It was nip and tuck, neither animals gaining nor losing perceptibly, and when at last the four
went round a bend in the river four miles away, and
were hidden by a bluff, the game was, as nearly as
could be seen by the aid of good field-glasses, just
about the same distance ahead of the dogs as when
they left town.
Some hours later the dogs returned, so tired they
could scarcely walk. The Mexican eagerly looked
for hair on their teeth, and although he could find
none, was confident that his dogs had killed the
antelopes. A mounted expedition to search for the
carcasses and settle the question was agreed upon,
but as it was too near night to start when the dogs
returned, it was arranged to go in the morning.   But 212
when the parties got up the next morning they found
the antelopes quietly grazing in the hotel yard.
The Mexican left town in disgust followed by his
lame, sore-footed dogs, and muttering that he
Hnever seed no varmints run like, them things did."
The antelope, one. of the brightest and most graceful and beautiful of all our Western game animals,
is fast disappearing from our broad plains, owing to
the ceaseless slaughter of it that is carried on by
"skin hunters," Indians,' "foreign noblemen," and
others who come to this country year after year and
spend the entire summer in hunting. Hundreds
of them are killed every summer by this latter class,
and left to rot where they fall, not a pound of meat,
a skin, or even a head being taken from them. I
have seen with my own eyes this butchery carried
on for years past, and know whereof I speak.
Nearly all the Territories have stringent laws
intended to prohibit this class of slaughter, but in
these sparsely settled countries the provisions for
enforcing them are so meagre that these men violate
them day after day and year after year with impunity. This is one of the instances in which prohibition does not prohibit. And what I have said of
the antelope is true of all the large game of the
great West. The elk, deer, mountain sheep, etc.,
are being slaughtered by the hundreds every
year—tenfold faster than the natural increase. And
the time is near, very near, when all these noble
species will be extinct. The sportsman or naturalist who desires to preserve a skin or head of any
of them must procure it very soon or he will not
be able to get it at all.
^   height in 1876,
a grand rush of emigrants of
P     all  nationalities and conditions
of people to the then New Eldorado.     Thousands   of  men   went
down there, to make money.    Many
of them had not the remotest idea
how this was to be done, but from
stories afloat
some way.
the resources of that wonderful country, they felt sure it could be done in
The little town of Fort Worth was then
on the frontier—that is, it was one of the most
westerly towns having railroad communication, and
was therefore one of the important outfitting points
for parties going into the wilds. A great many
were going further west, on all kinds of expeditions,
some in search of minerals, some in search of choice
lands, some to hunt the large game which was then
The village consisted of a public square, around
and fronting on which were a row of cheap, one:
story, log and frame buildings, most of which were
occupied as saloons and gambling houses.     But
there were a few respectable general stores, half a
•dozen so-called hotels, shops, etc. The town was
full to overflowing with gamblers, rustlers, hunters,
cowboys, Mexican rancheros, northern sight-seers,
adventurers, commercial travelers, etc.
All day-and all night, could be heard the call of
the croupier at the gambling-table as he announced
the numbers and combinations that the wheel or
cards produced in the course of the manipulations
to which his deft fingers subjected them.
Hot words often came from fortunate and unfortunate gamesters, and the short, sharp report of the six-
shooter, the shouts of combatants, the groans of
wounded or dying men, the clatter of heavy boots
or spurs on the feet of stampeded spectators were
sounds that, nearly every night,' greeted the ears
of the populace.
Mob law reigned supreme, and there was little
effort on the part of the village authorities to punish
offenders. Sometimes Judge Lynch's court was
convened on short notice, and someone who had
committed an unusually flagrant violation of the
"law of honor" and had killed a man without due
provocation, was hurriedly tried and strung up to
the nearest tree.
One evening in the month of November, the excitement was varied by the arrival of a "bull-train"*
of ten wagons loaded with buffalo skins. They
drove to the warehouse of the largest trader in the
* What is known on the frontier as a " bull-train" is a number of
ponderous wagons, diawn by from six to ten yoke of oxen each,
~used for hauling heavy freight across the plains. 216
place to unload, and were quickly surrounded by a.
crowd of eager inquirers who sought for news from
the front.
Some inquired as to the nature of the country,
some as to the progress of settlements, some as to-
friends who were at the front, and many as to the
buffalo herd from which the five thousand skins
brought in by this train had been taken.
"The main herd," said the wagon boss, 4'is two-
hundred miles west on the headwaters of the Brazos
"How large a herd is it?"
"Nobody knows that, for.none of 'em has took,
time to ride to the west end of it."
"Are there many hunters there?" inquired a.
young St. Louis lawyer.
"Wall, you'd reckon," said the boss. "Tha's
'bout a hundred and fifty white hunters, and more'n
a thousand red-skins.''
1 When do you start back?"
"To-morrow mornin', if I can keep my bull
punchers from gettin' full of pizen."
The crowd gradually scattered, while a little knot
of the more respectable element repaired to the hotel
to discuss the question of organizing a hunting
party to go to the buffalo range. In an hour they
agreed to go, the time for the start being fixed for
the morning of the second day following.
And then the busy notes of preparation were=
heard throughout the town.    But few of the men
who decided to go were prepared for such a trip,
and it was necessary for most of them to buy or hira
complete outfits.    Horses were the first and most, AND  OTHER  HUNTING  ADVENTURES.
important requisite. The corral (the frontier livery
stable) was first visited, and spirited bidding was
indulged in for the choicest animals. The stock
here was soon exhausted, and the demand was not
yet supplied. Then all the horses and ponies standing tied to the railing around the public square
were inspected, and any that were for sale were
tested. Word having been circulated that a hunting
party was outfitting, a large number of ponies were
brought in from neighboring camps and ranches.
The party was soon creditably mounted, though the
number had increased to double that originally
Next, teams must be employed. A number of
these were also found, and five were engaged, their
owners agreeing to work for seven dollars a day
"and found."
Guns and ammunition were also in demand, and
enough were offered to arm a regiment. A number
of hunters had recently come in from the front and
were selling off their outfits. Every store and hotel
had from one to half a dozen guns in pawn, and one
dealer had a number of new ones. Anything in the
shape of a rifle could be had. Old Kentucky muzzle-
loaders, "five feet long in the barrel;" condemned
army carbines of Spencer, Sharps, and other patterns; Springfield muskets; Henry and Winchester
rifles; and a few of the old reliable Sharps "buffalo
guns" of 45 and 50 calibre, and using 100 to 120-
grains of powder. These latter were taken at good
figures by the more knowing ones, and the best of
the others selected by the less intelligent buyers
until all were fairly well armed. 218
Then a guide was needed, and a Chicago newspaper correspondent, who was to be a member of
the expedition, was deputed to employ one. As
usual in frontier towns, there were plenty of them,
each one of whom, in his own estimation, was'the best
in the whole country. Each claimed to know every
foot of the ground in question, to be able to speak
the language of every Indian tribe on the frontier,
to be a crack shot and intrepid horseman, afraid of
nothing, and ready for any undertaking, no matter
how hazardous.
Inquiry among the more reliable citizens of the
town as to who was best suited for the uses of the
present enterprise resulted in the choice of a rather
quiet and attractive-looking young man bearing the
euphonious pseudonym of '' Red River Frank.'' He
was clad in the conventional buckskin suit, and his
long glossy black hair hung in heavy curls down to
his shoulders. He was six feet two inches in height,
straight as an arrow, and had a deep, clear gray eye;
rode a good sized spirited mustang, and sat in his
saddle like a life-trained trooper.
At the time appointed for the departure, the
party, which had now swelled to thirty-two men all
told, assembled in the public square. The wagons
were loaded with the tents, bedding, food, and other
necessary provisions for the trip, which, it was
arranged, should occupy about six weeks. At ten
o'clock the party rode out of town on the road
leading west, taking with them the hearty good
wishes of the assembled throng. They crossed a
narrow belt of timber .and emerged upon a stretch of
gently undulating prairie, which was densely cov- AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
ered with a luxuriant growth of gramma grass, and
over which they traveled at a lively gait until after
sundown before again reaching timber and water.
Then they camped on a small creek where food,
fuel, and good water were abundant. The tents
were pitched, supper prepared and eaten, and then
the party assembled around a large camp fire.
The lawyer arose, and requesting the attention of
the men, said that, as they were going on a long-
journey into a wild country, which was infested
with hostile Indians and lawless white men, where
it might be necessary for this party to defend themselves and their property by force of arms, it was
thought best to effect a permanent and binding
organization, which would insure unity of action
throughout the trip, and especially in the event of
any such trouble as he had intimated might arise.
He therefore nominated as chief executive officer
of the expedition, Captain W. H. Enders, who, he
said, had done good and faithful service during the
late war; who, since the war, had traveled extensively in the West, and who was now engaged in
cattle-raising in Kansas. Several men seconded the
nomination, and Captain Enders was unanimously
chosen by acclamation.
He arose and thanked his friends, modestly and
gracefullj7, for this mark of their esteem and confidence, stating that he had no desire to exercise any
arbitrary or unnecessary authority over them, but
should only order them in so far as safety and
success in their undertaking seemed necessary. He
asked that all who were willing to stand by him and
obey his  orders to this extent should   so   pledge 220
themselves by rising to their feet. The entire party
arose. Then their leader thanked them again, and
their informal deliberation ended.
The captain detailed four men to act as a guard
over the camp and stock during the night, each
watching two hours and then calling up the one
who was to relieve him, and this precaution was
followed up throughout the expedition.
The men were tired from their long ride, and
sought the comfort of their blankets at an early
hour. As they had a ten days' journey before them
to reach the buffalo range, it was agreed that they
should start early each morning, and the camp
fires were therefore ordered to be lit at four o' clock.
The journey was uneventful for several days.
The road upon which the party had first traveled
bearing off to the southwest, and the course of our
party being due west, they left it. "Red River
"Frank" now sustained his good reputation as a
guide by selecting with excellent skill and judgment the best portion of the country to travel in,
avoiding the numerous swamps and sandy plains,
finding safe and easy fords across the streams, and
selecting good camp sites for each night.
They were now in a country where deer and turkeys were abundant, and their tables were bountifully supplied with fresh meat. They camped on
the night of November 12 in a clump of tall cotton-
wood trees that skirted a small creek. Just at dusk
a great rush of wings was heard in the air, and,
looking in the direction from whence the sound
came, a large flock of wild turkeys was seen sailing
directly toward their camp, and, a moment later, AND   OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
they lit in the trees amongst which our party was I
camped. Instantly every rifle was brought forth,
and the whole camp was ablaze with burning powder.
The smoke floated up amongst the dazed and panic-
stricken birds, who fluttered wildly and aimlessly
from tree to tree, knocking their wings against each
CD CD     '        CD
other and the dead limbs, and making a most frightful noise.
The hunters scattered and tongues of flame shot
up from every quarter. "Volley after volley was
fired. The roar of the rifles interspersed with the
"thud" and " crash" of falling birds, the shouts of
the excited throng, the neighing of terrified horses,
the barking of dogs, turned the quiet camp" of a few
moments ago into a veritable pandemonium. The
slaughter went on for, perhaps, twenty minutes,
when the more humane became ashamed of themselves and quit. Finally they prevailed upon their
friends to desist, and the dead game was gathered
up. Sixty-three of these noble birds had met their
death, and the survivors were allowed to sit quietly
and watch the canip fires till morning, when they
sailed away toward the east.
In the afternoon of that day, Frank and the
journalist were riding in advance of the column
across a level, monotonous stretch of country, where
there was little to attract attention or excite remark.
They had already become warm friends and talked
confidentially on many subjects, but Frank had
said nothing of his past history, yet his strange
demeanor at times had excited in the mind of
the newspaper man an anxiety to know what
had moved this refined, generous, scholarly young 222
man to adopt a life so uncivilized as the one he was
"Frank," he finally said, "I have no wish to
question you on a subject that you may not wish to
speak on, yet I have observed many traits in you
that are not found in other men of your calling. I
am of the opinion that you have been bred in a very
different sphere of life from this in which you now
live. If you have no objection, I should like to
know what motive prompted you to adopt this wild
He bit his lip and hesitated. Finally, after some
moments, he said:
"Well, I'll tell you how it came about, and I'll
make the story brief. It is similar to that of many
another scout, in general,'but different in detail,
perhaps, from any of them. I was born and bred in
an Eastern city, and was being educated for the
ministry. My father failed in business and I was
compelled to leave school. He gathered what little
was left of his shattered fortune, and with his family
emigrated to the far West. There he engaged in
farming on what was then the frontier, but before
we had been there six months we were awkened one
morning at daylight by the yells of savage Indians,
and, looking out, beheld them all around us. They
were Comanches.
" Our house was burned. My father was tomahawked and scalped before our eyes, and my mother,
my sister (who was older than I), and myself were
carried into captivity. I was fortunate enough to
escape. I returned and organized a pursuing party,
but our efforts were fruitless, and a few months AND   OTHER HUNTING  ADVENTURES.
later I learned from a half-breed that death had
relieved the sufferings of my mother and sister.
That was twenty years ago. I was fifteen years old
then, and from that day to this I have been on the
trail of that tribe. I boast of nothing, but each year
I feel better satisfied with my work. I hope that, in
time, I may feel content to return East and engage
in some lawful and more .congenial pursuit."'
At that instant a deer bounded up out of the tall
grass a hundred yards ahead and went prancing-
away to the left. Frank caught his rifle from the
sling at his saddle bow and sent a bullet through
its -head.
Early the next morning the hunters came upon
fresh   buffalo   signs, and in the afternoon a few
stragglers were seen.    One was killed in the evening, and on the creek where they camped that night
fresh Indian camp signs were found.    A small herd,
of buffalo came to the creek to drink, a mile below,,
just   after sundown, and- various  facts   indicated
that they were, near the main herd.    All through,
the next day they were in sight of small bands, and
several hunting parties were sighted, some white
and some red.    The feed was getting scarce, owing
to its having been eaten down by the game, and at
two o'clock the party camped on Willow creek, a.
small tributary of the Brazos river.    The main herd
was yet about ten miles away, but the hunters could,
not consistently go any nearer for a permanent camp,
and decided to make it here.    Two white hunters,
visited them in the evening, and told them that a
party of ten Comanches were  camped  on Turtle
creek seven miles further west.    At this intelligence (224) AND   OTHER HUNTING  ADVENTURES.
Frank's face darkened and his eye gleamed, but he
said nothing. Soon after dark, however, he was
missing, and did not turn up again till near noon the
next day. He had a different horse from the one he
rode away; not so good a one, it is true, and there
were two bullet holes in his coat. He was reticent
and uncommunicative as to where he had been, but
wore a very "pleased expression on his countenance,
and was occasionally seen to smile when not talking
with anyone.
The majority of the hunters mounted and rode
southwest early in the morning. Seven men in one
party sighted a herd of buffaloes numbering about
200, and dismounting, when within a mile, cached
their horses in a coulee, and began a cautious
They found a deep and crooked ravine into which
they crawled, and in which they were able to approach to within about 400 yards of the nearest animals. A gentle breeze blew from the game toward
the hunters, and taking advantage of the most favor-"
able point, they crawled up the steep bank to where
they could command a good view of the game. The
"tenderfeet" in the party were in favor of firing a
volley, but an old hunter who had led them
advised them to fire singly, and at intervals of a
minute or two, this plan being much less likely to
frighten the game. He cautioned them to take very
careful aim, to make every shot count, and to wound
as few animals as possible. One slightly wounded
animal, he said, would create more uneasiness among
the herd than ten dead or fatally wounded ones.
Several of this party were good marksmen, and
had good strong-shooting, long-range rifles. Though,
they shot heavy charges, yet, the wind in their favor,
at this long distance, the animals would scarcely
hear the reports. The leader advised them to shoot,
only at animals broadside, and gave them careful
directions as to elevation and where to aim. Evans-
opened the fire with a sixteen-pound 50-calibre-
Sharp' s. Immediately after the report the emphatic
'' thud'' of the bullet came back and a large cow was.
seen to drop on her knees, get up again, stagger
away a few rods and lie down.
"Good," said the old hunter. "Now, Pete,,
you go."
"Pete fired, and an old bull whisked his tail,,
walked sullenly away, turned around a few times,
and fell dead. Another complimentary remark from
the old hunter, and then he said:
"Now I guess I'll try one."
He fired, but to his great chagrin did just what he
had cautioned the others not to do, broke a fore leg-
'below the knee. This cow commenced to bellow
and "buck," and in an instant the whole herd was.
in commotion.
" Stop her, somebody, stop her, or she'11 stampede
the hull bizness!" he said, as he pushed another
bullet into his muzzle loader. By this time she had
stopped broadside, for a moment, at the edge of the
herd, and the journalist, at the order of the boss, drew
a bead on her. The 'i spat'' of the heavy bullet told
of a palpable hit." She no longer felt like running,
but was not yet down and it took two more bullets to
lay her out. The next shot was a clean miss, so far
as it concerned the animal shot at, but it wounded AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
one somewhere nr»the herd. Then there was more
commotion and it was evident the "stand" was at
an end.
" Give it to 'em, everybody," the old hunter now
said, and a fusillade followed that soon put them
under full speed.
The hunters now mounted their horses and made
a "run" on the band that resulted in some very
exciting sport and the death of three more buffaloes.
This over, they returned to the scene of the first
firing and gralloched the seven animals killed "on
the stand." Then they mounted their tired beasts
again and were on the point of starting for camp
when they heard strange noises, and looking toward
*J CD ? ti
the west beheld a great black surging mass, waving
and rolling up across the prairie, half hidden by
great clouds of dust which were only occasionally
blown away by the brisk autumn wind. It was the
great herd of buffalo, and they had been stampeded
by the Indian hunters. The roar of the hoofs upon
the dry earth was like the low and sullen thunder.
The vanguard of the herd was yet more than a mile
away, but the dark line stretched to right and left
almost as far as the eye could reach, and our hunters
saw that instant and precipitate flight was necessary
in order to save their lives. They specially chose the
northward as offering the shortest and best direction
by which to escape the coming avalanche, and sinking
the spurs deep into their terror-stricken beasts, they
flew with the velocity of an arrow across the wild
prairie. A mile was covered in a few seconds, and
yet they were not past the herd, which was rapidly
closing in upon them.  AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
They turned their horses' heads partly in the
direction the buffaloes were going and, urging them
- to their utmost speed, finally passed the outer line
of the herd just as the leaders passed by. Then,
having reached a place of safety, they < dismounted,
and throwing their bridle reins over their arms commenced to load and fire into the herd with all possible rapidity, nearly every shot killing or disabling
an animal. It took nearly half an hour for the rolling,
surging, angry horde to pass the point where our
hunters' stood, and as the rear guard came in sight
there came a new and still more terrible scene in the
great tragedy.
More than a hundred Indians were in hot pursuit
of the savage beasts. They were mounted on wild
and almost ungovernable bronchos, who were froth-
ing at the mouth, charging and cavorting amongst
the fleeing game. The white foam dropped in flakes
and bubbles from all parts of their bodies. Their
nostrils were distended, their eyes flashed fire, and
they seemed as eager as their wild masters to
deal death to the buffaloes. The savage riders
seemed beside themselves with mad, ungovernable
Their faces were painted in the most glaring colors,
their bright and many-colored blankets fluttered in
the wind secured to the saddle only by an end or a
corner, their long black hair streaming back like the
pennant at the mast head of a ship, and their deep
black eyes gleamed like coals of fire in a dungeon.
Arrow after arrow flew from deep-strung bows and
sunk to the feathered tip in the quivering flesh of
the shaggy monsters. 230
Ponderous spears were hurled with the power and
precision of giants and struck down the defenceless
victims as a sturdy woodman strikes down the frail
sapling in his path.
"Crack!"    "crack!"   came  from  rifles,   and
from carbines and   revolvers.
Hundreds of shots were fired by those who carried
firearms, and before these murderous weapons, the
poor bison sank like ripened grain before the reaper's blade.
One young warrior, more ardent and fearless than
the rest, had forced his high-strung steed far into
the midst of the solid phalanx, where the horse
was finally impaled upon the horns of a monster
bull. He and his rider were tossed like sheaves of
wheat into the air; then both sank to earth, and
were instantly trodden into the dust.
At last the great storm had passed, and our friends
watched until it faded away in the distance and
finally disappeared from their view.
Then came the squaws, the boys, and the old men,
to dispatch the wounded and to skin and cut up the
dead. These were strewn all over the prairie, and
not a tithe of them were, or could, be, saved by all
the people, white and red, assembled there.
Our hunters returned to camp at sunset, where
they met those of their companions who had been
out during the afternoon, and over the evening
camp fire, each related the thrilling incidents which
he had witnessed, or in which he had participated
during the day.
On the following morning they again started out in *
several parties of five or six each and going in various
•directions. Frank and the newspaper man started
with three others, but soon separated from them to
go after a small band which they had sighted about
two miles south of camp.
When within a proper distance, they dismounted,
picketed their horses in a swale, and stalking to
within about a hundred, yards opened fire. A young
cow dropped at the first shot, to all appearances
dead, and the remainder of the band scurried away,
one old bull being badly wounded. The hunters
started to run to the top of a ridge, over which the
.game had gone, to get another shot. As they
passed the cow the guide called to his companion to
look out for her, as she was only "creased" and
liable to get up again and charge them. They had
.gone but a few rods, when, sure enough, she did
spring to her feet and make a dash at Frank.
He turned to shoot her, but his gun missed fire, and
as he attempted to throw out the cartridge, the action
failed to work, and his gun was, for the moment,
disabled. By this time she was almost on him, and
as his only means of escape, he sprang into a
"washout" (a ditch that had been cut by the
water, some ten feet deep), the sides of which were
He called loudly for help, but his friend had not
seen the charge, and was by this time a hundred
vards away. He turned and saw the cow, almost
plind with rage, rapidly jumping back and forth
across the washout, in a mad effort to get at the
.guide, but she seemed unwilling to jump down into
it. - She was shot through the throat, and the blood,
from   her in torrents,  had deluged poor
flowing 232
Frank, until he looked as if he had been at work in
a slaughter-house. The scribe ran back, killed the
cow, and drew his friend from his sanguinary
The guide then repaired his gun, and mounting
their horses they pursued the wounded bull. They
soon found him at bay, and riding up close to him,
commenced firing at him with their revolvers.
Quick as a flash of lightning he made a frightful
charge at the journalist, who, taken by surprise, was
unable to avoid the rush. Both horse and rider
were dashed to the earth. The horse was so badly
injured as to be unable to rise, and as the burly
antagonist made another rush at him, the man was
enabled to seek safety in flight, and before the bull
again turned his attention to the fugitive, the rapid
and well-directed fire of the scout had brought the
shaggy beast to the earth.
The horse was fatally injured and had to be shot,
so our friends, with one horse between them, took
turns riding and walking to camp.
This day's killing by the party was large, and
supplied all their wants as to meat, skins, and sport.
The next few days were devoted to jerking meat,
dressing and drying skins, and preparing for the
return journey, and in ten days from the date of
their arrival on the hunting ground, the teams were
all loaded up, camp was broken, and the homeward
march was begun, which progressed uneventfully
from day to day, and was made in safety in about
the same time occupied in going out.
Twice during the hunt the party were alarmed by
the discovery of Indians lurking about their camp. AND  OTHKR HUNTING ADVENTURES.
late in the night. The guards discovered them in
both instances, and fired on them, when they bea,t
a hasty retreat and disappeared in the darkness. It
was not known that their object was anything worse
than pilfering, and yet there was little doubt that
had they found the party all off guard and asleep,
a massacre would have resulted. But, true to their
aboriginal instincts, they did not wish to engage in
a fight with a formidable foe, whom they found ever
ready for such an emergency.
Such scenes and such sport as this party enjoyed
were common almost anywhere on the great plains;
west of the Missouri river up to a few years ago.
Herds of buffalo'extending over a tract of land as
large as one of the New England States, and numbering hundreds of thousands of heads, might be found
any day in what was then "buffalo country." An
army officer told me that, when crossing the plains
in 1867 with a company of cavalry, he encountered
a herd that it took his command three days to ride
through, marching about thirty miles a day.
When two of our transcontinental railways were it
first built it was no uncommon thing for herds of
buffalo to delay trains for several hours in crossing the tracks, the animals being packed in so close
together that the train could not force a passage
through them.
But, alas, those days are passed forever. This
noble creature, provided to feed the human multitude who should people the prairies, is to-day
practically extinct; slaughtered and annihilated by
that jackal of the plains, that coyote in human
shape, the " skin hunter." Hundreds of thousands
of buffaloes w^ere annually killed, their skins sold at
from seventy-five cents to a dollar and a half each,
and the meat which, when properly taken care of, is
■equal, if not superior, to the finest domestic beef,
was left to rot on the ground.
There are scarcely a hundred buffaloes left on the
continent to day in their wild state. A very few
stragglers are known to be in the Panhandle of
Texas, a small bunch in the Yellowstone National
Park, and a few in the British Northwest, but
they are being remorselessly pursued by large num-
Ibers of hunters, and it is safe to say that a year
hence not one will be left in the whole broad
West unless it be those in the park, and they will
escape only in case they stay within the park limits
where they are protected by United States soldiers.
Should they ever stray beyond the bounds of the
park they will all be killed in less than a week.
Several small bunches have been domesticated by
Western cattlemen, and it is hoped the species may,
by this means, be saved from total extinction.
They are being successfully cross-bred with domes-  CHAPTER XXV.
HERE is, perhaps, no large mammal in this
country of which the scientific world and
the reading public in general   knows so
little as of the  Rocky Mountain  goat
{Aplocerus Montanus).   There are several
reasons for this.   First, its limited range.
It is confined to a small area of the Rocky
Mountains, principally west of the main
divide; to Western Montana, Eastern Idaho,
the Cascade Range in Washington Territory,
a small portion of British Columbia, and to Alaska.
Secondly, its habitat is the tops or near the tops of the
highest and most rugged peaks and cliffs, where
none but the hardiest and most daring hunter may
venture in pursuit of it, and so comparatively very
few are ever killed and brought into the settlements.
Third, it can not be successfully domesticated.    Its '
favorite  food is so different from that generally
growing in or near any settlement, the atmosphere
it breathes, the mean temperature in which it lives,
and the ground,  or rather rocks, on which it is
accustomed to walk, so widely different from those
any human - habitation, that the few
young that have been captured and brought down
to the settlements have soon died. So that none of
them are found in parks and zoological gardens, as
are specimens of nearly all other large wild animals.
There are fewer mounted skins of. this animal in
Eastern museums than of any other species indigenous to this country, and hence the public and
naturalists have had fewer opportunities to study
and become familiar with it than with other wild
mammals. Yet it is one of the most beautiful and
interesting of all our American quadrupeds, and
probably no sportsman or naturalist has ever yet
mustered courage and hardihood enough to go where
he could kill a Rocky Mountain goat without feeling amply repaid for all the labor and hardship
encountered by being able to behold this mystic
creature in his lofty mountain home. In view of
the limited facilities people have had for studying
this animal a somewhat minute description of it may
not be amiss here.
In size it is but a trifle larger than the Merino
sheep, which, in fact, it closely resembles in many
respects. The form of its body is robust, fore parts
rather thicker than hinder parts, with a slight hump
over shoulders, similiar to that of the American
bison. Its color is entirely white, or, in some
instances, of a light creamy shade. Hair long and
pendant. A beard-like tuft of hair on the chin.
Long coarse hair, more abundant, on shoulders, neck,
and back. Under and intermixed with this long
hair there is a close coat of fine, silky, white wool,
equal in fineness to that of the Cashmere goat. Hair
on face and legs short and without wool.   Horns 238
(which are present in both sexes) jet black, small,
conical, nearly erect, polished, and curving slightly
backward; ringed or wrinkled at the base, much like
those of the chamois. Muzzle and hoofs also black.
False or accessory hoof s present. Dentition: Incisors,
8 lower; canines, none; molars, 12 upper, 12 lower;
total 32. The mountain goat brings forth two
or three young at a time, usually late in May or
early in June. Slightly gregarious, being frequently
found in small bands in winter, but in summer season not more than a single family is usually seen
together, and in summer and fall the older males
may frequently be found entirely alone. The nose
is nearly straight, ears rather long, pointed, and
lined with long hair. Tail six to eight inches long,
clothed with long hair. Legs thick and short.
Hoofs grooved on sole and provided with a thick
spongy mass of cartilage in centre, projecting below
the outer edges of hoof, enabling the animal to
cling firmly to steep or smooth rocks. The dimensions of one adult male specimen measured are as
follows: Length from.tip of nose to root of tail, 3
feet 7 inches; length of tail, 7 inches; length of head,
llf inches; length of horns, 8£ inches; diameter of
horns at base, 1 inch. Its estimated gross weight is
130 pounds.
The food of the mountain goat consists principally,
in summer, of the leaves of the alder and of various
mountain shrubs, and in winter of mosses and
lichens that grow on the rocks.
Aplocerus Montanus is much more closely allied
to the antelope than to the domestic goat, and has
few   characteristics   in   common   with   the   latter AND   OTHER HUNTING  ADVENTURES.
genus.  He is an agile, fearless climber, and appears
to delight in scaling the tallest, grandest, and mOst
"j &j
rugged crags and cliffs to be found in the ranges
which he inhabits, not so much in quest of his.
favorite food, for this grows abundantly lower down,
but apparently from a mere spirit of daring; from a.
desire to breathe the rarest and purest atmosphere
obtainable, and to view the grandest scenery under
the sun without having his vision in the least
obstructed by intervening objects. These forbidding
and almost inaccessible crags are the favorite, and
nearly the exclusive, haunts of this strange creature,
and the hunter who follows it thither must indeed
be a daring mountaineer. The goat is frequently
found at altitudes of 10,000 to 14,000 feet, where the
atmosphere is so rare as to render it difficult indeed
for man to climb, yet this fearless creature nimbly
leaps from crag to crag, over deep yawning chasms,
with no more fear than the domestic lamb feels when
bounding over the greensward in an Eastern farmyard.
The hunter literally takes his life in his hand,
when pursuing the goat, for he must pass over many
places where a misstep or a slip of a few inches,
would plunge him over a precipice, where he would
fall thousands of feet, or be hurled into some narrow
and deep fissure in the rocks whence escape would
be impossible.
Over such rugged and perilous ground he may
climb, hour after hour, until he has passed the highest ranges of the elk, the mountain sheep, and all the
other game, for the mountain goat, " the American
chamois,"  as he has been  aptly  termed,   ranged
* 240.
higher than any of them. He may toil on until he
is far above timber line, and is working his way
over and around vast drifts and beds of perpetual
snow and ice. Finally he sights his game—a fine
handsome specimen—standing fearlessly on some jutting crag, deliberately feeding on some tender lichens
or, perhaps, peering proudly out over the lower
world. The hunter now changes his course until he
can conceal himself behind some neighboring rock,
and then crawls stealthily and cautiously up. to
within rifle range of the game. Then, peering cautiously from behind his cover, he takes careful aim
and fires. • He is a_dead shot and the rifle ball pierces
the heart of the quarry, but to his dismay it makes
a convulsive bound and down it goes over the precipice, rebounding from crag to crag, until it finally
reaches a resting place hundreds of feet below. " It
may go to where he can never reach it, or may land
where he can recover it on his return down the
mountain side; but if the latter, it may be torn to
fragments and scattered here and there until the
hide is useless, the horns are broken off, the skull
crushed so that the head is unfit to mount, and the
flesh so bruised and mangled that he can scarcely
save enough of it to make him a dinner.
A few years ago an officer of the United States
army and a party of friends were hunting goats in
the Bitter Root Mountains, near Missoula, Mont.
They followed two—a male and female—to the top
of a rough and dangerous peak, when the game,
before they could get a shot at it, started down the
opposite side and took refuge from the hurrters
under a shelving rock.    Here it was, owing to the AND   OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
nature of the rocks and ice, absolutely impossible
for the hunters to follow them on foot, but the
intrepid officer, not to be baffled in the pursuit, tied a
long rope securely around his body, just under his
arms, laid down, and gr sping his rifle slid quietly
down, on a bed of ice, some sixty or seventy feet,
while his companions held on to the other end of the
rope and controlled his perilous descent. Finally,
when he had gone far enough to be able to see the
game, he signaled his friends, who stopped him, and
raising on his elbows he fired and killed both goats,
and was then drawn up again in safety. Such,
however, was the nature of the rocks between him
and the carcasses that it was utterly impossible to
reach them after he had killed them, and he was
compelled reluctantly to abandon them. Several
members of the party tried to reach them from
other points, but were unable to do so, and they
were all obliged to return empty-handed to
In another instance this same officer, upon crawling out on the edge of a shelving rock and looking
down over a precipice hundreds of feet below, saw
two goats near the base, but they were actually inside
of a perpendicular line running down from the edge
of the rock he occupied, and he was therefore unable
to bring his rifle to bear upon them without projecting his body out over the edge of the rock further
than was safe. After discussing the matter for
some minutes, one of his friends offered to hold his
feet and thus enable him to extend his head and
shoulders far enough out to get his aim. By this
means both of the goats were killed, but a party
16 242
had to go around and ascend the mountain from the
other side in order to secure them.
The same party, while climbing the rugged and
almost perpendicular face of little Mountain to
bring down some goats they had already killed,
came suddenly upon a large buck in a narrow V-
shaped fissure in the rock, from which there was no
escape biit by the opening at which they had entered,
and across this they formed a skirmish line. The
goat climbed upon a narrow projection on one of the
walls of the fissure just out of reach of the tallest
man in the party, and as they had no rifles with
them (having left them below to lighten the labor of"
the ascent), they tried to dislodge him by throwing-
rocks at him, but their footing was so insecure and
there was such great danger of their falling that
they could not hurl these with sufficient force to
bring him down though several of them hit him.    If
they had had a rope they could easily have lassoed
him, but there was no such thing at hand. They
finally decided to leave one of the men to guard
their prisoner, and on their return to camp another
man took a rifle, went back, killed the goat, and the
two bore him triumphantly down to camp. The
gentleman'says : "Had I not been an eye witness,
and had I subsequently been shown the place where
the goat stood thus at bay, I could scarcely have
believed it possible for anything larger than a fly to
have found footing there.''
Fortunately, however, the successful hunting of
the goat is not always thus perilous, for though he
habitually selects for his home the roughest and
most inaccessible peaks to be found in the mount- AND   OTHER HUNTING  ADVENTURES.
ains, yet he sometimes ranges on more favorable
ground, and if the sportsman be so fortunate as to
find him there he may be killed and saved. They
range somewhat lower in winter than in summer,
but never even then venture down into the canons
or valleys, as do all' the other large mountain animals. They only come down upon the lowrer peaks
and ridges, and remain about the rocky walls, which
are so precipitous that the snow can not lie on them
to any considerable depth. Their power of climbing
over and walking on these almost perpendicular
rock walls is utterly astounding.    They will walk
«/ CD v
along the side of an upright projecting ledge that
towers hundreds of feet above and below them
where a shelf projects not more than four or five
inches wide. They will climb straight up an almost
perpendicular wall, if only slightly rough and irregular, so that they can get a chance to hold on with
their spongy hoofs here and there. And they seem
to select these difficult passes in many instances
when a good, easy passage could be had to the place
to which they are bound by going a little further
around. They seem to delight in scaling a dangerous cliff as a courageous boy does in climbing the
tallest tree. I once saw where a goat had walked
straight up over a smooth flat slab of granite ten
feet wide, that laid at an angle of about fifty degrees,
and that was covered with about two inches of wet
snow and slush. I could not climb up it with moccasins on my feet, and no dog could have followed
him there. This faculty is accounted for by the
peculiar shape and quality of their hoofs before
described. 244
The skin of the Rocky Mountain goat has never
had any regular commercial value. The stiff, coarse,
brittle hair that is mixed with the wool renders them
unsuitable for robes or rugs, and this hair can not
readily be plucked out. The only demand for them
is for mounting. Yery few white hunters and none
of the Indians understand how to skin and preserve
them properly for this purpose, and this fact, taken
in connection with that of the rough and dangerous nature of the ground they inhabit, makes
it difficult to secure good skins, or even heads for
The flesh of the goat is edible, but in the adult
animal is dry and tasteless. When kids of less than
a year old can be obtained, their flesh is tender and
toothsome. They are not hunted, therefore, for meat,
for in the ranges where they are found, deer, mountain sheep, or elks can be obtained much lower down
and are much more desirable for the table.
During a sojourn of a month in the Bitter Root
Mountains, near Missoula, Mont., last fall I had
some very exciting, not to say dangerous, experiences in hunting this animal. We were camped in
Lost Horse Canon, through which'flows a typical
mountain stream. The walls on both sides are very
abrupt and from three to four thousand feet in height.
That on the north is covered from bottom to top with
great masses of granite that have been .broken loose
from the cliffs at the top by earthquakes, the action
of frost, or other agency, and have tumbled down,
breaking into irregular-shaped fragments, of all sizes,
lodging and piling on top of each other in such a
manner as to form a gigantic sort of pavement from AND   OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
the top of the mountain to the foot. There were
narrow strips of the mountain side that had escaped
these fallen masses. Here the outcropping granite
remained in its natural shape—irregular ledges with
small patches of earth intervening. Pines, hemlocks,
cedars, and various kinds of shrubs grew in these
places as far up the mountain side as the timber line.
I ascended this north wall one morning and after
a weary and toilsome climb of about two miles,
and when in snow about six inches deep, I came
upon the track of a very large goat. It was
some hours old, but he had been feeding deliberately
along the mountain side, and as they are not rapid
travelers in any case, I knew he was not a great
distance away. I took up the trail and followed it.
It led over a succession of these vast rock piles,
which, owing to their being covered with snow, made
the traveling doubly dangerous. A slight misstep
at any point, or an unfortunate slip would be liable
to let my foot drop in between two of these rocks
and throw me in such a way as to break a leg, an arm,
or possibly my head. The greatest care was therefore necessary in picking my way over this dangerous
country, and I was frequently struck with the wise
provisions which Nature makes for fulfilling her
ends when I saw where the animal I was pursuing
had bounded lightly from rock to rock over chasms
many feet in width; or where he had walked up the
sharp edge of some slab of granite not more than
three or four inches wide and lying at a high angle;
t/ CD CD CD        7
or where he had walked up over a flat slab of it,
tilted so steep that no other large animal in the
mountains could have followed him.    There were 246
many of his passages in which I could not follow,
but I had to make slow and tortuous detours, coming
upon his trail again beyond these most dangerous
Had he traveled straight ahead I could never have
overtaken him, but the time he consumed in frequently stopping to nip the tender leaves of the
mountain alder or the juicy lichens that grow upon
the rocks proved fatal to him, and finally, after a
chase of probably two miles and when near the top
of the peak close to timber line, I came in s"ght of
him. He was truly a beautiful creature. There he
stood, unconscious of approaching danger, looking calmly out across a neighboring can on as if
enjoying the grand scenery about him. Occasionally
he turned to take a mouthful of some delicate mountain herb that stood near him The pale creamy white
of his fleece contrasted delicately and beautifully
with the green of the cedars, the golden autumn-colored leaves of the shrubs, the dull gray of the granite
rocks, and the pure white of the early autumn snow.
The sunlight glistened upon the polished black of
his proudly curved and beautifully rounded horns,
and his large black eyes gleamed as with conscious
innocence and pride. I contemplated his majestic
mien for several minutes before I could nerve myself to the task of taking his life, but finally the
hunter's instinct conquered my more delicate feelings. I put my rifle to my shoulder, pressed the
gently yielding trigger, and in an instant more his
life blood crimsoned the driven snow.
After making temporary disposition of his remains,
I returned as rapidly as possible to camp to get my AND   OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
photographic outfit and some help to carry him
in, for we were short of meat at the time. It was
three o' clock in the afternoon when I reached camp,
and, eating a hasty lunch, I started back up the
mountain with three of my friends.
When we again reached the carcass it was five
o' clock, and our work must be done hastily in order to
get down the mountain as far as possible before dark.
To add to the discomfort of our undertaking a drizzling rain set in just as I was ready to make the views.
I exposed a couple of plates, however, which fortunately turned out fairly. We then set to work to
skin him as rapidly as possible, and as soon as this
was accomplished we started on our return to camp,
two of the men taking the two hind quarters of the
animal, another my camera, and I the skin and head.
With these loads, weighing from twenty-five to
thirty-five pounds each, besides our rifles, and considering the difficult and dangerous nature of the
ground we had to travel over and the fact that it was
already beginning to grow dark, we had, indeed, a
perilous journey before us. Climbing over these rock
piles when covered with snow was difficult enough
work in daylight, but to attempt it in the darkness and now that it was raining heavily, the snow
having become wet and slushy and the rocks more
CD v
slippery than before, it was doubly perilous.
Our courseday diagonally down and along the side
of the mountain, and as long as the light was sufficient to at all see where we were stepping we made
fair progress. Frequently, however, someone would
slip and fall, but fortunately without receiving any
serious injury.    We were often compelled to hold to I
some shrub or tree and let ourselves down over projecting rocks several feet, where we could not possibly have stood up without such aid.
Finally, when we were yet less than half way down
the mountain side, it became pitch dark. Here we
sat down to rest. The rain was falling in torrents,
and but for the snow on the ground we could not
now have seen a step ahead of us. We had entered
one of those more favored strips of land where the
falling rocks had not covered the ground entirely,
and where there was a considerable growth of timber,
both large trees and underbrush. I was in favor of
going straight down through this into the creek bottom where we could at least walk in safety, even if
our progress should be slower. One of my friends
—Mr. Overturf—agreed with me, but the other two
—Mr. McWhirk and Mr. Hinchman—preferred to
continue over the rocks in a direct line to camp. We
therefore decided to separate, Frank and I going
straight down through this strip of timber and over
the smoother ground, and the other two following
the more-direct course.
We two reached the foot of the mountain in about
an hour more: not, however, without encountering
serious difficulties in grasping and finding our way
down over precipitous rocks and earth, hanging on
to one limb or shrub until we came in reach of
another, and thus letting ourselves .down safely.
We were then about a mile and a half from camp.
The creek bottom was densely timbered. There was
a dim game trail leading through it up to our camp,
but it was impossible to follow it in the darkness,
and, in fact, it required the closest attention of experi- AND   OTHER HUNTING  ADVENTURES.
enced woodsmen and hunters to follow it in daylight. We were therefore utterly at sea. We were
safe, however, and we heaved a sigh of relief when
we found ourselves on level ground, for none of us
had relished the idea of having a bone broken in that
country, so far from medical aid and home comforts.
Great snow slides had for ages been coming down
these mountain sides bringing their debris, such
as rocks, and logs, and whole trees with them.
These had frequently gone some distance into the
creek bottom, breaking and felling all the trees in
their path. Tornadoes had raged through the canon,
also, breaking and lopping trees in various directions, so that we now encountered a body of woods
through which the most expert woodsman could not
possibly travel more than a mile an hour in daylight. Add to this the Cimmerian darkness in which
we were now groping (for there was no snow here in
the bottom of the canon) and the reader may well
imagine that our progress was slow and tedious in
the extreme.
We sat down and held another consultation. I
favored building a fire and staying there till morn-
ing, but Frank preferred pushing on to camp, so I
acquiesced. We soon found, however, that it was
utterly impossible for us to get through these windfalls in the darkness and with our heavy loads, and
decided as a last resort to get into the bed of the
creek and wade up it. We were already wet to the
skin from head to foot, and this wading could be no
worse than clambering over logs and through jungles
of wet underbrush. We soon reached the creek and
our hearts sank within us as we listened to its tumult- 250
uous roar and looked upon its angry bosom, for
here we were enabled to see slightly, owing to the
faint light admitted through the narrow opening in
the trees overhead, how rough and boisterous it was!
Its bed was a succession of bowlders from the size of
a man's head to that of a small house, and its waters,
coming direct from the snow, were ice cold Yet to
camp here was to suffer all night from wet and cold,
and we preferred to push on.
By keeping near the shore we could nearly all the
time have brush to hang to and steady ourselves,
but where there were none of these in reach our
rubber boots slipped on the smooth wet rocks, and
several times we fell into the icy flood up to our
chins. Once, in particular, I fell in water nearly
three feet deep, dropped my gun and it went to the
bottom. I fished it out, however, staggered to my
feet, and struggled on.
After nearly two hours of this terrible trudging,
wading, and staggering, we at last reached camp at
eleven o'clock at night and triumphantly deposited
our burdens within the tent.
Our two friends, from whom we had separated en
route, had arrived only half an hour ahead of us, and
notwithstanding the rain, which still fell heavily,
Dr. Hale, who had remained in camp, had a great
log-heap fire blazing in front of the tent. A pot of
coffee steamed by the fire, and a sumptuous supper
of broiled bear steaks, baked potatoes, and hot
biscuits awaited us, but I was too tired to eat. I
drank a pint of hot coffee, put on dry flannels,
crawled into my blankets, and slept soundly till
As further illustrating the habits of the mountain
goat and the perils attending its capture, I may be
permitted to narrate the experience of Mr. West-
lake, a ranchman in Eastern Idaho, who attempted
to procure a pair of skins for a friend in the East a
few years ago. He employed a Flathead Indian as
guide and assistant, who claimed to know the country
thoroughly in which they purposed hunting, and to
have had considerable experience in hunting goats.
Mr. West lake provided himself with a good saddle-
horse and one pack-horse, a rifle, c'amp outfit, including a small tent, and provisions for himself and the
Indian for twenty days. The Indian was fairly
mounted on a small but tough Indian pony and well
armed. They set out on September 2, and traveled
across the country to the Clearwater river, up which
they rode several days, over a very difficult and tedious trail, and when well up toward the head of the
stream they reached the mouth of one of its tributaries which debouches from a deep and rugged
canon. Up this they decided to go, for it was their
intention to reach the Bitter Root Mountains, one
of the best known ranges for the goat.
This canon proved, like many others in that
region, almost impassable for man or beast, and it
was with the utmost difficulty and by the endurance
of untold and incredible hardships that they were
able to make seven or eight miles a day. They
encountered plenty of game in the canon, however,
among which were elks, bears, and mule-deer, and
the creek which ran through the canon yielded
them an abundance of trout, so that they fared
sumptuously so far as food was concerned. 252
Finally, after several days in this canon, they
reached the head of it and came out on a high plateau which was covered with heavy pine timber
interspersed with beautiful parks or meadows and
thickets of aspen and alder. Numerous springs boiling up here coursed down into the canon from which
they had just emerged, and fed the creek which ran
through it. Pressing forward across this formation for a distance of about ten miles, they reached
the base of one of the great snow-capped peaks,
near the top of which they expected to find the particular game of which they were in search. But
this mountain was so precipitous and so rough that
it was impossible for them to get their horses up it in
any way. They discussed various plans of accomplishing their object. It was highly dangerous to
leave their horses here alone, lest the bears or
mountain lions, which were so numerous in the
vicinity, should stampede and run them off. It was
impossible for either man to go alone and bring
down two of the skins and heads suitably prepared
for mounting, as they, with the other load which it
was necessary to take along, would be more than
any one man could carry. It would take two days
to make the ascent, have a few hours for hunting,
and return to where they then were, and in order to
pass the night at all comfortably in that high altitude a liberal supply of blankets must be carried.
They therefore decided, as the only feasible plan,
to make camp where they were and start up early
the next morning, leaving their horses behind.
They made all'possible preparations that night, and
the next morning arose at four o'clock.    By sunrise AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
they had breakfasted, and with their packs, consisting of two pairs of blankets each and a two days'
supply of cooked food, they started. They did not
dare picket or hobble their horses, as either would
give the wild beasts a chance to attack and kill
them, and could only trust to luck, an abundant
supply of good grass and water, and the well-known
attachment which nearly all Western horses feel for
a camp, to keep them there until their return.
After a hard day's climb they came upon abundant signs of goats about the middle of the afternoon, and, preparing a temporary bivouac under a
shelving rock, they deposited their loads, made a
pot of coffee, ate a hearty dinner, and started out to
look for the game. They had not gone far when
Mr. Westlake sighted a large, handsome male goat
standing on the top of a cliff, and approaching
within easy rifle range he fired and killed it. It fell
some twenty or thirty feet, and lodged behind a projecting slab of granite. It was secured after considerable hard work, hastily skinned, and the skin and
some of the best cuts of the meat carried to their
temporary camp. Night was now approaching, and
the hunters set about preparing a supply of wood.
There were numerous dead pine and cedar trees, of
stunted growth and peculiar shapes, standing and
lying among the rocks, and a generous supply was
soon provided. Next, a large quantity of cedar
boughs wore cut, brought in and spread under the
overhanging rock, to a depth of a foot or more. On
these the blankets were spread, and the hunters had a
bed which many a tired lodger in Eastern city hotels
might well envv them.    Bv building a rousing tire 254
in front, which was reflected against the rock wall
behind them, and by occasionally replenishing it
during the night, they slept comfortably, though
the temperature ran several degrees below zero.
. Early the next morning both men started out in
search of a female goat to complete their" undertaking. Nearly two hours had been spent in hunting, when the Indian found a fresh track in the
CD i
snow some distance above their temporary camp.
He followed it until it led in among a forest of rent
and jagged cliffs of granite, and Westlake, who
was some distance away, seeing by the Indian's
motions that he was on a trail, started toward him.
When within a few feet of where he had last seen
the Indian he heard the report of his rifle, and a
shout announced that his shot had been successful.
Mr. AYestlake followed on into the chasm from
whence the report came and saw the Indian attempting to scale the side of a nearly perpendicular wall
of rock, stepping cautiously from niche to niche
and shelf to shelf; holding on with his hands to
every projecting point that afforded him any assistance. He finally reached the top of the ledge, and
reaching over caught hold of the now lifeless body of
the goat that he had killed, and drew it toward him.
But when it swung off from the top of the ledge its
weight and. the consequent strain on his muscular
power was greater than the Indian had anticipated,-
and before he had time to let go of the carcass and
save himself his slight hold on the rock was torn
loose, and uttering a wild shriek he fell a distance of
nearly sixty feet, striking on a heap of broken
rocks!    He was instantly killed. AND OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURE
Here was a sad blow to poor Westlake. His only
companion, his faithful guide, and the only human
being within fifty miles of him, lay a corpse at his
feet. He had no means whatever of getting the
body back to .their camp, much less of
to the unfortunate red man's friends. He had not
even a tool of any kind to dig a grave with, and the
only thing he could do in that direction was to build
a wall of rocks around the body, lay some flat slabs
across the top, and then carry and lay on top of
these a number of the largest and heaviest rocks he
could handle, to protect it from the ravages of wild
beasts. When this sad duty was completed he
returned with a heavy heart to their temporary
camp, and with as much of their luggage as he was
able to carry started down the mountain. Arriving
about noon at the tent, he was horrified to find the
tracks of a large bear in and about it, the greater
portion of his supplies eaten up or destroyed, and
his horses nowhere in sight. A hasty examination
showed that the bear had passed through the little
park in which they had last been grazing—evidently
early that morning—that they had taken flight and
fled in the direction of the head of the canon up
which they had come. Westlake followed them
several miles until convinced that they had really
started on their back trail, and then he returned to
camp. By this time night was again approaching
and it was with a heavy heart that he prepared to
pass it there, all alone, and still further depressed
with the thought that he had now a journey of a
hundred miles or more before him, to the nearest settlement, which he must undoubtedly make on foot. 256
He ate his supper alone and in sadness, and as the
camp fire blazed in front of his tent it cast fitful
shadows into the gloom, which was unbroken by
any sound save the occasional soughing of the wind
through the pine trees or the cry of some wild animal. He finally retired to rest, but his sleep was
broken by troubled dreams As the sun arose he
prepared a hasty meal, wliich was eaten. in silence,
and with a pair of blankets, a few pounds of flour,
salt, and coffee, and his rifle, he started, leaving his
tent standing and all else in it as a monument to the
memory of his friend and a landmark to future
hunters and mountaineers to locate the scene of his
great misfortune. He traveled seven days before
seeing the face of a human being or sleeping under
a shelter of any kind, when he finally reached a
ranch where his horses had preceded him and had
Been corraled to await an owner.
It is fortunate that all goat hunters do not meet
with such disasters as did poor Westlake and his
young friend, or the noble sport would have still
fewer votaries than it now has.
SEPTEMBER, 1884, I joined a party of
genial sportsmen at Fort Missoula, Mont.,
i for a month's outing in the Bitter Root
1 Mountains. Our special mission was to hunt
large game ; but while perfecting arrangements for the trip, which occupied two
days,- and during the mornings and evenings
!PPof the several days occupied in traveling up
and down the river to and from the hunting
grounds, those of us who had our fishing tackle
with us turned what would otherwise have been
long hours of impatient waiting into merrily-fleeing
moments, by luring the grand mountain trout
{Salmo purpuratus) with which this river abounds
from their crystalline retreats and transferring them
to our creels and our camp table.
The Bitter Root is a typical mountain stream,
rising among the snow-clad peaks in the vicinity of
the Big Hole basin and flowing with the mighty
rush imparted to it by a fall of 200 to 300 feet per
mile, fed by the scores of ice-cold brooks that tumble
out of the high ranges on either side from its source
mouth. After traversing a distance of perhaps 200 miles, it empties its pure waters into the
Hellgate river, just west of Missoula.
Its valley is two to four miles wide, and the lower
portion of this is occupied by numerous ranches. The
soil is tilled by well-to-do farmers or "ranchmen,"
to speak in the vernacular of the country, so that
the angler, while within a mile or two of rugged
mountain peaks, is still in the midst of civilization,
where his larder may daily be replenished with
nearly all the varieties of good things that grow on
any New England farm. The banks of the stream
are fringed with stately pines and cotton woods, and
in places with thickets of underbrush.
From a tiny brook at its source the stream grows
rapidly to a veritable river of thirty to fifty yards
in width as it passes on toward its destination. It
sweeps and whirls in its course, here running
straight and placidly for a hundred yards, then
turning abruptly to right or left and returning
almost parallel to itself, forming '' horse-shoe bends,''
'"ox-bow bends," compound S's, right angles,
In many cases it tumbles down over a long, steep
pavement of granite bowlders, working itself into a
very agony of bubbles and foam, and when the foot
of this fall is reached it whirls and eddies in a great
pool ten or twenty feet, deep and covering half an
acre of ground, almost surrounded 'by high-cut
banks, and seeming to have lost its way. It eventually finds an exit, however, through an opening in
the willows and masses of driftwood, and again
speeds on.
In many of these large, deep pools whole trees, of
giant size, "brought down by the spring freshets,
have   found lodgment beyond the power of the 260 CRUISINGS IN THE  CASCADES
mighty current to drive them further, and underneath these drifts the angler is liable to hook a lusty
trout that will make short work of his tackle if he
be not very gentle and expert in manipulating it.
This river may be fished from a canoe or boat, if
it be manned by a master of the art of fresh-water
cruising; but no amateur oarsman or canoeist should AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
ever attempt it or he will surely come to grief. It
may also be fished from the bank or by wading;
and I have even known it to be fished from the
hurricane-deck of a cayuse, so that all lovers of the
gentle art may be accommodated.
A large bump of caution would also be a good
thing for the man to take along who essays to wade
it, for he will find places—slippery places—where
even the wicked can not stand; for over the surface
thereof flows such a mighty torrent of waters that
his pride will surely have a fall, even if he do not;
and if he get out with a dry thread on his back he
will regard it as a miracle and .not owing to any
skill or strength of his. I think a day on that
stream will take the conceit out of any living man
and show him what a poor, weak wo:m he is, if he
get into some of the places I have been in. He will
find himself in positions from whence he would give
half his worldly possessions to be delivered; where
he would forgive his bitterest enemy the meanest
thing he ever did if he were only there and would
CD */
cast him a friendly line. The bed of the stream is
composed of glacial drift, all the rapids being paved
with bowlders varying in size from an inch to two
«/ CD
or three feet in diameter. These are worn smooth
by the action of the water and coated with a light
growth of fungus, so that they furnish a very precarious footing at best, and when the power of
the raging torrent is brought to bear against one's
nether limbs, he is, indeed, fortunate who is not
swept into the pool below.
On the riffles or more placid portions of the stream
wading is not attended with so much danger or diffi- 262
culty.    And while the angler beguiles the hours in
dalliance with these beauties of the river,  gazing
into its crystalline depths and toying with its poetic
denizens, a glance to east or west reveals to him
scenes of  even grander and more
inspiring loveliness; for there, so .
close as to reveal their every rock
and shrub,  tower   the  shapely I
peaks, the shattered crags and jy
beetling cliffs which constitute
the   Bitter   Root  range   of
mountains.   And even in a$m
midsummer the fresh,   /•*
pure breezes sweep-.     ^Jg
ing down from
these snow-clad summits fan his parched brow and
render existence, under such circumstances, the
realization of a poet's dream.
.On a bright, cheery September morning, Private
Westbrook, of the Third Infantry, and myself left AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
camp as soon as the sun had expelled the frost from
the vegetation. On the way down we caught a number of grasshoppers—the orthodox bait in this region
—to fall back on in case of necessity; for there are
days when the mountain trout, as well as his "cousin,
the brook trout of the East, declines the most seductive fly on the bill of fare, and will have nothing but
his favorite every-day diet.
Arriving at the river, Westbrook skirmished
through the brush until he found an alder about an
inch and a quarter in diameter at the ground and ten
or twelve feet high. This he cut, trimmed up, and
attached his line, a number two Sproat hook and a
split shot, put on a "hopper," and was ready for
business. I remonstrated gently with him on the
heathenish character of his tackle, but he said, pleasantly and politely, that it was the kind that generally got to the front when trout-fishing was the
business in hand. He said the fancy rods and reels
and flies were all well enough for those who wanted
to use them, but he preferred something with
which he could round up his fish and corral them
without losing   any   time.     He   said   it  was all
CD v
right for any gentlemen to spend half an hour
monkeying a trout after he had hooked it, if he
wanted to, but for his part, he never could see
much fun in that sort of fishing. He thought it
was decidedly more interesting to yank a fish in
out of the wet the instant he bit, and then lay for
He walked boldly out into the stream, waded
down a little way below the ford, on a riffle, till he
reached a point where the  water was   about two 264
feet deep and where it rolled sullenly and gloomily
over a series of large bowlders.
Here he made a cast, and his bait had barely
touched the water when there was a vicious rush, a
swirl and a dash downstream, but the cruel pole
was brought to bear in the opposite direction.
Then there was a flop, a splash, a hop, skip and a.
jump, and a three-pound trout took a header and
went down into the soldier's haversack.
The bait was renewed, another cast made, and the
act was repeated on a half-pounder. Then another
weighing one-and-a-half pounds and a couple of
about a pound each followed in rapid succession,
when this portion of the stream failed to yield, and
Westbrook moved on down. I followed along the
bank and watched him for half an hour before
attempting to rig my tackle at all. To watch the
play of the various emotions on his hard, brown,
honest face; to study the effect of the intense enthusiasm which possessed him; to note the utter disregard of personal safety and comfort with which he
would plunge into the surging rapids and eddies up
to his waist, or even to his arm-pitst wherever he
thought he could catch a trout by so doing, was a
genuine treat.
Finally I went back to the ford, jointed up my
rod, put on a gray professor, and walking down the
bank to a sudden bend in the river where the current
had cut a deep hole near the bank, I made a cast.
The fly dropped on the riffle just above the eddy,
and as it floated gracefully on the little wavelets
down and out upon the bosom of the deep-blue miniature ocean, it turned hither and thither with the AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
capricious currents that played there, for perhaps
five minutes. I was just in the act of reeling up
for another cast, when a gleam of silvery light
flashed upon my vision, flecked with settings of jet
and gold. There was a mighty commotion upon the
surface and a monster trout leaped full into the air
as he seized the feathered bait and then shot down,
down into the crystal fluid, leaving the water in the
vicinity of his exploit bubbling, effervescing, and
sparkling like the rarest old champagne. For the
nonce I was paralyzed with the suddenness and
viciousness of his coming and going, and my reel
was singing merrily when I awoke to a realization
of what it all meant.
Then I thumbed the cylinder and checked him in
his wild flight, but he continued to fight his way
clear down to the lower end of the pool, a distance
of twenty yards. Then he turned and came toward
me with the speed of an arrow, but the automatic
reel took up the slack as rapidly as he gave it.
When within twenty feet of me he turned out into
the stream, and as I checked him he again vaulted
into the air and the sun-light glistened on his beautifully-colored sides and fins as he struggled to free
himself. Finding this impossible he started for the
bank, where brush and roots projected into the
water; but by a vigorous and fortunate sweep of the
rod I was enabled to check him again. Again he
sounded and again rushed up, down, and out into the
river, but the steel was securely set, and he was
compelled at last to succumb. Gradually I reeled
him in, and as I brought him up to the bank he
turned on his side exhausted.   He weighed two and m
three-quarter pounds and measured seventeen inches
in length.
I took two others, nearly as large, out of the same
hole, and then proceeding down fifty yards, I saw
a large cottonwood tree lying in the middle of the
stream where it had lodged and been securely
anchored, probably a year or two before. The current had scooped out a great cavity about its roots
and I felt sure there must be a giant old trout lying
amongst them, but I could not reach it with a cast
from the shore. To attempt to wade to it I saw
would be hazardous, for the channel between me and
it was waist deep and ran with all the velocity of a
mill tail. But what danger will not an enthusiastic
angler brave when in pursuit of a trout? I started
in, and when half way to the trunk, would gladly
have retreated, but was actually afraid to attempt
to turn in the midst of this current, so I pressed f or
ward, finally reached the trunk of the tree and
climbed upon it. I made a cast up near the root
and hooked a handsome fellow, but after playing
him until I had him completely under control and
almost ready to land, the hook, which had been but
slightly caught, tore out and he drifted. dowm the
river on his side.
Another effort secured a two-pounder, and failing
to get any further encouragement, I climbed into the
icy torrent and with great difficulty again reached
the shore.
A little further down I saw another very deep pool,
into which a small, green cottonwood tree had lately
fallen and hung by its roots to the bank. I felt sure
of making a good catch here, for the hole was ten 268
or twelve feet deep, and the driftwood that had
lodged about this tree afforded excellent cover for
the wary old fellows that always seek such secluded
and impregnable strongholds. The fly settled gracefully on the surface at the upper end of the pool, and
as it floated listlessly down toward the drift, West-
brook, who had come down and was fishing from the
bank opposite, said:
"You'll get a good one there, sir. That's a
splendid hole for a big old fellow."
" I think so; but he seems backward about coming
"Maybe that blasted bird has scared him,"
said he, referring to a coot that floated unconcernedly and even impudently about the pool,
eyeing us without a symptom of fear, but evincing the liveliest curiosity as to who and what we
I reeled up and made another cast farther out on
the pool. As the fly fell, Mrs. Coot swam up to it
as if inclined to pick it up. I almost hoped she
would, for I should really have enjoyed yanking her
a few times. But she thought better of it. and
turned away. After exhausting all my ingenuity
on this pool, and finding it impossible to induce a
rise, I laid down my rod, picked up a rock, and
threw it at the ill-omened bird, whom I blamed for
my lack of success.
Westbrook took his cue from this and also sent a
rock after her. Both made close calls for her, but
she only scurried about the livelier, making no effort
to get away. She, however, swam behind a projection in the bank, so that I could not see her, and I AND   OTHER HUNTING  ADVENTURES.
told Westbrook to continue the attack and drive
her out.
He picked up another bowlder as large as a league
baseball and hurled it at her, when the dullest and
most '' thudful'' sound I ever heard, accompanied
by a faint squawk, came from, behind the bank.
I Well, bleach my bones if I haven't killed her!"
said Westbrook, as he threw down his hat and
jumped on it.
Sure enough, he had made a bull's-eye, and a mass
of feathers floated off downstream, followed by the
mortal remains of the deceased. And now the trout
were jumping at these stray feathers, and returning
to the siege, we each caught a good one at the lower
end of the pool.
We had now about as many fish as we cared to
carry to camp, and started back up river. On our
way we mec Lieutenant Thompson, of the Third
Infantry—also a member of our party—who had
left camp about the same time we did, and we
stopped and watched him fish awhile. The lieutenant is a veteran fly-fisherman, and it is a pleasure
to see him wield his graceful little split bamboo rod,
and handle the large vigorous trout found in this
stream. I had my camera with me and exposed a
plate on him in the act of playing a two-pouDder
while holding a string of six others in his left hand,
and though I did not give it quite enough time, it
turned out fairly well. He had also filled his creel,
and on our return to camp we hung our total catch,
with several others that General Marcy had taken,
on a pair of elk horns and got a good negative of
the whole outfit.
<acaanir*crrecGCcrfrrff«r*mrf* irflf
Trout grow to prodigious sizes in the Bitter Root,
as well as in several other streams in Montana,
Wyoming, Idaho, and Washington Territory. The
Indians frequently spear them through the ice, or
take them in nets, some of these weighing ten to
twelve pounds each. But these large ones rarely
rise to the fly. However, Colonel Gibson, of the
U. S. A., commanding at Fort Missoula, took one
on a fly that weighed nine pounds and two ounces,
and other instances have been recorded in which
they have been taken by this method nearly as large.
They have frequently been taken on live bait, and
have been known to attack a small trout that had
been hooked on a fly, before he could be landed.
While I was hunting in the Bitter Root Mount-.
ains in the fall of '83, a carpenter, who was building
a bridge across the Bitter Root, near Corvallis, conceived the idea of fishing for trout with a set hook.
He rigged a heavy hook and line, baiting with a live
minnow, tied it to a willow that overhung one of the
deep pools, and left it over night. By this means
he secured three of these monster trout in a week,
that weighed from nine to eleven and a half pounds
The supply of trout in the Bitter Root seems
to be almost unlimited, for it has been fished
extensively for ten years past, and yet a man may
- catch twenty-five to fifty pounds a day any time
during the season, and is almost sure to do so if he
is at all skillful or "lucky." I know a native
Bitter Rooter who, during the summer and fall of
'84, fished for the market, and averaged thirty
pounds a day all through the season, which he sold. AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
in Missoula at twenty-five cents a pound. Of course,
the majority of the ranchmen along the stream do
little or no fishing, but the officers and men at Fort
Missoula do an immense amount of it, as do the residents of the town of Missoula; and visiting sportsmen from the East take out hundreds of pounds
every season. But the stream is so large and long,
and its net-work of tributaries so vast, and furnish
such fine spawning and breeding grounds, that it is
safe to say there will be trout here a century hence.
The heathen Chinee has never been permitted to
ply his infamous dynamite cartridge here, or in any
of the streams of this vicinity, as he has long been
doing in Colorado, Nevada, and elsewhere, and this
fact alone would account for the unimpaired supply
in these streams.
The reproductive power of the mountain trout is
equal to all the tax likely to be levied against it
here by legitimate sportsmen, and if dynamiting
and netting are prohibited hereafter as heretofore,
no fear need be felt as to the future supply.
• The market fisherman of wdiom I spoke was a
faithful devotee to the fly, and never would use any
other lure. A white or gray hackle was his favorite.
He used a stiff, heavy pole, however, about ten feet
long, cut from the jungles that grow on the river bottom, and a heavy line, a foot shorter, with double gut
for attaching the fly. He fished from the shore or
waded, as was necessary to reach the best water.
He cast with both hands, and the instant the fly
touched the water he would raise the tip so that
the line would'just clear, and then trail or skitter
the fly gently, but rapidly, toward him.    Thus, the 272
line being taut, when the fish arose to the fly he
would simply hook himself. Then he was ignomin-
iously "yanked," and either landed high and dry
on mother earth or in the ranchman's gunny-
Although devoid of sport and requiring little skill,
it was the most effective method of filling a "bag"
that I have ever seen practiced. I have seen him
take ten to twenty-five trout in an hour's fishing
and not miss a single rise. I had this man with me
On a hunting trip, and whenever we came within
two miles of a trout stream our table was> sure to be
supplied with an abundance of fish.
I visited Fort Maginnis in September, 1883, and
during my stay, Capt. F. H. Hathaway kindly
invited me to spend a day fronting with him on Big
Spring creek, a beautiful stream that flows out of
the Snowy Mountains about twenty-five miles from
the post. We left,the captain's quarters at noon,
comfortably seated on his buckboard, while Sam,
Fishel, and Dick Thomas rode their horses and drove
a pack-mule, which carried a part of our provisions,
the remainder being carried on the buckboard.
We covered the twenty-five miles by six o'clock,
camping at the base of the Snowies, within two miles
of the source of the creek, which source is a cluster
of large cold springs. We pitched our tent on the
bank of the creek, where it murmured sweet music
in its course over the rugged bottom and lulled us
into quiet and refreshing sleep with its rhythmical
sounds. When we awoke the next morning the
foot-hills all about us glistened with frost, and the
high peaks, three or four miles away, were draped AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
in a mantle of spotless white, which the storm-king
had spread upon them a few days ago.
Notwithstanding the lateness of the season, a few
musquitoes began to sing about our ears as soon as
the sun came up. Fish el, who was full of droll
good nature; observed them.
" Well, look here," he said, as he broke the ice in
the water pail and dipped out a basinful to wash in,
"I'll be doggoned if here aint a lot of these measley
musquitoes buzzing around here with buffalo overcoats on."
The keen mountain air at this low temperature,
and the grand scenery with which we were surrounded, combined to sharpen our appetites, and
our breakfast beside a rousing camp-fire was enjoyed
as only a meal can be enjoyed amid such surroundings. As soon as the sun had risen high enough,
to banish the frost and warm the air slightly, the
grass all about us was set in motion by thousands
of grasshoppers who gamboled playfully, in order,
apparently, to warm up their benumbed limbs
and get an appetite for breakfast. All hands then
turned out and harvested a goodly supply of them,
for we had been advised that the trout in that stream
would not take a fly so late in the season.
Then we proceeded to business; the captain and
Dick fishing up the stream and I down, while Sam
took his rifle and went across the hills in search of
game. The stream, where we started in, was not
more than three to four feet wide and two feet deep
in the deepest holes, yet at the first cast I hooked a
trout that after a few vigorous plunges took the
barb off my hook and departed.    I put on a new
18 274
one and had better luck next time, for in another
hole a few rods farther down I took one that weighed
a pound and a half.
In the meantime the captain shouted to me, and
looking up the stream I saw him displaying one of
about the same size. We each followed our courses
and did not meet again for some hours, when the
captain came down to see how I was getting on. He
had eight and I had six, the average weight of
which was over a pound each. He relieved me of
my load and returned to camp, and from that time
on did but little fishing himself, preferring, in
the fullness of his generous nature, to devote the
most of his time to accompanying me, showing
me the most favorable points, exulting in my success, and in every way possible promoting my comfort. Whenever he left me for a short time he would
send one of his men to take my fish to camp, dress,
them, and do anything and everything else possible
for me.
I fished down the creek nearly two miles during
the day, going over parts of the stream two or three
times, not ceasing from the fascinating sport long-
enough to even eat a lunch that I carried in my
pocket. Nor did I turn my steps toward camp until,
it became so dark that the fish would no longer rise.
Then, when I started campward, I met Dick coming-
with an extra saddle horse which the captain had
kindly sent for me to ride.
After supper came the always charming social
intercourse around the camp-fire, the exchange of
personal notes of the day's sport—the experience
meeting, so to i
No one had misgivings to AND   OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
record so far as the fishing was concerned. Each had
enjoyed his full measure of the grand sport, as was
evidenced by the display of the several strings of
salmon-colored beauties which hung around the
camp-fire. There was not a fingerling in the entire
catch. No one had caught a trout during the day
of less than four ounces in weight, and very few of
that size had been taken. The majority of them
ranged between half a pound and two pounds, and
the numbers were only limited by the amount of
work each had done. My friends, being residents
and accustomed to this kind of sport whenever
they choose to enjoy it, had not cared to fish all
day, and'consequently had not taken so many as I,
but had taken all they wanted.
The only man in the party who had anything to
regret in the day's experience was Sam. He had
started a large bull elk early in the morning and
had followed him several miles, but had not been
able to get a favorable shot, though he had twice
caught sight of him. We all sympathized deeply
with him in his misfortune, for Sam is an expert
shot with the rifle, and if he had ever drawn a bead
on the game we should have had elk steak on our
table at the next meal, sure.
We broke camp early the next morning and prepared to start for home, but decided to fish down
the creek till near noon before leaving it. We drove
down about a mile, when I alighted and started in,
the others distributing themselves at other points
along the stream. The trout rose as rapidly and
gamily as on the previous day, and I soon had a
load in my creel that pulled down uncomfortably. 1
!   I
Among them was one old nine-spot which turned the
scales at two and a quarter pounds after having been
out of the water over two hours. He measured
seventeen and a half inches in length.
The captain told me of a certain deep hole where
he said an old pioneer made his headquarters, wdio
had taken off two hooks and leaders for him on two
different days during the summer. When I reached
the hole I recognized it in a moment by the captain's
description. It was in a short bend or angle of the
creek. On the opposite side from where I stood, and
on the lower angle of the square, the channel had
cut a deep hole under an overhanging bank, which
was covered with willows. These drooped over the
water and shaded it nicely. There was a slight
eddy there and the surface of the water was flecked
with bits of white foam which came from the rapids
just above.    What a paradise for a wary old trout!
I stopped about forty feet above the hole and put
on one of the largest hoppers in my box; then I
reeled out ten or fifteen feet of line and cast into
the foot of the rapid. As the current straightened
out my line I reeled off more of it and still more until
it floated gently and gracefully down into the dark
eddy, and when within two feet of the edge of the
bank there was a whirl, a surge, a break in the
water, as if a full-grown beaver had been suddenly
frightened from his sun bath on the surface and had
started for the bottom. I saw a long, broad gleam
of silvery white, my line cut through the water, and
the old-timer started for his bed under the bank.
I struck at the proper instant, and, bending my
little  split bamboo   almost   double,   brought him AND  OTHER HUNTING  ADVENTURES.
up with a short turn. He darted up the stream a
few feet, and again turning square about started for
his den. I snubbed him again. This time he shot
down the creek, and, tnrning, made another dive
for his hiding place. Again I gave him the butt,
but this time he was determined to free himself,
and with a frantic plunge he tore the hook from his
mouth and disappeared in his dark retreat.
My heart sank within me, when I realized that
he was gone. He was truly a monster, fully two
feet long, and I think would have weighed four
pounds or over. I reeled up and made two or three
more casts in the same hole. His mate, a comely-
looking fellow, but not nearly so large, came out
once and smelt of the bait but declined to take it.
He had evidently seen enough to convince him that
v CD
it was not the kind of a dinner he was looking
for. I fished down the creek for an hour and then
returned and tried the old fellow again, but he had
not yet forgotten his recent set-to with me, and
refused to come out. I presume he is still there,
and will probably reign for some years to come,
the terror of tackle owners, unless someone gets
a hook firmly fastened in his jaw, and has tackle
sufficiently derrick-like to land him; and whoever
that lucky individual may be, I congratulate him in
advance. My tackle would have held him if I had
been fortunate enough to get the proper cinch on
him, and the only thing I have to regret in thinking of -che trip, is that I was not so fortunate.
We had enough, however, without him. We took
home forty-eight trout that weighed, when dressed,
sixty pounds, and of all the many days I have spent 278
fishing in the many years long gone, I never enjoyed
any more intensely, never had grander sport than in
these two days on Big Spring creek.
It has been stated that the mountain trout lacks
the game qualities of our Eastern brook trout. I
have not found it so. They are quite as gamy, as
vicious in their fighting, and as destructive to fine
tackle as the brook trout, the only perceptible difference being that they do not fight so long. They
yield, however, only after a stubborn resistance,
sufficiently prolonged to challenge the admiration
of any angler. I have caught a number of two and
three pounders that required very careful and
patient handling for twenty to thirty minutes
before they could be brought to the landing net.
There are various other streams along the line of
the Northern Pacific Railroad which afford almost
equally as fine sport as the Bitter Root, and some
of them that are even more picturesque and beautiful. In fact, nearly every stream reached by the
road, between Billings and.Puget Sound, teems with
these graceful beauties. By leaving the road at
almost any point on the Rocky Mountain or Pend
d'Orielle Divisions and pushing back into the
mountains twenty to one hundred miles, the enterprising angler may find streams whose banks have
seldom been profaned by the foot of a white man;
where an artificial fly has seldom or never fallen
upon the sparkling blue waters, and yet where millions of these beautiful creatures swarm, ready to
rush upon anything that reaches the surface of
their element bearing the least resemblance to their
natural food, with all the fearless enthusiasm of AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
nntainted and unrestrained nature. In these wilder
regions the tourist will also find frequent use for his
rifle, for elk, bear, deer, mountain sheep, and other
large game may yet be found in reasonable quan-
"tities in all such undisturbed fastnesses.
PORTHERN.  WISCONSIN is one vast and
M. almost unbroken deer range.    It is pen-
I   etrated  by several railroads, along the
P„ immediate lines of which are a few small
| farms and some fair-sized towns and villages;
but on going a few miles back from these
roads, in almost any direction, one passes
i||J the confines of  civilization and enters  a
|F wilderness that is broken only by the numerous logging camps, and these as a rule
are occupied only in winter.    Thousands  of acres
of   these pine   lands   have been   chopped   over,
and the old slashings, having grown up to brush,
brambles,   and   briars   of   various   kinds,   furnish
excellent cover and  feeding grounds for   Cervus
True, it is difficult to see the game at any great
distance in these thickets, unless the hunter take his
stand on a high stump or log and wait until the deer
come in sight. This is a favorite and very successful
method of hunting with many who know how to
choose location and time of day. But adjacent to
these slashings are usually large tracts of open
woods, frequently hardwood ridges, through which
the game passes at intervals while moving from one
feeding ground to another. In such localities a deer
may be seen at a considerable distance, and shots
are often taken at 150 to 200 yards.
I remember one of my first trips to these hunting
grounds, many  years ago, before I knew how to
<D v v \D
sneak on the game, and before I had gained sufficient
control of my nerves to be able to stop a deer while
vaulting over a fallen tree trunk, turning suddenly
from left to right and vice versa, as a wary old buck
will frequently do when fleeing from a hunter. I
stopped- at a hotel in Merrill, on the Wisconsin
Yalley Division of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St.
Paul Railway, and, having learned something of
the nature of the surrounding country by a hasty
tramp in the afternoon, I got up the next morning
and started at four o'clock to what .seemed to be a
favorable piece of ground. By daylight I was on
the margin of a large slash that, since being chopped
off, had burned over and then grown up to brush
and weeds. There were many blackened trunks of
trees lying everywhere, and some still standing that
had been scorched and roasted in the great conflagration that had swept over the country, but had not
been entirely consumed. These latter, stripped of
bark and limbs, looked like gloomy monuments
placed there to mark the resting places of their
hapless fellows, and the whole aspect of the landscape in the gray of dawn was weird and chilly in
the extreme. There was scarcely a breath of air
stirring, and by listening intently I could hear the
rustling of dry leaves and the occasional snapping
in various directions, that indicated the •282
near presence of the game and set^my blood tingling
and my nerves twitching.
So soon as there was sufficient light to show the
front sight of my rifle against a gray stump fifty
yards away, I started to move, as cautiously as I
knew how, toward a clump of wild-cherry bushes
that I had seen moving and from which came slight
but suspicious sounds. When within thirty yards
cf it I stepped on a stick that snapped, and simultaneously with the sound a monster buck leaped
high in the air, and landing twenty feet away,
nttered a shrill whistle and stopped, with his head
thrown up, to try and locate the danger. I brought
my rifle to my shoulder with a convulsive jerk,
pointed it at him and fired without thinking of the
sights, and of course scored an ignominious miss.
Well, I wish every friend I have on earth could
have been there at that moment. That whole tract
-of country, as far as I could see, seemed alive with
deer. Thrash! Crash! Bumpety-bump! Phew!
There was jumping, thrashing through the brush,
whistling, flipping and flapping of white flags, and
the air seemed full of glistening gray coats. The
buck I had shot at sailed away, and. was soon followed in his flight by a doe and two fawns. A doe
and fawn went in another direction, three fawns
in another, two does and a buck in another, and so
•on ad infinitum.
I stood there, like a mile-post by the roadside,
until they had all vanished, forgetting that I had
•other cartridges in my belt. Finally I recovered
consciousness.and began to wonder where some of
those deer would stop. If I could only get another
chance such as I had on that buck, wouldn't I down
him in fine style? I would plant a bullet in the
center of his shoulder next time sure. No dime-
novel scout was ever more unerring in his aim than
I would be if I could only get another aim. I
started on toward the top of a ridge, over which one
•of the large bucks had disappeared, and on reaching
it I saw him, or some other one, just behind an oak
grub on the opposite side-hill. I raised my rifle and
took careful aim this time, but was so nervous that
I could not hold the bead on him, and when I pulled
he made another series of those daring leaps that
soon carried him out of sight. I fired a second shot
at him as he went, but with no better result than
the first.
I now crossed over to the farther edge of the slash,
and, seeing no more game, started through a body of
large pines to an old burn that I had been told lay
a mile to the east. I was walking hurriedly through
this green timber, not expecting to see game, and
stepped upon a large log, when a doe and two fawns,
that had been lying down in the top of a fallen tree,
jumped and ran across in front of me, offering an
excellent opportunity for a good shot to have killed
all three of them. I slung lead after them at a lively
rate, firing five or six shots before they got out of
sight, but did no further harm than to accidentally
clip an ear off one of the fawns close down to its
After they were gone I went and picked up this
trophy and stopped to meditate on my ill-luck, or
want of skill.    I then remembered that though I had 284
striven to hold the front sight on one or the other
of the deer at each shot after the first, I had entirely
forgotten to look through the notch in the rear
sight. Chagrined and mortified beyond all power
to describe, I trudged along and finally reached the
burn I was in search of. The sun was now high
in the heavens and shining brightly, so that the
game was no longer on foot, but had sought the
seclusion of various bits of dense cover and lain
down.' My only chance for a shot was, therefore, in
walking them up, which I proceeded to do. The
brush was dense all over this burn, so that I could
rarely see twenty yards in any direction, yet I hoped
against hope for another chance. I was desperate
over the disgraceful failures I had made, and yet I
knew I could shoot. I had killed quantities of small
game with the same rifle I was then using and had
killed one deer years ago with an old muzzle loader.
I could always depend upon making a good fair
score at the target at 200 yards,  or even longer
CD t/ CD
ranges, and yet I had shot away a dozen cartridges
CD *J */ O
this morning at deer, some of which were standing
within a few yards of me, and had not stopped one
of them. I Was furious, and determined that the
next shot should tell.
I walked down an old logging-road several hundred
yards, hoping that some belated traveler might be
found crossing or walking in it, but, failing in this,
I turned out and walked along the crest of a ridge,
looking down both sides of it. Struggling through
briers and brush, making a good deal of noise, unavoidably, I still failed to jump a deer until I left
the ridge and started toward a " draw" in which AND   OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
was a small meadow or slough. When half way
down the hill I came to a large stump, about four
feet high, from which a tree had been cut when the
snow was deep. I climbed upon this to take a look
at the surrounding country. As I did so, a large
buck that had been been lying just below it, sprang
from his bed and bounded away through the brush,
showing here and there a flash of his white flag and
a gleam of his majestic antlers, but not enough of
his body to shoot at. I was perfectly cool now. My
nervousness had all disappeared. In short, I was
mad.    I stood watching his course and awaiting
o o
developments with all the confidence and coolness
of a veteran, instead of the novice I really was. He
ran down the long hill, across the swale, and up the
hill on the opposite side, and, on reaching the top of
it and coming out upon open ground, turned broadside and stopped to look at me, doubtless deeming
himself perfectly safe at that great distance. Standing erect on that high stump I was clear above the
surrounding underbrush and had a fine view of the
magnificent quarry. His head was thrown high up
. and well back; his ears erect, nostrils distended, and
even at that distance I imagined I could see the
defiant gleam of his jet black eye. His glossy coat
glistened in the brilliant autumn sunlight, and his
spreading antlers and powerful muscular development characterized him as a giant among his kind.
As I raised my rifle slowly to my shoulder, I felt
that at last I had perfect control of my nerves and
that I was in some measure to redeem myself from
the ignominy of past failures. I had elevated my
rear sight for 250 yards, and as I looked through CRUISINGS  IN THE CASCADES
the delicate notch in it and saw the little golden
front bead glimmer on the buck's shoulder, the muzzle of the rifle was as steady and immovable as if
screwed in a vice. There was no tremor, no vibration now; and holding well up to the spine and
showing the full size of the bead, to allow for the
distance, I pressed the trigger.
At the report the deer bounded into the air as if
a dynamite cartridge had exploded under him, and,-
lowering his head to a line with his body, started
to run. There was none of those lofty, airy leaps
now, no defiant waving to and fro of the white flag.
That emblem was closely furled. His pride was
broken and his sole object in life seemed to be to get
out of the country as soon as possible. The course
he had taken lay along the top of the ridge and I
had a fine view of the run from start to finish. He
at once began to waver in his course, turning slightly
from left to right and from right to left. He
stumbled and staggered like a blind horse. He ran
crashing and smashing into the dead top of a fallen
tree, breaking the dry limbs, some of them three or
four inches in diameter, as if they had been rye
straws. When he had gone as far into this labyrinth
of branches as he con Id get, he sank to the ground
as if exhausted, but suddenly rose again, extricated
himself by a few desperate struggles to the right,
and sped on. He ran squarely against a good-sized
sapling with such force as to throw him prostrate
upon his side. Still, his great vitality was not spent,
and, struggling to his feet, he dashed on again.
Next he ran against a log that lay up from the
ground some three feet and was set back upon his haunches. He quickly recovered, took it in good
shape, and now dashed into a clump of oak grubs
that still held their dry leaves.   Tearing and forcing
** CD O
his way through these, he forged ahead with all his
remaining strength and plunged headlong into
another fallen tree-top. In this he struggled, trying
to force his way out until he sank upon the ground
from sheer loss of blood and expired. From where
he stood when I shot, to where he finally fell was
about 300 yards.
I stepped the distance from where I stood to where
the deer was when I fired and found it to be 267
yards. Taking up his trail, I found the
copiously sprinkled with blood wliere he came down
at the end of his first jump, and the leaves and brush
were crimsoned with it from there to where he gave
up the struggle. On coming up to him I found
that my bullet had drifted slightly to the left, owing-
to the force of a strong wind which was blowing at
the time, and cut his throat almost as neatly as I
could have done it with my hunting-knife. The
oesophagus was entirely severed and the thorax,
nearly so. His body was sadly bruised and lacerated by the terrible ordeal through which he had
passed, and I concluded that he must have gone-
stone blind when the bullet struck him. In no'
other way can I account for his strange conduct. I
saved his head and had it mounted as a memento
of one of the most remarkable scratch shots I ever-
ARLY autumn's   frosts   had   tinged   the
foliage of the birch, maple, oak, and elm
trees, that   intermingle   in the great
pine forests,  with   a   thousand   rich
colors and shades of gold, brown, olive,
pink, and crimson, while the pines, the
hemlocks,  the firs,  and the  cedars still
wore their dark mantels of perennial green,
and all Nature was clad in her sweetest smiles.
A solitary woodpecker, perched on the   topmost
branch of a dead giant of the forest, reaching out
far above the surrounding network of leafy branches,
from which he might survey the surrounding country, sounded his morning reveille and awaited the
coming of his mate.   The dry leaves with which
mother earth was carpeted, rustled now and again
to the bound of the saucy red squirrel, the darting
hither and thither of the shy wood-mouse, or the
tread of the stupid,  half-witted porcupine.    The
chill October wind soughed througlr the swaying
"tree-tops, laden with the rich ozone that gives life,
health, and happiness to all animate beings that are
permitted to inhale it.
On such a morning, and amid such a scene of
natural loveliness, I left the train at Junction City,
on the Wisconsin Central Railway, started on a
three-mile jaunt to" a logging camp, for a day or two
on a deer roundup. I reached my destination at nine
o' clock. The men had long since gone to their work,
but the "boss" had returned to camp to attend to
some business in hand, and,, welcoming me with the
generous hospitality that is always shown by these
sturdy sons of the forest to strangers, bade me make
myself at home as long as I cared to stay. To my
inquiry as to the presence of game in the vicinity,
he said there was plenty of it, and that the men saw
one or more deer nearly every day while going to
or returning from their work, which was only a
mile away.
I lost no time in getting out and entering an old
slashing to the east of the camp where the foreman
said signs were plentiful. I had not gone more
than half a mile, when, turning to the left, on an
old logging road, I saw several fresh tracks of deer
that had been feeding there that morning. It was
now eleven o'clock in the forenoon and I had. no
hope of finding the game on foot at that late hour,
but depended entirely upon jumping a deer from its
bed and upon having to risk, in all probability, a
running shot. I moved very cautiously, however,
and was on the qui vive for any straggler that
might perchance be moving. Every foot of ground
that came within the scope of my vision was carefully scanned and every sound or movement of leaf
or shrub, no matter how slight, received the most
careful attention, during long and frequent pauses,
before proceeding on my way.
I followed the road through various turns,. along
19 290
the bed of a slight ravine, and as I rounded one of
its abrupt bends that gave me a view of a considerable expanse of hill-side, I stopped again to reconnoitre. The ground was covered with a dense growth,
of weeds, raspberry briers, and wild-cherry bushes,
that had sprung up since the timber had been,
cut off, all of which had been stricken by
recent frosts, and dried by subsequent sun and.
wind. In these dry weeds I saw a slight movement,
and on careful examination was able to distinguish,
a faint outline of a doe, standing partially behind a.
large stump, a hundred yards away. Her head and.
shoulders were entirely hidden by the stump, and
I had to step back some distance before I could get
sight of a vital part to shoot at. As her shoulder
came in view I knelt on my right knee, rested my
left elbow on my left knee, and, drawing a fine bead
on her shoulder, fired. She dropped in her tracks.
My aim was a little higher than I intended, and the
bullet, passing through her shoulder blades high,
up, severed the spine betwoen them on its way,
killing her as suddenly as if it had entered the
brain. At the report of the rifle a young buck,
bounded out of the brush near by and waved me a.
- vaunting farewell as he disappeared over the ridge,
not giving me even a fair running shot. I dressed
the doe and went back to camp for dinner, the
welcome notes of the huge old tin horn, floating
in musical cadence through the forest, summoning-
me at that moment to that much needed repast.
After dinner I went out on another old unused
logging road, leading to the south, and, following it
a few hundred yards, branched off to another which AND   OTHER HUNTING  ADVENTURES.
led to the southwest. A number of fallen trees,
lying across these, gave me frequent opportunities
to mount their prostrate trunks and look over large
tracts of surrounding country.    In thus sauntering
and looking I had spent an hour or more when,
on passing an unusually dense clump of tall dry weeds
that stood near the road, I was startled by a sudden
crashing and rattling among them, and an instant
later two large does broke cover at the farther side
and started across a narrow open space. But before
they reached the farther side of it the voice of my
Winchester express was reverberating among the
lofty pines, and a cloud of smoke hung between me
and where I had last seen them.. I sprang to one side
to avoid this, but they had both disappeared in the
thicket, and I could still hear one of them crashing away toward the green woods. I felt sure that
I had hit the other, and, going to where I had last
seen her, I found blood, hair, and several small bits
of flesh on the ground and the neighboring weeds.
Following the trail a distance of fifty feet, I found
her lying dead with her throat cut, and, in fact, a
considerable portion of it shot away. The express
bullet, driven by a heavy charge of powder, has
such a high velocity that when it strikes flesh it
invariably makes a big hole in it. One hind leg was
also broken squarely off at the knee and the bone
protruded through the skin.
I stood pondering and puzzling over this strange
phenomenon. How in the name of wonder could
one bullet break her hind leg and cut her throat?
I stooped down and examined the wound. To my
surprise, I found that it had not been made with a CRUISINGS IN THE CASCADES
bullet at all. The joint was dislocated and the skin
torn away until the disjointed member hung only
by a narrow segment. Then the mystery was
deeper than ever. What could possibly have caused
this violent and terrible wound? It had been made
after I shot, for at that time the agile creature was
bounding over logs and through clumps of brush
with all the grace and airiness of her sylph-like
nature. I turned, took up her back track, and,
following it thirty or forty feet, came to a fallen
CD t/ *J s
tamarack sapling about six inches in diameter, that
laid up about a foot from the ground. The track
showed that the poor creature, in one of her frantic
leaps, just after being hit, came down with her fore
feet on one side of this pole and her hind feet on the
other; that one hind foot had slipped on the soft
earth and slid under the pole to her knee, and that
the next bound had brought it up against the pole
in the form of a lever—much as a logger would place
his handspike under it in attempting to throw it out
of his way—and the pole, being far too long and
heavy to yield to her strength, the leg had j been
snapped short off.
I describe this incident merely as one of the many
strange and mysterious ones that come under the
observation of woodsmen, and not with any desire to
give pain to sensitive and sympathetic readers.
The beautiful animal did not suffer long from this
hurt, however, for she was dead when I reached her,
within perhaps three or four minutes after I tired
the fatal shot. I saved her head and had it mounted
and it hangs beside that of the buck whose taking
off has been described and whose throat was also AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
neatly severed by the bullet.  They were two remarkable shots.
After dressing this deer I returned to the old burn
in which I had killed the doe in the morning, and
took a stand on a high, flat-top stump, which commanded a good view of a large tract of surrounding
country. I felt certain that the young buck that
was with her when I killed her would come back
toward night to look up his companion, for he probably did not realize that she was dead. I stood
within thirty yards of her carcass and for an hour
kept a close watch in every direction, turning slowly
from one position to another, so that any game that
came in sight could not detect the movement and
would, if seeing me at all, consider me one of the
numerous old high stumps with which the landscape
was marked. Toward sundown a large, handsome
buck came out of the green woods half a mile away,
walking deliberately toward me. I could see only
a proud head and spreading antlers, and an occasional glimpse of his silvery-gray back as he marched
with stately but cautious tread through the dry
weeds. He stopped frequently to look and listen
for danger, or the coy maidens of his kind, of whom
he was in search. Oh, how I longed for a shot at
him! With bated breath and throbbing heart I
watched his slow progress across the open country.
But, alas! the wind (what little there was) was
wrong. When within' about 200 yards . of me he
scented me and bounded squarely sidewise as
though a rattlesnake had bitten him, uttering at the
same time one of those peculiarly thrilling whistles
that might have been heard in the stillness of the 294
evening a mile or more. He struck a picturesque
attitude and scanned the country in every direction,
trying to locate the danger but could not. After a
few seconds he made another high bound, stopped,
and whistled again. I stood perfectly still, and he
could make nothing animate out of the inanimate
objects about him. He leaped hither and thither,
snorted, whistled, and sniffed the air as we have seen
a wild colt do when liberated in a pasture field after
long confinement in his stall.
Although still unable to satisfy himself as to the
whereabouts of his foe, he finally seemed to decide
that that was not a healthy neighborhood for him,
and, taking his back trail, started to get out of
it by a series of twenty-foot leaps. I was tempted
to hazard a shot at him, but could see such a small
portion of his body when standing that the chances
were against making a hit. Besides, as already
stated, I felt sure of a shot at shorter range by
keeping still. I watched and listened closely in
every direction.    The sun had gone down.    Night
was silently wrapping her somber mantle over the
vast wilderness, and the only sounds that broke the
oppressive stillness were the occasional croakings of
the raven as he winged his stately flight to his
rookery, and the low, solemn sighing of the autumn
breezes through the pine tops. I was benumbed
with cold, and was tempted to desert my post and
make a run for camp. I raised my rifle to my
shoulder to see if I could yet see the sights, for
stars were beginning to sparkle in the firmanent.
Yes; the little gold bead at the muzzle still gleamed
in the twilight, with all the brilliancy of one of the AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
lamps of heaven. I turned to take a last look in
the direction of the carcass of my morning's kill,
and—imagine my astonishment if you can—there
stood the young buck, licking the body of his fallen
*/ CD CD v
mate!    How he ever got there through all those
brush and woeds without my hearing or seeing him
will always remain a profound mystery to me. But a
ball from my express entering his shoulder and passing out at his flank laid him dead by the side of his
companion, and completed the best score I ever
made on deer—three in one day—and I had fired but
three shots in all.
$Tv \\
^JTrY. George T. Pease lives in a log shanty, in
t_v the heart of the great Wisconsin pine
^Y woods, five miles west of Wausaukeo
'station,  on the Milwaukee & Northern
Railroad. A beautiful little lake stretches-
out in front of his door, in which numerous black bass make their home, and
several brooks meander through the wil-
^1*   - derness not far away, all of which abound
/JS! Ill in the sprightly, sparkling brook trout.   Deer
H I f roam over the hills far and near, and when
the first "tracking snow" comes, in the van of icy
winter, their hoof-prints may be found within a
hundred yards of the cabin any morning.    Pease is
a genial, kind-hearted old man, in whose humble
quarters the true sportsman is  always welcome.
Reared in these woods, and bred in the pure atmosphere that abounds here, a hunter by trade  and
from necessity, he is a simple, honest child of nature.
With the exception of four or five years spent in
the service of his country, during the war of the
Rebellion, he has lived and hunted in this region
since the days of his boyhood, and his gray hairs
bespeak for him the respect men always feel for the-
honest old woodsman.
I spent several days hunting with him in Novem-
and the intervening nights-
portion of each—in talking with him. I learned in
that short time to esteem and value him as one of
the best guides and hunters I ever knew, and one of
the truest friends I have. Although he has been
hunting so many years and has always been a close
observer of the habits of game; although thoroughly
posted on woodcraft in all its details, he is not
egotistical as are so many old woodsmen. He never
intrudes his opinions on any subject unless asked
for them; never dictates what anyone under his
guidance shall do. He modestly suggests, and if
you do not agree with him, defers cheerfully to
your judgment.
He is intelligent, well-informed generally, full of
interesting reminiscences of his life in the wilderness, and relates many thrilling episodes in his experience in hunting deer, bear, wolves, etc. He told
me that once, when hunting on the Menominee river,
he saw a doe lying down, and raised his rifle to shoot
v CD
her. But before firing he noticed that she had seen
him and was struggling to get up. As she did not
succeed in this, he concluded that she must have
been wounded, and started toward her. She kept
struggling, but was unable to rise, and on going to
her he found that she had lain down near a large
hemlock root, that had curved out of the ground,
forming ah arch or loop three or four inches high.
One of her hind legs had slipped under this root to
the knee, and when she had attempted to get up she
had probably been thrown violently on her side, dislocating the hip joint and thus rendering it utterly
impossible for her to draw the imprisoned leg from
under the root. He said the poor creature had appar-
B^Z 293
ently been in this pitiable plight several days; that
she was starved and emaciated almost to a shadow,
and had tramped and pawed a hole in the earth more
than a foot deep, over the entire space reached by
her fore feet. Had she not been discovered, the poor
creature must soon have died from starvation. As
it was, she was so weak that when he released her
leg from this strange trap she was unable to stand,
and he reluctantly killed her, as the speediest, most
humane, and, in fact, the only means of ending her
I reached the old man's cabin at about noon. We
hunted diligently all the afternoon, and though we
saw plenty of fresh tracks everywhere in the newly-
fallen snow, neither of us could get sight of a deer,
and when we met at the shanty at dark and
exchanged notes, Pease was sorely disappointed.
The. next forenoon was a repetition of this experience, and when we met again at the cabin for
dinner, both empty-handed, his disappointment was
intensified into despondency. We separated after
the noon meal, and -when wo came in at night, I
looked even more dejected and disgusted than ever,
and asserted, with a good deal of emphasis, that I
did not believe the '' blasted" country was any good
for game; that I thought he or someone had hunted
the deer and shot at them until they were so wild that
no man could get within 500 yards of one. He
insisted that such was not the case; that he had
been killing plenty of deer that fall, and that others
had killed a few in the neighborhood, but not
enough to spoil the hunting, as I claimed.    He said
our want of success utterly astonished him; that he
was truly sorry; that he could not account for it,
and that we should surely make a killing on the
"Have you seen any fresh tracks to-day?" I asked.
" Oh, yes, plenty of them; haven't you?"
"Well, yes, two or three; but I think the deer
that made them were ten miles away when I got
I Why," said he, " when I started out this afternoon I skirted along that big swamp, where you
hunted in the morning, and I saw where four deer
had crossed your track since you went along.    One
v t/ CD
of them was an awful big buck. I took up his trail
and followed it in hopes of overtaking him and getting a shot. He roamed and circled around among
the hills and through the swamps for, I reckon,
more than five miles. I walked just as still as I possibly could, for I knew we were mighty nigh out of
«/ CD v CD
meat, and I am gettin' mighty tired of bacon any-
J CD CD        */ «/
how. But somehow that buck heard me or smelt
me, or something, and the first and last I saw of him
was just one flip of his tail as he went over a ridge
about three hundred yards away. I sat down on a log
v v CD
and waited and studied a long time what to do or
where to go next; and finally I concluded I'd just
come in and get supper ready by the time you got
here. Set up, sir, and have a cup of coffee and some
of these baked potatoes and some of this bacon. It
ain't much of a supper, but maybe we'll feel a little
better after we eat it, anyway."
I surrounded one side of the rough pine table
suddenly, and when I got my mouth so full I couldn't
V   / CD v 300
talk plain, I said, in a careless, uninterested sort of
a wai
' I saw where you sat down on that log."
I Did you?"
"Yes; I sat down and rested there, too. I was
just about as tired and as disgusted and as mad as I
am now; but after sitting there ten or fifteen minutes,
I trudged along through that maple thicket just
below there, and when I got through it I saw a big
buck smelling along on a doe's track, up on the side-
hill, and I killed him and then started on after the
doe, and "
Pease had dropped his knife and fork, and was
looking at me with his mouth half open and his eyes
half shut.
"What did you say?" he inquired in a dazed, half-
whispered tone.
'' I say I killed the buck and then started ''
" You killed a buck?"
"When?" he gasped, with his mouth and eyes a
little wider open.
' I This afternoon,'' said I, calmly and complacently.
I Why just below that thicket; just below where
you sat down on the log."
The old man sat and gazed at me for two or three
minutes while I continued to eat as if nothing
unusual had happened.
" Are you joking?" he said at last.
"No; I'm telling you the straight truth. The
liver and heart are hanging out there on the corner
of the cabin; go out and look at them." AND  OTHER  HUNTING ADVENTURES.
" Well, I'll be dad blasted!" shouted the old man,
as he jumped up and grasped me by the hand.
"Why on earth didn't you say so when you first
came in? What did you want to deceive me for?
Why did you want to do all that kicking about the
hunting being so poor?"
"Oh, I just wanted to have a little fun with
Throughout that evening Pease was one of the
happiest men I ever saw. He seemed, and, in fact,
said he was, twice as proud to have me, his guest,
kill a deer as he would have beem. to have killed it
He chatted cheerfully until eleven o' clock before
showing any signs of sleepiness. This was about all
the game I cared to kill, so I asked Pease to go into
the station and get a team to come out and take my
meat in. In order to pass the forenoon pleasantly,
I took my rifle and started into the woods again.    I
«/ CD
went at once to the buck I had killed, reaching the
carcass shortly after sunrise. I cut down a jack
pine, and, trimming off the boughs, made a bed.
Then I laid down, took out a book and commenced
to read, while waiting for the team and for any deer
that might happen along.
But I had not read half a dozen lines when I
heard a slight rustling and cracking in the frozen
snow, and, looking in the-direction of the noise, I
saw a young spike buck walking slowly and deliberately down the hill not a hundred yards away. I
caught up my express and made a snap shot at him,
but in my haste and surprise missed him clear.
At the report he stopped, threw up his head and 302'
presented a beautiful picture, as well as a fair, easy
"Now, my lad," I said to myself,  "you are my
meat sure."
I was so confident of success this time that I
scarcely took any aim at all. Again I scored an
inglorious miss and the deer started away on a series
of long, high bounds. I threw in another cartridge,
held ahead of him, and as he struck the ground the
second time I pulled for the third time. Then there
was a circus of a kind that a hunter rarely sees.
The buck fell to bucking, bleating, and kicking.
His hind feet would go into the air like a couple of
arrows and with such force that they would snap
like a whip cracker. Then he would rear on his hind
feet and paw the air; then jump sidewise and backward. He threw himself twice in his gyrations, and
each time was on his feet again almost before I
could realize that he had gone down. This gymnastic exhibition lasted perhaps two or three
minutes, during which time I was so paralyzed with
laughter that I could not have shot within six feet
of him if I had tried. Besides, I wanted to see the
performance out. Finally the bucker recovered his
wits and skipped out. I followed and found that
he was discharging blood at such a rate that he
could not go far. He went into a large thicket. I
jumped him three times before I could get a fair shot
at him, and could hear him wheeze every time I came
near him. Finally I saw him lying a few yards
away, but his head was still up and I sent a bullet
through his neck. On examination I found* that
my first shot had cut the point of his breastbone. AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
off and had ruptured both his oesophagus and trachea.
I dragged him out and laid him by the side of the
big buck, and when Pease came in with the team
an hour later he said :
"Well, I'll be dad blasted if he hain't got another
I shall always remember that hunt as one of the
pleasantest of my life, considering the length of
time it occupied.
HE*workings of the law of evolution
are plainly discernible in the
development of the "cowboy," a
certain prominent and now well-
defined character of the far West—
one that was made necessary by,
and has grown out of, the vast cattle interests
which have, in the past two or three decades, spread
over that mystic region. His counterpart is scarcely
to be found anywhere else in the civilized world, for
the very good reason that such a species of manhood is not required anywhere else. True, cattle-
raising is carried on extensively in many States of
our Union and in various other countries, but
nowhere under the same conditions and on the
same plan as in the West; hence, though herders,
drovers, and the like are employed elsewhere, there
is no locality in which a class of men endowed with
such characteristics -and requiring such peculiar
tastes and faculties are to be found as are combined
in the cowboy of our Western plains. The life he
leads and the services he is required to perform call
into the business young men possessing tastes and
traits different from those of average human nature,
and such as are not found in men following any other
vocation, as a class. It is an occupation that entails,
.generally speaking, a life of isolation from society,
and in many cases from civilization. It is one in
which home comforts must be dispensed with; it is
one requiring its devotees to live on plain food, in
log huts, and to sleep in blankets at best; it is one
in which there is often intense hardship and suffering, and which exposes its disciples to dangers of
various kinds.
When all these facts and peculiarities of the
calling are considered we must readily perceive that
men of ordinary tastes and inclinations would not
seek to engage in it. Cowboys are not "nativeand
to the manor born." They do not follow in the
footsteps of their fathers as do young men on East-
-ern farms. The business is yet too young in our
Western Territories to have brought about this state
of affairs, though it will come to exist in future. But
at present cowboys are all exotics, transplanted from
Eastern soil. Let us consider, then, what manner of
boy or young man would adopt such a calling.
-Certainly not he who considers a well-spread table,
a cozy, cheerful room, a good soft bed, and neat,
tasty clothing essential to his health and happiness;
nor he who is unwilling to sever his connection
with the social circle or the family group; nor he
who must have his daily paper, his comfortable
office chair and desk; his telegraph and other commercial facilities and comforts; nor yet he who,
when he travels, must needs ride in a comfortable
carriage on the highway, or a Pullman coach on the
railway. But the young man who is willing to
in   the  occupation  of
rustling cattle"
20 306
on the plains, who "is willing to assume the title
of "cowboy," must be he who, although he may
love all these luxuries, and may perhaps have been
accustomed to enjoy them, has in his nature enough
of romance, enough love for outdoor life, enough
love of sport, excitement, and adventure, enough
enthusiasm for the wild freedom of the frontier, to
be willing to deny himself all these luxuries and
to allow such pleasures as the ranch and range can
afford, to compensate for them.
The love of money can not enter largely into the-
cohsideration of the question, for while the work is
often of the hardest kind a man can endure and the
hours of labor only limited by the men's power of
endurance, the wages usually paid are low. From.
$25 to $35 a month is the average rate of wages for
all good men on the range except the foreman, who
commands from $60 to $75 a month, according to his
ability, the number of men he is to have charge of,
and the responsibility of his position generally.
Ambition to succeed to this dignity, or a desire to
CD */   /
learn the cattle-growing business with a view of'
engaging in it on their own account, may induce
some boys to engage as herders, but the young man
who deliberately chooses this occupation is usually
one with a superabundance of vim, energy, and
enthusiasm; one who chafes under the restraints of
society, who is bored and annoyed by the quiet humdrum life of the Eastern village, city, or farm house;,
one who longs to go where he can breathe fresh air,
exercise his arms, legs, and lungs, if need be, -without,
disturbing the peace; one who, in short, requires,
more room to live in than his birthDlace affords. AND   OTHER'HUNTING  ADVENTURES.
Many a cowboy of to-day was, in his childhood
or youth, the street gamin, the newsboy, the
"hard nut" at school; the dare-devil of the rural
districts; the hero of daring exploits; the boy who
did not fear to climb to the top of the highest
tree to punch a squirrel out of his hole; who led the
raid on an orchard or watermelon patch on a dark
night; who at college was at the head of all wild,
reckless frolics, and was also well up in his classes;
who led the village marshal or the city policeman
many a wild-goose chase and caused them many a
sleepless night by his innocent though mischievous
pranks. He is the boy who was always ready for
a lark of any kind that could produce excitement,
fun, or adventure without bringing serious harm to
anyone.    He was not the vicious, thieving, lying,
*/ CD? t/ O/
sneaking boy, but the irrepressible, uncontrollable,
wild, harum-scarum chap who led the gang; the
champion of the weak; the boy who would fight
" at the drop of the hat" in defense of a friend of
his own sex or of even a stranger of the opposite
sex. These are the boys of ten, twenty, or thirty
years ago whom to-day you may find riding wild
t/ CD «/        t/ %) *J
cayuses on the cattle ranges of the boundless
As a class, they have been shamefully maligned.
That there are bad, vicious characters amongst them
can not be denied, but that many of the murders,
thefts, arsons, and other depredations which are
committed in the frontier towns and charged to
cowboys, are really committed by Indians, bummers,
superannuated buffalo hunters, and other hangers
on, who never do an honest day's work of any kind, 308
but who eke out a miserable, half-starved existence
by gambling, stealing, poisoning wolves, etc., is a
fact well known to every close student of frontier
life'. And yet, crimes and misdemeanors are occasionally committed by men who are, for the time
^^<nvj. Wm
being at least, regularly employed in riding the
range. Fugitives from justice, thieves, cut-throats,
and hoodlums of all classes from the large cities
have drifted West, and have sought employment on
the ranges because nothing better or more congenial offered; but such are seldom employed,
and if employed at all, are generally discharged as
soon as their true character is learned and their
places can be filled by worthier men. AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
Neither do I wish to defend the "fresh" voung
man from the East who goes West to "paralyze"
the natives, who gets a job on the ranch, makes
a break for "loud togs," arms, and knives, large
nickel-plated spurs, raises a crop of long hair and
1 catches on " to all the bad language of the country,
fills up on bad whisky at every opportunity and
then asserts that "he's a wolf, it's his night to
Nor do I wish to defend the swarthy, loud-oathed,
heavily-armed "greaser" of Mexico and the Texan
ranges, who accounts himself a '' cowboy'' par excellence, but who much prefers the filthy atmosphere
of the gambling den, or the variety dive of frontier
towns, to the pure air of the prairies. These are the
exceptions, and fortunately are in a " distinguished
minority," and it is but just that all such swaggering
humbugs should be loaded with the obloquy they
deserve, and should be appropriately branded, even
as their master's beasts are branded, that all the
world might know them, wherever found, for the
infamous humbugs that they are. My purpose
here is to champion the frank, honest, energetic,
industrious young fellows who engage in this calling
from pure motives, most of whom have fair educations, and some of whom are graduates of Eastern
colleges—who are brimful of pure horse-sense, and
who are ambitious to earn an honest living, and to
make themselves useful to their employers in every
possible way, aside from their ability to snare a
bullock. Many of these are Nature's noblemen,
and their good qualities shine through their rough
garb, as the sunlight of heaven shines through a 310
rift in a dark cloud. Their hearts, though encased
in blue flannel or water-proof canvas, are as light
as the air they breathe; their minds as pure and
clear as the mountain brooks from which they love
to drink; their whole natures as generous and liberal
as the boundless meadows upon which their herds
graze, and their hospitality only limited by the
supply of food and other comforts they have with
which to entertain a visitor. Strangers are always
welcome at their shacks, and no matter at what time
of day or night you arrive, you and 3 our horses
are promptly taken care of, you are invited to stay
and eat, to sleep if you will, and are promptly given to
understand that the best the ranch affords is at your
command. I have known many of these men intimately, and have never known one who would not
cheerfully share his last ounc; of food, his last dollar, or his only blanket with a needy stranger; or
who would not walk and allow an unfortunately
dismounted traveler to ride his horse half way to
camp, or the ranch, even though that might be a
hundred miles away. They invariably refuse all
remuneration for services or accommodations of such
nature, and if it be pressed upon them, the stranger is
liable to be told in language more expressive than
elegant they don't make their living bv taking care
*•' ** CD */ O
of tenderfeet.
As a class, they are brimful and running over with
wit,, merriment, and good humor. They are always
ready for any bit of innocent fun, but are not perpetually spoiling for a fight, as has so often been
said of them. They are at peace with all men, and
would not be otherwise from choice.    As a rule, if a AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
man quarrel with one of them, he forces the war and
is himself to blame. Their love of fun often leads
to trouble, though generally because the victim of
it does not know how, or is not willing, to either
'' chip in'' or excuse himself. They are fond of
"piping off" anything that is particularly conspicuous, or vice versa, no matter to whom it belongs,
and they dislike to see snobbish airs assumed in
their country, though such might pass current in
any Eastern city.
I once saw a dude step out of a hotel in Cheyenne,
wearing a silk hat, cut-away coat, lavender pants,
riigh pressure collar, scarlet velvet scarf, patent
leather shoes, etc. Several cowboys were riding
through the street and spied him.
"Say, Dick," said one of them, "what de ye
;s'pose it is?"
"Let's tackle it and see," said Dick; "it looks
"Pard, hadn't you better put them togs on ice?"
-queried another of the party. "They're liable to
■spile in this climate."
The youth was highly offended,   gave them  a
*/ CD ** 7 CD
liaughty, withering look, and without deigning a
reply of any kind turned to walk back into the hotel.
"Let's brand it," said Dick, and as quick as a
flash a lariat fell about the dude, closed round his
-slender waist, and he was a prisoner. The boys
.gathered round him, chaffed him good-naturedly,
took his hat and rubbed the nap the wrong way, put
.some alkali mud on his shoes, and then released him,
bidding him "go in and put on some clothes." A
little good-natured repartee on his part, or an in vita- 312
tion to drink or smoke, or a pleasant reply of any
kind, would have let him out without any unpleasant treatment; but he scorned them, and they considered it a duty to society to post him on how to act
when away from home.
A friend relates having seen an eccentric individual, with a long plaid ulster, walking along the
principal street in Miles City, and as the sun came
out from behind a cloud and commenced to beam
down with a good deal of force, he raised a green
umbrella. A " cow puncher" rode up and, pointing
at the umbrella, asked:
'' What is she pard? Fetch her in and put a drink
in 'er."
The man was both scared and mad.     He thought
he had been insulted by one of those "notorious,
ruffianly cowboys." He called "police." But the
police was not at hand, and in the disturbance that
followed his umbrella was spirited away, he knew
not whither or by whom, and his plaid ulster was
somewhat damaged by contact with mother earth.
All he would have had to do to" preserve the peace
and his self-respect, would have been to answer the
fellow good-naturedly in the first place, either
declining or accepting his invitation, and he could
have gone on Ids way unmolested; but he brought
a small-sized riot on himself by assuming a dignity
v CD CD v
that was out of place in that country and under such
In common with all other human beings, the cowboy requires and must have amusement of some
kind, and his isolated condition, depriving him of
the   privileges of theatres,  parties,  billiards,  and AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
other varieties of amusement that young men in the
States usually indulge in-; of the refining and restraining influences of the female sex, it is but natural that
his exuberance of spirit should find sport of other
kinds. His only sources of amusement on the ranch
are his rifle, revolver, bronco, lariat, and cards, and
in course of time he tires of these and seeks a change.
He goes to town and meets there some of his comrades or acquaintances, and they indulge in some
wild pranks, which to Eastern people, and especially
those who happen to fall victims to their practical
jokes, appear ruffianly. Their love of excitement
and adventure sometimes gets the better of their
judgment, and they carry their fun to excess. They
corral the crew of a train which has stopped at the
station, and amuse themselves and the passengers by
making the conductor, brakeman, baggageman,
engineer, and fireman dance a jig to the music of six-
shooters. In one instance they boarded the train
and made the Theo. Thomas orchestra (which happened to be aboard) give them an extemporaneous
concert. They have even been known, to carry their
revels to a still worse stage than this, and to resort
to acts of real abuse and injury against defenseless
people. But such acts on the part of genuine cowboys are rare. They are usually perpetrated by the
class, already mentioned, of "fresh" young chaps
or objectional characters who drift into the business
from other than pure motives, and frequently by
pretended cowboys who are not such in any sense of
the term. But by whomsoever perpetrated, such acts
are highly offensive to and vigorously condemned
by the respectable element in the business, both
■apismwmsimamsi 314
employers and employes. Much odium has attached
to the fraternity by such conduct, and much more
by reason of crimes committed by others and
charged to this class, so that the cowboy is in
much worse repute among Eastern people than he
would be if better known by them. And notwithstanding all the hard things with which these men
have been charged, I had 'much rather take my
chances, as to safety of life and personal property,
in a country inhabited only by them than in any
Eastern town or city with all their police "protection." When sojourning in cattle countries, I have
left my camp day after day and night after night,
with valuable property of various kinds lying in and
about it, without any attempt at concealment. I
have left my horses and mules to graze, wholly
unguarded, several days and nights together, and
though on my return I may have seen that my camp
had been visited, probably by several men, not a
thing had been disturbed, except that perchance
some of them had been hungry and had eaten a meal AND  OTHER. HUNTING ADVENTURES.
at my expense. It is the custom of the country to
leave camps and cabins at any time, and for as long a
time as necessary, without locking up or concealment
of any kind, and instances of stealing under such
circumstances are almost unheard of, while he who
would leave personal property similarly exposed
within the bounds of civilization would scarcely hope
to find it on his return.
An incident may serve to illustrate how suddenly
Eastern people change their opinions of cowboys
on close acquaintance. I was going west a few
years since on the Northern Pacific Railroad, and
stepping off the train at Dickinson, Dak., met
Howard Eaton, an old-time friend and fellow hunter,
a typical cowboy, who has charge of a ranch and
'a large herd of cattle in the ' - Bad Lands'' on the
Little Missouri river. He was dressed in the regulation costume of the craft—canvas pants and jacket,
leather chaparejos, blue flannel shirt, and broad-
brimmed white felt hat. His loins were girt about
with a well-filled cartridge-belt, from which hung
the six-shooter, which may almost be termed a badge
7 */ CD
of the order. Large Mexican spurs rattled at his
heels as he walked. He had ridden thirty-five miles
under the spur, arriving at the station just in time
to catch the train, and having no time to change his
apparel, even if he had wished 1o do so. He was
going some distance on the same train, and I invited
him into the sleeper. As he entered and walked
down the aisle the passengers became suddenly
alarmed at the apparition—imagining that the train
had been corraled by a party of the terrible cowboys
of whom they had heard such blood-curdling tales, 316
and that this was a committee of one sent in to
order them to throw up their hands. They looked
anxiously and timidly from the windows for the rest
of the gang and listened for the popping of revolvers, but when I conducted him to our section and
introduced him to my wife they began to feel easier.
He remarked casually that he was hungry. We
had a well-filled lunch-basket with us, and, ordering
a table placed in position, my wife hastily spread its
contents before him. He ate as only a cowboy can
eat, especially after having lately ridden thirty-five
miles in three hours. Our fellow passengers became
interested spectators, and after our friend had
finished his repast we introduced him to several of
them. They were agreeably surprised to discover in.
conversation his polished manners, his fluent and
well-chosen language. His handsome though sunburned face, and his kind, genial nature revealed
the fact that his rough garb encased the form of an
educated and cultured gentleman; and before we
had been an hour together they had learned to
respect and admire the wild, picturesque oharacter
whom at first they had feared.
The skill which some of these men attain in their
profession challenges the admiration of everyone,
who is permitted to witness exhibitions of it. As
riders they can not be excelled in the world, and I
have seen some of them perform feats of horsemanship that were simply marvelous. A cowboy is
required to ride anything that is given him and ask
no questions. A wild young bronco that has never
been touched by the hand of man is sometimes
roped out of a herd and handed over to one of the AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURj
boys with instructions to "ride him." With the
aid of a companion or two he saddles and mounts
him, and the scene that ensues baffles description.
A bucking cayuse must be seen under the saddle,
under a limber cowboy, and on his native heath, in
order to be appreciated at his true worth. His
movements are not always the same—in fact, are
extremely varied, and are doubtless intended to
be a series of surprises even to an old hand at the
business. The bronco is ingenious—he is a strategist.
Sometimes the first break a "fresh" one makes is to
try to get out of the country as fast as possible.
If so, the rider allows him to go as far and as fast
as he likes, for nothing will tame him quicker than
plenty of hard work. But he soon finds that he can
not get out from under his load in this way, and
generally reverses his tactics before going far. Sometimes he stops suddenly—so suddenly as to throw
an inexperienced rider a long ways in front of him.
But a good cowboy, or "bronco buster," as he would
be termed while engaged in this branch of the business, is a good stayer and keeps his seat. The horse
may then try to jump out from under his rider—
first forward then backward, or vice versa. Then
he may spring suddenly sidewise, either to right
or left, or both. Then he may do some lofty
tumbling acts, alighting most always stiff-legged;
sometimes with his front end the highest and sometimes about level, but usually with his hinder parts
much the highest and with his back arched like
that of a mad cat. He keeps his nose as close
to the ground as he can get it. Sometimes he will
utter an unearthly squeal that makes one's blood 318
run cold, and will actually eat a few mouthfuls of
the earth when he gets mad enough.. Sometimes
he" will throw himself in his struggles, and again
as a last resort he will lie down and roll. This
must free him for a moment, but the daring and
agile rider is in the saddle again as soon as the beast
is on his feet. Then the horse is likely to wheel
suddenly from side to side and to spin round
and round on his hind feet like a top; to snort
and bound hither and thither like a rubber ball.
During all this time the valiant rider sits in his
saddle, loose-jointed and limp as a piece of buckskin,
his body swaying to and fro with the motions of his
struggling steed like a leaf that is fanned by the
summer breeze. He holds a tight rein, keeping his
horse's head as high as possible, and plunges the
rowels into his flanks, first on one side and then on
the other, until frequently the ground is copiously
sprinkled with the blood of the fiery steed. The
duration of this scene is limited simply by the
powers of endurance of the horse, for in nearly
every instance he will keep up his struggles until
he sinks upon the ground exhausted, and, for the
time being at least, is subdued. Then he is forced
upon his feet again and may generally be ridden the
remainder of that day without further trouble.
He is awkward, of course, but rapidly learns the
use of bit and spur, and soon becomes useful. Many
of these ponies, however, are never permanently
subdued, and will "buck" every time they are
mounted. Others will, all through life, start off
quietly when first mounted, but suddenly take a
notion to buck any time in the day.    This class is AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
the most dangerous, for the best rider is liable to be
caught at a disadvantage when off his guard and
thrown, and many a poor cowboy has been crippled
for life, and many killed outright by these vicious
I have seen   "pilgrims"   inveigled into   riding*
"bucking cayuses," either for the sake of novelty,
or because they wanted a mount and there was no
other to be had; but in every instance the trial of
skill between the man and the pony was of short
duration. For an instant there would be a confused
mass of horse, hat, coat-tails, boots, and man, flying-
through the air. The horse, on his second upward
trip would meet the man coming down on his first;
the man would see whole constellations — whole
milkyways of stars; the horse would meander off
over the prairie free and untrameled, and as we
would gather up the deformed and disfigured remains
of the pilgrim and dig the alkali dirt out of his
mouthi, ears, and eyes, he would tell us, as soon as
he recovered sufficiently to be able to speak, that in
future he "had racher walk than ride."
But, fortunately for the poor cowboys, there are
many of these ponies who are not vicious, and let us
do full honor to the genuine, noble cow-horse who
is so sure and fleet of foot that he will speedily put
his rider within roping distance of the wildest, swiftest, longest-horned Texan on the range. Such a horse
always knows when the riata falls right for head or
heels, and if it does not will never slacken his speed,
but keep right on until his rider can recover and
throw again. But when it does fall fair, he puts it
taut, wheels to right or left as directed by a gentle 320
pressure of his rider's knee, takes a turn on it or
gives it slack as may be required to down the beef,
and, when this is accomplished, stands stiff-legged,
firm, and immovable as a rock, holding him down
by the strain on the rope, and watching, with eyes
bulged out and ears set forward like those of a jack
rabbit, every struggle of the captive bullock, and
stands pat even when his rider dismounts and leaves
him to brand the steer.    When this is done, and his
ll              1      '   ...
-=— -.=-^-
_•-         •    .r»
IBftstyjJ^ T--1?.
:S;j^i- Jfjjs't
)*<■%?*• ^2^!*^??'
rider remounts he is ready to repeat the operation
on another animal.
I have frequently knOwn a cowboy to rope a
wild cow, throw her and milk her while his horse
held her down at the other end of a forty foot
rope. Such a horse is worth his weight in gold
to a Cattleman, and his kind-hearted and appreciative
rider would go supperless to bed any night, if necessary, in order that his faithful steed should be well
fed and made comfortable in eyexy possible way.
The skill that some of these men attain in the use
the lariat is also most marvelous. An expert will
catch a steer by the horns, the neck, the right or AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES. 321
left fore foot or hind foot, whichever he may choose—
and while running at full speed—with almost unerring certainty. I have even seen them rope jack
Tabbits and coyotes after a long run, and there are
well authenticated instances on record of even bears
Tbeing choked to death by the fatal noose when
wielded by a. daring " knight of the plains."
At a "tournament" in a Black Hills town some
months ago, a cowboy caught, threw, and securely
tied a wild steer in fourteen minutes from the time
he was let out of the corral. A similar exhibition
of skill, but on a bronco instead of a steer, which
lately took place in a New Mexico town, is thus
described by an eye witness.
"After an hour of discussion and pleasant wrangling, the judge, himself a fine rider, called out the
name of an Arizona cowboy, a champion puncher
and rustler from Apache County; at the same
moment, a wild-eyed bronco was released from the
pen and went bounding and bucking over the miniature plain. According to the rule, the Apache
County man had to saddle his own bronco, rope the
fleeing horse, and tie him for branding in a certain
time. Being a "rustler," he rustled around so
lively that before the bronco was two hundred feet
away, he had saddled and bridled his own animal,
swung himself onto it, and was off, gathering up his
lariat as he went. The other bronco, seeing the
coming enemy, doubled his pace, dodging here and
there, but at every turn he was met by his pursuer,
who was evidently directed by his rider's legs, and
in an incredibly short space of time the fugitive
was overhauled; the rope whistled through the air,
21 322
and dropped quickly over the bronco's head, notwithstanding the toss he had made. The instant it fell,
the pursuing bronco rushed and headed off the other,
winding the rope about his legs; then suddenly sitting back upon his haunches he waited, with ears.
back3 for the shock. It came with a rush, and the
little horse at the other end of the rope, as was the
intention, went headlong onto the field, the cowboy's,
bronco holding Him down by the continual strain
that he kept up. The moment the horse went down
the cowboy vaulted from the saddle, untying a rope
from his waist as he ran, and was soon over the
prostrate animal, lashing the hoofs with dextrous,
fingers, so that it could have been branded then and
there. This accomplished, up went his hands as a
signal to the judges, who now came galloping over
the field, a roar of cheers and yells greeting the
Apache County man, who had done the entire work
in twelve minutes, thereby securing the prize of
sundry dollars."
These men use large, heavy, strongly-built saddles,
and by setting the cinch up tight and taking a turn
or two of the rope around the saddle horn they will
snake a large animal, either dead or alive, any
desired distance. I once got one of them to drag a
large bear that we had killed out of a thicket into-
an open space, so that we could photograph him.
Few men take more chances or endure more hardships than cowboys. In addition to the dangers
they have to contend with from riding vicious horses
and from riding into stampeding herds of wild cattle,
in both of which lines of duty many of them are
crippled and some killed outright, it is frequently AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
necessary for them to lay out on the open prairie for
several days and nights together, perhaps in cold,
rough weather, with no other food or bedding than
they can carry on their saddle.
The slang of the fraternity is highly amusing to
a stranger. It is decidedly crisp, racy, and expressive. Words are coined or adopted into their vernacular that will convey their meaning with the
greatest possible force and precision. In addition
to the few illustrations already given in this sketch
there are many others that would be utterly unintelligible to an Eastern man unless translated. For
instance, when they brand an animal they put the
"jimption" to him; when they want a hot drink
they say "put some jimption in it"; when they
warm up a horse with the spurs or quirt they "fan"
him; when they throw lead from a six-shooter or a
Winchester after a flying coyote they "fan" him.
And "goose hair"—ever sleep on goose hair? This
is a favorite term for any kind of a "soft snap."
When they want to ridicule a tenderfoot, and especially one who is fond of good living, they say " he
Wants a goose-hair bed to sleep on"; when a cowboy is in luck he is described as having '' a goose-
hair pillar," or as "sleepin' with the boss," or as
"ridin' ten horses," etc. Altogether, cowboys are a
whole-souled, large-hearted, generous class of fellows, whom it is a genuine pleasure to ride, eat, and
associate with, and it is safe to say that nine-tenths
of the hard things that have been said of them have
come from men who never knew, intimately, a single
one of them.
I contend that a year spent on the hurricane deck
Jggggg^S^S: 324
of a cow-pony is one of the most useful and valuable
pieces of experience a young man can possibly have
in fitting himself for business of almost any kind,
and if I were educating a boy to fight the battles of
life, I should secure him such a situation as soon
as through with his studies at school. A term of
service on a frontier cattle-ranch will take the conceit out of any boy. It will, at the same time, teach
him self-reliance; it will teach him to endure hardships and suffering; it will give him nerve and
pluck; it will develop the latent energy in him to a
degree that could not be accomplished by any other
apprenticeship or experience. I know of many of the
most substantial and successful business men in the
Western towns and cities of to-day who served their
first years on the frontier as "cow punchers," and to
that school they owe the firmness of character and
the ability to surmount great obstacles that have
made their success in life possible.
I claim that the constant communion with Nature,
the study of her broad, pure domains, the days and
nights of lonely cruising and camping on the prairie,
the uninterrupted communion with and study of
self which this occupation affords, tends to make
young men honest and noble—much more so than
the same men would be if deprived of these opportunities, confined to the limits of our boasted "civilization," and compelled to constantly breathe the
air of adroitness, of strategy, of competition, of
suspicion and crime. I claim that in many instances a
man who is already dishonest and immoral may be,
and I know that many have been made good and honest by freeing themselves from the evil influences of AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
city life, and betaking themselves to a life on the
plains; by living alone, or nearly so, and habitually
communing with themselves, with Nature, and with
Nature's God. If every young man raised in towm
or city could have the advantages of a year or two
of constant study of Nature, untrammeled by
any air of vice, and at the proper time in life, we
should have more honest men, and fewer defaulters,
thieves, and criminals of every class.
g2&%2^28BMl& (326) CHAPTER XXXI.
ISCRIPTIONS of cattle roundups in the far
West have been written, and yet many of
the characteristic scenes that the spectator
-' at one of these semi-annual " beef-gathering
parties" will observe have not been described. There is so much to interest and
excite the denizen of the States who first
attends a roundup on the great plains that
I am tempted to speak of some of the more prominent points in this "greatest show on earth," for
the benefit of such as have not had the pleasure of
witnessing it.
The interests of   cattlemen   in   general are   so
closely linked, and there is such urgent need of a
«/ CD
concert of action among them, that in all Western
cattle-growing districts they have organized into
local or general associations, in which the most perfect harmony and good fellowship exists, and in
which the interests of every individual member are
closely guarded and fostered by the organization as
a whole. These associations meet in the spring and
fall of each year and fix the dates for holding the
roundups, usually prescribing the general boundaries in which each local outfit shall work. The spring
roundup, which is the one now under considera-
(327) -1
tion, is held in the latter part of April or early part
of May in Wyoming and Montana, and earlier or
later in other States and Territories, according to-
the nature of the climate, weather, etc. A roundup
district is usually limited to the valley of some large
stream, or its boundaries are designated by other
prominent and well-known landmarks.
From five to fifteen miles, or even more, each way
from the ranch, are claimed by each owner or com-
pany as a range, though no effort is made usually
to keep the stock within these boundaries. They
are allowed the freedom of the hills and table-lands
in every direction, the foreman merely being
required to know about where to find them when
wanted, and to prevent them from going, for instance,
west of the Tongue and north of the Yellowstone
rivers or south into Wyoming.
As a typical spring roundup, let us observe the
one recently conducted on the Powder river in
Montana, for it furnished, perhaps, as many interesting episodes and incidents as are usually seen at one
of these entertainments. This stream rises in the
Big Horn Mountains in Northern Wyoming and
flows northeast through Southern Montana to the
Yellowstone, into which it empties its wealth of
crystal fluid just east of Miles City. Up to a few
years ago its valley and adjacent table-lands were
peopled only by roving bands of Sioux, Cheyenne,
Pegan, or CroAv Indians, while vast herds of buffaloes and antelopes grazed upon its nutritious grasses.
The lordly elk and the timid, agile deer roamed at
will through the groves of cottonwood and box-elder
that fringe its banks^ and the howl of the coyote AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
made night musical to the ear of the savage in his
wigwam. But how changed the scene of to day!
An iron railroad bridge, that of the great Northern
Pacific, spans the streamnear its mouth, over which
roll trains of palace coaches at short intervals, while
commercial freights en route from the Atlantic to
the Pacific, or vice versa, pass over it almost every
hour. From the mouth of the stream to the foothills of the mountain range, amid whose snowcapped peaks it rises, is now a well-beaten road over
which supplies for the various ranches in the valley
are carried, and over which the gallant knights of
the plains—the cowboys—dash to and fro in the
performance of their various duties.
At intervals of ten to fifteen miles along the valley, the traveler passes lanches, the headquarters
of the wealthy cattlemen whose herds roam all over
the valleys, the .hills, and table-lands for many
miles in every direction, designating the companies
or individual owners merely by the brands their
herds bear (which is the custom of the country).
We shall encounter on our wray the "MC" outfit,
whose herd numbers fourteen thousand head; the
"WL" brand, six thousand head; "70L," one
thousand head; "S-I," twenty-five thousand head;
" IV," twenty-five thousand head; "=," five thousand head; and many other smaller and some larger
herds. The buildings and improvements consist
generally of substantial, roomy log houses, stables
for the horses, corrals or strong yards in which
large herds of cattle may be confined for branding,
etc. The Montana Stock Growers' Association has
also built public branding-pens at intervals of four •330
to six miles along the river. The owners of the
stock seldom live on the ranches themselves, many
of them being residents of Eastern cities, and others
having their homes in the railroad towns within
convenient distance of the ranches. The occupants
of the "shack," as the ranch house is called, are
the foreman, the cook, and a sufficient number of
cowboys or herders to look after and handle the
stock properly. Some of the choice bits of natural
meadow are fenced and hay cut on them, and each
ranch has more or less hay land about the heads of
creeks on its range, for it is necessary to make
hay enough each season to feed at least the calves
and some of the weaker cattle through the severe
blizzards that so frequently occur in winter. The
cattle belonging to each of these ranches are allowed
to range almost at will over the adjacent hills and
table-lands, though the limits proper of each range
are supposed to extend ten to fifteen miles in each
direction from the ranch house.
The Montana Stock Growers' Association, at its
meeting in March, designated the seventh day of
May as the day for beginning the roundup in the
Powder river district this year, and selected a foreman to take charge of it who had seen many years
of service in the saddle, who has a happy faculty of
controlling the men under his charge perfectly, and
yet of putting himself on free and friendly terms
with them all. He can throw a riata with such precision as to taken steer by the head or by either foot
he wishes in almost every instance, and beasts as
well as men soon learn to obey his wishes.
Anyone who has only seen the great plains late in AND OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
summer or in the autumn, after the grass has become
sere and yellow and the foliage along the streams
has faded, can have little idea of the pristine beauty
presented by such a valley as that of the Powder
river in early spring time, when the earth is carpeted
with verdure, the river banks lined with newly-
clothed trees and shrubs, and the meadows blooming
with flowers, the beauty and brilliancy of which
can not be excelled anywhere. The winter snows
have melted; the spring rains have come and gone,
leaving the earth fresh and moist; the climate
is mild and delightful. Under all these charming
conditions who would not enjoy the scene unfolding
"before our eyes as we mount our spirited broncos
and ride out to the place of rendezvous which has
been appointed near the mouth of the river, and'
where the clans are already gathering. Temporary
camps have been established by those who have
arrived in advance of us, around which groups of
cowboys are lounging. A band of horses and ponies
which they have liberated is contentedly grazing on
the river bank, and several small bands of cattle
may be seen in various directions, most of them
at considerable distances away, for they are wild
and avoid the presence of human beings. A cloud
of dust is faintly visible on top of the divide
nearly three miles to the south, and on examining
it carefully with our glasses we find it is being raised
by a jolly band of five cowboys, who are riding like
mad, each leading four or five horses. Looking away
to the north we see a mess-wagon, or \ \ chuck outfit,''
approaching, drawn by.four horses, and from the slow
and labored gait at which they toil along they doubt- 332
less bring abundant store of good things. Behind
this, two riders are driving ten head of loose horses.
And these small detachments continue to come in
from every point of the compass all the forenoon,
until, when all the ranches in this roundup district
have furnished their levies, the force numbers one
hundred and thirty-five men and about twelve hundred horses. Each rider has his '' string'' of horses,
numbering from five to seven, and changes two or
three times a day, riding one horse twenty to forty
miles, and sixty to seventy-five miles a day is considered a fair day's work for a man. The reserve
herd is placed in charge of a herder or "wrangler,"
who is required to keep them under perfect control,
and to be able to produce such of them as are
■wanted on short notice, the riata being frequently
used in taking them out of the herd. The foreman
has arrived and takes charge of the entire outfit,
placing it on a thoroughly effective and working
basis for the morrow.
At 3.30 o'clock in the morning the men are called.
They are out of their blankets and dressed in less
time than it takes an Eastern man to rub his eyes
and yawn; each catches and saddles his horse;
breakfast is hastily eaten, and" at the first dawn of
day, they ride out in twos or fours in every direction.
These men present a decidedly picturesque, not to
say brigandish, appearance as they dash out across
the prairie; their red, blue, and gray flannel shirts,
canvas pants, leather chaparejos, broad sombreros,
colored silk handkerchiefs knotted around their
necks; well-filled cartridge-belts, from which hang
six-shooters; their high-top   cowhide
and large Mexican spurs, making up a tout ensemble
that a band of Texan rangers might envy. Their
work, their fun, their excitement now begin, for
small bunches of cattle are sighted in every direction, which are to be rounded up and driven along,
and there is no time to lose. As they dash hither
and thither after the fleeing, scurrying creatures,
the proverbial good nature, high spirits, and enthusiasm of these "knights of the plains" find vent in
a series of hoots, yells, jokes, "ki-yis," bits of
song, and grotesque slang expressions, many of
which are strikingly expressive when understood, but
which would be utterly unintelligible to a fresh ten-
derfoot. The majority of these Western cattle are
almost as wild as the native buffaloes whose place
they have usurped, having never been subjected to
the dominion of man, and rarely, in fact, have they
ever come face to face with him. At the first
approach of the riders, therefore, they throw up
their heads and tails, look wild, sniff the air, and
then turn and run like a herd of antelopes. But
by fast riding and skillful maneuvering they are
soon rounded up and herded. It is a bit of the true
spice of life for these dare-devil riders to find a
vicious, rebellious, "alecky " young critter who concludes that he won't be rounded up; and no sooner has
the belligerent shaken his burly head, pawed the
earth a few times, turned tail to his pursuers, broken
through the skirmish line and sailed away across the
prairie, than three, four, or perhaps half a dozen cay-
uses, who are also now in their elements, are headed
for him. Lariats are loosened from the saddle horn,
spurs rattle as they pierce the flanks of the already ^
willing and eager steeds, and there ensues a wild,,
headlong, reckless race that can have but one result.
The steer may be fleet of f oOt, and may lead, through
1 half-mile dash, but sooner or later is headed off
and turned.    He may make a fresh break in another
direction,"but his pursuers are down on him again
like a pack of hungry wolves on a stray sheep. And.
now, as the riders close in on him, they belabor him
unmercifully with their heavy coils of rope, or with
rawhide "quirts" carried for this purpose.    If particularly wild, obstinate, or obstreperous, he still
keeps breaking away, and refusing to come inta
camp.    A riata glistens in the sunlight, whistles
through the air and falls over his head.    Another
follows and puts a foot in the stocks.    Taking two-
or three turns of the lariat around the horn of the
saddle, the men ride in opposite directions till the-
ropes come taut, the steer is fairly lifted from the.
earth and falls with a dull and thudful sound that-
may be heard a hundred yards.    Then another rope
is thrown over his head, the spurs are put to the-'
faithful ponies, they are transposed for the time into-
draft horses, and the luckless victim is ignominiously
"snaked" toward the herd, while the other boys-
'' bang'' him with coils of rope from behind.    A few
yards of this mode of travel is usually sufficient to-
tame the wildest long-horn Texan on the range, an d
^^ O      7
a few vigorous bellows soon announce an unconditional surrender. The ropes are then taken off, he-
is letup, and it is short work to put him in the herd.
The valiant riders scour the country hither and
thither, far and near, "gathering beef" from east,
west, north, and south.    Every hoof found, regard- AND  OTHER HUNTING ADVENTURES.
less of the brand it bears, or whether it bears any, is
picked up by this human cyclone and carried along.
Toward noon the herds already gathered are driven
into the branding pens, where they are corraled.
The calves are snatched out and the "jimption is
socked to ' em,'' as the boys express it. So with any
yearlings or older stock that have escaped the branding-iron in former seasons. One or more irons for
each owner are kept hot, and when a roper has
I downed " an animal he or the foreman calls for the
iron wanted, and setting his foot upon the victim's
neck places the red-hot device on its ribs, and throws-
his weight upon it, leaving a deep, indelible, and
time-enduring trade-mark which even he who runs-
may read. Its ears, dew lap, or the loose skin on its-
jaw are then slit and it is turned loose again.
When a band is branded it is turned out; the
party who brought it in change horses, and away
they go for another run. No special branders are
now provided, every man in the outfit, the cook and
wrangler excepted, being required to "s waller dust"
and '' wrestle calves'' in the pens. Near the middle-
of the day each squad comes in after finishing their
catch, make a run on the mess-wagons and devour
the substantial provender with which they are.
loaded^ with appetites born only of the labor and
excitement in which they are engaged.
The afternoon is usually devoted to branding the
last bunches brought in, and to' \ cutting out,'' returning or throwing over such stock as does not belong
to any of the ranchmen in this district. Strays are.
frequently picked up whose brands show them to be
a hundred miles or more from home.    When anum-
mm. 336
ber of these are collected they are cut out and a
squad of men drive them onto their proper ranges.
This process is called "throwing over."
The cooks, teamsters, and wranglers usually move
camp up the river every morning to the next branding-pen, or to some other spot designated by the
foreman, to which rounders bring their cattle during
the day. A portion of the stock collected, called the
" cavoy," is carried along with the camp all the time
and herded by the "holders," but large numbers
after being branded are bunched and again thrown
off onto the range each day. Thus the outfit moves
slowly up the stream, making a clean sweep of everything to the middle of the divides on the east and
west, until the Wyoming roundup on the same
stream is met coming down. And now, having completed the work in hand, the outfit breaks up, and
the men return to the respective ranches on which
they are employed or go to other roundups where
their services are needed.
The object of the fall roundup is to gather
in and cut out the fat steers and drive them to
the railroad stations for shipment to Eastern
markets.    The work being almost entirely on adult
CD v
animals is even more laborious and hazardous
than that of the spring, where the^ majority of
animals actually handled are calves. Hard riding
vigorous "cutting," and daring dashes into headstrong, panic-stricken, stampeding herds are necessary here, and roping and dragging out by main
strength are hourly occurrences. Branding-irons
are also carried along, and any calves missed on the
spring roundup, or dropped after it, are subjected to AND   OTHER HUNTING  ADVENTURES.
the fiery ordeal, just as their brothers and sisters
were at the Mayday party.
Stray cattle, either calves or adults, bearing no
brand and found alone or herded with others already
branded, but whose parentage can not be definitely
determined, are called "Mavericks," and in some
districts are sold at auction and the proceeds given
to the school fund. In others, they become the
property of the man or company upon whose range
they are found. This privilege, however, is seriously abused by dishonest ranchmen and cattle
thieves, who infest every Western cattle-growing
district. These men ride out over the ranges at
times when they are not likely to be observed, carrying their branding-irons along, and rope and brand
every animal they can find that does not already
•bear a brand. In some cases these are allowed to
remain where found, for the time being, but are
usually driven onto the range claimed by the pirate
who does the work. In other instances, these men
first drive the unbranded stock onto their own
ranges, and then, under cover of the Maverick law,
openly claim and brand it as their own. Many
large herds have been accumulated almost wholly
by this system of thievery, and there are wealthy
cattlemen in the West to-day who never bought or
honestly owned a dozen head of the thousands that
bear their brand. A certain cowboy, when asked by
an Eastern man what constitutes a Maverick, replied:
"It's a calf that you find and get your brand on
before the owner finds it and gets his on."
But it is risky business, this cattle stealing, and
many a man who has been caught at it has been left
22 338
on the prairies as food for the coyotes, or has orna-.
mented the nearest cottonwood tree until the magpies and butcher birds have polished his bones.
Branding is a decidedly cruel proceeding, and
would doubtless come under the bane of Mr. Bergh' s
displeasure were he here to witness it. Yet it seems
a necessary evil, there being no other known means
of marking cattle so effectually and indelibly.
Parties of ladies frequently go out from the towns
or cities to see the roundup, not knowing or thinking of the painful features of it. They enjoy the
ride across the prairies and through the valleys.. The
beautiful scenery, the grotesque "Bad Lands," the
red, scoria-capped hills, the beautiful green meadows,
and the fringes of green trees that mark the mean-
O . CD
derings of the streams, all delight and interest
them; they enjoy the displays of horsemanship given
by the . valorous cowboys as they wheel and cavort
hither and thither in pursuit of scurrying,bands of
cattle; they enjoy the stampeding and wild flight,
the "knotting" and "holding" of the large herds,
all so skillfuDy and cleverly performed; they enjoy
the sight of the thousand and more loose horses,
grazing and scampering over the plains; they enjoy
the fresh, pure air, the wholesome noon repast in
the shade of the great cottonwood trees, and many
other pleasant phases of the affair. But when the
fire is lit and the murderous irons inserted in it;
when the captive creatures are dragged forth lowing,
murmuring, and bellowing; when the red-hot iron is
pressed into their quivering, smoking sides until the
air is laden with the odor of burning hair and roasting flesh, and the poor creature writhes and strug-        


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